360 Timer (240 vac)

360 Timer (240 vac)
Temperature Control for Research and Industry
Model 360/Timer
Manual
Warranty
J-KEM Scientific, Inc. warrants this unit to be free of defects in materials and workmanship and to give
satisfactory service for a period of 12 months from date of purchase. If the unit should malfunction, it
must be returned to the factory for evaluation. If the unit is found to be defective upon examination by
J-KEM, it will be repaired or replaced at no charge. However, this WARRANTY is VOID if the unit
shows evidence of having been tampered with or shows evidence of being damaged as a result of
excessive current, heat, moisture, vibration, corrosive materials, or misuse. This WARRANTY is
VOID if devices other than those specified in Section 3.2 are powered by the controller. Components
which wear or are damaged by misuse are not warranted. This includes contact points, fuses and solid
state relays.
THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES EXCEPT AS STATED HEREIN. THERE ARE NO OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. BE LIABLE FOR
CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL OR SPECIAL DAMAGES. THE BUYER'S SOLE REMEDY
FOR ANY BREACH OF THIS AGREEMENT BY J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. OR ANY BREACH
OF ANY WARRANTY BY J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. SHALL NOT EXCEED THE PURCHASE
PRICE PAID BY THE PURCHASER TO J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. FOR THE UNIT OR UNITS
OF EQUIPMENT DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY SUCH BREACH.
Service
J-KEM Scientific maintains its own service facility and technical staff to service all parts of the
controller, usually in 24 hours. For service, contact:
J-KEM Scientific, Inc.
6970 Olive Blvd.
St. Louis, Missouri 63130
USA
(314) 863-5536
FAX (314) 863-6070
E-Mail: [email protected]
Web Site: http://www.jkem.com
This manual contains parameters specific to temperature controller Serial #_________________.
When calling with a technical question, please have the controller’s serial number available.
You’ve purchased the most versatile controller available to the research community. We’re
confident it can regulate ANY heating/cooling situation you’ll ever encounter. If the information in this
manual isn’t adequate to make your application work, call our Engineering Department for assistance.
2
INDEX
SECTION
PAGE
1. QUICK OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Safety Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. ADJUSTING THE CONTROLLER FOR STABLE
CONTROL WITH VARIOUS HEATERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 What is Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Autotuning Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Tuning for Heating Mantles: A Special Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Sensor Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
6
7
9
9
3. OPERATIONS GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1 Front Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2 Heater Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3 Temperature Sensor Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 Ramp-to-Setpoint & Soak Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
3.5 Over Temperature Protection Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6 Timer Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.7 Power Reduction Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
(Selecting the right power setting)
3.8 Affect of Power Setting on Heating Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.9 Changing the Temperature Display Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.10 Do's and Don'ts When Using Your Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.11 Resetting the Controller for use With Heating Mantles . . . . . . . . . 18
3.12 Changing Between PID and ON/OFF Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . 19
3.13 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.14 Fusing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. APPLICATION NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1 Theory of How the Controller Works – Simply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2 Controlling the Heating Mantle Temperature Directly . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.3 Automatic Storage of Min/Max Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
TABLE 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
APPENDIX
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
I.
Safety Considerations and Accurate Temperature Control . . . . . . . . 26
II.
Resetting the Controller to Original Factory Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
! WARNING: Adhere to the restrictions of SECTION 3.2. Failure to do so may
create a significant safety hazard and will void the warranty.
3
Section 1:
Quick Operating Instructions
The five steps below are the basics of using your temperature controller. The User’s Manual is a reference that explains the
controller more fully as well as some of its more sophisticated features. It’s recommended that new users unfamiliar with
process controllers read the entire manual carefully. The controller is preprogrammed for use with heating mantles
fitted to round bottomed flasks running “typical” organic reactions (i.e., non-polymeric reactions in solvents such as
THF, toluene, DMF, etc.). If the controller is used with this type of reaction, the five steps below will help you get started.
To use heaters other than heating mantles:
Do not use the controller to heat oil baths:
For polymer synthesis, atypical, expensive, or safety critical reactions:
See Section 2.
See Section 3.2
See Appendix I.
1
Set the over temperature protection circuit to “Off”.
2
Place the thermocouple in the solution being heated.
3
Set the power level switch to the
volume of solution being heated
The switch for the over temperature protection circuit must be set to the “Off” position until the
Off
setpoint for the reaction is entered into the digital meter. After entering the setpoint in Step 4, the
Light
over temperature protection circuit can be turned of if desired by setting this switch to the “Alarm”
or “Light” position. See Section 3.5.
Place at least the first 1/4” of the
thermocouple directly in the solution being heated. Thermocouples can be bent without harming them. If you’re
heating a corrosive liquid, use a Teflon coated thermocouple. If you are heating a sealed reaction, see Section 4.2.
10-100 ml 50-500ml
1-10 ml
300 ml-2 L
Heat
(not the size of the flask being used).
>2L
The power level switch can be thought of Off
as a solid state variac. Volume ranges
Output
Power Level
are printed above this switch as a guide
to select the correct power level since it’s
A power
is equivalent to
easier to guess the volume being heated
setting of.....
a variac setting of:
than the appropriate “percent power” to
1-10 ml
3%
apply to a heater. ‘Heat Off’ turns off
10-100 ml
10%
the heater so the controller displays
50-500 ml
25%
temperature only. All new users should 300 ml - 2 L
50%
read Section 3.6.
>
2 L
100%
4
5
Alarm
Enter the setpoint (i.e., the desired temperature). Hold
in the ❊ button and simultaneously press the ▲ key to increase or
the ▼ key to decrease the setpoint. The setpoint can be seen at
anytime by holding in the ❊ button, the setpoint appears as a
blinking number in the display.
Set the timer.
(Model 210/Timer only)
The timer turns the
heating outlet OFF or ON
depending on the position
of the timer switch and
whether any time is
present in the display
4
TIP: Because the power switch acts
like a variac, if the reaction is heating
too slowly or you need more power
(e.g., heating to high temperatures),
give the heater more power by
turning the power level up one
setting. If the reaction needs less
power than normal (e.g., heating to
low temperatures (<60o C) or the
temperature overshoots the set point
excessively, turn the power down one
setting. DO NOT set the power
switch on a setting too high initially
to heat the reaction quickly and then
lower it to the correct setting, this
degrades heating performance.
8 0. 0
*
Safety Notices
Solvents and Vapors
J-KEM’s Model 360/Timer Temperature controller should not be used in an environment containing
flammable organic or gas vapors. It is recommended that the Model 360/Timer be used outside of
research hoods away from vapors.
CAUTION: This equipment should only be operated by qualified personnel knowledgeable in
laboratory procedures.
Symbols
Power Switch:
1 - Mains power (220-240vac) is ON
0 - Mains power (220-240vac) is OFF
Caution. Risk
of electric
shock.
!
Caution. No
user serviceable
parts
Protective
conductor terminal.
Earth Ground.
General Notice
WARNING: If equipment is not used as specified in this manual, the protection provided by this
equipment may be impaired.
Power
Voltage:
Wattage:
Fusing:
220-240 VAC @ 50-60Hz
2400 watts; 10 amps.
