Tech 3335 Suppl. 05 - Sony PMW-200

Tech 3335 Suppl. 05 - Sony PMW-200
Sony PMW 200
November 2012
EBU – Tech 3335 : Methods of measuring the imaging performance of
television cameras for the purposes of characterising and setting
Alan Roberts, November 2012
SUPPLEMENT 005 : Assessment of a Sony PMW 200 camera
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Tests were made on a production model of the Sony PMW-200 HDTV camcorder (serial number 400033)
and its manual. Outwardly it appears to be very similar to the PMW EX1, and shares many features with it.
The camera has an integral lens (Fuji, F/1.9, 14:1 5.8~81.2mm) and records onto solid-state storage SxS
cards (or other card types via adaptors). The lens has conventional 3-ring control, with manual or automatic
operation, but the rings are ‘real’ in that they directly control the lens and have calibration markings. It has
3 ½” CMOS sensors of 1920x1080 pixels, and therefore should qualify fully as an HDTV camera.
Recording HDTV uses MPEG2, 10-bit 4:2:2 1920x1080 at 50Mb/s, 8-bit 4:2:0 1920x1080 at 35Mb/s (with
variable bit rate, maximum 35Mb/s), 8-bit 1440x1080 4:2:0 at 35Mb/s (VBR), 8-bit 1280x720 at 35Mb/s
VBR, and 8-bit 1440x1080 at 25Mb/s VBR. All the 1080-line modes can be progressive or interlaced at
frame rates from 23.976 to 29.97Hz, and 720P up to 60Hz. It can also record in standard SDTV modes,
DVCAM. Note that the 50Mb/s mode cannot be used if recording is onto a SDHC card in an adaptor, it must
be a proper SxS card (ExpressCard or XQD card via an adaptor) for this mode.
The camera is quite light (about 2.7kg in including battery) and has an integral monocular viewfinder
(852x480) and top-handle mounted screen (3½” LCD, 852x480), and seems aimed at the high-end
professional and full broadcast markets. It has gen-lock and time-code input and outputs, a WiFi adaptor and
remote control socket, so may well be usable in multi-camera shoots. Power consumption is about 12 watts
at 14.4 volts.
Variable speed recording is possible, from 1 frame/second up to the nominal frame rate setting (24/25/30
when recording 1080-line, 24/25/30/50/60 when recording 720-line).
There are internal menus for setting the performance, not as complex as in a full broadcast camera, but
enough to control many of the important features. There are analogue-only video outputs (components and
SD-composite via a multi-pin connector which is specific to Sony cameras) and digits via IEEE1394
iLink/Firewire in HDV format, USB-2 for data file transfer, HDMI and 10-bit HDSDI.
The same assessment procedure was used as for other HD cameras, partly attempting to get a good “filmlook”, and the settings reflect that. In the search for a “film-look” setting it is normal to think of the camera
to be mimicking a film camera and telecine, with “best light” transfer to tape, with about 11 stops of tonal
range. Assuming that a grading operation will be used in post-production, the settings attempt to give the
colourist the same range of options as with film, achieving about 9.5-stop dynamic range. The recommended
settings allow about 2.5 or 1.5 stops of over-exposure relative to normal operation. This is not quite as good
as can be achieved in ⅔” cameras, and arises from the difference in pixel size (the pixels here are smaller, so
sensitivity is maintained at the expense of highlight handling and video noise) and high sensitivity
specification.
The 720p mode is very clean and should be the best way to shoot should the camera be expected to produce
an SD output.
1
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
EBU – Tech 3335 : Methods of measuring the imaging performance of
television cameras for the purposes of characterising and setting
Alan Roberts, November 2012
SUPPLEMENT 005 : Assessment of a Sony PMW 200 camera
Many of the menu items have little or no effect on image quality. Those that have significant effect are
highlighted. The full set of menu items is given for completeness. In boxes with a range of numeric settings,
the values indicate the range, and no scales are given. Default settings, where known, are underlined. My
recommendations are in the last column, labelled “Pref”, where appropriate. Settings are given for:
v
Television production
f
Film-look television
In the tables, items that have an important effect on picture appearance are highlighted with grey
background. Rather than just making assertions about performance, I have included measurement results
that illustrate the reasons for recommending settings. Virtually all picture control is in the Profile menus.
This is not intended as a replacement for reading the manual.
