Defender 90 & 110 Workshop Maunual part 2

Defender 90 & 110 Workshop Maunual part 2
CONTENTS
Section
Page
J
12
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
12
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE CYLINDER HEAD
121
2.5 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
2
12
-Overhaul
53
- Overhaul
94
PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINES FAULT DIAGNOSIS
-Petrol engines
- Diesel engines
1191
123
125
FUELSYSTEM-Petrol
- Overhaul mechanical fuel lift pump - Petrol & Diesel
- Overhaul electrical fuel lift pump
- Overhaul four cylinder engine carburetter
- Tuneand adjust four cylinder engine carburetter
- Overhaul V$ engine carburetter - Zenith
-Tune and adjust V8 engine carburetters -Zenith
- Overhaul V8 engine carburetter -S.U.
- Tuneand adjust V8 engine carburetter -S.U.
-Fault tracing V8 engine carburetters
-Twin tank and in-tank fuel pump installation
1191
1
2
3
6
7
12
15
20
24
25
FUEL SYSTEM - Diesel
34
36
30
41
- Checkingfuel injectors
- Overhaulfuel injectors
- Fittingfuel injectors
- Turbocharger - supplement
1
I
- Engine protection
- Drain and refill V8 engine cooling system
- Drainand refill four cylinder engine system
- Radiator - remove and refit
- Fault Diagnosis
L
- Overhaul release bearing assembly
1
1
3
3
4
3
7
- Overhaulmaster cylinder
- Bleed Hydraulic system
- Overhaulslave cylinder
- Clutch pedal adjustment
I
INTRODUCTION
This Workshop Manual covers the Land Rover Ninety and One Ten range of vehicles. It i s primarily designed to
assist skilled technicians in the efficient repair and maintenance of Land Rover vehicles.
Using the appropriate service tools and carrying out the procedures as detailed will enable the operations to be
completed within the time stated in the ‘Repair Operation Times’.
The Manual has been produced in separate books; this allows the information to be distributed throughout the
specialist areas of the modern service facility.
A table of contents in Book 1 lists the major components and systems together with the section and book numbers.
The cover of each book details the sections contained within that book.
The title page of each book carries the part numbers required to order replacement books, binders or complete
Service Manuals. This can be done through t h e normal channels.
REFERENCES
1
References to the left- or right-hand side in the manual are made when viewing the vehicle from the rear. With the
engine and gearbox assembly removed, the water pump end of the engine is referred to as the front.
To reduce repetition, operations covered in this manual do not includc refcrence to testing the vehicle after repair. It
is essential that work is inspected and tested after completion and if necessary a road test of the vehicle is carried out
particularly where safety related items are concerned.
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DIMENSIONS
The dimensions quoted are to design cngineering specification. Alternative unit equivalents, shown in brackets
following the dimensions, have been converted from the original specification.
During the period of running-in from new, certain adjustments may vary from thc specification figurcs given in this
Manual. Thcsc adjustments will be re-set by the Distributor or Dealer at the After Sales Service, and thereafter
should be maintained at the figures specified in the Manual.
REPAIRS ANI) REPLACEMENTS
When replacement parts are required it is essential that only Land Rover parts are used.
Attention is particularly drawn to t h e following points concerning repairs and the fitting of replacement parts and
accessories:
Safety features embodied i n the vehicle may be impaired if other than Land Rover parts are fitted. In certain
territories, legislation prohibits the fitting of parts not to the vehicle manufacturer’s specification. Torque wrench
setting figures given in thc Repair Operation Manual must be strictly adhered to. Locking devices, where specified,
must be fitted. If the efficiency of a locking device is impaired during removal it must be renewed. Owners
purchasing accessories while travelling abroad should ensure that the accessory and its fitted location o n the vehicle
conform to mandatory requirements existing in their country of origin. The terms of the Owners Service Statement
may be invalidated by the fitting of other than Land Rover parts.
All Land Rover parts havc the full backing of the Owners Service Statement.
Land Rover Distributors and Dealers are obliged to supply only Land Rover service parts.
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POISONOUS SUBSTANCES
Many liquids and other substances used in motor vchicles are poisonous and should under no circumstances be
consumed and should as far as possible be kept away from open wounds. These substances among others include
antifreeze, brake fluid, fuel, windscreen washer additives, iubricants and various adhesives.
FUEL HANDLING PRECAUTIONS
yy+-
The foliowing information provides basic precautions which must be observed if petrol (gasoline) is to be handled
safely. ! also outlines the other areas of risk which must not be ignored.
This intttrmation is issued for basic guidance only, and in any case of doubt appropriate enquiries should be made of
your local Fire Officer.
II
GENERAL
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PetroVgasoline vapour is highly flammable and in confined spaces is also very explosive and toxic.
When petrol/gasoline evaporates it produces 150 times its own volume in vapour, which when diluted with air
becomes a readily ignitable mixture. The vapour is heavier than air and will always fall to the lowest level. It can
readily be distributed throughout a workshop by air current, consequently, even a small spillage of petrol/gasoline is
potentially very dangerous.
Always have a fire extinguisher containing FOAM CO? GAS, or POWDER close at hand when handling or draining
fuel, or when dismantling fucl systems and in areas where fuel containers arc stored.
Always disconnect the vehicle battery BEFORE carrying out dismantling or draining work on a fuel system.
Whenever petrol/gasoline is being handled, drained or stored, or when fuel systems are being dismantled all forms of
ignition must be extinguished or removed, any head-lamps used must be flameproof and kept clear of spillage.
N O ONE SHOULD B E PERMITTED TO REPAIR COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH PETROL/
GASOLINE WITHOUT FIRST HAVING H A D SPECIALIST TRAINING.
FUEL TANK DRAINING
WARNING: PETROL/GASOLINE MUST NOT BE EXTRACTED OR DRAINED FROM ANY VEHICLE WHILST
IT IS STANDING OVER A PIT.
- -
Draining or extracting petrol/gasoline from vehicle fuel tank must bc carried out in a well ventilated area.
The receptacle used to contain the petroUgasoline must be more than adequate for the full amount of Fuel to be
extracted or drained. The receptacle should be clearly marked with its contents, and placcd in a safe storagc area
which meets the requirements of local authority regulations.
WHEN PETROL/GASOLINE HAS BEEN EXTRACTED O R DRAINED FROM A FUEL TANK THE
PRECAUTIONS GOVERNING NAKED LIGHTS AND JGNITION SOURCES SHOULD BE MAJN‘I’AINED.
FUEL TANK REMOVAL
On vehicles where the fuel line is sccurcd to the fuel tank outlet by a spring steel clip, it is recommended that such
clips are released before the fuel line is disconnected or the fuel tank unit is removed. This procedurc will avoid lhc
possibility of residual petrol fumes in the fuel tank being ignited when the clips are released.
As an added precaution fuel tanks should have a PETROL/GASOLJNE VAPOUR warning label attached to them
as soon as they are removed from the vehicle.
FUEL TANK REPAIR
Under no circumstances should a repair to any tank involving heat treatment bc carried out without first rendcring
t h e tank SAFE, by using one of the following methods:
STEAMING: With the filler cap and tank unit removed, empty the tank. Steam the tank for at least two hours
with low pressure steam. Position the tank so that condensation can drain away freely, ensuring that any
sediment and sludge not volatised by the steam, is washed out during the steaming proccss.
BOILING: With the filler cap and tank unit removed, empty the tank. Immersc the tank completely in boiling
water containing an effective alkaline degreasing agent or a detergent, with t h e water filling and also
surrounding the tank for at least two hours.
After steaming o r boiling a signed and dated label to this effect should be attached to the tank.
SPECIFICATION
Purchasers are advised that the specification details set out in this Manual apply to a range of vehicles and not to any
one. For the specification of a particular vehicle, purchasers should consult their Distributor or Dealer.
The Manufacturers reserve the right to vary their specifications with or without notice, and at such times and in such
manner as they think fit. Major as well as minor changes may be involved in accordance with the Manufacturer’s
policy of constant product improvement.
Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the particulars contained in this Manual, neither the
Manufacturer nor the Distributor or Dealer, by whom this Manual is supplied, shall i n any circumstanccs be held
liable fer ; ~ j :inaccuracy the consequences ihe,-pof,
COPYRIGHT
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Land Rover Limited 1984
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other means without prior written permission of Land
Rover Limited, Service Department, Solihull, England.
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Ill
Special Service Tools
The use of approved special service tools is important. They are essential if service
operations are to be carried out efficiently, and safely. The amount of time which they
save can be considerable.
Every special tool is designed with the close co-operation of Land Rover Ltd., and n o
tool is put into production which has not been tested and approved by us. New tools are
only introduced where an operation cannot be satisfactorily carried out using existing
tools or standard equipment. The user is therefore assured that the tool is necessary and
that it will perform accurately, efficiently and safely.
Special tools bulletins will be issued periodically giving details of new tools as they are
introduced.
All orders and enquiries from the United Kingdom should be sent direct to V. L.
Churchill. Overseas orders should be placed with the local V. L. Churchill distributor,
where one exists. Countries where there is no distributor may order direct from V. L .
4NF.
Churchill Limited, PO Box 3 Daventry, Northants, England "11
The tools recommended in this Workshop Manual are listed in a multi-language, illustrated catalogue
obtainable from Messers. V. L. Churchill at the above address under publication number 2217/2/84 or from
Land Rover Ltd., under part number LSM0052TC from the following address, Land Rover Publication
Service, P.O. Box 534, Erdington, Birmingham B24 OQS.
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
12
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DISMANTLE ANDOVERHAUL
Special tools:Chain wheel extractor - RO 507231
Tappet guide remover - RO 530101A
*Camshaft bearing remover -274388
* 99
”
adaptor -531760
*
99
”
guide plug -274394
* 9’
”
reamer -274389
Cork-seal guide -270304
Seal guide - rear main bearing - 18G 1344
Seal replacer - rear main oil seal - 18G 134 - 11
Diesel engine timing gauge -R0605863
Diesel engine timing gauge -MS67B
Clutch centralising tool -R0605022
* Whilst these tools are now not obtainable, their use is
described for workshops that have them available.
Remove the engine from the vehicle. Clean the exterior
and in the interests of safety and efficient working,
secure the engine to a recognised engine stand.
T
Petrol and diesel engines
-1
8. Remove the six bolts and withdraw the rear side
cover complete with fuel pump.
9. Remove the alternator and drive belt.
10. Remove the fan and pulley.
11. Remove the seven -bolts- and remove the water
pump.
12. Drain the sump and remove the dipstick.
13. Remove the starter motor.
14. Restrain the flywheel, remove the crankshaft
pulley nut and withdraw the pulley. (Bolt on later
engines).
15. Evenly slacken and remove t h e clutch retaining
bolts and withdraw the clutch assembly and centre
plate.
16 Remove the two bolts and remove the oil filter
assembly complete from the cylinder block.
Remove the bowl retaining bolt, drain the oil and
discard the element.
17 Remove the cylinder head.
REMOVE ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT
Before commencing, make a careful note of the
position of brackets, clips, harnesses, pipes, hoses,
filters and other miscellaneous items to facilitate reassembly .
Petrol engine
1. Disconnect the spark plug leads, release the
distributor clamp bolt and withdraw the distributor
complete. Remove the adaptor plate held by three
bolts.
2. Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds complete
with carburetter. Removal of the heat shicld will
facilitate this operation.
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL OIL PUMP
1. Remove the sump.
2. Bend back the lock washers and remove the two
bolts securing the oil pump to the crankcase.
Withdraw the oil pump complete with strainer and
oil pump drive shaft.
continued
Diesel engine
. .
3. Release the fuel pipes from the injectors.
4. Rcmove the nuts securing the injector pump and
withdraw the pump and the short drive shaft.
5 . Remove the induction and exhaust manifolds.
6 . Remove the six bolts and withdraw the oil filter
tube (carly engincs only). At the same time remove
the two joint washers and the baffle plate with the
timing pointer attached. DO NOT disturb the two
bolts retaining the timing pointer. Later engines
have a single plate with timing pointer.
7. Remove the vacuum pump.
1
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
Dismantle oil pump
3. Bend back the lock washer and release the nut
securing the strainer to the oil pump body and
remove the strainer and sealing ring.
4. Removc four bolts and washers and lift off the oil
pump cover and lift out the driven and idler gears.
(a) driven gear
(b) idler gear
5 . Remove the oil pressure relief valve plug and
sealing washer. Withdraw the relief valve spring,
plunger and ball.
7. Clean the pump body and assemble the gears.
Place a straight edge across the pump body face, as
illustrated, and using a feeler gauge, measure the
clearance between the body and gears. The correct
clearances are as follows:
8. Idler gear 0,07 to 0,15 mm (0.003 to 0.006 in).
9. Driven gear 0,05 to 0,12 mm (0.002 to 0.005 in).
10. Gears must be renewed in pairs. A worn, but
serviceable gear, must not be matched with a new
one.
11. If necessary renew idler gear spindle by drilling-out
the peened over end of the spindle so that the
spindle can be withdrawn from the pump body. TO
ensure squareness when fitting the new spindle,
asscmble it into the pump body with the two gears.
Fit the cover and secure with the four bolts.
Support the pump body and peen over the end of
the new spindle. Remove the cover and gears and
check security of the spindle.
12. If worn, remove the idler gear bush and press in a
replacement. Drill the lubrication hole 3,17 mm
(0.125 in) and ream the bush to i2,7 mm (0.500 in)
diameter.
continued
ST591 M
Overhaul the oil pump
6. Examine the gears for wear, scores and pits. If the
gears appear serviceable check for end-float as
follows:
2
12
ST911M
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
?.
13. A scored ball valve seat can be restored by using a
locally made lapping tool by silver soldering a new
ball (part number 3748) onto a length of suitable
tube.
14. Install the tube in a drill and lap-in using coarse
grinding paste. Finally hand-lap the seat with fine
paste using the same diabalo method as for lapping
valves.
15. Thorougly wash the pump body to remove all
traces of grinding paste.
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL THE TIMING CHAIN,
SPROCKETS AND TENSIONER
1. Remove the timing cover. Before removing the
timing chain tensioner notc the ratchet position in
relation to the pawl which will give an indication of
chain wear. If the last tooth of the ratchet is engaged
with the pawl the chain is excessively worn and
should be discarded.
2. Remove the ratchet pivot bolt, plain bolt and n u t
and withdraw the timing chain tensioner complete.
3. Remove the timing chain and crankshaft sprocket.
4. Remove timing chain damper.
14
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ST694M
Assemble the oil pump
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16. Fit the idler gear to the spindle.
17. Fit the driven gear with plain part of the bore
uppermost. See illustration after instruction 9.
18. Smear the joint face of the body with jointing
compound and fit the cover over the dowels and
secure with the four bolts and spring washers.
19. Hold relief valve bore vertically and insert the ball
followed by the plunger with the ball seat end first.
Fit the spring, sealing washer and plug.
20. Fit the oil strainer sealing ring to the pump body
followed by the lock washer and strainer. Tighten
the strainer retaining nut so that when fitted the
strainer is positioned parallel to the sump baffle
plate. Secure t h e nut with the lock washer tab.
Later engines are fitted with a bracket to locatc the
strainer.
5 . Remove the camshaft sprockct retaining bolt and
washer. Withdraw the sprockct using chain wheel
extractor 507231 or similar.
Illustration A shows the early retaining bolt and tab
washer.
Illustration B shows the latest bolt and special washer.
A
ST696M
conriniicd
3
12
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
REMOVE TAPPETS, ROLLERS AND GUIDES
B
1 . Remove the eight tappet guide locating bolts from
the right-hand side of the cylinder block.
CAUTION: Do not remove the tappet guides before
the rollers otherwise the rollers may fall behind the
camshaft.
2. Using long nosed pliers or a suitable bent length of
wire lift out the tappet slides and identify them with
their respective guides for possible refitting.
ST697M
T
6. Examine the sprockets and discard if the teeth are
worn.
7. Dismantle the tensioner assembly and discard any
worn parts. In particular check the condition of the
ratchet and pawl. Check the tension of the spring by
comparing it with a new one. Examine t h e jockey
wheel teeth for wear, and renew bush if worn.
Key to tensioner assembly
1. Piston assembly
2. Cylinder assembly
3 . Cylinder spring
4. Ball
5 . Ball retaining clip
6. Ratchet and spring
7. Ratchet pivot bolt
8. Pawl
9. Jockey wheel
10. Timing chain damper
8. Assemble the tensioner as illustrated and compress
the assembly ready for fitting to the engine.
3. Lift out the tappet rollers and mark the side facing
the front of the engine for possible reassembly.
4. Lift out the tappet guides and retain with their
respective slides and rollers. If the guides are
difficult to remove use special tool 530101A.
5 . Carefully examine all parts and discard any that are
worn or damaged.
ST699M
4
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.4
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
RENEW TIMING COVER OIL SEAL
1. On initial assembly of the engine the mud shield
around the oil seal is rivetted in position but after
removal in service the rivets are substituted with
self tapping drive screws.
2. Drill out the rivets securing the oil seal mud shield.
3 . Press out the oil seal and clean the mating surfaces.
4. Smear the outside diameter of a new oil seal with
Hylomar PL 32-M jointing compound. Press the oil
seal into the timing cover, lip side facing
crankshaft.
5. Coat the drive screws with Hylomar and secure the
mud shield.
12
REMOVE THE CAMSHAFT
1. Remove the skew gear bush retaining scrcw and lift
out the skew gear bush assembly. Also withdraw
the distributor pump (diesel) or ignition distributor
(petrol engine) drive coupling with the skew gcar
assembly.
ST596M
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2. Since the camshaft sprockct has already been
removed, bend back the lock tabs, remove the two
bolts and the camshaft thrust plate. Carefully
withdraw the camshaft.
NOTE: Lock tab washers are not used on later
engines
ST7OOM
Inspect the camshaft
3. Discard the camshaft if any of the following visual
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defects are evident.
4. Scored, worn, pitted or chipped cams. Worn,
corroded and discoloured journals. Worn and
chipped gear teeth.
5
12
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
5 . Check the journals for wear and if more than
0,050 mm (0.002 in) the shaft should be renewed.
6. Rest the camshaft between 'V' blocks and check
for run-out with a dial indicator. If run-out is in
excess of 0,050 mm (0.002 in) the shaft should be
straightened or renewed.
Renew the ring gear
7. Drill a 8,0 mm (A in) hole between the root of any
two teeth and the inner diameter of the starter ring
deep enough to weaken the ring. Do not allow the
drill to enter the flywheel.
8. Secure the flywheel in a soft jawed vice and cover it
with a cloth to protect one from personal injury.
Place a cold chisel above the drilled hole and strike
it sharply to split the ring gear.
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL THE FLYWHEEL
1. Remove the flywheel retaining bolts and withdraw
the flywheel and reinforcing plate.
ST701 M
2. Wear or scores on the flywheel clutch face can be
corrected by machining provided that the overall
width of the flywheel is not reduced below the
following dimensions:
Petrol engines 34,?2 mm (1.37'5 in).
Diesel engines 36,96 mm (1.453 in).
3. Check that the flywheel has not been previously
machined.
4. Examine the ring gear teeth and if chipped or worn
the gear can be renewed.
10
5 . Remove the clutch location dowels.
6
"
9. Heat the new ring gear uniformally to between
225°C and 250°C but do not exceed the higher
figure.
10. Place the flywheel, clutch face down, on a flat
surface and locate the heated flywheel with the
square edge of teeth downward towards the
flywheel clutch face and chamfered edge of the
teeth uppermost. This applies to both petrol and
Diesel engines.
11. Press the starter ring firmly against the flange until
the ring contracts sufficiently to grip the flywheel.
Allow the ring gear to cool naturally. Do not
hasten cooling in anyway.
Reface the flywheel
6, i"$itcii;nethe fly.wheei
the compieic
face
removing only the minimum material necessary to
achieve a smooth flat surface parallel with the
crankshaft mating face and within the above width
dimensions and fit new dowels.
\
S T 928M
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5.
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
REMOVE THE CONNECTING-RODS AND PISTONS
During the following instructions it is important that all
components are kept in related sets and the pistons arc
identified with their respective bores.
1. Turn the crankshaft to bring the connecting-rod
caps to an accessible position and remove each cap
and lower shell in turn. Note that the connectingrod caps are numbered one to four.
REMOVE,
INSPECT
CRANKSHAFT
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AND
112
OVERHAUL
1. Remove the eight bolts securing the flywheel
housing to the cylinder block and remove the
housing and rear main bearing oil seal, and ‘0’
ring.
.
2. Push each piston asscmbly up the bore and
withdraw from the cylindcr block. Assemble the
caps and shell.? to the connecting-rods and place to
one side for inspection with the cylinder block at a
later stage.
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ST718M
2. Remove the main bearing caps and shells and lift
out the crankshaft. Collect the bearing shells from
the bearing saddles and the thrust washers from thc
centre saddle.
continued
7
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
Inspect crankshaft
3. Degrease the crankshaft and clear out the oil ways,
which can become clogged after long service.
4. Examine visually, the crankpins and main bearing
journals, for obvious wear, scores, grooves and
overheating. A decision at this stage should be
made as to whether the condition of the shaft is
worth continuing with more detailed examination.
5. With a micrometer, measure and note the ovality
and taper of each main bearing journal and
crankpin as follows:
6. Ovality - Take two readings at right-angles to
each other at various intervals.
The maximum ovality must not exceed 0,040 mm
(0.0015 in).
7. Taper - Take two readings parallel to each other
at both ends of the main bearing journal and
crankpin. The maximum permissable taper must
not exceed 0,025 mm (0.001 in).
8. To check for straightness, support the front and
rear main bearing journals in ‘V’ blocks and
position a dial indicator to check the run-out at the
centre main bearing journal. Run-out must not
exceed 0,076 mm (0.003 in) taking into account
any ovality in the centre journal.
The overall allowable wear limit should not exceed
0,11,4 mm (0.0045 in) for main bearing journals
and 0,088 mm (0.0035 in) for crankpins.
A crankshaft worn beyond the limits of maximum
taper, ovality and overall wear can be ground
undersize for which bearing shells arc available see
data, book 1.
When grinding the crankshaft main bearing and
crankpin journals, rotation of the grinding wheel
and crankshaft must be in the same direction,
anti-clockwise, viewed from the flywheel end of the
crankshaft. Final finishing of the journals should be
achieved by using a static tapping stone with the
crankshaft rotating in a clockwise direction viewed
from t h e flywheel end of the crankshaft. It is
important to ensure that, when grinding, the stone
travels beyond the edge of the journal ‘A’ to avoid
formation of a step ‘R’ as illustrated. Also care
must be taken not to machine or damage the fillet
radii.C.
1
EXAMINE AND OVERHAUL THE CYLINDER
BLOCK
1. Degrease the cylinder block and carry out a
thorough visual examination checking for cracks
and damage. To check the main bearing caps and
saddles for distortion. Fit the main bearing cap
without bearing shells and tighten to the correct
torque. Slacken and remove the bolt on one side of
each bearing cap and check with a feeler gauge that
no clearance exists at the joint face between the
cap and saddle.
Inspect cylinder bores
2. Mcasure the cylinder bores for ovality, taper and
general wear, using any suitable equipment.
However, an inside micrometer is best for checking
ovality and a cylinder gauge for taper.
3 . Check the ovality of each bore by taking
measurement at the top of the cylinder just below
the ridge at two points diametrically opposite. The
difference between the two figures is the ovality of
the top of the bore. Similar measurements should
be made approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) up from the
bottom of the bore so that the overall ovality may
be determined.
4. The taper of each cylinder is determined by taking
measurements at t h e top and bottom of each bore
at right angles to t h c gudgeon pin line. The
difference between the two measurements is the
taper.
5 . To establish maximum overall bore wear, take
measurements at as many points possible down the
bores at right angles to the gudgeon pin line. The
largest recorded figure is the maximum wcar and
should be compared with the original diameter of
the cylinder bore.
Maximum permissible ovality 0,127 mm (0.005 in).
Maximum permissible taper 0,254 mm (0.010 in).
Maximum permissible overall wear 0,177 mm
(0.007 in).
ST1808M
8
cont I nued
pi
F
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
If the above figures are exceeded the cylinders
must be rebored o r sleeved depending upon the
general condition of the bores and amount of wear.
Alternatively, if the overall wear, taper and ovality
are well within the acceptable limits and the
original pistons are serviceable new piston rings
may be fitted. It is important however, that the
bores are deglazed, with a hone, to give a crosshatched finish to provide a seating for the new
rings. It is vital to thoroughly wash the bores
afterwards to remove all traces of abrasive
material.
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Inspect camshaft bearings
T
~
9. Measure the internal diameter of each camshaft
bearing at several points using an internal
micrometer. A comparison of the bearing
diameters with those of the respective camshaft
journals will give the amount of clearance. The
bearings should be renewed if the clearance
exceeds 0,0508 mm (0.002 in). Or, in any event, if
they are scored or pitted.
12
RENEW CAMSHAFT BEARINGS
The following special tools for this operation are no
longer available from the suppliers. However, the
operation is nevertheless described for workshops that
have these tools in stock. If tools are not obtainable the
work should be entrusted to line-boring specialists.
605975 Bearing drift and adaptor assembly comprising:
274388 Bearing drift and
531760 Adaptor.
274389 Reamer for bearings which includes:
274394 Guide plug.
1. Remove t h e rear bucket type plug and using special
tool 274388 drift out the front and rear bearings
and withdraw them through the side cover
apertures.
Fit cylinder sleeves
Cylinder bores that cannot be rebored can be restored
by fitting sleeves to enable standard size pistons to be
fitted. Sleeving one cylinder only will distort the
adjacent bore so sleeving must be carried out in pairs,
i.e. cylinders 1 and 2 o r 3 and 4.
6. Machine the cylinder bores to accept the sleeves to
94,425 0,012 mm (3.7175 0.0005 in). This will
give the sleeve a 0,076 to 0,114 mm (0.003 to
0.0045 in) interference fit.
7. Press the sleeves squarely into the bore using a
pressure of two t o three tons. Exccssive pressure
could damage the sleeve and cylinder block. The
sleeves must not be proud of the cylinder block top
face or more than 2,5 mm (0.10 in) below the
surface.
8. Borc and hone the sleeves to accommodate the
pistons with the required clearances, see piston and
connecting-rod examination.
+
+
2. With the same tool, drift the two centre bearings
into the distributor drive chamber and collapse
them to assist withdrawal.
continued
9
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
-
NOTE: The two centre and rear bearings are of the
same width, whereas the front bearing is wider and
has an additional oil feed hole. Also ensure that
before fitting the bearings the oil passages leading to
the bearings are free of sludge and dirt.
3. Position the cylinder block vertically, rear face
down.
4. Place a new bearing into the front camshaft
chamber and position it so that it is above the
second bearing housing, counting from the front of
the block.
5 . The chamfer on the bearing edge must be towards
the housing bore.
6. Align the oil hole in the bearing with the innermost
oil feed drilling in the housing bore. Accuracy is
essential otherwise misalignment of the oil holes
may result and once the bearing is in place it cannot
be rotated to correct any error.
7. Add pencil marks to the bearing outer diameter
and the cylinder block adjacent to the housing to
assist in checking alignment.
8. Having visually aligned the bearing, place inside it
the special adaptor 531760.
10. Repeat the above instructions for the front
bearing. Note that the front bearing is wider and
has a small hole in addition to the large oil feed
hole. This small hole aligns with a vertical drilling
in the block, which in turn feeds a horizontal
drilling for the tappet mechanism. Drift this
bearing in so that the outer edge is just below the
machined surface of the front face. This is to
ensure that when the camshaft thrust plate is fitted
it will not stand proud on the bearing edge.
lillllllilll
-
11 ,\
3
\
9. Maintain the bearing in a level position. Pass the
drift through the front bearing housing into the
camshaft chamber so that it rests on top of the
adaptor. Commence drifting the bearing into the
block. Ensure that the bearing is not drifted in too
far, and that the oil feed'holes are correctly
aligned.
11. Turn the cylindcr block over so that the rear face is
uppermost and repeat the foregoing procedures for
the two remaining camshaft bearings.
The bearings must now be reamed to size as
follows: N o lubricant is necessary for this operation
since t h e best results are obtained when the
bearings are cut dry.
12. Locate the guide plug 274394, into the front
camshaft bearing and retain using the thrust plate
screws, but do not tighten the screws at this stage.
13. Insert the reamer 274389 from the rear of the
cylinder block, locating it through the guide plug at
the front.
14. Locate the guide collar immediately in front of the
rcamer cutter into the rearmost bearing, then
secure the screws retaining the guide plug at the
front.
15. Position the cylinder block vertically, rear face
uppermost and ream the rear and two centre
bearings. As each bearing is cut the reamer should
be held steady by the operator whilst an assistant,
using a high pressure airline, blows away the white
metal cuttings, before allowing the reamer to enter
the next bearing.
16. Remove the guide plug 274394 and ream the front
bearing.
17. Remove the reamer handle and bolt and withdraw
the reamer, turning it in the same direction as tor
cutting.
18. Remove the plugs from the ends of oil gallery
passage and clean the gallery and oil feed passages
to camshaft and crankshaft bearings, using
compressed air. Refit the plugs and lock in
position.
continued
10
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
19. The hexagon-headed plugs at the rear of the block
should have new washers fitted, and their threads
coated with a suitable jointing compound.
20. Thoroughly clean the cylinder block preferably
using an airline to remove all traces of metal
cut t ings .
112
Check crankcase main bearings
21. Discard scorcd, pitted, cracked and worn bearing
shells.
22. To determine the maximum wear, assemble the
main bearing shells and caps to the crankcase and
tighten the bolts to the correct torque figure.
23. Using an inside micrometer, measure each bearing
at several points and note the greatest figure. The
maximum wear is the difference between this
figure and the smallest diamcter of the
corresponding crankshaft journal. The main
bearing running clearance is in the data section.
24. The bearing clearances may also be determined by
using ‘Plastigauge’. Since this method requires the
crankshaft to be fitted to the crankcase, the
procedure is described under engine assembly.
PISTON AND CONNECTING-ROD INSPECTION
The following checks relating to pistons and rings must
also be carried out prior to fitting new pistons to
rebored and sleeved cylinder blocks.
Until it is decided if new components are required all
parts must be kept in their related sets and the position
of each piston to its connecting-rod should be noted.
1. Remove the piston rings and gudgeon pin from
each piston and dctach the connecting-rod.
2. Original pistons - Decarbonise and dcgrease all
coi?;poiiefi:s aiid cairj ou: a vimal examinatim cf
the pistons and rings and discard any which are
unserviceable. Pistons which appear serviceable
should be subjected to a more detailed
examination described under ‘New Pistons’.
ST708M
continued
11
lcl
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
3. New Pistons - Original pistons fitted to new
engines at the factory are specially graded to
facilitate assembly. The grade letter on the piston
crown should be ignored when ordering new
pistons. Genuine Land Rover service standard size
pistons are supplied 0,025 mm (0.001 in) oversize
to allow for production tolerances on new engines.
When fitting new pistons to a standard size cylinder
block the bores must be honed to accommodate the
pistons with the correct clearances. In addition
Land Rover pistons are available 0,50 and 1,Ol mm
(0.020 and 0.040 in) oversize for fitting to rebored
cylinder blocks.
Clearance limits for new standard size pistons in a
standard cylinder bore measured at right angles to
the gudgeon pin are in the “General specification
data” section.
When taking the following measurements the
cylinder block and pistons must be at the same
temperature to ensure accuracy.
7. If gauge equipment is not available the clearance
can be assessed by placing a long, suitably sized,
feeler gauge down the thrust side of the bore and
inserting the appropriate piston, ‘upside down’, in
the bore and position it with the gudgeon pin
parallel to the crankshaft axis. Push the piston
down the bore and stop at the tightest point and
whilst holding the piston still, slowly withdraw the
feeler gauge. If a steady resistance of
approximatcly 2,5 kg (6 Ibs) is felt, the clearance is
satisfactory,
NOTE: The illustration shows a petrol engine piston
but the method is the same for the Diesel engine.
4. Using a suitable micrometer measurc the pistons at
thc bottom of the skirt at right angles to the
gudgeon pin.
5 . With an inside micrometer or cylinder gauge
measure the diameter of the bore at approximatcly
half-way down and note the reading.
6. The clearance is determined by subtracting the
piston diameter from the bore diameter.
NOTE: Eariy 2.25 Diesel pistons have a piston ring
groove below the gudgeon pin. This has been deleted on
later engines.
Inspect piston rings
Normally when an engine is being overhauled the
piston rings are discarded unless the pistons have been
removed for a different purpose and the engine has
only completed a small mileage. Before refitting the
piston the rings should be examined for wear and
damage. In addition the rings must be checked for side
clearance in the pistons and gap in the bores. The latter
two checks must be made when fitting new rings to new
and used pistons.
8. Check gap When checking thc ring gap in worn
bores, but are nevertheless within the acceptable
taper and ovality limits, the ring must be inserted
squarely into the bottom of the bore at the lowest
point of the piston travel. To ensure squareness of
the ring push the ring down the bore to the correct
position with a piston. With newly machined bores,
the ring may be inserted squarely into any position
in the bore.
9. Using an appropriate feeler gauge check the gaps
of all the rings, in turn, including the oil control
ring assembly.
The correct gaps are listed in the Data Section. If
any gap IS less than that specified, remove the ring,
and file the ends square, whilst holding the ring in a
filing jig or vice. Should any gap be excessively
wide and not likely to close-up to within the
specified limits when hot, an oversize ring should
be fitted.
continued
12
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
12
Side clearance data -petrol engine
Compression rings - 0,046 to 0,097 m m (0.0018 to
0.0038 in).
Oil control ring - 0,038 to 0,089 mm (0.0015 to
0.0035 in).
Side clearance - d i e d
engine
Compression rings - 0,06 to 0,11 m m (0.0025 to
0.0045 in).
Oil control ring - 0,038 to 0,064 mm (0.0015 to
0.0025 in).
13
-
Check piston ring side clearance
Petrol engine pistons have two compression rings and
one oil control ring assembly. The diesel engine has
three compression rings and one oil control ring
assembly. The method of checking clearances are the
same for both engines but the clearances are different.
It is important that clearances are correct. Rings that
are too tight will bind when hot, imparing the radial
pressure causing possible loss of compression.
Excessive clearance will allow the rings to rock in the
grooves and the resulting pumping action could cause
excessive oil consumption and eventually broken rings.
10. Diesel engine pistons - Fit the oil control ring to
the bottom groove (not groove in skirt). Fit the two
unpolished rings with the word ‘TOP’ uppermost to
the middle two grooves. Insert to polished chrome
ring with the internal chamfer to the top groove
with the word ‘TOP’ uppermost.
A ring groove is provided at the bottom of the
diesel engine piston skirt for the fitment of an oil
control ring in cases of excessive oil consumption
on high mileage engines (early engines only).
11 Petrol engine pistons - Fit the oil control ring to
the bottom groove. Fit the unpolished compression
ring with the word ‘TOP’ uppermost to the second
groove. Insert the polishcd chrome ring with an
internal chamfer and the word ‘TOP’ uppermost to
the top groove.
12. After fitting each ring, roll it around thc piston
groove to ensure that it is free and does not bind.
13. Using an appropriate feeler gauge check the
clearance between the rings and piston grooves.
Clearances in excess of 0,106 to 0,152 mm (0.004 to
0.006 in) are unacceptable and the ring and or the
pistons shouid be renewed.
Inspect gudgeon pins
14. Check the gudgeon pin for wear, cracks, scores and
overheating.
15. The gudgeon fit in the piston must be a tight push
fit at a temperature of 68°F (20°C). Check the
gudgeon pin for ovality and taper using a
micrometer.
Connecting-rod inspection
16 Check the connecting-rods and caps for distortion
as follows; fit the correct cap, less the bearing
shells, to each connecting rod as denoted by the
number stamped near the joint faces. This number
also indicatcs the crankshaft journal to which it
must be fitted.
17 Tighten the nuts to the correct torque and release
the nut on one side only. Check, with a feeler
gauge, that no clearance exists between the joint
faces. i f there is a gap the connecting-rod is
distorted and should be renewed.
NOTE: Whilst the illustration shows a Diesel piston
the method for the petrol is the same.
continued
13
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
ST716M
.
18. Use an accurate connecting-rod alignment gauge to
theck the rods for bend and twist. The maximum
allowable for both conditions must not exceed
0,127 mm (0.005 ins).
19. Examine and check t h e small-end bush for wear. If
necessary renew the bush. The correct clearance of
the gudgeon pin in the small-end bush is given in
“General specification data”.
When
renewing a bush ensure that the oil hole in
20.
the bush lines up with the hole in the connectingrod. Finish the bush to the correct size and
clearance.
21. Connecting-rod bearings that are worn, pitted,
scored and show signs of overheating must be
discarded. If more than one of the bearings show
these signs they must all be replaccd. When fitting
new or used bearings to reground (petrol engines
only) or serviceable crankpins the clearances must
be checked.
As an alternative, the bearing clearances can be
determined by using ‘Plastigauge’ which consists of
a thin piece of plastic material a few hundreds of a
millimeter or thousands of an inch in diameter.
When the material is flattened by being squeezed
between the bearing and crankpin the width of the
plastic is measured by a scale gauge which indicates
the clearance.
23. Wipe any oil from the crankpins and place a piece
of ‘Plastigauge’ across the centre of the bearing in
the connecting-rod cap. Assemble the rod to the
appropriate crankpin and tighten to the correct
torque. Do not rotate the connecting-rod or
crankshaft during this operation.
24. Remove the connecting-rod cap and bearing shell
and using the scale supplied measure the flattened
‘Plastigauge’ at its widest point. The graduation
that most closely corresponds to the width of the
‘Plastigauge’ indicates the bearing clearance.
The correct clearance with new or overhauled
components is 0,019 to 0,063 mm (0.0007 to
0.0025 in).
25. Wipe off the ‘Plastigauge’ with an oily rag. DO not
scrape off otherwise it may damage the crankpins.
23
Connecting-rod bearing nip and clearance
New bearing halves are supplied with a protective
coating and must be degreased before fitting.
22. Fit the bearing halves t o the connecting-rod and
cap and secure the assembly with thc correct
torque. Slacken the nut on one side only and check
the clearance between the joint faces with a feeler
gauge. The clearance should be between 0,lO and
0,20 mm (0.004 and 0.008 in). The bearing nip can
be adjusted by the selective assembly of the
bearing shells which are available in slightly
varying thicknesses. Do not file or machine the
caps or rods to vary the bearing nip, Make a final
check to prove the clearance by inserting a 0,063
(0.0025 in) shim paper between the crankpin and
one half of the bearing and tightening to the correct
torque. The connecting-rod should resist rotation
and move freely with the shim paper removed.
14
end--oat
26. Fit the connecting-rods complete with bearings to
their respective crankpins. Move the connectingrod to one side and check the clearance, with a
feeler, on the opposite side. The correct clearance
is between 0,20 and 0,30 mm (0.007 and 0.012 in).
continued
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
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ASSEMBLE ENGINE
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FIT CRANKSHAFT
Main bearing nip and clearance
. ..
... .
Assemble pistons to connecting-rods
27. Petrol engine pistons can be fitted either way
round, except those that are being refitted to their
original bores in which case they must be fitted to
the connecting-rod in the same position in
accordance with the mark made during removal.
28. Inscrt a circlip in one side of the gudgeon pin boss
and assemble the piston to the connecting-rod with
t h e gudgeon pin. Secure the assembly with a circlip
on the opposite side of the piston.
29. Diesel engine pistons must only be fitted one way
in relation to the connecting-rod. The piston must
be assembled with the point of the ‘V’, on the
piston crown, on the same side as the lubrication
hole in the connecting-rod. Assemble the piston to
the connecting-rod in the same manner as for the
petrol engine.
Place the piston and connecting-rod assemblics to
one side ready for fitting to the cylinder block. It is
good practice to renew thc connecting-rod bolts
New main bearing halves are supplied with a protective
coating and must be degreased beforc fitting.
1. Fit the bearing halves in the crankcase saddlcs and
caps and secure the caps to the crankcase and
tighten to the correct torque. Slacken the bolts on
one side of the caps only and, with a feeler gauge,
check t h e gap between the joint faces. ‘The
clearance or nip must be within 0,lO to 0,15 m m
(0.004 to 0.006 in). The bearing nip can be
adjusted by selective assembly of the bearing
halves available in varying thicknesses. Do not file
or machine thc caps or saddles to achicvc the
corrcct clearance. Note that the rear main bearings
are wider than thc rcmaining four.
2. T o make a final check that the clearance is correct,
leave the bearing halves in the crankcase saddles
and carefully lower the crankshaft into position.
Check each bearing in turn by inserting a 0,063 m m
(0.0025 in) shim paper between the bearing cap
and crankshaft journal and tighten the bolts to thc
correct torque. If the clearance is correct, there
should be a slight increase in t h c rcsistancc to
rotation of the crankshaft.
As an alternative ‘Plastigauge’ may bc used to
check the clearance in the same manner as with the
connecting-rod bearings. This material may also be
used to determine the amount of wear in used
bearings and j o t ” .
continued
..
..:. . .
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,
.... ..
ST722M
15
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
~~
~~
3. Locate the crankshaft in position on the upper
bearing halves in the crankcase and wipe any oil
from the journals since ‘Plastigauge’ is soluble in
oil. Place a piece of ‘Plastigauge’ across the lower
half of each crankshaft journal or lower bearing
cap shell. Fit the cap and tighten to the correct
torque. Remove the cap and bearing and using the
scale supplied with the ‘Plastigauge’ measure the
flattened ‘Plastigauge’ at its widest point. The
graduation that most closely corresponds with the
width of the ‘Plastigauge’ indicates the bearing
clearance.
The correct clearance with new or overhauled
components is included in “General specification
data” section. If new bearings are being fitted use
selective assembly to obtain the correct clearance.
Wipe off, not scrape the ‘Plastigauge’ with an oily
rag from the journals o r bearings.
5. Place the crankshaft in position in the crankcase
and mount a dial test indicator to read-off the end
of the crankshaft. A feeler gauge may be used
instead of an indicator.
6. Determine the end-float by moving the crankshaft
away from the indicator and zero the dial. Move
the crankshaft in the opposite direction and notc
the indicator reading. Alternatively measure the
clearance with a feeler gauge. The end-float should
be 0,05 to 0,15 mm (0.002 t o 0.006 in).
7. If adjustment is required substitute with oversize
thrust washers. Variation of thrust washer
thickness at each side of crankshaft journal must
not exceed 0,08 mm (0.003 in) to ensure that the
crankshaft remains centralised.
Adjust crankshaft end-float
4. Lift out the crankshaft and insert a standard size
thrust washer both sides of fhe centre main bearing
saddle with the grooves towards the crankshaft.
8. Lubricate the crankshaft main journals with clean
engine oii and fit the appropriate bearing caps and
lower shells to the crankcase with the exception of
number five main bearing. Ensure that the caps
locate properly over the dowels. Using new bolts
and washers evenly tighten to the correct torque
figure.
continued
16
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w3
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
12
Fit rear main oil seal
10. To prevent any cork seal material becoming
trapped between t h e bearing cap and crankcase,
chamfer the inner edge of the corks 0,40 to
0,80 mm (id to &in) wide as illustrated.
