CONSTRUCTA | Built-in oven | Installation guide | CONSTRUCTA Built-in oven Installation guide

CONSTRUCTA Built-in oven Installation guide
Pompeii Oven Instructions
Forno Bravo
Pompeii Oven™ Plans
Build an Authentic Italian Wood-Burning Oven
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
WARNING
Read this before beginning your project
No warranties of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to the accuracy of this information or its suitability for a particular
purpose, are made. Forno Bravo hereby expressly disclaims any and all express or implied warranties, and does not make
any warranty or guaranty, or make any representation whatsoever, express or implied, regarding the use or result of any
information or services provided by this document. Forno Bravo will not assume any liability for any loss or damage of any
kind, arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, the use of this information.
Failure to heed this warning may result in damage to property, bodily injury or death.
Keep children and pets away from hot oven.
Use firewood for burning only. DO NOT use charcoal, pressure treated lumber, chipped wood products, sappy wood such as
pine, laminated wood or any material other than dry medium or hard firewood.
DO NOT USE liquid fuel (firelighter fluid, gasoline, lantern oil, kerosene or similar liquids) to start or maintain a fire.
BEWARE of very high temperatures in the oven and use long oven gloves and mitts to handle pots and tools. DO NOT put
unprotected hands or arms inside oven while it is lit.
Dispose of ashes using a metal shovel and place in a metal bin with a tightly fitting lid. The container should be stored on a
non-combustible surface, away from all combustible materials. Ensure ashes are completely cold before disposing of them
appropriately.
BEWARE of flying sparks from mouth of oven. Ensure that no combustible materials are within range of oven at any time.
DO NOT close the oven door fully while a fire is in the oven. Closing the door fully will cut off oxygen to the fire, causing the
fire to erupt suddenly when the door is removed. Always keep door tilted to allow air to circulate in the oven.
DO NOT use water to dampen or extinguish fire in the oven.
FIRE can result from incorrect installation or use of this oven. It is essential to use only building and insulation materials
designed for the purpose.
Contact your local building department for clarification on any restrictions on installation of this oven in your area.
Follow the instructions for curing the oven. Failure to follow the curing schedule can cause damage to the oven.
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Table of Contents
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................4
The History of Brick Ovens ...........................................................................................................................................6
Why Build a Pompeii Brick Oven Instead of a Barrel Vault Oven...........................................................................8
Tuscan vs. Neapolitan Style Wood-Fired Ovens .......................................................................................................9
Getting Started: A Brick Oven Overview...................................................................................................................10
Oven Dimensions ..........................................................................................................................................................13
1. Foundation .................................................................................................................................................................16
2. The Oven Stand .........................................................................................................................................................19
3. Framing the Hearth ...................................................................................................................................................22
4. Pouring the Hearth....................................................................................................................................................25
5. Setting the Cooking Floor........................................................................................................................................27
6. Starting the Oven Dome...........................................................................................................................................29
7. Building the Dome ....................................................................................................................................................32
8. Building the Oven Opening .....................................................................................................................................35
9. Finishing the Oven Dome ........................................................................................................................................37
10. Oven Vent .................................................................................................................................................................40
11. Arch and Door .........................................................................................................................................................43
12. Attaching the Chimney...........................................................................................................................................45
13. Oven Insulation .......................................................................................................................................................47
14. Enclosure Design Styles........................................................................................................................................49
15. Igloo Enclosure .......................................................................................................................................................52
16. Walled Enclosures ..................................................................................................................................................54
17. Curing Your Oven ...................................................................................................................................................56
Appendix 1. Materials and Tools List ........................................................................................................................58
Appendix 2. Brick Primer .............................................................................................................................................61
Appendix 3. Why the Pompeii Oven Plans are Free................................................................................................63
Appendix 4. Thermal Mass Primer .............................................................................................................................64
Appendix 5. Wood-Fired Oven Anatomy...................................................................................................................66
Appendix 6. High Heat Mortar .....................................................................................................................................67
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Introduction
interesting in reading more about the theory behind the
An Introduction – Before You Build
(see Appendix 4).
Pompeii Oven design, read our Why Round description
The Pompeii Oven is a set of free plans that describes
how to build a traditional Italian brick pizza oven. The oven
There are literally millions of round wood-fired ovens in
is constructed using firebricks (see Appendix 2) and other
Italy, putting you in very good company should you decide
materials (see Appendix 1) easily found at large building
to build a Pompeii Oven at your home. The brick oven is
supply stores (Home Depot, Lowes, B&Q, etc.) or your
as common in Italy as the BBQ is in the U.S., and our goal
local masonry supply company. It's a great oven, and a
is to bring these great ovens into the American and British
great project. Much like Open Source Software, these
mainstream. Today, scores of Pompeii Ovens have been
plans are freely accessible for your use, though Forno
built in America, Britain, Mexico, Belgium, Australia, New
Bravo reserves all rights and the plans cannot be copied,
Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, the Virgin Islands, and
or re-distributed without our approval. If you are curious
Thailand -- and more Pompeii Ovens are being built every
why the plans are free (really), read our Why Free page
day.
(see Appendix 3). Otherwise, join our User Group
Note that it is not necessary to have professional masonry
(http://www.fornobravo.com/forum) and have fun!
skills or assistance to construct the oven, as evidenced by
Wood-fired brick ovens and pizza have been with us since
the numerous successful Pompeii Ovens already
the dawn of civilization. Both have been discovered in the
constructed by individuals with no special construction
excavations of virtually every ancient civilization, with the
skills other than a strong desire to reap the benefits of
brick oven reaching its modern form in ancient Rome. The
their labor. The answers to specific construction questions,
brick ovens uncovered in ancient Pompeii and Naples are
inspirational photos of ovens in progress and completed,
in wonderful shape, and could start baking today with only
as well as other valuable information can be found at the
minor renovations -- the Pompeii Oven is named in their
FornoBravo internet site:
honor. When you have a minute, take a look at our ancient
http://www.fornobravo.com/forum/.
Pompeii Oven Photographs
(http://www.fornobravo.com/pompeii_oven/pompeii_photo
We know that there are other plans for building a brick
s/ventarch.html).
oven, but we are confident that the Pompeii Oven is the
right design for virtually every homeowner. Heck, 60
In modern Italy, the basic Pompeii Oven design is used to
million Italians couldn't be wrong about their round brick
build the brick ovens you see in pizzerias and private
ovens. Contact us if you have any questions on brick oven
homes and gardens. The wood-fired oven is great for
design and performance. Take a look at Forno Bravo
cooking virtually anything that can be cooked in an
Photos
ordinary oven, including pizza, roasts, Focaccia,
(http://www.fornobravo.com/pizza_oven_photos/introducti
vegetables and bread. The oven can bake at high and low
on.html) for inspiration, and to see more photographs of
heat, and it excels at grilling. It heats up quickly and is
Pompeii Ovens -- both in process and complete.
efficient at holding the high heats required for cooking the
Oven Size
perfect three-minute pizza. The Pompeii Oven is also very
The plans describe 36" and 42" (internal diameter) brick
efficient with wood fuel and at holding heat. If you are
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
oven sizes. You can either follow these directions closely,
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
building your oven to the same dimensions we describe,
us your favorite recipes and techniques, and we will post
or you can make modifications to meet your specific size
them in our food section.
or space requirements. We do not describe a small 30"32" oven, because while you can readily build an oven this
You can also buy your pizza peels, pizza oven
size, the additional cost and effort of building the larger 36"
accessories, and pizza flour from the Forno Bravo Store.
are not great, and we think you will appreciate having the
A Note
extra space. The 42" brick oven is large enough for a
Please take a moment to read all of the instructions, and
majority of home cooking requirements, so we do not
look at all of the photographs, before embarking on the
describe a larger oven.
Pompeii Oven project. It is not for everyone. The project
If you have the space and budget, we recommend building
can be challenging, and requires time, patience, and
the larger oven. The larger oven gives you the most
muscle power.
flexibility, can be easier to use, and does not stop you
from cooking smaller amounts of food. Remember that
Our goal is to bring the pleasure of true wood -fired
while you can cook less in a larger oven, you cannot cook
cooking to the American home, garden, and chef, and
more in a smaller oven.
there are a number of ways that we can help make that
Getting Started
happen. If it appears that the Pompeii Oven project might
We recommend that you join the Forno Bravo User Group
be beyond your skill set, or available time, contact us
before you start your project. The community can answer
regarding a traditional modular oven kit.
your questions and try to help you get off on the right foot.
How the Plans Work
Also, please email us with comments on the plans. One of
The Pompeii Oven plans feature a single column of text
the great powers of the Internet is that it enables us to
describing the construction process, and a second
quickly incorporate your recommendations into the plans,
column, which contains graphics, charts and photographs.
so that others can gain from your experience. We will be
keeping this site up to date.
Good luck with your project!
Forno Bravo
Take lots of pictures, and when your oven is completed,
please forward them to us so that we can post them to the
site. Use of the plans is widely encouraged, so tell your
friends.
Again, you should also consider joining the Forno Bravo
user group at www.fornobravo.com/forum. We discuss
brick oven installation, pizza, cooking and Italian food, and
it's a good community. Please feel to join even if you are
not going to build a brick oven, and want to share your
experiences using a pizza stone. Also, when you are
finished, please keep coming back to
www.fornobravo.com in order to enjoy the sections on
brick oven management, techniques, and cooking. Send
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
The History of Brick Ovens
is a glass cameo technique that has not been re-created
Some Background from James Bairey
the Italian countryside, typically built before the second
The Pompeii Oven project was born during a trip to
war, are made from stone, not brick and terracotta --
Sorrento and Naples -- the birthplace of pizza, as well as
giving them a very rough and rustic quality. For example,
the home of both Pompeii and Herculaneum. I had been
the stone cooking floor on these stone ovens is very
interested in wood-fired ovens for a number of years, and
uneven, making cooking an adventure. In a sense, like
had built a number of them, both from brick and from
many other things, the brick oven took a brief step
modular oven kits. Like most visitors, I went looking
backward after the fall of the Roman Empire.
to this day. In fact, many of the "modern" ovens you find in
forward to the pizza and to seeing Pompeii, but I was not
There are 33 brick ovens uncovered in Pompeii, and it
prepared for how impressive both would be.
was instructive to see that a number of them are in varying
I had heard that ovens had been discovered at Pompeii,
degrees of disrepair, which by luck show how the ovens
but at the same time I had read in various books and
were built. It is possible to see the edges of the cooking
articles that implied that the ancient ovens were simpler
surfaces, the oven domes exposed from under their clay
than modern brick ovens, so I wasn't expecting much.
insulation, the oven vents and chimneys, and even a
Instead, I found that the ovens in Pompeii are not only well
cross-section of the brickwork that made up the dome
preserved, they also demonstrate excellent engineering
itself.
skill.
The Modern Wood-Fired Oven
Later, after having spent hours with my head inside the
The ancient ovens were used inside shops, which also
ovens at the excavations, my family and I ventured out at
served as retail stores. The ovens were well shaped, well
night to eat some of the world's best pizza.
insulated, well vented, and beautifully built. The cooking
floors were made from tempered terracotta tiles, about 2"
The Neapolitans have elevated pizza to an art form. In
thick, and the domes were round, and spherically shaped.
fact, they are so proud of their culinary heritage, they have
The domes were built using bricks set on their flat side
just requested that the European Union regulate Pizza
and were covered with about 1" of mortar, then insulated
Napoletana the same way it controls Champagne, Chianti,
with a type of clay. The neighborhoods where the ovens
Mozzarella, Parmesan, and certain types of olive oil. In
were located were also home to food shops, which had
and around Pompeii and Naples, I was struck not only by
insulated terracotta trays for serving both hot food and
the great pizza, but also by the fact that the ovens were so
cold drinks. My guess is that the pizza and drink you could
similar to the ancient Pompeii ovens that I had seen during
find in ancient Pompeii was probably better than what you
my days of exploring. After a few evenings of talking with
find in today's shopping mall pizzerias.
restaurant owners and pizzaioli, I hatched the idea to recreate the Pompeii Oven, and make it a project that could
In further research, I have gone on to see that there are a
be done by hobbyists, enthusiasts, and builders around
number of examples of Roman craftsmanship using
the world, and started working on the plans.
traditional materials, such as brick, concrete, and glass,
which modern artisans do not yet fully understood, and
cannot accurately re-create to this day. For example, there
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Building the First Oven
The next step was to actually build a Pompeii Oven. Jim
Hatch and I met on-line at a brick oven user group, and
began exploring how to best put the Pompeii Oven idea to
work in the real world. Jim's creative solutions to oven
design and construction issues were great, and we
concluded that the oven would work for an Englishspeaking audience. Jim took the plunge, and started the
first Pompeii Oven.
