Duracell inverter 1000 Operating instructions
t 1 408 987 6359
www.xantrex.com/support
975-0347-01-01 REV. B
Printed in China
Owner's Guide
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Owner’s Guide
Duracell1000.book Page ii Friday, September 7, 2007 1:47 PM
About Xantrex
Xantrex Technology Inc. is a world-leading supplier of advanced power electronics and controls with
products ranging from small mobile units to utility-scale systems for wind, solar, batteries, fuel cells,
microturbines, and backup power applications in both grid-connected and stand-alone systems. Xantrex
products include inverters, battery chargers, programmable power supplies, and variable speed drives
that convert, supply, control, clean, and distribute electrical power.
Trademarks
DURACELL® is a registered trademark of The Gillette Company, used under license. All rights
reserved.
XANTREX is a registered trademark of Xantrex International.
Other trademarks, registered trademarks, and product names are the property of their respective owners
and are used herein for identification purposes only.
Notice of Copyright
Duracell® Inverter 1000 Owner’s Guide © 2007 Duracell. All rights reserved.
Exclusion for Documentation
UNLESS SPECIFICALLY AGREED TO IN WRITING, XANTREX TECHNOLOGY INC. (“XANTREX”)
(a) MAKES NO WARRANTY AS TO THE ACCURACY, SUFFICIENCY OR SUITABILITY OF ANY TECHNICAL OR
OTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED IN ITS MANUALS OR OTHER DOCUMENTATION.
(b) ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY FOR LOSSES, DAMAGES, COSTS OR EXPENSES, WHETHER
SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL, WHICH MIGHT ARISE OUT OF THE USE OF
SUCH INFORMATION. THE USE OF ANY SUCH INFORMATION WILL BE ENTIRELY AT THE USER’S RISK.
(c) REMINDS YOU THAT IF THIS MANUAL IS IN ANY LANGUAGE OTHER THAN ENGLISH, ALTHOUGH STEPS
HAVE BEEN TAKEN TO MAINTAIN THE ACCURACY OF THE TRANSLATION, THE ACCURACY CANNOT BE
GUARANTEED. APPROVED XANTREX CONTENT IS CONTAINED WITH THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE VERSION
WHICH IS POSTED AT www.xantrex.com.
Date and Revision
September 2007 Revision B
Part Number
975-0347-01-01
Product Number
813-1000-07
Contact Information
Phone:
1 408 987 6359
Website: www.xantrex.com/support
Duracell1000.book Page iii Friday, September 7, 2007 1:47 PM
About This Guide
Purpose
The purpose of this Owner’s Guide is to provide explanations and
procedures for installing, operating, maintaining, and troubleshooting the
Duracell® Inverter 1000.
Scope
The Guide provides safety guidelines, detailed planning and setup
information, procedures for installing the inverter, as well as information
about operating and troubleshooting the unit. It does not provide details
about particular brands of batteries. You need to consult individual battery
manufacturers for this information.
Audience
The Guide is intended for anyone who needs to install and operate the
Duracell® Inverter 1000.
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About This Guide
Conventions Used
The following conventions are used in this guide.
WARNING
Warnings identify conditions that could result in personal injury or loss of life
CAUTION
Cautions identify conditions or practices that could result in damage to the unit or
other equipment.
Important: These notes describe things which are important for you to know,
but not as serious as a caution or warning.
Related Information
You can find more information about Xantrex Technology Inc. as well as
its products and services at www.xantrex.com
iv
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Important Safety Instructions
WARNING
This chapter contains important safety and operating instructions. Read and keep
this Owner’s Guide for future reference.
1. Before installing and using the Duracell® Inverter 1000, read all
instructions and cautionary markings on the Duracell® Inverter 1000,
the batteries, and all appropriate sections of this guide.
2. Do not expose the Duracell® Inverter 1000 to rain, snow, spray, or
bilge water. To reduce risk of fire hazard, do not cover or obstruct the
ventilation openings. Do not install the Duracell® Inverter 1000 in a
zero-clearance compartment. Overheating may result.
3. Use only attachments recommended or sold by the manufacturer.
Doing otherwise may result in a risk of fire, electric shock, or injury
to persons.
4. To avoid a risk of fire and electric shock, make sure that existing
wiring is in good condition and that wire is not undersized. Do not
operate the Duracell® Inverter 1000 with damaged or substandard
wiring.
5. Do not operate the Duracell® Inverter 1000 if it has received a sharp
blow, been dropped, or otherwise damaged in any way. If the
Duracell® Inverter 1000 is damaged, see the Warranty section.
6. Do not disassemble the Duracell® Inverter 1000. It contains no userserviceable parts. See Warranty for instructions on obtaining service.
Attempting to service the Duracell® Inverter 1000 yourself may
result in a risk of electrical shock or fire. Internal capacitors remain
charged after all power is disconnected.
7. To reduce the risk of electrical shock, disconnect both AC and DC
power from the Duracell® Inverter 1000 before attempting any
maintenance or cleaning or working on any circuits connected to the
Duracell® Inverter 1000. Turning off controls will not reduce this
risk.
8. The Duracell® Inverter 1000 must be provided with an equipmentgrounding conductor connected to the AC input ground.
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Safety
Explosive gas precautions
WARNING: Explosion hazard
1. Working in the vicinity of lead-acid batteries is dangerous. Batteries
generate explosive gases during normal operation. Therefore, you
must read this guide and follow the instructions exactly before
installing or using your Duracell® Inverter 1000.
2. This equipment contains components which tend to produce arcs or
sparks. To prevent fire or explosion, do not install the Duracell®
Inverter 1000 in compartments containing batteries or flammable
materials, or in locations that require ignition-protected equipment.
This includes any space containing gasoline-powered machinery, fuel
tanks, as well as joints, fittings, or other connections between
components of the fuel system.
3. To reduce the risk of battery explosion, follow these instructions and
those published by the battery manufacturer and the manufacturer of
the equipment in which the battery is installed.
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Safety
Precautions When Working With Batteries
WARNING: Explosion or fire hazard
1. Follow all instructions published by the battery manufacturer and the
manufacturer of the equipment in which the battery is installed.
2. Make sure the area around the battery is well ventilated.
3. Never smoke or allow a spark or flame near the engine or batteries.
4. Use caution to reduce the risk or dropping a metal tool on the battery.
It could spark or short circuit the battery or other electrical parts and
could cause an explosion.
5. Remove all metal items, like rings, bracelets, and watches when
working with lead-acid batteries. Lead-acid batteries produce a short
circuit current high enough to weld metal to skin, causing a severe
burn.
6. Have someone within range of your voice or close enough to come to
your aid when you work near a lead-acid battery.
7. Have plenty of fresh water and soap nearby in case battery acid
contacts skin, clothing, or eyes.
8. Wear complete eye protection and clothing protection. Avoid
touching your eyes while working near batteries.
9. If battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap
and water. If acid enters your eye, immediately flood it with running
cold water for at least twenty minutes and get medical attention
immediately.
10. If you need to remove a battery, always remove the ground terminal
from the battery first. Make sure all accessories are off so you don’t
cause a spark.
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Safety
Precautions for Using Rechargeable Appliances
CAUTION: Equipment damage
The output of the inverter is non-sinusoidal.
Most rechargeable battery-operated equipment uses a separate charger or
transformer that is plugged into an AC receptacle and produces a low
voltage charging output.
Some chargers for small rechargeable batteries can be damaged if
connected to the Duracell® Inverter 1000. Do not use the following with
the Duracell® Inverter 1000:
•
•
Small battery-operated appliances like flashlights, razors, and night
lights that can be plugged directly into an AC receptacle to recharge.
Some chargers for battery packs used in power hand tools. These
affected chargers display a warning label stating that dangerous
voltages are present at the battery terminals.
If you are unsure about using your rechargeable appliance with the
Duracell® Inverter 1000, contact the equipment manufacturer to
determine the rechargeable appliance’s compatibility with the modified
sinewave (non-sinusoidal) AC waveform.