Immerse the cork seals in engine oil and fit them to
the bearing cap.
. -.
. . . ..
. .
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I
-
13. Check that the crankshaft oil seal journal is
undamaged and clean. Make sure the seal housing
is clean and dry and free from burrs. Do not touch
the seal lip and ensure that the outside diameter is
clean and dry. The P.T.F.E. Seal Part N o ETC
5369 which should be used, is supplied with a
former to maintain t h e correct shape and must not
be removed until the seal is to be fitted.
14. Using special seal replacer 18G 134-11 and with the
lip side leading drive-in the scal as far as the tool
allows. If t h e tool is not availablc fit the seal to the
bottom of the housing to ensure squareness.
1 I . Fit the bearing cap and lower shell to the crankcase
and secure with new bolts and washers and tighten
to the appropriate torque.
12. To allow for shrinkage after fitting leave t h e cork
seais standlng proud of the crankcase-sump face. If
possible delay the fitting of the sump for
approximately twelve hours and leave the seal
protruding 2,40 mm (& i n ) and then place a
6,350 mm ( % in) washer over the seal and cut off
the surplus. If it is necessary to fit the sump
17
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
15. Fit the '0' ring seal to the flywheel housing.
16. Examine the seal guide number 18G 1344 and
repair any damage that could destroy the seal lip.
17. Lubricate the outside diameter of the seal guide
and the seal journal with concentrated 'Oildag' in a
25% solution with clean engine oil.
18. Place thc seal guide on the crankshaft flange and,
using the two dowels protruding from the cylinder
block rear face as a guide to ensure initial
squareness, fit the flywheel housing and remove
the seal guide. Secure the flywheel housing evenly
tightening the retaining bolts.
5. Lubricate the cylinder walls, piston rings and
crankpins. Compress the piston rings with a
suitable compressor tool and carefully lower the
connecting-rod into the bore ensuring that the oil
spray hole faces the camshaft side of the engine.
With diesel engines the point of the arrow headed
valve clearance indentation in the piston crown,
and the oil spray hole must face the camshafi side
of the engine.
6. Using a soft mallet, sharply tap thc piston into the
bore so that the whole of the piston is just bclow
the surface of the cylinder block.
ST731 M
2
7. Check that the bearing shell is properly located in
the connecting-rod and pull the rod onto the
crankpin. Locate t h e bearing shell correctly and f i t
the cap so that the identification numbers are
together on the camshaft side of thc engine. Fit and
tighten new nuts to the correct torque figure.
Repeat the foregoing instructions for fitting the
remaining piston and connecting-rod assemblies.
FIT THE CONNECTING-RODS AND PISTONS
1. Turn t h e crankshaft to position numbers one and
four crankpins at bottom dcad centre to facilitate
fitting the connecting-rods.
2. When fitting the connecting-rods and pistons
ensure that the bolts do not foul and damage the
crankpins. As a precaution i t is recommended that
rubber or soft plastic sleeves are placed over the
threads.
3 . The connecting-rod bolts have eccentric heads
which locate in a recess in the connecting-rod. It is
essentia! that the head of each new bo!t is proper!y
located before tightening.
4. Stagger the compression rings so that the gaps are
equidistantly spaced round the piston but, so
arranged, that no gap is positioned on the thrust
side of the piston i.e. opposite the camshaft. Turn
the oil control ring so that the gap is in line with the
gudgeon pin.
18
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
FIT THE CAMSHAFT
1. Lubricate the camshaft bearings and with care,
insert the camshaft into the cylinder block.
Temporarily secure a new thrust plate with the two
bolts.
FIT TAPPETS, GUIDES AND ROLLERS
1. If the same parts are being refitted ensure that they
are returned to their original positions. Ensure that
the tappct slides move freely in the guides.
2. Insert the tappet guides into the cylinder block and
align the locating screw holes.
3. Fit the tappet rollers ensuring that they are fitted in
accordance with the marks made during removal.
New rollers, however. may be fitted either way
round.
4. Before fitting the tappet slides make sure the
oilways are clear to t h e tappet bearing surface, the
cross drilling and the oil feed to the push rod.
5 . Insert t h e tappet slides with the word 'FRONT'
towards the front of the engine.
6. Secure the tappet guides with NEW Micro
encapsulated screws and tighten to thc correct
torque figure. Micro encapsulated screws should
also be used on engines where the screws were
originally wired for security.
4,
..
-
2. To check the camshaft end-float, f i t the woodruff
key and temporarily f i t the camshaft chain wheel
and mount a dial test indicator, as illustrated, so
that the stylus rests in a loaded condition upon the
machined face of the cylinder block. Zero the dial
and move the camshaft back and forward and note
the reading. The end-float should be within 0.06 to
0,13 nim (0.0025 to 0.0055 in). If the end-float is
outside these limits, f i t different thrust plates until
the correct tolerance is achieved.
3. Removc the test indicator and chain wheel and
secure the thrust plate with the two bolts and tab
washers. (Tab washers ommitted on later engines).
..._.
... .
.,.
...,...
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19
El
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
FIT THE FLYWHEEL
1. Examine the flywheel and crankshaft mating faces
and remove any burrs or imperfections that could
prevent the flywheel locating correctly. Check that
the dowel is in position.
2. Offer up the flywheel to the crankshaft and secure
with the reinforcing plate and retaining bolts,
Evenly tighten the bolts to the correct torque
figure.
3. To check the flywheel run-out, mount a dial test
indicator so that the stylus rests, in a loaded
condition, on the clutch pressure face at a radius of
114 mm (4.5 ins).
4. Turn the flywheel, and check that the run-out does
not exceed 0,05 to 0,07 mm (0.002 to 0.003 in).
Should the run-out be excessive, remove the
flywheel, and check again for any irregularities on
flywheel and crankshaft mating faces and dowel.
2b
\
_--.
ST 927M
Diesel engine
3. Turn the crankshaft in a clockwise direction until
the E.P. mark on the flywheel is in line with the
pointer on the flywheel housing. The pointer on
later engines has been omitted but can be obtained
from Land Rover spares stockists under part
number E R C 2250. If the crankshaft is
inadvertently turned beyond the E.P. mark, do not
turn it back but continue on round in a clockwise
direction until the mark is exactly in-line with the
pointer. To avoid serious damage to the valves and
pistons once the cylinder head has been fitted, the
crankshaft must not be rotated until the valves
have been timed.
continued
FIT CYLINDER HEAD AND ROCKER SHAFT
ASSEMBLY
Petrol engine
1. Temporarily fit the timing cover with pointer and
crankshaft pulley.
2. Turn the crankshaft clockwise, in the normal
running direction, to bring numbers one and four
pistons to T.D.C. If the crankshaft is inadvertently
turned beyond T.D.C. do not turn it back, but
continue on round until the T.D.C. mark on the
pulley coincides with the pointer on the timing
cover. D o not allow the crankshaft to be moved
again until the valves are timed.
20
ST613M
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
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Petrol and Diesel engines
VALVE TIMING
4. Clean the cylinder head and cylinder block mating
faces. Position a ncw cylinder head gasket on the
cylinder block with the word 'Diesel' or 'Petrol'
uppermost.
5. Lower the cylinder head onto the cylinder block
using two long bolts to facilitate accurate
positioning of t h e head.
6. Fit the cylinder head retaining bolts except those
also used to secure the rocker shaft and leave
finger-tight .
7. Insert the push rods ensuring that the ball end
locates properly in the spherical seat in the tappet.
8. Whilst holding the rocker shaft assembly together,
lower it into position making sure that the hollow
dowels locate properly in the cylinder head. Also
ensure that the rocker adjusting screw ball end
. locate in the push rods.
9. Fit the rocker shaft large retaining bolts and leave
finger-tight.
Petrol engines
ST8
I
.
10. Tighten the cylindcr head rctaining bolts, evenly,
to the correct torque figure in the sequence
illustrated below.
11. Fit and tighten t h e rocker shaft, small bolts to the
specified torque.
1121
1. Check that numbcrs one and four pistons are still at
T.D.C. and without disturbing thc crankshaft,
remove the pulley and timing cover.
2. One of the keyways in the camshaft sprocket is
stamped with the letter 'P' and this must locate on
the camshaft key.
3. Fit the camshaft chain wheel, as above, and rotate
the camshaft in a clockwise direction until the tooth
also marked with a letter 'P' is in line with the top
stud hole as illustrated.
4. Fit the crankshaft chain whccl with the large
shoulder towards the cylinder block.
5 . Without moving either chain wheel, fit t h c timing
chain, keeping it taut on the drive side. If it is not
possible to obtain a taut fit on the drive side of the
chain with the chain wheel in the set position,
withdraw the camshaft chain wheel without
disturbing the camshaft, and rcfit the chain wheel
on one of t h e alternative keyways. This procedure
may be repeated until a taught chain is obtained on
the drive-side with the camshaft and crankshaft in
their previously set positions.
6. Secure the camshaft sprocket to the camshaft with
a new special micro encapsulated treated bolt and
tighten to the correct torque figure.
NOTE: Early engines use an ordinary bolt and tab
was her.
13. Do not allow the crankshail to be turned, until the
valves are timed.
7. Fit and adjust the timing chain damper SO that
there is a maximum clearance of 0 2 5 mm
(0.010 in) between the timing chain and damper.
Tighten the retaining bolts and secure with new
lock tabs.
continucd
21
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
Diesel engines
11. Manufacture a suitable pointer, and attach one end
to the top bolt hole i n the cylinder block and the
pointer close to the camshaft chain wheel, 21s
il Iust ra ted .
12. Turn the camshaft until the valve is fully open ;IS
indicated by maximum reading on the dial gauge.
13. Because the top of the cam is ‘flat’ t h e cnmshaft
can be turned ;i furthcr four degrees without
movement of the dial gauge needle. Since an error
of four degrees is not acceptable, the exact centre
of the four degree period must be established. ;IS
follows.
14. Without moving the camshaft rub white chalk on
the face of the chain wheel adjacent to t h e pointer.
Zero the dial gauge and carefully turn the camshaft
clockwise until the needle indicates 0,25 mni
(0.010 in) which represents a point down the lefthand side of the cam lobe. Make a thin pencil
mark, on the chalk, in line with the pointcr.
8. Maximum engine performance and efficiency
depends upon the care and accuracy excerciscd
during the following instructions.
9. Check that the E.P. mark on the flywheel is still
cxactly aligned with the pointer on thc flywheel
liousi n g .
10. Thc valve timing is based upon the exhaust valve
peak of number one cylinder. To determine the
point at which the valve is fully open mount a dial
test indicator, as illustrated, with the bracket
attached to the number one exhaust valve rocker
and the stylus resting, in a loaded condition o n a
cylinder head bolt head.
15. Turn the camshaft anti-clockwise and watch the
needle move back to zero. Then continue turning
until the necdlc indicntcs 0.25 inn1 (0.010 in) which
represents a point down the right-hand sick of the
cam and n:::ke
::nother ;xark in !inc wi!h !!le
pointer.
22
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
16. Using a rule, determine the exact mid-point
between the two marks and make a third mark.
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..
FIT TIMING CHAIN TENSIONER
17. Remove the dial indicator, and turn the camshaft
until the middle mark lines up with the pointer.
The number one cylinder exhaust tappet roller
should now be resting in the centre of the four
degree flat period of the cam and the camshaft and
crankshaft are in their correct relationship.
I . Assemble the timing chain tensioner in accordance
with t h e illustration in “Dismantling”.
2. Compress the assembly against the spring and fit to
the engine whilst engaging thc ratchet pivot bolt in
the cylinder block.
3 . Ensure that the piston housing locates on the
dowels and single stud and the cylinder spigot fits
into the milled slot in the cylinder block.
3 . Allow the jockey wheel to take up the slack in the
chain. Tighten the retaining n u t and two bolts to
secure t h e assembly. Do not rotate enginc, see
‘tappet adjustment’.
18. Fit the crankshaft chain whee! with the large
shoulder towards the cylinder block.
19. Without moving the camshaft and crankshaft fit the
timing chain keeping i t taut on the drive side.
Should i t be impossible to obtain a taut fit, remove
the chain wheel and position i t in one of the five
. ...
remaining keyways until the best position is
obtained. It is preferable to choose a keyway which
gives ;I slightly tight chain on the drive side rather
than a slack one.
20. Secure the camshaft chain wheel to the camshaft
with a new, special, micro encapsulated treated
bolt and tighten to t h e correct torque figure - See
Petrol en,‘(rine.
21. Fit and adjust the timing chain damper so that
there is a maximum clearance of 0 3 m m
(0.010 i n ) between the timing chain and damper.
Tighten the two bolts and secure with new lock
tabs.
23
11211
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
ADJUST TAPPET CLEARANCES
Petrol and diesel engines
-
1. If the crankshaft is rotated with excessive valve
clearances, it is possible that the push rods may
become dislodged from the tappet seating and
fracture the tappet slide. To prevent damage,
eliminate all clearance from any loose rockers
bcfore turning the crankshaft to adjust the
clearances.
2. Turn the engine over until number eight valve
(counting from front of engine) is fully open.
3. Using a 0,25 mm (0.010 in) feeler gauge check the
clearance between the valve tip and rocker pad of
number one valve.
4. Adjust the clearance by slackening the locknut and
turning the tappet adjusting screw clockwise to
reduce clcarance and anti-clockwise to increase
clearance. Recheck the clearance after tightening
the lock nut.
FIT TIMING COVER AND WATER PUMP
1. Using a new joint washcr assemble the water pump
to the front cover and loosely tighten the three
retaining bolts.
2. Attach a new joint washer and water gallery joint
to the timing cover and secure the cover together
with the timing pointer (petrol engines only) and
alternator link to the cylinder block with the
fourteen bolts. Evenly tighten to the correct torque
figure, including the water pump bolts.
2
ST1269M
3. Fit the crankshaft pulley and secure with the
special washer and bolt. Tighten to the correct
torque figure.
5 . Continue to check and adjust the remaining
tappets in the following sequence:
Set No. 3 tappet with No. 6 valve fully open.
Set No. 5 tappet with No. 4 valve fully open.
Set No. 2 tappet with No. 7 valve fully open.
Set No. 8 tappet with No. 1 valve fully open.
Set No. 6 tappet with No. 3 valve fully open.
Set No. 4 tappet with No. 5 valve fully open.
Set No. 7 tappet with No. 2 valve fully open.
3
ST1089M
24
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
I
4. Fit the thermostat into its housing and using new
joint washers secure the assembly, together with
the elbow, to the cylinder head. Tightcn the three
bolts to the correct torque. Connect the thermostat
elbow to the water pump with a new hose and
secure with hose clips.
FITTHESKEW GEAR
Petrol engine
1. Turn the crankshaft to bring number one piston to
T.D.C. with number four cylinder valves on thc
'rock'. Check that the timing gear pointcr coincides
with the mark on the crankshaft pulley.
2. Lubricate and insert the skew gear assembly into
mesh with the camshaft gear. Due to the helex
angle of the teeth the gear will turn anti-clockwise
as it slides into mesh. The broad master spline must
be at 20" to t h e centre line when correctly seated,
as illustrated, but i t may take scvcral attempts to
achieve this.
-.
ST 882M
3 . The skew gear assembly is located in its final
position by a special screw. Without this screw the
gear will go deeper into mesh resulting in an
incorrect anglc when t h e assembly is lifted up to
locate the screw. The angle must therefore be
checked again after the screw is fitted. Align the
location hole in t h e bush and fit a new location
screw i n t o the cylinder block and re-check the
angle.
4. Fit the distributor drive coupling, and ensure that it
locates properly in the off-set slot of the skew gear.
5. Using a new joint washer, fit t h e side covcr.
ST748M
25
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
Diesel engine
6. Turn the crankshaft in the direction of rotation
until both valves of number one cylinder are closed
and the piston is ascending the bore on the
compression stroke.
7. Continue to turn the crankshaft until the timing
pointer aligns with the 13" mark on the flywheel,
that is 13" BTDC. This must be done carefully. If
the flywheel in inadvertently turned too far and the
timing mark goes past the pointer do not turn the
flywheel back but repeat the operation.
8. Ensure that a correct line of vision is taken when
lining up t h e timing marks. An incorrect line of
vision can result in the timing being 1" to 2" out.
10. The skew gear assembly is located in its final
position by a special screw. Without this screw the
gear will go deeper into mesh rcsulting in a n
incorrect angle when the assembly is lifted up to
locate the screw. The angle must therefore be
checked again after the screw is fitted.
11. Align the location hole i n the bush and f i t a new
location screw into the cylinder block and re-chcck
the angle.
12. Fit D.P.A. pump drive shaft long-splined-end
leading and locate the master spline in the
corresponding spline i n the skew gear.
0
.,..
12
9. Lubricate and insert the skew gear assembly into
mcsh with the camshaft gear. Due to the helex
angle of the teeth the gear will turn anti-clockwise
as it slides into mesh. The broad niaster spline must
be at 20" to the centre line when correctly seated,
as illusti-ated, but it may take several attempts to
achieve this.
ST750M
26
Petrol and Diesel engines
13, Using a new joint washer fit the oil filter housing,
ensuring that the retaining bolts pass through the
two small round holes i n the joint washer.
iI +A . Tighten the iwii rciaining bolts evenly to :tic corrcc:
torque.
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
1121
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FIT ICNITIOPI DISTRIBUTOR
I . Fit the distributor adaptor plate using a new joint
washer and evenly tighten the thrcc retaining bolts
to the correct torque figure.
6. Fit the correct spark plugs and washers and tighten
to the specified torque figure.
7 . Fit the distributor cap and connect t h e H.T, leads
to the spark plugs in thc sequcnce illustrated.
ST 877M
wr FUEL INJECTION PUMP
2. Chcck that the distributor drive coupling, locates
properly in thc off-sct slot of the skew gear.
3. Inserl t h c distributor and “0”ring so that thc
vacuum unit faccs towards t h e rear of the engine.
Remove the cap and oscillate the rotor arm until
the distributor drive shaft locates into the drive
coupling slot thus enabling the distributor to be
pushed fully home. The metal tip of the rotor arm
should be in line with thc electrode in the
distributor cap that supplies clcctrical current to
number one spark plug.
4. Temporarily tighten the distributor clamp bolt
pending final ignition timing adjustment when the
cngine is fitted to the vehicle.
5. Secure the clamp to the adaptor plntc with the
single bolt.
Using timing gauge 605863
1. Using a new joint washer fit the camshaft front side
cover with t h e timing pointer. Tighlcn the retaining
bolts evenly to the correct torque.
2. Earlier engines with the side oil filter, cmploy a
baffle plate, with two joint washcrs interposed
between the side filter plate and the cylinder block.
continued
27
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
3. Insert the timing gauge, 605863, into the driving
gear, then twist gauge in a clockwise direction to
take up backlash and any wear in the gears.
4. Hold in this position, then, if necessary, slacken off
bolts retaining the timing pointer on the side of the
cylinder block. Adjust pointer so that it coincides
with the line on the timing gauge, as illustratcd,
then retighten the bolts and remove the timing
gauge.
5. Rotate the driving gear on the distributor pump so
that the master spline lines up with the mastcr
spline on the engine driving gear.
6. Check that the pump drive shaft is correctly located
with the longer splines in thc skcw gear.
7. Fit the distributor pump to the engine engaging the
master splines on the pump and the drive shaft. Do
not tighten the fixings at this stage.
8. Align the vertical mark o n the pump flange with
t h e pump timing pointer, then tighten the pump
fixings.
ST757M
28
-
Using timing gauge MS 67B
9. Check that the drive shaft is correctly located with
the longer splined-end in thc skew gear.
10. Assemble the scribing arm of the timing gauge to
the gaugc body.
11. Set gauge by loosening knurled screws and sliding
bracket around until chamfcred edge aligns with
the required angle of 22", tighten knurled screw in
this position.
W
ST759M
12. Insert the gauge into the vacant injection pump
position and engage the gauge gear into injection
pump drive splines.
ST760M
12
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
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13. Release centre shaft retaining screw and slide the
.,
gauge body along centre shaft until body engages
injection. pump drive gear hub. Lock shaft
retaining screw.
14. Apply gentle clockwise pressure to take up
backlash or wear in gears, retain in this position.
15. Slacken off timing pointer bolts. Adjust timing
pointer so that it aligns with scribing arm on the
gauge.
16. Tighten timing pointer bolts and remove the gauge.
17. Rotate driving gear on distributor pump so that
master spline lines up with master spline on driving
gear.
18. Fit pump to engine, ensuring that the timing mark
on the pump flange coincides with the timing
pointer.
19. Tighten the injection pump retaining nuts.
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1121
20. If the injectors have already been fitted, during
cylinder head assembly, fit the injector feed pipes
to the injector pump to prevent the ingress of dirt
into the system. See FUEL SYSTEM - Section 19
for correct fitting of injectors.
-.
FIT OIL PUMP AND SUMP
NOTE: When the distributor pump is timed as detailed
above, that is, with the timing pointer on the engine
altered to take up backlash and wear on the gears, it
ensures that optimum distributor pump timing is
achieved.
Should there be any fall-off of power during the life of
the engine, retiming the distributor pump to take up
gear wear could well make a significant improvement to
engine performance, provided the engine is generally in
good condition.
1. Fit the longer splined end of thc drive shaft into the
oil pump.
2. Fit the oil pump and drive shaft to the crankcase,
whilst revolving the shaft as necessary to engage
the splines of the skew gear.
3 . Using new lock washers, secure the pump to the
crankcase tightening t h e bolts to t h e correct torque
and bend over the lock tabs.
4. If necessary adjust the position of the strainer SO
that it is parallel to the sump baffle plate.
continued
5 . Clean the sump and crankcase mating faces and fit
a new joint washer. Secure the sump with the
twenty-one bolts and spring washers and one nut.
Evenly tighten to the correct torque.
29
L
12
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
FIT ROCKER COVER
FIT FUEL LIFT PUMP
If the fuel lift was separatcd from the side cover, fit
the pump to the cover first using a new joint washcr
and evenly tighten the retaining nuts.
Place a new cover plate joint washer in position
and f i t the cover and pump assembly to the cylinder
block.
Ensure that the pump actuating lever ridcs on top
of the camshaft.
Secure the cover, evenly tightening the retaining
Clean the rocker cover and cylinder head faces and f i t
the cover using a new joint washer. Evenly tighten the
dome headed nuts to the correct torque. Do not
ovcrtighten.
A . Petrol engine
B. Diesel engine
bolts.
ST762M
S T 881 M
FIT HEATER PLUGS - Diesel engine
1. Clean and test the heater plugs as described in the
maintenancc Section. Fit thc heater plugs and
tighten to the corrcct torque according to the size
of plug. D o not ovcr tighten.
2. Fit the leads, washcrs and nuts as illustrated.
-
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ST763M
-4
NOTE: The illustration shows a petrol engine fuel pump
but the fitting procedure is the same for the Diesel
engine pump.
ST127C!M
30
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
I
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FIT INLET AND EXHAUST MANIFOLDS
FIT THE CLUTCH
.
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1. Clean the flywheel face and place the centre plate
with the side marked ‘Flywheel side’ towards the
flywheel.
2 . Fit the clutch assembly locating i t over the three
dowels and loosely secure with the six bolts.
3. Centralise the centre plate using special tool RO
605022 or a spare primary shaft and tighten the six
bolts evenly to the correct torque figure. Smear the
splines of the centre plate with Molybdenum
disulphide grease, such as Rocol MTS 1000.
Petrol engine
1. Using a new ‘hot spot’ joint washer asscmblc the
inlet manifold to thc exhaust manifold.
2. Secure with the four nuts and evenly tighten to the
correct torque, then slacken off but retain the ‘nip’
of the four nuts.
ST764M
FIT CYLINDER HEAD OIL FEED
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I
1 . Connect the oil feed pipe, for lubrication of the
rocker shaft assembly, to the cylinder head.
2. Secure with the two banjo bolts and f o u r joint
washers.
3 . Coat the face of the exhaust manifold with Rocol
anti-seize compound Foliac J 166 (paste) and the
corresponding face of the cylinder head.
4. Fit t h e joint washcrs of inlet manifold with the
raised rings towards the cylinder head.
5 . Fit and tighten the securing nuts and bolts to the
correct torque including the two common bolts and
clamps. Note the two outer bolts at both ends of
the exhaust manifold have lock plates.
6. Finally tighten the four ‘hot spot’ joint nuts cvcnly
to correct torque.
7. Fit the heat shield.
2
ST767M
31
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
Diesel engine
7. Using a new gasket fit the manifolds and secure
with the retaining nuts and clamps. Evenly tighten
to the specified torque figure.
ST768M
lil
FIT ALTERNATOR, PULLEY AND FAN BLADES
1. Fit the pulley, spacer and fan blade assembly 10 the
water pump shaft.
32
2. Assemble the alternator to the engine bracket with
the two pivot bolts, distance piece and washers,
leaving the bolts slack.
3 . Fit the adjustment link to the timing cover and
attach to alternator with the adjusting clamp bolt.
4. Fit the drive belt and pivot the alternator away
from the engine, but d o not apply pressure to the
stator or slip-ring end bracket or damage may
result. Tighten the clamp bolt and with thumb
pressure, check the belt tension between the Can
and altcrnator pulleys which should be 7 to 9 mm
(Y4 to ?4 in) at the mid-point.
5 . When the tension is correct fully tighten the clamp
bolt and the pivot nuts and bolts.
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
I . Clean the carburettcr and manifold mating faces.
2. Place a joint washer, over the studs to the
manifold.
3. Fit the packing piece.
4. Fit a second joint washer.
5 . Fit the carburetter and secure with the four nuts
and washers tightening evenly to thc correct
torque.
12
1. Fit the pump attachment bracket to engine with
two bolts.
2. Secure pump to bracket with pivot bolt and nuts
leaving it slack.
3. Fit the tensioning clamp bolt and drive belt.
Tension the belt and tighten the clamp bolt.
4. Check that the belt can bc deflected 12 mm (E i n )
by thumb pressure, at t h e mid-point of its r u n (A).
5 . Tighten the pivot bolt and n u t and finally tighten
the clamp bolt.
.
FIT THE STARTER MOTOR
1. Secure the starter motor to the flywheel housing
noting that the petrol engine starter is held by two
studs, nuts and washers. The startcr for the diesel
engine is retained by one stud, one bolt and one
nut and bolt. Tighten the fixings evenly to the
correct torque.
6. Turn the pump pulley so that t h e indicating marks
on the pulley hub and pump body line up.
7. Remove the oil level plug and inject a
rccommended SAE 15W-50 oil up to t h e level of
the hole. Refit the plug. See Maintenance Section.
6
2. In addition, the rear of the Diesel engine starter
motor is secured by two bolts to a support bracket
attached to thc cylinder block.
MISCELLANEOUS iTEit'iS
Fit any other parts, if removed, such as engine
mounting brackets, lifting eyes and the dipstick. Also
any other items of non-standard equipment peculiar to
the vehicle concerned.
Make a careful inspection of the engine and check that
all plugs are fitted and properly tightened.
33
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
REMOVE OVERHAUL AND REFIT
Special tools:
Drift inlet valve guides 274400
Drift exhaust valve guides 274401
Drift exhaust valve guide 600959
Drift inlet valve guide 601508
Seat cutters MS621 MS627
Insert replacer 530625
Before the cylinder head can be removed the following
ancilliary items, common to petrol and diesel engines,
need to be removed or disconnected for access and
safety.
I . Disconnect the battery for safety.
2. Drain the cooling system.
3. Remove the bonnet.
3. Disconnect heater rail pipes and move aside.
5 . Disconnect top hose from thermostat housing.
6.. Disconnect hcater control cables.
7 . Release fan cowl from bracket attached to
t h e r m os t a t ho usi n g .
8. Disconnect lead from coolant temperature sensor.
9. Disconnect oil gallery pipe at rcar of engine.
10. Disconnect coolant by-pass hose.
1 1 . Disconnect the exhaust pipc from the manifold.
The following items concern the petrol engine only
I?. Disconnect the air cleaner hose from the
carburetter.
13. Disconnect brake vacuum hose from the
manifold.
14. Disconnect
mixture
control
cable from
carburetter.
15. Disconnect throttle cable.
16. Disconnect fuel shut-off valve lead from
carburetter.
17. Disconnect vacuum ignition advance pipe.
18. Remove H.T. leads from spark plugs.
26. Withdraw the push rods and retain them in
numbered sequence.
27. Evenly slacken the remaining cylinder head
retaining bolts and lift-off the cylinder head
complete with manifolds. Remove and discard thc
cylinder head gasket.
ST674M
28. Remove the eight bolts and three nuts and
remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds complete
with carburetter (petrol engine).
29. Remove three bolts and lift-off the thermostat
housing, elbow and thermostat.
30. Removc spark plugs, (pctrol cnginc) tcmpcrature
sensor and engine lifting eyes.
31. Using valve spr-ing compressor 276102 or ;I
suitable alternative, remove the valve and spring
assemblies, keeping them identified with their
original locations for possible refitting. Discard
the valve spring and valve guide oil seals. Remove
carbon deposits from the valves and combustion
chambers and dcgrcase all parts ready for
examination.
e-
,
The following items concern only the diesel engine
19. Disconnect the fuel spill return union conncctcd
to spill rail.
20. Disconnect injector supply pipes from the
injectors.
21. Remove injectors complete with spill rail.
22. Disconnect air hose from manifold.
23. Disconnect the heater plug electrical connections.
Remove the cylinder head
The following instructions for removing and
overhauling the cylinder head are common to petrol
and diesel engines unless otherwise stated.
24. Remove the rocker cover and slacken the tappet
screw lock nuts. Turn the adjusting screws to
release them from the push rods.
25. Remove the rocker shaft retaining bolts, lift-off
the rocker shaft assembly, invert it and secure i t to
the rocker cover studs to prevent the assembly
from falling apart.
34
E[
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
ST675M
W
34. To remove a hot plug, insert a thin soft metal drift
through the injector shroud throat and tap the hot
plug from the inside. Once removed a faulty hot
plug cannot be restored and must be renewed.
35. I f the injector shroud is damaged, drift the shroud
out towards the injector bore.
36. Thoroughly clean out the combustion chamber.
The hole in the side of the injector shroud is for
manufacturing purposes only but at the same time
can be used as a guide when refitting the shroud.
37. Smear a little oil on t h e shroud and insert into the
cylinder head with the hole pointing towards the
centre of t h e cylinder head, and drift into
position.
T
. ....
34
38
ST677M
EXAMINATION OF COMPONENTS
Petrol engine
32. Examine t h e cylinder head for cracks and
distortion. Burnt, pitted and pocketed seats must
be repaired.
Diesel engine
33. Same as for petrol engine and in addition, worn or
damaged exhaust seat inserts should be renewed,
as described later.
38. Fit the hot plugs by tapping with a hidc-faced
mallet, and locate with a new roll pin. If thc hot
plugs are loose in the cylinder head they may be
retained with a little grease.
39. When fitted, the hot plugs must be checked with ii
dial test indicator to ensure that they do not
protrude above the level of the cylinder head Cace
more than 0,025 mm (0.001 in) and are not
recessed below the level of the cylinder head face
more than 0.05 mm (U.002 i n ) .
Hot plugs and injector shrouds -examine and renew
. .
*. , ,.
,.
When carrying out normal top overhaul work on the
cylinder head i t is not necessary to rcmove either the
injector shrouds o r the hot plugs.
Small surface cracks in the hot plug, extending from the
opening to approximately 8,O inn1 (,0.312i n ) in length
can be ignored. However i f any severe cracks appear on
the face of the hot plug, before attempting to remove i t ,
closely inspect t h e cylinder head for signs of cracks,
particularly between the inlet and exhaust valve seats.
Such cracking indicates that the engine has overheated,
usually through lack o f coolant, and the cylinder head
hhould be scrapped.
ST678M
I
35
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
Petrol and diesel engines
40. Chcck the valve guides for wear by inserting a
new valve in the appropriate guide 8 mm above
the seat. If movement across the head exceeds
0,15 m m (0.006 in) renew the guide.
41. Inspect the valves and discard any that are burnt,
bent or distorted. Check the stems for wear by
inserting in a new guide. If wear is excessivc,
discard the valve. Valve faces that are pitted o r
ridged but otherwise serviceable may be refaced.
42. Renew push rods that are bent or have worn or
scored ball or socket ends.
Renew push rod tube seals (Diesel only)
*
43. Whilst this is rarely necessary the procedure is
nevertheless as follows.
44. Drive out the old push rod tubes using a suitable
drift.
*
NOTE: Later engines are fitted with tubes without seals.
See 2.5 litre Diesel engine for renewal.
Renew valve guide
Sl
45. Fit new sealing rings to new push rod tubes and
smear with silicone MS4 grease.
46. Insert the new tubes, chamfered end first from t h e
combustion chamber side. Align the flat on the
push rod tube at right angles to an imaginary line
between the centre of the push rod tube and
centre of the hot plug.
47. Press the push rod tubes into position whilst
maintaining the alignment. Also ensure that the
chamfers on the tubes and in the cylinder head are
fully engaged.
36
48. Support the cylinder head, combustion chamber
uppermost on pieces of timber of sufficient
thickness to allow clearance for the valve guides
to be driven out.
49. Using special drift 274400 for inlet guides and
274401 for exhaust guidcs or suitable alternatives
drive out the old guides from the combustion face
side.
NOTE: The illustration shows a petrol engine
cylinder head.
[-?
~
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2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
,...
..-,.~...-,,.,:..._:..,...:::_.,
.
;
I
-
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50. Turn the cylinder head over so the combustion
chambers face downwards. Since the inlet and
exhaust valve guides are dimensionally different it
is important that the correct guides are fitted to
the appropriate ports.
51. Lubricate new guides with engine oil and using
special drift 600959 for the exhaust and 601508 for
the irrlet valve guides or suitable alternatives,
drive in the new guides until the shoulder is flush
with the casting.
- .,.:
.
12
53. The special set of hand tools recommended for
refacing include expandable pilots that fit tightly
into new or worn guides to ensure that the valve
seat is concentric with valve guide. The refacing
tool has tungsten carbide cutters and can be used
to cut a seat in a new exhaust seat insert.
54. Select the correct expandable collet for the valve
guide concerned i.e. 8 mm for inlet guides and
8 3 mm for exhaust.
55. Loosely assemble the collet, expander and nuts.
Ensure that the chamfered end of the expander is
towards the collet.
.
I.
ST594M
Reface cylinder head valve seats
52. Damaged or worn valve seats can be refaced
provided they are not abnormally wide due to
repeated refacing operations. See instruction 64.
56. Insert the assembled pilot into the valve guide
from the combustion face side of the cylinder
head until the shoulder contacts thc valve guidc
and the whole of the collet is inside the valve
guide.
57. Expand the collet in the guide by turning the
tommy bar clockwise whilst holding the knurled
nut.
58. Select the appropriate angled cutter for the seats
to be cut.
continued
B
'. /
ST668M
&
.
U
"
A. Correctly seated valve
B. Undesirable condition
C. Method of rectification
37
(1211
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
NOTE: MS 621 is a 45" and 15" cutter and MS 627
is 30" only.
A - Petrol engine - inlet valve seat 30" + W
exhaust valve seat 45" + 9"'
13 - Diesel engine -inlet valve seat 45" 'h"
exhaust valve seat 45" %"
+
+
See illustrations following instruction 68.
59. Ensure that the cutter blades are correctly fitted
to the cutter head with the angled end of the blade
downwards facing the work, as illustrated. Check
that the cutter blades are adjusted so that the
middle IJf the blade contacts the area of material
to be cut. Use the key provided in the hand set
MS 76.
.
62. Smear a small quantity of engineers' blue round
the valve seat and revolve a properly ground valve
against the seat. A continuous fine line should
appear round the valve. If there is a gap of not
more than 12 mm i t can be corrected by lapping.
63. Alternatively, insert a strip ofcellophanc between
the valve and seat, hold the valve down by the
stem and slowly pull out t h e cellophane. If there is
a drag the seal is satisfactory in that spot. Repeat
this in at least eight places. Lapping-in will correct
a small open spot.
64. After several trueing-up or lapping-in operations
valve seats may have an excessive width which can
be reduced by obtaining special correction cutters
which narrow t h e seat by removing metal from the
top and bottom of the scat. A 60" cutter is
recommended for bottom narrowing and for top
narrowing use a 15" cutter (MS 621) for a 30" valve
seat and a 30" cutter for a 45" seat. The same
mcthod of assembly and operation is used forcorrection cutters as for refacing cutters. IJse very
light pressure removing only the minimuni
material necessary. Once the seats have been
reduced carry out the normal refacing operation
as previously described.
Renew exhaust seat inserts (Diesel only)
60. Fit the wrench to the cutter head and turn
clockwise using only very light pressure. Continue
cutting to approximately the centre of the existing
seat.
61. T o check. the effectiveness of [ne cutting
operation use engineers' blue or a feeler gauge
made from cellophane.
38
65. Hold the cylinder head firmly in a vice, wear
protective goggles and grind the old insert away
until thin enough to be cracked and prised out.
Take care not to damage the insert pocket.
66. Remove any burrs and swarf from the pocket.
Failure to do this could cause the new insert to
crack when being fitted.
67. Assemble the new insert to the replacer tool
number 530625 so that the chamfered edge of the
insert is l a d i n g . Using it suitable bolt and n u t
draw the insert into the cylinder head pocket.
Cut ii new 45" seat using cutter MS 621.
cQ-.....
L?
:e+
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
.
c .
;
Lap-in valves
Reface valve faces
68. Valves that are satisfactory for further service can
be rcfaced. This operation should be carried out
using a valve grinding machine. Only the
minimum of material should bc rcmoved from the
valve face to avoid thinning of the valve edge. The
valve is refaced correctly when all pits are
removed and the face concentric with the stem.
69. To ensure a gas tight seal between the valve facc
70.
Valve face angles:
A. Petrol engine
71.
Inlet valve face - 30" Exhaust valve face -45" I/JO
-
.
72.
B. Diesel engine
Inlet valve face -445"- %"
Exhaust valve face 45" - %"
A
112I
A
+' F
h
73.
ssE9?LJE
and valve scat it is necessary to lap-in the
appropriate valve to its seat. It is essential to keep
the valve identified with its seat once the lappingin operation has been completed. Rcmember that
the inlet and exhaust valves in thc petrol engine
have different face angles.
Unless the faces to be lapped are in poor
condition it should only be necessary to use fine
valve lapping paste. Smear a small quantity of
paste on the valve face and lubricate the valve
stem with engine oil.
Insert the valve in the appropriate guide and using
a suction type valve lapping tool employ a light
reciprocating action while occasionally lifting the
valve off its seat and turning it so that the valve
returns to a diffcrent position on t h e seat.
Continue the operation until a continuous matt
grey band round thc valve face is obtained. To
check that the lapping operation is successfull,
wipe off the valve paste from the valve and scat
and make a serics of pencil lines across the valve
face. Inset the valve into the guide and while
pressing the valve onto the seat revolve the valve
a quarter turn a few times. If all the pencil lincs
are cut through no further lapping is required.
Wash all traces of grinding paste from the valves
and cylinder head seats.
con tin lied
ST690M
I
ST670M
Assemble valves to cylinder head
74. Insert the inlet valves into the guides and fit new
oii seais with the piain exterior and circuiar
spring. Ensure that t h e seal locates in the groove
in t h e valve guide.
75. Insert the exhaust valves and fit the oil seals with
the ridged exterior and n o spring.
ST691 M
v
continued
39
.
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
76. Fit the double valve spring and retainer assembly
to each valve in turn and using valve spring
compressor, 18G106A with adaptor 18G106A/10
secure the assembly with the split collcts.
74
75
ST6
ST669M
~
7
79 Examine the rocker shaft for wear and discard i f
the bearing surfacc is worn more than 0,025 mm
(0.001 i n ) .
Inspect thc rockers and discard if the pads are
worn. It is not permissible to grind pads in an
attempt to reclaim the rockers.
80 Renew bushes if the clearance between shaft and
bush is in excess of 0,101 to 0,127 mm (0.004 to
0.005 in).
6 Press in replacements ensuring that thc pre-drilled
oil holes coincide with the holcs in the rockcrs.
Illustration A. Cross section of petrol engine
rocker.
Illustration B. Cross section of diesel engine
rocker.
ST
OVERHAUL ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY
Most of thc rocker shaft assembly components are not
interchangeable between the petrol and diesel engines
although the assembly method is the same.
Dismantle and inspection
77. Remove the locating screw and washer from the
number two rocker bracket and withdraw all the
components from the rocker shaft. Note that on
the petrol engine the locating screw also retains a
splash plate.
78. Remove the locknuts and adjustment screws from
the rockers.
40
ST684M
81. Using a reamer finish the bushes to 13,4 mm +
0,02 mm (0.530 in + 0.001 in) and clear swarf
from the oil holes.
82. Examine the ball-end of t h e adjusting screws and
discard any that are worn. Regrinding is not
permissible. Check the threads for damage and
that t h e oil relief drilling is clear.
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
:,
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1121
Assemble rocker shaft assembly
;:'.?a?
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+
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I
83. Check that the oil-ways in the rocker shaft are
clear and fit number two rocker shaft bracket to
the shaft and retain with the locating screw and
washer. Note that the locating screw on petrol
engines also secures the splash plate.
84. Using new spaccrs and springs, assemble the
rockers and brackets to the shaft as illustrated,
ensuring that the rockers move freely on the shaft.
Note that the Diesel engine assembly has double
spacers each side of the centre pedestal.
Illustration C. Petrol engine assembly.
Illustration D. Diesel engine assembly
.
85. Fit the tappet adjustment screws and lock nuts to
the rlxkers.
86. Invert the rocker assembly and locate it on the
rocker cover to prevent i t falling apart.
continued
C
D
f
ST688M
814
41
1121
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
Fit the cylinder head
87. Cleaii the cylinder head and cylinder block mating
faces and fit a new gasket, dry, without grease or
sealing compound. The gasket will have either
'DIESEL' or 'PETROL' stamped in the position
illustrated and the gasket must be fitted with these
uppermost.
88. Place the cylinder head in position and engage all
the cylinder head bolts and washers except those
used to secure the rocker assembly. Use new bolts
and ensure that the correct bolts for the petrol and
diesel engine are fitted. They are not
interchangeable.
92. Adjust the tappet clearances for petrol and diesel
engines, inlet and exhaust to 0,25 mm (0.010 in)
as follows: Using a feeler gauge adjust the
clearance by slackening the locknut and turning
the tappet adjusting scrcw clockwise to reduce
clearance and anti-clockwise to increase
clearance.
Set N o . 1 tappet with
Set No. 3 tappet with
Set No. 5 tappet with
Set No. 2 tappet with
Set No. 8 tappet with
Set No. 6 tappet with
Set No. 4 tappet with
Set No. 7 tappet with
No. 8 valve fully open.
No. 6 valve fully open.
N o . 4 valve fully open.
No. 7 valve fully open.