10 amp fast acting (F) 240 vac
Environmental
Indoor use
Altitude up to 2000 meters
Operating temperatures of 5o C to 40o C
Maximum relative humidity of 80% for temperature up to 31o C decreasing linearly to 50% relative
humidity at 40o C.
Installation category II
5
Section 2:
2.1
Adjusting The Controller For Stable Control
With Different Heaters
What is Tuning.
The controller's most powerful feature is its ability to regulate virtually any heater
with stable temperature control. For stable control the controller requires two things; (1) the controller
must be set to the correct power level (see Section 3.7) and, (2) that it be tuned to the heater being used.
Tuning is the process that matches the control characteristics of the controller to the heating characteristics
of the heater. The controller is said to be tuned to the heater when its memory is programmed with values
telling it how fast the heater warms up, cools off, and how efficiently it transfers heat. For example,
consider the difference between a heat lamp and a hot plate. When electricity is applied to a heat lamp it
begins to heat instantaneously, and when it's turned off it stops heating instantaneously. In contrast, a hot
plate may take several minutes to begin heating when electricity is applied and even longer to start cooling
when electricity is turned off. Your controller can regulate both a heat lamp and a hot plate to 0.1o C.
But, to do this it must be programmed with the time constants describing how fast the heater heats when
electricity is turned on and how fast it begins to cool when it's turned off. These time constants are called
the tuning parameters.
Every type of heater has its own unique set of tuning parameters. For the controller to heat with
stability, it must have programmed with the tuning parameters for the heater currently being used. Prior
to shipment, tuning parameters were programmed into the controller that maximize heating performance
for laboratory heating mantles since these are the most common heaters used in research. Tuning is
regulated by 5 of the temperature meter’s user programmable functions. The correct value for these 5
functions can be calculated and loaded by the user manually, or the controller can do it automatically with
its autotune feature
When Should the Controller be Tuned?
If the controller is tuned to one type of heater, heating
mantles for example, any size heating mantle can be used without the need to retune. When changing
from heating mantles to a different type of heater, an oven for example, the controller should be tuned
with values describing the oven’s heating characteristics. The effect of tuning is seen below. When
the controller is tuned for heating mantles, using it with any size heating mantle yields stable
temperature control (Plot 1), but poor control results when the same tuning parameters are used with
an oven (Plot 2, Curve 1). However, after tuning the controller to the oven, stable temperature control
results (Plot 2, Curve 2).
Plot 2
Plot 1
80
80
70
70
60
Temp.
o
C
50
Conditions: 100 ml Toluene
250 ml Round bottomed flask
250 ml Heating mantle
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
40
40
30
30
20
0
10
20
30
Time (min)
40
50
Curve 2: Controller loaded with
tuning parameters for
drying oven
60
Temp.
o
C
50
60
6
Curve 1: Controller loaded with
tuning parameters for
heating mantles
20
0
10
20
30
40
Time (min)
50
60
It’s important to understand that this controller isn’t a simple ON/OFF type controller (i.e. ON when
below the set point, OFF when above [though it can be made to work this way, see Section 3.12]). Rather
it’s a predictive controller. Based on the shape (slope) of the heating curve, the controller predicts
(calculates) the percent of power to apply to the heater now to control the shape of the heating curve
minutes in advance. The importance of the tuning parameters is that they are constants in the equation the
temperature meter uses to perform its predictive calculations. If the temperature meter is programmed
with tuning parameters that incorrectly describe the heater being used, poor temperature control will result.
But, when the correct values are loaded, temperature regulation of ± 0.1o is typically achieved.
Manual Tuning.
Manual tuning is when the values of the 5 tuning parameters are determined
manually then entered into the temperature meter via the push buttons on the front of the controller.
Experienced users might prefer to manually tune the controller since this allows customization of the
heating process.
Autotune.
Autotune is a feature built into the temperature meter that automatically calculates the
tuning parameters (i.e. delay times, heating efficiency, etc.) for any type of heater. After the autotune
procedure is complete and the tuning parameters are determined, the controller loads them into its
memory for current and future use. Heating mantles are a special case and are covered in a separate
paragraph (Section 2.3).
2.2
Autotuning Procedure.
This procedure is not recommended for heating mantles (see Section 2.3).
1.
Set the equipment up in the exact configuration it will be used. For example, to tune to a vacuum
oven, place the thermocouple in the room temperature oven and plug the oven into the controller. If
the oven (or heater) has its own thermostat or power control, turn both as high as they’ll go.
2.
Set the controller to the appropriate power level (see Section 3.7). Make sure the timer switch (8) is
set so that heating is ON (i.e., LED 5 is lit; see Section 3.6). Turn the Over Temperature Protection
Circuit (12) to the OFF position. Turn the controller and heater on, then enter the desired set point
o
temperature. If the set point isn’t at least 30 C above ambient, skip this procedure and go to the
next procedure, “Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control”
3.
Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (for 3 seconds) on the front of the temperature meter
until the word “tunE” appears in the display then release both buttons.
4.
Press the ▲ button (5 times) until “CyC.t” appears in the display (if you go past this setting, press
the ▼ button until you get back to it).
5.
First, hold in the ‘*’ button, while holding in the ‘*’ button press the ▼ button. Continue to hold
both buttons in until the display reads “A --”, or “A ##” where “##” is some number.
6.
Release the ‘*’ button and press the ▼ button until “tunE” once again appears in the display.
7.
Press and hold the ‘*’ button and “tunE” will change to “off” to indicate that autotune is currently
off.
8.
While holding in the ‘*’ button, press the ▲ button to change the display to “on”, then release both
buttons.
9.
Press and hold both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (for 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in the
display. The controller is now in its autotune mode. While in autotune the display alternates
between “tunE” (for autotune) and the process temperature. When the autotune sequence is done
(this may take in excess of an hour) the controller stops displaying “tunE” and only displays the
process temperature. [To abort autotune manually, repeat steps 3, 8 and 9 except in step 8 press the
▼ button until “off” is displayed].
7
New tuning
values loaded
into memory
Temp
Set
Point
75% of
set point
Start
AT
The autotune sequence.
Heat to set point
after entering
new parameters
OS1
OS2
US
During T1 - 4 the controller
measures heating delays and
rates of heating and cooling
T1
T2
T3
During autotune the controller heats
to 75% of the set point temperature
where it oscillates for several cycles
before loading the new tuning
parameters. After the tuning
parameters are loaded it heats to the
set point temperature. Tuning below
the set point prevents any damage
that might occur from overheating.
T4
Quarter cycle times
Time
Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control.
This procedure is not recommended for heating mantles (see Section 2.3).
In the majority of cases, the procedure above results in stable temperature control with any heater.
A second version of the autotune routine is available and can be used when the heater is already at or
close to the set point, is being tuned at a temperature close to room temperature, or for very fine
control in demanding situations. If stable temperature control doesn’t result after performing the
first autotune routine, the procedure below should be performed. Before performing the ‘fine tune’
autotune procedure, the ‘regular’ autotune procedure that precedes this should normally be
performed.
1.
Set the equipment up in the exact configuration it will be used. If the heater has its own thermostat
or power controls, turn both as high as they’ll go. With this procedure it’s not necessary for the
equipment to start at room temperature. This procedure can be performed at any time and any
temperature.