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Contents
Important Safety Instructions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -v
1 Introduction
Quality Power - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1–1
Ease of Use - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1–2
Comprehensive Protection - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1–2
2 Features
Materials List - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2–1
AC Panel- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2–2
DC Panel- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2–3
3 Installation
Designing Your Installation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–1
Installation Codes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–4
Calculating Battery Requirements - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–4
Choosing an Effective Charging System - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–4
Choosing an Appropriate Location - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–5
Calculating Cable Sizes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–6
Calculating Size of DC Input Cables - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–6
Calculating Size of Chassis Ground Cable - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–7
Calculating Fuse/Circuit Breaker Size - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–8
Installing the Duracell - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–9
Safety Instructions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–9
Installation Tools and Materials - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–9
Overview of Installation Steps - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–11
Mounting the Inverter - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–11
Connecting the Chassis Ground - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–12
Grounding Locations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–12
Chassis Ground Screw - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–13
Connecting the DC Cables - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3–13
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Contents
4 Operation
Turning the Inverter On and Off - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Operating Several Loads at Once - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Turning the Inverter Off Between Charges - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Operating Limits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Power Output - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Input Voltage - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Inverter Loads - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - High Surge Loads - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Trouble Loads - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Routine Maintenance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Duracell unit - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Batteries - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Recycling - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
4–1
4–2
4–2
4–3
4–3
4–3
4–4
4–4
4–4
4–5
4–5
4–5
4–5
5 Troubleshooting
Common Problems - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Buzz in Audio Equipment - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Television Reception - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Troubleshooting Reference - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
A
5–2
5–2
5–2
5–3
Specifications
Electrical Performance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -A–1
Physical Specifications - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -A–1
Mounting Templates - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -A–2
B
Battery Types
Battery Types - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B–1
Automotive Starting Batteries - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B–1
Deep-Cycle Batteries - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B–2
Battery Size- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B–2
Estimating Battery Requirements - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B–4
Battery Sizing Example - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B–4
Battery Sizing Worksheet - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B–5
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Contents
Using Multiple Batteries - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B–6
Two Batteries Connected In Parallel - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B–6
Two Separate Battery Banks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B–6
Battery Tips - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -B–7
C
Alternators and Charging Systems
Charging System Requirements - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C–1
Charging With an Engine Alternator - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C–2
Using a Standard Vehicle Alternator - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C–2
Using an Alternator Controller - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C–2
Using a High-Output Alternator - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C–2
Charging From AC Power - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C–3
Charging From Alternative Energy Sources - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C–3
Warranty and Return Information - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WA–1
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1
Introduction
Congratulations on your purchase of the Duracell® Inverter 1000! The
Duracell® Inverter 1000 has been designed to give you quality power,
ease of use, and reliability.
Please take a few moments to read this chapter to familiarize yourself
with the main performance features and protection features of the
Duracell.
Quality Power
The Duracell is a quality inverter designed for recreational vehicle (RV)
and truck applications.
•
•
•
•
The Duracell provides up to 1000 watts of continuous power. It is
designed to handle loads such as 600 watt microwaves, TVs, VCRs,
and midsized power tools.
The Duracell’s high surge capability lets you handle many hard-tostart loads, including large TVs and small refrigerators.
The Duracell’s low standby battery demand means you don’t have to
worry about excessive drain on your battery if you leave the inverter
on for a few days. When the Duracell is on but no power is being
supplied to a load, the inverter draws less than 300 mA from the
battery.
The cooling fan in the inverter is thermally activated and comes on
when the Duracell becomes warm. The fan turns off automatically
after the inverter has cooled.
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Ease of Use
Superior features and rugged durability have been combined with ease of
use:
•
•
The Duracell is compact, light weight, and easy to install.
Loads can be powered directly from the AC outlets.
Comprehensive Protection
The Duracell is equipped with numerous protection features to guarantee
safe and trouble-free operation:
Low battery alarm
11.0 V or lower.
Alerts you if the battery has become discharged to
Low battery voltage shutdown Shuts the Duracell down automatically
if the battery voltage drops below 10.5 volts. This feature protects the
battery from being completely discharged.
High battery voltage shutdown Shuts the Duracell down
automatically if the input voltage rises to 15 volts or more.
Overload shutdown Shuts the Duracell down automatically if a short
circuit is detected in the circuitry connected to the inverter’s output, or if
the loads connected to the inverter exceed the inverter’s operating limits.
Over temperature shutdown Shuts the Duracell down automatically if
its internal temperature rises above an unacceptable level.
1–2
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2
Features
Chapter 2 describes the main features of the Duracell.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with them before installing
and operating the inverter.
Materials List
Your Duracell package includes:
•
•
•
•
One Duracell inverter
Two M6 lock washers (on the DC input cable terminals)
Two M6 nuts (on the DC input cable terminals)
Owner’s Guide
If any of these materials are missing or are unsatisfactory in any way,
please contact Customer Service. Contact information is available on
page WA–1.
As soon as you unpack your inverter, be sure to record the product
information in the form on page WA–6.
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AC Panel
3
2
4
5
1
6
Figure 2-1 AC Panel
Feature
Description
1
On/Off Switch turns the inverter’s control circuit on and off. This
switch is not a power disconnect switch. Disconnect AC and DC
power before working on any circuits connected to the inverter.
2
Power light is a green light indicating the On/Off Switch is on and
AC voltage is present at the inverter’s AC outlets.
3
Fault light is a red light indicating the inverter has shut down due to
low or high battery voltage, unit overload, or over temperature.
NOTE: To restart the unit after a fault condition has occurred, turn
off the unit, then wait 3 to 5 seconds before turning the unit back on.
2–2
4
3-Prong AC Outlets:
Duracell delivers a combined total of 1000 watts of continuous AC
power across two outlets.
5
Ventilation Opening must not be obstructed for the proper
operation of the inverter. When the inverter is mounted, the
ventilation opening must not point up or down.
6
Mounting Flange allows you to mount the inverter permanently.
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DC Panel
DC Panel
3
4
2
5
1
6
Figure 2-2 DC Panel
l
Feature
975-0347-01-01
Description
1
Chassis Ground Screw connects to vehicle chassis, DC grounding
bus or to engine’s negative bus.
2
Positive DC Cabling Terminal always connects to the cable
connected to the positive terminal of the battery.
3
Negative DC Cabling Terminal always connects to the cable
connected to the negative terminal of the battery.
4
Ventilation Opening must not be obstructed for the proper
operation of the inverter. When the inverter is mounted, the
ventilation opening must not point up or down.
5
Serial number of your unit
6
Mounting Flange allows you to mount the inverter permanently.
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3
Installation
Chapter 3 provides information on cables and fuses to help you plan for
your installation and provide procedures for installing the Duracell.
We highly recommend that you read the entire chapter before beginning
the installation procedures so that you can plan an installation that is
suited to your power needs.
Designing Your Installation
Before doing anything else, you need to determine how you are going to
use your Duracell, and then design a power system that will give you
maximum performance. The more thorough your planning, the better
your power needs will be met. In particular, you will need to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Be aware of installation codes
Calculate your battery requirements
Choose an effective charging system
Choose an appropriate location
Calculate the cable size for your Duracell
Select the correct fuses or circuit breakers
Study Figure 3-1, “Configuration for Normal Loads” on page 3–2 and
Figure 3-2, “Configuration for Heavy Loads” on page 3–3 for an example
of a setup for normal or heavy loads in a vehicle. When you have decided
upon your configuration, then you can calculate battery requirements.
