Part 10 - cd3wd410.zip - Offline - Economically Appropriate Technologies for Developing Countries

Part 10 - cd3wd410.zip - Offline - Economically Appropriate Technologies for Developing Countries
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MICROFICHE
REFERENCE
LIBRARY
A project of Volunteers in Asia
Economically Appropriate
for Developing Countries
Technologies
compiled by Marilyn Carr
Published by:
Intermediate Technology
Available from:
Intermediate Technology
9 King Street
Development
Group
(ITDG)
Publications
London WC2E 8HN
ENGLAND
Reproduced
by
permission.
of this microfiche document in any
form is subject to the same restrictions
as those
of the original document.
Reproduction
,,,
icaiiy A
rspriste Technd
rspri&
Techntsi
ountries
An Annotated
Biblicgraphy
bY
Mariiyn
Intermediate
Technology
Carr
Development
Group
Contents
Acknowledgements
4
Preface
5
Introduction
7
Section 1: Agriculture
A.
8.
C.
0.
E.
General
Equipment for Food Production
Irrigation
Crap Storage and Processing
Livestock, Animal-feed, Fishing, Fish-farming
Fishing Equipment
2ection 2: Low Cost Housing md Building
‘12
17
23
38
and
Materials
38
42
Section 3: Menufacturing
A. Food Processing and Nutrition
8. Clothing, Leather and Footwear
C. Other Manufactured Goods
56
56
61
Section 41 infrastructure
A.
B.
C.
D.
Power Sources
Water Supplies and Sanitation
Health
Roads and Transport Technology
68
74
80
84
Section 5: Handbooks, Manuals, Buyers’ Guides and
Technical Publications
88
Section 6: Some Relevant Bibliographies
93
Section 7: Further Reading
95
Section 6: Addresses of Publishers
102
Author
117
Country
Index
Index
Subject Index
Acknowledgement
The publication of this bibliography was made possible by two grants: one,
from an anonymous donor, in memory of the Reverend Charles Tett; the
other from the Action for World Development Committee of the Episcopal
Church of Scotlmd. Intermediate Technology Development Group gratefully
acknowledges their generosity.
4
Preface
This annotated.bibliography,
compiled by Dr Marilyn Carr, will be of great interest and use to individuals and agencies concerned with intermediate technology
and the choice of appropriate technologies. There is now a growing awareness of
the need to consider these choices within both the rich and poor nations; the widespread, enthusiastic response to Small is Beautiful by Dr. E.F. Schumacher is
one current indication of this interest. By bringing her fine academic background
and practical field experience to bear on this subject, Dr. Carr has produced a
timeiy as well es a practical piece of work.
Shortlv before taking up her current position as a Village Technology expert
for the UN and ECA in Ethiopia, Dr Carr was commissioned by the Intermadiate
Technology Development Group (ITDG) to compile these reference materials on
the economic aspects of intermediate technology and its appropriateness. While
the work of ITDG is now directed towards acting on and answering requests from
developing countries for help in locating, developing and initiating appropriate
intermediate technical projects, it recognises the continuing
need to discuss and
demonstrate the economic appropriateness of intermediate technology.
Looking at the Development Decade of the 1969’s. Dr Schumacher expressed
his concern that “the source and centre of world poverty and underdevelopment
lie primarily in the rural areas of poor countries, which are largely by-passed by aid
(International
Labour Review, July
and development as currently
practised”.
1972). In his *view, productive employment
on an adequate basis was an urgent
need, which required that technologies and methods of production
must be ap
propriate to the conditions of poor people in poor countries. They must be cheap
enough to be used and maintained by rural and small town populations with low
incomes and without
sophisticated technical or organisational
skills. The technology should draw largely on indigenous resources, and be employed largely to
meet local needs. Observing that frequently
the labour-saving, capital-intensive
technologies of the rich industrialised countries did not meet these conditions indeed they often aggravated the situation - Dr. Schumacher had, as early as 1982,
urged the Pianning Commission o f !ndia to give high priority to developing and
implementing intermediate technologies, especially for rural areas.
By 1966 others from the professions and industry in the UK who shared Dr
Schumacher’s views joined with him in forming ITDG to bridge the observed gap
in development aid: the virtual absence of organised systematic efforts to provide
the poor countries with a choice of low-cost, labour-intensive,
small-scale technologies, adapted to meet their needs. From the start, ITDG reached two conclusions:- that it was essential to change the emphasis of aid and development
5
programmes towards recognising the needs of poor countries to develop selfhelp and seif-reliance. and:- that much of the basic work of assembling and systematizing knowledge of low-cost technologies could be done in the developed countries.
ITDG therefore set out to compile practical data on intermediate technologies,
to test them under operating conditions and to make them widely known and
freely available. Beginning with publication
of a small guide to relatively simple
tools and equipment, which met with enthusiastic interest from developing countries, ITDG has continued to respond to a rising demand from the field for help
by coordinating and providing the services of a wide range of intermediate technology field workers and consultants,
as well as a journal, Appropriate
Techno/ogy, to facilitate
exchange of ideas and information
on intermediate
technology around the world. Several other annotated bibliographies have been done
in the fields of rural health training, low-cost water technologies, and on the
Stirling engine.
This bibliography
has been compiled in response to the growing number of
requests received by lTDG for reference material on the economic aspects of
intermediate technology and, in particular, factual information
on the economic
appropriateness of intermediate technologies for developing countries. The subject
is an enormous one and no attempt was made to be fully comprehensive. The fact
that only the “hardware” aspects of technology have been covered certainly does
not imply that either ITDG or Dr Carr felt that the “software”
aspects of technology such as information, education, training, management, and organisation are
unimportant.
On the contrary, it was felt that they are important enough to warrant a subsequent bibliography
in their own right. 3t is to be hoped that such a
bibliography
will be compiled in the near future. Further, although the limits
of the bibliography have been defined so as to allow as full a survey of the literature
as possible, omissions will no doubt be identified,
and ITDG would welcome
suggestions of relevant publications which could be included in future editions.
But even as a “first shot”, this bibliography
was carefully done and is an excellent job of selection and annotation.
Warren E. Adams,
professor, Earlham College, and
Economic Consultant, ITDG.
6
Intmduction
The Concept of Appropriate Technology
Perhaps the most important decision facing governments in developing countries
is that of technological choice. The question of how existing resources of labour,
land, capital and skills can best be combined so as to overcome current problems
of unemployment,
and provide a stable base for futue economic growth, is a
complex bu? crucia! one.
It is now agreed that many of the problems currently being experienced in
developing countries have been caused, or at ieast aggravated, by earlier development strategies which stressed the maximization
of output through emphasis on
large-scale industries, using modern Western’technologies.
In general, such strategies
have not only failed to produce the desired economic growth, but have also contributed to an inability to create full employment and to a’rapid rate of migration
from rural areas to the already overcrowded cities. This has occured mainly because
of an emphasis on capital-intensive techniques, a tendency to locate new industries
in a few major cities, and a lack of po!icy measures aimed at generating productive
employment
opportunities
in rural areas. The problems, along with the social
misery and loss of human dignity they involve, are becoming more severe. Any
solution must be based on a correction of past trends and, in particular, on the
development and dissemination of new types of technology which are more appropriate to the conditions existing in developing countries.
The most immediate need is obviously that of the provision of millions of new
workplaces, with the majority being created in the rural areas where 80 to 90 per
cent of the population of the developing countries still live. Continued dependence
on capital-intensive
technologies imported from the West is unlikely to provide
more than a fraction of the workplaces needed. On the other hand, traditional
techniques, while having a very high labour requirement, are characterized by very
low capital and labour productivities
and do not generate the surplus needed for
rapid growth in capital stock. This has led to the suggestion that what is needed
are technologies which are ‘intermediate’ between these two extremes.
The concept is simple enough. The creation of a workplace at the ‘intermediate’
technology level would cost f300 as opposed to f3.000 with high technology and
f3 with traditional
technology.
Production
is more labour-intensive
than when
high technology is used and m.?re efficient than if traditional techniques are maintained. Besides being sparing in the use of capital, ‘intermediate’ technology should
also be sparing in the use af skills, should make as much use as possible of local
materials, and should cater ,rcir local needs such as food, shelter, clothing, water
supplies and transportation.
S:rch conditions increase the chances of the technology
being successfully integrated into rural communities.
7
The ‘intermediate’
technoiogies would appear to hold much greater relevance
for the developing countries than do those imported from the West, and the ‘intermediate’ approach is one which is gaining increasing support. However, criticisms
have been made. The most important of these is that ‘intermediate’
technology
is inferior to high-level technology
in the sense that it involves lower levels of
output for any given amount of capital, and that it creates less surplus and hence
restricts the rate of economic growth. Other criticisms are that entrepreneurship
is a limited resource and should be concentrated rather than spread thinly over
rural areas; that production
through
‘intermediate’
technology
involves higher
costs and would need protective measures; the quality of output will be lower
than if sophisticated technologies are used; and that more use is made of scarce
managerial and administrative, resources (and especially of supervisory labour) than
with less labour-intensive techniques.’
An effort has been made in this bibliography to deal with some of these questions in the selection of reference materials. As will be seen in the following section,
technological
flexibility
has been found to exist in many areas of production.
Sorne empirical studies have found that intermediate technology was not the most
appropriate one available in the location being considered This is of course not
conclusive, for it generally indicates that better “intermediate”
solutions have to
be discovered or developed. But the great majority of empirical studies have found
that intermediate technology did provide the most appropriate answer under the
circumstances. In these cases, the development and availability
of an intermediate
rechnology has clear!y allowed for a beiter allocation of resources than wouid
have been possible with existing techniques.
For the reader’s convenience, the present guide has been divided into six sections. The first four of these cover technologies related to the basic human needs
of food, shelter, everyday manufactured
goods (such as clothing, footwear and
various holisehold items), and infrastructural
goods (such as power sources, water
supplies, health services, roads and transportation).
The last two sections contain
a selection of technical publications and bibliographies which provide useful backup material to the studies in the main sections.
Although some of the studies, particularly those in the section on~power sources,
have reievance for developed countries, the majority refer specifically to developing
countries. Most of them have been aimed at assessing how ‘intermediate’ techniques
compare in terms of capital and labour productivitv,
employment generation, cost
of production,
and generation of surplus with more conventional
techniques. It
would be unwise to draw any general conclusions from the results of these studies.
A technology which is appropriate for one country, or for one area of a country,
may not necessarily be the most appropriate under differing conditions orevailing
elsewhere. Further, a technology which is the most appropriate for any one area
today, will not necessarily be optimal at some future date. However, the studies
do raise some important issues, and these have been summarized in an introductory
1. For a summary
of these arguments
see Schumz:her,
E.F., Small is Beautiful
lBlond and
Briggs, London, 1973). pp. 152-155; Jenkins, G.. Non-Agricultural
Choice of Technique:
An Annotated
Bibliogmphy
of Empirical
Studies (Institute
of Commonwealth
Studies.
Oxford, 1975). introduction
by Frances Stewart.
8
section. They also give some indication as to where gaps in existing knowledge
lie. Factual information
on technological choice in the production of a whole range
of commodhies is either negligible or non-existent. Hopefully, the range of products
on which research is conducted will widen considerably in the future.
Appropriate
Tectnioloigy
in Practice
The empirical studies included in the bibliography
raise several important issues.
These are summarized here in the hope that they will add something to ,the debate
on the choice of appropriate technologies and provide some useful guidelines for
future research and policy.
For the production of many commodities, a wide range of technically efficient
techniques was found to exist. Methods varied from large-scale to small-scale and/
or from very capital-intensive
to very labour-intensive.
Several studies found that
spdl-rrnlc?
m?wNlfartt~WinrJ
p!ants
wW+ more
appropriate
than
!srger r2neS L..
ander
existing conditions. (See entries 94. 104, 153, 155.) Factors favouring small-scale
production included lower transport costs, reduced demands on management and
shorter construction
time. Similarly, in agriculture, there is evidence from several
countries that small tractors are preferable to large ones, shaliow tube-wells are
preferable to deeper and more costly ones, and small grain or sugar millls preferable
to large processing complexes in terms of unit cost, employment
generation,
requirements of skills for operation and maintenance, distribution
of income,
etc. (See entries 21,32,40,48,49,52,
59, 75-77.)
in other cases (see entries 116, i29, 521, 123, 124, 139, i41, i52’j. significant
economies of scale were found to exist, although calculations were usually made
on the basis of full utilization of large-scale plant and equipment. Owing to limited
markets, difficulties
in obtaining inputs, frequent breakdowns of sophisticated
machinery, power failures, transport bottlenecks, etc., such an assumption is all
too often an unrealistic one in developing countries and, in fact, some of the
studies go on to show how unit costs either have been or would be iIncreased and
returns to capital much reduced at lower levels of utilization.
C%e entries 61,
121, 123.)
It is often assumed that production at small-scale will be more lablour intensive
than production at large-scale. Such a link was in fact found to exist in the manufacture of wooden frames (entry 90). and in cement-block
makin’g and maize.,
grinding in Kenya (entries 105 and 73). In each case labour-intensive
methods
were found preferable at small-scales of production
but became inefficient
at
higher levels of output. On the other hand, a study of various light industries in
Indnn=ia
V..W”.Wfound there ‘was no correlation
between scale of output and labourintensity in any of the industries being analyzed. (See entry 166.)
In situations of mass-unemployment,
labour-intensive
methods of production
obviously have much to commend them. Often, however, a conflict arises in so
much as the more labour-intensive
techniques involve higher costs than capitalintensive techniques. In such a situation, the choice of technique will obviously
depend on what weight is attached to the maximization
of employment as opposed
to the maximization of future output. Some studies conclude that capital-intensive
methods would involve so few employment opportunities
in relation to labour
9
intensive alternatives that they should be ruled out, even though they allow for
lower costs of production. (See entries 21, 737.)
Several studies found that no conflict arose, with the more labour-intensive
methods providing more jobs and, due to iow wage rates, having lower costs of
production. (See entries 62, 73, 100, 117, 122, 141, 145, 157. 230.) Several others
found that although capital-intensive
techniques appeared to be preferable when
market prices were used, the introduction
of shadow pricing to allow for distortions
in factor costs would weight the analysis in favour of more IaboLir-intensive metbods. (See entries 61, 81, 226, 227.) In some cases (see entry 726), the use of a
wage subsidy is recommended as a means of altering the capital/labour
ratio in a
socially beneficial way. Such measures may encourage some substitution of labour
for capital in production, although it is by no means certain that entrepreneurs
would choose more labour-intensive
techniques, even if these :epresented the
least-cost method of production, For instance, a study of different methods of canning in various countries (entry 117) and a study of various light industries in
Indonesia (entry 166) both revealed that, although production
costs would be
!“wer with more labour-intensive
methods, capital-intensive
techniques were being
used. Factors responsible for this included brand images allowing firms to hold a
monopolistic position in which managers were influenced by noneconomic
factors,
such es ease of management, rather than by price. This has led to recommendations that policies might usefully be aimed at reducing the influence of factors
that insulate decision making from local prices and costs.
.&I interesting point raised by a study of road building in Kenya (entry 225) is
that of the danger of concentrating
either totally on labour-intensive
techniques
or totally on capital-intensive
techniques. Often a mixed strategy will be the most
appropriate, using mechanized techniques for some processes.
Some studies refer to the fact ?hat the choice of product and qua!ity can affect
the scale of production and/or the capital/labour
ratio. For example, demand for
certain maize products necessitates the use of more capital-intensive
grinding
techniques (entry 73); demand for multi-storey buildings rules out labot!r-intensrve
methods of cement block making (entry 105) end labour-intensrve building techniques (entry 106); demand for white crystal sugar and white-ware china leads to
the use of techno!ogies which are more cap,..,.
‘+-r-%tensive
,~
?han those used in the
production of traditional sweetening agents or traditional
types of pottery (entries
53, 57, 154). A similar point is that a given amount of capital can increase the
general well-being of a greater number of people if top quality is not demanded.
This is particularly so in the case of road building (entry 224), provision of shelter
(entries 103, 107, 108). provision of water supplies and sanitation (eRtiieS
20?,
203, 207) and health services (entries 212, 213, 216, 219). In such areas, attempts
to emulate the standards of the West by providing, for instance, modern hospitals
and individual water connections, will simply increase the standard of living of an
already wealthy minority while the majority of people in greatest need receive no
benefits at all.
Several studies mention the problems involved in deciding between different
projects and in measuring costs and benefitsof different ways of investing resources.
Measurement of benefits appears to have presented the most difficulty
in the fields
10
of water supply, sanitation and health (entries 193-195, 198-200, 219). Deciding
on which discount rate to use presents furtner problems. Several studies show how
one project (usually that using the more capital-intensive
methods) would be
preferred at low discount rates, while another would be preferred if a higher discount rate was used (entries 42, 6, 211). One study shows how decisions would
differ according to whether choice was based on a cost/benefit
ratio, net present
worth, or the internal rate of economic return (entry 42). Even if problems of
measurement can be overcome, however, and the most appropriate technology
decided upon, this does not guarantee that it will be used. In actual decision making,
such factors as risk avoidance, appearance of modernity,
established procedures
ana familiar techniques can and do outweigh development
policy objectives.
(See entries 48.97,125,
140).
The studies mentioned so far have dealt with the question of choosing between
&sting
technologies
Several, hovever, look specifically at technological innovation. Some start from the premise that traditional techniques and materials have a
great deal in their favour from the point of view of high labr ur requirements,
ease of operation and maintenance, use of local materials, et ., and show how
minor improvements which have overcome cost and quality problems have increased their attraction in relation to modern technologies. This applies for instance
to improved animai-drawn equipment (entries 9, 19, 23.24, 27). improved storage
facilities (70). improved village-level mills (52, 75) and improved quality of~wood
and bamboo for housing (96, 109). Other studies look at attempts to adapt modern
technologies so as to make them smaller in scale and/or more labour intensive
(entries 57, 94, 104, 115, 154). Generally, the adapted versions have proved to be
competitive both in terms of cost and quality with the original versions.
In some cases, innovation has gone beyond the stage of improvement or adaptation of existing technologies and has taken the form of the development of a completely new product or technology wh ich makes optimum use of local labour and
materials and meets a previously unsatisfied demand. Examples of this are the
indigenous design and development of small tractors (entries 8, 14, 15, 28); the
development of various small water-lifting
and pumping devices and tube-wells
(entries 35, 36, 37, 45, 47); the use of ferro-cement for crop storage, roofing and
boat building (eR?rieS 66 , 62, 86, 89, 96); the development of cookers, drying
equipment, etc. utilizing solar energy (164, 167, 173, 178, 167); the development
of processes using agricultrrral and animal wastes to produce methane, animal-feed,
building materials, purified water, etc. (85, 168, 170, 181, 182, 196); and the
design and development of low-cost vehicles (221, 222). In general these products
and processes have been designed to al!ow for production
with a minimum of
capital, a minimum of skilled labour and a minimum of imported inputs. This,
p!us the fact that they were designed to meet a pre-defined need, has, in most
cases, led to successful development and dissemination,
and to the generation of
employment and incomes and savings in foreign exchange.
Only the major issues have been raised here. However, the notes on each entry
in the bibliography
are fairly comprehensive and readers interested in any parti.
cuiar aspect of appropriate technology, or in a particular commodity,
will find
numerous minor points of interest in the following pages.
11
During the course of the research, I benefited considerably from discussions with
economists and other experts currently working in the fisrd of appropriate technology. Special thanks are due to Andrew Barnett, Micha?! Lipton and Len Joy
of the Institute of Development Studies; Martin Bell, Gordon MacKerron and
Geoff Oldham of the Science Policy Research Unit; Harry Dickinson of Edinburgh
University;
Eric Clayton and Ian Carruthers of Wye College; Douglas Thornton
of Reading University; John Turner of the Architectural
Association; and John
Boyd. George McRobie and Simon Watt of ITDG. I am also very grateful to Prank
Solomon, Editor of Appropriate
Technology
and Deborah Ainger, Information
Officer, ITDG, for passing on the more relevant jf the apparently endless stream
of articles and books which arrives on .their desks.
Intermediate
Technology
Development
Group
Marilyn
Carr
Agriculture
A. General
1.
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Workshop on Appropriate
tural Technology (Dacca, February 1975).
Agricul-
A collection of 19 papers of a fairly general nature on the need for, and the possible
areas of application of, appropriate technology in the agricultural sector in Bsngladesh. Very few case studies are included, but the collection provides a useful survey
of the methodological
issues involved in appropriate agricultural technology. Most
papers have comprehensive bibliographies.
2.
Child F.C. and Kanada H., Links to the Green Revolution: A study of smallscale agriculturally
related indusrry in the Pakistan Punjab, Economic Development and Cultural Change Vol 23 (2) Jan. 1975.
Describes how the small-scale engineering industry in the Punjab responded in the
fifties and sixties to the needs of agriculture by supplying tube-well equipment,
and setting thestagefor theGreen Revolution. Development occurred spontaneously
without undue resort to loans or other assistance, and few economies of scale have
been apparent, with small firms coexisting
with larger ones, and producing a
competitive product by similar methods. Rising agricultural production has created
bottlenecks and imbalances which provide new opportunities
for capital formation
through backward linkages. There is thus great scope for the development
of
small-scale threshers, inexpensive reapers, on-farm storage equipment, etc., which
could be produced by the indigenous, labour-intensive,
small-scale engineering
industry. If permitted to interact, the agricultural sector and the small-scale engineering industry would grow in tandem, but the authors suggest that because of
current Government policies which emphasize tractors, this process will be aborted.
3.
Duff B.. output, Employment and Mechanization in Philippine Agriculture,
Paper prepared for th e Expert
Gioup Panel Meeting on the Effects of Mechanization on Employment,
Output and Welfare (F.A.O., Rome, 1975).
Concludes that mechanization
in the Philippines has had only a limited effect on
both output and employment.
However, there appears to be considerable scope
for improving agricultural
output through mechanization.
Irrigation equipment
and chemical applicators which improve resource use efficiency, and harvest and
post-production
innovations which reduce losses and improve quality of output,
appear to be promising areas for development and introduction
of mechanical
technologies.
4.
Gordon E., Intermediate
Crops Vol XIX (3) 1967.
Technology
in West African
Agriculture
World
Argues for ?he introduction
of simple machines into a non-industrial
community,
where they can improve the indigenous methods and can be regarded as an intermediate stage beween a subsistence economy and an industrial one. The machines
can be made locally by the village blacksmith or a village carpenter.
The author mentions the Japanese systein of building up relativeI* sophisticated machinery from components made under contract by numerous individuals
equipped with perhaps only one tool suitable for making the one component they
specialize in. He suggests that this subcontracting
approach could be adopted in
West Africa to provide a basic set of agricultural equipment as well as some degree
of experience in industrial techniques.
5.
Green D.A.G.. Ethiopia: An Economic Analysis of Technological
in four Agricultural
Production Systems (Institute of International
ture, Michigan State University, Monograph No.2. 1974).
Change
Agricul-
Analyses focr agricultural systems in which technological
changes, incorporating
appropriate mechanization
in the broadest sense of mechanical assistance, are
regarded as feasible; and appraises the economic value of proposed technoloaical
improvements.
Technological
changes considered include improved hand-implements, stronger oxen and improved animal-drawn equipment, hired engine-powered
equipment, improved storage facilities, and improved pest control and operational
efficiency.
Reaches the conclusion that relatively unsophisticated
technological
changes can have a substantial impact on the total development of the economy.
6.
International
Labour Office,
ture ( I LO, Geneva, 1973) _
Mechanization
and Employment
in Agricul-
A collection of papers surveying the patterns, causes and effects of agricultural
mechanization in selected developing countries. Covers Latin America, East Africa,
Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. Includes much useful empirical
data on the output, employment
and equity effects of substituting
tractors and
mechanical pumps for animal and/or manpower. General conclusion reached is
that the introduction
of tractors and mechanical pumps has benefited an already
wealthy minority at the expense of society as a whole.
7.
Khan A.U.. Agricultural
Mechanization:
World Crops Vol 24 (4) 1972.
The Tropical
Farmer’s
Dilemma
Stresses the need for an intermediate
mechanization technology to suit the agroclimatic, socioeconomic,
and industrial conditions of the less developed regions.
Argues that the development of such a technology can be accelerated by providing
technical assistance to local manufacturers in the form of new machinery designs
which can be made easily within the developing countries by low-volume production. methods. Cites jeepney manufacture
in the Philippines as an example.
54
Provides
help in
eloping
thresher,
8.
some examples of the type of agriculturai machinery designs which can
the establishment of an indigenous farm equipment industry in the devregions. Machines discussed include a simple row seeder, a lightweight
a portable power-weeder, and a manually operated grain cleaner.
Khan A.U. Appropriate
Technologies: Do we transit:, nr adapt or develop?
Paper presented at the Ford Foundation Seminar on Technology
and Employment (Ford Foundation, New Delhi, March 1973).
Argues that the development 0; an appropriate technology will require two separate
areas of activity: (1) product design; and (2) production
engineering. Gives four
case studies from Asia which indicate that many modern-sector products can be
economicaiiy
produced in low volume provided product designs and production
methods are designed to suit local conditions:The !.e.e! p-.-v.
nnw~..?~~~~.r.. The deve!opment and manufacture of a simple 6-7 hpi
power-tiller
in the Phiiippines is given as an example of product development.
The design was released by IRRI to two manufacturers
in 1972 and by the end
of the year they had a combined monthly production
of 260 tillers. At the end
of 1973, their combined annual production
was 3000 tillers, which was three
times the number of machines imported intc the Philippines in the previous year.
At this time, another five companies entered the market and vast increases in
production
were expected. Work opportunities
have been generated in the production of the tillers and in associated marketing and servicing facilities. Also,
since the use of tillers has allowed farmers to increase agricultural
produ-lion,
there has been an increase in demand for agricultural workers.
The motor pump: An example of product development
entries 36. Cunningham J.F. and 47. Sanson 8.L.)
in South Vietnam.
(See
The Winner engine: A case study of the development of a production process which
allows the manufacture of aircooled. gasoline engines (normally high-technology)
in low volume, with minimum capital investments. The Thai firm concerned has
reduced investment in production
equipment bv such means as making lathes,
grinding machines, etc., in its own small foundry and machine shop. Production
has expanded rapidly, and the firm is exporting engines (which are for use in
boats) to other Asian countries.
The ieeoney industry: An examole of product design and innovation
;&y+ques
A
1.1tkn
LIS.2Dhilinninmc
. m.,*,wr”“li ICoo
$YCr entry 222. C&ap,os p.)
in production
These examples, in which the products are designed to suit available production
methods, or in which iabour-intensive production methods are developed to permit
the manufacture of a complex product, illustrate the kind of engineering inputs
lhat are necessary for the rapid development of appropriate technologies in less
developed countries.
9.
Kline C.K,, Green D.A.G., Donahue FM., and Stout B.A., Agricultural
Mechanization
in Equatorial Africa (Michigan State University,
Institute
of International Agriculture, Research Report NG. 6.. 1969).
16
A comprehensive report in which the term “mechanization”
is taken tG include the
use of hand and animal-Gperated tools and implements, as well as motorized equip
ment, to reduce human effort, improve time lines and quality of various farm
operations, thereby increasing yields, quality of product, and overall efficiency.
Part TWO contains several case studies of hand-powered,
animal-powered
and
engine-powered
agriculture in various parts of Equatorial Africa, and examines
the ecGnGmic end technical aspects of the introduction
of improved technology
and power into farming systems. Includes numerous examples of simple, lowcGst technologies which are appropriate for conditions in Equatorial Africa, and
has an extensive bibliography with over 500 entries.
IO*
Macpherscm G. and Jack:sn 8,. VNage Technology
Agricultural
innovation
in Tanzania International
(2) Feb. 1976.
for Rural Development:
Labour Review Vol Ii1
Points out that intermediate technology,
although cheaper than modern mechanized technologies, may still be beyond the reach of many villagers. There is a
need, therefore, fGr even simpier and cheaper technologies,
vhich involve substituting wood for metal as far as possible, and using materials known to and
used by villagers e.g. bush poles, planks, nails, scrap iron, leather and rope. Such
vi/!age /eve! technologies would enable villagers, with the heip of a simple and
inexpensive tool kit and their everyday skills, to construct and keep in working
order a whole variety of agricultural
implements and equipment. Comparative
costs for varicrus implernents at the different technologicai
levels are given as
fOiiGWS:-
Ox-cartitrailer
Hand cart
Cultivator
Harrow
Wheelbarrow
Maize sheller
* Tanz. shillings
Mechanized
Intermediate
Village level
(list price)’
(list price)*
(unit cost)”
5,600
710
400
192
175
175
96
335
150
52
60
57
53
9,000
7,259
Also taken into account is the fact that village level technology utilizes village
labour between peak cultivation seasons, and thus contributes to rural development
generally.
The
authors pomt out that there are cases where IT costs less (per unit Gf
output) and is technically superior to VT; and cases where modern technologies
are the mGst appropriate.
VT enables farmers to produce sGme implements at
negligible cGst, thus releasing resources fGr the purchase of intermediate or mechanized equipment in cases where they are the mGst appropriate. Concludes that a
hierarchy of technologies in the correct approach to rural development, and the
16
VT, a hitherto missing link between hand-powered
must be given a prominent place in the hierarchy.
11.
I:r.;-nda V.C.. The Role of intermediate
t:..,! Development East African Journal
1975,
and intermediate
technology,
Tachnology in fast African Agriculof Rural Development Vol 8 (l&2)
Examines the role of intermediate technology in the agricultural sectors Gf East
African countries. Mainly theoretical,
but includes a few short case studies of
appropriate and inappropriate technological change.
12.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Animal-drawn
fquipment, Hand-operated Machines, and Simple Power Equipment in the Least
Developed and Other Deve/oping Countries [UNIDO, New Delhi, Oct. 1974).
tn,rno
?07/1\
l”, IT” rlnnhrc
\.Y,..U.
n--1..,.
Explores ways and means to promote the local manufacture of appropriate agricultural machinery in developing countries. Takes a disaggregated approach, and
lists projects which would be mGst suited to individual countries’ needs and resources.
13.
Yudelman M., Butler G., and Banerji R., Technological
Change in Agriculture and Employment in Developing Countries (OECD. Development Centre,
Paris, 1971).
Chapter Four contains several case studies of the causes and consequences Gf
introducing tractors and engine-powered pumps into various parts of India, Pakistan
and Sri Lanka. These show that the introduction
of large-scale machinery has
resulted in a substantial reduction in the labour requirements within the range of
12 to 27 per cent man-days per hectare. The authors suggest, however, that the
paradox of the existence of an abundant supply Gf agricultural labour in the less
developed economies and the adoption of large-scale mechanization need not occur.
Selective mechanization may relieve seasonal shortages without unduly displacing
iabour and thus pla; an important role in agricultural development.
6. Equipment for Food Production
14.
P.urora G.S., and Morehouse W., Dilemma of Technological
Choice: The
case of the small tractor Economic and Political Weekly Vol 7 (31-33) Special
number, August 1972.
Discusses the influence of the economic and sGcial climate within India on attempts to develop indigenous. technologies. The authors use a specific example of
attempts to design and develop a 20 h.p. tractor by way of illustration. Compared
to a Czech tractor which would be manufactured under a turn-key arrangement,
the indigenous tractor would have been at a disadvantage with respect to CGSt
and initial quality. Since the public sector enterprises are expected, among other
things, to make a profit, the tendency was for them to opt for the foreign design,
even though the development potential of adopting the indigenous project was
greater.
?7
15.
Boschoff W.G. Development
Vol24 (5) 1972.
of the Uganda Small
Tractor
World
Crops
Dut!lnes the need to augment human energy on tropical farms, and discusses the
merits and demerits of alternative forms of power ranging from animal draught to
large-scale tractors. The purpose of developing the Uganda small tractor is indicated as filling a gap in the various alternative power sources. It is emphasized
that the tractor is based on local assembly of imported mass-produced components
in order to keep the price low. Broad characteristics of the tractor are specified.
