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Vifamin D or Sunlight Will Prevent
"Weak Legs" in Chickens
B. H. Fleenor, '19
The K. S. A. C. Herdsmen
Edwin Hedstrom,
3 5
Forage Poisoning
E. W. Young, '25
Relation of Farm Granary Space to
Early Marketing
H. M.
Farm Buildings
0. Nelson, '24
Three Hundred Egg Hens
D. C. Warren
Control of Fire Blight in the K.
A. C. Apple Orchard
C. 0. Dirks, '24
The Pocket Gopher, the Rodent Pest
of the Alfalfa Grower
Frederick E. Emery, '23
Why the
Acreage of Soybeans
Eastern Kansas Is Increasing
0. M. Williamson, '24
Our Cover Page
Scholarship Counts
What About the Farm Home?
Agriculture Challenges the Prospective
College Student
The Relative Values of Corn Silage
and Corn Stover Silage
Austin W. Stover, '24
College Notes
Kansas Second in Livestock Judging Contest at the American Royal
Kansas Grain Judging Team Places
Fourth in the International Contest
Alpha Zeta Alumni Organize
Kansas Wins First at International
Union Pacific Better Farming Special
Honor Roll, 1922-23
Seniors in Three Departments Have Distinctive Regalia
Alumni Notes
The Champion Club Girl
Sam Pickard,
Supplying Vitamin A in the Ration of
Brood Sows
Marvel L. Baker, '24
The Value of Ground Cane Seed in a
Ration for Dairy Cows
F. E. Charles, '24
The Kansas Agricultural Student
Manhattan, Kansas, December, 1923
Vitamin D or Sunlight Will Prevent
Weak Legs in Chickens
H. Fleenor, '19
the chickens intended for this lot were put in
Young chicks may be successfully reared
without developing "Weak Legs," or rickets, Lot I. At the end of four weeks, when the
under one of the following conditions: (1) weather had warmed up somewhat, this
Direct sunlight, (2) Vitamin D in addition to group was put in a small wire cage, and
the standard poultry ration, (3) ultra-violet placed out in the sun about six hours each
light treatment. The use of electric light day. The chicks receiving this treatment are
in the ordinary room will not prevent the ap- designated as Lot I, B.
At the end of seven weeks, another group
pearance of rickets. These important conclusions have been reached recently in an experi- of seven chicks were removed from Lot I to
ment conducted by Dr. J. S. Hughes, of the another pen having the same amount of light,
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
and were given 10 per cent of cod-liver oil
group is designated
their mash.
Three lots of day-old chicks were placed
in pens with varying intensity of light. The Lot I, C.
pens were about ten feet square and were
After eight weeks five chicks were selected
provided with hot water brooders. All lots from Lot I, and were given two ten-minute
received the same ration, which was the
treatments a day of the ultra-violet light prostandard ration used by the Department of duced by the Hereus mercury arc lamp. This
Poultry Husbandry. In addition to the group is designated as Lot I. D. The chicks
scratch grain and mash, each lot was given all in Lot I that received no special treatment,
the fresh buttermilk and sprouted oats the are designated as Lot I, A. The experiment
birds would consume.
was discontinued at the end of fourteen
dow, and received the direct morning sunlight
The results obtained are shown in the acfiltered through ordinary window glass. Lot companying illustrations which show the conII was adjacent to Lot I but received only the dition of the chicks in each lot when the exdiffused light reflected from the wall of the periment was concluded. The effect of diroom and, in addition, the light from a 100 - rect sunlight on the plumage is easily noticewatt electric bulb, placed under a bright re- able. (Lot I, B.) An early condition of
flector, hung four feet from the floor of the rickets was clearly evident in Lot I at the end
pen. Lot III was kept in a pen so dark that of the first four weeks of the experiment; but
one could not see distinctly on first entering when Lot I, B, was placed in the direct sunthe pen. This pen was ventilated by means light; the beneficial effect was so marked as
of an electric fan, as it had to be closed to to leave no doubt as to the influence of sunexclude the light.
light. One of the most striking results, howIt was planned to keep one lot in direct ever, was in the development of the secondary
sunlight; but as there was no means at hand sexual characters. At the time the cockerels
receiving the sunlight had well developed
in March when the experiment was started
for keeping such a pen warm out in the sun, combs, and were beginning to crow, it was
impossible to distinguish the sex of the
chickens in Lot I, A, Lot II, and Lot III with
any degree of certainty.
The beneficial results obtained with codliver oil (Lot I, C) and ultra-violet light (Lot
I, D) were almost as outstanding as with direct sunlight. In each case there was a
prompt recovery of the normal use of the legs
and a normal development of secondary sexual characters.
Lot II, which received the light from a
100-watt electric bulb, in addition to the diffused light, showed about the same results as
Lot I, A, which received only morning light
filtered through the east window. The light
produced by the ordinary electric bulb is very
poor in the shorter wave lengths which have
the beneficial action in preventing and curing
Lot III, which was kept in the dark pen,
did just about as well as Lot II, which was
kept in a well-lighted pen with the added
electric light. This indicates that the longer
wave lengths of light of the visible spectrum
have very little beneficial action.
Sunlight is much poorer in the short wave
lengths, which are the beneficial ones, during
the winter months than during the summer
months. The morning and evening light is
much poorer in the short wave lengths than
the noon day light. For this reason, chicks
will do much better before a south window
than before an east or west window.
The outstanding abnormality outside of the
failure of sex development in rickets, is the
failure to calcify the bones, particularly the
flat bones. This is shown not only in the lack
of development of the breast bone, but also in
K. S. A. C.
the bony structure inside the beak and toe
nail. In several of the chicks the bone of the
upper beak was so soft as to allow it to hang
down over the under beak, causing the condition known as scissor beak. The lack of calcification of the bones in the toe nails permits the nail to curl up, which is one of the
early symptoms of rickets in chickens.
This experiment not only points the way
to the proper methods of rearing early-hatched
chicks but also indicates the importance of
Vitamin D in a feeding ration where normal
*hone development is expected. Where young
chicks are placed in the sunlight it is essential that they receive the direct light during the middle of the day rather than the
sunlight of early morning or late afternoon.
The farmer and the practical poultry raiser may well profit by the results of the experiment by seeing to it that chicks grown in
late winter and early spring have plenty of
direct sunlight or are given a ration containing some substance, such as cod-liver oil,
rich in Vitamin D.
The K.
LOT // LOT //I
Kept in
In east window-mo:rryi7f3
sunhOht filtered thivu¢h
In direct
walls of
Conti/wed sunhOld
in east six hours
Cod liver
9 mornin1
oil added Ultra-violet
OH in
0 sunlieht
to standarolheht treek
8 window, in middle
ment added
through liehtsame light same to same
Lot I A
as Lot I
/AM? as
Lot /A
No rickets
Rickets developed
S. A. C.
Edwin Hedstrom, '24
As the average person looks at the scores
of ribbons won by the Department of Animal
Husbandry and the numbers of high-record
cows that have been produced by the Department of Dairy Husbandry, he is apt to
think all that is necessary for such honors
is the purchase of good animals. He seldom
stops to think of the hours of patient watching the animal requires while young, the
skillful feeding necessary during the growing
period, and the careful manner in which the
animals must be handled to achieve this success. Behind these awards is a group of
highly skilled men working with the animals. Although the herdsmen at the college do not have the cultural training of the
professors, they are trained by years of experience and very careful study which make
them know livestock.
There has never been a man in charge of
the college beef show herd with such a wonderful show record as Albert Allen. He was
Born in Runcorn, Cheshire, England. Before coming to America, he showed cattle at
the Smithfield show and at the Royal Agricultural Society show of England. His father raised cattle for the Smithfield market
and it was Albert's duty to feed them. Ever
since that time he has been fitting prize-winning cattle. In 1906 he showed Gloster
King, the junior champion at Lincoln
(Nebr.), the first two-year-old bull, and the
first aged bull of the show. At the first
Shorthorn Congress he showed the junior
and grand champion bull for Hopley Stock
Farms of Iowa, in 1918 the first champion
bull of the beef breeds at Lincoln, owned by
S. A. Nelson and
Son. The undefeated
Cumberland's choice and the grand champion Shorthorn female, Clara 71's, owned by
W. Preston Donald, was fitted by Mr. Allen.
It is a well-known fact that the greatest agricultural demonstration in America is the
Sni-a-Bar farm experiment. Mr. Allen purchased for this establishment some the the
foundation cows, as well as many of the
bulls now in use, while he was in charge of
the herd. Last year when the Mendenhall
herd was shown at Sedalia, Mo., it didn't
receive much consideration, but after the
skillful care and feeding which Mr. Allen
gave it, his bull was given second at the American Royal and his steer was first on all of
the mid-western circuit. Mr. Allen fitted
and showed nine individuals for the college
at the 1923 American Royal Livestock show.
He made a very creditable showing, winning
one first, two seconds, five fifths, two sixths,
and two sevenths. Mr. Allen undoubtedly
gian stallion "Farsar" (II) and the Grand
Champion Belgian female "Farzelle" were
grown, fitted, and shown by "Tom."
The best way to make an enemy of Mr.
Greer is to excite, injure, or in any way annoy the horses, and the quickest way to win
his friendship is to handle the horses gently
and carefully whether in the judging pavilion or on the farm. "Tom" always keeps the
horses in excellent condition for class work,
which requires a great deal of time spent in
I. W. W. Bales, the hogman, and a few specimens of the hog herd. II. Thomas W. Greer, the
horse groom, and Farsar, one of his favorites. III. Albert
Allen and Narcissus Gem 6th, a purebred Shorthorn of exceptionally fine type. IV. Thomas Dean, the college shepherd,
and one of
his pets. V. C. 0. Bigford, superintendent of the Dairy Farm, and Melrose Canary Bell
2d, a famous purebred Ayrshire.
will bring home many ribbons to K. S. A. C.
in the future.
Everyone who has been around the show
barn is greeted by "Howdy," or some other
cheerful word upon entering the barn. These
words come from a man who cares for the
horses in the same manner in which he
speaks to you. He is Thomas W. Greer, better known as "Tom" in animal husbandry
circles. Mr. Greer started to care for the college stud in 1917. In the past five years he has
fitted and shown 23 champions and 82 firsts
for the Department of Animal Husbandry. The
1922 American Royal Grand Champion Bel-
grooming. In early spring from February
to April, which is the foaling season, nights
of watchful attention and careful management are given the mares to insure good
colts. It is the mature animals that are
seen in the show yard or heard of in the
papers, but nobody but "Tom" knows how
many hours of work were required, and
how his patient eye watched the colts as they
developed, hoping each day that they might
grow better.
