Multimoog Musical Instrument Technical data

Multimoog Musical Instrument Technical data
Mutefmoog
Multimoog
Muitimoog
Multimoog
OPERATION
MANUAL
by Tom Rhea
introduction
The Multimoog is for performers who recognize the power of physical
control of electronic musical instruments. Before we had electronic musical^
instruments there was no issue—if you didn't involve your body you couldn't
make music. Acoustic instruments require human energy during
performance-they must be struck, scraped, plucked, or blown into before they
will make sound. Therein lies their power—musical nuance is achieved through
subtle physical control. The performer is an integral part of the instrument.
On the other hand, electronics makes it possible to produce sound that is
disembodied. We can create complex sonic events—clouds of sound—with
minimal physical contact. But most musicians choose to use the synthesizer
primarily as a powerful voice within an ensemble. This usage, and the
immediacy of live performance require physical involvement to yield musical
nuance. Circuitry simply can't match human judgment in anticipating the
dynamic situation on stage. Fixed circuit values that govern attack, vibrato rate
and amount, and other constraints often forced on the synthesist are simply
unacceptable to other instrumentalists. This has come about because we have
asked "what will this synthesizer do?" instead of "what can / do with it?" But
those who have progressed beyond the romance phase of "infinite control"
using circuitry are beginning to demand more and better things to put your
hands on while playing the synthesizer.
It is for these musicians that the Multimoog was conceived. It's a very
complete variable synthesizer with some new bells and whistles. More
important, the Multimoog is an advance in musical engineering that puts new
power to make music where it belongs—in your hands. What does its
sophisticated left-hand controller and force-sensitive keyboard mean? If you
don't use them, nothing. If you do, everything—nuance.
Thomas L Rhea, PhD
Electronic Music Consultant
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index
setting up the multimoog
Amplifier connection procedure
getting a SOUnd
way to get a sound
tuning U p
Sound check. Sure
Tu ning procedure
SOUnd Charts
Exploring the
Multimoog's sonic vocabulary
do-it-yourself demo—Hints for
exploring on your own
guided synthesizer tour
sound and synthesis— General
guided tour—
Multimoog specifics and 20 exercises
System
Rear panel input/output
review of functions
written in "synthesizerese"
•
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technical data—specs, schematics
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setting up the multimoog
A. Before plugging in the Multimoog, check the 115/230 switch on the rear
panel. Set this for the appropriate operating voltage (115 for U.S.A.).
B. Plug the power cord into any conventional A.C. outlet.
C. Use an appropriate patchcord to connect either LO AUDIO or HI AUDIO
on the Multimoog to your monitoring system.
If you are using a P.A. system or a portable guitar-type amplifier, connect
the LO AUDIO OUTPUT of the Multimoog to the input of your amplifier.
If you are using a high fidelity monitoring system, connect the HI AUDIO
OUTPUT of the Multimoog to the input of the power amplifier.
In either case, always advance the VOLUME control of the Multimoog
slowly from "0" to check sound level. For best signal-to-noise ratio, choose
gain settings on your monitor that allow you to use a high VOLUME setting
(about "8") on the Multimoog.
D. Turn on the POWER switch on the rear panel of the Multimoog. The
temperature-regulated oscillators attain operating temperature in about
five minutes; tune after that time and the Multimoog will remain
completely pitch-stable.
E. Refer to GETTING A SOUND section of this manual for first sound.
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tuning up
1. Turn power on and allow heated-
chip oscillators to completely sta
bilize (5 min.)
□
ON
FINE
TUNE
POWER
2. Fine tune Oscillator B using fine
tune control on rear panel.
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POWER
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OCTAVE
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MASTER ASB
FINE
TUNE
3. Tune Oscillator A to match Oscil
lator B using INTERVAL control.
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WAVESHAPE
OSCILLATOR A
MIX
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sound charts
Sound charts are the "paint by numbers" approach to the synthesizer. This
section shows you how to create sounds easily by duplicating sound charts
settings on the control panel of the Multimoog.
The Multimoog makes sounds that you have
synthesized, or created from the basic elements of
sound such as pitch, tone color, and loudness. The
Multimoog can produce a lot of different sounds
because it can manipulate elements of sound. Unlike
the traditional arranger, who chooses from a group of
instruments with somewhat fixed characteristics, the
synthesist is confronted by a continuous spectrum of
instrumental and other sound textures. Because the
sounds of the synthesizer are not as fixed and well-
known as many other instruments, it is necessary to
have a notation system that describes synthesized
sound—sound charts.
A sound chart is a "picture" of control panel
settings that produce a certain sound. Multimoog
sound charts are line drawings of the front control
panel and lower performance panel. Rotary
potentiometers (pots) and selectors are represented
by circles; slide switches are represented by segmen
ted rectangles:
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MULTIMOOC SOUND CHART
The setting for a rotary control or selector
appears within the circle in numbers or characters
appropriate to that control. The setting is also
indicated by a mark on the edge of the circle. Blank
circles indicate that the control should be turned
completely counterclockwise, or it may interfere with
the sound chart. See below for example:
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The tuning of OSCILLATOR A relative to
OSCILLATOR B is shown within the INTERVAL circle
using standard musical nomenclature (m3=minor
third; M2=Major second; P5=perfect fifth; AUG4=
Tritone). A plus sign indicates OSCILLATOR A is tuned
higher than OSCILLATOR B; a negative sign, lower.
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When a single oscillator is used, its letter
appears in the MIX circle. When both oscillators are
used "AB" appears, and relative mix of the two
oscillators is indicated by the mark on the edge of the
circle.
The position of slide switches is always
indicated by blacking in the position in use. An
asterisk in another position of the same slide switch
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Use of the PITCH ribbon and MOD AMOUNT
wheel in the performance panel are indicated with
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wheel for the intended effect is also marked with a
heavy black line, as shown.
MOD
AMOUNT
POWER
PITCH
Like any musical notation, sound charts are
approximate, particularly when they represent
simulations of acoustic instruments. To get the most
from the sound charts, several general ideas may be
helpful:
1. Start from the Preparatory Pattern with all
controls and switches counterclockwise or to
the left; move the MOD AMOUNT wheel fully
down (toward you).
2. Set up the sound chart accurately, but keep in
mind that some "tweaking" (adjustment) may be
required to suit your taste.
3. Change the CUTOFF control first to make tone
color modifications. ATTACK and RELEASE set
tings can also influence the sound greatly.
4. For simulation of traditional instruments, place
the synthesized sound in context by playing in
the appropriate pitch range and select typical
musical lines for that instrument. Playing xylo
14
phone music using a horn sound chart produces
interesting results, but neither instrument will
be represented accurately.
5. Adjust the VOLUME control to the general
loudness level of any instrument simulated. For
example, the trombone is played at a higher
dynamic level than the recorder.
6. Don't forget that you are playing a soloistic
instrument;
solo
instruments
play
with
expression. Use the PITCH ribbon and MOD
AMOUNT wheel to do what soloistic
instruments do best: bend pitch and vibrato
selectively.
The
following
sound
charts
represent
a
cross-section of the sounds the Multimoog can make.
You can skip around since they don't appear in any
particular order. A thoughtful reading of the
comments along with some experimentation will give
you a good idea of the Multimoog's sonic vocabulary.
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SOUND SOURCE: OSCILLATOR B
Advance VOLUME to comfortable listening level.
Play the keyboard and bend pitch with the PITCH
ribbon.
POTTO
Vary CUTOFF to control amount of "highs".
mot
Vary CONTOUR AMOUNT to control amount of
"punch", or contour.
Switch RELEASE to left for different key release.
SINGLE KBD TRIGGERING makes keyboard sense
legato/staccato.
DOUBLE OCTAVES
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SOUND SOURCE: OSCILLATOR B with DOUBLING
Advance VOLUME to comfortable listening level.
Play the keyboard and bend pitch with the PITCH
ribbon.
,
Introduce vibrato by moving MOD AMOUNT wheel
away from you.
Vary RATE to control speed of vibrato.
Vary WAVESHAPE to alter basic tone color.
Vary CUTOFF to control amount of "highs."
THE MOOC™ "FAT" SOUND
SOUND SOURCE: OSCILLATORS A &
B with DOUBLING
Advance VOLUME to comfortable listening level.
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Play the keyboard and bend pitch with the PITCH
ribbon.
PRCH
Switch FILTER MOD BY OSC B to STRONG for
complex phasing effect.
Switch FILTER SUSTAIN to left to sustain filter at
maximum.
Vary EMPHASIS to control "nasality."
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SOUND SOURCE: FILTER in TONE mode
Advance VOLUME to comfortable listening level.
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Play keyboard.
Introduce vibrato by moving MOD AMOUNT wheel
away from you.
Vary RATE to control speed of vibrato.
Vary ATTACK and RELEASE on LOUDNESS CON
TOUR to control articulation characteristics.
Vary CUTOFF to tune (when FILTER MODE is in TONE
position).
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SOUND SOURCE: FILTER in TONE
mode with FILTER MOD BY OSC B
Advance VOLUME to comfortable listening level.
Depress and hold a key.
Switch LOUDNESS SUSTAIN to left to sustain sound
indefinitely.
Vary CUTOFF to produce a variety of sounds.
Switch FILTER MOD BY OSC B to OFF position.
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Advance VOLUME to comfortable listening level.
Depress and hold a key.
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Vary ATTACK and RELEASE on the FILTER CONTOUR
to alter the speed of contoured sound.
Move CONTOUR AMOUNT to -5 to reverse direction
of contoured sound.
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SOUND SOURCE: OSCILLATOR B
Advance VOLUME to comfortable listening level.
Switch SOURCE to S&H AUTO to initiate reiteration.
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Move MOD AMOUNT wheel fully forward (away
from you) to control depth of pattern.
row
Switch ROUTING from FILTER to OSC A&B to create
patterns alternately in tone color or pitch.
Vary RATE to control speed of reiteration.
Switch LOUDNESS
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Try STRONG position of FILTER MOD BY OSC B.
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SOUND SOURCE: OSCILLATOR A
SYNCHED to B
Force exerted on keyboard changes sound.
Switch DESTINATION to FILTER and play.
Switch DESTINATION to OSC A&B. Adjust AMOUNT
to your taste.
Switch EFFECT to MOD. Force controls AMOUNT of
MODULATION.
Switch FILTER MOD BY OSC B to STRONG. (Watch
your ears!)
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SOUND SOURCE:Any external
instrument through AUDIO INPUT
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Insert patchcord from output of external instrument
into Audio Input on rear of Multimoog™.
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Switch BYPASS to ON so external instrument can be
heard.
Play external instrument; move MOD AMOUNT
wheel forward.
Vary CUTOFF and EMPHASIS to influence tone color.
Switch SOURCE to S&H AUTO for random filtering of
external instrument.
Vary RATE to control speed of effects.
Refer to OPEN SYSTEM section of this manual for
further possibilities.
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do-it-yourself demo
This section shows you a way to explore the Multimoog intelligently
and learn by doing.
You can learn a lot about the Multimoog by
playing around with each front panel control while
listening to its effect on sound. This is a time-honored
teaching method in music! The sound chart below
helps save time and energy in learning by exploration-
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EXPLORER'S SOUND CHART
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SOME HINTS FOR EXPLORING . . .
UPPER ROW:
1. Start with the INTERVAL control first and move
from left to right.
2. Play with one control at a time to learn its unique
contribution; then return that control to its
original position shown above.
3. Move the control a small amount at first. Read
the front panel and look at the graphics; relate
these to what you hear.
4. Hold one note as you vary a control. Then play
wheel. Use of the MODULATION section
depends largely on the setting of the MOD
AMOUNT wheel. Start exploration of the
bottom row of controls by moving this wheel
forward (away from you).
7. Experiment with the SOURCE and ROUTING
Selectors.
8. Return the MOD AMOUNT to its orginal
position. Then explore the KEYBOARD TOUCH
section; start by switching the EFFECT switch to
the MOD position. Look at the panel graphics.
the keyboard using different settings; use both
legato and staccato fingering technique. Play
9. Amount of force exerted on keyboard will
5. If a control seems to be inoperative, explore its
relationship to controls next to it. For example,
the WIDE FREQ control works only when the
10. Try the BEND position of the EFFECT switch;
experiment with the DESTINATION selector.
both slow and rapid passages.
OCTAVE selector is in the rightmost setting.
LOWER ROW:
6. A "modulation" (usually a repeating pattern) is
controlled in amount by the MOD AMOUNT
determine amount of modulation when EFFECT
is in the MOD postion.
11. Return EFFECT and MOD AMOUNT wheel to
original positions, and explore rest of lower row
of controls and switches.
12. You can't learn everything immediately by ex
ploration! Read the rest of this manual for a
better understanding of the Multimoog.
guided synthesizer tour
This section has two parts. SOUND AND SYNTHESIS deals with general
features of the synthesizer and discusses how it creates and controls sound.
GUIDED TOUR presents specific features of the Multimoog and presents
exercises that illustrate those features.
SOUND AND SYNTHESIS
Before we look at specific features of the
Multimoog, let's talk about sound and how synthe
sizers make it. The dictionary says that sound is
"mechanical radiant energy that is transmitted by
longitudinal pressure waves in a material medium (as
air) and is the objective cause of hearing." The key
word is mechanical. The body of a violin, the bell of a
trumpet,
or
a loudspeaker
all
serve the same
function: they are mechanical devices used to disturb
air molecules (radiate energy). Air molecules that
disturb the mechanism of your ear affect your brain
and cause you to perceive sound.
Sound is sound There is no such thing as an
"artificial" sound—only sound or silence. A synthe
sized sound is not a replacement for a "real" sound;
all sounds are real.
Although both acoustic and electronic musical
instruments ultimately make sound mechanically, in
one sense the synthesizer is very different from
acoustic instruments. This difference lies in the way
the performer can deal with the properties of sound.
A musical sound is traditionally defined as having the
properties of pitch, timbre (tone color), loudness, and
duration. If we think of duration as simply the timing
of loudness, it is simpler to say that musical sound has
pitch, timbre, and loudness.
Performers
have
traditionally
given
little
thought to the individual properties of sound,
because acoustic instruments generally don't allow
control of sound properties independent of each
other. The physical construction of acoustic
instruments dictates that control of sound properties
is somewhat integrated. For example, because of its
construction, the clarinet has a characteristip timbre
for each pitch register. It would be difficult to play
high notes with the timbre normally associated with
the low register. The trumpet has a built-in
relationship between timbre and loudness: soft
sounds tend to be mellow and loud sounds are
brilliant. For thousands of years musical instruments
have had this characteristic integration of control of
the
properties
of sound.
You just can't tear
instruments made of metal and wood apart easily to
allow independent control over sound properties.
Maybe that's why most musicians have had little
interest in the science of sound—so little could be
done about it. Electronics is changing that.
The rise of electronic technology has revolu
tionized our concepts about sound. Now, with
electronic means we can override some of the physi
cal tendencies of acoustic instruments—hopefully,
for artistic purpose. For instance, screaming-loud
trumpets can be recorded and reduced to a low level
in the final mix. In this case, we have achieved
independent control of loudness and timbre to create
a brilliant, but quiet trumpet sound. Maybe this is
what early composers tried to achieve when they
wrote "off stage" trumpet parts?"
The synthesizer uses electronics to maximize
segregation of the properties of sound. The whole
idea is that you can tear the synthesizer apart elec
tronically, reconfigure its functions, and create many
sounds through the independent control of sound
properties. The very word "synthesize" means to
create a whole through the combination or
composition of individual elements.
The modern synthesizer was developed in the
early 1960's; the acknowledged pioneers are Donald
Buchla and Robert A. Moog. In particular, Moog's
designs and basic ideas have become archetypal for
the synthesizer industry. Early versions weremodu/ar
a modular synthesizer has separate modules, like
components of a stereo system, that offer indepen
dent and variable control over sound properties.
These modules handle electrical signals; modules
may be interconnected in different ways to create a
variety of sounds. An inexpensive and reliable way to
connect modules is with cables called "patchcords."
(Even though you don't use patchcords with the
Multimoog to connect its sections, a given control
panel setting is still often referred to as a "patch.")
modules requiring patchcord connection. (The
modular patchcord synthesizer still offers maximum
Synthesizers designed specifically for stage use
—like the Multimoog—let you "patch" together sec
tions (modules) of the instrument using switches and
pots (potentiometers) instead of patchcords. But for
purposes of learning basic principles let's continue to
think of all synthesizers as having physically separate
flexibility in connection choice.)
Since sound has the properties of pitch, timbre,
and loudness, it follows that the synthesizer would
have rrfodules dealing with each property.
SYNTHESIZER SOUND MODULES
TIMBRE
The synthesizer is electric; it deals with elec
trical signals—sound is generated by the speaker. To
make sound, at least one of the modules must
generate an electrical signal that can drive the speak
er to make sound—an audio signal. Not surprisingly,
we call this module an audio signal generator. Since
this audio signal eventually becomes a sound, an
audio signal generator is sometimes called a "sound
source."
A sound source generates the "raw" tone or
noise that can be shaped into musical sound. You can
take the mouthpiece off a trumpet and "buzz" tunes
with it. That would be a very "raw" sound source!
Further parallels between synthesizer modules and
LOUDNESS
acoustic
instruments
can
be
made.
The
timbre
module acts somewhat like a mute on a trumpet;
neither acts (normally) as a sound source, but each is a
sound modifier. The loudness module is another
modifier, like the bell of the trumpet. Neither acts as
the sound source; each modifies by amplifying sound.
The pitch module of the synthesizer is a sound source,
analogous to the lips, mouthpiece and air column that
make the trumpet sound.
If we connect a sound source on the
synthesizer to a monitor system (amp and speaker), we
have the medical minimum for producing sound with
the synthesizer: a sound whose audio signal is
translated by a speaker.
MINIMUM AUDIO "PATCH"
MONITOR
AMP
&
SPEAKER
SOUND SOURCE
The sound produced by this minimal "patch"
won't be very interesting, since the properties of
sound will be static, or remain the same. Let's insert
SOUND SOURCE
SOUND MODIFIER
the timbre and loudness modifiers between the sound
source and the monitor,
SOUND MODIFIER
MONITOR
AMP
SPEAKER
24
The path from the audio output of the sound
source through the modifiers to the speaker is called
the "audio signal path." The audio signal path carries
electrical signals that are to be made audible by the
speaker. Notice that the sound source has only an
audio output since it actually generates the audio
signal. The modifiers must have both an audio input
as well as an audio output since the audio signal to be
modified flows through them.
At this point, let's use appropriate synthesizer
terminology. The pitch-generating module is called
an "oscillator;" the timbre modifying module is
called a "filter;" and the loudness modifier is called
an "amplifier." The diagram below shows the typical
synthesizer modules used in the audio signal path to
establish a pitched musical voice:
TYPICAL AUDIO SIGNAL PATH MODULES
Once this typical setup is established we have a
musical voice. But how can we control this voicesound source and modifiers—to make music? The
synthesizer is an electrical instrument; it responds to
electrical signals. But humans can't handle and
manipulate electricity directly. So we use a
mechanical/ electrical device, like a potentiometer
(pot) that will let the two machines (human and
Multimoog) communicate. For the human, the pot
has a knob that can be turned by hand; for the
Multimoog, a change in the pot setting changes an
electrical value that the Multimoog understands.
In fact, important elements of sound on the
modern synthesizer are controlled by voltage levels.
The modern synthesizer is "voltage controlled." If we
put a pot on each module above we could control its
particular function—pitch generation, timbre or
loudness modification—with a change of voltage by
turning the pot. With the Multimoog, an increase in
voltage that is controlling an oscillator makes the
pitch rise; an increase in a voltage that is controlling
the filter causes the timbre to brighten; and an
increase in voltage that is controlling the amplifier
makes the sound louder.