16.
Bumh D., The Politics of Technological Choice: Agricultural
in Sk Lanka. (Science Policy Research Unit, mimeo, 1975).
Mechanization
The paper suggests that the analysis of technological
choices cannot be isolated
from the differential
benefits such choices confer on different social groups. This
is demonstrated by an analysis of the political role and power of large farmers,
tractor importers, etc., in Sri Lanka which influence the choice of agricultural
technology in capital-intensive
directions and lead tn increased social differentiation.
17.
Carr M.N., ‘Animals and Tractors in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Choice of
Technique in Agriculture’,
Livestock in Less Developed Countries (Ed).
Lipton M. (Frank Cass, London, forthcoming).
Looks at why farmers in Sri Lanka have substituted tractors for draught animals
in cultivation,
and examines the effects of this process on levels of food production, employment,
equity, and quality of rural life. Concludes that subsidies
on tractor use played a major part in encouraging the spread of tractorization,
and that this had been an inappropriate
policy measure in so much as it had encouraged farmers to use a technology which, although privately profitable,
was
not that which enabled them to achieve maximum levels of food production.
Section Four suggests some simple low-cost technologies (e.g. improved animaldrawn equipment,
mini-threshing
machines, improved storage facilities) which,
unlike tractors, could help farmers to increase output, without any undue displacement of labour, worsening income and land distribution,
or disruption
of
rural life.
18.
Deutsch A.E. Tractor Dilemma
24 (5) 1972.
for Developing
Countries
World Crops Vol
Argues that tractors designed for large-scale, sophisticated
agriculture are ineffective for small-plot farming. Appropriately
sized, simple, low-cost tractors need
to be designed specifically to serve emerging agricultural areas. Suitably designed
equipment, coupled with careful planning for mechanization,
can provide significant gains in the battle For food production.
Lists 7 basic design requirements
for success in developing countries.
19.
Dime S.A.J. and Amann V.F. Small Holder Farm Development
through
Intermediate
Technology East African Journal of Rural Development Vol 8
(l&2) 1975.
18
Discusses the reasons for the failure of mechanization
policies (based mainly on
the introduction
of tractors) in East Africa to date, and argues the need for a
more appropriate technology. Describes the development of the Kabanyolo tooi
frames in Uganda which are an improvement
on existing ox-drawn equipment.
A survey on a sample of farmers who adopted this ‘intermediate’
technology
found that (1) farmers had learnt operation quickly and had expanded acreages
of food and cash crops; and (2) 75 per cent of farmers had increased their incomes
by 75 to 599 per cent since adoption. Recommends that since intermediate technology has been shown to have a positive effect on peasant farmers income levels,
the government should set up local plants to manufacture intermediate technology
implements that have been proven suitable.
20.
Gibbon D. et al., Minimum
(5) 1974.
Tiliage Q&em
for Botswana World Crops Vol 26
Describes the development of the animal-drawn ‘Versetool’,
for local conditions and for local manufacture in Botswana.
21.
specifically
designed
Hewavitharana B., ‘Choice of Techniques in Ceylon’ Economic Development
in South Asia (Eds) Robinson E.A.G. and Kidron M. (Macmillan, London,
1970).
Part Six compares alternative techniques for the cultivation
acteristics of four alternative methods are as follows:
_
A
C
19
of paddy. The char-
D
Man with
mammoty
Pair of
buffaloes
Small
tractor
Four-wheel
tractor
Hours per acre
Ploughing
liarrowing
64
64
16
4
4-6
2-3
1%-2X
x-1
Cost per acre (Rsl
Ploughing
Harrowing
24
24
19
5
7
3
12
5
Concludes that tractors have a cost advantage over traditional techniques, but ~:hat
they would bring about too sharp a reduction in labour inputs. Concludes that
technique B wouid be the best suited to local conditions. However, there may be
some c, ses in which acute labour shortages make the use of a tractor necessary.
In such cases, the small (2Yvheel) tractor is to be preferred to the 4-wheel tractor
in regard to the cost of production
and capital cost. Stresses that while much
attention has been given to mechanization,
there has been no similar interest in
the improvement of simple and indigenous implements using animal power.
The article includes similar analyses of the textile, coir and sugar manufacturing
industries.
19
22.
Hudson J-C., Boycott C.A.. and Scott D.A., A New Method of Sugar-Cane
Harvesting World Crops Vol 27 (4) 1975.
Describes a new machine for harvesting sugarcane, which is thought to be an
‘appropriate technology’
in the sense of laying stress on the human and technological resources existing in the area of introduction.
There are three separate
machines: (I) a grab loader; (2) a cane cutter; and (c) a cleaner/bundler.
All three
are tractor-mounted
and can be bought stage by stage, to suit the needs and finances of the individual
concerned. Thus, the equipment can be ‘plugged in’ by
stages to match local mechanical skills and any decline in the number of in-field
workers available. The entire set of machinery involves a labour input of 1 person
for every 20 acres of cane to be harvested. This is ‘intermediate’ between f person
for every 5 to 10 acres in the unmechanized state, and 1 person for every 49 to
80 acres with more sophisticated machines.
23.
lnukai 1. Farm Mechanization,
Output and Labour Input: A Case Study in
Thailand, International
Labour Review Vol 101 (5) May 1979.
Concludes that since buffaloes could not be used for ploughing before the onset
of the monsoon rains (because the soil was too hard), the introduction
of tractors
had resulted in enormous benefit by enabling ploughing to be done at a time that
permitted farmers to change from broadcasting rice to a more labour-intensive
transplanting method. This had led to an increase in yields per acre and an increase
in labour per acre requirements.
24,
Junion F. and Henry J. Can Primitive
from French by Agra Europe, London).
Farming
be Modernized?
(Translated
Chapter Six gives an excellent account, with examples from Africa, of improving
existing agricultural tools, introducing
new tools, and the role of rural workshops
in the maintenance of small tools.
25.
Muckle T.B., Crosrley C.P. and Kilgour J., Low Cost Primary Cultivation:
A proposed system for developing countries; (National College of Agricultural Engineering, Occasional Paper No. I., 1973).
Describes the development of a low-cost power source for land preparation on
small (approximately
3 hectare) agricultural
holdings in developing countries.
The machine consists of 2 parts - a self-propelled winch, powered by a small
engine, and a modified ox-tool frame implement which is attached by a cable
to the winch unit. Characteristics are: (I) it is designed to allow manufacture
in developing countries; (2) it uses local materials as much as possible; (3) it is
low-cost - the early 1970’s prototype cost approximately
fl00; (4) it can cope
with hard soil (which single-axle and small 2-wheel tractors have difficulty
in
doing); (5) its performance does not decline with increasing levels of soil moisture
(which is a disadvantage with heavy 4-wheel tractors; and (6) it requires 2 operators
as opposed to only one in the case of the conventional tractor.
The machine is, therefore, a useful alternative source of draught power to
draught animals on the one hand, and existing types of tractor (with all their
faults) on the other.
20
26.
Navasero N.C., Deep Placement Chemical Applicators
(International
Rice Research Institute, mimeo, 1975).
for Lowland
Rice.
Describes two machines for placing fertilizer and chemicals in the root zone of
of lowland rice soils. This is found to increase efficiency significantly
when compared with surface broadcasting of the chemical ii paddy water, and isI therefore,
of great value to farmers under conditions of world shortages and rising prices
of-agrochemicals.
27.
Practices
Gkai M., The Devebp,me,nt =f Ox Cultivation
African Journal of Rural Development Vol 8 (l&2) 1975.
in Uganda East
In Uganda, ox-drawn equipment has been developed, and if judiciously
applied,
can introduce a dynamic process of technical and technological
improvements
into agriculture.
However, support for this ‘intermediate’
technology
has been
interest in promoting
sporadic. The paper, the:efo:e; aims primarily a*L Jtimulating
the use of oxdrawn equipment by indicating the potential of the technique in
modernizing the agriculture of Uganda. Gives results of a survey showing that the
use of oxen results in considerable time-saving over the use of hand tools:
Primary
Ploughing
Secondary
Ploughing
Primary
Weeding
Secondary
Weeding
TOTAL
46
3
188
27
(hours per acre)
Lango hoe
Ox-implemen?s
50
11
46
10
46
3
Describes ox-drawn implements in current use, and suggests some improvements
that could l-e made. Concludes that ox-cultivation
is better than tractor cultivation,
and that the former technique should not be eclipsed by tractorization
programmes.
26.
S&lie T.W. Appropriate
Technology: Some concepts, some ideas, and some
recent experknces in Africa East African Journal of Rural Development
Vol7 (l&2) 1974.
Attempts to draw together some past ‘literature search’ work
observations in Africa on the subject of appropriate technology.
case studies:
and some recent
Includes 2 major
(1)
The development of an appropriate tractor at the University of Botswana,
Lesotho, and Swaziland. The tractor has no gearbox, clutch, differential,
belts
or chains, and requires no daiiy maintenance, and has easy manoeuvrability.
To go
along with the tractor, a programme for the adaptation of hand-controlfed
oximplements to utilization
by the tractor was begun. Also undertaken has been
tl:c development of new equipment for tractor utilization,
such as water pumping
equipment,
irrigation equipment, a circular saw, a corn mill, and an electrical
generator. In an attempt to increase efficiency, a unit service exchange scheme
was set up, with depots situated at strategic points throughout the country, so that
any broken tractor part could be replaced in 12 hours.
(2)
The development of a low-cost tractor at Makere. (See entry 15. Boshoff
W.G.)
21
29.
Sen A. Employment,
Technology
and Development.
(Clarendon
Oxford, 1975). Appendix D: A Study of Tractorization
in India.
Press,
Surveys the main conclusions of some empirical studies on the impact of tractorization on employment
and output. Concentrates on two benefit/cost analyses
of tractorization:
one in Maharashtra in 1969, and the other in the Ferozepore
district in the Punjab in 1973. Concludes that it is so difficult
to measure the
yield-increasing
and cost-saving contributions
of tractorization
that a ‘definitive
benefit/cost
analysis of this important technological
change cannot be done at
this stage’.
30.
SIET Institute,
1964).
Appropriate
Technologies
for Indian
Industry,
(Hyderabad,
Includes a case study of four techniques for manufacturing a hand-operated Japanese-style paddy weeder. These are: an existing handicraft technique; an existing
powar-technique;
and an improved version of each. in each case, as the table shows,
the capital-labour
ratio is higher for the improved technique, while the capitaloutput ratio is lower. The improved versions heve lower unit costs than the traditional versions, and the hand techniques have a slightly lower unit cost than the
power techniques up to a production level of 2,000 units per month.
Capital equipment (Rs)
Total employees
Production (units/month)
I/O ratio (&/units per
month)
I/L ratio (l&/job)
Cost per unit (Rs)
3;.
Handicraft
Technique
(existing)
Power-driven
Machinery
(existing)
(improved)
Hand-operated
Machinery
(improved)
150.0
1
25
25,000
30
850
31,000
36
1,900
7,200
32
1,500
6.0
150.0
14.0
29.0
835.0
15.0
16.0
860.0
13.0
5.0
225.0
12.75
Wickramanayake
V.E.A., The Mechanization
of Rice Culture in Ceylon,
Journal of the National Agricuitural Society of Ceylon Vol 1 1964.
Makes a case for the use of tractors in paddy cultivation
so as to increase food
production.
Looks at the advantages and disadvantages of 4-wheel and 2-wheel
tractors. Discusses the Tandem tractor, which consists of two conventional tractors
coupled together with the front wheels removed. ATandem tractor is much cheaper
and more efficient than a 4-wheel tractor of similar power. Suggests applying this,
principle (already popular in many developing countries) to the use of two small,
(2-wheel) tractors in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
22
32.
Wickramanayaka
V.E.A. The Small Tractor: its use and iimitations
in the
mechanization
of Ceylon’s agriculture,
Journal of the National Agricultural Society of Ceylon, Vol 2. June 1965.
Compares the work rate and per acre costs of land preparation with hand-tools,
animaldrawn
equipment, and a small (2-wheel) tractor. Concludes that the small
tractor is both the quickest and the cheapest source of draught power for land
preparation. The tractor can plough an acre of land in 4 to 6 hours as compared
with the 16 hours needed with a pair of buffaloes and 64 hours with hand-too!s.
Comparative costs of ploughing an acre were found to be Rs. 7.0 with a small
tractor as opposed to Rs. 19.0 with buffaloes and Rs. 24.0 with hand-tools.
33.
Wickramanayake
‘;&A,
Evaluation of Agriclritural
Machinery in Ceyion,
Journal of the National Agricultural Society of Ceylon i’ol 5. 1968.
Gives estimates of costs gf rotary tilling a paddy field with 5 tractor types:
Horse-power
4-wheel tractor
45160
35140
20
516
6/7
Purchase price (Rs)
Work rate iacresidayi
Cost per acre (Rs)
23,200
5.0
31.90
15,000
3.0
36.50
3,500
1.5
15.50
3,800
2.0
11.50
20,700
4.0
38.90
2-wheel tractor
Finds that while a 4-wheel tractor is much quicker than a 2.wheel
latter can prepare an acre of land at less than half the cost.
tractor,
the
C. irrigation
34.
Bunyard P. Will the Desert Bloom Ecologist Vol 3 (9) Sept. 1973.
Describes the use of water catchments for agriculture in the Negev, where the
average rainfall is only 75 to 1OOmm per annum. Three different sizes of catchment
were tested. These were (a) 350 hectares, which produced only 2.5 mm of runoff with an anrlual rainfall of 100 mm; (b) 10 hectares, which produced 13 mm of
run-off with same rainfall; and (c) 0.1 hectares, which produced 50 mm of runoff. It was also found that for any size of catchment, the run-off increased as the
slope decreased. Thus, a slight slope, and a mr ‘cx catchment gave the best results.
Looks at the economics of these schemes. Concludes that even if modern machinery in used fc:- land clearing and makin(; :,.f micro-catchments,
the cost is still less
than 20 US dollars per hectare. If the :work .f done by hand, then the cost would
be less. If the land to be irrigated was ~ian*cJ t.nder salt-bush;one
hectare would
produce 30 kilograms of protein, which has a market value of 5 US dollars. Thus,
the catcbment would pay for itself ir, approximately
4 years.
23
35.
Clay E.J. Planners’ Preferences and Local Innovation in Tubewe!! Irrigation
Technology in N-E. India. (Instrtute of Development
Studies, Discussion
Paper No. 40.. 1974).
A case study of tubewell irrigation in the Kosi area ef Bihar, showing how an
inappropriate
choice of technology led to a misallocation of resources which the
agricultural sector was unable to absorb. Explains how it also led to a remarkable
series of innovations and adaptations which virtually eliminated the indivisibilities
associated with tubewell technology. In particular, a group of farmers experimented
with bamboo and coir construction and succeeded in developing a weii cased only
with bamboo, and a strainer of bamboo and coir. Only 20 tr 25 days were needed
for construction,
and the total cost was only Rs. 100 to Rs. 150. Also, diesel
pumping sets were bolted on to buiiock carts to provide a mobile source of power
for several wells, so overcoming the problem of investment in lumpy capital goods.
sea. “..,V
den Dn+l.l
,A.,.
“.... , 17
-. . nnmmen
II..
36.
Cunningham
J.F. The Development
of Locaily Manufactured
Irrigation
Pumps in the Republic of Vietnam, Paper presented at the Second International Seminar on Change in Agriculture, Reading, Sept. 1974.
Until the early 1960’s. a suitable mechanical pump at a realistic price was not
available in Vietnam, so that the only means of providing supplementary irrigation
was by manual water-lifting
devices such as water wheels. This meant that only
very limited areas were irrigated during the dry season.
This paper describes a major revolution
which took place in 1962, when a
mechanical pump which could be made locally at low cost was innovated by a
delta farmer. Almost ,111delta farmers possess a sampan boat which is used as the
main means of transport, and most families have been able to purchase a small
gasoline engine (4-10 h.p.) to power their sampan. The pump innovator discovered
that if the sampan propeller was reversed and the driving shaft and propeller were
enclosed in a tube of slightly greater diameter than the propeller, the device could
pump water up to about 1.5 metres at much greater discharge than the manual
devices.
This simple innovation
enabled dry season farming to rapidiy expand at a
marginal cost to the farmer since he already possessed the engine, the driving
shaft and propeller. He had only to purchase the pump tube, which in 1973 was
marketed for about 5 to 10 US dollars.
See also entry 47. Sanson R.L.
37.
Dommen A.J. The Bamboo Tube Well: A Note on an Example of Ind&enous
Technology, Economic Development and Cultural Change Vol 23 (3) April
1975.
A case study of the development of a bamboo tube well by a medium-sized farmer
in the Saharsa district of Bihar. The well is made from split bamboo lengths, iron
rings and coir string, and its construction
is as simple and economical as its sinking
into the ground. When a rubber hose is attached to a 6 h.p. diesel pump, and
dropped into the open top of the well, water is yielded in quantity. The cost of
24
boring a 60 feet well is Rs. 200 to Rs. 300, which is only 10% of the cost of sinking
an iron tube-well to the same depth. Besides being cheap, which means that it is
experlable
if the well dries up, it can also be made from indigenous or easily
available materials. The first well was introduced in January 1969, and by March
1973, there were 33,000 of them in Bihar alone. Loans were available for the
sinking of tubeurells so that even the 1% acre farmer has been able to afford one.
The farmer’s major investment has now been shifted to the cost of the pumping
set, which continues to represent 2 major hurdle. The cheapest available set in
1973 was Rs. 3,125. The author suggests that e set should be developed costing
less than Rs. 1,000.
See also entry 35. Clay E.J.
36.
Haque F.. A Comparative Analysis of Sma!l-Scale Irrigation
Systems
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol I I I (1) Jan. 1975.
in
Uses standard World Bank project appraisal method to evaluate small-scale irrigation projects in Bangladesh. Considers deep tube-wells, shallow tube-wells,
and low-lift pumps. Results are shown in the following table:-
Capital requirements (Taka)
Cost per TOOm3 of water (Takaj
Percentage of utilization
Benefit/cost ratio (existing capacity)
Shall0 w
Tube-well
Deep
Tube-well
Low-lift
Pomp
6,650
34
26
2.40
48,000
55
17
1.45
47
13
-
Concludes that the deep tube-well, though theoretically
i-zre effic&nt than ~the
shallow tube-well, has not proved so in practice. Unless r Dramatic f;:tange occurs
in the managerial factors which are limiting deep tube-well efficieno I a significant
improvement
in this technology cannot be expected. In contzr,
shallow-tubewell farmers have shown better performance and are expected to do still better if
cer:ain facilities (e.g. repair facilities, expert advice and credit) are provided. Recommends that under present socioeconomic
framework, social gain can further
be increased if investment in irrigation is concentrated in shallow tube-wells.
39.
Lal D.. Wells and Welfare: An Exploratory
Cost-Benefit Study of the Economics of Small-scale Irrigation in Maharashtra. (Development Centre Studies,
Series on Cost-Benefit
Analysis, Cast Study No.1, OECD, Paris, 1972.)
Attempts to estimate social costs and benefits to small-scale irrigation from ground
water sources, using the OECD Manual Method of Cost-Benefit Analysis. Besides
estimating the social rate of return to small-scale irrigation,
it also asks whether
available irrigation water should be concentrated
on a small acreage, or spread
more thinly over a wide acreage. It concludes that the latter would be the most
appropriate strategy.
40.
Mellor J.W. and Moorti T.V., A Comparative Study of Costs and Benefits
of Irrigation
from State and Private Tube-Wells in Uttar Pradesh, Indian
Journal of Agricultural
Economics Vol. XXVIII (4) Oct/Dec. 1973.
Compares the economic? of private and state-run
Findings are summarized in the following table:
tube-wells
Pradesh.
State tube-weli
Priva it’ tubewell
76,500
18,691
33
910
5,100
2,282
22
1,700
Initial investment (Rs)
Annual costs IRS)
Cost of water i Rs/l ,OiN m3 )
Gross returns per hectare (Rs)
in Uttar
Capital costs were (on an annual basis) 7 to 10 times 2s much for State tube wells
as for private tube wells, while the water discharge capacity of +he former was
only about double that of the latter. Also, the supply of water Iidrn state wells
was
less efficient and less reliable so that those farmers with private wells had 2
cropping pattern with a greater proportion of high-yielding
and cash crops. These
farmers were thus able to reap higher profits than farmers using state wells. Factors
lowering the efficiency of state wells were: (1) operators were liable to transfer
tube-well time to other farms for additional tips; (2) repairs took a long time;
(3) wastage of water occurred due to conveyance over long distances; and (4)
farms had to forfeit their turn if electricity supplies failed. The authors recommend
that less emphasis should be placed on state tube-wells in the fu:ure, and greater
concentration placed on the development of private tube-wells.
41.
Mondal R.C. Farming with a Pitcher: A technique
World Crops Vol 26 (2) March/April
1974.
of water conservation
Describes ‘pitcher farming’ which makes use of baked porous earthern pitchers
each. Requires about 800 pitchers per hectare.
costing about 0.13 US d~!la:s
Water requirements of crops irrigated in this way are only 1.23 to 1.98 cm/ha.,
which :s very small compared to conventional
farming systems. This is a useful
zbstitute
for techniques such 2s trickle irrigation, which, although water-saving,
require considerable j :.~;r,rjent and technical skill.
42.
Mukhopadhyay
P.., Becrfit-Cost Analysis of Alternative
Tube-Well Irrigation
Projects in Natiia District &i West Bengal, Indian Journal of Agricultural
Economics Vol XXVIII (4) Ott/Dar.
i9?3.
Makes a comparative economic evaluation of &ep tube-wells and shallow tubewe!ls as alternative devices for irrigation. The analysis is done on the basis of 3
alternative discounted measures, namely benefit/cost
ratio; net present worth;
and the internal rate of economic return. The intention is to ga;lge wherher these
3 different crheria give 2 different ranking of alternative projects. As can be seen
26
from the table, the deep tube-well
criteria, but not with the third:
would
Benefit/cost
! ;.?% discount rate)
(ra tie)
be preferred with the first two of these
Met present worth
112% discount rate)
ml
In ternal
rate of
economic
return (%I
.---Deep tube-w;:;11
Shallow tube-well
1,253.58
1.245.16
2.75
1.87
34
over 50
The author goes on to show that the car clusicns vary significarit!:! depending
on the discount rate chosen, with the shallow tube-well becoming more attractive
at higher discount rates. At a discount rate of 20%. the shallow well wouid become
preferable to the deep well on the net present worth criterion; it would do 50 at a
discount rate of 25% on the benefit/cost criterion. This :ioints out the dangers of
assuming and using an incorrect discount rate in evaluations.
Concludes that shallow tube-wells claim a distinct preference over r’eep tube-
43.
National Academy of Sciences, More Water for Arid Lends: Promising
nologies and Research Opportunities
(N.A.S., Washington, 1974).
Tech-
The report concentrates on little known but promising technologies for the use
and conservation of scarce water supplies in arid areas, and aims at drawing the attention of agriculturai and community
officials and researchers to opportunities
for the development of projects with probable high social value. Many of tb,e
technologies discussed have immediate local value for small-scale water development and conservation, especially in remote areas with intermittent
rainfall.
Topics covered include: rainwater harvesting, riln-off
agriculture,
irrigation
with saline water, n--use of water, wells of various types, desalination, rainfall
augmentation,
iceberg-harvesting, reduction of evaporation, reduction of seepage
losses, trickle irrigation, reducing transpiration,
and selecting and managing crops
more efficiently.
The advantages and limitations of each of the technologies are
discussed, including questions of cost, skill, environment
and local materials.
Emphasises new and low-cost developments already made, and points out areas
where further research and development is needed. Contains useful bibliographies,
and lists individuals and organizations involved in relevant research.
44.
Parker N, ‘A Proposal for a Small-Scale Village Irrigation
Ghana’, Agriculture
in S,E Ghana Vol. Il. (Eds) Dalton
(Department of Economics and Management, University
lopmen? Study No.13 June 1973).
Programme in S.E.
G.E. and Parker N.
of Reading, Deve-
Examines aiternztive systems of promoting irrigation and sets out the economic
sharac:eristics of irrigating small-scale farms. Concludes that the small-scale village
27
irrigation
project would be
favoursbl\r with larger more
economic terms, and would
economic frameworks would
ruption in the lives of the
induced.
45.
economically
viable. Such projects wouId compare
capital-intensive
and strictly controlled
,rojects in
have the additional benefit that the existing sociobe utilized, and there would be a minimum of discommunities
for which the development was being
Plessard F., Etude d’un Sy.&me e d’Exhaure
Agricole Tropicale. No. 47. Sept. 1974.
2 Traction Bovine, Machinisme
Describes a simp!e animal-powered water lifting device for cattle watering, which
was developed at Bambey in Senegal. Tests conducted have given satisfactory
results, with the costs of the animal powered unit being 8.5 francs CFA per metre3
of water, as opposed to 35 to 50 francs CFA for a motor pumped unit.
46.
Samuel J., Development
Institute, mimeo, 1974).
of ,s Jet Flow Pump. (International
Rice Research
Propeller pumps and centrifugal pumps are 2 of the most popular mechan;cally
operated pumping devices used in rice production. An inherent limitation
of both
of these is that their efficiency is considerably affected whenever the operating
conditions differ from the optimum. This paper explains how the use of a water
jet pump, in combination with a high-head, low capacity centrifugal pump could
greatly increase the efficiency of the latter.
47.
Sanson R.L. The Motor Pump: A Case Study
ment Oxford Economic Papers March 1969.
of Innovation
and Devalop-
A case study relating how a motor pump developed by local farmers contributed
to the development of a major portion of the upper delta region of the Mekong
Delta of South Vietnam in the mid-1960’s. The pump was adopted rapidly by
farmers even though there was no marked Government support, and proved to
be extremely profitable. By virtue of allowing extra land to be double cropped
it led to a generation of employment
opportunities,
and eliminated widespread
seasonal unemployment.
See also entry 36. Cunningham J.F.
48.
Thomas J.W. ‘The Choice
Pakistan: An analysis of
propriate Technologies in
(Harvard University, Centre
of Technology for Irrigation Tube-wells in East
a development policy decision’ Studies if InapDeveloping Countries (Edsj Morawetz D. et. al.
for International Affairs, 1974).
Explores in detail the choice of technology for irrigation
(Bangladesh). Major findings are shown in the table:
28
tube-wells
in East Pakistan
Low-cost’
Mediumcost”
Highcost’
-
Initial coa IRS):
Market prices
Shadow prices
Internal Rate of Return 1%):
Market prices
Shadoinr prices
58,005
94,457
31,660
35,660
48
54
194.805
334,727
33
25
7
4
*Low-cost = jet/percussion
drilling, centrifugal
pump, low speed diesel engine.
*Medium-cost = contractor/power
drilling, turbine pump, high speed diesel engine.
*High-cost = contractor/power
drilling, turbine pump, electric engine.
On balance, the arguments for the low-cost wells over medium-, and particularly
high-cost wells were impressive. East Pakistan’s development objectives, economic
returns, employment r:eation and training, the distribution
of benefits as well as
the potential for the creation of domestic industry would have been better served
by the low-cost wells. Ultimately, however, it was the organizational requirements
of the implementing agencies, including the aid donors, that determined the choice
of technology. and low-cost wells were rejected in favour of medium-cost wells.
Thus, in actual decision-making,
such factors as risk-avoidance,
appearance of
modernity,
established procedures and familiar techniques outweighed develop.
ment policy objectives.
$
:!iikinson R.H. and’ Kidder E.H., ‘Irrigation in Developing Countries’ Agricultural Mechanization in Developing Countries (Eds) Esmay M.L. and Hall C.W.
:Shin-Norinsha Co. Ltd., Japan, 1973).
Uiscusses traditional
methods of irrigation
and mechanized irrigation methods
of varying cost and complexity.
Gives comparative costs for 4 types of well in
India:
State
Tube-well
Initial investment
Annual costs
Cost of water per 1,000 m3
76.500
18,691
33
Private
Tube-well
(Rupees)
5,100
2,282
22
Persian
Wheel
Human
Power
2,000
727
75
1,315
1,033
120
The private tube-well, which was intermediate
between the traditional
nologies and the large state tube-well, had the lowest per unit cost.
29
tech.
D. Crop storage and processing
50.
Abbot
J.C., et al., Rice Marketing.
(FAO, Marketing
Guide, No. 6., 1972).
Useful section on storage which discusses storage needs {usual error lies in overestimating requirements); choice between storing rice and paddy; types of storage;
storage costs; etc.
51.
Akinrele
I.A., Techno-Economic
Feasibility
of Small-Scale Distillation
of
Potable Spirits from Palm Wine, Paper presented at OECD, Development
Centre conference on Low-Cost Technology:
An Inquiry into Outstanding
Policy Issues, (OECD, Paris, 1975).
Describes the development of a small-scale palm-wine distillation
technology in
Nigeria. Still in the pilot stage, the plant has an annual production capacity of
25,000 gallons. The total fixed capital investment of one plant is estimated to be
125,000 US dollars, and the probability
is estimated at 11.5 per cent of fixed
capital. Most of the equipment is operated manually or by batteries; construction
costs are kept at a minimum; and by locating the factories in rural and semi-urban
areas, the transport costs of palm-wine are kept low.
52.
Arbolede J.R., Improvement
of the Kiskisan
search Institute, mimeo, 1975).
Mill.
(International
Rice Re-
The ‘traditional’
kiskisan mill is widely used for milling rice in Asian countries,
but as it is characterized by a low milling recovery (60 to 63 per cent as opposed
to 70 per cent for a modern mill), and high grain breakage, governments have
tended to discourage further use and installation, and to encourage the installation
of large modern mills which require large capital investments. There are, however,
numerous advantages attached to the kiskisan mill, including its low initial and
maintenance cost, its simplicity
of construction
and operation,
its capability
of being locally produced, its ability to mill small quantities of rice, and the possibility of using the by-product of ground husk-bran mixture as feed for backyardraised animals. This paper describes how improvements can be made to the ‘villagelevel’ kiskisan mill to help prevent grain loss, so that the argument for retaining
it is etrengthened.
63.
Baron C.G., ‘Sugar Processing Techniques in India’ Technology
mentin Industry (Ed) Bhalla A.S. (ILO, Geneva, 1975).
and fmploy-
Compares a small-scale intermediate
technology for making white sugar, and a
iarger and better established capital-intensive
production
process. The choice
between the 2 technologies is analyzed with reference both to private profitability
and to the social costs of production, drawing upon the considerations on shadow
pricing in the surplus labour economy suggested in several works, most notably
in the UNIDO Guidelines for Project Evaluation. The over-all conclusion tends
to bear out the desirability of the intermediate technology.
The paper also looks at the issue of the choice of products. Concludes that
30
rather than producing a highquality
product such as sugar for consumption
by
the few, it may be preferable to produce twice the quantity
of gur (also made
from sugar-cane), which is a cheaper, but reputedly more nutritive
food. The
production
of gur is also more labour-intensive
than the production
of white
sugar.
54.
Duff B. and Estioko S., Establishing [email protected] Criteria for improved Rice Milling
Technologies. (International
Rice Research Institute, mimeo, ‘1972).
This paper attempts to assess critically
the efficiency and economics of existing
rice milling technologies in the Philippines. It also aims at determining the potential
for technical improvements in existing systems, and where feasible, the efficacy
of initiating activities to design and develop new technologies which will increase
efficiency and reduce losses. The existing technologies analyzed are: hand hulling;
E,Jg!hbe?g mj!!s; mnn.milk.
ad ‘modern rubber roller mills. Concludes that there
-4..- ..* . ..-. “....
is considerable scope for improving the performance of the rice processing industry through modifications
to the intermediate-type
mills. No major investments
in new capital equipment would be necessary.
55.
