MAKER APER PRACTICAL PHE

MAKER APER PRACTICAL PHE
TS
1094
D91p
1881
PHE
PRACTICAL
APER MAKER
THE LIBRARY
OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
THE
PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER:
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER.
SECOND EDITION.
JAMES DUNBAR.
BY
LEITH REID
SON, 35 SHORE.
E. & F. N. SPON, 16 CHARING CROSS.
<fe
:
LONDON
:
NEW YORK
:
E.
&
F. N.
SPON,
446
MDCCCLXXXI.
BROOME STREET.
REID AND SON, PRINTERS, LE1TH.
IW
PREFACE.
IN adding another to the many books on Paper-
making which already
exist, it is
my
aim to supply
a deficiency in these publications which has long
been
felt
by those engaged in the
trade,
and more
especially by the workmen.
I have endeavoured, in the execution of this task,
to convey
some useful information on the manu-
facture of paper, derived from an experience, both
in
home and
continental mills, of twenty years; and
what measure
my
of success I have attained, I leave to
readers to judge.
Some
of the suggestions I
found suitable in
that there
is
all
mills
;
have made
but of this I
not one maker
who
may not be
am certain,
will not find
hint to an improvement on his present
working.
1267585
some
mode
of
INDEX.
PAGE
ALUM
.
.
.
61
ALTTMINOUS CAKES
62
ANTICHLORINB
52
BEATING ENGINE
28
BERLIN BLUE
51
BLEACHING POWDER
BLEACH TEST
.
63
.
..'...
.
.
53
CATECHU, PREPARATION OF
50
CAUSTIC SODA, BOILING WITH
18
CLEANLINESS AND ORDER
48
COCHINEAL, PREPARATION OF
53
COLOURS, ANILINE
56
DRAINING AND PRESSING
EDGES,
How
TO MAKE
......
25
47
ESPARTO BOILING
19
FINISHING
49
FIRST PRESS ROLLS
47
GAS BLEACHING
25
GELATINE, PREPARATION OF
LIME AND SODA ASH, PREPARATION OF
MACHINE
55
.
.
.
17
44
VU1
INDEX.
PAGE
PAPER, BLOTTING
71
Do.
COLOURED
Do.
COLOUKED TEST
68
Do.
ESPARTO, COLOURED
42
Do.
30
WRITINGS, ETC
20
PERNAMBUCO DYEWOOD
51
POTCHING
27
RAGS, BOILING
Do.
Do.
SIZE,
Do.
.
14
.
CLASSIFICATION OF
...
SELECTION AND ASSORTMENT OF
ENGINE
FRENCH METHOD
Do.
PBEPARATION OF
....
.
Do.
PREPARATION OF GELATINE FOE
Do.
SOAP
Do.
TUB
Do.
TURPENTINE
.
.
...
13
.9
53
54
55
'
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
54
'
-.
.
55
54
SODA, EXAMINATION AS TO ITS CAUSTICITY
.
.
64
TEST PAPERS, USE OF
70
ULTRAMARINE
59
WASHING AND BREAKING
.
WIRE, THE
WOOD
PULP, EXPERIMENT WITH
.
.
,
.
....
23
45
72
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
Selection
and Assortment
of Eags.
THE
selection and assortment of the raw material
form a very important branch of the Paper Trade.
Rags are brought to the mill in an unsorted condition, and are called Mixed Rags.
The system
common use
mark given
of assorting and classifying rags in
in this country, and the distinguishing
to each sort, cause considerable con-
fusion to the tyro in the trade, and rather retard
than facilitate the work of this department, which
ought to be conducted on principles readily comprehended and easily impressed upon the memory.
The superiority of the system in vogue on the
Continent its greater simplicity, and therefore efficacy, and the great saving of time (a most important item in the economical working of a factory)
by it will be shown in the following
effected
description.
The Rag department in Continental mills consists
on the ground floor of
which all the cutting and sorting is done. The
of a two-storey building,
upper storey
is fitted
up with twenty
stalls or
com-
10
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
partments,
numbered from
1
to
20.
The
rags,
having been cut and overhauled, are hoisted to the
second flat, and there deposited, under the superintendence of the foreman, according to their respective qualities in the numbered compartments, and
thence taken to the willows in quantities of the
make up the desired stuffs ordered
various sorts, to
by the manager.
The rags are known by number
No.
1
Rags
,,
2
,,
,,
3
,,
,,
4
,,
White
White
White
White
as follows
:
linen without seams, fine clean,
linen with seams, fine clean,
linen with seams, second quality,
linen with seams, third quality,
'
The three last-mentioned
qualities are easily dis-
tinguished*, for as the quality deteriorates the rags
become
thicker, and, the thicker the rags, the greater
the quantity of sheive they contain.
No. 5 Rags
Blue linen without seams, first quality,
Blue linen with seams, second quality,
,,
6
,,
,,
7
,,
Blue linen with seams, third quality,
,,
8
,,
Good
9
,,
Coarse linen, seconds,
10
,,
11
,
linen, seconds,
White
White
cotton, fine, first quality,
cotton, second quality,
Coloured cotton, third
qiiality,
Sailcloth without seams, first quality,
Sailcloth with seams, second quality,
Fine
hemp
bagging, good clean,
Good hemp bagging,
19
20
good
,,
Hemp rope,
Hemp rope,
Hemp rope,
,,
Broke from
all
fine clean,
free
clean,
from
tar,
third quality,
the above except the rope.
SELECTION AND ASSORTMENT OF RAGS.
11
The simplicity and efficiency of sorting the different
by this method of numbers are evident; the
rags
workpeople having only to know that the higher
the
number
the coarser the quality of the rags
the equivalent for S.P.F.F.F.
is,
No.
becomes.
1 is
Blending or arranging the rags for the different
the various qualities of paper to
a work of considerable difficulty, and reFor example, a paper of a
quires the greatest care.
certain quality is desired the difficulty is to blend
stuffs suitable for
be made
is
:
that proportion, of cotton with linen rags which will
produce a paper, tough, strong, well-sized, and possessing those elastic qualities which will permit it to
be folded into any shape without showing signs of
is especially necessary in book papers.
The most convenient, and at the same time most
efficacious, mode of procedure is to form the various
cracking, as
rags into stuffs, such as No. 1 Stuff, No. 3 Stuff, No.
4 Stuff, No. 5 Stuff, and stuff specially prepared for
tissue
and copying papers, composed as follows
No. 2 Rags,
5
,.
.
.
1200
.
.
2800
.
6
.
8
.
4000
Ib.
.
400
Ib.
1200
.
2400
4000
The above No.
strong papers.
1
Ib.
STUFF.
No. 3
No. 4 Rags,
:
STUFF.
No. 1
and No. 3
Ib.
Stuffs are for specially
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
12
No. 4 STUFF.
No. 7 Rags,
9
20 Broke,
.
.
1600
.
.
2800
.
.
Ib.
400
4800
Ib.
If the broke accumulates, a larger proportion can
be used in making coloured papers, otherwise the
above quantity
is sufficient.
Rags Nos.
10, 11,
and
specially reserved for blending, for thick
Nos. 13,
papers, or for printings of a high class.
14, 15, and 1 6 supply the place of any of the numbers
12
are
for which they are suited.
No. 1 can be drawn
upon in the event of a special paper being desired.
No. 5 STUFF.
No. 6 Rags,
.
.
8
This No. 5 Stuff
1600
2400
Ib.
4000
Ib.
principally used for mixing
with the Rope Stuff for tissue and copying papers,
in proportions which will be given in the receipts
for thin papers.
is
ROPE STUFF.
No. 17 Ropes,
18
,
19
.
.
,
.
2600
1200
200
Ib.
4000
Ib.
,,
It may be mentioned that the qualities of paper
on the Continent are known by numbers, No. 1
being the highest quality of writings and printings.
The different qualities of paper that can be made
from the various stuffs are as follows
:
CLASSIFICATION OP
From No.
HOME AND FOREIGN
1 Stuff, extra superfine or
and
,,
3
,,
superfine
,,
4
,,
fines, fourths,
,,
5
,,
tliin
papers
rope
;
stuff,
No.
13
RAGS.
1 papers,
fine papers,
and coloured
also used for
papers,
mixing with the
copying, and
for cigarette,
tissue papers.
Classification of
Home and
Foreign Rags
Method generally adopted in
Country, with their Distinguishing Names.
According
to
Superfines,
the
S.P.F.F.F., S.P.F.F.,
Grey or Green Linen,
Fines,
New
S.P.F.,
Pieces,
this
Dark
Sail-
L.F.X., C.L.F.X., C.C.L.F.X., Fines,
Seconds, Thirds, Cords both dark and light, Outghots, Prints, and the various qualities of Hemp
cloth, F.F.,
and Jute Bagging.
Superfines consist of superfine new white shirt cuttings,
S.P.F.F.F.
extra superfine white linen, first quality,
,,
S. P. F. F.
, ,
S.P.F.
,,
superfine white linen, second quality,
fine white linen, third quality,
Dark Fines
,,
fine
Green Linen
,,
fine
New
,,
Pieces
Sailcloth
,
F.F.
L.F.X.
C.L.F.X.
C.C.L.F.X.
The
white cotton rags, well adapted for
blotting paper of a good quality,
unbleached linen cuttings,
fine bleached linen cuttings,
canvas (worn) and new cuttings,
coarse Eussian linen rags, first quality,
coarse Eussian linen rags, second quality,
coarse Eussian linen rags, third quality,
coarse Eussian linen rags, fourth quality,
last four sorts of rags are easily distinguished,
as
considerable difference in the quality and appearance, the rags being thicker and sheivier as the quality
there
is
deteriorates.
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
14
Fines consist of fine white cottons,
soiled white cottons,
Seconds ,,
extra dirty cotton linings,
Thirds
,,
Light and Dark Cords consist of light and dark cottons
Outshots consist of good, strong, and sound rags,
Prints
Home
(thick),
cotton of various grades.
,,
mixed with jute and
present in linen, the colour
The simplest
is not so good when manufactured.
method of discovering the presence of jute in linen
is to wash a sample, and treat with diluted chlorine,
cotton.
linen rags are often
When
jute
is
when
the jute will assume a red colour, and the
With cotton in linen, destroy
linen bleach white.
the cotton with sulphuric acid, and only the linen
will remain.
Methods
of
Description of Boilers
Rag
Boiling.
Steam Pressure
Quantities
of Lime, Soda Ash, Caustic Soda, and Time of
Boiling the raw material is the most important
part in the manufacture of paper.
Any neglect in
this department cannot be remedied after the material
has
the boilers
left
;
hence the necessity for the
exercise of the greatest care
attention at all times.
and most unremitting
The foreman ought to have a thorough knowledge
raw material. It is not merely
of the nature of the
sufficient to
know
or linen, but
it is
that the material
is
either cotton
absolutely necessary to
know how
THE VARIOUS METHODS OF BAG BOILING.
15
to bring that material to the highest state of
perfection without injury to its texture, and with a
Much, of course, depends
proper regard to the cost.
upon the facilities for boiling, and the quality of the
These things must be
water, whether soft or hard.
taken into consideration, and arrangements made
accordingly.
All rags, even the finest cotton, contain sheive,
which nothing but judicious boiling will remove.
Badly boiled stuff also consumes too much chlorine,
and makes a poorer-looking paper than when properly treated in this department.
chemicals ensues when proper care
Great waste of
is
not exercised
;
and more
especially is this the case with esparto, one
lot boiling with two to three pounds less caustic soda
to the cwt. than others.
difference in boiling
Again, there
is
considerable
summer and winter
esparto.
The summer requires more boiling than the winter,
and turns out better, a fact attributable to the
smaller amount of moisture contained in the
former.