The institution has no better and more
willing man to help with class work than its
(Continued on page 62)
Forage Poisoning
E. W. Young, '25
blind staggers, pasture disease, horse plague,
and forage poisoning. In cattle it is known
as silage poisoning or corn stalk disease. In
the control of this disease one must constantly be on the lookout for evidence of
spoiled or molded forage. Molded forage is,
as the name implies, caused by a mold, but
it is possible that the botulinus organism
be the causative
the disease, botulism or food poisoning. The may also be present. Anything that looks
organism was first isolated in 1896 by van suspicious should be handled with care and in
Ermengen, a German bacteriologist. Since case a large amount of feed is involved it
that time it has been isolated a number of might be well to test out the feed on an
times from various sources, not only from animal that is not too highly valued. If
the test animal shows no ill effects from the
spoiled meat but from spoiled vegetables,
feed after a week or ten days feeding, it
may be reasonably safe to assume that the
The organism
feed is not harmful.
body of an animal, but it produces a toxin
In chickens this disease is commonly
or poison which is excreted
meat, vegetables, and other decomposing ma- known as limberneck. The head and neck are
terial. This toxin is very poisonous, 0.00005 limber or pendulant resting upon the floor
or ground. The respirations are shallow
of a gram being sufficient to cause the death
and rapid in character. The disease can be
of a guinea pig. Hence suspected food should
not be tasted, as it may be deadly poisonous. prevented by not allowing the fowls to gain
In one case it is known that one-third of an access to any form of spoiled organic material, such as spoiled canned feed or bodies of
olive caused the death of an individual.
The symptons of poisoning by the toxin dead animals.
Antitoxins have been developed for the
Bacillus botulinus are about the same in man
of botulinus poisoning. Due to
as in animals. They usually
eight to one hundred twenty hours after the the fact that three types of the organism
poisonous food has been eaten. The disease have been demonstrated and that any one of
the three can produce disease, it is necessary
is usually characterized by nausea, dizziness,
incoordination of muscular movements, and to use the polyvalent antitoxin, which is comimpairment of the vision. It is one form of posed of at least two of the types. Botulinus
"blind staggers." Mortality varies from 50 antitoxin, bovine, equine, and ovine origin
may be prepared and should have preference
to 100 percent.
in the treatment of cattle, horses, and sheep,
The causes
usually the ingestion of improperly canned respectively.
It is well to remember that botulism is
foodstuffs that are contaminated with the
botulinus organism. The disease can be pre- a non-contagious, fatal, toxemic disease ocvented in most cases by the observation of curring sporadically in horses, mules, sheep,
sanitary methods and careful procedure in swine, cattle, poultry, and man. The causacanning foodstuffs. All food that is tainted tive agent is a specific bacterial poison. Forshould be destroyed. Spoiled food should age poisoning may be prevented in animals
never be fed to the chickens or hogs as it may by feeding only wholesome food. An immediate change of feed and pasture and the adprove fatal.
Forage poisoning of horses and cattle is ministration of polyvalent botulinus antitoxin
usually caused by the Bacillus botulinus. In is recommended to check the disease in inhorses the disease is commonly known as fected herds.
The term "botulinus" (botulus, a sausage) was coined by the physicians of southern Germany in the beginning of the nineteenth century, to apply to a peculiar type
of food poisoning which was caused by the
ingestion of spoiled sausages.
The Bacillus botulinus has been proved to
The Relation of Farm Granary Space
to Early Marketing
R. M. Green
Many people believe that the so-called
``dumping" of large quantities of wheat on
to the market immediately after threshing
constitutes a "disorder" in the marketing
system. Hence, the present interest in orderly marketing-a process that will cure this
It was at one time the practice in attempting to cure physical disorders to bleed
the patient, whatever the particular disorder
might be. Farmers now and then think
that even yet this out-of-date practice is
used on them at times in attemping to cure
their marketing disorders.
Modern medical science attempts to diagnose physical disorders first, and then
prescribe treatment. Attempts to better the
farmer's position in the markets-to prescribe treatment for certain of his economic
disorders-are just as likely to cause further disorder and complications as they are
to cure, unless action is taken after careful
consideration of facts. Perhaps on no other
single point have so many farmer movements
gone astray as on the matter of acting first
without full information. Today, more than
ever, a certain business man's advice to "get
the facts or they will get you" holds good.
It was with the idea of getting the facts
in the case that the Kansas Agricultural
Experiment Station began in the fall of
1920, an economic study of determine just
to what extent a shortage of storage space
for wheat on Kansas farms was a force back
of this dumping of wheat early in the crop
Those who believe that a more evenly
distributed delivery of wheat throughout the
year would help prevent seasonal sags in
prices, have held that two things in particular contribute to the present heavy deliveries immediately after harvest; namely,
(1) shortage of farm storage space, (2) inability to secure bank credit. This article
deals only with a study of the first of the
foregoing causes.
It is a simple proposition that if shortage
of farm storage is a cause of disorderly marketing, the remedy lies in more farm storage
space. In fact such a remedy was suggested
in farmers' meetings in Kansas during the
fall of 1920 when wheat prices were falling
so rapidly. The extent to which a "cure"
will be effected by the use of this remedy,
however, depends upon the extent to which
shortage of storage space contributed to the
disorder in marketing, if indeed the chief
causes back of early wheat movement prove
it to be a disorder.
This leads to seeking an answer to the
very practical questions: (1) How short
are we of farm storage space for wheat in
Kansas, (2) Where in the state is the
shortage? (3) How much above an average
crop can different sections of the state stand
before a shortage of farm storage space
develops? (4) How much of the wheat crop
is this shortage forcing on the market? To
what extent then will more farm storage
space help solve the problem of a peak-load
delivery of wheat from farms immediately
after threshing?
The first study made to answer this question was undertaken in the fall of 1920.
Results from 743 farms scattered over 29
Kansas counties showed that only about 20
per cent of this number of farms was short
of farm storage space. The combined results from all farms showed 144 bushels of
bin room for every 100 bushels of wheat
The same study was repeated in 1922
on 152 farms in 56 different counties, with
the intention of further checking up results
obtained in 1920. This time, as before, it
was found that approximately 20 per cent
of this relatively small group of farms was
short of farm storage space. Combined re-
sults this time showed 146 bushels of storage
on these farms for every 100 bushels of
wheat crop.
A second and more conclusive check was
obtained in 1923 through the cooperation
of the State Board of Agriculture. Through
the county assessors' schedules the Board of
Agriculture was able to secure information
from every county and from nearly every
farm in the state. Their preliminary report
shows storage space for a total of 161,163,053 bushels of wheat. Compared with the
average wheat yield
in the state for the
eight-year period,
1915 to 1922 inclugives
149.5 bushels
storage space for every 100 bushels of
wheat crop.
It is therefore
safe to say that
farm storage space
for wheat in Kan-
sas, as a whole, is
adequate for a crop
up to about 50 percent above average.
This would mean a
crop of from 140 to
ern counties, aside from Pratt county, which
has already been noted, are Comanche, Kiowa, Barber, Kingman, Harper, and Sumner. It is only in years when certain sections have an extra large crop that shortage of storage space becomes a problem of
any importance.
The answer to this question was best secured by asking farmers in a particular
Counties short of: or very close to shortage of storage space
glance at the accompanying figure will
show that with two' main exceptions, namely,
Saline and Pratt counties, shortage of farm
storage space on the average has been confined to border wheat' regiorts. In the main
wheat belt of the state it could hardly be
looked to as a chief cause for the early
movement of wheat to market. In recent
years more shortage has developed in the
extreme western counties where wheat acreage was increased 200 to 300 per cent during the war.
With the exception of a group of counties at the southern end 6f the central
wheat belt, and with the exceptions previously noted, most of the important wheat counties show surplus bin room for a crop of
from 30 to 80 or 90 per cent above their
recent eight-year average yield. The south-
year the size of their crop and how many
bushels of wheat they had been forced to
sell before they otherwise would have sold
because of a shortage of storage space. While
this part of the study is just being completed, it appears that shortage of farm storage space has not forced on the market
more than 3 or 4 per cent of the crop.
This is but a small part of the 20 to 30 per
cent of the crop which is marketed ahead
of consumptive needs.
It would seem, therefore, that any attempt to promote more orderly marketing of
wheat in Kansas by urging more farm storage facilities could possibly contribute but
very little to the desired result. Shortage
of farm granary space appears to be a re1 2
atively unimportant cause for the early
movement of Kansas wheat to market.
G. L. Cleland, '14, is county agricultural
agent of Sherman County with headquarters
at Goodland.
Farm Buildings
0. Nelson,
should be sufficiently distant from the other
buildings so that odors, flies, and noises will
not be objectionable and danger from fire
will not be serious. The workshop has often
been spoken of as "the hub of all farm activities," hence placing the machine shed, with
shop included, and the horse barn in a group
will save innumerable steps.
The poultry house should be placed nearest to the dwelling as the care of the farm
flock falls partially upon the housewife. It
is desirable that the grain storage houses be
placed close to the feedlots and feed boxes,
and that they be constructed of such materials
as to reduce to a minimum the immense
losses due to the depredations of rats and
mice. It is estimated that more than two
hundred million dollars are lost annually by
reeding rodents from the granaries of the
rin iiiiiiiiii
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Farmers are generally recognizing more
mil III 11101:11 I loin lull
ma III Inimariiirmin::::
and more the fact that it actually pays to
house the less bulky forage crops such as
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legumes, tame and native hays, and some of
the sorghums. Nearly all farm feeds are
salable and any surplus feeds can be disposed of at a better figure if kept under roof
and the spoilage incidental to outside storHOUSE
almost entirely eliminated. A cominto the first plan. An approximate calcula- age is
and livestock barn enables a threebined
tion of the accommodations required must be
fold saving to be made: A saving in labor
based on
feed required; and
farm, the number and kind of livestock to be of feeding; a saving in
from less spoilage
kept, and the number
months, modDuring
The high cost of materials makes overbuilding
cows will mean an
extremely unprofitable, therefore,
of several pounds
utilize all the room, but provisions for prob- increased milk production
able future expansion should also be
Undoubtedly a large part of the enorinto consideration. Briefly stated, the farm
farrowing season losses could be avertbuilding situation today demands that more
adequate hog houses. In fact there
convenience, permanency, upkeep costs, sani- are losses in almost every type of farm building that could be prevented by good, welltation, and appearance than ever before.
