ABRIDGED DATA

ABRIDGED DATA
E2V Technologies
CX1175C
Deuterium-Filled Ceramic Thyratron
The data to be read in conjunction with the Hydrogen
Thyratron Preamble.
ABRIDGED DATA
Deuterium-filled two gap thyratron with ceramic envelope,
featuring high peak current, high rate of rise of current, low
jitter and drift.
The two main trigger grids enable a high current grid 1 prepulse to be used, which enables sub-nanosecond jitter to be
achieved.
A reservoir normally operated from a separate heater supply is
incorporated. The reservoir heater voltage can be adjusted to a
value consistent with anode voltage hold-off in order to achieve
the fastest rate of rise of current possible from the tube in the
circuit.
Modulator Service
Peak anode voltage (see note 1)
Peak forward anode current . .
Peak reverse anode current . .
Average anode current . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
70
.
10
. . 5
. . 3.0
kV
kA
kA
A
max
max
max
max
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
kV
kA
kA
C
max
max
max
max
Crowbar Service
Peak anode voltage (see note 1)
Peak forward anode current . .
Peak reverse anode current . .
Conducted charge . . . . .
60
40
25
18
GENERAL DATA
Electrical
Cathode (connected internally to
one end of heater) . . . . . . . . .
Cathode heater voltage
. . . . . . .
Cathode heater current . . .
Reservoir heater voltage (see note
Reservoir heater current . . .
Tube heating time (minimum) .
.
1)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
oxide coated
+ 0.3
. 6.3
V
7 0.0
40
A
. 5.0
V
10
A
15
min
Mechanical
Seated height . . . .
Clearance required below
mounting flange . . .
Overall diameter
(mounting flange) . .
Net weight . . . . .
Mounting position (see note
Tube connections . . .
.
301.0 mm (11.850 inches) max
Forced-air Cooling
. . 57.15 mm (2.250 inches) min
.
152.4 mm (6.000 inches) nom
. .
5.9 kg (13 pounds) approx
2) . . . . . . . . . any
. . . . . . . . see outline
Cooling
For all applications, either forced-air cooling or total liquid
immersion cooling is needed.
The tube should be cooled by forced-air directed onto the base
to maintain the envelope below the maximum rated
temperature. A fan of air flow of at least 2.83 m3/min (100 ft3/
min), depending on the mechanical layout, will be necessary to
keep the tube operating temperature within the maximum
specified below. A bolt-on anode heat extractor should be used
when the tube is operating under extreme conditions of rate of
rise and inverse current. Air cooling of the anode and grids is
then necessary either from a separate air supply or by use of the
air cooling the tube base.
E2V Technologies Limited, Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU England Telephone: +44 (0)1245 493493 Facsimile: +44 (0)1245 492492
e-mail: enquiries@e2vtechnologies.com Internet: www.e2vtechnologies.com
Holding Company: Redwood 2002 Limited
E2V Technologies Inc. 4 Westchester Plaza, PO Box 1482, Elmsford, NY10523-1482 USA Telephone: (914) 592-6050 Facsimile: (914) 592-5148
e-mail: enquiries@e2vtechnologies.us
# E2V Technologies Limited 2002
A1A-CX1175C Issue 3, October 2002
527/5630
Total Liquid Immersion
Heaters
The tube should be cooled by total liquid immersion, for
example in force-circulated transformer oil (see E2V Technologies Technical Reprint No. 108 ’The cooling of oil-filled
electrical equipment, with special reference to high power linetype pulse generators’ by G. Scoles). Care must be taken to
ensure that air is not trapped under the tube base.
In addition to 300 W of heater power, the tube dissipates from
100 W per ampere average anode current, rising to 300 W/A at
the highest rates of rise and fall of anode current.
Envelope temperature:
ceramic, anode and grids
. . . . . 150
8C max
cathode flange and base . . . . . . 120
8C max
Cathode heater voltage . . . . 6.3
Reservoir heater voltage . . . . 4.5
Tube heating time . . . . .
15
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM RATINGS
These ratings cannot necessarily be used simultaneously, and
no individual rating must be exceeded.