Jim completed his oven in July 2004, less than three
months after we started talking about the idea. Jim's oven
is beautiful, and cooks wonderfully. Today, scores of
Pompeii Ovens have been built in America, Britain,
Mexico, Belgium, Brazil, Amsterdam, Australia, New
Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, the Philippines, Hawaii,
the Virgin Islands, and Thailand, joining Italy's estimated
millions of pizza ovens. More Pompeii Ovens are being
built every day.
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Why Build a Pompeii Brick Oven
floor in a barrel vault oven, there is not a good place
Instead of a Barrel Vault Oven
little room for food on the other side, and you cannot
1.
for the fire. If you put it on one side, you have very
The Pompeii Oven design heats up much more
access the back. If you put the fire in the back, the
quickly than a barrel vault oven -- less than an hour,
heat and flame does not reflect to the front of the
compared with 2-3 hours or more for the heavier
oven. A 35" round Pompeii Oven gives you much
oven. The round dome is self-standing (ala the
more usable space than a 32x36. For all the effort you
Duomo in Florence), so it does not need concrete
are going to be putting into installing a wood-fired
cladding to hold it together. Because the barrel vault
oven, a 32x36 rectangular oven is a one-pizza oven --
has a great deal of outward thrust, it needs a lot of
which is a shame.
concrete for buttressing. As a result, the round oven
4.
can be much thinner; 2”-4”, compared with a 9”+ thick
2.
The Pompeii Oven cooks more evenly. The round,
barrel vault dome. Plus, the barrel vault oven burns
spherical dome does a better job of bouncing heat
more wood (which isn't good for the environment or
evenly on the cooking floor. You can cook pizza
your pocketbook). For many owners, heat up time is
everywhere (or roasts and veggies) in the oven, and it
the difference between using their oven during the
cooks evenly. That is how the high volume pizzerias
workweek, or not at all. Round oven owners use their
cook all those pizzas. The rectangular barrel vault
ovens a couple of times a week, and sadly, we know
design gives you hot and cool spots, depending on
barrel vault oven owners who never fire their ovens.
the location of the fire.
6.
Pizza should cook at 700ºF, or higher. The Pompeii
The Pompeii Oven also helps direct the airflow better
Oven can easily reach and hold that heat, baking
in a chimney-less oven, as the air sweeps in low, up
authentic Italian pizza for long periods of time. The
the back & sides and washes over the face of the
heavier oven has serious trouble reaching and
dome before exiting the upper 1/3rd of the doorway.
holding those high temperatures. The problem with
7.
too much thermal mass is that the heat from your fire
There are also little things, like easier clean up.
must heat the entire mass. That means that heat is
continually moving away from the inside of you oven,
The only downside is that a pizza oven can only bake
where you want it for cooking, toward the outer edge
around 20-30 loaves of bread from a single firing, not 75.
of the thermal mass. That continues to happen until
But for a home oven, that typically works well. You can
the entire mass is heated, which can take a very, very
bake more bread than you could ever eat.
long time in a barrel vault oven. For more information,
There are millions of pizza ovens in Italy, and they are all
read the Thermal Mass Primer (Appendix 5).
round. I also think it is interesting that there is a great deal
3.
The Pompeii Oven is designed for fire-in-the-oven
of wood-fired bread in Italy (Pane Cotto a Legna), which is
cooking and pizza. With a round oven you have room
baked in large commercial, rectangular barrel vault ovens.
for your fire on one side, and your food and pizza on
It is clear that there are two basic wood-fired oven
the other side and in the back. The entire oven can be
designs: pizza ovens and bread ovens, so you should
easily reached. With a 32x36 rectangular cooking
think about how you want to use your oven.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Tuscan vs. Neapolitan Style WoodFired Ovens
There are two basic styles of Italian wood-fired pizza oven:
the Neapolitan oven, which has a more aggressive curve,
flatter dome, and a lower dome height, and the Tuscan
oven, which has less aggressive curve and a higher dome.
While both oven styles perform well with all types of
cooking, it is said that the Naples-style oven is more tuned
A taller first course and steeper, lower dome characterize
to pizza, because the lower dome gets hotter and reflects
the Naples-style oven.
more heat from the fire for cooking pizza.
Still, it is our view that the differences between the two
Because the Tuscan design has a larger oven space
oven styles have be exaggerated, and we heartily believe
above the door opening, it is more efficient at holding heat,
that you will be extremely happy with either design, or if
and uses less wood. It also has a larger door opening for
you choose to build your own hybrid between the two.
larger roasts and pans, making it better for cooking bread
Practically speaking, the dome height difference between
and roasting. It is probably also true that the higher dome
the two oven styles in a typical 36” backyard oven is about
is somewhat easier to build, as the inward curve is less
3”-4”.
pronounced, and there is less risk of a chain of bricks
falling in before they are locked in place with a keystone.
You can make perfect Pizza Napoletana in a higher
domed oven, and you can bake and roast in a lower dome
oven. The only real limitation is that with its physically
lower dome, and resulting smaller oven opening, the
Naples-style oven can keep you from cooking larger
roasts or from using certain types of pans. Regardless of
which style you choose, the parabolic oven dome shape
serves to evenly reflect heat down on the cooking surface.
The higher curve of the Tuscan oven.
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Getting Started: A Brick Oven
•
A smooth surface on which the cooking surface will
rest.
Overview
3. The Cooking Surface and Vent Floor
The Pompeii Oven is comprised of a number of basic
Pizza and bread are baked directly on the oven cooking
components, which we will define here to give you a better
surface, while other foods such as vegetables and roasts
understanding how you will go about building your oven.
are placed in cookware, or cooked on a Tuscan style grill
over wood coals. The oven landing sits just in front of your
Other resources include:
oven, under the vent. Additionally, you will want to build an
The Anatomy of a Wood-Fired Oven shows the various
additional landing area in front of the oven opening to
parts of the oven (see Appendix 6).
provide a staging area for food that is being placed inside
or removed from the oven.
Our Thermal Mass Primer shows how wood-fired ovens
absorb and hold heat, and cook (see Appendix 5).
The cooking surface should be built using high quality
1. The Foundation Slab
firebricks, set on their wide side in a basket weave pattern
Your oven enclosure rests on a traditional wire mesh
so that the seams are staggered. This design provides a 2
reinforced 5 1/2 " concrete slab. It can be a stand-alone
1/2" thick cooking surface, perfect for a home or garden
slab built specifically to support your oven, or it can be
oven.
poured to accommodate other outdoor kitchen items
including shelves, grills and tables. Your outdoor kitchen
Alternatively, you can purchase a round cooking surface
can, and probably will, evolve over time. If you are in
from Forno Bravo. The advantage to the round cooking
areas with deep frost, you will want to ensure that your
surface is that you can build your oven dome around, not
slab is properly engineered to remain level during the
on, the oven floor, which is a more heat-efficient approach.
winter freeze.
The round floor also saves time, and presents fewer
seams that might catch your peels or pans.
2. The Stand and Insulating Hearth
Your oven dome and cooking surface are set on an
The owner or builder can also choose to install a larger
insulating hearth and stand built on your foundation slab.
oven landing in front of the oven using such materials as
The insulating hearth is framed and poured directly on
brick or granite. The cooking surface is centered left and
your block stand. The oven cooking floor should be set to
right on the hearth slab, with the oven dome built either on
a height where you can easily place and remove food --
the cooking surface, or around it. Placement of the front
typically around 40 inches. The insulating hearth and the
edge of the oven floor depends on the depth of the oven
block stand are the same width and depth.
landing, where the front of the oven butts up to the landing
material.
The insulating hearth serves three purposes, providing
4. The Oven Dome
your oven with:
•
•
A rigid platform that spans the opening between the
The oven chamber is made as a circular parabolic dome
stand's legs above the wood storage area.
built from firebrick. The dome shape is designed to
An insulation layer to stop heat from escaping through
efficiently absorb heat from a wood fire, and to evenly
the rigid platform and down into the stand legs.
reflect the heat of a live fire to the cooking surface – where
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
it both heats the cooking floor and food. The oven is
You should use a chimney cap to minimize rainfall
constructed using a high heat mortar (see Appendix 7).
infiltration into your chimney and oven, and to stop sparks
from leaving the chimney.
We would recommend using high quality firebricks for both
8. Dome Insulation
the oven dome and cooking surface. The firebricks that
After the oven dome and vent have been assembled, the
make up the dome provide a majority of the oven's ability
oven is covered with insulation, typically a woven ceramic
to hold heat, and will allow the oven to deliver the high
insulating blanket, such as Insulfrax, loose insulation, such
temperatures that are needed for cooking pizza.
as vermiculite or perlite, or a combination of the two.
Unlike thermal mass, where too much can be a bad thing,
Also, as many oven builders have noted, the additional
there isn't really such a thing as too much insulation.
cost of buying the best firebricks is very low compared
Woven ceramic insulation has the advantages of higher
with the overall cost of the project, and the labor capital
efficiency, requiring using less space, and providing better
that is being invested.
oven heat retention. Loose insulators tend to be slightly
5. Vent
less expensive.
Unlike a fireplace, where the chimney is inside the firebox
9. Oven Enclosure
in the back, the brick oven's vent and chimney are outside
There are two basic outdoor oven designs: the Walled
of the oven -- in the front. The vent can be made from
House and the Igloo, both of which give you a virtually
steel, brick, or cast as a concrete form. We have included
limitless range of design options and finish materials.
drawings and directions for all three methods.
Oven structures can be designed to incorporate a range of
6. Vent Arch and Door
outdoor kitchen elements, such as counters, shelves,
Your oven has two openings: one into the oven itself, and
storage, and grills.
a second, optional opening around the oven vent and
landing. Either or both can be decorated with a brick arch.
The top half of the Gabled House can be constructed
For most installations, the opening into the oven itself can
using either metal studs and concrete board, or half-wide
be built using standard angle iron, producing a rectangular
concrete blocks (4x8x16).
opening.
The Igloo is constructed using rebar, wire stucco lathe
You can build your own door, or if you build you door
(mesh), rough stucco (scratch coat) and/or exterior finish
opening to a standard size, you can purchase one from
stucco. The finish material must be waterproof.
Forno Bravo.
The lower half of outdoor ovens that use a metal stand
7. Chimney
can be finished with metal studs and concrete board, and
The top of the vent is then connected to either a modular
both the metal and concrete block stand can be finished to
double-wall steel chimney system, or a terracotta chimney
match to top of the oven.
flue liner. The type of chimney pipe you use depends on
whether your installation is outside or inside, your design
Indoor ovens can be placed in corners, against walls, and
choice, and on your local building code. Be sure to check
when the oven is part of a larger re-modeling project, can
you local building code prior to installation.
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
be set back outside a room to make the front of the oven
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
flush with an interior wall. Indoor ovens can easily be set
behind a partition wall constructed from metal studs and
concrete board.
10. Finish
Finish materials typically include stucco, brick, stone, tile,
marble, travertine, and granite.