Those in charge here should be thoroughly acquainted with these facts, and should see that everything is in its proper place and in proper condition,
and that there is no leakage at the boiler doors,
steam
joints, or valves.
order,
and
When everything
strict attention
is
in good
paid to cleanliness, this
department wears an aspect of serenity and comnever seen but where method is followed and
fort,
care exercised.
16
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
Continental System of Boiling.
Rags on the Continent are boiled with lime and
soda ash in a very satisfactory and
manner, as follows
economical
:
No.
1
STUFF.
boiled for 12 hours with 30
Ib.
steam pressure in
a boiler revolving horizontally.
Nos. 3
Lime
.
.
Soda Ash*
AND
324
Ib.
152
5
STUFFS.
^ 4000
\,
}
boiled for 12 hours with 30
Ib.
Ib. rags,
steam pressure in
a boiler revolving horizontally.
No. 4 STUFF.
Lime
.
.
Soda Ash*
378
Ib.
\
,
190,, jfor
boiled for 12 hours with 30
4800
Ib.
Ib. rags,
steam pressure in
a boiler revolving horizontally.
Boiling of Ropes for Tissue, Copying, and
Cigarette Papers.
Lime
.
648
Soda Ash*
456
.
Ib.
lb>
}
for
boiled for 24 hours with 30
4000
Ib.
a boiler revolving horizontally.
* 48
per ceo
.
Ib. rope,
steam pressure in
PREPARATION OF LIME AND SODA ASH.
17
Preparation of Lime and Soda Ash.
Milk
of
Lime
is
prepared and strained in the
Construct a large wooden box
following manner
of 15 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, and 4 ft. deep, divided
into three compartments, with false bottoms, per:
forated with ^-inch holes to retain small stones and
sand.
In the first compartment the lime is slaked
and reduced
to a
powder ;
then put over into
it is
the second compartment, and converted into Milk
of Lime.
In the partition between the second and
third compartments there
is
a moveable sluice, allow-
ing the milk to flow into the third division in
In the
quantities regulated by the man in charge.
compartment there is fitted a revolving drum,
exactly the same as the ordinary drum washer of a
half-stuff engine.
The milk of lime flowing through
third
is strained by the revolving drum, on the
same principle as that by which the water is lifted
from a breaking engine, and is discharged through
the sluice
a pipe direct into the rag boilers.
If the lime requires extra straining, a fine wire strainer can be
put over the mouth of the pipe leading to the boiler,
and the lime passed through it. The several com-
partments are furnished with large waste pipes,
which, with a liberal supply of water, carry off all
impurities and what the drum has rejected.
system is a satisfactory and cleanly one.
This
Soda Ash.
The preparation
different ways.
of
Soda Ash
Some
is
introduce
conducted in very
into the newly-
it
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
18
slaked lime while the excessive heat lasts which
is
generated by the slaking ; others, again, put the soda
ash direct into the boiler. The latter should never
be done on any pretext whatever. Nothing should
be put into the boiler without straining. The best
is to dissolve the soda ash separately, and
strain through a fine wire strainer into the boiler.
method
By
adopting the above principles,
the boiling
kept orderly and clean, a most important object in the manufacture of paper, than
which no manufactured goods are more liable to
department
is
damage from
carelessness
and dirty
habits.
Boiling with Caustic Soda.
Boiling with lime alone is a much better and safer
method than any other for fine-textured materials.
The rags certainly turn out better, and
fore more economical.
The quantities of caustic soda for the
various qualities of rags are as follows
boiler,
S.P.F.
cwt. of the
:
is boiled with lime alone, then washed in the
and again boiled with 2 per cent, of soda ash.
is boiled with 12 Ib. of caustic soda* per cwt
S.P.F.F.F.
S.P.F.F.
it is there-
14
BOILING ESPARTO.
19
10 hours in stationary boilers without vomit, and
also in boilers revolving horizontally.
Boiling Esparto.
Great care and attention are required in boiling
this material, as
when
esparto
is
insufficiently boiled,
and a repetition of the operation found necessary,
a great waste of soda is caused, and in the end the
material does not turn out so satisfactorily.
When a consignment of esparto is received at the
mill, the smallest
quantity of caustic soda necessary
to boil it properly should be at once ascertained,
and that quantity continued throughout until the
parcel
is finished.
When the
necessary precautions are taken to have
everything in proper order and condition, the undernoted quantities of caustic soda will generally boil
the various espartos in a satisfactory
manner
:
Fine Spanish Esparto, boiled with 28 Ib. caustic soda* per cwt.
Medium Spanish Esparto
24,
Pine Oran Esparto
30,
Medium Oran Esparto
Fine Susa Esparto
28,
28,
Tripoli Esparto
Tunis Esparto
32,
25,
all
boiled
boilers
10 hours
for
with 10
Ib.
stationary vomiting
steam pressure, care being taken
to see that the esparto is sufficiently boiled before
the liquor
is
run
off.
To acquire the very desirable knowledge of boiling
raw materials, considerable time and close applica*
70 per cent,
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
20
must be given by the young paper-maker, and
a thorough, acquaintance with all its details (none
are of such small importance that they can be
tion
passed over, however insignificant they may appear)
obtained before he leaves the department.
Receipts for High-class Papers.
In making papers of superior quality, considerable
experience and skill are necessary in selecting and
The following receipts will
blending the material.
produce papers, smooth, strong, tough, and possessing elasticity of feel and clearness of colour
:
EXTRA SUPERFINE CREAM.
FOR 300
LB.
S.P.F.F., i;
Dark
Green Linen,
|
New
;
DRY PAPER.
Fines, J;
Pieces, J
;
ultramarine, marked B.B.A.C. ;
1J gill cochineal ; 40 Ib. pearl hardening.
4
oz.
SUPERFINE CREAM.
FOR 300
Dark
Fines, J
LB.
DRY PAPER.
S.P.F., J
;
;
Superfmes, | ; Spanish Esparto, Fine,
6 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ;
1 gill cochineal
14
Ib.
;
40
Ib.
pearl hardening
dry starch.
FINE CREAMS.
FOR 300
Medium Spanish
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Esparto,
;
Fines, J; F.F., J;
7
l
oz.
ultramarine, marked B.B.R.V.
gill cochineal.
;
;
;
RECEIPTS FOR HIGH-CLASS PAPERS.
EXTRA SUPERFINE COMMERCIAL
ANIMAL
FOR 300
New
Pieces, J
Fines, J;
;
3 gallons engine size ; 5 Ib. pure alum
5 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ;
1 pint cochineal ; J oz. carmine ;
40
Ib.
POST,
SIZED.
DRY PAPER.
LB.
Dark
S.P.F.F.F., };
;
pearl hardening.
SUPERFINE COMMERCIAL POST, ANIMAL
FOR 300
S.P.F.F., J
Dark
;
Fines,
1 J gill
Ib.
cochineal
starch
Ib.
;
;
1 gill archil
;
40
;
;
Supers, \
6 Ib. pure alum ;
;
B.B.A.C.
6 oz. ultramarine,
SIZED.
DRY PAPER.
LB.
3 gallons engine size
14
21
;
pearl hardening.
FINE CREAM COMMERCIAL POST, ANIMAL
FOR 300
F.F. Russian Rags, J ; Seconds, \
No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J ;
B.B.R.V.
6 oz. ultramarine,
Ions size
;
10
Ib.
;
;
1 gill
magenta
alum.
FOURTH CREAMS.
FOR 300
DRY PAPER.
LB.
Second Fines, \ F.F., \
No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J
;
;
6 pails size
;
30
Ib.
alum
;
;
9 oz. ultramarine, B.B.R.V.
;
2 gills archil.
FOURTH CREAMS.
FOR 300
DRY PAPER.
LB.
Fine Oran Esparto, \
Tunis Esparto, \ F.F. Rags,
;
;
9 oz. ultramarine,
2 gills magenta
;
SIZED.
DRY PAPER.
LB.
B.B.R.V.
;
;
4 Ib. dry starch.
;
THE PRACTICAL PAPEEMAKEB.
22
SUPERIOR QUALITY OF DRAWING CARTRIDGE.
NO COLOURING MATTER.
Cartridge,
;
good Canvas,
5
good Seconds, |
;
EXTRA SUPERFINE POST PAPER.
FOR 300
Supers,
New
3
oz.
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Green Linen, \
;
;
S.P.F.F.F., \
ultramarine, A. C. ; 2 oz. carmine.
Pieces, \
(The above
is
;
;
the highest class of post paper made.
EXTRA SUPERFINE BLUE, HIGH
FOR 300
LB.
)
COLOUR.
DRY PAPER.
S.P.F., i; Dark Fines, J;
Fine Spanish Esparto, J
9 Jib. ultramarine, B.B.R.V.
;
\
Ib.
magenta
;
lake.
CARD PAPER, SUPERFINE, ANIMAL
FOR 300
LB.
;
Fines, 4 ; Seconds, \
ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ;
S.P.F., \
3
oz.
1 gill archil
;
30
Ib.
SIZED.
DRY PAPER.
;
pearl hardening.
DRAWING CARTRIDGE, SUPERFINE,
ANIMAL
SIZED.
NO COLOURING MATTER, AND NO CLAY.
Cartridge, J
;
Sailcloth without seams, |
(This
is
;
Seconds,
a superior cartridge. )
DRAWING CARTRIDGE, SECOND QUALITY,
ANIMAL
SIZED.
F.F., i ; Thirds, 4 ; No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J
4 Ib. starch ; 20 Ib. pearl hardening.
;
.
WASHING AND BREAKING.
23
SUPERFINE CREAM ENVELOPE PAPER,
ANIMAL SIZED.
LB. DRY PAPER.
FOR 300
New Pieces, J
S.P.F., * ; Seconds,
;
3 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ;
l
pint cochineal
12
;
;
Ib. starch.
SUPERFINE HIGH BLUE.
FOR 300
S.P.F., \
;
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Medium Spanish
Scotch Fines, J
12 Ib. ultramarine, marked
Esparto, J
;
;
| Ib.
magenta
A
;
lake.
FINE HIGH BLUE.
FOR 300
LB.
DRY PAPER.
F.F., $ ; Fine Oran Esparto, J ;
8 Ib. ultramarine, marked B.B.R.V.
J
Ib.
magenta
;
lake.
Washing and Breaking.
Considerable experience and great care are required
If more attention
in reducing rags to half- stuff.
were given to the first stages in the manufacture of
paper, the subsequent duties of those in charge
would be less burdensome, and the particular class
of paper desired produced with comparatively little
trouble, and a very small percentage of retree.
The rags should be gradually introduced into an
When
engine, previously half filled with water.
the desired quantity (which should never be too
thick and difficult to turn) is filled in, go on washing, and let down the roll just sufficient to open up
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
24
the rags and let the dirt escape, at the same time
using the stirring stick right above the sand-trap,
round the
sides, and at the back fall of the engine.
This prevents " lodgers," or pieces of rag not reduced
to half-stuff, hanging about, which, if allowed to
would cause knots and grey specks in the
The rags must on no account be cut up or
forced, but drawn out into fibre without having the
smallest particle of rag unreduced to half-stuff ; and
escape,
paper.
this can only be accomplished by a liberal use of
the stirring stick and the valve hook at the back
fall of
the engine.
When
the stuff
is
in condition
emptying into the drainers, the valve should be
drawn with care, and deposited on the floor until
for
the engine
is
empty.
The man in charge
of this department should be
made
to understand that the quality of the paper
depends greatly upon his knowledge of his business
and the cleanliness of
his surroundings.
Before replacing, the valve must be carefully
washed, as the hole on the top is always full of dirt
and sand, which, when the valve
Next
escapes with the stuff.
is
carelessly drawn,
lift
the sand-trap
and remove carefully all impurities, replace
the plate, and fill up again.
Much depends on the
treatment of the stuff in this department whether
plate,
the paper will possess the requisite strength, for if
too quickly reduced to half-stuff the material is
rendered weaker, and the washing is insufficiently
while, if the stuff is properly drawn out into
and timed, its texture is not injured, it is
better washed, and produces a stronger paper.
done
fibre
;
DRAINING AND PRESSING.