2.
Set the controller to the appropriate power level (see Section 3.7). Make sure the timer switch (8) is
set so that heating is ON (i.e., LED 5 is lit; see Section 3.6). Turn the Over Temperature Protection
Circuit (12) to the OFF position. Turn the controller and heater on, then enter the desired set point
temperature.
3.
Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (for 3 seconds) on the front of the temperature meter
until the word “tunE” appears in the display then release both buttons.
4.
Press the ▲ button (5 times) until “CyC.t” appears in the display (if you go past this setting, press
the ▼ button until you get back to it).
5.
First hold in the ‘*’ button, while holding in the ‘*’ button press the button. Continue to hold both
buttons in until the display reads “A --”, or “A ##” where “##” is some number.
Release the ‘*’ button and press the ▼ button until “tunE” once again appears in the display.
6.
7.
Press and hold the ‘*’ button and “tunE” will change to “off” to indicate that autotune is currently
off.
8.
While holding in the ‘*’ button, press the ▲ button to change the display to “At.SP”, then release
both buttons.
9.
Press and hold both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (≈ 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in the display.
The controller is now in its autotune mode. While in autotune the display alternates between
“tunE” (for autotune) and the process temperature. When the autotune sequence is done (this may
take in excess of an hour) the controller stops displaying “tunE” and only displays the process
temperature. [To abort autotune manually, repeat steps 3, 8 and 9 except in step 8 press the ▼
button until “off” is displayed].
8
Autotune Errors.
The autotune routine can fail for several reasons. If it fails, the controller displays
the error message “tunE” “FAiL”. To remove this message turn the controller off for 10 seconds.
Try the procedure titled “Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control” above. If autotune fails
again, call and discuss your application with one of our engineers. A common problem when
tuning at high temperatures or with large volumes is for the heater to be under powered. A more
powerful heater may be needed (contact J-KEM for assistance).
2.3
Tuning for Heating Mantles: A Special Case.
This section gives special consideration to heating
mantles, since they’re the most commonly used heaters in research. Every heating mantle size has its own
optimum set of tuning parameters and if you wanted, the controller could be tuned (or autotuned) every
time a different size was used. However, this is cumbersome and is also unnecessary. Factory tests show
that there’s one set of tuning parameters that delivers good performance for all heating mantle sizes.
These tuning parameters were loaded into the controller at the factory prior to your receiving it. If you’re
using a heating mantle and none of the parameters have been changed or the controller hasn’t been
autotuned since you’ve received it, you’re ready to go. If the tuning parameters have been changed or the
controller has been autotuned and you want to go back to using heating mantles, J-KEM recommends that
the tuning parameters for heating mantles be loaded manually (i.e., don’t autotune to the heating mantle)
by following the step-by-step instructions given in Procedure 1 of Section 3.11.
2.4
Sensor Placement.
Placement of the sensor is basically common sense. The sensor should be
positioned to sense the average temperature of the medium being heated. That means the thermocouple
should be shielded from direct exposure to the heater but not so distant that a rise in temperature isn’t
sensed by the controller within a reasonable period of time. Several examples follow that show the type
of consideration that should be given to sensor placement.
Use With:
Solutions
HPLC column heated
with a heating tape
Oven
Place the sensor in the solution. Stir vigorously so that heat is homogeneously mixed
throughout the solution.
Tape a thin wire thermocouple directly to the HPLC column. Place several layers of
paper over the thermocouple to insulate it from the heating tape (the thermocouple
should sense the column temperature, not the heater temperature). Wrap the HPLC
column completely with heating tape.
The thermocouple needs to be shielded from transient hot and cold air currents. Don’t
place the thermocouple near the heating coil or an air vent. A small thermocouple
(1/16” or 1/8” thermocouple) that responds rapidly to changes in air temperature is
better than a larger one.
9
Section 3:
3.1
Operations Guide
Front Panel Description.
J-KEM
Scientific
Instruments for Science from Scientists
Power outlets (on back)
Alarm (on back)
13
10
.. ..
ON (1)
10-100 ml 50-500 ml
1-10 ml
300 ml-2 L
Heat
>2L
Off
14
15
5
6
1 2: 3 5
Output
Power Level
7
OFF (0)
8 0. 0
1
OFF
oC
Amount of Time
Alarm
*
2
When time = 0
turn outlet:
8
Sound
Off
Light
Model 360/Timer
3
ON
4
9
11
12
Figure 1
1.
Temperature Display. Shows temperature of the process as the default display. Shows set
point temperature (i.e. the desired temperature) when ‘*’ (2) button is pressed.
2.
Control Key. When pressed, the display shows the set point temperature. To decrease or
increase the set point, press the ‘▼’ key (3) or ‘▲’ key (4) while simultaneously pressing
the control key. The set point appears as a blinking number in the display.
3.
Lowers set point when ‘*’ button (2) is simultaneously pressed.
4.
Raises set point when ‘*’ button (2) is simultaneously pressed.
5.
Indicates whether the timer section will allow power to be ON or OFF at outlets (14). See
Section 3.6 for complete operating details.
6.
Time Display Window. Shows the time remaining in the timer in the format of ‘Hr:Min’.
7.
Increases or decreases the time remaining in the timer when pressed.
8.
This switch, in conjunction with the timer, determines when power is ON at outlets (14).
See Section 3.6. The label ‘When time = 0 turn outlet:’ has reference to the time remaining
in the display (6).
9.
Temperature Sensor Input. Use the same type of sensor probe as the sensor plug installed
on the controller (see Section 3.3). The correct sensor type will have the same color plug
as the receptacle (9) on the front of the controller.
10.
Controller On/Off switch. For maximum accuracy of the displayed temperature, turn the
controller on 15 minutes prior to use.
10
3.2
11.
Alarm Light. Indicates an over temperature condition when lit. See Section 3.5.
12.
Over Temperature Protection Circuit. This switch must be in the Off position when the
controller is powered up and going through its self-test routine, otherwise no power is
delivered to the outlets. When turned on by switching to the Alarm or Light positions an
over temperature condition (factory programmed for 5.0o C above the set point) will remove
all power from outlets (14) until being manually reset, see Section 3.5.
13.
Power Reduction Circuit. Interfaces to the power reduction computer that limits the
maximum power delivered to the heater. See Sections 3.7 and 4.1.
14.
Power Outlets. Plug only 220-240 Vac devices into these outlets. See Section 3.2.
15.
Over temperature audible alarm. Sounds during an over temperature condition when
switch (12) is set to the “alarm” position. See Section 3.5 for operating details.
!
Heater Restrictions. The controller delivers 10 amps of current at 220-240 Vac into
resistive loads (heating mantles, hot plates, ovens, etc.). Use only resistive loads that are safely
operated at 220-240 Vac and require less than 10 amps or damage to the controller and a
safety hazard may result.
•
Do not plug oil baths into your controller. Oil baths are not 230 Vac devices
and will become a fire hazard.
•
Devices other than resistive loads can be used with your controller but certain
restrictions apply.
Device Type
Restrictions
Incandescent lamps ≤ 1200 watts
Infrared heaters
3.3
Comments
Set the power reduction
circuit to the > 2 L position.