1
Switches and Menu settings
SWITCHES, SOCKETS and BUTTONS
name
Headphones
White Balance
Audio inputs
Play/Pause
F.Rev
F.Fwd
Thumbnail
Stop/Cam
Prev
Menu
Next
LCD Bright
Display/Batt Info
Monitor volume
Cancel
Duration/TC/U-BIT
Zoom
Zoom speed
Rec Start/Stop
Rec Hold
Focus Ring
Zoom Ring
Iris Ring
Iris
Focus
ND filter
Macro
Focus
Push AF
Assign 1 to 5
Full Auto
Picture profile
Audio In
Audio Select
Audio Level Ch1-Ch2
Shutter On/Off
place
Left
Left lower front
Top right
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle panel
Handle
Handle
Handle
Handle
Lens
Lens
Lens
Lens
Lens
Lens
Lens
Lens
Lens
Left
Left
Left
Left
Left
Back
Left
feature
Socket
Push
XLR Sockets
Push
Push
Push
Push
Push
Push
Push
Push
Push
Push
Push/Push
Push
Push
Rocker
Switch
Push
Switch
Rotate
Rotate
Rotate
Switch
Switch
Switch
Switch
Switch
Push
Push
Push
Push
Switches
Switches
comment
Fast reverse
Fast forward
Previous
Up/down buttons
Zoom speed/Off
Lens
User buttons
Internal/External
Auto/Manual
Switch
2
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
Gain
White Balance
Menu
Sel/Set
Cancel
SxS Card slot (2 off)
USB-2 (data transfer)
1394 connector (HDV)
Analogue component
A/V Out
HDSDI output
HDMI output
TC I/O
Gen-lock I/O
External device
Rec Review
Zoom
Expand focus
Lens remote control
Zoom
Power
DC In
Left
Left
Left
Left
Left
Left
Back
Back
Right
Right
Back
Back
Back
Back
Back
Right
Right
Right
Right front
Bottom
Back
Back
Switch
Push
Push
Jog dial
Push
Socket/Push
Socket
Socket
Socket
Socket
BNC Socket
BNC Socket
BNC Socket
BNC Socket
Socket
Push
Rocker
Push
Socket
Switch
Switch
Socket
Manual control/indicator
Proprietary format mini-connector
Another proprietary mini-connector
CAMERA SET menu
Item
Gain setup
Shutter
Shutter Speed
Shutter Angle
ECS Frequency
SLS Frame
EX Slow Shutter
Frames
Color Bars
Camera, Bars
Multi, 75%, 100%, SMPTE
Auto, On, Off
50, 60Hz
Number of Frames
Frame Rec
Number of Frames
Clip Cont. Rec
P. Cache Rec
Rec Time
S&Q Motion
Frame Rate
Rec Review
TLCS
Level
Mode
Range depends on frame rate
Number of frames accumulated in Slow
Shutter
Extreme slow shutter mode
On, Off
16, 32, 64
On, Off
Interval Time
Speed options depend on frame rate
2~8
MF Assist
Flicker reduce
Frequency
Zoom Speed
High
Low
Remote
Zoom Transition
Interval Rec
Basic camera settings
comments
Pref
Set gain for each position of the gain switch
0, 6, 9
range
-3, 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dB
Speed, Angle, ECS, SLS
1/100
11.25, 22.5, 45, 72, 86.4, 90, 144,
150, 172,8, 180, 216
60.00
Allows fine auto focus control when in
Manual
SMPTE1
Supposed to reduce lighting flicker
Lighting frequency
Zoom speed for handle zoom control
High setting
Low setting
IR Remote controller setting
Zoom start/stop effect
Stop-frame recording, see manual for details
1 ~ 70 ~ 99
1 ~ 30 ~ 99
1 ~ 50 ~ 99
Linear, Soft
On, Off
1 ~ 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 50 sec, 1 ~ 10,
15, 20, 30, 40, 50 min, 1 ~ 4, 6, 12,
24 hour
1, 3, 6, 9
On, Off
1, 3, 6, 9
On, Off
On, Off
0~2.2~4, 4~6, 6~8, 8~10, 13~15 sec
On, Off
1 ~ 60
3sec, 10sec, Clip
1 second to 24 hours
(2, 6, 12 frames in 720p)
(2, 6, 12 frames in 720p)
Clip continuous recording
Picture cache recording
Defaults to system frame rate
Slow and Quick Motion, under/over-cranking
Defaults to system frame rate
Clip plays back entire clip
Total Level Control System, Iris/Gain/Shutter
Auto Iris stop override
+1, +0.5, 0, -0.5, -1
Backlight, Standard, Spotlight
________________________________________________________________________________________________
1
SMPTE or Multi bars are acceptable, Multi appears to be ARIB.