25
Draining and Pressing.
When
the stuff
is
emptied from the washingit immediately commences
engine into the drainers,
to drain, and,
when
properly drained for removal,
is
subjected to pressure.
The best method of pressing or extracting the
water from the stuff is by the extractor or centrifugal drainer, which dries the stuff sufficiently either
for gasing or conveying to the potcher, as the case
may be. This department ought to be kept scrupulously clean,
and should be supplied with a box to
may accidentally drop on the
contain any stuff that
and get dirty. All boxes or waggons connected
it ought to be periodically washed, and kept
The floor ought to be washed once
perfectly clean.
a day, and everything kept in its proper place.
floor
with
All this
necessary, not only to ensure perfectly
but also from a sanitary point of view,
as the workman will find that, where a system of
clean
is
stuff,
and order is adopted, the department
wears a healthier and more cheerful aspect than
where dirt and disorder are the order of the day.
cleanliness
Gas Bleaching Half-Stuff.
Gas-bleaching half-stuff
this country,
but
is still
is
seldom resorted to in
carried on in Russia,
and
is
almost indispensable for bleaching the coarse linen
rags so plentiful in that country.
Half-stuff, to
be satisfactorily gas-bleached, must
contain a sufficient
amount
c
of
moisture, else the
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
26
outside only will be bleached, and that even an inOn the other hand, if the stuff is
different colour.
too wet, the same results will follow.
In order to
ensure, therefore, a good uniform colour, great care
must be taken to see that the stuff contains the
A
proper amount of moisture, and no more.
generally effective method of testing the state of
the stuff is to squeeze it between the hands, when,
if the pressure causes no escape of water, yet still
retains a damp appearance, it is in a proper condition for gas-bleaching.
The method of bleaching is
1600
Ib.
as follows
:
above, loosely into a stone chamber, and seal
such a manner that
Into the lead retort,
by leaden
of
Put
of half-stuff, in the condition mentioned
pipes,
common
manganese;
it
in
be perfectly air-tight.
connected with this chamber
it will
pour 3 pails of water and 66 Ib.
stir thoroughly, add 65 Ib. of
Next
again, and close the retort.
salt;
stir
charge a leaden vessel with 119 Ib. of vitriol, and let
the vitriol drop into the retort containing the water,
salt, and manganese, through a bell-mouthed bent
syphon, which admits the vitriol and at the same
time prevents the escape of gas. (Three hours must
be allowed for the vitriol to drop into the retort.)
Then heat
the retort with steam for seven hours,
and allow two hours for the gas to escape up the
mill chimney.
For fine stuff, such as willowed rope,
one hour extra must be allowed for the escape of
the gas.
The quantities of manganese, salt, and vitriol used
for the different stuffs previously mentioned are
POTCHING HALF-STUFF.
No.
FOR 1600
50
Ib.
manganese
;
STUFF.
1
HALF-STUFF.
LB.
50
27
Ib. salt
;
80
Ib. vitriol.
No. 3 STUFF.
FOR 1600
60
Ib.
manganese
;
LB.
60
HALF-STUFF.
Ib. salt
100
;
Ib. vitriol
No. 4 STUFF.
FOR 1600
65
Ib.
manganese
;
LB.
66
HALF-STUFF.
Ib. salt
;
119
Ib. vitriol
ROPES, FOR COPYING PAPER,
FOR 1400 LB. HALF-STUFF.
81
Ib.
manganese
;
91
Ib. salt
;
124
&c.
Ib. vitriol.
Potching of Half-Stuff previously Gas-Bleached.
No.
1
STUFF.
FOR 600
LB.
15 gallons chlorine at 4^ degrees.
No. 3 STUFF.
FOR 600
LB.
20 gallons chlorine at 4
degrees.
No. 4 STUFF.
FOR 500
LB.
12 gallons chlorine at 5 degrees.
PotcMng
The
Half-Stuff!
quantities of half-stuff filled into the potching
engine should at all times be as uniform as possible ;
for if the quantity of stuff is changed and the bleach
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
28
not varied in proportion, an irregularly -bleached
stuff will be produced.
When the engine is filled,
wash for some time with a finer wire than is used
on the breaker. When thoroughly washed, raise
the washer and introduce the bleaching liquor in
be bleached,
care being taken not to exceed the quantity ordered
by the manager, not only as a matter of economy
sufficient quantities for the material to
in chlorine, but also on account of the injury the
would suffer.
In the case of vitriol being used, a small leaden
vessel must be placed in such a position that the
stuff
vitriol will
pound
drop into the engine at the rate of one
The vitriol
twenty minutes.
of vitriol in
should be diluted before using, taking care, in order
to prevent excessive effervescence and a disagreeable
smell, that the vitriol be added to the water, and
not the water to the
vitriol.
When
the bleaching
emptied into stone
chests, each capable of containing two engines of material.
These chests are fitted with perforated zinc
is finished,
process
drainers
the stuff
is
one in the extreme bottom, and another
running up the back of the chest, and connected
with the one in the bottom. The stuff is generally
allowed to remain in the chests as long as time will
permit, but, to ensure a regularly-coloured
better to allow a fixed time.
stuff, it is
Beating Engine Department.
another very important department in the
paper mill, and should be roomy, and kept in good
This
is
BEATING ENGINE DEPARTMENT.
29
and perfectly clean. The man in charge
should be a thoroughly -experienced workman, in
whom every confidence can be placed, who will not
order,
add to or take from any order given by the manager
without previous consultation.
The journals of the roll shaft should be frequently
wiped, and no stuff should be allowed to escape at
the ends of the roll or from below the edge of the
roll cover, as
rubs the
the continual vibration of the cover
and forms it into small black specks,
which escape with it and show in the paper. In
order to ensure a uniform colour, everything must
stuff,
be put into the engine in proper order, at the right
time, and in the exact quantities ordered ; nor should
anything be put into the engine without being pre-
how clean it may be, as,
when actually required, is
viously strained, no matter
by
this system, straining,
never neglected, for which there can be no excuse.
Colouring matter should be measured or weighed,
as the case
Size
may
be,
and alum should
with the greatest exactness.
be carefully measured.
also
Whenever the engine
is filled,
and continue for some time.
commence washing,
In making animal-
sized papers, a quantity of antichlorine should be introduced immediately the washing is finished, to
neutralize the chlorine ; but with engine-sized papers
the loading should be first introduced, then the size,
then the alum, and lastly the colouring matter.
The water bags should never be shaken or squeezed,
when they show any signs of being dirty, should
be at once changed.
The preparation of the stuff
must be timed according to the thickness of the
and,
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
30
paper wanted, and, in proportion to the uniformity
of time used in preparing a lot to be made at a given
weight, will the regularity in quality and weight run
at the machine.
Much depends on the workmen in this department
whether the pulp is of the desired quality or not.
A
comparatively weak material can be made into
a reasonably strong paper, if properly treated in the
beating engine ; but if the stuff is carelessly handled,
such as by sending out stuff for laid paper too fast
long, or too soft and carrying too much water,
the weight will vary, and the paper crush at the
couchers and stick at the press rolls, causing all sorts
and
of trouble
and confusion to the machineman, and
a considerable amount of waste.
The following are some receipts for Coloured
To ensure the desired shades, the colouring
Papers.
matters must be introduced exactly as stated, and
at the intervals
mentioned here.
COLOURED PAPERS.
DEEP LILAC.
FOR 250
No. 8 Stuff; 5
30
LB.
DRY PAPER.
pails size
;
20
Ib.
alum
methyl, marked B.B.B
cosine, marked A.
oz. violet
i oz.
;
;
DEEP GREEK
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 3 Stuff; 5 pails size 20 Ib. alum
22 Ib. silk green paste, extra fine.
;
(This
is
a beautiful clear green.)
;
COLOURED PAPERS.
31
DEEP LILAC.
FOR 250 LB. DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff; 20 Ib. alum 4 pails size
8 oz. diamond fuchine 3 oz. aniline blue
;
;
;
50
Ib.
No. 10
PALE GREEN.
FOR 250
No. 4
f
;
straw pulp.
DRY PAPER.
LB.
bleached
Stuff, full
;
4 pails she
bichromate, ten minutes later ;
Ib. sugar of lead, ten minutes later
20
;
Ib.
alum
;
Ib.
2
15
oz.
;
Paris blue, dissolved in hot water, adding half
a gill of sulphuric acid.
GREEN, MEDIUM DEEP SHADE.
No. 5
FOR 250
No. 4 Stuff
20
Ib.
;
alum
;
60
Ib.
2i
Ib.
mechanical wood pulp ; 5 pails size
bichromate, fifteen minutes later
FOR 250
;
1J
DRY PAPER.
LB.
mechanical wood pulp
24 Ib. bichromate, 15 minutes later ;
6 Ib, sugar of lead, fifteen minutes later ;
oz.
Paris blue
Ib.
4 pails size
;
No. 12
Ib.
GREEN.
No. 5
7
;
15
Ib.
;
alum.
PALE GREEN.
FOR 250
DRY PAPER.
LB.
No. 4 Stuff, full bleached 60 Ib. wood pulp
3 oz. bichromate
6 oz. sugar of lead ;
;
;
4 pails size
;
15
Ib.
alum
;
3 Ib. Paris blue.
GREEN, DEEP CLEAR
No. 3
FOR 250
No. 3 Stuff; li
Ib.
LB.
;
20
Ib,
bichromate
alum,
TINT.
DRY PAPER.
;
3 Ib. sugar of lead, fifteen minutes later
2 Ib. Paris blue, ten minutes later ;
5 pails size
;
;
6 Ib. sugar of lead, fifteen minutes later
No. 4 Stuff; 60
'
DRY PAPER.
LB.
;
;
Paris blue.
THE PRACTICAL PAPEEMAKER.
32
DEEP ORANGE.
FOE 250
No. 4 Stuff
20 Ib. alum
25
Ib.
40
;
LB.
DRY PAPEE.
wood pulp
Ib.
;
4 pails size
;
50
Ib.
18 Ib. sugar of lead
;
straw pulp.
SKIN COLOUR.
No. 9
FOE 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff; 60 Ib. wood pulp 4 pails size
20 Ib. alum 9J Ib. green copperas
104 Ib. crystal soda ; 8 oz. bichromate ;
;
;
1 4 Ib.
;
6 Ib. bichromate
;
Venetian red
;
;
sugar of lead.
DEEP OLIVE.
FOE 250
No. 4 Stuff; 60
15
2
Ib.
alum
2
;
Ib. crystal
Ib.
Ib.
soda
;
IB.
DEY PAPER.
wood pulp
;
4 pails size
;
green copperas ;
2 Ib. Venetian red.
No. 6
FOR 250
LB.
BUFF.
DRY PAPEE.
No. 4 Stuff; 60 Ib. yellow wood ;
4 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum ; 13 Ib. yellow ochre
10 oz. Venetian red ; 1 gill Brazil wood dye.
NANKEEN
FOE 200
LB.
TISSUE.
DEY PAPER.
Nos. 17 and 18 Rope Stuffs, | ; canvas, $
3 Ib. potash 3 Ib. green copperas
2 Ib. crystal soda.
;
;
;
;
LILAC TISSUE, DEEP SHADE.
FOR 200
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Nos. 17 and 18 Rope Stuffs, 4 ; No. 5 Stuff, 4
8 oz. aniline blue ; 3 oz. diamond fuchine ;
2
oz. violet
methyl, R.R.R.R, brand,
;
COLOURED PAPERS.
WHITE
FOR 200
LB.
33
TISSUE.
DKY PAPER.
Nos. 17 and 18 Rope Stuffs,
5 oz. ultramarine, B.B.A.C.