So far, we have a voltage controlled instrument
that can be played by turning knobs. If you had three
hands, you could make some, pretty good music!
Making music by playing knobs would be very
restrictive. Fortunately, with the synthesizer we are
not restricted to this sort of manual control. The
synthesizer's important modules can be controlled
with voltage from any source. So we create a control
input on appropriate modules to accept control
voltages from any source. To avoid confusion with the
audio (sound) signals flowing from left to right, let's
think of these control inputs as appearing on the
bottom of each module, as shown:
CONTROL INPUTS
OSCILLATOR
FILTER
AMPLIFIER
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Now we can route control signals into the con
trol input of each module shown above to dynami
cally control its function. Think of a control signal fed
into the control input as acting like an invisible hand
that turns the knob for you. Voltage controlled
modules are sometimes referred to with letters, such
as VCO (voltage controlled oscillator), VCF (voltage
controlled filter), and VCA (voltage controlled
amplifier). Although any number of modules may be
voltage controlled, these are the most common—
VCO, VCF, VCA.
Anything that makes a proper signal that is
connected to a control input is defined as a controller.
On a modular synthesizer, the output of a controller
would be connected to the control input of a module
with a patchcord as shown:
CONTROLLER—CONTROL INPUT CONNECTION
VCO
VCF
VCA
TO
MONITOR
CONTROLLER
CONTROLLER
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On the Multimoog, control signals may be
connected to control inputs using a variety of
switches and selectors. Or a control signal from the
outside world might be routed through the FILTER or
OSC A&B INPUT on the rear panel. Each control input
on the Multimoog is capable of adding all of the
voltages that are applied from several controllers;
that is, control voltages are additive.
A keyboard is a controller that makes discrete
voltage steps which increase as you play up the key
board. If this controller is connected to the control
input of the VCO, the keyboard can be used to
control the pitch of the VCO and tunes can be played.
Harmon mute. As you move your hand away from the
A contour generator is a controller that creates
a rising and falling voltage pattern, a contour. If we
connect this controller to the control input of the
"triggered.")
VCA, the amount of amplification (silence to
maximum) will be controlled. This lets us articulate
the sound.
The VCF can also be controlled by a contour
generator. When this occurs, the tone color will typi
cally become brighter as the contour voltage rises,
and duller as it falls. To get back to our comparison
with the trumpet, suppose that you were using a
26
CONTROLLER
plunger in the center of the mute, you create the
familiar "wow" or "wah-wah" effect. Your hand is
acting as a contour generator, controlling the filter
(mute).
Of course, we have to tell a contour generator
when to start and stop creating contours. For this
purpose, the synthesizer produces another type of
signal called a "trigger." The keyboard generates a
trigger signal that tells when a key is depressed and
released—useful information. A trigger is a timing
signal that "triggers" the contour generator(s). (On
some modular equipment, other functions can be
I n summary, the modern synthesizer consists of
several elements: sound sources, modifiers, control
lers, and trigger sources. Sound sources make audio
signals that can be heard. Modifiers alter signals. Con
trollers make signals used to control sound sources
and/or modifiers. Triggers are timing signals that
usually initiate the action of a controller such as a
contour generator. See below for a block diagram of
the basic voltage controlled synthesizer.
SYNTHESIZER BLOCK DIAGRAM (BASIC)
SOUND SOURCE
SOUND MODIFIER
SOUND MODIFIER
vco
VCF
VCA
AUDIO
KEYBOARD
FILTER
CONTOUR
LOUDNESS
CONTOUR
CONTROLLER
CONTROLLER
CONTROLLER
KEYBOARD
TRIGGER SOURCE
GUIDED TOUR
In this sub-section we will look at the sound sources, modifiers, controllers, and
triggering devices found on the Multimoog. Exercises are presented "by the
numbers" to help explain specific features. You might skim through the first
time by doing just the exercises before reading the GUIDED TOUR thoroughly.
(Set up the Sound Chart that precedes each exercise; follow numbered
instructions precisely for best results.)
SOUND SOURCES
The OSCILLATOR A and B, FILTER, and NOISE
sections of the Multimoog generate different audio
signals in order to create three classes of sound:
pitched, clangorous (bell-like), and non-pitched.
PITCHED SOUNDS
literally, their frequency becomes greater. Frequency
is expressed in "Hertz" (abbreviated Hz), or cycles per
second. The symphony orchestra tunes to an "A" that
has a frequency of 440 Hz; standard tuning is
therefore A=440 Hz. Although the correspondence
between frequency and what we perceive as "pitch"
is not perfect, a higher frequency is generally heard as
a higher pitch.
We hear pitch as the highness or lowness of a
sound. The piccolo plays high pitches; the tuba plays
low pitches. Our perception of pitch is complex, but
depends mostly on how frequently and regularly
OSCILLATOR SECTION
pressure waves strike our ears. When you were a kid,
you probably made a fake "motor" for your bicycle by
Multimoog are two voltage controlled oscillators, A
and B, with associated MASTER A&B controls. Each
attaching a piece of cardboard so the spokes struck it
regularly. You probably weren't aware that you were
illustrating an interesting law of physics! The faster
you pedal, the higher the pitch of the sound caused by
the spokes striking the cardboard. That's because the
individual strokes are heard more frequently—
The primary sources of pitched sound on the
oscillator generates periodic—regularly repeating—
electrical patterns that the speaker can translate into
pitched sounds. The following exercise illustrates the
relationship between the frequency of an oscillator
(OSCILLATOR B in this case), and the pitch of the
sound it creates:
EXERCISE 1: OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY/PITCH RELATIONSHIP
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1. Hold the lowest key on the keyboard down. The
frequency of the oscillator is so low the sound is
heard not as a pitch, but a series of clicks.
3. Return the WIDE FREQ control to "-5." Slowly
2. Slowly rotate the WIDE FREQ control of the
MASTER A&B section clockwise toward "O." As
you increase the frequency of the oscillator, the
pitch of the sound becomes higher.
4. Select the 8'OCTAVE position.
play up the keyboard. Where do you first start
hearing the sound as a note with definite pitch?
5. Tune the Multimoog using the FINE TUNE
control on the rear panel to match thepitch level
of a piano or organ (or another tuning source).
6. Hold the lowest key on the keyboard.
12. Rotate the MIX control to the A=B position to
hear both oscillators.
7. Step the OCTAVE selector through all of its
positions and rotate the WIDE FREQ control for
each position. Notice that the WIDE FREQ
control is operable only when the OCTAVE
selector is in the rightmost position.
13. Rotate the INTERVAL control of OSCILLATOR A
to UNISON. The INTERVAL control tunes
OSCILLATOR A relative to OSCILLATOR B. Try
different intervallic tunings.
8. Return the OCTAVE selector to the 8' position.
Notice that the intervening movements of the
WIDE FREQ control did not interfere with the
14. Play with the MASTER A&B OCTAVE and WIDE
FREQ controls to confirm that they control both
oscillators. Return OCTAVE to 8'.
9. Hold down a key in the middle of the keyboard.
15. Rotate the MIX control fully clockwise to hear
OSCILLATOR B only. Introduce doubling using
the DOUBLING control.
original tuning.
10. Move the DOUBLING control slowly clockwise
toward the "+5" position; then counterclock
wise toward "-5." Note that the pitch sounded by
16. Rotate the INTERVAL control on OSC! LLATOR A
widely.
OSCILLATOR B may be doubled either one or
two octaves lower than the primary pitch, as
indicated by panel graphics.
(Has
no
effect on the tuning of
OSCILLATOR B or its doubling.)
17. Move the FINE TUNE control on the rear panel.
(Tunes OSCILLATOR B.)
11. Return the DOUBLING control to original "0"
position.
18. Turn MIX fully counterclockwise to listen to
OSCILLATOR A. Move FINE TUNE control.
(Tunes OSCILLATOR A also.)
(END EXERCISE)
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The controls that affect the pitch of both
oscillators are OCTAVE, WIDE FREQ, and FINE TUNE
on the rear panel. INTERVAL controls the pitch of
OSCILLATOR A independently. DOUBLING relates
only to OSCILLATOR B.
The OCTAVE selector moves both oscillators in
octave increments from 32 to 2/ (the sign (') is
borrowed pipe organ terminology indicating pipe
lengths, hence "foot.") The "C" in the midctle of the
keyboard is footage reference. The rightmost position
of OCTAVE activates the WIDE FREQ control.
The WIDE FREQ controls provides a means of
tuning continuously over approximately eight
octaves. When activated, the WIDE FREQ control may
be used to transpose, or make the oscillators sound in
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one key while you play in another key on the
keyboard. The use of a capo with an acoustic guitar is a
good analogy. (CAPO: A movable bar attached to the
fingerboard, especially of a guitar to uniformly raise
the pitch of all the strings.) Generally, it's good
practice to avoid using the FINE TUNE control to help
tune WIDE FREQ transpositions, because the other
OCTAVE settings will be affected, and hence the
overall tuning of the instrument.
The FINE TUNE control on the rear panel is the
overall fine tuning control. That is, it tunes both
oscillators, regardless of their intervallic relationship.
For instance, if the oscillators are tuned to a Perfect
Fifth, they willstay in that interval, but will be tuned up
or down by the FINE TUNE control.
29
The INTERVAL control tunes OSCILLATOR A
relative to OSCILLATOR B, over a span of ±P5 (like
violin strings). For proper tuning of the instrument,
one or two octaves lower than OSCILLATOR B
tune OSCILLATOR B using the FINE TUNE control;
OSCILLATOR B.
then tune OSCILLATOR A to match OSCILLATOR B.
The DOUBLING control isn't really a tuning
control. It is a panpot that mixes in a tonethat is either
DOUBLING
can't
get
"out
of tune"
with
You can use the INTERVAL and DOUBLING
controls to produce "parallel chords," for example:
GIVEN THIS TUNING:
.UNISON
INTERVAL
WAVESHAPE
OSCILLATOR A
MIX
OCTAVE
^ WIDEFREQ
MASTER ASB
V
WHEN YOU PLAY:
WAVESHAPE
DOUBLING
OSCILLATOR B
YOU HEAR:
ts:
So far, we've referred to the audio signal
generated by an oscillator only as an "electrical
pattern." This pattern is called a "waveshape." A
waveshape is simply a way of piauring a sound; the
waveshape of acoustic instruments or the oscillator of
a synthesizer may be observed on an oscilloscope.
Most traditional instruments have a distinctive
waveshape that helps us identify that instrument's
timbre, or tone color. The Multimoog has oscillators
that
produce
electrical
waveshapes which
are
translated by the speaker into a wide variety of
timbres. If a signal generated by an oscillator has the
same waveshape as a sound created by a traditional
instrument (other factors such as attack and release
considered), their sounds will be similar. Different
waveshapes can have different timbres; set up the
sound chart and let's listen:
EXERCISE 2: OSCILLATOR WAVESHAPE/TIMBRE RELATIONSHIP
r
1. Hold any key on the keyboard down. You are
listening to the sound of a "sawtooth"
waveshape.
control. The waveshapes are named after their
shapes.
2. Slowly rotate the OSCILLATOR B WAVESHAPE
control through its positions. Between positions
"5-6" you will hear the sound of the "square"
waveshape. As you move toward "10," you hear
various "rectangular" waveshapes.
3. Look at the panel graphics for the WAVESHAPE
4. Move the WAVESHAPE control smoothly and
regularly above and below, say, position "5."
When the waveshape changes like this it is said
to be "dynamic." Later you'll learn how to
control oscillator waveshape with a voltage to
create dynamic waveshapes automatically.
(END EXERCISE)
30
The differences that you hear among the
various waveshapes are due to their different
harmonic structures. A waveshape may bethought of
as a collection of simple components called "partials."
Most pitched sounds consist of a first partial called the
"fundamental/' and other partials that are higher and
often not as loud. When the frequencies (pitches) of
the upper partials are whole number multiples of the
frequency of the fundamental, all the partials are
called "harmonics." (They are in a harmonic
relationship to each other.) That is, a tone with a
fundamental frequency of 100 Hz may be composed
of simple sounds (sine waves) having the frequencies
100 Hz, 200 Hz, 300 Hz, 400 Hz, and so forth. (Whole
number multiples of the fundamental frequency 100
Hz.)
Upper partials that
reinforce
our
perception
are
of
harmonic tend
the
to
fundamental
WAVESHAPE
frequency as the "pitch" we hear. The presence and
relative strengths of harmonics—the harmonic
spectrum—accounts in part for our perception of the
timbre, or distinctive tone color of instruments.
Each WAVESHAPE control provides a con
tinuous selection of waveshapes with a variety of
harmonic spectra, or arrangements of partials. These
waveshapes are the basic timbral building blocks. The
harmonic spectrum of a waveshape is often depicted
in bar graph form as shown below. The position of a
bar along the horizontal indicates the presence of a
harmonic; the height of that bar represents the
relative strength of that harmonic. (Relative strengths
are also indicated with fractions or decimals). The
following graphs depict the harmonic spectra for
some of the waveshapes available on the Multimoog;
the first ten partials of a tone of 100 Hz are depicted:
RELATIVE HARMONIC CONTENT
16 "7 i/e 1.-9 ,,,c
H: 0
100
200
3OC 400
SOO
600
■5
J
0
!0O
200 300 400
0
100
200
0
100
200 300 400
WOE RECTANGULAR
Hj
I
300
I
400
700
BOO 900 1000
I
^30 600
700 800
J_ .* I
I •«»
I
700
800
i
I
900 1000
500 600 700
800
900 1000
500
•
600
900 1000
MARROW RECTANGULAR
Each oscillator on the Multimoog generates
sawtooth and rectangular waveshapes. A square
waveshape is a rectangular waveshape whose top and
bottom are of equal width. As the graphs show, the
sawtooth /I waveshape has all harmonics; it is
useful in producing string and brass-like sounds. The
square waveshape iTl has only odd-numbered
(1,3,5,7,
etc.)
harmonics;
it
is
used to simulate
"hollow" sounding instruments such as the clarinet.
As the rectangular wave becomes asymmetrical (lop-
sided)— |~~1_ , f]
, |[_ , — its harmonic
spectrum changes in a complex manner, producing
"nasal" sounds useful for simulating single and
double-reed instruments.
31
.UNISON,
INTERVAL
W/WESHAPE
OSCILLATOR A
MIX
WAVESHAPE
DOUBLING
OSCILLATOR B
Each WAVESHAPE control allows continuous
selection and mixture of the waveshapes produced by
that OSCILLATOR section. The position marked "O"
provides the sawtooth waveshape; as the control is
moved clockwise this sawtooth waveshape is mixed
with a narrow rectangular waveshape (about "2"). As
the WAVESHAPE control is moved toward "5," the
rectangular wave widens, becomes a square
waveshape, and the sawtooth disappears from the
top. Between positions "5-6" a square waveshape is
produced, and as the control is moved on toward
"10/' the square waveshape narrows to a very narrow
rectangular waveshape. The narrowness of this
rectangular waveshape is limited so the sound will
never "disappear" at any WAVESHAPE position. The
Multimoog provides a variety of waveshapes:
sawtooth, square, variable rectangular, and a mixture
of sawtooth and variable rectangular waveshapes. An
understanding of the harmonicspectra of waveshapes
is very useful in sound synthesis. Also, experience
eventually teaches you a lot about which waveshape is
best for an intended sound.
FILTER SECTION AS SOUND SOURCE
Although the primary function of the FILTER
section is tone modification, the FILTER will also act as
a sound source. When the FILTER MODE switch is
placed in the TONE position, the FILTER section
generates a sine waveshape (a whistle-like sound) that
has no harmonics. Set up the sound chart and
proceed:
EXERCISE 3: FILTER AS SINE WAVESHAPE OSCILLATOR
1. Play the keyboard. You are listening to the sound
of a sine waveshape that is produced by the
FILTER section.
2. Place the FILTER MODE switch to the NORM
position. Play the keyboard (no sound). Return
the FILTER MODE switch to the TONE position.
The FILTER section becomes a sound source only
when this switch is in the TONE position; this
prevents filter "howl" accidents in
performance!
5. Hold any key on the keyboard down. Rotate the
CUTOFF control over a wide span. When the
FILTER section is in the TONE mode, the
CUTOFF control acts as a wide span tuning
control. Play with the OCTAVE control again.
6. Play a short melodic fragment repeatedly. Try
different settings of the CUTOFF control. Note
that the same melody is produced at different
pitch levels. The position of the CUTOFF control
adds to the keyboard to establish the pitch
produced.
3. Try different settings of the OCTAVE selector in
the MASTER A&B section. (OCTAVE tunes the
FILTER as well as the oscillators.)
4. Return OCTAVE to 32' position.
7. Notice that the OSCILLATORS are not being
used as a sound source since the OSCILLATORS
switch is in the OFF position. You have heard
only the FILTER section in TONE mode.
(END OF EXERCISE)
32
In the previous exercise, the OSCILLATORS are
actually not turned "off," but simply removed from
the audio signal path so we don't hear them. The
OSCILLATORS generate audio signals continuouslyeven when we choose not to listen to them. The
OSCILLATORS switch is placed in the OFF position
used as sound sources simultaneously. When this is
done, the filter can be "synchronized," or locked
together at harmonic intervals (whole number
multiples) to the oscillator. If you use the CUTOFF
control to tune the FILTER section to sound the same
pitch as the oscillator, they will be "synched" at the
fundamental. The OCTAVE selector will cause the
FILTER CUTOFF to move in octaves as well as the pitch
of the oscillator(s). The following exercise illustrates
synchronization of an oscillator and the FILTER
because we don't want to hear the oscillators, but wish
to hear the sound produced by the FILTER section
alone.
FILTER/OSCILLATOR
SYNCHRONIZATION
Some
unusual
sounds
section:
can
be
made
if
either/both oscillators and the FILTER section are
EXERCISE 4: OSCILLATOR/FILTER SYNCHRONIZATION
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1. Note that both OSCILLATOR B and the FILTER
sections are used as sound sources: the
OSCILLATORS switch is set to NORM, and the
FILTER MODE switch is to TONE.
2. Hold down a key in the middle of the keyboard.
3. Adjust the CUTOFF control until growling and
beating disappear (should be around "O.")
4. Play the keyboard. The OSCILLATOR and FILTER
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5. The FILTER section may be synchronized at a
harmonic of the oscillator frequency. Slowly
move the CUTOFF control clockwise,
controlling the frequency of the FILTER section.
When the beats disappear, the FILTER section is
synchronized to a harmonic of the oscillator
frequency.
6. Try different CUTOFF settings that "synch" with
the oscillator. Play the keyboard.
sections are "synched" at the fundamental.
When the pitch of the FILTER section matches
the pitch of the OSCILLATOR B section (CUTOFF to
about "O"), and both are used as sound sources as
shown above, they are synchronized at the
fundamental frequency of the oscillator. Continue
the exercise:
7. Move the DOUBLING control clockwise away
from "O." This provides a tone two octaves
lower than the pitch of OSCILLATOR B. You
should now hear three tones: two from
OSCILLATOR
B
and
one from the FILTER
section.
(END EXERCISE)
When the FILTER section is in the TONE mode,
it becomes another sound source. It may be used in
conjunrtion with the oscillators. When DOUBLING is
added, and both oscillators are used, it is possible to
have four tones which will follow the keyboard in
parallel. The oscillators produce three and the filter
produces the fourth. (If you tune the oscillators to a
strange interval, the filter may become confused as to
which to synch to; experiment and you'll find the
useful settings.)
33
CLANGOROUS SOUNDS
So-called clangorous sounds are often
characterized as being metallic or "bell-like." A
characteristic feature of a bell sound is the presence of
partials that are not harmonic. That is, partials that do
not stand in whole number relationships to each
other. On the Multimoog, when the FILTER section is
in the TONE mode it is possible to use the FILTER
MOD BY OSC B switch to create non-harmonics that
give the impression of metallic or bell-like sounds.
