Near Field Communication (NFC)

Near Field Communication (NFC)
Near Field Communication (NFC)
Safe and Convenient NFC Technology and Test
Hagen Heggenberger
Regional Manager
Customer Solutions Wireless Terminals
Agenda
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Near Field Communication (NFC) Basics
l Technology overview
l Applications of NFC
l Different NFC modes
l NFC Data transfer principles
NFC Forum and Tests
Rohde&Schwarz Solution
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Agenda
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Near Field Communication (NFC) Basics
l Technology overview
l Applications of NFC
l Different NFC modes
l NFC Data transfer principles
NFC Forum and Tests
Rohde&Schwarz Solution
November 2012 | NFC | 3
What´s NFC?
A summary
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General informationen on Near Field Communication:
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Wireless data interface between devices
Data transmission uses high-frequency magnetic alternating fields in the
frequency range of 13.56MHz
Communication range of several centimetres
Data rates of 106 kbit/s, 212 kbit/s and 424 kbit/s
Two different communication modes: passive or active
Three wireless interfaces are defined (NFC-A, NFC-B, NFC-F)
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Background story
Smartcard Technology
RFID Technology
Contactless Identification via radio transmission
Military: Identification, friend or foe
Civilian: Access control, retail security
Standardization ISO 14443
First: Magnetic strip
Then: Chip card memory (1984)
Today: Chip card processor,
crypto processors (1995)
Standardization EMV®
Typical frequency ranges:
LF: 125 kHz, 134 kHz (long wave)
HF: 13.56 MHz (short wave)
UHF: 433 MHz, 868 MHz (decimetric wave)
Contactless
chip card systems
NXP: Mifare
SONY: Felica
Based on RFID technology
Chip card memory
NFC
Chip card processor
Mifare = Mikron Fare Collection System
Felica = Felicity Card
EMV® = Europay,Mastercard,Visa
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RFID Radio Frequency Identifcation
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Contactless short distance communication
Used for automatic identification and tracking
Information can be stored on tags and read from up to several
meters away
Different types of tags
Standards: e.g. ISO/IEC 14443 or JIS X6319-4
Frequencies in the range of 100 kHz – 6 GHz
*EPC = 96 Bit Electronic Product Code
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Contactless Chip Card Systems
Chip card
Abbreviation
Distance
Standard
Close Coupling
Integrated Chip Card
CICC
Up to 1 cm
ISO 10536
Proximity Integrated
Chip Card
PICC
Up to 10 cm
ISO 14443
Typ A
Typ B
ISO 18092
(JIS X 6319-4)
PCD = Proximity
Coupling Device
Vicinity Integrated Chip
Card
VICC
Up to 1 m
ISO 15693
Remark
NFC-A
NFC-B
NFC-F
Data rates up to
26 kbit/s
Source: EMV®Contactless Specifications for Payment Systems
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Smartphones with NFC (Source: www.nfcworld.com, 05.03.2012)
… Acer E230 … Blackberry Bold 9790/9900/9930 … Blackberry
Curve 9350/9360/9370/9380 … Casio DT-X8/IT-800 … Fujitsu
Arrows F-07D … Samsung Galaxy Nexus/Note/SII … Google
Nexus S … HTC Incredible … HTC Ruby … Huawei Sonic …
Kuoziro FT701W … LG Optimus LTE/Net … LG T530 Ego …
Mobiwire Cosyphone … Motorola Droid Razr … Motorola
MC75A HF … Nokia 603/700/701/c7/Astound/N9/Oro …
Panasonic BizPad … Pantech Sky Vega LTE … Porsche Design
P‘9981 … Prada phone by LG … Samsung S5230/
S5260 NFC … Samsung SHW-A170K … Samsung Wave
578/M/Y … Sky Vega Racer … Sonim XP1301 Core NFC …
Sonim XPand NFC … Sony Xperia S … Turkcell T11 Maxiphone
…………………………………………………………………………..