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GROUND TO
VEHICLE
CHASSIS
DICONNECT
SWITCH
ON
OFF
FUSE OR
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
TO VEHICLE
DEEP-CYCLE
AUXILIARY
BATTERY
VEHICLE
STARTING
BATTERY
GROUND TO
VEHICLE
CHASSIS
TO DC
LOADS
FUSE OR
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
GROUND TO
VEHICLE
CHASSIS
DEEP-CYCLE
AUXILIARY
BATTERY
ISOLATOR
FROM ALTERNATOR
OR CHARGER
Figure 3-1 Configuration for Normal Loads
3–2
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Designing Your Installation
TO VEHICLE
FROM ALTERNATOR
OR CHARGER
VEHICLE
STARTING
BATTERY
GROUND TO
VEHICLE
CHASSIS
BATTERY ISOLATOR
FUSE OR
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
ALL
1
O FF
2
DEEP-CYCLE
BATTERY
FUSE OR
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
DEEP-CYCLE
BATTERY
BATTERY
SELECTOR
SWITCH
GROUND TO
VEHICLE
CHASSIS
TO DC
LOADS
DEEP-CYCLE
BATTERY
DEEP-CYCLE
BATTERY
FUSE OR
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
FUSE OR
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
ALL
1
O FF
2
DISCONNECT/
BATTERY
SELECTOR
SWITCH
GROUND TO
VEHICLE
CHASSIS
Figure 3-2 Configuration for Heavy Loads
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Installation Codes
Governing installation codes vary depending on the location and type of
installation. Electrical installations must meet local and national wiring
codes and should be performed by a qualified electrician.
In residential applications, electrical codes do not allow permanent
connection of AC distribution wiring to the inverter’s AC output
receptacles. The receptacles are intended for temporary (as-needed)
connection of cord connected loads only.
Calculating Battery Requirements
Battery type and battery size strongly affect the performance of the
Duracell. Therefore, you need to identify the type of loads your inverter
will be powering, and how much you will be using them between charges.
Once you know how much power you will be using, you can determine
how much battery capacity you need. We recommend that you purchase
as much battery capacity as possible.
Consult Appendix B, “Battery Types” for a detailed explanation of how to
determine the appropriate number and size of batteries for your needs.
CAUTION
The Duracell must only be connected to a 12 volt battery system. It will not
operate if connected to a 6 volt battery, and will be damaged if connected to a
battery with 16 volts or more.
Choosing an Effective Charging System
The charging system must be appropriate for your particular installation.
A well-designed charging system will ensure that power is available when
you need it and that your batteries remain in top condition. Inadequate
charging will degrade system performance, and the wrong type of charger
will reduce battery life.
Consult Appendix C, “Alternators and Charging Systems” for
information about choosing an effective charging system.
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Designing Your Installation
Choosing an Appropriate Location
WARNING: Explosion or fire hazard
The Duracell contains components that tend to produce arcs or sparks. To
prevent fire or explosion, do not install the inverter in compartments
containing batteries or flammable materials, or in locations that require
ignition-protected equipment.
WARNING: Fire hazard
To reduce the risk of fire, do not cover or obstruct the ventilation
openings. Do not install the Duracell in a zero-clearance compartment.
Overheating may result.
The Duracell must only be installed in a location that is:
:
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Dry
Do not allow water or other liquids to drop or splash on it.
Cool
Ambient air temperature should be between 32 ºF and
105 ºF (0 ºC and 40 ºC)—the cooler the better within this
range.
Ventilated
Allow at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) of clearance around the
inverter for air flow. Ensure that the ventilation openings on
the DC end and on the AC end of the unit are not obstructed.
Safe
Do not install the inverter in the same compartment as
batteries or in any compartment capable of storing
flammable liquids like gasoline.
Close to
battery
Do not use excessive DC cable lengths: they increase wire
resistance and reduce input power. Longer AC wires are
preferable to longer DC wires: wire resistance (and
therefore voltage drop) is less and the cost is lower.
Protected from
battery gases
Do not mount the inverter where it will be exposed to gases
produced by batteries. Battery gases are corrosive, and
prolonged exposure to battery gases will damage the
inverter.
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Calculating Cable Sizes
To operate safely and effectively, the Duracell needs proper cables and
fuses. Because the Duracell has low-voltage and high-current input, it is
essential that you use low-resistance wiring between the battery and the
inverter to deliver the maximum amount of usable energy to your load.
For safe and efficient operation, you will need to calculate cable sizes for
your:
•
•
DC input cables from the battery to inverter (one way)
Chassis ground cable from the grounding point to the chassis ground
screw on the inverter’s DC panel.
See Figure 3-3 on page 3–12.
WARNING: Fire hazard
Never use a cable longer than 5 feet (1.5 meters). A cable longer than 5
feet (1.5 meters) can potentially generate enough heat to start a fire or
result in poor inverter performance.
Calculating Size of DC Input Cables
Refer to Table 3-1 to plan the DC input cabling for your particular
application:
•
•
•
Keep all cables as short as possible, and ensure that each cable
between the inverter and the battery is no longer than 5 feet (1.5 m).
Do not use aluminum cable. It has about 1/3 more resistance than
copper cable of the same size, and it is difficult to make good, lowresistance connections to aluminum wire.
We recommend that you use oil resistant cable.
Table 3-1
Recommended DC Input Wire Sizes & Lengths
RVa(Recreational Vehicle)
Cable length:
Battery to inverter (one way) Minimum Cable Size
Maximum Battery
Fuse Size
Less than 5 feet (1.5 m)
150 ADC
No. 2 AWG
Note: Never use a cable longer than 5 feet (1.5 m) with the Duracell.
Appropriately sized cable can be bought at a welding supply house or a
marine supply store.
a. Based on US National Electrical Code NFPA70, Article 551 and Table 310-17, 90C
cables located outside of engine spaces.
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Designing Your Installation
Calculating Size of Chassis Ground Cable
Refer to Table 3-2 to plan the size of the chassis ground cable that runs
from the grounding point to the chassis ground screw on the inverter’s DC
panel.
Table 3-2
Recommended Chassis Ground Cable sizes
Application
Chassis ground cable size
(Stranded cable is recommended)
Maximum
Battery Fuse
Size
Recreational Vehiclea
No. 8 AWG
150 ADC
Note: There are no restrictions on length for the chassis ground cable.
a. Based on US National Electrical Code NFPA70, Article 551, par. 551-20c.
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Calculating Fuse/Circuit Breaker Size
Because your batteries can provide thousands of amps of short-circuit
current, you need fuses or circuit breakers that can safely withstand the
short-circuit current that the batteries can produce.
To select the correct fuse type and size:
1. Determine the total short-circuit current rating for your batteries. For
example:
•
•
•
If you are using one battery to power your inverter and its shortcircuit current rating is 500 A, the total short-circuit current rating
is 500 A.
If you are powering your inverter with two 12 V batteries
connected in parallel, and each battery has a short-circuit current
rating of 500 A, the total short-circuit current rating is 1000 A.
If you are powering your inverter with two 6 V batteries
connected in series, and each battery has a short-circuit current
rating of 500 A, the total short-circuit current rating is 500 A.
Important: For batteries connected in parallel, the total short-circuit current
rating is the sum of the short-circuit current ratings of all of the batteries
connected in parallel. For batteries connected in series, the total short-circuit
current rating is equal to the short-circuit rating of a single battery.
2. Once you have determined the total short-circuit current rating of
your batteries, pick the fuse/circuit breaker’s interrupt capacity based
on the short-circuit current calculated in step 1.
3. Pick the fuse/circuit breaker’s current rating based on the product
used: 150 Adc
Fuses can be bought at any marine supply store, RV supply store, or
electrical products store.
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Installing the Duracell
Installing the Duracell
Do not proceed with the installation of your Duracell until you have read
the section, “Designing Your Installation” on page 3–1. The more
thorough your planning, the better your power needs will be met to
achieve maximum performance from your Duracell.
Safety Instructions
Before you start to install the Duracell:
•
•
•
Review the “Important Safety Instructions” on page v.
Do not attempt to do your own AC wiring unless you have the
knowledge, tools, and experience to do a safe job. A certified
electrician or licensed technician may be best suited to install the
wiring on the inverter.
Read and follow all Warnings and Cautions in this chapter.
Important: If you have any installation questions or issues, please contact
your dealer.
Installation Tools and Materials
Tools
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•
•
•
•
Wire stripper
Wrench for DC terminals
Screwdrivers
Crimping tool for fastening lugs and terminals on DC cables.
(You may find it more convenient to have the crimp connectors
installed onto the DC cable by the store that sells you the cable and/or
connectors.)