Esmay M-L., ‘Drying, Storing and Handling Food Grains in Developing Countries’ Agricultural
Mechanization in ,Oeveloping Countries (Eds) Esmay M. L.
and Hall C.W. (Shin-Norinsha Co.Ltd., Japan, 1973).
Discusses and provides some guidelines for minimizing losses of food grains with
proper drying, storing and handsing. Looks at drying principles and discusses the
advantages and limitations
of 7 types of mechanical dryers. Similarly,
storage
principles and requirements are discussed and examples of several types of traditional and irroroved storage systems are given.
66.
Food and Agriculture
to World FoodSupplies
Organization,
Development
Improved Storage and its Contribution
Digest Vol VII (3) July 1969.
Explains bow storage facilities can help farmers and gives estimates and causes
of losses in stored food in the tropics and sub-tropics. Describes traditional
materials used in construction,
and gives several examples of the use of new materials.
See aiso Hall D.W.. Handling and Storage of Food Grains in Tropical and subTropical Areas. (FAO, Rome, 1970).
57.
Garg M.K., The Oevelopment and Extension of an Appropridte
Technology
for the Manufacture of Crystal Sugar, Paper presented at OECD. Developman: CERtiS CiMeience
on Low-Cost Technoiogy:
An Inquiry into Outstanding Policy Issues. (OECD, Paris, 1975).
Discusses the economic and social impact of modern large-scale technology on the
small firms which manufacture traditional sweetening agents like gur, and describes
the development in India of a small-scale plant for manufacturing
the white crystal
sugar which consumers increasingly prefer to gur. The first pilot plant built in
1957 showed that it was economically
and technically
possible to manufacture
31
white crystal sugar or: a small scale. In the following years, a substantial effort
was made to improve tl;is technology. A comparison made in 1973 with the largescale vacuum pan technology shows that for the same initial investments, smallscale plants using the open pan sulphitation
technology can produce 2% times as
much sugar and provide employment
for 11 times as many people. The competitiveness of the small-scale technology can be gauged from the fact that plants
using this process now account for 8 per cent of India’s crystal sugar production
and have created some 100,000 new seasonal jobs in the rural areas. These plants,
which are set up in the cane-growing areas, allow for substantial savings in transport
costs and can be built entirely with local equipment and raw materials.
56.
Ghosh B.N., Drying
Cocoa Beans by Gas, World Crops Vol 25 (5) 1973.
Looks at a new low-cost system for drying cocoa beans. using daily available
household gas. The system, which was developed at the Cocoa Research Station of Brazil, is intermediate
between sun-drying
(which is timeconsuming
and needs good weather), and sophisticated machines (which are high cost, have
excessive breakage rates, have high skill and maintenance requirements, and need
very large batches of cocoa beans to be economically
viable). Installation costs
of the new system are 20 US dollars per square metre of drying floor area.
59.
Hewavitharana B., ‘Choice of Techniques in Ceylon’ Economic Development
in South Asia (Eds) Robinson E.A.G. and Kidron M. (Macmillan, London,
1970).
Part Ill comprises a case history of the sugar industry in Sri Lanka (Ceylon).
There has been a tendency to imitate the techniques of Queensland and Hawaii
where the plants designed are those suited to their conditions of land abundance
and labour scarcity. Planning in Sri Lanka has not proceeded in the context of
iocai socioeconomic
conditions, and the industry has been a failure, with factories
operating at only one tenth of capacity. Suggests that a larger number of small
plants, each serving 100 to 300 acres of sugar, would have been better suited to
local conditions than a few very large mills each serving several thousands of acres.
Evidence is that sugar-cane production
in small units linked with small manufacturing plants is more appropriate (in terms of unit cost and employment)
in
conditions approximating to those found in Sri Lanka.
The article also covers paddy cultivation
(see entry 21) and the textile and
coir industries (see entry 137).
642.
Hill P., A Plea for the Development of Indigenous Methods of Grain Storage
in the West African Savannah, Paper presented at the International
Seminar
on Change in Agriculture, University of Reading, Sept. 1974.
Describes the many types of traditional
style granaries already existing in rural
areas, and argues that research should be directed at examining the best types
of granaries made in different areas and advising on how these could be improved.
32
61.
International
Labour Offica, Sharing in Development:
A Programme of
Employment,
Equity and Growth in the Philippines.
(1 LO, Geneva, 1974).
Technical Paper No. 8. Mechanization in Agriculture and Agricultural Processing.
Compares three types of rice-mills in
mill; the cone-type or under-run disc
plants comprising dryers, bulk storage,
investment and operational costs for
follows:
the Philippines: the small Engleberg huller
sheller system; and the ‘modern’ integrated
milling and packaging units. The estimated
the different rice milling processes are as
Engleberg
Mill
29,;98
Investment costs (pesos)
Fixed operational costs (pesos)
4.420
Variable operational costs (pesos) 5,081
0.79
Unit cost at capacity (pesos)
(Output)
(50 cavans
per day)
Cono-type
system
Modern
Mill
66,428
19,616
28,554
0.83
928,444
174,122
107,018
0.30
(240 cavans
per day)
(10 metric tons
per hour)
-
At existing market prices for factors, the modern technology apparently has
a substantial advantage over the traditional
ones. Such figures undoubtedly
have
been tempting to those who introduced modern technologies. However, low costs
at capacity can be consistent with quite high costs when operation is far below
capacity and a high share of costs are fixed. The record c!early indicates that,
to date, the sort of engineering data presented in the above table have proved
misleading under actual operating conditions. (Large mills in the Philippines have
been running at about 30 per cent capacity). Also, cost calculations have been
made using market prices. The use of shadow prices would favour the traditional
(labour-intensive)
technologies.
62.
Kilby P., Industrialization
in an Open Economy:
bridge University Press, 1969).
Nigeria
1945-66,
(Cam-
Chapter 5 looks at four methods being used in 1963 for palm oil extraction. These
are: hand method, screw-press, Pioneer Mill, and hydraulic hand-press (in order
of sophistication
and capital-intensity).
Finds that the more labour-intensive
methods have generally proved economically more efficient.
63.
Lipton M., Cook I., and Nair N., Cost-Benefit Analysis
Improvements:
A South Indian Pilot Study. (institute
Studies, Discussion Paper No. 56.. 1974).
of Crop Storage
of Development
Describes a pilot survey into the site -rrd distribution
of cost and benefits of
alternative traditional
and modern methods of small-scale, on-farm paddy storage
33
,
in Andhra Pradesh. Most existing loss assessments are ‘guesstimates’ and rarely
related to castings of loss prevention.
Hence public investment in small-scale
storage improvements, lacking economic ‘briefing’, has been too low. So has private
investment, because private cost benefit ratios understate socia) ratios, over-reflect
risk, and fail to allow for possible scale economies. Improvement requires research
into the community
aspects of storage decisions, and into the incidence of gains
and losses from change.
Five traditional
and two improved systems of rice storage were costed and
losses in each were estimated. Low rates of return on ‘switches’ towards somewhat costlier traditional
systems, or towards ‘modern’ 6” to 9” concrete bases
for some stores, suggest a need for extension and sale of appropriate small-farm
devices.
64.
Lockwood L-M., Small Scale Storage and Drying of Paddy in Bangladesh:
The scope for reducing losses. {Working Paper, Appropriate
Technology
Cell, Agricultural
Research Council, Dacca, 1975).
Looks at some current storage and drying practices in Bangladesh and suggests
possible improvements. Covers ways of treating grain for small-scale storage, and
examines some methods of small-scale drying. Gives estimates of costs and benefits
of the proposed changes.
65.
Manalo AS. A Low-Cost
ference of the Philippine
Grain Drier, Paper presented at the Annual ConSociety of Agricultural
Engineers, Manila, 1973.
Describes the development of a one-ton capacity low-cost batch drier tailored
for IocJ production,
and utilizing kerosene or rice hulls for fuel. It was found
that the hull extracted from a given weight of paddy could dry 10 times more
than its parent paddy weight. The drier costs half the price of a comparable imported batch drier.
66.
National Academy of Sciencas, Ferrocement:
Countries (N.A.S., Washington, 1973).
Applications
in Developing
Appendix B looks at the development of cheap, airtight bins made of ferrocement
in Thailand. These can hold 4 to 10 tons of grain, other food stuffs, fertilizer,
salt, etc., or 2,000 to 5,000 gallons of drinking water. Estimated cost in 1969
was 21 US dollars.
Appendix C looks at ferrocement-lined
underground
grain silos in Ethiopia.
Few traditiona! pits are sufficiently airtight to eliminate insects, and mould damage
is often considerable. Unce lined with ferrocement,
however, sto:age losses in
these pits are considerably reduced. Can be made easily with local materials and
by locai unskilled labour. The cost of a one-ton ferrocement-lined
pit in 1972
was estimated at 14 US dollars.
67.
O’Kelfy E., Aid and Self-Help.. (Charles Knight
Chapter XVI The Corn Mill Societies.
Describes the introduction
& Co. Ltd., London,
1973).
of small corn mills in the Cameroons in the 1950’s. The
34
mills were imported from England and were of a design dating back to the mid
19th century. They were easy to operate, virtually unbreakable, and required very
little maintenance. Although they cost only f20, this sum was beyond the means
of individual women, so societies were formed. Loans were made available to each
society for the purchase of a mill, and the money paid by each member for the
use of the mill was used to repay the loan. As the societies became established,
and the women had more leisure, they began to ask for classes in such subjects
as soapmaking and cookery. The women, with the help of their husbands, built
community halls in which these classes were held. Over time, the range of subjects
was extended to include child welfare and hygiene, and there was a marked improvement in health in the villages where these societies were located.
611.
Pandey
Duality
1972.
M.L. et al., Efficiency
of Different
of Soybeans Journal of Agricultural
Storage Containers on Seed
Engineering Vol IX (2) June
Describes results of experiments in India comparing gunny bags, earthen pots,
mud bins, bamboo bins with poiythene lining, tin containers and steel drums, for
soybean storage. Found that the ‘intermediate’
technology of bamboo bins with
polythene lining gave the best results.
69.
Parpia H.A.B., ‘Transfer and Adaptation
Processing’ Alternatives in Development.
gional Conference, Oxford, 1973).
of Western Methods in Agricultural
(Ed) West J., (SID, European Re-
Examines how correct selection and adaptation of ‘Western’ technologies in the
field of crop processing can be achieved, and gives examples of the benefits that
can result.
70.
Pate1 A.V. and Adesuy S.A;, Crib Storage of Maize under Tropical Village
Conditions in the lbadan Area of Nigeria Tropical Stored Products Information No. 29,1975.
Compares the storage of maize in an improved crib (modified
to allow better
ventilation),
and in a silo made of mud bricks with the use of a dryer to reduce
moisture to 13 per cent. In the well-ventilated
crib, moisture content of the maize
decreased sfeadily from 24 per cent tb 13 per cent over a period of 5 months,
and if the grain was treated properly, insect damage was as low as 7 per cent at
the end of 4 months storage. This was as efficient as storage in a silo, and as the
following table shrws, the cost of storage in a crib was much less than in a silo.
Imoroved crib
Village dryer + silo
Cost of
Gross grain
storage
from storage
(Naira)
Net grain
from storage
Rate of return
on investment
(six months)
114.08
114.08
62.08
29.23
113.91%
34.46%
52.00
84.85
35
71.
Pingale S.V., LJr~hg foodsruffs,
(I) March 1972.
Journal
of Agricultural
Engineering
VOI
IX
Discusses moisture requirements for safe storage of food grains, and describes
some current methods of drying them. Details are given of a hot air blower developed in India. This has been extensively tried for drying paddy and has proved
to be profitable.
72.
Pradhan S. et al., Pusa Bin for Grain Storage,
1965.
Indian
Farming
November
Describes experiments at Pusa (Bihar) which showed that storage effects could
be much improved if a thin sheet of polythene film was embedded in the mud
wall of an ordinary earthen structure. Results were as good as when grain was
stored in a much more expensive metallic bin of galvanized tin sheet.
See also entry 79. Wimberley J.E.
73.
Stewart F.J., ‘Employment
and the Choice of Technique: Two Case Studies
in Kenya’ Essays on Employment in Kenya (Ed) Ghai D.P. and Godfrey M.
(East African Literature Bureau, 1974).
One of the two case studies is about maize-grinding. Four techniques are compared:
hand mills, water-mills;
hammer-mills;
and imported
roller-mills.
Variations
in
product characteristics were found to be the key determinant
in the choice of
technique. The small-scale ‘intermediate’
technique - the hammer-mill
- was
associated with greater employment, output and investable surplus than the more
capital-intensive
roller-mills. However, the latter were increasingly popular because
the product, though more expensive and nutritionally
inferior, was widely preferred. Also, the level of capacity utilization was of key importance in determining
the relative costs of different techniques.
The other case study refers to the manufacture of concrete blocks. See entry
105, Stewart F.J.
74.
Sutton D.H., The N.I.A.E. Mini-Thresher
for Rice, Ceresk and Beans. (National Institute of Agricultural
Engineering, Technical Bulletin No. 3. Jan..
1969).
Traditional methods of threshing by beating the grain out or treading with the feet
or with animals, give rise to g:ain loss and damage. On the other hand, mechanical
threshers tend to be expensive and difficult to operate and maintain.
This paper describes the development
of a machine which would be intermediate between these existing technologies. Characteristics
are (1) low price;
(2) grain damage not exceeding one per cent; (3) simple design for easy construction in developing countries; (4) lightweight construction
for ease of transport.
The machine also displaces less labour than more sophisticated threshing machines,
needing 5 operators to obtain maximum output of 1,500 Ibs of rice per hour.
36
75.
Tainsh J.A.R. Farmers Need Mini-Mills,
World Crops Vol 27 (3) July 1975.
The 500 tons of sugar-cane a day mill-tandem was commonplace
in the 1930’s.
However, the benefits of scale effects are such that the economic size has now
reached over 6,000 tons for a mill-tandem,
while one integrated group of four
tandems in Mexico is crushing 20,000 tons per day. For huge milling, transport
costs are a problem. Also, there are no large compact areas of good soil left in the
world on which can be grown, without ‘Trigation, the million tons or so of cane
that the optimum size of modern mill requires each season. There sre, however,
numerous compact areas of 25 to 100 hectares of fairly fertile land in wet tropical
valleys on which rain-fed sugar cane can be grown, or where irrigation is a simple
matter of low-lift pumping. The drawback to small-scale production is that existing
small-scale mills suffer from the economic handicap of extracting very little sugar
from the cane (losses of 40% to 60% are experienced as compared with only 6%
in large tandems). This paper describes how the efficiency of mini-mills can be
improved, and losses reduced to 15 per cent.
76.
Tainsh J.A.R. Farmers Need Mini-Mills
Crops Vol27 (5) September 1975.
2:
For
the Rice Grower,
World
Traditional small paddy mills (e.g. the kiskesan mill in Asia) are highly destructive,
with all the rice bran, and much of the rice being lost. The mill with the highest
yield of rice and lowest rate of grain breakage is the rubber-roll huller, but this
requires large investments of capital. Need to design a huller of low-capital and
operating cost, with a rice yield comparable to the rubber-roll.
Describes co-operative ‘mini-mills’
in Indonesia. These mills accept wet grain
paddy from farmers and thus relieve them of the heavy work involved in threshing and drying paddy. Yields are increased because of controlled drying and more
efficient milling equipment.
77.
Timmer P.C. Choice of Technique in Rice Milling
nesian Economic Studies Vol IX (2) July 1973.
on Java, Bulletin
of Indo-
Compares five different processing techniques: hand pounding (HP); small rice
mills (SRM); large rice mills (LRM); small bulk facilities (SBF); and large bulk
facilities (LBF). Finds that, at 1973 wage rates, SRMs are the least-cost facilities
for producing value-added in rice processing. The evidence from the countryside,
which showed literally thousands of SRMs installed on Java between 1970 and
1973, is thus strongly corroborated by the economic analysis. Only at the extremes
of economic conditions (i.e. very low or very high wage rates) could HP or LRMs
be explained. The SRMs were shown to be socially and privately optimal over a
wide range of circumstances in between.
78.
United Nations Industrial
Development
Organization,
Study ofProducfion
Economics (UNIDO, Vienna, 1973).
Describes and analyses relatively low cost, labour intensive,
nologies appropriate for small-scale essential oil distillation.
37
Essential
Oils:
A
and simplified techDescribes the mach-
inery and equipment needed for producing oils for different output levels (remaining in the small-scale stage) and compares these units with conventional
ones.
Covers grass oils, leaf oils, wood oils, flower-petal oils, seed and spice oils, herbal
oils, citrus oils, etc.
79.
Wimberley J.E. Storage Pracrices Paper presented at the Meeting of Experts
on the Mechanization
of Rice Production and Processing, Surinam, 1971.
(FAO. Rome, 1971).
Describes recent improvements in farm anu vi!lage storage in India, including the
Hapur and Ludhiana metal bins, and the Fusa combination
bin with plastic lining.
(See also entry 72. Pradhan S.) For larger stores, improvements include raised
floors and adequate walls to exclude rain. Urges the use of fumigants. Gives some
cost estimates.
80.
Wimberley J.E., Review of Srorage and Processing of Rice in Asia.
national Rice Research Institute, mimeo, 1972).
(Inter-
Throughout
Asia, the traditional
methods of paddy processing are being replaced
with modern techniques and equioment. This paper presents some of the changes
and results. It covers harvesting, threshing, drying and storage, parboiling
and
milling of paddy. Some of the problems of the traditional
systems are discussed
along with the results of the modern systems.
E. Livestock,
81.
Animal-feed,
Austin V., Appropriate
sented at the University
Sept. 1973.
Fishing, Fish-farming and Fishing Equipment
Technology:
of Edinburgh
Agriculrural
Appropriate
Engineering, Paper preTechnology Conference,
Includes a case study made in Panama of the rural animal feedstuffs industry, which
essentially combines 2 technologies: (I) milling; and (2) mixing grain.
After investigation it was accepted that for milling there were no intermediate
technologies between the traditional
wooden mortar and pestle, and the modern
hammer mill. The choice then became focussed on the range of alternatives analyzed in detail. The capital investment requirements for these were 3,700 US
dollars and 2,600 dollars respectively. Up to a discount rate of 10%. the semiautomatic mill was found to be marginally cheaper, and would be selected by a
commercial enterprise as the least-cost system. The position would be reversed
at higher discount .&es. Also, if shadow prices were used instead of market prices,
operating costs (particularly
far labour) would be significantly
lower, and would
make the manual system the least-cost choice at all discount rates.
Investigation into the mixing operation ~revealed that there were intermediate
technologies between hand mixing with a shovel, and the simolest of the modern
vertical auger-mixers. One simple solution was to take a large drum and insert an
axle of 46mm through it diagonally from end to end, and to cut a door of about
300mm by 300mm in the side to allow filling and emptymg., The axle could be
supported on a simple frame, and driven by hand or animal-power.
38
82.
Dickinson H. and Winnington T.L., Ferro-Cement for Boat Building
presented at the University
of Edinburgh
Appropriate
Technology
ference September 1973.
Paper
Con-
Discusses the advantages of using ferrocement
in boat-building
and gives details
of ferrocement
boat-building
in the People’s Republic of China. In China, recent
improvements
in building techniques resulted in a reduction of the selling price
of a five-tonne sampan from 800 yuan (f160) in 1966, to 600 yuan (f120) in
1972. Wooden vessels of equivalent type sell at about twice the latter price.
Discusses some experiments with ferro-cement boats in other Asian countries.
Technical appendix and useful bibliography.
83.
Fish
Farming
International
(Arthur
J. Heighway
Publications,
London.)
Quarterly journal. Includes many articles on fish farming in developing countries.
Mainly descriptive and/or technical, but nevertheless gives a useful outline of the
state of fish-farming in developing countries, and the problems and advantages
involved. Covers equipment for fish farmers.
84.
Gale VA., World Prospects for Honey
No. 7. 1973. (FAO).
Production,
World Animal
Review
Argues that apiculture has now reached a stage when it should be of considerable
interest as an aspect of agricultural development.
Its beneficial effects on agricultural ecology, the high labour-intensity
needed for processing bee products,
the economic use of land and other physical resources, and, lately in particular,
the rising world market price for honey, should appeal to administrators
and
investors alike in many developing countries. Discusses the choice between the
establishment of single large-scale apiaries with 1,000 or more hives, and smaller
colonies kept by a large number of rural families who could benefit from the
additional cash income. Discusses the need for training.
85.
lmrie F.,Single-Cell
Protein Agricultural
Wastes, New Scientist,
May 22, 1975.
Looks at technologies for the production
of single-cell protein for feeding livestock. Existing technologies are unsuitable for developing countries because of
the high investment cost If.20 to f30 million for an economically-sized
plant),
the high skill requirements, the high quality of the feed produced (which would
have to be exported since no local market exists), and the reliance on the highly
technological oil-refining industry. By contrast, a village-level technology has been
developed by Tate and Lyle, which involves simpie equipment with low capital
requirements and uses a minimum of resources. The process recycles agricultural
wastes and upgrades them to the level of high-protein
chicken and pig feeds to
substitute for imported materials.
Includes a case study from Belize in South America. This area was importing
pig and poultry feed at a cost of f 144 per ton, while the citrus industry was producing 2,300 tons of waste per annum which was simply dumped and was polluting the environment.
By using the citrus waste as a su’lstrate for fermentation
39
in a village-level plant, animal-feed (valued at fB0 to f 100 per ton) was produced.
Besides saving foreign exchange, the new technology generated new industry, new
jobs, and additional wealth. Only intermediate skills are required in the production
process.
86.
Natioraal Academy of Sciences, Ferrocement:
Countries (N.A.S., Washington, 1973).
Applications
in Developing
Appendix A describes ferrocement boat-building in a Chinese commune. Workers
cited ten superiorities
of ferrocement
boats over traditioral
wooden sampans.
These included longer life and cheaper maintenance.
In the main text of the book (pp. 4-5). it is stated that ‘ferrocement’s unique
characteristics - low cost of materials, strength, ease of maintenance and repair recommend themselves particularly to the fabrication of small native craft’.
87.
Palmer-Jones Ft. and Halliday D., The Small-Scale Manufacture
Animal-Feed
(T.P.I. Report No. G.67, 1971). .
An economic analysis of 4 different-sized
the following results:
Scale (output/tons per annum)
Capital requirements (f)
Cost per ton (f)
plants for producing
of Compound
animal feed gave
A
B
C
D
2,400
42,096
37.3
6,000
105,213
36.0
10,500
168,236
37.2
16,800
254,518
36.5
Finds no significant trend towards lower unit costs as scale increases.
Has a separate chapter on the economics of small-scale production.
88.
Smith D.V., Opportunity
for Village Development: The Tanks of Bangladesh,
The Bangladesh Economic Review Vol I (3) July 1973.
Looks at developing fish-farming in village tanks as one possible capital-formation
scheme that does not hasten urbanization
or village degeneration. Compares two
schedules for the use of water in a village tank.
(I) Fullest use is made of the water for irrigation purposes. In this case, the fish
must be harvested during the irrigation period from November to January, since
there is no water left in the tank after January. This also means that household
uses of the tank, e.g. washing and bathing, are terminated until the rains begin
to fill the tank in April. Plant growth in the tank is stunted so that fewer decomposed plants are available for next year’s fish, and permanent trees around
the tank may suffer from a water deficit.
(2) Less water is made available for irrigation, brt a minimum depth of water
of 2 feet is maintained in the tank for drinking, bathing, and plant growth. This
also allows fish harvesting to be spread out over a longer period of time to minimize netting and marketing costs, to allow advantage to be taken of fluctuations
in the market price of fish, and to permit scientific harvesting of populations at
optimal times, according to fish size.
40
Recommends fish-farming as a labour intensive and highly productive
with a schedule that can be adjusted to peaks in labour availability.
83.
activity
United Nations Industrial
Development
Organization,
Boats from Ferrocement. Utilization
of Shipbuilding
and Repair Facilities Series, No. I.
(U.N., New York, 19721.
Points out that there is an urgent need in most developing countries for fishing
boats that will help in solving their acute food problems, and for boats that will
facilitate transportation
in areas where rivers and channels are the most commonly
used communication
route. Claims that ferro-cement boat-building
is perfect for
developing countries since it requires a minimum of qualified personnel, iinported
raw materials and capital equipment.
It represents an important
alternative to
orthodox wooden hulls and to steel hulls. Construction of wood hulls is not always
feasible since they reqluire an ahvndance of well-qualified
!abour. suitable types of
wood which are becoming scarce, and protection
from woodworms
and other
parasites. Steel hulls are not always advisable for small craft, and in any case, they
require expensive metal-working machinery as well as highly skilled lebour.
Compares the various materials in terms of price, performance, maintenance
costs, and life-span. Concludes that ferrocement
compares favourably with the
other materials in all respects.
Chapter Five gives advantages and disadvantages of various methods of construction of ferrocement
boats, including a comparison of making an individual
hull versus the mass-production of hulls.
41
Section 2
Low Cost Housing and Building Materials
90.
Boon G.K., Choice of Industrial
Technology:
The Case of Woodworking
Industrialization
and Productivity
No.3. 1961 (U.N., New York)
Includes a comparison of alternative methods of making wooden frames in developing and developed countries. Finds that the chcice of technique would be affected
by prices of capital and labour, and by the scale of production.
In the developed
(labour-expensive)
country, two special-purpose machines, one performing 4-sided
planing and moulding, and the other a doubleended
tenorer, were the cheapest
combination
for output capacities in excess of 50,000 units per annum. In the
developing country, however, they would be uneconomic unless capacity exceeded
450,000 unit per annum. Up to an output of 64,000 units, which encompassed the
great majority of carpentry workshops, the lowest unit costs would be achieved by
using single-ended tenorers and single-purpose planing and thicknessing machines,
with considerably lower investment per worker.
91.
Bottger J. and Sahr L., Problems of Uncontrolled
Urbanization in the Third
World. (Institut fiir Tropenbau, Starnberg, 1972). IFT Report No.1.
Questions conventiona; concepts on the control of urbanization
in the countries
of the Third World. Particular stress is placed on population mobilization
by selfhelp measures.
92.
Demeter H., ancl Langan T., Micro-Climate and Comfort in Tropical Buildings.
(Institut fiir Tropenbau, Starnberg, 1973). IFT Report No.2.
Investigates the effectiveness of tropical construction concepts by analyzing standards of particuiar buildings in South Vietnam, Tanzania and Mauretania. Concludes that, by a careful consideration
of the elements that make up the microclimatic balance, the enervating consequences of a region’s climatic pattern can
be alleviated.
93.
Fathy H., Architecture for the Poor: An Experiment
sity of Chicago Press, 1973).
in Rural Egypt. (Univer-
Describes an original approach to rural mass housing in developing countries. The
basic philosophy is that ‘with appropriate and attractive architectural design, and
with someone to show the people in each country how to use their native materials,
even the poorest people could have housing that they could construct themselves,
that they could afford, and that would serve their indigenous needs while being at
the same time socially and aesthetically satisfying’. The author uses a case study
from Egypt to prove this point.
42
94.
Government
of India, Ministry
of Industrial
Development,
(Appropriate
Technology Cell), Appropriate
Technology for Balanced Regional Development Vol II. Group Studies. (Edj Behari 6. (New Delhi, 1974)
Report of the sub-group on the scaling down of cement plants: covais the techniques of cement production,
giving details of 4 existing small-scale pilot plants.
Gives comparative cost estimates of these. Finds that unit costs fall as size of plant
increases. This is especially true for fuel and labour costs. Concludes that a 2 tonne
per day plant would not be economical, but the (still small) 30 tonne and 100
tonne per day plants would be. Recommends where small-scale cement plants
might best be located.
Report of the working group on building construction:
describes research and
work done by various Indian institutes. Covers improvements in brick manufacture,
improved lime kilns, and improvements in building productivity.
95.
German Foundation for Developing Countries, Development and Dissemination of Appropriate
Technologies in Rural Areas (Ed) Kraetsch R. Froceedings of an International Workshop (GFDC. Kumasi. Ghana. 1972).
Includes two papers on building materials/low
cost housing:
Paillon R., Development of the Tek Block Press: Describes how the first introduction of stabilized soil blocks to Ghana was unsuccessful, with the expensive Landsborough landcrete machines (U.S. dollars 1,000) tending to remain unrepaired after
minor failures. It was decided to reintroduce stabiljred soil through a machine
similar to the Latin American Cinva Ram, which is sinrpii;: In design and operation
than the landcrete machine, and costs only 109 U.S. +..llars. The modifications
\:rhich were made to the original machine before its introduction
into Ghana are
described. Gives the capital and labour costs per block. Concludes that thz pressis not ecnnomical for the building of a single house, but wc;uld become economic
for 3 horIses, and extremely profitable at the scale of 6 houses. This implies the
need for cooperation
between individual house builders to purchase a machine, or
its use by building contractors, or the establishment of a block-making industry.
Beck J., Low-cost housing for Ghana. Design, Materials, Construction Techniques:
Describes research work done by Kumasi University on improving existing techniques and materials available for rural housing. Includes methods of overcoming
water penetration in earth-walled buildings, characteristics of various types of roof.
ing materials, improved designs for doors and windows, reduced-cost sanitary
fittings, etc.
96.
Levy C.R. The introduction
of Wood Preservation into Papua New Guinea
and its Effects on the Rural Community.
(I.U.F.R.D.,
Abidjan, Feb. 1975).
As villagers gain the means to earn cash incomes, either through cash-cropping or
selling their labour, there is an increasing tendency to use more durable building
materials. These unfortunately
consut of very high cost imported building materials,
which while bringing more durable buildings, seldom result in an overall improvement in living conditions. The coolness of grass thatch is replaced with the heat
43
of corrugated iron which, during the often heavy rains, causes such noise that conversation is impossible, and the money spent on these imported goods is lost to the
villagers and to the country as a whole. Most vil!agers seem prepared to put up with
the expense and discomforts of new building materials to obtain a durable home,
and to free themselves from the never-ending problem of rebuilding their traditional
homes.
This paper outlines steps taken in Papua New Guinea to assist the villager to
retain the comforts and conveniences of his traditional hone, given increased durability of his traditional
building materials through the application of techniques of
wood preservation. Looks at the dip diffusion process, and at vacuum pressure
treatment with copper chrome arsenic (C.C.A.).
97.
Marsden K. Progressive Technologies for Developing
Labour Review Jol 101 (4) May 1970.
Includes two case studies relating to building
Countries,
International
materials:
(1)
A case study of inappropriate technological choice in the floor and wall-tiles
industry. A ceramic factory making floor and wall-tiles formerly imported handoperated presses. In cooperation with small engineering workshops in its locality it
was able to have replacement presses made locally, using castings, moulded from
scrap metal in small foundries and machined on general purpose lathes and drilling
machines. The tiles themselves were made of indigenous clay deposits, and fired in
kilns composed of local refractory bricks. Thus output, income and employment
were stimuiated in a number of other industries and trades. This multiplier effect
was just beginning to make itself felt when it was decided to build a modern largescale ceramic plant in place of the existing one, with high-speed fully automatic
presses, continuous tunnel kilns, etc. This equipment required special steels and
engineering skills, refractories with a high aluminiumium
oxide content and technical know-how which were not available locally and had to be imported. Also,
because of the high speed of operation, very malleable clays were required, and
these too had to be imported. In the end, the consumer got a poorer quality, dearer
product because breakage rates were higher due to inadequate temperature control
in the tunnel kilns and clumsy handling during the glazing operation. Employment
and net output declined in the ceramic and allied industries, and the country’s
trading deficit widened.
(2)
A case study of a fibreboard plant in an African country showing that an
advanced capital-intensive
technology is sometimes the most appropriate. The plant
cost 2 miilion dollars and employed only 120 workers directly. However, it processed the residue of sugar-cane and maize stalks which would otherwise have gone to
waste. Thus the value added during the process was high and it provided additional
income for the farmers. The finished product was a good, cheap substitute for
certain kinds of wood for housing and furniture. The wood had previously been
imported, so foreign currency was also saved. This project therefore served the
national interest in several respects.