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NFC applications
Source: NFC Forum
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NFC applications
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Application areas of Near Field Communication:
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Touch and Go: e.g. access control, ticketing systems
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Touch and Confirm: e.g. mobile payment
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Touch and Capture: e.g. read out phone numbers, URLs
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Touch and Link: online connection of NFC device required; data read forwarded
via an online connection to a server
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Touch and Connect: connection of two NFC devices, e.g. transmitting MP3,
image
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Combination of the above: e.g. Touch&Travel for buying train tickets
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NFC operating modes
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Peer – to – Peer (p2p) Mode
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Reader / Writer Mode („RFID“ Mode)
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Two NFC devices can exchange data
E.g. digital photos, virtual business cards, …
NFC device can read and/or write tags
The tags can be placed on objects like information signs, packaging,
documents, …
Card – Emulation – Mode
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The NFC device behaves like a contactless smart card
E.g. contactless payment (credit card funcionality), electronic ticket,
identification …
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Data transfer between NFC devices
A summary
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Uplink: Data transfer from Reader/Writer (active device) to Transponder
(passive device) or active peer-to-peer communication
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ASK (amplitude shift keying)
– NFC-A: 100% ASK
– NFC-B / NFC-F: 10% ASK
NFC-A SensReq
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NFC-B SensReq
Downlink: Data transfer from Transponder (passive device) to Reader/Writer
(active device)
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Load Modulation
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NFC Transmission Technique: Summary
NFC Type
Coding
Modulation
Data rate
Frequency
Uplink
Modified
Miller
2-ASK 100%
106 kbit/s
13.56 MHz
Downlink
Manchester
Load modulation (ASK)
106 kbit/s
13.56 MHz ± 848 kHz
subcarrier
Uplink
NRZ-L
2-ASK 10%
106 kbit/s
13.56 MHz
Downlink
NRZ-L
Load modulation
(BPSK)
106 kbit/s
13.56 MHz ± 848 kHz
subcarrier
Uplink
Manchester
2-ASK 10%
212 / 424 kbit/s
13.56 MHz
Downlink
Manchester
Load modulation (ASK)
212 / 424 kbit/s
13.56 MHz
NFC-A
NFC-B
NFC-F
Uplink = Poller to Listener
Downlink = Listener to Poller
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Agenda
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Near Field Communication (NFC) Basics
l Technology overview
l Applications of NFC
l Different NFC modes
l NFC Data transfer principles
NFC Forum and Tests
Rohde&Schwarz Solution
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NFC Forum™
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Founded 2004 by NXP, Nokia und Sony
Non-Profit Industry Association with 180 members
Goal: Advance the use of NFC technology
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Ensuring interoperability among devices and services
Educating the market about NFC technology
Development of specifications
NFC Forum Certification Program
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Establishing that products conform to the NFC Forum´s
specifications
The Certification Program offers increased assurance that NFC Forum-certified
products are interoperable with other NFC Forum-certified products. It also
supports consistency in the behavior of NFC devices by confirming that
products conform to NFC Forum specifications.
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www.nfc-forum.org
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NFC Standards Evolution
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RF Tests on NFC Devices
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In active polling mode
l Carrier Frequency Accuracy
l Power Level measurement
l Waveform Characteristic Measurement (Timing parameters)
l Load Modulation Sensitivity
l Threshold level test
In passive listening mode
l Load Modulation Amplitude Measurement
l Power reception test
l Frame delay time
Tests are to be carried out in all different modes (NFC-A, NFC-B and NFC-F if
supported by the device)
14 test positions are defined by the NFC Forum
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NFC RF Measurements: DUT Positioning
150mm
NFC Forum
– Reference Equipment
Operating Volume
DUT
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NFC RF Measurements
Test Setups
l To ensure NFC devices conforming to standards
(NFC Forum Analogue Test Specification).
l RF tests are defined by reference devices (poller or listener from NFC
Forum) and these devices correspond to a typical NFC devices in
polling and listening mode with different antenna sizes .
Listening Test
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Polling Test
Agenda
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Near Field Communication (NFC) Basics
l Technology overview
l Applications of NFC
l Different NFC modes
l NFC Data transfer principles
NFC Forum and Tests
Rohde&Schwarz Solution
November 2012 | NFC | 20
R&S©RTO Digital Oscilloscope
l For capturing the NFC waveform
sequence
l Software option RTO-K11 for
acquiration of modulated signals
and output of I/Q data for further
analysis (e.g. with FS-K112PC
NFC Measurement Software)
l Dedicated NFC trigger for NFC-A,
NFC-B and NFC-F for fast and
easy triggering on NFC waveforms
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NFC Measurement Software
R&S©FS-K112PC
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Analysis of RF-parameters of NFC-A, NFC-B and NFC-F signals of poller and
listener devices
Automatic detection of NFC standard, alternatively manual selection
Measurement of power versus time, modulation depth, modulation index, load
modulation amplitude
Measurement of timing parameters (rise time, fall time, frame delay time,
overshoot, undershoot)
Limit check according to the NFC Analogue Specification
Presentation of transferred data, analyzed commands and responses (e.g.
SENS REQ) and graphical representation of recorded signals and power versus
time
Support of R&S®FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer, R&S®FSL Spectrum
Analyzer, R&S® ZVL network analyzer and R&S®RTO Digital Oscilloscope
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R&S©SMBV Vector Signal generator
l For generation of NFC polling commands and listening responses
l Soon to come: NFC Personality SMBV-K89 which allows fast and easy
generation of user defined NFC listener and poller sequences on the fly
(no additional PC required)
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NFC Forum Reference Devices
l Listening devices according to the
NFC Forum Analogue Specification
Three different antenna coil designs
l Combined with R&S®RTO Digital Oscilloscope
and R&S®FS-K112 signals sent by a polling
device can be captured and analyzed
l Combined with R&S®SMBV Signal Generator
l listener responses can be send to the polling
device
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l Polling devices according to the NFC
Forum Analogue Specification
Three different antenna coil designs
l Can be used together with R&S®SMBV Signal
Generator to simulate a polling device
l Can be used together with R&S®RTO Digital
Oscilloscope and R&S®FS-K112 for capturing
and analyzing the response from a listening
device
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Manual Test Setup for Polling Mode with
NFC Measurement Software FS-K112PC
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Manual Test Setup for Listening Mode with
NFC Measurement Software FS-K112PC
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Read more about NFC on our web page
Please visit us online:
www.rohde-schwarz.com
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