N o . 1 valve fully open.
No. 3 valve fully open.
N o . 5 valve fully open.
No. 2 valve fully open.
93. Recheck the clearances with the
tightened and adjust as necessary.
ST687M
'
'
~
89. Insert the push rods into position ensuring that
the ball-ends fit correctly into the spherical seats
i n the tappet slides.
90. Fit the rocker shaft assembly ensuring that the
hole in the front and rear rocker bracket locates
properly in the corresponding dowel in the
cylinder head. Also, make sure that thc ball-end
of all the rockers fit into the spherical seats of the
push rods. Evenly tighten the rocker shaft
retaining bolts to the correct torque.
91. Tighten the cylindcr head and rocker shaft
securing nuts and bolts strictly in the sequence
illustrated to avoid distortion of the cylinder head.
Tighten to the torque figures given in the data
section. The arrow points to the front of the
engine
locknuts
2.25 LITRE PETROL AND DIESEL CYLINDER HEAD
_-
94. Using a new gasket fit the rocker cover and secure
with the rubbers, cups and dome nuts. Tighten to
the correct torque figure. Do not over-tighten.
A . Petrol.
-
B. Diesel
:,.
ST671 M
ST672M
95. Fit the inlet and exhaust manifolds complete with
carburetter (petrol engine). Sec Engine overhaul.
96. Fit the air intake and exhaust manifolds (diesel
enginc). See Engine overhaul.
97. Fit the spark plugs (petrol engine).
98. Fit the injectors- see Diesel fuel system.
99. Fit thc engine lifting cycs.
100. Fit the water temperature sensor.
107. Refit or reconnect the items disturbed for access
to the cylinder head.
108. Refill the cooling system when engine is refitted
to vehicle.
Fit the thermostat housing assembly
101. IJsing a new joint washcr secure the thermostat
housing to the by-pass housing.
102. Fit the two hose adaptors.
103. Inscrt the thcrmostat into its housing.
104. Place a ncw joint washer on the cy!inder head.
105. Using ii new joint washer fit the thermostat cover
and cowl mounting bracket.
106. Using the. three bolts sccurc the complete
assembly to the cylindcr head. Note that one bolt
is shorter and is fitted in-board.
43
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
SUPPLEMENT T O THE 2.25 LITRE PETROL
ENGINE OVERHAUL PROCEDURES
This Supplement should b e used in conjunction with t h e 2.25 litre petrol engine overhaul procedures.
Details of the differences between the 2.25 and 2.5 litre engines are listed below. Some of the new features
were, however, introduced o n later 2.25 pctrol engines.
I
0
0
Capacity increased to 2495 cc by lengthening the
piston stroke from 89 mm to 97 mm.
0
Inserts fitted to exhaust valve seats in cylinder head.
0
New timing chain tensioner assembly
Crankshaft and main bearings same as the 2.5 litre
Diesel engine.
Modified oil pump with gear having only ten teeth.
Bush deleted from idler gear and ball ommitted from
the pressure relief valve.
T
0
Oii squirt hole in connecting rods deleted.
0
New pistons with controlled expansion skirts.
0
0
44
0
The ‘0’ring scal between the flywheel housing and
cylinder block deleted. Sealing now achieved by a
bead of sealant on the flywheel housing mating face
with the cylinder block.
Camshaft same as 2.5 litre Diesel engine.
0
Sump joint washer deleted and a liquid sealant, RTV
Hylosill 102, now used.
Camshaft sprocket similar to 2.25 litre petrol engine,
but with a single keyway positioned to alter the
exhaust value peak from 109” to 104”.
0
The Lucas 45 D4 sliding contact distributor now
used.
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
...-,..
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, :i::
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REMOVE AND OVERHAUL OIL PUMP
1. Remove the sump.
2. Bend back the lock washers and remove the two
bolts securing the oil pump to the crankcase.
Withdraw the oil pump complete with strainer and
oil pump drive shaft.
112
Dismantle oil pump
3. Bend back the lock washer and release the nut
securing the strainer to the oil pump body and
remove the strainer and sealing ring.
4. Remove four bolts and washers and lift off the oil
pump cover and lift out t h e driven and idler gears.
(a) driven gear
(b) idlcr gear
5 . Remove the oil pressure relief valve plug and
sealing washer. Withdraw the relief valve spring
and plunger.
Overhaul the oil pump
6. Examine the gears for wear, scores and pits. If the
gears appear serviceable check for end-float as
follows:
7. Clean the pump body and assemble t h e gears.
Place a straight edge across the pump body face, as
illustrated, and using a feeler gaugc, measure the
clearance between the body and gears and the
backlash between the gcars. The correct clearances
are given in Data.
7
ST1636M
8. Gears must be renewed in pairs. A worn, but
STlG35M
serviceable gear, must not be matched with a new
one.
9. If necessary renew idler gear spindle by drilling-out
the peened over end of the spindle so that the
spindle can be withdrawn from the pump body. To
ensure squareness when fitting the new spindle,
assembie it inio the pump body with the two gears.
Fit the cover and secure with the four bolts.
Support the pump body and peen over the end of
the new spindle. Remove the cover and gears and
check security of the spindle.
45
)121
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
Assemble the oil pump
10. Fit the idler gear to the spindle.
11. Fit the driven gear with plain part of the bore
uppermost. See illustration after instruction 9.
5. Remove the camshaft sprocket retaining bolt and
washer.
ST1637M
12. Smear thc joint face of the body with jointing
compound and fit the cover over the dowels and
secure witli the lour bolts and spring washers.
13. Hold relief valve bore vertically and insert the
plunger with the solid end first. Fit the spring,
sealing washer and plug.
14. Fit the oil strainer sealing ring to the pump body
followcd by the lock washer and strainer. Tighten
the strainer retaining nut so that when fitted the
strainer is positioned parallel to the sump baffle
plate. Secure the nut with the lock washer tab.
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL THE TIMING CHAIN
SPROCKETS AND TENSIONER
1. Remove the bolts and withdraw the timing cover.
2. Before removing the timing chain tensioner check
dimension 'A', which with a new chain and
sprockets should be 14,22 mm (0.5 in)
approximately. This will give an indication of chain
wear. The dimension for a fully worn chain is 27 mm
(1.06 in).
3. Remove the three bolts and whilst holding the pad
inwards, to prevent it falling apart, remove thc
tensioner asscmbly.
4. Remove timing chain damper.
46
ST1665M
6. Withdraw the camshaft sprocket together with the
timing chain and crankshaft sprocket. If necessary
use special tool 507231.
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
12
L
7. Examine the sprockets and discard if the teeth are
worn. ,
8. Dismantle the tensioner assembly and discard if
any of the parts are worn.
9. Examine the tensioner body and check that the oi!
inlet hole is clcar.
10. Examine the slipper and check that the oil outlet
hole is clear.
11. Check that the oil inlet and exit oil hole in the
tensioner mounting plate is clear.
ST7657M
16. To prevent the tensioner releasing, insert a spaccr
approximately 2.3 mm thick between the tensioner
body and back of the slipper prior to fitting to
engine.
...
....-. .,.
,:.
.
12. Assemble the tensioner body to the mounting plate
with the two socket headed screws, spring washers
and nuts.
13. Insert the spring into the slipper bore.
14. Fit the ratchet over the spring and against spring
pressure, insert the ratchet into the slipper bore so
that the groove in the ratchet locates over the small
dowel inside the slipper bore. Push and turn the
ratchet clockwise until it locks in the bore.
15. Insert the slipper assembly into the tensioner body
ensuring that the small flat on the slipper shaft
faces the mounting plate.
ST 1 662M
47
112) 2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
VALVE TIMING
1. Check that numbers one and four pistons are still at
T.D.C. and without disturbing the crankshaft,
remove the pulley and timing cover.
2. Fit the camshaft sprocket temporally and rotate the
camshaft in a clockwise direction until the line on
the tooth, also marked with a letter ‘P’ is in line
with the top stud hole on the cylinder block as
illustrated.
6 . Fit and adjust the timing chain damper so that
there is a maximum clearance of 0,25 mm
(0.010 in) between the timing chain and damper.
Tighten thc retaining bolts and secure with new
lock tabs.
II
\
3. Remove the camshaft sprocket.
4. Encircle the camshaft and crankshaft sprockets
with the timing chain and keeping it taut on the
drive side and with the large shoulder of the
crankshaft sprocket towards t h e cylindcr block, fit
the sprockets and chain assembly to the engine.
5. Secure the camshaft sprocket to the camshaft with
a new special micro encapsulated treated bolt and
tighten to the correct torque figure.
FIT TIMING CHAIN TENSIONER
1. Fit t h e timing chain tensioner and mounting platc
assembly to t h e cylinder block locating i t ovcr the
two dowels.
2. Secure the assembly with the three bolts and evenly
tighten.
3. Remove the spacer and to release the ratchet, to
tension the chain, prcss the pad at point ‘A’.
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
. .:
. . .::
. . _..
,,, . :...._
. ...
7
.
RENEW EXHAUST VALVE SEAT INSERTS
1. Hold the cylinder head firmly in a vice, wear
protective goggles and grind the old insert away
until thin enough to be cracked and prised out.
Take care not to damage the insert pocket.
2. Remove any burrs and swarf from the pocket.
Failure to d o this could cause the new insert to
crack when being fitted.
NOTE: Since no special tool is available for fitting a
new insert, it is recommended that this work is
entrusted to a cylinder head overhaul specialist.
FITTING PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS
.
Fit rear main oil seal and flywheel housing
2. Check that the crankshaft oil seal journal is
undamaged and clean. Make sure the scal housing
is clean and dry and free from burrs. Do not touch
the seal lip and ensurc that thc outside diameter is
clean and dry.
3 . The P.T.F.E seal Part N o ETC 5369 which should
be used is supplied with a former to maintain the
correct shape and must not be removed until the
seal is to be fitted.
4. Using special seal rcplacer 18G 134-11 and with the
lip side leading drive-in the seal as far as the tool
allows. If the tool is not available fit the seal to the
bottom of t h e housing to ensure squarcness.
The delection of the oil spray hole in the connecting rod
precludes the necessity of fitting this towards the
camshaft side of the engine. See page 18 instruction 5.
. . -.
REMOVE AND REFIT FLYWHEEL HOUSING AND
REAR MAlN OIL SEAL
1. Remove the eight bolts securing t h e flywheel
housing to the cylinder block and remove the
housing and rcar main bcaring oil seal.
.... ..
ST1842M
ST1 699M
'1
4
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
5. Apply a bead of Hylogrip 2000 sealant to the rear
face of the flywheel housing to the dimensions and
configuration as illustrated below. The illustration
has been produced full size so that a template may
be made to facilitate the application of the sealant.
The bead should be 5 3 mm wide and 0,25 mm
thick.
6. Examine the seal guide number 18G 1344 and
repair any damage that could destroy the seal lip.
7. Lubricate the outside diameter of the seal guide
and the scal journal with concentrated 'Oildag' in a
25% solution with clean engine oil.
8. Place the seal guide on the crankshaft flange and,
using the two dowels protruding from the cylinder
block rear face as a guide to ensure initial
squareness, fit the flywheel housing and remove
the seal guide. Secure the flywheel housing evenly
tightening the retaining bolts.
50
2.5 LITRE PETROL ENGINE
I 121
FITTING SUMP
1. Clean t h e sump and cylinder block mating faces.
2. Apply a bead of RTV HYLOSILL 102 black
approximately 7 m m wide to the cylinder block or
sump mating face.
3. Fit the sump within 30 minutes of applying sealant
and secure with the bolts and tighten evenly to the
correct torque.
NOTE: RTV Liquid Sealant is available under part
number RTC 3254 from Land Rover Parts and
Equipment Ltd.
1
I
-4
5. The gear should revolvc freely in the bush with a
clearance of 0,051 to 0,203 mm (0,001 to 0,007 in)
between thrust washer and bush.
SKEW GEAR
I . To renew t h e bush, hold thc gear firmly i n a vice
without damaging the teeth. If possibie insert a
scrap drive shaft in the gear internal splines and
grip the shaft.
2. Turn the locknut clockwisc (left-hand thread) to
remove and withdraw the thrust washer and bush.
3. Fit a new bush removing any burrs before hand and
ensure that the location hole is towards t h e lower
end of the gear.
4. Fit a new thrust washer, if the original is worn or
scored. Apply Loctite 601 to the thread and fit the
locknut turning anti-clockwise and tighten to 27 34 Nm (20 - 25 Ibf.tt).
51
1121
2.5 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
p7
*.:
_... .....
.
ST1922M
”.’ ,”
2.5 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
52
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
DISMANTLE AND OVERHAUL
Special tools:
274400 -Drift inlet valve guides
274401 -Drift exhaust valve guides
600959 -Drift exhaust valve guide
601508 -Drift inlet valve guide
MS621 -Seal cutter
530625 -Insert replacer
R0605022 - Clutch centralising tool
270304 -Cork-seal guide
18G 1344 -Seal guide - rear main bearing
18G 134-11 -Seal replacer rear main oil seal
530102A - Crankshaft nut spanner
18G 1457/1- Dist. pump remover
18G 1464/2/6 -Crankshaft pulley remover
18G 1456 -Crankshaft oil seal replacer
18G 1482 -Camshaft oil seal replacer
18G 1458 - Dist. pump timing tool
MS47 -Press
18G705-1A - Collets
LST107 -Flywheel timing pin
REMOVE ANCILLIARY EQUIPMENT
Remove the engine from the vehicle. Clean the exterior
and in the interests of safety and efficient working,
secure the engine to a recognised engine stand.
Before commencing, make a careful note of t h e
position of brackets, clips, harnesses, pipes, hoses,
filters and other miscellaneous items to facilitate reassembly .
Removal of the following components is a reversal of
the fitting procedure described in engine assembly.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Remove the alternator and mounting brackets.
Remove the power steering pump and bracket.
Rcmove the fan and pulley.
Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds.
Disconnect and remove the fuel supply pipes from
the injectors and D.P.S. pump and cover the ports.
Disconnect coolant by-pass hose from the water
pump, release the seven bolts and remove t h e
water pump.
Drain the sump and remove the dipstick.
Remove the starter motor.
Restrain the flywheel, remove the crankshaft
pulley bolt and withdraw the pulley.
Evenly slacken and remove the clutch retaining
bolts and withdraw the clutch assembly and centre
plate.
Remove the two bolts and remove the oil filter
assembly complete from the cylinder block.
Unscrew t h e filter element and discard.
Remove the six bolts and withdraw the rear side
plate complete with fuel pump.
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL CYLINDER HEAD
Remove the cylinder head
Remove injectors complete with spill rail.
Disconnect the heater plug electrical connections.
Remove the engine lifting brackets.
Disconnect oil gallery pipe at rear of engine.
Remove three bolts and lift-off the thermostat
housing, elbow and thermostat.
6. Remove the rocker cover and slacken the tappet
screw lock nuts. Turn the adjusting screws to
release them from t h e push rods.
7. Remove the rocker shaft retaining bolts, lift-off the
rocker shaft assembly, invert it and secure it to the
rocker cover studs to prevent the assembly from
falling apart, see instruction 25, page 34 2.25 litre
Petrol and Diesel engine.
8. Withdraw the push rods and retain them in
numbered sequence.
9. Evenly slacken the remaining cylinder head
retaining bolts and lift-off t h e cylinder head.
10. Remove the engine lifting eyes.
11. Using valve spring compressor 276102 or a suitable
alternative, remove the valve and spring assemblies
keeping them identified with their original
locations for possible refitting.
12. Discard the valve spring and valve guide oil seals.
Remove carbon deposits from the valves and
combustion chambers and degrease all parts ready
for examination.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Examine components
13. Examine the cylinder head for cracks and
distortion.
14. Burnt, pitted and pocketed seats must be repaired.
15. In addition, worn or damaged valve seats should be
renewed, as described later.
Hot plugs and injector shrouds -examine and renew
When carrying out normal top overhaul work on the
cylinder head i t is not necessary to remove either the
injector shrouds or the hot plugs.
Small surface cracks in the hot plug, extending from the
opening to approximately 8,O mm (0.312 in) in length
can be ignored. However, if any severe cracks appear
on the face of the hot plugs before attempting to
remove it, closely inspect the cylinder head for signs of
cracks, particularly between the inlet and exhaust valve
seats. Such cracking indicates that the engine has
overheated, usually through lack of coolant, and the
cylinder head should be scrapped.
53
121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
f,..._
J
..
-.
16. To remove a hot plug support the cylinder head,
face downwards on two pieces of timber and insert
a thin soft metal drift through the injector shroud
throat and tap the hot plug from the inside. Once
removed, a faulty hot plug cannot be restored and
must be scrapped.
.. ."..
.
STl422M
Fitting hot plugs
ST1428PJ
A - Shroud
B - Hot Plug
20. Fit the hot plugs by tapping with a hide-faced
mallet, and locate with a new roll pin. If the hot
plugs are loose in t h e cylinder head they may be
retained with a little grease.
21. When fitted, the hot plugs must be checked with a
dial test indicator to ensure that they do not
protrude above the level of the cylinder head face
more than 0,76 mm (0.003 in) and are not recessed
below the level of the cylinder head face more than
0.025 m m (0.001 in).
17. If the injector shroud is damaged using a 13 mm
(1.05 in) t~allbearing and drift, drift the shroud out
towards the injector bore.
22
17
,
ST1 429M
Fitting shrouds
18. Thoroughly clean out the combustion chamber.
Thc hole in the side of the injector shroud is for
manufacturing purposes only bur at the same time
can be used as a guide when rcfitting the shroud.
19. Turn the cylinder head lace down. Smear a little oil
on the shroud and insert into the cylinder head with
the hole pointing towards the centre of the cylinder
hcad, and drift into position.
54
n
/-
22. Check the valve guides lor wcar by inserting a new
valve in the appropriate guide 8 mm above the
seat. If movement across the head exceeds 0,15
mm (0.006 in) renew the guide.
23. Inspect the valves and discard any that arc burnt,
bent or distorted. Check the stems for wear by
inserting a new guide. !f *Area: is exces>;i.,re,discard
the valve. Valve faces that are pitted or ridged but
otherwise serviceable may be refaced.
24. Renew push rods that are bent or have worn or
scored ball o r socket ends.
f-:.
,'
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
Whilst this is rarely neccssary the procedure is
nevertheless as follows:
25. Using an 8 mni taper tap, cut a thread 30 mm
(1,2 in) deep in the combustion face end of the
tube to be removed.
26. Screw an appropriate bolt into the tube and press
out the tube as illustrated.
27. Smear both ends of a new tube with silicone rubber
sealant ancl press i t into the cylinder head.
ST1444M
Renew valve guides
I
,
28. Support the cylinder head, combustion chamber
uppermost on pieces of timber of sufficient
thickness to allow clearance for the valve guides to
be driven out.
29. Using special drift 274400 for inlet guides and
274401 for exhaust guides or suitable alternatives
drive out the old guides from the combustion face
side.
12
chambers face downwards. Since the inlet and
exhaust valve guides are dimensionally different it
is important that the correct-guides are fitted to the
appropriate ports.
31. Lubricate ncw guides with engine oil and using
special drift 600959 for the exhaust and 601508 for
the inlet valve guides or suitable alternatives, drive
in the n e w guides until the shoulder is flush with
the casting.
Reface cylinder head valve seats
32. Damaged or worn valve seats can be refaced
provided they are not abnormally wide due to
repeated refacing operations. See instruction 43.
I
-
-
A
I
B
I
C
A. Correctly seated valve
B. Undesirable condition
C. Method of rectification
,.’. ”.
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,
.,
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-
55
1121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
33. The special set of hand tools recommended for
refacing include expandable pilots that fit tightly
into new or worn guides to ensure that the valve
seat is concentric with valve guide. The refacing
tool has tungsten carbide cutters and can be used to
cut a seat in a new exhaust seat insert.
34. Select the correct expandable collet for the valvc
guide concerned i.e. 8 mm for inlet guides and 8,5
mm for exhaust.
35. Loosely assemble the collet, expander and nuts.
Ensure that the chamfered end of the expander is
towards the collet.
38. Use cutter MS 621 and ensure that the cutter
blades are correctly fitted to the cutter head with
the angled end of t h e blade downwards facing the
work, as illustrated. Check that the cutter blades
are adjusted so that the middle of thc blade
contacts the area of material to be cut. Use thc key
provided i n the hand set MS 76.
ST1440 M
ST1439M
36. Insert thc assembled pilot into the valve guide lrom
the combustion face side of t h e cylinder head until
the shoulder contacts the valve guide and the whole
of the collet is inside the valve guide.
37. Expand the collet i n the guide by turning the
tommy bar clockwise whilst holding the knurled
nut.
36
39. Fit the wrcnch to the culter head and turn
clockwise using only very light pressure. Continue
cutting to approximatcly t h c centre of the existing
seat.
I
40. To check the effectiveness of the cutting opcration
use engineers’ blue or a feelcr gauge maclc from
ceilophane.
41. Smear a m a l l quantity of cngineers’ blue round thc
valve seat and revolve 11 properly ground valve
against the seat. A continuous fine line should
appear round the valve. If there is a gap of not
more thar !2mni it can be corrected by lapping.
56
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
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42. Alternatively, insert a strip of cellophane between
the valve and seat, hold the valve down by the stein
and slowly pull out the cellophane. If there is drag
the seal is satisfactory in that spot. Repeat this in at
least eight placcs. Lapping-in will correct a small
open spot.
43. After several trueing-up or lapping-in operations
valve seats may have an excessive width which can
be reduced by obtaining special correction cutters
which narrow the seat by removing metal from the
top and bottom of the seat. A 60" cutter is
recommended for bottom narrowing and for top
narrowing use a 30" cutter.
\
1121
/ L
Renew inlet and exhaust seat inserts
ST691 M
44. Hold the cylinder head firmly in a vice, wear
protective goggles and grind the old insert away
until thin enough to be cracked and prised out.
Take care not to damage the insert pocket.
45. Remove any burrs and swarf from the pocket.
Failure to do this could cause the new insert to
crack when being fitted.
36. Assemble the new exhaust insert to the replacer
tool number 530625 so that the chamfered edge of
the insert is leading. Using a suitable bolt and nut
draw the insert into the cylindcr head pocket.
47. Since no tool is available for the inlet scat, use a
suitable adaptor to press-in the new seat. Cut a new
45" seat using cutter MS 621.
Inlet valve seat face -45" + %"
Exhaust valve seat facc -45" + %"
Inlet valve face -45" - %"
Exhaust valvc face -45" - %"
Lap-in valves
49. To ensure a gas tight scal betwccn thc valvc facc
and valve seat it is ncccssary to lap-in the
appropriatc valve to its seal. It is essential to keep
the valve idcntificd with its seat once the lapping-in
opcration has bccn completed.
50. Unless the faces to bc lappcd are in poor condition
it should only be necessary to usc fine valve lapping
paste. Smear a m a l l quantity of paste on the valve
face and lubricate the valve stem with engine oil.
51. Insert the valve in t h e appropriatc guide and using
a suction type valve lapping tool employ a light
reciprocating action while occasionally lifting the
valve off its seat and turning i t so that the valvc
returns to a different position on the seat.
Reface valve seats
,.
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.
.
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.,
48. Valves that are satisfactory for further service can
be refaced. This operation should be carried out
using a valve grinding machine. Only the minimum
of material should be removed from the valve face
to avoid thinning of t h e valve edge. The valve is
refaced correctly when all pits are removed and t h e
face concentric with the stem.
57
1121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
52. Continue the operation until a continuous matt
grey band round the valve face is obtained. To
check that the lapping operation is successful, wipe
off the valve paste from the valvc and seat and
make a scries of pencil lines across the valvc face.
Insert the valve into the guide and while pressing
the valve onto t h e seat rcvolve the valve a quarter
turn a few times. If all the pencil lincs are cut
through no further lapping is required.
53. Wash all traces of grinding paste from the valves
and cylinder head seats.
Assembly valves to cylinder head
.
54. Insert the inlet valves into the guides and fit new oil
h plain exterior. Ensure that the seal
seals ~ i t the
locates i n the groove in the valve guide.
55. Insert the exhaust valves and fit the oil seals with
the ste?ped exterior. They are largcr than thc inlet
valve scals.
56. Fit the doublc valve spring and cup to each valvc in
turn arid using valve spring compressor, 276102 or
a suitable alternative, secure the assembly with the
multi-groove butting cotters.
56
A
ST1431M
59. Examine the rocker shaft for wear and discard if
the bearing surfacc is worn more than 0,025 mm
(0.001 in).
60. Inspect t h e rockers and discard if the pads arc
worn. It is not permissible to grind pads in an
attempt to reclaim the rockers.
61. Renew bushes if the clearance betwecn shaft and
bush is in excess of 0,101 to 0,127 m m (0.004 to
0.005 in).
62. Press in replacements ensuring that thc prc-drilled
oil holes coincide with the holes in t h e rockers.
The following cross section o f a rocker shows thc
oil drillings.
54
55
ST1430M
OVERHAIJL ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY
Dismantle and inspection
57. Remo*:e the locating screw and washer from thc
number two rocker bracket and withdraw all the
componcnts from the rocker shalt.
58. Remove t h e locknuts and adjustment screw5 from
t h e rockers.
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. i c -
ST1433M
-4
63. Using a A4 reamcr 133 nim + 0,2 mm (0.530 in +
0.001 in) finish the bushes and clear swarf from the
oil holes.
64. Examine the ball-end of t h e adjusting screws and
discard any that are worn. Regrinding is not
permissable. Check the thrcads for damage and
that the oil relief drilling is clear.
Assemble rocker shaft assembly
65. Check that thc oil-ways in t h e rocker shaft are clcar
and fit number two rocker shaft bracket to the shaft
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58
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2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
66. Using new spacers and springs, assemble the
rockers and brackets to the shaft as illustrated,
ensuring that the rockers move freely on thc shaft.
Note th.jt double spacers are fitted each side of the
centre pedestal.
67. Fit the tappet adjustment screws and lock nuts to
the rockers.
68. Invert the rocker assembly and locate it on the
rocker cover to prevent it falling apart. Place the
reconditioncd cylinder head and rocker assembly
to one side ready for fitting to the engine.
Si1432M
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL THE FLYWHEEL
1. Remove the flywheel retaining bolts and withdraw
the flywheel and reinforcing plate.
..
.. .
...
66
2. Wear or scores on the flywheel clutch face can be
corrected by machining provided that the overall
width of t h e flywheel is not rcduccd bclow
36,96 mm (1.453 in).
3. Check that the flywhccl has not been previously
machined.
4. Examine the ring gear teeth and if chipped or worn
thc gcar can be renewed.
Reface the flywheel
.
,
5. Remove the clutch location dowels.
6 . Machine thc flywheel over the complete clutch face
removing only thc minimum niaterial necessary to
achieve a smooth flat surface parallel with the
crankshaft mating face and within the above width
dimensions and fit new dowels.
Renew the ring gear
7. Drill a 8,O mm (& in) hole betwecn the root of any
two teeth and the inner diametcr of the starter ring
decp enough to weaken the ring. Do not allow the
drill to enter the flywheel.
59
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
8. Secure the flywheel in a soft jawed vice and cover it
with a cloth to protect one from personal injury.
Place a cold chisel above the drilled hole and strike
it sharply to split the ring gear.
Dismantle oil pump
\
ST701 M
‘
9. Heat the new ring gear uniformally to between
225°C and 250°C but do not exceed the higher
figure.
10. Place thc flywheel, clutch face down, on a flat
surface and locate the heated flywheel with the
square cdge of teeth downward towards the
flywheel clutch face and chamfered edge of the
teeth uppermost.
1I . Press the starter ring firmly against the flange until
the ring contracts sufficiently to grip the flywheel.
Allow the ring gear to cool naturally. Do not
hasten cooling in anyway.
3 Bend back the lock wa\her and release the n u t
securing the strainer to the oil pump body and
remove the strainer and sealing ring.
4. Remove four bolts and washers and l i f t off the oil
pump cover and lift out the driven and idler gears.
(a) driven gear
(b) idlcr gear
10
- = / -.-;-(I\
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ST 928M
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL OIL PUMP - Early type
1. Remove the sump.
2. Bend back the lock washers and remove the two
bolts securing the oil pump to the crankcase.
Withdraw thc oil pump complete with strainer and
oil pump drive shaft.
60
ST591 M
12
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
..-- -.
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5. Remove t h e oil pressure relief valve plug and
,-.
sealing washer. Withdraw the relief valve spring,
plunger and ball.
NOTE: Later pumps have ten toothed gears and no
relief valve ball.
Overhaul the oil pump
6. Examine the gears for wear, scores and pits. If the
gears appear serviceable check for end-float as
fo1I0ws :
7. Clean t h e pump body and assemble the gears.
Place a straight edge across [he pump body face, as
illustrated, and using a feeler gauge, measure the
clearance between the body and gears. The correct
clearances are as follows:
8. Idler gear 0,07 to 0,015 mm (0.003 to 0.006 in).
9. Driven gear 0,05 to 0,12 mm (0 002 to 0.005 in).
10. Gears must be renewed in pairs. A worn, but
serviceable gear, must not be matched with a new
one.
11. If necessary renew idler gear spindle by drilling-out
the peened over end of the spindle so that t h e
spindle can be withdrawn from the pump body. To
ensure squareness when fitting the new spindle,
assemble it into t h e pump body with the two gears.
Fit the cover and secure with the four bolts.
Support the pump body and peen over the end of
the new spindle. Remove the cover and gears and
check security of the spindle.
12. If worn, remove the idler gear bush and press in a
replacement. Drill the lubrication hole 3.17 mm
(0.125 in) and ream the bush to 12,7 m m (0.500 in)
diameter.
.. .
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12
ST911M
13. A scored ball valve seat can be restored by using a
locally made lapping tool by silver soldering a new
ball (part number 3748) onto a length of suitable
tube.
14. Install the tube in a drill and lap-in using coarse
grinding paste. Finally hand-lap the seat with fine
paste using the same diabalo method as for lapping
valves.
15. Thoroughly wash the pump body to rcmovc all
traces of grinding paste.
4
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ST694M
Assemble the oil pump
i6. Fit the idler gear to the spindie.
17. Fit the driven gear with plain part of the bore
uppermost. See illustration after instruction 9.
18. Smear t h e joint face of the body with jointing
compound and f i t the cover over the dowels and
the strainer bracket and secure with the four bolts
and spring washers.
19. Hold relief valve bore vertically and insert the ball
followed by the plunger with the ball seat end first.
Fit t h e spring, sealing washer and plug.
20. Fit the oil strainer sealing ring to the pump body
followed by the lock washer and strainer. Tighten
the strainer retaining nut so that when fitted the
strainer is positioned parallel to the sump baffle
plate. Secure the n u t with the lock washer tab.
21. Secure the lower end of the bracket to the strainer
with the single bolt, spring and plain washer.
61
121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL OIL PUMF -Later Type
I . Remove the sump.
2. Bend back the lock washers and remove the two
bolts securing the oil pump to the crankcase.
Withdraw the oil pump complete with strainer and
oil pump drive shaft.
Dismantle oil pump
3. Bend back the lock washer and release the nut
securing the strainer to the oil pump body and
remove the strainer and scaling ring.
4. Remove four bolts and washers and lift off the oil
pump cover and lift out the driven and idler gears.
(a) driven gear
(b) idler gear
5 . Remove the oil pressure relief valve plug and
sealing washer. Withdraw the relief valve spring
and plunger.
Overhaul the oil pump
6. Examine the gears for wear, scores and pits. If the
gears appear serviceable check far end-float as
follows:
7. Clean the pump body and assemblc the gears.
Place a straight edge across the pump body face, as
illustrated, and using a feeler gauge, measure the
clearance bctween the body and gears. The correct
clearances arc given in the Data section 05 book
one.
7
ST1636M
ST1635M
8. Gears must be renewed in pairs. A worn, but
serviceable gear, must not be matched with a new
one.
9. If necessary renew idler gear spindle by drilling-out
the peened over end of t h e spindle so that the
spindle can brt withdrawn from !he pump hody. To
ensure squareness when fitting the new spindle,
assemble it into the pump body with the two gears.
Fit the cover and seclire with four bolts. Support
t h e pump body and peen over the end of the new
spindle. Remove t h e cover and gears and check
security of the spindle.
continued
62
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
1121
Assemble the oil pump
REMOVE TIMING BELT, PULLEYS AND COVERS
10. Fit the idler gear to the spindle.
11. Fit thc driven gear with plain part of the bore
uppermost.
Remove front cover
1. Remove the four bolts and remove the front cover
vent and wading plug bracket, gauze and gasket.
2. Remove nine timing cover bolts, but do not
withdraw centre bolt from the cover since there i s a
fibre washer on the bolt behind the cover. Remove
the cover and joint washer and retrieve the fibre
was her.
3. Prise out the crankshaft seal.
Remove timing belt and pulleys
ST1637M
12. Smear the .joint face of the body with jointing
compound and fit the cover over the dowels and
sccurc with the four bolts and spring washers.
13. Hold relief valve bore vertically and insert the
plunger with the solid cnd first. Fit the spring,
sealing washer and plug.
14. Fit the oil strainer sealing ring to the pump body
followed by t h e lock washer and strainer. Tighten
the strainer retaining nut so that whcn fitted the
strainer is positioned parallel t o the sump baffle
plate. Secure the nut with the lock washer tab.
4. Slacken and remove t h e camshaft retaining bolt,
special washer and ‘0’rings.
5. Slacken and remove the distributor pump timing
pulley n u t .
6. Slacken the belt tensioner clamp nuts and remove
the belt. Remove the clamp n u t and withdraw the
tensioner assembly.
7. Use the centre part of special tool 18G145711 as
illustrated, and withdraw the distributor pump
pulley.
ST1456M
7
8. Use special puller tool 18G1464/2/6, as illustrated
and withdraw the camshaft pulley.
63
)121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
9. Withdraw t h e crankshaft pulley using complete
tool 18G1464/2 and button 18G1464/5.
1
ST1457M
Remove distributor pump (D.P.S. Pump)
-
10. Remove the high and low pressure pipes from the
D.P.S. pump and injectors. (If not already
removed) and cover, not plug, the ports.
11. Disconnect the pump operating link from the lever
on the bracket. (If not already removed).
12. Remove the nut and bolt securing the rear of the
pump to thc support bracket.
13. Remove the three nuts retaining the pump to the
front cover and withdraw the pump and joint
washer.
KEY TO TIMING GEAR AND COVER ASSEMBLY
1.
2.
3.
4.
Fan blades
Spacer
Fan pulley
Special bolt - Later engines, starter dog early
engines.
5 . Crankshaft pulley
6. Wading plug
7. Timing cover vent
8. Inspection cover
9. Front cover plate
10. Front cover plate oil scal
11. Water pump
12. Water pump joint washer
13. Cover
14. Timing belt
15. D.P.S. pump pulley
16. Camshaft pulley
17. Jockey pulley (tcnsioner)
16. Coolant gallery joint washer
19. Front cover to cylinder block joint washer
20. Front cover plate joint washcr
21. Camshaft front cover oil seal
22. Crankshaft cover oil seal
23. Triangular joint washer
24. Fibre washer
REMOVE TAPPETS, ROLLERS AND GUIDES
1. Remove the eight tappet guide locating bolts from
the right-hand side of the cylinder block.
CAUTION: Do not remove the tappet guides before
the rollers otherwise the rollers may fall behind the
camshaft.
2. Using long nosed pliers or a suitable bent length of
wire lift out t h e tappet slides and identify them with
their respectivc guides for possible refitting.
14. Remove the retaining bolts and remove the front
cover and gaskets from the cylinder block. Prise
out the old oil seals.
64
65
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
3. Lift out the tappet rollers and mark the side facing
the front of the engine for possible reassembly.
4. Lift out the
guides and retain w i t h t h e i r
respective slides and rollcrs. If the guides are
difficult to remove use special tool 530101A.
5 . Carcfully examine all parts and discard any that are
worn or damaged.
Examine
4. Inspect the components for wear and damage and
renew as necessary.
5 . To check thc rotor to body clearance, f i t the rotor
to the body and with feeler gauges measure the
clearance at the narrow point between the rotor
and body. The correct clearance is 0,05 mm
(0.002 in).
6. Check the clearance between the rotor and end
plate by placing a straight across the body and with
feeler gauges measure the clearance between the
straight edge and rotor. The correct clearance
should be 0,lO to 0,12 mm (0.004 to 0.005 in).
Assemble
7. Fit t h e rotor blades to t h e rotor with thc radius
outwards and insert thc rotor into the body.
8. Place a new ‘0’ring seal i n position in the body
groove and fit t h e end platc and sccure with the
four bo 1t s tight en i n g eve n I y .
9. When fitting pump to engine use a new joint
washer and ensure that t h e drive slot fits correctly
over the coupling drivc pin.
ST699M
REMOVE AND
COUPLING
OVERHAUL
SKEW
GEAR
REMOVE ANI) OVERHAUL VACUUM PUMP
The coupling can be overhauled without separating i t
from the skew gear.
Dismantle
Remove skew gear assembly
1 . Reniove the pump from the engine.
2. Remove the four bolts securing the end plate and
withdraw the end plate and ‘0’ ring seal.
3. Tap the shaft-end of the rotor t o remove it from the
pump body.
1. Remove the oil filter housing complete with filter
and joint washer.
2. Remove the skew gear bush locating screw.
3. Using long-nosed pliers l i f t out thc skew gear
assembly.
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I
8
ST868M
ST614M
66
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1 \I
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
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Dismantle
4. With circlip pliers remove t h e retaining circlip.
5 . Withdraw the seal collar and remove the inner and
outer seals.
6. Remove the lower circlip and withdraw the sleeve.
Assemble
7. Reassemble the coupling with a n y new parts
necessary ensuring that the sleeve fits correctly
over the lower cross-pin and secure with the circlip.
8. Lubricate and fit new seals to the collar and insert
into the coupling and retain with the circlip. Make
sure that the seals are properly located since
damaged or misplaced seals could cause reduced
engine oil pressure.
.'
1121
RENEW SKEW GEAR COUPLING
Dismantle
1. Position the skew gcar and coupling assembly in a
press and support it, as illustratcd, with 18G705-1A
or suitable metal bars.
2. Insert a suitable mandrel betwccn the press ram
and end of the coupling shaft and press out the
coupling from the skew gear.
REMOVE THE CAMSHAFT
1. Since the camshaft sprocket has already been
removed, remove the two bolts and the camshaft
thrust plate and carefully withdraw the camshaft.
-
.
.
...
-
Inspect the camshaft
2. Discard the canishaft if any of the following visual
defects are evident. Scored, w o r n , pitted or
chipped cams. Worn, corroded and discoloured
journals. Worn and chipped gear teeth.
Fit new coupling to skew gear
3. Dismantle the new coupling, as described in
'Coupling Ovet-ha~il'.This is necessary, sincc in thc
assembled condition there is no suitable surface for
the press tool to bear upon.
NOTE: See 2.5 litre petrol engine supplement for
details of the latest skew gear bush retension.
67
I12I
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
4 Dismantle also the old coupling and use the sleeve
to manufacture a suitable press tool. Use a round
section file to increase the depth of t h e cross-pin
slot so that i t will not bear upon the cross-pin when
used to press in the new coupling. Weld a suitable
length of steel bar or tube to the sleeve to complete
the tool.
5 . Fill the annular groove round the splines of the
coupling with silicone rubber sealant.
6 . Assemble the skew gear and coupling with the
manufactured press tool in position inside the
coupling a n d place under the press and slowly press
in the new coupling. Clean o f f surplus sealant and
swarf from the internal splines of the skew gear.
REMOVE THE CONNECTING-RODS AND PISTONS
During the following instructions it is important that all
components are kept in related sets and the pistons are
identified with their respective bores.
1. Turn the crankshaft to bring the connecting-rod
caps to an accessible position and remove each cap
and lower shell in turn. Note that the connectingrod caps arc numbered one to four.
2. Push each piston assembly up the bore and
withdraw from the cylinder block. Assemble the
caps and shells to the connecting-rods and place to
one side for inspection with the cylindcr block at a
later stage.
REMOVE AND INSPECT CRANKSHAFT
1. Remove the eight bolts securing the flywheel
housing to the cylinder block and remove the
housing and rear main bearing oil seal, and ‘0’
ring.
The ‘0’ring has been deleted o n later engincs.
7. Reassemble the new coupling as described under
‘Coup1i ng Overhaul ’ .
ST7 1 8M
68
0
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
1
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2. Remove the main bear~ngcaps and shells and lift
out the crankshaft. Collect the bearing shells from
the bearing saddles and the thrust washers from the
centre saddle.
-ST719M
1121
EXAMINE AND OVERHAUL THE CYLINDER
BLOCK
1. Remove the four jet tubes, see Engine assembly
for illustrations and details.
Degreasc the cylinder block and carry out a
thorough visual cxamination checking for cracks
and damage. To check the main bearing caps and
saddles for distortion. Fit the main bearing cap
without bearing shclls and tighten to the correct
torque. Slacken and remove the bolt on one side of
each bearing cap and check with a feeler gauge that
no clearance exists at the joint face between thc
cap and saddle.
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3. Degrease t h e crankshaft and clear out the oil ways,
which can become clogged after long service.
4. Examine visually, the crankpins and main bearing
journals, for obvious wear, scorcs, grooves and
overheating. A decision at this stage should be
made as to whether the condition of the shaft is
worth continuing with more detailcd examination.
5 . With a micrometer, measure and note the ovality
and taper of each main bearing journal and
crankpin as follows:
6. Ovality - Taketwo readings at right angles to each
other at various intervals.
The maximum ovality must not exceed 0,040 mm
(0.0015 in).
7. Taper - Take two readings parallcl to each other
at both ends of the main bearing journal and
crankpin.
The maximum permissable taper must not cxcccd
0,025 mm (0.001 in).
8. To check for straightness, support thc front and
rear main bearing journals in ‘V’ blocks and
position a dial indicator to check the run-out at the
centre main bearing journal. Run-out must not
exceed 0,076 mm (0.003 in) taking into account
any ovality in the centre journal.
The overall allowable wear limit should not exceed
0,114 mm (0.0045 in) for main bearing journals
and 0,088 mm (0.0035 in) for crankpins.
A crankshaft worn beyond the limits of maximum
taper, ovality and overall wear can be ground to
0.25 mm (0.010 in) undcr size.
NOTE: Fer regrindhg inf3r1m?icr.see page 8 2.25
litre petrol and Diesel engine overhaul.
Inspect cylinder bores
2. Measure t h e cylindcr borcs for ovality, taper and
general wear, using any suitable equipment.
However, an inside micrometer is best for checking
ovality and a cylinder gauge for taper.
3. Check the ovality of each bore by taking
measurement at the top of the cylinder just below
t h e ridge at two points diametrically opposite. The
difference between the two figurcs is t h e ovality of
the top of the bore. Similar measurements should
be made approximatcly 50 mm (2.0 in) up from the
bottom of the bore $0 that t h e overall ovality may
be determined.
4. Thc taper of each cylinder is dctermined by taking
measurements at the top and bottom of each bore
at right angles to the gudgeon pin linc. The
difference between the two measurements is the
taper.