No. 5
;
;
Stuff,
2 gills Brazil
;
wood
dye.
wood
dye.
BLUE TISSUE.
FOR 200
Rope
2
Ib.
Stuff, |
LB.
DRY PAPER.
good sailcloth,
ultramarine, B.B.A.C. ; 5
;
;
gills Brazil
FINE GREY WRITINGS.
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff, full bleached 6 pails size ;
25 Ib. alum, 12 oz. bichromate, 2 Ib. sugar of lead,
to be dissolved together in one pail, and put into
;
the engine while hot
;
3 oz. Paris blue, half-an-hour later
4
;
logwood extract.
oz.
FINE GREY WRITINGS.
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4
Stuff, full
bleached
25
alum
oz.
Ib.
;
15
;
6 pails size
bichromate
;
2
6 oz. Paris blue, half-an-hour later
;
Ib.
sugar of lead
;
7 oz. logwood extract.
FINE GREY WRITINGS.
FOR 250
No. 4
Stuff, full
LB.
DRY PAPER.
bleached
;
3 Ib. ultramarine,
B.B.R.V.
4
;
Ib.
yellow ochre
;
2
6 pails size
Ib.
;
20
Venetian red
Ib.
alum.
SUPERFINE GREY WRITINGS.
FOR 250
No. 3
Stuff, full
LB.
DRY PAPER.
bleached
;
4 Ib. ultramarine, B.B.A.C.
14
Ib.
;
1 Ib.
bichromate
sugar of lead ; 3 Ib. Venetian red
25 Ib. alum.
;
6 pails size
;
;
;
;
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
34
CATECHU BROWN WRAPPING.
FOR 250
DRY PAPER.
LB.
bagging, 4 No. 4 Stuff, ^ ;
7 pails catechu ; 5 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum
Hemp
;
;
3 Ib. bichromate.
CATECHU BROWN, DEEP
FOR 150
No. 4
Stuff,
unbleached
3 pails catechu ; 2
3 Ib. bichromate.
Ib.
3 pails size
;
No. 4
Stuff, full
oz.
;
FOR 250
3
oz.
No. 70
;
$
15
J
Ib.
oz.
SHADE.
5 pails size ; 20 Ib.
fuchine.
;
LB.
Stuff, full
alum
;
alum
;
DRY PAPER.
oz.
;
5 pails size
diamond
LB.
15
;
Ib.
fuchine.
ANILINE BLUE, DEEP
FOR 250
No. 4
;
diamond
bleached
aniline blue
alum
ANILINE BLUE.
No. 13
Stuff, full
Ib.
;
DRY PAPER.
bleached
4 oz. aniline blue
No. 4
LB.
10
;
green copperas
ANILINE BLUE, DEEP
FOR 250
COLOUR.
DRY PAPER.
LB.
COLOUR.
DRY PAPER.
bleached
;
4 pails size
alum 2 oz. aniline blue
diamond fuchine ; 6 oz. Berlin
;
;
;
blue.
LILAC.
FOR 250
No. 4
3
oz.
Stuff, full
LB.
DRY PAPER.
bleached
aniline blue
oz.
;
;
5 pails size ; 20
fuchine.
Ib.
alum
Ib.
alum
diamond
DEEP LILAC.
FOR 250
No. 4
Stuff, full
LB.
DRY PAPER.
bleached
4 oz, aniline blue
;
1 oz,
;
5 pails size
diamond
;
20
fuchine,
35
COLOURED PAPERS.
No. 4
DEEP ANILINE BLUE.
FOR 250
No. 3
44
Stuff, full
oz. aniline
DRY PAPER.
LB.
bleached
blue
alum
;
DEEP LILAC.
No. 7000
FOR 250
6 pails size ; 20 Ib.
fuchine.
;
diamond
oz.
;
DRY PAPER.
LB.
Nos. 3 and 4 Stuffs, half and half
15 Ib. alum 2 oz. aniline blue ;
;
4 pails size
;
;
2
oz.
diamond fuchine
No.
oz. Paris blue.
3|
;
BERLIN BLUE.
4
FOR 250
DRY PAPER.
LB.
No. 4 Stuff, half bleached 5 pails size ;
20 Ib. alum \ oz. fuchine ; 5 Ib. Paris blue.
;
;
DEEP ANILINE BLUE.
FOR 250
No. 4 Stuff,
20 Ib. alum
full
;
DRY PAPER.
LB.
bleached
;
5 pails size
9 Ib. Paris blue
;
;
3J oz. aniline blue 3 oz. diamond fuchine.
(The above blue presents a fine clear colour, very deep
;
and uniform. )
VENETIAN RED.
No. 8
FOR 250
No. 3
Stuff,
DRY PAPER.
LB.
unbleached
50
;
4 pails size ; 15 Ib. alum
3 pints Brazil wood dye.
;
Ib.
60
chemical wood pulp
Venetian red ;
Ib.
FINE YELLOW PRINTINGS.
FOR 200
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Spanish Esparto, \ Oran Esparto, J
2 Ib. bichromate 4 Ib. sugar of lead
3 pails size ; 10 Ib, alum,
;
;
;
;
;
THE PRACTICAL PAPEBMAKER.
36
DEEP VENETIAN RED.
No. 70
FOB 200
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff, unbleached 5 pails size ;
20 Ib. alum 2 Ib. yellow ochre ;
50 Ib. Venetian red 3 pints Brazil wood dye.
;
;
;
LB.
PINK.
DRY PAPER.
size
;
No. 58
FOE 250
No. 4 Stuff; 5 pails
3 oz.
20
Ib.
alum
;
diamond
fuchine, dissolved in 300 ounces of
boiling water, and strained through a fine flannel
or silk bag.
DEEP EOSINE PINK.
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 3 Stuff; 5 pails size 20 Ib. alum
12 oz. cosine, marked B.N., dissolved in boiling water,
and strained through a flannel bag into the engine.
;
;
PALE EOSINE PINK.
FOR 250
No. 3 Stuff; 5 pails
3
oz. eosine,
J
oz. violet
LB.
size
DRY PAPER.
20
;
marked B.N.
methyl
EOSINE A DEEP PINK
FOR 250
No. 3
13
Stuff, full
is
alum
;
LB.
bleached
marked
A
TO
BLOOD RED.
DRY PAPER.
;
4 oz. violet methyl.
a deep pink of a beautiful shade. )
oz. eosine,
(This
Ib.
;
strain into the engine.
;
YELLOW WRAPPING,
FOR 250
LB.
FOR POST PAPER.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff 60 Ib. mechanical wood pulp ;
2 Ib. bichromate of potash, fifteen minutes later
;
sugar of lead ; 20 Ib. alum ; 4 pails size
60 Ib. straw pulp, by Lahosse's system,
4
Ib.
;
;
COLOURED PAPERS.
37
YELLOW PRINTINGS.
FOR 250
DRY PAPER.
LB.
No. 4 Stuff, half bleached;
50 Ib. mechanical wood pulp
1| Ib. bichromate, twenty minutes
;
later
;
J
sugar of lead, half-an-hour later ;
15 Ib. alum ; 3 pails size ; 50 Ib. straw pulp.
Ib.
YELLOW.
No. 4
FOR 250
DRY PAPER.
LB.
bichromate, twenty minutes later
8 Ib. sugar of lead, half-an-hour later ;
20 Ib. alum ; 6 pails size ; 40 Ib. straw pulp.
No. 4 Stuff; 4
Ib.
YELLOW.
No. 95
FOR 250
mechanical wood pulp
bichromate, twenty minutes later
No. 4 Stuff
2J
DRY PAPER.
LB.
Ib.
20
;
Ib.
20
alum
Ib.
;
No. 90
.
No. 4 Stuff
8
alum
Ib.
Ib.
;
;
;
No. 4 Stuff
;
15
bichromate
;
YELLOW.
LB.
5
Ib.
No, 23
No. 4 Stuff
15 Ib. alum
Ib.
;
;
DRY PAPER.
alum
Ib.
FOR 250
11
;
sugar of lead.
No. 29
Ib.
DRY PAPER.
Ib.
FOR 250
U
YELLOW.
LB.
mechanical wood pulp
5 Ib. bichromate
4 pails size
40
;
;
4 pails size.
FOR 250
-
15
;
;
7 5 Ib. sugar of lead, half-an-hour later
LB.
;
4 pails size
;
sugar of lead.
YELLOW,
DRY PAPER,
mechanical wood pulp J
4 pails size 5 Ib. bichromate
40
Ib.
sugar of lead.
;
;
;
THE PRACTICAL PAPEBMAKER.
38
YELLOW PRINTINGS.
FOR 450
DRY PAPER.
LB.
Tunis Esparto, 4 No. 2 Spanish Esparto, J
20 Ib. French ochre 4 Ib. dark English ochre
;
5
;
8
Ib.
sugar of lead
2
Ib.
red chrome.
4 J Ib. .bichromate
;
;
;
YELLOW PRINTINGS.
FOR 400
DRY PAPER.
LB.
Tunis Esparto,
Oran Esparto,
85 Ib. bichromate 7 Ib. sugar of
;
;
;
lead.
CATECHU BROWN.
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff, unbleached 4 pails size
20 Ib. alum 12 pails catechu
6 Ib. bichromate ; 3 Ib. crystal soda.
;
;
;
;
CATECHU BROWN.
FOR 250
No. 4
Stuff, half
4 pails catechu
;
No. 134
LB.
20
Ib.
Stuff, full
;
4 pails size
alum
;
1^
Ib.
;
bichromate.
CATECHU BROWN.
FOR 250
No. 4
DRY PAPER.
bleached
LB.
DRY PAPER.
bleached
;
4J Ib. green copperas
4 pails size ; 3 pails catechu ; 20 Ib. alum ;
Ib.
bichromate.
3J
No. 8
FOR 200
ORANGE,
LB.
DRY PAPERi
yellow mechanical Wood pulp
20 Ib. orange mineral ; 1 j Ib. Venetian red ;
4 pails size ; 20 Ib. alum.
No. 4 Stuff
;
50
Ib.
;
J
(The orange and the Venetian red must be carefully strained
through a fine wire or flannel bag.)
COLOURED PAPERS.
FOR 250
No. 4 Stuff
;
alum
;
15
Ib.
39
ORANGE.
No. 68
DRY PAPER.
LB.
mechanical wood pulp
4 pails size 30 Ib. orange mineral.
60
Ib.
;
;
ORANGE.
No. 22
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff 60 Ib. mechanical wood pulp
15 Ib. alum 3 pails size ; 15 Ib. orange mineral
1 Ib. Venetian red.
;
;
;
ORANGE.
No. 24
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff 50 Ib. mechanical wood pulp
12 Ib. orange mineral 15 Ib. alum ; 4 pails
;
;
size.
;
ORANGE.
No. 95
FOR 250
No. 4
and not potched
8
Ib.
DRY PAPER.
only half-bleached or gas-bleached,
Stuff,
3 pails size
LB.
15
;
;
alum
Ib.
sugar of lead
60
;
;
Ib.
6
Ib.
bichromate
;
superfine orange.
VENETIAN RED.
No. 70
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff, half-bleached ; 2| Ib. yellow ochre
45 Ib. Venetian red ; 20 Ib. alum ; 5 pails size.
ORANGE YELLOW.
No. 125
FOR 250
No. 4 Stuff
;
40
Ib.
LB.
DRY PAPER.
mechanical wood pulp
alum 6 Ib. bichromate
3 pails size ; 15 Ib.
;
8 Ib. sugar of lead ; 25 Ib. Venetian red
50
Ib.
straw pulp.
;
:
;
}
;
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
40
YELLOW WRAPPING.
No. 2
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff, unbleached ;
50 Ib. wood pulp, No. 2 quality 4 pails size
20 Ib. alum 16 Ib. sugar of lead, brown
;
;
;
8
;
bichromate
Ib.