© Forno Bravo, LLC 2007. All Rights Served.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Oven Dimensions
Foundation
Oven Chamber and Opening
Low Vault
High Vault
Interior
Interior
Opening
Opening
Diameter
Height
Width
Height
36
14.5"
18
10
42
15.5"
19
11
36
18"
19
12
42
21"
20
12.5
Oven size
Foundation
Block Stand
36"
71" x 80"
63" x 70"
42"
77" x 86"
69" x 76"
The foundation dimensions allow for 4" on the side and
back of the stand, and 6" in the front to support finish
materials and provide a clean reveal above ground level.
Note that the diameter of your oven does not have to be
exactly 36" or 42", but rather the nearest size that you
reach without cutting bricks. Build a model on a flat space
to get your exact measurement for the bricks you are
using. Do not allow space for a mortar joint, as you will be
setting the edges of the bricks facing inside the oven flush
with each other.
Oven Stand
42"
42"
36"
36"
Oven
Oven
Oven
Oven
Width
Depth
Width
Depth
Interior
42"
42"
36"
36"
Exterior
51"
51"
45"
45"
Insulation
10"
5"
10"
5"
Upper Wall
8"
4"
8"
4"
Vent Landing
0
4"
0
4"
Oven Landing
0
12"
0
12"
Total
69"
76"
63"
70"
These dimensions assume 4" upper wall thickness and a
12" oven landing. Adjust according to your specific design.
We recommend that you consider rounding up your oven
stand dimensions to the nearest size that keeps you from
having to measure and cut your blocks. You do not have
to be accurate to the inch with you stand, and you can
make up any differences with additional insulation.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
Top Elevation
Cross Section: Igloo
Front Elevation
Cross Section: Walled Enclosure
7 ½” hearth; 4” insulating concrete on top of 3 ½”
structural concrete.
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Corner Installation: 31” (internal)
Corner Installation: 39” (internal)
Corner Installation: 35” (internal)
Corner Installation: 43” (internal)
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
1. Foundation
Overview
The Foundation Slab is exactly that -- the slab on which
your oven stand and oven chamber will sit. We
recommend a minimum thickness of 5 ½ inches (14 cm)
for the Foundation slab, however your location, soil
conditions and local building ordinances will dictate the
thickness required.
1.1. Use a tiller to break up the soil.
The slab dimensions listed below are 8 " wider than the
dimensions of your concrete block stand, providing you
Lay a 3" base of pea gravel (or crushed rock), compact the
with 2" for finish material, and a 2" reveal on either side of
rock (Photo 1.2), and cover it with a layer of 6ml plastic
the stand. The slab is also 10" deep, allowing for 4" in the
sheeting to stop the slab from wicking water.
back (2" finish and reveal), and 6" in front (the additional
space makes a nice edge for your wood storage). The
foundation slab will also be used to support forms that you
will use during the hearth slab construction The finished
top of the slab should be 2"-3" above ground level.
Instructions
First, excavate your foundation (Photo 1.1) The slab frame
for a 5 ½"(14 cm) foundation is best composed of 2x6 inch
lumber set so the top of the form is 2-3” (5-8 cm) above
ground level. The longer form boards should sit inside the
shorter boards, and the completed form can be held in
1.2. A gravel or crushed rock bed.
place by driving wooden stakes into the ground around the
perimeter. Before securing everything permanently, check
to make sure the form is located and faces exactly where
Place a sheet of wire mesh inside the foundation frame,
you want it, and is level and square.
and install a two-piece grid using 1/2" rebar (#4) set 4" and
8" inside the foundation frame. Tie the rebar together with
tie wire, then set the wire mesh and rebar half way up the
pad (2 3/4"), using either rebar stand-offs or fragments of
brick (Photo 1.3).
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
1.3. Framed, lined, with wire mesh and rebar.
1.5 The finished foundation ready to cure.
Other Considerations
Mix and pour the concrete (Photo 1.4), and then level it.
Depending on where you live, you may have to excavate
Use a 2"x4" to screed and level the concrete, then finish to
18” or more, of topsoil to reach a stable substrate such as
a smoothness that works for you as the bottom of your
hard clay. If you do excavate to a depth greater than the
wood storage area (Photo 1.5). Allow the slab to cure for a
foundation form height, you will need to add a material,
day or two. Keeping it damp will help it cure better and
such as thoroughly compacted pea gravel or crushed rock,
become stronger.
which will allow for the drainage of water from under the
concrete slab. Placing a layer of plastic sheeting over the
material will help prevent it from wicking water from the
slab too quickly, making it brittle and prone to cracking.
You may also want to install your Pompeii Oven as part of
a larger outdoor kitchen project. Use the dimensions for
the oven in conjunction with your other kitchen elements,
such as counters, a grill, storage, a sink, and refrigeration.
You might find it easier to form your entire kitchen at one
time.
1.4 Using a mixer.
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1.6. A complete outdoor kitchen foundation.
1.8. 2”x4”’s hold the form square and plumb.
The weight of concrete in the foundation can be heavy (40
80lb bags or more), and mixing it by hand in a
wheelbarrow might use up energy and time that will serve
you better later in the project. Rent a mixer from Home
Depot, and ask a friend (or pay a local teenager) to help
you mix and pour the slab.
There are also mix-on-your-site trucks that come and just
make as much concrete as you need on site, so you might
want to price this option if available in your area.
1.7 The foundation and first course of stand blocks.
Hints and Tips
Check with your local equipment rental company for a 1-
Use a tiller to break up the ground before you excavate.
yard mixer that you can tow behind a standard pickup
You can rent one from Home Depot. If your ground is hard
truck.
and/or dry, water it with a sprinkler for a couple of days
before you start. Your site should be soft, but not muddy.
If your building side it far from your street or curb, you can
hire a concrete pump to shoot the concrete where you
Compare both diagonal measurements of your foundation
want it. The pump rental is typically a different company
frame to ensure that your foundation will be square.
from the concrete delivery truck.
Double check that your foundation really faces the exact
direction you want you oven to face. Once the diagonals
Remember that while the slab has to be square, level,
are of equal length, you may want to temporarily attach 2 x
plumb, and structurally sound to get your oven off on the
4 lumber horizontally to form triangles at the corners and
right foot, it will never be seen. It is worth saving your best
hold your form square during the pour (Photo 1.8)
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finish work for later in the project.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
2. The Oven Stand
Overview
The concrete block stand rests on the foundation slab, and
provides the legs (structure) that support the insulating
hearth. The hearth slab will be constructed to lie on top of
the block stand and your oven dome in turn will rest on the
hearth. The hearth stand is constructed using standard (8’
x 8” x 16” and 8” x 8” x 8”) concrete blocks. The hearth
slab fits flush to the edges of the oven stand.
2.2. Stand with cast lintels.
The first three courses of the block stand form a threesided U, leaving an opening in the oven front that provides
access for wood storage. The fourth course of blocks
spans the opening at the front of the U, by resting on two
pieces of 2"x2"x3/8" angle iron. Alternatively, a pre-cast
lintel can be used to span the base opening. The
insulating hearth, once poured, will rest directly on the
fourth course of blocks. (Photo 2.1)
2.3. A corner installation.
Instructions
Build a block stand comprised of four courses using
standard 8"x16"x8" and 8"x8"x8" concrete blocks found at
your local building supply store.
We recommend that you dry stack your building blocks,
then after you have checked that your stand is square and
level, fill every other core with concrete and rebar for
2.1 Angle iron supports the fourth block course.
stability. This approach will save you time and energy
compared with mortaring each block in place, and will
For large commercial ovens, it is necessary to build a third
provide you with a structurally solid base.
leg (supporting column) in the center of the stand to
support the additional weight of the larger commercial
Using a chalk line, mark the layout of your block stand
oven and its hearth slab. If you are interested in building a
directly on the foundation slab. Make sure that it faces
larger oven, please contact us via www.fornobravo.com.
exactly where you want your oven opening to face. Then,
lay your first course of blocks directly on your slab. Use
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
pre-mixed mortar where necessary to ensure that the first
Grind, or cut, 3/8" from the edges of each block that rests
course of blocks is level., front and back, side to side, and
on the angle iron, so that they lie flush with the rest of the
on the diagonals (Photo 2.4). Take your time with this,
fourth course. Finish laying the rest of the fourth course of
because it will be increasingly difficult to correct problems
blocks (Photo 2.6).
later.
2.6. The finished stand.
2.4. Carefully lay out the first course of blocks.
After you have completely assembled the block stand,
In the following courses, stagger your blocks using either
check that the walls are square, level and plumb. Drop a
8"x8"X8" blocks, or cut blocks, to ensure that the joints are
section of 1/2" rebar in every other core, and fill those
offset. Lay the next two courses, for a total of three.
cores with concrete.
Variations
After you have laid your first three courses, set your two
pieces of 2"x2" angle iron across the opening between the
While our plans describe only a simple block stand, you
two legs of the U shape. Note that the back piece of angle
are limited only by your imagination, and the requirements
iron must be cut to allow clearance for the rest of the top
of the physical world. Some recently built variations
course of blocks (Photo 2.5).
include a round brick oven stand, and an oven with
attached outdoor kitchen, including accommodations for a
sink and a landing area for pizza preparation.
You can have a welder build a stand from angle iron, or
you can construct a stand using metal studs.
You can form your entire stand and hearth, and pour it
with concrete. Another recent variation used a brick arch
to support the hearth, constructed on top of two linear
foundation legs (supports).
2.5. Cut the back angle iron to leave room for blocks.
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Tips and Hints
Much like your foundation, remember that while it is
When selecting the direction your oven will face, consider
important that your stand is level, square, and plumb, the
making sure that your opening does not face possible
blocks will be completely covered with your finish material.
winds, which might disrupt your cooking and fire
Beautiful masonry work on your stand is not essential
management.
here.
We recommend using angle iron and a course of blocks
Use a grinder with a diamond blade to remove the 3/8"
across the open span between the stand's legs for the top
from the blocks that sit on the angle iron brace across the
course of the stand. It provides security that the hearth will
span. It will go fast.
never sag, causing serious problems to your oven, and the
To fill your stand cores, mix a wet batch of concrete.
added cost and time is low.
Shovel it into a 5-gallon bucket, and pour it into the cores.
We also recommend dry stacking your blocks, then filling
Construct a cardboard funnel, or attach a paint pourer to
every other core (or the corners) with concrete. It's a lot
the bucket to make it go fast.
faster, and sturdier as well.
Block the cores that you have not filled with your empty
concrete bag to stop your hearth concrete from spilling
into the holes. (Photo 2.7)
2.8. Filling the cores.
2.7. Filling the cores.
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3. Framing the Hearth
Take care with the additional mass under the oven. All
Overview
are capable of retaining enough heat for roasting a turkey,
Your oven sits on a two-piece hearth, comprised of an
or baking a full oven of bread, from a single firing.. If you
insulating layer that rests directly under the oven cooking
are not going to be baking very large volumes of bread,
floor, and a structural layer that hold the oven in place.
you probably do not want, or need, the extra mass under
The insulating layer stops heat from leaving the oven
the oven floor.
Pompeii Ovens with a standard 2 ½” firebrick cooking floor
through the cooking floor, and is made from either 3 ¾” or
4” of insulating concrete (vermiculite or perlite mixed with
Portland cement), or a 2” calcium silicate insulating board
(SuperIsol) available through the Forno Bravo Store. The
structural layer is comprised of either 3 ½“ of rebar
reinforced concrete, or a fabricated metal tray. For
installations that will use vermiculite concrete for
insulation, the structural concrete and insulating concrete
are poured in two parts in a single form built from 2”×8”
lumber (1 1/2″ × 7 1/2″, 38×235 mm) and either 3/4"
plywood or concrete board to form the bottom of the
3.1. Firebrick splits under the cooking floor.
hearth.