5. To establish maximum overall bore wear, take
measurements at as many points possible down the
bores at right angles to the gudgeon pin line. The
largest recorded figure is the maximum wear and
should be compared with the original diameter of
the cylinder bore.
Maximum permissible ovality 0,127 mm (0.005 in).
Maximum permissible taper 0,254 mm (0.010 in).
Maximum pcrmissiblc overall wear 0,177 mm
(0.007 in).
69
E[
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
_____~~
~~
If the above figures are exceeded the cylinders
must be rebored or sleeved depending upon the
general condition of the bores and amount of wear.
Alternatively, if the overall wear, taper and ovality
arc wcll within t h e acceptable limits and the
original pistons are serviceable new piston rings
may be fitted. It is important however, that t h e
bores arc deglazed, with a hone, to give a crosshatched finish to provide a seating for the new
rings. It is vital to thoroughly wash the bores
afterwards to remove all traces of abrasive
material.
inspect camshaft bearings
6. Measure thc internal diameter of each camshaft
bearing at several points using an internal
micrometer. A comparison of the bearing
diameters with those of the respective camshaft
journals will give the amount of clearance. The
bcarings should be renewed if the clearance
exceeds 0,0508 mm (0.002 i n ) . Or, in any event, if
they are scored or pitted. This work should only be
entrusted to line boring specialists.
~~
12. Press the sleeves squarely into the bore using a
pressure of two to three tons. Excessive pressure
could damage the sleeve and cylinder block. The
sleeves must not be proud of the cylinder block top
face or more than 2,54 mm ( 0 , l O in) below the
surface.
13. Bore and hone the sleeves to accommodate the
pistons with the required clearances, see piston and
connecting-rod examination.
PISTON AND CONNECTING-ROD INSPECTION
The following checks relating to pistons and rings must
also be carried out prior to fitting new pistons to
rebored and sleeved cylinder blocks.
Until it is decided if new components are required all
parts must be kept in their related sets and the position
of each piston to its connecting-rod should be noted.
1. Remove the piston rings and gudgeon pin from
each piston and detach the connecting-rod.
Check crankcase main bearings
7. Discard scored, pitted, cracked and worn bearing
shells.
8. To determine the maximum wear, assemble the
main bearing shells and caps to the crankcase and
tighten the bolts to the corrcct torque figure.
9. Using a n inside micrometer, measure each bearing
at several points and note the greatest figure. The
maximum wear is the difference between this
figure and the smallest diameter of t h e
corresponding crankshaft journal. The main
bearing running clearance is in the data section.
10. The bearing clearances may also be determined by
using ‘Plastigauge’. Since this method requires the
crankshaft to be fitted to the crankcase, the
procedure is described under engine assembly.
Fit cylinder sleeves
Cylinder bores that cannot be rebored can be restored
by fitting sleeves to enable standard size pistons to be
fitted. Sleeving one cylinder only will distort the
adjaccrrt bore so sleeving must be carried out in pairs,
i.e. cylinders 1 and 2 or 3 and 4.
11. M2chine the cylinder bores to accept the sleeves to
94,425 + 0,012 mm (3.7175 + 0.0005 i n ) . This will
givc the sleeve a 0,076 to 0 , I14 mm (0.003 to
!!.!!!!45 in) interference fit.
70
ST1452M
2. Original pistons - Decarbonise and degreasc all
components and carry out a visual examination of
the pistons and rings and discard any which art‘
u n se rv i cea b I e. Pis tons w h ic h appe it r service ab I e
should be subjected to a more detailed
examination described under ‘New Pistons’.
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
3. New Pistons - Original pistons fitted to new
engines at t h e factory are specially graded to
facilitate assembly. The grade letter on the piston
crown should be ignored when ordering new
pistons. Genuine Land Rover service standard size
pistons are supplied 0,025 mm (0.001 in) oversize
to allow for production tolerances on new engines.
When fitting new pistons to a standard size cylinder
block the bores must be honed to accommodate the
pistons with the correct clearances. In addition
Land Rover pistons are available 0 5 0 and 1,Ol m m
(0.020 and 0.040 in) oversize for fitting to rebored
cylinder blocks.
Clearance limits for new standard size pistons in a
standard cylinder bore measured at right angles to
the gudgeon pin are in the “General specification
data” section.
When taking the following measurements the
cylinder block and pistons must be a t the same
temperature to ensure accuracy.
3 . Using a suitable micrometer measure the pistons at
the bottom of the skirt at right angles to the
gudgeon pin.
5. With an inside micrometer or cylinder gauge
measure the diameter of the bore at approximately
half-way down and note the reading.
6. The clearance is determined by subtracting the
piston diameter from the bore diameter.
7 . If garige equipment is not available the clearance
can be assessed by placing a long, suitably sized,
feeler gauge down the thrust side of the bore and
inserting the appropriate piston, ‘upside down’, in
the bore and position it with the gudgeon pin
parallel to the crankshaft axis. Push the piston
down the bore and stop at the tightest point and
whilst holding the piston still, slowly withdraw the
feeler gauge. If a steady resistance of
approximately 2,s kg (6 Ibs) is felt, the clearance is
satisfactory.
7
/
ST1450M------
Inspect piston rings
Normally when an engine is being overhauled the
piston rings are discarded unless the pistons have been
removed for a different purpose and the engine has
only completed a small mileage. Before refitting the
piston the rings should be examined for wear and
damage. In addition the rings must be checked for side
clearance in the pistons and gap in the bores. The latter
two checks must be made when fitting new rings to new
and used pistons.
8. Check gap When chccking the ring gap in worn
bores, but are neverthclcss within the acceptable
taper and ovality limits, the ring must be inserted
squarely into the bottom of the bore at the lowest
point of the piston travel. To ensure squareness of
the ring push the ring down the bore to the correct
position with a piston. With newly machincd bores,
the ring may be inserted squarcly into any position
in the bore.
9. Using an appropriate feeler guage check the gaps
of all the rings, in turn, including the oil control
ring assembly.
The correct gaps are listed in the Data Section. If
any gap is less than that specified, remove thc ring,
and file the ends squarc, whilst holding the ring in a
filing jig or vice. Should any gap be excessively
wide and not likely to close-up to within the
specified limits when hot, an ovcrsizc ring shou!d
be fitted.
El
-
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
Check piston ring side clearance
Connecting-rod inspection
10. It is important that clearances are correct. Rings
that are too tight will bind when hot, imparing the
radial pressure causing possible loss of
comprcssion. Excessive clearancc will allow the
rings to rock in the grooves and the resulting
pumping action could cause excessive oil
consumption and eventually broken rings.
11. Fit the oil control ring to t h e bottom groove. Fit the
unpolished compression ring with the word ‘TOP’
uppermost to the second groove. Insert the
polished chrome ring with an internal chamfer and
the word ‘TOP’ uppermost to the top groove.
12. Alter fitting each ring, roll it round the piston
groove 10 ensure that i t is free and does not bind.
13. Using an appropriate feeler gauge check the
clearance betwcen the rings and piston grooves.
Clcarances in excess of 0,012 to 0,152 mm (0.004 t o
0.006 in) are unacceptable and the ring and or the
pistons should be renewed.
16. Check the connecting-rods and caps for distortion
as follows; fit the correct cap, less the bearing
shells, to each connecting-rod as denoted by the
number stanipcd near the joint faces. This number
also indicates the crankshaft journal to which it
must be fitted.
17. Tighten the nuts to the correct torque and release
the nut on one side only. Check, with a feeler
gauge, that no clearance exists between the joint
faces. If there is a gap the connecting-rod is
distorted and should be renewed.
Compression rings - 0,06 to 0,011 mm (0.0025 to
0.0045 in).
Oil control ring - 0,038 to 0,064 m m (0.0015 to
0.0025 in).
13
ST716M
ST1449M
Inspect gudgeon pins
14. Check the gudgeon pin for wcar, cracks, scores and
overheat i n g .
15. The gudgeon pin fit in the piston must be tight push
fit at a lcmperature of 68°F (20°C). Chcck the
gudgeon pin for ovality and taper using a
micrometer.
18. Use an accurate connccting-rod alignment gauge to
check thc rods for bend and twist. The maximum
allowable for both conditions must not exceed
0,127 m m (0.005 in).
19. Examinc and check the small-end bush for wear. If
necessary rcnew the bush. The correct clearance of
the gudgeon pin in the small-end bush is given in
“Gencral specification data”.
20. When rcnewing a bush ensure that the oil hole in
the bush lines up with the hole in the connectingrod. Finish the bush to the correct size and
clearance.
21. Connecting-rod bearings that are worn, pitted,
scored and show signs of ovcrheating must be
discarded. If more than one of the bearings show
these signs they must all bc rcncwed. When fitting
new o r used bearings to serviceablc crankpins the
clearances must be checked.
!f-.U
Connecting-rod bearing nip and clearance
New bcaring halves are supplied with a protective
coating and must be degreased before fitting.
22. Fit the bearing halves to the connecting-rod and
cap and secure the assembly with the correct
torque. Slacken the nut on one side only and check
the clearance between the joint faces with a feeler
gauge.
f>:,
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72
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
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The clearance should be between 0,lO and
0,20 mm (0.004 and 0.008 in). The bearing nip can
be adjusted by the selective assembly of the
bearing shells which are available in slightly
varying thickncsscs. Do not file or machine the
caps o r rods to vary t h e bearing nip. Make a final
check to prove the clearance by inserting a 0,063
(0.0025 in) shim paper between the crankpin and
one half of the bearing and tightening to the correct
torque. The connecting-rod should resist rotation
and move freely with the shim paper removed.
As an alternative, the bearing clearances can be
determined by using ‘Plastigauge’ which consists of
a thin piece of plastic material a few hundreds of a
millimeter or thousands of an inch in diameter.
When the material is flattened by being squeezed
between the bearing and crankpin the width of the
plastic is measured by a scale gauge which indicates
the clearance.
23. Wipe any oil from the crankpins and place a piece
of ‘Plastigauge’ across the centre o f the bearing in
the connecting-rod cap. Assemble the rod to the
appropriate crankpin and tighten to the correct
torque. Do not rotate thc connecting-rod or
crankshaft during this operation.
24. Remove the connecting-rod cap and bearing shell
and using the scale supplied measure thc flattened
‘Plastigauge’ a t its widest point. The graduation
that most closely corresponds to the width ol’ the
‘Plastigauge’ indicates the bearing clcarance.
The correct clearance with new or overhauled
components is 0,019 to 0,063 mm (0.0007 to
0.0025 i n ) .
25. Wipe off the ‘Plastigauge’ with an oily rag. Do not
scrape off otherwise it may damage the crankpins.
1121
Connecting-rod end-float
26. Fit the connecting-rods complete with bearings to
their respective crankpins. Move the connectingrod to one side and check the clearance, with a
feeler, on the opposite side. The correct clearance
is between 0,20 and 0,30 mm (0.007 and 0.012 in).
Assemble pistons to connecting-rods
27. The piston must be assembled with the point of the
LV’,on thc piston crown, on the same side as the
bearing shell location slots in the connecting-rod.
28. Inscrt a circlip in one side of the gudgeon pin boss
and assemble the piston to the connecting-rod with
the gudgeon pin. Secure the assembly with a circlip
on the opposite side of the piston.
23
ST 1448 M
73
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
ASSEMBLE ENGINE
_.
ASSEMBLE JET TUBES TO CYLINDER BLOCK
FIT CRANKSHAFT
Oil jet tubes arc fitted to lubricate the pistons and bores
directly from thc main oil gallery.
1. The jet iubes are 'Handed' and can only be fitted
one way. It is important to note that the jet
retaining 'bolt' contains a non-return valve and
therefore on no account must an ordinary bolt be
used.
2. Clean the recess in the cylinder block using an air
line, i f available, to remove any swarf.
3. Assemble and fit t h e jet tube assemblies as
illustrated ensuring that the pegs locate in the holes
in the cylinder block, and that the larger diameter
washer fits under the bolt head.
4 Before tightening the retaining bolts ensure that
the small squirt pipes d o not foul the crankshaft or
pistons. Firmly tap t h e jet tube assemblies down
onto the cylinder block, thus ensuring t h a t the
locating dowel is fully home and avoiding any
sideways distortion on the retaining bolt. Use ;I
tube slightly larger than the bolt head. The old bolt
should be discarded and a new bolt fitted.
5 Whcn thc crankshaft and pistons have been fitted
slowly turn the crankshaft and check that no
fouling occurs.
A . Early Type B. Latest Assembly.
Main bearing nip and clearance
New main bearing halves are supplied with a protective
coating and must be degreased before fitting.
1. Fit the bearing halves in t h e crankcase saddles and
caps and secure the caps to the crankcase and
tighten to the correct torque. Slacken the bolts on
one side of the caps only and, with a feeler gauge,
check the gap between the joint faces. The
clearance or nip must be within 0.10 to 0,15 m m
(0.004 to 0.006 i n ) . The bearing nip can be
adjusted by selective assembly of the bearing
halves available in varying thicknesses. Do not file
or machine the caps or saddles to achieve thc
correct clearance. Note that thc rcar main bearings
are wider than the rcmaining four.
2. To make a f i n d check that the clearance is correct.
leave the bearing halvcs in the crankcase saddles
and carefully lower the crankshaft into position.
Check each bearing in turn by inserting a 0,063 mni
(0.0025 in) shim papcr between the bearing cap
and crankshaft journal and tighten the bolts to the
correct torque. If the clearance is correct, thcrc
should be a slight increase in the resistance to
rotation of the crankshaft.
As an alternative 'Plastigauge' may be used to
check the clearance in the same manner as with the
connecting-rod bearings. This material may also be
used to determine the amount of wear in used
bearings and journals.
I
ST1789M
74
.
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
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3 . Locate the crankshaft in position on the upper
bearing halves in the crankcase and wipe any oil
from the ,journals since ‘Plastigauge’ is soluble i n
oil. Place a piece of ‘Plastigauge’ across the lower
half of each crankshaft journal or lower bearing
cap she!l. Fit the cap and tighten to the correct
torque. Remove the cap and bearing and using the
scale supplied with the ‘Plastigauge’ measure the
flattened ‘Plastigauge’ at i t s widest point. The
graduation that most closely corresponds with the
width of the ‘Plastigauge’ indicates the bearing
clearance.
The correct clearance with new or overhauled
components is included in “General specification
data” section. If new bearings are being fitted use
selective assembly to obtain the correct clearance.
Wipe off, not scrape the ‘Plastigauge’ with an oily
rag from the journals or bearings.
5. Place the crankshaft in position in the crankcase
and mount a dial test indicator to read-off the end
of the crankshaft. A feeler gauge may be used
instead of an indicator.
6. Determine the end-float by moving the crankshaft
away from t h e indicator and zero the dial. Move
the crankshaft in the opposite direction and note
the indicator reading. Alternatively measure the
clearance with a feeler gauge. The end-float should
be 0,OS to 0,15 mm (0.002 to 0.006 in).
7. If adjustment is required substitute with oversize
thrust washers. Variation of thrust washer
thickness at each side of crankshaft journal must
not exceed 0,08 mm (0.003 in) to ensure t h a t the
crankshaft remains centralised.
5
Sl
Adjust crankshaft end-float
4. Lift o u t the crankshaft and !nSert 21 standard size
thrust waiher both sides of thc centre main bcarlng
saddle with the grooves towards the crankshafl.
crankshaft mrlin journals with
8. Lubricate
engine oil and fit the appropriate bearing caps and
lower shells to the crankcase with the exception of
number five main bearing. Ensure that the caps
locate proper!y o v e r the dowels. Using new bo!ts
and washers evenly tighten to the correct torque
figurc.
Fit rear main hearing cap
9. Ensure that number five main bearing cap is clean
and free from old cork seal material.
Attach the cork seal guides number 270304 to the
crankcase, as illustrated, and ensure that they are
parallcl ihc ciaiikcase edge.
75
E(2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
ST
Fit rear main oil seal
T
a-
10. To prevent any cork seal material becoming
trapped between the bearing cap and crankcase,
chamfer the inner edge of the corks 0,40 to
0,80 mm(& to B in) wide as illustrated.
Immcrsc the cork seals in engine oil and fit them to
the bearing cap.
11. Fit the bearing cap and lower shell to the crankcase
and secure with new bolts and washers and tighten
to the appropriate torque.
12. To allow for shrinkage after fitting leave the cork
seals standing proud of the crankcase sump face. If
possible delay the fitting of the sump for
approximately twelve hours and leave t h e seal
protruding 2,40 mm (:& in) and then place a
o.>w mm ( % in) washer over the seal and cui off
the surplus. If it is necessary to fit the sump
immediately, trim the seals off leaving 0,80 mm
( h in) proud, that is, t h e thickness of the above
washer.
Apply Hylomar SQ32M to the protruding end of
the seals.
I
76
m r n
13. Check that the crankshaft oil seal journal is
undamaged and clean. Make sure the seal housing
is clean and dry and free from burrs. Do not touch
the seal lip and ensure that the outside diameter is
clean and dry. The P.T.F.E Seal Part No. ETC
5369 which should be used is supplied with a
former to maintain the correct shape and must not
be removed until the scal is to be fitted.
14. Using special seal replacer 18G 134-1 I and wilh the
lip side leading drive-in the seal as far as the tool
allows. If the tool is not available fit thc scal to the
bottom of the housing to ensure squareness.
-%
P,.:
ST 1828M
Fit flywheel housing -Early engines
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16. Examine the seal guide number 18G 1344 and
repair any damage that could destroy the seal lip.
17. Lubricate the outside diameter of the seal guide
and t h e seal journal with concentrated ‘Oildag’ in a
25% solution with clean engine oil.
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2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
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5’
18. Place the seal guide on the crankshaft flange and,
using the two dowels protruding from the cylinder
block rear face as a guide to ensure initial
squareness, fit the flywheel housing and removc
the seal guide. Secure the flywheel housing evenly
tightening the retaining bolts.
1121
Fit flywheel housing -Later engines
19. In place of the ‘0’ring seal a bead of Hylogrip 2000
sealant must be applied to the rear facc of the
flywheel housing to the dimensions and
configuration as illustrated below. The illustration
has been produced full size so that a template may
be made to facilitate the application of the sealant.
The bead should be 5 3 mm wide and 0,25 mm
thick.
20. Fit the housing following instructions 17 to 19.
-. ..
ST730M
ST1675M
77
112I
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
FIT THE CONNECTING-HODS AND PISTONS
1. Turn the crankshaft to position numbers one and
four crankpins at bottom dead centrc to facilitatc
fitting thc connecting-rods.
2. When fitting the connecting-rods and pistons
ensure that t h e bolts d o not foul and damage the
crankpins. As a precaution it is recommended that
rubber or soft plastic sleeves are placed over the
threads.
3 . The connecting-rod bolts have essentric heads
which locate in a recess in the connecting-rod. It is
essential that the head of each new bolt is properly
located before tightening.
4. Stagger the compression rings so that the gaps are
equidistantly spaced round the piston but, so
arranged, that n o gap is positioned on the thrust
side of the piston i.e. opposite t h e camshaft. Turn
the oil control ring so that the gap is in line with the
gudgeon pin.
5 . Lubricate the cylinder walls, piston rings and
crankpins. Compress t h e pistons rings with a
suitable compressor tool and carefully lower the
connecting-rod into the bore ensuring that the
piston is assembled in accordance with instruction
27 under “Assemble pistons to connecting-rods”.
Also the point of thc arrow hcaded valve clearance
indentation in the piston crown, must face the
camshaft side of the engine.
6. Using a soft mallet, sharply tap the piston into the
bore so that t h e whole of thc piston is just below
the surface of t h e cylinder block.
ST1446M
78
z
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
1 121
2. To check the camshaft end-float, fit t h e woodruff
key and temporarily fit the cam-shaft pulley and
mount a dial test indicator, as illustrated, so that
the stylus rests in a loaded condition upon t h e
machined face of the cylinder block. Zero the dial
and move the camshaft back and forward and note
the reading. The end-float should be within 0,06 to
0,13 mm (0.0025 to 0.0055 in). If the end-float is
outsidc these limits, fit different thrust plates until
the correct tolerance is achieved.
3 . Remove the test indicator and pulley, and secure
the thrust plate with t h e two bolts.
FIT THE SKEW GEAR
1. Lubricate and insert the skew gear and coupling
assembly into mesh with the camshaft gear. Align
the location hole in the bush and fit a new location
screw into ihc cylinder block.
FIT TAPPETS, GUIDES AND ROLLERS
1. If the same parts are being refitted ensure that they
are returned to their original positions. Ensure that
t h e tappet slides move freely i n the guides.
2. Insert the tappet guides into the cylinder block and
align the locating screw holes.
3. Fit the tappet rollcrs ensuring that they are fitted in
accordance with the marks made during removal.
N e w rollers, however, may be fitted either way
round.
4. Before fitting the tappet slidcs make sure the
oilways are clear to the tappet bearing surface, the
cross drilling and the oil feed to the push rod.
5. Insert the tappet slidcs with the word 'FRONT'
towards the front of the engine.
6 . Secure the tappet guides with NEW Micro
encapsulated scie'*s and tighten io
ccjr,-eci
torque figure. Micro encapsulated screws should
also be used on engines where the screws werc
originally wired for security.
STl674M"/
I I\
FIT THE FLYWHEEL
1
Examine the flywheel and crankshaft mating faces
and remove any burrs or imperfections that could
prevent t h e flywheel locating correctly. Check that
the dowel is in position.
continued
79
1121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
2 . Offer up the flywheel to the crankshaft and secure
with the reinforcing plate and retaining bolts.
Evenly tighten the bolts to the correct torque
figure.
3. To check the flywheel run-out, mount a dial test
indicator so that the stylus rests, in a loaded
condition, on the clutch pressurc face at a radius of
114 mm (4.5 in).
4. Turn t h e flywheel, and check that the run-out does
not exceed 0.05 to 0.07 mm (0.002 to 0.003 in).
Should the run-out be excessive, remove the
flywheel. and check again for irregularities o n
flywheel and crankshaft mating faces and dowel.
Rear cover -crankshaft seal
3 . With the lip side leading drive in the new seal using
special tool 18G 1456, until the seal is
approximately 0,5 mm below the inner face of the
cover.
ST1523M
/’
Front cover -camshaft seal
4. Drive in a new seal, lip side leading until flush o r
approximately 1.0 mm below the inner surface
using special tool 18G1482.
FIT TIMING
PULLEYS
FRONT
COVER,
SEALS
AND
1. Fit new cover joint, triangular gasket, and water
gallery gasket, to the cylinder block.
2. Fit and secure the rear cover with the eight bolts
refering to the chart for location of the various
length bolts (in mm).
30
continued
ST617M
80
25
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
':it
1121
Fit distributor pump (D.P.S.)
5. Fit the camshaft front inspection cover complete
with thc D.P.S. pump rear rear support bracket.
Using a new joint washer evenly tighten the six
bolts.
6. Fit pump joint washer and loosely secure pump to
cover with the three nuts and to the rear support
bracket with the single nut and bolt. Position the
pump so that the retaining studs are midway in the
flange slots.
8
-
ST1521 M
Fit crankshaft timing pulley
9. Apply Loctite 518 to the pulley face as illustrated;
d o not allow sealant to contact chamfercd face.
Lightly oil the crankshaft and pulley borc and fit
the pulley, with timing dot outwards, and drive into
position using a suitable tube as a drift.
7. Fit D.P.S. pump pulley, and loosely secure with
thc nut.
ST19?1M
Fit camshaft pulley
8. Fit pulley, boss towards engine, and loosely secure
with special washer, '0' rings, plain washer and
new bolt. DO NOT drive pulley onto camshaft.
Draw pulley on with a slave 10 m m diameter
metric bolt, plain washer and nut.
ST1693M
81
I 121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
TIME D.P.S. PUMP AND VALVES -Early Engines
The D.P.S. pump and valves are timed using the
exhaust valve peak of number one cylinder. On early
engines the exhaust peak position is determined by the
relationship of a line, marked E.P. on the flywheel
perifery and a timing pointer on the flywheel housing.
The pointer is available under Part Number ERC 2250.
1. Turn the crankshaft in a clockwise direction until
the E.P. mark on t h e flywheel lines-up exactly with
the pointer. If the crankshaft is inadvertently
turned beyond the E.P. mark do not turn it back
but continue on round in a clockwise direction until
the mark and pointer coincide exactly.
7. Set a dial type torque wrench to 29,O to 23,5 Nm
(21 to 17 Ibs ft) and whilst holding it vertically,
insert the drive peg into thc square hole in the
tensioner base plate. Tension the bclt and tighten
the clamp nuts to the correct torque.
2. Check that the dot o n the crankshaft pulley and the
cast-on arrow on the rear cover line-up.
3. Fit the timing belt tensioner assembly and loosely
secure with the two nuts (strap deleted o n later
models).
4. Turn the D.P.S. pump pulley clockwise until the
dot lines up exactly with arrows in t h e rear cover.
5 . Similarly, turn the camshaft pulley clockwise so
that the dot coincides exactly with the cast-on
arrow.
6. Fit the timing belt over the crankshaft pulley and
whilst keeping the belt under tension, by hand, run
the beii over the carnsiiafi puiiey. if iiie beit does
not quite mate with the grooves, turn the pulley
clockwise the necessary amount. Feed the belt over
the pump pulley and if necessary turn the pulley
clockwise to locate in the grooves. Keeping a firm
grip on the belt pass i t over the tensioner wheel.
82
8. Rotate the engine TWO complete revolutions.
9. Slacken the tensioncr clamp nuts.
10. Tension the belt again as described in instruction 7
and tighten the clamp nuts to the correct torque.
CAUTION: The double tensioning procedure is
imperative, otherwise the belt could fail resulting in
serious engine damage. See CAUTION Page 84 and
“Care of beits”.
11. Rotate the crankshaft until, the E.P. mark on the
flywheel and the pointer line-up.
12. Check that the dots on the pump and camshaft
pulleys coincide exactly with their respective
arrows. If there is any misalignment thc procedure
must be repeated.
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
112
. -.
, :,
...,.,'.-....,.
,._....
._..,
1..
,
13. Remove the plug from the side of the D.P.S. pump
and insert gauge tool 18G 1458 and if necessary
rotate the pump body until the gauge can be fully
inserted and screwed home indicating that the
inner disc is centrally positioned with the hole.
14. Evenly tighten the three nuts securing the pump to
the cover and the single n u t and bolt to the support
bracke t .
15. Align timing pointer on rear of cover, with the
scribed line on the pump flange and tighten t h e two
screws. If a new pump is being fitted and there is n o
scribed line, scribe a line in the centre of the
machined area on the pump flange. Align the
timing pointer and tighten the screws. On later
engines the timing pointer has been deleted and
instruction 15 can be ignored.
1. Remove the plug from the flywheel housing and fit
the body of special tool LST 107 without the pin.
2. Turn the crankshaft in a clockwise direction until
the E.P. slot in the flywheel is in-line with the hole
in the flywheel housing. If the crankshaft is
inadvertently turned beyond the E.P. slot, do not
turn the crankshaft back but continue on round in a
clockwise direction until the pin of the special tool
can be fully located in the flywheel slot.
1
.
16. Tightcn the D.P.S. pump timing pulley n u t and thc
camshaft pullcy retaining bolt to the correct
torque.
17. Remove the timing pointer from t h e flywhecl
housing, close the cover and secure with the two
nuts.
Time D.P.S. PUMP AND VALVES - Later Engines
with slot in flywheel for determining the E.P.
The D.P.S. pump and valves are timed using the
exhaust valve peak of number one cylinder. This is
determined on later engines by the relationship of a slot
in the flywheel periphery and a plugged hole in the
flywheel housing through which a flywheel timing pin,
special tool number LST 107, is inserted.
3. Fit the timing belt tensioner assembly and loosely
securc with the two nuts.
4. Turn t h e D.P.S. pump pulley clockwise until the
dot on the pulley lines-up exactly with the cast-on
arrow inside the front cover.
5. Similarly, t u r n the camshaft pulley clockwise until
t h c dot lines-up with the cast-on arrow in the front
covcr.
6. Fit a new timing belt over the crankshaft pulley and
whilst keeping t h e belt under tension, by hand, run
the belt over the camshaft pullcy. Should thc belt
not quite mate with the grooves, turn the pullcy
clockwise the necessary amount. Fced the belt over
t h e D.P.S. pump pulley and if necessary turn the
pulley clockwise to locate in the grooves. Keeping
a firm grip on t h e belt, pass i t over the tensioner
jockey pulley.
7. Withdraw the special tool timing- pin
- from the
flywheel slot.
8. Set a dial type torque wrench to 20.0 to 23.5 N m
(21 to 17 Ibs f t ) and whilst holding it vertically,
insert the drive peg into the square hole in the
tensioner base plate. Tension the belt and tighten
iiie ciamp n u t s to the correct torquc.
9. Rotate t h e crankshaft TWO complete revolutions.
10. Slacken the tensioner clamp nuts.
I 1 . Tension the belt again as described in instruction 8
and tighten the clamp nuts to the correct torque.
83
12
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
CAUTION: The double tensioning procedure is
imperative otherwise the belt could fail resulting in
serious engine damage. Also, if a new belt is not
attainable and it is necessary to refit the old belt it
should be only torqued to 19-24 Nm (14-18 Ibs ft).
12. Rotate the crankshaft until the pin of the special
timing tool can, once again, bc inserted into the
flywheel E.P. slot.
13. Check that t h e dots on the camshaft and D.P.S.
pump pulleys coincidc exactly with their respective
cast-on arrows on thc rcar covcr. Should there be
any misalignment the foregoing procedure must be
repeatcd.
15. Evenly tighten the three nuts securing the pump
flange to the rear cover and the single nut and bolt
to the rear support bracket.
16. Align the timing pointer on thc rcar of the cover
with the scribed line on the pump flange and
tighten the two screws. If a new pump is being
fitted and there is no scribed line, scribe one in the
centre of the machined area on thc flange. Align
the pointer and tighten the screws. Remove the
special tool 18G 1458 and refit plug. The timing
pointer has been deleted on later engines.
STl518M
17. Remove the special tool LST 107 and refit the plug
to the flywheel housing.
18. Tighten the D.P.S. pump pulley nut and the
camshaft pulley retaining bolt to the correct
torque.
Care of belts
14. Remove the plug from the side of the D.P.S. pump
and insert special tool 18G 1458 and if necessary
rotate the pump body until the tool can be fully
inserted and screwrd home indicating that the
inner disc is centrally positioned with the hole.
84
1. Drive belts must be stored on cdge on a clean flat
surfacc and in such a manner that bends are not
less than 2 in (50 mm) radius.
2. When a belt is handled, it must not be bent at an
acute angle or an arc of less than 1 in (25 mm) in
diameter, as damage rriay be caused to the glass
fibrc reinforcement and premature failure then
result.
3. During use, a belt develops a wear pattcrn,
thereforc, if it is to be re-used, before removal,
mark the direction of rotation, using soft chalk or a
similar marker, and refit the belt so that it runs in
the original dircction.
4. Belts must be dry and FREE FROM ANY OIL
OR OTHER FLUID CONTAMINATION.
5 . Do not turn the crankshaft by applying leverage to
the camshaft pulley or its retaining bolt.
6. To remove a belt always use clean hands, or a
recommended tool - NEVER use a lever.
g?!,
*<:..I;
t'-S
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
FIT FRONT COVER
CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
WATER
PUMP
12
AND
1. Place a new joint washer in position and insert the
centre 65 mm long bolt into the cover with the fibre
washer on thc inside.
2. Fit the cover over the dowels and secure with the
remaining various length bolts in accordance with
the chart. See “Fit timing rear cover, seals and
pulleys”. Tighten evenly to the correct torque.
3. Fit the vent cover gauze and gasket and secure with
the four bolts.
4. Fit a new crankshaft seal. Using special seal
replacer tool 18G 1456 and with the lip side
leading, drive in the seal up to the shoulder.
I
5 . Clean the sump and crankcase mating faces and fit
a new joint washer. Later engines without a joint
washer, apply a bead of RTV HYLOSILL 102
black 7 m m wide to the sump or cylinder block.
Secure the sump with the twenty-one bolts and
spring washers and one nut. Evenly tighten to the
correct torque.
FIT CYLINDER HEAD AND ROCKER SHAFT
ASSEMBLY
ST1517M
/
Fit water pump and crankshaft pulley
5. Place a new joint washer in position and offer up
the water pump. Fit the different length bolts in
accordance with the diagram and evenly tighten to
the correct torque.
6. Fit the crankshaft pulley and secure with the
special washer and bolt. Tighten to the correct
torque figure.
FIT OIL PUMP AND SUMP
1. Fit the longer splined end of the drive shaft into the
oil pump.
2. Fit the oil pump and drive shaft to the crankcase,
whilst revolving the shaft as necessary to engage
the splines of the skew gear.
3. Using new lock washers, secure the pump to the
crankcase tightening the bolts to the correct torque
and bend over the lock tabs.
4. If necessary adjust the position of the strainer so
that it is parallel to the sump baffle plate.
“
..
1. Clean t h e cylinder head and cylinder block mating
faces. Position a new cylinder head gasket on the
cylinder block with the word ‘Diesel’ uppermost.
2. Lower the cylinder head onto the cylinder block
using two long bolts to facilitate accurate
positioning of the head.
3. Fit the cylinder head retaining bolts except those
also used to secure the rocker shaft and leave
finger-tight.
4. Insert the push rods ensuring that the ball end
locates properly in the spherical seat in the tappet.
5. Whilst holding the rocker shaft assembly together,
lower it into position making sure that the hollow
dowels locate properly in the cylinder head. Also
ensure that the rocker adjusting screw ball end
locate in the push rods.
6. Fit the rocker shaft large retaining bolts and leave
finger-tight.
I12I
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
7. Tighten the cylinder head retaining bolts, evenly,
to the correct torque figure in t h e sequence
illustrated below.
8. Fit and tighten the rocker shaft, small bolts to the
specified torque.
5. Continue to check and adjust the remaining
tappets in the following sequence:
Set No. 3 tappet with No. 6 valve fully open.
Set No. 5 tappct with No. 4 valve fully open.
Set No. 2 tappct with No. 7 valve fully open.
Set No. 8 tappet with No. 1 valve fully open.
Set No. 6 tappet with No. 3 valve fully open.
Set No. 4 tappet with No. 5 valve fully open.
Set No. 7 tappet with No. 2 valve fully open.
Fit the rocker cover
6. Using a new gasket, fit the rocker cover and secure
with the dome nuts and washers. Tighten evenly to
the correct torque. Do not overtightcn.
ST 880M
FIT THE CLUTCH
-Fit.-
ADJUST TAPPET CLEARANCES
1. Tf the crankshaft is rotated with exccssive valve
clearances, it is possible that the push rods may
become dislodged from
tappet seating and
fracture the tappct slide. To prevent damage,
eliminate all clearance from any loose rockers
before turning the crankshaft to adjust thc
clearances.
2. Turn the engine over until number eight valve
(counting from front of engine) is fully open.
3. Using a 0,25 mm (0.010 in) feeler gauge check the
clearance between the valve tip and rocker pad of
number one valve.
4. Adjust the clearance by slackening the lock nut and
turning t h e tappet adjusting screw clockwise to
reduce clearance and anti-clockwise to increase
clearance. Rechcck the clearance after tightening
the lock nut.
1. Clean the flywheel face and place the centrc plate
with the side marked ‘Flywheel side’ towards the
flywheel.
2. Fit the clutch assembly locating i t over the three
dowels and loosely securc with thc six bolts.
3. Centralise the centre plate using special tool RO
605022 or a spare primary shaft and tighten thc six
bolts evenly to the correct torque figure. Smear thc
splines of thc centrc plate with Molybdenum
disulphidc grease, such as Rocol MTS 1000.
ST764M
86
5 ” ,
%-:
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
. .....
. ..,
1
c.,_.
._.,._.
. ...
1
- 2
. ...,.. .>
FIT CYLINDER HEAD.OIL FEED
1. Connect the oil feed pipe, for lubrication of the
rocker shaft assembly, to thc cylinder head
2. Secure with the two banjo bolts and four join!
washers.
112)
FIT HEATER PLUGS
1. Clean and test the heater plugs as described in the
maintenance Section. Fit the heater plugs and
tighten to the correct torque. Do not over tighten.
2. Fit the leads, washers and nuts as illustrated,
ensuring that cach cable eyelet is fitted vertically
downwards to prevent heat from cylinder head
damaging the cable insulation.
FIT OIL FILTER AND ADAPTOR
FIT FUEL LIFT PUMP
1. If the fuel lift was separated from the side cover, fit
the pump to the cover first using a new joint washer
between the pump flange and rear cover, evenly
tighten the retaining nuts.
2. Place a new cover plate joint washer in position
and fit the cover and pump assembly to the cylinder
block.
3. Ensure that the pump actuating lever rides on top
of the camshaft.
4. Secure t h e cover, evenly tightening the retaining
bolts.
1. Using a new joint washer fit thc oil filter adaptor.
Ensure that the retaining bolts pass through the
two small round holes in the joint washer.
2. Tightcn the two retaining bolts evenly to the
correct torque.
3 . Smear a little clean enginc oil on the rubber washer
of thc new filter, then screw the filter on clockwise
until the rubber sealing ring touches the machined
$nap
LULL,
+h-..
+:,.I-
L I I L L L LI~IILLII
h e l f .-.t
2 f....thfi..
L U I L I L L I i i a i i LUIII
h., h n - A nv-r1 r. r i y .
uy iiuiiu
Do not overtighten. See Maintenance Operations,
section 10.
ST762M
continued
87
la
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
FIT VACUUM PUMP
1. Place a new joint washer on the cylinder block
face.
2. Fit the D.P.S. pump control bracket.
3. Insert the vacuum pump drive shaft into the skew
gear coupling ensuring that the shaft engages
properly over the cross pins in the coupling. The
hose connection should be towards the front of the
engine.
4. Secure the pump and control bracket to the
cylinder block with the three socket headed screws.
RENEW 011, TEMPERATURE THERMOSTAT
Used when an oil cooler is fitted.
1. Remove the two bolts and carefully withdraw the
thermostat extension housing.
2. Remove t h e ‘0’ring.
3. Withdraw the thermostat.
4. Remove the washer.
5 . Remove the spring.
6. Clean the adaptor housing with lint-free cloth.
7. Fit the spring and washer.
8. Fit a new thermostat with the pin uppermost.
9. Fit the extension housing using a new ‘0’ ring.
Ensure that the pin protruding from thc thermostat
locates in the hole in the extension housing.
10. Secure the housing with the two bolts and washers.
88
5 . Connect the D.P.S. pump control rod to the
control bracket lever.
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
12
FIT THE FUEL INJECTORS AND PIPES
Fit the injectors
The steel sealing washer fitted below the injector
nozzlc is to ensure that combustion does not take place
around the nozzle body and cause it to overheat. A
washer which has been used more than once, o r an
incorrectly fitted washer may cause the nozzle to
overheat and result in that cylinder misfiring.
1. Ensure that the new washers are separated from
each other and are clean.
2. Use a length of thin welding wire to guide one
washer only into each port with the domed side
toward the injector as illustrated. Ensure that only
one washer is fitted to each port.
FIT THE STARTER MOTOR
1. Fit the starter motor to the flywheel housing and
secure with:
a) one stud and n u t
b) one single bolt
c) one nut and bolt.
Evenly tighten to the correct torque.
continued
3 . Lightly grcasc the copper washer into position o n
each injector before fitting to the cylinder head.
4. Fit the injector and evenly tighten the retaining
nuts to the correct torque. Uneven or
overtightening of the injector nuts could distort the
nozzle and cause misfiring when normal running
temperature is reached.
Fit the injector pipes
2. Fit t h e injcctor pipes to the injectors and D.P.S.
pump. Counting from the front of the engine
connect the pipes as follows:
A. To number 1 injector.
B. To number 2 injector.
C. To number 3 injector.
D. To ilurriber 4 injector.
Do not overtighten the union nuts.
89
1121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
2. Secure the rear of the motor to the bracket with
two bolts and tighten to the correct torque.
FIT THE AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST MANIFOLDS
1. Using a new gaskct fit the manifolds and secure
with the retaining nuts and clamps. Evenly tighten
to the specified torque ligure.
2. Connect the breather hose to the oil filler cap.
U
ST 1550M
Turbo-charged engines
3. Fit a new gasket to the cylinder head.
4. Fit thc air intake manifold and evenly lighten the
bolts to the correct torque.
I
L
L
-
L
I
5. Fit the exhaust manifold and secure with the four
socket headed bolts and clamps.
90
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
12
STl
ST769M
FIT ALTERNATOR - 12 VOLT
1. Fit adjustment link to front cover.
2. Assemble the alternator to thc engine b r x k c t with
the two pivot bolts, distancc piece and washers,
leaving the bolts slack.
3. Fit thc adjustment link to the timing cover and
attach to alternator with adjusting clamp bolt.
FIT PO WEK STEERING PUMP
1. If removed, fit the jockey pullcy to the spindle.
2. Fit the bracket and jockey pulley assembly to the
engine with the three bolts.
3 . Fit the power steering pump to t h e bracket and
secure the plate to t h e pump with four bolts.
4. Secure the plate to the bracket with the three bolts.
5. Fit the drive pulley to the pump with the three
bolts.
6. Fit the drive belt.
Adjust belt tension
. _.
'...a..
.. i....,
I.
.,..
4. Fit the drive belt and pivot the alternator away
from the engine, but do not apply pressure to the
stator or slip-ring end bracket o r damage may
result. Tighten t h e clamp bolt and with thumb
pressure, check the belt tension between the fan
and alternator pulleys which should be 7 to 9 mm
at the mid-point.
5 . When the tension is correct fully tighten the clamp
bolts and the pivot nuts and bolts.
91
1 121
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
ADJUST POWER STEERING DRIVE BELT
1. Slacken the jockey pulley pinch bolt.
2. Move the jockey pulley to the left or right as
necessary to achieve a deflection, by thumb
pressure, of 12 mm at the mid-point o f the belt run
between the crankshaft and power steering pump
pulley.
3. Tighten the pinch bolt.
92
2.50 LITRE DIESEL ENGINE
,!...
, .
I,.
I
::.....:.:
.. ":, !
,.<.A.
I)
\
....<
~
DIESEL ENGINE MECHANICAL FAULTS
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CURE
MAIN BEARING R A T T L E
34. Low oil level in sump
Replenish as necessary to high mark on
dipstick
Worn bearings. Faulty skew, gcar
assembly.
&cylinder engine
.
Renew bearings; and o r crankshaft
Renew and investigate reason for failure
Tightcn to correct torque
35. Low oil pressure
36. Excessive bearing clcarance
37. Burnt-out bearings
38. Loose bearing caps
39. Low coolant level
40. Faulty cooling system
ENGINE O V E R H E A T I N G
- ..
41. Faulty thermostat
42. Cracked cylinder head
43. Defective lubrication system
Chcck for leaks, check expansion tank level
Check fan and belt, pump, radiator fins not
>locked
rest and renew, if necessary
Renew
Renew Filter, Check pump, Clean strainer.