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Materials
The following checklist is a general list of required materials.
•
•
•
Four corrosion-resistant fasteners sized #10 or larger for mounting the
inverter
Copper DC input cable as calculated in Table 3-1 on page 3–6
Two 1/4 inch (6 mm) ring terminals sized for the cable diameter to
connect the DC cables to the DC cabling terminal
Lugs and terminals to connect the DC cables that connect to the
battery, Disconnect/Battery Selector switch and fuse holder(s)
DC fuse(s) as calculated in “Calculating Fuse/Circuit Breaker Size”
on page 3–8 and fuse holder(s)
Copper chassis ground cable as calculated in Table 3-2 on page 3–7
Ring terminal (appropriately sized to connect copper cable to chassis
ground screw) that meets the following specifications:
• #10 stud size (hole diameter)
• UL/CSA approved
• copper
• tin-plated
Battery isolator (if connecting to a multiple-battery system)
Disconnect/Battery selector switch
•
Alternator controller1
•
High-output alternator1
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.Consult Appendix B, “Battery Types” and Appendix C, “Alternators and Charging
Systems” to determine whether you need these components.
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Installing the Duracell
Overview of Installation Steps
These are the three steps for installing your Duracell. Do not proceed with
installation until you have read “Designing Your Installation” on page 3–
1.
1. Mount the inverter.
2. Connect the chassis ground.
3. Connect the DC cables.
Mounting the Inverter
Do not mount the inverter under the hood of your vehicle. See “Choosing
an Appropriate Location” on page 3–5.
To mount the Duracell:
1. Make sure the On/Off switch is in the Off position.
2. Select an appropriate mounting location and orientation. The Duracell
must be oriented in one of the following ways:
•
•
Horizontally on a vertical surface.
(The ventilation opening on the DC end must not point up or
down.)
On or under a horizontal surface
3. Hold the inverter against the mounting surface, mark the positions of
the mounting screws, and then remove the inverter.
4. Pilot drill the four mounting holes.
5. Fasten the inverter to the mounting surface using corrosion-resistant
fasteners sized #10 or larger.
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Connecting the Chassis Ground
WARNING: Shock hazard
Never operate the Duracell without properly connecting the chassis
ground. Electrical shock hazard could result from improper grounding.
The Duracell has a screw terminal labelled CHASSIS GND on the rear
panel as shown in Figure 3-3 on page 3–12. Follow the guidelines in
“Grounding Locations” to connect the inverter’s chassis to the ground.
Figure 3-3 DC Panel Connections
Grounding Locations
You must connect the chassis ground terminal to a grounding point. The
grounding point varies depending on where you install the Duracell.
•
For recommended chassis ground cable size, see Table ,
“Calculating Size of Chassis Ground Cable” on page 3–7.
Follow the instructions that correspond to your type of installation:
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Installing the Duracell
To connect the chassis ground terminal to a grounding point:
• Recreational Vehicle: Connect the CHASSIS GND screw to the
vehicle’s chassis using a recommended 8AWG minimum copper wire
(if insulated then green insulation with or without one or more yellow
stripes) or larger.
Chassis Ground Screw
We recommend that you attach the cable to the chassis ground screw with
a ring terminal. This procedure will ensure that the wire does not slip off
the chassis ground screw.
To connect the cable to the chassis ground screw:
1. Make sure the inverter’s On/Off switch is in the Off position.
2. Remove chassis ground screw and star washer using #2 Phillips
screwdriver.
3. Strip 1/2 inch (13 mm) to 3/4 inch (19 mm) of insulation from one
end of each cable.
4. Attach the ring connector that will join the cable to the chassis ground
screw. The connector you use must create a permanent, lowresistance connection. (See “Materials” on page 3–10.)
5. Fit the chassis ground screw through the star washer and the ring
connector back into the screw opening.
6. Tighten the chassis ground screw.
Connecting the DC Cables
Consult Figure 3-1, “Configuration for Normal Loads” on page 3–2, or,
Figure 3-2, “Configuration for Heavy Loads” on page 3–3, for additional
details that are specific to your installation.
To connect the DC cables:
1. Make sure the inverter’s On/Off switch is in the Off position.
2. Strip 1/2 inch (13 mm) to 3/4 inch (19 mm) insulation from each end
of each cable. The amount stripped off will depend on the terminals
chosen.
3. Attach the connectors that will join each end of each cable to the
battery, Disconnect/Battery Selector switch, and fuse block. The
connectors you use must create a permanent, low-resistance
connection.
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If you are using crimp connectors, use the tool recommended by the
terminal manufacturer. Make sure no stray wires protrude from the
terminal.
(You may find it more convenient to have the crimp connectors
attached by the company that sells you the cable and/or connectors.)
4. For each cable end that will be connected to the inverter, strip 1/2 inch
(13 mm) to 3/4 inch (19 mm) of insulation from the cable. The
amount stripped off will depend on the terminals chosen.
5. Attach the connectors that will join the cables to the DC cabling
terminal.
6. Install a fuse and fuse holder in the cable that will be used for the
positive side of the DC circuit.
The fuse must be:
•
•
•
as close to the battery as possible
rated for DC circuits
have an Ampere Interrupting Capacity (AIC) that exceeds the
short-circuit current available from the battery. (See “Calculating
Fuse/Circuit Breaker Size” on page 3–8.)
7. Make sure the Disconnect/Battery Selector Switch is Off when
making the connection to prevent sparking.
8. Attach the connector on the positive cable to the positive DC terminal
on the inverter.
9. Install the lock washer and nut that are supplied with the inverter.
Tighten the nut to a torque of 6–7 lbF-in (0.68–0.79 Nm). Make the
connection snug enough so the ring terminal does not move around
on the DC terminal, but do not overtighten. See Figure 3-3, “DC
Panel Connections” on page 3–12.
CAUTION
Loose connections cause excessive voltage drop and may cause overheated wires
and melted insulation.
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Installing the Duracell
CAUTION
Do not over tighten the nut on the DC input terminals. Damage to the DC input
terminals may result.
The maximum torque setting is 6–7 lbF-in (0.68–0.79 Nm).
CAUTION: Reverse polarity
DC power connections to the Duracell must be positive to positive and negative
to negative.
A reverse polarity connection (positive to negative) will blow a fuse in the
inverter and may permanently damage the inverter. The fuse is not user
replaceable and the inverter may need to be returned for servicing.
Damage caused by a reverse polarity connection is not covered by your warranty.
10. Before proceeding, double check that the cable you have just installed
connects the positive DC terminal of the inverter to the Disconnect/
Battery Selector Switch, fuse holder, and that the other end of the fuse
holder is connected to the positive terminal on the battery.
.
WARNING: Explosion or fire
Do not complete the next step if flammable fumes are present. Explosion or fire
may result if the Disconnect/Battery Selector switch is not in the Off position.
Thoroughly ventilate the battery compartment before making this connection.
11. Connect the cable from the negative post of the battery to the negative
DC terminal of the inverter.
12. Install the lock washer and nut that are supplied. Tighten the nut to a
torque of 6–7 lbF-in (0.68–0.79 Nm). Make the connection snug
enough so the ring terminal does not move around on the DC
terminal, but do not overtighten.
13. Use the Disconnect/Battery Selector switch, to select one of the
batteries or battery banks (house bank preferred over start bank).
14. Move the inverter’s On/Off switch to the On position.
The Power light should illuminate, indicating that the Duracell is
ready for operation.
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4
Operation
Chapter 4 explains how to operate the Duracell efficiently and effectively.
Specifically, this chapter:
•
•
•
•
Gives procedures for operating the inverter from the front panel
Discusses operating limits and inverter loads
Discusses battery charging frequency
Provides information about routine maintenance
Turning the Inverter On and Off
The On/Off switch on the inverter’s front panel turns the control circuit in
the Duracell on and off.
To turn the inverter on and off from its front panel:
• Move the On/Off switch to the On position to turn the inverter on.
• Move the On/Off switch to the Off position to turn the inverter off.