The article also includes case studies on leather, footwear, and bread. See entries
125 and 140. Marsden K.
44
98.
Oliver P. (Ed).,Shelter
in Africa.
(Barrie and Jenkins, London,
1971).
A collection of 16 articles describing traditional forms of shelter throughout Africa
using local materials. Suggests ways of improving traditional
materials and techniques, and ways of coping with urban populations.
99.
National Ace&my of Sciences, Roofing in Developing
for New Technologies (N.A.S., Washington, 1974).
Countries:
Research
Explores the feasibility of developing new low-cost produc:s and processes with
potential for providing roofing materials that offer better performance than those
most commonly used today in developing countries. Covers plastics, foam composites, agricultural and wood wastes, ferrocement, etc. Discusses the advantages and
disadvantages of each in terms of availability
of inputs, skill requirements, durability, costs, etc. Useful addition to existing literature on current roofing materials
such as thatch, aluminium and ciay.
The use of ferrocement in roofing is also discussed in National Academy of
Sciences, Ferrocement: Applications in Developing Countries, 1973.
100.
Parikh K. et al., Performance Approach to Cost Reduction in Building Construction. (Government of KeralaState,Government
Press,Trivandrum,
1974).
Evaluates the cost-effectiveness of different foundation, walling, ioofing and ancilliary building components and methods in terms of the local situation in Kerala.
Among other conclusions, the authors stmss that in areas of low labour costs
mechanization
does not necessarily yield cost advantages. For instance, ‘country
bricks’, produced with handmoulding
methods, while four times more labourintensive, cost less than half as much to produce as bricks from mechanized factories
in the same area. The report also gives a qualified endorsement of the small-scale
production of lime for use in pozzolanic mortars, while stressing the real opportunity
for improving the performance of this and other locally produced materials by
sensible quality control methods.
101.
Parry J.P.M., Review of Prospects for the Manufacture of Permanent Building
Materials in the Juba area of South Sudan. (Intermediate Technology Services/
Regional Development Corporation
of South Sudan, July 1975, mimeo).
A report on the potential for the local manufacture of basic building materials in
in an area experiencing shortages and high prices of basic walling and roofing
materials. Objectives oi the project were to (I) examine the requirements for locally
produced substitutes for cement-based building materials; (2) examine existing
local technology and capacity for bricks an;r tile manufacture; (3) implement experiments +I improve the manufacturing
processes with particular regard to improvements in quality and fuel and labour efficiency, and to assess the resultant
products; and (4) produce a layout and designs for small-scale brick and tile manufacture, maximizing the use of indigenous materials and skills.
The most important development reported relates to brick-making. The burned
clay bricks in current use were found to be irregular in shape, which meant that
a lot of mortar was needed to fill the joints. If portland cement was used, this made
45
building very expensive. Alternatively,
if mud mortar was used, this softer substance
was quickly washed out by rain. It was decided that the problem could be best
overcome by the production of even bricks, which would result in smaller joints.
The traditional
‘slop moulding’ process was replaced by a new mould-box, made
to the consultants’ design, to carry out sand moulding with local clays. Local brickmakers were found to produce good quality bricks with this method after an hour’s
training.
Also mentions a pilot project for producing soil-cement blocks with Cinva Ram
machines; the addition of sawdust and agricultural wastes to tile kilns so as to
assist with burning and save firewood; and the introduction
of simple wheelbarrows
for moving bricks between the drying area and the kiln.
102. Pawley M. Garbage Housing,
U.S.A.
Architectural
Design Vol XLV (3) 1975.
Looks a: 2 basic constructional
methods using beer and soft drink cans,
illustrat;ons
of full-sized residences built in New Mexico. The building of
houses led to the development of a new cottage industry in the area, whereby
people collected cans and wired them up in their homes, using a home-made
produce the required ‘building blocks’.
103. Sadove R.. The Minimum StandardApproach
Development Digest Vol XII (3) July 1974.
giving
these
local
jig, to
to Housing and Related Services
Argues for replacing high cost home construction
programs with lower cost sites
and services projects in which occupants build their own homes. Cites Calcutta as
an example of a city where 87 per cent of households could not afford repayments
on a loan for a ‘lowcost’ or ‘minimum’ dwelling. Includes a case study of a settlement scheme in Senegal as a successful example of a site and services project.
104. Small Industry Development Network, Mini Cement Plants: An Alternative
Approach. SIDN Newsletter, Vol 1 (4) 1975.
The trend, even in developing countries, has been towards larger cement plants, in
which any saving are offset by higher transport costs. This article asks is there an
alternative to la:ge-s--r.,amr pm””
m-+.rc tion of portland cement. Concentrates on modern
vertical kilns, which have been modified to overcome some of the disadvantages
inherent in earlier versions. Such disadvantages included variations in quality and
an inability to ope:ate continuously.
The advantages of modern vertical kilns over rotary kilns are: (1) they occupy
only one seventh of the space; (2) they can oparate on solid fuels and a variety of
wastes; !3) they can be located in areas where transport bottlenecks prevent the
setting up of large plants; (4) they can be located near potential markets to save
transport and packing costs; and (5) investment costs per ton are only half as great.
Describes the installation of a 2 ton-per-day capacity vertical kiln and a 30 tonper-day capacity kiln in Jorhat, India. Concludes that efforts to establish large
modern cement plants should be coupled with a movement toward the installation
of several mini-cement plants so as to effect greatest economy and do more in less
time with less capital.
46
105. Stewart F.J., ‘Employment
and Choice of Technique: Two Case Studies in
Kenya’ Essays on Employment
in Kenya (Eds) Ghai D.P. and Godfrey M.
(East African Literature Bureau, 1974).
One of the 2 case studies is on concrete block making. Five techniques are compared: hand-operated
block-makers;
small stationary
vibrating
machines; large
stationary vibrating machines; small laying machines; and large laying machines.
All but the first two types of machine are imported. Variations in product characteristics were found to rule out the hand block-making technique for muitistorey
buildings. Choice of technique was also influenced by the scale of output, with
the more labour-intensive techniques being more efficient at low scales of output,
but not at high.
See also Stewart F.J. ‘Manufacturing
of Cement Blocks in Kenya’, Technology
and Employment in Industry. (Ed) Bhalla A.S. (ILO, Geneva, 19751.
106. Strassman W.P., Mass-Production of Dwellings in Cclornbia:
(Working Paper, International Labour Office, Geneva, t:?74).
A Case Study.
Looks at the choice between high-rise and low-rise buildings. Finds that ultramodern methods are the most viable for high-rise apartments, but that cheaper,
more labour-intensive
methods can be used for low-rise buildings. The lower cost
of site per dwelling for high-rise buildings was not sufficient to compensate for
the much lower construction costs of low-rise apartments:
7 storay
46 Storays
30 storeys
Cost of site per dwelling
Cost of construction per dwelling
‘, Total cost per dwelling
US$1,543
US$3,857
US$5,500
US$ 707
[email protected],572
us$6,279
US$ 227
US$7,714
US$7.940
Also makes a case fo: self-help technology, because of a lack of sufficient resources to build complete houses for more than a small proportion
of poor people.
107.
Turner J.C., Barriers and Channels for Housing Development in Modernizing
Countries, Journal of the American Institute of Planners Vol XXXIIS (3)
M%J 1967.
Uses a case study of a squatter settlement on the outskirts of Lima to prove the
hypothesis that the standards required by the authorites conflict with the demands
of the mass of urban settlers. Official housing projects attempt to telescope the
development process by requiring minimum modern standard structures and installations prior to settlement. Such ‘instant development’ procedures aggravate the
housing problem by disregarding the economic and social needs of the mass of
urban settlers in modernizing countries. On the other hand, the procedures followed
by self-selecting occupant builder communities, free to act in accordance with their
own needs, enables the synchronization
of investment in buildings and community
facilities with the rhythm of social and economic change.
47
108.
Turner J.C. and Fichter
1972).
R. (Eds). Freedom to Build
(Macmillan,
New York,
A collection of 9 articles, including many case histories, which show that where
dwellers are in control, their homes are better and cheaper than those built through
Government programs or by large corporations. Of particular interest are:
Grenell P., Planning for Invisible People: Some Consequences of Bureaucratic
Values and Practices: looks at urban policy in Indian cities, and compares bustee
improvement schemes with the development of new towns.
Terner I.D., Technology andAutonomy:
an extremely thorough article covering all
aspects of technology
for housing, including intermediate
technologies such as
small, simple and standardized brick, block and mat components.
109.
United Nations, Department nf Economic and Social Affairs. Use of Bamboo
and Reeds in Building Construction.
(U.N., New York, 1972).
Bamboos and reeds are the oldest and chief building materials in rural areas and
villages throughout the world’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. They are popular
because they are plentiful and cheap, can be used by villagers to build their own
homes with simple tools, and there is a living tradition of skills and methods required
for construction.
Houses constructed from these materials are easily built, easily
repaired, well ventilated, and earthquake resistant. However, a major drawback to
their use isdeterioration
by insects, rot, fungi and fire. Untreated bamboo structures
usuaiiy have to be repiaced every two or three years, and this means that there is
little incentive to install interior toilets, indoor water supplies, intsrior cooking
facilities, etc. Improvements in material properties and construction
techniques
would thus enable millions of rural dwellers to have an improved standard of living.
The report covers preservative treatments such as coating (with tar, limewash, etc.),
dipping (in oil, etc.), and steeping pressure treatment.
110.
United Nations, Department
of Economic and Social Affairs, Se/f-He/p
.Prac?ices in Housing: Se!ec?ed Cask Studies. (U.N., New York, 1973).
Reviews 5 case studies from Colombia, El Salvador, Senegal, Ethiopia and the
Sudan, describing experiences in the field of self-help and mutual-aid housing.
Concludes that no other form of housing programme could bring adequate housing
to such a large proportion
of the population, and that self-help housing methods
have a conside”-We potentia! for mobilizing human resources for the provision of
homes for low-income families.
111.
United Nations
the Brick and
1969).
Industrial Development Organization,
The E rtablishmen t of
Tile Industry in Developing Countries. (U.N., New York,
Surveys the range of technologies available at each stage of brick-making,
comments on the appropriateness of each for developing countries.
48
and
112.
Nations Industrial Development
for the Use of Wood in Developing
Vienna, 1969).
FJnied
Organization, /hducfion
Techniques
Countries. IDAWG. 49110. (UNIDO,
Discusses technical and economic aspects of building with wood under conditions
existing in developing countries. Covers improvements in material properties and
construction techniques.
113.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Construction Industry,
(UNIDO, Vienna, 1969). UNIDO Monograph on Industrial Development,
No.2.
Based on studies and papers presented to the International Symposium on Industrial
Development convened by UNIDO in Athens 1967. A broad study covering only
the salient features of the industry, with particular reference to the problems of
developing co~untries~
114.
United Nations Industrial
Development
Organization,
Building Materials
Industry, (UNIDO, Vienna, 1969). UNIDO Monograph on Industrial Development, No. 4.
Based on studiesand papers presented to the International Symposium on Industrial
Development in Athens in 1967. Reviews the trade and production of the industry,
assesses trends in consumption and patterns of use. Further chapters outline the
characteristics of the industry and yive guidelines on planning and organization.
49
Section 3
Manufacturing
A. Food Processing and Nutrition
116.
Armas Jr.
Technique
approach,
&sources
Economic
A,, Implications of Legislated Minimum Wages on the Choice of
in the Agro-Canned Pineapple industry in the Philippines: A microPapers and Proceedings of the Workshop on Manpower and Human
(University of the Philippines, School of Economics and National
and Development Authority,
Leguna, 1972).
An example of ‘adaptive’ technology transfer. Finds that due to lower wages, the
pineapple canning industry in the Philippines uses three times as much labour as its
‘original’ counterpart in Hawaii. Canning is done by hand in the Philippines and the
product is of a higher quality than in Hawaii.
116. Campbell M., Stable Tropical Fish Products.
Research Council, Ottawa, 1975. IDRC 041e.I
(International
Development
Deals with improvements of traditional salted/dried fish products in tropical countries of South East Asia, and with the development of non-traditional
products
using minced fish obtained from trawler by-catches. Such by-catches, which are
currently vastly under-utilized,
are estimated to be 400,000 tons per annum and
200,000 tons per annum in Thailand and India respectively.
117. Cooper C. et al. ‘Choice of Techniques for Can Making in Kenya, Tanzania
and Thailand’, Technology and Employment
in Industry. (Ed) Bhalla A.S.
(ILO, Geneva, 1975).
Looks at 17 alternative techniques for manufacturing cans. In the three countries
studied, capital-intensive
techniques were used not merely because other more
appropriate techniques were not available; more appropriate techniques did already
exist, but they were simply not used in situations in which it appeared that their
use would have been justified. Gives several examples of inappropriate choice of
technique. Concludes that policies designed to adjust distorted factor prices would
have been ineffective in changing the choice made since in some cases the relatively
labour-intensive
(intermediate)
techniques were already the most economical at
existing wage rates. Suggests that steps should be taken to reduce or eliminate
various randomly distributed forms of imprudent selection of techniques, and to
reduce the influence of the factors that insulate decision-making from local prices
and costs.
60
118.
Hall M.N.A., The Small-Scale Manufacture
of High and Low Boiled Sweets
and Toffees (Tropical Products Institute Report No. G.77.. 1973).
Compares
table:
three scales of output
in West Africa.
A
Output
less than
1.0
9,000
0.099
5.00
(tons per week)
Capital (f 1
Unit cost (f per lb)
Direct labour per ton
Results are summarized
in the
0
C
5.00
20.00
54,000
0.081
3.00
165,000
9.076
2.75
Finds that unit costs decrease as scale of output increases, but points out that all
three plants are ‘sm.-II’ in that they do not require heavy investment in high-speed
fully automatic machinery and large market outiets.
Chapter 4 on ‘Choice of Scale’ discusses the use of second-hand machinery.
119.
International
Labour Office,
for increasing productive
Technical Paper No. 7. ‘A
Processes in the Manufacture
Employment,
lncomesand Equality: A strategy
employment
in Kenya. (ILO, Geneva, 1972).
Case Study of Choice of Techniques in Two
of Cans’.
Looks at the choice of techniques for the sealing and packaging of cans using data
obtained from a~Kenyan factory where each of these processes is carried out by
both capital-intensive
and labour-intensive
methods. Findings were as follows:
Packaging
End Sealing
Automatic
SemiAutomatic
Automatic
SemiAutomatic
(Kenyan shillings per 10,000 cans)
Capital costs (r = 2C%o)
Labour costs
Total costs
3.71
2.70
6.41
0.152
9.14
9.29
1.30
1.30
2.60
0.35
4.34
4.69
Concludes that although semi-automatic techniques are not inefficient in the formal sense (i,e. there is no technical rigidity in the normal sense of the term), their
labour and capital productivities
are too low compared to those af the automated
techniques to.:make them viable at any realistic shadow wage rate. (In fact, the
critical wage rate would be below the opportunity
cost of unskilled labour.) They
are a vintage of techniques which have been overtaken by capital-intensive
technological change. Points out that the main problem in the case of semi-automatic
sealing is the high requirement for supervisory labour, which results in high labour
51
costs. Stresses that some labour-intensive
processes may demand very little skill
and consequently require much less supervisory labour than does the can-sealing
process. As ;. g%neral rule, therefore, the use of such processes cannot be ruled
out a priori.
120.
Kamath
Institute
J., Small-Scale Manufacture
Report No. G.B2., 1973).
of Soluble
Coffee. (Tropical
Products
Compares the cost of manufacture of soluble coffee et three different
production in India. Findings are summarized in the table:
scales of
A
Ou?put (Kg. per hour)
Cost per Kg. (pence)
Fixed Investment (f)
Return on Capital (96)
B
75.0
2.4
786,900
0.2
C
225.0
2.3
1,598.900
24.0
400.0
2.3
2,300,900
29.0
Concludes that only the 2 larger plants are economically
viable, and that these
cannot be defined as ‘small-scale’. For instance, plant B requires f286.000
just
for plant and equipment, whereas the Indian definition of small-scale production is
under f41.574 for plant equipment.
However, the report goes on to show that
certain modifications
to production,
e.g. the mixing of chicory with coffee, and
the use of glass containers only, would result in economic viability of the smallscale plant. The former modification
would give a return on capital of 13 per cent
for plant A, while the latter would give a return of 23 per cent.
121. Kamath J., Small-Scale Manufacture
of Carbonatti
Products Institute Report No. G.66.. 1971).
Comparison of 3 different
the following results:
size of plants operating
A
Output (bottles per annum)
Capital (N.f)
Return on capital (%)
Beverages.
at full capacity
B
500,000
7,560
-7
2,000,000
23,170
59
(Tropical
in Nigeria gave
C
5.000.000
42,160
100
Shows that the smallest-scale plant is not economic, but adds that it could break
even under conditions of very low wage rates. Also, if output is restricted to 50%
capacity, the medium-scale plant would make a loss, while the rate of return to
capital for the large-scale plant would be reduced to 10 per cent.
122.
Kaplinsky R., Innovation in Gari Production:
The Case for an Intermediate
Technology.
(Institute of Development Studies, Discussion Paper No. 34.,
1974).
Examines the choice of techniques
in the processing of gari from cassava in Nigeria.
52
Two techniques are contrasted: (1) a fully-mechanized
foreign machine; and (2)
an intermediate, locally-generated
technique. Calculations suggest that unit costs
of production are approximately
20 per cent higher with the mechanized than with
the intermediate technique. Concludes that both private and social optimality
are
furthered by the use of the intermediate technique.
123.
Kilby P., African
Enterprise:
The N&erian
Bread Industry.
(Stanford,
1965).
Gives data on six firms in the bread industry of different sizes, with different
market orientations, and using different technologies. Finds that the firm at the
lowest technological level economizes on capital but has high total costs because
of the high raw-material content; while the technically most advanced firm minimizes losses in the production
process but has trouble with spare parts, power
failures, high fuel costs, and findirng skilled supervisors. There is also a limited
market for its product so that it operates below capacity.
124. Mars P.A., The Manufacture of Orange Squash in Developing
(Tropical Products Institute Report NO. G.53. 1971).
Countries.
Looks at costs and profits per unit at different levels of output in West Africa, so as
to reach a decision as to the most appropriate scale for the existing market. Comparison of 4 different sizes of factories gave the following results:
A
8
C
128
256
512
1.020
Sales cost If per 100 doz. bottles)
130
111
105
105
Transport costs (f per
190 doz. bottles)
Manpower (men per 100
doz. bottles)
4.6
2.9
2.0
2.2
22.5
13.3
9.6
8.2
Output
(400 doz. bottles p.a.)
D
Shows that unit costs fall as the scale of output increases, and that transport costs,
being subject to their economies of scale, follow the same trend as total costs.
However, the report accepts that a small or moderate sized firm might be viable
in some circumstances, e.g. on an island, or in a very remote community.
Refers
to cottage-scale (!ess than 10 employees) orange-squash manufacture in Nigeria,
and suggests that these small firms survive by employing family members, and
charging very low prices to a limited number of customers.
Also covers choice of machinery e.g. between automatic and manually operated
juice extractors, giving costs and capacities of each.
125. Marsden K., Progressive Technologies for Developing
Labour Review, Vol 101 (4) May 1970.
Countries,
International
Includes a case study on the choice of technology in the bakery industry. An automatic plant bakery, with pneumatic flour handling, continuous mixing, kneading,
53
dividing and proving, a travelling oven and conveyor-fed wrapping machine, costing
4 million dollars and employing 100 men, could supply all the bread for a town of
100,000 people. But if the average income were only 100 dollars per head per
annum, and savings were only 10 dollars per head, the whole of the town’s savings
would go into the new bakery and the mass of workers in other trades and industries
would have to make do with less equipment than they had before (because of depreciation). Demand would also fall because of the reduced incomes of the redundant bakery workers. Thus total output and employment in the town would decline.
If on the other hand, .the existing small bakers were supplied with simple dough
kneaders to replace hand-mixing,
at a total capital cost of 10,000 dollars, the
average labour productivity
in the bakery industry could be raised by 10 per cent
and there would be plenty of savings left over in the community to finance further
investment in the other sectors where marginal increases in productivity
could be
achieved too. And there would be improvements in the social amenities of the
town, e.g. schools and hospitals, etc. Thus, growth would be balanced and mutually
self-supporting.
Article a!so includes case studies on leather, footwear, ttiramic tiles and fibreboard. See entries 97 and 140. Marsden K.
126. McDowell J., Development of High Protein/High
Calorie Biscuits in Uganda
Using Indigenous Protein Sources. East African Journal of Rural Development.
Vol6 (1612) 1973.
A case study of an attempt to provide a nutritionally-significant
contribution
of
high quality protein and sufficient calories to supplement effectively existing diets
of children. The problem is to provide nutrients in a very concentrated form so that
only a small bulk need be eaten. Biscuits were decided upon as being suitable, and
they had the additional ve!ce that they could be given the image of a ‘children’s
food’, so that they were less likely to be eaten by male adults. Describes the difficulties which had to be overcome in the baking technology, and looks at problems
of packaging and acceptance.
127. Ngoddly P.O., The Case for Appropriate
Technology in the Mechanization of
Gari Manufacture
in Nigeria, Paper presented at the OECD, Development
Centre Conference on Low-Cost Technology:
An Inquiry into Outstanding
Policy Issues, (OECD Development Centre, Paris, 1975).
A comprehensive case study of the mechanization
of gari (dehydrated cassava)
production. Describes the traditional
household technology, the intermediate technology, and the large-scale production technology. A detailed economic and technical comparison is made between the large-scale and the intermediate technologies.
Both are found to have advantages and drawbacks, and the conclusion reached is
that the relative competitiveness of each one depends on the economic assumptions
which are made about such factors as interest rates, shadow price of labour, number
of hours of operation per day, wage and foreign exchange rates, etc.
54
128.
National Academy of Sciences, Food Science in Developing
Selection of Unsolved Problems. (N.A.S., Washington, 1974).
Countries:
A
Aims at identifying ways in which science and technology can be applied appropriately to the areas of outrition, food processing and the development of new foods.
Covers iron fortification
of salt, reducing spoilage of food, processing fermented
fish products, indigenous sources of enzymes for rapi,d fermentation
of fish, keep
ing qualities of buffalo milk, salt for preservation purposes, development of techniques for making bread without wheat, and development of local low-cost weaning
foods. Useful bibliography and list of contacts on each topic.
129. Selowsky M. and Taylor L., The Economics of Malnourished Children: An
Example of Disinvestment in Human Capital, Economic Development and
Cultural Change. Vol22 (1) October 1973.
Estimates the economic impact of infant malnutrition
in Santiago, Chile, dealing
particularly
with its implications
for adult productivity.
Suggests that (1) early
malnutrition
leads to intelligence loss in children; (2) because of their low intelligence on entering school, the retarded children receive somewhat lower ‘quality’
education, leave school earlier, etc; and (3) when they enter the labour force,
they are doubly handicapped by lower intelligence and less schooling. As a result
they earn leumoney.Themeasure
of benefits resulting from alleviating malnutrition
is based on the imputed earnings foregone by the a&Its who suffered from malnutriticn
in infancy in comparison to another group of adults who were not malnourished.
130.
Spata J.A. et al., Developing a Soybean Dal for India.and
World Crops Vol 26 (2) 1974.
Other Countries,
Discusses techniques for processing soybeans into a dry, stable ‘dal’.
has a similar appearance to indigenous dals, and can be stored and
similar way. The processing equipment is very simple, and the market
product appears to be competitive.
The resulting food is higher in
fat content than normal dais.
131. Spurgaon D., Anyone
for Instant
The product
cooked in a
price of the
protein and
Yams IDRC Reports Vol 4 (2) June 1975.
Describes the development of a pilot plant in Barbados to produce instant dehydrated yam. The purpose of this is to make good use of native root crops, to
help attainment of self-sufficiency
in food, and to diversify exports away from
the traditional
sugar crop. Other developments mentioned include a breakfast
food like corn-flakes made from sweet potato flour enriched with soya protein,
and the use of composite flour (20% yams or 15% sweet potatoes) in breadmaking.
132. Tropical Products Institute, The Small&ale
(T.P.I. Report No. 14/60. 1960).
Manufacture
of Confectionery.
Looks at the costs and labour requirements of manufacturing
high-boiled drops in
a factory with a capacity of 10 cwt of fruit-drops per day. Recommends that
55
wrapping of sweets
a high capacity. In
of sweets per day.
needed to produce
machine is used for
133.
should be done by hand, since machines are expensive and have
1960, the smallest machine available could cope with half a ton
In addition, if sweets are wrapped by hand, then 12 workers are
10 cwt of sweets per day, as opposed to only 2 workers if a
wrapping.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization,
Wood as a Packaging
Material in Developing Countries. (U.N. New York, 1972).
Concentrates on the use of wood for packaging agricultural
produce. Chapter
Five examines the various technical processes and looks at the choice of machinery
for producing nailed cases and pallets, light, oblong packing cases, and wirebound
cases. Gives comparative costs and outputs involved in each process, and points
out that the choice of technique should depend oi, the size of output envisaged,
the degree of standardization
necessary, the amount of investment required, and
the cost of labour.
A very wide range of alternative techniques is described for each process. For
example, the assembly of cases and pallets ranges from nailing by hand, through
portable stapling machines (200 to 1,500 dollars) and stationary nailing machines
(1,000 to 2,000 dollars), to an automatic nailing line (100,000 dollars) which
should be used only when very large outputs are required.
B. Clothing, leather and footwear
134. Bhalla A.S., Investment Allocation
and Technological
Choice: A Case of
Cotton Spinning Techniques, Economic Journal September 1964.
Compares three technologies for the spinning of cotton; the labour-intensive
‘traditional’
charka; the ‘intermediate’
Ambar charka; and the capital-intensive
factory spindle. The traditional
charka has the lowest capital/output
ratio and
the highest capital/labour
ratio, while the factory spindle yields the .highest
reinvestable surplus. Concludes that either of these is preferable to the ‘intermediate’ technoiogy.
135.
Dickinson H., Rural China, 1972. (Report prepared for the Commission
on the Churches: Participation
in Development, World Council of Churches,
Edinburgh, 1972). p.34.
One of the more novel technological
innovations described in this interesting
report is the feeding of silkworms on cassava leaves to produce a coarse variety
of silk.
136.
Howes M. and Hislop D.. The Transfer of Technology to the Thai Silk Industry
(Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, mimeo, 1974).
Contains three case studies of technological
alternatives:
(1)
Alternative Strategies for the Development of Thai Silk: describes a number
of alternative production strategies; introduces criteria by which these alternatives
56
may be evaluated; and attempts to explain the rationale which lies behind the
decisions that have been taken in Thailand, and which have ied to a less than
optimal utilization of national manpower and material resources.
(2)
Technology Transfer in the Thai Silk Industry - a Study of Problems and
Alternatives:
covers much the same ground as the first study, but with much
greater emphasis on economics. Diagram showing the relationship between increasing
complexity
of machinery (covering 6 types of *machine) and thread quality. Finds
that the capital cost of machinery in the most complex system is almost 20 times
greater than that in the most labour-intensive
method. It also involves only 1 worker for every 33 workers needed in the labour-intensive method.
(3)
Success and Failure in the Transfer of Technology - The Case of Thai-Japanese ,yericu/ture Programmes: examines an attempt to adapt existing technology to the
local environment. This is used to illustrate some of the more general problems
which can arise, and suggestions are given as to how they might be overcome.
137.
Hewavitharana B., ‘Choice of Techniques in Ceylon’ Economic Development
in South Asia (Eds) Robinson E.A.G. and Kidron M. (Macmillan, London,
1970).
Part II looks at the characteristics of alternative
Findings are summarized in the table:
Decentralized
Power Loom
Hand
Loom
Cost per yard IFis)
Volume of output per
~, worker per year (ydsi
techniques
in textile
production.
Automatic
Power Loom
1.85
1.60
1.50
1,154
7.232
79,200
Although a rnove from hand looms to automatic looms would result in some saving
in unit cost of production, the number of jobs destroyed could not be justified in
social terms.
Reaches the same conclusion for the coir industry. At the decortication.
spinning, and mat weaving stages, a move towards more highly mechanized techniques
would lower the unit cost of production, but if the most mechanized techniques
were used at all stages, in preference to the least mechanized, then even a doubling
of output would not reabsorb all the labour displaced.
136.
international
Labour Office, The Role of the Texfile industry in the Expansion of Employment
in the Developing
Countrie;.
(ILO. Programme of
Industrial Activities, Textile Commit&e, Report II, 1973).
Chapter IV comprises a general disn,:ssion of the technology and investment options
in the textile industry in developing countries, and looks at their consequences for
employment. A case study~of the modernization
of the textile industry in Indonesia
is included in Chapter VI.
67
139.
LockhartSmith
C.J. and Elliot R.G.H., Tanning of Hides and Skins.
Products Institute Report No. G.86. 1974).
The main report compares 4 scales of output
table:
A
Output (hides per dav)
Total capital investment
Cost per m3 (f 1
Profit (%I
(f)
of hides. The results are shown in the
8
100
61,000
2.11
2.29
1,000
638,000
1.88
18.14
This shows considerable economies of scale in production.
tanning of goat and sheepskins reaches the same conciusions.
140. fuiarsden K., Progressive Technologies for Developing
Labour Review Vol 101 (4) May 1970.
technological
D
C
400
255,000
1.96
12.31
Includes two case studies of inappropriate
footwear industries:
Tropical
2,000
1,172.OOO
1.80
25.10
An appendix
Countries
on the
International
choice in the leather and
(1)
One country
imported two plastic-injection
moulding
machines costing
100,660 dollars each. Working three shifts and with a total labour force of 40
workers, they produced 1% million pairs of plastic shoes and sandals a year. At
two dollars per pair, these were better value (longer life) than cheap leather footwear at the same price. Thus, 5,000 artisan shoemakers lost their livelihood which
in turn reduced the markets for the srrppliers and makers of leather, hand tools,
wax and polish, iaces, etc. As all the machinery and the material (PVC) for the
plastic footwear had to be imported, while the leather footwear was based largely
on indigenous materials and industries, the net results were a decline in both
employment and real income within the country.
(21 A tanning industry project in one country envisaged building asmall model
tannery to act as a training centre and to demonstrate new techniques, together
with a number of new buildings to rehouse existing tanneries, thus improving
working conditions and separating the industry (with its obnoxious smells) from
living quarters. Total capital costs were projected at 2% million dollars.for
an
annual output of 15 million dollars. The buildings and some of the machinery were
to be made locally so the import content was small. Labour productivity
was expected to increase, but the number of workers employed in the industry would remain
at 3,000 owing to a 5 per cent per annum expected increase in demand for leather.
However, the project was referred on the grounds of not being modern enough,
and was replaced by a scheme for a large Govenment-owned
tanneryestate,
costing
15 million dollars, equipped with the latest imported machinery, and with a total
capacity 50 per cent in excess of the existing firms. Employment in the industry
would be halved, existing equipment made obsolete, owners of present firms made
redundant, and the import bill increased by 8 million dollars.
56
141. McBain N.S. and Pickatt J., LowCost Technology in Ethiopian Footwear Production, Paper presented at OECD, Development
Centre Conference on
Low-Cost Technology:
An inquiry into Outstanding Policy Issues. (OECD,
Deveiopment Centre, Paris, 1975).
Presents the results of an economic appraisal of alternative technologies for the
manufacture of footwear in Ethiopia. Three levels of output are considered: 50,000,
300,000, and 1.8 million pairs of men’s shoes per year. For each of these three
levels of output, the authors have considered three different technologies: the most
machine-intensive,
the most labour-intensive,
and the leastcost. A comparisdn
between these 9 theoretical production units shows that the most machine-intensive
process is not the most profitable, even though engineers may prefer it for technical
reasons.