3
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
Speed
AGC
AGC Limit
AGC Point
Auto Shutter
A.Sht Limit
-99 ~ 50 ~ 99
On, Off
3, 6, 9, 12, 18dB
F/5.6, F/4, F/2.8
On, Off
1/100, 1/150, 1/200, 1/250
A.Sht Point
F/5.6, F/8, F/11, F/16
Shockless White
Off, 1, 2, 3
White Switch <B>
ATW, Mem
ATW Speed
ATW Mode
Wide Conversion
Steadyshot
Image Inversion
Auto Black Bal.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Natural, Pure
On, Off
On, Off
Normal, H inv, V inv, Both
Execute, Cancel
Shifting speed
Automatic gain control
Maximum gain AGC can take
Point at which auto-iris/shutter starts in AGC
Set shortest shutter
Point at which iris/shutter starts in Auto
Shutter
Speed of white balance response when
changed
Assign ATW or Memory to white balance
position B
1=slow, 5=fast
12
F/2.8
F/5.62
Use with lens Wide Angle adaptor
Set Off when on a tripod
AUDIO SET menu
Item
Audio Input
Ch 3 Input Source
Ch 4 Input Source
Ext Mix Ch1 Ref
Ext Mix Ch2 Ref
Int Mic Level
Limiter Mode
AGC Spec
Ch1&2 AGC Mode
Ch3&4 AGC Mode
1kHz Tone
Wind Filter Ch-1
Wind Filter Ch-2
Wind Filter Ch-3
Wind Filter Ch-4
Ext Ch Select
Audio Output
Monitor Ch
Output Ch
Alarm Level
Beep
range
comments
Internal, External
Internal, External
-70, -60, -50, -40, -30dB
-70, -60, -50, -40, -30dB
-12, -6, 0, +6, +12dB
Off, -6, -9, -12, -15, -17dB
-6, -9, -12, -15, -17dB
Mono, Stereo
Mono, Stereo, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
Ch1, Ch1/2
Pref
Add tone to bars
Mono/stereo recording
Ch1/Ch2 (Ch3/Ch4), Ch1+Ch2
(Ch3+Ch4), Ch1 (Ch3), Ch2 (Ch4)
Ch1/Ch2, Ch3/Ch4
0~4~7
On, Off
What goes to the speaker and phones
Output pairs
Alarm volume level
VIDEO SET
Item
Input Source Select
range
Camera, i.Link
comments
Lots of combinations, depending on
recording format
Outputs menus etc.
SD Aspect ratio
SDI/HDMI.i.Link I/O
SDI/HDMI Vid Super
Down Converter
23.98P Output
SDI Rec Control
On, Off
Squeeze, Letterbox, Edge Crop
59;.94i (2-3 pulldown), 23.98PsF
Off, HDSDI Remote I/F
Pref
Squeeze
LCD/VF SET
Item
LCD
range
Color
Contrast
Brightness
comments
Side panel controls
Pref
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
EVF
Monocular viewfinder
________________________________________________________________________________________________
2
Stopping down beyond F/5.6 can cause visible softening due to iris diffraction. This is normal for this sensor size.
4
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
Backlight
Mode
Contrast
Brightness
Power
Peaking
Color
Level
Marker
Safety Zone
Safety Area
Center Marker
Aspect Marker
Aspect Select
Aspect Mask
Guide Frame
Zebra
Zebra Select
Zebra 1 Level
Display On/Off
Video Level Warnings
Brightness Display
Histogram
Lens Info
Zoom Position
Audio Level Meter
Timecode
Battery Remain
Media Remain
TLCS Mode
Steady Shot
Focus Mode
White Balance Mode
Picture Profile
Filter Position
Iris Position
Gain Setting
Shutter Setting
Rec Mode
Video format
Clip Name
Clip Number (PB)
SDI Rec Control
Wide Conversion
High, Low
Color, B&W
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Auto, On
On, Off
White, Red, Yellow, Blue
High, Mid, Low
On, Off
On, Off
80, 90, 92.5, 95%
On, Off
Line, Mask, Off
4:3, 13:9, 14:9, 15:9, .66:1, 1.85:1,
2.35:1, 2.4:1
90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, 0%
On, Off
On, Off
1, 2, Both
Auto switches it off when lcd is folded out
Artificial sharpening
Show emphasised edges in this colour
Small square corners
14:9
Cross hatch in thirds
Exposure metering
Zebra 2 is 100%3
50 ~ 70 ~ 107
What appears in the viewfinder
Warns if too dark or bright
Light meter
Brightness level distribution
Depth of field indicator4
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
Meter, Feet, Off
Number, Bar, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
Audio meters
Frame Rec, Interval Rec, Slow/Quck
Timecode etc
TC/UB SET menu
Item
Timecode
65 {f}
80{v}
range
Mode
Run
Setting
Reset
TC Out
Preset, Regen, Clock
Rec Run, Free Run
Mode
Setting
Fix, Date
comments
Pref
Clock=clock time
Set timecode
Reset to zeroes
Execute, Cancel
Auto, Generator
Users Bit
Date=current date
Set what you like
________________________________________________________________________________________________
3
Zebra 2 is always 100%. Use this if the shoot will have no grading. Zebra 1 is best for judging skin tones, set it lower
for film-look.