;
20
Ib.
Venetian red.
YELLOW OCHRE,
FOR 250
LB.
FOR
WRAPPING.
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff, unbleached ;
60 Ib. wood pulp, No. 2 quality 4 pails
15 Ib. alum 20 Ib. yellow ochre
;
;
size
;
;
5 oz. Venetian red
4 oz.
;
lake.
magenta
PALE ORANGE.
FOR 250
No. 4 Stuff; 40
15
alum
Ib.
15
;
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Ib.
wood pulp
Ib.
superfine orange.
LB.
4 pails size
DRY PAPER.
No. 4 Stuff, half-bleached 4 pails
20 Ib. alum 3 Ib. green copperas
;
;
3
Ib. crystal
4
Ib.
;
No. 34
4 pails size
50
(This
Ib.
is
;
;
4 Ib. yellow ochre, dark
40
Ib.
15
Ib.
;
;
5 oz. Venetian red.
VENETIAN RED.
FOR 250
;
size
;
soda
yellow ochre, light
No. 4 Stuff
;
GREY.
No. 115
FOR 250
;
LB.
DRY PAPER.
yellow wood pulp ;
alum ; 48 Ib. yellow ochre
;
Venetian red.
a beautiful deep Venetian red, principally used
for the covers of serials. )
COLOURED PAPERS.
FOR 250
No. 4 Stuff; 4 pails
2 Ib. green copperas
14 Ib. Venetian red.
DRY PAPER.
LB.
size
;
2
No. 4 Stuff
5
oz.
20
;
Ib.
alum
;
crystal soda
;
FAWN.
DRY PAPER.
LB.
chemical wood pulp
1 Ib. Venetian red ;
Ib.
ultramarine
20
;
Ib.
No. 2
FOR 250
41
FAWN.
No. 84
;
;
4 Ib. yellow ochre, French.
DEEP PARIS BLUE.
No. 40
FOR 250
No. 4
Stuff, half
20
alum
Ib.
2
;
DRY PAPER.
LB.
bleached
Ib.
;
4 pails size
logwood extract
6 Ib. Berlin or Paris blue
;
;
2 pints cochineal.
;
SATURNINE RED.
FOR 250
LB.
DRY PAPER.
%
No. 3 Stuff 4 pails
50 Ib. saturnine red
size
;
;
20
;
Ib.
alum
;
5 Ib. superfine orange.
CHROME ORANGE.
FOR 300
No.
6 pails size
(This
is
56
;
LB.
DRY PAPER.
bleached
1 Stuff, full
Ib.
;
25
Ib.
alum
chrome orange
;
paste,
No.
1.
a fine clear orange for a good quality of paper. )
SOLUBLE BROWN.
FOR 250
No. 4
Stuff, half
20
alum
Ib.
;
15
DRY PAPER.
LB.
bleached
Ib.
;
5 pails size
;
soluble brawn.
(This colouring matter must be carefully strained into the
It is the best substitute for catechu dyed
engine.
papers, and has all the characteristics of catechu,
also the advantage of being much cheaper. )
D
and
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
42
VIOLET, DEEP SHADE.
FOE, 250 LB.
DRY PAPEE.
No. 3 Stuff, full bleached ; 25 Ib. alum ;
5 pails size ; 6 Ib. violet methyl, marked R.R.R.R.
3
oz.
blue methyl.
COLOURED ESPARTO PAPERS.
DARK YELLOW.
FOR 400
14
If
DRY PAPER.
bichromate of potash
Ib.
brown sugar
of hot water
flannel
24
LB.
Ib.
bag
;
of lead, dissolved in one pail
strain into the engine through a
;
green copperas, one hour later
Ib.
;
25
Ib.
alum.
ORANGE YELLOW.
FOR 400
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Oran Esparto 74 Ib. bichromate
15 Ib. brown sugar of lead, dissolved in 5
;
;
pails of
hot water strain through a flannel bag
J Ib. Venetian red 25 Ib. alum 7 pails size.
;
;
;
FINE DEEP BLUE.
FOR 400
Oran Esparto
10
;
LB.
DRY PAPER.
1 Ib. crystal soda
;
prussiate of potash ;
3 Ib. green copperas, dissolved in 4 pails of hot water
4 quarts iron liquor ;
Ib.
1 oz.
25
magenta, dissolved in one pail of hot water
alum.
Ib.
;
:
COLOURED PAPERS.
FOR 400
400
3 lb. catechu
4
20
;
lb.
alum
;
DRY PAPER.
37
;
Venetian red
Ib.
5 lb. bluestone
ultramarine
lb.
LB.
Oran Esparto
lb.
43
CHOCOLATE BROWN.
.
7 pails
;
5
lb.
one hour apart
all
;
green copperas
;
;
size.
FINE ROSE TINT.
FOR 400
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Medium Spanish
Esparto, 4 ; good Oran Esparto, 4 ;
2 oz. cosine, marked A, dissolved in one pail of boiling
water, and strained through a flannel bag.
ROSE TINT.
FOE 400
400
LB.
1 lb.
;
;
;
STRAW
FOR 400
400
DRY PAPER.
Oran Esparto 14 lb. Venetian red
chrome yellow 20 lb. alum.
lb.
lb.
LB.
Oran Esparto
;
TINT.
DRY PAPER.
bichromate of potash
1 4 lb.
;
3 lb. white sugar of lead, dissolved in one pail of hot
water
;
i lb. ultramarine
;
pint iron liquor.
1J
AMBER.
FOR 400
\
1
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Oran Esparto ;
lb. chrome yellow, mixed in the engine one hour
pint iron liquor 20 lb. alum ; 6 pails size.
400
lb.
;
LIGHT BUFF.
FOR 400
400
lb.
Oran Esparto
LB.
;
4
DRY PAPER.
lb.
green copperas
;
4 oz. sugar of lead ; 3 lb. bichromate of potash
15 lb. alum ; 5 pails size.
;
;
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
44:
ORANGE BUFF.
FOE 400
400
8
lb.
sugar of lead
lb.
20
lb.
LB.
Oran Esparto
alum
;
;
DRY PAPER.
6
;
14
Ib.
lb.
bichromate of potash
Venetian red
;
;
6 pails size.
FINE AMBER WRITINGS.
FOR 300
LB.
DRY PAPER.
Medium Spanish
64
11
oz.
oz.
Esparto, | ; F.F. Rags, J ; Thirds,
nitrate of lead ; 3 oz. bichromate of potash ;
Venetian red, strained throiigh a silk bag ;
30
lb.
alum
;
8 pails size.
PAPERMAKING MACHINE.
Great care is necessary for the satisfactory working of this department in the mill.
Many changes
occur to occupy the machineman his attention, for
:
example, would be immediately called to reduce or
increase, as the case may be, the flow of water on
the wire in emptying an extra fast or an extra soft
stuff.
To ensure satisfactory weight and uniform
two chests, should be used, the beaterman
emptying into the one, and the machineman working
from the other. Every chest of stuff ought to be
colour,
separately, and, when made, should be
ticketed No. 1, No. 2, and so on.
By this means
shading in the reams will be avoided, although a
slight difference of shade should exist in the order,
wrought
as
it is
at times unavoidable.
Paper machines in
all
mills are
much
alike,
though
PAPERMAKING MACHINE
THE WIRE.
45
some
of their parts (such as the sand-trap, which can
be easily changed to the newest design at little
expense) differ in every mill.
The best form of sand-trap is made in three compartments, through which the stuff flows 20 feet in
one direction, and, turning, flows 20 feet in the opposite direction, then back again 20 feet, and falls
into the strainers.
This trap is covered with old
wet felt, the pile against the run or flow of the stuff,
and is hung at each end on pivots, and supported in
an upright position by four legs upon hinges. When
washing is required, lift the legs, turn the sand-trap
round on the pivots, and wash out ; adjust the trap
This operation
again, and put the legs in position.
can be performed in from five to ten minutes.
Pieces of lead 2 inches square should be in the
bottom of the
trap,
and skimmers inserted about
2 inches into the pulp the former to catch the
heavy, and the latter to catch the light floating
dirt.
The Wire.
There are many different opinions as to how wires
all, however, having the same
end in view namely, to run the wire as long as
wire should never be tightened in a
possible.
careless manner, or unknown to the foreman, whose
should be worked,
A
duty
it is
to look after
it.
It is certain that the slacker a wire can be worked,
the longer
it
will last.
It
is,
at the
same time, a
well-known fact that a tight wire runs
steadiest,
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
46
and gives the workman least trouble with crushing
at the coucher rolls, and enables him to couch his
paper hard, and causes
changing of the wet
In changing, cut
less trouble in the frequent
felts.
off the old wire,
remove and
care-
Prove the
fully clean the tube and carrying rolls.
the bottom couch roll with
rolls level and parallel
the press roll, and the breast roll with the bottom
couch
Put on the wire
roll.
in the usual way, and
place everything in position except the top couch
Turn the wire round by hand, and examine
roll.
blemishes; if any, make a note of
them, and measure their distance from the seam, in
it carefully for
order to
know
and watch them,
be judged on a future
their exact position,
that the merits of a wire
may
Next put on the top coucher, and let the
occasion.
straining roll down with only its own weight on the
wire. Prove the couch roll parallel with the bottom
one,
and run the wire for about twenty minutes, or
while the strainer
is
being furnished.
Tighten the
straining roll just sufficient to take off the slackness,
but not to stretch or rack the meshes of the wire ;
start,
and run for some time.
If the paper crushes,
ease the couch roll weights, and work as little water
as possible consistent with the closing of the paper.
In a short time everything
longer
will
come right ; and the
worked, the better it will be. If the
jackets have been changed, some trouble
it is
couch roll
The wires
be expected with the couching.
should last from nine to ten weeks, working night
and day at an average speed of 85 feet per minute
may
upon a 60-inch or 90-inch machine.
MAKING EDGES ON PAPER.
Making Edges on
In Continental mills there
is
47
Paper.
a method of making
edges on the paper as it passes along on the wire,
which saves the machineman much trouble, and is
very useful to him in many emergencies.
Procure a piece of |-inch composition pipe ; close
up one end, make a hole in the centre of the
closed end with a darning needle, and connect the
other end of the pipe to the nearest water-tap
with a piece of rubber tube ; fix the end with the
hole in it upon the wire frame between the two
vacuum boxes; bend the pipe, and direct the fine
water upon the edge of the paper in such a
manner as to give the edge the appearance of being
cut.
"With this, jet the edges can be made either
jet of
If the coucher
thick or thin, to suit circumstances.
is a little bare at the ends, and the paper
jacket
hanging and creasing at the edges as it leaves the
the extreme edges of the paper may be
wire,
thickened by slightly bending the pipe until it is
found convenient to change the jacket on the top
roll.
First Press Rolls.
This is a part of the machine where a considerable
amoxint of waste paper is made, and any mode of
preventing it must be of advantage as well to the
manufacturer as the machineman.
The author has
tried a contrivance
which
effec-
tually pi-events the paper breaking at the press rolls
;
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
48
and
if it
should break and run across the
a
by
Cut
draw
roll,
will go just as far as is desired.
long strip from the edge of a wet felt, and
setting this
it
out a single thread from it about two yards long
lead the end of the thread inside the press roll
;
frame, then tie a knot upon it, and lead it in between the paper and the top press roll. It will
travel round with the paper and over the top of the
"
doctor," making a slight impression on the paper.
When the paper breaks at the edge, it will run
across to this impression and no farther, but will
keep running up the press roll in a straight line
with it, leaving an edge exactly as if it had been
small
cut, which will not break at the calenders.
"
groove should be made on the back of the doctor,"
A
keep the thread in the desired line for the
to
The thread
different widths of paper.
will
last
about a week without renewing.
This method is a perfectly successful one, the
author having had it in constant use when making
It saves broken, and can be worked so
thin papers.
near the edge that the impression is taken off at the
cutter.