Min Typical Max
Anode (Pulse Modulator Service)
Peak forward anode voltage
Peak inverse anode voltage
(see note 3) . . . . .
Peak forward anode current
Average anode current . .
Pulse duration . . . . .
Rate of rise of anode current
(see note 4) . . . . .
Pulse repetition rate
(see note 5) . . . . .
. . –
–
70
kV
.
.
.
.
–
–
–
2.0
70
10
3.0
–
kV
kA
A
ms
.
.
.
.
–
–
–
–
. . –
4100
–
kA/ms
. . –
100
–
pps
Anode (Single-Shot or Crowbar Service)
DC forward anode voltage . .
Peak forward anode current .
Total conducted charge:
capacitor discharge . . .
crowbar service (see note 6)
Repetition rate . . . . . .
. –
. –
–
–
60
40
kV
kA
. –
–
0.4
C
. –
–
18
C
. . . .
1 pulse per 10 s
Grid 2 – Voltage driven
Unloaded grid 2 drive pulse voltage
(see note 7) . . . . . . 500
Grid 2 pulse duration . . . . . 0.5
Rate of rise of grid 2 pulse
(see notes 4 and 8) . . . .
10
Grid 2 pulse delay (see note 9) . . 0.5
Peak inverse grid 2 voltage . . . –
Loaded grid 2 bias voltage
(see note 10) . . . . . 7100
Forward impedance of grid 2
drive circuit . . . . . .
50
–
–
20
–
–
2000
–
V
ms
– kV/ms
3.0
ms
450
V
–
7180
V
–
500
O
Grid 1 – Pulse Current driven (See note 11)
Peak grid 1 drive current
Unloaded grid 1 drive pulse
(see note 7) . . . .
Grid 1 pulse duration . .
Peak inverse grid 1 voltage
Loaded grid 1 bias voltage
. .
30
100
150
voltage
. . 300
–
2000
. . . 1.0
–
–
. . . –
–
450
. . . . . . . . see note
A
V
ms
V
12
Grid 0
Grid 0 may be driven with 10% of the grid 1 pulse current, 25 to
100 mA positive DC bias from a 150 V + 20% source, or
connected directly to the cathode flange.
CX1175C, page 2
6.3
5.0
–
6.6
6.5
–
V
V
min
Environmental (Operational)
Ambient temperature . . . . . 0
Altitude . . . . . . . . . –
–
–
+40
–
3
– 10 000
8C
km
ft
CHARACTERISTICS
Min
Critical DC anode voltage for
conduction (see note 13) .
Anode delay time
(see notes 13 and 14) . .
Anode delay time drift
(see notes 13 and 15) . .
Time jitter (see note 13) . .
Recovery time . . . . .
Cathode heater current
(at 6.3 V) . . . . . .
Reservoir heater current
(at 5.0 V) . . . . . .
Typical Max
. . –
3.0
5.0
kV
. . –
0.1
0.25
ms
. . –
15
50
ns
. . –
1.0
5.0
ns
. . . . . . . see note 5
.
35
. . 8.0
40
45
A
10
12
A
NOTES
1. The reservoir heater supply must be obtained either from
the cathode heater supply or if a separate supply is used it
must be decoupled with suitable capacitors (for example a
1 mF capacitor in parallel with a low inductance 1000 pF
capacitor) to avoid damage to the reservoir. The
recommended reservoir heater voltage for each individual
tube is stamped on the tube envelope; for maximum rate of
rise of current, the reservoir heater voltage should be set to
the highest level compatible with the tube hold-off voltage
being maintained.
Permanent damage may result if the tube is operated
below the minimum recommended reservoir voltage.
2. The tube must be fitted using its mounting flange.
3. The peak inverse voltage including spike must not exceed
10 kV for the first 25 ms after the anode pulse. Amplitude
and rate of rise of inverse voltage contribute greatly to tube
dissipation and electrode damage; if these are not
minimised in the circuit, tube life will be shortened
considerably. The aim should be for an inverse voltage of
3 – 5 kV peak with a rise time of 0.5 ms.
4. This rate of rise refers to that part of the leading edge of
the pulse between 10% and 90% of the pulse amplitude.