The arrangement of farm buildings in a planned, sanitary structures. In fact it is
fairly compact plan or system is generally not uncommon to find that these losses are
conceived to be the most practical. However, greater than the cost of suitable buildings.
the outbuildings should not be so close to It thus appears that farmers frequently pay
the house as to appear a part of it, nor so for good buildings whether they have them
far distant as to be inconvenient. The house or not.
Farm buildings should be designed to
meet individual farm needs. No one type of
building is suitable for all types of farming
and proper location and planning require
more forethought than they ordinarily receive.
A satisfactory building is the result of many
hours of thought and planning on the part of
the owner, as well as consultation with those
experienced in the erection of good buildings.
Arranging the buildings, fences, and roads
on a new place is an easy matter comparatively, but rearranging an old farmstead is often
difficult as well as expensive. Hence it is desirable to put adequate thought and effort
Three Hundred Egg Hens
D. C. Warren
The world's official record for number of
eggs produced in 365 days is 339. This record was made in Australia by a Black Orpington hen in 1920. The highest official record
in the United States is 335 eggs and was
made by a White Leghorn hen at Puyallup,
Wash., in 1922. Three hundred egg hens
are very rare and to the writer's knowledge
only two have been reported for the past year
White Leghorn hen
No. 4546. This hen
299 eggs in
holds the college record, laying
365 days.
in all of the territory east of the Rocky
The performance of some of the hens at
the Kansas State Agricultural College poultry
plant was followed with considerable interest
during the past year. It was believed for a
while that the much sought three hundred
mark would be reached by one or more hens.
A single Comb White Leghorn hen, although
surpassing by considerable any previous Kansas record, presented us with the disappointing record of 299 eggs. This record exceeded
by 20 eggs any previous record made at the
College plant, and it should be mentioned that
it was made in a large laying house under
conditions recommended to the practical
poultryman. Such conditions are not corn43
parable to those under which the highest
records have usually been made.
Each year the higest producing hens are
placed in the production breeding pens from
which future breeders are obtained.
average production of the hens used in the
White Leghorn breeding pens for the past
sew years gives some idea of the progress
made. In 1920 thirty-three hens were used
in the production pens and their average was
200 eggs in a year; in 1921 eighteen hens
with an average production of 216 eggs; in
1922, thirty-six hens with an average production of 215 eggs; in 1923, thirty-seven
hens with an average production of 231 eggs;
and in 1924, thirty-nine hens are to be used
and their average production is 264 eggs.
Very little new blood has been introduced
into the stock for the past five years and
the increased production has been brought
about by rigid selection and careful management.
The production breeders for 1924 have
been divided into three lots. In the first
pen the hens used are not only high producers, but come from matings which gave
a high per cent of superior progeny.
the second pen the hens were selected because of their high individual records. In
selecting hens for a third pen emphasis was
placed primarily upon superior production
over a period of two or more years. The
average production for the nine hens in the
first pen is 274 eggs; for the ten hens in
the second pen, 276 eggs; for the eight hens
From these
in the third pen, 249 eggs.
matings it is hoped to obtain offspring that
will continue to raise the standard of production in the future.
W. H. Brookover, '18, is farming near
Eureka. His duties also include those of
the manager of the Cooperative Livestock
Association of his community.
J. D. Montague, '20, is farming near
Anthony. In the fall of 1919 he was a
member of the intercollegiate stock judging team.
Control of Fire Blight in the K.
Apple Orchard
Dirks, '24
The first fire blight epidemic in the
young K. S. A. C. apple orchard occured
during the summer of 1923. The Jonathan,
Chenango, and Maxwell varieties proved to
be the most susceptible to the disease although at least traces could be found in all
parts of the orchard. In combating the
blight, the whole orchard was gone over six
times and the more seriously infected trees
received additional treatments.
Although a few twig and spur blights were
observed early in June, it was not until two
weeks later that the disease became widespread in the orchard. A vigorous control
campaign was started as soon as indications
pointed to a serious epidemic. Cutting out
the blighted parts and careful disinfection
of wounds and pruning tools were the methods of attack. All water-sprouts and short
spurs on the trunk and main branches were
also removed. By August 6, the hot, dry
weather had slowed up tree growth to the extent that the trees were able to resist the
bacterium and the cutting of blight was no
longer necessary. Only a small number of
Jonathan trees, a few Maxwells, and a Chenango suffered seriously. The Jonathans which
blighted the most were large, vigorous, 10year -old trees. Practically all of the 235
trees of this variety showed some blight during the summer.
Fire blight is a bacterial disease and attacks the plant in the cambium layer underneath the bark. The bacteria most frequently
gain entrance to the cambium near the ends
of rapidly growing twigs and spurs.
first indication of the disease is the turning
brown of the leaves. As the blight progresses
the leaves die, then change in color from
brown to nearly black. The most serious
damage is done if the disease reaches a large
branch. In such cases it may follow the
cambium down and around the limb until
it is killed. During bad epidemics the number of blighted twigs may be so numerous
S. A. C.
as to make a tree look as though it had been
scorched by a fire. Certain varieties of pears
are especially susceptible to fire blight and
large limbs are often killed which later leads
to death of the tree.
The removal of all diseased parts as soon
as they appear is the best known method of
blight control. Affected twigs and spurs
should be cut off well below the lowest point
at which browning of the bark shows. If
bacteria, have spread down into the cambium
Of a limb a cut through the bark following
the .outline of the lesion should be made.
This plate of bark should then be removed,
the wound and tool disinfected and a second
cut made parallel with the first and about
one inch outside of it. This ring of healthy
bark should then be removed, the wound
carefully disinfected, and soon after painted
w_ ith water glass.
In work of this kind it is absolutely
necessary to keep the pruning tools sterile
at all times. After each twig or lesion cut
the pruning implement should be swabbed off
with a disinfectant. All large wounds should
also be sterilized and when dry painted with
water glass.
The disinfectant used during the summer
this orchard consisted of bichloride of
mercury, 1 ounce, mercuric cyanide, 1 ounce,
and water, 4 gallons. This disinfectant works
equally well for sterilizing the tree wounds
or the pruning tools. As no metal should
come in contact with the solution, it is best
to carry it in a wide mouthed glass bottle.
It is applied by means of a rag swab.
Holdover cankers from the previous summer's blight serve as the most fruitful source
of fire blight spread. If these cankers are
not removed insects carry the bacteria from
them to other trees. Early in the spring
the disease is carried to the nectaries of the
blossoms or to rapidly growing tips by aphids
and other insects and as a result new infections occur.
The growing of resistant varieties, the
inhibiting of rapid succulent growth, and the
spraying for aphis control, together with
surgery, are the means of controlling fire
The Pocket Gopher, the Rodent Pest of the Alfalfa Grower
Frederick E. Emery, '23
Although pocket gophers are very common
in most parts of Kansas they are not familiar
animals to most people. Pocket gophers are
numerous in Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma,
and westward. Early settlers tell us the
gophers are natives of this country and were
trapped by the Indians for food purposes.
Pocket gophers are seldom seen above
ground and for this reason they are not well
known. Sometimes the striped ground squirrels or the chipmunks have been called
gophers. The writer has been called upon
to poison gophers but on arrival found the
trouble was due to moles. One man asked
if the gopher was not a ground hog. In some
parts of the country people speak of pocket
gophers as salamanders.
Three species of the pocket gophers are
found in Kansas. The one in the vicinity of
Manhattan is Geomys bursaries. The pocket
gopher is a heavy, short-legged fellow, with
a short, almost hairless, tail and stout muscular forelegs. The incisor teeth are long
and the upper ones grooved. On the forefeet are long, strong claws. The head and
shoulders are heavy, and on either side of
the mouth is a hair-lined pocket extending
back to the shoulders. These pockets are
used for carrying food. In color the gopher
resembles the native rat, but the gopher is
more heavily built and is much less active.
The eyes of the gopher are small and kept
partly closed when the animal is at rest, but'
when frightened or angry the eyes protrude
and are very conspicuous in their flashing
The home of the pocket gopher is a system of underground runways varying in size
and length. Sometimes a tunnel six inches
in diameter is made. More often, however,
a three- to four-inch tunnel is dug about ten
inches under the ground. The tunnels of the
gopher are often very long sometimes totaling
one hundred yards in length.
The gopher uses his strong fore claws
and teeth in digging. The dirt is cut loose
and thrown under the animal. At frequent
intervals he turns around and with his breast
may be seen at work any time of the day.
In general the food of pocket gophers
consists of roots, green plants, and grains.
Roots are eaten almost exclusively in winter. The roots are cut up in pieces two or
three inches in length and stored near the
nest. This store house is filled in October
and November.
For this reason these
months present a very opportune time for
poisoning. Gophers wander out at night
in search of grain and may go a half mile
or more in order to get their pockets full of
oats or corn.
During the summer alfalfa tops are
eaten. These may be taken into the runway
either by digging a tunnel under the plants
and pulling them into the runway, or by
coming out on top of the ground and cutting
them off.
Gophers have increased steadily with the
increase in alfalfa growing and have become the most injurious rodents to the alfalfa crop. It has been estimated the damage
done to the alfalfa alone in Kansas is two
and one-half million dollars annually. This
fact should be sufficient to interest the Kansas farmer in cleaning his land of these
Full information concerning trapping and
poisoning pocket gophers can be obtained by
writing to the Department of Zoology of K.
Information concerning the extermination of the pests will also be presented
in succeeding issues of The Kansas Agricultural Student.
S. A. C.
and paws pushes the dirt to the surface. As
the runway advances in length side tunnels
six to ten feet apart are cut. These side tunnels
are slanting from the runway to the surface
and it is through these that the dirt is pushed
out forming a mound.