The reason
from the
felt in
is
for
recommending the thread
preference to worsted, is because
harder twisted, and makes a neater impression.
Cleanliness
Machinemen and
it
and Order.
their assistants ought to have
soap and towel allowed them.
The
strictest cleanli-
ness, especially of the hands, should be enforced.
considerable quantity of paper is destroyed by
A
FINISHING PAPER.
49
To obviate
handling with dirty hands.
this,
a piece
of felt for lifting off the rolls of paper should always
be kept convenient. The floor and the pit underneath the machine must be kept scrupulously clean.
is a very good plan to have the sides of the pit
lined with thin boarding, kept about an inch from
the sides, so that the oil which accumulates on the
It
framing will run down the walls without coming
On the floor of
into contact with the boarding.
the pit a sparred bottom should be placed, to allow
any sand or dirt from the feet to drop through the
broken getting dirtied.
bottom should be lifted twice a week and
In washing up, all the corners and
cleaned out.
spaces
The
;
this will prevent the
false
out-of-the-way places should be carefully cleaned.
In order to save time, when a wire is to be
changed, all the tools necessary for that purpose
should be collected together before the machine is
;
everything, in fact, ought to be in its own
shut
Nut keys should
place, and ready when wanted.
never be allowed to be removed from the machinehouse, as they might be wanted at the very time
they are in use elsewhere.
Finishing Paper.
The appearance
of paper
when
greatly
on those in charge of
Paper,
to
careful
and tidy manner.
finished depends
this
take the eye, must be
department.
in a
made up
Careless tying, or leaving
one sheet or quire projecting beyond the rest in the
ream, should not be tolerated, for the market value
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
50
of the article depends in a great measure on the
manner in which it is presented to the scrutiny of
the buyer ; and the reputation of the manufacturer
is often injured by carelessly or loosely tied reams
going into the consumer's hands. It should also be
borne in mind that carelessly put-up goods do not
improve in passing through the hands of railway
officials.
Paper sent out in web should be tightly reeled,
and kept even in the edges. In this condition it
will have a finished appearance, and command a
better market, for the printing and uniform cutting
thereby greatly facilitated.
This department, like the others, should be kept
Cleanliness and order
perfectly clean and orderly.
is
cannot be too rigidly enforced throughout
operations in a paper mill.
all
the
Details of the Preparation of the several sorts of
Colouring Matter previously mentioned.
CATECHU.
Boil in an iron boiler 25 pails of water, then add
200 Ib. of finely-powdered catechu gradually, and
keep stirring. Boil until thoroughly dissolved, which
will occupy
from two and a half
to three hours of
brisk boiling.
Put it into casks, and let it remain
until cold.
While the catechu is cooling, dissolve
12
Ib.
When
of bluestone; let it also remain until cold.
cold, add the bluestone to
both are perfectly
the catechu, and stir well.
PREPARATION OF COLOURING MATTER.
51
Care must be taken not to add either in a hot
state, as
by doing
so the colour will be injured.
BERLIN BLUE.
Dissolve 100
of yellow prussiate of potash in
one boiler; dissolve 100 Ib. of green copperas in
another boiler. When both are thoroughly dissolved,
let
Ib.
them be put together in a
fitting cover
;
then dissolve 20
boiler with a closeIb.
of bichromate of
potash, and add it to the prussiate and the copperas.
Boil again, and keep stirring; then add 17 Ib. of
vitriol, stir thoroughly, and let it remain for two or
three days.
Prepare some casks in the interval for
the reception of the solution, by boring holes in the
staves
say 6
in
number
one above the other,
and 6 inches apart, beginning with the bottom one,
which must be 2 feet from the extreme bottom.
Into these holes fit long plugs, which can be easily
removed. When the casks are ready, fill up with
the prepared solution, and allow them to stand undisturbed until properly settled.
Then run off the
water by the holes in the staves, removing the plugs
beginning with the top one as the
one by one
cask gets empty, until the blue makes its appearwhen the plugs should be replaced, and the
ance,
up with water again and well stirred ;
washing to be continued four or five times, as
casks filled
this
circumstances will permit. The oftener
the brighter the blue will be.
it is
washed,
PERNAMBUCO DYE-WOOD.
Put
into a boiler 20 pails of water,
and bring
it
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
52
to the boiling point; add 200 Ib. of Pernambuco
wood, and boil for eight hours. Put it into casks,
and wash same as for Berlin blue, adding 8 Ib. of
the muriate of
tin.
ANTICHLORINE
:
ITS
MANUFACTURE.
Procure a large cask, or, better, have one made
without the bulge which ordinary casks have in the
centre ; raise it upon a stand 3 feet high ; fit into it
two frames or
when
desired
screens,
work
;
which can be
removed
network of
easily
across this frame a
white cord or twine of sufficient strength to support
a weight of 200 Ibs., and have it sufficiently close to
prevent the soda falling through the meshes. Upon
each of these screens put 200 Ib. of the ordinary
crystal soda of
cover,
and clay
commerce, then put on the lid or
round perfectly tight. Make two
it
or three small air holes in the clay, or have an aircock attached to the cover underneath the screens,
and attached
to the cask a pipe connected to a retort,
Ib. of sulphur.
Start a fire below
into which put 9
the retort, and, when the sulphur begins to melt,
heat a piece of iron rod to a red heat, and insert it
which will commence to burn and
fumes through this pipe into the cask, passing through the crystal soda, converting it into an
into the sulphur,
send
its
When this 9 Ib. of sulphur is all consumed, the operation must be repeated, using again
antichlorine.
9
Ib.
of sulphur.
Proportions
:
400
Ib.
of crystal soda and 18
Ib.
of sulphur.
Dissolve the antichlorine in the cask, and bottle
PREPARATION OF COLOURING MATTER.
it
off into carboys,
and convey
it
to
53
the beating
engine department.
BLEACH
Mix
TEST.
of starch into a paste with cold water,
boiling water until it amounts to one pint,
oz.
|-
then add
adding two drachms of iodide of potassium ; when
cold it is ready for use.
Drop a few drops upon a
handful of stuff:
if
any chlorine
immediately turn black
;
if
none,
is
it
present, it will
will remain un-
changed.
COCHINEAL
:
ITS
PREPARATION.
Put 3 Ib. of cochineal flies into a carboy; pour in
ammonia until they are thoroughly saturated ; let it
but if they get
;
dry during that time, add more ammonia, then at
the end of ten days pour the contents of the carboy
Put it into a vessel three parts
into a flannel bag.
stand closely corked for ten days
with water, and let it remain for 24 hours;
then strain and squeeze the bag until the colour is
filled
all
extracted.
3
Ib.
of flies
ought to make 6 gallons
of colouring, to suit the papers previously mentioned.
ENGINE SIZE FRENCH METHOD.
This
size, if
as milk,
properly made, ought to be as white
alter the colour of the stuff
and should not
in the slightest degree.
copper-shelled boiler.
Boil
1
3 pails of water in a
Ibs. of crystal
Introduce 90
soda, keep boiling for half an hour, then add
gradually 200 Ibs. of finely-powdered rosin, and keep
stirring ; boil for two hours after all the rosin is
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
54
added, then add 5 pails of cold water, and boil again
an hour and a half ; then put it into stock-chests,
and allow to remain for ten days, or longer if possible.
The best method is to have a number of stock-chests,
for
each capable of containing a week's size, using out
of the one while you are filling up the others.
Cubic contents of small rosin
boiler,
38,714 cubic inches.
PREPARATION OF SIZE FOR THE ENGINES.
Put
into a large copper-shelled boiler, three-fourths
with water, 20 pails of this prepared rosin.
Raise the heat to 40, and add 120 Ibs. of potato
flour, previously mixed with cold water, to the
filled
Raise the heat up to 60,
consistency of cream.
then put in such a quantity of water so that there
will
be of rosin 4
Ibs.,
starch 3^
Ibs.,
and of soda 2
In all, the
in every 4 pails of the prepared size.
boiler will contain 144 pails of size.
Ibs.,
Cubic contents of large-size mixer, 153,400 cubic inches
about 202 pails, the pail being 756 cubic inches.
=
TURPENTINE
FOR AN ENGINE OF 300
1 lb. potasli
;
6|
Ib.
turpentine
;
SIZE.
LB.
6J
DRY PAPER.
Ib.
starch
;
6|
Boil slowly, and keep stirring for 2 hours
it is then ready for the engine.
SOAP
MADE AND
200
lb.
tallow
;
35
TTSED IN
Ib.
water.
;
SIZE,
THE INTERIOR OF
RITSSIA.
potash, dissolved in 15 pails of water,
adding 14 Ibs. lime.
lb.
Melt the tallow
first,
then add the potash water,
one pailful at a time, until the grease
is
completely
PREPARATION OF COLOURING MATTER.
killed.
Keep
55
continually stirring, and be careful not
to allow the size to spill while stirring, as it is very
likely to do so.
The best proportions are
as follows
2
lime
7
Ib.
tallow
;
Ib.
Boil 6 hours.
:
6 gallons water.
Use 2 gallons to the engine
potash
of 250
;
Ib.
1 Ib.
;
dry paper.
TUB-SIZINGPREPARATION OF THE GELATINE.
Steep the skins in stagnant water until putrefaction begins, seeing however that it does not proceed
too far, as the colour of the size will in that case be
Immediately putrefaction ensues, remove
the skins, wash, beat them thoroughly, and put them
into clean water, strongly impregnated with sul-
injured.
phurous
acid.
This arrests the putrefaction and
Fill into the boilers, raise the
bleaches the skins.
heat to 150" for the
first draught of gelatine, adding
to the heat for every additional draught.
Run
off the size into stock-chests, into which put a
5
sufficient quantity of
alum
to preserve
it.
Care must also be taken not to over-heat the
skins in the process of extracting the gelatine, as
by
doing so the colour of the size will be injured.
PREPARATION OF GELATINE FOR THE
SIZING MACHINE.
Take 100 gallons of pure gelatine and 10 gallons
of thick prepared rosin size, without the potato
starch; mix together, and add 80 Ibs. of alum
dissolved in 40 gallons of water; stir all well together, and heat to the desired temperature, and
strain through
a
fine
wire into the sizing box.
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
56
ANILINE COLOURS.
It is very important to the papermaker to have
some knowledge of Aniline Colours, as they enter
largely into the production of tinted papers.
The best method of preparing them is to dissolve
them in wooden
tubs, as follows
required quantities, put
them
:
Weigh
off the
into the tub, pour
on
The proper proportion
boiling water, and stir well.
is one part of colour to 100 parts of water, which
The
ensures a perfectly dissolved colouring matter.
solution should be prepared at least 24 hours before
which assists the decomposition of the colour.
xising,
Aniline Colours should be carefully filtered through
a fine flannel bag,
or, better, through a white silk
bag, which ensures
a perfectly clean colour, and
prevents specks on the paper.
The following
is
a
list
of the Aniline Colours
most
suitable for dyeing paper pulp, detailing their effect
when used
alone or combined with other colouring
agents.
RED LAKE.
A fluid fast in colour,
which produces a beautiful
pink for extra superfine, superfine, note, and tissue
papers ; also well adapted, in combination with the
best brands of ultramarine, for producing that warm
cream colour (of a bright and clear appearance) so
much desired in high-class cream wove and laid post.
This colour holds a prominent position for its
great strength and durability, combined with cheap-
ANILINE COLOURS.
57
EOSINE
Is a comparatively new colour, much used by
It proof tinted papers on the Continent.
duces the finest shades of pink down to a deep
makers
yellowish red, and, combined with sugar of lead,
produces a bluish pink on tissue a deep and clear
colour approaching to blood red.
LAC A LA COCHENILLE
Is a colouring matter, distinguished for its fine
shade, and, on account of its cheapness, is well
adapted for red and pink papers of a medium
quality, such as posters, wrapping, and blotting
papers.