For maximum rate of rise of anode current applications,
grid 1 pre-pulsing must be used and the maximum value
obtainable will depend on the external circuit parameters.
5. This thyratron has a long recovery time because of the
gradient grid drift space. The amount of time available for
thyratron recovery must be maximised by circuit design,
and reliable operation may necessitate the use of command
charging techniques. The amount of time required for
recovery is affected by gas pressure, peak current, pulse
duration and load mismatch which keeps the thyratron in a
conducting state.
6. In crowbar service most of the coulombs are often in the
power supply follow-on current rather than the storage
capacitor discharge.
7. Measured with respect to cathode.
# E2V Technologies
8. A lower rate of rise may be used, but this may result in the
anode delay time, delay time drift and jitter exceeding the
limits quoted.
9. The last 0.25 ms of the top of the grid 1 pulse must overlap
the corresponding first 0.25 ms of the top of the delayed
grid 2 pulse.
10. The higher grid 1 is pulsed, the larger must the grid 2
negative bias be to prevent the tube firing on the grid 1
pulse.
11. For maximum thyratron life, grid 1 should be pulse driven.
For crowbar applications grid 0 is usually DC primed so that
the grid 0 current and voltage drop may be monitored to
indicate that the thyratron is ready to fire.
12. DC negative bias voltages must not be applied to grid 0 or
grid 1. When grids 0 and 1 are pulse driven, their potentials
may vary between 710 V and +5 V with respect to
cathode potential during the period between the
completion of recovery and the commencement of the
succeeding grid pulse.
13. Typical figures are obtained on test using conditions of
minimum grid drive. Improved performance can be
expected by increasing grid drive.
14. The time interval between the instant at which the rising
unloaded grid 2 pulse reaches 25% of its pulse amplitude
and the instant when anode conduction takes place.
15. The drift in delay time over a period from 10 seconds to
10 minutes after reaching full voltage.
# E2V Technologies
HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS
E2V Technologies hydrogen thyratrons are safe to handle and
operate, provided that the relevant precautions stated herein are
observed. E2V Technologies does not accept responsibility for
damage or injury resulting from the use of electronic devices it
produces. Equipment manufacturers and users must ensure that
adequate precautions are taken. Appropriate warning labels and
notices must be provided on equipments incorporating E2V
Technologies devices and in operating manuals.
High Voltage
Equipment must be designed so that personnel cannot come
into contact with high voltage circuits. All high voltage circuits
and terminals must be enclosed and fail-safe interlock switches
must be fitted to disconnect the primary power supply and
discharge all high voltage capacitors and other stored charges
before allowing access. Interlock switches must not be
bypassed to allow operation with access doors open.
X-Ray Radiation
All high voltage devices produce X-rays during operation and
may require shielding. The X-ray radiation from hydrogen
thyratrons is usually reduced to a safe level by enclosing the
equipment or shielding the thyratron with at least 1.6 mm
( 1/16 inch) thick steel panels.
Users and equipment manufacturers must check the radiation
level under their maximum operating conditions.
CX1175C, page 3
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (Modulator and Low Frequency Service)
7739
GRID 2 DELAYED
WITH RESPECT TO GRID 1
R1
R2
C1
R2
C1
GRID 2 VOLTAGE
500 – 2000 V,
0.5 ms
R1
R1
G2
R3
0
NEGATIVE BIAS VOLTAGE
G1
G0
CATHODE
HEATER
SUPPLY
RESERVOIR
HEATER
SUPPLY
GRID 1 CURRENT
30 – 100 A,
1 ms
R4
C2
CONNECTED DIRECTLY
TO CATHODE FLANGE
0.5 ms MIN
GRID 1/GRID 2 DELAY
C3
(VARIABLE)
RECOMMENDED GRADIENT GRID, TRIGGER GRID, CATHODE AND RESERVOIR
HEATER CONNECTIONS
R1
=
470 O 2.5 W vitreous enamelled wirewound resistors.
R2
=
5 to 20 MO high voltage resistors with a power rating consistent with forward anode voltage.