The following exercise shows how to produce
clangorous sounds:
EXERCISE 5: FILTER MODULATION BY OSCILLATOR B
arrow —=?
1. Hold the lowest key on the keyboard down.
2. Switch FILTER MOD BY OSC B to the WEAK
position. You should hear a repeating pattern.
OSCILLATOR B is now modulating (changing)
the cutoff frequency of the FILTER section,
rapidly changing the pitch produced by the
FILTER.
3. Slowly rotate the WIDE FREQ control in the
OSCILLATOR B section to increase thespeec/ of
the modulation. At some point your ear no
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longer hears the individual repetitions, but
perceives the rapid modulation as a new timbre.
4. Play the keyboard. Try different WIDE FREQ
settings.
5. The sound produced depends on the frequency
and waveshape produced by the OSCILLATOR B
section, and the frequency that the FILTER
section is producing. Explore these clangorous
sounds by trying various settings of WAVESHAPE
(B), WIDE FREQ, DOUBLING, and CUTOFF
controls.
(END EXERCISE)
This is an example of use of an oscillator as a
controller. Notice that we are not listening to an
oscillator as a sound source, since the OSCILLATORS
switch is to OFF. But OSCILLATOR B control settings
still affect the sound, because that oscillator has been
connected to the control input of the FILTER section.
To make an analogy, your fingers don't make sound
when you play the violin, but they control the sound.
When you create vibrato on the violin you are
modulating the frequency of the sound. A very wide
and rapid vibrato on the violin—if humanly possiblewould create new sound textures that are bell-like.
On the Multimoog it is possible for the OSCILLATOR
B section to act like a finger on the string to modulate
the pitch produced by the FILTER section very rapidly.
WEAK and STRONG positions on the FILTER MODE
switch represent the relative amount of frequency
modulation.
NON-PITCHED SOUNDS
NOISE SECTION
In synthesizer language, "noise" is a random
signal—a rushing, static-like sound. The sound you
hear between channels on FM radio is an example of
noise.
The NOISE section of the Multimoog provides
"pink noise" that has been balanced to have equal
34
energy in all octaves. So, it sounds neither too high
and hissy, nor too low and rumbling. Noise does not
have harmonics like the waveshapes produced by an
oscillator; noise may be thought of as all frequencies
occuring randomly, or without order. The following
exercise shows you what unmodified noise sounds
like on the Multimoog:
EXERCISE 6: LISTENING TO THE NOISE SECTION
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1. Hold down the highest key on the keyboard.
You are listening to pink noise.
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3. Since we want to hear the NOISE section as the
sole sound source, the sound of the oscillators
must be removed by placing the OSCILLATORS
switch to OFF. Also, since the FILTER is not
desired as a sound source, the FILTER MODE
switch must not be in the TONE-position.
2. Note that the LEVEL control of the NOISE section
must be turned up (toward "10") in order to hear
noise.
(END EXERCISE)
Noise is often filtered and shaped to suggest the sounds of wind, surf, jets, cymbals and other
percussion instruments.
MODIFIERS
A modifier is an electronic device that
processes or alters a signal. The Multimoog's
modifiers alter audio signals coming from the sound
sources, changing the sound. A modifier has both an
input and an output since the signal to be modified
must flow through it. A simple tone control on a
stereo set, a phaser, wah-wah pedal, are modifiers of
sound since they changethenatureofthe audio signal
that passes through them.
The Multimoog has two modifiers, a voltage
controlled amplifier (VCA) that is not depicted on the
front panel; and a voltage controlled filter (VCF) as
represented by the FILTER section.
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VCA, OR VOLTAGE
CONTROLLED AMPLIFIER
The voltage controlled amplifier 'of the
Multimoog is responsible for articulating sound by
modifying its loudness. The VCA itself is not depicted
on the front panel; its associated LOUDNESS
CONTOUR section provides a control voltage that
opens and closes the VCA, creating articulations of
sound. The VCA may be held completely open
(maximum gain, or loudness) by placing the BYPASS
slide switch to ON. When BYPASS is OFF, the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR is connected to the control
input of the voltage controlled amplifier and is used as
a controller to open and close the VCA. This allows
control over rise time (attack), or the beginning of a
sound; and fall time (release), or the final portion of a
sound. The following Exercise illustrates:
35
EXERCISE 7: MODIFYING LOUDNESS BY CONTROLLING THE VCA
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1. Place BYPASS switch to ON position. You should
hear sound continuously, since the voltage
controlled amplifier (VCA) is being held
completely open ("bypassed").
note that the sound is articulated with
immediate attack and release (beginning and
end).
then release. The sound is articulated with nearly
4. Vary the ATTACK control in the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR slightly. Play keyboard. The initial
part of the sound, or attack time, is increased as
you move the control clockwise.
3. Notice that the ATTACK and RELEASE controls of
the LOUDNESS CONTOUR are set for
immediate attack and release. Play keyboard and
5. Vary the RELEASE control in the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR. Notice that the timing of the final
portion, or release of the sound is increased as
2. Return BYPASS switch to OFF. Depress any key,
immediate attack and release.
you move the control clockwise.
(END EXERCISE)
When the BYPASS switch is in its normal OFF
position, the LOUDNESS CONTOUR section is
connected to the control input of the voltage
controlled amplifier (VCA). The LOUDNESS
CONTOUR creates a voltage "contour" (sometimes
called "envelope") which opens and closes the VCA,
shaping the loudness of any sound passing through
the VCA.
Use of the LOUDNESS CONTOUR section to
control the VCA doesn't "turn on" any of the sound
sources—they are always potentially available for use.
The sound source in use is always present at the audio
input of the VCA; the VCA modifies the sound source
by amplifying it. The amount of this amplification is
controlled by the LOUDNESS CONTOUR section
when it generates a signal that "contours," or
increases and decreases the gain (amplification) of the
VCA.
FILTER SECTION
A filter modifies sound the way the name
implies—it removes a portion of the sound. The
Multimoog features the patented Moog™ wide range
lowpass resonant filter. This unique filter plays a role
in creating the distinctive and recognizable "Moog
Sound" that has become popular.
The Multimoog's FILTER section is a lowpass
filter; this filter acts to pass the lows of a sound and
reject the highs. The FILTER section attenuates, or
"cuts off" the higher frequency components—those
which lie above the adjustable "cutoff frequency,"
and passes the lower frequency components of the
signal passing through. The CUTOFF control sets this
36
cutoff frequency. The cutoff frequency is lowered as
the CUTOFF control is moved counterclockwise; the
lower the cutoff frequency, the fewer highs a signal
will have after passing through the filter.
A waveshape is rounded and smoothed as the
CUTOFF control is moved counterclockwise. When
the cutoff frequency is so low it approaches the
fundamental frequency of the waveshape, almost all
of the upper harmonics are cut off and the signal
approximates a sine waveshape (pure tone with no
harmonics). If the CUTOFF control is set to cause a
very low cutoff frequency, all sound may be cut off
and silence will result. The following Exercise
illustrates FILTER section features:
EXERCISE 8: MODIFYING A WAVESHAPE WITH THE FILTER SECTION
«m*M
1. Hold down any key on the keyboard. You are
listening to the sound of an unfiltered sawtooth
waveshape.
onuiets
niqwec
reramx
nttu
sstw
toaaas
uui
umcmb
cms
6. Move the EMPHASIS control to "10." Now move
the CUTOFF control. You can actually hear each
harmonic in the sawtooth waveshape as you
2. While listening, slowly rotate the CUTOFF
control counterclockwise. Notice that the sound
becomes less bright and buzzy, and eventually
becomes muted, and finally disappears when all
partials are cut off.
The diagrams below show what happens to a
sawtooth waveshape as you progressively cut off the
"highs" by rotating the CUTOFF control
counterclockwise:
7
move the cutoff frequency through it. Now you
can confirm that the sawtooth waveshape has all
harmonics of the harmonic series.
The EMPHASIS control is used to emphasize, or
feed back energy right at the cutoff frequency. This
makes the presence of harmonics more apparent
when the CUTOFF control is moved. Higher
EMPHASIS settings increase the height of a resonant
peak at the cutoff frequency; look at the panel
graphics by the EMPHASIS control for an illustration.
Maximum emphasis is reached at position "10." When
the EMPHASIS control is set high, it is possible to hear
the individual harmonics present in any waveshape.
Continue the Exercise:
7. Hold down a key on the keyboard.
y
Now let's explore the use of the EMPHASIS control:
3. Hold down a low key on the keyboard.
4. Check to see that the EMPHASIS control is at
"O."
5. Move the CUTOFF control throughout its
positions. Even though you are passing through
harmonics as you move the CUTOFF control,
you can't distinguish each harmonic as the the
cutoff frequency passes through it.
8- check to see that the EMPHASIS control is at
10.'
9. Select different WAVESHAPE (B) settings and
move the CUTOFF control; see if you can hear
the harmonics in the waveshape as the cutoff
frequency passes through them.
(END EXERCISE)
Noise may be filtered to produce some unusual sound effects. Try the following Exercise:
37
EXERCISE 9: MODIFYING NOISE WITH THE FILTER SECTION
OQOQOOQB
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ij
nmsurt
ma
ocurt
^» mm«
mmxitt
oas
oonynw
jtawnti WI
»«iim
ma /-v.
nuta/s.
■OUONSSB COMTOUfl
CX5
awe
MOBUtATIQW
inn
1. Hold down any key on the keyboard. The sound
source is the NOISE section.
Muna
3. Set the EMPHASIS control to "10." Now move
the CUTOFF control throughout its positions.
You should hear "wind" sounds varying pitch.
2. Slowly rotate the CUTOFF control
counterclockwise. The highs are progressively
Noise doesn't have harmonics that can be
picked out as the cutoff frequency is moved.
"cut off."
(END EXERCISE)
The FILTER section modifies noise just as it
modifies any signal—by cutting off the highs. The
preceding Exercise illustrates not only how the FILTER
section works, but the "smooth" distribution of
frequencies in noise. Even when EMPHASIS is high, no
distinctive harmonics are heard in noise. But, at high
EMPHASIS control settings noise will begin to take on
a "pitch" determined by the cutoff frequency. This is
because only that portion of noise around the cutoff
frequency is emphasized, making it easier to hear.
CONTROLLERS
A controller generates a signal that is used to
control modifiers and/or sound sources. On the
Multimoog, controllers may be used to alter oscillator
frequency and waveshape, filter cutoff frequency,
and amplifier gain. Control signals are not heard
directly, but are used to control sections that generate
or modify sound. To return to our discussion of sound,
this means we can control pitch, timbre, and loudness
with a voltage level.
When a circuit is connected to the control
input of a section of the Multimoog, that circuit is
defined as a controller. From experience, you know
that the keyboard can control the pitch of the
oscillator section; here is how it does it. The keyboard
circuitry produces a voltage level that increases as you
play up the keyboard. The keyboard is connected to
the frequency control input of the oscillator section
by placing the OSCILLATORS switch to the NORM
position. Since the oscillator section is voltage
controlled (VCO), an increase in voltage from the
keyboard causes an increase of oscillator frequency.
When you play up the keyboard, oscillator pitch goes
higher.
38
the
Other controllers on the Multimoog include
FILTER CONTOUR section, LOUDNESS
CONTOUR section; modulation oscillator and
sample-and-hold circuits selected by the
MODULATION section. In some cases, the
OSCILLATOR B section may be used as a controller.
Control signals from the outside world may also be
routed to the OSCILLATOR A&B and FILTER sections
via the OSC A&B and FILTER INPUTS on the
Multimoog's rear panel (see OPEN SYSTEM section of
the manual).
The PITCH ribbon is a performance controller
because its voltage output is directly under the
control of the performer. Often this is the case with
the KEYBOARD TOUCH section as well.
KEYBOARD
The keyboard of the Multimoog produces a
voltage level that may be used to control the
frequency of the oscillators and/or the cutoff
frequency of the FILTER section. The following
Exercise shows how the keyboard may be used as a
controller:
EXERCISE 10: KEYBOARD CONTROL OF OSCILLATOR/FILTER SECTIONS
oq ceo qopp^oo
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Kuit
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wensmn
pfrutimc
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gcmtoos
■*i i ■
1. Set up the sound chart and play up and down the
keyboard. The frequency of (both) oscillators is
being controlled by the keyboard. Notice that
the OSCILLATORS switch is in the NORM
(normal) position.
crises /"v^
ttiiuut^^
LBUDWIM CCJIMI OUff
I I ■*! I
signal from the keyboard controls
frequency. Continue the Exercise:
the
cutoff
6. Leave the FILTER MODE switch in the FULL
position; Leave the OSCILLATORS switch in the
DRONE position.
2. Place the OSCILLATORS switch in the DRONE
position. Now play the keyboard. (No pitch
change—pitch "drones.")
The NORM position of the OSCILLATORS
switch places both OSCILLATOR A and B under
keyboard control. That is, it connects the keyboard to
the frequency control inputs of the oscillators. The
DRONE position of the OSCILLATORS switch
removes the oscillators from keyboard control;
playing the keyboard will have no effect on oscillator
frequency.
Notice that, in the NORM position, the levels
coming from the keyboard have been scaled to create
a diatonic (12 tone) scale. Other scales are possible
with "open system" manipulation of the keyboard
output. (See OPEN SYSTEM section).
Also, if you listen carefully you will hear a
change in tone color when the OSCILLATORS switch
is in the DRONE position, even though the pitch is not
changed. Let's explore this by continuing the
7. Place the GLIDE control to '5." Switch GLIDE
switch to ON.
8. Again, play lowest and highest keys alternately.
Timbre "glides" between keys now.
This indicates that the GLIDE control affects the
keyboard signal. Judging from some gliding pitch
sounds that are heard from the synthesizer, one might
think that the GLIDE control does something to the
oscillator—this is not the case. The GLIDE control
slows down the output of keyboard changes; the
keyboard output then glides between voltage steps
instead of jumping between them. Since we have
been using the keyboard to control only the cutoff
frequency of the FILTER, use of the GLIDE control
causes only the timbre to glide between keys. If we
choose to control oscillator frequency, the gliding
keyboard control signal will cause the pitch of the
oscillator to glide. Let's hear it:
Exercise:
3. Leave the OSCILLATORS switch in the DRONE
position.
4. Alternately play the lowest and highest keys on
the keyboard. The pitch doesn't change, but the
timbre of the sound does. Notice that the FILTER
MODE switch is presently in the NORM
position.
5. Place the FILTER MODE switch in the FULL
position. Now the difference in timbre between
the lowest and highest keys [s more
pronounced.
The preceding shows that the cutoff frequency
of the FILTER section is under keyboard control in
both the NORM and FULL positions of the FILTER
MODE switch. In the NORM position only half of the
keyboard voltage is allowed to control the cutoff
frequency; in the FULL position all of the control
9. Place the oscillators under keyboard control by
moving the OSCILLATORS switch to the NORM
position.
10. Play the keyboard. The pitch of the oscillators
glide when under keyboard control and GLIDE is
used. The keyboard signal that is controlling
pitch is gliding.
11. Remove the oscillators from keyboard control
by moving the OSCILLATORS switch to DRONE.
12. Play. Oscillator pitch is no longer under
keyboard control, but the filter cutoff frequency
is, as evidenced by the gliding tone color
changes.
13. Return the GLIDE control to "0." Now play;
there will be no gliding of tone color, or timbre.
39
The preceding confirms that GLIDE affects the
keyboard signal.
The OFF position of the OSCILLATORS switch
and the TONE position of the FILTER MODE switch
remain to be explored:
For now, let's just note that the OFF position of the
OSCILLATORS switch removes the sound of the oscil
lators but places them under keyboard control.
LOUPNESS CONTOUR SECTION
14. Place the OSCILLATORS switch to the OFF
position. Play. No sound—the oscillator has
been removed from the audio signal path—but
(take our word) the oscillator is still under
control of the keyboard.
15. Place the FILTER MODE switch to the TONE
position. Play. The FILTER section is generating a
sine waveshape which follows the keyboard.
A basic aspect of music is the control of not only
when, but how a sound begins and ends—attack and
release characteristics. Most organ-like electronic
musical instruments offer control over when, but not
how the loudness of a sound is shaped. The
Multimoog offers excellent control of articulation, or
the shaping of loudness.
The LOUDNESS CONTOUR
section
is
a
contour (sometimes called "envelope") generator; its
ATTACK and RELEASE controls may be set to produce
(END EXERCISE)
The reason for placing the filter under full
keyboard control in the TONE mode should be
apparent enough. We want to control it from the
keyboard when it's making a tone. The reason we
want the oscillators to follow the keyboard even
though we are not hearing them will be explained
when we discuss use of OSCILLATOR B as a controller.
a dynamic control voltage that "contours" or opens
and closes the VCA within the Multimoog. The
associated LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch and RELEASE
switch change the mode, or ways that the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR section functions.
The following diagram shows the general form
of the signal produced by the LOUDNESS CONTOUR
section:
TYPICAL CONTOUR SIGNAL
f
KEY DEPRESSED
KEY RELEASED
TIME —
IN
SECONDS
An individual voltage contour may have three
parts: the rise time f
~\ , set by the ATTACK
control; the sustain level /■■■^ , at which a
sound may be held when the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN
switch is to the left; and a release time /
^ ,or
dying away of the sound which is set by the RELEASE
40
control. Contours with various shapes may be
produced using the LOUDNESS CONTOUR controls
and associated switches. Let's explore the use of the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR controls and the LOUDNESS
SUSTAIN and RELEASE switches:
EXERCISE 11: ARTICULATION—CONTOURING LOUDNESS
j
1. Play the keyboard. Notice that the attack and
release of the sound are practically immediate.
The ATTACK and RELEASE controls are set for
quick (1 msec = one-thousandth of a second)
attack and release times.
2. Play again. The sound will sustain as long as you
hold a key. Notice that the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN
switch is in the "sustain" mode to the left. Look
at the graphics for the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN
switch—it depicts what you are hearing.
The
LOUDNESS
CONTOUR
section
and
LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch settings shown typify-.an
organ-like loudness contour. The keying is on-off,
and sound is sustained as long as a key is held. Let's
7. Play the keyboard. Sound will be sustained as
long as a key is held.
8. Place the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch to the
"non-sustain" position to the right. Play the
keyboard; only a short click will be heard.
Continue.
9. Increase
RELEASE
either or both
control settings
the ATTACK and
slightly. Play. The
sound will not be sustained, but will last only as
long as the combined times of the ATTACK and
RELEASE control settings. Experiment with them.
retain the sustain feature, but play with the attack and
release of the sound:
The non-sustain position of the LOUDNESS
SUSTAIN switch lets you produce very short sounds,
or sounds that would not normally sustain forever,
such as the harpsichord, guitar, bell, etc.
3. Gradually increase the ATTACK control setting
while playing the keyboard. The rise time, or
attack of the sound increases. Notice that, the
longer the ATTACK setting, the longer you must
hold a key before the sound reaches maximum
So far we've learned that the ATTACK control
sets the timing of the beginning of a sound, the
LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch selects a maximum or
zero sustain level in loudness, and the RELEASE
control times the release, or end of a sound. Now let's
see how the RELEASE switch works:
4. Return the ATTACK control to its original (1
10. Set ATTACK to 1 (msec); RELEASE to 700;
LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch to left.
loudness.
msec) setting.
5. Gradually increase the RELEASE control setting
while playing the keyboard. The fall time on
release of all keys increases; final release of the
sound occurs more slowly when all keys are
released.
6. Return
the RELEASE
control to
its original
(1 msec) setting.