4
Not sure I believe this from reading the manual, I guess it’s actually the focus distance, but I could be wrong.
5
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
TC Format
DF, NDF
Drop Frame for NTSC speeds
OTHERS menu
Item
range
All Reset
Camera Data
comments
Execute, Cancel
Store
Recall
Time Zone
Back to factory settings
Keep menu settings on SxS card
Execute, Cancel
Execute, Cancel
UTC-12:00 ~ +13:30
Select local time relative to original setting
This comes up every time the camera powers
up until you set the time/date
Clock Set
12H/24H
Date Mode
Language
12H, 24H
YYMMDD, MMDDYY, DDMMYY
How do you get back if you select a language
you can’t read? 
English, Chinese, Japanese
Assign Buttons
Tally
Hours meter
Hours (Sys)
Hours (Reset)
Reset
IR Remote
Battery Alarm
Low Batt
Batt Empty
DC Low Volt1
DC Low Volt2
Battery Info
Pref
Off, Zebra, Peaking, Marker, Last
Clip Del, ATW, ATW Hold, Rec
Review, Rec, Picture Cache, Freeze
Mix, Expanded Focus, Spotlight,
Backlight, IR Remote, Shot Mark 1,
Shot Mark 2, VF Mode, BRT Disp,
Histogram, Lens Info, OK Mark, Clip
Flag OK, Clip Flag NG, Clip Flag
Keep, Clip Continuous Rec, LCD/VF
Adjust, Color Bars, One Push AutoIris
High, Low, Off
Assign any to buttons 1~5
Factory defaults are:
Button1=Zebra
Button 2=Peaking
Button 3=Off
Button 4=Off
Button 5=Off
Record lamps
Usage hours meters display
Elapsed usage hours from new
Resetable meter
Reset Hours (reset) to zero
Enable remote control, sets Off at power up
Set the warning levels
Level at which “Low Batt” warning happens
Empty warning
Alarm levels for DC input
Execute, Cancel
On, Off
5, 10, 15, ~ 45, 50%
3 ~ 7%
11.5 ~ 17V
11.0 ~ 14V
Shows type, manufacturer, number of charge
cycles, estimated remaining time, voltage etc
Displays
Genlock
Country
UDF/FAT
HD/SD
Format
NTSC (J)
Area
UDF
-999~0~999
-99~0~99
All, Part, Off
Internal, Both, External
Horizontal fine phase
Horizontal fine phase
Gives limited access to menus
Controls external recorder via i.Link
NTSC Area, NTSC (J) Area, PAL
Area
UDF, FAT
HD, SD
Sets between 59.94 and 50Hz, and black
setup
PAL Area
UDF5
Select the recording format
HD422 50/1080/59.94i, HD420 HQ/1080/59;94i, HD422 50/1080/29.97P,
HD420 HQ/1080/29;97P, HD420 50/1080/23.98P, HD420
HQ/1080/23.98P, HD422 50/720/59.94P, HD420 HQ/720/23.98P, HD422
50/720/29.97P, HD422 50/720/23.98P, HD420 HQ/720/23.98P,
DVCAM69.94 SQ, DVCAM59.94i EC, DVCAM59.97 SQ,
DVCAM29.97P EC
SQ=squeeze,
EC=edge
crop
H Phase (HD)
H Phase (SD)
Direct Menu
Trigger Mode
System
6
________________________________________________________________________________________________
5
EDF isn’t available when recording to SDHC card in an adaptor, which means you can’t get the 50Mb/s mode.
6
The EBU’s preferred nomenclature is to describe the frame dimensions first, followed by a letter to indicate interlace
or progressive, then a right slash and the frame rate. Thus, what is here called HQ 1080/50i would be called, by the
EBU, 1920x1080i/25.