Temperature Sensor Input.
Every controller is fitted with a specific type of thermocouple
input and can only be used with a thermocouple of the same type. For the correct temperature to
be displayed, the thermocouple type must match the receptacle type on the front of the controller
(Figure 1; 9). All thermocouples are color coded to show their type (Blue = type T; Yellow =
type K; Black = type J). The color of the thermocouple plug must match the color of the
receptacle on the front of the controller.
11
Ramp-to-Setpoint & Soak Feature.
A new feature of J-KEM’s controllers called
‘Ramp-To-Setpoint’ allows you to enter a specific heating rate (e.g., heat to 120o C at a rate of
5o C/Hour), a second feature called ‘Soak’ then lets you specify how long to stay at that
temperature before turning off.
Examples of Program Ramps
Temperature
Soak
Setpoint
Temperature
3.4
Ramp
Power Off
Ramp
Soak
Setpoint
Time
Power Off
Time
The controller is shipped with the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature OFF, the user must specifically turn
Ramp-to-Setpoint ON. When Ramp-to-Setpoint is OFF, the controller heats to the entered
setpoint at the fastest rate possible. When Ramp-to-Setpoint is ON, the controller heats at the
user entered ramp rate.
The Ramp-to-Setpoint feature and its associated parameters are turned on and set in the
controller’s programming mode. The parameters of importance are:
SPrr
SetPoint Ramp Rate. Allowable Values: 0 to 9990 deg/Hr.
This specifies the desired rate of heating (cooling). Note, this parameter specifies the desired
rate of heating (cooling), but in cases of extremely high ramp rates the reaction will not actually
heat faster than the power of the heater will allow.
SPrn
SetPoint Ramp Run. Allowable Values: ON, OFF, Hold
This parameter turns the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature ON or OFF. During an active run, if this
parameter is set to ‘Hold’, the setpoint ramp stops and holds at its’ current value. This continues
until the parameter is set to ON or OFF. When set to OFF, the values in SetPoint Ramp Rate
and Soak Time are ignored.
SoAK
Soak Time. Allowable Values: “- -”, 0 to 1440 min.
This specifies the amount of time to soak at the setpoint after the setpoint temperature ramp is
complete. A setting of “- -” causes the controller to remain at the final setpoint indefinitely. A
numeric value causes the controller to stay at the setpoint for the entered time and then turn
power to the heater off after the time expires.
12
Important Points to Know
1.
While the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature in activated, the display alternates between the current
reaction temperature and the word “SPr” to indicate that a “SetPoint Ramp” is active.
2.
Setting a ramp rate doesn’t guarantee that the reaction temperature is at the specified ramp
temperature since heating is dependent on the power of the heater. For example, if a ramp
rate of 1200 deg/Hr (i.e., 20 deg/min) is set, unless the heater is powerful enough to impart
heat at such a high rate, the reaction temperature will not track the ramp temperature.
Likewise, a reaction can’t cool faster than natural cooling by ambient air.
3.
Once the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature is activated in programming mode, it remains on until it’s
deactivated in programming mode. The Ramp-to-Setpoint feature remains activated even if
power is turned off to the controller.
Activating & Programming the Ramp-to-Setpoint Feature
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the
display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key (8 times) until the word “SPrr” appears in the display.
This is were you set the ramp rate in units of degrees/hour. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key
press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired ramp rate appears in the display, then let go of all the keys. Units are in
degrees/hour.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SPrn” will appear in the display.
This function turns the ramping feature ON, OFF, or to Hold. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’
key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired setting appears in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SoaK” will appear in the display.
This is where the soak time is set in units of Minutes. A soak time of ‘ -- ‘ means to ‘soak forever’ (this setting is one
below ‘0’). First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired time
appears in the display, then let go of all the keys. If a soak time is set, the controller display will alternate between
showing the current reaction temperature and the word “StoP” when the soak time has expired to indicate that power
has been turned off.
To exit programming mode, press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then
release both keys.
Deactivating the Ramp-to-Setpoint Feature
1.
2.
3.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the
display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key (9 times) until the word “SPrn” appears in the display.
This function turns the ramping feature ON and OFF. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press
the ▼ or ▲ key until OFF appears in the display, then let go of all the keys.
To exit programming mode, press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then
release both keys.
13
3.5
Over Temperature Protection Circuit. This circuit disconnects power from the heating
outlets if the process temperature exceeds the set point by 5o C or when power is restored
following a power failure. Power remains disconnected until being manually reset by setting the
over temperature protection switch to the OFF position and then momentarily moving the power
reduction circuit switch (13) to the “Heat Off” position, or turning power to the controller off.
This circuit is on when switch (12) is placed in either the Light or Alarm position and is off when
placed in the Off position. When in the Off position this circuit will not disconnect power
during an over temperature condition or following recovery from a power failure.
For the controller to work correctly, this switch must be in the Off position when power is first
turned on and the controller is going through its self-test routine. After the set point is entered,
the over temperature protection circuit can be engaged. The high temperature limit (i.e. the limit
that must be exceeded to trigger this circuit) is factory programmed for 5o C, but can be set lower
or higher. If a small high temperature limit is programmed, such as 1o - 2o, the process should
be allowed to stabilize at the set point before this circuit is turned on, since a small over shoot of
the set point on initial warm-up should be expected.
3.6
Timer Controls. The timer section turns outlets (14) either ON or OFF in an unattended
operation when the time in the timer counts to zero. To adjust the time in the timer press the [UP
arrow] or [DOWN arrow] buttons (7) to increase or decrease the displayed time. The format of
the display is ‘Hr : Min’. A simple way to know whether outlets (14) are on or off is by the
state of LED (5) which is lit when the outlets are on and not lit when they’re off.
The position of switch (8) determines whether outlets (14) are ON or OFF depending on whether
there is any time present in the timer. To understand the effect of switch (8), take the example
where switch (8) is set to the OFF position. In this case its effect would be “When time = 0
(zero), turn outlet: OFF”. If there is time present in the timer (6) then outlets (14) would be ON,
since time ≠ 0. When the timer counts down to zero then outlets (14) would go OFF because this
fills the requirements of the position of switch (8) (i.e., ‘When time = 0, turn outlet: OFF). When
not using the timer, the normal position of switch (8) is the ON position with no time in the timer
window (6). If switch (8) is set to “When time = 0, turn outlets: ON”, outlets (14) are on since
the time does equal zero. The effect of the position of switch (8) on outlets (14) is summarized
in the table below.
Switch 8
Position
[When time = 0
turn outlet:]
Time Remaining
in Timer
Outlet 14
is:
LED 5
is:
Zero
OFF
OFF
OFF
[When time = 0
turn outlet:]
>Zero
ON
ON
Zero
ON
ON
ON
> Zero
OFF
OFF
Comment
Outlets (14) stay ON until the timer counts to zero, at
which point the outlets turn OFF and stay off indefinitely.
Outlets (14) stay OFF until the timer counts down to zero,
at which point the outlets turn ON and stay on
indefinitely.
WARNING: A potential danger exists when using the timer to turn outlets (14)
!