When the switch is Off, the inverter draws a very low current from
the battery.
CAUTION
The Duracell’s On/Off switch does not disconnect DC battery power from the
Duracell. You must disconnect AC and DC power before working on any circuits
connected to the inverter.
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Operating Several Loads at Once
If you are going to operate several loads from the Duracell, turn them on
one at a time after you have turned the inverter on.
Turning loads on separately helps to ensure that the inverter does not have
to deliver the starting current for all the loads at once, and will help
prevent an overload shutdown.
Turning the Inverter Off Between Charges
The Duracell draws less than 300 mA from the battery with the On/Off
switch turned on and no load connected, but left in this state the Duracell
will eventually discharge the battery.
To prevent unnecessary battery discharge, turn the Duracell off when you
are not using it.
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Operating Limits
Operating Limits
Power Output
The Duracell can deliver up to 1000 watts continuous.
The wattage rating applies to resistive loads such as incandescent lights.
Input Voltage
The allowable Duracell input voltage ranges are shown in the following
table:
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Operating
Condition
Voltage Range
Normal
10.5 V–15.0 V
Optimum
Performance
12.0 V–13.0 V
Low Voltage Alarm
11.0 V or less
Low Voltage
Shutdown
less than 10.5 V The inverter shuts down to protect the
battery from being over-discharged.
High Voltage
Shutdown
15.0 V or more
Comment
The audible low battery alarm
sounds.
The inverter shuts down to protect
itself from excessive input voltage.
Note: Although the Duracell
incorporates over-voltage protection,
it can still be damaged if input
voltage exceeds 16 V.
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Inverter Loads
The Duracell will operate most AC loads within its power rating of 1000
watts. However, some appliances and equipment may be difficult to
operate, and other appliances may actually be damaged if you try to
operate them with the Duracell. Please read “High Surge Loads” and
“Trouble Loads” carefully.
High Surge Loads
Some induction motors used in freezers, pumps, and other motor-operated
equipment require high surge currents to start. The Duracell may not be
able to start some of these motors even though their rated current draw is
within the inverter’s limits. The Duracell will normally start single-phase
induction motors rated at 1/2 horsepower or less.
Trouble Loads
CAUTION
Some equipment may be damaged by the Duracell’s modified sine wave output.
Some appliances, including the types listed below, may be damaged if
they are connected to the Duracell:
•
•
•
•
Electronics that modulate RF (radio frequency) signals on the AC line
will not work and may be damaged.
Speed controllers found in some fans, power tools, kitchen
appliances, and other loads may be damaged.
Some chargers for small rechargeable batteries can be damaged. See
“Precautions for Using Rechargeable Appliances” on page viii for
details.
Metal halide arc (HMI) lights can be damaged.
Important: If you are unsure about powering any device with the Duracell,
contact the manufacturer of the device.
c
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Routine Maintenance
Routine Maintenance
Duracell unit
Minimal maintenance is required to keep your Duracell operating
properly. Periodically you should:
•
•
•
Clean the exterior of the unit with a damp cloth to prevent the
accumulation of dust and dirt.
Ensure that the DC cables are secure and fasteners are tight.
Make sure the ventilation openings on the DC panel and bottom of
the inverter are not clogged.
Batteries
When possible, recharge your batteries when they are about 50%
discharged or earlier, see “Battery State of Charge” on page B–8. This
gives the batteries a much longer life cycle than recharging when they are
almost completely discharged. For more information on maintaining
batteries, see “Battery Tips” on page B–7.
For information about battery chargers, see our web site at
www.xantrex.com.
Recycling
If it’s rechargeable, it’s recyclable!
Xantrex recognizes its responsibility as a global citizen and is continually
striving to reduce the environmental impact of the work we do and the
products we create. We have taken a step forward to limit our impact on
the natural environment by initiating a battery recycling program.
Xantrex is a licensee of the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation
(“RBRC”), a non-profile public service organization dedicated to
recycling used rechargeable batteries. Through RBRC’s national program
and the availability of recycling depots for Pb batteries, Xantrex
customers can recycle rechargeable batteries in a convenient and
environmentally friendly way.
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If one of your Xantrex battery-integrated products has reached the end of
its useful life, we urge you to dispose of the product correctly and safely.
Xantrex recommends taking the following steps to recycle your product
depending on battery chemistry and size.
Ni-MH, Li-ion or small Pb Batteries (up to 2 lbs. or 1 kg)
If you are recycling a product that contains a Ni-MH, Li-ion or small Pb
battery (up to 2 lbs. or 1 kg) then you can simply drop it off at the battery
drop-box located at any one of the following major retailers.
In Canada: Battery Experts, Battery Plus, Bell World, FIDO, Future
Shop, The Home Depot, Home Hardware, London Drugs, Makita Factory
Service Centers, Personal Edge, Revy, Sears, The Sony Store, The Source
by Circuit City, TELUS Mobility and Zellers
In the USA: Alltel, Batteries Plus, Black & Decker, Cingular Wireless,
Circuit City, The Home Depot, Lowe's, Milwaukee Electric Tool, Office
Depot, Orchard Supply, Porter Cable Service Centers, RadioShack,
Remington Product Company, Sears, Staples, Target, US Cellular and
Verizon Wireless
If you are not sure of the drop-box nearest you, simply call 1-877-2RECYCLE to find the retail collection nearest you.
Pb Batteries (larger than 2 lbs. or 1 kg)
If you need to recycle a Pb battery that is larger than 2lbs. (1kg) then you
may take one of the following three steps to recycle your battery:
•
•
•
4–6
dispose of your battery product 'as is' at a battery disposal location or
waste disposal location nearest you.
send your battery product 'as is' back to Xantrex for proper recycling
of the battery (see address below).
Xantrex Technology Inc.
Attn: Battery Recovery
5917 195th Street NE
Arlington, WA
USA, 98223
dispose of the battery inside your product, by first removing it (simple
disassembly may be required) and then taking it to a Sears
Automotive Facility in your area where it can be dropped off for
proper recycling.
* If you are not sure of a Sears Automotive Facility nearest you
simply go to www.Sears.com and select store locator.
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5
Troubleshooting
Chapter 5 will help you identify the source of most problems that can
occur with the Duracell.
If you have a problem with the inverter, please review this chapter before
contacting your dealer.
If you are unable to solve a problem and need to contact your dealer,
record the details on the form “Information About Your System” on
page WA–6.
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Common Problems
Buzz in Audio Equipment
Some inexpensive stereo systems may emit a buzzing noise from their
loudspeakers when operated from the Duracell. This occurs because the
power supply in the audio system does not adequately filter the modified
sine wave produced by the inverter. The only solution is to use a sound
system that has a higher quality power supply.
Television Reception
When the Duracell is operating, it can interfere with television reception
on some channels. If interference occurs, try the following:
1. Make sure that the chassis ground screw on the rear of the Duracell is
solidly connected to the ground system of your vehicle or home.
2. Make sure that the television antenna provides an adequate (“snowfree”) signal, and that you are using good quality cable between the
antenna and the television.
3. Keep the cables between the battery and the Duracell as short as
possible, and twist them together with two to three twists per foot.
(This minimizes radiated interference from the cables.)
4. Move the television as far away from the Duracell as possible.
5. Do not operate high power loads with the Duracell while the
television is on.
5–2
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Troubleshooting Reference
Troubleshooting Reference
WARNING: Electrical Shock and Burn Hazard
Do not disassemble the Duracell. It does not contain any user-serviceable parts.
Attempting to service the unit yourself could result in an electrical shock or burn.
Table 5-1
Troubleshooting Reference
Problem
Possible Cause
Low output voltage
(96 VAC–104 VAC)
You are using a voltmeter that Use a true RMS reading voltmeter
such as the Fluke 87.
cannot accurately read the
RMS voltage of a modified
sine wave.
Low input voltage and the
load is close to maximum
allowable power.
Solution
Check the connections and cable to see
if the battery is fully charged.
Recharge the battery if it is low.
Reduce the load.
No output voltage. Both the
Power Light and Fault Light
are off.