6
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
FAT
UDF
PAL Area
FAT
Clip
Auto Naming
Title Prefix
Number Set
Update Media
Last Clip DEL
All Clips DEL
Filter Clips
Lock All Clips
Unlock All Clips
Index Picture Pos
Find Mode
Copy All
Format Media
Plan.Metadata
Load/USB
Properties
Clear
Clip Name Disp
Network
DHCP
IP Address
Subnet Mask
Default Gateway
User Name
Password
Set
MAC address
Net Config Reset
WiFi
Scan Networks
SSID
Network Type
Ch
Authentication
Encryption
WEP Key Index
Input Select
Key Network
Set
WiFi Status
Wireless Mode
WiFi Enable
Version
Version Up
Menu Scroll
HQ 1920/59.94i, HQ 1440/59..94i, SP 1440/59.94i, HQ 1920/29.97P, HQ
1440/29.97P, HQ 1920/23.98P, HQ 1440/23.98P, SP 1440/23.98P, HQ
1280/59.94P, HQ 1280/29.97P, HQ 1280/23.98P, DVCAM59.l94i SQ,
DVCAM59;.94i EC, DVCAM29.97P SQ, DVCAM29.l97 EC
HD422 50/1080/50i, HD420 HQ/1080/50i, HD422 50/1080/25P, HD420
HQ1080/25P, HD422 50/720/50P, HD420 HQ/720/50P, HD422
50/720/25P, DVCAM50i SQ, DVCAM50i EC, DVCAM25P SQ,
DVCAM25P EC
HQ 1920/50i, HQ 1440/50i, SP 1440/50i, HQ 1920/25P, HQ 1440/25P,
HQ 1280/50P, HQ 1280/25P, DVCAM50i SQ, DVCAM50i EC,
DVCAM25P SQ, DVCAM25P EC
nnn_
Set first 4 characters of clip names
C****, Title, Plan
4~46 character name
0001 ~ 9999
The second set of 4 characters
Execute, Cancel
Update managerial file on card slot A or B7
Execute, Cancel
Execute, Cancel
Wipe the lot, except clips marked “OK”
OK, NG, KP, None
Execute, Cancel
Execute, Cancel
0sec ~ 120sec
Time offset to thumbnail
Clip, Rec Starr
What happens when you press Prev/Next
Clips, General Files, Clips&General
Copy to SxS card
Execute, Cancel
Format card slot A or B
Execute, Cancel
Load planning metadata from SxS card
Load, USB
Load planning metadata from USB
Execute, Cancel
Show data
Execute, Cancel
Reset data
Title 1 (ASCII), Title 2 (UTF-8)
Display mode
Enable, Disable
192.168.1.0
255,255,255,0
0,0,0,0
admin
pmw-200
Execute, Cancel
Set when HDCP disabled
Set when HDCP disabled
Go and do it
Display only
Execute, Cancel
Execute, Cancel
Reset
Infra, Adhoc
1 ~ 11
Open, Shared, WPA, WPA2
Disable, WEP
1, 2, 3, 4
ASCII5, ASCII13, HEX10, HEX26
Reset network connection name
Set when Adhoc
Different options for WPA/WPA2
Different options for TKIP or AES
Set security key
Execute, Cancel
Display
802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n
Enable, Disable
Display camera software version
Update, only when SxS card is inserted
Execute, Cancel
Normal, Loop
________________________________________________________________________________________________
7
If a clip becomes unplayable, updating the managerial file might fix it, or not, it all depends.
7
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
PICTURE PROFILES menus, default settings
range
item
Camera control
comments
BBC
PP1
PP2
PP3
PP4
PP5
PP6
PICTURE PROFILES menus, manual settings
range
item
Profile Name
Matrix
Camera control
comments
8 characters, alphanumerics
On, Off
Select
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Level
Phase
R-G
R-B
G-R
G-B
B-R
B-G
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Multi Matrix, Color
Correction
On, Off
On, Off
Execute, Cancel
B, B+, MG-, MG, MG+, R,
R+, YL-, YL, YL+, G-, G,
G+, CY, CY+, B-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
On, Off
Execute, Cancel
On, Off
0 ~ 130 ~ 359
0 ~ 40 ~ 90
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
On, Off
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
2100 ~ 3200 ~ 10000
On, Off
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
NAM, Y, G, G+R
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
On, Off
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Multi Matrix mode
Multi Matrix
Area Indication
Color Detection
Axis
Hue
Saturation
Color Correction
Area Detection
Area Indication
Target Phase
Target Width
Level
Phase
White
Offset <A>
Offset <B>
Offset <ATW>
Preset White
HD Detail
Level
Frequency
Crispening
H/V ratio
White Limiter
Black Limiter
V DTL Creation
Knee APT Level
SD Detail
Level
Frequency
Crispening
H/V ratio
White Limiter
BBC
On
2 for ITU709, 3 for SMPTE wide, 4 for NTSC, 5 or
6 for PAL
Saturation
Hue
Roll your own matrix
2
Zebra to identify target colour
16 colour sectors
Tweak the sector contents
Direct control over one colour only
Detect colour in the centre marker
Zebra1 lights up at the selected colour
Colour phase, degrees
Width in degrees
Saturation
Hue shift
Manual control over white balances
Drive bluish to reddish
Nominal colour temperature in 100K steps
Noise suppression
-99=horizontal only, 99=vertical only
Limit white overshoots
And black overshoots
Sharpen edges that would be lost above the knee
On {v}, Off {f}
0 {v}8
+99
09
0
0
0
0
Noise suppression
-99=horizontal only, 99=vertical only
Limit white overshoots
________________________________________________________________________________________________
8
HD detail could be useful for a film look, but use sparingly, it’s vicious. Null action is at about -42, so lower values
will soften the pictures. -60 looks nice for film.