ON when the timer counts to zero. In the event of a power failure, any time in the
timer is lost. When power comes back on the timer resets to zero which turns outlets
(14) ON. Therefore, only processes that pose no danger when heated indefinitely
should be set up to turn on when the timer counts to zero.
14
3.7
Power Reduction Circuit. This circuit (13) limits the maximum output power
delivered by the controller. It determines whether the controller heats at a very low (1-10 mL),
low (10 - 100 mL), intermediate (50 - 500 mL), medium (300 mL - 2 L), or high (>2 L) power
level. The power reduction circuit acts as a solid state variac.
The table to the right shows the maximum output power
from the controller to the heater depending on the
Front Panel
Approx. % of
position of the power switch. The correct setting for
Volume Range
Full Power
this switch is the setting that supplies adequate power
1 - 10 mL
3
for the heater to heat to the set point in a reasonable
10 - 100 mL
10
period of time while not overpowering it.
50 - 500 mL
25
300 ml - 2 L
50
Heating Liquids. Each power level is associated
≥2L
100
with a volume range which acts as a guide when
heating solutions with heating mantles. When solutions are heated with heating mantles set the
power switch to the range that includes the volume of solution being heated [Note: this switch is
set to the volume of solution, not the size of the flask]. For example to heat 250 ml of toluene to
80o C in a 1 L round bottomed flask choose the third power setting (50 - 500 ml) since the
solution volume falls within this range. There are situations when a power level other than that
indicated by the front panel should be used:
Example
80 ml toluene
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 80o C
80 ml collidine
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 170o C
80 ml water
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 80o C
125 ml toluene
1 L flask
1 L heating mantle
SP = 80o C
150 ml toluene
250 ml flask
250 ml heating mantle
SP = 35o C
Power Setting
50 - 500 ml
(25% power)
300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
10 - 100 ml
(10% power)
10 - 100 ml
(10% power)
Explanation
Organic solvents heated to ≈ 50 - 110o C are set to the volume range on the
front panel. When choosing between 2 power settings (i.e. 80 ml also falls
within both the 10 - 100 ml range and the 50 - 500 ml range) choose the higher
setting.
Even though the solvent volume is less than the range of this power setting, it
should be used because high temperatures require additional power.
While the setting 50 - 500 ml would work, since the heat capacity of water is
twice that of a typical organic solvent
(1 cal/g/o K), a higher power setting can be used to compensate for the higher
heat capacity.
When the heating mantle size is substantially larger (≥ 5X) than the volume
being heated (i.e. the heating mantle has excess heating capacity for the
volume being heated), a lower power setting gives better control.
Even though the solvent volume isn’t included in this power setting, it should
be used because low temperatures are better regulated with less power.
Avoid switching between the different power levels while the controller is heating. Specifically,
do not initially set the controller on a high power level to rapidly heat the solution, then decrease
the power level to the correct setting as the solution approaches the set point. Changing power
levels doesn’t damage the controller, but it will reduce its heating performance.
Heating Equipment. Two factors need to be considered when heating equipment (ovens, hot
plates, furnaces, HPLC columns, etc.), (1) placement of the temperature sensor (Section 2.4) and,
(2) the appropriate power setting. The best guide to the correct power setting for various pieces
of equipment is the researcher's experience. If your best guess is that the equipment needs 1/3
full power to heat to the set point, set the power switch on the 300 ml - 2 L setting (50% power.
It’s usually better to have too much power rather than too little). If the heater heats too slow,
increase the power (set to the >2 L setting). If it heats too fast or has excessive overshoot,
decrease the power (set to the 50 - 500 ml setting). If the amount of power seems to be adequate,
but the heater doesn’t heat with stability, the controller probably needs to be tuned (see Section
15
2). Section 3.8 shows the type of performance you should expect from the controller with
different pieces of equipment.
3.8
Affect of Power Setting on Heating Profile.
The following graphs show the affect
of selected power levels on heating performance in a variety of situations. Each example
contains 1 optimal and 1 or 2 less optimal settings demonstrating use of the power reduction
circuit.
Graph 1
80
70
Conditions: Set point = 75 oC
Laboratory oven
60
Temp
oC
This graph shows typical heating
profiles for a laboratory oven and
an HPLC column. In the example
of the oven the heating curves for
2 different power levels are
shown. The 50 - 500 ml setting
is the appropriate amount of
power to heat to 75o C and thus
results in a smooth heating curve.
The > 2L power setting is too
much power and results in
oscillation around the set point.
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
Power Setting = > 2L
50
40
o
Conditions: Set point = 45 C
HPLC Column wrapped with heating tape
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
30
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Time (min)
Graph 2
80
70
Temp.
o
C
60
Conditions: Set point = 70 o C
50 ml Toluene
100 ml Round bottomed flask
50
40
Power Setting = 10-100 ml (i.e., 10% power)
Power Setting = 50-500 ml (i.e., 25% power)
Power Setting = 300 ml - 2 L (i.e., 50% power)
30
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Time (min)
16
70
This graph shows the affect of
different power settings when
heating liquids with heating
mantles. The 10 - 100 ml setting
(10% power) is under powered
and results in slow heating. The
300 ml - 2 L setting (50% power)
is too much power and results in
sporadic control. The controller
adapts to a wide range of power
settings. In this example the
power is varied by a factor of 5X,
nevertheless, reasonable control
is maintained in each case.
Set point = 155o C
Power = > 2 L
(100% power)
170
Graph 3
145
Set point = 100o C
Power = 300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
120
Temp
oC
95
Conditions: 300 ml collidine
500 ml flask
500 ml heating mantle
70
Set point = 45o C
Power = 50 - 500 ml
(25% power)
45
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Another factor affecting the
choice of power setting is the set
point temperature. For set points
near room temperature a low
power level is adequate. For
average temperatures
(50 - 100o) the volumes printed
on the front of the controller are a
good guide. For high
temperatures, the next higher
power setting might be needed to
supply the heater with additional
power.
Time (min)
The power reduction circuit limits the total amount of power delivered to the heater. In this
sense it works like a variac and can be used like one. If the heater isn’t getting enough power,
turn the power level up one notch, if it’s getting too much power, turn it down.
3.9
1.
2.
3.
4.
Changing the Temperature Display Resolution The controller is programmed to display
temperature with 0.1o C resolution. The controller can be changed to 1o C resolution if by
following the procedure below (the display can also be changed to read in o F, call for
information). There are two reasons to change the display resolution:
1) To enter a setpoint faster (the display scrolls 10X faster in 1o mode than in 0.1o mode).
2) To display temperatures above 999.9o.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears
in the display, then release both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “2” appears in the display
then let go of all
the keys.
Press the ▲ key repeatedly until the word “diSP” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “1” [not “0.1”]
appears in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
17
3.10
Do's and Don'ts When Using Your Controller. The controller, heater and thermocouple form
a closed loop feedback system (see Fig. 2 in Section 4.1). When the controller is connected to a
heater, the feedback loop should not be broken at any point.