Thermocouples
For installations that will use SuperIsol insulting board, the
If you are planning on using one or more thermocouples in
structural layer can be poured separately in a form built
the hearth and/or cooking floor, you can add them now.
from 2”×4” lumber (1 1/2″ × 3 1/2″, 38×235 mm) and either
You can either include the actual thermocouple wire in the
3/4" plywood or concrete board to form the bottom of the
hearth when the concrete is poured, or you can use a
hearth.
straw to create a chamber where you will run the
Island Hearth
thermocouple wire later. (See Photo 3.4)
Some builders want use their oven for baking multiple
Instructions
batches of bread from a single firing. In this application a
The hearth form is built in two parts: a bottom tray and the
little extra thermal mass in the floor will allow longer
frame sides, which will hold the hearth as it is poured.
cooking times at elevated temperature. This can be
After the hearth has cured, the form is removed (and
accomplished by using what is called an isolated hearth. A
usually becomes part of the first fires that will cure your
ring of refractory concrete in poured to the same diameter
oven).
of the dome about 1 1/2” thick, or an island of firebricks is
set under the cooking floor. You may either pour extra
Support for the Tray
insulating concrete around the island or leave it elevated.
First, using 2 "x 4" lumber (or 2 "x 3") set on its side, build
You may also use firebrick splits (1 1/4") to increase the
the frame for the bottom of the form. The frame should be
mass (Photo 3.1). You may “sink” your island into the
roughly 3/8" smaller than the opening of your block stand,
insulating layer, but take care to not reduce your insulating
so that it can be easily removed after the hearth has
layer to less than 3 1/3 inches.
cured. (Photo 3.2)
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Next, cut (12) lengths of 2"x4" that will serve as the legs
The Bottom Tray
that hold the bottom frame in place inside the stand
Cut the two sheets of plywood lengthwise to fit into the
opening. You will use 1/4" shims to accurately set the top
opening (3/8" shorter so that it will easily come out later),
of the frame. The top of the 2”x4” frame should be about
and lay it on the frame. Tape the joint with masking tape.
1" below the top of the stand (to allow for the 3/4" plywood
Set your last two 2"x4"legs supporting a 2"x4" on its side
and shims). Measure and cut your 2”x4” legs accordingly -
directly under the joint, which will support the weight of the
- stand height, minus 2 1/2" (1 1/2" for the 2”x4” and 1" for
wet hearth while it is curing. Shim to level. You have
the plywood and shim).
finished the bottom of your form. (Photo 3.4)
To prevent the concrete from bonding to your forms you
can either get a commercially available release agent
(usually a spray) or use a homegrown method of
vegetable oil, which may render the plywood useless for
other projects. Another option would be to cover the tray
with a 10 mil plastic sheet.
3.2. The form support ready for the tray.
Set two 2" x4" legs at each corner and one in the middle of
the span, then lay the frame on top. Place shims between
the legs and frame, and then tap the shims to raise the
frame up until its top is 11/16" (the true thickness of 3/4"
plywood) from the top of the stand. After the bottom tray is
built, you will add more 2“x4” legs to support the center of
3.4. Plywood set in place.
the tray (Photo 3.3).
The Side Forms
Next, build the sides of the form using 2”x8" lumber to fit
around the block stand edges. This frame forms the sides
of your 7 1/2 " insulating hearth. The 2”x8” board will be
set at the top of the outer edge of the block wall, and will
need to be supported by 2”x4” legs and shims similar to
the tray. When placing the forms there should be a
distance of 7 ½ inches from the top of the form to the top
of the hollow blocks.
The form should be held in place by ratcheting cargo
3.3. Form supports.
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straps to prevent bulging of the sides. You can also hold
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
the long sides of the frame together using (2) 2”x4” studs
nailed cross the top of the frame, and 2”x4” studs set on
an angle to the ground. Check for level (Photo 3.4).
3.4 Form sides held in place with 2”x4”’s.
Tips and Hints
Cut your frame and plywood for the bottom of the hearth
form about 3/8" shorter than the actual opening. The
concrete will not escape when you pour, and it will be
easier to remove the form when your hearth has cured.
Use shims to set the bottom form level with the top of the
block stand. It will be easier to make the form level with
the top of the stand, and it is easier to remove it when the
hearth has cured.
To stop the top form from bulging out under the weight of
the concrete, use either (2) 2"x4"'s nailed in place on the
top of the form in one direction, and nailed in place and
angled to the ground in the other direction. Or, use
ratcheting cargo straps tightened around the outside of the
top form.
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4. Pouring the Hearth
Overview
If you are using insulating concrete, your hearth is poured
in two parts: a 3 1/2" layer of structural, rebar reinforced
standard concrete, followed by a 4" layer of insulating
concrete.
If you are using SuperIsol, you simply pour a rebar
reinforced 3 ½” pad.
4.2. Structural layer waiting on insulating layer.
Instructions
For the two-layer hearth, draw a line 4” down from the top
Prepare the insulating concrete using a ratio of 5 parts
of the frame to mark the top of the structural concrete
vermiculite to 1 part Portland cement (5:1). Thoroughly
layer.
mix the vermiculite and Portland cement when they are
still dry, then add water and mix until you reach an
Lay a grid of 1/2" rebar slightly shorter than the external
oatmeal consistency. Pour the insulating material to the
dimension of the wood forms, on 12" centers, starting 6" in
top of the form.
from the edges of the form, set half-way up the 3 1/2”
concrete layer (about 1 3/4”). Then, pour the 3 1/2” layer
If you will be building a landing in front of your oven
of structural concrete. See Photos 4.1 and 4.2.
opening, it is not necessary to pour vermiculite concrete all
the way to the front of the hearth. Rather, you can end the
form where your oven vent will begin, and only pour
vermiculite directly under the oven chamber and vent
area. Fill the form under the landing in front of the oven
with standard concrete (Photo 4.4).
4.1. Rebar set in center of the concrete pad.
4.3. Insulating concrete on top ready to cure.
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4.4. Vermiculite concrete poured under the oven chamber.
Tips and Hints
We recommend mixing your vermiculite concrete by hand,
rather than in a mixer, which tends to break the vermiculite
up and reduce its efficiency. It is a light mixture that is
easy to work with. Dry mix the vermiculite and Portland
cement, so that the cement covers the vermiculite, then
add water until you reach an oatmeal-like consistency.
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easier for you to get your floor perfectly level (Photo 5.2).
5. Setting the Cooking Floor
The process is similar to setting ceramic tiles.
Overview
Your cooking floor can be made from either individual
firebricks, set in an offset or herringbone pattern (Photo
5.1), where the oven walls rest directly on the cooking
surface, or from a round refractory floor provided by Forno
Bravo. The advantage of the firebrick floor is that it is
made from materials you can purchase locally. The
advantages of the round floor are that it has fewer seams,
and the oven dome itself sits directly on the hearth, not the
cooking floor, which is more efficient.
5.2 Ready for the cooking floor
Measure your hearth to ensure that you are centering your
cooking floor left and right on the hearth. How far back you
set the cooking surface will depend on the size and
material you are using for the oven landing in front of the
oven opening. Use a chalk line and measuring tape, locate
and mark the center of the oven, and where the front of
the oven (the vent floor) will meet with your oven landing
(Photo 5.3).
5.1 A herringbone pattern.
Instructions
These instructions show how to build a cooking floor using
firebricks. With this method, you do not mortar the bricks
in place, but rather spread a thin layer of paste made from
sand, fire clay and water as a "bed" for the floor.
5.3 Measure carefully where the oven will sit.
To make the underfloor paste, mix 1 part of fine sand with
1 part fireclay, then add water until you reach the texture
Laying your floor in a herringbone or offset pattern to will
of a sticky mortar (but without the cement). Spread the
help avoid having seams line up that will catch your pizza
underfloor using a notched trowel as the ridges will make it
peel. Build the floor out and back until you have gone far
enough to hold the oven wall. Lay your bricks on their flat
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side, as close as possible to the next brick, avoiding letting
sand, clay or grit get in between, which will keep your
bricks from touching each other. Tap the floor with a
rubber mallet until it is smooth and level (Photo 5.4.).
5.6. The cooking floor with the first course laid out.
Tips and Hints
If possible, hand select your cooking floor bricks for
5.4. The cooking floor set and ready to go.
quality, ridges and chips, and use the best you have for
the cooking floor.
Check again for level, because this is your true cooking
surface. Finally, mark the location for the oven dome and
landing to prepare for the next step. Locate the true center
If you do end up with ridges that catch your peel, you can
of your oven using a tape measure and chalk line (Photo
grind them out later.
5.5). Using a string and pencil, mark a circle the size of the
inside of your oven. That is where you will set your oven
walls and dome.
5.5. The oven and vent marked on the cooking floor.
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6. Starting the Oven Dome
Overview
The top of the Pompeii oven is a circular parabolic dome
built from brick. The dome shape is designed to efficiently
absorb heat from a wood fire, to evenly reflect stored heat,
and to reflect heat from a live fire inside the oven down to
the cooking surface.
Photo 6.1 provides a good overview of the dome layout,
6.2 No forms.
including the first chain of upright bricks, the curve of the
dome, and side view of the oven opening.
6.3 Styrofoam forms.
6.1 Inward dome curve.
To Form, or Not to Form.
There are three fundamental ways of constructing the
oven dome: the first is a free-standing dome, where chains
of self-supporting brick circles are built on top of one
another (Photo 6.2); the second uses a set of Styrofoam
vanes that you cut to your dome profile, place inside the
dome, and then removed after the dome is completed
(Photo 6.3); and the third entails building a dome shaped
form using wet sand, then mortaring your bricks in place
as they lay against the form (Photo 6.4).
6.4 Sand form.
Advantages of not using a form for the first 6 to
Here are three photos showing the different approaches:
8 courses:
•
It is a relatively easy and very time-efficient method.
•
The brickwork is accessible from the inside as the
dome is being built.
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
•
•
You can continually clean the inside of the dome
About Your Brick
brickwork, which will result in a better-looking end
We recommend using low or medium duty firebrick for
product.
both the oven dome and cooking surface. The dome
Finally, this approach reduces the risk of something
firebricks provide a majority of the oven's ability to hold
going wrong. Simply put, you know the entire time
heat, and will allow the oven to deliver the high
that you are working that your oven dome is standing,
temperatures needed for cooking pizza. Read our Brick
and will continue to stand. If the builder uses the
Primer (Appendix 2) for more background information on
forms to hold up the bricks, rather than using the
bricks.
forms as a placement guide there is a chance that the
brickwork will not be self-supporting. You will need to
support your rings, also called chains, once the arch
of the dome is more pronounced at chain 8.
The freestanding dome approach builds on itself, where
the first few chains are not difficult to build, giving the
builder the experience and self-confidence necessary to
continue through the subsequent chains.
An experienced mason can build the entire dome without
using any type of form.
6.5 Two firebricks
Advantages of using a form from start to finish:
•
Much of the Pompeii Oven dome is constructed using a
Forms help maintain the desired profile throughout
standard size brick (about 2 1/2" x 4.5" x 9") cut in half.
the laying of the chains.
•
The cut side of the brick faces out, away from the inside of
Before you add mortar to the brick you can rest the
the oven, allowing the clean, manufactured side to face in
chain on the form to help visualize how that chain will
where it will be seen. Depending on the brick type and
be laid.
•
size you choose, the thickness of your oven dome will be
Most amateur brick builders have found the foam
between 4" and 4 1/2", which is high, but an acceptable
vanes, about 8, help in maintaining the profile while
amount of thermal mass for a home oven. The dome can
not allowing the bricks to rest on the foam.
•
be coated with 1/2"-1" layer of either refractory mortar or
This method has been the preferred method of
fire clay mortar, further increasing the oven mass.
amateur builders.
Brick Cutting
To further explore the pros and cons of the different
There are three basic methods of cutting the bricks for
methods further, before you start you oven, join the Forno
your dome:
Bravo Forum, to find out what other builders have done,
and what they think.