9
This may need adjusting if the camera is used at high gains, set the level to avoid sharpening noise.
8
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
Black Limiter
V DTL Creation
Knee APT Level
Skin Tone Detail
Level
Area Detection
Area Indication
Saturation
Phase
Width
Aperture
Level
Knee
Auto Knee
Point
Slope
Knee Sat
Knee Sat Level
White Clip
Level
Gamma
Select
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
NAM, Y, G, G+R
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
On, Off
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Execute, Cancel
On, Off
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
0 ~ 130 ~ 359
0 ~ 40 ~ 90
On, Off
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
On, Off
On, Off
50 ~ 90 ~109%
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
On, Off
0 ~ 50 ~ 99
On, Off
90 ~ 105 ~ 109%
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Std1, Std2, Std3, Std4, Std5,
Std6, Cine1, Cine2, Cine3,
Cine4
Black
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Black Gamma
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Low Key Sat
-99 ~ 0 ~ 99
Copy
PP Data
Store
Recall
Reset
And black overshoots
Sharpen edges that would be lost above the knee
Off
Selected skin tone detail level
Detect colour in the centre marker
Zebra1 lights up at the selected colour
Manual skin saturation
Manual colour phase, degrees
Manual width, degrees
Aperture correction
Compress overexposure
Auto or manual
Manual knee break point
On
0
On {v}, Off {f}
Off
8510
-14
Off
Std5=ITU709, STD6 is probably BBC 0.411
No calibration: cap the camera and use waveform
monitor or Histogram to set black level
Black stretch, use when noise level is low
Saturation control for dark colours, reduce when
noise is high
Copy one profile into another
Execute, Cancel
Execute, Cancel
Execute, Cancel
Std5 {v}, Cine1
{f}
012
013
Save/recall profiels on SxS card
Factory reset this profile
________________________________________________________________________________________________
10
Setting level to 85%, slope to -14 gives 1.5 stops headroom, 75% slope +10 gives 2.5 stops.
11
Descriptions in the manual seem to fit the idea that these curves are directly copied from other cameras, where
Std5=ITU709, Std6=BBC0.4; Std1 has lowest slope near black (for low noise and black-crushing) like a consumer
camcorder; Std2has decent gain near black (4.5), Std3 looks like SD ENG, Std4 is SMPTE240M (the old analogue HD
standard). The Cine curves are not the “Hypergamma” curves of the PDW700, HDWF900R/790 etc. Cine2 is the only
curve suited to production without grading, since it clips at 100%. Cine1 is similar but copes with overexposure by
extending beyond 100% video level. Cine3 and 4 differently share the contrast range, use these to taste. If using Cine1,
3 or 4, make sure that video will not be clipped in post-production. Or that grading can cope with the over-voltages.
12
Black stretch (positive values) should be needed only under exceptional conditions, unless the lower-slope Std
gamma curves are used, and will increase the noise level. With negative levels, black-crushing will happen, which may
be a solution when operating with high video gain levels.
13
Low Key Sat is useful when video noise levels are high, use a negative amount.
9
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
2
November 23012
Measurements
All measurements were made on frames captured onto a SDHC card using an SxS adaptor, no SxS card was
immediately available at the time. Therefore, recordings were made at 35Mb/s rather than the top-end
50Mb/s. I do not expect the test results to be affected by this, except for possible slight differences in noise
levels. In this section, I shall use the EBU system of designating scanning standards. Live viewing was done
on a 32” Grade 1 HDTV CRT monitor and a digital waveform monitor, via the HDSDI output.