The inverter is off.
Turn the inverter on.
No power to the inverter.
Check the wiring to the inverter and to
the Disconnect/Battery Selector
Switch.
The inverter could have been The inverter has probably been
damaged. Return the unit. Damage
connected with reverse DC
caused by reverse polarity is not
input polarity.
covered by the warranty. Information
for returning the inverter is provided in
“Return Material Authorization
Policy” on page WA–4.
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Table 5-1
Troubleshooting Reference
Problem
Possible Cause
Solution
No output voltage. Fault
Light is on.
Low input voltage
Recharge the battery; check the
connections and cable.
High input voltage
Make sure the Duracell is connected to
a 12 V battery.
Check the voltage regulation of the
charging system.
Thermal shutdown
Allow the unit to cool off. Reduce the
load if continuous operation is
required.
Improve ventilation. Make sure the
inverter’s ventilation openings are not
obstructed.
Reduce the ambient temperature.
Low battery alarm stays on.
Unit overload
Reduce the load. Make sure the load
does not exceed the Duracell’s output
rating.
Output is short circuited.
Remove the short circuit.
Poor DC wiring; poor battery Use proper cable size and lengths and
condition
make solid connections.
Charge the battery.
Install a new battery.
Unit does not restart after a
fault condition.
5–4
Unit is restarted too soon.
Turn off the unit then wait about 3 to 5
seconds before turning it on again.
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A
Specifications
Appendix A contains electrical performance and physical specifications
for the Duracell® Inverter 1000.
Electrical Performance
Electrical performance
Duracell
Output power at 77 º F (25 ºC) ambient
temperature and 12 Vdc input:
• Maximum continuous output power
• Maximum surge power
1000 W
2000 W
Output voltage
115 Vac RMS
Output waveform
Modified sine wave
Output frequency
60 Hz
Input voltage
10.5–15.0 Vdc
Low voltage alarm
11.0 V
Low voltage cutout
10.5 V
Optimum efficiency
90%
No load current draw
<0.3 A DC
Physical Specifications
Physical
Duracell
Length
12” (30.5 cm)
Width
6” (15.20 cm)
Height
3” (7.6 cm)
Weight
4.2 lb (1.9 kg)
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
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Mounting Templates
A–2
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B
Battery Types
The information in Chapter B will help you to select, connect, and
maintain batteries that are most appropriate for your application.
The batteries that you use strongly affect the performance of the Duracell.
It is important to connect the inverter to the correct size and type of
battery.
Battery Types
Automotive Starting Batteries
The lead-acid battery you are most familiar with is probably the starting
battery in your vehicle. An automotive starting battery is designed to
deliver a large amount of current for a short period of time (so it can start
your engine). Only a small portion of the battery’s capacity is used when
starting the engine, and the spent capacity is quickly recharged by the
running engine.
The starting battery in your vehicle is not designed for repeated deepdischarge cycles where the battery is almost completely discharged and
then recharged. If a starting battery is used in this kind of deep discharge
service, it will wear out very rapidly.
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Deep-Cycle Batteries
Deep-cycle batteries are designed for deep discharge service where they
will be repeatedly discharged and recharged. They are marketed for use in
recreational vehicles, boats, and electric golf carts—so you may see them
referred to as RV batteries, marine batteries, or golf cart batteries.
For most applications of the Duracell, we recommend that you use one or
more deep-cycle batteries that are separated from the vehicle’s starting
battery by a battery isolator.
A battery isolator is a solid-state electronic circuit that allows equipment
to be operated from an auxiliary battery without danger of discharging the
vehicle’s starting battery. During vehicle operation, the battery isolator
automatically directs the charge from the alternator to the battery
requiring the charge. Figure 3-1, “Configuration for Normal Loads” on
page 3–2 and Figure 3-2, “Configuration for Heavy Loads” on page 3–3
show a battery isolator in configurations for normal and heavy-duty loads.
Battery isolators are available at marine and RV dealers and most auto
parts stores.
Battery Size
CAUTION
The Duracell must only be connected to batteries with a nominal output voltage
of 12 volts. The Duracell will not operate from a 6 volt battery and will be
damaged if connected to a 24 volt battery.
Battery size or capacity is as important as the battery type for efficient
operation of your loads. We recommend that you purchase as much
battery capacity as possible.
A number of different standards are used to rate battery energy storage
capacity. Automotive and marine starting batteries are normally rated in
cranking amps. This is not a relevant rating for continuous loads like an
inverter. Deep-cycle batteries use a more suitable rating system, either
“amp-hours” (“Ah”) or “reserve capacity” in minutes.
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Battery Size
Battery Reserve
Capacity
Battery reserve capacity is a measure of how long a battery can deliver a
certain amount of current—usually 25 amps. For example, a battery with
a reserve capacity of 180 minutes can deliver 25 amps for 180 minutes
before it is completely discharged.
Amp-hour (Ah)
Capacity
Amp-hour capacity is a measure of how many amps a battery can deliver
for a specified length of time—usually 20 hours. For example, a typical
marine or RV battery rated for 100 Ah can deliver 5 amps for 20 hours (5
A x 20 hours = 100 Ah).
This same battery can deliver a higher or lower current for less or more
time, limited approximately by the 100 Ah figure (for example, 50 A for 2
hours, or 200 A for 1/2 hour), but usually the capacity figure given is only
accurate at the specified rate (20 hours).
To calculate the battery capacity you require, read “Estimating Battery
Requirements” on page B–4 and “Battery Sizing Example” on page B–4,
and then complete the “Battery Sizing Worksheet” on page B–5.
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Estimating Battery Requirements
To determine how much battery capacity you need:
1. Determine how many watts are consumed by each appliance that you
will operate from the Duracell. You can normally find the watt rating
labelled on the product. If only the current draw is given, multiply it
by 115 to get the power consumption in watts.
2. Estimate how many hours each appliance will be operating each day.
3. Calculate the daily watt-hours needed for each appliance.
4. Add the total number of watt-hours needed for all the appliances and
multiply it by the number of days between charges.
5. Divide the total watt-hours of AC load between charges by 10. This
gives the battery Ah used between charges.
6. Double the total Ah used between charges to get the recommended
battery size in Ah.
See the battery sizing example that follows.
Battery Sizing Example
This battery sizing example illustrates a typical calculation, assuming an
opportunity to charge the batteries every three days.
Appliance
TV & VCR
200 W
2 hours
400 Wh
Microwave oven
1400 W
15 min = 1/4 hour
350 Wh
3 lamps, 60 W
each
180 W
4 hours
720 Wh
Coffee maker
600 W
15 min = 1/4 hour
150 Wh
Steam iron
700 W
6 min = 1/10 hour
70 Wh
B–4
(B) Operating Time
per Day (Hours)
Daily watt-hours needed
for this appliance
(= A x B)
(A) Power
Consumption (Watts)
Total daily watt-hours of AC load
1690 Wh
x Number of days between charges
3
= Total watt-hours of AC load between charges
5070 Wh
Battery Ah used between charges (divide by 10)
507 Ah
Recommended Battery Bank Size in Ah (multiply by 2)
1014 Ah
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Estimating Battery Requirements
This example illustrates how quickly your battery needs can escalate. To
reduce the required battery size, you can conserve energy by eliminating
or reducing the use of some loads or by re-charging more frequently.
When sizing your battery, resist the temptation to skip the last step of this
calculation (multiplying by 2). More capacity is better since you will have
more reserve capacity, be better able to handle large loads and surge
loads, and your battery won't be discharged as deeply. Battery life is
directly dependent on how deeply the battery is discharged. The deeper
the discharge, the shorter the battery life.
Battery Sizing Worksheet
Use the following worksheet to calculate your battery needs. To ensure
sufficient battery capacity, be generous when estimating the operating
time per day for each of the loads you will run.