•
You can either purchase an inexpensive tile saw or
rent a tile saw. Most rentals charge an additional
amount for the wear of the blade. Make sure you
know the rate; it is usually based on a micrometer
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Pompeii Oven Instructions
measurement before you rent and when you return it.
(Neapolitan) vault design. These sizes provide you with
One builder did not use enough water and forced the
enough oven space to cook multiple pizzas at a time, or to
saw to cut rapidly through the bricks, and as a result,
cook a roast with multiple side dishes, without being too
his charge for blade wear was almost what it would
large or difficult to build, or too slow to fire. The trade-offs
have been to purchase an inexpensive saw. If you are
between the two oven styles have been described above,
going to be doing some remodeling, as well as your
and will help you decide which oven to build.
oven, you might invest in an inexpensive tile saw.
Remember to save the mud from the cutting that has
Interior
Interior
Opening
Opening
settled to the bottom of your catch basin, from the
Diameter
Height
Width
Height
36
14.5"
18
10
42
15.5"
19
11
36
19"
19
12
42
20"
20
12.5
cutting. It is a perfect source of firebrick clay (no
Low Vault
cement), which is used under the floor of the oven.
High Vault
•
You can use a diamond-coated masonry blade on a
standard circular saw or grinder. This creates massive
amount of dust, which is very abrasive on the saw
The Oven Opening Dimensions
motor. You should wear a dust mask.
The basic trade-off a builder faces when selecting the
oven opening size is balancing ease-of-use for getting
•
You can score your bricks and break them. This takes
food in and out of the oven and the size of pans, oven
practice, and very few builders have chosen this
tools and roasts you want to use vs. your oven's ability to
route. With a pair of safety glasses a mask and a
hold and retain heat. The larger the opening, the easier it
hammer you can have the kids hammer the chips
is to work with the oven, and the more your oven will lose
down to “sand” for firebrick clay.
heat. A small opening will enable your oven to hold its
heat well, but can limit you from using your favorite terra
Although it won't help at the core of the brick you can also
cotta pan, or a nice large pizza peel. The opening height
let them soak in a bucket of water for a few minutes before
and width we recommend here should work well for a
you cut them. This will reduce, but not eliminate, the dust
majority of builders.
problem.
To reduce the amount of mortar required to build your
dome, one option is to use tapered bricks. You will need
for more brick, because all four sides of each brick will
need tapering. See the Appendix for a discourse on
tapering the bricks to reduce the mortar joint. For a more
advanced approach one builder has gone with a geodesic
Pompeii dome, dmun's 36" geodesic oven.
(http://www.fornobravo.com/forum/showthread.php?t=765)
Oven Dimensions
We recommend either a 36" or 42" (internal diameter)
round oven, using either a high (Tuscan), or low
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build, you can decide which first course method works for
7. Building the Dome
you.
Overview
At this point, you have reached a decision on the type of
dome you want to build, the size of your oven, and the
type of forms you will be using,. You are now ready to
start building your dome. The next decision is to determine
the orientation of your first course of bricks. The first
course will determine not only the size (internal cooking
floor diameter) of your oven, but also the shape and
inward curve of the dome.
The First Course
The dome itself is a series of self-supporting circular brick
7.2. First course with a half brick on its side.
chains that curve inward, until they meet at the keystone
at the oven top. The first chain is a ring of brick cut in half
and standing on their ends, with the thin edge (2 1/2”)
facing inside the oven. You can adjust the exact diameter
of your oven to match the size circle that your bricks form,
so that you do not have to cut a brick in your first chain.
7.3. A full height brick upright in the first course.
The subsequent chains are made up of brick cut in half
and set on their wide edge (4 1/2") with the clean edge
facing in. The angle of the inward curve is set using a
standard wooden shim that you cut to the necessary
7.1. First course a half brick set upright.
angle. To determine the angle of your oven's inward curve,
and of the shim itself, build a trial layout, and cut your shim
The first course can be oriented in three ways. First, you
accordingly (Photo 7.4).
can stand a brick cut in half upright, as show in Photo 7.2.
Second, you can lay a half brick on its side, as shown in
Photo 7.1. Finally, if you are building a Naples-style oven,
you can assemble the first course with a full height brick
standing upright. There is no right or wrong way to start
your oven. Once you decide the style oven you want to
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7.4. Cut your shims to match the trial dome layout.
7.5. Using a shim to shape the dome without forms.
Subsequent Courses
Do not allow for an inside mortar joint, as you will be
The subsequent chains are made up of brick cut in half
setting the edges of the bricks facing inside the oven flush
and set on their wide edge (4 1/2") with the clean edge
with each other.
facing inward. Stagger the brick joints, course to course,
much like the brick you see in block walls and brick
Before you mortar the bricks in place soak them in a
houses (Photo 7.6). There will be bricks in the first chain
bucket of water. Firebricks are more porous than clay and
that line up with the wall brick. This is normal. However, on
will dry out the applied mortar quickly if they are not moist.
the chains they should all be offset.
Cement cures through a chemical process that creates
heat. If the surrounding moisture content is too low the
mortar will cure too quickly and will not have the proper
mechanical properties such as strength. Remember, you
want cement to cure, not dry out, so starting with wet
bricks and keeping completed masonry damp is a good
thing.
Begin laying your bricks using high heat mortar. The bricks
will follow the angle and curvature set by the wood shim.
After the angle is held in place with mortar, remove the
7.6 Three chains; no forms.
shim; fill the open space created by the shim with mortar,
and move on (Photo 7.5).
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7.7. A keystone locks each course in place.
7.9. Closing in.
Tips and Hints
There are three ways of cutting the bricks for your dome:
you can either purchase an inexpensive tile saw, or rent
one; you can use a diamond-coated masonry blade on a
standard circular saw or grinder (see Appendix 1 for more
information); or you can score your bricks and break them.
You can either purchase pre-mixed refractory mortar, or
mix your own fireclay mortar. Read our high heat mortar
section (see Appendix 6) for more information.
7.8. Six chains, with forms.
Start each chain either next to, or over the oven opening.
This will allow you to set your keystone where it cannot be
seen when you look inside the oven. The keystone is a
specially cut brick that locks each chain into place. When
you reach the end of each chain, where you cannot fit the
last full-size brick, make a paper template of the piece that
is required to finish the chain. Transfer the template to
your brick, and make your cut. The keystone should be
tight, and require that you lightly tap it into place, but not
so tight that it causes the rest of the bricks in the chain to
shift (Photo 7.7).
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8. Building the Oven Opening
Overview
There are four traditional ways for framing your oven
opening, though we recommend the first, and easiest
method. The simplest, fastest and least costly way of
framing the oven opening is to use fire bricks to frame the
sides of the opening, and a length of 2"x 2"x3/16" angle
iron to support the top of it.
8.2. An arched oven opening.
8.1. An angle iron framed opening. Note the lack of a
reveal for the door jam.
8.3. The intersection between the dome and opening.
The other methods are:
•
Build a curved arch using a form and bricks to frame
the opening (Photos 8.2, 8.3, and 8.4).
•
Build (or having a metal fabricator build) a complete
doorframe and vent, either from steel or cast iron.
•
Frame the opening with a stone or precast lintel.
The curved arch method is beautiful, but difficult to build.
Having a welder make a doorframe that also integrates
your oven vent is something you might want to consider if
you have access to a good fabricator. The stone lintel
approach is authentic, and will look great, but you are on
8.4. A form shapes oven opening.
your own when it comes to finding the right material, and it
can be tricky making your brick oven work with the nonstraight lines of the stone.
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8.5. A cast lintel forms oven opening.
We recommend that you set back the vent side bricks
back 1/2" to allow for a reveal that you will use to "form"
the opening into the oven. You need to leave a lip that
your door can close tightly against, fully sealing heat and
steam inside the oven chamber, and completely cutting off
the air supply.
8.6. The entry arch and vent has a clearly defined door
stop.
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9. Finishing the Oven Dome
Overview
If you have chosen to build your oven with forms, there
may come a time when you are no longer confident that
the mortar you are using to attach your bricks will keep
gravity from taking over, causing your next chain of bricks
to fall in before you can set the keystone. If it looks like
this might happen to you, it is time for you to use an
internal support to hold the last few chains in place while
9.1 A removable form inside the oven.
the keystone is set, and the mortar dries.
There are several options for building this form, including
plywood, Styrofoam and a rubber ball. This section
describes the process of putting a form in place, cutting
and setting the last chains for brick, and then cutting and
setting the keystone to complete the oven dome.
Building the Form
Because you will set the form in place through the oven
opening, you need to cut your form into pieces that will fit
through it.
9.2 A ball as a form
Cut a circular piece of plywood to the circumference of the
opening at the top of your oven, and slide it into the oven.
Hold the round form directly underneath the opening at the
top of the oven, and measure the distance from the bottom
of the form to the top of the oven floor. Cut three lengths of
2"x4" or similar material to 1/2" shorter than that length.
Holding the form in place using one of the lengths of 2"x4",
push in a shim to make the form stay in position. Use the
next two lengths of 2"x4" and shim to make everything
secure.
9.3 No forms (this is difficult)
Photos 9.1-9.3 show different ways of supporting the last
few chains.
After you have set your final bricks, and the mortar holding
them has dried, you can remove the shims, and slide the
pieces of the form back out the oven door.
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Closing in the Oven
The last 2-3 chains rest on a form. Cut your half bricks into
quarters, giving you brick pieces that are roughly 2"x2"x4
1/2". Then, cut a series of wedge bricks to fill in the chain.
Make a template for the keystone and tap in place to lock
in the chain. Continue with your last few chains until you
are down to a single brick that will close in your oven.
9.5. The perfect keystone.
9.4. Styrofoam forms.
The Final Keystone
The final keystone is the brick that locks the entire oven
dome in place. Custom cut it to fit snugly into the opening
9.6. From the inside.
(Photo 9.5). The keystone will be angled in on each side,
but should remain the 1/2 brick (about 4 1/2") depth of the
rest of the oven dome.
Tap the keystone into place and cover with mortar.
9.7 From the outside.
Option: More Thermal Mass
You do not need to add thermal mass to your oven at this
point, because the mass of the bricks and the mortar you
have used to hold it together are more than sufficient for
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backyard pizza baking (or even restaurant pizza baking for
that matter). If you plan on baking large volumes of bread,
and want your oven to retain enough heat to bake multiple
batches of bread from a single firing, you can add
additional mass by applying 1/2”-2” of high heat mortar to
the outside of the oven.
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10. Oven Vent
Overview
Unlike a fireplace, where the chimney is inside the firebox
in the back, the brick oven's vent and chimney are outside
of the oven -- in the front. There are several different, and
widely used methods for constructing the vent system for
your Pompeii Oven.
1. A Steel Vent
Have a steel vent fabricated, which can be attached to the
oven enclosure and connected to a steel double wall
chimney system, such as Simpson DuraTech, or a
refractory chimney flue liner. The steel vent can either be
10.2. The vent attached to a terracotta chimney and fully
fully enclosed, using either brick or metal-stud and
enclosed.
concrete board walls, or it can be left open, giving you an
2. A Brick Vent
unobstructed oven landing area. The fully enclosed vent
Use one or two course of firebrick to construct vent walls
landing can be finished with it's own decorative arch made
and the arch that contains the vent opening. Build your
from brick or stone.
vent walls first, then using a wood or Styrofoam form, build
the arch, cutting the center bricks to leave a vent opening.
The vent itself can be hidden behind decorative material,
or if you like the metal vent look, you can have an
Depending on the type of chimney system you are using,
attractive vent fabricated, and left on display. Photos 10.1
you can either leave a roughly 6"x10" opening for use with
to 10.9 show the various venting methods.
a rectangular refractory chimney flue liner, or a 9 1/2"
opening for an 8" Simpson DuraTech Anchor Plate.
10.1. A fabricated metal vent.
10.3. A brick vent.
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10.6. A cast vent.