The setting of the ATTACK control determines
the time it takes the LOUDNESS CONTOUR*section to
open the VCA in iJe the Multimoog to maximum gain
(loudness). The setting of the RELEASE control
determines the time it takes the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR section to close the VCA, or allow the
sound to fall to silence. Now let's explore the function
of the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch:
11. Depress any key; hold, then release and listen.
Notice that the release is not immediate, but is
determined by the RELEASE control setting.
12. Place the RELEASE switch to the right. Now
notice what happens when you release all keys.
The release is short regardless of RELEASE
control setting.
13. Try different RELEASE control settings. With
each new setting try each position of the
RELEASE switch.
When the RELEASE switch is to the right, the
release of any sound will be abrupt on release of all
keys regardless of the RELEASE control setting in the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR seaion. At first impression, it
may seem that we are right back where we began, with
41
an organ-like sustained sound with on-off keying. This
is not quite so, as the following shows:
The preceding shows that when both the
RELEASE switch and the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch
are to the right the following is true: (1) The sound can
never last longer than the combined settings of the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR controls, regardless of how
long a key is held; (2) The release of a sound will
always be abrupt when all keys on the keyboard are
14. Place the RELEASE control to "700."
15. Leave the RELEASE switch to the right. Check to
see that the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch is to the
left.
16. Play the keyboard.
keyboard response.
Sound
has
released.
organ-like
17. Place the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch in the
Since the LOUDNESS CONTOUR sections,
LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch, and RELEASE switch can
non-sustain position to the right. Now play
and hold a key until the sound dies out. Play a
series of short, separated notes and then hold a
key until the sound dies out.
be set in many different combinations to create a
variety of voltage contours, here is a pictorial review
of some of the possibilities:
(END EXERCISE)
KEY DEPRESSED
RELEASE
KEY RELEASED
MAX
LOUMESS
SUSTAIN
ATTACH /"V
RELEASE/V
ATTACK /-V
RELEASE/V
LOUONESS CONTOUR
RELEASE
LOUMESS
SUSTAIN
LOUDNESS CONTOUR
LOUMESS
SUSTAIN
RaEASE
oo
OO
OO
OO
ATTACK /-V
RELEASE/V
ATTACH /V
RELEASE/^
ATTACK /"v
RELEASE/^
ATTACK •V
RELEASE/V
ATTACK /%
RELEASE/V
LOUONESS CONTOUR
RELEASE
LOUMESS
SUSTAIN
LOUDNESS CONTOUR
RaEASE
LOUMESS
SUSTAIN
I
LOUDNESS CONTOUR
RaEASE
XV.
LOUMESS
SUSTAIN
A
LOUONESS CONTOUR
RELEASE
XV
LOUMESS
SUSTAIN
A
LOUONESS CONTOUR
ZERO
TIME —
IN
SECONDS
42
You might select a sound source and try the
above settings to hear the shape of the contour
produced.
It is important to remember that loudness has
priority over other aspects of sound. After all, if the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR and its related switches don't
allow a sound to be heard, it hardly matters what the
other sections of the Multimoog are doing.
musical
instruments
have
a dynamic control signal that "contours," or moves
the cutoff frequency of the VCF. The FILTER
CONTOUR section may bethought of as an "invisible
hand" that moves the CUTOFF control for you. The
associated FILTER SUSTAIN switch, and the RELEASE
switch select the ways in which the FILTER CONTOUR
section works.
FILTER CONTOUR SECTION
Most
The FILTER CONTOUR section is a contour
(sometimes
called "envelope")
generator.
Its
ATTACK and RELEASE controls may be set to produce
dynamic
timbral characteristics—their tone color changes in
time. The Multimoog provides for such dynamic
timbre control.
The FILTER CONTOUR section is independent
from, but identical in its operation to the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR section. The diagram below shows the
general form of the signal produced by the FILTER
CONTOUR section.
TYPICAL CONTOUR SIGNAL
KEY DEPRESSED
KEY RELEASED
TIME
IN
SECONDS
The voltage contour may have three parts: the rise
time J^
\, set by the ATTACK control; the
sustain level /^^^\, at which the cutoff
frequency may be held when the FILTER SUSTAIN
switch is to the left; and a release time /
E ,
set by the RELEASE control.
The FILTER CONTOUR is a controller that is
connected to the control input of the voltage
controlled FILTER section. Unlike the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR, however, a means is provided to control
the amount of sfgnal that is allowed to reach the
control input. This means is the CONTOUR AMOUNT
control. The CONTOUR AMOUNT control acts to
attenuate, or lessen the amount of signal allowed into
the control input of the FILTER section. Settings
closest to the center "0" point provide greatest
attenuation (least signal). Let's explore its use:
EXERCISE 12: DYNAMIC TIMBRE—FILTER CONTOURING
1. Hold down any key on the keyboard. The tone
sounding is static in timbre; the cutoff frequency
of the filter is not being moved.
2. Move the CONTOUR AMOUNT control to
"+5." Now hold a key down. The timbre is
dynamic because the filter cutoff frequency is
being contoured by the FILTER CONTOUR
section.
You
could get the same effect by
manually moving the CUTOFF control.
3. Play. Move the CONTOUR AMOUNT control
back towards "0" to progressively attenuate, or
lessen the amount of contour.
The CONTOUR AMOUNT control lets you
determine the amount of the signal from the FILTER
CONTOUR that is allowed to control the filter cutoff
frequency. As you probably realize from looking at
the graphics, the CONTOUR AMOUNT control also
attenuates an inverted version of the contour signal.
(See drawing for the "-5" side of the CONTOUR
AMOUNT control.) For now, let's look at the positive
or "normal" side of the CONTOUR AMOUNT control
to avoid confusion. Continue the exercise:
4. Return the CONTOUR AMOUNT control to
5. Play. Contouring of FILTER section is heard.
6. Place the ATTACK control in the FILTER
CONTOUR to "100" (msec). The rise time of the
contour is now faster.
The setting on the ATTACK control determines
the time it takes the FILTER CONTOUR to raise the
cutoff frequency of the filter to a maximum. The
CONTOUR AMOUNT determines the value of that
maximum. The RELEASE control determines the time
it takes the FILTER CONTOUR to return the cutoff
frequency to its starting point. Continue the exercise:
8. Play and hold a note. Notice that the cutoff
frequency is sustained at a maximum as long as
you hold a key. Only on release of the key does
the RELEASE control go into effect.
9. Move the FILTER SUSTAIN switch to the right.
Now play and hold a key. The pattern generated
by the FILTER CONTOUR section now has only
(wo parts whose timing is determined solely by
the ATTACK and RELEASE controls in the FILTER
CONTOUR section.
10. Play and hold a key. Note that when all keys are
released, the LOUDNESS CONTOUR RELEASE
control is still operable (note hangs on.) This
shows that the FILTER SUSTAIN switch and
LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch work indepen
dently.
11. Place the RELEASE switch to the right. Now play
and release a key. Notice that the final release
will now be abrupt. The RELEASE switch provides
immediate release of both the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR and FILTER CONTOUR sections
when placed to the right.
7. Place the RELEASE control in the FILTER
CONTOUR to "100" (msec). The release time of
the contour is now faster.
(END EXERCISE)
The preceding exercise illustrates that the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR and FILTER CONTOUR
sections are identical in operation. Each is a controller.
The LOUDNESS CONTOUR section is used to control
the gain of the VCA within the Multimoog. The FILTER
CONTOUR is used to control the cutoff of the VCF
(FILTER section).
On the Multimoog, the connection of the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR section to the control input of
the VCA is made at full strength internally to assure
the best signal-to-noise ratio. But the connection of
the FILTER CONTOUR section to the control input of
the FILTER has the CONTOUR AMOUNT control
which allows us to determine the amount and
direction the cutoff frequency will be moved. When
the CONTOUR AMOUNT control is in the negative
region (counterclockwise from "0"), the contour
44
generated by the FILTER CONTOUR section is
inverted (turned upside down). The "-5" position
then represents the maximum amount of this inverted
signal. Look at the panel graphics to get an idea of this
situation. The CONTOUR AMOUNT control is called
a "reversible attenuator;" it attenuates the amount of
a signal as it is moved toward "0" for either normal or
inverted contours.
It will require some thought to understand
what happens when you use a negative CONTOUR
AMOUNT setting. Everything is reversed from
normal. The voltage from the FILTER CONTOUR
doesn't start at "zero"—it starts from a maximum vol
tage. Instead of falling to "zero" when you release,
the voltage will rise to maximum. The following
diagrams illustrates:
r
TYPICAL INVERTED CONTOUR SIGNAL
KEY DEPRESSED
KEY RELEASED
MAX
ZERO •••• JTIME
*■
Also, as in the case with positive CONTOUR
AMOUNT settings, when the CONTOUR AMOUNT
control is moved toward "0" the signal is attenuated,
or lessened. To better understand inverted contours,
do the following:
EXERCISE 13: INVERTED CONTOURING OF THE FILTER
1. Set up the sound chart for EXERCISE 12.
2. Simply repeat each step of exercise 12, but in
each case a positive CONTOUR AMOUNT
setting is called for, use a negative setting.
(END EXERCISE)
MODULATION SECTION
The MODULATION section routes control sig
nals from several sources to several destinations. It lets
you hook up a controller to the control input(s) of
Multimoog sections. The source selector determines
which controller is selected. The selected signal from
that controller passes through the MOD AMOUNT
wheel where it is attenuated. The ROUTING rotary
switch dictates where the control signal will go. This
"source-destination" orientation for routing control
signals is a way to change textures rapidly in
performance. It has been likened to a super traffic cop
who routes control signal traffic. The following
diagram illustrates:
SOURCE
ROUTING
FILTER
FILTER
CONTOUR
BEND
r
Let's explore MODULATION section capabilities using this exercise:
46
EXERCISE 14: EXPLORING THE MODULATION SECTION
tlffttf
^tfHIffTOC
«om
mom
en
ninao
aoa
en
±
mam
kmsim mm
rTh
ramt
1. Hold down the lowest key on the keyboard.
Slowly move the MOD AMOUNT wheel fully
away from you and return. You should hear a
wide bend of the pitch upward.
2. Notice: the SOURCE selector is in the BEND
position. ROUTING is in the OSC A&B position.
3. Place the ROUTING selector to the FILTER
position. Hold a key and repeat action with
MOD AMOUNT wheel. Now the filter cutoff
frequency is being "bent".
4. Place the ROUTING selector to the \S | B
(waveshape) position. Hold a key and use MOD
AMOUNT again. Now the waveshape of the
OSCILLATOR B section is being moved.
SOURCE is a rotary switch which determines
the source of modulation signal; it "selects" which
controller is to be used. The ROUTING rotary switch
determines where that control signal will go; it
"routes" it to the appropriate control input(s). The
MOD AMOUNT wheel
modulation.
controls the amount of
Let's examine what happened in the previous
exercise steps more closely. Note that BEND is selected
as the controller by the SOURCE selector. BEND is a
fixed voltage level, like a battery. BEND is routed
through the MOD AMOUNT wheel, which lets uscontrol its amount. When the MOD AMOUNT wheel
is fully forward (toward the control panel) we get the
full BEND signal. As the MOD AMOUNT wheel is
moved back, there is progressive attenuation (reduc
tion) of the signal. When theROUTING control issetto
the OSC A&B position, the controller (BEND) is routed
to the frequency control inputs of the oscillators. As
you move the MOD AMOUNT wheel forward, the
amount of voltage let through increases and causes
oscillator pitch to rise. When the BEND signal is routed
to the control input of theFILTER section, thefilter cut
off frequency is moved by movingtheMOD AMOUNT
wheeU-inally, when the ROUTING selector was in the
\S
I B (WAVESHAPE B) position, the BEND sig
nal is connected to the waveshape control input of
OSCILLATOR B. Then movement of the MOD
AMOUNT wheel is analogous to movement of the
WAVESHAPE control for OSCILLATOR B. It's just a
matter of deciding what type of controller you want to
select (SOURCE), how much of it you want to use
(MOD AMOUNT), and which section(s) you want to
control (ROUTING). Continue the exercise:
47
5. Set SOURCE and ROUTING controlsasshown on
preceding page. Set MOD AMOUNT wheel as
shown.
In the following exercise steps, it will become
apparent that much of the MODULATION section
deals with repeating patterns:
6. Depress and hold any key. You should hear a
contoured-pitch "siren" effect.
7. Place the ROUTING selector to the OSC A&B
FILTER position. Play the same key. Note that
tone color is contoured as well as pitch. (The
FILTER is also being contoured.)
8. Control amount
AMOUNT wheel.
of
contour
using
MOD
"*rt
9. Place the ROUTING selector to the FILTER
position. Note that only the filter (tone color) is
contoured now.
j—i
10. Place the ROUTING switch to the
^ '
source
..---. routTSc
MOOUUATIOIM
B
position. Play. Now the WAVESHAPE of OSCIL
LATOR B (only) is being contoured.
11. Repeat steps 5-10 and experiment with the
FILTER
CONTOUR
controls.
Try
both
ATTACK
settings
and
of
the
RELEASE
12. Select the
_]"!_
SOURCE
setting.
FILTER
SUSTAIN switch.
13. Explore all
possible ROUTING settings and
MOD AMOUNT wheel positions.
When the FILTER CONTOUR is the selected
SOURCE, any section(s) named by the ROUTING
selector may be contoured. The speed of this contour
is controlled using FILTER CONTOUR controls. The
amount of this contour is controlled by the MOD
AMOUNT wheel. (Note that the CONTOUR
AMOUNT control in the FILTER section doesn't affect
the amount of the FILTER CONTOUR as used in the
MODULATION SECTION.
14. Vary the RATE control to control the speed of
the modulation.
15. Select alternately the
s^\/
,S&HAUTO,
and S&H KBD settings with the SOURCE
selector. Repeat steps 13 and 14 for each
SOURCE setting.
(END EXERCISE)
Modulation is usually defined as a change,
often a repeating change. On the Multimoog, the rate
of any repeating modulation is controlled by the RATE
control. RATE controls the frequency, or speed of the
"modulation oscillator" that is the heart of the
MODULATION section. Also included is sample-andhold circuitry whose sampling rate is controlled by the
modulation oscillator.
A modulation oscillator is one which is used as a
controller. It is a source of repeating voltage pat
terns—waveshapes like any oscillator—which are
often restricted to low frequency. That's because the
control signals are generally used to make slowmoving modulations like vibrato, trills, "wah-wah,"
and the like. Vibrato rate, for example is around six to
eight Hz, or beats per second. On the Multimoog, the
modulation oscillator has a frequency span of .3 to 30
Hz. Its output is represented by the symbols
_f~[_
,and
S*\/
, (square and triangle
wave, respectively) in the MODULATION section.
48
If you recall exercise 1, you began by listening
to the sound of the voltage controlled OSCILLATOR B
section at a very low frequency. So low, that only a
series of clicks was perceived instead of a sound in
normal hearing range. That sound was below the
frequency of normal hearing, or it was sub-audio. The
modulation oscillator produces waveshapes in the
subaudio range for control purposes. We can't use the
modulation oscillator as a sound source, but its effect
will be dramatic indeed when connected to a control
input of a VCO or VCF. You have heard some of the
effects from preceding exercise steps.
The sample-and-hold creates a series of control
voltage steps in a metronomic fashion with a rate
determined by the RATE control, (frequency of the
modulation oscillator). To understand how the
sample-and-hold works, let's make an analogy to a
camera. A camera "samples" (photographs) motion
and "holds" a fixed instant in time (the print). The
sample-and-hold "photographs" (samples) a moving
r
voltage signal and "prints" (holds) a fixed voltage
level. When a sample of a moving voltage signal is
taken, the voltage sensed at that instant is held until
the next sample is taken. The RATE control deter
mines how often samples are taken.
When the voltage signal sampled is randomlike noise—a series of random voltage steps will be
produced. The sample-and-hold of the Multimoog
does sample the noise signal internally, and produce a
series of random voltage steps. See illustration:
-J1
RANDOM PATTERN
FROM SAMPLING
NOISE.
In the case of the 5&H AUTO mode, the
modulation oscillator also produces "triggers" at the
same rate as it generates new samples. (Sampling and
triggering are "synchronous"—happen together.)
Now that you've explored the MODULATION
section and have a feeling for its capabilities, it might
be useful to read definitions for each specific setting
of the SOURCE and ROUTING selectors. (See
appropriate pages of the REVIEW OF FUNCTIONS
section in this manual).
The MODULATION section creates many of
the textures of which the synthesizer is capable. The
use of the MOD AMOUNT wheel and the sourcedestination orientation of the MODULATION section
are important performance features of the Multimoog.
KEYBOARD TOUCH SECTION
The KEYBOARD TOUCH section lets you shape
sound with the same hand that plays the keyboard.
This section carries the "source-destination"
orientation of the instrument a further step to
enhance expressivity and power in performance. One
mode of operation lets you replace the left-hand-onMOD-AMOUNT-wheel and use a single hand to play
the Multimoog—retaining expressive capabilities.
The other mode provides simply the most expressive
"two-hand" operation of a synthesizer to date.
When the EFFECT switch in the KEYBOARD
TOUCH section is set to MOD, the MODULATION
section is linked to the KEYBOARD TOUCH section.
Set up the following and begin the exercise:
EXERCISE 15: EXPLORING THE KEYBOARD TOUCH SECTION
UNISON
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1. Tune OSCILLATOR A to match OSCILLATOR B
using the INTERVAL control.
2. Depress and hold a key. Slowly move the MOD
AMOUNT wheel forward to control the amount
ram
of vibrato.
ran
49
You learned about this "wheel" modulation
path previously. But now, let's relate that to the
control panel graphics as shown below:
WHEEL MOD PATH
4. Switch the EFFECT switch in the KEYBOARD
TOUCH section to the MOD position.
3. Now make sure that the MOD AMOUNT wheel
is fully back so the "wheel mod path" is not in
5. Lightly depress a key and slowly exert more force
(pressure) on the key to control vibrato amount.
Panel graphics indicate this "touch" modulation
path:
use.
TOUCH MOD PATH
The touch MOD path links the MODULATION
section to the KEYBOARD TOUCH section such that
keyboard force controls the amount of any signal
placed on the path.
Notice that, regardless of which "mod path" is
used, the source of modulations is selected by the
SOURCE selector in the MODULATION section. We
call this a "single source" orientation:
SINGLE MOD SOURCE
6. Select (alternately) each of the settings of the
SOURCE selector. Experiment with both "mod
paths" as done previously using the MOD
AMOUNT wheel and then the EFFECT switch in
its MOD setting.
Since the DESTINATION and ROUTING
controls are separate (and not identical, take note!) it
is possible, and musically useful to route the single
modulation to multiple destinations. So we refer to
the Multimoog as a "single source, multiple destina
tion" instrument:
MULTIPLE MOD DESTINATIONS
50
7. Experiment with the various settings of the
DESTINATION and ROUTING controls. There
are many useful combinations of touch/wheel
control.
When the EFFECT switch is in the MOD
the KEYBOARD TOUCH and
position,
MODULATION sections are linked. When EFFECT is
OFF, the KEYBOARD TOUCH section can't be used,
(but the MODULATION section is not affected).
When the EFFECT switch is in the BEND position the
KEYBOARD TOUCH section works independent of
the MODULATION section, as shown below:
ma
8. Play. Vary amount of force exerted on the
keyboard. Pitch bend (upward) is heard.
9. Vary AMOUNT control.
Interval of
(maximum) bend is changed. (Exact intervals
may be set).
10. Select OSC A on the DESTINATION control.
Play. Now, only OSCILLATOR A is being bent.
(Confirm by using MIX control to listen to first
one oscillator and then the other.)
11. Try all of the DESTINATION settings. Use
different AMOUNT settings. Read the panel
graphics.
All of the DESTINATION settings are selfexplanatory except "SYNCH A TO B." In this setting,
OSCILLATOR A is "synched" (tied in pitch) to
OSCILLATOR B. Also, the control signal coming into
the DESTINATION control is routed to the
(frequency) control input of OSCILLATOR A only.