Don't
Don't
Do
Do
Do
3.11
remove either the thermocouple or heater from the solution without lowering the set point. With
the thermocouple or heater separated from the solution, as the thermocouple cools the controller
turns the heater on. Since this heat is never fed back to the controller it heats continuously. If
the thermocouple or heater are removed from solution, unplug the heater or preferably lower the
set point below the process temperature so no heat is called for.
use the controller to regulate an exothermic process.
The controller has no capacity for cooling. If an exotherm is expected, it must be controlled in
another manner.
use an appropriate size flask and heater for the volume being heated.
Use the smallest flask and heating mantle that accommodates the reaction. This ensures that the
heating power of the heating mantle closely matches the volume being heated. This also allows
the solution to radiate excess heat to minimize temperature overshoots.
place the thermocouple directly in the solution.
Place at least the first 1/4” of the thermocouple directly into the solution. If a corrosive mixture is
heated, use a coated-coated thermocouple (or use the external thermocouple method; Section 4.2).
avoid exposure of the controller to corrosive gases and liquids.
The atmosphere of a research hood is corrosive to all electronics. Place the controller outside the
hood away from corrosive gases.
Resetting the Controller for Use With Heating Mantles.
If you want to use your controller with heating mantles after it’s been tuned for a different style
heater, rather than autotuning the controller with the heating mantle, J-KEM recommends that the
controller be manually tuned by following the procedure below.
Procedure 1.
Perform when using heating mantles with round bottomed flasks.
[This procedure takes about 2 minutes to perform]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears
in the display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “10” appears in
the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “10” appears
in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “50” appears
in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “3.0” appears
in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “30” appears
in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
18
3.12
Changing Between PID and ON/OFF Operating Modes. The controller can heat in either of
2 operating modes, PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) or ON/OFF mode. The difference
between them is the way they supply power to the heater.
In ON/OFF mode (the simplest heating
mode), the controller is ON when it’s below
the set point and OFF when above. The
disadvantage of this mode is a large over
shoot of the set point (5 - 30o) on initial
warm up and oscillation of temperature
around the set point thereafter. The reason
for the overshoot is because the heater turns
off only after crossing the set point and until
the heater cools down the temperature
continues to rise. This method works well for heaters that transfer heat rapidly (such as heat
lamps), it’s acceptable for heaters such as heating mantles (≈ 5o overshoot), but it’s terrible for
heaters that transfer heat slowly (vacuum ovens, heating blocks, etc.).
In PID mode the controller monitors the
shape of the heating curve during initial
warm up and decreases power to the heater
before the set point is reached so that the
solution reaches the set point with minimal
over shoot. [Notice that the heater turns off
for varying periods of time before the set
point temperature is reached]. The second
feature of PID mode is that it adjusts the
percent of time the heater is on so that the set
point is maintained precisely. The advantage of PID mode is that it delivers stable temperature
control with any heater from heat lamps to vacuum ovens. The disadvantage is that the
controller must be properly tuned to the heater being used, whereas ON/OFF mode requires no
tuning. Since both heating modes have their advantages (simplicity vs. accuracy), instructions to
change the controller to ON/OFF mode are given below (though PID mode will probably give
better results 95% of the time). The controller can be set back to PID mode by following
Procedure 1 in Section 3.11.
1. Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the temperature
meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then let go of the buttons.
2. Press ▲ until the word “CyC.t” appears in the display.
3. While holding in the ‘❊’ key, press the ▼ key until the word “on.of” appears
in the display. NOTE: if the display shows the letter “A” when the ‘❊’ keys
is held in, press the ▲ key until “on.of” is in the display, then let go of all
the keys.
4. Press the ▼ key until the word “bAnd” appears in the display. While
holding in the ‘❊’ key, press the ▼ key until the value “0.1” appears in the
display, then let go of all the keys.
5. Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the controller until
the temperature is displayed, then release both keys.
19
Procedure to change
controller to ON/OFF
mode
The controller can be set back
to PID control by following
Procedure 1 in Section 3.11.
To completely reset the
controller to original factory
settings, follow the procedure
in the Appendix, Section II.
3.13
Troubleshooting.
Problem
Corrective
Action
Cause
Power reduction circuit is set too
high.
Set the power reduction circuit to a lower setting (see Section 3.7).
Controller is not tuned for process
being heated.
Tune the controller as outlined in Section 2.
Power reduction circuit is set too
low.
Increase the power reduction circuit to the next higher setting (see
Section 3.7).
The heating power of the heater is
too low.
Replace with higher power heater. For assistance contact J-KEM.
Controller is unplugged.
Plug securely into wall outlet.
2 Amp fuse on internal circuit board
has blown.
Replace blown fuse. See Section 3.14.
The 10 amp fuse has blown
Replace blown fuse. See Section 3.14.
The heater is broken.
To verify that the controller is functioning properly, place the
power level switch on the >2L setting and enter a set point of 100o
C. Plug a light into the outlet of the controller, then wait 1 minute.
If the light comes on the controller is working properly.
The over temperature protection
circuit is engaged.
Set the over temperature protection circuit to the OFF position then
turn the Power Reduction Circuit knob (13) to the OFF position
The over temperature protection circuit must be in the OFF position
when the controller is initially turned on (see Section 3.5).
The timer controls are set
incorrectly.
Change the position of switch 8 or enter a time into the timer. (See
Section 3.6).
The temperature sensor is
unplugged, excessively corroded or
broken.
Clean or replace broken sensor.
“-AL-”
The process temperature is hotter
than the alarm temperature.
Correct the over temperature condition.
“PArk”
Controller has been placed in “Park”
mode.
1. Hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the J-KEM
temperature meter until ”tunE” appears in the display.
2. First hold in the “❊” key, then while holding in the “❊” key press
the ▼ key until “oFF” appears.
3. Hold in the ▲ and ▼ keys until the temperature appears in the
display.
Autotune routine failed.
Turn off controller for 10 seconds. See Section 2.2.
Large over shoot of the set point
o
(> 3 ) during initial warm-up or
unstable
temperature control
The process heats too slowly.
The controller does not come
on.
The controller comes on, but
does not heat.
Controller blinks:
“inPt” “FAiL”
“tunE” “FAiL”
20
Problem
Displayed temperature is
incorrect.
[Note: Types ‘K’ and ‘J’
thermocouples display negative
temperatures, but are not
calibrated for them]
Corrective
Action
Cause
The controller has not warmed-up.
The display temperature reads low when the controller is first
turned on, but will self-correct as it warms up. The controller can
be used immediately since it will warm up during the initial stages
of heating.
Wrong type of thermocouple is
plugged into controller.
Thermocouples are color coded. Thermocouple plug and
thermocouple receptacle must be the same color (see Section 3.3).
Corroded thermocouple
connections.
Clean plug on thermocouple and receptacle on controller with
sandpaper or steel wool.
Corroded thermocouple.
If the temperature-measuring end of the thermocouple is corroded,
discard thermocouple.
Temperature display offset needed.
To enter a controller display offset:
1.
Turn on controller. Allow to warm up for 30 minutes.
2.
Record displayed temperature.
3.
Press both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the temperature
meter until “tunE” appears, then let go of the keys.
4.
Press the ▼ key until “LEVL” appears.
5.
First hold in the “❊” key, then while holding in the “❊” key
press the ▲ key until “3” is showing in the display, then let
go of all keys.