10.4 Another brick vent.
Then, build vent walls using standard bricks that will
3. A Cast Concrete Vent
support the vent. Set the vent walls back 1/2" from the
oven opening to leave room for the oven door to meet
Construct a wooden form the shape shown in Photos 10.5
flush with the opening. Connect the DuraTech Anchor
and 10.6, leaving a 9 1/2" hole to attach the DuraTech
Plate to the vent, or mortar a clay flue liner to the vent.
Anchor Plate. The upper width of the vent is roughly
You can finish the entire vent assembly with a decorative,
14”x14”, while the bottom of the vent will depend on the
non-structural, brick arch. Graphics 8-11 show this
width of your vent landing area. Add chicken wire to give
technique.
the vent structural integrity. Pour the vent, and allow 2-3
days for the concrete to dry before you remove the form.
10.7. The cast vent set in place with brick vent walls.
Tips and Hint
10.5. Construct the form using plywood.
The metal vent can either be attached to the oven
enclosure without support walls, a style that leaves the
landing in front of the oven opening fully open. Or, it can
be fully built-in and supported by vent walls made either
from brick, or from a metal stud and concrete board wall.
There is no right or wrong method. Pick the design that
works with how you will use the oven and the design that
works best for you. If you choose to enclose the vent with
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walls, make sure you have a workspace near the oven
opening for setting down pizzas and baking dishes.
10.8. A metal vent with enclosed sides.
10.9. A metal vent left open.
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11. Arch and Door
Arch
A facade can be used to finish the front of the oven
and hide the rough look of the vent. Although it may
take some skill to create an arched entryway into the
oven, you should find that your skills as a rough
mason are more than adequate, particularly after the
work you have done finishing your oven dome – look
out Notre Dame! See Forno Bravo Photos (on
11.2. Another decorative entry arch.
www.fornobravo.com) for some ideas on design.
Again this is a place where you may want to offset
the bricks so that a ½ “ to 1” reveal is made for a
door. If a reveal is not made, that is fine if you do not
leave a reveal, however your arch and supports for
the arch should be flat so that a door can be
accommodated.
11.3. Different style brick arch with setback.
Door
There are a few possibilities for doors. When your
fire is going and your oven is heating up you may
need to throttle down the fresh air that is going to the
fire. A steel door, with a vented slot at the bottom of
11.1. A decorative brick arch forms the vent opening.
the door can also be fabricated
(http://www.fornobravo.com/forum/photoplog/images
/250/medium/1_Draft_Door.JPG).
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11.3. An oven door from the Forno Bravo Store.
After you are done cooking your pizzas for the night
and the fire has been raked out of the oven you can
still cook a meal in it. An insulated door that is
placed up against the inner revel on the oven side of
the vent opening is used here. This door is located
behind the vent opening (058doorstop.jpg). A
simple, thick hardwood door can also be used, but
make sure that your handles are isolated so that you
do not burn your hands. It may burn or char if your
oven is over 500 F.
Other Door Design Options
•
Mounting splits of firebrick on cement board.
•
A sandwich of SuperIsol board with cement
board on either side.
•
A sandwich of cement board, SuperIsol, and
wood, where the cement board faces the hot
oven.
Tips and Hints
You can build the form for your brick entry arch from either
plywood, or Styrofoam.
To get the shape you want, lay out your arch on your from
material, then mark the curve with a builder’s pencil. Cut
out the form, and you are on your way.
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temperatures of 2100 deg. F to prevent the flue liner from
12. Attaching the Chimney
bonding to the chimney walls.
Overview
Your chimney may be constructed with various materials
Flue liners should conform to ASTM C 315 (Standard
including Simpson DuraTech Chimney System
Specification for Clay Flue Liners). They should be
(UL103HT), refractory chimney flue liner, or a classical
thoroughly inspected just prior to installation for cracks or
brick and mortar chimney. Unlike some ornamental
other damage. Steel should be ASTM-A 36 (max of:
fireplaces, the chimney of your Pompeii Oven will get
0.26% Carbon, 0.04% Phosphorus, 0.05% Sulfer).
extremely hot, up to 1000 F.
Specifying building code and regulations is beyond the
scope of these plans, as they differ among states, cities
and local departments. Still, we want to emphasize that
you should contact your local building department to
determine your local building codes, and take care to
follow them. Wood-fired ovens are a source of heat and
flame, and you should consult local professionals when
building your oven.
The following table outlines the internal diameter of the
12.1. Refractory flue liner.
chimney using a round, steel chimney system for different
oven sizes:
UL103HT
Oven Size
Chimney Diameter
32" - 36"
6" (internal)
40"+
8" (internal)
According to its installation guide, “the Simpson DuraTech
system has been approved for use with solid fuel
appliances, including wood stoves, fireplaces, fireboxes,
furnaces, water heaters, stoves, ranges, and other
residential types appliances using gas, coal or wood,
ASTM 1283 (Standard Practice for Installing
according to UL103HT. The system specifies a clearance
Clay Flue Lining):
of at least 2” between the DuraTech chimney system and
Flue liners shall be surrounded by masonry on all sides
any combustible materials, and a height of 3” above the
but shall not be bonded to the surrounding masonry. The
roof, and 2” above any roof within 10’.”
flue liner shall contact the chimney wall only as necessary
for support and alignment in order to permit the flue liner
to expand and contract freely. The separation of the flue
liner from the surrounding concrete or masonry shall not
exceed the wall thickness of the flue liner. Where Seismic
Reinforcing requires the space between the flue liner and
the chimney wall to be grouted solid the flue shall be
wrapped with ceramic fiber paper capable of withstanding
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The Simpson DuraTech chimney system contains a ULapproved chimney cap.
12.3. Simpson Spark Arrestor.
12.2. Simpson DuraTech chimney system.
Chimney Height and Size
Flue sizing depends on such local conditions as prevailing
wind, height of chimney, proximity of taller, nearby
structures, etc. A good rule of thumb is to choose a flue
that has an area of about 3-4 times the door height.
Depending on what is nearby, you may need a taller
chimney. One option is to test your oven after it has cured
with a single section of chimney pipe to see how well it
draws. If it is not enough, you can add another section to
extend it
Spark Arrestor/Chimney Caps
Use a spark arrestor chimney cap. It uses heavy gauge
steel and is similar in style to a window screen. Its purpose
is to trap burning embers that may float up the chimney
and stop them there. Once the fuel of the ember has been
used, its temperature will decrease and the by-product will
be a small amount of ash. A chimney cap will also keep
rain from pouring down the flue. There are many styles,
ranging from a plain metal arrangement, to whimsical
ceramic gargoyles.
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13. Oven Insulation
An Igloo design oven can incorporate insulating concrete
Overview
Igloo shape. Alternatively, you can construct the Igloo
After your oven dome and vent have been assembled, the
shape using rebar and stucco lathe, then pour loose
oven is covered with insulation, typically a woven ceramic
insulation into the cavity between the oven and enclosure.
insulating blanket, such as Insulfrax, loose insulation, such
If you are using a 1” layer of Insulfrax, you will want to use
as vermiculite or perlite, or a combination of the two.
about 4” of loose insulation. If you are not using Insulfrax,
Unlike thermal mass, where too much can be a bad thing,
you should cover the oven dome with 6" of vermiculite. If
there isn't really such a thing as too much insulation.
you are using only Insulfrax, you should cover the oven
Woven ceramic insulation has the advantages of being
dome with 2”-3” of insulation.
(vermiculite or perlite and Portland cement) as part of the
more efficient and requiring using less space than other
insulating materials, and it provides better oven heat
retention and oven performance. There are a number of
commercial ovens that use Insulfrax (or something similar)
exclusively.
On the other hand, loose insulators tend to be less
expensive. If cost is the overarching consideration, or you
are unable to locate Insulfrax, vermiculite or perlite, both
sand and expanded clay are traditional insulators. They do
not work as well as modern ceramic products, but if that is
13.2. Blanket insulation held in place with wire.
all you can find locally, they will do in a pinch.
Instructions
Blanket insulation such as Insulfrax is relatively easy to
work with, in that it is easy to cut and shape, and it tends
to stay where you place it. Always use a mask when
working with it.
13.3. Insulfrax blanket held in place with metal bands.
For Walled House and Indoor partition wall installations,
you can again use all blanket insulation, all loose
insulation, or a combination of the two. The recommended
13.1 Loose Vermiculite between the dome and walls.
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thickness of the insulation remains the same: 1” Insulfrax
and 4” Vermiculite, 6” Vermiculite, or 2”-3” Insulfrax.
Tips and Hints
If your walled enclosure is significantly larger than your
oven, you can block off the corners with concrete board to
minimize the amount of vermiculite that will be required to
fill the open chamber.
13.4. Concrete board blocks off the corners.
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14. Enclosure Design Styles
Overview
The oven enclosure must be sealed to protect your
Pompeii Oven and its insulation from water. It can be
constructed from concrete block, rebar and stucco mesh,
metal stud and concrete board or free standing brick or
stone. Basically, the style of the enclosure is up to you,
your imagination, and the availability of local materials.
Stucco House
The examples shown here from around the country will
give you a start.
Barrel Vault
Indoor Corner Oven
Gable House
Igloo
Stone House
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Brick House
Stone House
Wall Oven
Gabled House
Igloo
Stone House
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Corner Oven
Gabled Stone House
Stone House
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15. Igloo Enclosure
Overview
The Igloo is a traditional Italian and Mediterranean pizza
oven design style where the enclosure follows the basic
lines of the oven dome and chimney -- thus the Igloo.
Instructions
There are two ways of making the Igloo shape, both of
which follow the guidelines set forth in Graphic 15.1. First,
you can create the Igloo using stucco lathe and insulating
concrete. The insulating concrete is then covered with a
15.1 The layers of an Igloo oven.
thin finish coat of waterproof stucco (see Photo 15.2).
Second, the Igloo shape can be created with rebar and
stucco lathe, separately from the dome (see Photo 15.3).
Drill 1/4” holes around the perimeter of the oven hearth,
the distance you want away from the exterior of your oven,
to accommodate your insulation thickness. Insert pieces of
pencil rebar in the holes, and bend them to the desired
Igloo shape. Cover the pencil rebar with stucco mesh, and
secure it in place with concrete tie wire to make the Igloo
frame solid.
Fill the gap between the stucco mesh and the oven with a
vermiculite-based insulating concrete. Cover the entire
structure with a 1/2"-3/4" undercoat of stucco, followed by
15.2. The oven dome and lathe shape the Igloo.
a finish stucco coat to the style you prefer. Finally, seal the
entire oven with a weatherproof stucco coat or paint.
15.3 Rebar and lathe shape the Igloo.
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15.4 Rough coat of stucco on wire lathe.
Hints and Tips
Consider using modern, latex-based color-in stucco for
your final Igloo finish coat. They are waterproof and crackproof, and they will even match a color swatch.
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16. Walled Enclosures
Finish
Attach your concrete board using screws designed for
Overview
metal studs. You can finish your oven with stucco, brick, or
The Gabled House, or walled enclosure, is one of the
stone. The walled enclosure is also a traditional way to
most traditional ways to finish a brick oven. There are
finish a pizza oven. To finish your oven as a walled
examples of these ovens throughout the Italian
enclosure, construct walls around your oven using metal
countryside.
studs, concrete blocks, brick or stone to a height of at
least 6" higher than the top of your oven dome. Face the
The basic process for finishing your oven this way is very
metal studs with concrete board, and finish the exterior of
straightforward. Construct walls around your oven using
the oven with stucco, brick or rock. The roof design is up
metal studs to a height of at least 6" higher than the top of
to the designer, and can be finished with stone, clay tile or
your insulated oven dome. Face the metal studs with
modern composite tile. The gap between the oven and the
concrete board, and finish the exterior of the oven with
enclosure walls is filled with loose vermiculite insulation.
stucco, brick, or stone. The roof design is up to the builder,
and it can be finished with stone, clay tile or modern
composite tile.