The second part of the paper assumes that Ethiopia wants to produce 1.8 million
shoes for export. This can be done with one large factory, with 20 medium-scale
factories, or with 1,200 small workshops. If economic efficiency is the over-riding
criterion, the large-scale factory, based on the least-cost technology, and not the
most machine-intensive
technology, appears to .be the most suitable. Evaluations
are on the basis of private profitability,
and the authors point out that a social costbenefit evaluation would probably favour the smaller units and the more labourintensive techniques.
142.
Pack H., ‘The Choice of Techniques and Employment in the Textile Industry’
Technology and Employment
in lndusrry (Edj Bhalla A.3 (ILD, Geneva.
1975).
Looks at the rationality of considering utilizing older, used equipment when undertaking investment in textile industries in developing countries. Suggests that at
factory prices relevant for many poorer countries, the choice of used equipment
would be optimal. Existing older-style equipment
does offer efficient fabourintensive alternatives. and is available in large quantities in used form. Though it
is not possible a priori to rule out the pote- ..a1 generation of still more efficient
labour-intensive
techniques if sufficient
research funds were available, it is far
from clear that the effort would be warranted by a cost/benefit analysis.
143.
Powell J.W.. A Review of Experiencegained
from 3 Proiecrs ar the Technology
Consukancy Centre, University of Kumasi, 1972/3, Paper presented at the
University of Edinburgh Appropriate
Technology
Conference, September
1973.
Includes a description of a project to encourage the use of broadlooms for weaving.
The main barrier to using broadlooms was one of cost.‘They retail at approximately
C. 100.000 as opposed to only C. 7.00 for a traditional loom. The Centre decided
to test the acceptance of weavers to a loan scheme by which a broadloom was supplied and paid for in 20 monthly instalr.ients of C. 5.00. The first of the broadlooms
purchased through this scheme have yielded a good return and loans have been repaid ahead of time. The resulting increase in demand for broadlooms and their
associated equipment has led to the establishment of a local enterprise to manu59
facture these. Training schemes for operators have been run concurrently
at the
College of Art.
The other projects described are Spider Glue and Steel Bolt Production.
See
entry 160. Powell J.W.
144.
Ranis G., Technology Choice, Employment
and Growth.
Growth Center, Discussion Paper No. 97. 1970). p.16.
(Yale Economic
Shows that a capital-intensive
technology,
while being profitable
in Europe or
North America, may not be profitable under conditions of much lower wage rates
prevailing in other countries. Uses an example from the Japanese textile industry
to make this clear. ‘The price of the automatic loom in Japan is more than twice
as much as the plain loom, which with the additional expense involved in the
importation from the U.S.A. or Great Britain, made the total outlay too high in a
country where the interest charges on money were relatively much higher than
the cost of labour. Japanese mill managers have, therefore, hitherto preferred to
employ more workers and to forgo the more labour-saving but more expensive
machinery, in contrast to the situation in the U.S.A., where the high-priced labour
is economized rather than the machinery.’
145.
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, Choice of Technologies in he Latin American Texrile Industry. (UNECLA, 1966).
Compares three vintages of mill - 1960, 1960, and 1965 (each containing a spinning
and a weaving section) - with each mill being more capital-intensive
than its predecessor. Concludes that given the low availabilitv
of capital in Latin American
countries, maximum benefits in terms of reinvestable surpius, return on capital,
and employment creation are attained by the use of the 1960 (the intermediate)
vintage.
146. United Nations Industrial
Development
Organization,
Report of Experr
Group Meeting on the Selection of Textile Machinery in rhe Cotton Industry
(UNIDO, Vienna, 1967). IDAVG 8/l.
Presents quantitative data for the hypothetical mill process flows forcarded cotton.
These are conventional,
intermediate, and automated. The conventional level was
found to be the most appropriate for developing countries, with the automated
level being the least appropriate.
142.
United Nations Industrial
Development
Organization,
Wet Blue
Leather for Export (UNIDO. Vienna, 1971). IDA&. 79/3.
Chrome
Contains a discussion of the possibilities of improving the technologies used by
cottage and small-scale tanners so as to raise the quality of their products to export
standards. Looks at the organizational problems involved.
148.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Seminar Report on he
Developmenr of rhe Leather and Leather Products Industries in Developing
Countries: Regional Project for Africa IUNIDO, Vienna, 1972).
Covers modernization
and mechanization
international markets.
of small enterprises
60
to produce shoes for
C. Other Manufactured
149.
Goods
Boon G.K. ‘Technological Choice in Metalworking, with Special Reference to
Mexico’, Technology and Employment
in Industry, (Ed) Bhalla A.S. (I LO,
Geneva, 1975).
The author uses process of task-level analysis and argues that it is only at this high
!eve! of disaggregation that possibilities of factor substitution
can be satisfactorily
revealed. Moreover, private enterprises make decisions largely at this level of disaggregation. The empirical disaggregated analyses on metalworking
confirm the
existence of capital-labour substitution possibilities,even
though, at a higher level of
aggregation, the technologicallydetermined
view of fixed proportions
seems to
prevail.
166. Cooper C., Kaplinsky R. and Turner R.. Second Hand Equipment in a Dever’~phg C~ciiiK~: A Gidji ~fjtil~-pru~essing
in Kenya. (I I-G, feneva, i$jiej.
A case study relating to machines in a jute-processing factory in Kenya. It examines
(a) how purchases of second hand machines are made, and particu!arly how prices
are determined; and (b) how the performance of second hand machines compares
with the performance of similar machines that were bought new by the same enterprise. This is aimed at giving some useful pointers about the actual advantages and
disadvantages of second hand equipment.
There are 3 major conclusions. First, it is difficult to hold a general position
about second hand mact,,nes. Some are an efficient way of saving capital, and
others are not. Second, the price at which the second hand machines are purchased
Is often a rather poor indication of the capital saving that they make possible. The
machines have to be transported and installed, and the costs involved are the same
as for new machines. If these costs are too high, the entrepreneur
in the developing country should not buy the second hand machines, even if ?he machine
price is low. And third, the real problem for the machine owner is to obtain a
reliable estimate of the rate of output of second hand machines. This is difficult
because the effect of lifting and transportation
on machine performance is unknown, and because there is a wide variation of performance between machines
in a second hand vin.tage. These findings !ead +h
. ..e authors to advocate a more discriminating attitude towards the whole question of imports of second hand machinery.
161.
Date A., The Manufacture of Miniature Cigars. (Tropical Products Institute
Report No.G.15.1965).
Covers hand-making of full-size cigars, hand-making of miniature cigars, and machine
manufacture. Production of 20 cigars per hour per individual hand worker could
be doubled to 40 cigars per hour per worker using a moulding machine, can be
increased by automatic machines to many hundreds per hour/worker,
or even
to many thousands per hour, according to type and size of unit being produced.
Suggests that there might be scope for setting up a small, non-automated
cigar
factory,
aimed at a small local market. This could be profitable
in situations
of low labour costs.
61
152.
Edwards D, The Industrial Manufacture of Cassava Products:
study. (Tropical Products Institute Report No. G.88. 1974).
An economic
Covers the production
of chips and pellets, and production
of starch. Compares
two sizes of factory producing chips (inputs of one ton of tubers per hour, and
7 tons of tubers per hour); and two sizes of pelleting plant (inputs of 2.5 tons
and 5.0 tons of dried chips per hour) in Malaysia. Finds that economies of scale
exist for production of both products.
In the case of starch processing, three sizes were considered: throughput
of
one ton per hour (simple machinery); throughput of 2 tons per hour (continuous
processing); and throughput of 6 tons par hour (continuous processing). The continuous processing system was found to have a reasonable rata of return only in
the larger-scale plant, ana only at full utilization of plant. For output at a smallscale, the enterprise using simple traditional
equipment was found to have an
economic advantage over the small continuous processing plant.
153.
Foster P. and Wood D.. The Case of Small Fertilizer
ment Digest Vol. Vi. (2) April 1966.
Plants in India, Davalop-
Compares the costs and returns of one large plant and seven small plants of combined capacity equal to the large plant. Finds that it would take 7 years before
the annual net returns from the large plant exceeded those from the small ones.
Advantages of small-scale production
were: (1) small marketing area; (2) less
demands on management; and (3) much shorter construction time with consequent
savings in interest charges and imports of fertilizers and grains.
154. Garg WK.,
Appropriate
Problems of Developing Appropriate
Technology Vol. 1. ( 1) Spring 1974.
Technologies
in India,
Includes a case study of a pilot pottery project in India aimed at assessing the
commercial viability of small-scale enterprises. The background to the project was
that the supply of ‘traditional’
domestic and kitchen utensils manufactured
by
village potters was being replaced by white-ware porcelain articles manufactured
through large-scale techniques in the cities. As a result, more than one million
nnttarc
#.,----.- jo In& were facing the p respect of being thrown out of emp!oyment. The
pilot project, aimed at the manufacture
of white-ware pottery for villages, has
bean worked out in two stages. The first is a cluster of small-scale decentralized
units which have grown into quite a sizeabla complex employing more than
25,000 people in 200 to 250 units, and producing about f5 million worth of goods
annually. The other development has resulted in making small units work in isolated villages.
155.
Intermediate Technology Services Ltd., Techno-Economic
on Mini-Plants in Pakistan (ITDG, London, 1974 mimeo).
Feasibility
Report
A report written for the Government of Pakistan. Contains an evaluation of the
feasibility of intermediate processing technologies in rural Pakistan. Covers: (1)
the feasibility as a village fuel of methane produced by the anaerobic fermentation
of animal and vegetable wastes; (2) local, small-scale sugar processing; (3) the
62
production
of protein concentrates from grasses and other
the utilization of various types of agricultural wastes.
155.
leafy greens; and (4)
International
Labour Office, The Woodworking Industries and the Creation
of Employment (ILO, Programme of Industrial Activities, Second Tripartite
Meeting for the Woodworking Industries, Report II, 1975).
Chapter IV looks at the choice of technique in the woodworking
industries in
developing countries, and examines the possibility of substituting labour for capital
in production. Also, compares the ‘modern’ sector with the ‘traditional’
or ‘informal’ rector, and argues that greater social benefit could be achieved by concentrating investment on the latter sector. Gives several examples of ways in which the
quality of output and productivity
in the ‘traditional’
sector could be improved
without resort to major investments in capital. Covers ‘intermediate’
technologies
and the use of second-hand machinery.
157.
Kamath J., Flynn G.. and Mars PA.. The Manufacture of Woven Sacks from
IVaturai and Synthetic Fibre. (Tropical Products Institute Report No.G.90.
1975).
Although jute has been the most widely used fibre for the manufacture of sacks,
this report concentrates on kenaf, because conditions for growth are more widaspread, and it is more likely to be used by developing countries planning to manufacture sacks, rather than import them. Compares 4 plants in Thailand which produce: (1) heavy caes on flat looms; (2) heavy tees on circular looms; (3) hassian
sacks on flat looms; and (4) polypropylene sack: on circular looms. All plants work
3 shifts, and produce 10 million sacks par year.
Reaches three major conc!usions, First, heavy tees woven on circu!a: !ooms cost
more than those woven on flat looms. This illustrates that it does not usra!!y pay to
install h&our-saving machinery in developing countries, where labour costs are low.
The circular loom costs 10 times more, but has a productivity
only 3.7 times greater,
and provides 141 less jobs. Second, the manufacture of heavy sacks on plain looms
has a considerable advantage over the manufacture of heavy tees, but it is doubtful
if they could compete wih polypropylene.
These sacks cost only half of the hessian
sacits, and one third ot the heavy tees. And third, polypropylene
sacks should be
made on flat looms, which is technically feasible. This would reduce quality slightly,
but there would be a saving in capital costs, and more jobs would be created.
158.
King K., New L&ht in Africa: Kenya’s Candlemakers, Paper presented at the
University
of Edinburgh Appropriate
Technology Conference, September
1973.
A case study of the developments in rr low cost industry -the manufacture of the
smail paraffin wick lamp that sells in Kenya for 50 to 70 cents (2% new pence). The
cheapest alternative is the hurricane lamp, imported from Hong Kong, China and
Czechoslovakia, which costs at least 14 times as much, and burns paraffin at 3 to 4
times the speed of the small indigenous lamp. The lamp is made principally out of
reworked and soldered motor oil cans, with a removable wickholder and a separate
63
small funnel for refilling with paraffin. It gives enough
purposes, and is remarkably accident-proof.
159.
light for most household
Powell J.W., Soap Pilot Plant - Review of the First Year’s Progress (Technology Consultancy Centre, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi,
Ghana, 1973); and Soap Pilot Plant Project - Review of Progress in 1974
(TCC, Kumasi, 1975).
These two reports describe the setting up and progress of a soap pilot plant following from a stream of enquiries from small soap makers as to how the unpleasant
odour and colour which remained in their soap from the vegetable oil could be
removed. The olant.
which was conceived as an exercise in intermediate technology,
.
was intended to improve qualitatively
and quantitatively
upon the operation of
the small local soap makers, but without making the plant too complex for them
to understand and control. The plant is planned to produce 1,000 bars of soap
par day - a daily production of 2,500 lbs of soap. The product has been well accepted by local traders, and so far production has proved profitable. However, profitability is dominated by the cost of palm oil, and if the price of this continues to rise,
profits could fall.
In the soap making process, caustic soda in 10% aqueous solution isan important
input. Due to the alarming shortages of this input at the time of starting the soap
plant, it was decided to construct a small plant for the manufacture of caustic soda.
Development and operation of this prototype has been troublefree, and some firms
ordering small soap plants from the Cantre have also ordered a caustic soda plant.
Details of the caustic soda plant can be found in Donkor P. and Serviant G., Report
on the Local Manufacture of Caustic Soda (Technology Consultancy Centre, UST,
K*umasi, !971).
For other work done at Kumasi, see entry 160. Powell J.W.
160. Powell J.W., A Review of Experience Gained from Three Proiects at the TechRology Consultancy Centre, University of Science And Technoioqk’, Kumasi,
1972/3, Paper presented at the University of Edinburgh Appropriate Technology Conference, Septembei, 1973.
Describes three projects started by the Centre in 1972 with the aim of applying
the technological expertise of the University in the development of local industries.
(I ) Spider Glue: A small manufacturer of cassava starch requested to be taught
how to make a good quality paper glue. To make glue from starch is fairly simple
(an alkali obtained from plantain peal is mixed with cassava starch). but to obtain
a good quality glue, suitable for re-wetting and capable of being stored, requires
the addition of chemicals and some technical expertise. The technical problems
were solved and-the final product is judged to be equal in quality to imported glues.
The business is now fiourishing, initiai bank loans (which ware secured -with help
from the Centre) have been paid back, and the Centra’s fee for advice has been
paid back in full. Also, the foreman of the original zntarprise has now left to set
up his own business.
64
(2)
Stee; Bolt Production:
Since steel bolts made by local blacksmiths were of a
poor quality, and imported bolts were too expensive, wooden lorry body builders
expressed a need for good quality bolts to be manufactured
locally. Some bolts
were produced, but it was found that the lorry body builders were unwilling to pay
more than the 10 pesawes per bolt that was charged for the blacksmiths bolts, even
though imported bolts t,tiere costing 25 to 30 pesewas. The project would have
folded at this stage but for enquiries for hexagon headed engineering bolts. These
were then produced and found to cost only half as much as imported bolts and
ware superior in strength. In July 1972.a Steel Bolt Production Unit was established
as an independent unit within the Faculty of Engineering, and in 1973, the Unit
was transferred off campus to a private entrepreneur.
(3)
Broadloom
Weaving: See entry 143. Powell J.W.
161.
Reynolds G.F., FYre OxSlough
December; 1972.
Aevoiution,
Chemistry
in Britain Vol 8 (12)
Discusses intermediate chemical technology.
Points out that what can be done
depends on local conditions and on available materials, but, in general, the objective
should be first to produce basic materials or chemical compounds, and then to use
these ir simple manufacturing processes. Choice should be governed by the following criteria: (1) processes should be simple and involve the minimum of equipment;
(2) power requirements. should be small; (3) processes should be labour-intensive
and (4) they should be batch processes and capable of operation on scales from
very small to medium size.
Small power supplies discussed include wood, charcoal and methane (produced
-^*--:^l-I,a>,. nrt
+rnm
h’,,, I,.“i^4 sIIaLs*
A- :-A----*:-^
^“..l:r.a+;,w. “I,d IIIrLI,~,ir
mo+k3na 111
in ‘;n+PrmnAi~+p
..“.I. “‘“‘“y’c”
1rILeFesLIIIy a~lJ”ccx’Lm”,I
111.1*,,,““,“-”
technology’
is its use as a fuel for the Humphrey pump (water pump introduced
into England at the beginning of the century). Simple chemical processes discussed
mciude caustic soda and the manufacture of soap; processes based on wood; products from seaweed: and products from sugar cane.
See also Reynolds G.F., Appropriate
Chemical Technology
for Developing
Countries Paper presented at the University
of Edinburgh
Appropriate
Technology Conference, September, 1973.
162.
Robbins, S.R.J., The Manufacture
Institute Report No. 6.46. 1970).
of Dry-Cell
Bal.!eries.
Tropical
Products
A high proportion of the operations involved in dry-cell battery manufacture may
be performed either on hand-lines, or using semi-automatic machinery. The report
looks at this choice of technology for 3 basic 1.5 volt cells: R20, R14, and R6
(penlight cell). Gives costs and yields for 12 plants based on factor costs prevailing
in a West African county
in 1969. Concludes that there should be a core of semiautomatic machinery for producing the most popular cell (R20), and that handlines can be utilized for the less popular types. At the time, the smallest available
semi-automatic
line had a capacity of 5 million units per annum, while hand-lines
could economically operate at a capacity of a quarter of a million units per year.
66
163. Schwartz S.L., Second-hand machinery in development: or how to recognize
a bargain, Journal of Development Studies Vol 9 (4) 1973.
Examines the theoretical implications
of the availability
of both new and used
machines for the production possibilities and effects of various trade policies on
the selection of production technique. Integrates the question of new versus used
machines with investment criteria, and examines situations in which used machinery might be preferable to new.
164. Tabour H, A Solar Cooker for Developing
OctIDec. 1966.
Countries8 Solar Energy Vol X (4)
Describes a durable solar cooker designed specifically with a view to fabrication in
centralized workshops in developing countries. Except for the 12 identical 29.3 cm.
diameter concave glass mirrors, the construction
is entirely of iron, and the total
cost is under 8 U.S. dollars. LoIg-life (the mirrors last for 4 years and the cooker
for 10 years), simplicity for user, and negligible maintenance are important features,
Although the cooker is not the cheapest that can be designed, the very high durability is expected to more than compensate for the additional initial cost. The
cooker can boil 1% litres of water in 22 minutes.
165. United Nations
industry Bulletin
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, SmaN
forAsia and the Far East. (U.N. New York, annual).
Recent articles of interest include:
1971: Food Processing Industries in India.
1972: Manufacture of Electric Motors; Manufacture of Dry Cell 6atteries.
1973: Leather Tanning and Leather Goods Manufacturing
- An important smaliscale industrv in India; Chemical and Allied Industries in India - Scope and
Direction;
Rural Industrialization
and Rural Electrification
- the Indian
Experience;Small
modern industry in Malaysia.
1975: Technology in Small Business - Problems and Solutions
166. Wells Jr. LT., Men and Machines in Indonesia’s Light Manufacturing
fries, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies Vol IX (3) Nov. 1973.
Indus-
Gives ihe results of the author’s survey of a number of manufacturing
plants in
Indonesia in 1972. This was aimed at determining the reasons for the choice of
technology which was in use. As the table shows, a considerable range of technology
was encountered in all six industries:
Number of Plants by Technology and Industry
Plastic
Sandals
Cigarettes
Soft drink
Bottling
Capitalintensive
Intermediate
2
3
1
6
5
Labourintensive
0
Total
8
Bicycle
Tyres
Flashlight
Batteries
Woven
Bass
Total
11
3
1
4
2
2
2
2
22
3
2
1
4
0
10
11
8
6
8
4
43
66
In general, intermediate technology provided 3 times as many jobs for the same
output as the capital-intensive technology; and the labour-intensive
technology provided 1Otimesas many jobs as the capital-intensive technology in the same industry.
The author found there was no simple relationship within an industry between
factor costs and the technology chosen. Nor did the choice of technology appear
in all cases to represent a simple attempt to minimize costs. Further, no significant
relationship was found to exist between the choice of technology and whether the
firm was foreign or domestically
owned, quality of output, or scale of operations. Choice was found to be most closely related to the competitive position of
the firm. If a brand image allowed the firm to hold a monopolistic
position, then
managers were influenced bv noneconomic
factors, such as the ease of management with capital-intensive
methods, and the preference of engineers for sophisticated equipment. When price was an important consideration, however, then there
was a tendency to usa more labour-intensive methods, which were profitable due to
low wage rates.
See also Wells Jr. L.T. Economic Manand Engineering Man: Choice of Technology
in a Low Wage Counrry, Paper presented at the Ford Foundation Seminar on Technology and Employment, New Delhi, 1973.
67
Section 4
infrastructure
A. Power Sources
167.
Bailey P.H. and Williamson W.F., Some Experimen.ts in Drying Grain by
Solar Radiation (National institute of Agricultural
Engineermg, U.K., undated).
Tire direct use of solar energy to replace conventional heat sources is intrinsica!!v
desirable to conserve the world’s limited resources of fossil fuel. Equipment to
make use of solar energy for some purposes tends to be elaborate and expensive,
and in industrial countries, it is usually more economic to use conventional fuels.
In underdeveloped
areas, however, transport costs often make the price of coal
and oil prohibitive for many purposes, and direct use of solar energy holds a particular attraction. The use of a solar air heater for supplying warm air to a relatively
sophisticated drier for grain offers a marked advance on primitive open-air drying,
but a certain amount of mechanical complication
is implicit in such equipment.
This paper gives attention to methods of drying grain in which the radiation is
collected directly bv the material to be dried, thus reducing costs and complexity.
168.
Directorate of Gober Gas Scheme, Gobar Gas: Why and How? (Khadi
Village Industries Commission, Bombay, undated).
and
Works out the costs and returns on construction of a 60 cubic feet gas plant. Finds
that it is more profitable to pass cattle dung through a gobar gas plant than to
convert it directly to either dung cakes (for fuel) or farm yard manure. Also has
incidental advantages of hygienic operations, absence of smoke and soot, convenience in burning, and richness of manure.
169. Dryburgh P. McA., Charcoal and Other Products from the Thermal Decomposition of Wood. (University of Edinburgh, mimeo, 1974).
Attempts to suggest some lines of action which might be taken on the development
of charcoal-making at some different technological levels, with particular reference
to the possibility of obtaining useful by-products by simple means. The three
scales considered are (1) one-man pit operation; (2) a more developed operation
run by a small community;
and (3) a major chemical plant processing many tons
of wood per day and obtaining a range of by-products.
Concludes that simple kilns offer a real improvement ‘for one-man charcoal
operations, but that by-product recovery at this level is not worthwhile.
At the
intermediate scale, however, the preparation of activated charcoal and the recovery
of wood-tar could be valuable processes, and the use of wood-tar in road making
66
and wood preservation are worth investigation. Finally. the economic and ecological
implications of a major wood-distillation
industry should be examined for the case
of a particular country, with a view to designing a suitable plant.
170. Garg M.K. Short Studies on the Development of Appropriate
Technology
for Home Living in Rural Communities, Paper presented at OECD, Development Centre, Conference on Low-Cost Technology:
An Inquiry into Outstanding Policy Issues. (OECD, Development Centre, Paris, 1975).
Includes a review of the development of bio-gas plants in the last 40 years, both
in India and in other selected countries. Cattle dung currently accounts for over
25 per cent ot India’s energy consumption.
The termentation
of dung in a bio-gas
plant produces methane, which is used for cooking, lighting, etc., and the residue
is used as mansard The diff?!cion of this we!! tested technology has not been widespread owing to the high cost relative to other sources of energy. However. recent
rises in the price of imported oil have given a big boost to the diffusion of COWdung cookers.
171. Golding E.W., Windmills for Water Lifting and the Generation of Electricity
on the Farm (Agricultural
Engineering Branch, Land and Water Development
Division, F.A.O. Informal Working Bulletin, No. 17).
Concentrates on wind power for agricultural
use on farms which have little immediate prospect of connection to main power networks, or where difficulty
in
transporting fuel may render mass-produced power expensive. Concludes that the
use of windpower, if it is to be economical, is not merely a question of buying a
machine and installing it anywhere, for subsequent operation. Many factors such
as climatic, topographical, economical and social, should be taken into account if
a wind power project of significant size is to be carried out successfully. Deals
separately with wind power for direct water pumping, and the generation of electricity by wind power. Looks at small units for single isolated premises, and at
medium-sized plants for isolated communities.
172. Johnston
Smoothie
P., Appropriate
Technologies
Publications, Brighton, 1974).
for
Small
Developing
Countries
The first part of this monograph concentrates on renewable energy sources. Includes a survey of the costs and benefits of 3 types of windmill, and compares
windpower with diesel engines in various uses. Also looks at developments which
could reduce the costs of using solar energy to a point where it becomes feasible
for small-scale needs.
The second part of the paper gives examples of (1) the scaling down of petroleum refineries, and of plants for making steel and producing ammonia; and (2)
the development of technologies at the ‘intermediate’
level - particularly
n the
chemical industry.
Has an extensive and useful bibliography.
69
173. Kuppuswamy M . Cereal Drying with Solar Heat, Paper for the Proceedings
of a Seminar on Post-Harvesting Technology for Cereals and Pulses, (Indian
National Science Academy, New Delhi, 1972).
Discusses the pussibility of utilizing solar heat for producing hot air needed in a
mechanical drier. Describes a workable go-down roof which is designed to serve
both as a solar heat collector and as the roof covering material. Looks at how to
work out the most economical roof area.
174. Little E.C.S.. A Kiln
Vol 14.1972.
for Charcoal
Making
in the Field,
Tropical
Science
Describes a new type of metal, transportable charcoal kiln known as the CUSAS.
This enables light, useless scrub to the rapidly converted into charcoal, which can
be sold, e.g. for domestic fuel. By this technique, necessary bush clearing can
proceed at a profit (a trial in Kenya cleared whistling thorn trees at a profit of
50 pence per acre for the whole operation); and large trees, conventionally
used
for charcoal production, can be spared.
175. Makhijani A.. Energy and Agriculture
Energy Policy Project Report, 1974).
in the Third World. (Ford Foundation,
Argues that the Third World needs a mixture of ‘big’ technology and ‘alternative’
technology.
A comparison of some decentralized systems with current methods
of providing energy for agriculture, primarily in the form of oil and electricity,
reveals that in many instances the decentralized approaches are less costly, while
in others the centralized approach is more appropriate. Makes recommendations
about various energy technologies that should be pursued for the developing
nations. ‘An urgent program of research and development of solar energy technologies must be launched by Third World countries, with the co-operation of the
oil-exporting
nations and the industrialized countries if possible’. Pyrclysis of wood
‘may be an economic approach to providing fuel for small towns’. Siogasification,
which is ‘perhaps the most important technology for converting biological material
to more useful forms of fuel’ should be vigorously pursued.
178. Merriam M., Windmills
April 1972.
for Less Developed
Countries,
Technos Vol
1. (2).
Sets out the conditions which should be considered in order to decide whether a
windmill would be the most economical source of energy for a particular locality.
This includes consideration of availability
and cost of animal draught power, and
the cost of diesel power, in relation to that of wind power.
177. Moorcraft
(i) 1974.
C., Solar Energy:
Plant Power, Architectural
Design Vol XLIV
Examines the potential use of plants for solar energy conversion, and argues that
research in this area would be of far greater immediate practical benefit to society
than other current growth areas of solar energy research (e.g. the photo-thermal
70
and photovoltaic
conversion of solar energy into electrical
sewage farming and the use of kitchen wastage for production
178.
energy). Also covers
of methane.
National Acedemy of Sciences, Solar Energy in Developing
spectivesand Prospects. (N.A.S. Washington, 1972).
Countries:
Per-
Gives 4 important reasons for considering solar energy resources to meet the needs
of developing countries: (1) most developing countries are in or adjacent to the
tropics and have good solar radiation available; (2) they do not have widely distributed, readily available supplies of conventional energy resources; (3) energy is
a critical requirement in developing countries because it is related to the production
of housing, clothing, food and agricultural and industrial production; and (4) most
developing countries are characterized by arid climates, dispersed and inaccessible
populations, readily available labour, and a lack of investment capital.
Covers solar evaporation
water heating, distillation,
refrigeration,
conversion
to mechanical or electrical ent-rgy, cooking, etc. Describes experiments and developments in these fields in various parts of the world.
179.. Parker R. N., ‘The Introduction
of a Powersaw into the Charcoal Burning
Industry: A Study in a Savanna Village in SE. Ghana’. Agriculture
in S.E.
Ghana. Vol. I/. (Eds) Dalton G.E. and Parker R.N. (University of Reading,
Department
of Agricultural
Economics and Management, Development
Study No. 13.1973).
A description of the charcoal burning industry and its importance in the economy
of a village in the South Savanna area of the Volta Region, Ghana, preceeds an
investigation of a possible method of increasing productivity.
The only innovation
showing promise was the introduction
of a powersaw which it was hoped would
simultaneously
eliminate the arduous task of felling trees, and raise returns of
labour of the charcoal burners. Reaches the conclusion that: (1) the powersaw
led to a 19.4 per cent reduction in felling charges; (2) the powersaw made felling
services more available; (3) the powersaw operation is one of the few enterprises
that a person with some initiative can enter to build up wealth rapidly. A direct
benefit/cost ratio of 1.64 was calculated as a result of the introduction
of a powersaw.
180. Parkes M.E., The Use of Windmills in Tanzania. (Bureau of Resource Assessment and Land Use Planning, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Research Paper
No. 33. 1974).
Both general use and particular use of windmills in Tanzania are discussed. Various
types of windmill
are mentioned and their expected performances presented.
From an analysis of relevant wind data, the potential for windmill use is assessed
and predictions given for expected performances in 2 general locations. Recommendations for windmill use in rural water supply, cattle watering, and irrigation
are derived. Annual costs for the largest size of windmill
and for the equivalent
diesel-powered unit are comjsdred. Designs for windmills
which could be made
71
locally are discussed, as well as the possibility
windmills.’
181.
of local manufacture
of conventional
Prasad CR., Prasad K.K., and Reddy A.K.N., Biogas Plants: Prospects,
Problems and Tasks, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol IX Nos 32-34,
Special Number, August 1974.
A detailed case study of whether bio-gas plants will fulfill the demand for decentralized energy and fertilizer production,
particularly
in a large number of
small Indian villages which, on economic grounds, are going to be by-passed in the
rural electrification
programmes. Shows that in a village of 500 persons, 250
cattle, and 100 houses, despite a 75 per cent dung collection efficiency, a low
bio-gas yield of 3 cubic feet per lb. dry dung will provide a total energy of about
667.5k.W.h. per day at a generating cost of about 5 paise per k.W.h. This energy
output is over 30 per cent more than the 690 k.W.h. per day now consumed by such
villages from both commercial and noncommercial
energy sources. Further, the
bio-gas energy output is sufficient for 10 pump-sets, 5 industries, one light in
everv home, energy for cooking in every house, and a variety of miscellaneous
purposes. In contrast, rural electrification
programmes are only targetting for about
100 k.W.h. per day, thus compelling the contrnued use of noncommercial
fuels,
and as a consequence, the continued loss of fertilizer and forest through the burning
of dung and firwood. A cost/benefit
comparison of biogas,energy
versus rural
electrification
comes out in favour of the former.
Further, the biogas plants produce about 295 tonnes per year of organic manure, corresponding to about 4.4 tonnes of nitrogen per year from which the minimum additional yield of food grains may be expected to be about 22 tonnes.