When OSCILLATOR A frequency is bent, we won't
hear a pitch change, since OSCILLATOR A is synched
to OSCILLATOR B—and OSCILLATOR B isn't being
bent. We do hear a "tearing" sound as OSCILLATOR
A tries to remain in synch with B. You can get the same
effect manually by turning the INTERVAL control,
which affects the frequency of only OSCILLATOR A.
Experiment with various INTERVAL settings to vary the
"synched" sound.
If you have only one hand to spare when playing the synthesizer, consider the following:
51
12. Bend pitch using keyboard force sensitivity.
14. Control brightness and
keyboard force sensitivity.
13. Control vibrato amount using a foot pedal
attached to the MODULATION jack on the rear
panel. MOD AMOUNT wheel may be used to
15. Control
modulation
AMOUNT wheel.
actually set the sensitivity of the pedal. (See the
OPEN SYSTEM section of this manual for the
MODULATION jack for procedure).
dynamics using
amount
using
MOD
(END EXERCISE)
The Multimoog is most powerful when both
the KEYBOARD TOUCH and MODULATION sections
are used simultaneously and independently to create
musical nuance:
Now that you've explored the KEYBOARD
TOUCH section and have a feeling for its capabilities,
it might be useful to read some of the comments made
about specific settings of the SOURCE, EFFECT, and
DESTINATION controls. (See appropriate pages of the
REVIEW OF FUNCTIONS section of this manual.)
OSCILLATOR B SECTION AS CONTROLLER
OSCILLATOR B may be used as a controller as
well as a sound source. You have already used
OSCILLATOR B as a controller in exercise 5, to create
"clangorous" sounds. In that case, the sound source
was the FILTER section (FILTER MODE switch to
TONE). The following sound chart shows that
OSCILLATOR B may be used as the sound source, and
a controller simultaneously:
EXERCISE 16: OSCILLATOR B AS BOTH SOUND SOURCE AND CONTROLLER
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1. Hold down any key. Notice that the
OSCILLATORS switch is in the NORM position
(the Oscillator section is the sound source).
2. Move the FILTER MOD BY OSC B switch to the
STRONG position. Now play and notice change
in sound texture.
3. Return FILTER MOD BY OSC B to the OFF
position. Place CONTOUR AMOUNT control to
"+5."
Play.
Continue.
52
FILTER
section
is
contoured.
7SS7
4. Place FILTER MOD BY OSC to the STRONG
position once again. Now play and note effect.
5. Place the EMPHASIS control to "0." Play. Notice
that use of FILTER MOD BY OSC B is most
dramatic when the EMPHASIS control is set high,
and the filter cutoff frequency is being
contoured.
(END EXERCISE)
The WEAK and STRONG positions of the
FILTER MOD BY OSC B switch connect the entire
output of OSCILLATOR B (DOUBLING included) to
the control input of the FILTER section. OSCILLATOR
B section acts as a controller, rapidly modulating filter
cutoff frequency. When OSCILLATOR B is the sound
source, its own signal is modulated by itself, creating a
more complex sound. You might experiment with use
of the FILTER MOD BY OSC B switch with any of the
sounds you create.
When you make clangorous sounds using the
FILTER in TONE mode (see Exercise 5), OSCILLATOR B
is used only as a controller (OSCILLATORS switch to
OFF position). But to maintain consistency of timbre
over the entire keyboard, the OSCILLATOR B must
follow the keyboard to maintain the same frequency
ratio between the OSCILLATOR B and FILTER
sections. Even though the OSCILLATORS switch is
placed OFF and the OSCILLATOR B section is not
heard, it is still under keyboard control.
PITCH Ribbon
The PITCH ribbon to the left of the keyboard is
an important performance controller. It generates a
signal that is conneaed to the (frequency) control
input of the oscillators. The PITCH ribbon bends the
pitch of the oscillators only; it has no effect on the
NOISE section, or the FILTER section, even when in
TONE mode. The PITCH ribbon is a resistance
element protected with plastic-coated mesh. In the
center of the ribbon is a dead band, marked with a
bump. This causes no bending of pitch, and provides a
way to feel the "center" of the pitch. Pitch is bent by
depressing the ribbon and moving away from the
center bump. Oscillator pitch may be bent up or
down with a similar movement on the ribbon. On
release of the ribbon at any point, pitch is returned to
"center," or the original pitch instantly. The PITCH
ribbon is a most important development that allows
the performer to achieve the subtlety of pitch
bending associated with all solo-line musical
instruments—don't ignore its use!
EXERCISE 17: PITCH RIBBON AND RIBBON ROUTING SWITCH
5. Bend toward the note by depressing the finger
above (or below) the center bump, and then
move toward the center bump.
6. "Tap out" trills by hitting on a specific interval
either side of the center bump.
1. Depress and hold any key with your right hand.
The Multimoog's PITCH ribbon gives you
tact;7e feedback—you can feel it. It also gives visual
2. Place the "pad" on the end of your middle finger
(left hand) directly over the bump on the PITCH
the violinist's string. Development of pitchbending
technique is critical for believable solo lines.
ribbon.
3. Press down slightly with your left hand; slide
alternately above and below the bump to bend
pitch away from the note.
4. Now, run your finger lightly over the PITCH
ribbon; notice that the bump can be "found"
without causing the pitch to bend. Learn exactly
how much force must be used to engage the
ribbon and cause a pitch bend.
and spatial feedback—like the trombonist's slide, or
Continue:
7. Perform a wide bend upward. (Both oscillators
will bend).
8. Place the RIBBON ROUTING switch to OFF.
Bend. (There will be no bend.)
9. Place the RIBBON ROUTING switch to the OSC
A position. Bend. Now, only OSCILLATOR A will
be bent.
The usefulness of being able to bend a single
oscillator is fairly apparent, but perhaps you are
wondering why there is an OFF position for RIBBON
ROUTING. Wouldn't the result be the same if you
simply didn't use the PITCH ribbon? Not exactly. The
Multimoog is an open system synthesizer that can
control other synthesizers. Suppose you wished to
bend the oscillators of an external synthesizer but not
those of the Multimoog? So, we include an OFF
position, for internal routing purposes only.
In addition, the KBD & TRIG EXT OUTPUT
makes the RIBBON output available (or not) at the
KBD output on the rear of the Multimoog. For more
information, see the OPEN SYSTEM section of this
manual.)
TRIGGER SOURCES
A trigger is a signal that acts to start and end the
action of the FILTER CONTOUR and LOUDNESS
CONTOUR sections of the Multimoog. A trigger
signal triggers sound The particular type of signal
generated by the Multimoog is refered to as an "STrigger", short for "switch trigger". The S-Trig acts
like a switch; whenever a key on the keyboard is
depressed an S-Trigger, or drop to zero volts, is
produced. An S-Trig begins when a key is depressed,
and ends when all keys are released. See below for an
illustration:
SWITCH TRIGGER
VOLTAGE +
i
|
I
KEY DEPRESSED
A trigger is used to start the contour generators
to initiate and terminate musical sounds. The diagram
below depicts the relationship between a trigger and a
KEY RELEASED
possible control signal produced by a contour
generator:
TRIGGER/CONTROL VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP
CONTROL VOLTAGE FROM CONTOUR GENERATOR
I
I
I
S-TRIG
I
+ 1
I
KEY DEPRESSED
54
I
KEY RELEASED
EXERCISE 18: SINGLE/MULTIPLE TRIGGERING KEYBOARD PRIORITY
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1. Play the keyboard alternately with connected
(legato) and detached (staccato) technique.
Notice the difference in sound response.
Alternate techniques for phrasing and accent
effects. Note that the KBD TRIGGERING Switch
is to SINGLE.
2. Move the CONTOUR AMOUNT control back to
"+2". Notice that the difference between legato
and staccato technique is less exaggerated as
CONTOUR AMOUNT is reduced.
3. Move the FILTER CONTOUR RELEASE control to
the 100 msec position. The "head" on the note
occurs more quickly now.
As this exercise indicates, musical use of single
triggering is most effective when the FILTER section is
being
contoured.
triggering
requires
Making
some
good
use
of single
experimentation
with
several controls. But the important thing to remember
is that, unlike organs and some synthesizers, what you
do on the keyboard of the Multimoog can contribute
to the expressivity of the music when single triggering
is used. Continue exercise:
4. Select the MULTIPLE position of the KBD
TRIGGERING switch to provide multiple
triggering.
5. Play as before. Note that a new trigger is
generated to coincide with a new pitch regard
less of keyboard technique.
(END EXERCISE)
Multiple triggering can be useful during very
rapid passages to insure that notes will not be "lost". It
trigger schemes. Triggers and new pitches always
is interesting to note that MoogT"-style multiple
triggering is different from some other "multiple"
sensing a pitch change.
coincide, since new triggers are generated literally by
S&H AUTO TRIGGERING
The other source of triggers on the Multimoog
is the S&H AUTO mode of the MODULATION
section. In this mode, a series of triggers is generated
that is controlled in rate by the RATE control. Like any
trigger, these triggers activate 60th
contour
generators on the Multimoog. It might be useful to
note that a S&H AUTO trigger lasts only half of the
time taken by a given sample; see exercise below:
EXERCISE 19: S&H AUTO TRIGGERING
UQ
OSCILLATOR A
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muna
Place the SOURCE selector to the S&H AUTO
position. Notice that at any RATE setting sound
rant
mat
and silence will be equal (given near-instant
ATTACK and RELEASE times in the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR section. The trigger "on" time
occupies only half of the period of the sample
and hold clock.
The S&H KBD position of the SOURCE selector
does not produce triggers! In this mode, the contour
generators may be triggered by the keyboard,
independent of the rate of sampling. Continue
exercise:
2. Place the SOURCE selector to S&H KBD. Sound
is not self-triggering.
3. Hold down any key. Release, hold again. The
keyboard is triggering the contour generators.
The MODULATION section continues to create
control signals. You will hear sound only when
the contour generators are triggered by the
keyboard.
(END EXERCISE)
External triggers may be routed to the
Multimoog via either the S-TRIC INPUT or S-TRIG
OUTPUT on the rear panel (see OPEN SYSTEM
section of this manual).
EXERCISE 20: BOLSTERING THE EGO
1. If you're still here after wading through this
incredible wad of information, bolster your ego
by returning to an earlier part of the manual and
discovering how much you've learned!
(REST)
This concludes our GUIDED SYNTHESIZER
TOUR. For a review of each control, slide-switch, and
rotary switch on the front panel, refer to the appro
priate pages of the REVIEW OF FUNCTIONS section
of this manual.
56
open system
An "open system" can communicate with other devices. This section of the
manual explains how the inputs and outputs on the rear panel allow two-way
communication between the Multimoog and external devices such as other
synthesizers and Moog accessories. You will understand "open system"
communication with external synthesizer gear better if you know how the
audio, control, and trigger signals produced by the Multimoog function
internally (see GUIDED SYNTHESIZER TOUR section).
An electronic musical instrument doesn't
make sounds—it makes electrical signals. We can't
hear electrical signals, so we connect the instrument
to an amplifier and speaker to translate signals into
sounds. Signals that are translated into sounds are
called "audio" signals—they become audible.
Electronic instruments have an audio output which
must be connected to the audio input of a monitor
(amp and speaker). To use a bit of technical jargon,
when you connect your Multimoog to an amp, you
are "interfacing systems." That means connecting
two or more devices so they work together properly.
With many instruments, after the audio connection is
made, further possibilities of "interfacing systems"
are very limited. Even if you put sound modifiers
(phaser, wah-wah pedal, fuzz) between the
instrument and amp, you are still dealing with only
the audio signal produced by the instrument.
The synthesizer's potential for music-making
through interfacing systems is greater than most
electronic instruments. Like any electronic instru
ment, the synthesizer generates audio signals in order
to make sound. But the synthesizer also produces
trigger signals—to turn sounds on and off; and
control signals—to dynamically alter pitch, timbre,
and other aspects of sound. These trigger and control
signals are created internally by the synthesizer. If the
designer provides paths for them to leave (and enter)
the synthesizer, the instrument is an "open system."
That's what the output and input sockets on the rear
panel of the Multimoog are all about. The OUTPUTS
make most of the Multimoog's audio, control, and
trigger signals available to the outside world. The
INPUTS allow these signals to be fed into the
Multimoog from the outside world.
MULTIMOOG REAR CONNECTOR PANEL
An
open
system
synthesizer
like
the
Multimoog can control and be controlled; trigger and
be triggered; produce sound and modify sound from
other instruments. You might start thinking of the
Multimoog as not only a self-contained musical
instrument, but an expandable system of devices that
produce, modify, trigger, and control sound—as the
growth of your musical ideas requires.
Rear panel jacks are }A" mono, with the
exception of MODULATION and GLIDE, which are
3/16" stereo jacks. Trigger signal connections require
two-prong Cinch-Jones connectors. Many sockets are
dual function—they act as either an input and/or an
output. The primary function (as named on the rear
panel) of such sockets will be discussed first.
The following pages describe the input and
output sockets for audio, trigger, and control signals
available at the rear panel, with some suggestions for
musical use. After the individual descriptions, there is
a short "Getting It Together" section that shows how
to "slave" one Multimoog to another using all three
types of signals.
The key to creative freedom using an open
system synthesizer lies in knowing your instrument.
Once you understand how audio, control, and trigger
signals work within the Multimoog, their external uses
will become apparent.
57
AUDIO SIGNALS
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LO/HI AUDIO OUTPUTS
AUDIO INPUT
The /AUD/O OUTPUTS are used to route the
audio (sound) output of the Multimoog to a
purpose is to allow feeding the sound of other
monitoring system to create sound. LO AUDIO is a
low level (-10 dBm) output suitable for connection to
a P.A. or guitar amplifier that has its own preamplifier.
HI AUDIO is a high level output (+12 dBm) capable of
direct connection to many power amplifiers.
Like an electric guitar, the Multimoog's audio
output may be modified using a phaser, wah-wah
pedal, fuzz, or other sound modifier to create special
effects. In particular, Moog900 Series modules may be
used to modify audio output. For instance, audio
output could be passed through a Moog 907 Fixed
Filter to create "peaks" (like equalization but much
stronger) in the harmonic spectrum, radically
changing timbre. The 907 creates conditions similar to
the"formants" present in many acoustic instruments.
For example, the bassoon has a formant, or resonant
region, arou nd 500 Hz that is present throughout most
of the playable range of the instrument. Use of the 907
Filter to create a peak at 500 Hz would cause the sound
output to have a formant at that frequency, enhancing
the imitation of the bassoon. The Multimoog is
particularly suitable for use with modular equipment,
since the Multimoog also externalizes trigger and
control signals used for effective communication
between instruments.
The AUDIO INPUT is a single function jack. Its
instruments through the Multimoog for modification.
You may input any external audio signal, such as the
output of electric guitars, organs, pianos, tape
recorders, and microphones into this jack on the
Multimoog. The AUDIO INPUT is fixed in sensitivity;
it is adequate for the output level of many electronic
instruments (100 mV RMS input required for full
drive; input impedance is 100K Ohms). In some cases,
as with dynamic microphones or guitars with lowlevel pickups, preamplification before introduction to
the AUDIO INPUT may be necessary. Many guitar
amps provide a separate preamp output that can be
used for this purpose.
When an external audio signal is fed into the
AUDIO INPUT, it appears at the audio input of the
FILTER section and follows the normal audio signal
path. It's important to remember that when you
connect an instrument like the guitar to the AUDIO
INPUT, only an audio signal is provided to the
Multimoog. The external instrument—the guitar—
doesn't produce control and trigger signals. A simple
AUDIO
INPUT
connection
won't
control
the
oscillators to make them "follow" the tune played by
the guitarist. And the contour generators in the
Multimoog will not be triggered by the articulations
of the guitarist. So, for basic use of the AUDIO INPUT
remove the oscillators from the audio signal path
(place OSCILLATORS switch to OFF); and bypass the
internal voltage controlled amp (place BYPASS switch
to ON) so the guitar may be heard:
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As with any Multimoog sound chart, blank
controls should be placed fully counterclockwise (see
SOUND CHARTS section). When you try the above
sound chart, experiment with the CUTOFF and
EMPHASIS controls; vary RATE and MOD AMOUNT;
select S&H KBD as the MODULATION section
SOURCE. These are means of controlling the FILTER
section to modify the timbre of the external
instrument. In this case, no internal sound sources or
trigger signals are being used.
TRIGGER SIGNALS
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EXT OUTPUT
S-TRIG OUTPUT
The S-TRIG OUTPUT is functional (as output or
input) only when the KBD AND TRIG EXT OUTPUT
switch on the front panel is switched to either ON or
ON + RIBBON position.
The S-TRIG OUTPUT is a dual function device.
Its primary purpose is to externalize a trigger signal
when one is produced by the keyboard or sample and
hold (S&H AUTO) in the Multimoog. This output
routes signals that can trigger modules such as the
Moog 911 Envelope Generator, 921 Oscillator, or the
contour (envelope) generators of another synthesizer
that accepts S-triggers. When the S-TRIG OUTPUT is
used to route a trigger to another synthesizer, we can
articulate the sound of that synthesizer by depressing
a key on the Multimoog. For example, Multimoog A
might be connected to Multimoog B so that both will
be triggered by the keyboard of Multimoog A, as
shown:
S-TRIG OUTPUT TO S-TRIG INPUT TRIGGERING
STANDARD CINCH-JONES
S-TRIG
OUTPUT
' FEMALE-MALE CABLE
MULTIMOOG A
When Multimoog A is triggered Multimoog B
will also be triggered through its S-TRIG INPUT.
(Multimoog B will not trigger Multimoog A as
connected, because the S-TRIG INPUT acts only as an
input—it cannot ouput a trigger.)
The primary function of the S-TRIG OUTPUT is
to tell the outside world important internal timing
information; when a key is depressed and released,
and/or the rate of the sample and hold.
The S-TRIG OUTPUT is dual function; it also
acts as an input for externally-produced trigger
signals. And external trigger applied to the S-TRIG
OUTPUT will trigger the LOUDNESS CONTOUR and
S-TRIG
INPUT
MULTIMOOG B
FILTER CONTOUR sections of the Multimoog, as an
internally-produced trigger would. An external
trigger routed to the S-TRIG OUTPUT has priority
over both keyboard and S&H AUTO internal
triggering. That means, when an external trigger is
applied to the S-TRIG OUTPUT, the Multimoog will
be triggered regardless of internal conditions—even
when no internal triggers are present. Naturally, when
no external trigger is present, all internally-produced
triggers work normally. When both external and
internal triggers are present simultaneously, no
special effect is created, that is, triggers do not "add"
like control voltages do. If an internal trigger is already
59
present (e.g., key depressed), application of another
trigger externally will not be discernible, and the
converse.
The following diagram illustrates the dual
input/output capacity of the S-TRIG OUTPUT plug:
S-TRIG OUTPUT TO S-TRIG OUTPUT TRIGGERING
NOrS-STANDARD
S-TRIG
OUTPUT 1
FEMALE-FEMALE CABLE
S-TRIG
OUTPUT
MULTIMOOG B
CABLE
DETAIL:
NARROW SOCKET
CINCH-JONES S3O2-CCT
(COVER NOT SHOWN)
WIDE SOCKET
Each Multimoog will trigger itself normally.
Multimoog A will trigger Multimoog B, and
Multimoog B will trigger Multimoog A because each
S-TRIG OUTPUT ads as both an input and an output
for trigger signals.
Any simple switch can be modified to trigger
the Multimoog using the S-TRIG OUTPUT as an input.