The mounds are usually crescent shape
and show a circular area near the concave
side. This area is really a plug where the
tunnel has been closed after the dirt was
pushed out. The dirt is pushed out so rapidly that the gopher is only exposed for an
instant and even then rarely more than the
head and shoulders are visible. Between
the mounds the surface of the ground is not
disturbed. This fact alone would distinguish the work of the pocket gopher from
that of a mole. Though more active early in
the morning or in the evening the gopher
Over 100 students of the Division of
Agriculture attended the first annual Aggie Day at the American Royal Livestock
Show at Kansas City, on Wednesday, November 21, 1923. Through the cooperation
of the Department of Animal Husbandry
of the college and the officials of the American Royal, the students were admitted as
guests of the association.
Willard Welsh, '21, is farm editor of
the Hutchinson News. He is handling a real
department according to reliable reports.
Willard says he has married and settled
H. E. Ratcliff, '23, is planning to return
to K. S. A. C. next semester and take up
graduate work in agricultural economics.
Why the Acreage of Soy Beans on
Eastern Kansas Farms Is Increasing
M. Williamson, '24
The soybean, an annual legume, is one of
the most valuable crops for the eastern Kansas farmer. It furnishes him with a legume
which is a soil
permits him to grow a
without having to keep his land in the
erop for a number of years as is the case
with alfalfa and the clovers. To both the
landlord and the tenant the soybean should
be a great help. The tenant wants a legume
hay and the landlord wants legumes grown,
but with alfalfa it takes a year to get it
started and the tenant does not want to plant
alfalfa and then move. With the soybean,
however, the tenant can plant and harvest a
crop in one year thus getting his hay. The
crop is a high yielder, the best seed varieties
in Kansas yielding 18 to 20 bushels per acre
and the better hay varieties yielding from
2 to 3 tons of hay per acre.
As is the case with most legumes the
principal incentive for growing soybeans is
their value as a soil improver. However,
unless the crop were valuable for other purposes also it would seldom be grown. In
eastern Kansas, especially southeastern Kansas, there is much land which will not grow
corn, wheat, and legumes, such as the sweet
clovers and alfalfa, profitably, owing to the
acid condition of the soil. It has been found
that soybeans will grow on these soils. Of
course the best yields of soybeans cannot be
secured from an acid soil but they will grow
and improve the conditions of these soils.
One of the causes of an acid condition in the
soil is the lack of aeration and the soybeans
greatly assist in this function. Soybeans being
taprooted penetrate the soil deeply and with
rather large roots aid in aeration. The roots
of the plants decay and leave air passages in
the soil. The root habit of soybeans also
seems to leave the surface soil in an extremely
fine condition for the following crop. The
lateness of cultivation leaves the field free
from weeds and this with the well pulverized
condition of the soil after the crop is har-
vested leaves an ideal seedbed for fall planting of alfalfa or a fall crop.
As stated before the soybean is more resistant to the effects of an acid soil than almost any of the other legumes and will produce good yields of both hay and seed on an
acid soil. However, experiments have shown
conclusively that the yield of the crop is
greatly increased by a light application of
lime. A heavy application of lime is not
profitable but an application of from one to
two thousand pounds per acre gives profitable
returns. The lime increases the percent of
protein in the plant and seed. The number
of nodules formed by the nitrogen fixing bacteria found on the roots is also greatly increased by the addition of lime, in some cases
the number being more than doubled. It is
these nodules which give the plant one of its
greatest values, that of adding nitrogen to
the soil.
With many Kansas soils, especially the
acid ones, it will be found that inoculation of
the seed or of the field itself before planting
is necessary. Material with which to inoculate the seed can be secured from most wholesale seed houses, if the commercial culture is
used. The method which can be most readily
used to inoculate the field itself is to scatter
top soil from a field on which soybeans have
been previously grown over the field on which
the beans are to be planted.
The great difficutly to be encountered in
soybean culture is that of getting a stand.
Care and skill must be exercised by the farmer if he is to secure best results or any satisfactory results at all. The plant is very sensitive to a poorly prepared seedbed. One reason for this is that the soybean does not seem
able to push itself to the surface if planted
too deep, therefore, to plant shallow enough
and still cover the seed the soil must be well
worked. Also the bean cannot push through a
crust caused by hard rains, but if planted only
an inch or a little more in depth it has a much
better chance of getting through. Probably
(Continued on page 64)
Published quarterly by the students of the Division of Agriculture. Subscription rate, one
dollar a year; single copies, twenty-five cents; advertising rates
on application. Address all communications to The Kansas Agricultural Student, Manhattan.
Editor in Chief
Assoc. Editor
Alumni Editor
Editor of College Notes
Business Manager
H. WAYNE ROGLER..Asst. Business Manager
Member of Pub. Bd.
Advisory Editor
Lovers of good cattle and our readers in
general will be interested to know that the
three yearling Shorthorns shown on our cover page are all Kansas products. The bull,
Royal Crown, is the result of years of successful breeding by Tomson Brothers
and Wakarusa. The college purchased this
bull as a calf and expects to head the college
Shorthorn herd with him. The heifer in the
center of the group is Marauder's Emily, whose
maternal ancestors for the past five generations have been bred on the college farm. The
other heifer, Narcissus Gem 6th, an exceptional individual in width and depth' of body, is
also a product of the college farm.
These three individuals will be shown individually and as a yearling Shorthorn herd
at the Kansas National Livestock show, Wichita, January 26 to February 2, 1924.
We are glad in this issue of The Kansas
Agricultural Student to give some recognition
to a few of the students of the Division of Agriculture who have made outstanding scholarship records. The four young men whose pictures are shown on page 53 have done their
freshman, sophomore, and junior work in K.
S. A. C.
They have won the distinction of
having the highest scholarship average of the
Departmental Editors
Animal Husbandry
Dairy Husbandry
Agricultural Economics
Poultry Husbandry
seniors of the division who have made all
their college credits in K. S. A. C.
There are two other members of the class
of 1924 of the Division of Agriculture whose
scholarship average places them well up in
this group of leaders. However, both of these
students entered this institution with advanced standing and have not earned sufficient
college credits in K. S. A. C. to make them
eligible to election to Phi Kappa Phi the first
semester of the college year.
Freshman honors in the Division of Agriculture for the college year 1922-23 were won
by A. G. Jensen of Neodesha. Sophomore students in the Division of Agriculture may be
elected to Alpha Zeta and the society is to be
commended highly for the stimulus it gives
to scholarship from the first day the student
becomes a college freshman.
The "Honor Roll, 1922-23" as given in
"College Notes" is worthy of notice and comment. The three standards that must be met
to attain the distinction are worthy of the best
in any students. The second standard makes
it necessary that a student's paramount job
be his college assignment. It is to be regretted that this standard automatically eliminates a few worthy self-supporting students
who are otherwise worthy of the commendation. The number thus eliminated, however,
is not large. The first standard requires college work that is regularly and consistently
satisfactory. More students were eliminated
by this first standard than by the third standard which requires, not an exceptional but a
reasonably high scholarship average. A great
majority of college students can meet these
worthwhile standards. It is hoped that the
percent of those commended may be much
higher this year than last.
After all, Scholarship Counts. All else in a
college career will fall flat and not be worth
the effort and the expenditure of time and
money unless the student attains and maintains a reasonably high degree of scholarship.
There are many beautiful and helpful things
in four years of college life, many more indeed than are usually crowded in any other
four years of human life, but without scholarship-that which is the only sound and acceptable core of a college education-all the
frills and the "activities" become as "sounding brass and a clanging cymbal."
Many Kansas farmsteads once
painted and attractive have become blackened
by wind and weather until it seems that farmers have lost all appreciation of the value of
a good appearance. The farmer with his back
to the wall has been forced to postpone repainting the farm buildings and beautifying
of home surroundings until he works out his
financial enigma.
However, there is a latent danger in doing
without a thing which we really need. By so
doing the need becomes less apparent until we
scarcely realize that the need actually exists.
Will the farmer when normal prosperity returns use his surplus means to the attractiveness, and permanency of his business and
home, or will his ideals and standards have
changed until added wealth means only added cylinders and a longer wheel base than
the flivver.
Well kept and neatly painted farm buildings surrounded by shrubs, trees, and natural beauty are an advertisement and farm
asset which cannot be disregarded. They bespeak good farm management and carefulness in all farm operations. Permanency,
stability, and economy are self evident. A
home signifies more than a mere house to
live in. It embodies comfort, convenience,
economy, and beauty. Give the farmer a
modern attractive home and he has by far
the most wholesome home life of any class
of people. The social and financial power in
any rural community always has been and
we hope always will be measured by the
number of beautiful, modern, and practical
farm homes which its progressive citizens
have erected.
May the new year bring to American agriculture its due portion of prosperity. A
reasonable share of this prosperity should
be used in beautifying and modernizing the
farm home. The value of beauty and comfort cannot be measured. By abstaining from
a few present-day luxuries the home may be
provided with ;every worth-while convenience. Surely the farm family well deserves
the best of home surroundings. May we
soon see the farm home rejuvenated and restored to its rightful position in the sun, that
of the most beautiful spot under the canopy
of heaven.
Relatively few prospective college students investigate carefully all of the "ins
and outs" of various curricula of study that
are offered by the higher educational institutions. Regardless of the fact that the
selection of the college curriculum is the
most important step toward the student's
life work, the choice is often made with little forethought, in a hit-and-miss fashion.
Perhaps that is the reason why so many
graduates later find themselves on the wrong
road, or discover that they are misfits in
their particular line of endeavor.
Many students make erroneous choices
because they judge the future too exclusively
by the present. Only when the future has
become a reality do they see how incompetently they have judged the entire situation. Undoubtedly the relatively low price of farm
products during the last few years presents
a case in point. For no other reason than
the present depressed situation in several phases of agriculture, many students
have forsaken their fathers' farms, their
early training, and sometimes their real inclinations, and have begun to prepare themselves for other occupations. They have made
the grave mistake of allowing the Ogee
curve to choose their life work for them.
One's career should be chosen with a for-
ward look and not on the basis of momentary expediency. The student's inclinations
and aptitudes should be considered carefully
and he should not lose sight of the long-time
prospects of various pursuits and professions
which he might enter. Rather than basing his
choice on the price curve, the student should
consider the wisdom of these words of Emerson: "A man is relieved and gay when he has
put his heart into his work and does his best;
whatsoever he has said or done otherwise
shall give him no peace." A man should seek
to enter that pursuit in which he will be able
to put his whole self into his work.