2.1 Colour performance
Colour performance was assessed visually, using ColorChecker charts. The most accurate colour rendering
was obtained using matrix 2 (ITU.709) and Std5 gamma curve (also ITI. 709). The yellow and orange
patches were a little desaturated and hues shifted towards green, and the reds and pinks a little oversaturated, but otherwise there was no single colour
error large enough to cause a problem. Since there
were no “rogue” colours, no further investigation was
needed.
2.2 Resolution and aliasing
All resolution measurements were made with a circular
zone plate test chart. This has 6 circular patterns, each
exploring the frequency space of the 1920x1080 limits
of HDTV. Each pattern has dc (low frequency) at the
centre, and reaches 1920 lines/picture width (960
cycles) horizontally and 1080 lines/picture height (540
cycles) vertically. There is a separate pattern to
explore each of R G and B, luma (Y’), Pb and Pr.
Generally, only one quadrant of each pattern is needed
since it fully explores both horizontal and vertical
frequency spaces.
2.2.1 1920x1080
Figure 2 Resolution 1080
Figure 1 shows the luma resolution when the camera
detail enhancement was switched off, the native
performance of the camera in 1080 progressive
scanning. There is no in-band aliasing, and only lowlevel aliasing centred on 1920 (horizontal) and 1080
(vertical) visible in the smaller double-frequency
pattern. This indicates that the lens is delivering some
resolution to the camera at twice HD resolution, and
that the optical low-pass filter is not quite removing it.
Nevertheless, the performance is good.
It is significant that horizontal and vertical resolutions
are identical, since it implies that there is no ITU 709
channel filter preceding the video sampling. Although
ITU 709 specifies a filter, it is increasingly unlikely to
find one in a camera, which means that the pictures are
a little too sharp horizontally, which can cause aliasing.
Figure 2 shows the performance in interlaced mode.
Vertical resolution has softened as expected, but
nothing else has changed. Resolution is still very good.
Clearly the sensors are 1920x1080, as stated in the Figure 2 Resolution 1080i
specification. Also, the optical low-pass filter could
10
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
have been a little more severe, which would have
reduced the aliasing at double-HD frequencies, but the
advantage would only be slight.
Figure 3 shows the resolution in the 1440x1080 modes.
Oddly, there is a significant increase in vertical aliasing,
rather than horizontal. The down-conversion from 1920
to 1440 is very well done, so it is a mystery why the
vertical aliasing should suffer in this mode. Clearly there
is some odd processing going on in the camera.
2.2.2
Detail enhancement
The camera hardly needs any enhancement, but it has
comprehensive detail manipulation, so they were
investigated.
Unusually, the detail level control allows for detail to be
reduced as well as increased. This is a significant benefit, Figure 3 Resolution 1440x1080i
particularly when trying to achieve a specific film look.
The level control goes from -99 to +99, with factory default at 0, but experiment showed that it has a null
effect when set to about -42. There is also an aperture correction function, which is usually found only on
top-end cameras. Aperture correction is an equalisation of the basic fundamental camera frequency response,
while detail enhancement is best regarded as a user control. Setting aperture level to zero produced a nice,
subtle, effect as it should do.
Figure 4 shows the effect of just aperture correction
(level zero) which is recommended for a film look. If
the results are still thought to be too sharp, then detail
enhancement should be used, with the level control set
below -42, even at -99 detail is still visible, but is
lowered in level in an acceptable way.
Figure 5 shows the effect of aperture correction and
detail enhancement (both at level zero) which is
recommended for video-style shooting. Using higher
levels of detail causes significant brightening of lower
Figure 4 Resolution 1080, aperture correction
frequencies, and overshoots on high-contrast edges,
both of which can be distracting.
Figure 4 Resolution, 1080, detail and aperture
11
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
2.2.3
November 23012
1280x720-line
Figure 6 shows the result for 720p shooting, with the video-style detail
settings. The down-conversion is very well done; there is virtually no
aliasing from the conversion process.
2.3 Lens aberrations
In cameras with fixed lenses, it is common to find significant lens
aberrations, particularly in the image corners.
Figure 7 shows the results from one
corner of a grab at mid zoom and F/4.
There is hardly any displacement of Figure 6 Resolution 720p
the red/green/blue images, just a small
vertical blue/yellow shift which would be invisible on normal pictures.
This is good performance for a small camera.
-42
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
R
-43
1.0
G
-44
B
Y
-45
Figure 7 Lens aberrations
-46
2.4 Video noise
Normally, the main source of video noise in a
camera is the analogue circuitry of the camera’s
front end and the sensors themselves. In many
cameras (this being no exception) it is impossible
to turn off gamma-correction, and so it can be
difficult to get accurate measurements.