This fertilizer output is more than the village’s requirements on the basis of current average consumption of nitrogen per hectare. Also, fertilizer production from
bio-gas plants appears to nave several advantages over production from large-scale
coal-based plants from the point of view of the saving of capital and the generation of employment.
182.
Richard C., Recycling
or PoUution,
South Pacific Bulletin
Vol 24 (3) 1974.
Describes a scheme for converting animal excreta into useful by-products such as
methane gas and green algae. Estimates that enough gas can be produced per day
per pig to cook enough food for one person. The green algae, which grow on the
surface of the oxidization
pond can be harvested, and being rich in protein, make
valuable food for livestock. After oxidization,
the water is excellent for breeding
ducks and fish, and the outflow of water from the ponds can be used to irrigate
vegetable gardens or corn fields. Initial expenditure
on the system is less than
1,000 Australian dollars and can be recovered in one or two years.
183. Sigurdson J., The Suitability of Technology in Contemporary
of Science on Society Vol XXI I I (4) Oct/Dec. 1973.
China, Impact
Looks at small-scaie power generation in China. Covers exploitation
of small,
scattered coal deposits; small and very small hydroelectric
power stations (35,000
stations ranging from a few kilowatts to a few hundred kilowatts provide 16 per
72
cent of China’s hydroelectric
power); the proliferation
of small rural enterprises
able to manufacture
simple generators and eiectric turbines (some equipment
is made of bamboo and wood instead of iron so as to keep costs in moderation);
modifications
in electricity distribution
(e.g. wide spacing of poles) to lower costs;
and, in areas remote from electricity,
the popularization
of simple methods to
produce marsh gas (methane) for cooking and lighting (e.g. by fermentation
of
grass and straw in sealed pits).
Also looks at small heavy industry in local areas e.g. nitrogen chemical fertilizer,
cement (using vertical kilns), and pig iron production.
184. Smith G.. Economics of Solar Collectors, Heat Pumps and Wind Generators.
(University of Cambridge, Department of Architecture,
Autonomous Housing
Study, Working Paper No. 3., 1973).
An economic ana!vsis of ?he power systems currently available for utilization
in
an autonomous house. Uses investment analysis and discusses the appropriate rate
of interest. Tries to divide current costs into components so that high cost problem
areas can be enlightened. Concludes that solar collector costs are high, but lower
costs may be achieved by using passive collection and storage systems, or by annual
storage, which may become economic in the future with rising fuel costs.
185. Steedman
1975.
N., Eire’s Emerald
Energy,
Architectural
Design Vol
XLV
(6)
Looks at the growing of an ‘energy crop’ on the bogs of Ireland for burning to
generate electricity. Some 130,000 acres are currently used for the harvesting of
peat and the 11 turf-burning
power stations produce 24 per cent of the country’s
total electricity.
However, the same quantity of electricity
(1,750 million units)
could be generated per annum if the same area were used to grow an energy crop
(which unlike peat would be renewable) at 1 per :zht photoynthesis
efficiency
for burning at 30 per cent thermodynamic
efficiency. At these efficiencies, it is
calculated that 765 square miles (2.8 p?r cent of the land area) could provide
all of the country’s electrical energy requirements, and that 3,125 square miles
(7 1.3 per cent of the land area) could provide all of the country’s primary energy
requirements.
Also has a brief section on experiments with wind power in Eire.
186. Stessels L. and Fridmann M. Use of Solar Energy for the Conservation
Coffeein Humid Regions, CafG, Cacoa, ThG. Vol 16 (2) 1972.
of
Describes work in Madagascar to develop a simple device designed to maintain,
at 1o.d cost, optimum hygrometric conditions in greencoffee warehouses. Gives
results of tests with experimental
installation in 1970, including costs of storage.
187. Tabour H., Solar Energy for Developing Regions. (UNESCO, Working
on Solar Energy, Paris, Jurre 1973). SC-73 Conf. 801/2.
It is possible to perform successfully
but these processes are not normally
Party
a wide range of tasks using solar energy,
viable on economic grounds. Solar energy
73
is free, but its collection and conversion is expensive and capital intensive. This
paper discusses developments in the areas of solar water heaters, solar distillation,
solar cookers, driers and refrigerators, etc., and describes recent developments and
attempts to overcome complexities and high costs. Concludes that a shortage of
capital and psychological factors (preventing acceptance), rather than technology,
are the major stumbling blocks to more widespread use of solar energy in develop.
ing countries. In cases where the capital outlay is not excessive or where alternatives
are either nonexistent
or difficult in a particular locality, solar devices are already
being used.
188.
United Nations, New Sources of Energy: Proceedings of the Rome Conference, 7967. Vols 4, 5 and 6, Solar energy; Vol 7, Wind power. (U.N. New
York, 1963).
Gives numerous examples of the use of solar energy and wind power for various
purposes in several developing countries.
189.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Small Scale
Power Generation: A Study for Pioneer Electrification
Work; An Overall
Review of Methods and Costs of Power Generation, with Particular Emphasis
on SmallScale Generating Plants for Pioneer Electrification
Work in Developing Countries. (U.N., New York, 1967). ST/ECA/94.
Looks at costs of various types of power generation including generating plants
run on gas, steam, water and wind. Part Four looks at the special problems relating to small power plants, while Part Five gives several case studies of small plants
in developing countries. Conciudes that although electricity
generated by means
of small power plants may sometimes be very costly, by comparison with electricity sold in large modern cities, this does not necessarily mean that it should
be ruled out as uneconomic. Although cheapness is desirable and conducive to
rapid growth, it is not the only consideration, and it will often be preferable to have
costly electricity than no electricity at all.
190.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Solar Distillation as a Means of Meeting Water Demands. (U.N., New York, 1970).
E. 70. II. 8.1.
Aims at defining the conditions
under which solar distillation
may provide an
economic solution to the problem of fresh water storage in small communities.
Reviews current status of solar distillation,
and provides a method for potential
users to estimate performance and costs of current still designs in their areas.
B. Water Supplies and Sanitation
191. Aris D., Lowcost Rural Water Systems in Guatemala,
Vol 5 (3) October 1967.
Development
Digest
A case study of how new technoiogies have made it possible to provide water to
all buildings in a rural area at low cost. The technologies involved are a cutoff
74
device that can be fitted into water faucets, thus limiting water use by individual
households; and the use of newly developed plastic pipe which is expected to
result in a saving of 60 per cent in cost over imported galvanized steel pipe.
192. Bureau of Resource Assessment and Land Use Planning, Rural Water Supply
in East Africa. (Ed) Warner D. (BRALUP Research Paper 11. University of
Dar-esSalaam, 1969).
A fairly general collection of papers, the majority of which cover the health and
technical aspects of water supplies. Appropriate technologies include:
Barker P.W., Butyl Rubber Sheeting in Water Conservation
Cotter G.,
constructed
water table
for a 5 feet
193.
and Storage.
The Shinyanga Lift Pump: describes a simple inexpensive hand pump
from locally purchased materials and designed to tap the high ground
in the Western Shinyanga region of Tanzania. The total cost to a village
deep well, wellcover and pump in 1969 was 130 shillings.
Bureau of Resource Assessment and Land Use Planning, Water Supply:
Proceedings of the Conference on Rural Water Supply in East Africa. (Ed)
Tschannerl G. (BRALU?
Research Paper 20. University of Dar-es-Salaam,
April 1971.
Deals with
include:
some of the key issues in water development
in East Africa.
Papers
Bateman G.H., Intermediate Technology agd Rural Water Supplies: Argues against
large irrigation schemes and in favour of developing simple technologies for water
supplies in rain-fed areas. Includes a case study of the mud/polythene,
sausage
~~ method of constructing rainwater catchment tanks. Concludes that although the
cost per unit volume of water is greater for catchment tanks than with other
sources e.g. dams and boreholes, the catchment tanks have the advantage of providing water at just the place it is needed, and their construction
lends itself to
self-help.
Irvin G., Problems of Benefit/Cost Analysis in Planning Rural Water Supply: Looks
at the difficulties
involved in measuring the benefits resulting from investment in
rural water supplies.
Matango R.R . and Maylerle D., The Experience with Rural-Self-Help Water Schemes
in Lushoto District: Examines the costs and benefits of 19 self-help water schemes.
194. Carruthers I.D., The Contribution of Rural Water Investment
East African Journal of Rural Development Vol3 (2) 1970.
to Development,
A case study which looks at the potential health and economic benefits accruing
from rural water improvement.
The method used is to compare one area with
piped chlorinated water with another area, similar in all respects, except for the
provision of piped water. Concludes that if maximum economic gains are sought
then imvestments should be concentrated in areas that have a high degree of development. This is so that any additional labour which becomes available through
75
improved health can be profitably employed. Also finds that although individual
water connections may be thought desirable, this may not be sufficient to ensure
that potential health and ecanomic benefits will be realized. There will also be a
need for general hygiene and environmental
improvements
and better medical
facilities.
195.
Carruthers I.D., Impact and Economics of Community
Water Supply: A
Study of Rural Water Investments in Kenya (Wye College, Agrarian Development Unit, 1973).
Although most developing countries are committed to Iarge rural water investment
programmes, there is a dearth of literature on the impact and economics of such
investment.
This study aims at integrating thevarioustechnical,engineering,agricultural and medical aspects of investment in potable water systems, using an economist’s approach. Points out that the complexities
preclude the use of formal
cost/benefit
analysis, but other concepts and techniques are relevant and necessary if resources are to be judiciously
allocated. Discusses the choice between
individual connections and communal points, and cites several empirical studies
of impact of water schemes, including some examples of selt-heip schemes. Major
conclusions are that:
(1)
(2)
196.
either low-cost, low-impact
communal point systems should be installed
initially,
or high cost, high benefit individual
connection systems, rather
than the present high-cost communal networks.
potential health and economic impact of investment in potable water supply
is substantial, but realized benefits are insignificant.
This is because of a
neglect of complementary facilities such as health and agricultural education,
agricultural credit, and production
and marketing programmes. Argues that
in many instances the potential opportunities
can be exploited at very low
cost, often at only the cost of conveying information.
Frankel RJ., Appropriate
Technology for South-East Asia: Series Filtration
Using Local Filter Media, Paper presented at the OECD, Development Centre
Conference on Low-Cost Technology:
An Inquiry into Outstanding Policy
Issues. OECD. Development Centre, Paris, 1975).
Describes the development of a suitable technology for water filtration and purification, based on the local resources of South-East Asian countries. Gives the
results of tests on various simple fiiter media such as shredded coconut husks,
burned rice husks, gravel, and charcoal. The author ccncludes that such filtering
technologies are both inexpensive and appropriate, representing a feasible alternative to the complex and high cost technologies of the industrialized countries.
197. Garg M-K., Short Studies on the Development of Appropriate
Technology
for Home Living in Rural Communities, Paper presented at OECD, Development Centre Conference on Low-Cost Technology:
An Inquiry into Outstanding Policy Issues. (OECD, Development Centre, Paris, 1975).
Contains
two case studies of appropriate
technology
76
for rural water supply
and
sanitation.
The argument underlying
both is that villagers and farmers should
have at their disposal the same sort of amenities as the urban population:
(1)
Village water supply system: The technology originally developed consisted
of purifying the village water well by automatic chlorination
- a pot full of bleaching powder was hung just below the water surface, and the chlorine was gradually
released by osmosis. The method was uneconomic and too delicate to maintain.
The next step was to use a hand pump (or mechanical pump) fitted on to a fully
covered well mouth; this minimized the risks of pollution. Windmills are currently
contemplated
3s a substitute for the expensive diesel engines, and efforts are
being made to reduce the rather high capital costs of such a supply system.
(2)
Village latrines: The scheme was started in 1957. By 1968, there were
200,000 latrines in the State of Uttar Pradesh alone. The construction
costs for
one family are currently
10 US dollars. The project has included training programmes for masons, sanitary inspectors and village craftsmen, and a great effort
was made to educate the villagers in the elementary principles of sanitation and
hygiene.
198.
International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development/IDA,
Vi//age Water
Supply and Sanitation in Less Developed Countries. (P.U. Report No. RES.
2., March 1974).
This report consists of a review of the current state of knowledge and of the experience of a large number of developing countries in the field of village water
supply. It highlights the factors which are significant in determining the likelihood
of success or failure of village water supply projects or programs, and there is a
discussion of the problem of identifying
and quantifying
the benefits of investment in this field. Has an extensive bibliography.
199.
International
Bank for Reconstruction
Evaluation of Public Utilities Projects.
and Development/IDA,
Economic
P.U. Report No. GAS. lo., 1974).
Reviews the basic factors involved in the economic evaluation of water supply
projects. While pointing out that the net benefits of investment should be maximized, the paper discusses the difficulties
in quantifying
the benefits of public
utility projects. Cites two studies made by the Bank In Nairobi and Kuala Lumpur
which aimed at estimating the benefits of water supply and sewerage projects
by determining the impact of such investments on property values in the areas
concerned. Similarly a survey of attempts to quantify the impact of improved
water supplies on public health showed that statistically significant results were
exceptionally
difficult to obtain (despite large sample surveys) and were of little use
in quantifying
benefits. Problems arise not only in Quantifying
the economic
and social benefits of an Improvement
in health, but also in disentangling the
influence of improved sanitation facilities on health from all the many other
influences such as nutrition, climate, and household income and assets.
77
200.
International
Development
Research Council, Technology Assessment and
Research Priorities for Water Supply and Sanirarion in Developing Counrries: With special reference to rural popula:ions
and small communities.
RDRC, Ottawa, Nov. 1973).
Emphasizes the development
of low-cost technology
with lower requirements
for operation and maintenance than ‘western’ technology.
It strongly calls into
play local community
or user-participation
in project design and selection, in
construction and in operation and maintenance. Recognizes the need for a flexible
approach in rural communities which would involve finding out local perceptions,
preferences and value systems; providing education on health consequences of
improvements; and offering technical assistance to help in a series of incremental
improvements to meet the aims of the users. Pages 125 to 128 discuss the difficulties of measuring the benefits accruing from improved water supplies and
sanitation.
Lists ten criteria for the development and selection oi appropriate
technologies, and provides an evaluation of existing and needed technologies in
terms of these suggested criteria.
201.
Lee T.R., Residential Water Demand and Eonomic
of Toronto, Department of Geography, 1974).
Development
(University
Includes 13 case studies on water supply and public health in Calcutta. Emphasis
is on the two extremes of the existing demand situation: (1) consumers in slums
who are dependent on public water; and (2) consumers in good housing who have
their own plumbing fixtures. Concludes that emphasis should be placed on meeting
the existing unfilled demand. (i.e. on supplying the unserved population)
rather
than attempting to raise the level of supply to the whole population. Suggests that
there will be a very strong possibility of overinvestment
in water su,pply unless
demand for water is given more importance in planning than in the past. A lower
level of provision of water supply to all households will be more likely to lead to
a higher level of total welfare than a high level of provision to a restricted section of
the community.
202.
Okun D.A., Planning
1973.
for Water Reuse Development
Digest Vol XI (3) July
Rapidly growing populations and increasing rates of urbanization and industrialization throughout the world are exerting greater pressures on limited water resources.
This article suggests the development of a dual water system, that permits safe
water reuse, as one method of coping with these demands. Pure water resources
would be used for cooking, drinking, etc., while other water uses could be served
from reclaimed waste-waters, polluted streams, or other waters of lesser quality.
Gives examples of actual or planned reuse of waste water, and discusses the costs
and benefits.
203.
Okun D.A. and McJunkin F.E., Common Sense in Community
Development Digest Vol 5 (3) October 1967.
Points out that elaborate
automatic
equipment
78
often
makes little
Water Supply
sense in coun-
tries where equally good results can be had through imaginative engineering and
greater use of available labour. Gives examples of failures and problems of sophisticated water treatment plants, and cites several cases of more appropriate ways of
dealing with water supplies and wator disposal in developing countries. These
include constant-flow valves in Zambia, water supply using bamboo pipes in lndonesia, a proportional
chemical feeder using a paddle-wheel for dosing control in
Swaziland, and large but simple alum-cake solution feeders in Santiago.
294.
Parker R.N., ‘The Introduction
of Catchment Systems fca, Rural Water Supplies - A Benefit/Cost Study in a S.E. Ghana Village’, Agriculrure
in S.E.
Ghana (Ed) Dalton G.E. and Parker R.N. (Vol II. Development Study No. 13.
Department
of Agricultural
Economics
and Management, University
of
Reading, June 1973).
A case study of a typical S.E. Ghanaian village, located half a mile from a
stream which serves as its main source of water. Suggests a range of water catchment systems suitable for both the individual householder and the community
:i: a whole. All are based on the use of locally available materials, e.g. corrugated
tin roofs for catchment areas, and concrete tanks for storage. Calculations are
made of the time that is saved with such systems by the women who fetch the
water, and is linked with the value of their time to produce benefit/cost ratios.
These ratios can be used to compare investment in water catchment with that in
other projects.
Concludes that small improvements to the individual household’s water supply
are highly ben&ficial, giving a benefit/cost
ratio of up to 3.0 when 100 per cent
of the time saved in collecting water is used for directly productive work, or up to
1.7 when 57 per cent of saved time is utilized. Constructing a commtlnity water
supply which provides a regular amount of water throughout
the year gives a
benefit/cost
ratio of between 1.3 and 2.3 (depending on the use to which time
saved is put). However, if the systems do not attempt to provide a regular source
of water, but seek to meet the community’s
needs for a short period only (usually
during the peak demand for labour in cultivation),
then the benefit/cost
ratio
rises significantly.
For example, if 10 per cent of the water needs of the village
are supplied by a catchment area such as a school roof, the benefit/cost
ratio
varies from 6.8 to 12.0.
205.
Smith G.. Economics of Water Collection and Waste Recycljng (University
of Cambridge, Department of Architecture,
Autonomous
Housing Study,
Working Paper No. 6.. July 1973).
A report on the economics of waste treatment and water supply for domestic
premises not connected to mains servicing. Waste treatment by aerobic and anaerobic biological stabilization
is discussed, along with water supply from rainwater
collection with some recycling. Concludes that the costs of such servicing is roughly
twice as much as that of mains-servicing at low density. However, further research
is proceeding to devise a more economical system. Includes an appendix on anaerobic digestion with methane production from primary vegetable wastes.
79
206.
Stern P.H., Low Cost Development
of Water Resources Paper presented
at the iiniversity
of Edinburgh Appropriate
Technology Conference, September, 1973.
Covers the use of polythene for the construction of low-cost small-scale rainwater
catchments, and the role of bamboo and plastics in reducing the cost of piping
water. Gives comparative costs of using metal and plastic pipes in dollars per
linear foot in 1967:
Use and size
Copper
Galvanized Steel
Polyrhene
PVC
Interior
1/z ,,
,,
1
2”
0.26
0.62
I.72
0.18
0.33
0.72
0.05
0.15
0.60
0.11
0.17
0.45
1.23
2.55
1.08
2.16
0.69
0.65
1.60
supply
Drain, waste, vent
2%”
4”
207. White G-F., Bradley D.J., and White A.U., Drawers of Water: Domestic
Use iI East Africa (Chicago, 1972).
Water
Water supply improvements in the developing world have not kept up with population growth, especially in urban areas. To achieve maximum benefit from the
expenditures made to remedy this gap, water projects must be based on greater
knowledge of how water is used in the community, and how water improvements
affact economic growth and community
development and health. The conclusion
drawn from this case study in East Africa is that, with both supply and disposal of
water, once a minimum service is provided, the unit gain to health from units of
improvement probably decreases sharply. Preliminary evidence suggests that slow
development of ideal ‘Western type’ water systems should be set aside in favour of
more rapid delivery of smaller quantities of potable water to every household.
C. Health
298.
Abel-Smith B.. Health Priorities in Developing Countries: The Economist’s
Contribution,
International
Journal of Health Services Vol 2 (1) 1972.
Argues that the greatest contribution
which the economist can make to health
planning is not in the development of models, but in costeffectiveness
studies.
The value of such studies is illustrated by an example -the study of the expansion
of medical education in developing countrres, wnich could contribute
substantially less to health than if the resources were used in alternative ways.
299
Abel-Smith B., Cost-effectiveness
Chronicle Vol27,1973.
Explains how economic principles
and Cost-Benefit
in Cholera Control
can be applied to the calculation
80
WHO
of the total cost
of a disease such as cholera. A cost/benefit analysis comparing the benefits of a
treatment-only
approach with the benefits of a treatment plus vaccination, or a
treatment plus sanitation approach, could lead to a greater rationalization
of investment in the health sector.
210.
Biddulph
J., Report on a Brief Visit to the People’s Republic
of China., 1973.
Reports on medical achievements in China, and the Chinese medical system in
urban and rural areas. Comments that the Chinese spend one tenth as much per
capita on health as the Government of Papua New Guinea, and yet achieve more.
Acknowiedges
that socioeconomic,
political,
and cultural factors are involved.
However, some aspects of the Chinese system are probably fairly easily adaptable
for use in other developing countries.
211. Cohn E.J.; Assessing the Costs and Renefits of Anti-Malaria Progratnmesr
lndian Experience American Journal of Public Health, March 1973.
The
Compares the costs and benefits of controlling
versus eradicating malaria. Evaluations made using different discount rates gave the following results:
Present Value (1957/8) of Control Programme versus
Eradication Programme over a 30 year period. (Crores Rs.)
Discount
rate 1%)
6
8
10
12
14
Control
Eradication
83.5
68.5
57.2
49.0
42.5
65.4
61.3
57.4
54.2
50.8
Shows that up to a discount rate of 10 per cent, control of malaria is the preferred
technique. Eradication would be preferred at higher discount rates.
212.
Derozynski
A., Doctors and Healers (Ottawa,
Research Council, 1975). IDRC - 043e.
International
Development
Developing countries. in their desire to ‘catch up’ with richer ones. have emulated
the models of modern medicine. This booklet asks whether governments can
afford this approach, and, even if they c&Id, would this be the most effective and
least disruptive way of providing health care? It argues for inirovative approaches
to assure that adequate basic health services are easily available to everyone, at a
price that everyone can afford. A few of the new approaches being initiated are
described. The major case studies are of (1) barefoot doctors in China; (2) layhealers in Guatemala; and (31 medictil auxiliaries in Iran. Also quotes studies which
reveal that, after a few weeks of training, healers can make a proper diagnosis, and
prescribe appropriate treatment in at least 70 per cent of all cases.
81
213.
Elliot K., UsingMedicalAuxiliaries:Some
Ideas and Examples Contact
tian Medical Commission, World Council of Churches, October 1972.)
(Chris-
Gives examples of existing schemes for training and using medical auxiliaries in
the U.S.A., the U.K., and the U.S.S.R., Fiji, Africa, and the People’s Republic of
China. Includes some cost comparisons. For example, in Kenya it cost f 1,000 to
train an auxiliary, as opposed to f10.000 for a medical graduate. In Uganda, 3
years of training for an assistant cost f500, as opposed to f 10,000 for a graduate.
214.
Gisb 0.. The Way Forward, World Health April
1975.
Examines health strategies in Tanzania. Hospital expansion is no longer a priority,
with emphasis king given instead to the provision of basic health services to all
citizens through rural health centres. Estimates that the capital cost of a small
dispensary is 7,000 dollars, with an annual operating cost of 4,000 dollars. A
rural health centre would have capital costs amounting to 75,000 dollars, with
annual operating costs of 25,000 dollars. These estimates compare very favourably
with the cost of providing hospital beds; the per bed capital costs of a new hospital
range from 4,000 to 25,000 dollars, while the annual operating costs per bed
range from 1,000 to 4,000 dollars. It is hoped to provide one dispensary for every
6,500 people by 1980, and to provide one rural health centre for every 50,000
peoplr?. As the following table shows, the change in emphasis from hospitals to
health centres has been matched by a change in emphasis from graduate doctors
to medical assistants or auxiliaries:
Assistant Medical
Rural Medical
Graduate
Medical
officers
aides
doctors
assistants
1961 (number)
1980 (planned)
215.
403
800
22
300
200
1,200
380
2,800
Mosfey W-H., Bert KJ., and Sommer A., An Epidemiological
Assessment
of Cholera Control Programs in Rural East Pakistan, International
Journal
of Epidemiology 1972.
Compares immunization
programs with the establishment
of treatment centres
for dealing with cases of cholera (i.e. precare versus post-care). Finds little difference in the costs of the two techniques, but the treatment centres are almost
100 per cent effective, while the immunization
programme has very low efficiency
and is of very little practical public health value. Concludes that ultimate control
and eradication will come only when a satisfactory vaccine has been developed,
or when modern concepts and methods of sanitation can be universally applied in
rural areas.
216.
National Academy of Sciences, Mosquito
Developing Countries (N.A.S.. Washington,
Control:
1973).
Some Perspectives
Examines some biological-control
alternatives to conventional
evaluates the potential of these various approaches.
82
pesticides,
for
and
217.
Rifkin S., and Kapiinsky R., Health Strategy and Development Planning.
Lessons fmm the People’s Republic of China. (Sussex, Science Policy Research Unit, mimeo, 1974).
Includes a discussion on how to evaluate health and medical care services in developing countries. Evaluates the Chinese health system within the framework of a
cost/be,lefit
analysis. Points out the difficulty
in identifying all the costs and benefits of health services, but reaches the general conclusion that health policies in
China are appropriate to the country’s factor proportions and health needs. Considers that although it would appear a priori that the Chinese system could profitably be transferred to other developing countries, a number of factors must be
considered in this transfer. In particular, health policies should first be integrated
into overall development plans. Specific aspects of the Chinese policy might then be
considered e.g. great stress on prevention, use of health teams and auxiliaries, and
dec~ntr+ir;ltinn
of qrvicec~ rlc&rl hihliography.
218.
Speight A.N.P. Costeffectiveness
1975.
and Drug Therapy, Tropical
Doctor April
Explains that expensive drugs are often prescribed in developing countries when a
much cheaper and equally affective alternative is available. This is thought to be
due to such factors as tne influence of advertising, bias towards expensive drugs in
teaching hospitals, etc. Suggests that it is desirable for developing countries to
develop their .own pharmaceut:cal industries for the production of ‘low-cost’ drugs.
Such an industry would serve the country’s needs, generate employment, and save
foreign exchange currently used on the importation
of ‘inappropriate’
expensive
drugs.
219.
Wheeler M., The Economics of the Medical .?\uxiliary, Paper presented at the
University of East Africa Social Science Council Conference. (Makere, Kampala, Dec. 1969).
Examines the economic case for the employmen: of medical auxiliaries in developing-countries,
in preference to persons with professional qualificatiorrs. Claims that
the decision is whether to bias investment in favour of auxiliaries, or in favour of
professionals. That is, both are needed, but in Nhat ratio? Claims that it is impossible to evaluate economic benefits, but shows how a comparison of costs can be
made using discounting procedures. Using figures from Kenya, shows that, dependmg on the discount rate used, 1.97 to 2.88 auxfliaries could have been employed for every professional forgone.
Administrators
must then decide whether Lenefits from a professional are at
least twice as great as those from an auxihary. If not, then additional investment
should be in auxiliaries. Concludes that had such a method as this been applied to
the appraisal of medical manpower decisions over the last few years, very different decisions would have emerged.
83
220. World
Health
June
1972
(W.H.C.1
Special issue on medical
auxiliaries.
Case studies of medical assistants in Ethiopia, medical auxiliaries
in Algeria
and Central African Republic, ‘feldshers’ in the USSR, and physician assistants
in the USA.
D. Roads and Transport Technorogy
221.
Bourke W.O., Basic Vehicle for South East Asia, Technology
in Economic Development (USAID, May 1972).
and Economics
Describes the development of an intermediate
vehicle - the Fiera - by Ford.
The vehicle is more efficient than the traditional
animal or human-powered
vehicles, and less expensive than imported vehicles (thus reaching a much larger
proportion
of the population of South East Asia). it consists of a simple cab and
chassis, but variations are possible so that it can be used as a truck, a passenger
bus, or a van, and it can be used to drive a rice-husking machine, power a water
pump or a saw. Construction
is labour-intensive
and use is made of locally availab!e materials, !abour and skills.
222.
Cabanos P., Jeepney Manufacturing
eloping the Agricultural
Machinery
in Asia, Autumn 1971.
in the Philippines:
A Model for DevIndustry,
Agricultural
Mechanization
Describes how the ‘jeepney’ industry started in the Philippines after World War
Ii, based on a preponderance of cheap surplus material and a great need for public
conveyance. The jeepney is a low cost, simple vehicle based on a reconditioned
engine (in 1971, a jeepney capable of carrying 12 persons cost 1,600 dollars).
As soon as the concept was developed, small shops producing crude versions crop.
ped up almost overnight, and the industry has flourished to such an extent that
annual saies in i97i
had reached 17 million dollars. Gives details of two large
companies which stsrted from scratch in the 1950’s using simple tools.
223.. Howe J.. Surface Transport in Africa
Society ot Arts, August 1975.
-
the Future,
Journal
of the Royal
Argues for a move towards low-standard high-density
road networks, Suggests
that this might favour the greater use of iabour-intensive methods of construction.
A greater emphasis on local roads ought to be accompanied by a re-assessment of
local vehicle needs. in this respect, the author looks at various appropriate adaptations of bicycles and motorcycles.
224.
international
Bank for Reconstruction
Substitution
of Labour for Equipment
ober, 19711.
Looks
labour
for the
!abour
and Development/IDA.
in Road Construction
Study of the
(mimeo, Oct-
at the increase in economic costs required to employ successively more
in road construction
to the point of displacing virtually
all equipmen:
sake of job creation. Concludes that it is technically feasible to substitute
for equipment in ail but 10 to 20 per cent of total construction
co,&.
84
and for ail but 2 to
However, economic
on the productivity
iabour, Concludes
and iabour-intensive
gated.
225.
15 per cent of costs if an ‘intermediate’
quality is acceptable.
feasibility of using more labour-intensive
methods will depend
of iabour and machines, and on the prevailing wage rate for
that intermediate
technologies
combining
capital-intensive
methods appear promising and should be further investi-
International
Labour Office, Employment,
Incomes and Equality: A strateay
for increasing productive employment in Kenya. (ILO, Geneva. 19721. Technical Paper No. 8: Employment and Technical Choice in Road Construction.
A case study which shows the dangers of persisting in ‘extremes’ in
A straightforward
comparison between a iabour-intensive
method
gravel road, and a capital-intensive
method, showed that the latter
cheaper, eve? if - shadow wage rate was used. However. when
methods was increased to five, by considering various combinations
two ‘extremes’, the more labour-intensive
of the ‘mixed’ methods
be the cheapest.
226.
road building.
of building a
would be the
the choice of
of the original
was found to
Irvin 0.. Roads and Redistribution:
Social Costs and Benefits
Intensive Road Construction in Iran ((LO, Geneva, 1975).
of Labour
investigates to what extent the substitution of more labour for some of the machinery used in road building in Iran would-be justified in socia! terms. Analysis is
based on detailed case studies of one highway, two feeder roads, and two rural
roads. Concludes that although the adoption of more labour-intensive
techniques
is uneconomic from the point of view of the private entrepreneur, these techniques
would be socially feasible for each of the roads examined. Whether or not it is
socially desirable depends on the priorities the Government attaches to maintaining
a high rate of ftiture income, as against reducing present inequalities, particularly
as between the urban and rural sectors. The payment of a subsidy to contractors
wrlling to employ more iabour is suggested as the most practical and direct means
of altering the capital/iabour ratio.
227.
Lai D.. Men or Machines:
stitution
A Philippine Case Study of Labour/Capital
in Road Construction. (I LO. Geneva, forthcoming).
Sub-
Compares iabour-intensive
methods with capital-intensive
methods for the construction of gravel-surfaced roads, and concrete-paved roads. Findings are summarized-in the table:
Grawl-road
Concrete&b
Labour
Capital
Labour
Capital
intensive
intensive
intensive
Intensive
(pesos per Km).