Perhaps no other field of activity has received more comment of late than that of
agriculture, and in none has more skepticism
been voiced. This pessimism, to a great extent, may be attributed to the lack of appreciation of certain relavent facts. Although
the agricultural depression of the last few
years has been discouraging, the student who
is thinking in terms of the future should not
lose sight of the fact that this depression is
necessarily temporary.
Agriculture is a fundamental industry.
In fact it is the one around which all others
revolve and upon which all others depend
for their stimulus and very existence. Upon
first thought this seems like an overvaluation,
but we must consider that modern industry
has been developed primarily because agriculture and other extractive industries have
been able to produce enough food and raw
materials for the entire country. Civilization
began with agriculture-the care of animals
and cultivation of the soil. It is only reasonable to expect that civilization cannot continue
without agriculture. Thus it is quite impossible to conceive of a profession, as essential to the well being of humanity as agriculture, failing to retain its place as one of
the most important and attractive of all
pursuits. In all probability by the time a
student now entering college will have graduated, the agricultural outlook will have
undergone extensive changes for the better.
One of the first points the student wishes
to ascertain in selecting a course is the
amount he can reasonably expect to receive
as a reward for his training. In other words,
how will the returns compare with his expenditure of time, effort, and talent? While
that farming and related occupations generally offer small returns at
the outset, they are by no means the only
occupations that do so. Many men in the
professions-law, medicine, and theologyare required to go through a comparable
"starvation period." It is merely the acid
test that tries the metal of the beginner.
The beginner in farming, as a rule, has a
comparatively small income available for
spending. This may be attributed to the
fact that the greater part of the income
must necessarily be returned to the farm in
the form of equipment and improvements.
However, the beginner's fear of a period of
low spendable income should be given but
small consideration. The question of greatest concern is, what will be the state of
affairs of the farmer who is industrious,
thrifty, and a good manager, at the end of a
period of 10, 15, or even 20 years? Will
he be more nearly financially independent
than his city brother. and if so why?
In the first place the partial isolation of
the farm life encourages thrift. The tendency toward extravagant and useless social
activities is noticeably lacking, and the
unconscious competition in conspicuous consumption of non-essentials is removed. Thus
all returns from the farm above actual living
expenses are put into land, livestock, equipment, and a home. So while the farmer is
going to bed early and paying for his farm,
his city brother may be struggling for supremacy on the waxed floor and barely making
his books balance. In this case it will be
quite apparent, when old age comes and the
earning power of each begins to decline, who
has held the winning hand in the game of
life. The farmer invests his surplus in one of
the most secure of all investments-land. He
plans for the future of himself and his family,
while many of his city contemporaries, though
they may be living well at the start, are
fundamentally living under hand-to-mouth
After all where may conditions be made
more nearly ideal or more as Nature intended them to be? Where may one find a
better place to express his individualism than
in the environment in which he was created
to live? Amid surroundings which breed contentment, man's efficiency is increased and
no one can deny
this increase he is of greater
service to himself and society. John Stuart
Mill said, "Solitude in the presence of natural
beauty and grandeur is the cradle for
thoughts which are not only good for the
soul but which society could ill do without."
While these considerations do not necessarily
affect one's earning power, they are the
points that go to make life worth while.
by reason of
Before the prospective college student decides to disregard the ancient and time honored profession of agriculture and elect one
apparently more remunerative, he should
recognize such important considerations as
have been advanced herein. The intelligent
selection of one's life work is a problem that
calls for much forethought and meditation.
Agriculture challenges the high school student who is considering a college course.
The Relative Values of Corn Silage
and Corn Stover Silage
Austin W. Stover, '24
Experiments were carried on by the Department of Dairy Husbandry of the Kansas
Agricultural Experiment Station during the
years 1914-15, 1920-21, and 1921-22 to determine whether corn silage was more valuable than corn stover silage for feeding dairy
In these experiments the single reversal
system was used. The experiments were
divided into three periods of 40 days each,
the first 10 days of each period being a preliminary feeding period in order to be assured of no fluctuations due to sudden
changes of feed. If corn silage was fed in
the first and third periods it would be replaced by corn stover silage in the second
period, or if corn stover silage was fed in
the first and third periods it would be replaced by corn silage in the second period.
In all of the experiments the grain supplement remained constant for the three periods.
Experimental evidence has proved that if
the feeds in such experiments are equal in value, the average of the first and third periods
will be equal to the second. So in these experiments any variation between the average
total of the first and third periods, and the
total of the second period was due to a difference in the feeding values of the two
kinds of silage.
The results obtained from the three years
work are given in the following table:
Corn silage.
Stover silage
Difference in favor
of corn silage
1920 -21
Corn silage
Stover silage
Difference in fay. of
corn stover silage
19 21-2 2
Corn silage
Stover silage
Difference in favor
of corn silage
The results of the experiments show that
the corn stover is not as valuable for feed
as is the corn silage since the milk and fat
produced were greater during the periods
when corn silage was fed. The cows also
showed slightly more tendency to gain when
fed corn silage than when fed stover silage.
M. M. Justin, '07, M. S., '17, is Field
Statistician in the Livestock Bureau, United
States Department of Agriculture. His address is 432 State Capitol Building, Salt
Lake City.
M. L. Baker of Syracuse, senior in animal
husbandry, won highest individual honors
and the Kansas State Agricultural College's
livestock judging team placed second in the
students' judging contest held on Saturday,
November 17, 1923, in connection with the
American Royal Livestock Show at Kansas
City. A. C. Magee of Canadian, Tex., placed
fourth in individual competition. The Kansas
team placed high on swine judging, thus winning a trophy from the National Duroc-Jersey Association. The team also placed high
on sheep, third on cattle, and fifth on horses.
There were ten teams competing in the
contest. North Dakota's team won first with
a total score of 2,872 points, followed by K.
S. A. C. with a score of 2,801 points.
The first five individual rankings with the
scores made from a possible 650 points were
as follows.
M. L. Baker, Kansas
H. C. Anderson, North Dakota
J. H. Turner, Iowa
A. C. Magee, Kansas
Oscar L. Hansen, North
The scores made by the first five teams
were as follows:
North Dakota
Other members of the team besides Baker
and Magee were: Edwin Hedstrom, Manhattan; J. L. Farrand, Hunter; G. R. War then, Webb City, Mo.; and H. F. Moxley,
Osage City. Prof. F. W. Bell, !livestoick
judging coach, accompanied the team.
In the various classes of livestock
judged, Farrand placed second and MoxThy third on swine; Magee, second, Baker,
fourth, and Warthen, fifth on cattle; and
Baker, second on horses.
The college grain judging team placed
fourth in the first annual Intercollegiate
Grain Judging Contest held in Chicago, December 6, 1923, in connection with the In52
ternational Livestock Exposition.
Seven teams Were represented making
records as follows:
North Carolina
The contest though only in its infancy
shows great promise for the future as nearly twice this number of states have pledged
to have their institutions represented- by a
team another year. Though handicapped
kmewhat this year by not having sufficient
space, the contest is quite sure to grow into
a permanent part of the annual International Livestock Exposition.
Much credit is due Prof. J. W. Zahnley
for his work as coach in producing a team
that made such a creditable showing. The
team was composed of the following seniors in the Division of Agriculture: M. M.
Hoover, Burlingame, W. H. von Trebra,
Oswego; Edward Watson,
B. R. Churchill,
At a recent meeting of Alpha Zeta, hon-
orary agricultural student fraternity, the
resident alumni members of the local chapter organized the Kansas State Association
of Alpha Zeta Alumni. After the adoption
of a constitution, an executive committee of
three resident members of the college staff
and three alumni from the state at large
were elected. Prof. J. H. Parker, Prof. R.
J. Barnett, and Prof. W. E. Grimes were
relected as resident members of the committee. Mr. M. L. Otto, '21, farmer, of Riley;
H. A. Pennington, '09, farmer, of Hutchinson; and John J. Inskeep, Purdue, '21, county agricultural agent of Sumner County
(Wellington), were chosen to represent the
alumni members from the state as a whole.
Tentative activties for the alumni association include holding of ail annual reunion,
seeing that the organization is represented
at the biennial conclave, and lending encouragement in every possible way to the
Kansas Chapter of Alpha Zeta.
during the
The national honorary scholastic society, Phi Kappa Phi, elects to its membership
college year the 5 percent of the members of the senior class who rank
first semester
first three years of college work in K. S.
highest in scholarship and who also have completed theirwon
the distinction for this college year
A. C. The Ags whose pictures are shown above having
were recently elected to Phi Kappa Phi. From le ft to right they are: R. W. Sherman, Burlington.
majoring in animal husbandry; E.
N. J., majoring
M. Litwiller of Salem, Ore., majoring in horticulture; R. L. Stover of Manhattan, majoring in dairy
Kansas won first place in the intercollegiate livestock judging contest held December 1, 1923, in connection with the International Livestock Exposition at Chicago,
scoring a total of 4,319 points out of a possible 5,000. The team scored 200 points
more than any former winning team and
placed more classes of livestock correctly.
The same team placed second in the contest
at the American Royal in Kansas City, November 17. The following seniors in animal
husbandry composed the team: A. C. Magee, Canadian, Tex.; M. L. Baker, Syracuse;
J. L. Farrand, Hunter; G. R. Warthen, Webb
City, Mo.; H. F. Moxley, Osage City; Edwin
Hedstrom (alternate), Manhattan.
There were 19 teams competing in the
International making a total of 95 contestants. G. R. Peterson of the Ontario Agricultural College placed first with a total
score of 908 points out of a possible 1,000.
R. F. McSwain of Texas placed second with
a score of 893. Warthen placed third making 892 points, and Farrand fourth making
891 points for individual honors.
The contesting teams placed in the following order: Kansas, Ontario, Ohio, Iowa,
Texas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, West Virginia,
Colorado, Manitoba, PennsylMichigan, and North Da-
vania Purdue,
It is a matter of pride to note that Prof.
F. W. Bell coached this Kansas team which
made such an enviable and unusual record
against strong competition in two great livestock judging contests.
Five heads of departments of the Division
of Agriculture represented the college on the
first Union Pacific Better Farming Special
which toured the western Kansas territory of
the Union Pacific Railroad during the second
week in November. It is estimated that over
10,000 western, Kansas farmers were reached
by the better farming program. They were
all reported as having been receptive to any
information concerning feed crops and the
kind of livestock most profitable in a system
of farming giving greater diversity than at
present commonly practiced in the Union
Pacific territory of western Kansas.