-47
-48
-49
-50
-51
Video noise levels were measured by capturing Figure 8 Noise distribution, 0dB gain
exposures of a white card at four video signal
levels, with the camera set to Std5 gamma curve and 0dB gain. 1080P HQ mode was used. Figure 8 shows
the result. Normally, the noise level should
follow the slope of the camera gamma curve, -32
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
with at least 10dB difference between the level -33
R
near white where the gamma slope is about ⅓ -34
G
and near black where the slope is 4.5, a range
-35
of about 22dB.
B
Obviously, that is not happening here.
-36
Y
-37
If the internal processing used too small a bit- -38
depth, the noise distribution would be expected
to be rather flat, with only a couple of dB or so -39
between values at 10% and 90% video level, -40
and this is what we see here. So, the -41
implication is that the signal processing bit- -42
depth is limited, and causing a noise-floor level
below which the noise will not go, even if the
analogue noise level falls. To see if this is the Figure 9 Noise distribution, +18dB gain
case, Figure 9 shows another measurement
made at +18dB gain, where any noise floor effect should be circumvented.
12
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
The rise in noise as signal level falls is obvious, about 10dB between 15% and 85% video level, more or less
as expected according to theory. There are several possible causes for this:

Noise reduction is ‘flattening’ the noise distribution,

Limited processing bit-depth is providing a ‘noise floor’,

The ADCs are non-linear or there is some form of pre-gamma before the ADCs.
From these tests, it is impossible to tell which cause is true. The third would show as a reduction in
resolution as gain is increased.
Nevetherless, the noise level at 0dB gain is about -48dB, which is quite acceptable for a camera in this
category. But lowering the camera gain to -6dB will not produce a substantial change in noise levels.
2.5 Sensitivity and Dynamic Range
The camera was set to 0dB gain, Std5 gamma (ITU 709) with the knee and white-clipper switched
off. It was exposed to a Kodak Gray card (white side, reflectance 90%) and lit to 2000 lux tungsten.
The iris aperture to achieve 100% video level was a little on the closed side of F/11, say F/11.7.
This is very high for a ½” camera and accounts for the rather high noise levels.
The specification claims only a minimum illuminance level of 0.12 lux at 1080/59.94i, F/1.8 and
with 64-frame accumulation, which is hardly likely to produce good pictures. So, the camera was
set to +18dB gain, iris fully open (F/1.9 at the focal length used) and the lighting level reduced until
the Kodak Gray made exactly 50% video level. The illuminance level was then 1.8 lux, which
should be regarded as the usable minimum level. This agrees well with the specification claim.
The camera was then reset to 0dB gain and exposed to a ColorChecker chart, and the iris adjusted to
get exactly 100% video level. The lens aperture was noted as slightly open from F/8, say F/7.5. The
knee was then switched on, point set low (50%) and slope low such that nothing reached white. The
iris was then opened until the white patch was just starting to clip. The slope was then adjusted such
that this exposure level exactly reached 100%, and the iris aperture noted as a little open from F/4,
say F/3.5. This establishes that the over-exposure headroom which the camera can cope with is just
over 2 stops, about 500%, or about 8dB.
If we assume that the lowest usable exposure level as that at which wanted detail has the same
magnitude as the RMS value of the noise, -48.5dB near black, then the total available dynamic
range must be 48.5+8=56.5dB, or 9.4 stops.
2.6 Motion effects
The camera has CMOS sensors and can therefore be expected
to show geometrical distortion on moving objects, the ‘rolling
shutter effect’.
It was exposed to a small electric fan, speed-adjusted to strobe
with the television scanning rate. Figure 10 shows part of one
frame, with the shutter set to 1/250 second. The blade on the
left (going up) is shrunk in width by about 50% while that on
the right (going down) is approximately doubled in width.
This indicates that there are no processing tricks in the camera
to ameliorate the effect. So ‘flash-banding’ will a problem as
with all CMOS cameras, where stills-camera flashes will
illuminate only a part of the field or frame, and intra-frame
Figure 10 Rolling shutter effect
motion may be disturbing.
2.7 Conclusion
13
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
Sony PMW 200
November 23012
The camera should qualify for Tier 2L (Long Form) according to EBU R118, in that it passes all the advisory
criteria, although individual broadcasters are free to assign tiering to cameras.
Resolution is good, alias levels are very low, and 720P performance is good.
The dynamic range of 9.4 stops is a little on the low side as a result of the rather high noise levels.
Motion artefacts from the ‘rolling shutter’ are as expected for a CMOS camera.
14
Tests have been conducted in line with EBU R.118. This document is a report of the results of
the tests defined in Tech3335 and is not an endorsement of the product.
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