The gap between the oven and the house walls is filled
with loose vermiculite insulation.
Instructions
Using traditional partition wall building techniques, build a
wall using a single metal stud lying flat as a bottom plate,
and two metal studs lying flat as the top plates for each
wall. Attach the bottom plate to the concrete hearth slab
using concrete screws. Set metal studs every 16" in the
body of the wall to support the concrete board.
Interlock the top two metal stud top plates at each corner
to give the structure more strength. Set two vertical studs
at each corner for a larger face to attach the concrete
16.1. The basic walled enclosure.
board, and to give the structure more strength.
The Oven Opening
Set the location of the front wall of the oven enclosure so
that the brick arch at the oven opening projects forward by
a couple of inches. Set one horizontal stud at the top of
the arch, and set two additional studs at a 45-degree
angle on the sides of the arch to provide support for the
concrete board.
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16.5. Attach concrete board.
16.2. The layers of a walled enclosure oven.
Tips and Techniques
Build your walled enclosure the same way you would build
a partition wall using wood studs. Set the vertical studs on
16” centers, and always center your concrete board
seams directly on your vertical studs.
Use the flat head screws design specifically for attaching
concrete board to metal studs, as they do a good job of
drilling into the metal studs, and leave a flat surface that
can be easily finished with stucco or stone.
16.3 Metal studs and a gabled roof.
16.4 Metal studs walls with a shed roof.
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large fire in a non-cured oven that a chunk of the oven
17. Curing Your Oven
dome actually blew out the front door.
Although it may seem that your oven is dry by the time you
are finished with your installation, there is still moisture in
Also, using a space heater can help, but only so far. It is
the oven, mortars and concrete that must work its way out.
not an alternative to fire curing. We ran a space heater in
It is important at this point that you cure your oven slowly,
an assembled Forno Bravo precast oven for two days,
by building a series of seven increasingly larger fires. If
then quickly heated the oven up, (don't do this at home -- it
you begin building large fires in your oven right way, you
was an experiment to see what would happen to an oven
could compromise your oven's longevity and ability to cook
that we have here) and we found that we created a very
well, and even cause damage.
large amount of steam from the oven, mortars and
vermiculite, which went on for hours and hours.
Curing your oven is an important step in the installation of
any brick oven -- whether it is a Forno Bravo precast oven,
To be safe, here is a good curing schedule.
a Forno Bravo Artigiano brick oven, or a Pompeii brick
oven. Heating up your oven too fast can lead to cracks.
1. Let the oven sit for a week or so after you have finished
You have invested a great deal of time, money and energy
the dome.
in your oven, so go slow, and cure your oven properly. If at
2. Run a series of seven fires, starting with a small,
all possible, don't schedule a pizza party the weekend
newspaper-only fire.
your dome is finished.
3. Increase the size of the fire each day by about 100F
200F
After you have installed your oven, there is still a great
300F
deal of moisture in the mortars, hearth concrete,
400F
vermiculite, and the oven chamber and vent. Each of
500F
these oven components was recently produced using an
600F
air-drying, water-based process. Simply letting the oven
700F
stand for a week does not "cure" the moisture out of them
800F
oven. In fact, the Forno Bravo precast oven producer
4. Let the oven fall back to cool as soon as you reach the
recommends letting the oven stand for a week after it has
temperature you want. It is important to bring the oven up
been assembled before "starting" the curing process.
to heat gently, then back down to cold, each time.
Thicker sections of concrete can take many weeks to cure.
If you don't have an infrared thermometer, try this
You are trying to avoid two problems. First, any mortar or
schedule:
concrete that dries too fast shrinks and cracks. These
Newspaper only
cracks can let hot air and/or smoke escape from the oven
Newspaper and a little kindling
chamber. Second, if you bring your oven up to heat while
1 stick of 2"x3"X16" wood
there is still sufficient moisture in the oven dome or
2 sticks of wood
mortars, you will actually create steam, which can produce
3 sticks of wood
hairline fractures, or even cracks in your oven. I have
4 sticks of wood
heard a story from an installer who used to work with one
5 sticks of wood
of our competitor's ovens, where the homeowner lit such a
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After all your hard work, you are now ready to bake the
best pizzas, bread and roasts that you have ever had. And
that is, after all, the whole point in building your own
Pompeii Oven.
Enjoy your oven. You have earned it.
Salute,
Forno Bravo
Tips and Techniques
Note: There must be a period of time between completing
the masonry work and beginning the actual firing cure.
Longer is better than shorter, particularly for the actual
dome cement. The cements must cure first and this
process is actually improved by keeping the cement moist
and not letting it dry out. Cement is exothermic and gives
off heat. If you were to start the Oven curing too soon, you
drive this exothermic action the wrong way and damage
the new cement.
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Appendix 1. Materials and Tools
List
•
A bucket, scrub brush and sponge for clean up.
•
Ratcheting cargo straps (optional). About $10 at WalMart. Used to hold the hearth form when your pour
your concrete.
Tools
•
A garden sprayer to keep your masonry damp.
The prices provided are in US$, and are intended to give
Material List 42" Oven
you a general guideline for costs. You will need:
•
A circular saw with three blades: general-purpose
80" x 94" Foundation
wood, metal ($5) and diamond masonry ($20). The
(46) 80lb bags of Ready-Mix concrete
diamond masonry blade costs more, but last longer
(8) 10' lengths of 1/2" rebar, four cut to 80"; four cut to 94"
and cuts quickly.
•
A hammer (preferably with a shock-reducing grip)
•
A rubber mallet (preferably the “non-rebound” type).
•
2'-3' level. A long level is worth is it. You can find a
(4) 2"x6"x8' studs for framing, two cut to 83"; two cut to 94"
(48) sq ft of wire mesh
(12) rebar stand-offs
(104) sq ft of 6 mil plastic sheeting
long, inexpensive aluminum level at Home Depot if
Handful of plastic zip-ties, or ball of tie wire
you do not already have one.
•
1/2 cu yd of gravel
Grinder (optional). You can use the grinder to cut
(1) box 2 1/2" framing nails
rebar, wire, and concrete block. An inexpensive one
will cost about $25, and will save you time from not
72" x 84 " Block Stand
having to frequently change blades on your circular
(63) 8x8x16 blocks, 12 of which are cut to 8x8x12
saw.
(10) 8x8x8 blocks
•
A chalk line (<$10).
(3) 10' pieces of 1/2" rebar, each cut into three 40"
•
A builder’s pencil.
sections to fill nine block cores
•
A 1/4"x1/4" notched tile trowel for setting the cooking
(14) 80lb bags concrete for filling every other core
floor.
(2) 1.5"x1.5"x56" angle iron (for front span)
•
Goggles and a dust mask
(3) 60lb bags mortar (to level first course of blocks, if
•
A mixing tub (<$15)
needed)
•
A hoe for mixing (<$10 for a cheap one, $20 for a
Insulating Hearth
good one. Many builders buy the real cheap ones,
(2) 4'x'8x3/4" sheets of plywood or particle board
and toss them after the project is over).
•
A square-edged transfer shovel ($20).
•
A tamper ($20 or build one from a square of plywood
(4) 2"x4"x8' wood studs
(4) 2"x6"x8' wood studs
(1) box shims (or make your own from scrap wood)
and a 2x4).
•
The rest of the 2 1/2" framing nails
Concrete mixer (optional). Rent one from Home
(12) 10' pieces of 1/2" rebar, (6) cut to 72"; (6) cut to 84"
Depot.
•
(30) 80lb bags of pre-mixed concrete
Tile saw (optional). You can get by with a diamond
Either, (2-3) 4cu ft bags of vermiculite or perlite
blade and a circular saw. If you plan on using
(2) 90lb bag of Portland cement
complicated tile, brick or stone trim or finish, you can
Or, (4) 24”x36”x2” SuperIsol panels
either rent a tile saw, or purchase a small, but
functional unit from Home Depot for less than $100.
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Cooking Floor
(14) 80lb bags concrete for filling every other core
About 65 full firebricks, set on their flat side
(2) 1.5"x1.5"x56" angle iron (for front span)
Fine mesh sand and fireclay
(3) 60lb bag mortar (to level first course of blocks)
Oven Dome
Insulating Hearth
About 135 full firebricks, cut in half
(2) 4'x'8x3/4" sheets of plywood or particle board
About (150-200) lbs high heat mortar
(4) 2"x4"x8' wood studs
(1) 4'x1.25"x1.25" angle iron (cut in half)
(4) 2"x6"x8' wood studs
Styrofoam panels (for forms)
(1) box shims (or make your own from scrap wood)
The rest of the 2 1/2" framing nails
Dome Insulation
(12) 10' pieces of 1/2" rebar, (6) cut to 72"; (6) cut to 84"
Either, (1) 50 sq ft box of Insulfrax and (3) 4 cu ft bags
(17) 80lb bags of pre-mixed concrete
Vermiculite/Perlite
Either, (2) 4cu ft bags of Vermiculite or Perlite
Or, (6) 4 cu ft bags of Vermiculite/Perlite
(1) 90lb bag of Portland cement
Or, (2) 50 sq ft boxes of Insulfrax
Or, (3) 24”x36”x2” SuperIsol panels
Vent and Arch (optional)
Cooking Floor
About (30) common clay bricks (depends on style)
About 60 full firebricks, set on their flat side
About (50) lbs. masons mortar
Fine mesh sand and fireclay
Chimney
Oven Dome
9” round, or 6”x10” 24”-36” clay flue liner
About 120 full firebricks, cut in half
Or, 8” DuraTech anchor plate, 24”-36” chimney pipe, and
About (130-180) lbs high heat mortar
cap
(1) 4'x1.25"x1.25" angle iron (cut in half)
Material List 36" Oven
Styrofoam panels (for forms)
71" x 80" Foundation
Dome Insulation
(30) 80lb bags of Ready-Mix concrete
Either, (1) 50 sq ft box of Insulfrax and (3) 4 cu ft bags
(8) 10' lengths of 1/2" rebar, (4) cut to 80";(4) cut to 94"
Vermiculite/Perlite
(4) 2"x6"x8' studs for framing, (2) cut to 83";(2) cut to 94"
Or, (6) 4 cu ft bags of Vermiculite/Perlite
(48) sq ft of wire mesh
Or, (2) 50 sq ft boxes of Insulfrax
(12) rebar stand-offs
Vent and Arch (optional)
(104) sq ft of 6 mil plastic sheeting
About (30 or more) common clay bricks (depends on style)
Handful of plastic zip-ties, or ball of tie wire
About (50) lbs. masons mortar
1/2 cu yd of gravel
Chimney
(1) box 2 1/2" framing nails
6” round, or 4”x8”” 24”-36” clay flue liner
63" x 70 " Block Stand
Or, 6” DuraTech anchor plate, 24”-36” chimney pipe, and
(50) 8x8x16 blocks, (12) of which are cut to 8x8x12
cap
(5) 8x8x8 blocks
(3) 10' pieces of 1/2" rebar, each cut into (3) 40" sections
to fill nine block cores
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Hints and Tips
Check Home Depot to locate vermiculite and perlite. You
might find it in their garden center. If not, try pool supply
(chemicals, etc.) and agriculture supply (fertilizer, etc.)
stores. The large bag costs less than buying lots of small
bags from a nursery.
We recommend using a dust mask when working with the
loose fill. Caution. Perlite can be coated with silicone to
make it slide easily into block cores, where it's commonly
used as an insulator. Make sure you locate plain,
horticultural grade perlite, not the construction grade. The
insulative properties are nearly identical.
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Appendix 2. Brick Primer
in the floor fit snuggly against each other, and a curved
Choosing the Right Brick Oven Bricks
cooking floor.
edge will result in a gap between the bricks and in your
Deciding what type of brick you will use is one of the first
choices you will have to make when starting to build a
A typical firebrick weighs about 8 pounds and is yellow.