Addition of a capacitor is required to "debounce"
switch contact closure as shown:
SWITCH TO APPLY TRIGGER INPUT TO S-TRIG OUT PLUG
OPEN
SMALL SOCKET
SWITCH
CLOSED
1>iF.20V
LARGE SOCKET
CAPACITOR
CINCH JONES
S302-CCT
CABLE SOCKET
The switch will trigger a Multimoog when closed.
S-TRIG INPUT
The S-TRIG INPUT acts only as an input. It
accepts an external trigger signal that triggers the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR and FILTER CONTOUR
sections of the Multimoog as an internal trigger
would. An external trigger fed into the S-TRIG INPUT
has priority over keyboard triggering, but has
absolutely no effect when the Multimoog is in the
S&H AUTO mode. This means that when an external
trigger is applied to the S-TRIG INPUT, the Multi
moog will be triggered even if no key is depressed.
But when the Multimoog is in the S&H AUTO mode,
the S-TRIG INPUT is removed from the circuit and
external triggers applied there are completely
ignored. (Internal keyboard triggers are also ignored
60
in the S&H AUTO mode.) Naturally, when no external
trigger is present, (and the Multimoog is not in the
S&H AUTO mode) keyboard triggers work normally.
When both external and internal triggers are present,
no special effect is created; that is, triggers do not
"add" like control voltages do. For example, if a key is
depressed (internal trigger), application of another
trigger to the S-TRIG INPUT will not be discernible. I n
the S&H AUTO mode, triggers from the S-TRIG
INPUT and the keyboard are ignored entirely.
Obviously the S-TRIG INPUT is compatible
with an "S-trigger," or "switch trigger." This is a very
useful type of trigger input, because the performer
can devise any kind of simple switch that will close to
trigger theMultimoog. No power supply or circuitry is
required; when the switch is closed a trigger is
produced. To show how easily the Multimoog can be
triggered, touch a coin to both prongs of the S-TRIG
OUTPUT. You're now using this plug as a trigger input
and you've triggered the Multimoog by making a
switch closure—without use of circuitry. The S-TRIC
INPUT functions the same way, but requires insertion
of a Cinch-Jones plug. When the two wires attached to
The Moog 1121 Footswitch can be modified to
trigger the Multimoog. The existing output plug on
the 1121 must be replaced with a Cinch-Jones plug to
be compatible with the 5-772/C INPUT socket.
The S-TRIC INPUT acts only as an input, but is
very versatile. It is compatible with standard logic
families (RTL, TTL, CMOS, DTL). The threshold of the
S-TRIG INPUT is +2 volts; signals less than 2 volts cause
the Multimoog to be triggered. The S-TRIC INPUT
the inserted Cinch-Jones plug are touched together, a
"switch closure/' or S-trigger is produced and the
Multimoog speaks. Since the S-TRIC INPUT is
internally "debounced" to clean up dirty switch
closures, the switch does not require the addition of a
capacitor.
may also be used with modules or synthesizers that
produce V-triggers (voltage triggers), such as the
Moog 960, 961, 962, Sequencer Complement, 921
Oscillator, Moog Sonic Six synthesizer, and even ...
non-Moog synthesizers! The following graphic indi
cates wiring procedure:
V-TRIG TO S-TRIC CONNECTOR
FROM
V-TRIG
OUTPUT
JACK
TIP
SHIELDED CABLE
GROUND
SMALL PRONG
TO S-TRIG INPUT
OF MULTIMOOG
GROUND
SWITCHCRAFT
LARGE PRONG
S250
V." MONO PHONE PLUG
CINCH JONES
S-TRIG "OFF1
V-TRIG ON"
P302-CCT
CABLE PLUG
HIGH (ABOVE +2V)
VOLTAGE
V-TRIG "OFF"
S-TRIG "ON"
The above cable acts only as a connector; it
does not transform V-triggers into S-triggers. As
shown above, the cable will provide an S-trigger only
when a V-trigger is "off."
Many synthesizers produce a V-trigger (voltage
LOW (BELOW +2V)
trigger) when a key is depressed. If you wish to trigger
the Multimoog using the V-trigger (sometimes called
"gate") output of such an instrument, insert the
following circuitry between the phone plug and
Cinch-Jones plug in the previous diagram.
V-TRIG TO S-TRIG CONVERSION CIRCUIT
LARGE
PRONG
TIP
JONES PLUG
IN 4148
DIODE
The circuit inverts a V-trigger and malces it an Strigger. (This V-Trig to S-Trig cable is available from
potential of the instrument. For instance, use of the
1130 Drum Controller to trigger the Multimoog using
The S-TRIC INPUT accepts timing information
from external sources such as another keyboard, a
switch, and Moog Accessories such as the 1130 Drum
Controller, The S-TRIC INPUT expands the musical
sound with sticking techniques that would be
impossible on the keyboard Trigger input/output is a
Moog Music; part #74-221).
the S-TRIG INPUT allows the drummer to articulate
necessary part
synthesizer.
of
any
totally
"open
system"
CONTROL SIGNALS
an
LOMJDIO
V.
BMWO
S-TK
an
.;
ram
OUTPUTS-
0
ma
nmi
KEYBOARD OUTPUT
The KBD OUTPUT (keyboard output) is a dual
function jack. It can function as an output only when
the KBD & TRIG EXT OUTPUT switch on the front
panel is in either the ON, or ON + RIBBON position.
The KBD OUTPUT jack can function as an input
only when its associated attenuator is in the fully
counterclockwise "click" position.
The keyboard of the Multimoog generates a
control signal that normally controls the pitch of the
oscillators and the cutoff frequency of the filter. This
keyboard control signal is available for external use at
the KBD OUTPUT jack. You can usetheMultimoog's
keyboard to control external (voltage-controlled)
devices. The use of the KBD OUTPUT does not
interfere with normal internal keyboard control. The
KBD OUTPUT provides the control signal from only
the keyboard, or both the keyboard and the PITCH
ribbon, according to the setting of the KBD & TRIG
EXT OUTPUT switch on the front panel. Other front
panel controls have no effect on the KBD OUTPUT,
even those that affect pitch internally, such as
OCTAVE, WIDE FREQ, DOUBLING, and FINE TUNE
on the rear panel. However, since the GLIDE control
affects keyboard responses, GLIDE settings will affect
the KBD OUTPUT signal.
When the lowest key is depressed, a signal of
zero volts is produced at the KBD OUTPUT; each
ascending half-step on the keyboard adds an
increment of +1/12 volt to the signal level (nominally
62
one volt per octave). Internally, precise calibration
yields precise diatonic (twelve tones to the octave)
keyboard control of the oscillators. For external
calibration, an attenuator with a voltage span ±10% is
provided (above jack).
Once the keyboard control signal is brought
"outside" using the KBD OUTPUT, you can produce
some interesting musical results. For instance, the
KBD OUTPUT can be connected to the control input
of a Moog 921 Voltage Controlled Oscillator to make
the 921 "track" the keyboard of the Multimoog and
play in unison with its oscillators. If the external
oscillator is tuned at an interval to the oscillators,
parallel intervals will be produced when you play the
keyboard. Suppose we invert, or electrically turn the
KBD OUTPUT signal upside down. An external
oscillator controlled with this inverted signal would
play higher as you play lower on the Multimoog's
keyboard! If you attenuate (lessen) the signal by half
an externally controlled oscillator would play quarter
tones when half steps are played on the keyboard.
Although any number of voltage controlled
modules may be controlled from the Multimoog's
keyboard using the KBD OUTPUT, an important
concept should be understood. The keyboard of any
monophonic (single voice) synthesizer like the
Multimoog produces only one control signal,
regardless of how many keys are depressed. When
several keys are depressed on the Multimoog, the
r
lowest key determines the single keyboard control
signal. A monophonic instrument may have more
than one tone oscillator (the Minimoog has three),
and the oscillators might be tuned to produce a chord.
But, if the keyboard is monophonic, all the oscillators
may follow the single keyboard control signal and
produce parallel chords, but not polyphony (several
independent voices). So the KBD OUTPUT might be
used to control several external oscillators, but no
external manipulation of the KBD OUTPUT signal will
RIBBON OUTPUT
The RIBBON OUTPUT is not subject to front
panel control. The RIBBON OUTPUT always provides
the signal created by depressing the PITCH ribbon at
the left of the keyboard. The signal from the PITCH
ribbon may be scaled for external use with the
attenuator associated with the RIBBON OUTPUT. The
RIBBON ROUTING switch has no effect on the
RIBBON OUTPUT jack signal.
make the keyboard of the Multimoog become
KBD FORCE OUTPUT
The KBD OUTPUT helps make the Multimoog
fully compatible with other synthesizers and the
largest modular systems. It conveys important
information to the outside world—which key on the
The KBD FORCE OUTPUT is not subject to
front panel control. The amount of force exerted on
the keyboard always determines the size of (D.C.)
signal that appears at the KBD FORCE OUTPUT.
Attenuation of this signal must be achieved externally.
polyphonic like an organ.
Multimoog is being depressed.
GLIDE ON/OFF CONTROL
The KBD OUTPUT functions as an input when
its associated attenuator (pot) is turned fully counter
The GLIDE jack is functional only when the
GLIDE switch on the front panel is switched OFF. (Also,
if the GLIDE control near VOLUME is set to "0," use of
theGUDE jack is meaningless.)
clockwise to the "click" position. In this case, a
control signal fed into the KBD OUTPUTjack replaces
the internal keyboard signal. Then the external signal
controls both the pitch of both oscillators and the
cutoff frequency of the filter, and the keyboard of the
Multimoog controls nothing. (Note that the external
signal behaves exactly as though it were the internal
keyboard signal. For instance, if you place the
OSCILLATORS switch to the DRONE setting, the
external signal will no longer control the oscillators,
(but will continue to control the filter cutoff
frequency).
When the KBD OUTPUT is used as an input,
you can easily switch from normal Multimoog
keyboard control to an overriding external control
source—such as the highest note played on the
keyboard of the Polymoog. Of course, the oscillators
and filter could be controlled using the OSC A&B
INPUT and FILTER INPUT; but these control inputs
add to the internal keyboard control signal. That
means you would constantly have to worry about
which key you last struck on the Multimoog (it adds)
when switching from Multimoog to Polymoog
keyboard control. The control signal from the key
board of the Polymoog will simply replace the
keyboard signal in the Multimoog when the KBD
OUTPUT is used as the input. The pitch of the
oscillators of the Multimoog will always agree with
the top note of the Polymoog keyboard in this case.
The Moog 1121 Footswitch may be used to turn
glide on or off by inserting its plug into the GLIDE jack.
(The amount of glide always remains under control of
the rotary GLIDE control).
MODULATION
MODULATION is a dual function 3/16" stereo
jack. It acts as both an input and an output for
MODULATION section (control) signals. As an
output, it can externalize whatever signal is provided
by the SOURCE selector. As an input, it routes control
signals from any source directly to the ROUTING
selector. Several simple switching or attenuation tasks
may be accomplished using the MODULATION jack.
We'll review these simpler uses first before taking up
the subject of MODULATION section (control) signal
routing.
The Moog 1121 Footswitch may be used to turn
modulation on or off by inserting its plug into the
MODULATION jack. (The amount of modulation
remains under control of theMOD AMOUNT wheel).
The 1121 can be very handy when y.ou don't
have a spare hand to turn vibrato, shakes, sample and
hold patterns, etc. on and off.
You can rewire any volume pedal (orjustapot)
to control the amount of modulation using the
MODULATION jack. Remember to use a 3/16" stereo
plug as shown:
EXTERNAL MODULATION CONTROL
TIP (MOD OUT)
RING (MOD RETURN)
SWITCHCRAFT #S-260
«" STEREO PHONE PLUG
SHIELDED
POT (IN PEDAL)
10KTO100K
AUDIO TAPER
STEREO
CABLE
63
When the pedal is inserted into the
MODULATION jack, it will act in tandem with the
MOD AMOUNT wheel to control the amount of
modulation. When the MOD AMOUNT wheel is fully
forward (toward the control panel), the pedal can be
used over the widest span of modulation effects. If the
MOD AMOUNT wheel is only slightly forward, the
pedal will cover a restricted span of modulation
effects. Obviously, if the MOD AMOUNT wheel is
completely back (no modulation), then the pedal will
have a span of "zero" and allow no modulation
effects. Similarly, you could set the pedal and play the
wheel. A practical musical application would be to set
the pedal to restrict the span of the MOD AMOUNT
wheel, so vibrato could be controlled with larger
movements of the MOD AMOUNT wheel. Larger
movements are easier to control- for subtlety of
modulations.
In the previous example the pot in the pedal
acts as a variable resistor used to attenuate (reduce)
the sensitivity of the MOD AMOUNT wheel when
producing vibrato. A fixed resistor could be used
instead, as shown:
FIXED EXT. MOD. AMOUNT ATTENUATOR
220K RESISTOR
The value of the resistor may be seleaed to suit your taste.
This arrangement could be made so that it
could be switched in or out:
SWITCHED EXT. MOD. AMOUNT ATTENUATOR
SHIELD
(NO CONNECTION)
L
-0
ATTEN
,O
O
vVA-
220K OR
SELECT AS
DESIRED
FULL
«" STEREO PLUG
SWITCH
Now let's look at the actual control signal
input/output capabilities of the MODULATION jack.
First let's review the output rules: (1) The output signal
is selected by the SOURCE selector; (2) This signal is
available externally at the tip contact of the stereo
MODULATION jack; (3) The level of the output signal
is controlled by the MOD AMOUNT wheel; (4) The
rate (when appropriate) is set by the RATE knob.
Now let's look at the input rules for the
MODULATION jack: (1) The input signal goes directly
to the ROUTING selector; (2) Therefore its level is not
affected by the MOD AMOUNT wheel; (3) The ring is
the appropriate contact for feeding signals into the
MODULATION jack; (4) This ring input can be fed
from any external source (Moog 911, 921, another
Multimoog, etc.).
The diagram below indicates wiring procedure
that allows Multimoog A to modulate Multimoog B.
Connection is made between respective MODULA
TION jacks (Multimoog A shows output wiring;
Multimoog B shows input wiring):
SIMPLE MODULATION JACK TO MODULATION JACK CONNECTION
(MOD OUT)
TIP
TIP
TIP
(MOD OUT)
SWITCH
(MOD IN)
(MOD IN)
MULTIMOOG A
¥,»" STEREO PLUGS
In the example above, neither Multimoog will
modulate itself, because the self-feeding switches on
both MODULATION jacks are opened when a plug is
64
MULTIMOOG B
inserted. If you want Multimoog A to modulate
itself—as well as Multimoog B—add the following
jumper wire to the previous wiring setup:
MULTIMOOG SELF-MODULATION JUMPER
RING
*" STEREO PLUG
\
JUMPER FROM TIP TO RING TERMINAL
It is possible to route modulation signals both
to and from the Multimoog simultaneously and
independently from a modular system or another
synthesizer:
SIMULTANEOUS INPUT & OUTPUT OF MODULATION SIGNALS
STEREO PLUG
MULTIMOOG MODULATION
OUTPUT TO ANOTHER
TO MOD JACK
SYNTHESIZER
(EXAMPLE: 921 OSCILLATOR)
MULTIMOOG MODULATION
INPUT FROM ANOTHER
SYNTHESIZER
(EXAMPLE: 911 ENVELOPE GEN.)
The MODULATION jack is particularly
powerful, since it provides simultaneous two-way
communication with the outside world; its presence is
an important advance in the open system synthesizer
concept.
FILTER INPUT
The FILTER INPUT acts only as an input for
signals capable of controlling the cutoff frequency of
the FILTER section. A control signal fed into the
FILTER
INPUT
acts
as
an
"unseen
hand"
that
electrically manipulates internal control elements as
one might do manually on the front panel. The
following depicts the analogy between FILTER INPUT
control and control by hand:
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTERNAL AND MANUAL FILTER CONTROL
CONTROL SIGNAL
^00
10 MKM
L
HI WON)
S-TOG
- OUTPUTS -
no
—I
cunt ukuutkw
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nn»
*■
oscus
j-tioc
WPUTS-
MKM
TOUCH MOO
EFFECTS
UtESSOU
FO*Et
FRONT PANEL
65
If zero volts is fed into the FILTER INPUT, no
change of the cutoff frequency is caused. A positive
voltage applied to the FILTER INPUT raises the cutoff
frequency, like clockwise movement of the CUTOFF
knob. A negative voltage applied to the FILTER INPUT
lowers the cutoff frequency, like counterclockwise
movement of the CUTOFF knob. Nominally, a change
of one volt at the FILTER INPUT will cause a change of
one octave in the cutoff frequency of the FILTER
section. In practice, only about .95 volts is required to
create this change because the input is designed to be
slightly over-sensitive. This prevents your having to
amplify incoming signals; the sensitive input will more
jikely require attenuat/on (lessening) of the signal
with a simple pot requiring no power supply.
Signals fed into the FILTER INPUT add to
internaPcontrol signals to control the FILTER section.
Because external and internal control signals are
additive, you could use a Moog Accessory like the
1120 Pedal Control Source in conjunction with the
FILTER CONTOUR.
OSC A&B INPUT
The OSC A&B INPUT (oscillators control input)
acts only as an input for signals capable of controlling
the frequency (pitch) of both oscillators. A control
signal fed into the OSC A&B INPUT acts as an "unseen
hand" that electrically manipulates internal control
elements as one might do manually on the control
panel. The best analogy to manual control is move
ment of the WIDE FREQ knob when the OCTAVE
selector is in the rightmost position. The following
illustrates:
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTERNAL AND MANUAL OSCILLATOR CONTROL
OSCILLATORS A&B
CONTROL INPUT
CONTROL SIGNAL
^00
10 AUDIO
I
HI AUDIO
S-IRIG
-OUTPUTS
m
KBO
FORCE
-J
GUDf MODULATION
l-ON/OFFCONTROLJ
FIUE8
OSC US
I
S-TKS
INPUTS-
AUDIO
TOUCH MOO
EFFECTS
nc
ACCESSORY
HUE
TIKE
POWER
FRONT PANEL
I f zero volts is fed into the OSC A&B INPUT, no
change of oscillators pitch is caused. A positive
voltage applied to the input raises pitch, like
clockwise movement of the WIDE FREQ knob. A
negative voltage applied to the input lowers pitch, like
counterc/odcw/se movement of the WIDE FREQ
knob. Nominally, a change of one volt at the OSC A&B
INPUT will cause a change of one octave in the
frequency of the oscillators. In practice, only about .95
volts is required to create this change because the
input is designed to be slightly over-sensitive. This
prevents your having to amplify incoming signals; the
sensitive input will more likely require attenuation
(lessening) of the signal with a simple pot requiring no
power supply.
66
Signals fed into the OSC A&B INPUT add to
internal control signals to control oscillator fre
quency. Because external and internal controls are
additive, you could use a Moog accessory such as the
1130 Drum
keyboard.
Controller
in
conjunction
with
the
TOUCH MOD EFFECTS
Allows input of external signal into the MOD
path of the KEYBOARD TOUCH section (in lieu of
MODULATION section signal). Functional only when
the EFFECT switch on front panel is in MOD position.
OPEN SYSTEM—GETTING IT TOGETHER
The open system INPUTS and OUTPUTS can
provide powerful ways of expanding your music-
making once you realize what audio, control, and
trigger signals can do for you.
It's important to understand that synthesizers
are very dumb—from a point of view of "systems
interfacing." They must be told explicitly what you
want to happen. You may begin with a general idea
like "I want to slave a second Multimoog to mine and
play both from my keyboard." But at some point, you
have to go from the general to the specific interfacing
requirements for
Example given:
each
class
of signal
involved.
AUDIO REQUIREMENTS
CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
GENERAL: "I want to hear the sound of both
Multimoogs."
SPECIFIC: Audio signal from each Multimoog
must be transduced.
ACTION: Connect the AUDIO OUTPUT of
each Multimoog to amp.