Prof. L. E. Call, head of the Department
of Agronomy, outlined a plan for the prevention of a recurrence of Hessian fly infestation
such as the western Kansas farmers experienced this fall. Prof. L. F. Payne, head of the
Department of Poultry Husbandry, stressed
March and April hatching in order to secure increased egg production. The feeding
of meat and milk as supplements to other
grain rations and the providing of draft-free
houses were also emphasized. Prof. W. E.
Grimes, head of the Department of Agricultural Economics, explained the increased
farming efficiency which could be obtained
from a more balanced system of farming in
the wheat belt. Dr. C. W. Mc Campbell, head
of the Department' of Animal Husbandry, centered his talk around the hog as an important
source of farm income. Plans for profitable
raising, feeding, and marketing pigs were
outlined. "The dairy business dovetails perfectly with wheat production," explained Prof.
J. B. Fitch, head of the Department of Dairy
Husbandry. A method of building up a valuable herd' of cows was recommended, and
the possibilities of the dairy business as part
of a diversified type of farming were discussed.
Eighteen stops were made by the special.
three meetings each day with three hours at
each stop comprising the itinerary.
HONOR ROLL, 1922-23
Letters of special commendation for outstanding achievements in scholarship during
the last college year, 1922-23, have recently
been sent by Dean Farrell to 40 students of
the Division of Agriculture. The standards
met by these students that entitled each to
this special mark of distinction were three
in number: (1) Keep their year's record free
from deficiencies. (2) Carry not less than a
normal assignment. (3) Make at least 50
points under the K. S. A. C. pojnt system.*
The students enrolled in the division at
the present time who met these standards in
their work last year are:
J. J. Dlabal
A. G. Jensen
Earl M. Knepp
M. E. Osborne
John H. Shirley
Valley Falls
Glenn Aik ins
A. M. Carkuff
Tucson, Arizona
Walter J. Daly
G. E. Hendrix
Martin Henrichs
Carlton, Colorado
G. W. Montgomery, Jr. Sabetha
H. A. Noyce
Glen Railsback
G. M. Reed
The honorary student agricultural society,
the Kansas Chapter of the Fraternity of Alpha
Zeta, offers a medal each year to the highest
ranking freshman in the Division of Agriculture.
A. G. Jensen was the winner for the college year
1922-23. During the two semesters of the college year he earned 38 college credits making
an average in scholarship of 1.5 or 93 percent.
Hugh T. Willis
Glenn Wood
H. H. Carnahan
J. H. Coolidge
Walter Crotchett
S. W. Decker
C. 0. Dirks
G. A. Fi
K. L. Ford
M. M. Hoover
L. D. Keller
R. G. Lewis
Salem, Ore.
E. M. Litwiller
R. T. Patterson
Burlington, N. J.
R. W, Sherman
K. B. Spear
T. B. Stinson
R. L. Stover
C. D. Tolle
Webb City, Mo.
G. R. Warthen
*Passing grades given at K. S. A. C. are,
from lowest to highest, P, M, G, and E. Each
credit hour with a grade of "M" gives thea
student one point. Each credit hour with
grade of "G" gives two points and each gradof "E' three points. No student will be
uated unless his total number of points earned
at least equals the total number of credit hours
required in his curriculum.
F. M. Alexander
M. L.
D. M.
Measured by these standards, 22 members
of the Class of 1923 from the Division of
Agriculture made this honor roll. The most
outstanding record of the year was made by
Marvel L. Baker who carried 42 credit hours
of work during the regular school year making a total of 121 points, or 5 less than
the greatest number possible.
Big hats, portfolios, and canes have
made their appearances on the campus recently in larger numbers and varieties than
usual. These testify to the fact that the
seniors of three of the departments in the
Division of Agriculture have adopted regalia
to separate them from their lesser colleagues
in the division, or at least to distinguish
them from the yearlings.
The seniors of the Department of Animal
Husbandry (see representative in the- illustration) have adopted as the emblems of
their stockmanship large 3X beaver Stetsons, with 3 % -inch brims and 6-inch crowns.
These are similar to the official hats worn
by the seniors in this department for the
last four years.
Seniors in the Department of Dairy Husbandry decided this year to uphold their dignity with a distinctive symbol. Consequently,
as illustrated, they are gracing the campus
with black genuine velour hats of slightly
more generous proportions than those worn
by the senior stockmen.
The agricultural economist seniors, as
has been their custom in the past, are
carrying portfolios as a mark of their profession, thus combining practicability with
their naturally studious natures. Two representative specimens were caught entering
the west wing of the agricultural building
and are presented in the illustration.
The all-Ag cane adds the finishing touch
to all seniors in the division. The canes
are symbolical of the superiority of the holders, and are otherwise conceded to be valunable in ordering about innocent hogs in
stock-judging classes.
H. H. Frizzell, '16, farmer of Cherokee,
Okla., was on hand for Homecoming. His
community is one of the many going too
strong on wheat.
N. E. Dale, '18, formerly assistant professor of agronomy, is chief agriculturist
for the Indian River Products Company,
Vero, Fla.
G. C. Gibbons, '18, Extension Agronomist, Oklahoma A. and M. College, attended
the National Hay and Grain Show, Chicago.
On his return he visited K. S. A. C. He
is planning to complete work for a master's
degree in the near future.
W. C. Hall, '20, of Coffeyville, is. a breeder of Shorthorn cattle and Poland China
hogs. For the past three years he has been
president of the Montgomery County Farm
Carl F. Trace, '20, formerly with the
Royster Guano Company, Toledo, Ohio, is
now in partnership with his father in the
retail mercantile business, Commerce, Okla.
S. D. Capper, '21, is county agricultural
agent in Lincoln County.
C. 0. Granfield, '17, is county agricultural agent in Bourbon County. (Fort Scott.)
E. H. Ptacek, '18, is teaching agriculture in the Maple Hill High School.
C. A. Wood, '11, is county agricultural
agent in Johnson County, Olathe, Kan.
Walter A. Hepler, f. s., member of the
stock judging team in 1913, is farming near
Manhattan (rural route No. 4). Mr. Hepler
showed the champion carlot of lambs at the
recent American Royal Livestock Show held
in Kansas City.
H. G. Roots, '11, is teaching and coaching athletics in the Wamego High School.
0. M. Norby, '12, visited K. S. A. C.
and friends in Manhattan recently. He is
farming in Pratt County near Cullison.
Arthur D. Weber, '22, until recently
manager of the Cameston Farm near Kansas City, is now instructor in the Department of Animal Husbandry. Mr. Weber
will be a valuable man in the department.
He has always been a lover of livestock and
made a large portion of his college expenses
by working in the Department of Animal
Husbandry. In judging contests both in K.
S. A. C.
and in state and national contests
he has placed first or second a larger number of times than any other student in the
history of the college. His record as an out-
standing student and unexcelled livestock
judge promises much for the future.
F. D. Rupert, State College of Washington, '23, is graduate assistant in farm crops,
Department of Agronomy. He is specializing in crop improvement. As a student in
Washington he was a member of the stock
judging team.
Dr. Don C. Warren, University of Indiana, '14, who contributes an interesting
article in this issue, is now associate professor of poultry husbandry. Doctor Warren received his doctor's degree from Columbia University specializing in zoology with
special reference to heredity. At Columbia
he was a student of Doctor Morgan, recognized as the world's leading authority
H. L. Kent, '13, M. S. '20, formerly for several years a member of the faculty of K. S.
A. C., now president of the New Mexico State
college of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts
(P. 0., State College), made a business trip
to Manhattan and K. S. A. C. recently.
F. E. Emery, D. V. M., '23, is assistant
mammalogist of the Agricultural Experiment
B. H. Fleenor, '19, recently instructor in
the Manhattan High School, is now assistant professor of education.
Frank M. Linscott, D. V. M., '91, is farming near Farmington. He has a son, S. K.
Linscott, who is now a freshman in college.
J. M. Ryan, '07, is a member of the Kansas State Tax Commission. His home address is Holton.
George E. Starkey, '22, is manager of
Doctor Grossheart's dairy farm near Alsuma,
Earl Means, '22, Editor of Volume I of
The Kansas Agricultural Student, is farming at Everest. He is also secretary-treasurer of the Atchison County Farm Bureau.
The Champion Club Girl
Sam Pickard, '23
Kansas has the material for a modern ditions were planted with careful attention
Joan of Arc. The prairie heroine is Kathryn fo landscaping ideas.
Nickel, pretty and sixteen. Kate, as the folks
in McPherson County call her, is Kansas'
champion club girl.
This "Maid of Kansas" has displayed the
spirit, character, and courage to lift a siege
should the exigency exist. Her list of achievements consummated at the end of an assiduous year of club work is probably unequaled.
She is one of a large Mennonite family living
out in the country 15 miles from McPherson.
It was April, 1922, that Kathryn joined
the Willing Workers Club under the local
leadership of Mrs. A. H. Wendt. At thai
time the rural girls were centering their atrention on poultry work. Kathryn put her
heart, soul, and strength into the project.
She hatched 863 baby chicks.
But first
came the floods and then all the crows in
the neighborhood seemed to center their attention on the Nickel ranch, swooping down
and carrying off the baby chicks from morning 'till night. But Kathryn didn't quit. Her
total feed bill, the result of carefully kept daily
records, amounted to $74.88. Fowls and eggs
sold amounted to $212.65, leaving
The club work accomplishments of Kath$137.73. Besides her chicks Kathryn raised ryn and her half dozen girl friends gained
85 turkeys and 18 ducks. She says her luck
the limelight during the fair season when
would have been better last spring had she their demonstrations outranked all competijust specialized on ducks.
tots at the state fairs. Garments made by
Until she joined the Willing Workers
Kathryn were awarded one second and two
Club, Kate had never sewed a stitch. Her fourth prizes. The $200 earned in prize
record books shows 200 hours of needle work money is being used by the girls for the
to her credit since January, 1923, with drespurpose of bringing educators into the comses, aprons, middies, overalls, and boys' shirts munity during the winter months.
as products. In between times Kathryn manLast spring her club was given a trip to
aged to fix up the house a bit. A dressing the Annual Boys' and Girls' Round-up
at the
table, nine chairs, a bed, a baby's crib, library kansas State Agricultural College
for the
table and a kitchen table were either painted purpose of presenting their club play. It
or refinished. The floors of six rooms were was at this time that the attention
of Prof.
refinished. In her own room she plastered Ira Pratt, head of the Department of
up the holes and papered. With her own
was directed to Kathryn. Her voice possessed
money she bought a piano.
qualities which the music director felt should
Another phase of club work taught by not be neglected. He told her that with
the leaders which interested Kathryn was proper training she could become a great
beautifying the home surroundings. Flowers singer. Soon after Kathryn bought her piano.
and shrubs adapted to western Kansas con- Now it is her ambition to know all the fun57
damentals of music by the time she is ready
for college.