Pompeii Oven. You will use brick in the cooking floor, the
The price of a good quality firebrick should be around
oven dome and perhaps for your decorative vent arch,
$1.00.
oven landing and other decorative trim.
Red Clay Brick
This is the traditional red clay brick that you find at Home
This page explains the different types of bricks and what
Depot and at masonry supply stores. They are made from
the trade-offs are between them. It should help you decide
clay, and fired in a kiln. They are typically made from local
what types you are going to use, and it can help you find
clay, as shipping is too expensive, and fired to between
the right brick at your local masonry supply store. It might
2000F - 3000F (high enough to fuse the minerals). You
be useful to take this page with you when you go
can use clay brick in the oven dome, but we would not
shopping.
recommend using them in the oven floor. There are tradeoffs to consider.
Here are some basic brick types:
Low to Medium Duty Firebrick
There are two shortcomings to using a clay brick in your
This is the brick that we recommend for both the cooking
oven dome. First, thermal cycling will cause clay brick to
floor and dome of the Pompeii Oven. Low duty firebricks
spall, where little pieces of the brick flake off, and could
are comprised of roughly 30% alumina and 50% silica.
cause individual clay bricks to crack. It has happened to
They heat up quickly, withstand the 900F heat your oven
us. Second, clay brick is not as good a conductor as
will reach, and are designed for the rapid heat-up and cool
firebrick and as a result will take longer to heat up.
down (thermal cycling) that your oven will experience.
Firebrick will also reach the heat required for pizza more
Still, you can find clay bricks for about $.25 at Home
quickly than clay brick, because they are more efficient at
Depot, which make them the most cost-effective option.
conducting heat.
Our view is that unless cost is a prohibiting factor, we
would recommend firebrick. For example, a 42" oven
Further, because firebrick is designed to withstand thermal
some has roughly 180 bricks in the dome, so the
cycling, your oven will last longer, though for most home
difference in brick cost should be around $100. In the
ovens this is not an important issue, and your oven will
context of the overall cost of the oven, and large amount
probably outlast you whichever brick you choose.
of human capital you will be investing in your oven, we
There is also a medium duty firebrick designed for higher
think the extra cost of worth it.
heat. We recommend the low duty firebrick, but medium
If your choice is to build your oven with clay brick or not at
duty is acceptable.
all, we would strongly recommend building your oven with
clay brick.
When choosing your firebrick, look for a brick with straight
edges for your cooking floor. It is important that the bricks
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Red clay bricks are typically used for building the
decorative arch and optional sides around the oven vent
and vent landing, and can be used for any decorative
feature.
There are three types of brick that you should avoid:
Concrete Brick
These are the concrete bricks you see at Home Depot for
about $.12. They are made from standard Portland
cement-based concrete and are air-dried, not kiln fired.
They will not withstand the heat inside your oven.
High Duty Firebrick
These brick have very high alumina content, get very hot
(1500F and up) and are designed for continual high-heat
applications, such as furnaces. They are expensive, and
will get too hot for some of your oven uses, such as baking
bread and roasting. In general, pizza wants heat between
750F and 900F, while bread and roasts cooks best
between 500F and 600F. (Note that brick ovens are able
to cook at higher temperatures without burning because of
the moist heat inside the oven and shorter cooking times.)
Insulating Firebrick
These lightweight refractory bricks are designed to stop
heat, and as such have low conduction and low heating
holding capacity. They are often used to insulate industrial
equipment. A typical insulating firebrick weighs about 2
lbs, compared with an 8 lb light duty firebrick. They are
designed for insulating and will not do work for your oven
dome and cooking floor.
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oven, and everyone benefits from your photographs,
Appendix 3. Why the Pompeii
recipes and everything you learn.
Oven Plans are Free
When I got hooked on brick ovens a number of years ago,
Building a large English-language pizza oven community
the choices were very limited. There were plans for a
is fun, and will help grow awareness through word-of-
barrel vault bread oven ($100 for a photocopied set of
mouth, and through great food. At some point in the future,
plans), or you could pay a crazy amount of money for an
hopefully, someone will see a Pompeii Oven, and if they
imported oven. I built the oven from the plans, and before I
don't have the skill or time to build one, will become a
even finished it, decided to build a second one inside
Forno Bravo customer.
during a kitchen remodel. Unfortunately, I was very
disappointed with the barrel vault oven design -- for more
Join the Forno Bravo Forum, tell a friend, take lots of
on that, read our Why Round page.
photos for us to post on www.fornobravo.com, and send
us your recipes.
Then I started traveling, and eventually came to live in
Italy, where I saw the real brick ovens. The attitude toward
Finally, we offer complete line of pizza oven tools,
wood-fired ovens is completely different here. There are
accessories, and pizzas ingredients at the Forno Bravo
pizza ovens everywhere -- in homes, courtyards, covered
Store, so if you build a Pompeii Oven you can always buy
patio, freestanding enclosures, take-out pizzerias and
your pizza peels and pizza flour from us.
fancy restaurants, and they are used all the time. That is
Welcome to the community.
when we decided to start Forno Bravo, and provide both
pre-made pizza ovens (both precast and true brick pizza
James Bairey
ovens), as well as free brick oven plans.
Forno Bravo, LLC
In Italy, pizza ovens are sold by garden centers pretty
much the same way Home Depot sells Weber BBQs. They
line them up, and they disappear. Prefabricated ovens are
displayed right next to the refractory bricks, mortar, oven
floors and insulation that are used for site-built ovens.
Everyone knows how to install a pizza oven and how to
cook in one, and the prefabricated ovens are priced fairly.
The modular pizza oven kits outsell site-built brick ovens
by a large margin, but hobbyists and muratore (stone
masons) still build brick ovens.
My goal is to bring this dynamic to America -- pretty much
the way you see it here in Florence. Our refractory ovens
are priced fairly (a lot less than the alternatives), and with
the Pompeii Oven plans, we transfer the knowledge you
need to build your own oven. Either way, you get a great
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Appendix 4. Thermal Mass Primer
the oven chamber as fast as you can replenish it. With this
Overview
required for the perfect 3-minute pizza.
design it is virtually impossible to maintain the high heat
Thermal mass and insulation are the two primary
characteristics that describe an oven's ability to absorb
At the same time, too little thermal mass can also be
and hold heat, and make it useful for cooking. An oven's
problematic. While an inexpensive clay oven shell might
thermal mass describes the part of the oven that is heated
heat up quickly, it does not posses the heat holding ability
and provides heat to the oven chamber, while insulation
to cook larger volumes of food, larger numbers of pizza, or
describes the oven's ability to stop heat from escaping, or
bread. A thinner oven will begin start giving up heat as
leaking, out of the oven -- where it is lost.
soon as the fire has stopped, creating a range of problems
for the chef. As a side note, the Forno Bravo ovens all
Thermal Mass
have enough thermal mass for typical home baking bread
The thermal mass of a wood-fired oven can vary widely,
or roasting a turkey.
from a simple 1 1/2" thick clay shell to a massive 12" thick
brick bread oven. The barrel vault oven described in books
The composition up of an oven's thermal material is
and on the Internet has a 9” thick dome and hearth, which
critical. Alumina and silica are two materials that have both
is much too massive for backyard cooking or a commercial
high heat conductivity and high heat holding capability. An
pizzeria. When considering which oven is right for your
oven rich in these materials will heat up more quickly, and
application -- whether it is in your home or in a restaurant,
hold heat longer, than an oven made from clay, brick, or
you should take a number of factors into account.
even standard firebricks.
Too much thermal mass is very bad. Heat, like most things
By tailoring the thermal mass of the oven to the intended
in nature, likes equilibrium. If one side of a thermal mass,
us, either residential or commercial, bread or pizza, it is
such as a block of concrete, is hot and the other is cool,
possible to produce the optimal oven for a range of
nature will try to balance that heat by moving it from the
applications.
hot spot to the cool spot -- eventually reaching equilibrium
where everything is just warm.
An oven built using 2"-3” of engineered refractory is
perfect for a vast majority of home and garden
In a wood fired oven, this means that it is strongly
applications.
desirable for the thermal layers in an oven's dome and
cooking surface to be completely hot when it is time to
Insulation
cook. If they are not, the heat in the oven will continue to
While too much thermal mass is bad, there is no such
"wick" away from the oven chamber, in an attempt to
thing as too much insulation. Luckily, through modern
create equilibrium in the whole thermal mass.
manufacturing advances it is possible to readily and costeffectively insulate a wood-fired oven. In fact, it is possible
For example, if it requires 6 hours to fully heat up an
to make insulation cost and space trade-offs for a
oven's thermal mass, that oven will not cook well for the
particular oven installation.
entire six hours it is heating up. Even though you are
Which is a good thing. As the optimal oven design
adding more and more fuel, the heat is moving away from
demands a thermal layer that can be efficiently heated
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throughout, it also demands that the oven's insulating
Under the oven hearth, vermiculite concrete and
layers be able to stop the heat in that layer, in order to
SuperIsol, an engineered insulating panel, both provide an
hold it inside the oven.
effective layer beneath the thermal layers of the oven
floor.
There is a range of insulating products that you can put to
use:
The graphic below shows how heat is retained in a pizza
oven, and how it migrates to the outer edge of the larger
For the dome, Insulfrax, a woven ceramic blanket, is
mass of a bread oven. By filling the entire mass of the
highly efficient, and takes up very little space. We provide
oven dome and floor with heat, a well-insulated pizza oven
an ample amount of woven ceramic insulation with each
can cook pizza virtually indefinitely.
modular Forno Bravo oven, and we use Insulfrax in our
fully assembled Forno Bravo ovens.
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Appendix 5. Wood-Fired Oven
Anatomy
Fig 1. The basic components of a wood-fired pizza oven.
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Appendix 6. High Heat Mortar
Still, fireclay mortar is less heat resilient and thermally
Overview
a commercial oven, or simply want to "go the extra yard,"
A Forno Bravo modular oven, or a brick Pompeii Oven is
but do not want to use Refmix, you can make your own
assembled with a high-heat mortar. You have two basic
refractory mortar with Calcium Aluminate.
conductive than a true refractory mortar. If you are building
choices: Refmix, a commercially-produced refractory
mortar produced for Forno Bravo, or a mortar that you mix
First, a word of caution. Working with calcium aluminate
at the building site, using locally sourced materials. The
can be challenging. If you get the mix, or water wrong, it
site-mixed mortar can be made with standard Portland
won't set correctly. It partially sets very quickly, and you
cement, or with refractory cement, called Calcium
cannot re-hydrate it, so you have to mix it and use it in
Aluminate.
small batches. Still, if you are trying to save money and
want or need the heat resilience, heat conductivity and
The best solution is to use Refmix, or another pre-mixed
longevity of a true aluminate mortar, it works.
refractory mortar. Forno Bravo stocks Refmix in California,
Calcium Aluminate Fireclay Mortar Formula
and we highly recommend it. It is pre-mixed, so you just
1 part Calcium Aluminate
have to add water. It sets hard, is easy to work with, cures
3 parts sand
quickly, and is heat resistant to 1700F. It's made
1 part lime
specifically for pizza ovens and fireplaces (there is even a
1 part fire clay
pizza oven graphic on the bag).
If you don't want to worry about shipping Refmix, or want
to save money, you can make your own mortar, using
either fireclay and Portland cement or fireclay and Calcium
Aluminate. Fireclay is heat-resistant clay made up of
aluminate and silica. When you mix fireclay with Portland
cement, sand and lime, you create a product that is more
heat resistant than basic mason's mortar (Portland cement
with sand and lime).
Measure your ingredients by volume (use a bucket or
shovel to measure), and mix only the amount you will us
within an hour or so.
Portland cement Fireclay Mortar Formula
1 part Portland cement
3 parts sand
1 part lime
1 part fireclay
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