GENERAL: "I want the pitch of both
instruments to follow the keyboard of the Master
Multimoog."
SPECIFIC: The OSCILLATOR section of both
Multimoogs must be controlled by the keyboard
signal of the Master Multimoog.
ACTION: Connect KBD OUTPUT of theMaster
Multimoog
TRIGGER REQUIREMENTS
Multimoog.
to
the
OSC
INPUT
of
the
Slave
GENERAL: "I want to hear the sound of both
when the keyboard of the Master Multimoog is
played."
SPECIFIC: Trigger signals must be supplied
from the Master to the Slave Multimoog to provide
articulation of both.
ACTION: Connect the S-TRIG OUTPUT of the
Master Multimoog to the S-TRIG INPUT of the Slave
Multimoog.
The following diagram shows the basic
connection for a Master-Slave interface for two
Multimoogs:
S-TRIG OUTPUT
S~\
S-TRIG INPUT
AL
AUDIO
OUTPUT
AUDIO
OUTPUT
TO AMP
TO AMP
FRONT
FRONT
PANEL
D
KEYBOARD
MASTER
PANEL
Q
KEYBOARD
SLAVE
The Master Multimoog triggers and'controls both itself and the Slave Multimoog.
67
Even though you have made the basic
connections, further thought is required for a
successful interface. First, from reading the OPEN
SYSTEM section you know that the KBD OUTPUT
provides an unsealed version of the Master
Multimoog keyboard signal. It will have to be scaled
to cause the Slave Multimoog to follow the Master
keyboard accurately. Let's think in terms of the sound
charts below for a tuning/scaling procedure:
MASTER
QQQeQQaSEQSSS
must
omuains
ruomod
womb
mm wot
■nmrn
ton
h«m
«•
v
mm
susn»
iooo«s
sswi
mi* inns mm rau tow
SLAVE
uin.1T
OO0QO
tOEUt
OIOLUtOtS
RUIUMD
note*
0*'
RUMBOOt
u»«inicai.t
mitt
sucr««
UUOKS
KOTiu
«[M StKMC ROM r
lOUtWQS
nrus
T|
on
a>
(for tuning, leave MOD AMOUNT fully toward you)
First of all, let's tune one Multimoog's pitch
level to the other, just as we would tune all the
3. Use the FINE TUNE control on the rear panel of
each Multimoog to match their pitch.
pitch represented by a keyboard signal voltage of
"zero." Why? When the Master keyboard signal is
zero volts, the output at its KBD OUTPUT will be zero
volts and will not influence the pitch of the Slave
Multimoog. This is rather like resorting to tuning the
open strings of two guitars when you're not sure
where the frets (scaling) are on each. To accomplish
pitch level. At this point you might want to place the
instruments of a band together. We should tune at the
tuning:
1. Depress the lowest key on the keyboard of each
Multimoog to set each to "zero volt" keyboard
signal.
2. Place BYPASS of each Multimoog ON to hear the
sound of each continuously for tuning.
68
Now Master and Slave are tuned to the same
OSCILLATORS switch of the Slave to DRONE so its
keyboard won't affect its pitch. Otherwise, any
accidental touching of the Slave keyboard might
transpose its pitch. {Useful in some applications, like
producing parallel intervals at the touch of the Slave
keyboard). If you play the Master keyboard, you may
notice that the Slave will follow pitch generally, but
increasingly diverges as you go up the keyboard. This
is because the Slave is being controlled by an unsealed
version of the Master keyboard signal, available from
the Master's KBD OUTPUT. Let's scale it:
4. Check tuning by playing lowest key on Master
keyboard, if OK go on. If not, repeat steps 1-3,
5. Play highest key on Master keyboard and adjust
attenuator for KBD OUTPUT on Master until
Master and Slave agree in pitch. Tune Multimoogs by listening to OSCILLATOR B, which
always is near A-440.
When you scale, you stretch or shrink the KBD
OUTPUT signal from the Master to fit the sensitivity of
the OSCA&BINPUToftheSlave,to create the familiar
diatonic scale.
Play! Notice that settings for the Master and
Slave can be quite different. Try MOD AMOUNT
wheels. Complete voices, with separate modifier
paths, can be created.
The connection between the Master and Slave
can be made and broken instantly during perfor
mance using the KBD & TRIG EXT OUTPUT switch on
the front panel of the Master instrument.
If you would like to review what each jack,
plug, and socket on the rear panel does, refer to the
appropriate portion of the REVIEW OF FUNCTIONS
section of this manual.
Multimoog
69
r
70
review of functions
This section of the manual tells how each knob selector, switch, jack, plug,
and socket on the Multimoog functions — what it does. Knowledge of
terminology is assumed; don't start here if you can't speak "synthesizerese!"
Multimoog functions are numbered and
described in the order indicated by the diagrams
below. A description of how any individual control or
jack functions can be gotten by turning to the appro
priate numbers on the following pages.
10
«y
11
12
13
32
'
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TUIIC
71
MULTIMOOG™ CONTROL PANEL
OSCILLATOR A&B
The oscillator section is the primary source of
pitched audio signals.
.UNISON.
INTERVAL
WAVESHAPE
OSCILLATOR A
1
MIX
OCTAVE
^- WIDEFREQ
WAVESHAPE
MASTER A&B
INTERVAL
4
DOUBLING
OSCILLATOR B
OCTAVE
Provides continuous tuning of OSCILLATOR A
(only) relative to OSCILLATOR B. Tuning span is ±
Perfect Fifth relative to OSCILLATOR B. The INTER
VAL control is calibrated with marks indicating half-
Selects to tune both oscillators in octave
increments from 32' to 2' stops, with middle C on the
steps.
order to provide continuous tuning of both
oscillators over an eight octave span. Fine tuning in all
positions of OCTAVE is accomplished using the FINE
TUNE control on the rear panel. The CUTOFF control
of the FILTER is internally arranged to track the
2
WAVESHAPE (A)
keyboard
as
footage
reference.
The rightmost
position activates the adjacent WIDE FREQ control in
OCTAVE control to maintain consistent tone color in
form; as the control is moved clockwise, this sawtooth
all pitch registers. When the FILTER MODE switch is in
the FULL position, a pitch change of one octave is ac
companied by a concomitant change of one octave in
the cutoff frequency of the filter. In the NORM
the sawtooth truncates. Between "5" and "6" a square
a half-octave per each pitch change of a full octave.
The OCTAVE selector is a performance control which
expands the playable span of the keyboard to a full
Provides continuous waveshape control of
OSCILLATOR A; calibrated in arbitrary units. The
position marked "0" provides the sawtooth wave
is mixed with a narrow rectangular waveform. As the
WAVESHAPE control is moved toward the position
marked "5/' the rectangular waveform widens and
waveform is produced; as the control is moved on
toward "10," the square waveform narrows to a
(normal) position, the cutoff frequency is changed by
eight octaves.
narrow rectangular wave. The narrowness of this
rectangular waveform is limited, making it impossible
to "lose" the sound at any WAVESHAPE setting.
Sawtooth, square, variable rectangular, and a mixture
of sawtooth and variable rectangular waveforms are
available. This continuously variable WAVESHAPE
control allows a change of the harmonic spectrum of
the output of the instrument that is independent of
the FILTER control settings.
5
WIDEFREQ
Provides
continuous-sweep
tuning
over
approximately eight octaves, operable only when the
OCTAVE selector is placed to the rightmost position.
The WIDE FREQ control is calibrated in octaves; the
center point marked "0" places the Multimoog in
approximately the 8' range. Settings on the WIDE
3
MIX
Provides a continuous mix of the audio
oscillators A&B. Full counterclockwise position "A"
provides the output of OSCILLATOR A only. Full
clockwise position "B" provides the output of
OSCILLATOR B only. Intermediate positions repre
sent mixes of the two oscillators. Calibration is
arbitrary, in units from "0" to "10."
72
FREQ control do not interfere with any of the footage
(32'-2') settings on the OCTAVE selector; the WIDE
FREQ control is operable only when the OCTAVE
selector is set to its rightmost position. The WIDE
FREQ control tunes both oscillators proportionatelytuned intervals remain the same over the entire
tuning span. The WIDE FREQ control is fine-tuned
using the FINE TUNE control on the rear panel. The
WIDE FREQ control may be "preset" to any pitch level
to allow instantaneous transposition (when OCTAVE
control is set to activate WIDE FREQ).
6
WAVESHAPE (B)
Provides continuous waveshape control of
OSCILLATOR B; calibrated in arbitrary units. The
position marked "0" provides a sawtooth waveform;
as the control is moved clockwise, this sawtooth is
mixed with a narrow rectangular waveform widens
and the sawtooth truncates. Between "5" and "6" a
FILTER
The FILTER section is a lowpass filter with
variable-height resonant peak at the cutoff
frequency, with a 24dB/octave attenuation slope
above the cutoff frequency.
square waveform is produced; as the control is moved
on toward "10," the square waveform narrows to a
narrow rectangular wave. The narrowness of this
rectangular waveform is limited, making it impossible
to "lose" the sound at any WAVESHAPE setting.
Sawtooth, square, variable rectangular, and a mixture
of sawtooth and variable rectangular waveforms are
available. This continuously variable WAVESHAPE
control allows a change of the harmonic spectrum of
the output of the instrument that is independent of
the FILTER control settings.
7
DOUBLING
Provides a continuous mix of a square
waveform either one or two octaves lower than the
primary OSCILLATOR B pitch for doubling effects.
The "0" center position provides a dead band with no
doubling; from that point clockwise to "+5" provides
doubling at the two-octave interval; from "0" to "-5"
provides doubling at the octave.
NOISE
The NOISE section provides a pink noise (pseu
dorandom) signal used for both audio and control
purposes.
EMPHASIS -r'N
CUTOFF
9
FILTER
CONTOUR
AMOUNT
CUTOFF
Provides manual control of the nominal setting
of the cutoff frequency of the lowpass filter. When the
FILTER is placed in the oscillatory mode by switching
the FILTER MODE switch to TONE, the CUTOFF
control becomes a wide-range frequency control. The
calibration indicates octave increments of the cutoff
frequency, with "0" a point very near the fundamental
frequency set by OSCILLATOR B in the 8' OCTAVE
selector. The FILTER in the oscillatory mode may be
synchronized with the oscillators at the oscillators'
fundamental frequency or at a harmonic.
10
EMPHASIS
"Emphasizes" the area around the cutoff
frequency of the filter by increasing the height of a
resonant peak at that frequency. Maximum emphasis
is reached at position "10"; calibration is arbitrary.
The EMPHASIS control is restricted so that the filter
will not be placed into oscillation accidentally during
performance. Maximum emphasis ("Q") at the "10"
position may be adjusted by the user through a port
on the rear of the instrument. The Multimoog has a
separate FILTER MODE switch which may be switched
to the TONE position to unequivocally place the filter
into the oscillatory mode regardless of the EMPHASIS
setting.
8
LEVEL
Introduces noise as an audio source as the
control is turned clockwise to a maximum of 10;
calibration is arbitrary. The noise generator is a
pseudo-random generator which outputs essentially
pink noise; this is also filtered internally and made
available for sample and hold purposes. The LEVEL
control has no effect on the noise source when noise
is used as a sample and hold signal. The LEVEL control
mixes noise as an audio signal relative to the fixed
audio output of the oscillators. The oscillators may be
removed from the sound chain by selecting "OFF" on
the OSCILLATORS switch.
11
CONTOUR AMOUNT
A reversible attenuator that controls the
amount and polarity of a control voltage routed from
the FILTER CONTOUR to the control input of the
FILTER section; calibration is in octaves. Each tick
mark = one octave of sweep of the cutoff frequency of
the filter. The "0" center position provides a dead
band where no contouring can occur. As CONTOUR
AMOUNT
is
moved
clockwise toward "+5," a
"positive" contour is allowed to control the cutoff
frequency of the filter, producing a rising-and-falling
excursion. When the CONTOUR AMOUNT control is
which can last no longer than the settings of its
moved into the negative region, the contour is
inverted; this inverted contour then causes a reverse
contour, or a falling-and-rising excursion of the cutoff
frequency. The CONTOUR AMOUNT control is
internally arranged with the CUTOFF control to
minimize the need for adjusting the CUTOFF control
when going from normal to reverse contours. As the
CONTOUR AMOUNT control is moved progressively
negative, the CUTOFF control is moved (internally
generates a three-part contour /wmf pm t whose
middle portion will be sustained as long as a key is
depressed. In this case, the RELEASE part of the
conversely. In this way, sound will not be completely
13
and electrically)
progressively positive, and
"cut off" by the filter as a result of a deep reverse
ATTACK and RELEASE timing controls allow, regard
less of how long a key is depressed. In the maximum
sustain mode to the left, the FILTER CONTOUR
contour becomes operable only when all keys are
released.
contour. Here's another way to look at this—as panel
graphics indicate, normal contours start 6e/ow the
nominal filter cutoff frequency as set by the CUTOFF
control, and reverse contours start above. This makes
possible the use of various contours without constant
readjustment of the CUTOFF control.
/
RELEASE
Controls timing of the last (falling)
part
% of the filter contour from 1 msec, to 10
seconds. The RELEASE control is operable over its full
range only when the RELEASE switch in the row of
switches is switched to the left.
LOUDNESS CONTOUR
FILTER CONTOUR
The FILTER CONTOUR is an envelope, or
contour generator that produces a control signal
which rises and then falls, and which is used to control
the cutoff frequency of the filter. Controls in this
section are used in conjunction with the FILTER
SUSTAIN switch; consequently this switch will also be
discussed.
The LOUDNESS CONTOUR is a second,
independent contour generator which is connected
internally to the control input of the voltage
controlled amplifier to create articulations, or
loudness contours. Controls in this section are used in
conjunction with the LOUDNESS SUSTAIN switch;
consequently this switch will also be discussed.
ATTACK /V
RELEASE/V
LOUONESSCONTOUR
LOUDNESS
SUSTAIN
FILTER
SUSTAIN
r~n
m
12
part
14
ATTACK
Controls
W
10 seconds.
timing
of
the
initial
(rising)
^ of the filter contour from 1 msec, to
FILTER SUSTAIN
Controls timing of the initial (rising)^"
\
part of the loudness contour from 1 msec, to 10
seconds.
LOUDNESS SUSTAIN
A level switch rather than a timing control. This
A level switch rather than a timing control. This
switch determines whether or not the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR voltage level will be sustained at a
maximum when a key is held. This switch determines
whether the contour produced will have (wo or three
parts. Inthenon-sustain mode to the right, the FILTER
whether the contour produced will have two or three
switch determines whether or not the FILTER
CONTOUR voltage level will be sustained at a
CONTOUR will generate a two-part contour s^\
74
ATTACK
maximum when a key is held. This switch determines
parts. In the non-sustain mode to the right, the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR will generate a two-part
contour
/^\ which can last no longer than
r
the settings of its ATTACK and RELEASE timing
controls allow, regardless of how long a key is
depressed. In the sustain mode to the left, the
LOUDNESS CONTOUR generates a three-part
OSC A&B FILTER—Routes the selected signal to
the frequency control inputs of both audio
oscillators (A&B), and the cutoff frequency
control input of the FILTER section.
sustained as long as a key is depressed. I n this case, the
release part of the contour becomes operable only
when all keys are released.
FILTER—Routes the selected signal to the cutoff
frequency control input of the FILTER section.
contour /*7 ^*y whose middle portion will be
15
/
SYNCH A TO B—Synchronizes OSCILLATOR A
to OSCILLATOR B, and routes the selected
signal to the frequency control input of
OSCILLATOR A only.
RELEASE
Controls
timing
of
the
last
(falling)
part
^y
^ of the loudness contour from 1 msec, to
I A—Routes the selected signal to
the waveshape control input of OSCILLATOR A
only. Use of a positive voltage is analogous to a
clockwise movement of the WAVESHAPE
control for that oscillator (from front panel
setting). And the converse.
10 seconds. The RELEASE control is operable over its
full range only when the RELEASE switch in the row of
switches is switched to the left.
KEYBOARD TOUCH
The KEYBOARD TOUCH section provides use
and/or routing of the fluctuating D.C. signal
produced by the force sensor under the keyboard of
the Multimoog. The EFFECT switch selects to provide
direct or cascaded use of the force signal. I n the BEND
position, the force signal is used directly as a control
voltage that may be routed to various control inputs
using the DESTINATION selector. In the MOD
position, the force signal is used to open and close a
VCA which passes signals provided by the SOURCE
selector in the MODULATION section. Here we have
control over a controller, hence "cascaded" control.
All signals passing through the KEYBOARD TOUCH
section are controlled in amount by the AMOUNT
control, which attenuates the signal that is in use.
Routing of a chosen signal is accomplished using the
DESTINATION selector.
17
AMOUNT
Attenuates the signal selected for use by the
KEYBOARD TOUCH section. Arbitrary calibration;
the "10" setting passes the full signal—"0" attenuates
the signal completely. The AMOUNT control is used
in conjunction with force exerted on the keyboard to
"scale" the desired effect.
18
EFFECT
Selects to determine how the signal from the
force sensor will be used. In the BEND position, this
signal is used directly—a D.C. voltage that fluctuates
according to the amount of force exerted on the
keyboard. OFF provides a way of removing the effect
of the KEYBOARD TOUCH section instantly. When
MOD is selected, the signal from the force sensor is
used to open and close a VCA. As panel graphics
indicate, the signal flowing through that VCA is
determined by the SOURCE selector in the
MODULATION section.
DESTINATION
KEYBOARD TOUCH
16
MODULATION
DESTINATION
Determines the destination of the control
signal in use in the KEYBOARD TOUCH section as
follows:
OSC A&B—Routes the selected signal to the
frequency
control
oscillators (A&B).
inputs
of
both
audio
OSC A—Routes the selected signal to the fre
quency control input of OSCILLATOR A only.
The MODULATION section is responsible for
routing control voltages from several sources to
several destinations. As indicated in the diagram, the
SOURCE selector determines the source of the
modulation signal; the ROUTING selector
determines the destination of the modulation signal.
All modulations are attenuated, or lessened by the
MOD AMOUNT wheel on the Performance Panel.
Progressive
attenuation
occurs
as
the
MOD
AMOUNT wheel is rotated toward you.
75
changes as set by the RATE control. All
modulations are attenuated with the MOD
AMOUNT wheel.
SOURCE
■*•-. ROUTING
MODULATION
19
21
ROUTING
Determines the destination of the modulation
signal that has been selected by the SOURCE selector
as follows:
RATE
Controls the rate of the modulation oscillator
and sample and hold clock, calibrated from .3 Hz to 30
Hz. Normal vibrato rate is found between positions
OSC A&B—Routes the selected modulation sig
nal to both oscillators for voltage control of
oscillator frequency.
20
OFF—Defeats any modulation. Useful for
switching modulation effects off instanta
neously. The ROUTING control is never more
than one position away from an OFF position.
Does not defeat triggers in S&H AUTO mode.
"4" and "6."
SOURCE
Determines
signal as follows:
the source of the modulation
OSC A&B & FILTER—Routes the selected
modulation signal to both oscillators and the
FILTER section, for voltage control of oscillator
frequency and filter cutoff frequency.
BEND—Provides a DC voltage as a modulation
signal. Use of this SOURCE setting in
conjunction with the OSC A&B setting on the
ROUTING control makes a wide-range pitch
bender out of the MOD AMOUNT wheel.
FILTER—Routes the selected modulation signal
to the FILTER section for voltage control of the
cutoff frequency.
FILTER CONTOUR—Provides output of FILTER
CONTOUR section as a modulation signal.
\S
modulation oscillator; controlled in frequency
by the RATE control. When used in conjunction
with the OSC setting of ROUTING, a trill is
produced, whose interval is set with the MOD
AMOUNT wheel. (A positive going, non-zerocrossing waveshape.)