(pesos per 1000m3)
Market prices
123,700
136,600
2,153
2,137
Shadow prices:
High shadow wage/low rentai rate
Low shadow wage/high rental rate
100,700
87,500
112,000
144,300
1 725
1,709
1,504
1,737
85
For gravel roads, the labour-intensive
method compbres very favourably at both
market and shadow prices. With concrete slabs, however, the labour-intensive
method is preferable only when a low shadow wage and a high shadow rate for
renting eguipment are assumed. It is estimated that if the labour-intensive methods
are used throughout,
70 to 100 per cent more jobs would be created than if the
capital-intensive methods were used:
223.
Muller J., Labour-Intensive
Methods in Low-Cost Road Construction:
Case Study, International Labour Review Vol 101 (1) Jan/June 1970.
A
Case study of a project in sub-tropical 4frica which started out as a highly mechanized project but had to resort to increasingly labour-intensive
methods. The
higher indirect operational costs of the capital-intensive
method, and the associated
economic cost of delays in opening the road narrowed its cost advantage over the
most labour-intensive method. The author suggests that if shadow prices were used
and the socia! benefits of emp!oyment considered, the labour-intensive
method
would have been best. A mixed strategy is advocated, using more mechanized
techniques for certain processes.
See also Muller J., Choice of Technology in Underdeveloped Countries, Exemplified by Road Construction in East Africa. (The Technical University of Denmark,
1973).
229.
Schlie T-W., Appropriate
Technology:
Some concepts, some ideas, and
some recent experiences in Africa, East African Journal of Rural Development. Vol. 7 (l&2) 1974.
Cites the building of the Tan-Zam Railway as an important
example of techno!ogical choica. This particula: ai d project was turned down by USA!D, OBRD,
UK, etc. on economic grounds, while the Chinese, presumably using different
evaluation techniques, found the project to be viable. The railway has been built
using highly labour-intensive
methods: it is estimated that 80,000 Chinese and
80,000 Tanzanian labourers have been employed in the project. The author asks
how the Americans would have built the railway.
230.
SET Institute,
1964).
Appropriate
Technology
for indian
Industry.
(Hyderabad,
Includes a case study comparing a hand-operated and a power-driven technique
for manufacturing
a cycle gearcase. At a level of production
of 3,000 cases per
month, the hand method was found to be cheaper, and generated a larger surplus:
Hand+perated
Capital equipment (Rs)
Total employees
Cost per unit (Rs)
35,200
27
5.66
86
Po werdriven
80,000
18
5.77
231.
United Nations Industrial
Study of Indian Experience
New York, 1969).
Development
Organization,
Bicycles: A Case
(Small-scale fvlanufacturing Studies. No. 1. U.N.,
Compares production data for firms in the small-scale and in the large-scale sectors
in 1966, and gives detailed figures of production costs for plants producing 25,000
and 15,000 bicycles per annum. Concludes that because of recent technological
innovations
and lower overheads, certain components can be produced more
cheaply by the small-scale sector.
87
Section 5
Handbooks,
Manuals, Buyers’ Guides and
Technical Publications
232.
Alley R., Travels in China 1966-1971. (New World Press, Peking, 1973). Gives
details of ferrocement boat construction, a simple mechanized rice transplanter, an electric winch for cable cultivation,
simple well-sinking techniques,
bridge building and irrigation works.
233.
American Peace Corps., Wells Manual for Volunteers (APC., Upper Volta,
1970). Provides information on a wide range of we!l construction techniques
used in Africa.
234.
American Peace Corps., Poultry Booklet (APC.. New Delh,i. 1970). A simple
guide, based on experience in Indie, for individuals in developing countries
interested in a commercial poultry enterprise.
235. Appropriate
Technology. Quarterly journal, Intermediate Technology Publications, London. A forum for the exchange of ideas among those directly
involved in development work. Useful technica! articles inc!ude:
(a) Agricultural
Equipment: foot-powered thresher Vol 2(2); slmple manual
maize shelling device Vol 2(l); new agricultural machines from the International Rice Research Institute Vol 2(l); tie-ridgers in Zambia Vol l(3);
pit silos in South Chad Vol l(3).
(b) Water Supplies: Pitcher farming Vol l(3); Nepalese Water Mill Vol l(3);
Water pipes from bamboo Vol l(2); the Humphrey Pump Vol 2(l).
(c) Low cost housing and building materials: Low cost housing in Ghana Vol
l(l), in Kerala Vol l(l), in India Vol l(3). and in the Pacific Islands
Vol l(2): Indigenous building methods Vol 2(2); wood preservation in
developing countries Vol 2(2); brick manufacture Vol 2(l); lime and
surkhi manufacture Vol l(4).
(d) Energy: Methane Vol l(1) and Vol 212); solar water heaters Vol l(3);
solar steam cookers Vol l(2).
(e) Roads and Transport: Low cost roads Vol l(2); wheelbarrows Vol 2(2);
cycle rickshaws Vol l(2); medium-span wooden bridge in Kenya Vol l(4).
(f) Misc$/aneous:
Low-cost refrigerated incubator Vol l(1); intermediate
food technology Vol l(1); village aluminium
project Vol l(1); ferrocement boatbuilding Vol 2(l); a cheap incinerator Vol 2(l).
a8
236.
Bell C. et al.,
Describes the
thane, current
meeting future
Methane: fuel of the future. (Prism Press, Dorchester, 1975).
process of methane generation; looks at current uses of meresearch and developments: and the potential of methane in
energy needs.
237.
Bharadwaj R.8. et al., Manual for Fish Culture in Rajasthan and Madhya
Pradesh. (APC., New Delhi, 1973). Prepared for the private farmer interested
in raising fish, and for panchayats who wish to utilize their village ponds more
profitably. Covers stocking, breeding, fish diseases, equipment, harvesting and
transport.
238.
Cecoco. Guide book for Rural Cottage and Small and Medium Scale Industries: Paddy Rice Cultivation.
ICecoco, Japan, 1972). A comprehensive guide
published by the Cecoco company covering a wide range of their small-scale
macmnery for manuiacturmg and agrrcuiturai production.
239.
Dancy H-K., Manual on Building Construction.
(Intermediate
Technology
Publications,
London,
1973). A practical illustrated
hand&ok
on construction of small buildings using local materials, suitable for a great variety
of ground and climat% conditions.
240.
Department
of Housing and Urban Development, Office of International
Affairs, Washington, Handbook for Building Homes of Earth, 1975. Takes the
newest techniques developed in modern soil mechanics and puts them into
simple terms so that almost anyone, anywhere, can have the benefit of the
great amount of work that has been done by the scientists.
241.
Food and Agriculture
Organization,
Equipment Related to the Domestic
Functions of Food Preparation, Handling and Storage. (FAO, Rome, 1974).
A kit of information and instructional aids for rural development programmes,
prepared for the use of educators and extensionists in rural development.
242.
Food and Agriculture
Organization, Equipment and Methods for improved
Smoke-drying of Fish (FAO, Rome, 19711. Fisheries Technical Paper hJo.194.
243.
Forest Products Research Centre, Manual of Rural Wood Preservation (Department of Forests, Papua New Guinea, 1974). Describes methods of making
traditional building materials such as bamboo, timber and poles more durable.
244.
Fry L.J. and Marill R., Methane D&esters: For Fuel gas and Fertilirer.
(L.J.
Fry, California,
1973). A valuable treatment of methane systems and research. Includes designs for a small and an intermediate scale system.
245.
Fry L.J., Practical Building
1974).
of Methane Power Plants. (D.A. Knox, Andover,
89
246.
Intermediate Technology
Development
Group, The Inrroducrion
of Rainwater Catchment
Tanks and Micro-Irrigation
in Botswana. (Intermediate
Technology Publications, London, 1969). Report of a field project.
247.
ITDG, Chemicals from Biological
Resources. (Intermediate
Technology
Publications,
London; 1973). A survey of chemicals obtainable by simple
processes from renewable natural resources. Now out of print but revised
edition forthcoming.
24%. ITDG. Guide to Hand-operated and Animal-dramwn Equipment. Intermediate
Technology Publications,
London, 1973). Gives aetails and lists of manufacturers on a wide range of low-cost farming and food processing implements in UK and abroad. Revised and expanded edition forthcoming.
249.
ITDG, Ho*w to make a Me:a/-Eegding
Publications, London, 1973).
250.
ITDG. Methane Production
of Anaerobic
Fermentation.
(Intermediate
1975). Proceedings of a recent ITDG
Technology
Publications,
London,
seminar on methane.
251.
ITDG, Oil Drum Forges. (Intermediate
Technology Publications,
London,
‘f975). Specifications
for making a simple forge from an oil drum with
fa) foot-operated bellows pump; and (b) hand-operated fan.
252.
ITDG, The Iron Foundry - An Ir,.iustrial Profile. (Intermediate Technology
Pub!ications, London, i975;. -L
I ne first of a series designed to provide information
on production
equipment
and castings for different areas of
industrial technology. Also included are fuels, labour requirements, and a
bibliography useful to anyone starting small-scale foundry work.
253.
Krusch P., Poultry Handbook for Africa. (APC., Sierra Leone, 1970). Covers
housing, feeding and watering of chickens; brooding, growing and laying
periods; and handling and marketing of eggs.
254.
Lock C., Some Notes and Suggestions on Hand-Milling
and Making HandMills. (ITDG, mimeo, undated). Written for people interested in the,pioblems
of hand-milling grain. Outlines the problems, provides information on equipment available for milling, and illustrates hand-mills which, with some modifications, could be manufactured in villages.
255.
MacKilbp
A., Why Soft Technology? Alternative Solutions to the Energy
Crisis. (Methuen, London, 1975). Discusses the philosophy of soft technology
and examines the potential of windpower, solar energy, methane and smallscale hydropower for meeting future energy needs for agriculture industry,
domestic heating, lighting and cooking, and transport. Useful references to
research organizations working on soft technology. Short bibliography.
90
Machine.
(Intermediate
Techno!ogy
266. Maddocko D., Report on Low-Cost Waterproof Membranes. (Intermediate
Technology Publications, London, 1975). Presents the basic methods of construction of membrenes to ba used to line rainwater catchment areas or water
storages. Includes sample costing and a bibliography.
267.
Mann H.T. and Williamson D., Wafer Treafmentand Saniration (Intermediate
Technology
Publications,
London. Revised edition 1976). A handbook of
simple methods for rural areas in developing countries.
256.
Minimum Cost Housing Group, Sfop the Five Gallon Flush (McGill University, School of Architecture,
1973). A comprehensive survey of alternative
waste disposal systems. Concerned mainiy with low-cost technologies and systems which are self-contained and use little or no water.
266.
Pcwtola Institute, Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind and Rio-fuels. (Portola
Institute, 1974). A comprehensive technical book about renewable forms of
energy. Each section includes a detailed series of book and publication reviews as a guide to further reading, and there is a comprehensive listing of
organizations and manufacturers offering appropriate equipment and services.
266.
Ressler E., Considerations for the Use of Wind Power for Borehole Pumping
(Appropriate
Technology Unit, Ethiopia, Christian Relief and Development
Association,
Repor.t No. l., 1975). Attempts to outline broad conditions
useful for those interested in using wind power for borehole pumping. Includes a brief introduction
to windmill design; wind requirements and wind
data collection; site selection; and a brief description of some structural
components.
261.
Fiagars J.F. et. al., An Ihustrafed Guide to Fish Preparation. (Tropical Products Institute Report No. G.83.. 1975). A guide covering equipment, hygiene
and methods of preparing various types of fish. Intended primarily for
.iraining purposes in developing countries.
262.
Sherman MM., 6,000 Hand-Crafted Sailing Windmills of Lassithiou, Greece,
and their Relevance to Windmill Development in Rural India. Paper presented
at the International
Conference on Appropriate
Technologies for Semiarid
Areas: Wind and Solar Energy for Water Supply, (Berlin, September, 1975).
Ascertains the reasons for the widespread use of windmills in Crete, and determines if any of the details of their design could be incorporated in the
design of water pumping windmills currently being developed for widespread
use in rural India.
263.
Sherman M.M., An Interim Report: The Design and Construction
of an
Appropriate
Water Pumping Windmill for Agriculture in India. Paper presanted at the International
Conference on Appropriate Technologies for Semiarid Areas: Wind and Solar Energy for Water Supply, (Berlin, September,
91
1975). Looks at the development of windmills to pump water as an alternative to diesel oil pumps and bullock operared pumps.
264.
United Nations, Department of Social and Economic Affairs, Manual on Se%
He/p Housing. (U.N., New York, 1964). Intended for the use of government
services and private agencies that are considering low-cost, self-help housing
programs. It states in technical and administrative
terms the principles and
techniques that have been evolved from an evaluation of many projects
throughout the world.
265.
Volunteers
In Technical Assistance. Inc.. Vi//age Technology
Handbook.
(VITA, New York, 1970). Contains a variety of low-cost technological
innovations collected from rural volunteers to be useful to future volunteers.
266.
Watt S.0.. A Manual on the Automatic Hydrauiic Ram Pump. (Intermediate
Technology Publications, London, 1975). Contains details of how to make
and maintain a small hydraulic ram on a suitable site.
267.
War/d Crops Vol 20(2) April 1968: Supplement ‘Equipment andservices for
tropical agriculture’. A guide to equipment designed specifically for use in
tropical or sub-tropical farming.
266.
Wodd Crops Vol
storage equipment’.
hot climates.
27(5) 1975. ‘Tropical crop processing and drying and
A guide to machines, driers and silos available for use in
,92
6
Section
Some Relevant Bibliographies
269.
Akhtar S., Health Care in the People’s Republic of China: A bibliography
with abstracts. (International
Development Research Council, Ottawa, 1975).
IDRC - 038e.
270.
Akhtar S.. Low-cost ruralhealth
Ottawa, 1975). IDRC - 042e.
271.
Baranson J. Technology for Underdeveloped
raphy. (Pergamon Press, 1967).
272.
Bateman GH., A Bibliography of Low-Codt Water Technologies.
Technology Publications, London, 1974). 3rd edition.
273.
Bell C. and Amarshi A., Agricultural
Mechanization
Annotated Bibliography. (ODA/IDS, London, 1973).
274.
Brace Reraarch Institute,Annua/
Report 1974, pp 34-39. List of Publications.
(Brace Research Institute, MacGill University, 1974).
275.
Brode J., The Process of Modernization:
Socioculturai
Aspects of Development.
276.
Dean G.C.. Technologiwl
1972).
277.
Dejane T. and Smith S.E., Experiences in Rural Development:
A selected
annotated bibliography of planning, implementing and evaluating rural development in Africa. (American Council on Education, Washington, 1973).
OLC Paper No. 1.
278.
Dendy D.A.V., Composite Flour Technology:
Products Institute Report No. G.89, 1975).
279.
Elliott K., The Training of Auxiliaries in Health Care: An Annotated
raphy. (Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1975).
280.
Harper P, Directory of Alternative
Architectural
Design - Vol XLIV
XLV (5) 1975.
care and health manpower
Innovation
training.
Areas: An Annotated
(IDRC,
Bibliog-
(Intermediate
in Asia and Africa:
An
An Annotated Bibliography on the
(Harvard University Press, 1969).
in Chinese Industry.
(Mansell, London,
A bibliography.
(Tropical
Bibliog-
Technology. Published in three parts in
(11) 1974; Vol XLV (4) 1975; and Vol
93
261.
Ganiara N., Transfer of Technology and Appropriate
raphy (OECD. Development Centre, Paris, 1973).
Techniques:
282.
Ganiara N, The Process of Industrialization
of China: Primary Elements of
an Analytiwi
Bibliography.
(OECD. Development
Centre, Paris, 1974).
283.
International
Development Research Council.,
73. (IDRC, Ottawa, 1974). IDRC - 030e.
284.
Jackson S., Economically
Appropriate
Technologies for Developing Countries: A Survey. (Overseas Development Council, Occasional Paper No.3..
Washington, 1972).
285.
Jenkins G, Non-Agricultural
raphy of Empirical Studies
1975).
286.
Manning D., Disaster Technology:
Press, 1974).
267.
Massey Ferguson (Toronto)
Ltd., The Paw and Form of Farm Mechanization in the Developing Countries. (Massey Ferguson, 1974).
286.
Schofield S., Village Nutrition Studies: An Annotated Bibliography.
of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 1975).
289.
Slate F., Low-cost Housing for Developing Countries:
raphy 1950-7972. (Cornell University, 1974).
296.
Tropicel Products Institute,
291.
White A.U. and Saviour C.. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Less Developed Countries: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.
(IDRC, Ottawa, 1974).
List of Publications
A Bibliog-
for 1970-
Choice of Technique: An Annotated Bibliog
(Institute
of Commonwealth
Studies, Oxford,
An Annotated
Publications
94
Bibliography.
An Annotated
(Pergamon
(Institute
Bibliog.
List. 1975.
Section
* Further
7
Reading
292.
Bhalla A.S. ted). Towards Global Action for Appropriate
Technology.
(Oxford, Pergamon, 1979). 220~~.
This is a collection of papers prepared by a well known group of experts on
appropriate technology for discussion at a meeting convened by the Netherlands Government and IL0 in December 1977. It is not a book for the newcomer to the subject, but for those who are already well versed in it and are
interested more in the practical issue of the implementation
of appropriate
technologies rather than the promotion of the concept.
The paper by Jequier is particularly
refreshing and otfers some new
insights into the theoretical and political concepts of the subject. He argues
that most of the criteria of a technology’s
appropriateness
has been
economic and, while these are important,
there are a number of social,
cultural and technical factors which deserve at least equal attention. His main
point is that if more attention is paid to these relatively neglected criteria
there may be a better chance of designing technologies which are in effect
more appropriate than those whose main justifications are economic. Backed
up by specific examples, he gives an interestingly different slant to criteria
such as the image of modernity and the evolutionary capacity of technology.
The other papers look at appropriate technology within the context of a
basic needs strategy; the structure, operation and problems of national and
regional technology groups and instituti,ns;
the ongoing activities on UN
organisations engaged in appropriate technology; and the issue of international
mechanisms for the promotion of appropriate technology.
293.
Carr, M.N. Appropriate
Technology for African Women (Addis Ababa, ERA,
1978).
This book is divided into 3 chapters. The first looks briefly at the reasoning
behind the relevance and application of appropriate technology in countries
in Africa. The second looks at the role of African women in the development
effort and attempts to show how important it is that improved technologies
reach them as well as the men. The third describes some of the village level
technologies which are currently available to help African women, and lcoks
at the work being done by various organisations in Africa in approaching
development
through appropriate
technologies
and their application
to
womens work.
l N. 8.
Items in this section have not been included
95
in the indices.
294.
Dauber FL & Cain M. feds). Women and Technological Change in Developing
Countries (Westview Press, Boulder, 1980).
A fascinating collection of 16 papers looking at approaches to the study of
women and technology,
case studies on the impact of technology
on
women and the implications they may have on politics. Authors include Elise
Boulding. Irene Tinker, Mary Ehlmendorf,
Maryanne Pelansey and Hanna
Papanek. The introduction
is by Hazel Henderson and there is a uselul
annotated bibliography of recent literature on women and technology.
295.
de shutter
J. & Berber G. teds). Fundamental
Aspects of Appropriate
Technology. (Delft University Press, Delft, 1980).
This is a collection of papers prepared for an International
Workshop on
Appropriate Technology organised by the Center for Appropriate Technology
at Delft University.
It contains many papers which have a refreshingly
different slant. Authors come from some of the best known AT centres,
including Brace, Las Gaviotas, CEMAY, Dian Dessa, ATDA, ITDG, SKAT,
and AT Group of Sri Lanka.
296.
Development
Strategies and
Diwan RX. and Livingston
D.. Alternative
Appropriate
Technology: Science Policy for an Equitable World Order. (New
York, Pergamon, 1979). 255~~.
A refreshing and well-written
book for those concerned with development
who are already convinced of the wisdom of formulating alternative development strategies which tackle the problem of poverty at its source by generating
productive employment opportunities
in rural areas: by raising the productivity and incomes of those already employed in these area; and by allocating
more resources to the provision of basic rural services such as water, power,
health, transport and education. It deals with the problems of implementing
such alternative development strategies in an extremely practical way and
raises many questions which have not so far been widely expressed.
297.
Dunn P.D.. Appropriate
Technology:
Technology
with a Human Face.
(London, Macmillan, 1978). 220~~.
This is a book aimed at the general reader who should find it both easy and
interesting to read.
The first part of the book covers the growth of the appropriate technology
movement and discusses the meaning and purpose of appropriate technology
within the context of the problems and development objectives of developing
countries. It then goes on to look at appropriate technology in practice by
describing what technologies are available and discussing how they have been
applied in various situations in these countries. The areas covered are food,
agriculture and agricultural engineering; water and health; energy; services medicine, building, transport; small industries in rural areas: and education,
training,
research and development.
The large number of diagrams and
photos in these sections prove very useful to the newcomer to the subject
96
who would otherwise have difficulty
in visualising a jab seeder, a hydraulic
ram, a Humphrey pump, a solar cooker, a cinva-ram or a ferrocement
barge.
Although much of the work described relates to projects initiated by AT
institutions located in the developed countries, the author also gives very fair
coverage to the work being done by individuals and institutions
in the
developing countries. This includes for example the development of improved
solar cookers at the Appropriate
Technology Development Association in
Lucknow,
India and the development of an intermediate
technology
for
producing glue at the Technology Consultancy Centre in Kumasi, Ghana.
Perhaps the best point of this book is that it relates the technologies it
mentions to the people who will be using them and to the conditions in
which they live and work.
20s.
Evans 0.2. aid Adki L.K ., ied:!. App:cpr;ate
Technology fo,- Devalqment:
A Discussion and Case Histories. (Boulder, Westview Press, 1979). 482~~.
This analysis of appropriate technology first explores the concept of developmen? in terms of need, characteristics and theories and then examines the
pivotal role of technology in the development process. The 20 case studies in
the book, which range from fish preserving techniques in Indonesia to microhydro projects in Papua New Guinea, are of varying interest and value. They
do, however, open up the neglected areas of sociological, cultural and
economic problems involved in introducing new technologies to rural areas in
developing countries.
299.
French D.. Appropriate
Technology in Social Context. (Washington, VITA,
1977). 33pp.
Of interest to those who are concerned with the barriers IO the widespread
adoption and use of appropriate technologies in developing countries. Places
specific attention on the need for local participation in decision making.
300.
Holtermann
S., Intermediate
Technology
in Ghana: The Experience of
Kumasi University’s
Technology Conwltancy
Centre (Rugby, ITIS, 1979).
lllpp.
A useful publication
for those interested in the details of the work being
carried out by a local Appropriate Technology Centre in a developing country.
Besides a chapter on the economic environment
in Ghana and the implications of this for the development and dissemination
of small-scale technologies, there are detailed sections on the History of the Technology
Consultancy
Centre (TCC) and its current programme. The case studies
include the development and dissemination of technologies relating the smallscale production
of glue, soap, animal feed, glass beads, broadloom cloth,
nuts and bolts, and agricultural equipment. A valuable account is given of
how the TCC reacted to, and helped Small entrepreneurs to cope with changes
in the economic environment.
97
301.
McRobie G., Small is PO&b/e. (London, Jonathan Cape, February 1981).
288PP.
George McRobie, who worked closely with Schumacher for many years,
argues forcefully in Part 1 of Small is Possible that the rich industrialised
nations are now as much in need of appropriate technologies as are the
developing countries. There is a growing recognition in the United States,
Canada and Europe that conventional
technologies create the intractable
problems of long-term unemployment,
the decline of skilled work, wastage of
raw materials, and dogmatic centralised decision-making.
In Part II, McRobie surveys the burgeoning movements in the United
Kingdom, the United States and Canada and their efforts to implement
alternatives. These are the groups and individuals which have been putting
Schumacher’s ideas into practice during the past five years. They offer proof
that in a wide range of human activities - in agriculture, industry and health
care, for example - small is indeed possible.
This is not, as is sometimes said, an argument against a// large-scale
technology.
It is an argument for deciding what must be large, what can be
small and human-scale, whether in industry, agriculture, or the service sector.
The experience, both in poor and rich countries, recounted in Small is
Possible shows that human-scale technologies have created new opportunities
for people. It is not a matter of theory but of worldwide experience. Neither
is it an argument against economic growth. What the book demonstrates is
that an alternative form of economic growth is feasible - economics as if
people mattered.
302.
Ramesh J. and Weiss C. (eds). Mobaizing Technology for World Development.
(New York, Praeger, 1979). 234~~.
This book aims at clarifying new development perspectivas f.rom which technological choices need to be viewed if the world’s industrialized
North and
the poorer South hope to moblize technology to achieve sustained growth
and increased justice and stability at home and internationally.
Contains the
complete report of a symposium held on the subject of mobilizing technology for world development (Jamaica, 1979) and eighteen thought provoking papers written by internationally
distinguished experts on the subject of
technology transfer and the implications
and practicalities of technological
independence in deve!oping countries.
303.
Rifkin, Jeremy with Ted Howard, Entropy: A New World View. (The Viking
Press. New York NY 10022 1980).
This remarkable book is concerned with energy and its inevitable dissipation.
The author’s starting point is the second law of thermodynamics,
the Entropy
Law, which states that matter and energy can only be changed in one direction, from usable to unusable, from ordered to disordered. Entropy is a
measure of the amount of energy no longer capable of conversion into work.
Technology is the prime transformer of energy - and the greatest creator
of disorder in our environment. The larger and more complex the technology.
98
the greater the damage it does. With unassailable logic, the author spells out
the implications of increasing energy use - and therefore increasing disorder
and complexity,
for the whole structure of modern industrialisation.
Our
economies, our urbanisation, the increasing complexity and specialisation and
concentration
in industry, all maximise entropy and are headed inevitably
towards greater chaos.
The low-entropy society which must inevitably follow, and sooner than we
think, will be geared to renewable energy sources, capital-saving, small-scale
technologies,
non-chemical
farming:
“in a low-entropy
society,
big,
central&d,
energy- and capital-intensive
technologies will be discarded in
favour of what is called intermediate or appropriate technology”
(p.219). The
book is brilliantly
conceived; very clearly written in non-technical language;
all-compelling in its arguments; and it offers a sane route towards a sustainable
future.
304.
Robinson A.. ted). Appropriate
Technologies for Third World Development,
(London, Macmillan, 1979). 417~~.
This contains the papers and proceedings of a Conference held by the International Economic Association at Teheran in 1977 which aimed at examining
why the technologies
appropriate
to the circumstances
in developing
countries are not used. Many of the papers look at the experiences of specific
countries and will be of particular interest to those concerned with the type
of economic and political environment
conducive to the widespread use of
appropriate technologies in developing countries.
305.
Sale, Kirkpatrick, Sale. Human Scaie. (Seeker & Warburg, London 1980).
In this monumental work - 500 pages - Kirkpatrick
Sale deals with the
ultimate curse of the modern age, giantism. He brings great scholarship and a
refreshing lightness of touch to bear on the crises that afflict all industrial
societies today - in Government, industry, agriculture, transport, energy,
pollution - virtually every problem the modern state is grappling with, failing
to solve, and generally making worse. Tine institutions
of our societies are
failing because they have overshot the limits of control.
But this is not only a devastating critique of size and inhuman technology.
At every point the author cites instances where humanscale structures are
meeting human needs efficiently, economically, and in ways that enhance the
freedom and spirit of both oroducers and consumers. The book is in a sense a
companion volume to Smai; is Beautiful, a well-presented mass of evidence
that bigness has become ~:YZonly ugl’y but dangerous, and that to find ways
of doing things on a small and human scale has become a condition of our
survival.
306.
Schumacher E.F., Good Work. (Jonathan Cape, London 1979).
This is the first collection of E.F. Schumacher’s lectures and essays to be
published after his death. In many respects it is an extension of both Small is
Beautiful and Guide for the Perplexed: in one of the six essays, he explores
99
the practical implications of the end ot the era ot cheap oil, for city life,
transport, agriculture; in another, he takes as his starting point the proposition that “the amount of genuine leisure in a society is generally in inverse
proportion to the amount ot labour-saving machinery it employs”. He goeson
to illustrate the soul-destroying character of modern industrialisation,
which
is its own destruction; and then discusses the only feasible alternative, work
that substitutes human skill for capital and fossil fuels, and self-reliance for
remote control.
Other essays over alternative forms of ownership and control of industry,
aspects of intermediate technology, zr.d - in what many will find the most
challenging in this book .- a critique of the value system that underlies our
patterns of education, and conventional methods of work.
More than 60.000 people heard Schumacher on these subjects during his
last tour in the United States. Collected together in this book, these essays
evoke Barbara Ward’s description
of him as belonging to that intensely
creative minorin/ who have changed the direction of human thought.
307.
Stewart F., Technology and Underdevelopment.
(London, Macmillan, 1978).
304pp.
This is a book mainly for economists concerned with the role of industrialisation in developing countries. It examines at length the conventional economic
thought with regard to choice of technique, employment,
dependency and
trade. The consequences for income distribution
of western technologies are
fully explored, together with the resultant neglect of rural areas, where
people have minimal purchasing power and therefore little ability to affect
the market. Choice of product is given as much emphasis as choice of technique and the advantages of expanding trade between underdeveloped
countries are outlined, in addition to the need to search further for low cost
ways of meeting indigenous basic need.
Of particular interest are the two chapters devoted to empirical studies one on maize grinding in Kenya and the other on concrete block making in
Kenya. 8uth show ciearly how the choice of products affects the choice of
techniques and indicate the extent of the influence of consumer preferences
on technoligcal choice.
308.
UNIDO, Monographs on Appropriate Industrial Technolo.gy, Volumes 1 to 6.
(New York. United Nations. 1979).
This series of monographs is based on documents prepared for the UNIDO
Forum on Appropriate Industrial Technology held in New Delhi in November
1978. The first of the six volumes covers the conceptual and policy framework for rppropriate
industrial technology. The papers in this volume by
Tinbergan, Ranis, Frost, Desai and Chebbi, make particularly good reading for
those who are concerned with the realities of implementing
policies to help
the rural and urban poor in developing countries. This first volume also
includes a report of a Ministerial
level meeting which met in Anand in
November, 1978.
loo
For those who are interested in particular aspects of appropriate technology, the remaining volumes include articles which give an excellent
summary of the state of the arts in the areas of low cost transport for rural
areas (Vol. 2). paper and small pulp mills (Vol. 3). agricultural machinery and
implements (Vo!. 4), energy for rural requirements
(Vol. 5), and textiles
(Vol. 6). Of particularly interest are the papers by Barwell and Howe (Vol. 2)
Mitra (Vol. 4), and Turner (Vol. 5).
A further seven volumes are to be published in the near future covering the
areas of: food storage.and processing: sugar: oils end fats: drugs and pharmaceuticals: light industries and rural workshops, construction
and building
materials: and basic industries.
101
Section 8
Addresses
1. Bangladesh Agricultural
5, Bangladesh.
of Publishers
Research Council,
130-C Road 1, Dhanmandi,
2. Economic Development and Cultural Change, University
5801 El!is Avenue, Chicago, Ilhnois 60637, USA.
Oacca
of Chicago Press,
3. FAD, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
4. Wodd Crops, World Crops Publications,
9 Botolph Alley,
5. Institute
of International
Agriculture,
Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA.
6. international
Michigan
London EC3.
State
University,
East
Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland.
7. ‘World Crops”, see 4.
8. Ford Foundation,
320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017, USA.
9. See 5.
10.
International
Labour Review, Il.0
CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland.
Publications,
11. East African Journal of Rural Development,
7062, Kampaia, Uganda.
12. United Nations
Vienna, Austria.
Industrial
De?elopment
International
Makarere
Drganisation,
Labour Office,
University,
PO Box
PO 80x 707,
1011
53. Drganisation
for Economic Co-operation
Pascal, 75775 Paris, Cedex 16, France.
and Development,
14. Economic
India.
284 Frere Road, Bombay 40001,
and Political
Weekly,
Skylank,
15. 6ee4.