Yes, she expects to go to college and is
saving money for that purpose now. And the
future holds no locked treasuries for Kathryn. Her pleasant personality, charming manner, indefatigable perseverance, and capability have functioned as a magic key. On
every turn she has met opposition with intrepidity. Kathryn displayed her unselfishhess and generous nature last fall when she
surrendered her almost certain chance to
win the coveted trip to Chicago for meritorious club work. When she learned that it
meant a keen disappointment to her closest
competitor she asked Miss Eleanor Howe,
state girl club leader, to please take her off
the team. "It will be impossible for me to
go, anyway, and besides the other girls have
worked just as much as I have and it will
be almost as great a pleasure to see one of
them win." This fall when the achievements
of thousands of Kansas club girls were summarized it was found that Kathryn's record
unquestionably gave her the coveted prize
trip to the Boys' and Girls' Club Congress
at Chicago for which club girls in many
counties had worked enthusiastically all year.
Supplying Vitamin A in the Ration of Brood Sows
Marvel L. Baker, '24
Investigations in animal nutrition now
being carried on by the Department of Animal Husbandry of the Agricultural Experiment Station with the Departments of Chemistry and Pathology cooperating, show the
importance of Vitamin A in the growth and
reproduction of swine. Eighteen purebred
Poland China gilts of spring farrow were
placed on feed July 25, 1922. These were
divided into four lots, lot 1 containing six
gilts and each of the others, four. The effect of the basal ration, which was to be the
feed of lot 1, had been demonstrated in previous experiments and the two gilts were
added for purposes of clinical study.
The gilts are kept on a concrete floor
and all have equal access to sunlight and
The basal ration consists of
ground white corn 87 per cent, tankage 10
per cent, and bone ash 3 per cent. Lot 2
has 5 percent of this ration replaced by an
equal quantity of butterfat. Lot 3 receives
one-fourth pound sprouted oats per head
per day in addition to the basal ration and
lot 4 has 10 per cent ground alfalfa added
to the basal ration.
None of the gilts from lots 2 and 4
have been lost from nutritional disturbances
Two gilts from lot 2 and one from lot 4 were
lost early in the experiment because of foot
rot. None of the gilts showed evidence of
nutritional disturbances until January 21,
1923. Since that time five from lot 1 and
three from lot 3 have developed the following symptons in order: Loss of appetite,
carrying head to one side, partial or total
blindness, staggering gait, paralysis of the
hindquarters, and paralysis of the entire
body. Two gilts from lot 1 and one from lot
Post mortem
3 either died or were killed.
examination showed it was impossible to
remove the brain of the affected animals
entire, the tissue being soft. The same condition prevailed in the spinal cord and it
appears that a degeneration of nervous tissue results from feeding a ration deficient
in Vitamin A. One gilt in lot 1. and one
in lot 3 never developed the symptons enumerated above. The gilt from lot 1 has,
however, made but little development and is
in very poor physical condition. The remaining gilts in these two lots have been
given one ounce of cod-liver oil daily since
breaking down, and with the exception of
one gilt in lot 3 have recovered wholly or
partially, and it appears evident that swine
can be recovered from the malnutritional effects of a deficiency of Vitamin A by the addition of cod-liver oil to their ration, if such addition is made soon enough. Although the
gilts of lot 2 have not broken down it has
been difficult to keep them on feed. They
have been very stiff much of the time. The
gilts in lot 3 have developed more uniformly than those of lot 2, despite the fact that
three of them have broken down. Those
1 are decidedly the poorest in the
experiment and until cod-liver oil was added
to their ration made but little development.
The gilts of lot 4 have shown a decided advantage over the remaining gilts and have
developed quite uniformly. It cannot be
said, however, that they have a perfect
ration and the deficiency is ascribed to a
lack of Vitamin C or D.
It was desired to continue the experiment through succeeding generations and
with this in view, the gilts were bred to a
normal boar for fall farrow in 1923. Although all of the gilts of lot 1 had been in
heat almost continuously for some time
prior to the opening of the breeding season,
only one of them came in heat afterwards.
Work at other stations indicates that animals
receiving a ration deficient in Vitamin A
ovulate continuously until the functional
power of the ovaries has been destroyed and
this is probably the explanation in this case.
All of the remaining gilts were bred and have
all produced litters with the exception of
one gilt in lot 4 which failed to settle. The
pigs were in general weak. The sow from
lot 1 which farrowed had received cod-liver
oil during the entire period of pregnancy, and
her pigs although undersized were not particularly lacking vigor as compared to the
Others. None of the pigs from lot 2 have
been saved. In lot 3, all of the pigs from
one sow, which had broken down some time
prior to farrowing, were blind and died soon
after birth. The pigs from lot 4 were at
the time of farrowing the largest, most uniform, and most vigorous of any in the experiment. It is, however, too early to draw
definite conclusions from the pigs.
From the results of these investigations
to date, it appears that Vitamin A which is
found in yellow corn, alfalfa hay, cod-liver
oil, butterfat, and green feeds is essential
to the proper development of swine; that
valuable breeding animals may often be saved
after breaking down, by the prompt addition
of cod-liver oil to their feed; and that from
a production standpoint, the practice followed
by many successful swine growers of adding
alfalfa hay to their swine rations during the
winter is basically sound and one that may
well be followed more generally.
of lot
This new fireproof structure has since September 1, 1923, been the home of the Departments of Dairy Husbandry, Poultry Husbandry,
and Agricultural Economics.
Albert Wertman, '23, is in the employ of
the Blue Valley Creamery company of De-
troit, Mich.
George J. Raleigh, '21, is teaching in the
Department of Horticulture of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst.
Robert H. Lush, '21, a member of the
dairy judging team of 1920, is now an instructor in the Department of Dairy Husbandry.
George M. Drumm, '21, is in charge of
the dairy herd at the University of California at Davis.
G. C. Anderson, '21, is teaching in the
Department of Dairy Husbandry of the University of Idaho, Moscow.
Raymond Campbell, '20, is running a
purebred Ayrshire farm near Parsons.
Edward E. Gottman, '20, is manager of
a commercial dairy farm near Kansas City,
W. L. Martin, '22, is teaching agriculture
in the Mulberry High School, Crawford County.
L. R. Allott, '23, is having some valuable
experience in the employ of a Minnesota
packing company.
His address is 1101
North Kenwood Avenue, Austin, Minn.
G. C. Wheeler, '95, is associate specialist
in marketing in the hay, feed, and seed di-
vision of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture.
The Value of Ground Cane Seed
in a Ration for Dairy Cows
F. E. Charles, '24
The old idea, so long prevalent among
dairy farmers, that feeding cane seed to
dairy cows would dry them up has been exploded completely by the results of a series
of experiments completed recently by the Department of Dairy Husbandry of the Kansas
Agricultural Experiment Station. The experiments were made to determine the relative
efficiency of ground cane seed as compared
with corn chop in the dairy cow's ration. The
outcome of the tests indicate that ground
cane seed can be fed in a ration to dairy
cows with results practically as good as when
corn chop is fed.
For the Kansas dairyman the data gained
from these experiments should be of exceptional value for in many sections of the
state corn raised for grain is an uncertain
crop because of low annual rainfall and
drouth, while in some sections no attempt is
made to grow corn for any purpose.
As a silage crop the grain sorghums have
had increasing popularity each year and the
acreage harvested for grain is growing larger.
The seed of the nonsaccharin varieties is generally considered a good feed for livestock,
Including dairy cattle, but the seed of the
saccharin varieties has been used very little
for this purpose. In fact the old superstition
that cane would dry up milk cows has created
a decided feeling against the practice of
feeding cane seed.
The digestible nutrients in cane seed are
practically the same as in corn. If the dairy
cow could utilize these nutrients in ground
cane seed it would be practicable for the
farmer to remove the heads from the cane
before putting it in the silo. The heads when
removed and dried could be threshed and
the ground seed fed in grain mixtures to take
the place of corn chop or other carbohydrate
In making the tests to determine the efficiency of ground cane as compared with
corn chop in the dairy cow's ration a feeding
trial was conducted in 1920, repeated in 1921,
and again in 1922.
The general plan of the test as conducted
was as follows: The cows were balanced as
nearly as possible as to the period of lactation and length of time bred. They were
milked twice daily standing in ordinary
stanchions and turned in a dry lot whenever
the weather permitted. Salt was provided
at all times. Sufficient feeds of uniform
quality were provided at the beginning of
each test to last throughout the trial. All
feeds were weighed to the animal and any
uneaten portions were weighed back. The cows
were fed by the double reversal method
through three thirty-day periods, each period
consisting of a ten-day preliminary period
followed by a twenty-day experimental feeding period, from which the data on the test
Were compiled. The grain mixture consisted
of four parts of the grain to be compared,
two parts of wheat bran, and one part of
linseed oilmeal. In two of the trials corn
was used in the grain mixture during periods
one and three, and was replaced by ground
cane seed during period two. In the other
trial cane seed was fed in the mixture during
periods one and three and corn during period
two. The roughages were fed according to
body weight while the grain was regulated
according to milk production.
Twelve animals were included in the tests
on which there was a loss of nine pounds
live weight while on the cane seed ration as
compared with the corn chop ration. This
is less than 1 per cent and is therefore negligible. Only 20.4 pounds more milk was
produced while the cows were on the grain
mixture containing corn than while they were
on the mixture containing ground cane seed.
This is only 0.4 of 1 per cent. The total
butterfat production was in favor of the cane
seed. The twelve cows, while on cane seed,
produced 8.77 pounds or 4.8 per cent more
butterfat than the same cows produced while
on the corn ration. The difference in per
(Continued on page 64)
What Farm Machinery Is Doink,
ON every continent, the leading nations are those
which make the greatest use of farm machinery.