6.
Press the ▲ key until “ZEro” is showing in the display.
7.
Note the current display offset (this is the number blinking in
the display).
8.
Calculate the new offset temperature using the equation:
New
Current
Display = display offset - Displayed + Correct
Offset
blinking in display temperature temperature
9.
First hold in the “❊” key, then while holding in the “❊” key
press the ▲ or ▼ keys until the new offset temperature is
showing, then let go of all the keys.
10. Press the ▲ or ▼ keys until the temperature is displayed.
3.14
Fusing. The controller is protected by two sets of fuses. The first set protects outlets (14) and
is located in the power cord receptacle on the back of the controller. The fuses on the back of the
controller must be replaced by fast acting (F) 10 amp fuses rated for 220-240 vac.
The second fuse is mounted on the circuit board (F1) inside the controller and protects internal
circuitry. F1 should be replaced with a fast acting (F) 2 amp fuse rated for 220-240 vac.
Internal fuse F1 should be replaced by a qualified electrician only.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
!
Disconnect AC mains power cord from controller.
Take off the controller’s cover by removing the bolts securing it on the side of the cabinet.
Remove the three bolts securing the circuit board to the cabinet base.
Turn the printed circuit board on its’ side and desolder the fuse.
Solder a new 2 amp fast acting (F) fuse rated for 220-240 vac into the holes the old fuse was
removed from.
6. Re-secure the printed circuit board to the base of the cabinet.
7. Replace the controller’s cover and tighten all the bolts holding it in place.
8. Connect the controller to AC mains power supply, and turn power on to the controller and
verify that the controller display comes on when power is turned on.
21
Section 4: Application Notes
Supplemental application notes on the following topics are available by contacting J-KEM.
Application
Note
AN1
AN2
4.1
Subject
Changing the controllers thermocouple type.
Changing the heating outlet into a cooling outlet.
Theory of How the Controller Works – Simply.
For the purpose of explaining how the
controller works, the example of a solution heated with a heating mantle is used. The principles
are the same for all heater types.
Thermocouple
J-KEM
Scientific
Instruments for Science from Scientists
ON(1)
10-100 ml50-500 ml
1-10 ml
300 ml-2 L
Heat
>2L
Off
Output
PowerLevel
1 2: 3 5
OFF (0)
8 0. 0
oC
OFF
Amount of Time
Alarm
*
Sound
Of f
ON
When time = 0
turn outlet:
230 Vac
Power to heater
Light
Model 360/Timer
Temperature of process
from the thermocouple
Heating mantle
Figure 2
The controller, the heating mantle and the thermocouple form a closed loop feedback
system. If the process temperature is below the set point, the controller turns the heating mantle
on and then monitors the temperature rise of the solution. If a small rise results (indicating a
large volume is being heated) the controller sets internal parameters appropriate for heating large
volumes. If a large rise in temperature results, the controller responds by loading a set of
parameters appropriate for heating small volumes. For the controller to work ideally,
information needs to travel instantaneously around the feedback loop. That means that any power
the controller applies to the heating mantle must reflect itself in an instantaneous temperature rise
of the solution and the thermocouple. Unfortunately, this type of instantaneous heat transfer from
the heating mantle to the solution to the thermocouple just doesn't occur. The delay time between
when power is applied to the heating mantle and when the solution rises in temperature; and also
the converse, when power is removed from the heating mantle and the solution temperature stops
rising is the source of most controller errors. The reason for this can be seen in a simple example.
Imagine heating a gallon of water to 80o C in a 5 quart pan on an electric range. Placing
the pan on the range and turning the heat to ‘high’ you’d observe a delay in heating while the
range coil warmed-up. This delay might be a little annoying, but it's really no problem. The real
problem comes as the water temperature approaches 80o C. If the range is turned off just as the
water reaches 80o C the temperature would continue to rise – even though all power had been
disconnected – until the range coil cooled down. This problem of overshooting the set point
22
during initial warm-up is the major difficulty with process controllers. Overshooting the set
point is minimized in two ways by your J-KEM controller – but first let's finish the range
analogy. If the range was turned off just as the water temperature reached 80o C, the final
temperature probably would not exceed 82o C by the time the range coil cooled down, because
the volume of water is so large. In most situations a 2o C overshoot is acceptable. But what if
you were heating 3 tablespoons (45 mL) of water and turned the stove off just as it reached 80o C.
In this case, the final temperature would probably approach 100o C before the range cooled down.
A 20o C overshoot is no longer acceptable. Unfortunately, this is the situation in most research
heating applications. That is, small volumes (< 2 L) heated by very high efficiency heating
mantles that contain large amounts of heat even after the power is turned off.
Your controller handles the problem of ‘latent heat’ in the heating mantle in two ways:
4.2
1)
The controller measures the rate of temperature rise during the initial stages of heating. It
then uses this information to determine the temperature at which heating should be stopped
to avoid exceeding the set point. Using the range analogy, this might mean turning power
off when the water temperature reached 60o C and allowing the latent heat of the burner to
raise the water temperature from 60 to 80o C. This calculation is done by the controller and
is independent of the operator. The next feature of the controller is directly under operator
control and has a major impact on the amount of overshoot on initial warm-up.
2)
Again referring to the range analogy, you'd obtain better control when heating small
volumes if the range had more than two power settings; Off and High. J-KEM’s patented
power reduction circuit (13) serves just this function. It allows the researcher to reduce the
power of the controller depending on the amount of heat needed. This circuit can be
thought of as determining whether the heating power is Very low (1-10 mL), Low (10-100
mL), Intermediate (50-500 mL), Medium (300 mL-2 L), or High (> 2 L). The proper
power setting becomes instinctive after you've used your controller for awhile. For
additional information see Section 3.7.
Controlling the Heating Mantle Temperature Directly. In a normal heating setup, the
thermocouple is placed in the solution being heated. The controller then regulates the
temperature of the solution directly. The thermocouple could alternately be placed between the
heating mantle and the flask so that the controller regulates the temperature of the heating mantle
directly, which indirectly regulates the temperature of the solution.
Advantages to this method include:
1.
The temperature of any volume (microliters to liters) can be controlled.
2.
Temperature control is independent of the properties of the material being heated (e.g.,
viscosity, solid, liquid, etc.).
3.
Air and water sensitive reactions can be more effectively sealed from the atmosphere.
The temperature controller must be programmed for use with an external thermocouple before
this procedure is used (see following procedure). The following step-by-step procedure
programs the controller to regulate heating mantle temperature. If you switch back and use the
controller with the thermocouple in solution, Procedure 1 in Section 3.11 will program the
controller for heating mantles. For all other heaters, see tuning instructions in Section 2.
23
After the controller is reprogrammed, place a fine gage wire
thermocouple (≈ 1/3 the size of kite string; available from J-KEM) in
the bottom third of the heating mantle and fit the flask snugly on top
so that the thermocouple is in intimate contact with the heating
mantle. Set the power reduction circuit to the power level shown in
the table at the right. Turn the controller on and enter the set point.
Heating
Mantle Size
5 & 10 ml
25 ml
50 ml - 22 L
Power
Level
1-10 ml
10-100 ml
50 - 500 ml
For temperatures over ≈ 120 oC, the
next higher power level may be
necessary.