(A) Power
Consumption (Watts)
Appliance
(B) Operating Time
per Day (Hours)
Daily watt-hours needed
for this appliance
(= A x B)
W
hours
Wh
W
hours
Wh
W
hours
Wh
W
hours
Wh
W
hours
Wh
W
hours
Wh
W
hours
Wh
W
hours
Wh
Total daily watt-hours of AC load
Wh
x Number of days between charges
= Total watt-hours of AC load between charges
Wh
Battery Ah used between charges (divide by 10)
Ah
Recommended Battery Bank Size in Ah (multiply by 2)
Ah
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Using Multiple Batteries
As your power requirements increase, you may need to use more than one
battery to obtain sufficient capacity. Read “Two Batteries Connected In
Parallel” and “Two Separate Battery Banks” to determine whether two
batteries or two battery banks are more appropriate for your applications.
Two Batteries Connected In Parallel
Two identical batteries can be connected positive (+) to positive (+) and
negative (–) to negative (–) in a parallel system. A parallel system doubles
capacity and maintains the voltage of a single battery.
Figure 3-1, “Configuration for Normal Loads” on page 3–2 shows a
battery configuration suitable for normal loads.
Figure 3-2, “Configuration for Heavy Loads” on page 3–3 show a battery
configuration that is recommended for heavy loads.
CAUTION
Do not connect the following in parallel:
• batteries made by different manufacturers
• different types of batteries
• batteries that have different Ah ratings
Decreased battery life and improper charging will result.
Two Separate Battery Banks
If you need more than two batteries (or are using different makes or
models of batteries), We recommend that you install two separate battery
banks and a battery selector switch.
Figure 3-2, “Configuration for Heavy Loads” on page 3–3 shows two
separate battery banks and a battery selector switch. This configuration is
recommended for heavy-duty applications.
By installing a battery selector switch, you can select between the two
battery banks, use both banks in parallel, or disconnect both banks from
the load. Battery selector switches are available at marine and RV dealers.
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Battery Tips
Battery Tips
WARNING
Review “Precautions When Working With Batteries” on page vii before you
work with the batteries in your system.
Explosive/
Corrosive
Gases
Temperature
Sensitivity
Lead-acid batteries may emit hydrogen gases, oxygen, and sulfuric acid
fumes when recharging. To reduce the risk of explosion:
•
•
Vent the battery compartment to prevent the accumulation of gases.
Do not install electronic or electrical equipment in the battery
compartment.
• Do not smoke or use an open flame when working around batteries.
The capacity of lead-acid batteries is temperature sensitive. Battery
capacity is rated at 77 ºF (25 ºC). At 0 ºF (–20 ºC), the Ah capacity is
about half the rated capacity. You should consider temperature when
designing your system.
•
Discharged
Batteries
Low Temperatures If extremely low temperatures are expected
where the inverter is going to be located, you should consider a
heated equipment room. If the system is located in an unheated space,
an insulated battery enclosure is recommended.
• High Temperatures The batteries should also be protected from high
temperatures. These can be caused by high ambient temperatures,
solar heating of the battery enclosure, or heat released by a nearby
engine or generator. High battery temperatures shorten battery life
and therefore you should ventilate the enclosure and use shade and
insulation as appropriate.
Do not leave batteries in a discharged state for more than a day or two.
They will undergo a chemical process (sulfation) that can permanently
damage the battery. As well, batteries self-discharge over a period of three
to six months, and they should be recharged periodically even if they are
not being used.
Electrolyte
Level
If your batteries are not the “maintenance-free” type, check the electrolyte
level at least once a month. Excessive fluid loss is a sign of overcharging.
Replenish the electrolyte using only distilled water.
Battery
Connections
Connections to battery posts must be made with permanent connectors
that provide a reliable, low-resistance connection. Do not use alligator
clips. Clean the connections regularly and prevent corrosion by using a
protective spray coating or Vaseline.
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Battery State of
Charge
B–8
You can measure battery state of charge with a hydrometer or
approximate state of charge with a voltmeter. Use a digital voltmeter that
can display tenths or hundredths of a volt when measuring 10 to 30 volts.
Make your measurements when the battery has not been charged or
discharged for several hours. For a deep-cycle battery at 77º F (25º C), use
the following table:
Battery Voltage
State of Charge
12.7–13.0 V
100%
12.5–12.6 V
80%
12.3–12.4 V
60%
12.1–12.2 V
40%
11.9–12.0 V
20%
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C
Alternators and Charging
Systems
Appendix C provides guidelines for recharging batteries from an
alternator, from AC power, and from alternate energy sources.
A good charging system is important for the health of your batteries. Poor
recharging methods can quickly damage batteries.
Charging System Requirements
Your charging system should be capable of delivering a charging current
equal to 25% of the amp-hour capacity of your battery. For example, if
you have a 200 Ah battery, the charging system should be able to deliver
50 amps. The charging system must also be able to charge each 12 volt
battery up to approximately 14.4 volts and then drop back to a “float”
voltage of 13.5–14 volts (or shut off).
CAUTION
Never operate the inverter directly from an alternator. To work properly,
the inverter must be connected to a battery or a well-regulated, highcurrent DC power supply.
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Charging With an Engine Alternator
Read the following information to determine whether your vehicle’s
standard alternator will be adequate by itself, whether you should install
an alternator controller, or whether you need a high-output alternator.
Using a Standard Vehicle Alternator
A typical engine alternator (12 volts) may not be able to meet the
requirements outlined above if your system uses large capacity batteries.
Alternators are typically rated for the current they can deliver when they
are cold. When in use, alternators heat up, and their output current
capability drops by as much as 25 percent. Therefore, standard alternators
with ratings of 40–105 amps only deliver a maximum of 30–80 amps in
actual use and deliver even less as battery voltage rises. Many alternators
cannot produce more than 13.6 volts when they are hot. As a result, a
standard alternator may not be able to charge a large battery quickly and
completely.
Two solutions are to install an alternator controller or to install a highoutput alternator.
Using an Alternator Controller
If your regular alternator is inadequate, you can install an alternator
controller that bypasses the voltage regulator and boosts the alternator’s
output voltage during charging. This will increase the alternator’s
charging rate at higher battery voltages and ensure more rapid and
complete charging.
Alternator controllers are available from marine product dealers.
Using a High-Output Alternator
Heavy-duty alternators rated from 100–140 amps can replace standard
alternators and produce the higher current and voltage required to charge
multiple battery systems. They are available from RV and marine dealers
as well as auto parts suppliers.
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Charging From AC Power
Charging From AC Power
When recharging from AC power, use a good quality marine battery
charger or RV converter that meets the requirements outlined in
“Charging System Requirements” on page C–1.
For information about battery chargers, visit our web site at
www.xantrex.com or call Customer Service on page ii.
Do not use chargers intended for occasional recharging of automotive
starting batteries. These chargers are not intended for continuous use.
Charging From Alternative Energy Sources
You can also charge your batteries from alternative energy sources such
as solar panels, wind, or hydro systems. Make sure you use the
appropriate battery charge controller for your particular energy source.
CAUTION
Never operate the Duracell directly from an energy source such as a solar
panel. The inverter must be connected to a battery or a well-regulated,
high-current DC power supply to work properly.
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Warranty and Return Information
Warranty
What does this warranty cover? This Limited Warranty is provided by Xantrex Technology, Inc.
("Xantrex") and covers defects in workmanship and materials in your Duracell® Inverter 1000. This
warranty period lasts for 6 months from the date of purchase at the point of sale to you, the original end
user customer. You require proof of purchase to make warranty claims.
What will Xantrex do? Xantrex will, at its option, repair or replace the defective product free of
charge, provided that you notify Xantrex of the product defect within the Warranty Period, and provided
that Xantrex through inspection establishes the existence of such a defect and that it is covered by this
Limited Warranty.
Xantrex will, at its option, use new and/or reconditioned parts in performing warranty repair and
building replacement products. Xantrex reserves the right to use parts or products of original or
improved design in the repair or replacement. If Xantrex repairs or replaces a product, its warranty
continues for the remaining portion of the original Warranty Period or 90 days from the date of the
return shipment to the customer, whichever is greater. All replaced products and all parts removed from
repaired products become the property of Xantrex.