:heck oil circulation. Renew oil temperature
:hermosta t .
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
40.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
Drain and rcfill with correct oil and renew filter
Replensih to high mark on dipstick
:lean
Rectify
Rectify
Renew
:heck circuit
Remove and ascertain cause
Pencw
3verhaul oil pump
.,,.
.....
...:
..
,
,OW O I L PRESSURE W A R N I N G
-1GHT REMAINS O N , E N G I N E
ZUNNING
Thin or diluted oil
Low oil level
Choked pump strainer
Faulty release valve
Excessive bearing clearance
Oil pressurc switch unscrviccablc
Elcctrical fault
Rclicf valve plunger sticking
Weak rcliefvalvc spring
Pump rotors cxcessively worn
Excessively worn hearings; main. connecting
rod. big cnd. camshaft, etc.
55. Faulty skcw gear assembly. 4-cylinder engines
~
I A T T L E IN LUBRICATION
;YSTEM
JOISY VALVE MECHANISM
. ..,.
. ... .
,
.
AECHANICAL NOISES:
>owpitch knock
>owpitch thud
ntermittcnt thuds
iigh pitch tap
.ight tapping
#lapping
4sccrtain which bearings and rectify
lheck skew gear bearing. Check plug not leakinf
)r seals in 2.5 diesel engine. Scc engine overhaul
~
56. Oil pressure relief valve plunger sticking
57. Sticking valves
58. Weak valvc springs
59. Tappet clearance too wide
60. Deterioration of timing belt
Xemovc and clean
1
Overhaul cylinder head
Big-end bearing slack o r run
Main bearing slack o r run
Loose flywheel o r excessive crankshaft end-float
Worn gudgeon pins
Exccssive valve clcarancc
Excessive piston clearance -more apparanl
when cold
93
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
DISMANTLE AND OVERHAUL
Remove the engine from the vehicle and clean the
exterior. I n the interests of safety and efficient working
secure the engine to a recognised engine stand. Drain
and discard the sump oil.
.
Special tools:Guide bolts -605351
Torque wrench - 18G537
Clutch centralising tool - 18G79
Gudgeon pin removerheplacer -Basic tool - 18G1150
Adaptor remover/replacergudgeon pin. - 18G1150E o r 605350
Spring compressor - lSG106A or R0276102
Valve guide drift exhaust -600959
Valve cutter handle set -MS76
8.5 Adjustable pilot -MS150
Valve seat cutter - MS621
Distance piece for valve guide -R0605774
Drift for guide removal - inlet and exhaust R0274401
Crankshaft rear seal sleeve -R01014
Remove induction manifold
3 . Disconnect miscellaneous pipes and hoses from the
induction manifold and the carburetters.
4. Evenly slacken and remove the twclve bolts and lift
off the induction manifold complete with
carburetters.
5 . Wipe away any surplus coolant lying on the
manifold gasket and remove the gasket clamp bolts
and remove the clamps.
6. Lift off the manifold gasket and seals.
REMOVE ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT
Before commencing, and whilst dismantling, make a
careful note of the position of brackets, clips harnesses,
pipes, hoses filters and other miscellaneous and nonstandard items to facilitate reassembly.
1. Remove the following itemsof equipment:
Starter motor.
Alternator and mounting bracket.
Power stecring pump -whcre fitted.
Disconnect spark plug H.T. leads and remove the
distributor.
Clutch.
Fan blades, pulley and drive belt.
Remove pulse air rails from cylinder heads.
Dipstick and engine mounting brackets.
Kemove exhaust manifolds
2. Bend back the lock tabs, and remove the eight
bolts securing each manifold, and withdraw the
manifolds.
94
Remove water pump
7. Remove the fifteen bolts and withdraw the water
pump and joint washer.
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
. .. *.,
I ’
.1
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL ROCKER SHAFTS AND
VALVE GEAR
1. Remove t h e four screws and lift off the rocker
covers
2. Remove the four rocker shaft rctaining bolts and
lift off t h e assembly complete with baffle plate.
3. Withdraw the pushrods and retain in the sequence
removed.
4. Remove the hydraulic tappets and place to one side
with their respective pushrods. If a tappet cannot
be removed leave i n position until the camshaft is
removed.
Dismantle rocker shafts
5 . Remove the split pin from one end of the rocker
shaft.
4 . Withdraw the following components and retain
them in the correct sequence for reassembly:
7 . A plain washcr.
8. A wave washer.
9. Rocker arms.
10. Brackets.
11. Springs.
12. Examine each component for wear, in particular
the rockers and shafts. Discard weak or broken
springs.
Sl
Inspect tappets and pushrods
13. Hydraulic tappet; inspect inner and outer surfaces
of body for blow holes and scoring. Replace
hydraulic tappet if body is roughly scored or
grooved, or has a blow hole extending through the
wall i n a position to permit oil leakage from lower
chamber.
14. The prominent wear pattern just above lower end
of body should not be considered a defect unless it
is definitely grooved or scored. I t is caused by side
thrust of t h e cam against thc body while the tappet
is moving vertically in its guide.
15. Inspect the cam contact surface of t h e tappets. Fit
new tappets if the surface is exccssively worn or
damaged.
16. A hydraulic tappet body that has been rotating will
have a round wear pattern and a non-rotating
tappet body will have a square wear pattern with a
very slight depression near the centre.
17. Tappets MUST rotate and a circular wear
condition is normai. Tappets wiih ihis w e a r paiierri
can be refitted provided thcre are no other defects.
18. I n the case of a non-rotating tappet, fit it new
replacement and check camshaft lobes for wear;
also ensure the new tappet rotates freely in the
cylinder block.
con1inued
95
1121
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
25. Compress the springs, brackets and rockers, and fit
a wave washer, plain washer and split pin to the
end of the rocker shaft.
26. Locate the oil baffle platc in place over the rockers
furthest from the notched end of thc rocker shaft
and fit the bolts through the brackets and place the
assemblies to one side.
REMOVE
HEADS
AND
OVERHAUL
0
THE CYLINDER
1. Evenly slacken the fourteen cylinder head bolts
reversing the tightening order.
2. Before removing the heads mark them relative to
the L.H. and R.H. side of the engine.
3. Lift off the cvlinder heads and discard the gasket.
RR750M
19. Fit a new hydraulic tappet if the area where the
pushrod contacts is rough or otherwise damaged.
20. Renew any pushrod having a rough or damaged
ball end or seat. Also bent rods must be renewed.
Assemble rocker shafts
21. Fit a split pin to one end of the rocker shaft.
22. Slide a plain washer over the long end of the shaft
to abut the split pin.
23. Fit a wave washer to abut the plain washer.
NOTE: Two different rocker arms are used and
must be fitted so that the valve ends of the arms
slope away from the brackets, as indicated by the
dotted lines 'A' on the illustration.
24. Assemble the rocker arms, brackets and springs to
the rocker shaft.
Dismantle cylinder heads
4. Remove the spark plugs.
5 . Using the valve spring compressor 276102, or a
--
rE- _. "
- /
suitable alternative, remove the valves and springs
and retain in sequence for refitting.
,
,
/
I
ST788M
i
96
.7
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
112)
6. Clean the combustion chambers with a soft wire
brush.
7. Clean the valves.
8. Clean the valve guide bores.
7
w
v
m-
Fit new valve guides
14. Lubricate the new valve guide and place in
position. Using guide drift 600959 drive the guide
into the cylinder head until it protrudes 19 mm
(Xi in) above the valve spring recess in the head.
9. Regrind or fit new valves as necessary.
10. If a valve must be ground to a knife-edge to obtain
a true seat, fit a new valve.
11. The correct angle for the valve face is 45 degrees.
12. The correct angle for the seat is 46 + '/4 degrees,
and the seat witness should be towards the outer
edge.
ST 793M
NOTE: Service valve guides are 0,02 mm (0.001 in)
larger on the outside diameter than the original
equipment to ensure interference fit.
Examine and fit new valve seats
15. Check the valve seats for wear, pits and burning
and renew the inserts if necessary.
.
?:
13. Check the valve guides and fit replacements as
necessary. Using the valve guide remover 274401,
drive out the old guides from the rocker shaft side
of the cylinder head.
continued
97
12
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
16. Remove the old seat inserts by grinding them away
until they are thin enough to be cracked and prised
out.
17. Heat the cylinder head evenly to approximately 65
degrccs C (1 50 degrees F).
18. Press thc new insert into the recess in the cylinder
head.
NOTE: Service valve seat inserts are available in
two over-sizes: 0,25 and 0,50 mm (0.010 and 0.020
in) larger on the outside diameter to ensure
interference fit.
19. If necessary, cut t h e valve seats to 46 + '14 degrees.
20. The nominal seat width is 1,5 mm (0.031 in). If t h e
seat exceeds 2,O mm (0.078 in) it should be
reduced to the specified width by the use of 20 and
70 degrec cutters.
21. The inlet valve seat diameter, A is 37,03 mm
(1.358 ins) and the exhaust valvc seat is 31,50 mm
(1.240 ins) diametcr.
ST1024M
23. Smear a small quantity of engineers' blue round the
valve seat and revolve a properly ground valve
against the seat. A continuous fine line should
appear round the valve. If there IS a gap of not
more than 12 mm it can be correctcd by lapping.
24. Alternatively, insert a strip of cellophane between
t h e valve and seat, hold the valve down by thc stem
and slowly pull out the cellophane. If there is a
drag the seal is satisfactory in that spot. Repeat this
in at least eight places. Lapping-in will correct a
small open spot.
Assemble valves to cylinder head
25. Before fitting the valves and springs the height of
each valve above the head must be checked. Insert
each valve in turn in its guide and whilst holding
the head firmly against the seat, measure the height
of the stem above the valve spring seat surface.
This dimension must n o t exceed 47,63 mm
(1.875 ins). If necessary renew the valve or grind
the end of the valvc stem.
26. Lubricate the valve stcms and assenible the valves,
springs and caps and secure with the collets using
valve spring compressor 276102.
NOTE: Seals are fitted to the inlet valves on later
engines, but these can also be fitted to early engines
if required.
ST797M
22. Ensure that the cutter blades are correctly fitted to
the cutter head with t h e angled end of the blade
downwards facing t h e work, as illustrated.
Check that the cutter blades are adjusted so that
the middle of the blade contacts the area of
material to be cut. Use the key provided i n the
hand set MS 76. Use light pressure, and remove
only the minimum material necessary.
98
P;;
$
-2
.. .*
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
--
1121
Reclaiming cylinder head threads
Damaged or stripped threads in the cylinder head can
be salvaged by fitting Helicoils as follows:
I~IolesA - These threc holes may be drilled 0.3906 in.
dia. x 0.937 + 0.040 in. deep. Tapped with Helicoil Tap
No. 6 CPB or 6CS x 0.875 in. (min.) deep (g UNC 1%D
insert).
Holes B - These eight holes may be drilled 0.3906 in.
dia. x 0.812 + 0.040 in. deep. Tapped with Helicoil Tap
No. 6 CBB 0.749 in. (min.) deep UNC 1MD insert).
Holes C - These four holes may be drilled 0.3906 in.
dia. x 0.937 0.040 in. deep. Tapped with Helicoil Tap
No. 6 CPB or 6CS x 0.875 in. (min.) deep ($U N C 1 %D
insert).
(a
+
-
NOTE: Right-hand cylinder head illustrated.
American projection.
Holes D - These four holes may be drilled 0.261 in.
dia. x 0.675 + 0.040 in. deep. Tapped with Helicoil Tap
No. 4CPB or 4CS x 0.625 in. (min.) deep ( % UNC
1 KD insert).
F Exhaust manifold face
G Inlet manifold face
H Front face
I Rear face
J Front of engine
Holes E - These six holes may be drilled 0.3906 in.
dia. x 0.937 0.040 i n . deep. Tapped with Hclicoil Tap
No. 6 CPR or 6CS x 0.875 i n . (min.) deep (iUNC lW3
insert).
+
F
A
\
I
I
I
/\
ST 799M
G
99
El
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
6. Place a chisel immediately above the drilled
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL FLYWHEEL
1. Remove the retaining bolts and withdraw the
flywheel from the crankshaft.
2. Examine the flywheel clutch face for cracks, scores
and overheating. If the overall thickness of the
flywheel is in excess of the minimum thickness i.e.
39,93 mm (1.572 in) it can be refaced provided that
after machining it will not be below the minimum
thickness. Remove the three dowels before
machining.
3. Examine the ring gear and if worn or the teeth are
chipped and broken it can be renewed as follows:
3
\
ST803M
2
hole and strike it sharply to split the starter ring
gear.
7. Heat the new ring gear uniformly t o between 170
degrees and 175 degrees C (338 degrees to 347
degrees F) but do not exceed the higher
temperature.
8. Place the flywheel, clutch side down, on a flat
surface.
9. Locate the heated starter ring gear in position on
the flywheel, with the chamfered inner diameter
towards the flywheel flange. If the starter ring gear
is chamfered both sides, it can be fitted either way
round.
10. Press the starter ring gear firmly against the flange
until the ring contracts sufficiently to grip the
flywheel.
11. Allow the flywheel to cool gradually. Do NOT
hasten cooling in any way or distorting may occur.
12. Fit new clutch assembly location dowels to the
flywheel.
v
.:
I
4. Drill a 10 mm (.375 in) diameter hole axially
between the root of any tooth and the inner
diameter of the starter ring sufficiently deep to
weaken the ring. D o NOT allow the drill to enter
the flywheel.
5 . Secure the flywheel in a vice fittcd with soft jaws
and piace a cioth over the fiywheei to protect rhe
operator from flying fragments.
WARNING: Take adequate precautions against
flying fragments when splitting the ring gear.
100
f-3
7
9
I
ST804M
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
REMOVE TIMING GEAR COVER AND WATER
PUMP
Renewing timing cover oil seal
S. Remove the seven drive screws and withdraw the
1. Place an oil drip-tray beneath the timing cover and
remove the oil filter element.
2. Remove the crankshaft pulley bolt and special
washer and withdraw the pulley.
3. Remove the two bolts securing the sump to the
bottom of the timing cover.
ST805M
mud shield and the oil seal.
6. Position the gear cover with the front face
uppermost and the underside supported across t h e
oil seal housing bore on a suitable wooden block.
7. Enter the oil seal, lip side leading, into the housing
bore.
8. Press in the oil seal until the plain face is 1,s m m
(0.062 in) approximately below thc gear cover
face.
9. Fit the mud shield and secure with the screws.
1
4. Remove the remaining timing cover retaining bolts
and withdraw the cover complete with oil pump.
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL THE OIL PUMP
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove the bolts from the oil pump cover.
Withdraw t h e oil pump cover.
Lift off the cover gasket.
Withdraw the oil pump gears.
101
12
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
Dismantle pump
5.
6.
7.
8.
Unscrew the plug from the pressure relief valve.
Lift off the joint washer for the plug.
Withdraw the spring from the relief valve.
Withdraw the pressure relief valve.
0
..__
...<.
Assemble pump
,,-,-..
.
17. Insert the relief valve spring.
18. Locate the sealing washer on to the relief valve
plug.
19. Fit the relief valve plug and tighten to 4,0 to
4,9 kgf m (30 to 35 Ibf ft).
20. Fully pack the oil pump gear housing with
petroleum jelly. Use only petroleum jelly; no other
grease is suitable.
21. Fit the oil pump gears so that t h e petroleum jelly i s
forced into every cavity between the teeth of the
gears.
IMPORTANT: Unless the pump if fully packed
with petroleum jelly it may not prime itself when the
engine is started.
ST809M
22. Place a new gasket on the oil pump cover.
23. Locate the oil pump cover in position.
24. Fit the special fixing bolts and tighten alternately
and evenly to the correct torque.
e::.*
<'j
..
Examine pump
9. Check the oil pump gears for wear or scores.
10. Fit the oil pump gears and shaft into t h e Front
cover.
11, Place a straight-edge across the gears.
12. Check the clcarance betwccn the straight-edge and
the front cover. If less than 0,05 mm (0.0018 in),
check the front cover gear pocket for wear.
REMOVE
TIMING
CAMSHAFT
CHAIN
GEARS
AND
1. Remove the retaining bolt and washer a n d
withdraw the distributor drive gear and spacer.
continucd
13. Chcck the oil pressure relief valve for wear or
scores.
14. Check the relief valve spring for wear at the sides
or signs of collapse.
15. Clz.!n the gauze filter for the relief valve.
16. Check the fit of the relief valve in its bore. The
valve must be an easy slide fit with no perceptible
side movement.
102
ST81lM
---'--
e'"-'*
',
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
,/ ,d.%:h.
c.
3
2. Withdraw the chaln wheels complete with timing
chain.
112
6. Measure the camshaft journals for overall wear,
ovality and taper. The diameters of the five
journals are as follows commencing from the front
of the shaft.
Number 1 journal
Number 2 journal
Number 3 journal
Number 4 journal
Number 5 journal
1.786 to 1.785 ins
1.750 to 1.755 ins
1.726 to 1.725 ins
1.696 to 1.695 ins
1.666 to 1.665 ins
7. To check the camshaft for bow, rest the two end
journals i.e. numbers 1 and 5 on ‘V’ blocks and
mount a dial gauge on the centre journal. Rotate
t h e shaft and note the reading. If the run out is
more than 0,05 mm (0.002 in) it should be
renewed.
3. Withdraw thc camshaft whilst taking particular
carc not to daniagc thc bearings in t h e cylinder
block.
REMOVE AND OVERHAUL CONNECTING-RODS
AND PISTONS
\
1. Withdraw the remaining bolts and remove [he
sump.
2. Remove the sump oil strainer.
3. Removc the connccting-rod caps and retain them
in sequence for reassembly.
4. Screw the guide bolts 605351 onto the connectingrods.
continued
Examine components
_ ,.
. :....,.
....
“I.
4. Visually examine all parts for wear. Check t h e
camshaft bearing journals and cams for wcar, pits,
scores and overheating. Should any of these
conditions be present the shaft should be renewed.
5. Examine the links and pins of the timing chain for
wcar and compare its condition with that of a I.ew
chain. Similarly the teeth of t h e chain wheels
should be inspected a n d if necessary the wheels
should be renewed.
103
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
5 . Push the connecting-rod and piston assembly up
the cylinder bore and withdraw it from the top.
Retain the connecting-rod and piston assemblies in
sequence with their respective caps.
6. Remove the guide bolts 605351 from the
connecting-rod.
d . Locate the piston adaptor 18G 1150 E with its
long spigot inside the bore of the hexagon body.
e . Fit the remover/replacer bush of 18G 1150 on
the centre screw with the flanged end away from
the gudgeon pin.
f. Screw the stop-nut about half-way onto the
smaller threaded end of the centre screw,
leaving a gap ‘A’of 3 mm (B in) between this nut
and the remover/replacer bush.
g. Lock the stop-nut securely with the lock screw.
h. Check that the remover-replacer bush is
correctly positioned in the bore of the piston.
i. Push the connecting-rod to the right to expose
the end of the gudgeon pin, which must be
located in the end of the adaptor ‘d’.
j. Screw the large nut up to the thrust race.
k. Hold the lock screw and turn the large nut until
the gudgeon pin has been withdrawn from the
piston. Dismantle the tool.
continued
Overhaul
NOTE: The connecting-rods, caps and bearing shells
must be retained in sets, and in the correct sequence.
Remove the piston rings over the crown of the piston. If
the same piston is to be refitted, mark it relative to its
connecting-rod to ensure that the original assembly is
maintained.
7. Withdraw the gudgeon pin, using tool 18G 1150 as
follows:
a. Clamp the hexagon body of 18G 1150 in a vice.
b. Position the large nut flush with the cnd of the
centre scrcw.
c. Push the screw forward until the nut contacts the
thrust race.
d
ST777M
104
a
c
b !
e
ypJ
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
_"..
....".. .:
"
.:
...._-..
....
. ._..,
>'.W
'
8. As an alternative to tool 18G 1150, press the
gudgeon pin from the piston using an hydraulic
press and the components which comprise tool
605350 as follows:
a. Place the base of tool 605350 on the bed of an
hydraulic press which has a capacity of 8 tons (8
tonnes).
b. Fit the guide tube into the bore of the base with
its countersunk face uppermost.
c. Push the piston to one side so as to expose one
end of the gudgeon pin and locate this end i n the
guide tube.
d . Fit the spigot end of the small diameter mandrel
into the gudgeon pin.
e. Press out the gudgeon pin, using the hydraulic
press.
E
New pistons
Pistons are available in service standard sizc and in
oversizes of 0,25 mm (0.010 in) and 0,50 mm
(0.020 in). Service standard size pistons are
supplied 0,0254 mm (0.001 in) oversize. When
..fitting new service standard size pistons to a
cylinder block, check for correct piston to bore
clearance, honing the bore if necessary. Bottom of
piston skirt-bore clearance should be 0,018 to
0,033 mm (0.0007 to 0.0013 in).
NOTE: The temperature of the piston and cylinder
block must be the same to ensure accurate
measurement. When reboring the cylinder block,
the crankshaft main bearing caps must be fitted and
tightened to the correct torque.
9. Check the cylinder bore dimension at right angles
to the gudgeon pin, 40 to 50 mm (1'/2 to 2 in) from
the top.
-.
Original pistons
Remove the carbon deposits, particularly from the
ring grooves.
Examine the pistons for signs of damage or
excessive wear; refer to 'new pistons' for the
-I I0ItLhL nL A
IVU
he,-
n$
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"I C I I L A l l t ;
pistons if necessary.
tL h
a
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,
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I ,I I l L v v
10. Check the piston dimension at right angles to the
gudgeon pin, at the bottom of the skirt.
11. The piston dimension must be 0,018 to 0,033 m m
(0.0007 to 0.0013 in) smaller than the cylinder.
12. If new piston rings arc to be fitted without
reboring, deglaze the cylinder walls with a hone,
without incrcasing the bore diameter to provide a
cross-hatch finish.
continued
105
lz[
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
13. Check the compression ring gaps in the applicable
cylinder, held square to thc bore with the piston.
Gap limits: 0,44 to 0,56 mm (0.017 to 0.022 in).
Use a fine-cut flat file to increase the gap if
required. Select a new piston ring if the gap
exceeds the limit.
NOTE: Gapping does not apply to oil control rings.
ST819M
Fit piston rings
17. Fit the expander ring into the bottom groove
making sure that the ends butt and do not overlap.
18. Fit two ring rails to the bottom groove, one above
and one below the expander ring.
19. Fit the second compression ring with the marking
‘TOP’ uppermost and the chrome compression ring
in the top groove, either way round.
/
14. Temporarily fit the compression rings to the piston.
15. The ring marked ‘TOP’ must be fitted with the
marking uppermost and into the second groove.
The chrome ring is for the top groove and can be
fitted either way round.
16. Check the compression ring clearance in the piston
groove. Clearance limits: 0,Oj to O , ~ Omm (0.002 to
0.004 in).
ST821M
Examineconnec*ing-rods
20. Check the alignment of the connecting-rod.
21. Check the connecting-rod small end, the gudgeon
pin must be a press f i t .
cont inucd
106
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
112
Check crankshaft bearings
-
22. Locate the bearing upper shell into the connectingrod.
23. Locate the connecting-rod and bearing on to the
applicable crankshaft journal, noting that the
domed shape boss on the connecting-rod must face
towards the front of the engine on the right-hand
bank of cylinders and towards the rear on the
left-hand bank.
24. When both connecting-rods are fitted, the bosses
will face inwards towards each other.
25. Place a piece of Plastigauge across the centre of the
lower half of the crankshaft journal.
26. Locate the bearing lower shell into the connectingrod cap.
27. Locate the cap and shell on to the connecting-rod.
Note that the rib on the edge of the cap must be the
same side as the
shape boss On the
connecting-rod.
28. Secure the connecting-rod cap, and tighten to the
correct torque.
-
,
IR/II'ORTANT: The connecting-rods, caps and bearing
shells must be retained in sets, and in the correct
sequence,
Assembling pistons to connecting-rods
37. If an hydraulic press and tool 605350 was used for
....
29. Do not rotate the crankshaft or connecting-rod
while the Plastigauge is in USC.
30. Remove the connecting-rod cap and shell.
31. Using the scalc printed on the Plastigauge packet,
measure t h e flattened Plastigauge at its widest
point.
32. The graduation that most closely corresponds to
the width of the Plastigauge indicates the bearing
clearance.
33. The correct bearing clearance with new or
overhauled components is 0,013 to 0,06 mm
(0.0006 !e 0.0022. in>.
34. If a bearing has been in service, i t is advisable to fit
a new bearing if t h e clearance exceeds 0,08 mm
(0.003 in).
35. I f a new bearing is being fitted, use selective
assembly to obtain the correct clearance.
36. Wipe off the Plastigauge with an oily rag. DO NOT
scrape i t off.
dismantling, refit cach piston to its connccting-rod
as follows:
a. Check that the base of tool 605350 and the guide
tube are fitted as follows:Place the base of tool 605350 on the bed of a n
hydraulic press which has a capacity of 8 tons (8
tonnes).
Fit the guide tube into the bore of the base with
its countersunk face uppermost.
b. Fit the long mandrel inside the guide tube.
c. Fit the connccting-rod into the piston with the
markings together if the original pair arc being
used, then place the piston and connecting-rod
assembly over the long mandrel until the
gudgeon pin boss rests on thc guidc tube.
d . Fit the gudgeon pin into the piston up to the
connecting-rod, and the spigot end of the small
diameter mandrel into the gudgeon pin.
e. Press in the gudgeon pin until it abuts the
shoulder of the long mandrel.
continucd
107
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
D
37
A
38. If tool 18G 1150 was used for dismantling, refit
each piston t o its connecting-rod as follows:
a. Clamp the hexagon body of 18G 1150 in a vice,
with the adaptor 18G 1150 E positioned as in 4d.
b. Remove the large nut of 18G 1150 and push the
centre screw approximately 50 mm (2 in) into
the body until the shoulder is exposed.
c. Slide t h e parallel guide sleeve, grooved end last,
onto the centre screw and up to the shoulder.
d . Lubricate t h e gudgeon pin and bores of the
connecting-rod and piston with graphited oil
(Acheson’s Colloids ‘Oildag’). Also lubricate
the ball race and centre screw of 18G 1150.
e. Fit the connecting-rod and the piston together
onto the tool with the markings together if the
original pair are being used and with the
connecting-rod around the sleeve up to the
groove.
f . Fit the gudgeon pin into the piston bore up to
the connecting-rod.
g. Fit the removerheplacer bush 18G 115013 with
its flanged end towards the gudgeon pin.
h . Screw the stop-nut onto the centre screw and
adjust this nut to obtain a 1 mm (& in) end-float
‘A’ on the whole assembly, and lock the nut
securely with the screw.
i. Slide the assembly back into the hexagon body
and screw on the large nut up to the thrust race.
j. Set the torque wrench 18G 537 to 12 Ibf ft. This F~::,
,e:>;
represents t h e minimum load for an acceptable
interference fit of the gudgeon pin in the
con necti ng-rod.
k . Using the torque wrench and socket 18G 587 on
t h e large nut, and holding the lock screw, pull
t h e gudgeon pin in until the flange of the
remover-rcplacer bush is 4 m m (0.160 in) ‘B’
from the face of the piston. Under no
circumstances must this flange be allowed to
contact the piston.
CAUTION: If the torque wrench has not broken
throughout the pull, the fit of the gudgeon pin to
the connecting-rod is not acceptable and
necessitates the renewal of components. The
large nut and centre screw of the tool must be
kept well-oiled.
1
I
e.e,
:-.
“-”
39. Remove the tool and check that the piston moves
freely on the gudgeon pin and that no damage has
occurred during pressing.
c
I
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ST778M
I08
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
/.2;:.2>
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REMOVE AND OVERHAUL CRANKSHAFT
1. Remove the main bearing caps and lower bearing
shells and retain in sequence. It is important to
keep them in pairs and mark them with thc number
of the respective journal until it is decided if thc
bearing shells are to be rcfitted.
2. Lift out the crankshaft and rear oil seal.
-
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Inspect and overhaul crankshaft
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.
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.
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3 . Rest the crankshaft o n vee-blocks at numbers one
and five main bearing journals.
4. Using a dial test indicator, check the run-out at
numbers two, thrce and four main bearing
journals. The total indicator readings at each
journal should not exceed 0,08 m m (0.003 in).
5. While checking t h e run-out at each journal, note
the relation of maximum eccentricity on each
journal to the others. The maximum on all journals
should come at very near the same angular
iocation.
6. If the crankshaft fails to meet the foregoing checks
it is bent and is unsatisfactory for service.
7. Check each crankshaft journal for ovality. If
ovality exceeds 0,040 mm (0.0015 in), a reground
or new crankshaft should be fitted.
continued
109
112I
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
8. Bearings for the crankshaft main journals and the
connecting-rod journals are available in the
following undersizes:
0 3 mm (0.010 in)
0,50 mm (0.020 in)
9. The centre main bearing shell, which controls
crankshaft thrust, has the thrust faces increased in
thickness when more than 0,25 mm (0.010 in)
undersize, as shown o n thc following chart.
14
10
\
RR1793E
13
Crankshaft dimensions - millimetres
Crankshaft
Grade
Diameter
'12'
Width
Diameter
'13'
'14'
Standard
0,254 u/s
0,508 U/S
s8,4oo-s8,413
58,146-58,158
57,892-57,904
26,97s-27,020
26,97527,026
27,22927,280
wwo-sn.812
50,546-50,559
50,292-.50,305
Crankshaft dimensions - inches
10. When a crankshaft is to be reground, the thrust
faces on either side of the centre main journal must
be machined in accordance with the dimensions on
the following charts.
Main bearing journal size
Standard
0.25 mm 0.010 in) undersize
0,50 mm t0.020 in) undersize
Crankshaft
Grade
Diameter
'12'
Width
'13'
Diamctcr
Standard
0.010 u/s
0.020 u/s
2.2992-2.2997
2.2892-2.2897
2.2792-2.2797
I .062-1 .Oh4
1.062-I .Oh4
I .072- I .074
2.0000-2.0005
Standard
Standard
0,25 mm (0.010in) ovcrsize
Check main bearing clearance
16. Remove the oil seals from the cylinder block and
the rear main bearing cap.
17. Locate the upper main bearing shells into the
cylinder block. These must be the shells with the oil
drilling and oil grooves.
18. Locate the flanged upper main bcaring shell in the
centre position.
19. Place the crankshaft in position on the bearings.
Crankshaft dimensions
12. The radius for all journals except the rear main
bearing is 1,90 to 2,28 mm (0.075 to 0.090 in).
13. The radius for the rear main bearing journal is
--
2 (\/I
(0 1 3 0 ;"\
%a&).
(W.
I & W
14. Main bearing journal diameter, sec the following
charts.
15. Thrust face width, and connecting-rod journal
diameter, see t h e following charts.
110
1.9900- 1.9905
1.9800-1 .'I805
Thrust face width
11. For example: If a 0,50 mm (0.020 in) Undersize
bcaring is to be fitted, then 0,12 m m (0.005 in)
must be machined off each thrust face of thc centre
journal, maintaining the correct radius.
>,"I
11,111
'14'
continued
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
112
20. Place a piece of Plastigauge across the centre of the
crankshaft main bearing journals.
21. Locate the bearing lower shell into the main
bearing cap.
22. Fit numbers one to four main bearing caps and
shells. Torque: 7,O to 7,6 kgf m (50 to 55 Ibf ft).
23. Fit the rear main bearing cap and shell. Torque:
9,0 to 9,6 kgf m (65 to 70 Ibf ft). Do not allow the
crankshaft to be rotated while the Plastigauge is in
use.
24. Remove the main bearing caps and shells.
25. Using the scale printed on the Plastigauge packet,
measure the flattened Plastigauge at its widest
point.
26. The graduation that most closely corresponds to
the width of the Plastigauge indicates the bearing
clearance.
ASSEMBLING ENGINE
FIT CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS
27. The correct bearing clearance with new or
overhauled components is 0,023 to 0,065 mm
(0.0009 to 0.0025 in).
28. If the correct clearance is not obtained initially, use
selective bearing assembly.
29. Wipe off the Plastigauge with an oily rag. Do NOT
scrape it off.
30. Maintain the bearing shells and caps in sets and in
the correct sequence.
1. Locate the upper main bearing shells into thc
cylinder block; these must be the shells with the oil
drilling and oil grooves.
2. Locate the flanged upper main bearing shell in the
centre position.
3. Lubricate the crankshaft main bearing journals and
bearing shells with clean engine oil and lower the
crankshaft into position.
Renew spigot bearing
31. Carefully remove the old bearing.
32. Fit the spigot bearing flush with, or to a maximum
of 1,6 m m (0.063 in) below the end face of the
crankshaft.
0,025 mm
33. Ream the spigot bearing to 19,177
(0.7504 + 0.001 in) inside diameter. Ensure all
swarf is removed.
+
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El
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
4. Lubricate the lower main bearing shells and fit
numbers one to four main bearing caps and shells
only, leaving the fixing bolts finger tight at this
stage.
5 . Fit the cruciform side seals to the grooves each side
of the rear main bearing cap. Do not cut the side
seals to length, they must protrude 1,5 mm
(0.062 in) approximately above the bearing cap
parting face.
6. Apply Hylomar PL32M jointing compound to thc
rearmost half of the rear main bearing cap parting
face or, if preferred, to the equivalent arca on the
cylinder block as illustrated.
7. Lubricate the bearing half and bearing cap side
seals with clean engine oil.
8. Fit the bearing cap assembly to the engine. Do not
tighten the fixings at this stage but ensure that the
cap is fully home and squarely seated on the
cylinder block.
9. -Tension the cap bolts equally by one-quarter turn
approximately, then back off one complete turn on
each fixing bolt.
NOTE: The lubricant coating must cover the seal
guide outer surface completely to ensure that the oil
seal lip is not turned back during assembly.
Position the oil seal, lipped side towards the engine,
onto the seal guide. The seal outside diameter must
be clean and dry.
12. Push home the oil seal fully and squarely by hand
into the recess formed in the cap and block until it
abuts against the machined step in the recess.
Withdraw the seal guide.
13. Tighten the main bearing cap bolts to the corrcct
torque noting that the bolts for numbers one to
four bearings have a different torque to number
five bearing cap bolts.
14. Using a feeler gauge or a dial indicator check the
crankshaft end-float, 0,lO to 0,20 mm (0.004 to
0.008 in).
\
ST831M'
\
CAUTION: Do not handle the seal lip, visually check
that it is not damaged and ensure that the outside
diameter remains clean and dry.
10. Position the seal guide RO 1014 on the crankshaft
flange.
11. Ensure that the oil seal guide and the crankshaft
journal are scrupulously clean, then coat the seal
guide and oil seal journal with clean engine oil.
CAUTION: DO not exceed 1,000 engine rev/min when
first starting the engine, otherwise the crankshaft rear
oil seal will be damaged.
112
c-*
.
,/
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
-.,
112
,.”
.. ... .
a-
FIT CONNECTING-RODS AND PISTONS
c
1. Locate the applicable crankshaft journal at B.D.C.
2. Place the bearing upper shell in the connectingrod.
3. Retain the upper shell by screwing the guide bolts
605351 onto the connecting-rods.
4. insert the connecting-rod and piston assembly into
its respective bore, noting that the domed shape
boss on the connecting-rod must face towards the
front of the engine on the right-hand bank of
cylinders and towards the rear on the left-hand
bank. When both connecting-rods are fitted, the
bosses will face inwards towards each other.
7. Using a piston ring compressor, locate the piston
into the cylinder bore, until the piston crown is just
below the cylinder block top face.
8. Pull the connecting rods on to the crankpins using
the guide rods.
5. Position the oil control piston rings so that the ring
gaps are all at one side, between t h e gudgeon pin
and piston thrust face. Spacc t h c gaps in the ring
rails approximately 25 m m (1 in) each side of thc
expander ring joint.
6 . Position the compression rings so that their gaps
are on opposite sides of the piston between the
gudgeon pin and piston thrust face.
-.
.
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ST835M
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9. Place the bearing lower shell in thc connecting-rod
cap.
10. Locate the cap and shell onto t h e connecting-rod,
noting that the rib on the edge of the cap must be
towards the front of the engine on the right-hand
bank of cylinders and towards the rear on the
left-hand bank.
11. Check that the connecting-rods move freely
sideways on the crankshaft. Tightness indicates
insufficient bearing clearance or a misaligned
connecting-rod.
continued
I13
1121
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
12. Check the end-float between the connecting-rods
on each crankshaft journal. Clearance limits: 0,15
to 0,37 mm (0.006 to 0.014 in).
13. Tighten thc connecting-rod nuts to the correct
torque. Fit the oil straincr and joint washer.
FIT CAMSHAFT TIMING GEARS AND CHAIN
3. Temporarily fit the camshaft chain wheel with the
marking ‘FRONT’ or ‘F’ outwards.
4. Turn the camshaft until the mark on the camshaft
chain wheel is at the six o’clock position, then
remove the chain wheel without disturbing thc
camshaft.
5. Encircle the chain wheels with the chain keeping
the timing marks aligned.
R R 1800E
1 . Lubricate the camshaft journals and carefully
insert the camshaft into the cylinder block.
6. Engage the chain wheel asscmbly on the camshaft
and crankshaft key locations and check that the
camshaft key is parallel to the shaft axis to ensure
adequate lubrication of the distributor drive gear.
2. Turn the crankshaft t o bring number one piston to
T.D.C.
114
-.‘5
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
,‘.
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.__.
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CAUTION: The space between the key and keyway acts
as an oilway for lubrication of the drive gear. Ensure
that the key is seated to the full depth of the keyway. The
overall dimension of shaft and key must not exceed
30,15 mm (1.187 in). Dimension A below.
El
FIT THE FLYWHEEL
1. Locate the flywheel in position on the crankshaft
spigot, with the ring gear towards the engine.
2. Align the flywheel fixing bolt holes which arc
off-set to prevent incorrect assembly.
3 . Fit the flywheel fixing bolts and before finally
tightening, take up any clearance by rotating the
flywheel against the direction of engine rotation.
Tighten the bolts evenly to the correct torque.
- ST841 M
7. Check that the timing marks line-up and fit t h e
spacer with the flange to the front.
8. Fit the distributor drive gear ensuring that the
annular grooved side is fitted to the rear, that is
towards the spacer.
9. Secure the drive gear and camshaft chain wheel
assembly with the bolt and washer and tighten to
the correct torque.
FIT CYLINDER HEADS
1. Fit new cylinder head gaskets with the word ‘TOP’
uppermost. Do NOT use sealant.
continucd
RR 1799E
I
I
115
El V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
2. Locate the cylinder heads on the block dowel pins.
3. Clean the threads of the cylinder head bolts then
coat them with Thrcad Lubricant-Sealant Loctite
572.
FIT TAPPETS,
ASSEMBLIES
PUSH
RODS
AND
ROCKER
Fit tappets and push rods
1. Fit the tappets and push rods to their original
locations. Ensure that the tappets move freely in
their respective bores. Before fitting the tappets
immerse them in clean engine oil to reduce tappet
noise when the engine is first started after the
overhaul.
4. Locate t h e cylinder head bolts in position as
illustrated and fit dipstick tube.
Long bolts - 1 , 3 and 5 .
Medium bolts-2,4,6, 7 , 8 , 9 and 10
Short bolts - 11,12, 13 and 14.
5 . Tighten the cylinder head bolts a little at a time in
the scqucnce shown to t h e following figures:
Bolts 1 to 10 65 to 70 Ibf f t (88 to 95 Nm).
Bolts 11 to 1440 to 45 Ibf ft (54 to61 Nm).
6. When all bolts have been tightened, re-check the
torque settings.
Fit the rocker assemblies
2. The rocker shafts are handed and must be fitted
correctly to align the oilways.
3 . Each rocker shaft is notched at one end and on one
side only. The notch must be uppermost and
towards the front of the engine on the right-hand
side, and towards the rear on t h e left-hand side.
continued
Note: Left-hand cylinder head illustrated.
Arrow points to front of vehicle.
116
p.
.-
5
>
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
. .
.. ..”
.-. ,._ ’.
.,:.+
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4. Fit the rocker shaft assemblies. Ensure that the
push-rods engage the rocker cups and that the
baffle plates are fitted to the front on the left-hand
side, and to the rear on the right-hand side.
Tighten the bolts.
It should be noted that tappet noise can be expected on
initial starting-up after an overhaul due to oil drainage
from the tappet assemblies or indeed if the vehicle has
been standing over a very long period. If excessive
noise should be apparent after an overhaul, the engine
should be run at approximately 2,500 rev/min for a few
minutes (subject to the following caution), when the
noise should be eliminated.
CAUTION: Do not exceed 1,000 engine rev/min when
first starting the engine, otherwise the crankshaft rear
oil seal will be damaged.
FIT THE INDUCTION MANIFOLD
1. Coat both sides of new manifold gasket seals with
silicon grease.
2. Locate the seals in position with their ends engaged
in the notches formed between the cylinder head
and block.
)121
3. Apply ‘Hylomar’ sealing compound SQ32M on the
corners of the cylinder head, manifold gasket and
manifold, around the water passage joints.
4. Fit the manifold gasket with the word ‘FRONT’ to
the front and the open bolt hole at the front R.H.
side.
5. Fit the gasket clamps but do not fully tighten the
bolts at this stage.
\%
ST848
6. Locate the manifold onto the cylinder head.
7. Clean the threads of t h e manifold securing bolts
and apply Loctitc 572 to the threads.
8. Fit all the manifold bolts and tighten them a little at
a time, evenly, alternate sides working from the
centre to each end and finally tighten to the correct
torque.
9. Tighten the gasket clamp bolts to the correct
torque.
117
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
FIT THE TIMING COVER AND CRANKSHAFT
PULLEY
1. Place a new timing cover joint washer in position
and fit the timing cover locating it on the two
dowels.
2. Clean t h e threads of the timing cover securing
bolts, then coat them with Thread LubricantSealant Loctite 572.
3. Fit and evenly tighten the timing cover bolts to the
correct torque figure.
4. Fit the crankshaft pulley and tighten the retaining
bolt to the correct torque.
5 . Fit timing pointer.
ST850M
W
I
FIT THE SUMP
1. Clean t h e sump mating faces and a t the joint
between the timing cover and crankcase apply a
coating of a universal jointing compound about 13
to 19 mm (Y2 to Y4 in) wide in the area illustrated.
ST849M
FIT THE WATER PUMP
1. Lightly grease a new joint washer and place i t in
position on the the timing cover.
2. Clean thc threads of t h e four long bolts and smear
them with Loctite 572 thread lubricant-sealant.
Locate the water pump in posiiion.
3 . Locate the alternator adjusting link on the water
Pump.
4. Leave the alternator adjusting link loose and
tighten the remaining water pump housing bolts
evenly and to t h e correct torque.
118
2. Place the sump gaskct in position, fit the sump and
evenly tighten the retaining bolts to the correct
torque. Hylosil is used o n later engines instead of a
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
(12)
-^
.I
.... ::
TEST AND FIT THERMOSTAT
1. Remove the two bolts securing the thermostat
housing to the induction manifold.