R3
=
Grid 2 series resistor. 12 W vitreous enamelled wirewound is recommended, of an impedance to match the grid 2 drive
pulse circuit.
R4
=
Grid 1 series resistor. 12 W vitreous enamelled wirewound is recommended, of an impedance to set the grid 1 pulse
current.
C1
=
300 to 500 pF capacitors with a voltage rating equal to the peak forward voltage. These capacitors may be needed to
divide the voltage correctly across each gap when charging times are less than 5 ms approx.
C2, C3 7
Reservoir protection capacitors with a voltage rating 5500 V;
C2 =
1000 pF low inductance (e.g. ceramic),
C3 =
1 mF (e.g. polycarbonate or polypropylene).
Components R3, R4, C2 and C3 should be mounted as close to the tube as possible.
CX1175C, page 4
# E2V Technologies
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (Crowbar Service)
7740
R2
R1
R2
R1
G2
R3
TRIGGER
PULSE
G1
R4
C1
G0
CATHODE
HEATER
SUPPLY
RESERVOIR
HEATER
SUPPLY
R5
C2
150 Vdc
SUPPLY
C3
7150 V BIAS
(VARIABLE)
CATHODE (7)
RECOMMENDED GRADIENT GRID, TRIGGER GRID, CATHODE AND RESERVOIR
HEATER CONNECTIONS
R1
=
470 O 12 W vitreous enamelled wirewound resistors.
R2
=
10 to 25 MO high voltage resistors with a power rating consistent with forward anode voltage.
R3
=
Grid 2 series resistor. 12 W vitreous enamelled wirewound is recommended, of an impedance to match the grid 2 drive
pulse circuit.
R4
=
Grid 1 series resistor. 12 W vitreous enamelled wirewound is recommended.
R5
=
Grid 0 series resistor. 12 W vitreous enamelled wirewound is recommended.
C1
=
500 to 1000 pF capacitor with a voltage rating equal to the peak forward voltage
C2, C3 7
Reservoir protection capacitors with a voltage rating 5500 V;
C2 =
1000 pF low inductance (e.g. ceramic),
C3 =
1 mF (e.g. polycarbonate or polypropylene).
Components R3, R4, R5, C2 and C3 should be mounted as close to the tube as possible.
# E2V Technologies
CX1175C, page 5
OUTLINE
(All dimensions without limits are nominal)
1D
6701A
ANODE CONNECTION
FITTED WITH
1
/4-20 UNC SCREW
GRID CONNECTIONS
FITTED WITH
8–32 UNC SCREW
A
M
N
L
C
K
Ref
Millimetres
Inches
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
301.0 max
152.40 + 0.25
3.18
146.99 + 1.57
106.3 max
8.0
135.74 + 0.25
177.8
6.35
78.36
119.9
197.8
216.0
11.850 max
6.000 + 0.010
0.125
5.787 + 0.062
4.187 max
0.315
5.344 + 0.010
7.000
0.250
3.085
4.720
7.787
8.504
Inch dimensions have been derived from millimetres.
MOUNTING FLANGE
SEE NOTE 1
SEE
NOTE 2
Outline Notes
1E
SEE NOTE 3
GRID 1 LEAD (GREEN)
H LONG, TAG TO SUIT 1J
RESERVOIR HEATER LEAD (RED)
H LONG, TAG TO SUIT 1J
1. The mounting flange is the connection for the
cathode, cathode heater return and reservoir
heater return.
2. A minimum clearance of 57.15 mm (2.250 inches)
must be allowed below the mounting flange.
3. The recommended mounting hole is 108 mm
(4.250 inches) diameter.
1B
4 MOUNTING HOLES 1F
EQUISPACED ON G PCD
CATHODE HEATER LEAD (YELLOW)
H LONG, TAG TO SUIT 1J
Whilst E2V Technologies has taken care to ensure the accuracy of the information contained herein it accepts no responsibility for the consequences of any use
thereof and also reserves the right to change the specification of goods without notice. E2V Technologies accepts no liability beyond that set out in its standard
conditions of sale in respect of infringement of third party patents arising from the use of tubes or other devices in accordance with information contained herein.
CX1175C, page 6
Printed in England
# E2V Technologies
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