102
2 rue Andre
16. Science Policy Research Unit, University
17. Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., Gainsborough
Leytonstone.
of Sussex, Brighton,
House, 11 Gainsborough
Sussex.
Road,
18. See4.
19. See 11.
20. See 4.
21. Macmillan
Press, 4 Little
Essex Street, London WC2.
22. See 4.
23. See 10.
24. Agra furope
Kent, UK.
Ltd.,
Agroup
House, 16 Lonsdale Gardens, Tunbridge
25. NCAE, National College of Agricultural
Engineering,
26.
PO 80x 983, Manila, Philippines.
International
Rice Research Institute,
Wells,
Silsoe, Bedfordshire.
27. See 11.
28. See 11.
29. Clarendon Press, Oxford
30. Small Industry
Extension
University
Training
Press, Walton Street, Oxford,
Institute,
Hyderabad-45,
31. National Agricultural
Society of Ceylon, Department
University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya Campus, Sri Lanka 1.
U.K.
India.
of Crop Science,
32. See 31.
33. See 31.
34. Ecologist, Ecosystems Ltd., 73 Molesworth
35.
Institute
of Development
36.
Reading University,
Studies, Univeristy
Whiteknights,
Street, Wadebridge, Cornwall,
of Sussex, Brighton,
Reading, Berks., UK.
37. See 2.
103
U.K.
Sussex, UK.
16. Science Policy Research Unit, University
17. Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., Gainsborough
Leytonstone.
of Sussex, Brighton,
House, 11 Gainsborough
Sussex.
Road,
18. See4.
19. See 11.
20. See 4.
21. Macmillan
Press, 4 Little
Essex Street, London WC2.
22. See 4.
23. See 10.
24. Agra furope
Kent, UK.
Ltd.,
Agroup
House, 16 Lonsdale Gardens, Tunbridge
25. NCAE, National College of Agricultural
Engineering,
26.
PO 80x 983, Manila, Philippines.
International
Rice Research Institute,
Wells,
Silsoe, Bedfordshire.
27. See 11.
28. See 11.
29. Clarendon Press, Oxford
30. Small Industry
Extension
University
Training
Press, Walton Street, Oxford,
Institute,
Hyderabad-45,
31. National Agricultural
Society of Ceylon, Department
University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya Campus, Sri Lanka 1.
U.K.
India.
of Crop Science,
32. See 31.
33. See 31.
34. Ecologist, Ecosystems Ltd., 73 Molesworth
35.
Institute
of Development
36.
Reading University,
Studies, Univeristy
Whiteknights,
Street, Wadebridge, Cornwall,
of Sussex, Brighton,
Reading, Berks., UK.
37. See 2.
103
U.K.
Sussex, UK.
57. See 13.
58. See4.
59. See21.
SO. See36.
61. See 6.
62. Cambridge University
Cambridge, UK.
Press, The Pitt Building,
Trumpington
Street,
63. See35.
64. Seel.
65. Philippine
Society of Agriculture
Enginears (Now believed defunct - Editor).
. See 43.
67. Charles Knight
Kent, UK.
& Co. Ltd.,
Ernest 8enn Ltd., Sovereign
68. Journal of Agricultural
Engineering, Society of Agricultural
Pant University
of Agriculture
and Technology
Dept.
Engineering, Pannagar 263145, India.
69, Society for International
London W5, UK.
Development
70. Tropieei Stored Producu Information,
London Road, Slough. Bucks., UK.
(UK),
Tropical
Way, Tonbridge,
Engineers, G.B.
of Agricultural
c/o 1 Elgar Avenue,
Stored Products
Ealing,
Institute,
711. see 68.
72. Indian Farming, Indian Council of Agricultual
Research,
Dr Rajendra Prased Road, New Delhi 116601, India.
73.
East African Literature
74. See 25.
75. See 4.
76. See 4.
Bureau, PO Box 30022, Nairobi,
Krishi
Kenya.
Bhaven,
77. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Department of Economics,
Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, PO Box 4,
Canberra, ACT, 2660, Australia.
78. See 12.
79. See 3.
80. See 26.
81.
University
University
of Edinburgh A.T. Conference,
of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
School of Engineering
Science,
82. See 81.
83. Arthur J. Heighway
8HB, UK.
Publications
Ltd.,
87 Blackfriars
84. World Animal Review, Institute of International
University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA.
85.
New Scientist, Commonwealth
UK.
Road, London
Agriculture,
House, 1-19 New Oxford
Michigan
SE1
State
Street, London WCl,
86. See 43.
87. Tropical Products institute,
88. Bangladesh Economic
Dacca 2, Bangladesh.
56-62 Grays Inn Road, London WCl, UK.
Review, Adamjee
Court, Motijheel
Commerical
Area,
89. See 12.
90. United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA.
91.
lnstitut
fur Tropenbau,
Waldschmidtstrasse
6A, 8130 Starnberg, Germany.
92. See 91.
93.
University
of Chicago Press, 5801 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
94. Appropriate
Technology
Cell, Ministry
Bhaven, New Delhi 110011, India.
95. German Foundation for international
D-5300 Bonn 12, W. Gemany.
109
of Industry
Development
and Supplies,
Ubyog
(DSE), Postfach 120518,
98.
International
Union of Forestry
A-l 131 Wien, Austria.
Organisations,
Schonbrunn,
Crescent, London
N5, UK.
Tirolergarten,
97. See 10.
98. Barrie and Jenkins, 24 Highbury
99.
See 43.
100.
Government
of Kerala State, Government
101.
Intermediate
UK.
Technology
102.
Architectural
Design Magazine, 7/8 Holland Street, London W8, UK.
103.
Development
Digest, USAlD/Department
104.
Small Industry Development Network, Economic Development Laboratory,
Engineering Experimental Station, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
Georgia 30332, USA.
105.
See 73.
106.
See 6.
Development
Press, Trivandrum,
Group, 9 King Street, London
of State, Washington
107. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, Amercian
1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
108.
Macmillan
109.
See 90.
110.
See SO.
111.
See SO.
112.
See 12.
113.
See 12.
114.
See 12.
115.
University
116.
International
Canada.
Kerala, India.
WC2,
DC, USA.
Planners Association,
Inc., 866 3rd Averlue, New York, NY 10022, USA.
of the Philippines,
Development
School of Economics,
Research Council,
107
Laguna, Philippines.
PO Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario,
117.
See8.
118.
See87.
119.
See6.
120.
See87.
121.
Sea87.
122. See35.
123.
Stanford University,
Stanford,
California
94305, USA.
124. See87.
125. See6.
126.
See 11.
127.
See 13.
128. See43.
129.
See2.
130.
See4.
131.
See116.
132. Ses87.
133. See90.
134.
Economic Journal, c/o Professor D. Winch, University
ing, Brighton, Sussex, UK.
of Sussex, Arts Build-
135. World Council of Churches, 150 Route de Ferney, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
136. See16.
137.
See 21.
138.
See8.
139. See87.
108
140.
See 6.
141. See 13.
142. See 6.
143.
See81.
144.
Yale Economic Growth
necticut 06520, USA.
145.
United Nations
Santiago, Chile.
146.
See 12.
Centre, Box 1987, Yale Station,
Economic
Commission
for Latin
New Haven, Con.
America,
Casilla
1790,
147. See 12.
148. See 12.
149. See 6.
150.
See 6.
151. See 87.
152. SeeB7.
153. See 103.
164.
Appropriate
Technology
Development
Bhavan, Lucknow 226001, India.
155.
See 101.
186.
See 6.
157.
See 87.
Association,
PO 80x 311, Gandhi
158. See 143.
159. Technology
Consultancy
Centre, University
University Post Office, Kumasi, Ghana.
160.
See 143.
109
of Science
and Technology,
169.
Chemistry in Britain,
London Wl, UK.
The Chemical
Snciety,
Burlington
House, Piccadilly,
162. See 87.
163. Journal of Development
Studies, see 17.
164.
Solar Energy, Pergamon
NY 10523, USA.
Press, Maxwell
166.
See 90.
168.
See 77.
187.
National Institute
168.
Khadi and Village Industries Commission,
Vileparle West, Bombay 400054.
169.
See 143.
of Agricultural
House, Fairview
Engineering,
Park, Elmsford,
Silsoe, Beds., U.K.
Gramodaya,
Cooper Road,
170. See 13.
171.
See3.
172.
Smoothie Publications,
173.
Indian National
1 lO802, India.
174.
Tropical Science, see 87.
175.
See 8.
John L. Noyce, Box 450, Brighton,
Science Academy,
176. Technos. (At the time of printing,
Bahadur
Shah Zafar
Sussex, UK.
Marg, New Delhi
this address has not baen found - Editor.)
177. See 102.
178. See 43.
179.
See 36.
180.
University
181.
See 14.
of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 24121, Dar Es Salaam. Tanzania.
110
182. South Pacific Bulletin, South Pacific Commission
306, Haymarket, New South Wales, 2660 Australia.
Publications
Bureau, Box
183.
Impact of Science on Society, UNESCO, 7 PLace de Fontenoy,
France.
75766 Paris,
184.
University
of Cambridge, Dept. of Architecture,
Cambridge, UK.
185. See 102.
186. Cafe, Cacao, The Institute Francais de Cafe, du Cacao et autres Plantes
Stimulantes, 34 rue des Renandes, Paris 17e France,
187.
United Nations Educational,
See 183.
Scientific
and Cultural
Organisation,
UNESCO.
188. See 90.
189.
See 90.
190. See 90.
191.
See 3.
192. See 180.
193. SeelBO.
194. See 11.
196.
Agrarian Development
Unit, Wye College, Ashford,
Kent, UK.
196. See 13.
197.
See ‘13.
198.
International
Bank for Reconstruction
and Development,
1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 26433, USA.
The World Bank,
189. See 198.
200.
See 118.
201.
Department
202.
See 3.
of Geography,
University
111
of Toronto,
Toronto,
Ontario,
Canada.
203.
See 3.
204.
See 36.
205.
See 184.
206.
See 143.
207.
See 93.
208.
International
Journal of Health Services, Baywood
Marine Street, Farmingdale, NY 11735, USA.
209. World Health Organisation,
Publishing
Co. Inc., 120
1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
210.
Obtainable from the author, Dr John Biddulph, University of Papua New
Guinea, Medical Faculty, PO Box 5623, Boroka, Papua New Guinea.
211.
American Journal of Public Health, Amercian Public
1015 18th Street, NW, Washington DC, 20036, USA.
212.
See 118.
213.
See 135.
214.
See 209.
215.
International
Association.
UK.
216.
See43.
217.
See 16.
218.
Tropical
UK.
219.
University of East Africa, University Social Sciences Council
Makere University College, Kampala, Uganda.
220.
See 208
221.
United States Agency for International
Washington DC, USA.
Health
Association,
j”
:
Journal
of Epidemiology,
International
Epidermiological
Oxford University Press, Press Road, Neasden, London NW 10,
Doctor,
Royal Society of Medicine,
112
2 Queen Anne St., London Wl ,
Development,
Conference,
Department
of State.
222.
Agricultural
Maahanisation in Asia; Shin-Norinsha
Nishikico, Chiyodaku, Tokyo, Japan 101.
223.
Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 8 John Adam Street, London WC2, UK.
224.
See 198.
226.
See6.
226.
See6.
227.
See 6.
228.
See 6.
229.
see 11.
230.
See 30.
231.
See SO.
232.
New World Press, Peking, China.
233.
Peace Corpr/Action,
,,’:,, 234.
See 33.
1;::1236.
See 101.
” 238.
Washington 20525, USA.
Prism Press, Stable Court, Chalmington,
237.
See 233.
238.
Ceuaco, Chuo Boeki Goshi Kaisha,
Japan.
239.
See 101.
240.
Department
of Housing and Urban
Affairs, Washington DC, USA.
241.
See 3.
242.
See 3.
~
Co. Ltd., 7-2 chome Kanda
113
Dorchester,
Dorset, UK.
PO Box 8, lbaraki
Development,
City,
Office
Osakea Pref,
of International
243.
Forest Products Research Centre, Office of Forests, PO Box 5055, Boroko,
Papua New Guinea.
244.
L.J. Fry, 1223 N. Nupal St., Santa Barbara, California
93103, USA.
245.
D.A. Knox, Staddlestones, Penton Mewsey, Andover,
Hank,
246.
See 101.
247-252.
UK,
See 101.
253.
See 233.
254.
See 101.
265.
Meuthen 61 Co. Ltd., 11 New Fetter Lane, London
266.
See 101.
257.
See 155.
256.
McGill University,
Canada.
259.
Portola Iwtitute,
5613 Santa Cruz, Menlo Park, California
94025, USA.
260.
and Development
believed
261.
Christian
Editor).
See 87.
262.
See 95.
263.
See 95.
264.
See 90.
265.
Volunteers in Technical
Maryiand 20822, USA.
266.
See 155.
267.
See 4.
266.
See 4.
269.
See 116.
Relief
Schoo! ;;’ Architecture,
EC4. UK.
Ste Anne
Association.
(Now
de Bel!evue, Quebec,
defunct
-
Assistance, 3706 Rhode Island Avenue, Mt Rainier,
‘114
,,
270.
See 116.
271.
Pergamon Press, Headington
272.
See 155.
273.
See 35.
274.
Brace Research Institute, McDonald
Bellevue BOO, Quebec, Canada.
276.
Harvard University
276.
Mansell Information/Publishing
277.
American Council on Education,
Washington DC 20036, USA.
276.
See 87.
279.
See 155;
260.
See 102.
281.
See 13.
282.
See 13.
283.
See116.
284.
Overseas Development
DC 20036, USA.
285.
Institute
286.
See 271.
287,
Massey Perguson, 200 University
288.
See 35.
289.
Cornell Univerity,
290.
See87.
291.
See 166.
Hill Hall, Oxford,
UK.
College, McGill
University,
Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge,
Ltd., 3 Bloomsbury
Council,
of Commonwealth
Ste Anne de
MA 02138, USA.
Place, London WCl, UK.
Overseas Liaison,
One DuPont
Circle,
17 17 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington
Studies, 27 Russell Square, London WCl, UK.
Avenue, Toronto,
Ithica, NY 15950, USA.
1t5
Ontario,
Canada.
292.
See 271.
293.
United Nations, UNECA, Addis Abbaba, Ethiopia.
294.
Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80301, USA.
295.
Delft University
296.
Pergamon Press, Maxwell
297.
See 21.
298.
See 294.
Press, De&t, Holland.
House, Fairview Park, Elmsford,
NY 10523, USA.
299. See 265.
300.
intermediate
Technology
301.
Chatto. Bodley Head & Cape Services Ltd., 9 Bow Street, London WC2.
302.
Praegar Publishers Inc., 383 Madison Aveune, New York, NY 10022, USA.
303.
The Viking Press, 625 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10022, USA.
304.
Sae21.
305.
Martin Seeker & Warberg Ltd., 54 Poland Street, London Wl , UK.
306.
See 301.
307.
See 21.
308.
United
USA.
Nations
Publishing
Publications
Ltd., 9 King Street, London WC2, UK.
Services, Sales Section,
116
New York,
NY 10017,
Authors
index
Cabanor P.. 222
Campbell M.. 116
Carr M.N., 17
Carrutherr
I.D., 194,195
Cemco, 238
Child F.C..2
Ciav E.J., 35
Cohn E J., 211
cooper c., 117.1 E.0
Cook I.. 63
Cotter G.. 192
Crosslev C.P,, 25
Cunningham
J.F.. 36
Abel-Smith
B., 208,209
Abbot J.C., 50
Adesuv SA.. 70
Akhtar S., 269,270
Akinrele
LA.. 51
Alley $3.. 232
Amann V.F., 19
Amarshi A., 273
American Peace Corps, 233,234
Appropriate
Technologv,
235
Arboleda J.R., 52
Aris D.. 191
Armas Jr. A., 115
Aurora G.S. 14
Austin V. 81
Dancv H.K. 239
Dalton G.E., 44.179,
204
Date A., 151
Dean G.C.. 276
Dejene T.,277
Demeter H. ,92
Dendv DA.V..276
Deutsch AX., 18
Department
of Housing ana Urban
Development,
Office of !nternational Affairs, Washington, 240
Dickinson H., 62, 135
Dima S.A.J..lS
Directorate
of Gobar Gas Scheme. 168
Dommen A.J.. 37
Donahue R.H., 9
Dorozynski
A., 212
Drvburgh P. McA., 169
Duff 8.. 3,54
Bailev P.H, 167
Banerji R., 13
Bangladesh Agricultural
Research
Council, 1
Baranson J., 271
Bahr L.. 91
Barker P.W., 192
Baron C.G..53
Bart K.J., 215
Bateman G.H.. 193,272
Beck J.,93
Behari B., 94
Bell Clive, 273
Bell Christophei~, 236
Bhalla A.S..53,
117, 134, !49
Bharadwaj RS. 237
Biddulph
J., 210
Boon G.K.. 90,149
Borchoff W.G.,.15
Bottger J, 91
Boycott CA., 22
Bourke W.D., 221
Brace Research Inwitute, 274
Bradley D.J..207
BRALUP,
192,193
Brode J., 275
Bunvard P., 34
Burch D.. 16
Butler G., 13
Edwards D., 152
Elliot K..213,279
Elliot R.G.H., 139
Esmav M.L..49,55
Ertioko I., 54
FAO..
Fathv
Fichter
Flynn
Forest
Foster
117
56,241.242
H., 93
R., 108
G., 157
Products Research
P., 153
Centre, 243
Frankel R.J.. 196
Fridmann
M.. 186
Fry L.J. 1244.245
Gale V.E., 64
Ganiere N.,261,282
Garg M.K, 57,154,170,797
German Foundation
for @evelopi!?g
Countries, 95
Ghai D.P., 73
Ghosh B.N., 56
Gibbon D., 20
Gish 0.. 214
Godfrev M.. 73
Golding E.W.. 171
Gordon E.. 4
Government
of India, 94
Green DA-G., 5.9
Grenell P., 1%
Lal D., 39,227
Langan T., 92
Lee T.R, 201
Levy CR., 96
Lipton M., 17.63
Little E.C.S., 174
Lock C.. 254
Lockhart-Smith
C.J., 139
Lockwood
L.M., 64
MacKillop
A., 255
MacPherson G., 10
Maddocks D, 256
Makhijani A., 175
Manalo A.S.. 65
Mann H.T., 257
Manning D., 286
Mars P.A, 124, 157
Marsden K.. 97,125,
140
Massey Ferguson Ltd., 287
Matango R.R., 193
Maylerle D., 193
McBain N.S., 141
McDowell J., 126
McJunkin F.E.. 203
Mellor J.W.. 40
Merill R., 244
Merriam M., 176
Minimum Cost Housing Group.
Mondal RX.. 41
Moorcraft C., 177
Moorti T.V., 40
Morawetz D., 48
Morehouse W., 14
Rnoslev W.H.. 215
Muckle T.B., 25
Muckhopadhvav
A., 42
Muller J., 228
Hall C.W..49,55
Hall M.N.A., 116
Hallidav D., 87
Harper P., 260
Haque F _, 38
Henry J.. 24
Hewavitharana
B., 21,59,137
Hill P., 60
Hislop D.. 136
Howe J. 223
Howes M.. 136
Hudson J-C., 22
lmrie F.. 85
IBRD, 198,199.224
IDRC, 200,283
ILO, 6.61,119.138,156,225
ITDG, 246-252
ITS Ltd., 155
lnukai I., 23
Irvin G, 193.226
Jackson D., 10
Jackson S., 284
Jenkins G., Z35
Johnston P., 172
Junion F., 24
268
Nair N., 63
National Academy of Sciences, 43,66.
86,99,128,178,216
Navasero N.C., 26
Ngoddy P.O., 127
Kamath J., 120,121,157
Kaneda H., 2
Kaplinskv
R., 122, 150,217
Khan A.U., 7.8
Kidder E.H., 49
Kidron M., 21,59,137
Kilbv P., 62,123
Kilgour J., 25
King K.. 158
Okai M.. 27
D’Kellv E., 67
Okun D.A., 202,203
Oliver P.. 98
Pack H.. 142
Paillon R- 95
118
Palmtr-Jones
FL, 87
Pandey M.K., 68
Parikh K.. 109
Parker N.. 44.179,204
[email protected] M.E.. 180
Parpia H.A.B., 69
Pe::i’ J.P.M., 101
Pate1 A.V., 70
Pawley M.. 102
Pickett J., 141
Pingale S.V., 71
Plesserd F.. 45
Port&
institute, 259
Powell J.W., 143,159,160
Pradhan S.. 72
Prasad C.R.. 181
Prasad K.K., 181
Ranis G., 144
Reddy A.K.N.. 181
Ress!er Ei 260
Reynolds G.F., 161
Richard C ,182
Rifkin S., 217
Robbins S.R.J.. 162
Robinson E.A.ti.,Zl,
Rogers J.F., 261
Stout B.A., 9
Strassman W.P.. 106
Sotton D.H.. 74
Tabour
Tainsh
Tayior
Terner
Thomas
Timmer
Tropical
Turner
Turner,
Ii.. 164,187
J.A.R., 75. 76
L., 129
I.D., 108
J.W., 48
P.C., 77
Products Institute,
J.C., 107,108
R., 150
132,290
Uchanda V.C., 11
United Nations Department
of Economic
;;;Sooal
Affairs, 109, 110, 188, 189,
UNECAFE.
165
UNECLA,
145
UNIDO. 12,78,89,111,112,113,114,
133,146,147.148,231
VITA.,
59,137
Sadove R., 103
Samuel J., 46
Sanson R.L.,47
Schlie T.W..28,229
Schofield S.. 288
Schwartz S.L., 163
Scott D..22
Selowsky M., 129
Sen A.. 29
Sherman M.M _. 262,263
SIET institute, 30,230
Sigurdson J., 183
Slate F., 289
Smell Industry Development
Network, 104
Smith D.V., 88
Smith G., 184,205
Smith SE., 277
Sommer A..7’5
Spata J.A., 1 -U
Speight A.NP..ZlB
spurgeon D., 131
Steedman N., 185
stern P., 206
Stessels L., 186
Stewart F.J., 73, 105
I
265
Warner ct., 192
Watt S.B. ,266
Wells Jr.. L.T., 166
West J., 59
Wheeler M.,219
White A.U., 207,291
White G-F., 207
Wickramanayake
V.E.A..
Wilkinson R.i-L.49
Williamsrn
D., 257
Williamson W.F.. 167
Wimberlev
J.E..79, BO
Winnington
T.L., 82
Wood D.. 153
World Crops, 267.268
World Health, 220
Yudelman
119
M.. 13
31,32,33
Country
Index
Latin America, 6,85. 145, (see also individual countries)
Less developed countries, 12,lB.
25,41.
43,50, 55,56,69,74,78.83,84,
89,90,99,108,109,128.133,
13B.142.147.156.161.164.169,
171,172,175,1?6,178.187,188;
189,190,198,200,202,204.205,
208,216,218,224.254.268,270,
271.2?5.277-281.283291.
Africa, 24,98,148.
213,228.233.253
(see also individual countries)
Algeria, 220
Asia, 52,76,80,
165 (see also
individual
countries)
Bangladesh. 1.38,48,64,88,215
Botswana, 20,28,246
Brazil, 58
Cameroons, 67
Central African Republic, 220
Chad, 235
Chile, 129, 203
China, 82.86, 135, 183. 210, 212, 213,
217.232.269,276,282
Colombia,
106. 110
Madagascar, i86
Malaysia, 152, 199
Mexico, 75, 149
Nepal, 235
Nigeria, 51,62.70,121,12~,
East Africa, 6, 11, 207, (see also
individual
countries)
Egypt. 93
Eire, 185
Ethiopia, 5,66, 110, 141,220,
160
Equatorial
Africa 9, (see also individual
countries)
Pakistan, 2,6, 13, 155
Panama, 81
Papua New Guinea, 96,182,243
Peru, 107
Philippines,
3,6, 7,8,26,46,54,61,65,
115.222,227
Senegal, 45,103,rllO
South East Asia, 116,196,221
(see also
individual
countries)
Sri Lanka, 6. 13,16, 17,21,31.32,33,
59,137
Sudan, 101, 110
Ghana, 44,95,143.159.160,179,204,
235
Guatemala.
191,212
Hawaii,
123,127
115
India, 6, 13, 14,29,30,
35, 37,39,40,
42, 49. 53, 57,63,68,
71, 72. 79.
94,100,103,104,108,116,120,130,
134,146,153,154,16B,17O.173,
181,197,211,230,231,234,235,
237,262.263
Indonesia, 138,166,203
Iran, 212, 226
Israel, 34
Tanzania, 10, 117, 180,192,193,214,224
Thailand.B.23,
28,66, 116,117,136,
Uganda, 15,19,27,
126,213
U.K. 144.184,205,213
U.S.A., 102, 144. 213,220
U.S.S.R., 213, 220
Vietnam,
8,36,47
West Africa. 4,60, 118,124,162
also individual
countries)
West Indies, 22,131
Japan, 4,136,144
Java, 77
Kenya, 73,105,117,119,150,158,174,
194,195,213,214,225,235
Zambia,
120
203.229,235
(see
157
Subject
Index
Clothing (see cotton textiles)
Coal, 183
cocoa, 57
Cotfee, 120,186
Composite flours, 128, 131,278
Confectionery,
118, 132
Corn, 67
Cotton textiles, 134,137,138,142,
143,144.145,146
Coir, 35,137
Cost-benefit
analysis, 29,38,39,42,
142,179,181,193,195,198,198,
199,204.209,217.219,226
Cow-dung cookers, 170,181
Adaptation
of modern technology.
ceses
of. 1?5.183
Agricultural
mechanization,
1, 3,4.5,6.
7.9, 12, (see also chemical applicetors,
grinding. milling, threshing machines,
tractors, weeding equipment)
I(--: ^..,...__
..“_.I. “.d
oc
mu)“.,”
.“IOI I ..._.“a,
Aluminium.
235 (f)
Ammonia,
172
Animeldrewn
equipment,
5,Q. 13, 17.
19,20,21,24,27,32,24B
Animal-feed,
81.86.87.
182
Apiculture,
84
Bamboo, 35.1OQ.183
Batteries, 162, 165, 166
Beverages, 51, 121,124,
166
Bicycles, 166, 223,230,231,235
(a)
Bio-gas. 161,168,175,177.181,182,
183,205,236,244,245,250,255
Boats, 36,82,86,89,
235 (f)
Bread, 123.125,128
Bricks and tiles, 94,97,100,101,111
Bridges, 235(e)
Broadlooms
bee cotton textiles)
Building materials, 102, 239 (see also
individual
materials)
141,
Drying facilities (for crops), 55, 57,64,
65,71,80
(see also solar drving)
Economies of scale (see scale of production)
Electricity,
183, 189
Energy, (see power sources)
Engineering,
2
Essential oils, 78
Farrocement,
66,82,86,97,235~fl
Fertilizer.
149,181,183,244
Fibreboard,
97
Fish, 83.88.116.
128,237
Food (see individual
foods. r. xrition,
cultural mechanization,
milling,
grinding)
Footwear, 140,141,148,166
Canning, 115.117,119
Cesseva, cesseve products, 122,127.152,
160
Cement, 94,104,183
Cement-blocks,
105
Ceramics, 97,164
Charcoal, 161,169,174;
179,196
Chemicals, 155,159,161,172,247
Chemical applicators,
26
Choice of product, 53,73. 105, 106
Choice of technique, 21,30,32,33,38.39,
40,42.44,48,49,
53,58,61.62,63,
6B, 70.77.78.81.82.84.85,87,88.
89,90.94.100,105,106,117,119.
122,123,132.133,134,136.137,142,
144.145,146,149,151.167,162,
166, 175.176.181,196.206,211,213.
215,218.219,224,
225,226,227.220.
229.230
agri-
Gari, (see cassava)
Gas, (see bio-gee)
Glue, (see cessava)
Gober gas, (see bio-gas)
Grinding, 73
Gur, (see sugar)
Hand tools, 5,9,21,24
Harvesting equipment,
22
Health facilities, 208, 209, 210. 211, 215,
216,269,270
(see also medicel auxiliaries, water)
121
Housing (see low-cost
housing)
Hydroelectric
power,
housing,
Second-hand
machinery,
142,150.166,
163
Self-help housing, 93,103,107,108,110,
264. ieee also low-cost housins)
Shadow pricing, 53,Bl.
227
Shelter, (se,: low-cost housing, self-help
housing, building materials)
Shoes, (see footwear)
Silk, 135, 136
Soap, 159,161
Solar cookers, 164 235(d)
Solar drying. 167,173
Solar energy, 175,177.178,184.185,
186,187,188,190,255,258
Spinning (see cotton textiles)
Stabilized soil blocks, 95,101
Starch (see cessava)
Steel bolts, 160
Storage facilities (for crops). 5, 17,50,
55.59,63,64,68,70,72,79,80
Subcontracting,
4. 231
Sugar, 53,58,60,75
self-help
183,189,255
Improvement
in traditional
techniques
end meteriels, cases of, 19,24,27,
52,54,59,63,70,75,79,
101, 107,
116,147.148,179
Inappropriate
technological
choice, cases
of, 2.17.35,97,125,140
Irrigation
pumps, 6,B. 13. 36,38,45,
46,47,266,
(see also tube-wells, water)
Irrigation
water (see irrigation pumps, tubewells, water)
Jute processing,
150
Lamps, 158
Latrines (see sanitation)
Leather, 139,140,147,148
(see also
footwear)
Lime end rurkhi, 94,100,235(c)
Low-cost housing, 95, 106 (see also building materials, self-help housing)
Tanning (see leather)
Technological
innovation,
cases of, 14,15,
20.22,25.25,35,36,37.41.45.46.
47,51;57,60,65,66,67,
71,.62,74.
99,116,126,127,130,131,135,158,
159,160,167.17&
179,191,193
Textiles (see cotton textiles)
Tobacco, 151, 166
Threshing machines, 7.17.74.80
Tinning (see canning)
Tractors, 2, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23,
25.28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 16.8.9.
Maize, 70, 73
Medical auxiliaries,
212, 213,214,217,219.
220,279
Metal-working,
149,249
Methane (see biogas)
Milling, mills, 52,54,61,67,73,75,76.
77.264
Nutrition,
126,127,
129, 130,288
131
Transport,
(see bicycles, railweys, roads.
vehicles)
Tube-wells, 2,35,37,36,40,42,48,
49, 233 (see also irrigation pumps,
water)
Palm oil. 62
Petrol, 172
Pharmaceuticals,
213
Pollution,
182
Pottery (see ceramics)
Poultry, 234,253,
(see also animal-feed)
Power sources (see individual
sources)
Vehicles, 7,B. 221, 222,223
(see also
bicvcles)
Village-level
technology,
10.85, 265
Vintage equipment,
67. 145
Railways.229
Roads, 22&228,235(e)
Recycling,
182,205
Rice, 52,54.61.64,65,76,77
Roofing, 95,96,99
Waste disposal, (see sanitation)
Water: benefits from increased
supplies, 194, 195, 196. 199,200,
207
catchment areas/tanks, 34,43,192.
193,204,206,246
conservation,
41,43
filtration
end purification.
196
for domestic use, 43. 197,203,
205,
291
Sacks, 157,166
Sanitation,
197,199,257,
258,~291
Scale of production,
104.118,120,121.
124,139,141,152,153,154,169,
123
231
122
for irrigation,
39,41,43.44
pipes. 191,206
reuse, 43,202
Weaving (see cotton textiles)
Weeding equipment,
7,30
Wbeelbarrom,
10. 101,235(e)
tiindmills,
171.172,
176, 180,184,
189,197,255,259,260,262,263
wood:
in housing, 112
in wckaging,
133
preservation
of, 96. 243
Woddworking,
90. 156
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deali;igv;$ith:various
aspects of ~approprjate technology.
: -:
‘Xfhe’~o.&%sion from~ the previous edition of a. list of ~ublishers’~addresses
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