2. Remove the housing gasket.
3. Withdraw t h e thermostat.
ST858M
\
ST856M
4. Note the temperature stamped on the thermostat
at which it should be fully open.
8. Clean the induction manifold and thermostat
housing mating faces.
9. Fit the thermostat with the jiggle pin uppermost at
12 o'clock.
10. Fit the housing using a new gasket, and evenly
tighten the two bolts.
FIT THE DISTRIBUTOR - including electronic
distributor
1. Turn the crankshaft to bring number one piston to
T.D.C. on the compression stroke (both valvcs
closed number one cylinder).
2. Turn distributor drive until rotor arm is
approximately 30" anti-clockwise from number one
sparking plug lead position on cap.
3. Turn the oil pump and distributor common drive
shaft so that the tongue is in the approximate
position as illustratcd.
4
continued
ST857M
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. ..
.... .... .
,:
,.-,I
Centigrade
thermomelcr in a laboratory beaker, or a suitable
alternative, half full of water.
6. Heat the water and observe the temperature at
which the thermostat opens.
7. If faulty discard the thermostat.
&L-
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119
1121
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
4. Fit distributor t o engine and check that centre line
of rotor arm is now in line with number one
sparking plug lead in cap. Reposition distributor if
nccessary. The vacuum capsule should be at 90” to
the camshaft.
5 . If distributor does not seat correctly in front cover,
oil pump drive is not engaged. Engage by lightly
pressing down distributor while turning engine.
6. Fit clamp and bolt leaving both loose at this stage.
FIT ROCKER COVERS
1. Remove all traces of old gasket on the covers and
cylinder heads.
2. Clean and dry the gasket mounting surface, using
Bostik cleaner 6001.
3 . Apply Bostik 1775 impact adhesive to the seal face
and the gasket, using a brush to ensure an even
film. Allow the adhesive to bccome touch-dry,
approximately fifteen minutes.
NOTE: The gasket fits one way round only and
must be fitted accurately first time; any subsequent
movement would destroy the bond.
4. Place one end of the gasket into the cover recess
with the edge firmly against the recess wall; at the
same time hold thc remainder of thc gasket clear;
then work around the covcr, pressing the gaskct
into place ensuring that the outer edgc firmly abuts
the recess wall.
7. Rotate distributor anti-clockwise until contact
points just start to open.
8. Secure distributor in this position by tightening
clamp bolt.
9. Fit the distributor cap and spark plugs and connect
the H.T. leads in accordancc with the illustration
below.
NOTE: The above distributor setting is to enable
the engine to be run so that the correct setting given
in ‘Engine Tuning data’ can be achieved once the
engine is refitted to the vehicle.
120
5 . Allow the cover to stand for thirty minutes before
fitting i t to t h e engine.
6. Secure the rocker covers to t h e enginc with the
four screws. Short screws - in board, long screws
- outboard.
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
.,:2
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FIT ENGINE OIL FILTER
':U,
1 . Clean oil pump mating face with filter.
2. Smear clean engine oil on the rubber washer of the
new filter.
3. Fill the filter with new oil as far as possible, noting
the angle at which t h e filter is to be fitted.
4. Screw on the filter until the sealing ring touches the
oil pump cover face, then tighten it a further half
turn by hand only. Do not overtighten.
-
,:
FIT THE FAN PULLEY, VISCOUS COUPLING AND
FAN
1. Secure the fan to the viscous coupling with the four
bolts and tighten evenly.
2. If removed, fit the pulley to hub assembly adaptor
and secure with the four nuts.
3. Screw the viscous coupling onto the adaptor thread
by inserting a tommy bar in the hole in the pulley to
restrain it while tightening the coupling.
4. Fit the fan and any other drive belts.
*...
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..... ,.,...
. . ....
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.... .,
FIT THE CLUTCH
1. Clean the flywheel and clutch assembly pressure
plate.
2. Fit the centre plate and t h e clutch assembly and
loosely secure to thc flywheel with the retaining
bolts.
3. Insert centralising tool 18G 79 or a slave primary
shaft and finally tighten the clutch assembly
retaining bolts in a diagonal sequence, to the
correct torque.
4. Smear the centre plate splines with Rocol MV3 or
Rocol MTS 1000 grease.
FIT THE ALTERNATOR
1. Offer up the alternator to the mounting bracket
and locate the pivot nuts and bolts noting that the
fan guard is attached to the front nut and bolts.
2. Slacken the alternator adjustment bracket and
attach alternator bracket. Note that the fan guard
is attached to the adjustment bracket bolt.
3. Fit and tension the fan belt as follows:
Pivot the alternator away from the engine but in
doing so, d o not apply any pressure to the slip-ring
end bracket. Tighten the pivot nuts and bolts and
adjustment bolt. The tension is correct when, with
thumb pressure, the belt deflection is
approximately 8 m m (A in) for non-air condition
engines, 4 mm (& in) for air condition engines,
hPt..,nP.. oitP-..n+n- all"
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the crankshaft pu!!ey.
Finally, tighten the fixings and connect the wiring
plug to t h e alternator.
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I
continued
3
ST854M
121
V8 CYLINDER ENGINE
FIT THE CARBURETTERS
If removed, fit the carburetters to the induction
manifold, using new joint washers in the correct
sequence as illustrated according to the engine serial
number. See Section 19 for S.U. Carburetters.
Illustration A from serial number 1400001A Nondetoxed.
1. Fit the liner.
2. Fit the two joint washers.
3. In between the washers fit the insulator.
3
ST855M
Illustration B from serial number 15G00001A detoxed.
4. Fit the three joint washers.
5. Fit the saw toothed deflector.
6. Fit the insulator.
FIT EXHAUST MANIFOLD AND AIR RAILS
1. Ensure that the mating surfaces of the cylinder
head and exhaust manifold are clean and smooth
and coat the faces with ‘Foliac J 166’ or ‘Moly Paul’
‘Foiiac J 166’ is
anti-seize compound.
manufactured by Rocol Ltd., Rocol House,
Swillington, Leeds, England.
‘Moly Paul’ is manufactured by K.S. Paul Products
Ltd., Nobel Road, London N18.
2. Place the manifold in position on the cylinder head
and fit the securing bolts, lockplates and plain
washers. The plain washers are fitted between the
manifold and lockplates. Evenly tighten the
manifold bolts to the correct torque figure and
bend over the lock tabs.
3. Fit pulse-air rails to cylinder heads.
MISCELLANEOUS AND NON-STANDARD ITEMS
Fit any other items of equipment and miscellaneous
hoses, pipes, filters, clips and brackets to the positions
noted during dismantling.
122
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FAULT DIAGNOSIS
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PETROL ENGINE
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FAULT DIAGNOSIS
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CIJRE
ENGINE FAILS TO S T A R T
1. Incorrect starting procedure
2. Starter motor speed too slow
3. Faulty ignition system
4. Water o r dirt in fuel system
5 . Carburetter(s) flooding
6 . Defective fucl pump
7. Defective starter motor
8. Starter pinion not engaging
See owners handbook
Check battery and connections
Check each component in system
Flush out system with clean fuel
Check float chaniber needle valve
Remove, overhaul or renew
Overhaul or rcnew
Remove starter motor and overhaul
ENGINE STALLS
1. Low idling speed
2. Faulty sparking plugs
3. Faulty coil o r condenser
4. Faulty distributor points
5. Incorrect mixture
6. Foreign mattcr in fuel system
Adjust carburetter(s)
Clean and test; renew if necessary
Renew
Rectify or renew
Adjust carburettcr(s)
Investigate source of foreign matter and cleai
as necessary
LACK OF POWER
1. Poor compression
If the compression is appreciably less then thc
corrcct figure, the piston rings or valves are
faulty. Low pressure i n adjoining cylinders
indicates a faulty cylinder head gasket
Overhaul cylinder head(s)
Renew
Check and adjust using electronic equipment
Check through system
Clean, test and renew, if necessary
Decarbonize
Adjust brakes or overhaul
Determine which component and renew
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Badly seating valves
Faulty exhaust silencer
Incorrect ignition timing
Leaks or restriction in fucl system
Faulty sparking plugs
7. Excessive carbon deposit
8. Brakes binding
9. Faulty coil, condenscr or battery
ENGINE RUNS ERRATICALLY
I. Faulty clcctrical connections
Defectivc sparking plugs
Low battcry charge
Dcfectivc distributor
Foreign matter i n fuel system
6. Faulty fuel pump
7. Sticking valves
8. Defective valve springs
9 . Incorrect ignition timing
2.
3.
4.
5.
10. Worn valve guides o r valves
1 I , Faulty cylinder head gaskets
12. Damaged exhaust system
13. Vacuum pipes, disconnected at inlet
manifold. distributor o r gearbox
iefit pipes
2. Foreign matter in fuel system
3. Faulty fuel pump
4. Low fuel level in tank
-heck HT leads for cracked insulation; check
ow tension circuit
letermine source of matter and clean system
iemove, overhaul o r renew
icplcnish
ZNGINE F A I L S T O I D L E
1. Incorrect carburetter setting
2. Faulty fuel pump
3. Sticking valves
4. Faulty cylinder head gasket(s)
Xdjust as necessary
iemove, overhaul o r renew
3verhaul cylinder head(s)
knew
XNGINE MISFIRES ON ACCELERATION
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
;et to correct dwell angle
tenew
,lean, tcst o r renew
herhaul
-heck all vacuum connectlons. Renew faulty
Jipes
ZNGlNE KNOCKS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ignition timing advanced
Excessive carbon deposit
Incorrect carburetter setting
Unsuitable fuel
5 . Worn pistons o r bearings
6. Distributor advance mechanism faulty
7 . Defective sparking p!ugs
idjust using elcctronic equipmcnt
lecarbonise
idjust
idjust ignition timing to suit octane rating
h e r h a u l engine
{enew capsule and re-check
:!can, :es: and iciicw if nccessary
ZNGlNE BACKFIRES
1. Ignition defect
2. Carburetter defect
3. Sticking valve
4. Weak valve springs
5 . Badly seating valves
6. Excessively worn valve stems and guides
7. Excessive carbon deposit
X. Incorrect sparking plug gap
9. Air lcak in induction o r exhaust systems
:heck all ignition components and timing
h e r h a u l carhuretter(s)
ZNGINE STARTS, B U T STOPS
'MMEDIATELY
I . Faulty electrical connections
,heck sccurity o f all ignition connections
,lean, test and renew if necessary
Recharge battery and test for condition
Remove and overhaul
3ctermine source of dirt, and clcan systcm
Pcmove and overhaul o r rcncw
3verhaul cylinder head s
3vcrhaul cylinder headis]
?heck timing with electronic equipment, if
)ossible
3verhaul cylinder hcad(s)
ienew gaskets
Xectify o r renew
Distributor points incorrectly set
Faulty coil o r condenser
Faulty sparking plugs
Faulty carburetter(s)
Vacuum pipes disconnected at inlct
manifold
-~
t
Overhaul cylinder head
:lean and resef
k n e w faulty gaskets or components
123
12
I
FAULT DIAGNOSIS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
SYMPTOM
~~
B U R N E D VALVES
NOISY V A L V E MECHANISM
1
1 . Sticking valves
2. Weak valve springs
3. Excessive deposit on valve seats
4. Distorted valves
5. Excessive mileage between overhauls
I . Excessive oil in sump, causing air bubbles
in hydraulic tappets -V8 engine
2. Worn o r scored parts in valve operating
mechanism
3. Valves and seats cut down excessively,
raising end of valve stem, 1,27 mm
(0.050 in) above normal position
4. Sticking valves
5. Weak valve springs
6 . Worn timing chain o r chain wheels
Overhaul cylinder head
Drain and refill t o correct level on dipstick
Replace faulty parts
Grind off end of valve stem o r replace parts
V8 engine only
Overhaul cylinder head
Renew worn parts
]
NOISE FROM H Y D R A U L I C TAPPETS
- V8 E N G I N E ONLY
1. Rapping noise only when engine is started
2. Intermittent rapping noise
3. Noise on idle and low speed
4. General noise at all speeds
5. Loud noise at normal operating
temperature only
I. Oil too heavy for prevailing temperature
Excessive varnish in tappet
2 . Leakage at check ball
3. Excessive leakdown
4. High oil level in sump
Leakage at check ball
Worn tappet body
Worn camshaft
5. Excessive leak-down rate o r scored lifter
plunger
Drain and refill with correct grade
Replace tappet
Replace tappet
Replace tappet
Drain and refill t o correct level on dipstick
Replace tappet
Replace tappet
Replacc camshaft
I . Low oil level in sump
Replenish as ncccssary to high mark on
dipstick
Worn bearings. Faulty skew, gear asscmbly.
4-cylinder enginc
Renew bearings; grind crankshaft - NOT
diesel
Renew and investigate reason for failure
Tighten to correct torque
Replace tappet
~~
MAIN BEARING R A T T L E
2. Low oil pressure
3. Excessive bearing clearance
4. Burnt-out bearings
5. Loose bearing caps
LOW 011. PRESSURE
WARNING L I G H T REMAINS
O N , E N G I N E RUNNING
RATTLE IN LUBRICATION SYSTEM
1 . Thin or diluted oil
2. Low oil level
3 . Choked pump strainer
4. Faulty release valve
5 . Excessive bearing clearance
6 . Oil pressure switch unserviceable
7. Electrical fault
8. Relief valve plunger sticking
9. Weak relief valve spring
10. Pump rotors excessively worn
I I . Excessively wom bearings: main, connecting
rod, big end, camshaft. etc
12. Faulty skcw gear asscmbly, 4-cylinder
engines
Drain and refill with correct oil and renew filter
Replcnish to high mark on dipstick
Clean
Rectify
Rectify
Renew
Check circuit
Remove and ascertain cause
Renew
Overhaul oil pump
Ascertain which bearings and rectify
Check skew gear bearing. Chcck plug not
leaking or seals in 2.5 diesel engine. See
Zngine overhaul
1. Oil pressure rclief valve plunger sticking
Remove and clean
I . Low coolant level
2. Faulty cooling system
Chcck for leaks. Check expansion tank level
Check fan and belt, pump, radiator fins
?ot blocked
rest and renew, if necessary
Check and adjust using electronic equipmcnt
Renew filter. Check pump. Clean strainer.
:heck oil circulation
~
ENGINE O V E R H E A T I N G
3. Faulty thcrmostat
d.
Tncorrcct timing
5. Defcctive lubrication system
~~
~
MECHANICAL NOISES
Medium low pitch knock
Low pitch thud
High pitch tap
Intermittent thuds
Continual tapping
Continual slapping
3ig-end bearing slack o r run
dain bearing slack or run
Worn gudgeon pins
aose tly wheel or excessive crankshaft end-float
Zxcessive valve clearance .- N O T V8
'iston clearance excessive. - moreapparent
vhen sngine cold may disappear when engine
101
124
FAULT DIAGNOSIS
DIESEL ENGINE MECHANICAL FAULTS
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CURE
MAIN BEARING R A T T L E
34. Low oil level i n sump
Replenish as necessary to high mark on
dipstick
Worn bearings. Faulty skew, gear assembly.
4-cylinder engine
Renew hearings; and or crankshaft
Renew and investigate rcason for failure
Tighten to correct torque
35. Low oil pressure
36. Exccssive bearing clearance
37. Burnt-out bearings
38. Loose bearing caps
ENGINE OVERHEATING
39. Low coolant level
40. Faulty cooling system
Check for Icaks, check expansion tank level
Check fan and belt, pump, radiator fins
not blocked
Test and renew, if necessary
Renew
Renew Filter, Check pump. Clean strainer.
Check oil circulation
41. Faulty thermostat
42. Cracked cylinder head
43. Defcctive lubrication system
LOW O I L PRESSURE WARNING LIGHT
REMAINS O N , ENGINE RUNNING
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
S2.
53.
54.
55.
___
Thin o r diluted oil
Low oil level
Choked pump strainer
Faulty release valve
Excessive bearing clearancc
Oil pressure switch unserviceable
Electrical I'ault
Relicf valvc plunger sticking
Weak rclicfvalvc sprin:
Pump rotors excessively worn
Excessively worn bearings) main,
connecting rod. big end, camshaft, ctc
Faulty skew gear assembly, 4-cylinder
engines
Drain and refill with correct oil and renew filter
Replenish to high mark on dipstick
Clean
Rectify
Rectify
Renew
Check circuit
Remove and ascertain cause
Renew
Overhaul oil pump
Ascertain which bearings and rectify
Check skew gear hcaring. Check plug not
leaking or seals in 2.5 diesel engine. See
engine overhaul
~
XATTLE IN LUBRICATION SYSI'EM
56. Oil pressure relief valve plunger sticking
JOISY VALVE MECHANISM
57. Sticking valves
5X. Weak valve springs
59. Tappet clearance too wide
60. Worn timing chain or chain wheels
Remove and clean
~~
vlECHANICAL NOISES:
,ow pitch knock
,ow pitch thud
ntermittent thuds
4igh pitch tap
.ight tapping
;lapping
~
I
~
Ovcrhaul cyliiidcr head
Big-end bearing slack o r run
Main bearing slack 01' run
Loose flywhecl o r excessive crankshaft
end-float
Worn gudgeon pins
Excessive valve clearance
Excessive piston clearance - more apparent
whcn cold
DIESEL ENGINE
FAULT DIAGNOSIS DPA AND DI'S PUMPS -2.25 and 2.5 litre diesel engines
SYMPTOM
DIFFICULT STARTING
CHECK
POSSIIILE CAUSE
1. Lack of fucl
2. Stop solenoid faulty
3. Wrong starting procedure
4. Air in fucl system
5 . Fucl inlct restriction
6. Fuel contamination
7. Low cranking spccd
8. Starting aid ineffective
9. Injcction timing incorrect
10. Timing bclt slipped
1 I. B x k Icakagc restricted
12. Fucl circuit incorrect
13. Engine condition
14. Fuel atomisation
15. Fucl tank blockage
16. H P pipe lcakirig
17. Injection pump defective intcrnally
continued
I
Fuel level in tank
Audible opcration when switched -Check
electrical supply, replace solenoid
Starting procedure correct -Throttle c!osed
and heater plugs in operation
All joints and unions arc tight
Filter not chocked and feed pipes clear
Diesel fucl being used. not pctrol, free of water.
dirt, ice. wax.
Battery, startcr, cable connections. Correct
engine lubricating oil
Correct functioning of heater plugs
Punip to engine timing using timing tool
Belt condillon and tcnsion. Pump rotor not
seized
Tank return clear, flow from cam box valve
when cranking. Replace pump if blocked
Inlet and back leak pipes correct way round.
Banjo bolts of correct type for pump injector
scating
Cylinder compression, valve timing and
clearances. Air filter not choked
Injectors; correct type, opening pressure.
spray condition
Tank vent and outlet unrestricted
H P pipe joint tightncss
If all other relevant checks salisfiictory,
replace pump
125
1211
FAULT DIAGNOSIS
SYMPTOM
I R R E G U L A R IDLE
, POSSIBLECAUSE
Any of the following items: 4,5,6,9,11, 12,13,
14, 16, 17. Plus:
18. HP pipe restriction
19. Idlingspeed incorrect
20. Anti-stall setting incorrect
21. Manual idle advance faulty
22. Accelerator linkage faulty
23. Engine vibration
24. Injection pump loose
CHECK
HP pipes not kinked or bore reduced at nipples
Idling speed given in ‘engine tuning data’
Recovery from acceleration, engine warm
(Reset idling and anti-stall)
Cable and lever operation satisfactory
Lever tight on pump reaches stop screws,
linkage wear, adjustment
Engine mountings tight and effective
Tightness of pump drive mounting bolts and
rear support bracket nut and bolt
~
INSUFFICIENT MAXIMUM S P E E D
Any of items 4,5, 17,22. Plus the following:
25. Max. speed setting incorrect
26. Vehicle brakes binding
ERRATIC RUNNING O R SURGING
Any of items I , 2 , 4 , 5 , 9 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 14,155, 16,
17, 18.27.23.24.
EXCESSIVE SMOKE
Anv of items 6.9. 13. 14 and 17
EXCESSIVE NOISE
Any of items 9,14,24,23. Plus the following:
27. Cambox pressure IOW
LACK O F POWF,R
A n y o f i t c m s 4 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 11, 12, 13, 14.IS.16,
18,22,24,25,26. Plus the following:
28. Exhaust system defective
29. L.P. leakage
Seal intact. Engine maximum speed in
‘Engine tuning data’ - adjust
Brake freedom, all wheels in turn and
transmission brake
Pressure with gauge a t control cover vent
screw. Replace pump if pressure too low
System is unrestricted
Feed and return pipes, filter and tank for leak
~~
EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTlON
Anyofitems9,13, 14, 16.17, 19,26.
3TALLING
Any of the following items; 4,5, 6 , 9 , 1 1 , 13,
17,19,20.21.
~~
3LOW ENGINE DIE DOWN
Any of the following items; 17,20,22
ZNGINE WILL N O T S H U T O F F
Either of the following two items: 2 and 17.
Plus:
30. Stop solenoid valve leaking
Engine stops when supply lead removed.
Replace solenoid if faulty
~
SXCESSNE KNOCKING (DETONATION)
Items 8 , 9 , 13 or any of the following:
31, Injectors sticking
32. Lack coolant in radiator
33. Lack of oil in engine
126
Injectors individually -see ‘Injector
overhaul’
Cooling system and expansion tank level.
Radiator fins not blocked
Oil level o n dipstick
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
119
c
OVERHAUL FUEL LIFT PUMP
~
x2
DISMANTLE
1. Remove the sediment bowl, where fitted, and
collect the filter gauze and sealing washer.
2. Mark the upper and lower halves of pump casing to
ensure correct alignment on reassembly.
3. Remove top cover fixing screws, and while pressing
diaphragm tab against pump body, lift top cover
clear.
ST1096M
3
4. If necessary remove the valves by cutting away the
retaining stakes with a scraper. Warm the top
cover, note the position of the valves and withdraw
them from the cover.
. ...
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. -. ... ...
, ..
,,.",. .,
. 2 .
.I
5 . Turn, whilst pressing down the metal part of the
diaphragm through 90" in either direction and
withdraw the diaphragm and spring.
6 . Unstake the oil seal housing and lever-out the oil
scal and retainer.
7. Using a small chisel, rcmovc thc staking from the
rocker arm retainers.
8. Withdraw the retainers.
9. Withdraw the rocker arm.
10. Withdraw the rocker arm pin and washers.
11. Dctach the operating link.
12. Withdraw thc rocker arm spring.
13. It is unlikely that t h e hand priming mechanism will
ever require replacement, but i t can be removed by
filing the hexagon each side of the operating lever
and springing the hand lever clear, withdraw the
cork washers and hand rocker.
1
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
~~
~~
Inspect
14. Clean all parts in paraffin (Kerosene) and examine
for wear and renew as necessary including all
gaskets .
15. Sediment bowl filter disc must be free of damage
and fit tightly around inlet neck of upper casing.
16. Renew diaphragm assembly if any sign of
hardening, cracking or porosity is present.
17. Only very slight wear should be tolerated at the
rocker arm contact face, pivot pin, operating link
and diaphragm pull rod slots.
18. Springs should be renewed ensuring that the
correct type are used.
19. Test valves for air tightness, by suction.
20. Check upper and lower casing flanges for
distortion, using a straight edge.
Assemble
21.
22.
23.
24.
Fit the rocker arm spring.
Fit the operating link.
Fit the rocker arm pin and washers.
Fit the rocker arm assembly to the pump body and
secure with the retainers and stake.
25. Fit the oil seal and retainer and secure by staking.
29. Fit the filter gauze and sealing ring on pumps with a
sediment bowl and fit the bowl and secure with the
retaining clip. Ensure that the bowl and seal are
located squarely. Do not overtighten securing n u t
to prevent cracking the bowl.
Test fuel pump
30. Immerse pump in a bath of paraffin and operate
rocker arm several times to flush.
31. Hold the pump clear of the bath and continue to
operate the rocker arm until the pump is empty,
then place a finger over the inlet port and operate
rocker arm several times. A distinct suction should
be heard when the finger is removed from the inlet
port, denoting that a reasonable degree of suction
has been developed.
32. Place a finger over the outlet port and again
operate the rocker arm. Air pressure should be felt
for two to three seconds after rocker movement has
ceased. Build up the air pressure in the pump
again, and with the finger held firmly over the
outlet, submcrge the pump completely in the
paraffin bath, then observe t h c joint face edges for
signs of air leakage.
&>:.
c-."
OVERHAUL ELECTRICAL FUEL PUMP
NOTE: The electrical components of the pump are
sealed and cannot be repaired.
DISMANTLE
1. Remove pump from the vehicle, and clean outside
of pump before dismantling.
2. Release the end-cover from the bayonet fixing.
3. Remove the following items:
a) filter and seal
b) magnet
c) gasket
. ":
p-._
_-
"_
Pump piston assembly
26. To refit the diaphragm assembly, hold the pump
body with the diaphragm rcturn spring in position,
and the rocker arm held outwards. Position the
diaphragm over the spring with t h e flattened end of
the pull rod in line with the slot in the opcrating
link. Push t h e diaphragm inwards and turn to lock.
27. Fit the inlet and outlet valves and secure by
staking.
28. Place top cover assembly in position, aligning the
marks made before dismantling. Fit securing
screws, but do not tighten at this stage; using hand
priming lever, fully depress diaphragm and fully
tighten securing screws.
r edges should be
The diaphragm
the outer edge of the
approximately flush
pump joint faces when
2
4. Carefully prise out the retaining clip.
5 . The following parts will then bc released:
a) plain washer
b) rubber seal
c) one-way valve
6. Withdraw the piston return spring with the piston.
If the piston remains in the pump tube, hold the
pump body vertically (in the fitted position) and
tap t h e closed end until the piston is released from
its magnetic hold and drops out.
NOTE: The piston is fitted with a one-way valve
which should not be disturbed.
01
1.
con t I nued
4'
.
3
0 -J
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
f-; I .
.,.. *.
I-
7. Remove the short rebound spring.
8. Clean all components in paraffin.
9. Immerse pump body i n petrol and use air-line
inside pump tube.
la
/
--.
1
s
I
2
ST 1015M
‘d.
NOTE: The fuel filter assembly, instructions 2 and
3, can be carried out with the pump on the vehicle.
ASSEMBLE
Pump piston assembly
10. Fit the short rebound spring.
11. Fit the return spring over the opposite end of the
piston.
12. Slide the piston assembly into the pump body.
13. Fit the following items:
a) plain washer
b) rubber seal
c) one-way valve
14. Secure t h e assembly with the spring clip.
Fuel filter assembly
15.
16.
17.
18.
Fit the filter and seal.
Fit the magnet.
Fit the end cover with a new gasket.
Fit pump to vehicle and ensure that the earth
connection lead and its mounting point is clean.
CARBURETTER
OVERHAUL
FOUR
CYLINDER
1191
ENGINE
DESCRIPTION
The twin bored 32 - 34 DMTL Weber carburetter is a
fixed choke instrument with a staggered throttle
opening. The carburetter is divided, operationally, into
two sections namely the primary and secondary
carburetters with 32 mm and 34 mm bores respectively.
The delayed throttle opening occurs in the secondary
carburetter.
The primary carburetter, which incorporates fuel and
air jets for idling, is used for starting, and normal
running, up to approximately two thirds throttle
opening. Shortly before this stage the secondary
carburetter butterfly will begin to open and become
increasingly more involved as the throttle is opened
further. To ensure a smooth transition during the
various stages of throttle opening both sections of the
carburetter contain progression fuel and air jets and
ports.
To prevent fuel vaporisation and air locks in the system
fuel is continuously pumped back to the fuel tank from
the carburetter float chamber. The top of thc float
chamber is so designed that fuel is drawn off from thc
main stream via the needle valve as dictated by the fuel
level in the chamber.
DISMANTLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Remove the carburetter.
Disconnect the fast idle cam assembly.
Disconnect the chokc link.
Disconnect the pull-down lever and linkage.
Remove the top cover from t h e carburetter body.
6. Withdraw the float pivot and detach the float.
7. Remove the needle valve attached to the float tag.
8. Remove znd discard the gasket from the top cover.
9. Withdraw t h e needle valve housing.
10. Remove the fuel filter plug and filter.
11. Remove the pull-down capsule.
12. Remove the fuel cut-off solenoid and valve.
13. Withdraw both ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ idle jct
holders noting their positions for ease of
reassem bl y.
14. Withdraw both ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ main jet
assemblies, comprising main jet, emulsion tube
and air correction jets.
15. Lift out the pump jet.
16. Remove the accelerator pump cover, diaphragm,
gasket and spring.
17. Detach the economy pump assembly, comprising
cover, spring and diaphragm.
18. Remove the idle mixture control screw. When the
adjustment is tamper-proofed, the tamperproofing cap must be removed to expose the screw.
continued
3
19-49
P
21.30
ST 535 M
5.47
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
,;..,...
.:.:
. ..
)I... ....
....
.,,.._
., .
~
,.,
.
19. Mark-up for reassembly purposes and remove the
choke butterfly followed by the choke spindle and
linkage.
20. Prior to removal, mark each throttle butterfly.
21. Remove the throttle linkage, springs and washers,
noting their sequential positions to aid rcassembly.
22. If required remove the primary and sccondary
throttle butterflies (after marking-up) followed by
the respective spindles.
Inspection and cleaning
23. When cleaning fuel passages, DO NOT use metal
tools which could cause dimensional changes in the
drillings or jets. Cleaning should be effected using
clean fuel, and, where necessary, a moisture free
air blast.
24. If the joint faces on the emulsion block, top cover
or carburetter body show any signs of distortion or
the edges are burred, these faces may be reclaimed
by flatting, using fine grade abrasive cloth and a
surface plate. Examine the faces for deep scores
which would lead to leakage taking place when
assembled.
25. New gaskcts and seals should be used throughout
the carburetter rebuild. A complete set of gaskets
is available for replacement purposes.
26. Examine the throttle spindle bushes for wcar, if
oval or badly worn, replace the carburetter body.
27. Examinc the idle mixture volume screw for wear or
damage, replace as required.
. ,;..
I
.,
..,:
119I
35. Fit the pump jet with a new '0' ring into the
carburetter body.
36. Reassemble the primary jet to the jet holder and fit
to the carburetter body.
37. Fit the secondary main and air correction jets to
the secondary emulsion tube, locate and secure
assembly to the carburetter body.
38. Assemble the secondary jet to the jet holder and fit
assembly to the carburetter body.
39. Reassemble the primary main and air correction
jets to the emulsion tube; and fit assembly to the
carburetter body.
40. Fit the fuel filter and filter plug to the top cover.
41. Fit the needle valve seating and washer.
42. Place a new gasket into position.
43. Fit the needle valve into the needle valve seating.
44. Position the float tag in the needle valve wire loop.
Align the float carrier with the pin holes and float
carrier flange lugs. Sccure the float carrier with the
hinge pin.
45. With the needle valve on its seating and the float
carrier tag resting against the necdle valve
(ensuring that neither the valve plunger n o r the
valve ball are depressed) measurc the distance
between the casing and thc front cdge of the float.
46. The dimension required is 7 mm (0.27 in). Any
adjustment must be made by bending thc float
carrier tag. Adjustments must NOT be made by
bending the float carrier arms.
continued
Reassembly
. .
. ..
,,
.. ,..'.
.
"...
....
:F
,
28. If previously dismantlcd, insert the primary and
sccondary throttle spindles into their respective
positions.
29. Locate the primary and secondary throttle
butterflies on to their respective spindles and
loosely retain with the special screws. Operate each
buttcrfly to centralise it on each spindle and secure
the screws and lock them by peening.
30. Refit the throttle spindle assembly to thc
carburetter ensuring the pin on the free lever
locates in the slot on t h e primary shaft plate,
ensuring that the first spring is located on the
spacer, whilst the second spring is engaged on the
free lever.
31. Fit the accelerator pump assembly comprising
spring, gasket, diaphragm, spring and pump cover.
32. Refit t h e economy pump assembly comprising
diaphragm, spring and pump cover.
33. Replace the fuel cut-off valve and solenoid.
34. Fit the idle mixture control screw and carefully turn
until fully home, then turn the screw 1 '/r to 2 turns
in the reverse direction to serve as an initial setting.
7mm
ST567 M
0.27in
5
1191
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
47. Fit and secure the top cover assembly evenly, to
the carburetter body.
48. Fit the choke spindle into its housing.
49. Locate the choke buttcrfly on the spindle and
loosely retain with the two special screws. Operate
the butterfly to centralise it on the spindle, then
secure the screws and lock them by preening.
50. Refit the pull-down capsule, cable retaining
bracket, spacer and fixings.
51. Fit the pull-down lever engaging the pivot with the
pull-down capsule arm. Secure lever assembly with
washer and circlip.
52. Fit the float idle cam ensuring the spring is engaged
correctly to the cam.
53. Refit the choke link to t h e choke spindle, securing
with a new split pin. Engage the opposite end of
the choke link to the idle cam.
7. Push the mixture control fully in and confirm that
flap ‘B’ is open, that is in the vertical position.
n
FOUR CYLINDER ENGINE CARBURETTER
TUNE AND ADJUST
1. Before attempting any carburetter adjustments
ensure that cylinder compressions, valve
clearances, spark plug gaps and ignition timing are
satisfactory.
Check also that there is no air leakage into the inlet
system through the inlet manifold and carburetter
gaskets and brake servo hose connections.
Throttle cable
2. Check that the throttle pedal, cable and linkage
operate smoothly.
3. Remove the elbow from the top of the carburetter.
4. If necessary adjust the pedal stop bolt so :hat no
strain is exerted on the throttle cable. Depress thc
throttle pedal and check that both the butterflies
are fully open, then adjust the pedal stop bolt so
that it touches t h e floor, without strain on t h e cable
and tighten the locknut
5 . Ensure that when the throttle pedal is released
both butterflies are closed completely.
Fast idle adjustment
8. Pull the mixture control out until the dimension
between the crank in the vertical rod ‘D’ and the
underside of the carburetter top cover, without
compressing the spring ‘F‘is 12,5 mm (0.5 in).
Adjust the fast idle screw ‘E’ so that it just makes
contact with the fast idle cam.
Mixture control (cold start)
6. Pull the mixture control cable fully out and chcck
that lever ‘A’ is against its stop and the choke flap
‘B’ is fully closed. If necessary adjust the inner
cable clamp ‘C’ to achieve this condition.
ST 1094M
6
p?
=-#
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
;$ji;!
.. ..”
Idle adjustment
“I
7
.
NOTE: The idle mixture adjustment screw provides
mixture variation at idle speed only. Above idle speed
the mixture is determined by fixed size jets.
9. Start the engine and run until the normal operating
temperature is attained.
10. Turn the throttle butterfly adjustment screw to
obtain an idle speed of 600 to 700 r.p.m.
11. Turn the idle mixture adjustment screw clockwise
or anti-clockwise by one-quarter turn increments to
obtain the highest engine r.p.m. When this has
been achieved, re-adjust, if necessary, the butterfly
adjustment screw to maintain the 600 to 700 r.p.m.
idle speed.
12. Fit the air intake elbow to the carburetter top.
V8
ENGINE
OVERHAUL
ZENITH
-
19
CARBURETTER
DISMANTLE
Remove the piston assembly
1. Remove the carburetters from the engine.
2. Release the four screws and withdraw the top cover
and spring.
3 . Withdraw the air valve, shaft and diaphragm
assembly .
4. Remove the metering needle retained by a locking
screw.
5 . Release the four screws and separate the
diaphragm from the air valve.
Remove the float chamber
6. Release the six screws and remove the float
chamber and joint washer.
7. Release the float assembly and spindle from the
two clips.
8. Unscrew the needle valve and washer from
carburetter body.
Dismantle carburetter body
9. Make location marks, as illustrated, to assist
correct asscmbly, on the throttlc buttcrfly, spindlc
and carburetter body.
10. Right-hand carburetter Release the two screws and
remove the butterfly and withdraw thc spindlc.
ST1095M
..
...
, .. ..
.....
.:.:,
.., .
,
1..
-.
ST1119M
11. Left-hand carburetter Remove the iefi-iiand iever
assembly. Release the two screws, remove the
butterfly and withdraw the spindle.
12. Left-hand carburetter Release the two retaining
screws and shake-proof washers and remove the
cold start assembly and joint washers.
continued
7
I19I
8
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
. ..
..
...
... ,... .‘
, *:.
,.I.
/.I
-
L-
13. Dismantle the cold start assembly but D O
N O T remove the discs from the spindle.
14. If necessary, dismantle the throttle spindle lever
assemblies from both carburctters.
v)
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3
1191
Slow-running adjustment screws
e
x
D o not attempt to remove these screws or break the
tamper-proof seals. See Cautionary note under ‘Tune
and Adjust’.
Remove temperature compensator
15. Release the two screws and withdraw the
temperature compensator unit complete.
16. Remove t h e large and small rubber washers.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
h
rc
0
Cleaning
W
v
17. When clcaning fuel passages d o not use metal tools
(files, scrapers, drills etc.) which could cause
dimensional changes in t h e drillings or jets.
Cleaning of all components should be effected
using clean fuel and, where necessary, a moisturefree air blast.
;
2
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-
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.-C
C
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VI
0
0
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R
*
Joint washers and seals
18. New gaskets and seals should be used throughout
carburetter rebuild. A complete sct of gaskets is
available for replacement purposes.
Inspect metering needle; it is machined to very
close limits and should be handled with care.
Examine for wear, bend and twist; renew if
necessary.
19. Examine the faces for deep scores which would
lead to leakage taking place when assembled.
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.m
L-
09
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3
2
x
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Diaphragm
20. Examine the diaphragm for deterioration, damage
and punctures. Do not use any cleaning chemicals
on the diaphragm only clean lint free rag.
3
2
::
Float assembly
21. Examine the two plastic floats and check for
punctures and damage.
22. Check t h e spindle and retaining clips for wear.
23. Inspect the needle valve assembly for wear. Renew
the valve if there is any tendency for the needle to
stick.
Cold start assembly
24. Examine all the cold start components for wear and
corrosion and the machined faces for scores.
continued
9
1191
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
ASSEMBLE CARBURETTERS
Cold start -L.H. carburetter
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
Place the spring on the cold start spindle.
Fit the spring retaining clip.
Check that the discs slide easily on the spindle.
Place the cold start spindle on the starter face.
Place t h e starter cover in position.
Fit the return spring over the spindle.
Rotate the spindle until the oval port in the end
disc is aligned with the oval port in the starter face.
Fit the cold start lever.
Engage the return spring over the lug on the starter
cover and the back of the cold start lever.
Place the cold start gasket onto the carburetter
body.
Fit ;he cold start assembly to the carburetter body,
and check for ease of operation.
STl120M
Throttle spindle, R.H. carburetter
45. Place return spring over threaded end of the
spindle.
46. Fit the throttle stop and fast idle lever.
47. Fit the bushed washer, bush outwards.
48. Fit the throttle lever on t h e bushed washer.
49. Fit the plain washer.
50. Fit the tab washer.
5 1. Fit the throttle adjust,ment lever.
52. Secure the assembly with the nut and lock with a
tab.
53. Fit thc throttle butterfly as described in instruction
39 and anchor the return spring as illustrated. See
note before instruction 39.
ST1116M
continued
Throttle spindle, L.H. carburetter
36. Place the return spring over either end of the
spindle.
37. Fit the throttle stop and fast idle lever and secure
with spacers, tab washer and nut.
38. Insert t h e throttle spindle from the cold start side
of the carburetter body and fit the throttle return
spring on the fast idle adjustment lug. Tension the
spring half a turn.
NOTE: Slacken the idle adjustment screw clear of
lever to facilitate centralisation of the butterfly.
39. Fit the throttle butterfly, maintaining t h e
previously marked alignment. Leave the retaining
screws loose. Actuate the throttle several times to
centralize the butterfly, then tighten t h e retaining
screws and lock by peening ends.
40. E: the thr=tt!e !eve: tc the spind!e at the ~ p i ; c ~ : t e
end.
41. Place the spacer on the spindle.
42. Place the tab washer o n the spindle.
43. Fit t h e sleeve nut, sleeve end last, and engage the
tab washer.
44. Fit t h e throttle adjusting lever.
10
s5"1:
51
ST1121 M
Y.&
PETROL F U E L SYSTEM
119
Float chamber assembly
54. Fit the needle valve and new washer.
55. Locate t h e spindle in the float arm and fit the
assembly into the retaining clips.
56. Invert the carburetter so that the needle is on its
seating and thc float tab is contacting the needle.
Measure the dimension A between the carburetter
gasket face and the highest point on the floats. The
correct measurement should be 17 to 18 mm (0.67
to 0.71 in). Adjust by bending the float tab. This
dimension must be the same for both floats. The
float carrier tab must be maintained at right angles
to the needle in the closed position.
57. Fit the float chamber and new gasket and evenly
tighten the retaining screws.
-
62
..
.. ... ..
ST7 1 17M
----
Temperature compensator
64. Clean the carburetter and compensator mating
faces.
65. Fit a new inner and outer rubber washer and securc
the temperature compensator with thc two screws
and shake-proof washers.
Fast idle adjustment -L.H. carburetter only
ST1123M
66. Slacken the fast idle adjusting screw.
67. Hold the cold start cam lever in the maximum
position.
68. Adjust thc fast idle adjusting screw against the cam
lever until there is 0,61 to 0,66 m m (0.024 to
0.026 in) gap between t h e top edge of the throttle
butterfly and t h e carburetter barrel wall. Use feeler
gauges or a 0,65 mm diameter (No. 72) drill to
measure the gap.
69. Secure the locknut on the fast idle adjusting screw
without disturbing the adjustment.
Air valve and diaphragm
58. Fit the diaphragm to the air valve with the inncr tag
locating in the air valvc recess.
59. Fit the diaphragm retaining ring and secure with
the four screws.
60. Fit the metering needle into the air v2!ve and
secure with the locking screw.
61. Insert the air valve and needle into the carburetter
and locate the diaphragm outer tag into the recess
in the carburetter body.
62. Fit the spring and top cover and secure with the
four screws.
63. Fit the damper.
11
I19I
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
V8 ENGINE ZENITH CARBURETTERS
Slow running (idle) adjustment
TUNE AND ADJUST
Tamper-proofing
These carburctters may be externally identified by a
tamper-proof sealing tube fitted around the slow
running adjustment screw.
The purpose of these carburetters is to more stringently
control the air fuel mixture entering the engine
combustion chambers and, in consequence, the exhaust
gas emissions leaving t h e engine.
For this reason the only readily accessible external
adjustment is to the throttle settings for idle and fast
idle speed and, for the former setting will require the
use of a special tool to prevent breaking the tamperproof seals.
1. Check that the throttle control between the pedal
and the carburetters is free and has no tendency to
stick.
2. Check the throttle cable setting with the throttle
pedal in the released position. The throttle linkage
must not have commenced movement, but
commences with the minimum depression of the
pedal.
3 . Run the engine until it attains normal operating
temperature; that is, thermostat open.