Xantrex covers both parts and labor necessary to repair the product, and return shipment to the customer
via a Xantrex-selected non-expedited surface freight within the contiguous United States and Canada.
Alaska and Hawaii are excluded. Contact Xantrex Customer Service for details on freight policy for
return shipments outside of the contiguous United States and Canada.
How do you get service?
If your product requires troubleshooting or warranty service, contact your dealer.
If you are unable to contact your dealer, or the dealer is unable to provide service, contact Xantrex
directly at:
Telephone: 1 408 987 6359
Web:
www.xantrex.com/support
Direct returns may be performed according to the Xantrex Return Material Authorization Policy
described in your product manual. For some products, Xantrex maintains a network of regional
Authorized Service Centers. Call Xantrex or check our website to see if your product can be repaired at
one of these facilities.
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Warranty and Return
What proof of purchase is required? In any warranty claim, dated proof of purchase must
accompany the product and the product must not have been disassembled or modified without prior
written authorization by Xantrex.
Proof of purchase may be in any one of the following forms:
• The dated purchase receipt from the original purchase of the product at point of sale to the end user,
or
• The dated dealer invoice or purchase receipt showing original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
status, or
• The dated invoice or purchase receipt showing the product exchanged under warranty
What does this warranty not cover? This Limited Warranty does not cover normal wear and tear of
the product or costs related to the removal, installation, or troubleshooting of the customer's electrical
systems. This warranty does not apply to and Xantrex will not be responsible for any defect in or
damage to:
a) the product if it has been misused, neglected, improperly installed, physically damaged or altered,
either internally or externally, or damaged from improper use or use in an unsuitable environment;
b) the product if it has been subjected to fire, water, generalized corrosion, biological infestations, or
input voltage that creates operating conditions beyond the maximum or minimum limits listed in
the Xantrex product specifications including high input voltage from generators and lightning
strikes;
c) the product if repairs have been done to it other than by Xantrex or its authorized service centers
(hereafter "ASCs");
d) the product if it is used as a component part of a product expressly warranted by another manufacturer;
e) the product if its original identification (trade-mark, serial number) markings have been defaced,
altered, or removed.
WA–2
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Warranty and Return
Disclaimer
Product
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY IS THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE WARRANTY PROVIDED BY XANTREX IN
CONNECTION WITH YOUR XANTREX PRODUCT AND IS, WHERE PERMITTED BY LAW, IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, CONDITIONS, GUARANTEES, REPRESENTATIONS, OBLIGATIONS AND LIABILITIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE IN CONNECTION WITH THE PRODUCT, HOWEVER ARISING (WHETHER
BY CONTRACT, TORT, NEGLIGENCE, PRINCIPLES OF MANUFACTURER'S LIABILITY, OPERATION OF LAW,
CONDUCT, STATEMENT OR OTHERWISE), INCLUDING WITHOUT RESTRICTION ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OR
CONDITION OF QUALITY, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED
UNDER APPLICABLE LAW TO APPLY TO THE PRODUCT SHALL BE LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE PERIOD
STIPULATED UNDER THIS LIMITED WARRANTY.
IN NO EVENT WILL XANTREX BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES, LOSSES, COSTS OR EXPENSES HOWEVER ARISING WHETHER IN CONTRACT OR TORT INCLUDING
WITHOUT RESTRICTION ANY ECONOMIC LOSSES OF ANY KIND, ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY, ANY
PERSONAL INJURY, ANY DAMAGE OR INJURY ARISING FROM OR AS A RESULT OF MISUSE OR ABUSE, OR THE
INCORRECT INSTALLATION, INTEGRATION OR OPERATION OF THE PRODUCT.
Exclusions
If this product is a consumer product, federal law does not allow an exclusion of implied warranties. To
the extent you are entitled to implied warranties under federal law, to the extent permitted by applicable
law they are limited to the duration of this Limited Warranty. Some states and provinces do not allow
limitations or exclusions on implied warranties or on the duration of an implied warranty or on the
limitation or exclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation(s) or
exclusion(s) may not apply to you. This Limited Warranty gives you specific legal rights. You may
have other rights which may vary from state to state or province to province.
Warning: Limitations On Use
Please refer to your product manual for limitations on uses of the product.
SPECIFICALLY, PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DURACELL® INVERTER 1000 SHOULD NOT BE USED IN
CONNECTION WITH LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS OR OTHER MEDICAL EQUIPMENT OR DEVICES. WITHOUT
LIMITING THE GENERALITY OF THE FOREGOING, XANTREX MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES
REGARDING THE USE OF THE XANTREX DURACELL® INVERTER 1000 IN CONNECTION WITH LIFE SUPPORT
SYSTEMS OR OTHER MEDICAL EQUIPMENT OR DEVICES.
Please note that the Duracell® Inverter 1000 is not intended for use as an uninterruptible power supply
and Xantrex makes no warranty or representation in connection with any use of the product for such
purposes.
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Warranty and Return
Return Material Authorization Policy
Before returning a product directly to Xantrex you must obtain a Return Material Authorization (RMA)
number and the correct factory "Ship To" address. Products must also be shipped prepaid. Product
shipments will be refused and returned at your expense if they are unauthorized, returned without an
RMA number clearly marked on the outside of the shipping box, if they are shipped collect, or if they
are shipped to the wrong location.
When you contact Xantrex to obtain service, please have your instruction manual ready for reference
and be prepared to supply:
• The serial number of your product
• Information about the installation and use of the unit
• Information about the failure and/or reason for the return
• A copy of your dated proof of purchase
Record these details in “Information About Your System” on page WA–6.
Return Procedure
1.
2.
3.
Package the unit safely, preferably using the original box and packing materials. Please ensure that
your product is shipped fully insured in the original packaging or equivalent. This warranty will not
apply where the product is damaged due to improper packaging.
Include the following:
• The RMA number supplied by Xantrex Technology, Inc. clearly marked on the outside of the
box.
• A return address where the unit can be shipped. Post office boxes are not acceptable.
• A contact telephone number where you can be reached during work hours.
• A brief description of the problem.
Ship the unit prepaid to the address provided by your Xantrex customer service representative.
If you are returning a product from outside of the USA or Canada In addition to the above, you
MUST include return freight funds and are fully responsible for all documents, duties, tariffs, and
deposits.
If you are returning a product to a Xantrex Authorized Service Center (ASC) A Xantrex return
material authorization (RMA) number is not required. However, you must contact the ASC prior to
returning the product or presenting the unit to verify any return procedures that may apply to that
particular facility.
WA–4
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Warranty and Return
Out of Warranty Service
If the warranty period for your Duracell® Inverter 1000 has expired, if the unit was damaged by misuse
or incorrect installation, if other conditions of the warranty have not been met, or if no dated proof of
purchase is available, your inverter may be serviced or replaced for a flat fee.
To return your Duracell® Inverter 1000 for out of warranty service, contact Xantrex Customer Service
for a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number and follow the other steps outlined in “Return
Procedure” on page WA–4.
Payment options such as credit card or money order will be explained by the Customer Service
Representative. In cases where the minimum flat fee does not apply, as with incomplete units or units
with excessive damage, an additional fee will be charged. If applicable, you will be contacted by
Customer Service once your unit has been received.
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Warranty and Return
Information About Your System
As soon as you open your Duracell® Inverter 1000 package, record the following information and be
sure to keep your proof of purchase.
❐ Serial Number (on DC end)
_________________________________
❐ Purchased From
_________________________________
❐ Purchase Date
_________________________________
If you need to contact Customer Service, please record the following details before calling. This
information will help our representatives give you better service.
❐ Type of installation (e.g. RV, truck)
______________________________
❐ Length of time inverter has been installed
______________________________
❐ Battery/battery bank size
______________________________
❐ Battery type (e.g. flooded, sealed gel cell, AGM)
______________________________
❐ DC wiring size and length
______________________________
❐ Alarm sounding?
______________________________
❐ Description of indicators on front panel
______________________________
❐ Appliances operating when problem occurred
______________________________
❐ Description of problem
______________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
WA–6
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