Procedure to Load Tuning Parameters for External Thermocouples.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“2” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5.0” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5.0” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
To return to using thermocouples in solution, perform Procedure 1 in Section 3.11.
4.3
Automatic Storage of Min/Max Temperatures The controller will automatically record the
minimum and maximum temperatures of a process by following the procedure below. These
temperatures are updated continuously after the routine is started and cleared by turning the
controller off. This procedure must be started every time you want to record temperatures.
Procedure to Start Temperature Logging
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and the word “LEUL” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “3”
appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “ChEy” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “on” appears in the
display, then release all keys.
Hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys. Automatic temperature logging is now
on and will remain on until the controller is turned off or logging is turned off manually by repeating this procedure except in Step 3
pressing the ▲ key until the word “off” appears.
Procedure to Read Minimum and Maximum Temperatures
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and the word “LEUL” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “3”
appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “rEAd” appears in the display. The “rEAd” screen displays 3 parameters.
1.
Variance (the difference between the highest and lowest logged temperatures) Hold in the ‘*’ key and the display will alternate
between “UAro” and number of degrees of variance.
2.
High Temperature (the highest temperature since the logging option was turned on). While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key
once and the display will alternate between “hi o” and the highest recorded temperature.
3.
Low Temperature. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key once and the display will alternate between “Lo o” and the lowest
recorded temperature.
The High and Lo temperatures can be examined as often as you like since updating and monitoring continues until the monitor is stopped
by turning the controller off.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
24
Table 1
Tuning Parameters for Various Heaters
Fill in values determined for your equipment for quick reference.
Proportional
Integral
Derivative Time
Derivative
Band
Time
(Rate)
Approach Cont. Cycle Time
“bAnd”
“dEr.t”
“dAC”
“CyC.t”
Instrument
(Reset)
“int.t”
Heating Mantles
10
10
50
5
30
(Factory Default)
Heat Lamp
Oven
Vacuum Oven
Oven
Hot Plate
25
Appendix
I.
Safety Considerations and Accurate Temperature Control
For safety critical and non-typical organic reactions (especially polymeric reactions) or for use
with heaters other than heating mantles the user must either 1) monitor the reaction closely to
verify the tuning parameters are appropriate for the current application, or 2) autotune the
controller for the application. For any safety critical or high value reaction, call J-KEM to discuss
your application with an engineer prior to beginning.
Your J-KEM controller is capable of regulating virtually any application to ± 0.1o C if the controller is
tuned to the application being heated. Since it’s possible that the tuning parameters are not set correctly for your
application, the user must monitor a new reaction to verify the controllers operation. A short primmer on tuning is
presented below, a more detailed explanation is presented in Sections 2.1 and 4.1.
Tuning is the process that matches the control characteristics of the controller to the heating characteristics
of the process being controlled. The controller uses a PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) algorithm to
regulate heating. Each of the terms in the PID equation have a constant that scales the equation to the process
being heating. These constants (plus two other related terms) are collectively known as the ‘tuning constants’ and
for the most part they are expressed in units of time, since they represent delay times, rate of heat transfer times,
and rate of error accumulation. The relative value of each constant depends on the physical characteristics of the
process being heated. For example, for the same amount of input power, the rate of heat transfer is twice as high
for hexane as compared to water, since the coefficient of heat for hexane is 0.54 calories/g/o C and water is
1.0 calorie/gram/o C. That means that 1000 watt-seconds of input power will raise the temperature of 10 g of
hexane 44o C while the same amount of power causes a 24o C rise in water. In theory, the tuning constants
needed to heat hexane are different from those to heat water. Fortunately, your J-KEM controller is self-adaptive
and is able to adapt it’s heating characteristics for different solvents such as hexane and water. Even with the
controller’s self-adaptive algorithms, the tuning constants have to be reasonably close to a proper set or the
controller will not produce stable temperature control (see Section 2.1).
When a controller is shipped, the default set of tuning constants loaded into the controller are those
appropriate for heating typical organic reactions (i.e., small molecule chemistry in low boiling (< 160o C ) organic
solvents) using heating mantles, since this is the most common application for J-KEM controllers. Since it’s
impossible for J-KEM to predict the application the controller will be used for, the researcher must be
aware of the possibility that the tuning constants loaded into the controller may not be a set that results in
stable temperature control. It’s the researcher’s responsibility to monitor the temperature regulation of a
reaction. If you encounter a process that your J-KEM controller does not heat with stability, you have two
resources.
Autotune Feature. Your controller has and autotune feature that when turned on (see Sections
2.1 & 2.2) automatically determines the proper tuning constants for your application and then loads them into
memory for future use.
J-KEM Technical Assistance. If you have an application you wish to discuss, call us, we’re always anxious
to help our users.
For an additional description of the PID algorithm and the concept of tuning, see Sections 2
and 4.1.
26
II.
Resetting the Controller to Original Factory Settings
J-KEM manufactures the most technically advanced temperature controller available and should give you consistently
flawless control. If you have difficulty with your controller, a good place to start to correct the problem is by loading the
original factory settings. If you still have difficulty with your controller, our Engineering department will help you resolve
the problem. The factory settings of a J-KEM controller are: 0.1o C resolution, PID control with tuning parameters for a
heating mantle, thermocouple type to match the thermocouple originally installed on the controller, high temperature alarm
turned on, and a thermocouple offset entered at the time of original calibration.
Procedure to Reset the Controller to Original Factory Settings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Set the Over Protection circuit (12) to the OFF position. Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter
until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release both keys.
Press the ▼ key until “LEVL” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until
“3” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “rSEt” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the
word “All” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the word “inPt” appears in the display, then release both keys.
The value that needs to be entered depends of the type of thermocouple receptacle your controller was shipped with.
Determine the thermocouple type below.
Color of thermocouple receptacle (Fig 1; # 9)
Value to enter:
Blue (type T)
“tc ”
Yellow (type K)
“tc ”
Black (type J)
“tc ”
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value from the table above appears in the display. Let
go of all the keys.
NOTE: Many of the patterns for this parameter look similar, be careful to select the exact pattern shown above.
Press the ▲ key once and “unit” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key
until the value “o C” appears in the display,. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SP1.d” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the
▲ key until the value “SSd” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display (the word “PArk” also appears), then release both keys.
Hold in the ‘*’ key then press the ▲ key until a value > 100 is entered. Let go of all the keys.
Hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press
the ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press
the ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display.
Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “50” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press
the ▲ key until the value “3.0” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press
the ▲ key until the value “30” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “2” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “SP2.A” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until
the word “dU.hi” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “diSP” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key
until the value “0.1o” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “Lo.SC” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key hold in the ▼ key until
the number in the display stops changing (this will be “0” or “-50” or “-199.9” depending on thermocouple type). Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “3” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “rEU.d” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until
the value “1r.2r” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “ZEro” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key
until the value ____________ appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “VEr” appears in the display. Next, hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys for about 8 seconds until the word
“LoCY” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▼ key until the word “no.AL” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲
key until the value “on” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ key until “1” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “SEt.2” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until
the value “5.0” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
27
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