4. Remove t h e air cleaner elbows.
5. Slacken the screws securing the throttle adjusting
levers on both carburetters to allow independent
adjustment.
*
r
;$;,
CAUTION: Unauthorised breaking of tamper-proofing
devices, adjustment of carburetter settings or the fitting
of incorrectly related parts may render the vehicle user
liable to legal penalties according to local territory
legislation.
Whenever adjustments are made to the settings of
tamper-proof or emission specification carburetters an
approved type CO meter must be used to ensure that the
final exhaust gas analysis meets with local territory
requirements.
Emission Specifications
All carburetters fitted to the Land-Rover conform at
the time of manufacture to particular territory
requirements in respect of exhaust and evaporative
emissions control. However, in some cases changes to
the basic carburetters may have been necessary to
achieve this.
6. Start the engine and check the idle speed using a
reliable proprietary tachometer.
7 If necessary, adjust the slow running screw to give
the correct idle speed, see 'Engine tuning data'. If a
tamper-proof sleeve is fitted over this screw the
slow running speed can only be adjusted using
special tool MS86 or B25243.
'.
$3,
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Service tools:
605330 -Carburetter balancer
MS80 -Mixture adjusting tool
MS86 or B25243 - Tamper-proofed
adjustment tool
throttle
The service tool 605330 carburetter balancer must be
used to adjust the carburetters. Primarily, this
instrument is for balancing the air-flow through the
carburetters, but it also gives a good indication of the
mixture setting. Investigation has shown that incorrect
mixture setting causes either stalling of the engine or a
considerable drop in engine rev/min if the balancer is
fitted when the mixture is too rich or a considerable
increase in r v t (anin when used wit;] tule mixture setting
too weak. B r \ ) r e balancing the carburetters it is most
important therefore that the following procedure be
carried out:
12
continued
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
4:.;.:<.i
Mixture setting and balance carburetters
:.~!w,~
“L .$
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._
8. Remove the piston damper plug, and using special
tool MS80 adjust the mixture. Locate the outer
sleeve of the tool to engage a machined slot to
prcvent the air valve twisting. Turn the inner tool
clockwise to enrich the mixture and anti-clockwise
to weaken it. After every adjustment the tool
should be removed from the carburetter to allow
engine to stabilise. Run engine at 2000 rev/min to
aid stabilisation.
9. When t h e mixture is correctly adjusted, the engine
speed will remain constant or may fall slowly a
small amount as the air valve is lifted.
119I
17. Remove balancer. With the mixture setting and
carburetter balance correctly adjusted the
difference in engine rev/min with the tool 605330
on o r off will be negligible, approximately plus or
minus 25 r e v h i n .
,.,..~<.‘%
... .
:,. ..: .
T
...
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Check CO level
ST1127M
. .::.. . :.
,.. .: .
Use a proprietary non-dispersive infra-red exhaust gas
analyser.
18. Insert the probe of the analyser as far as possible
into the exhaust tail pipe, start t h e engine and
allow a one to one and a half minute stabilisation
period.
19. Check that the correct idle speed (slow running) is
maintained and observe the C O reading against
that given in the data section. If necessary re-adjust
the mixturc setting to achieve the correct C O level.
.1
: ...
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,..:
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..
10. Check, and if necessary, zero the gauge on
balancing tool 605330.
11. Place balancer on the carburetter adaptors,
cnsuring that there are no air leaks. If the engine
stalls or decreases considerably in speed, thc
mixture is too rich. If t h e engine speed increases,
the mixture is too weak.
12. If necessary, remove balancer and re-adjust the
mixture, then refit the tool.
13. Check balancer gauge reading.
14. If the gauge pointer is in the ‘zero’ sector, no
adjustment is required.
15. If the gauge pointer moves to the right, decrease
the air-flow through the left-hand carburetter by
unscrewing the s!ew ruxnixg screw G r increase the
air-flow through the right-hand Carburetter by
turning clockwise the slow running screw. Reverse
the procedure if the pointer moves to the left.
16. If the engine idle speed (slow running) rises too
high or drops too low during balancing adjust to
the correct idle speed, whilst maintaining the gauge
pointer in the zero sector.
ST 1102M
13
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
Adjust throttle linkage
Fast idle adjustment
20. On the left-hand carburetter, place a 0,15 m m
(0.006 in) feeler between the underside of the
roller on the countershaft lever and the throttle
lever.
21. Apply pressurc to the throttle lever to hold the
feeler.
22. Tighten the screw to secure the throttle adjusting
lever, then withdraw the feelcr.
26. The fast idle adjustment is pre-set on the left-hand
carburetter and should not normally require
adjustment. If adjustment is required, the correct
procedure is to remove the left-hand carburetter
and carry out instructions 66 - 69 under carburetter
overhaul. Alternatively the fast idle can be
approximately set by pulling the choke cable until
the mark on the cam is in-line with t h e head of the
adjusting screw. Slacken the locknut and adjust the
screw against the cam until the correct idle speed is
achieved see ‘Engine tuning data’. Tighten the
locknut.
20
23. On the right hand carburettcr, place a 0,15 m m
(0.006 in) feeler between the left leg of the fork on
the adjusting lever and the pin o n the throttle
lever.
24. Apply light pressure t o the linkage to hold thc
feeler.
25. Tighten the screw to secure the throttle adjusting
lever, then withdraw thc fcclcr.
ST1
27. Fit t h e air cleaner elbows.
28. Remove the piston damper plug on both
carburetters and replenish t h e damper reservoir
with S.A.E.20 oil to within 12 mm (0.5 in) from
thc top of thc tube and refit damper plug.
STl130M
14
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
;:
6
5
;.’‘
CARBURETTER OVERHAUL -S.U. HIF 44 Right hand
DISMANTLE
.. .
.
.
1. Remove the carburetters from the engine and clean
the exteriors with a suitable solvent.
2. Remove the two nuts and spring washers and
withdraw the air intake adaptor and joint washer.
3. Unscrew and remove the piston damper assembly
and drain the oil.
4. Remove the three screws and lift-off the suction
chamber complete with piston and spring.
5. Remove the spring clip from the top of t h e piston
rod and withdraw the piston and spring.
6. Unscrew the fuel metering needle guide locking
screw. If the needle cannot be removed from the
piston with the fingers, hold the needle as close to
the piston as possible, in a soft jawed vice and with
- a sharp pull withdraw the needle, guide and spring
assembly.
7. Remove the four screws and withdraw the float
chamber cover plate and scaling ring.
8. Remove the jet adjusting lever retaining screw and
spring.
9. Withdraw the jet complete with the bi-metal lever
and seperate the lever from the jet.
10. Unscrew and remove the float pivot spindle and
plain washer, and remove the float.
11. Lift-out the needle valve.
12. Unscrew and remove the needle valve and filter.
13. Unscrew and remove thc jet bearing nut.
14. Invert the carburetter body to allow the jet bearing
to fall out. If the bearing sticks, carefully tap it out
from the bridge side.
15. Remove the piston guide peg.
16. Remove t h e suction chamber-to-body sealing ring.
17. Unscrew and remove the mixture adjusting screw
and seal. Use thin nosed pliers to finally withdraw
the screw.
18. Bend-back t h e cam lever n u t lock tabs and remove
the nut and lock washer.
19. Remove the cam lever and spring.
20. Remove the end seal cover and seal.
21. Remove t h e two screws and withdraw the cold start
valve body and seal together with the valve spindle.
Also collect the paper joint washer.
22. Note the position of the throttle levers and return
spring.
23. Bend-back the lock washer tabs and remove the
throttle lever nut.
24. Remove the lock washer, bush washer and throttle
actuating lever.
25. Re!eise the thro!t!e retErn spring and remmve the
throttle adjusting leaver from the throttle butterfly
spindle and remove the return spring.
26. Hold the butterfly closed and mark the relationship
of the butterfly to the carburetter flange.
27. Remove the butterfly two retaining screws and
withdraw the butterfly from the spindle.
1191
28. Withdraw the throttle butterfly spindle from the
carburetter body together with the two seals.
29. Clean all components with petrol or de-natured
alcohol ready for inspection. Do not use abrasives
for the removal of stains or deposits.
INSPECTION
30. Examine the throttle spindle and bearings for
excessive axial clearance.
31. Check the float needle and seating for wear and the
float for punctures and renew if necessary.
32. Check the condition of all rubber seals, ‘0’rings
and joint washers and renew if necessary. The float
cover plate seal must be renewed.
33. Examine the carburetter body for cracks and
damage.
34. Ensure that the inside of the suction chamber is
clean and fit the piston into the chamber without
the spring. Hold t h e assembly horizontally and spin
the piston. The piston should spin freely in the
suction chamber without any tendency to stick.
35. Inspect the metering needle for wear, scores and
distortion. Check also that it has the correct
designation number - see Engine Tuning Data,
Section 05.
36. Examine the bi-metal jet lever for cracks.
37. Check all springs for cracks and distortion.
ASSEMBLE
Fit throttle butterfly
38. Fit the throttle spindle to t h e carburetter body and
insert the throttle disc into the spindle in its original
position. Secure the disc with new screws and
ensure that before tightening the throttle disc is
correctly positioned and closes properly. Splay the
split ends of the screws to prevent turning.
39. Fit new seals to both ends of t h e throttle spindle
ensuring that they are fitted the correct way round.
Fit cold start assembly
40. Fit a new ‘0’ring to the valve body and assemble
t h e valve spindle to the valve body.
43
4.0
ST1873M
41. Fit a new paper joint washer to the valve noting
that the half-moon cut-out in the washer is
clearance for the top retaining screw.
continued
15
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
42. Fit the starter assembly to the carburetter body and
secure with the two screws.
43. Fit the end seal and cover.
44. Fit the return spring.
45. Fit the cam lever and tension the spring. Fit a new
lock washer and secure with the nut and bend the
tabs over a convenient flat.
46. Adjust the coils of the spring, if necessary, to
prevent coil binding.
CT?374M
45
KEY TO S.U. CARHURETTER COMPONENTS
1. Piston damper.
2. Spring clip.
3. Suction chamber.
4. Piston.
5. Piston spring.
6. Suction chamber retaining screws -3off.
7. Needle retaining screw.
8. Needle bias spring.
9. Needle guide.
10. Needle.
11. Suction chamber sealing ring.
12. Throttle adjusting scrcw and scal.
13. Piston key and retaining screw.
14. Mixture adjusting screw and seal.
15. Carburetter body.
16. Throttle butterfly and retaining screws.
17. Throttle spindle.
18. Throttle spindle scals -2 off.
19. Float chamber.
20. Float chamber cover and retaining SCI'CWS.
21. Float chamber cover seal.
22. Jet asscm bl y .
23. Jet bearing.
24 l e t bearing nut
25. Bi-metal jet lever.
26. Jet retaining and adjusting screw and spring.
27. Float needle.
28. Float needle seat.
29. Float needle seat filter.
30. Float
31. Float pivot spindle.
16
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
Cold start and cam lever assembly.
Throttle adjusting lever and lost motion assembly.
Throttle actuating lever.
Bush washer.
Throttle lever assembly retaining nut and lock
washer.
continued
f-.-..-.
... ...
...I
-=LA#
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
-
19
.. ;;.
. ..
17
El
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
A
Fit throttle lever assembly
47. Fit the return spring so that the longest leg rests
against the throttle adjusting screw housing.
48. Fit the throttle adjusting lever and lost motion
assembly and tension the return spring.
49. Fit the throttle actuating lever.
50. Fit the bush washer and lock washer.
51. Fit and tighten the special nut and bend the lock
tabs over a convcnient flat.
Fit jet and float assembly
52. Fit the jet bearing, long end towards the float.
53. Fit the jet bearing nut.
54. Clean or renew the filter and fit the float needle
seat.
55. Fit the needle valve, spring loaded pin uppermost.
56. Fit the float and secure with the pivot pin.
57. Hold the carburetter in the inverted position so
that the needle valve is closed by the weight of the
float only. Check using a straight edge that the
point o n the float, arrowed on the illustration, is
1.0 to 1.5 mm (0.04 to 0.062 in) below the level of
the float chamber face?dimension ‘A’.
58. Adjust the float position by carefully bending the
brass pad until the correct dimension is achieved.
After adjustment, check that the float pivots freely
about the spindle.
/
T
I
ST1876M
18
I
I
continued
56
I
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
._
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59. Assemble the jet to the bi-metal jet lever and
ensure that the jet head moves freely in the
cut-out.
60. Fit the jet and bi-metal jet lever to the carburetter
and secure with the spring loaded jet retaining
screw.
61. Fit the mixture adjustingscrew.
Fit piston and suction chamber
64. Fit the needle, spring and guide assembly to the
piston ensuring that the etched arrow head on the
needle locating guide is aligned between the piston
transfer holes, as illustrated.
65. Secure and ensure that when the screw is tightened
the guide is flush with the piston and that the scrcw
locates in the guide slot.
1
ST1879M
62. Adjust the mixture screw until the jet is flush with
the carburetter bridge, then turn the scrcw a
further three and one half turns clockwise.
. , . , , ...
I
63. Using a new sealing ring. f i i the float chamber
cover, noting that it can only be fitted one way.
Secure with the four screws and spring washers and
evenly tighten.
.:;>.
, .... ,,
.
..
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,
19
66. Fit the piston key to the carburetter body using a
new screw. Tighten thc scrcw and splay the end.
67. Fit a new suction chamber sealing ring to the
groove in the carburetter body.
68. TO prevent the piston spring being 'wound-up'
during assembly, tcmporarily fit the piston and
suction chamber less thc spring to the body, and
pencil mark the relationship of t h e chamber to the
body. Remove the suction chamber and fit the
spring to the piston. Hold the suction chamber
above t h e spring and piston, align the pencil marks
and lower the chamber over the spring and piston,
taking care not to rotate the suction chamber.
Secure the chamber to the body with the three
scrcws, tightening evenly and check that the piston
moves freely.
69. Hold the piston at the top of its stroke and fit the
spring clip.
70. Fit the piston damper.
71. Using a new joint washer, fit the air intake adaptor
and secure with t h c two nuts and spring washers.
72. Fit the carburetters to the inlet manifold ensuring
that the joint washers, dcflector and insulator are
fitted in the sequence illustrated. The insulator
must be fitted with the arrow hcad uppermost and
pointing inwards towards the manifold. Secure
with the four nuts and spring washers and tighten
evenly to the correct torque.
A. Joint washer.
B. Deflector-teeth pointing inwards.
C . Joint washer.
D. Insulator.
E. Joint washer.
continued
19
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
72
be repeated as often as required. It is important that
the above cycle is adhered to, otherwise overheating
may result and settings may be incorrect. The piston
dampers must always be kept topped-up with the
correct grade of oil.
Before any attempt is made to check settings a
thorough check should be carried out to ensure that the
throttle linkage between the pedal and carburetters is
free and has n o tendency to stick. Ensure that the
choke control lever is pushed fully down.
NOTE: References to left and right hand are as from the
drivers seat.
TAMPER -PROOFING
ST1880M
73. Connect the linkages and top-up the carburetter
dampers with a recommended oil to the top of the
hollow piston rod.
74. Tune and adjust the carburetters.
To comply with E.C.E. regulations the idle speed and
mixture adjusting screws must be tamper - proofed
following any adjustments. A red blanking plug; Part
number - JZX 1258 must be fitted into the mixture
screw resess and a red cap; Part number JZX 1197
fitted over the idle adjustment screw (throttle
adjustment screw).
e-:
continued
ST1914M
/
TUNE AND ADJUST -SU HIF 44 CARBURETTERS
Special tools:
Carburetter balancer 605330 or B89
Non-dispersive infra-red exhaust gas anaiyscr
General Requirements Prior to Tuning Carburetters.
Accurate engine speed is essential during carburetter
tuning, therefore the distributor pick up air gap and
ignition timing must be checked together with the
vacuum advance system.
Whenever possible the ambient air temperature of the
tuning environment should be between 15" to 26°C (60"
to 80°F). When checking engine speed, use an
independent and accurate tachometer.
Idling adjustments should be carried out on a fully
warmed up engine, that is, at least 5 minutes after the
thermostat has opened. This should be followed by a
run of one minute duration at an engine speed of
approximately
2,500
revhin
before
further
adjustments or checks are carried out. This cycle may
20
:3
,,. ...,
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
TUNE AND ADdUST
The following instructions apply to both carburetters
unless otherwise stated.
Before commencing the following instructions, remove
the air cleaner, air intake elbows, mixture adjustment
screw plug and mixture screw cap.
CARDURETTERBALANCE
Using balancer 605330
1. Disconnect the interconnecting link between the
two carburetters. Fit the balancer to the
carburetter intakes and ensure that there are no air
leaks, if necessary, zero the gauge with the
adjustment screw.
2. Start the engine, and if necessary allow i t t o reach
normal operating temperature. If the nccdle moves
to the right, decrease t h e air flow through the left
hand carburetter by unscrewing the idle screw.
Alternatively, increase the air flow through the
right hand carburetter by screwing down the idle
screw. Reverse the procedure if the pointer moves
to the left. Reconnect the carburetter interconnecting link.
Using balancer B89
3. Disconnect the inter-connecting throttle link
between the two carburetters.
4. Back-off t h e idle adjusting screw on each
carburetttcr, clear of the throttlc Icver.
5. 'Turn each throttle adjusting screw so that i t
touches the throttle lever. then turn the screws by
equal amounts to achieve an approximate idle
speed of 700 to 800 rev/min.
6. Press the balancer firmly over the carburetter
intake. Press or withdraw the control on the side of
the balancer to adjust the meter needle reading to
approximately half scale, and note the reading.
con t I n ued
21
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
7. Without altering the position of the balancer
control, place the balancer on the second
carburetter intake ahd adjust the idle screw as
necessary to achicve the same reading.
.
8. Alternatively, adjust and check the balance of both
carburetters until an idle speed of 700 to
800 rev/min is obtained.
9. Reconnect the throttle inter-connecting link, and
again check the idle spced and balance.
Mixture setting
10. Ensure that the engine is still at normal operating
temperature.
11. Mark t h e relationship of the suction chamber to the
carburetter body, remove the retaining screws and
lift off the suction chamber complete with pistons.
12. To achieve a datum setting for the mixture screw,
turn it anti-clockwise until the jct is level with t h e
carburetter bridge. Check by placing a straight
edge across the bridge and adjust as necessary so
that the jet just touches the straight edge.
13. Refit the suction chamber and piston, evcnly
tighten the retaining screws. Check that the piston
moves freely without sticking. Top-up the piston
damper.
14. Turn the mixture adjustment screw three and one
half turns clockwise.
15. Insert the probe of an infra-red exhaust gas
analyser as far as possible up the exhaust pipe, start
the engine and allow a one and one half minute
stabilisation period.
16. Adjust the mixture screw on both carburetters by
equal amounts, rich or weak to achieve a CO
reading of 0.5 to 2.5%.
17. If after approximately two minutes the CO level is
not satisfactory run the engine at 2000 rev/min for
one minute to stabilise the cquipment, continue the
setting procedure until a stablc CO reading of 0.5
to 2.5% at an idle speed of 700-800 rev/min is
obtained.
/
,
I
ST1915M
idle speed aiid :iiikage adjustmen?
18. Check that the engine is at normal operating
temperature.
19. Slacken the nut, at the left hand carburetter
securing the inter-connecting link ball to the
throttle cam lever.
continued
2
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PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
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1191
20. Disconnect the inter-connecting link between the
carburetters at the left hand carburetter.
21. At the right hand carburetter, release the lock nut
and slacken off the lost motion adjustment screw,
until it is well clear of the spring loaded pad.
22. 'If necessary adjust the idle screw to maintain the
correct idle speed. Check the CO level and
carburetter balance, adjust if required.
23. Re-connect the inter-connecting link to the left
hand carburetter.
24. Hold the right hand throttle lever against the idle
screw stop and adjust the lost motion screw until
contact is made with the spring loaded pad, tighten
the lock nut.
25. Check the idle speed and balance. Adjust the lost
motion screw to restore balance if necessary.
26. Ensuring that the roller is firmly seated in the lower
corner of the cam lever, tighten the nut which
secures the inter-connecting link ball to the cam
*
lever.
Fast idle adjustment
27. Pull out the cold start control (choke) until the
scribed line on the left hand fast idle cam is in-line
with the centre of the fast idle screw head.
28. Check that the scribed line on the right hand fast
idle cam is similarly in-line with the fast idle screw
head. If there is mis-alignment, slacken the fast idle
cam link rod screw at the right hand carburetter
and move the cam until the scribed line coincides
with the centre of the screw head. Tighten the cam
rod screw.
29. Turn the fast idle screw clockwise, on each
carburetter, until just clear of the cam.
30. Turn the fast idle screw of the leading (left-hand)
carburetter down (clockwise) until a slight change
in engine speed is noted.
31. Similarly turn t h e fast idle screw of the second
carburetter (right-hand) down until a further slight
change of engine speed is noted.
32. Adjust the fast idle screws of both carburetters by
equal amounts to achieve a fast idle speed of 1100
to 1150 redmin.
33. Tighten the fast idle screw lock-nut on both
carburetters. Push the cold start (choke) fully
home then pull it out again to its full extent and
recheck the fast idle speed.
34. Fit the appropriate blanking plug and cap to the
mixture screw recess and idle adjusting screw.
35. Fit the carburetter air intake elbows and air
cleaner.
23
19
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
V8 ENGINE CARBURETTER
FAULT DIAGNOSIS
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CURE
DIFFICULT STARTING W H E N C O L D
Insufficient choke action
Check action of cold start unit to ensure that
the choke is being applied fully - adjust
choke cable. Check position of cold start
adjuster - move outward
Fast idle adjustment incorrect
Check and adjust fast idle setting. Check
linkage between choke and throttle for
distortion
Float chamber level too IOW
Check needle valve for sticking - (closed).
Chcck tloat level setting. Chcck inlet
corinection filter for blockage. Check externa
fuel system in accordance with fuel system
fault diagnosis
Carburetter llooding
Check needle valve for sticking- (open)
Float punctured
Fuel pump pressure too high
Float level too high
No fuel supply to carburetter
Check filters and pump for blockage
Check fuel tank breather and fuel lines for
blockage
Removc fuel pump and check operation
Overhaul or fit new pump
Choke sticking 'on'
Check to ensure choke is returning to fully
'off' position; reset as necessary
Blocked air cleaner
Fit new air cleaner elements
Float chamber level too high
Check float level setting.
Check float arms for distortion. Check needlc
mlve for sticking. Punctured float. fuel pump
xessure too hieh
No oil in damper or oil too thin
Zhcck level of oil in damper, and fill to corrcc
eve1 with oil of a viscosity of S.A.E.20
Air valve sticking
lheck air valve assembly moves freely and
-eturns under spring load -centre jet
issem bl y
lheck diaphragm for cracks or porosity- Zenitt
Water in fuel
f water is present in float chamber, the
omplete fuel system should be drained, fuel
omponcnts should be dismantled, inspected
'or contamination, paying particular attention
o filters.
Float level too low
Sheck float chamber level
-heck for needle valve sticking
Incorrect jet sctting
:heck and reset jet settings in accordance
vith carburetter overhaul instructions
Zarburctter air leaks
:heck throttle spindle and bearings for wear
Vlanifold air leaks
-heck inlet manifold gaskct for leakage.
:heck inlet manifold for cracks and distortion
if mating faces. Check gaskct between
arburetter and manifold. Check condition
1f vacuum advance pipe and connections.
:heck vacuum servo pipes and connection>
l a m p e r oil too thick. N o oil in damper
?heck and refill to correct level with oil
pecificd
4ir valve sticking
:lean and check freedom
3locked air cleaner
:it new air clcaner elements
IIFFICULTSTARTING WHEN HOT
A C K OF ENGINE P O W E R
:RRATIC SLOW-RUNNING O R
iTALLING O N D E C E L E R A T I O N
:XCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION
l a m p e r oil too thick
-,.-....--....
I..
Ceplace with correct grade
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1 U " " I-." l ~ 1 1 1 t l C L \ I I U 4L I I I C L
iith carburetter tune and iidjusr instructions
24
'loat level too high
:heck and reset float lcvcl
Norn jets and necdlc
k c k and repiacc a s ncccssary
ncorrect needle
:heck needlc typc
:hoke sticking 'on'
:heck to ensure choke is rcturning to fully
~ f f position.
'
r c x t a s ncccssary
<ngine fault
r e Engine Fault diapnci\is
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
El
LAND ROVER 110 TWIN TANK INSTALLATION
Description
..
..
The fuel system includes two fuel tanks, one at t h e rear
of the vehicle and an additional fifteen gallon
(68,20 litres) capacity tank on the right-hand side of the
vehicle. Both tanks contain an electrically operated
submerged fuel pump in addition to a fuel level
indicator unit in each tank. An ignition controlled
switch on the control panel enables the driver to select
the tank to be used. The switch also energises the fuel
level indicator unit of the tank selected and records the
fuel level on the single indicator dial. When t h e ignition
is switched ‘on’ the pump in the selected tank will draw
fuel into the carburetter float chamber via a paper
element type filter and a vapour separator. To prevent
fuel vapourisation and air locks a spill return system is
incorporated in the fuel pipe layout to pass back vapour
and excess fuel from the vapour separator to the tank in
use through a restrictor and a solenoid operated valve.
The valve, which is encrgiscd by the tank selection
switch, closes the port to the tank not in use and
simultaneously opens the port to the sclccted tank. The
restrictor is necessary to prevent fuel by-passing the
carburetter and flowing back to the selected tank
through the spill return systcm.
In addition, a non-return valve is enclosed inside the
hose connection of the supply pipe from t h e rear and
side tanks to prevent the possibility of a back-flow of
fuel along the supply lines to t h c fuel tanks.
ST1683M
FUEL TANK SELECTION SWITCH
A. Fuel tankswitch
LAND ROVER 110 REAK TANK AND 90 SIDE TANK
INSTAL1,ATION
Description
Fuel drawn by the electrically operated in-tank pump,
is delivered to a paper element type filter. Situated
bencath the right-hand front footwell attached to a
chassis outrigger from the filtcr, fuel enters a vapour
separator located on the left-hand side of the bulkhead
in the engine compartment. Fuel finally cntcrs the
carburetter float chamber from the port at the base of
the vapour separator. The vapour separator comprises
part of the spill return system and its purpose is to
prevent fuel vapour causing air locks in the supply to
the carburetter. Vapour and excess fuel flows back into
the file! t m k t h r o ~ g h2 restricter fitted !e the spi!!
return port on the vapour separator. The restrictor is
designed to assist in maintaining a constant fuel level in
the vapour separator bowl and to prevent fuel flowing
back to the tank at the same rate as the delivery.
FUEL FILTER
A . Fuel “Iter
*.
From fuel pump to filter pipc
C. From fuel filter to carburetter via vapour separator
25
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
119
NON-RETURN VALVE
A. Non-return valve
B. Spring
C. Ball
.
VAPOUR SEPARATOR
A. Vapour separator
B. Spill return to side tank
C. Restrictor and spill return to solenoid valve
D. Outlet from separator to carburetter
SPILL RETURN SOLENOID VALVE
A. Solenoid valve
B. Spill return to side tank
C. Spill return to rear tank
D. To carburetter via filter and vapour separator
W
ST1844M
8
e
FUEL PUMP
A. Pump and motor
B. Filter
C . Gasket
D. Electrical terminals
E. Outlet pipe
F. Fixing plate to tank
G. Plastic tie clip - See CAUTION - remove and
refit pump
27
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
LAND ROVER 110 TWIN TANK FUEL SYSTEM
I
28
::
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
E[
LAND ROVER 110 TWIN TANK FUEL SYSTEM
KEY TO FUEL LINE INSTALLATION
1. In-tank fuel pump- rear tank.
2. In-tank fuel pump -side tank.
3. Fuel gauge tank unit - reartank.
4. Fuel gauge tank u n i t -side tank.
5. Spill return solcnoid.
6. Fuel filter.
7. Fuel supply pipe - rear tank to filter via T-piccc.
8. Pipe, filter to vapour scparator.
9. Vapour separator.
10. Vapour separator outlet to carburetter.
1 1. Spill return pipe to fuel tank via restrictor and solenoid valve.
12. Spill rcturn pipe to side tank from solenoid.
13. Spill rcturn pipe to rear tank from solenoid.
14. Fuel filler - rear tank.
15. Breather pipc - rear tank.
16. Fuel filler -side tank.
17. Breather pipe -side tank.
18. Drain plugs side and rear tanks.
19. Non return valve incorporated in hose.
..
.!'::.:
,.<., ,
,.. ..
29
1191
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
LAND ROVER 110 BASIC FUEL SYSTEM
1. In-tank fuel pump.
2. Fuel gauge tank unit.
3. Fuel supply pipe to filter via connector.
4. Fuel filter.
5 . Fuel supply pipe filter to vapour separator
6 . Vapour separator.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Vapour separator, outlet to carburetter.
Spill return pipe to fuel tank via restrictor.
Fuel filler.
Breather hose.
Restrictor.
12. Fuel tank drain plug.
f. f
--
*:+
. *;
:
*
LAND ROVER 90 BASIC FUEL SYSTEM
-
I. In-tank fuel pump.
2. Fuel tank gauge unit.
3 . Fuel supply pipc to filter.
4. Fuel filter.
5. Fuel supply pipe filter to vapour separator
6. Vapour separator.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Vapour separator, outlet to carburctter.
Spill return pipc to fuel tank via restrictor.
Fuel filler.
Breather hose.
Restrictor.
Fuel tank drain plug.
El
PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
REMOVE REAR TANK FUEL PUMP
To renew the pump it is first necessary to remove the
fuel tank from the vehicle. Before commencing the
following instructions it is essential that the
WARNINGS and safety precautions concerning fuel
tank draining and removal are studied and observed.
These precautions are included in the introduction to
this and each of the five books comprising the
workshop manual for the Ninety and One-Ten vehicles.
.
1. Move vehicle to well ventilated area and
disconnect the battery.
2. Remove the fuel tank drain plug and allow the fuel
to drain into a suitable receptacle and refit the
Plug.
3. Working from the right-hand side of the vehicle
disconnect the fuel feed pipe and the spill return at
the rubber connections.
4. Disconncct the fuel filter hose and breather hose
from the tank.
5. Whilst, noting the cable colours, disconnect the
electrical leads from the fuel gauge unit at the
left-hand side of the vehicle.
6. If the vehicle is fitted with a towing ball drop-plate
with support bars the bars must be removed.
7. Remove the eight nuts and bolts securing the
anti-roll bar to the chassis and push the roll bar
down to provide access to the tank.
8. Remove the left-hand lashing eye to facilitatc
removal of the tank.
9. Place a support under t h e tank, preferably one
which will enable the tank to be progressively
lowered.
10. Remove the two nuts retaining the forward end of
the tank.
11. Remove t h e two nuts securing the rear of the tank.
12. Carefully lower the tank sufficiently to enable the
electrical leads to the fuel pump to be diconnected.
13. Finally rcmove the tank from the vehicle together
with the pump and rear section of the fuel feed
pipe.
14. Disconnect the rear section of the feed pipe from
the pump.
1.5. Remove the five retaining screws and withdraw the
fuel pump and sealing ring from the tank.
16. Cover the pump aperture in the tank to prevent the
ingress of foreign matter.
17. Fit the pump into the tank with a new Sealing ring
so that the outlet pipe is directed towards the front
of the vehicle and the electrical connections to the
rear.
18. Offer-up tank to thc chassis and connect thc
electrical leads black to negative (-) white to
positive (+).
19. Locate front of t h e tank on the two captive bolts
and secure with the mounting rubber, flat and
spring washer and nut.
Fitting fuel pump
CAUTION: On some early models a modification was
carried out to the fuel pump to prevent the possibility of
the contacts earthing. These pumps can be recognised
by a black plastic tie clip as illustrated. See Fuel System
description. If the fuel tank only is being renewed and
the original pump is being re-fitted, ensure that the tie
clip is correctly positioned.
19
ST1679M
32
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PETROL FUEL SYSTEM
I
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.
1191
20. Secure the rear of the tank with the two captive
bolts, plain washer and nyloc nut.
ST1676M
7. Cover the pump aperture in the tank to prevent the
ingress of foreign matter.
21. Connect the fuel feed pipe.
22. Connect the spill return pipe.
23. Connect the fuel filter hose and breather pipe to
the tank.
24. Fit the left-hand lashing eye.
25. Fit the anti-roll bar.
26. Fit the drop plate support bars- if fitted.
27. Connect the fuel gauge unit leads.
28. Reconnect battery, and check operation of pump
and change-over solenoid - if fitted.
REMOVE SIDE TANK FUEL PUMP
1. Move the vehicle to a well ventilated area,
extinguish all naked lights and disconnect the
vehicle batteries.
2. Remove the right-hand side front seat cushion.
3. Move the carpet aside, where fitted and unclip and
remove the seat base cover.
4. Disconnect the two Lucars from the fuel pump.
5 . Disconnect the fuel outlet pipe from the pump.
6 . Remove the five retaining screws and withdraw the
pump and sealing ring.
.
.
jl”
J
CAUTION: On some early models a modification
was carried out to the fuel pump to prevent the
possibility of the contacts earthing. These pumps
can be recognised by a black plastic tie clip as
illustrated. See fuel system description. If the fuel
tank only is being renewed and the original pump is
being re-fitted, ensure that the tie clip is correctly
positioned.
Refitting
8. Insert the pump and new sealing washer into the
tank so that the outlet pipe is directed towards the
left-hand side of the vehicle and the electrical
connections to the right.
9. Secure the pump with the five screws tightening
evenly.
10. Fit the supply pipe to the pump outlet and tighten
the hose clip.
11. Connect the white/grccn wire to the positive (+)
terminal and the black wire to the negative [-)
terminal.
12. Connect the batteries, switch on ignition and
operate the tank selection switch, if it is a twin tank
installation and check that the pump operates.
13. Switch off ignition, fit the seal base c w e r and
carpet and refit the seat cushion.
..
z
..,::”
33
El
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL INJECTORS
CHECKING NOZZLE ASSEMBLIES
WARNING: Do not allow the fuel spray to contact the
person otherwise injury may result from skin
penetration.
When an injection nozzle is considcrcd to be t h e cause
of irregular running and loss of power, a quick check
may be made by loosening the fuel feed pipe union nut
on each nozzle in turn, whilst the engine is idling at
approximately 1,000 rev/min.
If the injection nozzle assembly being checked has been
operating properly, there will be a distinct reduction i n
engine speed accompanied by obvious roughness, but a
faulty injection nozzle may make little or no difference
to the engine note when its fuel feed pipe is loosened.
4. Loosen the union nuts securing the remaining fuel
pipes to injection nozzles.
5 . Whilst the starter turns the engine over, observe
the manner in which fuel issues from the nozzle and'
compare thc spray form with the correct form as
illustrated.
Very little fuel should issue from the main spray
hole with the engine turning over at starter specd
but a fine spray comparablc to that illustrated
should be ejected from the auxiliary spray holc.
6. If the ejected fuel is more in the form of a liquid jet
or issues from the main pintle hole, then the nozzle
and holder assembly should be removed for
overhaul and a replacement unit fitted.
7. Refit the injectors and tighten thc union nuts.
8. Connect t h e spill gallery pipe with the bolt and two
washers.
Spray check
1. Remove the fuel spill gallery pipe complete from
the injection nozzles.
2. Disconnect the fuel feed pipe (injection pump to
nozzle) from the nozzle to bc testcd and from the
injection pump.
3. Rcleasc t h e fixings and withdraw the suspected
injection nozzle assembly; reconnect t h e pipe and
nozzle assembly to t h e injection pump in a position
whereby fuel ejection may be observed.
PRIME FUEL SYSTEM
Procedure following fuel filter or sedimentor service
When models fitted with a sedimentor have had thc
water drained only from the sedimentor bowl, no
priming is necessary as t h e water is replaced by fuel
automatically syphoned from thc tank. However, if the
sedimcntor has been dismantled and air has entered the
body, or where the fuel filter element has been
replaced and the filter bowl cleaned, then the system
must be primed as follows:
NOTE: The above illustration shows the D.P.A. pump
fitted to the 3.25 iitre diesei engine.
34
e
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM
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1191
1. D o not attempt to start the engine hoping to draw
the fuel through in this way, othcrwisc the full
priming procedure will be necessary.
2. Slacken the bleed pipe banjo bolt on the top of the
main fuel filter.
- ..
,. ....
......
..,
... . .".
,
:'
,.
.I.
3. Operate the hand priming lever on the mechanical
pump, until fuel free from bubbles emerges.
Always ensure that fuel pump lever is on the
bottom of the operating cam when priming the fuel
system, otherwise maximum movement of the
priming lever cannot be achieved.
4. Tighten the bleed pipe banjo bolt whilst the fucl is
still emerging.
5 . Operate the hand priming lever once or twice to
clear t h e last bubbles of air into the filter bleed
pipe.
6. Start engine in normal way and check for leaks.
9. Operate t h e fuel pump hand priming lever until
fuel free of air cmerges.
10. Rctighten the air vent screw.
11. To ensure that all air is exhausted from the pump i t
may also be nccessary to slacken air vent screw in
the distributor control cover and repeat
instructions 9 and 10. 2.25 litre engine D.P.A.
pump only.
12. Start the engine in the normal way and check for
leaks.
Procedure when distributor pump has been drained
13. Carry out instructions 8 to 12 inclusive.
Procedure when fuel system has been drained
.
..
., .,.
...
..
...
I..
., .
7. Carry out instructions 1 to 5 inclusive.
8. Release air v e n t screw on distributor body.
'.I
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Illustration A - 2.25 litre D.P.A. pump
Illustration B - 2.5 litre D.P.S. pump
FUEL INJECTION PUMP -Altitude compensation
When Diesel engines are operated at high altitude it is
recognised that the reduced air density causes a
reduction in the weight of air drawn into the engine
cylinders, which results i r i incomplclc combustion of
the injected fuel at full throttle, unlcss this is rcduced in
proportion to the reduction in air density.
To compensate for these variations and to avoid
excessive fuel consumption, accompanied by excessive
exhaust smoke, the amount of fuel delivered to the
cylinders must be reduced to suit the conditions under
which the engine is required to operate. For every
330 metres (I000 feet) above 990 metres (3000 feet)
the fuel delivery must be reduced by 3%.
Adjustments to the D.P.S. pump, however, must only
be carried-out by an authorised C.A.V. Dealer.
.
....... .i.
STllOl M
35
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM
OVERHAUL FUEL INJECTORS
Service tools:
271483 or
18G109 or
Diesel tune 111
278182 or
18G109B or
Diesel tune 102
278181 or
18G109E
605002 or
18G1487 or
FT9101
Injector nozzle testing and setting kit
12. Clean the three oil feed passages in the nozzle body
with a wire or drill of 1,5 mm (0.062 in) diameter.
13. Remove the carbon from the annular recess with
the tool illustrated.
0
-,,:5,
Adaptor Pintaux Injector
Injector nozzle flushing tool
I
Injector nozzle cleaning kit
DISMANTLE
-
1. Remove the injectors from the engine.
2. Disconnect the injectors from the fuel spill rail.
3. Remove the combined locknut and end cap.
4. Withdraw the sealing washer.
5. Unscrew the pressure adjusting screw.
6. Withdraw the pressure spring.
7. Withdraw the valve spindle.
8. Unscrew the cap nut.
9. Withdraw the nozzle valve and body.
- . +
---
6
ST 1107M
14. Remove the carbon from the valve seat, using the
appropriate tool with a rotary motion.
15. Select the appropriate size probe from t h e pocket
of cleaning kit and secure it in the pintle hole
cleaner.
Insert the probe into the bore of nozzle valve body
and allow the end to extend through the main fuel
outlet, then turn in a rotary manner to remove
carbon.
ST 1106M
14
Cleaning and inspecting
10. Soak the component parts of the assembly in Shell
Calibration Fluid to loosen carbon deposits, but do
not allow parts of any one assembly to be
interchanged with those of another.
11. Brush away all external carbon deposits from
component parts with a brass wire brush and return
them to the fluid bath. Particular care must be
exercised when cleaning the pintle and seat of
nozzle valve to avoid scratching or scoring, which
could result in spray distortion.
36
15
ST 1108M
continued
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM
I..\.*:-;
:
-
16. Carbon may be removed from the nozzle valve
cone by inserting the valve into the tool illustrated
and then rotating it alternately in a clockwise then
anti-clockwise manner whilst pressing the valve
inward. If the nozzle is blued or the seating has a
dull circumferential ring indicating pitting or wear,
the nozzle body and valve should be returned to a
CAV Service Agent and replacement parts fitted.
Do not attempt to lap the nozzle valve to body.
This process requires special equipment and
training.
17. Clean the auxiliary spray hole using the special tool
fitted with probing wire 0,20 mm (0.008 in)
diameter.
El
19. With the flushing tool secured to the nozzle testing
outfit, fit the nozzle body (spray holes uppermost)
to the flushing tool and pump test oil through
vigorously. This flushing process is necessary for
the removal of any tiny carbon parricles which may
have become lodged in the body after scraping and
probing.
NOTE: Allow 1,s mm (0.062 in) only to extend
from the chuck and thus minimise the possibility of
the wire bending or breaking while probing. Great
care must be taken to prevent breakage of the wire
inthehole.
.
.
.
.
.
ST 1111M
\
Assemble
W
ST 1109M
18. Examine the pressure faces of nozzle body and
nozzle holder to ascertain their freedom from
scoring and scratches. These surfaces must be
perfectly smooth.
20. Fit the nozzle valve to nozzle and check for
freedom of movement.
21. Immerse the nozzle body and valve in the fluid
bath and assemble whilst submerged.
22. Wash the remaining components and assemble the
injector in the sequence illustrated during the
dismantling.
23. Set the injection nozzle assembly in accordance
with the following test procedure.
Bench test injector nozzle and holder assembly
24. To check a nozzle assembly and to ensure that it is
functioning correctly, a setting outfit, as illustrated,
is essential. A bench covered with linoleum or
non-ferrous sheet metal is most suitable for
mounting the outfit; such a surface facilitates the
cleanliness essential when checking nozzle parts.
Between the bench and setting outfit, a tray, also
-c --- c
U 1 I1u1I-lc1fuu> l 1 l ~ l a i , >IIOUIU be positioned to
prevent spilt fuel spreading. Small containers may
be attached to the bench to isolate the component
parts of each assembly. These parts are carefully
mated by t h e manufacturers and must not be
interchanged. Lastly, a small bath with a cover,
containing Shell Calibration Fluid for washing
components, should be kept conveniently near.
37
--.1
-L-..lJ
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM
-
25. The efficient operation of the injection nozzle
assembly is dependent on four main conditions, as
follows:
The nozzle valve must open at 135 Ats.
The rate of back leakage must be within 150 to
100 Ats.
Seat tightness must be sufficient to prevent
leakage.
Spray form must compare favourably with the
illustrations.
26. Pressure setting, back leakage and seat tightness
tests may be made by coupling the injection nozzle
and holder assembly direct to the pressure feed
pipe on the setting outfit, but an adaptor must be
fitted between the pipe and injection nozzle and
holder assembly when testing spray form. This
adaptor, see instruction 38, increases the pressure
of fuel to the injection nozzle and holder assembly
sufficiently for the main and auxiliary spray form to
6e determined.