—Triangular wave form output of
modulation oscillator; controlled in frequency
by the RATE control. Use of this setting with the
OSC setting of ROUTING yields vibrato, variable
in depth by the MOD AMOUNT wheel.
I
B—Routes the selected modula
tion signal to the OSCILLATOR B section for
voltage control of WAVESHAPE.
—Square waveform output of the
ROUTING settings are inert unless the MOD
AMOUNT attenuator wheel is placed forward,
allowing modulation signals to flow from their source,
as determined by the SOURCE selector, to their
destination as determined by the ROUTING selector.
GLIDE/VOLUME
(Symmetrical around zero volts).
S&H AUTO—Triggers sample and hold circuit
and both contour generators at a speed set by
the RATE control. Generates synchronous string
of random voltage steps derived internally from
the noise source. Like all modulations, the
voltage steps are attenuated using the MOD
AMOUNT wheel.
S&H KBD—Provides a series of random voltage
steps controlled in speed by the RATE control.
The keyboard, or an external source of triggers,
may be used to trigger the contour generators
independent of the frequency of voltage step
76
22
GLIDE
Smooths, or slows down output of the
keyboard to create glide or glissando between keys
on the keyboard. Speed of glide is variable from 1
msec to five seconds, calibrated in arbitrary units with
a maximum of "10." This is a logarithmic glide which
stops when all keys are released and remains at that
r
pitch until another key is depressed. Operational
when GLIDE switch is ON, or when GLIDE jack on rear
panel is used properly.
23
VOLUME
A final gain control (attenuator) which is
independent of the voltage controlled amplifier
associated with the LOUDNESS CONTOUR.
Calibration is arbitrary from "0" to a maximum of
"10."
27
FILTER MODE SWITCH
Switches to control tracking by filter cutoff
frequency of keyboard and OCTAVE selector. Also
places the FILTER into the oscillatory (TONE) mode.
NORM (normal) delivers one-half volt to the control
input of the filter for each vo/( change (1 volt per
octave) on the keyboard or OCTAVE selector. (A
change of one octave in pitch causes a change of onehalf octave in FILTER cutoff frequency.) The FULL
position delivers one volt per each octave of pitch
STATUS SLIDE SWITCHES
The STATUS SWITCHES (not named on panel)
indicate the conditions for operation of many sections
on the Multimoog, or provide interconnection of
sections.
rmrm an izn an
change. (A change of one octave in pitch causes a
change of one octave in FILTER cutoff frequency.)
The TONE position also delivers one volt per octave
to the filter control input, and places the FILTER into
the oscillatory mode, generating a sine waveform.
The FILTER will oscillate in the TONE mode regardless
of the EMPHASIS setting in the FILTER section.
28
FILTER SUSTAIN SWITCH
Determines whether or not the FILTER CON
TOUR voltage level will be sustained at a maximum
24
RELEASE SWITCH
Switches to achieve immediate release of
sound on release of all keys. As panel graphics
indicate, when RELEASE is switched to the right, all
releases will be abrupt. When switched left, the
RELEASE controls in the FILTER CONTOUR and
LOUDNESS CONTOUR sections are operable over
their entire range, and the release of any sound will
depend on their settings.
25
OSCILLATORS SWITCH
The NORM (normal) position places the
oscillators under keyboard control and into the sound
chain, so they will be heard and will follow the
keyboard in pitch. The DRONE position removes the
oscillators from keyboard control; the oscillators are
heard, but "drone" (at low "F"), and do not follow the
keyboard. The OFF position removes the oscillators
from the sound chain, so they are not heard; however
the oscillators remain under keyboard control.
26
FILTER MOD BY OSC B SWITCH
FILTER MODULATION BY OSCILLATOR B
connects the output of the OSCILLATOR B section
(including DOUBLING) to the control input of the
FILTER section. This creates ring mod and such timbral
effects without changing the apparent pitch center.
The OFF position provides no connection. WEAK and
STRONG positions represent degree of modulation
index.
when a key is held. This switch determines whether
the contour produced by the FILTER CONTOUR
will have two or three parts. In the non-sustain mode
to the right, the FILTER CONTOUR will generate a
two-part contour
/\^
which can last no
longer than the settings of its ATTACK and RELEASE
timing controls allow, regardless of how long a key
is depressed. In the sustain mode to the left, the
FILTER CONTOUR generates a three-part contour
/mn J^^ whose middle portion will be sustained
as long as a key is depressed. In this case, the RELEASE
part of the contour becomes operable only when all
keys are released.
29
LOUDNESS SUSTAIN SWITCH
Determines whether or not the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR voltage level will be sustained at a maxi
mum when a key is held. This switch determines
whether the contour produced by the LOUDNESS
SUSTAIN will generate a two or three-part contour. In
the non-sustain mode to the left the LOUDNESS
CONTOUR will generate a two-part contour that can
last no longer than the Settings of its ATTACK and
RELEASE controls, regardless of how long a key is
depressed. In the sustain mode to the left, the LOUD
NESS CONTOUR generates a three-part contour
/iB7 P\ whose middle portion will be sustained
as long as a key is depressed. In this case, the RELEASE
part of the contour becomes operable only when all
keys are released.
77
30
BYPASS SWITCH
Selects to "bypass", or hold internal voltage
controlled amplifier on constantly. The ON position
holds the VCA fully on, resulting in constant sound
output. The OFF position to the left provides for
normal use of the LOUDNESS CONTOUR to articu
late sound.
PERFORMANCE STATUS SWITCHES
The PERFORMANCE STATUS SWITCHES (not
so-named on panel) indicate the routing and/or status
of performance devices such as the keyboard and the
33
KBD & TRIG EXT OUTPUT
KBD & TRIG EXT OUTPUT (keyboard and
trigger output) is used to facilitate connection of
"master" and "slave" synthesizers, with the
Multirrfoog acting as master. The OFF position insures
that no signals are present at theS-TRIG OUTPUT and
KBD OUTPUT on the rear panel. The ON position
enables any connection to those outputs and provides
triggers and control voltages (respectively) as
produced by the Multimoog's keyboard. The ON +
RIBBON position also supplies the output of the
PITCH ribbon as an integral part of the KBD OUTPUT
signal. You can turn external synthesizers on/off and
control them with the Multimoog's keyboard.
PITCH ribbon.
34
RIBBON ROUTING
RIBBON ROUTING switches to provide several
alternatives for internal routing of the PITCH ribbon
signal. The OSC A&B position routes the ribbon signal
to the frequency control inputs of both oscillators A
and B. The OSC A position routes the ribbon signal
only to OSCILLATOR A (frequency control input).
The OFF position makes the PITCH ribbon inoperable
for internal purposes. (Since none of the positions of
the RIBBON ROUTING switch affect the RIBBON
OUTPUT on the rear panel, it would be possible to
bend pitch of the "slave" synthesizer from the PITCH
ribbon on the Multimoog without bending the
oscillators within the Multimoog.)
PERFORMANCE PANEL
31
GLIDE
Acts to enable/disable the glide function. Glide
is controlled in amount by the rotary GLIDE control;
that control is operable only when GLIDE switch isON,
or when GLIDE jack on rear panel is used. (See OPEN
SYSTEM section of this manual for alternative ways to
switch glide.)
32
KBD TRIGGERING
KBD TRIGGERING
(keyboard triggering)
selects the type of triggering that the keyboard will
produce. SINGLE triggering requires that all keys be
released before a new trigger will be produced,
making the keyboard sensitive to staccato/legato
touch. MULT, or multiple triggering provides circuitry
that senses when a new pitch has been produced, and
provides a synchronous trigger.
78
The unique features on the PERFORMANCE
PANEL for the left hand allow for subtlety and nuance.
35
PITCH RIBBON
39
A resistance element protected with plasticcoated mesh used to bend the pitch of the oscillators.
In the center of the ribbon is a dead band, marked
with a bump; this causes no bending of pitch, and
provides a way to feel the "center" of the pitch. Pitch
is bent by depressing the ribbon and moving away
from the center bump, deflecting oscillator pitch up
or down with a like movement on the ribbon. On
release of the ribbon at any point the pitch is returned
to "zero" or the original pitch instantly.
36
MOD AMOUNT
S-TRIC
An output trigger ("switch trigger" to ground)
appears at this output whenever contour generators
are triggered by any means. Compatible with all
Moog® synthesizers and accessories, and many other
products. This output can also function asan/nput for
S-Triggers, triggering the contour generators when
ever switch closure occurs.
40
KBD
Provides the keyboard voltage (with glide) fully
compatible with Moog® synthesizers and accessories.
Nominal scaling is one volt/octave with low "F" on
the keyboard = 0 volts.
The MOD AMOUNT (modulation amount)
wheel is connected to a potentiometer which
attenuates (lessens) all modulation signals.
Progressive
attenuation
occurs as the MOD
AMOUNT wheel is rotated toward you. Modulation
signals selected by the SOURCE selector pass through
the MOD AMOUNT wheel where they may be
attentuated, and are routed to several destinations
using the ROUTING selector. The first half of the
mechanical excursion of the MOD AMOUNT wheel
accounts for only a small percentage of the total
electrical span of the potentiometer. This allows the
performer to make less critical, larger movements of
the wheel to create "performance" effects such as
vibrato.
41
RIBBON
Provides output of PITCH ribbon on
Performance Panel, regardless of control panel
settings. (Attenuated).
42
KBD FORCE
Proves unattenuated (D.C.) signal produced by
force sensor mechanism under keyboard.
ON/OFF CONTROL
43
GLIDE
Provides footswitch control for turning glide
ON/OFF. This jack is functional only when the GLIDE
switch on the front panel is OFF. (Note: 3/16" mono
REAR PANEL
jack).
For a complete discussion of the features on the
rear panel of the Multimoog, refer to the OPEN
SYSTEMS section of this manual.
44
MODULATION
This jack allows an external switch to turn
modulation on and off, or an external pedal to control
cni
S-TK6
MO
-OUTPUTS
USD
FORCE
—>
CUBE MODULATION
FHIER
OSCMB
I-OII/OFFCOIITROLJ
j-nac
INPUTS.
AUDIO
TOUCH HOD
EFFECTS
ACCESSOR
POKE*
0
FHE
TIME
OUTPUTS
37
LO AUDIO
A low level audio output (-10 dBM max level at
IK output impedance) suitable for connection to a
guitar amplifier, fuzz, wah-wah, etc.).
38
HI AUDIO
A high level audio output +12 dBM max level at
1.5K output impedance) suitable for connection to a
power amplifier. Will also drive headphones.
amount of modulation. When a 3/16" stereo plug is
inserted, all internal connections are interrupted; the
jack will then function both for output and input of
modulation signals. The modulation signal produced
by the MODULATION section of the Multimoog
appears at the "tip" connection and will be
attenuated by the MOD AMOUNT wheel; this is the
output function. External modulation signals may be
fed directly to the ROUTING control (MOD WHEEL
nonfunctional) through the "ring" connection of the
plug; this is the input function.
79
INPUTS
45
FILTER
Allows external voltage control of the cutoff
frequency of the filter. Scaling is 0.95 volts/octave.
Input impedance is 100K.
46
OSC
Allows external voltage control of the
frequency of the audio oscillator. Scaling is 0.95
volts/octave. Input impedance is 100K.
47
S-TRIG
OTHER FEATURES
50
Supplies +15 volts regulated D.C. power for all
standard Moog accessories. Absolute maximum
current = 50 mA.
51
52
Allows external sound source to be processed
through the synthesizer. Any audio signal routed to
this input appears at the audio input of the FILTER
section. lOOmV RMS input required for full drive.
Input impedance = 4.7K.
49
TOUCH MOD EFFECTS
Allows input of external signal into the MOD
path of the KEYBOARD TOUCH section (in lieu of
MODULATION section signal). Functional only when
the EFFECT switch on the front panel is to MOD.
80
POWER SWITCH
Selects to turn power. ON and OFF.
53
AUDIO
LINE VOLTAGE SELECTOR
This switch selects for operation at 115 or 230
volt line current for worldwide use of theMultimoog.
Switch closure triggers contour generators.
Internal circuit removes switch bounce. Input
impedance = 100K.
48
ACCESS PWR
FINE TUNE
Parallels OCTAVE and WIDE FREQ controls on
front panel to provide fine tuning. Provides greater
than one whole step above or below center pitch.
TECHNICAL DATA
MULTIMOOC SPECIFICATIONS
TONE OSCILLATORS
CONTOUR GENERATORS
NUMBER: 2—(designated A and B)
FREQUENCY RANGE: .IHz to 20KHz
NUMBER: 2 (one for Voltage Controlled Filter (VCF)
and for loudness (VCA).
RANGE OF ATTACK AND RELEASE TIMES: 1
millisecond to 10 seconds.
SUSTAIN LEVEL: Filter and loudness independently
selectable for full or zero sustain.
BYPASS: Switches to hold VCA fully on indefinitely.
STABILITY: Short term range drift after 5 minute
warm-up less than .1% in IHz to 1KHz range. Long
term scale drift less than .05%. Oscillators are totally
insensitive to temperature changes over 5°C to 45°C
lJ
SCALE ACCURACY: Better than 99.95%
TRACKING ACCURACY, OSCILLATOR A TO B: .1%
from IHz to 1 KHz
RELATIVE STABILITY, OSCILLATOR A TO B: Short
term range or scale drift .05% after 5 minute warm-up.
MASTER OCTAVE SWITCH: Transposes oscillator A
and B to preset 32716',8',4', or 2' range, with 99.75%
accuracy. Wide range position activates 8 octave wide
range frequency control for user preset.
WAVEFORMS, OSCILLATORS A&B Variable from
sawtooth through square to narrow pulse.
DOUBLING (OSCILLATOR B): Provides variable mix
of square wave either one or two octaves below pitch
of OSCILLATOR B.
MASTER MIX: Variable mix from A only to B only.
INTERVAL, OSCILLATOR A: Tunes A ± a fifth relative
to OSCILLATOR B.
NOISE SOURCE: Pink noise random waveform as
"hiss" audio source.
KEYBOARD
DESCRIPTION: 44 note F to C keyboard with low note
priority. I n the 8' range the second C from the low end
of the keyboard is middle C (261 Hz)
TRIGGERING: Single or multiple triggering selectable
by the KBD. TRIGGERING switch. In the single mode,
no new triggers can be generated until all keys are
released. In the multiple mode, a new trigger is
produced every time the keyboard voltage changes.
KEYBOARD FORCE SENSOR:
Produces a control
voltage proportional to amount of force applied to
the keyboard. This signal may be used either directly
(BEND) or to control the amount of a selected signal
(MOD) from the SOURCE selector.
FILTER
MODULATION
CHARACTERISTIC: Temperature stabilized lowpass
MODULATION OSCILLATOR: Produces a 50% duty
filter with variable-height resonant peak at cutoff
frequency and 24dB/octave slope.
RANGE OF CUTOFF: IHz to 40KHz,
controlled
voltage
TRACKING: Half-tracking or full tracking of oscillator
OSCILLATION: In "tone" mode filter becomes a pure
sinewave generator with at least a 50Hz to 5KHz range.
ACCURACY OF OSCILLATION: Better than 99% 16'
Lo F to 4' Hi C. Synchronizeable with tone oscillator to
achieve same accuracy and stability characteristics as
tone oscillator.
CONTOUR: Filter contour generator feeds through
reversible attenuator for positive or negative sweeps
cycle square wave and a triangle wave. Supplies
trigger to sample-hold and may be used to trigger
contour generators.
RATE: Adjustable over .3Hz to 30 Hz by RATE control.
SOURCE SWITCH: Selects source of modulation for
wheel modulation and keyboard (MOD) touch
control modulation.
ROUTING SWITCH: Selects destination of wheel
modulation signal.
MOD AMOUNT WHEEL: A playing control that varies
the amplitude of modulation fed to the ROUTING
switch.
up to 5 octaves.
FREQUENCY MOD. BY OSC: Injects tone oscillator
into control input of filter to yield tone color and ring
modulation effects.
EFFECT SWITCH: Selects the modulation SOURCE
LOUDNESS CONTOUR
DYNAMIC
RANGE:
Amplifier (VCA)
80dB
Voltage
KEYBOARD TOUCH
Controlled
switch output or FORCE SENSOR output as the
modulation signal to the DESTINATION switch, via
the AMOUNT control.
FORCE SENSOR: See keyboard force sensor.
81
AMOUNT CONTROL: Attenuates the signal applied
to the DESTINATION switch.
DESTINATION SWITCH: Sends the keyboard touch
modulation signal to one or more of six control inputs.
SYNCH A TO B: In this positionof the DESTINATION
switch, oscillator A is reset by oscillator B which locks
the fundamental frequency of A to B. Modulation
routed into oscillator A shifts the harmonic structure
of A resulting in dynamic spectrum changes.
SAMPLE & HOLD
FUNCTION: Samples noise source at rate set by
modulation oscillator to yield randomly changing
control steps that occur at a regular tempo.
S & H AUTO: Modulation oscillator triggers contours
synchronously at the beginning of each control step.
Trigger duty cycle = 50 %.
S & H KBD: Sampling rate still set mod. osc. but
keyboard alone triggers contours.
RIBBON OUTPUT: ±.6VDC full scale with ±20%
adjustment
KBD FORCE: Outputs 0 to 6 VDC from FORCE
SENSOR mechanism under keyboard.
GLIDE ON/OFF: Provides glide ON/OFF control with
an external foot switch (front panel GLIDE on
Position).
MODULATION: This input/output jack allows an
external switch to turn modualtion on and off, or an
external pedal to control amount of modulation. May
also be used to route modulation signal to external
equipment or feed
external equipment.
in
modulation
signal
from
FILTER INPUT: Allows external voltage control of
filter. Scaling is 0.95 volts/octave. Input impedance =
100K.
OSC. A&B INPUT: Allows external voltage control of
GLIDE
Exponential portamento adjustable from 1
millisecond to 5 seconds with GLIDE ON/OFF switch.
Glide stops when no key is depressed.
RIBBON
Supplies pitch bend signal to oscillator A or oscillator
A and B, determined by the RIBBON ROUTING
switch. Automatic reset to center when ribbon is
released.
oscillators.
Scaling
impedance = 100K.
is
0.95
volts/octave.
Input
S-TRIG INPUT: Switch closure triggers contour
generators. Internal circuit fully removes switch
"bounce." Input impedance = 100K.
AUDIO INPUT: Allows external sound source to be
processed through synthesizer. 100MV RMS input
required for full drive. Input impedance = 100K.
TOUCH MOD EFFECTS: Allows external modulation
source to be used to replace internal keyboard touch
modulation source. Maximum input 3 V peak to peak.
Input impedance = 30K.
REAR PANEL
LOW AUDIO OUTPUT: -10 dBM max level at 1K
output impedance
HI AUDIO OUTPUT: +12 dBM max level at 1.5 K
output impedance. Will drive headphones.
S-TRIG OUTPUT: Output trigger occurs whenever
contour generators ar triggered but can be disabled
by front panel KBD & TRIG EXT OUTPUT switch.
Compatabie with all Moog Synthesizers and
Accessories. (An S-Trig is a "switch" or closure to
ground.)
KBD OUT: Keyboard voltage with glide at 1 volt per
octave adjustable over+10% range. Front panel KBD &
TRIG EXT OUT switch turns KBD OUT off, or on
without ribbon, or on with ribbon. May be used as
keyboard input to override keyboard control voltage
when adjustment pot is in click position.
82
ACCESSORY POWER.-Supplies ±15V regulated D.C.
at 50 MA max for all standard MOOG accessories.
POWER REQUIREMENTS
90-130 VAC or 180 - 260 VAC
50/60 Hz. 18 Watts
Detachable international power cord
DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT
OVERALL SIZE: 313/* wide 15" deep x SVi" high.
NET WEIGHT: 26 lbs.
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