DIAMOND MAGENTA
Is used for producing common reds, toning up
news, and, in combination with aniline blue, for
producing aniline blue papers and aniline
lilacs.
VIOLET METHYL
Produces the brightest violet shades, also brightens
up white papers, and, in combination with Paris
blue,
to
makes that deep blue which is so attractive
owing to its bright and handsome
the eye,
appearance.
PARIS BLUE
Is a colouring matter which requires care and
experience in preparing for the engine, for it is often
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
58
sold in
an impure
state.
Paper-makers ought to see
to its purity before using, as it is often considerably
adulterated with
starch,
farina,
The best brands
of
and other
clay,
foreign matters, which are added to
and are of no use to the papermaker.
make
are No. 1 and No. 5
;
weight,
they are
great yielding power for light and dark blue
tissues
and
for ordinary papers.
is sometimes sold in paste
Paris blue
:
when
sold
in this form, it never contains more than 40 per cent,
It is also supplied in pieces,
of colouring matter.
easily soluble in water, and is very suitThe brands No. 6 and
able for deep blue papers.
No. 7 produce very dark shades of blue by adding
which are
When consistent with the paper to
violet methyl.
be produced, a little dilute sulphuric acid should
be added to the pieces, as it assists their yielding
power, and brightens the colour considerably.
METHYL BLUE
Is a very brilliant colour, not affected by chlorine.
much used in white papers, and for making
fine shades of blue; it also combines readily with
It is
magenta
for the production of lilacs.
SILK GREEN
Is a chemically pure colouring matter, producing
beautiful shades of green ; it can be easily tinted by
the use of Paris blue or chrome yellow.
59
ULTRAMARINE.
METHYL GREEN.
Used for very fine shades of green of a bluish
tinge when used with methyl blue, it produces all
:
the shades of peacock green, giving a most beautiful
effect.
ULTRAMARINE.
Ultramarine
is used most extensively by papermakers, not only to brighten, but actually to colour
paper stuff. In common papers, such as news and
printings, this colour is added to increase the liveliness of the paper, and give it a good bright whiteness.
Ultramarine, however, is used also in blue
papers of medium quality, and, when carefully made
and of the finest quality, can be used for the best
papers.
The two faults which act against the use of
ultramarine in papermaking are the grit or small
particles of hard foreign substances, and the inability
of the blue to stand the
alum used in
sizing.
With
these
disadvantages removed, pure ultramarines
might be used for fine papers. It is a very necessary
thing for papermakers to examine their blues, and
this can be done very simply.
Weigh about 50 grains of each sample of ultramarine, and mix each well with 100 grains of terra
alba, and look at the mixtures side by side in a
The eye can get a good estimate of
light.
colour from this test; but, to make more certain,
examine the samples over again, only letting the
good
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
60
price of each sample guide the weight in grains to
be tested, and proceed in the usual way.
Thus,
supposing four samples at 65s., 72s., 76s., and 80s.
respectively are to be tested, proceed as follows
:
Bring each sample to a level so far as price per cwt.
is concerned.
The 65s. sample being 15s. dearer
than the 80s., more of it can be bought for 80s., so
the test must be carried out accordingly. If 80s.
equal 112 Ibs., 65s. will give you 138 Ibs. The sum
in each case
is
65
:
80
80
:
80
:
72
76
:
:
:
:
::
112
112
112
:
138
:
124
:
118
these relative proportions of ultramarine,
grains of terra alba, upon white paper,
the eye will discern the best sample for the money.
In the case of the 80s. blue, of course use 112
By mixing
each with
1 00
grains.
To test its alum-resisting properties, dissolve the
same amount of each sample in water, and mix in
\ Ib. of pulp. When thoroughly
mixed, and each lot of pulp is well and evenly
coloured, add one glassful of the ordinary mill alum
liquor, either from pure alum or aluminous cake, to
this water about
each, losing
no time over the operation.
Stir each
well and continually with a glass rod, and note the
glasses carefully as to the length of time each sample
keeps
its colour.
The above
cally
tests are excellent ones,
and
practi-
a safeguard to any paper-maker in buying
ultramarines.
SCRAPS OF CHEMISTRY.
61
SCRAPS OF CHEMISTRY
Connected with the Manufacture of Paper.
In these days of progress it is absolutely necessary for the papermaker to have some knowledge of
It solves for him many problems, and
chemistry.
points out the cause of many difficulties with which
he has to contend, and their various remedies.
ALUM.
The alum
commerce forms an important item
in the manufacture of paper.
Impure alum should
of
at all times be rejected, especially if iron be present
it.
Considerable difficulty is experienced at times
in
by the papermaker in producing a uniform colour
throughout a given quantity of paper; variations
occur, which, if properly investigated, will in many
cases be found attributable to the alum.
Alum in-
tended for the beating-engine should be perfectly
pure, and ought to be weighed with accuracy, and
dissolved in a known quantity of water. This ought
to be tested at frequent intervals as to its strength,
A
which ought to be kept as uniform as possible.
good system of ensuring a uniform supply of alum
to the engine is to fix a tabular statement in a convenient situation, so that the beaterman can com-
mand a view of it at all times. For example the
beaterman is ordered to put in a given quantity of
alum at 5 ; by condensation of steam it only stands
4
the table should acquaint him at a glance how
:
:
much
additional
alum he
is
to use,
All he requires
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
62
alum for every engine he furwhich occupies very little time, and repays
to do is to test the
nishes,
him a hundredfold
ing the colour.
in the saving of trouble in strikThis will be best exemplified in the
manufacture of blue papers.
The
slightest variation
the alum varies the colour; hence arises the
necessity of great care, in order to produce the dein
sired shade.
When
alum contains iron in any considerable
quantity, it should be rejected. The simplest method
of testing its purity in that respect is to dissolve
a small quantity in distilled water, and add by
few drops of pure carbonate of soda to
any free acid; next add a few drops
If any iron be
of a solution of yellow prussiate.
present, it will assume a blue colour upon the addiThe intention of the yellow prussiate solution.
degrees a
neutralize
sity of the blue will indicate the quantity of iron
Alum should be periodically tested in this
present.
ALUMINOUS CAKES.
In many paper mills where low-classed printings
and news are made, aluminous cakes are used instead of alum.
Aluminous cakes are made from
china clay, which is treated with strong sulphuric
acid in suitable vessels.
The
acid has the effect of
rendering the alumina soluble by dispelling the
silicic acid and forming soluble
sulphate of alumina.
Hence aluminous cakes
are
valued according to
The examina-
their percentage of soluble alumina.
SCEAPS OF CHEMISTRY.
tion of aluminous cakes
63
must be undertaken by a
A
properly qualified analyst.
great fault in aluminous cakes is the presence of free acid, and some-
times
dirt,
in abundance.
Both these
deleterious
agents should receive the careful attention of papermakers.
BLEACHING POWDER.
a very important chemical, and one which
enters largely into the cost of working a paper
This
is
factory ; hence the necessity of the manager being
in a position to know whether the article with
which his employer
is supplied is of the proper
quality or not, as its value to him depends entirely
upon the amount of chlorine it contains.
To
test bleaching
powder
as to the percentage of
chlorine contained therein, proceed as follows :
Take 100 grains of arsenious acid; dissolve
them
in four fluid ounces of hydrochloric acid, which possibly will require a little heat ; the solution is then
diluted with 6 ounces
The whole ought
by measure
of distilled water.
measure exactly 10 ounces;
consequently each ounce will contain 10 grains of
to
arsenious acid.
Take 100 grains of bleaching powder from various
parts of the sample to be tested ; rub it in a mortar
with a little water, then add as much water as will
fill an
ordinary graduated alkalimeter; allow
the coarse grains to settle, then fill the alkalimeter,
which is divided into 100 parts. Each part will con-
twice
tain half a grain of bleaching powder.
Take one
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKEE.
64
ounce of the arsenious solution, and add to
it
a
little
sulphate of indigo, sufficient to render it of a distinct
blue colour ; then into this pour slowly the bleaching liquor from the alkalimeter until the blue colour
disappears, stirring continually during the operation.
Note the number of graduations required to effect
this change.
Every 10 grains of the arsenioxts acid is equal to
7 '2 grains of chlorine; so the quantity of bleaching
liquor taken to decolour the indigo will contain that
amount of chlorine. Suppose it has required 48
graduations of the bleaching liquor to effect the
change, this will be equal to 24 grains of bleaching
therefore 24 grains of bleaching powder
will contain 7 '2 of chlorine; and if 24 contain 7*2,
powder
100
:
will contain 30.
The sample
will therefore
contain 30 per cent, of chlorine.
EXAMINATION OF SODA AS TO
ITS CAUSTICITY.
The value of soda to the paperrnaker depends
upon the amount of caustic alkali which it contains.
The admixed salts contained in soda consist of
various sorts, and are of no value to the paper-
As the
maker.
proportion of these salts varies very
necessary to examine the soda periodically, to ascertain the quantity of caustic alkali it
much,
it is
contains.
This can be done very easily, and by a re-agent
is applicable to both caustic soda and soda
which
ash.
Caustic soda differs from soda ash in that
alkali (pure soda) is in a free
and uncombined
its
state,
SCRAPS OP CHEMISTRY.
whilst the alkali of soda ash
carbonic acid.
body, and the
is
65
united to an acid
This acid, however,
test,
is
which serves to
but a weak
ally
with the
caustic alkali in caustic soda, is of sufficient strength
to perform a similar function in the case of soda
by expelling the carbonic acid in the form of
a gas.
To effect this thoroughly, it is necessary to
boil the solution of soda ash during the entire operaash,
tion, in order that the carbonic acid
gas should not
dissolve in the water or solution of soda ash.
One equivalent of soda, represented by the figure
31, is exactly neutralized by one equivalent of acid,
40.
The absolutely correct system of preparing the
above alluded to would be too technical
an operation except for a properly qualified analyst.
test re-agent
The following
pared
test,
however, can be simply preof distilled water about
Add to half-a-gallon
:
3 or 4 ounces (fluid) of pure sulphuric acid, and
Fill a " Winchester
allow the mixture to get cool.
"
bottle with this test acid, keeping the stopper
quart
and putting the acid in a place where the
temperature is even and not liable to rise above 60.
close,
Next weigh out carefully 25 grains of pure anhydrous carbonate of soda, and dissolve them in about
one half an evaporating basinful of distilled water.
The basin can
a
spirit
Set this over
hold, say about 1 pint.
to boil, having a
lamp or Bunsen burner
good long glass rod in the basin, and having also
added 5 or 6 drops of litmus. Meanwhile fill an
alkalimeter with your test acid. Mohr's alkalimeter
and clip, fitted also with a float, are the best things
to use,
and can be had of any chemical-instrument
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
66
1000 grains
the solution of pure soda
is boiling, add the acid cautiously, for fear of the
Add graeffervescence causing overflow and loss.
The alkalimeter
maker.
of the test acid.
will contain
When
dually until the litmus shows signs of reddening.
Allow the solution to boil briskly now, and add the
by drop until the litmus is of a purple
Note now whether this purple tint is stable
after boiling, and if so, dot down the number of
grains on the alkalimeter corresponding with the
float-line ; then add one or two drops more acid
until the soda solution turns a permanent red, and
dot down this number also.
Now, supposing the test acid denotes 800 as the
first figure, and 810 as the figure when the soda
turned red take the mean, 805. Then 25. grains
of pure carbonate of soda are equivalent to 805
The
grains of acid liquor, and of course vice versd.
acid drop
tint.
:
following calculation will give the strength of the
test liquor
:
Pure Soda.
Garb. Soda.
53
:
31
Pure Soda.
Carb. Soda.
:
25
:
:
14'56
Therefore 805 grains of the test acid are equivalent
to 14-56 of pure alkali.