In every nation, the individual farmers who have
the best machine equipment, and make the best use of
it, rank as the leaders in their respective communities.
Farm machinery is the cause, not an effect, of progress.
Because of the advantages his machines give him, the
American farmer leads the world in production per man,
and is infinitely better off than his fellows in any other
part of the world.
In every farming community where modern machinery
is used, the products of the J. I. Case Threshing Machine Company are known for their high standard of
excellence. For this reason the most successful farmers
invariably use Case tractors, threshers or other products
made by this company.
J. I. Case Threshink, Machine Co.
(Established 1842)
Dept. M63
Case Farm Tractors, Steel Threshers, Silo Fillers,
Baling Presses, Steam Engines, Road Machinery,
Grand Detour Plows and Disk Harrows.
NOTE-Our plows and harrows are NOT the Case plows and
harrows made by the J. I. Caso Plow Works Company.
(Continued from page 38)
shepherd, Thomas Dean. He is always anxious to give the best kind of sheep for instructional work. He spends several days
in blocking and getting the sheep ready for
the class-room before college starts in the
fall. Mr. Dean is a native of Lestershire,
England. While in England he showed cattle, sheep, horses, and hogs in the leading
shows of the country. He came to .America
in 1911 and worked for Woods Brothers of
Lincoln, Nebr., where he showed their stud.
In 1914 he cared for- the Ronselle stud and
continued until in 1917, when he enlisted in
the United States army. Upon leaving the
army, he showed W. S. Corsa's herd. Here
he showed the champion stallion and the
champion mare at Springfield, as well as the
junior champion and the champion American
bred stallion. Wolfington, the undefeated
Percheron in his class, sired by Carnot, was
grown under "Tommy's" care.
In 1920 the college sheep were put in
Mr. Dean's care. Since that time the flock
has won 111 championships and 406 firsts.
This is a record which should make every
loyal Aggie proud of the man who is showing our flock. But with this show record
the work connected with it must be considered. During the lambing season 24-hour
days are necessary to save the lamb crop,
and every day proper and careful attention
must be given the sheep, because one day
off may mean the losing of ribbons.
More quiet and a few years older than
the other herdsman is Mr. Wilford W. Bales,
the hogman. He was reared on a farm
where he became interested in purebred livestock, and has spent most of his time in
farming, specializing in raising purebred
hogs. For some years he farmed in Norton
county, just across the river from the pastures of the famous Gudgell and Simpson
Hereford herd. Mr. Bales has worked for
the college for the past five years and has
made a commendable record, showing five
champions and twenty firsts at the leading
livestock expositions of the country. The
junior champion Poland China sow of the
Topeka Free Fair in 1919 and the junior
champion Duroc Jersey sow of the 1920
Kansas State Fair were the result of Mr.
tales' ability as
a hog showman. In addition to handling the commercial and
show swine herds, a large portion of feeding the experimental swine is done by him.
During the farrowing time and in the cold,
wet weather of early spring, Mr. Bales
works hard and spends many sleepless
nights in order that the herd may be kept
in proper condition.
Every one of the herdsmen previously
mentioned cares for his particular class of
livestock, but in addition to looking after
the dairy herd, Mr. C. 0. Bigford is superintendent of the dairy farm. He was given
the management of the farm and herd in
1911. Since that time he has put .82 cows
in the advanced register, including a number of state record cows and the first cow
in Kansas to produce more than a thousand
pounds of butter in a year. The Grand
Champion Guernsey bull at the Topeka
Free Fair of 1923, and the first three-yearold Holstein at the Kansas State Fair were
shown by the college. The record that Mr.
Bigford has made in the last five years as
superintendent of the dairy farm is a commendable one and should be appreciated by
every student.
The K. S. A. C. herdsmen perform a
very important part of the class and institutional work, by keeping representatives
of the various types of each of the important breeds of livestock and by providing
animals for show. Certainly students can
profitably and easily learn the methods of
showing, by making the acquaintance of
these men. Students specializing in livestock are anxious to become acquainted with
others interested in the same fields, but because of the confining work of the herdsmen
they are able to meet only those students who
visit and make a real study of the college
farms. The college is very fortunate in having
these faithful herdsmen, and students interested in livestock are missing an opportunity
if they fail to become acquainted with the
F. W. Howard, '19, is farming near Oak-
G. L. Kelley, '21, is chemist for the Imperial Flour Mills of Wichita.
Burger Ideas
Build Distinctive Year Books
A college annual designed, planned and engraved by the Burger
Engraving Co. always results in a successful publication.
College Annual Staffs have discovered that our close cooperation
combined with original ideas, the highest quality of engraving and
service results in a financial statement showing a profit to the Staff.
May we talk over our proposition with you?
Boston Building
Kansas City
Would You
Haze the Senior?
At this season of the collegiate year the hard-boiled and7self-sufficient:Sophs are:busily hazing
"ye green and verdant Frosh" for each and every error in his ways. Even the boldest of
these oft-times much needed task-masters never would dare to haze the stately Senior-the
Senior is respected for his position, his opinions are accepted, and the accomplishments of
his four years of effort are honored.
In the commercial world a demanding, but just buying public is constantly testing industrial
forms and their products. Unlike the collegiate world there is no Senior period in commercialism during which a selected few are immune from the tests of competition. Commercial
products are honored only for their present ability to give desired results economically and
In the commercial, as well as in the collegiate world, whenever cleanliness or cleaning
materials are mentioned a demanding but just buying public naturally associates the use of
(First of a series of discussions concerning Wyandotte Products-The Cleaners That Glean Glean)
The J.
Ford Co., Sole Mnfrs., Wyandotte, Michigan
(Continued from page 47)
the greatest difficutly in soybean culture is
that the soybean cannot compete with weeds,
and unless the ground has been thoroughly
worked weeds have not been sufficiently
checked to give the delicate young plant a
chance. The soybean starts slowly and unless
it is given every chance the weeds will get the
start of it and choke it out.
This last factor is one that largely explains
why the soybean does best when planted in
rows and cultivated. When broadcasted or
drilled there is no opportunity for cultivation
and weeds usually make up a good portion of
the crop. When planted in rows and cultivated a more luxuriant growth is usually secured and as a result greater yields of both
hay and seed are secured. Another advantage
of planting in rows is that less seed is required.
Another reason for the soybean being so
well adapted to the eastern part of Kansas is
that it is not only drouth-resistant, but moisture-resistant, being injuired by moisture
only when water stands on the plant for some
length of time. The plant is probably more
drouth-resistant than moisture-resistant and
has produced some good yields of both hay
and seed in very dry years. In dry years
when the drouth comes at the time seed is just
forming, seed of poor quality and of low germination is produced. However, the feeding
value of the seed produced under such conditions is slightly greater because of the higher
protein content.
Until this year the price of soybean seed
has been so high because of the large demand
for the beans as seed and the relatively small
production, that feeding of the seed to livestock was unprofitable. This past year, however, the production was great enough that
seed is selling for around a dollar a bushel in
some places. At such a relatively low price
feeding the seed to livestock is practical. The
place of the soybean in the ration is not that
of the main fattening feed such as corn or
kafir. It should be used more as a protein
supplement to these feeds. The seed contains
about 17 percent protein and from 20 to 30
percent oil. The Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station found ground soybeans fed to
dairy cows, in comparison with 'linseed oil-
meal, to be one-third more valuable than the
oilmeal. When fed to fattening cattle the
ground soybeans had about the same value as
linseed oilmeal. As a substitute for tankage
in feeding swine the ground soybeans were
worth only about 60 percent of the value of
tankage. These experiments indicate that as
a protein supplement soybeans are one of the
most valuable livestock feeds.
To summarize it may be said that by careful management soybeans will produce well in
eastern Kansas. They are a leguminous crop
and an exceptionally good soil improver. Being both drouth-resistant and moisture-resistant soybeans are a fairly safe crop for eastern Kansas. Soybean hay is a valuable
roughage and in the livestock ration the seed
compare favorably with other protein supplements. The eastern Kansas farmer could well
afford to increase his acreage of this crop.
(Continued from page 60)
cent of fat contained in the milk was 0.21
of 1 per cent in favor of the cane seed.
Judging by the tests there is no particular difference in the ability of corn chop
and cane seed to maintain the body weight
of cows in milk while on a liberal ration of
alfalfa hay, grain, and silage. There was
no appreciable difference in total milk production nor any apparent difference in the
palatability of the grain mixture when cane
was substituted for corn chop. On the whole
the only significant difference was the fact
that the cane seed in the grain mixture produced 4.8 per cent more butterfat than did
corn chop.
L. H. Griswold, '22, is buttermaker in
the Hollywood Creamery, Colorado Springs,
B. D. Hixon, '23, is feeding out a bunch
of cattle on the home ranch near Wakeeney
this winter.
C. F. Laude, '21, is special agent for the
Insurance Company of North America. His
address is 1505 Waldheim Building, Kansas
City, Mo.
F. W. Milner, '15, is field superintendent
of the Fairmount Creamery Company with
headquarters at Salina.
Shoe Repair & Shine Parlor
Silk Hosiery for Women
All work neatly done by
In all styles and colors
the Goodye r System
Phone 496
B & B
110 S. Fourth
619 N. Manhattan Ave.
Baking Co. 's
313 Poyntz
5c-10c and Variety Store
More variety-less price
Interior Decoration
Where student trade is appreciated
Phone 467
322 Poyntz
and Gifts
First National Bank
Plumbing Shop
We do all kinds of pleating
Let Us Do Your Repair Work
Phone 299
1110 Moro
1119 Moro St.
Phone 986
The art of living is the most important of all the arts. Like other arts it can he
learned by study and practice.
This art reaches its greatest perfection in the country, where the person practicing it is close to nature and free from the complexities and artificialities of the
crowded centers.
To practice successfully the art of living, the country dweller needs to know the
fundamental facts of his environment- the physical, biological, economic and
social forces which surround him- and to be able intellectually and spiritually
to use and enjoy these forces.
The understanding of rural environment
agriculture at
greatly improved by
course in
The instruction offered to agricultural students at K. S. A. C. is an admirable
balance of courses in the fundamental sciences and in English, agricultural economics, agronomy, animal husbandry, dairy husbandry, horticulture, milling
industry, and poultry husbandry.
Liberal opportunities are offered for choosing elective courses.
The college trains men for 150 agricultural occupations and for good citizenship and right living.
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