Test procedure
WARNING: The injection nozzle must not be allowed to
point towards the operator when spraying and the hands
must never be allowed to contact the spray which has a
force that can penetrate the flesh.
27. Remove the cap from the setting outfit container
and fill with 0,8 litre (1.5 pints) of Shell Calibration
Fluid.
28. Air vent the system by removing the vent screw,
allow oil to flow freely for a few seconds and
replace the screw whilst the flow continues.
29. Operate the pump handle until fluid flows from
pipe.
30. Connect the injector and holder assembly to the
pressure feed pipe with the nozzle pointing
downwards. The length and bore of this pipe is
important and replacement pipes must be
approximately 75 mm (2.8 in) between the union
nuts and of 3 mm (0.118 in) bore.
31. Close the check valve to keep the pressure gauge
out of circuit and smartly operate the hand lever
several times to expel all air from the system.
Leak-back test
32. Adjustment is made by removing the combined
end cap and locknut from the nozzle holder, and
turning the adjusting screw clockwise to increase
and anti-clockwise to decrease the opening
pressure.
33. Fit assembled injector to nozzle setting outfit and
adjust to open at 160 to 170 atmospheres then
pump up to just below this figure, release handle to
allow the needle of gauge to fall naturally. Time
the pressure drop from 150 atmospheres down to
100 atmospheres.
34. This should be not less than 5 seconds for the
original nozzle and not less than 7 seconds if a new
one is to be fitted, and not more than 36 seconds
for either with oil temperature 10" to 21°C (50" to
70°F).
38
35. Check externally the top and bottom of nozzle cap
nut and pressure pipe union nuts for signs of oil
leakage. If leakage occurs at the nozzle cap nut,
remove the nut and examine the pressure faces of
nozzle holders and nozzle body (see item 18) for
presence of foreign matter or surface scoring,
before tightening further.
A leak-proof nozzle assembly with an excessive
rate of pressure drop indicates a worn nozzle valve;
the nozzle valve and nozzle body should be
renewed.
0
32
30
35
29
ST 1 1 127M
Pressure setting
36. The selected operational opcning pressurc of the
nozzle valve is 135 atmosphcrcs. Readjust to this
setting in t h e manner described in item 32.
s"
~ ., ,
-'
Seat tightness
37. Wipe the bottom face of the injection nozzle dry
and raise the pressure in the system to 125
atmospheres. A slight dampness on the bottom
dripping
face is permissible, but blob formation 01'
indicates a badly seating valve in which case the
assembly should be dismantled for further
examination.
Spray form
38. Fuel delivery to the injection nozzle assembly when
testing spray form must be characteristically similar
to fuel delivery under normal operating conditions
and to effect these conditions an adaptor (CAV
Y7044872) must be fitted between the injection
nozzle assembly and the pressure pipe.
continued
f~
;.,
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM
.
I
. .
:.:T
.
Y .
-
39. The adaptor differs mainly in the cap nut and
nozzle valve from the ordinary type of injection
nozzle and holder assembly as fitted to the engine;
the nozzle valve has no pintle.
40. The cap nut is extended, bored and threaded to
receive nozzles for testing.
41, Connect the adaptor assembly to the pressure pipe.
42. Remove the end cap and adjust the opening
pressure of the nozzle valve to 220 atmospheres.
43. Screw the injection nozzle and holder assembly to
be tested, into the adaptor.
44. With the check valve closed, operate the handle
smartly to expel air from the system. The auxiliary
spray form may be tested at 60 strokes per minute
and the main spray at 140. Spray development
from starting to running speeds is illustrated, this
illustration should be referred to and compared
with the spray form of nozzles under test.
Spray formation should be well formed and free
from splits or distortion. A slight centre 'core' can
be disregarded. Observe the main spray through
360 degrees to ensure a uniform spray.
*
d
ST 1115M
45. When satisfactory, fit the combined locknut and
end cap, connect the injectors to the fuel spill rail
and fit them to the engine.
FITTING FUEL INJECTORS
The steel sealing washer fitted below the injector
nozzle is to ensure that combustion does not take placc
around the nozzle body and cause it to overheat. A
washer which has been used more than once, or an
incorrectly fitted washer may cause the nozzle to
overheat and result in that cylinder misfiring.
1 . Ensure that the new washers are separated from
each other and are clean.
2. Use a length of thin welding wire to guide one
washer only into each port with the domed side
toward the injector as illustrated. Ensure that only
one washer is fitted to each port.
continued
I
. .
'
ST1114M
39
1191
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM
3 . Lightly grease the copper washer into position on
each injector before fitting to the cylinder head.
4. Fit the injector and evenly tighten the retaining
nuts to the correct torque 6 to 8 Nm (4 to 6 Ibs ft).
Uneven or overtightening of the injector nuts could
distort the nozzle and cause misfiring when normal
running temperature is reached.
5 . Reconnect the injector pipes but do not
overtighten thc union nuts.
HAND THROTTLE -where fitted
Petrol and Diesel four cylinder engines
Adjust
1. Slacken the lock nut on the cable adjuster and turn
the adjuster to remove all slack from the cable and
tighten the locknut.
NOTE: The first illustration petrol engine and
second illustration Diesel engine.
A . ) Foot pedal cable adjuster
B.) Hand throttle cable adjuster
THROTTLE PEDAL ADJUSTMENT Petrol and Diesel four cylinder engines
1. After renewing the throttle cable, remove any
slack in the cable by adjustment of the cable
adjuster at the engine end.
2. Depress the throttle pedal, by hand, .to the full
extent of the carburetter, DPA or DPS pump
linkage, and adjust thc pedal stop screw to take up
all clearance between the screw and scuttle panel.
Make sure that n o strain is placed upon the
carburetter or pump linkage.
.
...
ST1835M
STlfiR8M
40
L
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM-TURBO CHARGED ENGINE
19
GENERAL SPECIFICATION DATA
2.5 Litre Turbo Charged Diesel Engine -Supplement
Number of cylinders ..............................................
Bore ..................................................................
Stroke ...............................................................
Capacity .............................................................
Compression ratio ................................................
Valve charger ......................................................
Turbo charger .....................................................
4
90,47 mm (3.562 ins)
97,OO mm (3.822 ins)
2495 cc
21:l
0.h.v. pushrod operated
Garrett T2
Crankshaft
.
.
Main bearing journal diameter ................................
Regrind dimensions:
63,246-63,2333 mm (2.490-2.4895 in) ..................
Crankpin journal diameter ......................................
Regrind dimensions:
58,48985-58,4708 mm (2.30275-2.30200 in) ..........
Crankshaft end thrust ............................................
Ciankshaft end-float .............................................
63,487-63,500 mm (2.4995-2.500 in)
Use 0.010 in U/S bearings
58,725-58,744 mm (2.312-2.31275 in)
Use 0.010 in U/S bearings
Taken on thrust washers at centre main bearing
0,05-0,15 mm (0.002-0.006 in)
Main bearings
Number and type .................................................
Diametrical clearance ............................................
5 halved shells without oil grooves
0,018-0,061 mm (0.0007-0.0024 in)
Connecting rods
Length between centres .........................................
175,38-175,43 mm (6.905-6.907 in)
Diametrical clearance (big-end bearings) ................... 0,025-0,075 m m (0.001-0.003 in)
End-float on crankpin ............................................. 0,15-0,356 mm (0.006-0.014 in)
Pistons
Type .................................................................
Skirt diametrical clearance
(at right angle to gudgeon pin) .................................
Aluminium alloy ‘V’ shaped valve recess in crown
0,025-0,05 m m (0.001-0.002 in)
Gudgeon pins
Type .................................................................
Fit in piston .........................................................
Diameter ............................................................
Clearance in connecting rod ....................................
Floating
Hand push fit
30,1564-30,1625 mm
(1.18726-1.18750 in)
0,0196-0,0036 mm
(0.00077-0.U0014 in)
Piston rings
Type :
. .
Top ..........................................................
Second ......................................................
Oil control ..................................................
Gap in bore:
Top ..........................................................
Second ......................................................
Oil control ..................................................
Clearance in piston grooves:
Top ..........................................................
Second ......................................................
Oil control ..................................................
Chamfered friction edge, chrome plated
Taper faced
Expander and rails
0,30 to 030 mm (0.011-0.019 in)
0,25 to 0,45 mm (0.009-0.017 in)
0,3 to 0,6 mm (o.oii-O.u23i n j
0,14Oto0,180 mm (0.002to0.007 in)
0,040 to 0,080 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in)
0,04 to 0,080 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in)
continued
41
1191
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM-TURBO CHARGED ENGINE
Camshaft
Drive .................................................................
Location ............................................................
End-float .............................................................
Number of bearings ..............................................
Material .............................................................
25,4 mm (0.1 in) wide dry toothed belt
Right-hand side (thrust side)
0,l-0,2 mm (0.004-0.008 in)
4
Steel shell, white metal lined
Valves
Seat angle:
Inlet ............................................................
Exhaust .......................................................
Head diameter:
Inlet ............................................................
Exhaust .......................................................
Stem diameter:
Inlet ............................................................
Exhaust .......................................................
Valve lift:
Inlet ............................................................
Exhaust .......................................................
Cam lift:
Inlet ............................................................
Exhaust .......................................................
45"
45"
39,12-39,37 mm (1.540-1.550 in)
33,25-33,50 mm (1.309-1.319 in)
7,912-7,899 mm (0.3114-0.3109 in)
8,682-8,694 mm (0.3418-0.3422 in)
9,85 mm (0.388 in)
10,26 mm (0.404 in)
6,81 mm (0.268 in)
7,06 mm (0.278 in)
Valve springs
Type .................................................................
Inner:
Length, free ..................................................
Length, under 8.0 kg (17.7 lb) load ....................
Outer:
Length, free ..................................................
Length, under 21 kg (46 Ib) load ........................
Duplex Interference double coil
42,67 mm (1.680 in)
40,30 mm (1.587 in)
46,28 mm (1.822 in)
40,30 mm (1.587 in)
Lubrication
System ...............................................................
System pressure, engine warm at 2000 rpm .................
Oil pump:
Type ...........................................................
Drive ...........................................................
End-float of both gears ....................................
Radial clearance of gears ..................................
Backlash of gears ...........................................
Oil pressure relief valve:
Type .................................................................
Relief valve spring:
Full length ....................
,.. .............................
Compressed length at 2.58 kg (5.7 lb) load ...........
Oil filter:
Type ...........................................................
Wet sump, pressure fed
2,5-4,57 kgf cm2 (35-65 Ibf in2)
Double gear 10 teeth, sintered iron gears
Splined shaft from camshaft skew gear
0,0260,135 mm (0.0009-0.0045 in)
0,025-0,075 mm (0.0008-0.0025 in)
0,l-0,2 mm (0.0034-0.0067 in)
Non-adjustable
67,82 mm (2.670in)
61,23 mm (2.450 in)
Screw-on disposable canister
FUEL SYSTEM
Inspection pump ..................................................
Fuel lift pump type ...............................................
Pressure range .....................................................
Fuel filter ...........................................................
Air cleaner .........................................................
See 'ENGINE TUNING DATA'
Mechanical with hand primer
0,35-0,56kgf cm2 (5-8 Ibf in2)
Paper eiement
Paper element type
continued
42
a
-
F :
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM -TURBO CHARGED ENGINE
........
........
a"-.
I
::::.:>:
.
::'
......:;....
.. ?
..,.
El
COOLING SYSTEM
Type .................................................................
Pressurized spill return system with thermostat control,
pump and fan assisted
Thermostat opening temperature .............................
82°C
1,0 kgf cm2 (15 Ibf in2)
Pressure cap ........................................................
Water pump type .................................................
Centrifugal
7 blade with viscous coupling
Fan type .............................................................
Combined engine coolant and oil cooler
Radiator .............................. ,....,........................
CLUTCH
Type .................................................................
Centre plate diameter (friction plate) ........................
Facing material ....................................................
Number of damper springs .....................................
Damper spring colour ............................................
.
Clutch release bcaring ...........................................
Verto diaphragm spring
235 mm (9.25 in)
Verto 791
8
2 off white/green -Suffix 'C'
2 off pigeon blue - Suffix 'A'
4 off ruby red - Suffix 'B'
Ball journal
TRANSMISSION
Type .................................................................
Ratios Ninety and One Ten ....................................
Rear axle
Type-Ninety models ..............................................
Type-One Ten models ...........................................
Ratio-All models ..................................................
Front axle
Type-Ninety models ..............................................
Front wheel drive .................................................
Ratio .................................................................
Overall ratio (including final drive)
Ninety and One Ten models ....................................
LT230T. Two-speed reduction on main gearbox output.
Front and rear drive permanently engaged via a lockable
differential
High 1.4109:l
Low 3.3198:l
Spiral bevel
Hypoid; full floating shafts, Salisbury 8HA
3.54:l
Spiral bevel
Enclosed constant velocity joint
3.54: 1
In high
transfer
Fifth
(Cruising gear)
4.15:l
Fourth
4.991
Third
7.53: 1
1 1.49:1
Second
First
17.90:l
Reverse
18.48:l
In low
transfer
9.76:l
11.75:1
17.71:l
27.03: 1
42.1 1:1
43.47: 1
ELECTRICAL
Starter motor ......................................................
Paris Rhone type D9R91 12 volt, with reduction gear
....
43
1191
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM-TURBO CHARGED ENGINE
ENGINE TUNING DATA
ENGINE
Firing order ........................................................
. . .
Injection timing ...................................................
1-3-4-2
13" R.T.D.C.
Timing marks:
. .
Valve timing .......................................................
Injection timing ...................................................
Tappet clearances inlet and exhaust ..........................
Slot for peg in flywheel and TDC mark on front pulley
Special tool 18G 1458 inserted in D.P.S. pump
0,25 m m (0.010 in)
Valve timing
Inlet opens ..........................................................
Inlet closes ..........................................................
Inlet peak ...........................................................
Exhaust opens .....................................................
Exhaust closes .....................................................
Exhaust peak ......................................................
16"B.T.D.C.
42" A.B.D.C.
103" A.T.D.C.
51" B.B.D.C.
13" A.T.D.C.
109" R.T.D.C.
Valve lift
Inlet ..................................................................
Exhaust .............................................................
9,85 m m (0,388 ins)
10,26 m m (0.404 ins)
Maximum governed speeds
Full load .............................................................
N o load (flight speed) ............................................
Idle speed ...........................................................
Dic-down time .....................................................
DlSTKlBUTOK PUMP
Makehype ..........................................................
4000 r.p.m.
4400 k 80 r.p.m.
670 20 r.p.m.
4 seconds
*
CAV DPS type with boost control and two speed
mechanical governor with auto advance and solenoid
electrical shut-off. Tamper proof sealing on flight speed
and fuel adjustment screws.
Clockwise, viewed from drive cnd
7" advance with 3" start retard
Direction of rotation .............................................
Advance box (two stage) ........................................
Back leakage rate 150-100 Atm:
New nozzle ...................................................
Original nozzle ..............................................
Despatch nozzle .............................................
7 seconds
5 seconds
8520A290A
INJECTORS
Makehype ..........................................................
Nozzle size ..........................................................
Opening pressure (working pressure) ........................
Injector pipe type .................................................
size ..................................................
length ..............................................
CAV Pintaux DES5385001
BDNO/SPC 6209
135 to 140 Atmosphercs
High pressure multi-bundy
1,94 to 2,06 m m
457,2 mm (18 ins)
HEATER PLUGS
.,
iviaiteitype ..........................................................
n
rrobe type, C'nampion CE63 i i v ~ i i 90
s waits iicjiiiiiiai
Time to reach operating temperature of 850°C ............ 8 seconds
TURBO-CHARGER
Makehype ..........................................................
Maximum boost pressure .......................................
44
Garrett T2
48 cm H G (9.3 P.S.I.G.) measured at wastegate actuator
"T" piece
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM -T U RB O C H A R G ED ENGINE
I 191
TORQUE WRENCH SETTINGS
TURBO-CHARGER FlXINCS
Nm
Ibf.ft
Stud-Turbo charger to exhaust manifold
Nut-Turbo charger to exhaust manifold
Adaptor-Oil feed to cylinder block
Adaptor-Oil drain to cylinder block
Pipc-Oil feed to turbo charger
Pipe-Oil drain
Stud-Outlet elbow to turbo charger
Nut-Outlet elbow to turbo charger
Heat shield support to inlet manifold
Stud-Exhaust manifold to cylinder head
Nut-Exhaust manifold to cylinder head
Screw-inlet and exhaust manifold to cylinder head
22-28
2 1-26
22-28
22-28
15-22
32-48
22-28
2 1-26
22-28
30-40
28-36
30-40
16-21
15-19
16-21
16-21
11-16
23-35
16-21
15-19
16-21
22-30
2 1-26
22-30
RECOMMENDED ENGINE OILS
The following list of recommended engine oils for temperate climates - ambicnt temperaturc range - 10°C to 35°C
should be used for oil changes and topping up. They are SHPD (Super High Performance Diesel) oils that allow a
maximum of 10,000 km (6,000 miles) between oil and filter changes.
BP
CASTROL
MOBIL
SHELL
Vanellus C3 Extra 15/40
Deusol Turbomax 15/40
Delvac 1400 Super 15/40
Myrina 15/40
The following list of oils is for emergency use only if the above oils arc not availablc. They can be used for topping-up
without detriment, but if used for engine oil changing, they are limited to a maximum of 5,000 km (3,000 miles)
between oil and filter changcs.
BP
Vanellus C3 Multigradc 15/40
CASTROL
Dcusol RX Super 15/40
DUCKHAMS
Hypergrade 15/50
ESSO
Essolube XD-3 15/40
MOBIL
Delvac Super 15/40
PETROFINA
Fina Dilano HPD 15/40
Rimula X 15/40
SHELL
TEXACO
URSA Super Plus 15/40
Use only oils to MIL-L-2104C/D or API Service levels C D or SE/CD-ISW/40 SECTION 10
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
The following additional maintenance is required for the turbo charged engine to that contained in t h c main schcdulc
for the non-Turbo Charged 2.5 Litre Diesel cngine.
Every 500 km (250 miles)
- Check engine oil level
At 1,600 km (1,000 miles), 10,000 km (6,000 miles) and 20.000 k m (12,000 miles) then every 20,000 km (12,000
miles)
- Check tappets, and adjust if n e c e s s q
Every 80.000 k m (48,000 miles)
- Check maximum turbo-charge boost pressure.
19
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM-TURBO C H A RG ED ENGINE
TURBO-CHARGER
9. Remove the five nuts to release the exhaust elbow
and gasket from the turbo-charger.
Removing
1. Remove thc bonnct.
2. Remove the hose connecting the air clcancr to the
turbo-charger.
3 . Remove the turbo-charger heat shield fixings and
remove the heat shield.
4. Release the clamp securing the turbo-charger
elbow to the exhaust downpipe.
5 . Remove the inlet manifold to the turbo-charger
hose.
6. Disconnect the boost control hose from t h e turbocharger.
7. Disconnect from t h e turbo-charger the lubrication
inlet pipe.
10. Release the lock tabs and removc the four nuts
securing the turbo-charger to the exhaust manifold
and remove the turbo-charger and gasket.
8. Disconnect, at the flexiblc hose, the lubrication
drain pipe from the turbo-charger.
Fitting
\
46
\
\
\ \ \
\ \ \
\
\\
11. Fit the raised bead side of a new gasket uppermost
to the exhaust manifold and fit and secure the
turbo-charger with the four nuts, tightening evenly
to the correct torque and secure with lock tabs.
12. Fit the exhaust elbow, using a new gasket, to thc
turbo-charger and retain with the five nuts
tightening evcnly to the correct torque.
+-
.
:
*=-
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM-TURBO C H A R G E D ENGINE
119
ST1863M
13. Fit the exhaust downpipe to the turbo-charger
elbow and tighten the clamp bolt.
14. Connect the lubrication inlet pipe to the turbocharger.
15. Fit the oil drain pipe to the flexible connection.
16. Connect the boost control pipe to t h e turbocharger.
17. Fit the hose connecting the inlet manifold to turbocharger.
18. Fit the heat shield.
19. Fit the air cleaner to turbo-charger hose.
20. Immediately prior to starting the engine release the
oil inlet pipe to the turbo-charger and fill the centre
housing with a recommended makc and grade of
engine oil and re-fit the pipe.
CHECKING TURBO-CHARGER BOOST PRESSURE
1. Disconnect, from the turbo-charger, t h e hose to
the actuator and insert, into the free end a suitable
‘T’piece.
2. Connect a short length of slave hose to the turbocharger and connect the other end to the ‘T’ piece.
3 . Connect a further slave hose to the third leg of the
‘T’ piece and the other end to a pressure gauge
capable of reading in excess of 50 cm of Mercury.
The pressure gauge hose must be long enough to
reach into the cab of the vehicle so that the gauge
can be observed by the driver or passenger.
4. Drive t h e vehicle in the normal manner (2,5003,000 r.p.m. full load) and observe the maximum
pressure obtained and compare with the figure in
Data Section 05.
RENEW TURBO-CHARGER ACTUATOR
1. Remove the two screws securing actuator bracket
to the turbo-charger.
2 . Remove the nut and bolt securing actuator to the
heat shield bracket and disconnect the hose.
3. Remove clip retaining actuator arm to the
wastegate lever pin and withdraw the actuator from
the engine.
4. Fit the replacement actuator with the two bolts and
single nut and bolt. Tighten bolts to 12.5 to 14.0
Nm (111 to 124 in Ibs).
5 . Push the wastegate lever as far as possible towards
the actuator and apply pressure to keep lever in
this position.
6 . Pressurizc the replacement actuator to 57-62 cm
HgG (11-12 p.s.i.g) and hold this pressure.
CAUTION: Use only the threaded rod-end to make
adjustments. Forcing the entire rod in or out will change
the calibration with the possibility of damaging engine
over-boost
.
7. Screw the rod-end in either direction until the rod
end eye will locate easily over the wastegate pin
and secure with retaining clip.
8. Release the calibration pressure and tighten the
rod end locknut. Reconnect the hose.
9. Check the boost pressure, on the road, as
described earlier. The pressure should not fall
below 44 or exceed 50 cm HgG (8.5 -9.7 p.s.i.g.)
47
11911
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM- TURBO CHARGED ENGINE
TURBO-CHARGER FAULT TRACING
VISUAL INSPECTION
It is important to be aware that when tracing a
suspected fault in a turbo-charger that a turbo-charger
cannot compensate for incorrect engine operation
deficiencies in the air, or fuel intake systems, exhaust
emission components or for damaged and worn engine
internal parts such as valves and pistons. Before
suspecting the turbo-charger, the engine should be
checked against the tuning data in Section 05.
Replacing a sound turbo-charger with another will not
correct engine deficiencies.
1. Inspect all connections within the intake system.
Tighten loose connections as required.
7 Replace damaged air intake components.
-.
3 . Check the connection between the compressor and
the engine intake manifold.
Tighten loose bolts as required.
4 Check exhaust system connections at turbine
housing inlet and outlet flanges for oil leakage and
loose connections. Tighten loose connections as
required. If oil leakage exists, check the general
condition of the engine.
5 . Check the oil line connections at the centre housing
oil inlet and outlet ports for leakage.
Tighten loose connections as required. Start engine
and recheck connections.
Systematic fault tracing of a suspected turbo-charger
failure is important for two reasons. First, it must be
found what, if anything, is wrong with the turbocharger so that it can be cxchanged. Second, it must be
decided what action is necessary to prevent a repeat
failure.
In many cases, evidence pointing to the cause of a
failure is destroyed while removing the turbo-charger
from the engine. For example, if a turbo-charger failed
because of a faulty installation, such as loose
connections that allowed dirt to enter the compressor,
this would not be evident once the turbo-charger was
removed from the engine. Failure to correct the
installation, such as reinstalling defective manifold
flange Connections, could cause an identical failure of
the replacement unit. The hose connecting the air
cleaner to the compressor, which could contain dirt or
harmful particles, should bc cleaned or renewed if
necessary.
In general, the fault tracing procedures that can be
done with the least effort and in the least amount of
time should be done first. Do not remove and renew
the turbo-charger until the following visual checks and
repairs that can be made with the turbo-charger
installed, have been done. DO NOT, UNDER ANY
CIRCUMSTANCES, DISMANTLE THE TUKBOCHARGER.
48
COOLING SYSTEM
-.. ..
”.!
..
1261
I
ENGINE PROTECTION
DRAIN AND FILL VS ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
To prevent corrosion of the aluminium alloy engine
parts it is imperative that the cooling system is filled
with a solution of clean water and the correct type of
anti-freeze, winter and summcr, or water and inhibitor
if frost precautions are not required. Never fill or
top-up with water only, always add an inhibitor
(Marstons SQ36) if anti-freeze is not used. NEVER USC
salt water with an inhibitor otherwise corrosion will
occur. In certain territories where the only available
water supply may have some salt content, use only
clean rainwater or distilled water.
WARNING: Do not remove the radiator filler cap when
the engine is hot because the cooling system is
pressurized and personal scalding could result.
1. Remove the radiator filler plug.
Recommended solutions
”
.
,
.
.
.
,
Universal Anti-freeze or
Anti-freeze Unipart
permanent type ethylene base, without methanol, with
a suitable inhibitor for aluminium engines and engine
parts.
Use one part of anti-freeze to one part water.
Inhibitor Marston
Lubricants SQ36 inhibitor
concentrate.
Use 100 cc of inhibitor per litre of water.
Anti-freeze can remain in the cooling system and will
provide adcquatc protection for two years provided
that the specific gravity of the coolant is checked before
t h e onset ofthe second winter and topped-up with new
anti-freeze as required.
Land Rovers leaving the factory have the cooling
system filled with 50% of anti-freeze mixture. This
gives protection against frost down to minus 47°C
(minus 53°F). Vehicles so filled can be identified by a
label affixed to t h e windscreen and radiator.
After the second winter the system should be drained
and thoroughly flushed. Before adding new anti-freeze
examine all joints and renew defective hoses t o make
sure that the system is leakproof. Inhibitor solution
should be drained and flushed out and new inhibitor
solution introduced every two years, or sooner where
the purity of the water is qucstionablc.
See the ‘General specification data’ section for
protection quantities.
2. Remove t h e radiator drain plug and allow thc
coolant to drain, if neccssary, into a suitable
container. Refit thc drain plug and ncw washer. The
drain plug is situated on the left-hand side of thc
radiator towards t h e bottom facing the engine
compartment.
NOTE: Disconnect bottom hose to drain on radiators
without a drain plug. Connect hose after draining.
3 . Remove the engine drain plugs, one each side of the
cylinder block, beneath the exhaust manifolds.
Allow the coolant to drain and refit plugs and
washers.
1
1261
COOLING SYSTEM
DRAIN AND FILL 2.25 LITRE PETROL AND
DIESEL AND 2.5 DIESEL SYSTEMS
WARNING: Do not remove the radiator or expansion
tank filler caps when the engine is hot because the
cooling system is pressurized and personal scalding
could result.
1. Remove the expansion tanks and radiator filler
Plug.
4. To drain the expansion tank remove it from the
vehicle, empty, flush-out and refit. If necessary
renew the expansion tank hose.
5 . Make up a solution of anti-freeze and water in a
scparatc container in the concentration required.
The cooling system capacity is quoted in the data
scction. Therefore to allow for topping up and the
expansion tank make up a quantity in excess of this
quantity.
6 . If anti-freeze is not required use Marstons SQ36 in
the concentration recommended as described under
‘Engine protection’. Make up a quantity in excess of
capacity for topping up and expansion tank.
7. Make sure all drain plugs are tight and fill the system
through the radiator filler plug until the coolant is
just below the filler neck. Fit the plug but do not
over tighten.
8. Half fill the expansion tank with coolant and secure
the cap correctly.
2. Remove the radiator drain plug and allow the
coolant to drain, if necessary into a suitable
container. Refit the drain plug with a new washer.
The plug is located on t h e left-hand side of the
radiator facing the engine compartment.
9. Start and run the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached. Allow the engine to cool
and check the levels in the radiator and expansion
tank and top up if necessary. Finally check all hose
connections for leaks.
2
ST1146M
....-._
.
;
(y ,:,
.......
. :.,.
. :
I
-
.I,
NOTE: Radiator without a drain plug, disconnected
the bottom hose to drain. Reconnect after draining.
REMOVING THE RADIATOR (2.25 litre petrol
and 2.25 and 2.50 diesel)
3. Remove the cylinder block drain plug, on the lefthand side of the engine, and allow coolant to drain
completely before refitting the plug.
1. Disconnect the battery.
2. Drain the radiator by removing the drain plug at
the bottom left-hand side of the radiator and
releasing the expansion tank filler cap. See drain
and fill cooling system.
3. Disconnect the overflow hose from the radiator.
4. The radiator is held in position by two brackets
each secured by three screws. Remove the screws
and brackets.
5. Disconnect the top and bottom hoses from the
radiator.
6. Diesel engine
7. Disconnect thc vacuum pump hose from the pump
and release it from the clips on the radiator cowling.
Petrol engine
. .,
,...,. . .
ST1149M
.:. . . . ’ ,
’.:
,
I
,
\;,’
\ - ..
.
I
I
4. To drain the expansion tank, disconnect the hose
from the tank to the water pump. Drain and flush
and reconnect the hose.
5 . Make up a solution of anti-freeze and water in a
separate container in the concentration required.
The cooling system capacity can vary so rcfer to
‘Capacities’ under ‘General specification data’. To
allow for topping up and the expansion tank prepare
a quantity in excess of the capacity of the system
concerned.
6. If anti-freeze is not required, use Marstons inhibitor
SQ36 in the recommended concentration, see under
‘Engine protection’. Prepare a quantity in excess o f
the capacity for topping up and the expansion tank.
7. Check all hoses and drain plugs for security and fill
the system through t h e expansion tank until
approximately three quarters full.
8. Fit the expansion tank cap and radiator filler plug
and run the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached. Allow the engine to cool
completely. Remove the expansion tank cap and if
necessary top up to half full. Remove the radiator
filler plug and check that the coolant level is just
below the filler neck. Finally examine the cooling
system for leaks. Tighten the radiator filler plug to
40-50 Ibs. in.
8. Disconnect the air cleaner hose from the
carburetter and remove the air cleaner.
9. Release the three fixings securing cowling to the
engine.
10. Pull back the cowling towards the radiator and lift
radiator and cowl.
11. Remove the five screws securing the cowling to the
radiator and separate the two units noting that the
cowling is held to the bottom of the radiator by two
clips.
continued
3
1261
COOLING SYSTEM
FITTING THE RADIATOR
12. Locate the cowling into thc clip at the bottom of
the radiator and secure it at the top with the five
screws.
13. Lower the radiator and cowl assembly into position
in the vehicle ensuring that the two pegs at the
bottom of the radiator locate in the corresponding
rubber pads in the crossmember brackcts.
14. Secure the top of the radiator with the two brackets
and bolts.
15, Secure the cowling to the engine.
16. Connect the top, bottom and overflow hoses.
17. Diesel engine
Fit the hose t o the vacuum pump and secure it with
the clips on the cowling.
Fit the air cleaner and connect the hose to the air
intakc manifold.
18. All engines
Check that the radiator drain plug (where fitted) is
tight and f i l l t h e cooling system.
-
a
ST1151 M
A . Oil from engine to oil cooler.
B. Cooled oil from cooler to engine.
Start engine and check for oil leaks
e--.-+
ST1684M
4
RADIATOR ASSEMBLY -TURBO-CHARGED
VEHICLES.
Removing
1 . Disconnect the battery.
2. Remove the split pin and clevis pin securing the
lower end of the bonnet stay and lift-off the
bonnet.
3 . Remove the three screws each side securing the
radiator left-hand and right-hand retaining
brackets and remove the brackets.
4. Remove the four screws and withdraw the radiator
cooling fan cowl.
5 . Disconnect the bottom hose from the radiator and
drain the coolant.
6. Disconnect the oil cooler inlet and outlet pipes
from the radiator and blank-off the pipes and
radiator aperturcs to prevent ingress of dirt.
7. Disconnect the radiator top hose from the radiator
and thermostat housing.
8. Disconnect expansion tank hose from radiator.
9. Lift the radiator from the engine compartment.
10. If the radiator is to be renewed, remove t h e oil
cooler unions from the radiator and fit to the
replacement radiator.
Fitting
11. Fit the radiator into position ensuring that the two
pegs at the bottom of the radiator locate in the
corresponding rubber pads in the cross member
brackets.
1
ST18GYM
12. Fit the radiator top hose to the radiator and
thermostat housing.
13. Conncct the radiator bottom hose.
14. Fit the expansion tank hosc to radiator.
15. Fit the fan cowl and secure with the four screws.
16. Fit the radiator left-hand and right-hand rctaining
brackets.
17. Fit the oil cooler inlet and outlet hoses to the
radiator.
Hose A to top of radiator.
Hose B to bottom of radiator.
18. Fit the bonnet and stay securing with the clevis pin
and new split pin.
CTInCnl"
JI l 0 U O l V l
.,.:..::
.... ., *:.
5
Filling radiator
19. Check that all hose clips are tight.
20. Remove the expansion tank cap.
21. Remove the radiator plug.
22. Fill the system with coolant using a mixture of
water and anti-freeze or anti-corrosion inhibitor,
through the expansion tank until1 the coolant is just
below the level of the radiator plug hole. Continue
filling until the expansion tank is half-full.
23. Fit the expansion tank cap and radiator plug.
Tighten the plug to 40- 50 Ibs. in.
24. Check the engine oil level in sump and top-up.
6
25. Connect the battery and run the engine until
normal running temperature is attained whilst
checking for coolant leaks.
26. Stop the engine and allow it to cool completely.
27. Remove the radiator plug and check thc level and
fit and tighten plug.
28. Top-up level of expansion tank and fit the cap.
COOLING SYSTEM FAULT DIAGNOSIS
SYMPTOM
A- EXTERNAL L E A K A G E
B- INTERNAL L E A K A G E
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CURE
I. Loose hose clips
2. Defective rubber hose
3 . Damagedra d'iator seams
4. Excessive wear in the water pump
5. Loose core plugs
6 . Damaged gaskets
7. Leaks at the heater connectionsor plugs
8. Leak at the water temperature gauge
Plug
1 . Tighten
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
I . Renew. Check engine oil for contamination and refill as necessary
2. Renew cylinder block
3. Tighten. Check engine for oil contamination and refill as necessary
I. Defective cylinder head gasket
2. Cracked cylinder wall
3 . Loose cylinder head bolts
C-WATER LOSS
1. Ascertain the cause of engine overheating and correct as ncccssary
2. See items A and B
3. Flush radiator o r renew the thermostat
as necessary
1. Boiling
2. Internal o r external leakage
3 . Restricted radiator o r inoperative
thermostat
D-POOR CIRCULATION
1. Restriction in system
1. Check hoses for crimps, reverse-flush
the radiator, and clear the system of rust
and sludge
2. Replenish
3 . Renew
4. Adjust
5. Renew
2. Insufficient coolant
3 . Inoperative water pump
4. I.oosc fan belt
5. Inoperative therinostat
1. Use only soft, clean water together with
correct anti-freeze or inhibitor mixture
2. The cooling system should be drained
and flushed thoroughly at least once a
year
3 . Certain anti-frecze solutions have a corrosive cffect on parts of the cooling system.
Only
rccommcnded
solutions
should be used.
2. Infrequent flushing and draining of
system
3 . Incorrect anti-freeze mixtures
F-OVEKHEATING
1. Poor circulation
2. Dirty oil and sludge in engine
3 . Radiator fins choked with chaff, mud.
etc.
1. Sce item D
2. Refill
3. Use air prcssure from the engine side of
the radiator and clean out passages
thoroughly
4. Check using electronic equipment
5. S e e i t c m D
6. Rcplenish
7. New engines arc very tight during the
'running-in' period and moderate speeds
should be maintained for the first 1,000
miles (1500 km)
8. Rectify o r renew
4. Incorrect ignition timing
5. Insufficient coolant
6. Low oil level
7. Tight engine
8. Choked or damaged exhaust pipe or
silencer
9. Dragging brakes
10. Overloading vehicle
1 I. Driving in heavy sand or mud
12. Enginc labouring on gradients
13. Low gear work
14. Excessive engine idling
15. Inaccurate tcmperature gauge
16. Defective thermostat
G-OVEKCWOLING
1 . Defective thermostat
2 . Inaccurate temperature gauge
Renew
Rectify
Renew
Renew
Renew
Rectify
Tighten
9. Adjust brakes
10. I n the hands of the operator
11. In thc hands of the operator
12. In the hands of the operator
13. In the hands of the operator
14. In the hands of the operator
15. Renew
16. Rcnew
T
I. Renew
2. Renew
7
.
CLUTCH
.’...._......
:;:. . . .
OVERHAUL RELEASE BEARING ASSEMBLY
....,
, !9!:
,
.. .
.,
i..
. ..
I . Remove the clutch slave cylinder from the bell
housing.
2. Withdraw the retaining staple, if fitted.
3. Remove the release bearing assembly.
4. Remove spring clip retaining bolt and spring- V8.
5 . Remove the slipper pads - 4-cylinder engines
only.
6. Withdraw the relcase lever.
7. Discard worn parts.
8. Smear the pivot with grease and fit the release
lever and retain with the spring clip and bolt -V8.
9. Smear the release bearing sleeve inner diameter
with Molybdenum disulphide base grease.
10. Fit the slipper pads.
11. Fit the release bearing assembly and retain with the
staple. The staple is to aid assembly and has no
other purpose. It may become dislodged in service,
without detriment.
..
33
12. Coat both sides of the backing plate with a
waterproof joint compound such as Hylomar
PL32M and locate the backing plate and dust cover
in position on the slave cylinder.
13. Check that the push-rod clip is in position.
14. Fit the slave cylinder, engaging the push-rod
through the centre of the dust cover and with the
bleed screw uppermost. Secure the cylinder with
the two bolts, tightening cvenly to the correct
torque.
OVERHAUL MASTER CYLINDER -All models
DISMANTLE
1. Remove the master cylinder from the vehicle.
2. Remove the circlip.
3. Withdraw the push-rod and retaining washer.
,
.
Illustration A . V8 engine
ST1136M
ST1134M
,,’ i
7
Illustration B. 4-cylinder engines
4. Withdraw the piston assembly. If neccssary, apply
a low air pressure to the outlct port to expel the
piston.
B
continucd
3
,
L
‘
.
-.
ST1135M
STl137M
1
(33)
CLUTCH
5. Prise the locking prong of the spring retainer clear
of the piston shoulder and withdraw the piston.
6. Withdraw the piston seal.
7. Compress the spring and position the valve stem to
align with t h e larger hole in the spring retainer.
Assemble
14. Smear the seals with Castrol-Girling rubber grease
and the remaining internal items with CastrolGirling brake and clutch fluid.
15. Fit the valve seal, flat side first, onto the end of the
valve stem.
16. Place the spring washer, domed side first, over the
small end of the valve stem.
17. Fit the spacer, legs first.
15
8. Withdraw the spring and retainer.
9. Withdraw the valve spacer and spring washer from
the valve stem.
10. Remove the valvc seal.
J
STl140M
18. Place t h e coil spring over the valve stem.
19. Inscrt the retainer into the spring.
20. Compress the spring and engage thc valve stem in
the keyhole slot in the retainer.
ST1139M
Inspection
11. Clean all components in Girling cleaning fluid and
allow to dry.
12. Examine the cylinder bore and piston, ensure that
they are smooth to the touch with no corrosion,
score marks or ridges. If there is any doubt. fit new
replacements.
13. The seals should be replaced with new
components.
2
ST1141M
21. Fit the seal, large diameter last, to the piston.
22. Insert the piston into the spring retainer and
engage the locking prong.
c--
3
i
continued
.I
CLUTCH
OVERHAUL SLAVE CYLINDER
DISM ANTL,E
1. Remove the slave cylinder from the vehicle.
2. Withdraw the dust cover.
3. Expel the piston assembly, applying low pressure
air to the fluid inlet.
4. Withdraw the spring.
5 . Prise off the seal from the piston.
STl142M
23. Smear the piston with Castrol-Girling rubber
grease and insert the assembly, valve end first, into
* the cylinder.
24. Fit the push-rod, retaining washer and circlip.
ST1144M
Inspection
ST1143M
6. Clean all components with Girling cleaning fluid
and allow to dry.
7. Examine the cylinder bore and piston, ensure that
they are smooth to the touch with no corrosion,
score marks or ridges. If there is any doubt, fit ncw
replacement.
8. The seal should be replaced with a new
com pon e n t .
Assemble
BLEED CLUTCH HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
When the gearbox and bcll housing assembly has been
fitted to the vehicle the hydraulic clutch release system
must be bled to expel air.
,
*,
. .
NOTE: During the following procedure, keep the fluid
reservoir topped-up to avoid introducing air into the
system. Use only the fluid recommended in the
Lubrication chart. Use only new fluid from a sealed
container.
1. Attach a length of suitable tubing to the slave
cylinder bleed screw and immerse the free end of the
tube in a glass jar containing new clutch fluid.
2 . Slacken the bleed screw and depress the clutch
pedal, pausing at the end of each stroke, until the
fluid issuing from the tubing is free of air with the
tube free end below the surface of t h e fluid in the
container. Whilst holding the clutch pedal down and
with the free end of the tube below the fluid, tighten
the bleed screw.
9. Smear the seal with Castrol-Girling rubber grease
and the remaining internal items with CastrolGirling brake and clutch fluid.
10. Fit the seal, largc diameter last, to the piston.
11. Locate the conical spring, small diameter first, over
the front end of the piston.
12. Smear the piston, with Castrol-Girling rubber
grease and insert the assembly, spring end first,
into the cylinder.
13. Fill the dust Cover with Castrol-Girling rubber
grease and fit the cover to the cylinder.
3
CLUTCH PEDAL
ADJUSTMENT
AND
MASTER
CYLINDER
1. The correct height for the clutch pedaI from the
floor of the footwell, without a mat, to the lower
edge of the pedal is 140 mm (5.5 in), dimension
'A'.
Adjust
-
2. Withdraw the six screws and remove the top plate.
3 . Slacken master cylinder push-rod locknuts to
provide free movement of the push-rod through
the pedal trunnion.
4. Slacken the adjustment screw locknut.
5. To increase the pedal height, turn the adjustment
screw anti-clockwise. To reduce turn clockwise.
When correct tighten the locknut.
6. To adjust the master cylinder push-rod, check that
<he push-rod has free-play through thc trunnion.
7. Adjust the locknuts until the push-rod has 1,5 m m
(0.062 in) free-play between the push-rod and
master cylinder. When correct tighten the
locknu ts .
8. Check that there is 6 mm (0.350 in) free movement
of the pedal at the pad. If necessary readjust the
push-rod.
9. Refit the top plate.
ST1535M
PRINTED IN ENGLAND BY COVENTRY PRINTERS (5187 37210)
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