This experiment must be
made
three times to prove the accuracy of the test
depends upon the latter being
liquor, as everything
perfectly true, seeing that
future case of testing.
it
has to do duty in every
Having found the above
"
correct,
the
"Win-
duly labelled, and 25 grains of each
sample of soda ash are taken and boiled, and tested
chester
is
SCRAPS OP CHEMISTRY.
67
exactly in the same manner.
Suppose a sample of
25 grains requires 705 grains of test acid, the
is
following
the calculation
Test Acid.
805
:
Test Acid.
Alkali.
14-56
:
then 12-75
X
:
705
:
Alkali.
1275
:
4= 51 % alkali (say).
This test is very accurate, provided the test acid is
not too strong, and is added cautiously so as not to
produce violent effervescence.
In examining caustic soda the above test acid
is
used, but the sample of caustic is dissolved in cold
It is,
water, and then examined in the same way.
however, better to take a piece of caustic and weigh
it at once, and not endeavour to obtain any exact
weight.
Caustic
is
so deliquescent, that before
it is
possible to weigh out
any exact given weight, the
soda would probably absorb a large amount of water
from the air. Weigh a piece about the size of a
and, when the result is obtained, the following
calculation will give the exact percentage
filbert,
:
Amount
Weight
of
sample
:
Percentage of
of
alikali
:
absorbed
100
.
:
alkali
in sample.
RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN THE EXAMINATION
OF SODA.
All the vessels and glasses must be scrupulously
clean.
The water used must be
distilled.
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
68
The operator must take great care to read correctly
the volume of the test acid used. Nothing facilitates
this so well as a
The
Mohr's
float.
tincture or solution of litmus
must be kept
in a well-stoppered narrow-necked bottle, and frequently in a dark cupboard. No alkali must be
added to it on any account, as it will corrupt the
Should the solution decompose or turn
brown, one drop of weak ammonia may be added,
but it is better to make some fresh solution.
result.
COLOURED TEST
PAPERS.
The most
turmeric
;
efficient test papers are litmus and
they surpass liquid tests in delicacy and
general application.
LITMUS TEST PAPER.
To prepare litmus
paper, rub good litmus with a
hot water in a mortar, and pour the mixture
into an evaporating basin; add water until the
little
proportion is half-a-pint of water to one ounce of
litmus ; cover up so as to keep warm for an hour,
after which the liquid must be filtered, and fresh
hot water poured on the residue.
This is to be
boiled, covered up as before, and allowed to stand.
The operation is to be repeated a second time, and,
if
much
colour comes, a third time.
COLOURED TEST PAPERS.
69
The first solution is to be kept separate from the
second and third, which may be mixed together.
The first solution will not require evaporation, but
may be so far reduced in quantity, that
piece of blotting or filtering paper is dipped
into them and dried, they will impart to it a blue
the others
when a
colour of sufficient intensity for use.
The paper is then to be dipped in the solution.
The paper
should
blotting will suit very well
always be unsized, of good colour, and moderate
thickness, say from 15 to 20 Ib. demy, and cut into
Particular
pieces of a convenient size for dipping.
care should be taken to use paper as free as possible
from earthy matter, and especially from carbonate
Sized papers produce a finer tint on the
of lime.
surface, but are not so delicate as a test.
Pour the litmus solution into a plate, and draw
the slips of paper through it in such a manner that
the fluid will come in contact with both sides ; allow
it
to drip, then
hang them across two thread
lines
to dry.
The
tint ought to be a distinct blue,
and may be
tested as to its delicacy by touching the paper with
a very dilute acid, observing whether the red colour
produced
tied
up
light.
is
vivid or not.
into bundles,
It should,
when
and preserved from the
A wide-necked glass-stoppered
dry, be
air
and
bottle is best
Put in the test papers,
suited for this purpose.
and paste round the sides of the bottle a piece of
dark paper to exclude the light, as both air and
light tend to destroy the colour
test paper.
and
efficacy of the
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
70
TURMERIC TEST PAPER.
This paper
litmus paper.
turmeric
is
is
prepared in a manner similar to
hot infusion of finely-crushed
A
to be
made by
boiling one ounce of
turmeric in 12 ounces of .water for half-an-hour ;
strain through a fine cloth or silk bag, and leave the
fluid to settle for a
few minutes.
The
liquid should
be of such strength that paper dipped into it and
then dried should be of a fine yellow colour. The
paper should be of the same quality in every respect
as for litmus paper.
No particular care is necessary in drying, as with litmus paper; but both papers
should be prepared where acid and alkaline fumes
cannot come in contact with them, as they injure
the colour of both.
USE OF THE TEST PAPERS.
In using the .test papers with a fluid suspected to
contain free acid or alkali, or to find if one of them
predominates, all that is necessary is to moisten
them with the liquid and observe the. change. If
the fluid be acid, the blue colour of the litmus paper
change immediately to red; if alkaline, the
will
yellow colour of the turmeric paper will change to
brown. The moistening may be effected by dipping
a glass rod into the liquid to be tested, and then
touching the test paper.
These tests must be made by daylight, if a minute
estimate of the change is necessary, as artificial
BLOTTING PAPER.
71
light will not enable you to note the delicacy of the
action of acid or alkali when a small portion is
present.
BLOTTING PAPER.
This is a paper which, to bring it to a high
standard of perfection, requires a greater amount of
care and experience in its manufacture than is
Every one who uses the article
generally supposed.
knows that its value consists in its absorbing
qualities ; and that depends as much in the mode of
preparation as in the material from which
it
is
made.
In selecting materials for blotting of a high class,
cotton rags of the weakest and tenderest description
Boil them with 4 Ibs.
procurable should be chosen.
that is, if you have no
of caustic soda to the cwt
facilities for boiling
them with lime
alone.
When
furnished in the breaking - engine, wash
thoroughly before letting down the roll ; when
thoroughly washed, reduce them to half-stuff, and as
soon as possible empty into the poacher, or convey
to the poacher as the case may be, and bleach with
great care.
up to the desired colour, empty
When
and drain immediately. It may be
mentioned that the breaker-plate ought to be sharp
into the drainer,
when
starting to blottings.
The beater roll and plate should also be in good
order, and the stuff beaten off smartly, not to exceed
For pink
one hour and a half in the engine.
THE PRACTICAL PAPERMAKER.
72
blottings furnish two thirds of white cottons and one
third of turkey reds if they can be got ; if not, dye
with cochineal to the desired shade, empty down to
the machine before starting, and see that the vacuum
Remove the weights
are in good condition.
from the couch roll, and, if there are lifting screws,
pumps
Now
raise the top couch roll a little.
shake belt off, as the shake will not
take the
be required.
Press light with the first press, and have the top roll
of the second press covered with an ordinary jacket
similar to a couch roll jacket.
Dry hard, and pass
through one calender with the weights
roll
as light as possible,
off,
and the
just enough to smooth
In this way the author has made blotting
which was considered a good article.
slightly.
EXPERIMENT MADE WITH MECHANICAL
WOOD
PULP,
PRODUCED BY ONE OF VOLTER's MACHINES.
One cubic sachen* of the wood of the aspen, which
had been in the mill yard exposed to the sun for 12
weeks, weighing 9340 Ibs., produced 5384 Ibs. dry
pulp fit for manufacturing into paper, and 70 Ibs.
waste unfit for paper.
* Russian
measure
= 1 cubic fathom.
ADVERTISEMENTS.
ADVERTISEMENTS.
JAS.
KENYON
&
P11EY
SON,
MILLS,
BURY,
MANUFACTURERS OF
FELTS
FOR
PAPERMAKERS.
COUCH ROLL COVERS.
WET AND DRY FELTS
OF ALL KIXDS.
Agents
MOREY &
S.
G.
in
CO.
United States
.
.
.
:
BOSTON.
TRAIN, BOSTON.
ADVERTISEMENTS.
PATENT BELTING,
MANUFACTURED BY
Jmtcasfc
f atent
AND HOSE
getting
CO.,
WIRE-WORKS MILLS,
Strangeways,
This Belting
or
ACIDS,
is
It is specially
is
MANCHESTER
NOT affected by HEAT, MOISTURE,
impervious to Hot or Cold Water or Steam,
adapted for
PAPER MILLS,
where
it is
more durable than any other
class of Belting
manufactured.
For
MAIN DRIVING
unsurpassed.
Belts supplied for
Price Lists
any Power.
and particulars on
application,
ADVERTISEMENTS.
iv
VIENNA TJNIVERSAL EXHIBITION,
1873.
MEDAL FOR PROGRESS,
JAMES BERTRAM
& SON,
ENGINEERS,
LEITH WALK FOUNDRY,
EDINBURGH!.
(ESTABLISHED
1845.)
Manufacturers of every description of
PAPERMAKI1T&
MACHINERY.
Send
for particulars of
Wood's
New
Suction Apparatus.
Patent Strainer
ADVERTISEMENTS.
w
5
w
cb
en
3
JUJ!
pq
to
CO
H
U
<
O
CO
OQ
00
ADVERTISEMENTS.
GEORGE CHRISTIE,
MANUFACTURER OF
PAPER MACHINE
WIRES
OF
>
GREAT STRENGTH AID DURABILITY,
SPECIALLY SUITED FOR
WIDE MACHINES
Running
at a
High Speed.
WIRES WOVEN UP TO
132
INCHES
IN WIDTH.
BRASS AND COPPER. WASHING WIRES OF
ALL MESHES A\'D ANV WIDTH.
EXTRA STRONG BACKING WIRES, RAG WIRE,
DUSTER WIRE, ASD FINE SIEVES,
DANDY
LADTWELL
ROLLS,
ST.
&c.
WIRE-WORKS,
QLA.SQOW.
ADVERTISEMENTS.
ESTABLISHED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF
FAFER1CAEEBS' TOOLS,
A.D.
1736.
WM,
MAM
ATTERCLIFFE
&
&
SONS,
CLIFTON STEEL WORKS,
MANUFACTURERS OF
011
ara mtir
Of every description, in all qualities of Double Shear, Cast, German,
aud Bessemer Steel, of Warranted Temper and Tenacity
LOMITUIOAL and CIRCULAR CUTTERS,
ROPE AND RAG CHOPPERS,
STRAW AND REAM KNIVES AND DOCTOR BLADES
TO ANY PATTERN.
BENCH, CROSS-CUT, AND RAG KNIVES
OF SPECIAL TEMPER AND QUALITY.
COMPOSITION YELLOW METAL ROLL BARS, PLATES,
AND DOCTOR BLADES,
Knotter Frames and Eates, Machine Wires and Felts supplied,
of Superior Quality.
EVERY DESCRIPTION OF STEEL
for Smiths'
and Mechanics' purposes.
FILES, SAWS, TOOLS,
&c.
The only Medal awarded for Papermakers' Tools at
Exhibition of all Natioiis, 1851.
the.
ADVERTISEMENTS.
EENEY WATSON &
SON,
GENERAL MECHANICIANS.
MAKERS OF
STRAINER PLATES.
Sole
Makers
of F.
Norton Idler's
NEW PATENT
FLAT STRAINER.
High Bridge Works, Newcastle -on-Tyne.
HALL,
St.
DUNBAR
&
GO,,
Ninian's Oil and Colour Works,
LEITH,
GIVE SPECIAL ATTENTION TO ALL KINDS OF
PAPERMAKERS' COLOURS,
Finest assortments of
ULTBAMARINES, ANILINE COLOURS, PASTE BLACK
and BLUE, OCHRES, BEDS, &c. &c.
Bichromate and Frussiate of Potash, Sulphate of Copper,
Sugars of Lead, Copperas, and all other Chemicals
used in Paper Manufacture.
MACHINERY
OILS.
ANTI-FROTH
White and Bed Leads, Paints, Colours and Cements
Export Orders carefully attended
OIL.
of all descriptions.
to.
UNIVT
TTY OT
AA 000578860
9
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising