Avid Technology PRO TOOLS MIX 51 Specifications

Avid Technology PRO TOOLS MIX 51 Specifications
Pro Tools
Reference Guide
Version 6.4 for HD or LE Systems on Windows or Macintosh
Digidesign
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Daly City, CA 94014-3886 USA
tel: 650·731·6300
fax: 650·731·6399
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Web Site
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Copyright
This guide is copyrighted ©2004 by Digidesign, a division of
Avid Technology, Inc. (hereafter “Digidesign”), with all rights
reserved. Under copyright laws, this guide may not be
duplicated in whole or in part without the written consent of
Digidesign.
DIGIDESIGN, AVID and PRO TOOLS are trademarks or
registered trademarks of Digidesign and/or Avid Technology,
Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective
owners.
Product features, specifications, system requirements, and
availability are subject to change without notice.
PN 910613117-00 REV A 04/04
Contents
Part I
Introduction
Chapter 1. Welcome to Pro Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Pro Tools Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digidesign Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compatibility Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About www.digidesign.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
4
4
4
Chapter 2. Pro Tools System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Pro Tools TDM Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Pro Tools LE Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 3. Pro Tools Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Hard Disk Audio Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Digidesign Audio Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pro Tools Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
11
12
16
19
Chapter 4. Pro Tools Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
The Mix Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
The Edit Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
The Transport Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Chapter 5. Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Global Key Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Keyboard Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Numeric Keypad Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Contents
iii
Part II
Sessions & Tracks
Chapter 6. Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Starting Up or Shutting Down Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Pro Tools System Settings (in the Playback System Engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Pro Tools Hardware Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a New Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Custom Session Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closing a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quitting Pro Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sharing Sessions Between Pro Tools TDM Systems and Pro Tools LE Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
37
41
45
47
48
51
53
53
53
54
Chapter 7. I/O Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
The I/O Setup Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing Hardware I/O to Pro Tools I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Editing Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Settings Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Setup Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H/W Insert Delay Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
71
73
80
82
84
Chapter 8. Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Track Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Track Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Creating Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Hiding Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Assigning Inputs and Outputs to Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Track Priority and Voice Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Setting MIDI Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Soloing and Muting Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Making Tracks Inactive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Adjusting Track Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Color Coding Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Grouping Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 9. Importing and Exporting Session Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Importing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conversion Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Audio Files and Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Audio Files with Drag & Drop from a DigiBase Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Audio from an Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Tracks and Track Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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111
111
113
114
114
Exporting Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Pro Tools Tracks as OMFI or AAF Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Sessions as Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
121
123
123
125
126
Chapter 10. File Management and Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Audio File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WAV File Compatibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Macintosh and PC Compatible Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Sessions Between Platforms with MacOpener (Using HFS/HFS+ Drives) . . . . . . . . . .
Part III
129
131
131
133
Recording
Chapter 11. Record Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Input Connections and Audio Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Enabling Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Monitoring Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TrackInput Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low Latency Monitoring During Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Track Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allocating Hard Drive Space for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording with a Click . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Default Meter and Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137
138
140
141
142
144
144
145
147
148
151
153
Chapter 12. Basic Audio Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Recording an Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Shortcuts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Pause Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Additional Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Punch Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auditioning Record Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Punch/Loop Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording from a Digital Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Half-Speed Recording and Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
157
161
161
161
163
165
166
168
172
174
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v
Chapter 13. MIDI Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Recording from MIDI Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Thru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Input Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wait for Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Merge/Replace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring MIDI Tracks for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording to MIDI Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Punch Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording System Exclusive Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
175
176
177
178
178
179
179
180
182
183
185
188
Chapter 14. Advanced Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
QuickPunch Audio Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
TrackPunch Audio Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Part IV
Editing
Chapter 15. Editing Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Pro Tools Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Region Names and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Regions and Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Regions and MIDI Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playlists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Audio and MIDI Regions Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Universe Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timebase Rulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Time Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tick-Based Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
207
208
212
212
214
217
219
220
224
226
231
232
233
235
Chapter 16. Playing and Selecting Track Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Playing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto-Scrolling Tracks in the Edit and Mix Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scrolling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Scrubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linking or Unlinking Edit and Timeline Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Track Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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245
246
Playing Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Timeline Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Playing Edit and Timeline Selections with the Playhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Chapter 17. Working with Regions and Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Creating New Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Healing a Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placing Regions in Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Trimmer Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sliding Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nudging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shift Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locking Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muting/Unmuting Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duplicate Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repeat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Merge Paste Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Stereo and Multichannel Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Processing Audio with AudioSuite Plug-Ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waveform Repair with the Pencil Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Smart Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
261
264
264
267
271
276
278
279
279
280
280
283
284
285
285
286
287
288
Chapter 18. Advanced Editing (TDM Systems Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Replacing Audio Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Repeat Paste To Fill Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Compress/Expand Edit To Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Chapter 19. Fades and Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Using Crossfades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Crossfade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Fades at the Beginnings and Ends of Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using AutoFades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Fades and Crossfades in Batches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
295
302
303
305
305
Chapter 20. Managing Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Stripping Silence from Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consolidate Selection Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compacting an Audio File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naming and Displaying Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
307
309
310
310
311
Contents
vii
Chapter 21. Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Tempo Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identify Beat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meter Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Renumbering Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Locations and Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Locations Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
315
318
318
321
323
324
330
Chapter 22. Beat Detective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Beat Detective Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Beat Detective Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beat Detective Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining a Beat Detective Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating Tempo with Beat Detective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating Beat Triggers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating Bar|Beat Markers with Beat Detective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DigiGroove Templates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Separating Regions with Beat Detective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conforming Regions with Beat Detective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detection (Normal) and Collection Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part V
334
335
335
336
337
338
341
342
344
346
348
349
MIDI Editing
Chapter 23. MIDI Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
The Pencil Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Custom Note Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Grid Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting MIDI Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manually Editing MIDI Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuous Controller Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch Select (Program and Bank Changes). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Exclusive Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note and Controller Chasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Offsetting MIDI Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stuck Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
355
356
357
357
359
364
366
369
370
371
372
Chapter 24. MIDI Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
MIDI Operations Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
Pro Tools Reference Guide
373
374
376
378
Transpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Groove Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flatten Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
379
380
385
385
390
391
Chapter 25. MIDI Event List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
The MIDI Event List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Events in the MIDI Event List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing in the MIDI Event List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Event List Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part VI
393
396
398
400
Mixing
Chapter 26. Basic Mixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Mixing Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metering and Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Signal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views in the Mix and Edit Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Windows for Tracks and Sends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Submixing for Signal Routing and Effects Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delay Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dither . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Control Surface with Pro Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
403
403
404
408
408
410
411
414
418
423
428
430
432
Chapter 27. Plug-In and Hardware Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Inserting Plug-Ins on Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving and Duplicating Plug-In and Hardware Inserts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Plug-In Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Plug-In Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Hardware Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting and Integrating External Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
437
439
440
444
446
447
Contents
ix
Chapter 28. Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Automation Quick Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation Playlists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Writing Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and Suspending Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Writing Automation to the Start, End or All of a Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trimming Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Snapshot Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
451
452
453
456
458
459
463
464
465
465
467
473
475
475
Chapter 29. Mixdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Recording to Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bounce to Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bounce Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a Submix (with Bounce To Disk) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final Mixdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mastering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part VII
481
482
483
491
492
493
Surround
Chapter 30. Surround Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Mixing Formats and Surround Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pro Tools Mixing Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speaker Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formats and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Mixing Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
497
498
498
500
501
504
Chapter 31. Pro Tools Setup for Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Pro Tools Audio Connections for 5.1 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Pro Tools for Multichannel Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default I/O Selectors in I/O Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Track Layouts, Routing, and Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
Pro Tools Reference Guide
507
508
512
512
Chapter 32. Multichannel Tracks and Signal Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Multichannel Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multichannel Audio Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multichannel Signal Routing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paths in Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example Paths and Signal Routing for a Surround Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
513
514
516
519
521
Chapter 33. Surround Panning and Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Introduction to Pro Tools Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Panner Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panning Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LFE Faders in Multichannel Panners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Divergence and Center Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SurroundScope Metering Plug-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part VIII
525
526
527
528
530
533
533
536
Synchronization
Chapter 34. Synchronization Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Synchronization Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aspects of Synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synchronizing Pro Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMPTE Frame Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Film-Originated Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
539
539
540
543
544
Chapter 35. Working with Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
Pro Tools Synchronization Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session Setup Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing to Work with SMPTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Pro Tools for SMPTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pull Up and Pull Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Putting Pro Tools Online. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating Time Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using MIDI Machine Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synchronizing a Sequencer to Pro Tools on Macintosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Minimum Sync Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote Track Arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Beat Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spotting Regions to SMPTE Frame Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying a Synchronization Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
549
551
556
556
558
562
563
564
566
566
566
567
567
570
572
573
Contents
xi
Chapter 36. Working with QuickTime Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
About QuickTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
QuickTime Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movie Playback Quality Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing a QuickTime Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firewire Playback of QuickTime DV Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the Movie Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Movie Start Time (Movie Offset) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spotting Audio to a QuickTime Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing QuickTime Audio (and Other Compressed Video Files). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bouncing to a New Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
575
577
577
578
579
581
582
583
584
586
Appendix A. DSP-Induced Delays in Mixing (TDM Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to DSP-Induced Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delay Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manually Compensating for Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delay Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
589
589
590
591
592
Appendix B. TDM Mixing and DSP Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Benefits of TDM II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSP Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSP Usage with TDM Mixers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSP Usage with TDM Plug-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSP Usage and I/O Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
595
595
597
600
608
609
Appendix C. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using DigiTest as a Diagnostic Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before You Call Digidesign Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
611
611
611
612
613
613
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Part I: Introduction
1
2
Chapter 1: Welcome to Pro Tools
Welcome to Pro Tools®. Pro Tools integrates
powerful multitrack digital audio and MIDI sequencing features, giving you everything you
need to record, arrange, edit, mix, and master
quality audio for music, video, film, and multimedia.
The Pro Tools Guides
Pro Tools systems include the following guides:
Getting Started Guide Instructions for installing
your Pro Tools system and connecting your studio.
Basics Guide (Mbox Systems Only) Designed for
new users, this guide provides specific methods
for accomplishing common tasks (such as getting sound in and out of your Mbox, connecting
a mic or instrument, and recording a session).
Pro Tools Reference Guide Full details on all
Pro Tools functionality and operations.
(Pro Tools LE systems only include an electronic
PDF version of the Reference Guide.)
Pro Tools Menus Guide Electronic PDF guide to
the Pro Tools on-screen menus.
DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide Instructions for using
the DigiRack plug-ins (included with Pro Tools)
for both real-time and file-based audio processing in Pro Tools. (Pro Tools LE systems only include an electronic PDF version of this guide.)
Digidesign Plug-Ins Guide Electronic PDF guide
with instructions for using optional Digidesign
plug-ins for both real-time and file-based audio
processing in Pro Tools.
DigiBase Guide Full details on using Pro Tools
DigiBase databasing and browsers for data and
media management. (Pro Tools LE systems only
include an electronic PDF version of this guide.)
Expanded Systems Guide (TDM Systems
Only) Instructions for expanding a Pro Tools
TDM system with optional Digidesign cards, or
an expansion chassis.
MachineControl Guide (TDM Systems Only) Electronic PDF guide for MachineControl option
(available separately). This guide includes installation and operation instructions for using the
MachineControl option for Pro Tools to enable
serial communication with remote audio and
video machines.
Pro Tools Keyboard Shortcuts Separate electronic PDFs for Windows and Macintosh that
list keyboard shortcuts not shown in Pro Tools
menus.
Digidesign also provides guides with audio
interfaces, optional dedicated consoles
(such as D-Control) and controllers (such
as Command|8), and other Digidesign
options (such as MIDI I/O, PRE, and
SYNC I/O). Refer to the separate guide
provided with each Digidesign product.
Chapter 1: Welcome to Pro Tools
3
Conventions Used in These Guides
The Pro Tools guides use the following conventions to indicate menu choices and key commands:
:
Convention
Action
File > Save Session
Choose Save Session
from the File menu
Control+N
Hold down the Control
key and press the N key
Control-click
Hold down the Control
key and click the mouse
button
Right-click (Windows)
Click with the right
mouse button
The following symbols are used to highlight important information:
User Tips are helpful hints for getting the
most from your Pro Tools system.
Important Notices include information that
could affect your Pro Tools session data or
the performance of your Pro Tools system.
Shortcuts show you useful keyboard or
mouse shortcuts.
Cross References point to related sections in
Digidesign guides.
Digidesign Registration
Be sure to complete and return the registration
card included with your Pro Tools system. Registered users will receive periodic software update and upgrade notices. Refer to the registration card for technical support and warranty
information.
4
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Compatibility Information
Digidesign can only assure compatibility and
provide support for hardware and software it
has tested and approved. For a list of Digidesignqualified computers, operating systems, and
third-party devices, refer to the latest compatibility information on the Digidesign Web site
(www.digidesign.com/compato).
About www.digidesign.com
The Digidesign Web site (www.digidesign.com)
is your best source for information to help you
get the most out of your Pro Tools system. The
following are just a few of the services and features available.
Support Contact Digidesign Technical Support
or Customer Service; download software updates and the latest online manuals; browse the
Compatibility documents for system requirements; search the online Answerbase or join the
worldwide Pro Tools community on the Digidesign User Conference.
Training and Education Study on your own using
courses available online or find out how you can
learn in a classroom setting at a certified
Pro Tools training center.
Products and Developers Learn about Digidesign
products; download demo software or learn
about our Development Partners and their plugins, applications, and hardware.
News and Events Get the latest news from
Digidesign or sign up for a Pro Tools demo.
To learn more about these and other resources
available from Digidesign, visit our Web site
(www.digidesign.com).
Chapter 2: Pro Tools System
Configurations
There are two types of Pro Tools systems: TDM
and LE. These refer to both the Pro Tools software and its associated hardware, as follows:
• TDM = Pro Tools TDM software for
Pro Tools|HD-series and Pro Tools|24 MIX-series hardware.
• LE = Pro Tools LE software for Digi 002,
Digi 002 Rack, Digi 001, or Mbox hardware.
HD-Series Systems
Pro Tools|HD 1
Includes:
• HD Core card
• Pro Tools TDM software
Pro Tools|HD 2 Accel
Includes:
Pro Tools TDM Systems
Pro Tools TDM systems are available in the configurations shown below. Each system requires
at least one Digidesign audio interface (sold separately). TDM systems can be expanded by adding Digidesign cards to increase track count, add
to the amount of possible plug-in and mixer
processing, and connect additional audio interfaces.
Pro Tools system performance depends on
factors such as computer processor speed,
amount of system memory, and hard drive
performance. Contact your Digidesign
dealer or visit Digidesign’s Web site for the
latest system requirements and compatibility information.
• HD Core card
• HD Accel card
• Pro Tools TDM software
Pro Tools|HD 3 Accel
Includes:
• HD Core card
• Two HD Accel cards
• Pro Tools TDM software
Pro Tools|HD 2
Includes:
• HD Core card
• HD Process card
• Pro Tools TDM software
Chapter 2: Pro Tools System Configurations
5
Pro Tools|HD 3
Supported Audio Interfaces
Includes:
HD-Series Only
• HD Core card
• Two HD Process cards
The following audio interfaces are compatible
with Pro Tools|HD-series systems:
• Pro Tools TDM software
• 192 I/O
• 192 Digital I/O
MIX-Series Systems
Pro Tools|24 MIX
Includes:
• MIX Core card
• 96 I/O
• 96i I/O
Pro Tools|HD-series systems require the use
of at least one 192 I/O, 192 Digital I/O,
96 I/O, or 96i I/O.
• Pro Tools TDM software
HD-Series and MIX-Series
Pro Tools|24 MIXplus
Includes:
• MIX Core card
• MIX Farm card
• Pro Tools TDM software
Pro Tools|24 MIX3
Includes:
• MIX Core card
The following Digidesign audio interfaces are
supported with Pro Tools|HD-series and
Pro Tools|24 MIX-series systems:
• 888|24 I/O and 882|20 I/O
• 1622 I/O
• 24-bit ADAT Bridge I/O or original ADAT
Bridge I/O
Audio interfaces that work with HD-series
systems require the use of at least one 192
I/O, 192 digital I/O, 96 I/O, or 96i I/O.
• Two MIX Farm cards
• Pro Tools TDM software
6
Pro Tools Reference Guide
The original 888 I/O and 882 I/O audio interfaces work with Pro Tools|24 MIX-series systems.
TDM System Playback, Recording and Voice Limits
The following table lists the audio playback, recording, and voiceable track limits of each type of
Pro Tools TDM system. Playback and recording voices refer to the number of unique simultaneous
playback and record tracks on your system. Total voiceable tracks refers to the maximum number of
audio tracks that can share the available voices on your system. (Mono tracks take up one voice. Stereo and multichannel tracks take up one voice per channel.) Voice limits are dependent on the session sample rate and the number of DSP chips dedicated to the system’s Playback Engine. Pro Tools
HD-series systems can open sessions with up to 256 audio tracks (and Pro Tools|24 MIX-series can
open sessions with up to 128 audio tracks), but any audio tracks beyond that system’s voiceable track
limit will be automatically set to Voice Off.
Pro Tools|HD-series systems provide up to 128 Auxiliary tracks (Auxiliary Inputs); Pro Tools|24 MIXseries systems provide up to 64 Auxiliary Inputs. All TDM-equipped Pro Tools systems also provide a
total of 64 internal mix busses, and up to 5 inserts and 5 sends per track (depending on the DSP capacity of your system). In addition, Pro Tools TDM systems support up to 256 MIDI tracks.
Table 3. Pro Tools TDM system audio playback, recording and voice limits
Core System Type
Sample
Rate
(kHz)
Voices (Mono Tracks of
Simultaneous
Playback)
Mono Tracks of
Simultaneous
Recording
Total
Voiceable
Tracks
Pro Tools|HD 1
44.1/48
96
96
112
88.2/96
48
48
48
176.4/192
12
12
12
44.1/48
192
192
224
88.2/96
96
96
80
176.4/192
36
36
24
44.1/48
128
128
224
88.2/96
64
64
80
176.4/192
24
24
24
44.1/48
64
64
86
Pro Tools|HD Accel 2,
Pro Tools|HD Accel 3
Expanded Pro Tools|HD 1,
Pro Tools|HD 2,
Pro Tools|HD 3
Pro Tools|24 MIX,
Expanded Pro Tools|24 MIX,
Pro Tools|24 MIXplus,
Pro Tools|24 MIX3
Chapter 2: Pro Tools System Configurations
7
Audio Interfaces for TDM Systems
Table 4 lists the input and output capabilities of the various audio interfaces for Pro Tools TDM systems. In expanded Pro Tools|HD systems, audio interfaces can be combined for up to 96 audio inputs
and outputs (for example, with one HD Core card, two HD Accel or HD Process cards, and six I/Os).
In expanded Pro Tools|24 MIX systems, audio interfaces can be combined for up to 72 audio inputs
and outputs (for example, with one MIX Core card, five MIX Farm cards, and six ADAT Bridge I/Os).
Table 4. Pro Tools TDM system audio interface channel capabilities
8
Interface Type
Number of I/O
Channels
Sample Rates
(kHz)
A/D
Conversion
D/A
Conversion
Digital I/O
192 I/O
16 in/16 out
44.1, 48, 88.2,
96, 176.4, 192
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
192 Digital I/O
16 in/16 out
44.1, 48, 88.2,
96, 176.4, 192
None
None
24-bit
96 I/O
16 in/16 out
44.1, 48, 88.2,
96
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
96i I/O
16 in/2 out
44.1, 48, 88.2,
96
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
888|24 I/O
8 in/8 out
44.1, 48
24-bit
24-bit (or
20-bit, on
older I/O)
24-bit
882|20 I/O
8 in/8 out
44.1, 48
20-bit
20-bit
24-bit
1622 I/O
16 in/2 out
44.1, 48
20-bit
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit ADAT
Bridge I/O
16 in/16 out
44.1, 48
None
24-bit
24-bit
Original ADAT
Bridge I/O
16 in/16 out
44.1, 48
None
20-bit
24-bit (AES
or S/PDIF),
or 20-bit
(Optical)
888 I/O
8 in/8 out
44.1, 48
18-bit (or
16-bit, on
older I/O)
18-bit
24-bit
882 I/O
8 in/8 out
44.1, 48
16-bit
16-bit
24-bit
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pro Tools LE Systems
Mbox
An Mbox system includes:
Pro Tools LE-based systems are available in the
following configurations:
• Mbox audio interface
• Pro Tools LE software
Digi 002
A Digi 002 system includes:
• Digi 002 combined audio interface and controller
• Pro Tools LE software
The total processing capacity of a
Pro Tools LE-based system depends on the
processing power of your computer. Contact
your Digidesign dealer or visit Digidesign’s
Web site for the latest system requirements
and compatibility information.
Digi 002 Rack
A Digi 002 Rack system includes:
• Digi 002 audio interface
• Pro Tools LE software
Digi 001
A Digi 001 system includes:
• Digi 001 PCI card
• Digi 001 I/O interface
• Pro Tools LE software
Chapter 2: Pro Tools System Configurations
9
Pro Tools LE System Capabilities
Table 5 lists the playback, recording, and input and output capabilities of each Pro Tools LE system.
All Pro Tools LE systems support up to 32 or 24 audio tracks, as noted in Table 5. (Mono tracks take
up a single audio track, while stereo tracks take up two tracks.) If you open a Pro Tools session created
on a TDM system containing more than the number of tracks supported on the LE-based system, audio tracks beyond the LE system’s voiceable track limit will be automatically set to inactive (Pro Tools
6.x), or will not open (Pro Tools 5.3.3 or lower). Additionally, with 5.3.3 or lower, if you save the session, the tracks beyond the voiceable track limit will be deleted from the session data.
All Pro Tools LE series systems provide up to 128 Auxiliary tracks (Auxiliary Inputs), a total of 16 internal mix busses, and up to 5 inserts and 5 sends per track (depending on your computer’s processing
capacity). In addition, Pro Tools LE systems support up to 256 MIDI tracks (Pro Tools 6.x).
Table 5. Pro Tools LE system audio playback, recording, and channel capabilities
System Type
Mono Tracks of
Simultaneous Playback
Number of I/O
Channels
A/D
Conversion
D/A
Conversion
Digital
I/O
Digi 002
32
up to 18 in/18 out
(48 kHz or lower)
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
up to 18 in/18 out
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
up to 2 in/2 out
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
Digi 002 Rack
up to 10 in/10 out
(88.2 or 96 kHz)
Digi 001
32 (Pro Tools 6.x crossplatform, and Pro Tools
5.3.1 to 6.x on Windows)
24 (Pro Tools 5.2 or lower)
Mbox
32 (Pro Tools 6.x crossplatform, and Pro Tools
5.3.3 to 6.x on Windows)
24 (Pro Tools 5.2)
For details on transferring session material between Pro Tools TDM and Pro Tools LE systems, see
“Sharing Sessions Between Pro Tools TDM Systems and Pro Tools LE Systems” on page 53.
10
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts
This chapter explains the principles and concepts that form the foundation of Pro Tools operation and functionality.
Hard Disk Audio Recording
Tape-based recording is a linear medium—you
need to rewind or fast forward a tape to hear a
particular spot in a recording. To rearrange or repeat material in a linear system, you need to rerecord it.
Hard disk recording is a nonlinear (or random access) medium—you can go immediately to any
spot in a recording without having to rewind or
fast forward.
Nonlinear systems have several advantages. You
can easily rearrange or repeat parts of a recording by making the hard disk read parts of the recording in a different order and/or multiple
times. In addition, this re-arrangement is nondestructive, meaning that the original recorded
material is not altered.
The Digidesign Audio Engine
DAE (or Digidesign Audio Engine) is Digidesign’s real-time operating system for digital recording systems. When you install Pro Tools,
DAE is automatically installed on your system.
In the same way that a computer’s operating
system provides the foundation for programs
that run on the computer, DAE provides the
foundation for much of the hard disk recording,
digital signal processing, mix automation, and
MIDI functionality required by Pro Tools and
other products from Digidesign and its Development Partners.
The DAE Playback Buffer Size determines the
amount of memory allocated within DAE to
manage disk buffers, which affects system performance. For more information, see “DAE Playback Buffer Size” on page 40. The DAE Playback
Buffer Size can be changed in the Playback Engine dialog, discussed below.
Pro Tools is a nonlinear recording system that
lets you rearrange and mix recorded material
nondestructively.
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts
11
Playback Engine Dialog
Pro Tools takes advantage of your computer’s
host processor for certain tasks and optional
host-based DSP processing.
Pro Tools LE uses host (CPU) processing to provide audio track recording, playback, mixing,
and effects processing. Pro Tools TDM can also
use host processing to run RTAS plug-ins for effects processing. Performance is determined by
your system and its Playback Engine settings.
The Playback Engine dialog lets you set a hardware buffer size and allocate a percentage of
CPU resources for these tasks. For more information, see “Configuring Pro Tools System Settings
(in the Playback System Engine)” on page 37.
Pro Tools Sessions
When you start a project in Pro Tools, you create
a session. Some basic elements of sessions are explained in this section.
Session File
Pro Tools session file icon, Pro Tools 6.x
A session file is the document that Pro Tools creates when you start a new project. The session
file contains maps of all elements associated
with a project, including audio files, MIDI data,
and all your edit and mix information. You can
make changes to a session and save those
changes in a new session file. This lets you create multiple versions of a project or back up
your editing and mixing work.
Audio File
When you record audio into a Pro Tools session,
audio files are created.
Playback Engine dialog for Pro Tools TDM system
From the Playback Engine dialog, you can also
select the number of voices and voiceable tracks
for your system and its sessions. Voice count
choices in the dialog are based on how much
DSP processing you want to allocate for voicing.
For more information, see “Configuring
Pro Tools System Settings (in the Playback System Engine)” on page 37.
See also “System Resources” on page 16.
The Playback Engine dialog is also where you
dedicate DSP resources for Delay Compensation.
12
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Audio file icon, Pro Tools 6.x
Audio files for each session are stored in a folder
named “Audio Files.” Audio files are listed in
Pro Tools’ Audio Regions List and can appear in
a track. A section of an audio file can be defined
as a region. See “Regions (or Loops)” on page 13.
Tracks
Pro Tools tracks are where audio, MIDI, and automation data are recorded and edited.
A region (or loop) is a piece of audio or MIDI data
that may have associated automation data. A region could be a loop, a guitar riff, a verse of a
song, a sound effect, a piece of dialog, or an entire sound file. In Pro Tools, regions are created
from audio or MIDI files, and can be arranged in
audio and MIDI track playlists.
Playlist
Audio tracks in the Edit window
Playlist Selector pop-up menu
MIDI track in the Edit window
Audio and MIDI tracks can be edited into regions or repeated in different locations, to create
loops, re-arrange sections or entire songs, or to
assemble tracks using material from multiple
takes.
Audio tracks can be mono, stereo, or any supported multichannel format (depending on
your type of Pro Tools system). When creating a
new audio track, you can choose from a list of
formats supported by your system.
Regions (or Loops)
Audio region
A playlist is a group of regions arranged on an
audio or MIDI track. Tracks have edit playlists
and automation playlists.
On audio tracks, an edit playlist tells the hard
disk which audio files to read in what order. For
example, you can use the same audio region to
access the same piece of audio multiple times at
different locations and not use additional disk
space. Different versions of the same original audio can be used in different places and have different effects applied.
A playlist can be made up of a single region or
many separate regions. It can be made up of
similar elements, such as regions from several
different takes of a solo, or dissimilar elements,
such as several sound effects. You can create any
number of edit playlists for a track. This lets you
assemble different versions of performances or
edits on a single audio or MIDI track and choose
between them with a pop-up menu on the track.
Each track has a single set of automation playlists, for volume, pan, mute and each automation-enabled control for the insert and send assignments on that track.
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts
13
INPUTS 1-4
INPUTS 5-16
SW CTRL GAIN
1
2
OUTPUT
+4dBu/–12dBV
3
4
5
6
+4dBu/–10dBV
7
9
11
13
15
1
8
10
12
14
16
2
Figure 1. Back view of 96 I/O, with eight analog inputs, eight analog outputs, and eight digital input/output channels
(using a lightpipe)
Channel
The term channel is used to describe several related components of a Pro Tools system. The
first example of channel refers to a physical input or output of your Pro Tools system.
For example, a 96 I/O audio interface (Figure 1)
provides up to 16 channels of input and output
to a Pro Tools|HD system. An 888|24 I/O audio
interface provides eight channels of analog input and output to a Pro Tools TDM system.
The second use of the term channel refers to a
mixer strip in the Pro Tools Mix window. The
term channel strip refers to the mixer strip of any
track (audio or MIDI track, Auxiliary Input, or
Master Fader) in a session.
Audio and MIDI channel strips have similar
controls, but those controls have slightly different effects. For example, audio and Auxiliary Input channel strip faders control the output gain
to the mix bus for that channel, while MIDI
channel strip faders send MIDI volume data
(MIDI controller 7) to the MIDI instrument.
Figure 2. Channel strip in the Mix window
The term channel also describes a separate
aspect of MIDI operation. See “MIDI Concepts” on page 19.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Signal Routing
Pro Tools provides software-based mixing and
signal routing controls. The Mix window is
where these controls are located. (Some of these
controls can also be accessed from the Edit window.)
Stereo
plug-in
Inserts
Sends
Signal Routing Example
A common signal routing task is to submix multiple tracks to a single channel strip (such as an
Auxiliary Input or a Master Fader) for shared
processing and level control. The following example shows three audio tracks submixed to a
stereo Auxiliary Input.
Input from
Stereo
Bus path
Outputs to
Stereo Bus
path
Output to
Stereo Output
path
Audio Tracks
Auxiliary Input
Submixing to an Auxiliary Input
Signal routing options include the following:
Track Input and Output (I/O) Controls The most
basic type of signal routing is track input and
output. A track needs to have an assigned input
path to record audio, and an assigned output
path in order to be audible through a hardware
output. Signals can also be routed to or from
other tracks in Pro Tools (or hardware inputs
and outputs) using internal busses.
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts
15
Auxiliary Inputs and Master Faders Auxiliary Inputs are tracks that can be used as returns, submixers and bus masters. Master Faders are used
as bus and output master level controls. Both
Auxiliary Inputs and Master Faders can have
plug-in and/or hardware inserts.
Sends Sends route audio to internal busses to
send to other tracks in Pro Tools, or to hardware
outputs. Master Faders do not have sends.
Plug-In and Hardware Inserts Software plug-ins
and hardware inserts process the audio on their
associated track. Plug-in processing occurs completely within the Pro Tools system. Hardware
inserts utilize audio interface inputs and outputs, for traditional insert routing to (and from)
external effects and other devices.
Paths Pro Tools lets you define any internal or
external input, output, bus, or insert with a single name and format (mono, stereo, or multichannel). Paths comprise the lists of available
routing choices in track I/O Selectors and other
menus. Paths are auto-named by default, but
can be customized in the I/O Setup window. See
Chapter 7, “I/O Setup” for more information.
Mixing Formats Sessions can include combinations of mono, stereo, and multichannel format
tracks, busses, inputs, outputs, and inserts.
(Multichannel formats are supported on
Pro Tools HD-series and MIX-series systems
only.)
16
Pro Tools Reference Guide
System Resources
Track count, plug-in processing, signal path and
routing options, and voice availability are ultimately limited by the combined resources available from the host computer, and from your
Pro Tools hardware.
Pro Tools provides several ways to manage and
conserve resources to maximize the performance of your system. As you begin working
with Pro Tools sessions and tracks, you can take
advantage of the following features to extend
the effectiveness of your available DSP and
other resources:
◆ Pro Tools lets you adjust the performance of
your system by changing system settings (such
as H/W Buffer Size and CPU Usage) that affect its
capacity for processing, playback, and recording. See “Configuring Pro Tools System Settings
(in the Playback System Engine)” on page 37.
◆ Pro Tools allows for session items (such as
tracks and inserts) to be manually made inactive, to free up DSP resources. Inactive elements
are viewable, editable, and retained within the
session. See “Active and Inactive Items” on
page 17.
◆ All Pro Tools TDM systems, as well as LE systems (Pro Tools 6.x only), provide flexible voice
options for audio tracks, to help maximize use
of available voices in your system. For more information on voice management and options,
see “Voiceable Tracks and Track Priority” on
page 98.
Active and Inactive Items
Pro Tools lets you set certain items (such as
tracks and inserts) as inactive, in order to free up
DSP resources and mixer connections.
Items in Pro Tools that can be made inactive (or
active) include the following:
• Audio tracks, Auxiliary Inputs, and Master
Faders
• Track Inputs and Outputs
• Sends
• Side-chain inputs
• Plug-ins
• Hardware inserts
• Paths (session-wide)
MIDI tracks cannot be made inactive.
Paths and Path Assignments When a path or
path assignment is inactive, its mixer resources
are made available for other signal routing purposes in the session. Paths and assignments can
be made inactive manually, or automatically
(see “Automatic and Manual Inactive Mode” on
page 18).
Tracks For TDM systems (Pro Tools 5.1 and
higher) and LE systems (Pro Tools 6.x), when a
track is made inactive, its voices become available for another track. Mono inactive tracks free
up one voice, and stereo and multichannel
tracks free up one voice per channel. Additionally, when an audio track, Auxiliary Input, or
Master Fader is made inactive, its plug-ins, inserts, sends, and I/O assignments become inactive, and the associated DSP used is freed up for
use elsewhere in the session.
In addition to manually setting Active and Inactive modes, Pro Tools will automatically make
items inactive if there are insufficient or unavailable resources.
When active, items are fully engaged and operational.
When inactive, items are silent and off, although
most associated controls can still be adjusted.
Different inactive items affect available system
resources in specific ways, as follows:
Plug-Ins When a plug-in is inactive on a track, its
DSP is made available for other plug-ins and
processing. Plug-in assignments can be made inactive manually, or automatically (see “Automatic and Manual Inactive Mode” on page 18).
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts
17
Display of Inactive Items
Automatic and Manual Inactive Mode
When items are inactive, their names appear in
italics, and their background becomes dark grey.
When a track is inactive, the entire channel strip
is grayed out.
Active and Inactive modes are powerful options
for session transfer, and system resource management. Pro Tools provides automatic and
manual Inactive mode switching. You can manually make items inactive (or active) to selectively manage system resources while editing
and mixing.
Active
Inactive plug-in
Automatically Inactive Items
Inactive track
When opening a session, it is possible that not
all signal paths, plug-ins, or audio interfaces
used in the session will be available as defined
on the current system. When opening a session,
sufficient voices may also be unavailable if the
session was created on a different Pro Tools system type (for example, creating a session on a
Pro Tools|24 MIX-series system, then opening it
in on a Pro Tools|HD-series system).
Whenever this occurs, the session will open as it
was last saved. All items that are unavailable, or
cannot be loaded due to insufficient resources,
are made inactive.
Manual Inactive Switching
You can manually apply Active or Inactive
modes to manage system resources. By making
an item inactive, its associated resources are
made available elsewhere in the session.
Active and inactive items and tracks
The following are basic instructions for manually making items inactive. Throughout the
Pro Tools Reference Guide, instructions are provided whenever an item can be made inactive.
To toggle an item active or inactive:
■ Control-Start-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the item.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
You can apply Active or Inactive modes to all or
all selected tracks using standard Pro Tools modifiers (Alt and Alt+Shift in Windows, Option and
Option+Shift on the Macintosh). Side-chain inputs support direct active and inactive switching, but do not follow switching all or all selected side-chain inputs.
MIDI Concepts
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a
communication protocol for musical instruments. This industry standard enables connections between a variety of devices from different
manufacturers. Examples of MIDI-compatible
equipment include synthesizers, sound modules, drum machines, patch bays, effects processors, MIDI interfaces, and sequencers.
MIDI devices are equipped with 5-pin DIN connectors, labeled as either IN, OUT, or THRU.
The MIDI OUT port transmits messages; the
MIDI IN port receives messages; and, MIDI
THRU echoes whatever is received from the IN
port. MIDI devices are connected with MIDI cables that are available at most music stores.
echoed from IN
MIDI signal flow
A single MIDI cable can transmit a separate set
of messages for each of the 16 channels. These
16 channels correspond to separate MIDI devices or to multiple channels within a single device (if the device is multi-timbral). Each channel
represents a discreet instrument sound; for instance, bass on channel 1, piano on channel 2,
and drums on channel 10. Similar to a multitrack tape recorder, a MIDI sequencer can record
complex arrangements—even using a single
multi-timbral keyboard.
MIDI Terms
The following are some basic MIDI terms:
MIDI Interface Hardware that lets computers
connect to and communicate with MIDI devices.
MIDI Device Any keyboard, sound module, effects device or other equipment that can send or
receive MIDI information.
MIDI Controller Any MIDI device that transmits
MIDI performance data. These include keyboards, MIDI guitar controllers, MIDI wind instruments, and others. Controllers transmit
MIDI from their MIDI OUT ports.
MIDI Control Surface Any device (such as the
Digidesign Command|8), which uses a MIDI
connection to send control messages to a software program, but is not generally used to
record MIDI information.
MIDI Sound Source Any MIDI instrument capable of playing back MIDI-triggered sound.
Sound sources receive MIDI from their MIDI IN
ports.
Not all devices will have all three MIDI
ports (IN, OUT and THRU).
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts
19
Multi-Timbral The capability of playing several
different instrument sounds (such as piano,
bass, and drums) simultaneously on separate
channels. This makes it possible for a single
MIDI sound source to play back entire arrangements.
MIDI Channel Up to 16 channels of MIDI performance data can be transmitted on a single MIDI
cable. The channel number separates the different messages so your sound sources can receive
the right ones.
Common Misconceptions about
MIDI
MIDI is not audio. The messages that travel
down a MIDI cable translate to specific instructions. For instance, when you strike a key on
your MIDI keyboard it sends a message to its
MIDI OUT port telling another device (if connected and set to the same MIDI channel) to
play that particular note.
Program Change Event A MIDI command that
tells a sound source which of its sounds (or
sound patches) to use. The MIDI protocol lets
you choose from a range of 128 patches.
Bank Select Message Many devices have more
than 128 patches, which are arranged in banks.
The Bank Select Message is a MIDI command
that specifies the bank of patches from which to
choose.
Local Control A controller setting found on most
MIDI keyboards that lets them play their own
sound source. Disabling “local control” ensures
that a device’s internal sound source is only
played by external MIDI messages.
When using Pro Tools, “local control” should
usually be disabled. When “local control” is off,
your keyboard still transmits data to its MIDI
OUT port.
Continuous Controller Events MIDI instructions
that allow real-time changes to notes that are
currently sounding. These include pitch bend,
modulation, volume, pan, and many others.
System Exclusive Data MIDI data commonly
used for sending and retrieving patch parameter
information for storage purposes.
20
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Signal paths for MIDI instruments
However, to actually hear that second device
(sound source) you’ll need to connect its audio
outputs to a sound system. Your MIDI instruments have two signal paths, one for audio and
another for MIDI.
MIDI does not allow you to use your devices beyond their capabilities. Particular instruments
have their own sound generation, polyphony,
and multi-timbral limitations.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows
Pro Tools provides two complementary ways of
viewing a session: the Mix window and the Edit
window. Pro Tools also lets you control the
transport and transport-related functions from
the Transport window.
For information on the main elements of the
Mix window and Edit window, see the page references provided in Figure 3 on page 22, and
Figure 4 on page 23.
The Mix Window
In the Mix window, tracks appear as mixer strips
(or channel strips), with controls for inserts,
sends, input and output assignments, volume,
panning, record enable, automation mode, and
solo/mute. The following section explains each
of these track controls.
The Edit Window
The Edit window provides a timeline display of
audio, as well as MIDI data and mixer automation for recording, editing and arranging tracks.
As in the Mix window, each track has controls
for record enable, solo, mute and automation
mode.
Systems with Pro Tools AVoption|V10 installed
also provide a timeline display of the movie
track.
To display the input/output controls, inserts,
sends, and comments in the Edit window, select
Display > Edit Window Shows > All. You can
choose to display all of these items, or some of
them.
To display the Pro Tools comments, inserts,
sends, and Automatic Delay Compensation, select Display > Mix Window Shows > All. You can
choose to display all of these items, or some of
them.
To toggle between the Mix and Edit windows: On Windows, press Control+Equals
(=); On Macintosh, press Command+Equals (=).
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows
21
Send with
Send Controls
(page 414)
Plug-In Insert
(page 433)
Inserts
View
(page 88)
Show/Hide
Tracks List
(page 93)
Sends
View
(page 416)
I/O View
(page 88)
Automation
Mode Selector
(page 453)
Channel Pan
(page 88)
Output Window button
(page 412)
Track
Controls
(page 24)
Group ID
Indicator
Channel
Volume
(page 88)
Voice Selector (page 97)
Level Meter
(page 89)
Mix Groups
List
(page 104)
AutoMatch
Indicator
(page 457)
MIDI Track Program button
(page 366)
Delay
Compensation
View
(page 90)
Track
Comments
View
(page 90)
Track Position
Number
(page 91)
Track Name
(page 91)
Mono
Audio Track
(page 85)
Stereo
Audio Track
(page 85)
Figure 3. Pro Tools Mix window (Pro Tools 6.4)
22
Pro Tools Reference Guide
MIDI
Track
(page 85)
Auxiliary
Input
(page 85)
Master
Fader
(page 85)
Timeline Selections
(page 245)
Commands
Focus
(page 30)
Location Indicators
(page 24)
Zoom buttons
(page 226)
Edit tools
(page 24)
Grid and
Nudge Values
(page 24)
Transport Controls
(page 24)
Event Edit Area
(page 24)
Timeline
Edit Mode
buttons
(page 224)
Audio
Regions
List
(page 220)
Tab to
Transients
(page 254)
Audio
Waveform
View
(page 209)
Rulers
(page 232)
Show/Hide
Tracks List
(page 93)
Volume
Automation
View
(page 209)
Audio Track
(page 85)
Edit Groups
List
(page 104)
MIDI Track
(page 85)
MIDI Notes View
(page 209)
MIDI Velocity View
(page 209)
MIDI Regions List
(page 220)
Selected Region
(page 247)
Figure 4. Pro Tools Edit window (Pro Tools 6.4)
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows
23
Track Controls
Event Edit Area
Automation Mode Selector (page 453)
Record Enable button (page 101)
TrackInput button (page 101)
Mute Button(page 97)
Solo button (page 138)
Mix window controls for audio and MIDI tracks,
wide view (Pro Tools 6.4)
The Event Edit Area provides time, pitch, and
other information for the currently selected audio or MIDI data. It also lets you define selections using a key entry.
The Start, End, and Length display can be set for
a different Time Scale format (such as Samples,
Bars:Beats, or Minutes:Seconds). For more information, see “Main Time Scale” on page 233.
Selection
Indicators
(page 25)
Note
Attributes
(page 363)
Track Name (page 91)
Record Enable button
(page 138)
Pitch
Attack
Velocity
Playlist Selector (page 217)
Release
Velocity
TrackInput button (page 101)
Solo button (page 101)
Event Edit Area showing MIDI track information
Mute button (page 101)
Track Height Selector (page 210)
Voice Selector (page 97)
Automation Mode Selector
(page 453)
Track View Selector (page 209)
Edit window track controls, medium track height
(Pro Tools 6.4)
Edit Tools
Trimmer
(page 267)
Selector
(page 237)
Grabber
(page 248)
Scrubber
(page 242)
Location Indicators, Grid/Nudge
Values, Current Cursor Display
The Location Indicators, Grid and Nudge values,
and timeline Cursor Location display provide
navigation and editing options.
The Main and Sub display can be set for a different Time Scale format (such as Samples,
Bars:Beats, or Minutes:Seconds). For more information, see “Main Time Scale” on page 233.
Cursor Location
(page 237)
Location Indicators (page 238)
Grid value
(page 275)
Nudge value
(page 276)
Zoomer
(page 226)
Smart Tool
(page 288)
Edit tools in Edit window
24
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pencil
(page 287 & page 355)
Cursor value
(page 237)
Edit window display showing MIDI track information
The Transport Window
The Transport window can be set to show basic
transport controls, counters, and MIDI controls.
The counters in the Transport window mirror
the Location Indicators at the top of the Edit
window.
Basic Transport Controls and
Counters
Rewind Increments
Main Time Scale Format
Increment Amount
Min:Sec
1 second
Time code
1 frame
(Pro Tools TDM or
DV Toolkit for Pro Tools LE)
Fast Forward
Return to Zero
Rewind
Online
Rewind Rewinds from the current play location.
You can also click repeatedly to rewind incrementally, by an amount based on the Main
Time Scale, as follows:
Stop
Play
Go to End
Record
Bars:Beats
1 bar
Feet+Frame
1 foot
(Pro Tools TDM or
DV Toolkit for Pro Tools LE)
Sample
Pre-Roll
1 second
Post-Roll
Transport Master
Start, End, and Length
for Timeline Selection
Transport window showing basic transport controls and
counters (Pro Tools 6.4)
Online Puts Pro Tools online so that playback
and recording is triggered by an external time
code source.
Return to Zero Locates to the beginning of the
session.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, you can rewind by pressing 1.
Stop Stops playback or recording.
You can also stop the Transport with the following shortcuts:
• Press the Spacebar.
• With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 0.
Play Starts playback or (if the Record button was
clicked first) recording from the Timeline insertion point.
With the Transport stopped, Right-click Play
(Windows) or Control-click Play (Macintosh) to
toggle Loop Playback mode. When enabled, a
loop symbol appears in the Play button.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows
25
You can also initiate playback with the following shortcuts:
• Press the Spacebar.
• With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 0.
You can play at half-speed with the following
shortcuts:
• Press Shift+Spacebar.
• Shift-click (Macintosh) the Play button.
Fast Forward Fast forwards from the Timeline insertion point. You can also click repeatedly to
fast forward incrementally (by an amount based
on the Main Time Scale).
Fast Forward Increments
Main Time Scale Format
Increment Amount
Min:Sec
1 second
Time code
1 frame
(Pro Tools TDM or
DV Toolkit for Pro Tools LE)
Bars:Beats
1 bar
Feet+Frame
1 foot
(Pro Tools TDM or
DV Toolkit for Pro Tools LE)
Sample
1 second
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, you can fast forward by pressing
2.
Go to End Locates to the end of the session.
You can press Control+Enter on the alpha
keyboard (Windows) or Option+Return
(Macintosh) to locate to the end of the session.
26
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Record Arms Pro Tools for recording (the button
flashes). Clicking Play then initiates recording.
With the Transport stopped, Right-click Record
(Windows) or Control-click Record (Macintosh)
to cycle through the four record modes. The
Record button changes to indicate the currently
selected mode: blank for Nondestructive, “D”
for Destructive, a loop symbol for Loop Record,
and “P” for QuickPunch.
You can also begin recording with the following
shortcuts:
• Press F12.
• Control+Spacebar (Windows) or press
Command+Spacebar (Macintosh).
• With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 3.
To initiate recording at half-speed, press
Control+Shift+Spacebar (Windows) or
Command+Shift+Spacebar (Macintosh).
Pre-Roll During playback or record, specifies the
amount that plays before the play (timeline)
cursor location or beginning of the timeline selection. Pre-roll is particularly useful with punch
recording since it provides you with time to
“catch the beat” before reaching the punch-in
point. To set the pre-roll amount, enter a new
value in this field, or drag the Pre-Roll flag in the
Main Timebase Ruler.
To enable pre-roll, click the Pre-Roll button to
the left of the pre-roll field so it becomes highlighted.
Post-Roll During playback or record, specifies
the amount that plays after the end of a timeline
selection. Post-roll is useful in punch recording
since playback continues after the punch-out
point so you can check for a smooth transition
to previously recorded material. To set the postroll amount, enter a new value in this field, or
drag the Post-Roll flag in the Main Timebase
Ruler.
To enable post-roll, click the Post-Roll button to
the left of the post-roll field so it becomes highlighted.
Start Specifies the beginning of the play or
record range. You can set the start point by entering a location in this field, or by dragging the
corresponding Playback Marker in the Main
Timebase Ruler. For more information, see
“Playback Markers” on page 168.
End Specifies the end of the play or record range.
You can set the end point by entering a location
in this field, or by dragging the corresponding
Playback Marker in the Main Timebase Ruler.
For more information, see “Playback Markers”
on page 168.
Length Specifies the length for the play or record
range. You can set the length by entering a location in this field, or by selecting a range in any
Timebase Ruler.
When the Edit and Timeline selections are
linked, you can drag in a track’s playlist to
set the play and record range. See “Linking
or Unlinking Edit and Timeline Selections”
on page 245
Transport Master Specifies the “master” for
transport functions. Click this button and
choose from the pop-up menu to select the
Transport Master, which can be set to Pro Tools,
Machine, MMC, or Remote. For information,
see Chapter 35, “Working with Synchronization.”
MIDI Controls
Wait for Note
Countoff
Click
MIDI Merge
Tempo
Meter
Conductor
Transport window showing MIDI controls
Wait for Note When selected, recording does not
begin until a MIDI event is received. This ensures that you begin recording when you’re
ready to play, and that the first note, or other
MIDI data, is recorded precisely at the beginning
of the record range.
You can press F11 to turn on Wait for Note,
unless the Operation Preference for “Disable F11 for Wait for Note” is selected.
Click When selected, a metronome sounds during playback and recording (as specified by the
settings in the Click/Countoff Options dialog).
Double-click the Click button to open the
Click/Countoff Options dialog.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, you can press 7 to enable the
Click.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows
27
Countoff When selected, Pro Tools counts off a
specified number of measures (indicated in the
button) before playback or recording begins.
Double-click the Countoff button, to open the
Click/Countoff Options dialog.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, you can press 8 to enable the
Countoff.
MIDI Merge When selected (Merge mode), recorded MIDI data is merged with existing track
material. When deselected (Replace mode), recorded MIDI data replaces existing track material.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, you can press 9 to enable MIDI
Merge.
Conductor When selected, Pro Tools uses the
tempo map defined in the Tempo Ruler. When
deselected, Pro Tools switches to Manual Tempo
mode and ignores the Tempo Track.
In Manual Tempo mode, you can enter a BPM
value in the tempo field, or tap in the tempo by
clicking the Tap button.
Meter Displays the session’s current meter based
on the play location. Double-click the Meter
button to open the Change Meter window.
Tempo Displays the session’s current tempo
based on the play location. In Manual Tempo
mode, you can enter a BPM value into this field.
In addition, when the tempo field is selected,
you can tap in a tempo from a MIDI controller.
28
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Chapter 5: Keyboard Shortcuts
Global Key Commands
List and Parameter Selection
• Selection of tracks in Show/Hide List
This section shows keyboard shortcuts that apply to many functions in Pro Tools.
• Enabling of groups in Groups List
Track Functions
• Setting memory location parameters
• Changing Automation mode
• Enabling playlists
• Adding plug-ins
• Record enabling, soloing, and muting tracks
• Record safing and solo safing tracks
• Assigning inputs, outputs, and sends
• Automation Enable window parameters
Command
Windows
Macintosh
Toggle item and set
all others to same
new state
Alt-click item
Option-click
item
Toggle item and set
all others to opposite state
Control-click
item
Commandclick item
• Toggling volume/peak/delay display
Controls and Editing Tools
• Clearing meters
◆ Use to move plug-in controls, faders and sliders, the Scrubber, and automation data
• Changing track heights
Command
Windows
Macintosh
Command
Windows
Macintosh
Apply action to all
channel
strips/tracks
Alt+
action
Option+
action
Fine adjustment of
sliders, knobs, and
breakpoints
Controlclick item
Commandclick item
Apply action to
selected channel
strips/tracks
Alt+
Shift+
action
Option+
Shift+
action
Chapter 5: Keyboard Shortcuts
29
Keyboard Focus
The Keyboard Focus in Pro Tools determines
how the alpha keys function. Depending on
which Keyboard Focus is enabled, you can use
the keys on your alpha keyboard to select regions in the Audio or MIDI Regions List, enable
or disable groups, or perform an edit or play
command.
Commands
Focus
Audio Regions List
Focus
Groups List
Focus
You can only enable one Keyboard Focus at a
time. Enabling a Keyboard Focus will disable the
one previously enabled.
MIDI Regions List
Focus
There are four types of Keyboard Focus:
Keyboard Focus buttons
Commands Focus (All TDM Systems and
Pro Tools LE 6.1 or Higher Only) When selected,
this provides a wide range of single key shortcuts from the alpha keyboard for editing and
playing.
With Commands Focus disabled, you can still
access any of its key shortcuts by pressing the
Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh)
along with the key.
Audio Regions List Focus When selected, audio
regions can be located and selected in the Audio
Regions List by typing the first few letters of the
region’s name.
MIDI Regions List Focus When selected, MIDI
regions can be located and selected in the MIDI
Regions List by typing the first few letters of the
region’s name.
Groups List Focus When selected, Edit and Mix
Groups can be enabled or disabled by typing the
Group ID letter.
An electronic PDF listing of keyboard shortcuts is available in Pro Tools. Choose
Help > Keyboard Shortcuts.
30
Pro Tools Reference Guide
To set the Keyboard Focus:
■ Click the a–z button for the focus you want to
enable.
– or –
■ While pressing Control+Alt (Windows) or
Command+Option (Macintosh), press one of
the following keys: 1 (Commands),
2 (Audio Regions List), 3 (MIDI Regions List), or
4 (Groups List).
Numeric Keypad Modes
The Operation preference for Numeric Keypad
Mode determines how the numeric keypad
functions for Transport.
There are two Shuttle Lock modes (Classic and
Transport), and one Shuttle mode.
No matter which Numeric Keypad Mode is selected, you can always use the numeric keypad
to select and enter values in the Event Edit Area,
Location Indicators, and Transport fields.
Classic Mode
This mode emulates the way Pro Tools worked
in versions lower than 5.0. With the Numeric
Keypad Mode set to Classic, you can:
• Play up to two tracks of audio in Shuttle Lock
mode. Press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), followed by 0–9 for different
play speeds. Press Plus or Minus to reverse direction.
:
Playback Speeds
Key
1x Forward
6
To set the Numeric Keypad Mode:
1x Rewind
4
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Opera-
4x Forward
9
4x Rewind
7
1/4x Forward
3
1/4x Rewind
1
1/2x Forward
5+6
1/2x Rewind
5+4
2x Forward
8+9
2x Rewind
8+7
1/16x Forward
2+3
1/16x Rewind
2+1
Loop Selection (1x)
0
tion.
2 Under the option for Numeric Keypad Mode,
select a keypad mode (Classic, Transport, or
Shuttle), then click Done.
Shuttle Lock Modes
With either Shuttle Lock mode (Classic or Transport) you can use the numeric keypad to shuttle
forward or backwards at specific speeds: 5 is normal speed, 6–9 provide increasingly faster fastforward speeds, and 1–4 provide progressively
faster rewind speeds (4 is the slowest rewind
Shuttle Lock speed, 1 is the fastest).
Custom Shuttle Lock Speed
The highest fast-forward Shuttle Lock speed
(key 9) can be customized (Pro Tool 6.2 and
higher on Pro Tools|HD systems and DV Toolkit
for Pro Tools LE only). See “Custom Shuttle Lock
Speed” on page 244.
• Recall Memory Locations by typing the Memory Location, followed by a period.
Chapter 5: Keyboard Shortcuts
31
Transport Mode
This mode allows you to set a number of record
and play functions, and also operate the Transport from the numeric keypad.
:
Function
Key
Click on/off
7
Countoff on/off
8
MIDI Merge/Replace mode
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Transport, you can also:
• Play up to two tracks of audio in Shuttle Lock
mode. Press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), followed by 0–9 for different
play speeds. Press Plus or Minus to reverse direction.
:
Playback Speeds
Key
9
1x Forward
6
Loop Playback mode on/off
4
1x Rewind
4
Loop Record mode on/off
5
4x Forward
9
QuickPunch mode on/off
6
4x Rewind
7
Rewind
1
1/4x Forward
3
Fast Forward
2
1/4x Rewind
1
Record
3
1/2x Forward
5+6
Play/Stop
0
1/2x Rewind
5+4
2x Forward
8+9
2x Rewind
8+7
1/16x Forward
2+3
1/16x Rewind
2+1
Loop Selection (1x)
0
• Recall Memory Locations by typing period,
the Memory Location number, and period
again.
32
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Shuttle Mode
(TDM Systems Only)
Pro Tools offers another form of shuttling, different from that of the two Shuttle Lock modes.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Shuttle,
playback of the current Edit selection is triggered by pressing and holding the keys on the
numeric keypad—playback stops once the keys
are released. Various playback speeds are available in both forward and reverse. In this mode,
pre- and post-roll are ignored.
:
Playback Speeds
Key
1x Forward
6
1x Rewind
4
4x Forward
9
4x Rewind
7
1/4x Forward
3
1/4x Rewind
1
1/2x Forward
5+6
1/2x Rewind
5+4
2x Forward
8+9
2x Rewind
8+7
1/16x Forward
2+3
1/16x Rewind
2+1
Loop Selection (1x)
0
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Shuttle,
you can also:
• Recall Memory Locations by typing period,
the Memory Location number, and period
again.
Shuttle Lock modes are not available when
the Numeric Keypad Mode is set to Shuttle.
Chapter 5: Keyboard Shortcuts
33
34
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Part II: Sessions & Tracks
35
36
Chapter 6: Sessions
This chapter covers the basics of starting a
project in Pro Tools, including how to set up
and save a Pro Tools session.
Shut down your Pro Tools system in this order:
1 Quit Pro Tools and any other running applications.
2 Turn off or lower the volume of all output de-
Starting Up or Shutting Down
Your System
To ensure that the components of your
Pro Tools system communicate properly with
each other, you need to start them in a particular order.
Start up your Pro Tools system in this order:
1 For TDM systems with an expansion chassis,
vices in your system.
3 Turn off your computer.
4 For TDM systems, turn off audio interfaces.
5 For TDM systems with an expansion chassis,
turn off the chassis.
6 Turn off any MIDI interfaces, MIDI devices, or
synchronization peripherals.
7 Turn off any external hard drives.
turn on the chassis.
2 Turn on any external hard drives. Wait ap-
proximately ten seconds for them to spin up to
speed.
3 Turn on any MIDI interfaces, MIDI devices, or
synchronization peripherals.
4 Lower the volume of all output devices in
your system.
Configuring Pro Tools System
Settings (in the Playback
System Engine)
Pro Tools allows you to adjust the performance
of your system by changing system settings that
affect its capacity for processing, playback, and
recording.
5 For TDM systems, turn on your Pro Tools au-
dio interfaces. Wait at least fifteen seconds for
your system hardware to initialize.
These system settings are changed in the Playback Engine Dialog (Setups > Playback Engine).
6 Turn on your computer.
In most cases, the default settings for your system provide optimum performance, but you
may want to adjust them to accommodate large
or processing-intensive Pro Tools sessions.
7 Launch Pro Tools or any third-party audio or
MIDI applications.
Chapter 6: Sessions
37
Hardware Buffer Size
The Hardware Buffer Size (H/W Buffer Size) controls the size of the hardware cache used to handle host-based tasks such as Real-Time AudioSuite (RTAS) plug-in processing.
◆ Lower Hardware Buffer Size settings reduce
monitoring latency, and are useful when you are
recording live input.
◆ Higher Hardware Buffer Size settings allow for
more audio processing and effects, and are useful when you are mixing and using more RTAS
plug-ins.
In addition to causing slower screen response and monitoring latency, higher
Hardware Buffer Size settings can affect the
accuracy of plug-in automation, mute data,
and timing for MIDI tracks.
Increasing the CPU Usage Limit may slow
down screen responses on slower computers.
To change the CPU Usage Limit:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
2 From the CPU Usage Limit pop-up menu, se-
lect the percentage of CPU processing you want
to allocate to Pro Tools.
3 Click OK.
Number of Voices
To change the Hardware Buffer Size:
(TDM Systems Only)
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
On TDM systems, the Number of Voices setting
lets you control the number of available voices
and how those voices are allocated to DSPs in
your system. For example, the default number
of voices on a Pro Tools|HD 1 system is 48
voices, using one DSP (at sample rates of
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz).
2 From the H/W Buffer Size pop-up menu, select
the audio buffer size, in samples.
3 Click OK.
CPU Usage Limit
The CPU Usage Limit controls the percentage of
CPU resources allocated to Pro Tools host processing tasks.
◆ Lower CPU Usage Limit settings limit the effect of Pro Tools processing on other CPU-intensive tasks, such as screen redraws, and are useful
when you are experiencing slow system response, or when running other applications at
the same time as Pro Tools.
◆ Higher CPU Usage Limit settings allocate
more processing power to Pro Tools, and are
useful for playing back large sessions or using
more real-time plug-ins.
38
With Pro Tools 6.x, the maximum CPU Usage
Limit is 85 percent for single-processor computers (except for Digi 002, which has a limit of 99
percent), and 99 percent for multi-processor
computers. (The 99 percent setting dedicates
one entire processor to Pro Tools.)
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Changing the number of voices affects
DSP usage, the total number of voiceable
tracks, and overall system performance.
Depending on the current sample rate and the
number of TDM cards in your system, you will
have different choices for voice count. For voice
limits on different Pro Tools|HD systems, see
“TDM System Playback, Recording and Voice
Limits” on page 7.
To change the number of voices and DSP to
allocate for voicing:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
Default Sample Rate
The Sample Rate setting appears as the default
sample rate when you create a new session.
(This setting is available only when there is no
session open.)
The Sample Rate setting can affect the
number of available voices on TDM systems.
To change the default Sample Rate:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
2 Select the sample rate from the Sample Rate
pop-up menu.
Playback Engine dialog (Pro Tools 6.4)
3 Click OK.
2 Select the number of voices and DSPs to allo-
cate for voicing by selecting a value from the
Number of Voices pop-up menu.
• Select higher voice numbers when your
Digidesign cards are the only PCI cards in
your computer, or when you are using an
expansion chassis to run higher track
counts.
You can change the sample rate when creating a new Pro Tools session by selecting a
different sample rate in the New Session dialog. (See “Creating a New Session” on
page 45.)
• Select medium voice numbers when your
Digidesign cards are in an expansion chassis, or when you are using other PCI cards
along with Digidesign cards.
• Select minimum voice numbers if you are
using high-bandwidth PCI cards (such as
video capture cards) along with your
Digidesign cards. In addition, to free up
DSP for plug-ins and processing, select the
minimum number of voices and DSPs
needed to play back the current session.
3 Click OK.
Chapter 6: Sessions
39
Delay Compensation Engine
DAE Playback Buffer Size
(Pro Tools 6.4 for Pro Tools|HD Systems Only)
The DAE Playback Buffer Size determines the
amount of memory DAE uses to manage disk
buffers, which affects system performance.
The Delay Compensation Engine lets you enable Delay Compensation for managing DSP delays in the Pro Tools mixer. For more information, see “Delay Compensation” on page 428.
There are three settings in the Playback Engine
dialog for dedicating DSP resources for Delay
Compensation:
None Allocates no DSP resources for automatic
delay compensation.
Short Allocates minimal DSP resources for delay
compensation for each channel. This is the
most efficient setting for Pro Tools|HD Accel
systems.
Long Allocates maximum DSP resources for delay compensation for each mixer channel. Long
delay compensation uses the same DSP resources used by high DSP overhead plug-ins.
◆ Lower DAE Playback Buffer Size settings can
improve playback and recording initiation
speed. However, a lower setting can make it difficult for slower hard drives to play or record
tracks reliably.
◆ Higher DAE Playback Buffer Size settings can
allow for a higher density of edits in a session.
However, a higher setting can cause a time lag to
occur before playback or recording begins. It can
also cause a time lag to occur when you are editing during playback.
To change the DAE Playback Buffer Size:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
To configure the Delay Compensation Engine:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
2 From the Delay Compensation Engine pop-up
menu, select a Delay compensation setting.
3 Click OK.
The delay compensation setting is saved as a session and system preference.
Playback Engine dialog (Pro Tools 6.x)
2 From the DAE Playback Buffer pop-up menu,
select a buffer size. Memory requirements for
each setting are shown at the bottom of the
Playback Engine dialog.
3 Click OK.
4 If Pro Tools needs more system memory for
the DAE Playback Buffer, it will prompt you to
restart your computer.
40
Pro Tools Reference Guide
System Memory Allocation
(Pro Tools 6.x for TDM Systems Only)
When you start your computer, Pro Tools automatically reserves a portion of system memory
for the DAE Playback Buffer. This reserved memory is unavailable to other applications, even if
Pro Tools is not running.
You can set Pro Tools to reserve only the minimum amount of required memory, so that system memory is available to other applications.
To minimize system memory allocation:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
2 Select the “Minimize System Memory Alloca-
Configuring Pro Tools|HD
Hardware
On TDM systems, you configure Hardware settings for each audio interface connected to your
system. For example, Pro Tools|HD-series systems can have 192 I/O, 192 Digital I/O, 96 I/O,
or 96i I/O audio interfaces connected to HD
Core and HD Accel or HD Process cards in the
system. The 192 I/O, 192 Digital I/O, and 96 I/O
can have additional interfaces attached (including older Digidesign audio interfaces, or Legacy
I/Os, such as the 888|24 I/O, 882|20 I/O or
1622 I/O). For more information, see Chapter 2,
“Pro Tools System Configurations.”
Configuring Hardware Setup
tion” option.
3 Click OK.
4 On Windows systems, restart your computer.
– or –
The Main page of the Hardware Setup dialog is
where you define which physical inputs and
outputs on your audio interface are routed to
available inputs and outputs in Pro Tools.
On Mac OS X systems, enter your password
when prompted, then restart your computer.
Configuring Pro Tools
Hardware Settings
Pro Tools allows you to configure the signal
routing, digital I/O format, default sample rate,
clock source, and other hardware-based settings
depending on your system configuration.
Hardware Setup dialog for 192 I/O (Main page)
The following section outlines the configuration of a Pro Tools|HD system with one or more
HD interfaces (with one or more MIX-series interfaces attached).
To configure a Pro Tools MIX-series,
Pro Tools|24, or Pro Tools LE system, refer
to the Getting Started Guide that came with
that system.
Chapter 6: Sessions
41
Additional pages are available to configure other
controls for each audio interface (such as setting
operating levels). For details, refer to the Getting
Started Guide for your system, or to the guide for
your audio interface.
5 From the Ext. Clock Output pop-up menu, se-
lect the appropriate clock output to send to devices attached to your audio interface.
6 Select which digital I/O port on your audio in-
terface enclosure is active under Digital Format.
Choices include: AES/EBU, S/PDIF, and Optical
(S/PDIF). Selecting Optical (S/PDIF) resets the
Optical I/O port (which is, by default, eight
channels of ADAT I/O) to two channels of
S/PDIF Optical I/O.
7 For S/PDIF compatibility with Tascam DA-30
Hardware Setup dialog for 192 I/O (Analog In page)
You can identify audio interface connections at any time by selecting the interface
name in the Peripherals list, then clicking
Identify. All the LEDs on the interface front
panel will illuminate.
To configure audio interfaces on a Pro Tools|HD
system:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware Setup.
2 From the Peripherals list, select the Digidesign
audio interface connected to the first card in
your system. This will be the interface at the top
of the list.
3 Click the Main tab.
4 From the Clock Source pop-up menu, select
the appropriate clock source for the system. In
most cases, you will use Internal. The other
choices are for resolving Pro Tools to external
clock sources. Depending on your audio interface, Clock Source options can include:
AES/EBU [Encl], S/PDIF, Optical [Encl], AES/EBU
1–8, TDIF, ADAT, and Word Clock (optional
Word Clock rates are available when operating
at higher sample rates).
42
Pro Tools Reference Guide
DAT recorders select the Tascam option under
S/PDIF Format.
8 For the 96 I/O, click the Meters pop-up menu
and select whether to meter the input or output
signal.
9 From the Input and Output pop-up menus, se-
lect the physical ports (such as Analog 1–2 or
Optical 1–2), that will be routed to the corresponding Pro Tools input and output channels
(such as Ch 1–2 or Ch 3–4), listed on the left side
of the Main page.
Inputs and outputs of similar format are differentiated in the input and output channel popup menus. For example, the AES/EBU inputs
and outputs in the 192 I/O enclosure are listed
as AES/EBU [Encl], while the AES/EBU inputs
and outputs on the factory-installed Digital I/O
card are listed (in pairs) as AES/EBU 1–2,
AES/EBU 3–4, AES/EBU 5–6, and AES/EBU 7–8.
For 192 I/Os equipped with the optional
Digital I/O Card, the additional AES/EBU I/O
ports on the optional card are listed as AES/EBU
9–10, AES/EBU 11–12, AES/EBU 13–14, and
AES/EBU 15–16.
10 Click other tabs (such as Analog In and Analog Out) for additional configuration options
specific to the audio interface. These include:
• On the 96 I/O, configuring the operating
levels of analog inputs and outputs (+4 dBu
or –10 dBV).
• On the 96i I/O, configuring the operating
levels of analog inputs and outputs (+4 dBu
or –10 dBV).
• On the 192 I/O analog input, setting the
input connector and Soft Limit
• On the 192 I/O, configuring the two sets of
trims for analog inputs and outputs.
Initializing MIX-Series Peripherals (on a
Pro Tools|HD System)
Before you can configure a Legacy I/O, it must
first be initialized in Hardware Setup.
To initialize a Legacy I/O on a Pro Tools|HD
system:
1 Start up your Pro Tools system. See “Starting
Up or Shutting Down Your System” on page 37.
• On the 192 I/O and 192 Digital I/O, configuring real-time Sample Rate Conversion for
digital inputs.
2 Make sure to lower the volume of your output
devices. Very loud digital noise may be emitted
before the Legacy I/O is initialized.
• On the 192 I/O and 192 I/O Digital, configuring inputs and outputs on any optional
A/D card, D/A card, or Digital I/O cards installed in the unit.
3 Turn on your Legacy I/O.
For more information on Hardware Setup
controls for each HD audio interface, refer
to the Getting Started with HD Guide or the
guide for that audio interface.
4 From the Peripherals list, choose the primary
audio interface (the interface to which your Legacy I/O is connected).
5 In the Main page of the Hardware Setup dia-
log, select the Legacy I/O option under Port Settings.
6 In the Peripherals list, “No Interface” is listed
11 Repeat the above steps for each additional
HD-series audio interface.
Use the Up and Down Arrow keys to scroll
though peripherals in the Peripherals list.
twice, directly below the primary audio interface. Click the first “No Interface.” An Interface
pop-up menu appears in the Hardware Setup dialog, listing supported I/O choices.
7 From the Interface pop-up menu, select the
12 Repeat the above steps for any Legacy I/Os
connected to the HD-series audio interfaces in
your system. Before you can configure a Legacy
I/O, it must first be initialized in Hardware Setup
(See “Initializing MIX-Series Peripherals (on a
Pro Tools|HD System)” on page 43.)
13 Click OK.
type of Legacy I/O you connected.
8 Set the External Clock Output on the HD in-
terface to 256x, which is the required clock
speed for Legacy I/Os.
After you select an audio interface, the Main
page updates with controls that can be configured. Refer to the guide for your audio interface
for details on each control.
Chapter 6: Sessions
43
9 Repeat the above steps for each additional
Legacy I/O.
For more information on Hardware Setup
controls for each Legacy audio interface, refer to the guide that came with the interface.
To select multiple output ports for a Pro Tools
output channel pair:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware Setup.
2 From the Peripherals list, select an interface.
3 Click the Main tab.
4 Select an output port pair from an Output
Configuring I/O Setup
pop-up menu.
The I/O Setup dialog provides a graphical representation of the signal routing for each connected audio interface, with controls to route
physical ports on the audio interface to
Pro Tools inputs and outputs. These controls
mirror the routing controls found in the Hardware Setup dialog—changes made to physical
routing in one dialog are always reflected in the
other. The I/O Setup dialog lets you label and
map Pro Tools input, output, insert, and bus signal paths. For more information on paths, path
labeling, and path mapping, see Chapter 7, “I/O
Setup.”
5 Start-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the same pop-up menu a second time to
choose an additional output port pair.
The output name updates with a plus sign (“+”)
before it to indicate that multiple output ports
are selected. In the pop-up menu, each physical
port pair assigned to that Pro Tools output pair
is indicated by a check mark.
The I/O Setup dialog also provides important
audition, meter, and surround settings. For
more information, see Chapter 7, “I/O Setup.”
Hardware Setup dialog for 192 I/O (Main page)
Routing a Pro Tools Output Pair to
Multiple Destinations
Pro Tools channel pairs can be routed to multiple outputs on an audio interface through the
Hardware Setup dialog. For example, if you assign both Analog 1–2 and Analog 3–4 interface
outputs to Pro Tools Output pair 1–2, when you
send a signal to Pro Tools Outputs 1–2, that signal will be routed simultaneously to both pairs
of output ports on your audio interface.
This lets you send the same signal (such as a stereo pair, a stem mix, or a multichannel mix) to
multiple destinations (such as multiple mastering devices).
44
Pro Tools Reference Guide
6 Repeat the above steps to select additional
output destinations. The only limit to output
choices is the number of outputs available in
your system.
Pro Tools output pairs can also be routed to
multiple audio interface outputs in the
I/O Setup dialog. For more information, see
“Routing Hardware I/O to Pro Tools I/O” on
page 71.
Creating a New Session
To create a new session:
1 Choose File > New Session.
The first step in beginning a Pro Tools project is
creating a new session. When you do this,
Pro Tools automatically creates a new folder
named for your session. Within this folder is the
session file and two subfolders (an Audio Files
folder, and a Fade Files folder).
The Audio Files folder contains all audio recorded or converted during the session. The
Fade Files folder contains any crossfaded audio
data generated by the session.
When you record a new audio track, the track is
saved as a new audio file to the Audio Files
folder. You can also import other audio files into
the session, and work with them as well.
New Session dialog
2 Choose the drive where you want to save the
session. The session should be saved on a dedicated audio drive.
3 Select “Enforce Mac/PC Compatibility” if you
Typical session folder
For details on allocating audio tracks to different
hard drive locations, including shared media
volumes, see “Disk Allocation” on page 145.
want to create session and audio files that can be
used in either Windows or Macintosh versions
of Pro Tools. See “Creating Macintosh and PC
Compatible Sessions” on page 131 for more information.
To use Japanese or non-ASCII characters in
track and region names, or track comments,
deselect the option for “Enforce Mac/PC
Compatibility” when creating a new session.
If you save a session copy with the “Enforce
Mac/PC Compatibility” option selected, all
Japanese and non-ASCII characters will be
lost.
Chapter 6: Sessions
45
4 Select the audio file format for the session.
For optimum compatibility between Windows
and Macintosh sessions, set the file type to BWF
(.WAV).
Sound Designer II (SD II) files are not supported
on Windows systems (or at sample rates above
48 kHz), and Pro Tools prevents you from
choosing SD II as the file type if Enforce Mac/PC
Compatibility is selected (or the session is on a
PC).
5 Select the bit depth (16 bit or 24 bit) and the
sample rate.
6 Select the Fader Gain (+12 dB or +6 dB).
7 Select the I/O Settings to use for the session.
Several pre-configured I/O Settings are included
with your system, or you can select a custom I/O
Setting that you have created. See Chapter 7,
“I/O Setup” for more information.
8 Name the Session.
9 Click Save.
Selecting Bit Depth and Sample Rate
When selecting a bit depth or sample rate for
your session, consider the disk space your selection will require. 24-bit audio files occupy about
50 percent more disk space than 16-bit audio
files. 192 kHz audio files occupy about four
times the space as 44.1 kHz audio files.
Bit depth and sample rate also have an effect on
the amount of mixing power available in a session. Fewer mixer channels are available with
24-bit sessions and with sessions at higher sample rates. (For more information with TDM systems, see Appendix B, “TDM Mixing and
DSP Usage.”)
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It is not possible to combine different bit depths
within a single Pro Tools session; files of different bit depths must be converted and imported
into the session.
Selecting a Fader Gain
(Pro Tools 6.4)
Sessions in Pro Tools 6.4 can be created with a
maximum fader gain of either +6 dB or +12 dB.
The fader gain setting is saved with the session,
and is set as the default.
Sessions created and saved with a +12 dB fader
gain level can be opened in previous versions of
Pro Tools, but breakpoints for volume automation above +6 dB will be lowered to +6 dB.
The +12 dB Fader Gain setting only affects
the position of the fader (both in Pro Tools
and on control surfaces) above the 0 dB
mark. Fader positions below 0 dB are unaffected.
Opening a Session
When you open a session, Pro Tools looks in the
session folder for audio and fade files linked to
the session.
To open an existing session:
Opening a Session that Contains
Unavailable Resources
Pro Tools prompts you when opening a session
that contains unavailable voices, I/O paths, DSP
resources, or plug-ins. This is common when
transferring sessions to systems with different
Digidesign hardware.
1 Choose File > Open Session.
2 Locate the session you want to open and click
Open.
Opening a session with unavailable resources
Open Session dialog
Opening a Session that Contains
Unavailable Files
(Pro Tools 6.x Only)
With Pro Tools 6.x, the DigiBase feature will
prompt you if files are located but reside on
Transfer volumes (such as CD-ROMs), or if any
required files cannot be found. See “Locating
Audio Files” on page 129 for more details.
The dialog contains a summary of the missing
session components. To save a text file containing a more detailed report, along with the resulting action, click Yes.
The following will occur when opening a session with unavailable items:
With all Pro Tools Systems:
◆ Inserts assigned to unavailable plug-ins are
made inactive.
◆ Inputs, outputs, and sends that are assigned to
unavailable paths are made inactive.
With Pro Tools TDM systems only:
◆ Any tracks beyond the maximum number of
available voices on the current system are made
inactive.
Chapter 6: Sessions
47
With Pro Tools LE 6.x only:
◆ Any tracks beyond the maximum number of
available voices on the current system are set to
voice off.
If you have made changes to a session since you
last saved it, you can discard the changes and revert to its previously saved state.
Selecting Fader Gain when
Opening a Previously Recorded
Session
To revert to the last saved version of a session:
When opening a session created in a previous
version of Pro Tools, you are given the choice of
staying at +6 dB or updating to +12 dB.
Saving the Session File with a
New Name
When opening a session created in the current
version of Pro Tools, the session is opened with
your previously saved fader gain settings.
Opening a +12 dB session in a previous version of
Pro Tools Sessions created and saved with a
+12 dB fader gain level can be opened in previous versions of Pro Tools. Breakpoints for volume automation above +6 dB will be lowered to
+6 dB.
Saving a Session
You should save regularly while working on
your session to ensure that your work is preserved on your hard drive.
Saving the Session File
The Save Session command saves the changes
you have made to your session and writes them
over the previously saved version of the session
file. The Save Session command cannot be undone.
To save a session:
■
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Revert to Saved Command
Choose File > Save Session.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
■
Choose File > Revert to Saved.
To save a copy of the current session with a new
name or to a different hard drive location, you
can use the Save Session As command. Because
the Save Session As command closes the current
session and lets you keep working on the renamed copy, it is useful if you are experimenting and want to save successive versions of the
session.
By working this way, you can quickly retrace
your steps if you want to go back to an earlier
version of your session. The Save Session As
command saves a new version of the session file
only—not duplicate versions of the audio or
fade files.
To save a session with a new name:
1 Choose File > Save Session As.
2 Enter a new name for your session.
3 Click Save.
The renamed session file is saved in the session
folder along with the original session. Any new
audio files that you record in your renamed session will be placed into the same Audio Files
folder that was created for your original session.
Saving a Copy of the Session
To save a copy of the current session along with
its audio files and fade files, you can use the Save
Session Copy In command. In addition, you can
specify a session file format, audio file format,
bit depth, and sample rate for the session copy.
Using the Save Session Copy In command is the
only way to change the sample rate of a session.
When you Save Session Copy In with a
lower bit rate, Dither (and Noise Shaping)
may be applied. See the following table:
Dither and Noise Shaping with Save Session Copy In
Dither
Noise
Shaping
24-bit to 24-bit
No
No
16-bit to 24-bit
No
No
24-bit to 16-bit
Yes
Yes
16-bit to 16-bit
No
No
Bit Rate
Session Format
You can save the session copy in the following
formats, depending on your platform:
Windows:
• Pro Tools Session (*.pts); supports Pro Tools
5.1 and higher
Save Session Copy In dialog
• Pro Tools 5.0 Session (*.pt5)
Unlike the Save Session As command, Save Session Copy In does not close the original session,
so subsequent edits are made to the original session. Session copies can be used to archive important sessions, or as a means to prepare sessions for transfer to another Pro Tools system.
• Pro Tools 4 24-Bit Session (*.p24)
Save Session Copy In saves only the audio being
used in the session. Any audio that was recorded
or imported and then later removed from the
session will not be included in the new session
copy.
• Pro Tools 4 24-Bit Session
• Pro Tools 4 16-Bit Session (*.pt4)
Macintosh:
• Latest; supports Pro Tools 5.1 and higher
• Pro Tools 5.0 Session
• Pro Tools 4 16-Bit Session
• Pro Tools 3.2 Session
When saving sessions to versions lower than
5.1, multichannel tracks (including stereo) and
multi-mono plug-ins are lost. In this case, make
sure to first separate the tracks and plug-ins to
individual mono tracks.
Chapter 6: Sessions
49
Session Parameters
Audio File Type
You can save the session to reference BWF
(.WAV) or AIFF audio files. On the Macintosh,
you can also save the session to reference SD II
audio files (at sample rates up to 48 kHz).
SD II sessions are not supported with
Pro Tools for Windows, or with sample
rates higher than 48 kHz. You cannot set
the session audio file type to SD II on the
Macintosh if Enforce Mac/PC Compatibility is selected, or if the sample rate of the
destination session is greater than 48 kHz.
Using Mixed File Types
A session can use mixed audio file types. If your
original session has mixed file types, they are
not converted to a different file type unless you
specify that they be converted. However, when
using mixed file types, audio performance will
be reduced (due to additional file handling required for some file formats).
Bit Depth
You can save the new session at 16-bit or 24-bit
depth. If your session is in a different bit depth,
audio files are converted to the new session bit
depth, and copied to the location you specify.
Sample Rate
You can save the new session at sample rates of
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz (on Mbox, Digi 001 and
MIX-series systems) and at sample rates up to
96 kHz (on Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack and HD-series systems with a 96 I/O or 96i I/O) or up to
192 kHz (on HD-series systems with a 192 I/O or
192 Digital I/O). If your session is at a different
sample rate, audio files are converted to the new
session sample rate, and copied to the location
you specify.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
The higher the quality of sample rate conversion you choose, the longer Pro Tools will take
to process the audio file.
Fader Gain
You can save the new session with a +6 dB or a
+12 dB maximum fader gain. When saving a
+12 dB session as a +6 dB session, Pro Tools
alerts you that any automation breakpoints over
+6 dB will be lowered to +6 dB.
Enforce Mac/PC Compatibility
This setting forces Windows or Macintosh versions of Pro Tools to create sessions and audio
files that are usable on both platforms. For more
information, see “Creating Macintosh and PC
Compatible Sessions” on page 131.
Items to Copy
All Audio Files
When this option is selected, all audio files are
copied to the new location.
This setting is automatically selected if you are
changing the bit depth or sample rate of the session.
All (Non-Native) Audio Files
The name of this option varies depending on
the audio file type you select. If you are changing the audio file type of the session, this option
ensures that all files in the copied session are
converted to the selected file type. Use this option to avoid the reduced performance of a session with mixed file types.
This option is automatically selected if you are
changing bit depth or sample rate, or copying a
session on the Macintosh from SD II format to
AIFF or BWF (.WAV) format with Enforce
Mac/PC Compatibility selected.
Don’t Copy Fade Files
When this option is selected, Fade Files are not
copied to the new session Fade Files folder.
When the session is launched, the Find Files dialog will prompt you to locate Fade Files. You
can either locate the existing fades using the
find file dialog, or Skip All to let Pro Tools recreate the fades from the session document.
Session Plug-In Settings Folder
When this option is selected, the session’s PlugIn Settings folder is copied to the new location.
The references to these plug-in settings in the
session are redirected to point to the copied settings files.
3 Set the Audio File Type to BWF (.WAV) or AIFF,
or SD II. If the audio files need to be compatible
with either Windows or Macintosh, select or
BWF (.WAV) or AIFF.
4 Set the Sample Rate and Bit Depth for the ses-
sion.
5 Select “Enforce Mac/PC Compatibility” if you
want to create session and audio files that can be
used in either Windows or Macintosh versions
of Pro Tools. See “Creating Macintosh and PC
Compatible Sessions” on page 131 for more information.
6 Select the Items to Copy to the new session.
7 Click Save.
Root Plug-In Settings Folder
When this option is selected, the contents of the
root-level Plug-In Settings Folder are copied into
a folder named Place in Root Settings Folder, indicating that these files will need to be moved to
the root level plug-in settings folder on the destination system before you can use them. The
references to these settings files in the session
are not redirected to point to the copied files.
Movie/Video Files
When this option is selected, session movie files
(such as Avid or QuickTime video files) are copied to the new location, and session references
are updated to point to the copied movie files.
Creating Custom Session
Templates
You can create custom session documents that
are pre-configured to the track setups, mixer setups, window arrangements, and zoom level
memory locations that you use most frequently.
Doing this will save you the trouble of having to
create your studio setup from scratch every time
you start a new session.
Creating Windows Templates
In Windows, you can create a session template
by making a session file a Read Only document.
To save a session copy in a new location:
To create a custom session template in Windows:
1 Choose File > Save Session Copy In.
1 Create a session and arrange its elements as
2 In the Save Session Copy dialog, choose a des-
you want them to appear in the template. You
can also define elements such as signal routings,
insert and send configurations, track views,
Ruler settings, and Preference settings.
tination and enter a name for the new session
file.
2 Choose File > Save Session As.
3 Name the session and click Save.
Chapter 6: Sessions
51
4 Close the session.
Creating Macintosh Templates
5 Locate the session file that you just saved.
On the Macintosh, you can create a session template by saving a session file as a Stationery Pad
document. Once a session is saved as a Stationery Pad, it acts as a template that you can open
and then resave as a normal session.
6 Right-click the file and choose Properties.
7 Under Attributes, deselect Archive and select
Read Only.
To create a custom session template on the
Macintosh:
1 Create a session and arrange its elements as
you want them to appear in the template. In addition to track setup, you can also define elements such as signal routings, insert and send
configurations, Mix and Edit window views,
Ruler settings, and Preference settings.
2 Choose File > Save Session As.
3 Name the session and click Save.
4 Close the session.
5 Locate the session file that you just saved.
6 Click once on the file to select it.
7 Choose File > Get Info > General Information.
Making a session a Read Only file (Windows)
8 Click OK.
To use this template, double-click it or open it
with the Open Session command. When you
first save the session, Pro Tools will ask you to
give the session a new name. Your original session template will remain unchanged.
To modify the session template, you will need to
reopen its Properties, deselect the Read Only option and select the Archive option, make your
modifications, then change it back to a Read
Only file.
Saving a session as a Stationery Pad (Macintosh)
8 Select the Stationery Pad option to save the
file as a template, then close the information
window.
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To use this template, double-click it or open it
with the Open Session command if you are already running Pro Tools. You can create several
custom templates for studio setups that you frequently use.
When you open a session saved as a Stationery
Pad, Pro Tools gives you the option of editing
the template or starting a new session using the
template settings. If you choose New Session,
Pro Tools will create a new folder containing a
copy of your session template and Audio and
Fades folders.
Closing a Session
Because Pro Tools allows you to work on just
one session at a time, you must close the current
session if you want to work on another. The
Close Session command closes your current
Pro Tools session but leaves the Pro Tools application open. You can save your work using the
Save Session or Save Session As command before
closing the current session.
To close a session:
■
Choose File > Close Session.
Quitting Pro Tools
Although Pro Tools will warn you before allowing you to quit without saving changes, you
should generally save your work before quitting.
To exit Pro Tools in Windows:
■
To quit Pro Tools on the Macintosh:
■ Choose Pro Tools > Quit Pro Tools
(Pro Tools 6.x) or File > Quit (Pro Tools 5.3.x
and lower).
Sharing Sessions Between
Pro Tools TDM Systems and
Pro Tools LE Systems
Pro Tools makes it easy to share sessions between Pro Tools LE and TDM-equipped systems.
There are some important differences between
the two types of systems that can affect how session material is transferred.
Differences between TDM and LE systems
Feature
TDM Systems
LE Systems
Number of
Audio Tracks
up to 256
(HD-series)
up to 32
(Pro Tools 6.x
on all systems)
up to 128
(MIX-series)
Number of
Mix Busses
64 busses
16 busses
Inserts per
Track
up to 5 inserts
up to 5 inserts
Sends per
Track
up to 5 sends
up to 5 sends
For details on transferring sessions between
Windows and Macintosh systems, see
“Moving Sessions Between Platforms with
MacOpener (Using HFS/HFS+ Drives)” on
page 133.
Choose File > Exit.
Chapter 6: Sessions
53
Opening a TDM Session in
Pro Tools LE
When opening a TDM session in Pro Tools LE,
the following rules apply:
• With Pro Tools LE 6.x (all systems) or
Pro Tools 5.3.1 and higher (Windows):
• Any tracks beyond the first 32, as well any
inactive tracks, are set to voice off.
Preferences
The Preferences dialog has several tabbed pages
in which you can specify your preferred settings
for various session parameters. Each new session
will use these preferences.
Display Preferences
• Multichannel surround tracks are removed
from the session.
• Any assignments to busses beyond 16 are
made inactive.
• Unavailable input and output paths are
made inactive.
• TDM plug-ins with RTAS equivalents are retained; those without equivalents are made
inactive.
• With Pro Tools LE 5.3.x and lower (Macintosh) or Pro Tools LE 5.1.x and lower (Windows):
• Any tracks beyond the first 24, as well any
inactive tracks, are removed from the session.
• Multichannel surround tracks are removed
from the session.
• Any assignments to busses beyond 16 are
made inactive.
• Unavailable input and output paths are
made inactive.
• TDM plug-ins with RTAS equivalents are retained; those without equivalents are made
inactive.
Edit Window Follows Bank Selection If you are
using a supported control surface with
Pro Tools, this option scrolls the Edit window to
display the selected bank of tracks when you
switch banks on the control surface, ensuring
that the current bank is viewable on-screen.
Mix Window Follows Bank Selection If you are
using a supported control surface with
Pro Tools, this option scrolls the Mix window to
display the selected bank of tracks when you
switch banks on the control surface, ensuring
that the current bank is viewable on-screen.
“Scroll to Tracks” Banks Controllers (Pro Tools
6.4) When using a control surface (such as
D-Control or Pro Control) you can select this
option to bank control surface faders to a numbered track when invoking the “Scroll to Track
Number” command.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Organize Plug-Ins Menus by Category (Pro Tools
6.4) When enabled, plug-ins are automatically
organized by category (effect type). Plug-ins that
do not fit into a standard category (such as the
DigiRack Signal Generator), or third-party plugins that have not been defined by their developers, appear in the Other category. Plug-ins can
appear in more than one category.
Track Numbers Stay With Hidden Tracks
(Pro Tools 6.4) When enabled, tracks keep their
track numbers even when hidden. By default,
numbers are only assigned to tracks that are
shown. Active tracks are then numbered sequentially, and hidden tracks are un-numbered.
Show Meters in Sends View When the Sends
View is displaying individual send controls, you
can select this option to show send level meters.
Deselecting this option can help speed up
screen redraws and processing.
Draw Grids in Edit Window Adds grid lines to the
Edit window. Grid line resolution is based on
the zoom level of the Edit window.
Draw Waveforms Rectified Displays audio waveform data in rectified view. In this view, audio
waveforms are displayed so that their positive
and negative waveform excursions (the portions
that fall above and below the center line) are
summed together and viewed as a single positive-value signal. This view allows more waveform detail to be seen in either normal or reduced track height views. It can be particularly
useful when editing volume automation data,
since it depicts waveform levels as starting at the
bottom of the track.
Recompute Invalid Overviews Prompts Pro Tools
to look for missing or corrupted overview data
(the data used to create waveform displays)
when it opens sessions. If Pro Tools finds that
overview data is missing or corrupted, it will recreate one or more overviews for the session. This
may take some time if there are many tracks in
the session. If you suspect that overview data for
a session has become corrupted, or if you import
audio files which have no overview data into a
session, make sure this preference is enabled for
the session, save and close the session, then reopen it. Pro Tools will recreate any overviews for
the session when it opens.
Edit Window Default Length This option allows
you to set a default length for the Edit window
in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. This is
useful if you want to assemble a session of a particular length or leave extra room to expand the
Edit window’s work area in your session. There
is a 13 hour maximum limit for the length of a
Pro Tools session.
Zoom Toggle Track Height Sets the default track
height when the Zoom Toggle function is used
to zoom in on a selection.
Delay Compensation Mode (Pro Tools 6.4) This
option lets you choose whether information in
the Delay Manager is displayed in milliseconds
or samples.
Chapter 6: Sessions
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Edit Window Color Coding
Edit Window Color Coding determines how colors are assigned to the waveform display in the
Edit window.
None Turns off color assignment to the waveform display of tracks in the Edit window.
Tracks and MIDI Channels Assigns a color to the
waveform display of each track in the Edit window according to its voice number and MIDI
channel assignment.
Tracks and MIDI Devices Assigns a color to the
waveform display of each track in the Edit window according to its voice number and MIDI device type.
Groups Assigns a color to the waveform display
of each track in the Edit window according to its
group ID. If groups are suspended using the Suspend Groups command, all waveforms will be
displayed in black.
3 Second Peak Hold When this option is selected, meters display the last clip indication for
three seconds.
Infinite Peak Hold When this option is selected,
meters display the last clip indications until you
click them to clear them.
No Peak Hold When this option is selected,
meters do not hold the clip indication.
Operation Preferences
In Pro Tools 6.3 and lower, the Operation Preferences page included Machine Control and Remote Control options. With Pro Tools 6.4, these
are located in the Machine Control Preferences
page. For information on these controls, see
“Machine Control Preferences” on page 65.
Peak Hold Options
These options determine how long the peak indicators on track meters stay lit after a peak is
detected.
3 Second Peak Hold When this option is selected, track meters display the last peak level
for three seconds.
Infinite Peak Hold When this option is selected,
track meters display the last peak level until you
click them to clear them.
No Peak Hold When this option is selected, track
meters do not hold the peak level.
Clip Indication Options (Pro Tools 6.4)
These options determine how long the clip indicators on plug-in, send, and track meters stay lit
after a clip is detected.
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Timeline Insertion Follows Playback This option
causes the screen’s play cursor to update its location to the point where playback stops.
Edit Insertion Follows Scrub/Shuttle When selected, the edit cursor automatically locates to
the point where scrubbing stops.
Support Background Record Applications
(Pro Tools 6.0.x and Lower Only) Allows other
audio recording applications to run in the background concurrently with Pro Tools. Files recorded in the background can be imported into
Pro Tools, and then trimmed and viewed while
recording continues. (In Pro Tools 6.1, audio recording in the background is always supported.)
Sends Default to –INF When selected, the initial
fader level of newly-created sends is set to –∞
(no audible signal level). When not selected, the
initial fader level of newly-created sends is set to
0 dB.
Audio During Fast Forward/Rewind When selected, audio is audible during fast-forward or rewind.
Convert Imported “WAV” Files To AES31/BroadcastWave When selected, this option applies to
all newly imported WAV files, making them
compliant with the AES31/EBU Broadcast standard. In Pro Tools 6.0 and lower, this option was
located in the Compatibility page (see “Compatibility Preferences” on page 64).
Audio Track RecordLock (Pro Tools 6.4) This setting lets Pro Tools tracks be configured to either
emulate a digital dubber, or to maintain legacy
behavior for track record status.
• When the Audio RecordLock preference is
enabled, the record-enabled audio tracks
remain armed when playback or recording
stops.
• When the Audio RecordLock preference is
not enabled, record-enabled audio tracks
are taken out of record enable when
Pro Tools is stopped. This prevents tracks
from remaining armed from pass to pass,
emulating track record behavior of a digital
dubber.
Transport RecordLock (Pro Tools 6.4) This setting lets the Transport Record be configured to
either emulate a digital dubber, or to maintain
legacy behavior for the Transport master
Record.
• When not enabled, the Transport Record
disarms when Pro Tools is manually
stopped or stops due to a loss of time code.
This replicates legacy Pro Tools recording
behavior.
• When enabled, the Transport Record remains armed when playback or recording
stops. This saves having to re-arm the
Transport between takes, emulating digital
dubber behavior.
The Transport RecordLock preference is automatically disabled and greyed out when
Destructive record mode is enabled.
Limit Pull Ups to NTSC/PAL Film Standards
(Pro Tools 6.3 and below) This option, which is
selected by default, filters the list of available
Pull Up rates that appears in the Session Setup
window.
Latch Record Enable Buttons When this option
is deselected, it prevents multiple audio tracks
from being record-enabled. Record-enabling an
audio track takes any other audio track out of
record-enabled mode.
Latch Solo Buttons When this option is deselected, it prevents multiple tracks from being soloed. Soloing a track will un-solo any other track
that is soloed.
Link Mix and Edit Group Enables When this option is selected, it links enabling and disabling
of Mix and Edit groups. For example, enabling
Group A in the Edit Window automatically enables Group A in the Mix window.
Chapter 6: Sessions
57
Use F11 Key for Wait for Note When this option
is selected, pressing the F11 Function key puts
MIDI recording in Wait for Note mode.
Automatically Copy Files on Import When this
option is selected, Pro Tools copies all imported
audio files to the current session’s Audio Files
folder, regardless of whether they need to be
converted to the current session’s file type, bit
depth or sample rate.
Disable “Input” When Disarming Track
(In “Stop”) (Pro Tools 6.4)
For flexibility, TrackInput can be customized to
remain selected regardless of track record status,
or to automatically switch to Auto Input monitoring after a recording pass. This lets you optimize monitoring for a typical dubbing workflow
(in which you might want tracks to remain in
Input Only mode until explicitly switched to
Auto Input monitoring) or a typical music tracking workflow (in which leaving a track in Input
Only monitoring mode after recording can result in accidental double-monitoring).
• When enabled, taking an audio track out of
record enable (any mode) takes it out of Input Only mode, regardless of the global
monitor mode, and switches it to monitor
audio from disk only.
• When not enabled, audio tracks will remain in Input Only monitoring mode until
explicitly switched to Auto Input monitoring.
“Stop” Mutes Audio Inputs (When In Auto Input)
(Pro Tools 6.4)
• When enabled, Pro Tools mutes tracks that
are record-enabled when the Transport is
stopped. Input can still be monitored while
stopped using the TrackInput button.
• When not enabled, Pro Tools monitors audio input on tracks that are record-enabled.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Numeric Keypad Mode
Numeric Keypad Mode determines how the numeric keypad functions. You can always use the
numeric keypad to select and enter values in the
Event Edit Area, Location Indicators, and Transport fields.
Classic Shuttle Lock mode that emulates the
way Pro Tools worked in versions lower than
5.0. With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Classic, you can play up to two tracks of audio in
Shuttle Lock mode. Press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), followed by 0–9
for different play speeds. Press Plus (+) or Minus
(–) to reverse direction. Recall Memory Locations by typing the Memory Location number,
followed by period (.). To customize the highest
fast-forward Shuttle Lock speed (Pro Tools 6.2
and higher on Pro Tools|HD systems only), see
“Custom Shuttle Lock Speed” on page 244.
Transport Shuttle Lock mode that lets you set a
number of record and play functions, and also
operate the Transport from the numeric keypad.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Transport, you can play up to two tracks of audio in
Shuttle Lock mode. Press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), followed by 0–9
for different play speeds. Press Plus (+) or Minus
(–) to reverse direction. Recall Memory Locations by typing period (.), the Memory Location
number, and period (.) again. To customize the
highest fast-forward Shuttle Lock speed
(Pro Tools 6.2 and higher on Pro Tools|HD systems only), see “Custom Shuttle Lock Speed” on
page 244.
Shuttle (TDM Only) Selects a type of shuttling
different from that of Shuttle Lock mode. With
the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Shuttle, playback is triggered by pressing and holding the
keys on the numeric keypad—playback stops
once the keys are released. Various playback
speeds are available in both forward and reverse.
You can also recall Memory Locations by typing
period (.), the Memory Location number, and
period (.) again.
AutoSave
This preference determines how the AutoSave
feature functions.
Enable Session File Auto Backup When this option is selected, Pro Tools automatically saves
backups of your Pro Tools session file while you
work. Use the Keep and Backup Every fields to
specify the total number of incremental backups
that are kept and how often the session is saved.
Online Options
Record Online at Time Code (or ADAT)
Lock When this option is selected, online recording begins as soon as Pro Tools receives and
locks to time code or ADAT sync.
Record Online at Insertion/Selection When this
option is selected, online recording begins at the
Edit cursor location. Recording continues until
Pro Tools stops receiving time code. If you make
a selection, Pro Tools records online for the
length of the selection.
Open Ended Record Allocation
This preference determines how much of your
available hard drive space is allocated for recording.
Limit To Sets the maximum allowable recording
duration. This can help reduce the time it takes
to begin recording by allocating only a portion
of your hard drive. The number of minutes specified is allocated for each record-enabled track.
You may want to experiment with this number
to achieve the recording performance you want.
Auto Regions Fade In/Out Length Sets a default
length for fade-ins and fade-outs automatically
applied to region boundaries. Using automatic
fade-ins and fade-outs saves you the trouble of
editing to zero-crossings or creating numerous
rendered fades in order to eliminate clicks or
pops in playback. Autofades are not written to
disk. Value range is from 0–10 ms for the Auto
Region Fade In/Out Length. A value of zero (the
default) means that no auto-fading will occur.
The Auto Fade value is saved with the session,
and is automatically applied to all free-standing
region boundaries until you change it.
Calibration Reference Level Sets a default calibration reference level in dB when Pro Tools is
in Calibration mode.
Custom Shuttle Lock Speed (Pro Tools 6.2 and
Higher on Pro Tools|HD Systems) This option
sets the highest fast-forward Shuttle Lock speed
(key 9) for Shuttle Lock modes (Classic or Transport). The range for this setting is 50–800%. For
more information, see “Custom Shuttle Lock
Speed” on page 244.
Use All Available Space When selected, the
drive’s entire available space is allocated. This
can sometimes slow down the recording process
for hard drives that use certain file systems, including HFS+ and NTFS.
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Editing Preferences
Crossfade Preview Pre-Roll This option specifies
the amount of pre-roll to be added when you are
auditioning crossfades in the Fades dialog.
Crossfade Preview Post-Roll This option specifies the amount of post-roll to be added when
you are auditioning crossfades in the Fades dialog.
Default Fade Settings
Fade In Selects the default envelope shape for
fade-ins.
Crossfade Selects the default envelope shape for
crossfades.
Fade Out Selects the default envelope shape for
fade-outs.
Recall Original Track Selections When this option is selected, Memory Locations that recall a
selection also recall the track in which the selection was made.
Auto-Name Memory Locations When
Playing When this option is selected, Pro Tools
gives new memory locations default names
based on their time location in the session. The
time units currently chosen in the Display
menu determine the units for the names.
Auto-Name Separated Regions When this option
is selected, Pro Tools automatically names
newly separated regions by appending a number
to the region’s name.
Region List Selection Follows Track
Selection When this option is selected, selecting
a region in a track also selects it in the Regions
List.
Track Selection Follows Regions List
Selection When this option is selected, selecting
a region in the Regions List causes Pro Tools to
highlight that region’s occurrence in a track.
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Conversion Quality Selects the sample rate conversion quality. Sample rate conversion is used
in a variety of Pro Tools processes including
converting and importing audio files of different formats into a session, and bouncing and
saving tracks to a different sample rate or bit
depth. The higher the quality of sample rate
conversion you choose, the longer Pro Tools
will take to process the audio file.
“Matching Start Time” Takes List
When you Control-click (Windows) or Command-click (Macintosh) a region in a track,
Pro Tools displays a list of regions whose time
stamp matches the current cursor location. The
following preferences determine which regions,
or takes, appear in this list:
Take Region Names That Match Track
Names When this option is selected, only regions that share the same root name with the
track and playlist appear in the Takes List popup menu.
Take Region Lengths That Match When this option is selected, only regions that match the
length of the current selection appear in the
Takes List pop-up menu.
Automation Preferences
“Separate Region” Operates On All Related
Takes When this option is selected, editing a region with the Separate Region command also affects all other related takes (recording passes)
with the same User Time Stamp. This option
helps you compare different sections from a
group of related takes.
QuickPunch/TrackPunch Crossfade Length Specifies a default length for crossfades created by
QuickPunch or TrackPunch recordings. Crossfades occur before the punch in and after the
punch out.
Levels Of Undo Sets the maximum number of actions that can be undone with the multiple
undo feature. Setting this to a lower number can
speed up the performance of slower computers.
Pro Tools 6.1 supports up to 32 Levels of Undo.
Pro Tools 6.0 and lower support up to 16 Levels
of Undo.
Faders Move During Playback When this option
is selected, on-screen faders move if automation
has been written for them. When this option is
deselected, on-screen faders do not move, but
automation still functions. Deselecting this option can help speed up screen redraws and processing.
Smooth and Thin Data After Pass When this option is selected, Pro Tools automatically
smooths and then applies the specified amount
of thinning to the automation data created in
an automation pass. (See “Thinning Automation” on page 465.)
Write Switches To Touch After Pass (TDM Systems Only) When this option is selected, after
an automation pass in Auto Write mode,
Pro Tools automatically switches to Auto Touch
mode. On TDM systems, you can choose to stay
in Auto Write mode by deselecting this option.
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Write Switches to Touch After Pass does not
affect Trim mode. In Trim mode, tracks do
not automatically change from Trim/Auto
Write to Trim/Auto Touch after an automation pass.
Mutes Follow Groups When this option is selected, muting a track that belongs to a Mix
group mutes all members of the group. When
this option is deselected, tracks are muted individually. You can also mute individual group
members by Right-clicking (Windows) or Control-clicking (Macintosh) their Mute buttons.
Solos Follow Groups When this option is selected, soloing a track that belongs to a Mix
group solos all members of the group. When
this option is deselected, tracks are soloed individually. You can also solo individual group
members by Right-clicking (Windows) or Control-clicking (Macintosh) their Solo buttons.
Send Mutes Follow Groups When this option is
selected, muting a Send on a track that belongs
to a Mix group mutes the corresponding Send
(A–E) on all members of the group. When this
option is deselected, Sends are muted individually. You can also mute individual group members by Right-clicking (Windows) or Controlclicking (Macintosh) their Solo buttons.
Send Levels Follow Groups When this option is
selected, adjusting the level of a Send on a track
that belongs to a Mix group adjusts the level of
the corresponding Send (A–E) on all members of
the group. When this option is deselected, Send
levels are adjusted individually. You can also adjust individual group members by Start-dragging (Windows) or Control-dragging (Macintosh) their Send level faders.
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LFEs Follow Groups When this option is selected, adjusting an LFE (Low Frequency Effects)
control of a track or send that belongs to a Mix
group adjusts the LFE controls of all members of
the group. When this option is deselected, LFE
controls are adjusted individually. You can also
adjust individual group members by Start-dragging (Windows) or Control-dragging (Macintosh) their LFE controls. With send-based LFEs,
grouping affects only that Send (A–E) on other
tracks.
Degree of Thinning Specifies the amount of thinning performed on automation data when you
use the Thin Automation command, or if you
have selected the Smooth and Thin Data After
Pass option. (See “Thinning” on page 456.)
Touch Timeout If you are writing automation in
Auto Touch mode and you stop moving a nontouch sensitive control, Pro Tools continues to
write automation for the Touch Timeout value.
After the Touch Timeout period, writing of automation stops and the automation data returns
to its previous automation value at the rate specified in the AutoMatch Time setting.
AutoMatch Time If you are writing automation
in Auto Touch mode, when you release a fader
or control, writing of automation stops and the
automation data returns to its previous automation value. The rate of return to the previous
value is the AutoMatch Time. See “AutoMatch”
on page 456.
Amount of memory to reserve for automation recording Allocates memory for automation. See
“Setting the Automation Buffer Size” on
page 457 for details.
Processing Preferences
AudioSuite Buffer Size
Audio Suite Buffer Size sets the size of the memory buffer used for audio processing and previewing with AudioSuite plug-ins. If AudioSuite
preview stutters, set the buffer to Mini or Small.
Processing is generally faster when the buffer is
set to Larger or Jumbo.
TC/E
TC/E Plug-In Allows you to choose the plug-in
used for Time Compression and Expansion
when you edit audio with the Time Trimmer
tool. The Time Trimmer works by using Time
Compression/Expansion to match an audio region to the length of another region, a tempo
grid, a video scene, or other reference point.
AudioSuite Dither
Use AudioSuite Dither When selected, applies
dither to specific AudioSuite processing tasks,
such as Gain and Normalize.
Default Settings Specifies the default settings
used by the chosen Time Compression/Expansion plug-in.
Dither Plug-In Specifies the plug-in used for
dither processing when the Use AudioSuite
Dither option is selected.
Edit Settings When a Digidesign dither plug-in
is used, lets you apply either normal or noiseshaping dither.
Bit Depth
16-, 18-, 20-, and 24-Bit Lets you select a bit
depth for the dithered audio.
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Compatibility Preferences
MIDI Preferences
(Pro Tools 6.0.x and Lower Only)
Convert Imported “WAV” Files To AES31/BroadcastWave When selected, this option applies to
all newly imported WAV files, making them
compliant with the AES31/EBU Broadcast standard.
Play MIDI Notes When Editing When selected,
causes MIDI notes to sound when you insert
them with the Pencil or drag them with the
Grabber.
Default Note On Velocity Sets the default Note On
velocity for MIDI notes inserted in the Edit window and the MIDI Event List.
Pencil Tool Resolution Sets the default resolution
for MIDI controller data created with the Pencil.
Setting this to a lower resolution helps avoid
creating controller data that is unnecessarily
dense. The value range is from 1 to 100 milliseconds.
Global MIDI Playback Offset Sets an offset in samples to compensate for MIDI latency. Entering a
value here has the same effect as setting an offset with the MIDI Track Offset command (Windows > MIDI Track Offset). Offset values can be
positive (later) or negative (earlier).
MIDI Note Display Sets the reference for middle
C as C3, C4, or MIDI note number 60.
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Default Thru Instrument Sets the default MIDI
Thru instrument from your available MIDI instruments.
Machine Control Preferences
(Pro Tools 6.4)
Machine Follows Edit Insertion/Scrub When selected, navigating to a specific location in a session by moving the selection point or by scrubbing a track will cause a connected transport to
chase to that location.
Machine Cues Intelligently When selected, if you
navigate to a cue point that is more than 10 seconds from the current location, Pro Tools will
command a connected transport to fast wind to
the new location at full speed to within 10 seconds of the cue point. Cueing will then slow to
normal speed until the point is reached. This
can significantly speed up tape cueing with certain video transports.
Stop at Shuttle Speed Zero Causes Pro Tools to
send a Stop command whenever you stop shuttling. This is useful if you have a machine that
requires an explicit stop command to park correctly.
Remote Mode (9-pin Deck Emulation)
(TDM Systems Only)
These preferences determine how a connected
transport responds to Pro Tools.
With Pro Tools 6.4, Machine Control has its
own tabbed page, and includes both Machine
Control and Remote Control options. In
Pro Tools 6.3 and lower, Machine Control and
Remote Control options were on the Operations
Preferences page.
Machine Control
Machine Chases Memory Location When selected, navigating to a specific location in a session with a Memory Location causes a connected transport to chase to that location.
Punch In Frame Offset Sets an offset (in frames)
to compensate for punch in timing advances or
delays.
Punch Out Frame Offset Sets an offset (in frames)
to compensate for punch out timing advances
or delays.
Delay After Play Command Sets an offset (in
frames) to compensate for lockup time of external machines.
Ignore Track Arming Sets Pro Tools to ignore incoming track arming (record enable) commands. This is useful if you are using a master
controller to arm tracks on other machines, but
you don’t want to arm tracks in Pro Tools.
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Chapter 7: I/O Setup
The I/O Setup dialog provides tools to label, format, and map Pro Tools input, output, insert, or
bus signal paths for each session.
A signal path is a logical grouping of multiple
inputs, outputs or busses that has a single name
and (channel) format. In Pro Tools, paths are
similar to stems, known to the film and video industries (see “Stems and Stem Mixes” on
page 69). The I/O Setup dialog lets you define
and name paths according to the needs of each
project.
On HD-series systems, the I/O Setup Dialog provides a graphical representation of the signal
routing for each connected audio interface, with
controls to route physical ports to Pro Tools inputs and outputs. These controls mirror the
routing controls found in the Hardware Setup
dialog—changes made to physical routing in
one dialog are always reflected in the other.
Each Pro Tools system can have a different
I/O Setup configuration, determined by:
Each Pro Tools session retains its path configurations as I/O Settings. The I/O Settings saved
with the session are loaded automatically when
the session is opened. Unavailable items (including hardware, paths, or required resources)
remain in the session as inactive items (see “Active and Inactive Paths” on page 78).
When you create a new session, you can specify
a default I/O Setup configuration, including
presets for stereo or multichannel mixing formats (multichannel mixing requires an HD-series or MIX-series system).
The I/O Setup dialog also lets you save and import I/O Settings files.
Paths in Sessions
In sessions, audio is routed using the track Input, Output, Insert, Plug-in, and Send Selectors.
These selectors let you assign tracks to hardware
inputs and outputs, internal busses, and other
Pro Tools signal paths.
• Whether it is a Pro Tools LE system or a
Pro Tools TDM system
• On TDM systems, whether it is an HD-series,
MIX-series, or Pro Tools|24 system
• On TDM systems, the number and types of
audio interfaces
• On TDM systems, the mixer plug-in currently
installed
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Paths comprise the lists of available signal routing choices in track input, output, insert and
send selectors.
Paths and I/O Setup
The signal routing choices available in a session
are defined in the I/O Setup dialog.
Track Input Selectors
I/O Setup dialog Output paths on a Digi 001 system
(Pro Tools 6.2)
Track Output Selectors
I/O Setup dialog Output paths on an HD system
(Pro Tools 6.4)
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Main Paths and Sub-Paths
Default Settings Files
Paths in the I/O Setup dialog include main paths
and sub-paths.
The default Stereo settings file is available on all
Pro Tools systems, and provides stereo main
paths, each with its own mono sub-paths.
Stereo main path
mono sub-path
mono sub-path
Main and sub-paths in the I/O Setup Channel Grid
Main Paths
Main paths are logical groupings of inputs, inserts, busses, or outputs. For example, a master
stereo output path could be named Main Out.
Path names in a stereo path are often appended
with “.L” and “.R” for left and right.
Multichannel settings files are available for
Pro Tools HD-series and MIX-series systems.
These settings provide specialized path definitions for surround mixing. See “Configuring
Pro Tools for Multichannel Sessions” on
page 508.
Default Path Names
Default names for input, output, and insert
paths are based on the type of system (LE systems) or type and number of interfaces (TDM
systems) you are using.
Sub-Paths
A sub-path represents a signal path within a
main path. For example, a default stereo output
path consists of two mono sub-paths, left and
right. Mono tracks and sends can be routed to
either mono sub-path of the stereo output path.
It is especially useful to define and name
sub-paths for complex mixing setups, such
as a 5.1 Surround mix.
Default I/O Settings
A default I/O Settings file is installed automatically by Pro Tools, so you have a set of default
paths that will get you started, without the need
to configure the I/O Setup dialog. You can then
customize your I/O Setup configuration at any
time, according to the needs of each project (see
“The I/O Setup Dialog” on page 70).
Stems and Stem Mixes
The use of stems and stem mixes originated in
the post production industry as a method to organize and manage elements of a mix by type or
content.
For example, a film mix often requires a stem
mix for Foley, a stem mix for sound effects, a
stem mix for dialog, and another for music. In
this scenario, the dialog stem would contain all
the dialog elements mixed relative to each
other. The dialog stem can then be mixed with
the other stems during the final mix of the scene
or reel. The final mix is simplified by the ability
to control the level of each stem, rather than the
multitude of individual tracks that comprise a
typical film mix.
In Pro Tools, you can work with main and subpaths as you would stem mixes. These can be assigned as needed, including the ability to assign
multiple outputs to individual tracks and sends.
For more information, see “Multiple Output Assignments” on page 412.
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The I/O Setup Dialog
The I/O Setup dialog defines Pro Tools input, output, insert, and bus paths. Routing I/O ports to
Pro Tools inputs and outputs can also be done here.
Path Type Tabs
Path Name column
Path Format Selector
Interface Label
Input and Output
Selectors
Expand/Collapse
Main and Sub-Paths
Channel Grid
Active/Inactive
Status
Options
Path Tools
Figure 5. I/O Setup dialog on a Pro Tools|HD system with a 96 I/O
To open the I/O Setup dialog:
Closing the I/O Setup Dialog
1 Make sure your audio interfaces are enabled
and configured properly in the Hardware Setup.
See “Configuring Pro Tools Hardware Settings”
on page 41.
You can click Cancel at any time to close the
I/O Setup dialog. When you click OK, Pro Tools
checks several settings for routing validity (to
prevent feedback loops). If there are any overlapping or invalid settings, you will be required
to correct them before the I/O Setup dialog will
close. For more information, see “Initializing
I/O Setup” on page 77.
2 Choose Setups > I/O Setup.
To open the Input, Output, Insert, Bus, Mic
Preamps, or H/W Insert Delay page in the I/O
Setup dialog:
■ Click the corresponding tab at the top of the
I/O Setup dialog.
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I/O Setup Dialog Controls
This section provides an overview of the controls in the I/O Setup dialog.
Path Type Tabs Select the type of I/O to configure. Choices are Inputs, Outputs, Inserts, or Busses.
Input and Output Selectors Select the physical
ports on your audio interface to route to
Pro Tools inputs and outputs. Ports are selectable in channel pairs. Available ports for each
displayed interface are based on Hardware Setup
settings; for example, if the AES/EBU inputs and
outputs of an interface are enabled in Hardware
Setup, they are available for routing in I/O
Setup. The functionality provided with the Input and Output Selector is the same as that provided on the Main page of the Hardware Setup
dialog.
Path Name Column Shows paths that are available for selection, including the name of each
defined path.
Show Original Setup Appears in the I/O Setup dialog in certain session transfer situations. For
details on this feature, see “Show Original Setup
and Show Current Setup” on page 80.
Options Provide pop-up menus to set paths or
orders for Meter, Audition (Regions List previewing), Default Output (for new tracks), and
Default Path Order. See “I/O Setup Options” on
page 82.
Routing Hardware I/O to
Pro Tools I/O
The I/O Setup dialog lets you define which
physical ports on your I/O peripheral are routed
to available inputs and outputs in Pro Tools. Use
the Input and Output Selectors in the I/O Setup
dialog to serve as a patchbay to route any of the
physical inputs or outputs to your Pro Tools
mixer.
Expand/Collapse Shows or hides the sub-paths
associated with a main path.
Active/Inactive Status Shows and changes the
active/inactive status of each path.
Path Format Selector Shows and selects the
type/format (such as Mono, Stereo, Quad, or
5.1) of each defined path.
Channel Grid Maps paths to specific interfaces
and channels.
Compensation for Input and Output Delays Allows automatic compensation for input and
output delays caused by Digidesign analog-todigital and digital-to-analog hardware.
I/O Channel Selector pop-up menu
Path Tools Customize the I/O Setup configuration. Buttons include: New Path, New Sub-Path,
Delete Path, and Default.
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To configure I/O routing in I/O Setup:
1 Choose Setups > I/O Setup.
2 Click the Input or Output tab to display the
corresponding path type.
Pro Tools outputs pairs can also be routed to
multiple audio interface outputs in the Hardware Setup dialog. For more information, see
“Routing a Pro Tools Output Pair to Multiple
Destinations” on page 44.
3 Click the Input or Output Selector for the first
interface channel pair, located below the first
audio interface icon.
4 From the pop-up menu, select a physical port
pair (such as Analog 1–2), to route to a Pro Tools
channel pair (such as A 1–2) in the Path Name
column on the left.
5 Repeat the above step for additional channel
pairs.
6 Click OK.
Routing a Pro Tools Output Pair to
Multiple Destinations
Pro Tools channel pairs can be routed to multiple outputs on an audio interface through the
I/O Setup dialog. For example, if you assign both
Analog 1–2 and Analog 3–4 interface outputs to
Pro Tools Output pair 1–2, when you send a signal to Pro Tools Outputs 1–2, that signal will be
routed simultaneously to both pairs of output
ports on your audio interface.
To route a Pro Tools output channel pair to
multiple audio interface output ports:
1 Choose Setups > I/O Setup.
2 Click the Output tab.
3 Click the Output Selector for an interface
channel pair, just below an audio interface icon.
4 From the pop-up menu, select a physical port
pair (such as Analog 1–2) to route to the corresponding Pro Tools channel pair (such as A 1–2)
in the Path Name column on the left.
5 Start-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the same Output Selector and select an additional output pair from the same pop-up
menu.
The output name updates with a plus sign (“+”)
before it to indicate that multiple output ports
are selected. In the pop-up menu, each physical
port pair assigned to that Pro Tools output pair
is indicated by a check mark.
6 Repeat the above steps to select additional
This lets you send the same signal (such as a stereo pair, a stem mix, or a multichannel mix) to
multiple destinations (such as multiple mastering devices).
The only limit to output choices is the number
of outputs available in your system.
0utput path assignments cannot overlap.
See “Valid Paths and Requirements” on
page 77 for details.
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output destinations.
7 Click OK.
Creating and Editing Paths
The I/O Setup dialog lets you create and customize signal path definitions.
Paths can be:
• Renamed, for easier identification after
changing or renaming audio interfaces
• Remapped, to or from different sources or destinations
2 Click the Input, Output, Insert, or Bus tab to
display the corresponding path type.
3 Click Default.
Pro Tools creates all possible stereo main paths.
Mono sub-paths are also auto-created for every
stereo main path. These default path names appear in a session’s track Input and Output Selectors.
• Deactivated (or reactivated) to manage unavailable or unnecessary I/O resources
• Deleted
In addition, you can import and export your
I/O Setup configurations as I/O Settings files, as
well as set default path parameters.
The following table lists the available path attributes for each path type.
Path Options by Type
Default stereo output paths
To optimize Pro Tools DSP resources, it is
best to create mono sub-paths for Outputs
and Busses, rather than mono main paths.
Path Type
Path Options (Attributes)
Input
Names, formats, and source
channel (analog or digital audio
interface, or CPU input)
Output
Names, formats, and destination
(audio interface output channel or
internal send bus)
Insert
Names, formats and destination
(audio interface channels)
To create a new path:
Names and formats
1 Choose Setups > I/O Setup.
Bus
Creating a Default Main or Sub-Path
You can set an I/O Setup path type to its default
path configuration at any time.
To restore default paths and pathnames:
1 Choose Setups > I/O Setup.
Creating New Paths
You can create new main path and sub-paths
with custom names, format, and mapping. Custom path names appear in a session’s track Input, Output, Insert, and Bus Selectors.
2 Click the Input, Output, Insert, or Bus tab to
display the corresponding path type.
3 Click New Path, or press Control+N (Win-
dows) or Command+N (Macintosh).
– or –
Select a main path and click New Sub-Path.
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4 Double-click in the Name field and enter a
name for the path.
5 Press Tab to set the new path name and move
to the next path’s Name Field, or press Enter
(Windows) or Return (Macintosh) to set the new
path name.
6 Choose a format from the Path Format Selector (mono, stereo, or multichannel).
Selecting and Arranging Paths
Individual and multiple paths can be selected in
the I/O Setup dialog Path Name column. Selected paths and sub-paths can be moved higher
or lower in the Path Name column to change
their menu order in track Input, Output, Insert,
and Bus Selectors. Paths can also be deleted.
Sub-paths follow their main paths when they
are moved in the I/O Setup dialog.
To select a main path or sub-path:
■
Click the path name.
Path Format Selector
7 Repeat the previous steps to configure other
path types (Input, Output, Insert, or Bus).
8 Click OK to close the I/O Setup dialog. If there
are any overlapping or identically named paths,
you will be instructed to correct them before the
I/O Setup dialog will close. For more information, see “Initializing I/O Setup” on page 77.
Multichannel paths and mixing are explained in Chapter 31, “Pro Tools Setup for
Surround.”
Selecting paths in the I/O Setup dialog
To select multiple main paths or sub-paths:
■
Shift-click the path names.
When all paths are selected, Shift-clicking the
path name, deselects it.
To select all paths and sub-paths:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) any path name.
When all paths are selected, Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Macintosh) any path
name, deselects all path names.
To rearrange paths:
■
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Drag one or more path names up or down.
Resetting Paths
Changing Interface Names
The Default button in the I/O Setup dialog provides two primary functions:
Audio interface names can be customized in the
I/O Setup dialog (Pro Tools TDM systems and
Pro Tools 6.1 on LE). On TDM systems only, the
I/O Setup dialog then bases default Input and
Output path names on the custom names.
• Creates new, default paths up to the capacity
of your system’s available audio interfaces and
resources. See “Creating a Default Main or
Sub-Path” on page 73.
• Resets selected path names to matching or
corresponding paths in the current I/O Setup
configuration. For example, if you change
modes on Digi 001, or replace an audio interface on a Pro Tools HD-series or MIX-series
system, you can use the Default switch to update your I/O Setup definitions with the new
hardware configuration.
To rename an audio interface in the I/O Setup
dialog:
1 Double-click the label above an interface.
2 Enter a new interface name.
3 Press Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh).
Interface Name
Interface names can be customized. See
“Changing Interface Names” on page 75.
To reset path names:
■
Click Default.
Interface Names
If there are matching paths available with the
new system configuration, existing paths will be
updated to include new audio interfaces (TDM
systems), or I/O mode selection (Digi 001 only).
Resetting Mix Busses (TDM Only)
Pro Tools 5.1.3 and higher supports up to 64
mix busses for TDM systems. However, when
you open a session created with Pro Tools 5.0.1
or lower, only 32 busses are initially available.
To make 64 busses available in sessions created
with Pro Tools 5.0.1 or lower:
Deleting Paths
Path definitions can be deleted from the current
session to reflect changes to your hardware
setup, or to clean up track selector menus by removing unwanted or unnecessary path definitions. After deleting a path, any tracks or send
assignments to that path are reset to No Output.
To delete a main path or sub-path:
1 In the I/O Setup dialog, select the path you
want to delete.
1 Open the I/O Setup dialog.
2 Click Delete Path.
2 Click the Bus tab in the upper left.
To delete all paths:
3 Click Default.
1 Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macin-
tosh) any path name.
2 Click Delete Path.
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75
Channel Mapping
Channel Mapping and Surround Mixer
Once a path has been created and formatted, it
can be mapped to specific audio interface, or bus
channels in the Grid.
(Pro Tools HD-Series and MIX-Series Systems
Only)
To map channels:
1 Select a main or sub-path.
2 In the row for the selected path, click in the
Grid column under an audio interface and
channel. Other channels for the path type, if
any, fill to the right.
When mapping multichannel paths, the left
channel (L) is mapped first to the clicked Grid
box, and remaining channels fill immediately to
the right according to the default path order. Because some multichannel mixing formats use
unique track layouts, Pro Tools lets you set the
default format in the I/O Setup dialog (see “I/O
Setup Options” on page 82).
Mapping channels
For example, when mapping a new stereo path,
clicking in the path row under output channel 1
fills both channel 1 and 2 (left to 1, right to 2).
To remap channels in a path, see “Remapping
Channels” on page 76.
Customized Output paths for a 5.1 mix
Remapping Channels
You can move the individual assignments to different channels, to reorder the path’s definition
(for example, changing a multichannel map to
L-R-C-LF-LS-RS).
To remap channels in a path:
■ Drag the channel to the new location in the
Grid. Other channel assignments will move
(shuffle) to accommodate dragged channels.
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Channel Shuffling
Moving a signal from right to left results in a
shuffle of other signals after the new destination
channel. Moving a signal from left to right shuffles any and all signals after the new destination
channel and leaves the previous channel empty.
Changing a path’s format erases any current channel mapping.
Sub-Paths Follow Main Paths
When a main path is remapped, its sub-paths (if
any) will remap automatically to maintain consistent routing. For example, remapping a stereo
path to different hardware outputs results in
any of its sub-paths moving with it.
Initializing I/O Setup
To set the current I/O Setup configuration:
■
Click OK in the I/O Setup dialog.
All paths must be valid before the I/O Setup configuration can be applied.
Valid Paths and Requirements
Though it is possible to set up invalid mappings
in the Channel Grid, Pro Tools will not accept
an I/O Setup configuration unless all paths meet
the path definition and channel mapping requirements, as follows:
Minimum Path Definitions All paths must have a
name, be of a specific format, and have a valid
I/O mapping.
Overlapping Channels and Valid Paths Channel
mapping follows certain rules regarding overlapping paths.
• There can be no partial or complete overlaps between any two main Output paths,
any two Insert paths, or any two main Bus
paths.
• A newly-created Output or Bus path must
either be completely independent of other
maps (not mapped to any other available
I/O interface/channels), or it must be a subpath completely contained within a larger
path (for example, an LCR sub-path within
a larger 5.1 path).
• Output and Insert paths can overlap in I/O
Setup, but only one or the other can be
used at any given time in a session. (Inputs,
however, can be routed to multiple tracks.)
While configuring the I/O Setup window, certain rules apply for path definition and channel
mapping.
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77
Active and Inactive Paths
Toggling All or All Selected
Pro Tools paths can be Active (on) or Inactive
(off, or unavailable). You can manually switch
paths between Active or Inactive on a track-bytrack or session-wide basis. In addition,
Pro Tools sets paths to Inactive automatically
when I/O is unavailable.
The Alt (Windows) and Option (Macintosh)
modifiers apply the path toggle to all tracks. The
Alt+Shift (Windows) and Option+Shift (Macintosh) modifiers apply the path toggle to all selected tracks. However, Pro Tools will only apply the change to identical path assignments, if
any, in the current track or tracks. Toggling multiple tracks only affects tracks that have the
same path assignment as the one you are explicitly toggling.
Track Path Assignments Track input, output,
and bus path assignments can be switched to Inactive using the corresponding selector on the
track. This leaves track playlists intact, while disconnecting that particular track from the output
or bus path. Use this to remove a track from a
signal path.
Session-Wide Path Assignments Paths can be
globally activated or deactivated in the
I/O Setup window. Use this to turn off a signal
path on any and all tracks currently assigned to
it. Pro Tools also sets unavailable paths to inactive. Paths can be unavailable when hardware or
other system resources are unavailable, such as
when opening a session saved on a different system.
Track Path Assignments
(Mix and Edit Windows)
To toggle a track path assignment to be Active or
Inactive:
■ In the Mix or Edit window, Control-Start-click
(Windows) or Command-Control-click (Macintosh) the track’s Input, Output, Insert, or Send
Selector.
Inactive track path assignments are listed in italics and are unhighlighted.
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Toggling Multiple Paths
If a track has only one main output assignment,
you can Control-start-click (Windows) or Command-Control-click (Macintosh) the track’s
Output Selector to toggle the main output to inactive. When there are multiple assignments,
the track selector will be displayed for you to
specify the input, output, insert, or bus path.
If a Send (A–E) has multiple output assignments
and one of those is toggled, then all of the output assignments for that Send (A–E) will be toggled.
Session-Wide Path Assignments
(I/O Setup Dialog)
Inactive paths are displayed in italics in the
track path selectors.
Paths can be globally configured for Active or
Inactive status in the I/O Setup Dialog.
Display of Active and Inactive Status
Unhighlighted (Italics) Indicates the path is inactive.
Highlighted (Non-Italics) Indicates the path is active.
Highlighted (Italics) Indicates the path is active,
but there are not enough system resources available.
Active
Inactive
Active and inactive paths in a track Output Selector
Hardware Setup and Session
Transfer
Sessions created in Pro Tools 5.1 or higher store
the type and order of audio interfaces connected
and active when the session was last saved.
Active and inactive path settings in I/O Setup
Unavailable I/O
To globally activate or deactivate a path:
When opening a session, Pro Tools checks to see
if the hardware configuration has changed since
the session was last saved. If the current hardware configuration differs from that saved in the
session, paths associated with the unavailable
I/O are made inactive.
1 Choose Setups > I/O Setup.
2 Select a path type using the tabs at the top of
the window.
3 Set the Active/Inactive control for the path.
Any track path assignment can also be deactivated on a track-by-track basis. See
“Track Path Assignments” on page 78.
Remapping
Remapping occurs when a session’s original
I/O Setup does not match that of the current
system and session paths are remapped to current hardware.
Systems of equivalent I/O capability are
remapped directly. For example, a session
tracked to a Pro Tools HD-series system through
two 192 I/O audio interfaces would include 32
input paths spread across the two 16-channel
interfaces. The session is taken to a second
Pro Tools system that has a 96 I/O audio interChapter 7: I/O Setup
79
face (a 16-channel I/O unit) and a 1622 I/O
(with its 16 analog inputs) connected to its Legacy Port. When the session is first opened on the
second system, Pro Tools will map the 32 input
paths to the inputs of the two interfaces.
When hardware is unavailable to a session being
opened, assignments can either be replaced using the remap option, or opened as Inactive.
Any tracks left assigned to an unavailable path
will not be audible. This can be beneficial, however, when you want to reassign tracks into your
system’s mix one at a time.
See “Active and Inactive Paths” on page 78
for more information.
Show Original Setup and Show Current Setup
When a session is opened that contains path
definitions for unavailable I/O interfaces, the
I/O Setup dialog lists those paths in italics.
The Show Original Setup button displays the audio interfaces used in the original session. This
temporary display lets you check the original
I/O configuration for reference while configuring the session for your system.
Once a session has been opened with unavailable I/O retained, you can then reassign tracks
to available I/O paths.
To redefine the paths, see “Creating and
Editing Paths” on page 73.
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I/O Settings Files
I/O Settings can be managed when transferring
sessions, and when developing I/O Setup configurations over the course of multiple sessions
and projects.
Defaults, Settings Files, and Last
Used Settings for New Sessions
When creating new sessions, you can set the session’s I/O Setup configuration using the following options:
Default I/O Setups The Pro Tools Installer provides factory presets for stereo and surround I/O
Setups (surround mixing is only supported on
Pro Tools HD-series and MIX-series systems).
See “Factory I/O Settings Files” on page 82 for
more information.
Custom Presets You can store and recall custom
presets using the export and import features of
the I/O Setup dialog.
Last Used The most recent (or last used)
I/O Setup configuration is saved as a Last Used
settings file. See “Last Used I/O Settings” on
page 81 for more information.
Default I/O Settings at First Launch
The first time you create a session, you can
choose default Stereo Mix or Surround Mix settings, depending on your system and installation choices. See “Factory I/O Settings Files” on
page 82.
Importing and Exporting I/O Settings
Files
You can export and import I/O Setup configurations as I/O Settings files. This lets you save settings for different projects, import settings for
reconfiguring I/O Setup, and manage path definitions and signal routing setups.
Exporting I/O Settings
To export and save an I/O Setup configuration:
1 Click Export Settings.
2 Name and save the settings file.
To start sessions with a blank or empty
I/O Setup dialog, you can create and export
an I/O Settings file in which all definitions
have been deleted.
3 A dialog appears asking whether you want to
delete existing paths. Do one of the following:
• Click Yes to remove any unused paths and
add the imported paths to the current I/O
Setup configuration. Any I/O assignments
and automation data associated with the
unused paths are also deleted.
• Click No to add the imported paths to the
current I/O Setup configuration.
If the import results in overlapping paths, the
new paths will appear in the I/O Setup dialog as
Inactive. (See “Active and Inactive Paths” on
page 78.)
After importing I/O Settings, you can then reassign path routing definitions in the I/O Setup dialog by remapping, renaming, and deleting
paths. (See “Creating and Editing Paths” on
page 73.)
Importing I/O Settings
I/O Settings can be imported before you open a
session, or you can import settings into a session
that is already open (see “Default I/O Settings at
First Launch” on page 80).
When you import I/O Settings in an existing session, you can choose to delete any unused path
definitions before importing the new paths, or
leave unused path definitions intact and add the
new paths to the current I/O Setup configuration.
To import I/O Settings:
Last Used I/O Settings
If any changes are made to the I/O Setup dialog
during a session, these changes are saved to the
Last Used settings file when the I/O Setup dialog
is closed (by clicking OK).
Changes to I/O Setup are saved along with the
current session. User Presets files will not contain recent changes unless you export an updated settings file.
The Last Used settings are available as a choice
when creating or opening sessions, in addition
to the factory presets described below.
1 Click Import Settings in the I/O Setup dialog.
2 Select an I/O settings file in the Import Set-
tings dialog and click Import.
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81
Factory I/O Settings Files
Pro Tools provides I/O Settings files for Stereo
and Surround mixing. These files provide generic main and sub-path definitions for either
mixing format.
To convert a session so that it emulates Direct
Outs mode, use the Auto Assign Ascending Outputs feature, as follows:
To auto assign track outputs for Direct Out:
1 Make sure that all tracks you want to assign
Stereo Mix Settings File
are visible (hidden tracks will not be affected).
The Stereo Mix preset consists of all possible stereo and mono paths for your session.
2 Select the tracks you want to assign by Shift-
Using the “Stereo Mix” preset has the same
effect as clicking Default for every individual tab in I/O Settings. See “Creating and
Editing Paths” on page 73 for details.
Specifically, the Stereo Mix preset will create the
maximum number paths of each type, as determined by the available system’s I/O Setup and
hardware configuration.
Surround Mix Settings File (TDM Systems Only)
The Surround Mix provides additional, surround-specific Output and Bus presets. See “Surround Mix Settings Files” on page 509 for more
information.
clicking their track names.
3 Control-Alt-click (Windows) or Command-
Option-click (Macintosh) the Output Selector of
the leftmost track and assign it to the sub-path
for Output #1. All visible tracks will be auto-assigned to unique mono sub-path outputs in ascending order.
I/O Setup Options
Pro Tools systems have additional I/O Setup features. These include default signal routing for
metering and auditioning, and default track layout for multichannel mix formats.
Meter Path Selector
About Direct Outputs Mode
(ProControl Only)
Direct Outputs mode, as found in older versions
of Pro Tools, has been replaced by the default
mono sub-paths available through all valid I/O
in the I/O Setup dialog.
The Meter Path Selector determines the path
displayed across the ProControl Output meters.
See the latest ProControl documentation for
more details.
The Default switch creates main Output paths
with appropriate mono sub-paths. These subpaths provide discrete monophonic routing.
Audition Path
When a session is opened that was saved in Direct Outputs mode, Pro Tools maps all the output assignments to equivalent mono sub-paths
(as available). See “Hardware Setup and Session
Transfer” on page 79 for more information on
remapping.
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The Audition path is the output path through
which files and regions are previewed (listened
to) in the Regions List.
Using the Default Audition Path
When you audition a file or region in the Regions List, Pro Tools routes the audio output
through the Audition path. Pro Tools assigns a
default Audition path to the first available main
Output path of the corresponding format. You
can also select a different Audition Path in the
I/O Setup dialog.
On TDM systems with more than one audio
interface, you can only select the first audio
interface as an audition path.
Configuring Audition Paths
You can specify the monitoring outputs for Regions List auditioning using the Audition paths
menu.
Audition Path Main Menu The main menu consists of all path format choices available on the
current system (Mono and Stereo on all systems,
LCR and greater on HD-series and MIX-series
systems).
To audition regions in the Regions List:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the region in the list.
Auditioning Discrete Signals in Multichannel
Items
In the Audio Regions List, multichannel regions
are auditioned through the current Audition
path. Signals can be auditioned “in-place,” or
through all outputs, as described below.
Audition In-Place
When auditioning a mono component of a multichannel region, that mono component will by
default be auditioned in-place. That is, it will
play from the corresponding speaker channel of
its parent multichannel region.
To audition in-place:
1 In the Regions List, make sure the stereo or
multichannel region is in expanded view (showing .L, .R, and other component channels).
Audition Path Submenus Each path format
choice has a submenu listing Output paths of
that given format. (The mono submenu lists
Output paths of any format.)
2 Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macin-
To configure Audition paths:
Mono regions can be routed equally to all outputs of the parent region’s Audition path.
Select a path from the Audition path menu or
submenus.
■
tosh) the region for the channel you want to audition.
Audition to All Outputs
To audition through all channels of the main
audition path:
■ Shift-Alt-click (Windows) or Shift-Optionclick (Macintosh) on the signal in the Regions
List.
Selecting an Audition path
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83
Default Path Order
(TDM Systems Only)
The Default Path Order Selector lets you select
the default track layout you want Pro Tools to
follow when creating and mapping 5.1-format
main or sub-paths in the I/O Setup dialog.
This setting does not affect existing path definitions or metering—it only specifies channel
mapping in new 5.1-format paths.
To choose a Default Path Order:
H/W Insert Delay
Compensation
(TDM Systems Only)
You can specify the latency of outboard hardware (such as effects devices) in the H/W Insert
Delay page of the I/O Setup Dialog. You can enter hardware insert latency, in milliseconds, in a
field that corresponds to every input/output
pair. These times will be used by the Delay Compensation Engine to time align input paths
when a hardware insert is used.
■ Select the channel mapping from the Default
Path Order menu.
Default Path Order Selector
For more information about multichannel mixing, see Chapter 31, “Pro Tools Setup for Surround.”
Default Output Path
You can specify the default Output path assignment for new tracks, in each available format.
To specify a default Output in the I/O Setup
window:
■ Select a format and Output path from the Default Output Selector.
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To set an insert delay offset:
■ Enter a value, in milliseconds, in the field corresponding with the input where the hardware
insert is connected.
Insert delay offsets only have an effect when
the I/O is used for hardware inserts.
Chapter 8: Tracks
This chapter covers basic track management
tasks such as creating and deleting tracks, assigning voices and output channels, and grouping tracks.
Audio Tracks
Audio tracks contain arrangements of recorded
(or imported) audio files. Audio tracks can be
mono, stereo, or multichannel format (multichannel tracks are supported on Pro Tools HDseries and MIX-series systems only).
Track Types
In a Pro Tools session, you can have several different types of tracks. These can include audio
tracks, Auxiliary Input tracks, MIDI tracks, Master Fader tracks, and Avid or QuickTime Movie
tracks. AVoption|V10 Movie tracks are supported on Pro Tools 6.4 and higher.
AVoption|XL Movie tracks are supported on
Pro Tools 5.3.3 and higher (Windows), and
Pro Tools 6.1 and higher (Macintosh).
QuickTime Movie track features are described in Chapter 36, “Working with
QuickTime Movies.”
Audio Tracks, Auxiliary Input Tracks,
and Master Fader Tracks
Pro Tools provides mono, stereo, and greaterthan-stereo multichannel format audio tracks,
Auxiliary Inputs, and Master Faders.
Auxiliary Input Tracks
Auxiliary Input tracks can be used as effects
sends, destinations for submixes, as a bounce
destination, as inputs to monitor or process audio (such as audio from MIDI sources), and for
many other audio routing tasks.
Master Fader Tracks
Master Fader tracks control the overall level of
the audio tracks that are routed to the session’s
main output paths. For example, you could
have 24 tracks in a session with channels 1–8
routed to Analog Output 1–2, channels 9–16 to
Analog Output 3–4, and channels 17–24 to Analog Output 5–6. You could then create three
master faders, one to control each of these output pairs.
Master Fader tracks have additional uses (such as
controlling submix levels). For more information, see “Master Faders” on page 406
Chapter 8: Tracks
85
MIDI Tracks
MIDI tracks store MIDI note, instrument, and
controller data. You cannot select a track format
when you create a MIDI track, because audio
does not pass through it.
Track Formats
Mono Tracks
A mono audio track, Auxiliary Input, or Master
Fader track controls volume, and, in some cases,
panning, for a single channel of audio. A mono
track uses a single voice.
Multichannel Tracks (Pro Tools HD-Series and
MIX-Series Systems Only)
A multichannel track is a single channel strip
that plays multiple channels of audio (from 3–8
channels at a time). This allows Pro Tools to
support multichannel mixing formats including
LCRS, 5.1, 6.1, and others.
For more information on surround mixing with
Pro Tools, see the following chapters:
• Chapter 31, “Pro Tools Setup for Surround”
• Chapter 32, “Multichannel Tracks and
Signal Routing”
• Chapter 33, “Surround Panning and Mixing”
Stereo Tracks
A stereo audio track, Auxiliary Input, or Master
Fader track is a single channel strip that plays
two channels of audio as a stereo pair. Stereo
tracks use two voices.
Audio Track Channel Strips
Each audio track has its own set of controls for
volume, pan, output window, record enable, automation mode, solo, mute, and voice assignment. Audio tracks also have a Comments View
to enter and display comments.
With slight variations, audio track channel
strips in the Mix window look like the tracks
shown in the following figures.
Audio tracks can be added to a session with the
New Track command.
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MIDI Track Channel Strips
Inserts
Sends
Input/Output selectors
Each MIDI track has its own set of controls for
volume, pan, record enable, automation mode,
solo, mute, MIDI patch assignment, and MIDI
channel assignment. MIDI tracks also have a
Comments View to enter and display comments.
MIDI tracks can be added to a session with the
New Track command.
Automation Mode selector
Pan Sliders
Pan Indicators
Record Enable button
TrackInput Enable button
MIDI Input selector
MIDI Output selector
Automation Mode selector
MIDI Pan slider
MIDI Pan indicator
Solo/Mute buttons
Record Enable
Open Output window
Volume Fader
Solo/Mute buttons
Level Meters
MIDI Volume Fader
Voice Selector
Group ID
Track Type indicator
Volume/Peak/Delay indicator
Delay Compensation View
Track Name
Track Comment
Track Position Number
Stereo audio track channel strip (Pro Tools 6.4)
MIDI Velocity Meter
Patch Select
Group ID
Track Type indicator
MIDI Volume indicator
Track Position Number
Track Name
Track Comment
MIDI channel strip (Pro Tools 6.4)
Chapter 8: Tracks
87
Track Controls
Input/Output Selectors
The I/O View shows Input and Output Selectors
on audio and MIDI tracks.
Input Selector
Output Selector
(or MIDI Device/Channel Selector)
Volume Indicator Shows the current volume, or
input level of a track as set by the track Volume
fader.
Peak Indicator Functions as a headroom indicator based on the last peak playback level. To reset the peak counter, click anywhere in the
meter. Values range from –∞ (no signal) to 0 dB.
Channel Delay Indicator Shows the total delay, in
samples, incurred on the track from the use of
any TDM plug-ins on that channel.
Pan Slider
Pan Indicator
Inputs/Outputs View
To show the I/O View:
■ Select Display > Edit Window Shows (or Mix
Windows Shows) > I/O View.
In Pro Tools 6.x, channel strips in the Mix
window always display Input and Output
Selectors as well as volume and pan values,
so there is no I/O View display option for the
Mix window.
For details on Input and Output Selectors, see
“Assigning Inputs and Outputs to Tracks” on
page 95.
Volume/Peak/Channel Delay
Indicator
The Volume indicator on an audio track has
three display modes: Volume, Peak, and Channel Delay.
To toggle the Volume indicator display:
■ Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the indicator to toggle it between
the following modes:
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Pan Indicator
The Pan Indicator displays the current pan setting of a track. Pan values range from <100 (full
left) to 100> (full right). Pan controls are only
available for stereo tracks or for mono tracks
routed to a stereo output.
Pan Slider
The Pan slider controls the balance of a track between the assigned output pair. It only appears
if you are using stereo tracks or mono tracks
routed to a stereo output.
The Pan slider on a MIDI track is effective only if
you are controlling a sound module that supports MIDI panning.
Volume Fader
The Volume fader controls the volume of a track
when it is in playback, and the monitor level of
the track when it is in record. You can link the
record and monitor levels by enabling the Operation Preference for “Link Record and Play Faders.”
The maximum fader gain for volume faders can
be set to either +6 dB or +12 dB for Pro Tools 6.4
or higher. Earlier versions of Pro Tools have a
maximum fader gain of +6 dB.
Selecting Fader Gain when Opening a Previously
Recorded Session
When opening a session created in a previous
version of Pro Tools, you are given the choice of
staying at +6 dB or updating to +12 dB.
When opening a session created in Pro Tools
6.4, the session is opened with your previously
saved fader gain settings.
Peak Hold
Pro Tools meters provide a Peak Hold feature
with three options: 3 Second, Infinite, or None.
To choose a Peak Hold setting:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences.
2 Click display.
3 Select a Peak Hold option.
Opening a +12 dB session in a previous version of
Pro Tools Sessions created and saved with a
+12 dB fader gain level can be opened in previous versions of Pro Tools. Breakpoints for volume automation above +6 dB will be lowered to
+6 dB.
The volume fader on a MIDI track is effective
only if you are controlling a sound module that
supports MIDI volume.
4 Click Done.
To clear a meter:
■
To clear all meters do one of the following:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) any meter.
■
Track Level Meter
On audio tracks, level meters indicate the level
of the signal being recorded or played back from
the hard drive. Green indicates nominal levels;
Yellow indicates pre-clipping (–6 dB below full
scale); and Red indicates clipping. When a track
is record-enabled, these meters indicate record
levels.
On MIDI tracks, the level meter shows the MIDI
velocity of the most recent MIDI event.
Pre- and Post-Fader Metering
You can globally set audio track level meters to
indicate pre-or post-fader levels by selecting or
de-selecting Operations > Pre-Fader Metering.
When pre-fader metering is selected, the level
meters show levels independent of fader position. With post-fader metering, the level meters
respond to fader position.
Click anywhere on the meter.
Choose Operations > Clear All Clips.
■ Press Alt-C (Windows) or Option-C (Macintosh).
Clip Indication (Pro Tools 6.4)
Pro Tools 6.4 meters provide Clip Indication
with three options: 3 Second, Infinite, or None.
If clipping occurs, the topmost LED will stay lit
(red).
Clip indicators appear in plug-in, send, and
track windows.
To choose a Clip Indication setting:
To choose a clip setting:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences.
2 Click display.
3 Select a Clip Indication option.
4 Click Done.
Chapter 8: Tracks
89
To clear a clipping meter:
■
Click anywhere on the meter.
To clear all clips:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) any meter.
To disable Wide Meters View:
■ Command-Option-Control-click the track
level meters a second time in either the Mix
window or the Edit window.
Delay Compensation View
(HD-series Systems with Pro Tools 6.4 Only)
To clear all clips (Pro Tools 6.4 and higher):
■
Choose Operations > Clear All Clips.
■ Press Alt-C (Windows) or Option-C (Macintosh).
Wide Meters View
The Delay Compensation View displays the total amount of plug-in delay on each track, lets
you apply a user offset of track delay, and displays the total amount of delay that Pro Tools
applies to each track. The Delay Compensation
View can be shown in the Mix Window.
(Pro Tools 6.x Only)
Wide Meters View expands the width of the
level meters for tracks in both the Mix and Edit
windows, to make the track level meters easier
to read. Wide Meters View also supports Narrow
Mix View.
To enable Wide Meters View:
Command-Option-Control-click the track
level meters in either the Mix window or the
Edit window.
■
Plug-in
Delay indicator
User Offset
Track Compensation
indicator
Delay Compensation view
To view Delay Compensation information:
■ Choose Display > Mix Window Shows > Delay
Compensation View.
Delay values can be specified in either samples
or milliseconds, as set in Display Preferences.
For more information, see “Delay Compensation” on page 428.
Track Comments View
Comments View shows any comments entered
in the Track Name/Comments dialog. You can
also type directly in the Track Comment area for
each track when it is displayed. For details, see
“Naming Tracks” on page 91.
To display the Comments View:
Wide Meters View, Mix and Edit windows
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
■ Select Display > Mix Window Shows (or Edit
Window Shows) > Comments.
3 Select the track format (mono, stereo, or one
Creating Tracks
On all systems, you can create mono and stereo
tracks. In addition, on Pro Tools HD-series and
MIX-series systems, you can create multichannel tracks.
When new tracks are created, they are given a
default name which can be changed at any time.
For new tracks to appear next to a specific
track in a session, select that track by clicking its
name (in its track channel strip). The new tracks
are added immediately after the selected track.
◆
For new tracks to appear as the last tracks in a
session, make sure that no track names are selected on-screen.
◆
of the multichannel surround formats) from the
Track Format pop-up menu. Surround formats
are available only on Pro Tools HD-series and
MIX-series systems.
To auto-scroll the format selector, press
Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) and use the Left/Right Arrow keys.
4 Enter the number of new tracks, then click
Create.
5 To configure which track controls appear in
the Mix window or Edit window, select from
Display > Mix Window Shows and Display >
Edit Window Shows.
Naming Tracks
To create a new track:
Track names are used to auto-name recorded audio files and regions (see “Default Track Names”
on page 144).
1 Choose File > New Track.
Track Format
Number of new tracks
Track Type
New Track dialog
2 Select the type of track you want to add from
the Track Type pop-up menu. For explanation of
track types, see “Track Types” on page 85.
To auto-scroll the Track Type pop-up in the
New Track dialog, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) and use
the Up/Down Arrow keys.
Track Name/Comments dialog
To rename a track:
1 In the Edit window or Mix window, double-
click the Track Name button for the track you
want to rename.
2 In the Track Name/Comments dialog, type a
new track name.
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91
3 Click Previous or Next to rename other displayed tracks.
To move to the previous or next track in the
Track Name/Comments dialog, you can
press Control (Windows) or Command
(Macintosh) and use the Up/Down or
Left/Right Arrows.
4 Click OK.
Adding Comments to Tracks
Track Position Numbering
(Pro Tools 6.4 Only)
Track Position Numbering assigns each track a
number corresponding to its position in the Mix
and Edit Windows. When tracks are reordered,
they are renumbered to maintain positional sequence.
To use track position numbering:
■ Choose Display > Display Track Position
Numbers
To enter comments for a track:
From the track channel strip, click directly in
the Comments area, type any comments for the
track, and press Enter (Windows) or Return
(Macintosh).
■
– or –
To navigate directly to any track:
1 Choose Operations > Scroll To Track Number
– or –
Press Control+Alt+G (Windows) or Command+Option+G (Macintosh).
■ In the Edit window or Mix window, doubleclick the Track Name button for a track. Then
click directly in the Comments area, type any
comments for the track, and press Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh).
To enter a carriage return in the Comments
text box, press Shift+Enter (Windows) or
Shift+Return (Macintosh) on the alpha keyboard.
Scroll To Track dialog
2 In the Scroll To Track dialog, enter the track
position number.
3 Click OK.
The track is selected, and the windows scroll as
follows:
• The Edit window tracks scroll to bring the selected track as close to the top as possible.
• The Mix window tracks scroll to bring the selected track as close to the left as possible.
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Deleting Tracks
When you delete tracks, your audio or MIDI region data will remain in the Regions List, but
your arrangement of the regions on the deleted
track (the track’s playlist) will be lost.
The Delete Selected Tracks command cannot be undone.
To delete a track:
Hiding Tracks
The Show/Hide Tracks List (at the left of both
the Mix and Edit windows) lists all tracks in the
session. It allows you to show or hide a track in
the Mix and Edit windows, by selecting or deselecting its name. Even though a track is hidden,
the material on the track will still play as part of
the session. Inactive tracks appear in italics in
the Show/Hide Tracks List.
1 Click the name of the track in its track chan-
Show/Hide Tracks pop-up menu
nel strip to select it.
To select multiple tracks, Shift-click additional track names.
2 Choose File > Delete Selected Tracks.
Track
Type
icon
3 Click OK to remove the selected tracks from
the session.
Duplicating Tracks
The Duplicate Selected Tracks command allows
you to duplicate one or more tracks, including
their audio or MIDI data, playlists, automation,
and other attributes.
Track Name
Show/Hide Tracks List
The pop-up menu at the top of the Show/Hide
Tracks List provides commands that allow you
to show or hide all tracks, tracks currently selected on-screen, or specific types of tracks (audio, MIDI, Auxiliary Input or Master Fader).
To duplicate a track:
1 Click the name of the track (in its track chan-
nel strip) to select it.
To select multiple tracks, Shift-click additional track names.
2 Choose File > Duplicate Selected Tracks. Each
duplicate track is created to the right of its original track.
Show Only option
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93
The Sort Tracks By command allows you to set
the track order according to Name, Type, Edit
Group, Mix Group or Voice. The sort order will
be reflected in the Show/Hide Tracks List in the
Edit Window and the Mix Window.
To show all tracks:
1 Click the Show/Hide button at the top of the
Show/Hide Tracks List.
2 From the pop-up menu, choose Show All
Tracks.
You can also show all tracks by Alt-clicking
(Windows) or Option-clicking (Macintosh)
the name of any track that is unhighlighted.
To hide all tracks:
1 Click the Show/Hide button at the top of the
Show/Hide Tracks List.
Sort Tracks By option
When a track that is a member of an active
group is hidden from view, editing operations
performed on other members of the group in
the Edit window will not affect the hidden track.
In the Mix window, however, all operations
other than record-enable will affect a hidden
track that is a member of an active group.
On TDM systems, even if a track is hidden
from view, its position relative to other
tracks still affects its voiceable track playback priority (see “Voiceable Tracks and
Track Priority” on page 98 for details).
To hide a track:
■ Click the highlighted name of the track in the
Show/Hide Tracks List.
To show a track that is currently hidden:
■ Click the unhighlighted name of the track in
the Show/Hide Tracks List.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
2 From the pop-up menu, choose Hide All
Tracks.
You can also hide all tracks by Alt-clicking
(Windows) or Option-clicking (Macintosh)
the name of any track that is highlighted.
To reorder tracks on-screen, drag the track
names to new positions within the
Show/Hide Tracks List.
About Groups and Show/Hide Tracks
Even if a track is hidden, if it is a member of an
enabled group, all Mix window operations performed on other members of the group will also
affect the hidden track—with the exception of audio or MIDI record-enabling. If you solo, mute,
or automation write-enable a grouped track, any
group members that are hidden will be soloed,
muted, or automation write-enabled as well.
In the Edit window, however, editing operations
performed on members of an enabled group will
not affect hidden tracks that are also members of
the enabled group.
About Clipping and Show/Hide Tracks
(HD-series Systems with Pro Tools 6.4 Only)
When a track, send, or plug-in clips, the
Show/Hide List displays the track’s name in red.
Both shown and hidden tracks display clipping
indication.
About Track Numbering and Show/Hide
Tracks
There are two ways to display track position
numbers when tracks are hidden.
• By default, numbers are only assigned to
tracks that are shown. Active tracks are then
numbered sequentially. Hidden tracks are unnumbered.
• When Track Numbers Stay With Hidden
Tracks is enabled in the Display Page of the
Preferences, tracks keep their track position
numbers even when hidden.
For stereo and multichannel surround tracks, inputs and outputs appear as stereo pairs and multichannel groups. The available inputs, outputs,
and busses are defined as paths in the I/O Setup
dialog (see Chapter 7, “I/O Setup”).
Automatic Input and Output
Assignments
When adding tracks to a new session, inputs are
automatically assigned in ascending order. For
example, if you have an audio interface with
eight inputs, creating four new mono audio
tracks will automatically add four audio tracks
with inputs assigned to the first four paths defined in the I/O Setup dialog. When creating stereo tracks, inputs are automatically assigned to
ascending input pairs.
The outputs automatically assigned to new
tracks are determined by the Default Output defined in the I/O Setup dialog.
Assigning Audio Track Inputs
Assigning Inputs and Outputs
to Tracks
Inputs for audio tracks and Auxiliary Input
tracks can be assigned to audio interface channels or busses. Outputs for audio tracks, Auxiliary Input tracks, and Master Fader tracks can be
assigned to audio interface channels or busses.
Track set to
Audio Input 2
Track set to
No Input
Track set to
Bus 2
Input/output assignments for three mono audio tracks
(Audio and Auxiliary Input Tracks)
To assign an audio track input:
1 In order to assign audio track inputs in the
Edit window, select Display > Edit Window
Show > I/O View.
2 In the Mix or Edit window, click the track In-
put Selector and choose from the available audio interface channels and busses. Stereo and
multichannel surround tracks have inputs available as pairs and multichannel groups.
The Input Selector allows you to route any audio
input or any of the Pro Tools internal busses to
an audio track or an Auxiliary Input track. The
choices available in this pop-up menu are determined by the I/O Setup configuration. Inputs in
use by another track appear as bold in the Input
Selector.
Chapter 8: Tracks
95
The Output Selector allows you to route a track
to any configured audio output or internal bus.
The choices available in this pop-up menu are
determined by the I/O Setup configuration.
Outputs in use by another track appear as bold
in the Input Selector.
‘
Assigning Audio Track Outputs
If you want to auto-assign all visible tracks to
unique mono sub-path outputs in ascending order, Control-Alt-click (Windows) or CommandOption-click (Macintosh) the Output Selector of
the left-most track and assign it to the sub-path
for Output #1. All visible tracks will be auto-assigned to unique mono sub-path outputs in ascending order.
(Audio Tracks, Auxiliary Inputs, Master
Faders)
To remove an output assignment:
To assign an audio track output:
■ Select No Output from the Output Selector.
Playlists become dimmed for tracks with no output assignment.
Audio track Input Selector
To remove an input assignment:
■
Select No Input from the Input Selector.
1 In order to assign audio track outputs in the
Edit window, select Display > Edit Window
Show > I/O View.
2 In the Mix or Edit window, click the track Output Selector and choose from the available audio interface channels and busses. Stereo and
multichannel surround tracks have outputs
available as pairs and multichannel groups.
Assigning an audio track, Auxiliary Input,
or Master Fader to “No Output” will cause
its automation data for pan and plug-in
controls to be lost.
Track Priority and Voice
Assignment
Pro Tools TDM systems provide a certain number of voices (simultaneous channels of audio
playback and recording), depending on the system. For example, a Pro Tools|HD 1 system can
provide up to 96 voices of audio playback and
recording, at 44.1 or 48 kHz. For details on TDM
system capabilities, see Table 3 on page 7.
Audio track Output Selector
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pro Tools LE systems provide up to 32 voices of
simultaneous audio playback and recording, depending on the system. For details on LE system
capabilities, see Table 5 on page 10.
Track Priority
While your Pro Tools hardware allows a fixed
number of voices, Pro Tools TDM software (and
Pro Tools LE 6.x software) allow for additional
audio tracks beyond that fixed number of
voices. While all of these tracks can be recorded
or imported, arranged, and cued for playback,
not all of them can be played back simultaneously.
On TDM systems, you can also assign specific
voices to tracks so that those voices are shared
by more than one track. This combination of
playback/record tracks and shared voiced tracks
comprises the total number of voiceable tracks on
a TDM system. See “Voiceable Tracks and Track
Priority” on page 98.
When the number of tracks exceeds the number
of available voices, tracks with lower priority
may not be heard. For these situations,
Pro Tools assigns priorities to tracks that compete for the available voices. Because there can
be more tracks than available voices, Pro Tools
provides multiple ways of adjusting the playback priority of audio tracks.
■ In the Mix window, drag the Track Name button to the left of other tracks in the session.
Tracks at the left of the Mix window have higher
priority than those on the right.
■ In the Show/Hide Tracks List, drag the track
name to a higher position in the list. Tracks at
the top of this list have higher priority than
those below.
You can also adjust the relative priority of tracks
by freeing up the voices of individual tracks,
making them available to other tracks in the session.
To free up the voice of a track, do one of the
following:
■ Click the Voice selector of the track and set it
to Off.
■ Deactivate the track by Control-Start-clicking
(Windows) or Command-Control-clicking
(Macintosh) its track type icon in the Mix window.
■ Make sure the track does not have an output
or send assignment.
Changing a Track’s Playback Priority
■ On TDM systems, you can temporarily free a
track’s voice during playback by muting it (see
“Mute Frees Assigned Voice” on page 102).
Tracks with higher positions (leftmost in the
Mix window or topmost in the Edit window)
have priority over tracks in lower positions in a
session.
Voice Assignment
To increase a track’s priority, do any of the
following:
In the Edit window, drag the Track Name button above other tracks in the session. Tracks at
the top of the Edit window have higher priority
than those below.
■
A track’s voice assignment can be turned off or
set to be dynamically allocated, and on TDM
systems, can also be assigned to a specific voice
number. When the tracks in a session are set to
Dyn (called Auto in Pro Tools 6.3 and below),
Pro Tools automatically takes care of voice management in the background, assigning voices
not in use by other tracks.
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97
On TDM systems, tracks assigned to a specific
voice number take priority over dynamically allocated tracks. To ensure a track is heard, or that
it is available for QuickPunch or TrackPunch recording, assign a voice number to that track.
Pro Tools LE 6.x supports auto voicing
only; it does not support individual voice
assignments.
For stereo and multichannel tracks, voices appear in pairs and multichannel groups. Voices
already assigned to another track appear in bold
in the Voice Selector pop-up menu.
To assign all audio tracks to successive voices:
■ While pressing Control+Alt (Windows) or
Command+Option (Macintosh), select the starting voice number from the Voice Selector for the
track at the top of the Edit window, or at the far
left of the Mix window.
The voice is assigned to the first track, with successive voices assigned to tracks (with the same
format) of lower priority.
To assign all selected audio tracks to successive
voices:
1 Select the audio tracks by Shift-clicking their
To set the voice assignment for a track:
■ Click the Voice Selector and set the track to
Dyn (Auto in Pro Tools 6.3 and below), Off, or
(on TDM systems) select a voice number.
names.
2 While pressing Control+Alt+Shift (Windows)
or Command+Option+Shift (Macintosh), select
the starting voice number from the Voice Selector for the top (Edit window) or left (Mix window) selected track.
The voice is assigned to the starting track, with
successive voices assigned to currently selected
tracks (with the same format) of lower priority.
Voiceable Tracks and Track Priority
(TDM Systems Only)
Voice Selector for stereo audio track (Pro Tools 6.4)
Automatic Assignment of Ascending
Voices
(TDM Systems Only)
You can automatically assign all tracks or all selected tracks to successive voices. For example,
you may want to select eight audio tracks and
reassign them to voices 9–16.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pro Tools TDM systems feature voice borrowing,
(called dynamic voice allocation in Pro Tools 6.3
and below) which allows you to assign more
than one track to the same voice. The track with
the highest priority takes over that voice, but
when a hole opens up in the higher-priority
track, its shared voice is temporarily available,
and the track with the next highest priority
“pops through” and begins to play. When the
original track returns, the track that had popped
through relinquishes the shared voice to the
higher priority track.
The following example demonstrates the concept of voice borrowing:
Setting MIDI Input and Output
Assigning MIDI Track Input
“Rhythm” regions play when there is no “Lead” region
In the above illustration, the two visible tracks
are assigned to the same voice. There is an open
area in the top track where no region appears. At
this point, the voice is free since it is not being
used, and the next highest priority track assigned to that voice (the bottom track) pops
through the open area and plays.
By experimenting with track priority, voice assignment, and arranging regions so that they are
positioned to “pop through” holes in higher priority tracks, you can find many useful ways to
share voiceable tracks in your TDM system.
This MIDI Input Selector allows you to choose
which MIDI device and channel a MIDI track is
receiving input from. This allows you to set up
Pro Tools to record multiple MIDI tracks in the
same record pass. Channels in use by another
track input appear as bold in the MIDI Input Selector.
To assign a MIDI track input:
1 In the Edit window, select Display > Edit Win-
dow Show > I/O View.
2 In the Mix window, click the track’s MIDI In-
put Selector and assign the device and channel
that will be recorded.
MIDI Input Selector
Chapter 8: Tracks
99
Assigning MIDI Track Output
MIDI tracks can be assigned to one or more
MIDI device channels with the Device/Channel
Selector. When assigned to multiple channels,
all material in the track is sent to all assigned
channels.
MIDI tracks in Pro Tools cannot contain multiple channels of MIDI data.
To assign a MIDI track (and all its regions) to a
specific MIDI device channel:
■ Click the track’s MIDI Device/Channel Selector and assign a device and channel from the
pop-up menu. Channels already assigned to another track appear bold in this menu.
Soloing and Muting Tracks
The Solo and Mute buttons can be engaged at
any time during playback. The Solo and Mute
buttons affect MIDI as well as audio tracks. It is
possible to have more than one track soloed or
muted at the same time in a session.
Grouping affects mute and solo behavior as
well. Normally, muting or soloing a track that is
a member of an active mix group will mute or
solo all other tracks that are a member of that
active mix group as well. However, by changing
the Mute and Solo settings in the Pro Tools Preferences dialog, you can disable this behavior.
To disable group muting of tracks:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click Auto-
mation.
2 Deselect the Mutes Follow Groups option, and
click Done.
With this option deselected, muting a track that
is a member of an active group does not affect
other members of the group.
You can also mute or solo individual members of a group by holding down the Start
key (Windows) or Control key (Macintosh)
while selecting the track’s Mute or Solo button.
To disable group soloing of tracks:
MIDI Device/Channel Selector
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click Auto-
mation.
To assign multiple destinations to a single MIDI
track:
Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the MIDI Device/Channel Selector and
select additional channels from any device.
2 Deselect the Solos Follow Groups option, and
click Done.
■
For details on recording and importing MIDI
data, see Chapter 13, “MIDI Recording.”
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
With this option deselected, soloing a track that
is a member of an active group does not affect
other members of the group.
Solo Button
Solo Safe Mode
The Solo button mutes other tracks so that the
chosen track can be auditioned alone. Normally
solos are latched, that is, pressing subsequent
solo buttons adds them to the soloed mix of
tracks. Pro Tools lets you unlatch solos, so that
pressing an additional Solo button un-solos any
previously soloed tracks.
Pro Tools also allows you to solo safe a track.
This prevents the track from being muted even
if you solo other tracks. This feature is useful for
tracks such as Auxiliary Inputs that are being
used as a submix of audio tracks, or effects returns, allowing the audio or effects track to remain in a mix even when other tracks are soloed. It is also useful to solo safe MIDI tracks so
that their playback is not affected when you
solo audio tracks.
To solo tracks:
1 Click the Solo button on a track. The button is
highlighted and all other tracks are muted.
2 Click the Solo button on another track. The
buttons for both tracks are highlighted and all
other tracks are muted.
To un-solo tracks:
■
To solo safe a track:
■ Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the Solo button on the track. This
prevents the track from being muted even if you
solo other tracks. The Solo button changes to a
transparent color in Solo Safe mode.
Click the Solo button on soloed tracks.
To return a solo safe track to normal:
To unlatch solo buttons:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Opera-
■ Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the Solo button on the track again.
tion.
2 Deselect the Latch Solo Buttons option and
click Done. With this option disabled, pressing
an additional Solo button un-solos any previously soloed tracks.
Mute Button
The Mute button silences a chosen track. More
than one track can be muted at one time. If Operations > Mute Frees Assigned Voice (TDM systems only) is enabled, muting a track will allocate its voice to the next highest priority
voiceable track (assigned to the same voice).
To mute a track:
■ Click the Mute button on the track. The track
is grayed-out and muted.
To unmute a track:
■
Click the Mute button again.
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101
Mute Frees Assigned Voice
To toggle a track active/inactive:
(TDM Systems Only)
■ Control-Start-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the Track Type Indicator in the Mix window.
Selecting Operations > Mute Frees Assigned
Voice and muting a track disables playback of
that track, and surrenders control of its voice to
the next highest priority track with the same
voice assignment.
With this option enabled, there may be a delay
(ranging in length from one to several seconds
depending on the processing power of your system) between the time you mute or unmute a
track and when you hear the effect on playback.
To avoid this delay, make sure that the Mute
Frees Assigned Voice option is disabled. Another
factor that can cause delays is your DAE Playback Buffer Size setting. Playback Buffer Size is
set in the Playback Engine dialog. The larger the
playback buffer you choose, the longer the potential lag time between the time you click the
Mute button and the onset of muting.
Muting a track with Mute Frees Assigned
Voice enabled does not free up the voice for
QuickPunch recording.
Track Type Indicator
Toggling a track active/inactive
Playlists for inactive tracks are dimmed and
track controls are grayed out.
To make one or more tracks inactive:
1 Click the name of the track (in its track channel strip) to select it.
To select multiple tracks, Shift-click additional track names.
2 Choose File > Make Selected Tracks Inactive.
Adjusting Track Width
Mix Window
Making Tracks Inactive
(All TDM Systems and Pro Tools LE 6.x Only)
Audio, Auxiliary Input, and Master Fader tracks
can be made inactive. Inactive tracks use no DSP
or voices. Plug-ins, sends, voices, and automation on inactive tracks are all disabled. Tracks
may also be automatically made inactive if a session is opened on a system with less DSP power
than the system that it was created on.
MIDI tracks cannot be made inactive.
The Narrow Mix Window command allows you
to view all tracks/channels in the Mix window
at a reduced width to conserve screen space in a
large session. (See “Track Height” on page 210,
to adjust track height in the Edit Window.)
To reduce the width of tracks in the Mix window:
■
Select Display > Narrow Mix Window.
To display tracks at normal width:
■
Deselect Display > Narrow Mix Window.
You can toggle track width by pressing Control-Alt+M (Windows) or Command+Option+M (Macintosh).
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Color Coding Tracks
Grouping Tracks
The Display Preference for Edit Window Color
Coding determines how colors are assigned to
waveforms and MIDI data in the Edit window.
Colors can be based on groups, voice assignment for audio tracks, and channels or devices
for MIDi tracks.
Pro Tools provides a relative grouping function
for linking tracks and their controls. Groups can
be applied to either the Mix or Edit window, or
both.
Color coding of voices is especially useful when
working with tracks assigned to the same voice.
Since tracks assigned to the same voice share the
same color, you can easily identify and arrange
regions so that they do not overlap or conflict
with other regions on tracks assigned to the
same voice.
To configure Edit Window Color Coding:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click the Display tab.
2 Select one of the following color coding op-
tions:
None Turns off color assignment for tracks in
the Edit window.
Tracks and MIDI Channels Assigns a color to
each track in the Edit window according to its
voice and MIDI channel assignment.
Tracks and MIDI Devices Assigns a color to each
track in the Edit window according to its voice
and MIDI device assignment.
Groups Assigns a color to each track in the Edit
window according to its group ID. If groups are
suspended using the Suspend Groups command, all waveforms are displayed in black.
3 Click Done to close the Preferences dialog.
Groups are useful for editing several tracks in exactly the same way, or for mixing several tracks
(such as a pair of stereo tracks or a submix) while
keeping them at the same relative volume level.
Pro Tools provides the following grouping features:
• Up to 26 different groups
• Nested groups (subgroups within groups)
• Grouped faders or controllers preserve their
levels relative to each other
Grouping can affect the following track parameters:
• Volume levels
• Solos
• Mutes
• Automation modes
• Send levels
• Send mutes
• Track view
• Track height
• Editing functions
Grouping does not affect these parameters:
• Record enables
• Panning
• Send panning
• Voice assignment
• Output assignment
• Inserting plug-ins
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103
Using the Groups List
Group Symbols
The Pro Tools grouping functions are located at
the left side of the Mix or Edit window in the
Groups List. This scrolling window contains the
names of all the groups in your session, as well
as a pop-up menu for accessing grouping commands. From this menu, you can select and enable groups.
There are three types of Group symbols, as
shown in the following figure:
By default, every session has a group named All,
which includes every track in the session. The
All group cannot be edited or deleted.
To the left of each name in the Groups List is a
letter denoting its Group ID (“a” through “z”),
and to the left of that, a symbol indicating
whether that group is selected in the current
window (either the Edit or Mix window).
Click to
select a
group by
typing its
letter
Group pop-up menu
Click to
select group
members
on-screen
Click to
activate a
group
Click to
deactivate a
group
Group IDs
Groups List
Click to hide
Groups List
Filled In Circle
Hollow Circle
Circle with a Dot
Groups Symbols
The Group symbols indicate the following:
Filled-in Circle Indicates that all members of the
group are currently selected, and no members
from outside the group are selected.
Hollow Circle Indicates that only some members
of the group are currently selected.
Circle with a Dot Indicates that all members of
the group are currently selected, plus additional
members outside the group.
Show/Hide Groups Pop-up Menu
The Show/Hide Groups pop-up menu allows
you to show or hide the tracks in a group, or
show only the tracks in a group. Click and hold
directly on the group name to display the popup menu, then select the Show/Hide option.
Show/Hide Groups pop-up menu
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Groups Pop-up Menu
3 Enter a name for the group.
The Groups pop-up menu contains commands
that allow you to create, delete and suspend
groups, as follows:
New Group dialog
Groups pop-up menu
New Group This command lets you create a new
group. You must first select two or more
tracks/channel strips on-screen to do this.
Display This command lets you toggle the
Groups List display to either Mix Groups or Edit
Groups. If all of your groups apply to both Editing and Mixing, the Groups List will be the same
for both.
4 Choose the type of group to create: Edit
Group, Mix Group, or Edit and Mix Group.
5 Choose a Group ID (“a”–“z”).
6 Click OK to add the new group to the Groups
List.
Editing Groups
Changing the Members of a Group
Suspend All Groups This command allows you
to temporarily toggle all active groups off.
Delete Group This command lets you permanently remove a group from the Groups List.
You must first select a Group Name in the
Groups List to do this.
Creating Groups
To create a group:
1 Shift-click the Track Names for the tracks you
want to include in the group to select them.
You can add or remove members from a group
at any time.
To change the members of a group:
1 Shift-click the Track Names for the tracks you
want to include in the group to select them.
2 Choose File > Group Selected Tracks from the
Group pop-up menu.
3 In the dialog that appears, select the Group ID
that you want to update.
4 Click OK.
Selecting tracks to be grouped
2 Choose New Group from the Group pop-up
menu, or choose File > Group Selected Tracks.
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Renaming a Group
Linking Mix and Edit Groupings
You can rename a group at any time.
The “Link Mix and Edit Group Enables” option
links group enabling between the Mix and Edit
windows.
To rename a group:
1 In the Groups List, double-click to the left of
the group’s name (in the area with the circular
symbols).
2 In the dialog that appears, enter a new name
for the group. (You can also change the group’s
type.)
3 Click OK.
Deleting a Group
A group can be deleted at any time. You cannot
undo this action.
Pro Tools allows you to create groups that are
both Mix and Edit groups, but in some cases you
may prefer not to link enabling of Mix and Edit
groups. For example, when you are using the
Mix window for mixing, you may prefer to work
with large, nested groups. However, in the Edit
window, you may want to perform editing tasks
within a smaller group. You could disable the
Link Mix and Edit Group Enables preference.
This would allow you to work with different
groups in the two windows.
To unlink Mix and Edit groups:
To delete a group:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Opera-
1 In the Groups List, select the name of the
tion.
group (or groups) you want to delete.
2 Click the Group pop-up menu and choose De-
lete Group.
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2 Deselect the “Link Mix and Edit Group En-
ables” option and click Done.
Enabling Groups
Keyboard Selection of Groups
Editing operations are not applied to members
of a group that are hidden with the Show/Hide
Tracks List. Mix operations (with the exception
of record-enabling of tracks) are applied to hidden tracks.
The Groups List Key Focus allows you to type a
Group ID letter to automatically toggle that
group’s enable status.
Pro Tools allows you to create separate groups
for editing and mixing. You set this option
when you use the New Group command.
Groups that apply to both editing and mixing
can be decoupled.
◆ In the Mix window, the Groups List Key Focus
is always enabled.
◆ In the Edit window, you need to enable the
Groups List Key Focus to use it.
To enable the Edit Groups List Key Focus:
■ Click the a–z button in upper right of the Edit
Groups List.
To enable a group:
– or –
In the Groups List, click the name of the
group you want to enable. The group name is
highlighted to indicate that it is enabled.
■
■ Press Control+Alt+4 (Windows) or Command+Option+4 (Macintosh).
To enable additional groups, click their names
in the Groups List. It is not necessary to Shiftclick to enable or disable multiple groups.
Moving a fader of a group member will cause all
other group members to move relative to it. If a
fader belongs to multiple groups, and the
groups conflict when faders are moved, the
fader will follow the topmost or “parent” group
that it belongs to.
To disable a group:
Groups List Key Focus enabled
To enable and disable groups using the Edit and
Mix Groups List Key Focus:
■ With Group List Key Focus enabled, type the
Group ID letter (a–z) to automatically enable or
disable the corresponding group.
In the Groups List, click the name of the
group you want to disable. The group name is
unhighlighted to indicate that it is not enabled.
■
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Chapter 9: Importing and Exporting
Session Data
Pro Tools allows you to import a variety of data
into a session, including audio and MIDI files,
video files, track playlists, I/O configurations,
and signal routing configurations.
Audio files of the following types can be imported into Pro Tools sessions:
You can import audio and MIDI files into a session, or transfer entire audio or MIDI tracks,
along with all of their attributes, from another
session. Additionally, on TDM systems, you also
have the option of importing any combination
of track attributes from another session, such as
a track’s audio or MIDI playlists, signal routing,
plug-ins, or automation. See “Importing Audio”
on page 109 and “Importing Tracks and Track
Attributes” on page 114.
• SD II
Importing Audio
Audio files and regions can be imported to new
tracks, or they can be imported into the Audio
Regions List, where they can be dragged to existing tracks.
• AIFF
• WAV or BWF (.WAV)
• SD I
• MP3 (with purchase of MP3 Option)
• Sound Resource (AIFL—Macintosh only)
• WMA (Windows Media—Windows only)
• QuickTime (Macintosh only)
• RealAudio (Pro Tools 6.1 and lower on Windows, and Pro Tools 5.x on Macintosh)
Supported files and regions can be auditioned
before they are imported.
If region definitions are present in an audio file,
you can convert and import the audio for a region without importing the entire parent audio
file.
Files of types that are not supported in the session must be converted when importing. Files
with sample rates that are different from the
sample rate of the current session must be converted in order for the files to play back at the
correct pitch and speed.
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Copying, Adding, and Converting Audio
Copy
Depending on the properties of the audio files
you are importing, you can add, copy, or convert the files. The following options appear in
the Import Audio dialog when they are applicable to the selected audio file.
If a file can be added to your session, you will
also be given the option to copy it. This option
creates a copy of the audio file and places it in a
folder you choose. When you copy an audio file,
the session references the copied file in its new
location.
Add
Audio files that are of the same file type and bit
depth as a session can be added directly to the
session. When you add an audio file, the session
references the original audio file in its original
location. Use this option when you don’t want
to use extra hard drive space for audio files that
are already of the same bit depth and sample
rate as your session.
Pro Tools does allow audio files that are not the
session’s native file type to be added to the session. For example, Windows sessions allow AIFF
or WAV files to be added to any session, and
Macintosh sessions allow SDII, AIFF, or WAV
files to be added to any session. However, sessions with mixed file types will have reduced
performance.
Audio files that are of a different bit depth than
the session must be converted before they can
be imported.
Pro Tools allows you to add files to a session that are at a different sample rate than
your session. In the comments field of the
Import Audio dialog, a warning is posted
that these files will play back at the wrong
speed and pitch if they are not converted.
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Use Copy to move audio from an unsupported
or removable drive to an audio drive, or to archive audio files for a session to a specific location.
Convert
Audio files that are not of the same bit depth or
sample rate as a session, or audio files that are of
an incompatible file type (such as SD II files in
Windows) must be converted to be used with
the session. When an audio file is converted, a
new file with the correct bit depth, file type, and
sample rate is created and placed in a folder you
choose.
The quality of sample rate conversion used by
Pro Tools is determined by the Preference for
Conversion Quality. For details, see “Conversion Quality” on page 111.
Importing Stereo Files
When using the Import Audio to Tracks command, interleaved stereo files are automatically
imported to stereo tracks.
Split stereo (dual mono) audio files can be automatically imported to stereo tracks. Split stereo
audio files must have the channel identifiers
“.L” and “.R” in their names (for example, filename.L and filename.R), and the files must be the
same length. In Windows, or in Mac/PC Compatibility mode, these files will have a 3-letter
file extension appended after the “.L” or “.R”
channel identifier.
Conversion Quality
The Conversion Quality Preference determines
the quality of sample rate conversion used when
converting and importing audio into a session.
There are five possible settings, ranging from
Low to Tweak Head. The higher the quality, and
the larger the conversion, the longer it will take.
To set the sample rate conversion quality:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click Edit-
ing.
Importing Audio Files and
Regions
Pro Tools provides several ways to import audio
files and regions into an open session. This section provides steps using Pro Tools menu commands, or the Pro Tools icon or alias.
For additional ways to import audio files, see
“Importing Audio Files with Drag & Drop from a
DigiBase Browser” on page 113. To import audio
from CDs (Macintosh only), see “Importing Audio from an Audio CD” on page 114.
2 From the Conversion Quality pop-up menu,
select a quality setting.
To import audio files or regions into a session
(from the Pro Tools File menu):
1 Choose File > Import Audio to Track to import
audio files and automatically place them in new
tracks.
– or –
Choose Import Audio from the Audio Regions
List pop-up menu to import audio into the Audio Regions List without automatically creating
new tracks.
Conversion Quality preference
For most applications, the Good or Better setting will yield very good results.
3 Click Done.
To import entire tracks from other sessions, see
“Imports any Pro Tools mic preamplifier settings from the source session. Any mic preamplifier settings in the destination session are replaced.” on page 121.
Chapter 9: Importing and Exporting Session Data
111
2 At the top of the Import Audio dialog, select
an audio file to display its properties and associated regions.
4 To place a file or region in the import list (on
the right in Windows, or in the lower right of
the dialog on a Macintosh), select the file (Shiftclick to select multiple files) and click Add or
Convert. You can also click Add All or Convert
All to import all regions and files in the current
directory.
In the import list, audio files are distinguished
from regions by their icons.
Audio File icon
Audio Region icon
File and Region icons in the Import Audio dialog
5 To remove a file or region from the import list
on the right, select it and click Remove. To remove all regions or files, click Remove All.
Figure 6. Import Audio dialog (Pro Tools 6.4)
You can choose to display only a certain file
type (such as AIFF) by selecting the type from
the Show pop-up menu. To display all supported file types, select All Documents from the
Show pop-up menu.
On the Macintosh, Sound Resource files
must have the “.SFIL” extension to be imported by Pro Tools.
3 To audition a selected file or region before you
import it, click the Play and Stop buttons.
Adjust playback volume with the vertical slider.
To navigate to a particular location in the file,
use the horizontal slider under the Play and Stop
buttons.
The audition output defaults to channels 1–2.
On TDM systems, the audition output channels
can be changed in I/O Setup or Hardware Setup.
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6 Once the audio files and regions have been
added to the import list, click Done.
7 If you are copying or converting files, you are
prompted to choose a location for the new audio files. Choose a folder on a valid audio drive,
such as the Audio Files folder for your current
session.
If you chose File > Import Audio to Track, the
files and regions are imported to new audio
tracks, and also appear as regions in the Audio
Regions List.
If you chose Import Audio from the Audio Regions List, the files and regions appear as regions
in the Audio Regions List.
To import audio files into a session, using the
Pro Tools application icon or alias:
1 Open or create a new session.
2 From the desktop, locate the audio files you
want to import. Make sure the files match the
session’s file type, bit depth, and sample rate.
Audio files must be in WAV, SDII, or AIFF/AIFC
format in order to be dropped into Pro Tools.
Audio files will be converted if they are not of
the correct bit depth or number of channels.
They will be converted to mono files of the default audio file format, with the session’s bit
depth and sample rate.
3 Drag the audio files onto the Pro Tools appli-
cation icon or alias.
Importing Audio Files with
Drag & Drop from a DigiBase
Browser
You can import audio by dragging it directly
from a DigiBase browser into the Edit window of
the current session.
To import audio into the Audio Regions List:
1 Select audio files in a DigiBase browser.
2 Drag the files onto the Audio Regions List of
the current session.
To import audio into an existing track:
1 Select audio files in a DigiBase browser.
2 Drag the files onto an existing track in the Edit
window of the current session.
To import audio into new tracks:
1 Select audio files in a DigiBase browser.
2 Shift-drag the files and drag them anywhere in
the Edit window of the current session.
– or –
Drag the files onto any empty space in the Edit
window of the current session.
For more information on using DigiBase
browsers, refer to the DigiBase Guide.
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113
Importing Audio from an
Audio CD
Importing Tracks and Track
Attributes
(Macintosh Only)
You can import entire tracks from other
Pro Tools sessions into the current Pro Tools session using the Import Session Data command.
On TDM systems, you can choose which attributes of those tracks you want to import.
Pro Tools lets you import tracks from an audio
CD using the DigiBase drag and drop feature or
the Import Audio From Other Movie command.
Since the transfer is made in the digital domain,
there is no signal loss.
Before importing CD audio, make sure your
hard drive has enough space for both the imported movie file and the converted audio files.
For example, on TDM systems, you can choose
to import only the track’s audio into your current Pro Tools mixer. This is analogous to
“changing the tape reel” in a traditional studio
setup with a tape machine and mixing console.
Or, you can choose to import all of a track’s
mixer settings without its audio, effectively importing a channel strip and using it on a track in
your current session. By importing mixer settings for all of the tracks in a session or session
template, you can reuse an entire Pro Tools
mixer on all the sessions in a project.
To import a CD audio track:
To import tracks or their attributes:
1 Insert the audio CD into your CD-ROM drive.
1 Open or create a new session.
2 Select the audio track in a DigiBase browser.
2 Choose File > Import Session Data, select the
session to import data from, and click Open.
The sample rate for audio CDs is 44.1 kHz.
Therefore, if your session’s sample rate is set to
48 kHz or higher, Pro Tools will convert the
sample rate for the imported audio. Before importing CD audio, set the Conversion Quality
Preference accordingly. See “Conversion Quality” on page 111 for details.
3 Drag the file onto the Audio Regions List of
the current session.
Pro Tools converts the CD audio track to the session’s audio file format, bit depth, and sample
rate, and saves it on your hard drive.
Drag the session file whose tracks or attributes
you want to import from a DigiBase browser
into the track playlist area in the current session’s Edit window.
The imported audio file appears in the Audio Regions List. From there you can drag the region to
a track in your session.
For details on using DigiBase to import
tracks, refer to the DigiBase Guide.
DigiBase offers additional ways to import
audio from CDs with drag and drop. See
“Importing Audio Files with Drag & Drop
from a DigiBase Browser” on page 113.
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3 If the Fader Gain of the sessions are different,
you will be prompted to keep or change Fader
Gain before the Session Data dialog opens.
4 Select the tracks to import by clicking the
track names in the Source Tracks list. (If the current Pro Tools system does not support surround mixing, surround tracks are not displayed
in the Source Tracks list.) To select multiple contiguous tracks, Shift-click the track names. To select multiple non-contiguous tracks, Controlclick (Windows) or Command-click (Macintosh) the track names.
13 If you chose to copy or consolidate media,
choose a location to place the media files.
Imported tracks are made inactive if their
source media is unavailable, or if the current session does not contain an equivalent
output path.
Importing Grouped Playlists from Other
Sessions
5 On TDM systems, for each track you select,
you can choose to import it as a new track, or
choose a destination track from the corresponding pop-up menu. Click Find Matching Tracks to
automatically match source and destination
tracks with the same names.
6 On TDM systems, select from among the
Track Playlist options to choose how you want
to import the source tracks.
7 If applicable, choose options for how media
files should be imported from the Audio Media
Options and the Video Media Options pop-up
menus.
With Pro Tools 6.1 and higher, you can import
tracks that use Grouped Playlists from another
Pro Tools session, and the playlist grouping
function will remain intact for those imported
tracks. There is, however, a restriction for importing from pre-Pro Tools 6.1 sessions. After
importing a partial set of grouped playlists (such
as tracks 1–7 of a 10-track group), you cannot
subsequently import tracks 8–10 and have them
“rejoin” the playlist group for tracks 1–7.
However, it is possible to perform this function
when importing from sessions created in
Pro Tools 6.1.
8 Choose the Time Code Mapping option for
imported data.
9 If the sample rates of the sessions are different,
select the sample rate for the source session from
the Source Sample Rate pop-up menu.
10 To import the meter and tempo maps from
the source session, select the Import
Tempo/Meter Map option.
11 On TDM systems, to import any mic pre set-
tings from the source session, select the Import
Mic Pre Settings option.
12 Click OK when you are finished.
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115
Import Session Data Dialog
Source Properties
The Import Session Data dialog lets you view the
properties of the source session, select which
tracks to import, and on TDM systems, choose
which attributes of those tracks you want to import into the current session.
The Import Session data dialog displays properties for the source session. These properties include source session name, session type, start
time of the session, audio bit depth, and sample
rate. For Pro Tools 5.1 or higher sessions, the
program that created the session and the session’s audio file type are listed.
Audio Media Options
Refer to Source Media (Where Possible) This option lets you avoid duplicating audio files by referring to the original files when possible. If the
source files do not reside on supported playback
media (such as a CD-ROM), or if they require bit
depth or sample rate conversion, the source files
are copied instead. This option allows the current session to refer to files that do not match
the current session’s audio file format.
Import Session Data dialog (Pro Tools TDM 6.x)
Copy from Source Media This option copies all
audio files related to the imported tracks from
the source media to a new specified location,
and converts the files to the current session’s audio file format, bit depth, and sample rate if necessary. This is useful if you are importing tracks
from a source such as CD-ROM or shared storage, and you want to place the audio files on a
different hard drive.
Consolidate from Source Media This option consolidates audio while copying it. This is useful if
you want to copy only the regions of the audio
files used in the source tracks, without copying
unused audio. This option copies and converts
consolidated audio to the current session’s audio file format, bit depth, and sample rate if necessary.
Import Session Data dialog (Pro Tools LE 6.x)
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When you choose this option, you can also
choose the size of the handle (in milliseconds)
applied to consolidated audio. Handle is the
amount of the original audio file that is preserved before and after each region in case you
need to make any edits to the new regions.
Force to Target Session Format (Convert Audio
Media to New Session Format in Pro Tools 6.0)
This option copies and converts any files that do
not match the current session’s file format, bit
depth, and sample rate. Files that do match the
current session’s file type, bit depth and sample
rate are referred to directly and not copied.
Video Media Options
You can either choose to leave video media files
in their original locations or copy them to a new
location. This is useful if you are importing
tracks from a source such as CD-ROM or shared
storage, and you want to place video files on a
different drive.
Time Code Mapping Options
You can specify where the imported tracks are
placed in the current session. Times are indicated in time code for all TDM systems and
Pro Tools LE systems with DV Toolkit, and minutes:seconds for other Pro Tools LE systems.
Maintain Absolute Time Code Values This option
places tracks at the locations where they were located in the source session. For example, if the
current session starts at 00:01:00:00, and the session from which you are importing starts at
10:00:00:00, the earliest imported tracks can appear in your session is 9 hours and 59 minutes
after the start of the session.
Maintain Relative Time Code Values This option
places tracks at the same offset from session start
as they had in the source session. For example, if
the source session starts at 01:00:00:00 and contains a track that starts at 01:01:00:00, and the
current session start is 02:00:00:00, the track
will be placed at 02:01:00:00 in the current session.
Map Start Time Code to hh:mm:ss:ff (All TDM Systems and Pro Tools LE Systems with DV Toolkit) or
hh:mm:ss (Pro Tools LE Systems without DV Toolkit) This option places tracks relative to their
original session start time. For example, on a
TDM system, or Pro Tools LE system with DV
Toolkit, if the current session starts at
00:01:00:00, and the session from which you are
importing starts at 10:00:00:00, you can reset
the start time code to 00:01:00:00, to avoid placing files 9 hours and 59 minutes from the start
of your session.
Track Offset Options
You can specify a track offset in addition to any
offset incurred with the Time Code Mapping options. Any imported audio is offset in the current session’s timeline by the specified amount.
You can enter values in Minutes:Seconds,
Bars|Beats, Samples, Time Code, or Feet/Frames.
Sample Rate Conversion (SRC) Options
You can set options that control how sample
rate conversion is applied to imported audio
files. If the source session and the current session have the same sample rate, this portion of
the dialog is unavailable.
Source Sample Rate For audio files created in
any session, no matter what the session sample
rate is, you can have the sample rate conversion
process treat the files in several ways to compen-
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117
sate for pull-up, pull-down, and NTSC or PAL
frame rates. This setting allows you to choose
the sample rate from which you want the sample rate conversion process to start.
Destination Sample Rate The destination sample rate is always set to the sample rate of your
current session.
Only destination tracks that match the track
type (audio, MIDI, Auxiliary Input, or Master
Fader) and the channel format (mono, stereo, or
any of the supported multichannel formats) of
the source track appear in the pop-up menu.
Find Matching Tracks
(TDM Systems Only)
Conversion Quality This option lets you set the
quality of the sample-rate conversion process.
See “Conversion Quality” on page 111.
Source Tracks
This area of the dialog lists the tracks in the
source session that can be imported, each with a
corresponding pop-up menu.
Operation/Destination Track Pop-Up
Menus
For each source track, there is a corresponding
pop-up menu that lists options for importing
the track and, on TDM systems, possible destination tracks in the current session. The pop-up
menus display the following items:
If you are importing playlists from source tracks
with the same name as destination tracks in the
current session, click Find Matching Tracks to
automatically match the track names. Tracks
must have the same name, track type, and channel format to be automatically matched.
Session Data to Import
(TDM Systems Only)
The Session Data to Import menu is where you
select which attributes of the selected tracks you
want to import into the current session.
Do Not Import Neither the source track nor any
of its attributes are imported.
Import as New Track The source track and all attributes selected in the Session Data to Import
menu are imported into a new track in the current session.
(Destination Track Names) On TDM systems,
the names of possible destination tracks in the
current session are listed at the bottom of the
pop-up menu. Imported playlists and all attributes selected in the Session Data to Import
will be placed in the destination track you
choose.
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Session Data options in the Import Session Data dialog
The selected attributes are applied to all tracks
that you choose to import into the current session.
Replacing Track Attributes
When you import an attribute of the source
track into an existing track in the current session, it replaces the corresponding attribute in
the destination track. If you choose not to import an attribute of the source track, the corresponding attribute in the destination track is retained.
Replacing Track Path Names
When you import a track’s input, output, send
output or hardware insert assignments, any custom path names and I/O configurations from
the source session are not imported. You can import path names and I/O configurations by importing I/O Setup settings. See “I/O Settings
Files” on page 80 for more information.
Selecting Track Attributes to Import
You can select All, None, or any combination of
the listed attributes to import. The following attributes are available to import:
All Imports all of the source track’s playlists, according to the Track Playlist Option setting, and
all of the attributes in the Session Data to Import
list.
Volume Automation and Setting Imports the
source track’s Volume Fader setting and any automation data on the track’s Volume Automation playlist. The Volume Fader setting and any
Volume automation data in the destination
track are replaced.
Pan Automation and Setting Imports the source
track’s Pan Slider settings and any automation
data on the track’s Pan Automation playlist. The
Pan Slider setting and any Pan automation data
in the destination track are replaced.
Mute Automation and Setting Imports the source
track’s Mute setting and any automation data
on the track’s Mute Automation playlist. The
Mute setting and any Mute automation data in
the destination track are replaced.
Main Output Assignments Imports the source
track’s channel output assignments, including
any multiple output assignments. The channel
output assignments in the destination track are
replaced.
Send Output Assignments Imports the source
track’s send output assignments. Any Send output assignments in the destination track are replaced.
None Imports only the source track’s main playlist, according to the Track Playlist Option setting, and no other attributes of the source track.
Plug-In Assignments Imports the source track’s
plug-in assignments. Any plug-ins in the destination track are removed, and their associated
settings and automation are lost.
Alternate Playlists Imports all of the source
track’s alternate playlists. The alternate playlists
appear in the destination track’s playlist pop-up
menu.
If the source track uses a plug-in that is not
available on the destination system, it appears
in the destination track and is made inactive.
Regions and Media Imports all of the audio files
or regions in the source track, and places them
in the Audio Regions List.
Plug-In Settings and Automation When the
source track’s plug-in assignments are imported,
this option imports the track’s plug-in settings
and any automation data associated with the
plug-ins. If no plug-in assignments are imported, this option has no effect.
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Hardware Insert Assignments Imports the source
track’s hardware Insert assignments. Any Insert
assignments in the destination track are replaced.
Voice Assignments Imports the source track’s
voice assignment from the source session. Any
voice assignments in the destination track is replaced.
Input Assignments Imports the source track’s
channel input assignment. The Input assignment in the destination track is replaced.
Sidechain Assignments When the source track’s
plug-in assignments are imported, this option
imports any side-chain assignments associated
with the plug-ins. If no plug-in assignments are
imported, this option has no effect.
I/O Labels (Path Names) Imports the source
track’s path names.
Track Active State Imports the active/inactive
state of the source track from the source session.
Track Comments Imports the track comments
associated with the source track. Any comments
in the destination track are replaced.
Record Safe/Solo Safe Settings Imports the
record safe and solo safe settings of the source
track from the source session. Any record safe or
solo safe settings in the destination track are replaced.
Track View Settings Imports the track height
and playlist view of the source track from the
source session.
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Track Playlist Options
(TDM Systems Only)
You can select from the following options to
control how the main playlist from each source
track is imported to the destination track in the
current session.
Import Main Playlists — Replacing destination
main playlists
Imports the main playlist from the source track.
When you import the playlist into an existing
track, the main playlist in the destination track
is deleted and replaced with the imported playlist.
◆ If you select the above option and import all
of the source track’s attributes, this is equivalent
to importing the entire track.
◆ If you select the above option and do not import any of the source track’s attributes, you replace the audio playlists while keeping your
current mixer settings.
Import Main Playlists — Overlaying new with
existing, trimming existing regions
Imports the main playlist from the source track.
When you import the playlist into an existing
track, any existing playlist data that overlaps
data imported from the source track is trimmed
and replaced with the imported data. Any playlist data in the destination track that does not
overlap remains in the destination track.
Do Not Import Main Playlists — Leaving
destination playlists intact
Exporting a Region as a New
Audio File
Does not import the main playlist from the
source track. No audio is imported; only the attributes selected in the Session Data to Import
list are imported to the selected tracks.
You can export regions as audio files with the
Export Selected As Files command. Use this
command if you intend to use a region in other
sessions (or other audio applications) without
using its parent source file.
If you select the above option and import all
of the source track’s input, output, send, insert
and plug-in attributes, this is equivalent to importing a channel strip.
◆
Import Tempo/Meter Map
Imports the meter and tempo maps, as they appear in the Tempo and Meter Conductor rulers,
from the source session. Any Tempo or Meter
events in the destination session are replaced.
Import Pre Settings
This command also provides a way to convert
regions to a different audio format, sample rate,
or bit depth.
To export regions as new audio files:
1 In the Audio Regions List, select the regions
you want to export.
2 From the Audio Regions List pop-up menu,
choose Export Selected As Files. The Export Selected dialog appears.
(TDM Systems Only)
Imports any Pro Tools mic preamplifier settings
from the source session. Any mic preamplifier
settings in the destination session are replaced.
Exporting Audio
Pro Tools supports exporting regions as audio
files, exporting left and right audio files as stereo
interleaved files, and exporting region information.
You can also export audio from Pro Tools by
bouncing or consolidating audio tracks. For
more information, see “Bounce to Disk” on
page 482.
Export Selected dialog
Chapter 9: Importing and Exporting Session Data
121
3 In the Export Selected dialog, set the file type,
format, bit resolution, and sample rate. In addition, specify the Conversion Quality, and
choose the destination directory.
4 Select an option for how Pro Tools should resolve duplicate file names.
Prompting for Each Duplicate prompts you for a
file name for any file that has the same name as
a file in your destination directory.
Exporting Stereo Interleaved Files
You can use the Export Selected As Files command to export audio regions to stereo interleaved files for use in other applications.
(Pro Tools sessions do not support stereo interleaved files.) For this to work, the selected regions must have identical names with “.L” and
“.R” suffixes (for instance, vocals_01.L and
vocals_01.R). These regions appear as a stereo region in the Audio Regions List.
Auto Renaming automatically changes the name
of any duplicate file by adding a number at the
end of the file name (such as file_01).
To export regions as a stereo interleaved file:
Replacing with New Files replaces files with the
same name with the new files.
gions List or in the track playlist. If the regions
appear on mono tracks in the session, select the
two mono regions.
5 Once the Export Options are configured, click
Export to export the new audio files.
2 From the Audio Regions List pop-up menu,
When you Export Selected with a lower bit
rate, Dither (and Noise Shaping) may be applied. See the following table:
1 Select the stereo audio region in the Audio Re-
choose Export Selected As Files.
3 In the Export Selected dialog, select “Inter-
leaved” in the Format pop-up menu.
4 Configure any other output settings, then
Dither and Noise Shaping with Export Selected
Dither
Noise
Shaping
24-bit to 24-bit
No
No
16-bit to 24-bit
No
No
24-bit to 16-bit
Yes
Yes
16-bit to 16-bit
No
No
24-bit to 8-bit
Yes
No
16-bit to 8-bit
Yes
No
Bit Rate
For more information about using Dither, see
“Dither” on page 430.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
click Export to export the new stereo interleaved
file.
Exporting Region Definitions
Pro Tools stores region definitions for audio files
within each session. If you want to use an audio
file’s regions in another session, or with another
application that supports them, you can export
the region information.
The Export Region Definitions command does
not export regions as audio files (unlike the Export Selected As Files command). Instead, it
stores pointers to the regions within the parent
source file.
To export region definitions for an audio file:
1 In the Audio Regions List, select any regions
for which you want to export definitions. You
do not have to select the parent file audio region.
2 Choose Export Region Definitions from the
Exporting Sessions as Text
TDM Systems Only
You can use the Export Session As Text command to create a text file that contains extensive
information about your session.
Audio Regions List pop-up menu.
3 Click Export.
Exporting Pro Tools Tracks as
OMFI or AAF Files
With the DigiTranslator Integrated Option,
Pro Tools lets you export individual tracks or an
entire Pro Tools session in OMFI format
(Pro Tools 5.1.3 and higher) or AAF format
(Pro Tools 6.1 and higher). This option requires
DigiTranslator 2.0 or higher.
This text file can contain a list of audio files, audio regions, audio track EDL (edit decision list)
information, extended timestamp information,
and information about crossfades.
Track EDLs are exported as tab-delimited text—
that is, with tabs between each column heading,
and tabs between each event parameter. You
can use this data in a program for reading EDLs,
or you can format the EDL data into tables using
a word processor or spreadsheet application.
Export Session as Text Options
Pro Tools with DigiTranslator does not
support AAF files with embedded media.
For more information on installing and using DigiTranslator with Pro Tools, refer to
the DigiTranslator Guide.
Export Session Text dialog
Chapter 9: Importing and Exporting Session Data
123
Include File List/Region List
File Format
You can choose to export a list of the session’s
audio files and regions. The File List provides a
list of all the audio files and fades in the session,
and their hard drive locations. The Region List
displays all audio regions in the session, and the
source audio file for each region.
You can choose to export to any of several different text formats. These include standard text
formats, and Microsoft Word and Excel formats.
The Exported Session Text
Session Information
Include Track EDLs (Playlists)
You can export track EDLs (playlists). Track
EDLs can be used to spot-check region placement and edits, or in a conforming program for
post applications. In extreme circumstances the
EDL can be used to recreate the entire session.
MIDI track EDLs are not exported.
When exporting track EDLs, the following options are available:
Show Subframes This option allows you to export subframe time information with track
EDLs, if used in your session.
Include User Timestamps You can include user
timestamps with track EDLs. User timestamps
indicate a user-defined session location for the
region, or the original location of the region
when recorded.
Fade Handling For track EDLs, you can choose
whether to show crossfades, not to show them,
or to combine crossfaded regions. When regions
are combined, their durations and locations are
listed up to the center of the crossfade (for the
leading region) and from the center of the crossfade (for the following region).
Time Format You can select the appropriate time
format that exported EDL information is based
on. For example, for post work, you might select
SMPTE time, but for music creation locked to a
grid, you might select Bars & Beats.
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The session text file starts with basic information about the session. This information includes the session name, sample rate, bit depth,
time code format, and number of audio tracks,
audio regions, and audio files, as shown in the
following example.
Session Information
SESSION NAME:
Ripleys II-092700
SAMPLE RATE:
48000.000000
BIT DEPTH:
24-bit
TIME CODE FORMAT:
30 Frame
# OF AUDIO TRACKS:
19
# OF AUDIO REGIONS:
203
# OF AUDIO FILES:
54
File List and Region List
Next, if you choose to include them, are the lists
of audio files and regions.
Track EDLs
The final item, if exported, is the list of track
EDLs. A track EDL lists the track name, and all
edits, including the event number, the region
name, region start and end time, and region duration. The region timestamp is also exported, if
you select this option. Subframes are shown in
each time field if you select this option.
To export a session as text:
1 Choose File > Export Session As Text.
2 Select whether to include the File List, Region
List, and track EDLs.
3 If you choose to include track EDLs, select
whether to show subframes, and whether to include user timestamps. Also select an option for
crossfade handling.
4 If you choose to include track EDLs, select the
Time Format for the exported session text from
the pop-up menu.
5 Select the File Format for exported text using
the pop-up menu.
There are two types of Standard MIDI Files, both
of which are supported by Pro Tools:
Type 0 MIDI files store data for all MIDI channels in a single track. When importing these
files, Pro Tools separates the data by channel
and places each track’s data in separate regions
and tracks.
◆
Type 1 MIDI files, sometimes referred to as
multitrack MIDI files, contain multiple tracks of
MIDI data. When importing these files, each
track’s data is placed on its own new MIDI track
in the Pro Tools session.
◆
To import a Standard MIDI File to new tracks:
1 Choose File > Import MIDI to Track.
6 When you have set your options, click OK.
2 Select the MIDI file you want to import.
7 Select a location and enter a filename for the
exported text file. In Windows, Pro Tools adds
the correct 3-letter filename extension, while on
the Macintosh, the file extension “.txt” is added.
Importing MIDI Files
You can import Standard MIDI Files into your
Pro Tools sessions. Use the Import MIDI to Track
command to place the imported MIDI onto new
tracks; or use the Import MIDI command in the
MIDI Regions List pop-up menu to place the
data in the MIDI Regions List, where it can be
dragged to existing tracks.
Pro Tools does not import proprietary sequence
files. To use sequences from other MIDI applications in a Pro Tools session, you’ll need to first
save them as Standard MIDI Files. Refer to the
manufacturer’s documentation for details on
saving Standard MIDI Files.
Import MIDI dialog
3 To import the MIDI file’s tempo and meter
tracks, select the Import Tempo From MIDI File
option.
This option overwrites existing meter and
tempo events in the current session. If you don’t
want this, select Use Existing Tempo From Session.
Chapter 9: Importing and Exporting Session Data
125
4 Click Open (Windows) or Import (Macintosh). If prompted, specify whether you want to
Keep or Discard existing MIDI tracks and regions in the current session.
The MIDI data is imported to new MIDI tracks,
and also appears as regions in the MIDI Regions
List.
If the Standard MIDI File contains markers,
they are only imported if the current session
does not contain any markers.
Exporting MIDI Files
To export a session’s MIDI tracks for use in another MIDI application, or for playback with an
external (hardware) MIDI sequencer, you can
save the tracks as a Standard MIDI File.
When exporting, the session tracks can be
merged to a single, multichannel track (Type 0),
or they can be saved as multiple tracks (Type 1).
To export all MIDI tracks in the current session:
5 In the Mix window, click the MIDI De-
vice/Channel Selector for each new track and assign a MIDI instrument and channel.
1 Make sure to unmute any MIDI tracks in the
session that you want to export.
2 Choose File > Export MIDI.
To import a Standard MIDI File into the MIDI
Regions List:
3 Specify a folder destination and name for the
MIDI file.
1 Choose Import MIDI from the MIDI Regions
List pop-up menu.
2 Select the MIDI file you want to import.
3 To import the MIDI file’s tempo and meter
tracks, select the option for Import Tempo From
MIDI File.
This option overwrites existing meter and
tempo events in the current session. If you don’t
want this, make sure to instead select Use Existing Tempo From Session.
4 Click Open (Windows) or Import (Macin-
tosh). If prompted, specify whether you want to
Keep or Discard existing MIDI tracks and regions residing in the current session.
Pro Tools imports the MIDI data as regions and
places them in the MIDI Regions List.
If the Standard MIDI File contains markers,
they are only imported if the current session
does not contain any markers.
5 Drag the new MIDI regions to existing MIDI
tracks.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Export MIDI dialog
4 In the MIDI Version field, select whether the
Standard MIDI File will be Type 0 (merged, single track) or Type 1 (multi-track).
5 Click Save. Pro Tools exports all MIDI tracks in
the current session to a Standard MIDI File and
writes it to your hard drive. Exported MIDI information includes notes, controller events,
program changes, and System Exclusive data, as
well as events for tempo, meter, and markers.
The SMPTE start time for the session is also exported. This ensures that the exported tracks,
when played from another MIDI application,
will align with the correct SMPTE frames, and
also sync correctly to tape and video devices, or
Pro Tools.
Refer to your third-party MIDI sequencer documentation to determine whether it supports importing SMPTE start times from MIDI files.
Not Exported with MIDI Files
Mute automation and muted regions do not affect exported MIDI. As long as a track is not
muted by clicking its Mute button, all of its
MIDI data is exported.
When exporting MIDI files from Pro Tools, device assignments for tracks are not retained
(though channel assignments are). If you export
MIDI tracks from Pro Tools and later re-import
them, you’ll need to reassign the tracks to devices in your studio.
All playlist information for MIDI tracks is lost
when exporting. For example, tracks that previously contained dozens of MIDI regions will be
flattened and only contain single regions after
exporting and re-importing.
Chapter 9: Importing and Exporting Session Data
127
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Chapter 10: File Management and
Compatibility
When you work with Pro Tools, you will encounter several different kinds of computer files.
Pro Tools systems require that you keep certain
files in specific hard drive locations in order to
function properly.
Pro Tools software files should be located on
your Startup drive (the drive that contains your
operating system and other system-related files).
◆
On Pro Tools TDM systems, data files (session
files, audio files and fade files) can be located on
any compatible drive connected to the internal
SCSI bus or the external SCSI bus of your computer, or to a SCSI host bus adapter card in your
computer. For maximum performance, SCSI
drives are recommended for Pro Tools TDM systems. FireWire and ATA/IDE drives are also supported. See the Digidesign Web site for more
information (www.digidesign.com/compato).
Audio File Management
Unique File IDs
Pro Tools tags each audio file in a session with a
unique identifier that allows it to distinguish a
particular file even if its name or location has
changed.
◆
On Pro Tools LE systems, data files can be located on any compatible hard drive connected
to your computer’s internal or external
ATA/IDE, FireWire, or SCSI busses.
◆
Although Pro Tools will let you record to
your system drive, this is generally not recommended. You should record to system
drives only when necessary—for example, if
your computer system has just one hard
drive, or it your other hard drives are completely out of space.
Locating Audio Files
With Pro Tools, you manage links to audio and
other media files with the Relink window. In addition, Pro Tools classifies storage volumes according to their suitability for performance (recording or playback) or transfer (storage or copying) of audio and other media files. Audio files
must be stored on suitable Performance volumes
and be properly linked in order to be playable in
a Pro Tools session.
For complete information on storage
volume classifications, refer to the
DigiBase Guide.
When you open a session, if Pro Tools determines that audio files are not located on a Performance volume, or if it is unable to locate audio files contained in the session, you can locate
or copy the files in order to play back the session. This process is called relinking.
Chapter 10: File Management and Compatibility
129
Transfer Files
Missing Files
Transfer files reside on volumes unsuitable for
playback, such as CD-ROMs or network drives.
A file is missing if it is not found in the same location as when the session was last saved.
To open a session containing Transfer files:
To open a session with missing files:
1 Open the Pro Tools session. If any files are on
a volume unsuitable for playback, Pro Tools
posts a warning.
1 Open the Pro Tools session. If any files are
missing, Pro Tools posts a Missing Files warning.
2 Do one of the following:
• Click Yes to open the Copy and Relink dialog.
• Click No to open the session with all Transfer files offline.
To make Transfer files playable in the current
session:
1 Choose Windows > Show Project Browser.
2 Double-click the Audio Files folder to display
all of the audio files.
3 Choose Select Transfer Files from the Browser
menu.
4 Choose Copy and Relink from the Browser
menu.
5 Specify a location for the copied files on a
valid Performance volume.
6 Click OK.
For complete information on
relinking Transfer files, refer to the
DigiBase Guide.
Missing files warning when opening a session
2 Choose one of the following options:
Skip All Ignores all missing files and fades. The
missing files will be offline in the session.
Manually Find and Relink Opens the Relink window, where you can search, compare, verify, and
relink missing files.
Automatically Find and Relink Searches all Performance volumes for all missing files with
matching name, unique file ID, format, and
length, and automatically commits links to
missing files where possible.
3 To exclude fades from the relinking process,
and have them recalculated instead, select Regenerate Missing Fades.
4 Click OK.
For complete information on relinking
missing files, refer to the DigiBase Guide.
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WAV File Compatibility
Convert Imported WAV files to
AES31/BroadcastWave
Pro Tools always creates AES31/Broadcast compliant BWF (.WAV) files when the file originates
in Pro Tools. This option makes imported WAV
files compliant with the AES31/EBU Broadcast
standard.
AES31/Broadcast Wave is a variant of the standard audio WAV file type. The AES31 format
contains information beyond the raw PCM audio data, such as SMPTE time stamps.
This variant complies with standards set by the
EBU (European Broadcasters Union), and the
AES (Audio Engineering Society). Choose this
option to ensure compatibility with other workstations that recognize this file type.
To make imported WAV files compliant with the
AES31/EBU Broadcast standard:
1 In Pro Tools 6.1 or above, choose Setups >
Preferences > Operation.
– or –
In Pro Tools 6.0.x and lower, choose Setups >
Preferences > Compatibility.
2 Select Convert imported “wav” files to
AES31/BroadcastWave.
3 Click Done.
Creating Macintosh and PC
Compatible Sessions
With the Enforce Mac/PC Compatibility option
you can create and save Pro Tools sessions that
are compatible on both Macintosh and Windows.
Cross-Platform Session Limits
Audio File Types
Sound Designer II (SDII) files cannot be read by
Windows systems. Therefore, when creating
Mac and Windows compatible session files, the
audio file type for the session must be either
AIFF or WAV.
File Name Extensions
For cross-platform compatibility, all files in a
session must have a 3-letter file extension added
to the file name. Pro Tools 5.1 and higher session files have the extension “.pts,” and
Pro Tools 5 sessions have the extension “.pt5.”
Wave files have the “.wav” file extension, and
AIFF files have the “.aif” file extension.
Incompatible ASCII Characters
Region names, track names, file names, and
plug-in settings cannot use ASCII characters
that are incompatible with either system.
When creating a new name, if an incompatibility is detected when Mac/PC Compatibility
mode is enabled, a dialog will appear that
prompts you to type a new name. When you import files into a session that is set for Mac/PC
compatibility, incompatible characters are converted to underscores (“_”).
Chapter 10: File Management and Compatibility
131
The following characters cannot be used in PC
or in Mac/PC compatible sessions:
5 Set the Sample Rate and Bit Depth for the ses-
/ (slash)
6 Select the I/O Settings to use for the session.
\ (backslash)
: (colon)
* (asterisk)
? (question mark)
“ (quotation marks)
sion.
Several pre-configured I/O Settings are included
with your system, or you can choose custom I/O
Settings that you have created. See Chapter 7,
“I/O Setup” for more information.
7 Select “Enforce Mac/PC Compatibility.” This
option must be selected to make the session
cross-platform compatible.
8 Click Save.
< (less-than symbol)
> (greater-than symbol)
To save an existing session that is compatible
with Macintosh and Windows:
| (vertical line or pipe)
1 Choose File > Save Session Copy In.
Any character typed with the Command key
Creating and Saving CrossPlatform Sessions
To create a session that is compatible with
Macintosh and Windows:
132
2 In the Save Session Copy dialog, choose a des-
tination and enter a name for the new session
file.
3 Set the Audio File Type to AIFF or BWF (.WAV).
These file formats are compatible with either
platform.
4 Set the Sample Rate and Bit Depth for the ses-
1 Choose File > New Session.
sion.
2 Choose the drive where you want to save the
session. The session should be created on a dedicated audio drive.
5 Select “Enforce Mac/PC Compatibility.” This
3 Enter a name for the session.
6 Select the Items to Copy to the new session.
4 In the New Session dialog, set the Audio File
Type to AIFF or BWF (.WAV). These file formats
are compatible with either platform.
7 Click Save.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
option must be selected to make the session
cross-platform compatible.
If the session previously used SDII files, the files
are converted to the new audio file format.
Moving Sessions Between
Platforms with MacOpener
(Using HFS/HFS+ Drives)
MacOpener 6.0.5 and higher lets you mount
HFS/HFS+ drives on a Windows-based Pro Tools
system, as a Transfer drive. See “Creating and
Saving Cross-Platform Sessions” on page 132.
The MacDrive Utility can be used instead of
MacOpener. Refer to the MacDrive Website
(www.macdrive.com).
To share Pro Tools sessions between Macintosh
and Windows systems, select the “Enforce
Mac/PC Compatibility” option when creating
the session, or when saving a session copy.
While SDII files can be exported or converted on import, they cannot be used
within Pro Tools sessions on Windows.
To install and configure the MacOpener demo
included with Pro Tools (Windows):
1 Insert the Pro Tools Installer CD in your CD-
ROM drive.
2 Locate and double-click the MacOpener in-
staller file. Follow the onscreen instructions to
install the MacOpener. After installation is complete, restart your computer.
3 Choose Start > Programs > MacOpener > MacOpener Driver Preferences.
MacOpener Performance Limitations
• To open a session from an HFS/HFS+ drive, the
session must be created with Pro Tools 5.1.1
or higher. In addition, the session must not
contain mixed audio file formats. To use
mixed-format sessions in Pro Tools, first save a
copy of the session and convert its files to a
supported file format using the Save Session
Copy In command.
• When using the Bounce To Disk command,
the bounce destination must be a FAT/FAT32
or NTFS drive. Bouncing to HFS/HFS+ drives is
not supported.
• Opening sessions is slower on HFS/HFS+
drives than FAT/FAT32 or NTFS drives.
• Because MacOpener must clear the disk cache
after copying between HFS/HFS+ drives and
FAT/FAT32 or NTFS drives, Pro Tools will
launch very slowly after performing these disk
copies.
• For SDII files to appear in the Import Audio dialog, you must set the File Of Type pop-up
menu to “All Files.”
• On Pro Tools LE for Windows, if you select all
files listed in the Import Audio dialog, and
any these files have long names (13 or more
characters), no files will be added to the import list when you click Convert All. These
files can be added to the list by Shift-clicking
their file names individually.
4 Verify that the MacOpener Driver is enabled.
Under Driver Settings, select “Enable
MacOpener Driver.”
5 Under Extension Mapping, select “Do not add
the PC extension to the Mac file name.”
All formatting and maintenance of
HFS/HFS+ drives should be carried out
when the drive is connected to a Macintosh.
Chapter 10: File Management and Compatibility
133
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Part III: Recording
135
136
Chapter 11: Record Setup
Before you start recording, make sure your
Pro Tools system is connected and configured
properly. For details on connecting Pro Tools to
your studio, refer to the Getting Started Guide
that came with your system.
While some of the information in this chapter is
relevant to recording MIDI, there are more specific setup details for MIDI recording in
Chapter 13, “MIDI Recording.”
Input Connections and Audio
Levels
Digidesign TDM audio interfaces operate as linelevel devices and offer no pre-amplification.
Low-level sources like microphones and electric
guitars need to be pre-amplified. You can do this
with a quality mixing board or dedicated
preamp (such as the Digidesign PRE).
The Digi 002 and Digi 002 Rack have four inputs with preamps, to which you can connect
low-level signals, and four additional line-level
inputs with switchable gain.
Mbox and the Digi 001 I/O have two inputs
with preamps, to which you can connect lowlevel signals; the Digi 001 I/O also has six additional line-level inputs with switchable gain.
For all systems, volume and pan controls for
tracks in Pro Tools only affect monitoring levels—not the recording input gain. The LED
meters on audio interfaces indicate both fullcode (highest level before clipping) and true
clipping of Pro Tools output signals. The onscreen meters in Pro Tools indicate only true
clipping.
The Digidesign PRE can be used as a standalone preamp with all Pro Tools systems, or
it can be remote-controlled from within a
Pro Tools session when used with a
Pro Tools TDM system.
Chapter 11: Record Setup
137
Digital Clipping
Clipping occurs when you feed a signal to a recorder or mixer that is louder or “hotter” than
the device allows. On many analog tape decks, a
little clipping adds a perceived warmth to the
sound due to tape compression. In digital recording, however, clipping causes digital distortion, which is undesirable and should always be
avoided.
Set Input Levels High But Don’t Clip
When you feed a signal into any audio recording system, including Pro Tools, you need to adjust the input level to optimize the dynamic
range. Adjust the input signal to register as high
as possible on your input meter without triggering the clipping indicator. If the input level is
too low, you will not take full advantage of the
dynamic range of your Pro Tools system. If the
input level is too high, however, it will be
clipped, and the performance ruined.
Calibration Mode
(TDM Systems Only)
You can use the Calibration mode in Pro Tools
to adjust the input and output levels for your
audio interface so they match those of your
mixing console and other audio devices in your
studio.
The 192 I/O has two sets of adjustable trim pots
for its inputs, and two sets of adjustable trim
pots for its outputs. Additionally, the reference
level for the input can be set to +4 dBu or
–10 dBV. The 888|24 I/O has adjustable trim
pots for its inputs and outputs.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
There are no input or output trims on the following TDM audio interfaces: 192 Digital I/O,
96 I/O, 96i I/O, 882|20 I/O, 1622 I/O, and ADAT
Bridge I/O. Some Digidesign I/Os that do not
have output trims (such as the 96i I/O) offer
software-controllable input levels, adjustable
from Setups > Hardware Setup (refer to the guide
for your particular I/O).
For more information on calibrating your
audio interface, or using Calibration mode,
see the 192 I/O Calibration Mode Instructions or the 888|24 I/O Guide.
Record Enabling Tracks
To record to a track you must first record enable
it with the Record Enable button. To record simultaneously to multiple tracks, you can record
enable multiple audio or MIDI tracks.
When one or more tracks are record enabled,
you can click the Record and Play buttons in the
Transport window to start recording.
MIDI tracks can be record enabled during
playback or record. To record enable audio
tracks, the Transport must be stopped, or
TrackPunch (Pro Tools TDM 6.4 only) or
QuickPunch must be enabled. For information on TrackPunch, see “TrackPunch Audio Recording” on page 194. For information on QuickPunch, see “QuickPunch
Audio Recording” on page 191).
To record enable an audio or MIDI track:
From either the Edit or Mix window, click the
track’s Record Enable button to toggle record enable on or off for the track. The Record Enable
button is lit when on; also, in the Mix window,
the track’s fader is highlighted.
To record enable MIDI tracks using the Up/Down
Arrows:
■
Edit window
■ While pressing Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh), press the Up/Down Arrows
to record enable the previous or next MIDI
track. The previous (or next) record track is no
longer record enabled.
To keep the previous track record enabled
while enabling new tracks, press Shift+Control+Up/Down (Windows) or Shift+Command+Up/Down
(Macintosh).
To record enable all audio or MIDI tracks:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the Record Enable button to toggle record
enable on or off for all audio or MIDI tracks.
To record enable all selected audio or MIDI tracks:
Mix window
Record-enabled audio track in Mix and Edit windows
(Pro Tools TDM 6.4)
To record enable multiple audio tracks:
1 From either the Edit or Mix window, click
each audio track’s Record Enable button to toggle record enable on or off for each track.
If Latch Record mode is not enabled, Shiftclick each track’s Record Enable button to
toggle record enable on or off for each track.
See “Latch Record Preference” on page 140.
■ Alt-Shift-click (Windows) or Option-Shiftclick (Macintosh) the Record Enable button on
any selected audio or MIDI track to toggle
record enable on or off for all selected audio or
MIDI tracks.
While record enabling does not affect audio
tracks that are grouped, you can select all
tracks in a group by clicking directly to the
left of the group’s name in the Groups List.
Then you can Shift-Alt-click (Windows) or
Shift-Option-click (Macintosh) to record enable all selected tracks.
To record enable multiple MIDI tracks:
From either the Edit or Mix window, Shiftclick each MIDI track’s Record Enable button to
toggle record enable on or off for each track.
■
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Latch Record Preference
When the Latch Record Enable Buttons preference is selected, you can record enable additional audio tracks by clicking their Record Enable buttons while previously record-enabled
tracks remain enabled. Latch Record Enable buttons are for audio tracks only.
When Latch Record Enable Buttons is deselected, record enabling a subsequent audio track
will make the previously record-enabled audio
track no longer record enabled.
To enable Latch Record mode:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences.
2 Click the Operations tab.
3 Select Latch Record Enable Buttons.
Record Safe Mode
Pro Tools provides a Record Safe mode that prevents tracks from being record enabled. Use
Record Safe mode to protect important track recordings.
To put an audio or MIDI track in Record Safe mode:
■ Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the track’s Record Enable button.
The Record Enable button is greyed out.
Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) again to take the track out of
Record Safe mode.
To put all tracks in Record Safe mode:
■ Control-Alt-click (Windows) or CommandOption-click (Macintosh) the Record Enable
button on any track.
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Control-Alt-click (Windows) or Command-Option-click (Macintosh) again to take all tracks
out of Record Safe mode.
To put all currently selected tracks into Record
Safe mode:
■ Control-Alt-Shift-click (Windows) or Command-Option-Shift-click (Macintosh) the
Record Enable button on any of the selected
tracks to toggle them in and out of Record Safe
mode.
Record Monitoring Modes
(Pro Tools LE Systems Only)
Pro Tools offers two modes of input monitoring
during record, Auto Input monitoring or Input
Only monitoring, which determine how input
signals are monitored while recording audio.
To choose a record monitoring mode:
■
Choose Operations > Auto Input Monitor.
– or –
Choose Operations > Input Only Monitor.
To toggle between Auto Input and Input
Only modes, press Alt+K (Windows) or
Option+K (Macintosh).
Auto Input Monitoring
In this mode, when session playback is stopped,
Pro Tools monitors audio input. When playback
is started for a punch-in, Pro Tools monitors existing track material up until the punch point.
While punched in, the input signal is monitored. On punch-out, monitoring switches back
to the existing track material. This is similar to
the auto-switching logic found on digital and
analog multitrack tape machines.
When Auto Input monitoring is enabled, both
the TrackInput button and the lower LED next
to the Transport window appear gray.
When using Auto Input, the switch back to
monitoring track material on punch-out is
not instantaneous. To get instantaneous
monitor switching on punch-out, use TrackPunch (Pro Tools TDM 6.4 only) or QuickPunch. For information on TrackPunch, see
“TrackPunch Audio Recording” on
page 194. For information on QuickPunch,
see “QuickPunch Audio Recording” on
page 191).
When audio tracks are record enabled, their volume faders in the Mix window turn red, indicating that the record monitor level is active.
Link Record and Play Faders
When the Operation Preference for “Link
Record and Play Faders” is selected, Pro Tools
does not keep track of record and play levels for
audio tracks. In this case, record enabling an audio track has no effect on the fader level for the
track. This lets you maintain a consistent mix
regardless of whether you're recording or just listening.
Input Only Monitoring
In this mode, when a track is record enabled,
Pro Tools monitors audio input only, regardless
of any punch-in/out selection.
When Input Only monitoring is enabled, the
Green LED next to the Transport window appear green.
Green LED lights when Input Only
Monitoring is selected
Transport window
Monitor Levels for Record and
Playback
Pro Tools remembers two different fader levels
for monitoring each audio track: one for when
the track is record enabled, and one for when it
is not record enabled.
TrackInput Monitoring
(Pro Tools TDM Systems Only)
TrackInput monitoring lets you toggle individual
audio tracks between Auto Input and Input
Only monitoring modes at any time, including
during playback or recording. TrackInput provides the monitoring flexibility needed in dubbing and mixing, and is similar to “rehearse”
mode on analog multitrack recorders and similar machines.
With the Digidesign MachineControl 2.0 option (available separately), TrackInput can also
be remotely controlled from a SoundMaster and
compatible devices through P2 protocol commands (with support for pec-direct paddles as
supported on the synchronizer or console).
The TrackInput feature also makes it possible to
toggle a track between Auto Input and Input
Only monitoring mode regardless of whether or
not the track is record enabled.
Pro Tools remembers these two states for fader
levels automatically. If you adjust a fader when
a track is record enabled and then turn off
record enable for the track, the fader returns to
its playback level.
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To toggle the monitoring mode of audio tracks do
one of the following:
To toggle individual tracks, click the TrackInput button for each track you want to toggle.
The TrackInput button lights green.
■
To toggle all tracks in the session, Alt-click
(Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) a TrackInput button. All the TrackInput buttons lights
green.
■
To toggle all selected tracks in the session, AltShift-click (Windows) or Option-Shift-click
(Macintosh) a selected track’s TrackInput button. All the TrackInput buttons for the selected
tracks lights green.
■
Monitoring Mode Preferences
For flexibility, TrackInput can be customized to
remain selected regardless of track record status,
or to automatically switch to Auto Input monitoring after a recording pass. This lets you optimize monitoring for a typical dubbing workflow
(in which you might want tracks to remain in
Input Only mode until explicitly switched to
Auto Input monitoring) or a typical music tracking workflow (in which leaving a track in Input
Only monitoring mode after recording can result in accidental double-monitoring).
To customize TrackInput for recording:
1 Choose Setup > Preferences, and open the Op-
TrackInput Off (Auto Input)
eration page.
2 Configure the setting for Disable “Input”
When Disarming Track (In “Stop”) setting as appropriate.
TrackInput On (Input Only)
TrackInput buttons in the Edit Window
To change the monitoring mode of all recordenabled tracks, do one of the following:
To change all record-enabled tracks to Auto
Input monitoring mode, Choose Operations >
Change Record Enabled Tracks to Auto Input.
■
To change all record-enabled tracks to Input
Only monitoring mode, Choose Operations >
Change Record Enabled Tracks to Input Only.
• When enabled, taking an audio track out of
record enable (any mode) takes it out of Input Only mode, regardless of the global
monitor mode, and switches it to monitor
audio from disk only.
• When not enabled, audio tracks will remain in Input Only monitoring mode until
explicitly switched to Auto Input monitoring.
■
To toggle the monitoring mode of all recordenabled tracks between Input Only monitoring
mode and Auto Input monitoring mode, use
Alt-K (Windows) or Option-K (Macintosh).
Monitoring Latency
(Pro Tools LE)
■
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Because Pro Tools LE uses the host processor in
your computer for all audio processing, playback and recording, there is a small amount of
audio delay, or latency, in the system. This latency amount is related to the H/W Buffer Size—
the larger the buffer size the larger the latency.
You can reduce the amount of monitoring latency for Pro Tools LE systems by reducing the
H/W Buffer Size. However, even at the smallest
buffer size, there is still some latency. In addition, reducing the buffer size limits the number
of simultaneous audio tracks you can record
without encountering performance errors.
While there may be times when you want a
larger buffer size, for the sake of higher track
counts with more plug-ins, you’ll generally
want a smaller buffer size when recording audio
that is monitored through your Pro Tools LE
system.
If you are monitoring the recording source with
an external mixer, before it is routed to
Pro Tools, you will not hear any latency.
To set the Hardware Buffer Size:
Low Latency Monitoring
(Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, and Digi 001 Only)
Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, and Digi 001 systems
can use the Low Latency Monitoring option to
record with an extremely small amount of monitoring latency, to as many tracks as each system
supports.
To use Low Latency Monitoring:
1 Record enable audio tracks by clicking their
Record Enable buttons. Only tracks with inputs
set to an audio interface (not a bus) use Low Latency Monitoring.
2 From the Output Selector, assign each track to
either Output 1 or Output 2. Only tracks assigned to these outputs use Low Latency Monitoring.
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
3 Select Operations > Low Latency Monitoring.
2 Choose the number of samples from the H/W
When Low Latency Monitoring is enabled, any
plug-ins and sends assigned to record-enabled
tracks (routed to Outputs 1–2) are automatically
bypassed, and must remain bypassed. Also,
these tracks will not register on meters for Master Faders.
Buffer Size pop-up menu.
3 Click OK.
Computers with slower CPUs may not be
able to use the 128 buffer size without encountering performance errors.
Zero Latency Monitoring
(Mbox Only)
Mbox gives you the ability to monitor your analog input signals while recording, without
hearing any latency. This zero-latency analog
monitoring is controlled by the Mbox front
panel Mix knob, which you can use to blend
and adjust the ratio between the Mbox analog
input and Pro Tools playback. For more information, refer to the Mbox Basics Guide or the
Getting Started with Mbox Guide.
Low Latency Monitoring and
Bounce To Disk
With Low Latency Monitoring enabled, only audio tracks are included with the Bounce To Disk
command—Auxiliary Input tracks are ignored.
To include any Auxiliary Inputs’ audio when
bouncing to disk, Auxiliary Inputs must be recorded to new audio tracks (see “Recording to
Tracks” on page 481.)
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Low Latency Monitoring
During Recording
Track names define new file and region names
when recording to a track. See “Naming Tracks”
on page 91.
(HD-series Systems with Pro Tools 6.4 Only)
If you choose to record with Delay Compensation active, Pro Tools automatically suspends
delay compensation to provide a low-latency
monitor path through the main outputs of the
record-enabled tracks. When an audio track is
armed for recording (in stop), TrackInput-enabled, or punched in, the track’s delay compensation is automatically suspended, and the
Track Compensation indicator displays zero.
Delay compensation can be intentionally applied to audio tracks regardless of record status
or input mode.
To apply delay compensation to automatically
bypassed tracks:
■ Start-Control-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the Track Compensation indicator. Track delay will be applied to the
track and the Track Compensation Indicator
will display in blue.
For more information about Delay Compensation, see “Delay Compensation” on
page 428.
Default Track Names
When creating new audio and MIDI tracks,
Pro Tools names them as either “Audio” or
“MIDI” and numbers them consecutively. For
example, when you create two new audio tracks,
their default names are “Audio 1” and
“Audio 2.” You can rename tracks and also log
comments for each track.
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Default Names for Audio Files and
Regions
When recording to an audio track, the resulting
file and region names are based on the name of
the track. For example, after recording for the
first time on a track called “Electric Gtr,” an audio file is created with the name “Electric
Gtr_01.” In addition, a region appears in the Audio Regions List with the name “Electric
Gtr_01.” This region is a whole-file region.
Subsequent record takes on the same track are
named identically, but the digits (indicating the
take number) are incremented (for example,
“Electric Gtr_02.”) A second set of digits (such as
used in “Electric Gtr_01-01”) indicates a region
auto-created from an edit.
TrackPunch (Pro Tools TDM 6.4 only) and
QuickPunch modes use a different method
for numbering regions. For details, see “Region and Take Numbering with QuickPunch” on page 194.
When recording MIDI tracks, a similar naming
scheme is used, though with only one set of digits. For example, after recording to a track called
“Synth 1,” a region is created called “Synth 101.” Subsequent regions for that track, generating either from additional record takes or region
edits, are numbered sequentially (for example,
“Synth 1-02”).
Names for Stereo Audio Tracks
When recording to stereo audio tracks, audio
file and region names for the left and right
channels are appended with a “.L” and “.R” suffix.
Names for Multichannel Tracks
To allocate the audio drives in your system:
(TDM Systems Only)
1 Choose Setups > Disk Allocation.
When recording to multichannel surround
tracks, audio file and region names for each
channel are appended with the following suffixes.
2 In the Disk Allocation dialog, assign a hard
Multichannel
Format
File and Region Suffixes
LCR
L, C, R
Quad
L, R, Ls, Rs
LCRS
L, C, R, S
5.0
L, C, R, Ls, Rs
5.1
L, C, R, Ls, Rs, LFE
6.0
L, C, R, Ls, Cs, Rs, LFE
6.1
L, C, R, Ls, Cs, Rs
7.0
L, Lc, C, R, Rc, Ls, Rs
7.1
L, Lc, C, R, Rc, Ls, Rs, LFE
drive for each track by clicking in the Root Media Folder column and selecting a volume from
the Disk Allocation pop-up menu.
Disk Allocation dialog
Only drives designated as R (Play and Record)
can be selected in the Disk Allocation dialog. For
more information, see the DigiBase Guide.
Disk Allocation
By default, Pro Tools records audio files to the
Audio Files folder inside the session folder. You
can use the Disk Allocation dialog to specify
other locations for your audio files for each audio track.
Disk Allocation pop-up menu
A folder with the session name is created on
each hard drive, containing subfolders for audio
and fade files.
Hard drives that are full do not appear in the
Disk Allocation dialog.
• To assign all tracks to the same hard drive,
press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh)
while selecting a drive name.
To increase system performance, Pro Tools can
record and play each track from a different hard
drive. You can also automatically distribute any
newly created tracks to multiple audio drives
with Round Robin Allocation.
• To make a continuous selection, Shift-click
a track name (in the Track column) to extend the selection to include already-selected tracks and all tracks in between.
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145
• To make a non-contiguous selection, Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) a track name in the Track column to extend the selection to include already-selected tracks without including
tracks in-between.
3 To save recorded audio files to an existing
folder (without creating another session folder),
select Customize Allocation Options, then click
the Change button and choose the folder. To
create subfolders in this folder, select “Create
Subfolders for audio, video, and fade files.”
4 To automatically distribute any newly created
tracks among the drives connected to your system, select “Use Round Robin Allocation for
New Tracks.”
If you are using Round Robin Allocation and
want audio to be recorded to your system’s startup drive, do the following:
• Open the Workspace browser and set the
Volume Designator for your system volume
to R (Record and Playback). See “Workspace Volume Designation” on page 147.
Round Robin Allocation is not supported
with partitioned hard drives.
If you want to exclude individual, valid,
mounted volumes from Round Robin Allocation passes, open the Workspace browser
and make the volume safe, by designating it
as P (Playback only) or T (Transfer).
5 When you are finished, click OK.
Saving Disk Allocation Settings
To save Disk Allocation settings for use with future sessions, save the session as a template. For
details, see “Creating Custom Session Templates” on page 51.
Disk Allocation and Cross-Platform
Sessions
Pro Tools for Windows supports recording and
playback of audio from multiple hard drives, but
to ensure cross-platform operation, it also requires that Macintosh Pro Tools sessions and
their associated audio files be on Macintosh-formatted (HFS or HFS+) drives.
Similarly, Windows sessions and their associated audio files must reside on Windows-formatted (FAT32 or NTFS) drives. If you want to
share sessions between Windows and Macintosh platforms, consider these restrictions when
allocating tracks to drives.
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Reallocating Tracks
Recording to the System Volume
When opening a session where some of the previously assigned hard drives are no longer available (or don’t match the current session platform), Pro Tools automatically reassigns tracks
to the volume where the session file is stored. In
such cases, use Disk Allocation if you need to reallocate tracks to other drives.
Though Pro Tools will let you record to your system volume, this is generally not recommended. Performance for audio recording and
playback on system drives is worse than on nonsystem hard drives.
Reallocating tracks does not affect the audio
that has been previously recorded. Reallocating tracks only affects where new audio
recording will be saved.
Workspace Volume Designation
The Workspace volume designation can alter
disk availability, thus affecting Disk Allocation.
From the Workspace browser, you may designate volumes as Record, Playback, or Transfer. If
you change a drive’s designation, making it
read-only (Play Only or Transfer), you will need
to check the Disk Allocation for any tracks formerly allocated to that drive. For more information, see the DigiBase Guide.
You should record to system drives only when
absolutely necessary—if your computer system
has just the one hard drive, or if your other hard
drives are completely out of space.
By default, the system volume is not included in
Round Robin Allocation (regardless of volume
designation in the Workspace browser). To include the System Volume in Round Robin Allocations, see “To allocate the audio drives in your
system:” on page 145.
Allocating Hard Drive Space
for Recording
The Operation Preference for Open Ended
Record Allocation determines how much of
your available hard drive space is allocated
whenever you record into one or more tracks in
Pro Tools.
When this allocation preference is set to Use All
Available Space, the drive’s entire available
space is allocated. This setting lets you record
lengthy takes, or longer sessions.
However, when allocating all available space,
Pro Tools may take a little longer to begin recording. You can reduce this delay by allocating
a specific amount of time for recording.
You can also avoid recording delays by putting Pro Tools in Record Pause mode before
beginning to record. See“Record Pause
Mode” on page 161.
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147
In general, the Use All Available Space preference makes hard drives work harder. In addition
to record and punch lag times, many system see
better overall recording performance when the
Open Ended Record Allocation is limited.
To allocate a specific amount of time to recording:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Operation.
2 Under the Open Ended Record Allocation op-
tion, select Limit To and enter the number of
minutes to be allocated.
Open Ended Record Allocation, Operation Preference
The number of minutes specified is allocated for
each record-enabled track.
3 When you are finished, click Done.
Choose Windows > Show Disk Space to
check the current available space on your
drives.
Record Modes
For recording audio, Pro Tools has four record
modes:
• Nondestructive Record (Default)
• Destructive Record
• Loop Record
• QuickPunch
• TrackPunch (HD Only)
To enable Destructive Record, Loop Record,
QuickPunch or TrackPunch, select them from
the Operations menu. If none of these record
modes are selected, Pro Tools is in normal Nondestructive Record mode.
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Destructive Record mode enabled
The record mode can also be switched by Rightclicking (Windows and Mac OS X) or Controlclicking (Macintosh) the Transport Record Button. This cycles through the modes with the
Record button changing to indicate the currently selected mode: blank for Nondestructive,
“D” for Destructive, a loop symbol for Loop
Record, “P” for QuickPunch and “T” for TrackPunch.
When recording, you can preserve disk
space by removing unwanted record takes
(see “Removing Unwanted Regions” on
page 313) and compacting audio files (see
“Use this “power delete mode” with caution, since deletion of these files cannot be
undone.” on page 313).
Nondestructive Record Mode
In normal Nondestructive Record mode,
Pro Tools records audio nondestructively, which
means that if you record over a track’s existing
regions, the audio is not erased from your hard
drive. Both the new and old audio files remain
on your hard drive, available as regions from the
Audio Regions List.
In Nondestructive Record mode, the record
range can be defined by selecting a range in the
Ruler or in a track’s playlist, or by specifying
start and end points in the Transport window. If
there is no selection, recording begins from the
current cursor location and continues until the
Transport’s Stop button is clicked.
To set a record range by selecting within a
track’s playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked. See “Linking or Unlinking Edit and Timeline Selections” on
page 245.
The pre- and post-roll settings allow material to
be heard up to and after the start and end
points, which is useful when punch recording
(see “Punch Recording Audio” on page 163).
Destructive Record Mode
In Destructive Record mode, recording over existing regions replaces the original audio permanently, which allows you to keep disk use to a
minimum. However, if you have sufficient drive
space, it is usually best to use Pro Tools in Nondestructive Record mode, to avoid losing any
previously recorded material.
When defining the record range and setting preand post-roll, Destructive Record mode works
the same as Nondestructive mode.
Unlike the other record modes, it is not possible
to cancel or Undo record takes when using Destructive Record mode (see “Canceling a Record
Take” on page 160).
Loop Record Mode
Loop Record mode allows you to record take after take (nondestructively) while the same section of audio repeats. This is a convenient technique for quickly recording multiple takes of a
part without losing spontaneity.
The time range that is looped and recorded—
which must be at least one second in length—is
defined by selecting a range in the Ruler or in a
track’s playlist, or by specifying start and end
points in the Transport window. The pre-roll
setting, if enabled, is used during the first record
pass, but on each successive loop the pre- and
post-roll times are ignored.
To set a record range by selecting within a
track’s playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked. See “Linking or Unlinking Edit and Timeline Selections” on
page 245.
When using Loop Record mode, each successive
take appears as a region in the Audio Regions
List and each is numbered sequentially. The various takes, which are identical in length and
start time, are easily auditioned and placed in
the track at the correct location with the Takes
List pop-up menu (see “Auditioning Record
Takes” on page 166).
QuickPunch
QuickPunch gives you the ability to manually
and instantaneously punch in (initiate recording) and punch out (stop recording) on recordenabled audio tracks during playback by clicking the Transport’s Record button. Recording
with QuickPunch is nondestructive.
When using QuickPunch, Pro Tools begins recording a new file when playback begins, automatically generating regions in that file at each
punch in/out point. These regions appear in the
track’s playlist; and the complete audio file appears in the Regions List along with the QuickPunch created regions. Up to 200 of these “running punches” can be performed in a single
pass.
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Though you can punch record in the other
record modes by manually specifying the record
range, only QuickPunch provides instantaneous
monitor switching on punch-out.
isting MIDI regions results in the new data being
merged with the old. When the MIDI Merge
button is deselected (Replace mode), the new
material replaces the old.
TrackPunch
TrackPunch lets individual tracks be punched
in, punched out, and taken out of record enable
without interrupting online recording and playback. When using Digidesign MachineControl
software in Remote 9-Pin Deck Emulation
mode, TrackPunch (and TrackInput monitoring) can be controlled through P2 commands.
Control surfaces (such as ProControl, Control|24, and Command|8) also support TrackPunch
TrackPunch is a non-destructive recording
mode. When a track is TrackPunch-enabled,
Pro Tools begins recording a new file when playback begins. During playback, you may record
arm or disarm, or punch in or out a combination of any or all TrackPunch enabled tracks.
TrackPunch automatically creates regions in
that file at each punch-in and punch-out point.
These regions appear in the track’s playlist, and
the complete audio file appears in the Regions
List along with the TrackPunch created regions.
Up to 200 of these “running punches” can be
performed in a single pass.
The Record Modes and MIDI
In addition to the five record modes, there is
also a MIDI Merge button in the Transport window that determines how MIDI is recorded.
When enabled (Merge mode), recording over ex-
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MIDI Merge button
MIDI Merge enabled
MIDI recording works the same whether using
Nondestructive or Destructive Record mode. In
addition, neither QuickPunch nor TrackPunch
need to be enabled to punch on-the-fly with
MIDI—this capability is available in Nondestructive and Destructive Record modes.
Unlike audio loop recording, the state of the
MIDI Merge toggle determines whether existing
material is replaced or merged.
Unless MIDI Merge is enabled, MIDI recording is
destructive (though you can undo a MIDI record
pass), either overwriting or adding to region material. One exception to this rule is when Loop
Record mode is enabled; in this mode, existing
track regions are replaced with new regions
when new material is recorded. The old regions
remain intact and available from the MIDI Regions List, and from the Takes List pop-up
menu. In Loop Record mode, MIDI Merge has
no effect, so its button is dimmed.
Recording with a Click
If you intend to work with MIDI tracks in your
session, or if the audio you’re working with is
bar and beat-oriented, you can record your
tracks while listening to a click. This ensures that
recorded material, both MIDI and audio, will
align with the session’s bar and beat boundaries.
When your track material lines up with the
beats, you can take advantage of some useful editing functions in Pro Tools, such as quantizing
MIDI and audio regions, quantizing individual
MIDI notes, and copying and pasting measures
and song sections in Grid mode.
Material that is recorded without listening
to a click can still be aligned to bar and beat
boundaries in Pro Tools with Beat Detective
(see Chapter 22, “Beat Detective”), or use
the Identify Beat command to determine the
tempo.
To configure click options:
1 Choose MIDI > Click Options.
– or –
Double-click the Click or Countoff button in the
Transport window.
2 In the Click/Countoff Options dialog, do one
of the following:
• If using the DigiRack Click plug-in, select
None in the Output pop-up menu. (For information on using the Click plug-in, see
the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide.)
– or –
• If driving a click using MIDI, select the port
number (device) and channel that will play
the click from the Output pop-up menu.
Pro Tools provides a built-in click generator, the
DigiRack Click plug-in. Click includes presets
with different click sounds, supports accented
and unaccented click sounds, and lets you adjust their volumes. Click is integrated directly
into Pro Tools, avoiding MIDI time delays. Refer
to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for details.
Pro Tools also provides options and controls for
driving a click using MIDI. The following steps
are for configuring and enabling a click using
MIDI.
Click/Countoff Options dialog
3 For the accented and unaccented notes, spec-
ify the note, velocity, and duration with the numeric keypad. If connected, you can also play
new note values on your MIDI controller keyboard.
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When listening to the click in your Pro Tools
sessions, the accented note sounds on the first
beat of each measure and the unaccented note
sounds on the remaining beats.
2 In the Transport window, click the Click but-
ton so it becomes highlighted.
Click button
4 Select whether the click is heard “During play
and record,” or “Only during record,” or “Only
during countoff.”
Click enabled
5 If using a countoff, specify the number of Bars
to be counted off. To hear the countoff only
when recording, select that option.
3 To use a countoff when recording or playing,
click the Countoff button in the Transport window so it too becomes highlighted.
6 Click OK.
To enable a click from the MIDI menu:
■
Countoff button
Choose MIDI > Click.
To enable a click in the Transport:
Countoff enabled
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Transport
Hearing the countoff before recording is helpful
in getting the feel for the tempo before you begin playing. The Countoff button in the Transport window displays the number of bars to be
counted off.
window, select Display > Transport Window
Shows > MIDI Controls.
The countoff is ignored when Pro Tools is
online and syncing to SMPTE time code.
Transport Window with MIDI Controls
Wait for Note and Countoff
Wait for Note and Countoff are mutually exclusive and cannot both be enabled at the same
time. If, for instance, Countoff is enabled and
you click the Wait for Note button, Countoff is
disabled.
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Setting the Default Meter and
Tempo
2 Enter the Meter you will use for the session
and set the Location to 1|1|000 (so the inserted
meter event replaces the default one).
Setting the Default Meter
When opening a new session in Pro Tools, the
meter defaults to 4/4. If you intend to record
with a click and are working with a different
meter, make sure to set the default meter accordingly.
If a session’s meter does not match the music
you’re recording, the accented clicks will not
line up with what you’re playing, and, as a result, the recorded material may not align with
the bars and beats in the Edit window.
On TDM systems, Beat Detective requires
identical meters to work with DigiGrooves.
For example, if Beat Detective extracts the
feel from a bar of 7/4, it can only be applied
to another bar of 7/4
Meter events, which can occur anywhere within
a Pro Tools session, are stored in the Meter Track
and appear in the Meter Ruler. For more information on inserting and editing meter events,
see “Meter Events” on page 321.
Tempo/Meter Change window
3 Choose a note value for the number of clicks
to sound in each measure.
4 Click Apply to insert the new meter event.
Setting the Default Tempo
When opening a new session in Pro Tools, the
tempo defaults to 120 BPM. If you intend to
record with a click and are working with a different tempo, make sure to set the default tempo
accordingly. If you know the tempo you will use
for the session, you can insert a tempo event at
the beginning of the Tempo Track.
To set the default meter for a session:
1 Choose Windows > Show Tempo/Meter.
– or –
Double-click the Meter button in the Transport
window.
Tempo events, which can occur anywhere
within a Pro Tools session, are stored in the
Tempo Track and appear in the Tempo Ruler.
For more information on inserting and editing
tempo events, see “Tempo Events” on page 315.
Meter button
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153
To insert a default tempo event:
1 Choose Windows > Show Tempo/Meter.
Conductor button
– or –
Manual Tempo mode enabled
Double-click the Meter button in the Transport
window.
2 At the top of the Tempo/Meter Change window, choose Tempo Change from the pop-up
menu.
3 Enter the BPM value you will use for the ses-
2 To base the BPM value on something other
than the default quarter-note, change the note
value in the Beat Value pop-up menu (just to the
left of the Tap button).
3 To enter a new tempo, drag the horizontal
Tempo slider in the Transport window.
sion and set the Location to 1|1|000 (so the inserted tempo event replaces the default tempo).
BPM value
4 To base the BPM value on something other
than the default quarter-note, select another
note value.
5 Click Apply to insert the new tempo event.
See “Default Tempo” on page 318 for more information on the default tempo.
Using Manual Tempo Mode
In Manual Tempo mode, Pro Tools can ignore the
tempo events in the Tempo Track and instead
play back a Manual Tempo. This tempo can be
set with the Tempo slider, or if you’re not sure of
the actual tempo, by tapping in the tempo.
While you can adjust the Manual Tempo during
playback, doing so will momentarily interrupt
playback.
To set the Manual Tempo with the Tempo slider:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Transport
window, select Display > Transport Window
Shows > MIDI Controls.
In the Transport window, click the Conductor
button so it becomes unhighlighted. Pro Tools
switches to Manual Tempo mode. In this mode,
any tempo events in the Tempo Track are ignored.
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Tempo slider
Tempo slider
For finer resolution with the Tempo slider, press
Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh)
while dragging.
To exit Manual Tempo mode and enable the Tempo
Track:
■ Click the Conductor button in the Transport
window so it becomes highlighted.
To set the Manual Tempo with the Tap button:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Transport
window, select Display > Transport Window
Shows > MIDI Controls.
2 In the Transport window, click the Conductor
button so it becomes unhighlighted. Pro Tools
switches to Manual Tempo mode. In this mode,
any tempo events in the Tempo Track are ignored.
3 Click the Tap button repeatedly at the new
tempo.
Tap button
Tap button
– or –
Click in the Tempo field so it becomes highlighted and tap in the tempo by playing a note
repeatedly at the new tempo on your MIDI keyboard controller.
To compute the new tempo, Pro Tools requires
at least four taps (each of which is displayed in
the Tap area when received). The computed
BPM value appears in the Transport’s Tempo
field.
Tempo Taps as reflected in Transport
To lock in the new tempo:
Take Pro Tools out of Manual Tempo mode by
clicking the Conductor button, then insert a
tempo event (with the new tempo) at the beginning of the Tempo Track.
■
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Chapter 12: Basic Audio Recording
Recording an Audio Track
When recording from a mono source, record to
a single, mono audio track in Pro Tools. A single, mono audio file is written to disk; the region
appears in the playlist and in the Audio Regions
List.
To record a stereo audio source in Pro Tools,
record to a single, stereo audio track. A single,
mono audio file is written to disk for each channel of a stereo track; one for the left channel,
and one for the right channel; regions appear in
the playlists for both channels. In addition, a
multichannel (stereo) region appears in the Audio Regions List.
Recording multichannel tracks (Pro Tools TDM
systems only) is very similar to recording stereo
audio tracks. A single, mono audio file is written
for each channel in the track, and regions appear in the playlists for each channel. In addition, a multichannel region for each track appears in the Audio Regions List.
For more information on multichannel
tracks, see “Multichannel Audio Tracks” on
page 514.
2 If you want to start a new session with a dif-
ferent sample rate or Fader gain value, choose
File > New Session, and select the sample rate.
Click Save.
3 Make sure to specify the format (analog or dig-
ital) of the inputs of the audio interface you will
be using. Choose Setups > Hardware Setup,
choose the audio interface, and select the format for the channel pair.
Some Digidesign I/O units (such as Mbox), have
only two channels that can be set for analog or
digital.
4 If a track doesn’t already exist, choose File >
New Track and specify 1 Mono or Stereo Audio
Track, then click Create.
New Track dialog
To auto-scroll the Track Type pop-up in the
New Track dialog, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) and use
the Up/Down Arrow keys.
To configure an audio track for recording:
1 Connect a mono or stereo sound source to the
appropriate input of your audio hardware.
To auto-scroll the Track Formats pop-up in
the New Track dialog, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) and use
the Left/Right Arrow keys.
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157
5 Rename the track. Track names are used to
auto-name recorded audio files and regions. For
more information, see “Default Track Names”
on page 144.
7 In the Mix window, click the track’s Output
Selector and assign a hardware output.
6 In the Mix window, use the track’s Input Selector to assign a hardware input.
Output Selector, Mix window
– or –
Input Selector, Mix window
– or –
In the Edit window, with I/O view enabled, use
the track’s Output Selector to assign a hardware
output.
In the Edit window, with I/O view enabled, use
the track’s Input Selector to assign a hardware
input.
Output Selector, Edit window
Input Selector, Edit window
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8 In the Mix window, click the audio track’s
10 In the Mix window, adjust the track’s volume
Record Enable button to record enable the track.
The Record Enable buttons and volume faders
for record-enabled tracks turn red.
and pan faders. These settings are for monitoring purposes only and do not affect the recorded
material.
– or –
Record
Enable
In the Output window for the track, adjust the
track’s volume fader and pan controls. These settings are for monitoring purposes only and do
not affect the recorded material.
To record to an audio track:
1 For HD systems (with Pro Tools 6.4), make
sure that Use Delay Compensation is deselected
in the Operations menu.
Digidesign recommends recording without
Delay Compensation in most cases. For
more information, see “Delay Compensation” on page 428.
2 In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive
Record Enable button (Mix window)
– or –
In the Edit window, click the audio track’s
Record Enable button to record enable the track.
Record, Loop Record, QuickPunch and TrackPunch.
3 Enable Click and Countoff in the Transport
window if you want to use these features. For details, see “Recording with a Click” on page 151.
4 If you are using meter and tempo informa-
Record
Enable
Record Enable button (Edit window)
9 Adjust the output level of your sound source
(instrument, mixer, or preamp). Monitor the
track’s meter levels in Pro Tools to ensure that
you get the highest possible signal without clipping.
tion, specify the session’s default meter and
tempo. For details, see “Setting the Default
Meter and Tempo” on page 153.
5 In the Transport window, click Return to Zero
so the start and end times are cleared. This ensures that you’ll start recording from the beginning of the track.
6 Click Record in the Transport window to enter
Record Ready mode. The Record button flashes.
7 When you are ready to begin recording, click
Play. If using Countoff, Pro Tools counts off the
specified number of measures and then begins
recording.
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159
8 When you have finished recording, click Stop
in the Transport window.
The newly recorded audio is written to disk and
appears as an audio region in the track’s playlist.
The new audio region also appears in the Audio
Regions List.
To play back the audio track:
1 Click the Record Enable button for the audio
track so that it is no longer record enabled. Track
volume faders now function as playback level
controls.
If Auto Input Monitoring is enabled, you
can click the Record button in the Transport
window to exit Record Ready mode, then
press Play, leaving the track record enabled.
The track automatically switches to Playback mode when you press play, then back
to Input mode when you stop. See “Auto Input Monitoring” on page 140.
2 In the Transport window, click Return to Zero
to start playback from the beginning of the session.
3 Click Play in the Transport window to start
playback. Adjust the track’s volume and pan faders.
Undo or Cancel Audio Recording
Once you've recorded an audio track and the
transport is stopped, you can undo the previous
record take.
To undo an audio recording:
■ Once the Transport has been stopped, choose
Edit > Undo Record Audio.
The track’s playlist is restored to its previous
state, and the following material is discarded:
◆ When in Loop Record mode, all takes from
each record pass are discarded.
◆ When using TrackPunch or QuickPunch
mode, all punches from the last recording pass
are discarded.
If you undo a record pass during recording,
Pro Tools will remove any previously undone
record pass from the session, and gives you
the option of deleting the previous record pass
from your hard drive.
Canceling a Record Take
While recording, it is possible to discard the current record take. This removes the audio (recorded up to that point) from your hard drive
and deletes the region from the track’s playlist.
This capability is not available in Destructive
Record mode.
To cancel a record take while recording:
■ Press Control+period (Windows) or Command+period (Macintosh) before the Transport
is stopped.
When using Loop Record mode, all takes from
each record pass are discarded.
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Recording Multiple Audio Tracks
Pro Tools can record multiple audio tracks simultaneously, up to the track recording limits of
your system. To record to multiple tracks, configure and record enable each track, then record.
Follow the same steps as in “Recording an Audio
Track” on page 157.
For each record-enabled track, a new audio file is
written to disk and a new region is created and
appears in the playlist. The new audio regions
appear in the Audio Regions List.
Record Shortcuts
In addition to clicking the Record button in the
Transport window, you can also begin recording
with the following keyboard shortcuts:
• Press F12 to start recording immediately.
• Press Control+Spacebar (Windows) or Command+Spacebar (Macintosh) to start recording.
• Press 3 on the Numeric Keypad (when the Numeric Keypad Mode is set to Transport) to
start recording.
To initiate recording at half-speed, press
Control+Shift+Spacebar (Windows) or
Command+Shift+Spacebar (Macintosh).
For details, see “Half-Speed Recording and
Playback” on page 174.
To record from Record Pause mode:
1 Click Record in the Transport window. The
Record button flashes.
2 Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macin-
tosh) Play in the Transport window to put
Pro Tools in Record Pause mode. The Play and
Record buttons flash.
3 To begin recording instantaneously, click Play.
When you have finished recording, click Stop in
the Transport window.
Use Pause mode when recording or playing
large numbers of tracks to speed up lock-up
time when synchronizing to time code.
Recording Additional Takes
After recording to an audio track, you can record
additional takes to the same track. However, if
you record these additional takes in Destructive
Record mode, the audio residing on your hard
drive from the previous takes will be permanently lost.
To keep the audio from previous takes, record
the new takes nondestructively in Nondestructive Record mode.
For details on audio file and region names
for new takes, see “Default Track Names”
on page 144.
To nondestructively record a new take on the
same track:
Record Pause Mode
When recording a large number of tracks or
channels, or playing back a large number of
tracks while recording, Pro Tools may take a little longer to begin recording. To avoid this delay, put Pro Tools in Record Pause mode before
beginning to record.
1 Put Pro Tools in Nondestructive Record mode.
In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive
Record, Loop Record, QuickPunch or TrackPunch if selected.
2 Make sure the track containing the previous
take is still record enabled.
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161
3 To record from the beginning of the track,
click Return to Zero in the Transport window.
– or –
– or –
If Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Selection
is enabled, click anywhere in the track’s playlist
to begin recording from that point.
To record a specific track range, with precise
start and end points, see “Punch Recording
Audio” on page 163.
If Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Selection
is enabled, click anywhere in the track’s playlist
to begin recording from that point.
To record a specific track range, with precise
start and end points, see “Punch Recording
Audio” on page 163.
4 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
4 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
5 When you have finished recording, click Stop
in the Transport window.
5 When you have finished recording, click Stop
in the Transport window.
An audio file for the new take is written to disk
and appears as an audio region in the track’s
playlist. The new audio region appears in the
Audio Regions List.
The audio for the new take is written to disk,
permanently overwriting the original. The new
material replaces the original material within
the existing region and the region is not renamed.
The audio from the original take remains on
your hard drive, and is still available as a region
in the Audio Regions List.
To destructively record over a previous take:
1 Select Operations > Destructive Record. When
using Destructive Record mode, a “D” appears in
the Record button.
Destructive
Record
Destructive Record mode enabled
2 Make sure the track containing the previous
take is still record enabled.
If Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Selection
is enabled, click anywhere in the track’s playlist
to begin recording from that point.
162
3 To record from the beginning of the track,
click Return to Zero in the Transport window.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Appending New Material to the End of a
Track
You can also append new material to the end of
a track. To do this, locate to the end of the track
with the Go to End button in the Transport window (this will locate the end of the session), or
tab to the end point of the last region on the
track. From there, begin recording and Pro Tools
will add the new material to the end of the track.
If using Destructive Record mode, the new audio is appended to the audio file and region
from the first take. In Nondestructive Record
mode, a new file and region are created.
Recording to a New Playlist
Instead of recording over existing audio regions,
there is another way to nondestructively record
new takes to the same track. Do this by creating
a new playlist for the track, then record just as
before.
Tracks can have multiple edit playlists, each of
which stores a list of regions strung together in a
particular order. Also, since playlists follow
groups, duplicating or selecting alternate playlists for a track in a focused group will affect all
tracks in the group.
To record to a new playlist for a track:
1 From the track’s Playlist Selector pop-up,
choose New. Enter a name for the new playlist
and click OK.
An audio file for the new take is written to disk
and appears as an audio region in the track’s
playlist. The new audio region appears in the
Audio Regions List.
6 To audition the new take, click Play in the
Transport window.
7 To go back to a previous playlist to compare it
to the new take, select the playlist from the
track’s Playlist Selector.
Selecting a playlist recalls its regions as they previously appeared in the track. At any time, all regions from all playlists are available in the Regions List, and can be mixed and matched
between playlists and tracks.
For more information on playlists and playlist editing, see “Playlists” on page 217.
Punch Recording Audio
Playlist Selector
When a new playlist is created, its name replaces
the track name. With this playlist active, names
for new audio files and regions are based on its
name.
2 Make sure the track is still record enabled.
3 In the Transport window, click Return to Zero.
4 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
5 When you have finished recording, click Stop
in the Transport window.
To define a record range in the playlist, or replace a portion of a recorded track, you can
punch in by specifying the record range before
recording.
To manually punch in and out on recordenabled audio tracks during playback, refer
to “QuickPunch Audio Recording” on
page 191, or “TrackPunch Audio Recording” on page 194.
Though there are several ways to set record and
play ranges (see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on
page 168), perhaps the easiest is to select within
the track’s playlist the range for recording.
To set a record or play range by selecting
within a playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked (select Operations >
Link Edit and Timeline Selection).
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163
During the recording process, playback begins
at the pre-roll time (if enabled) and proceeds to
the start time (the punch-in point), where recording begins. When the end time (the punchout point) is reached, Pro Tools automatically
switches out of Record mode and continues
playing through the specified amount of postroll. This automated punch-in/out feature is a
powerful and precise way of recording or re-recording a portion of a track.
To punch record on an audio track:
1 To record nondestructively, make sure that
Operations > Destructive Record is not selected.
– or –
If you do want to permanently record over the
specified record range, select Operations > Destructive Record.
If you are recording in any mode other than
Destructive Record mode, punches do not
permanently replace the previously recorded
material. If you do want to permanently
record over the specified record range (and
keep only the last, or most recent take), select Operations > Destructive Record.
2 Make sure the track to which you want to
record is record enabled.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
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4 With the Selector, drag in the track’s playlist
until the selection encompasses the punch
range. For other methods of setting the record
range, see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on
page 168.
5 To hear any existing track material up to the
start point, or after the end point, enable and set
pre- and post-roll times. For details, see “Setting
Pre- and Post-Roll” on page 170.
6 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
When the punch-in (start) point is reached,
Pro Tools begins recording. Recording continues until the punch-out (end) point is reached,
unless Stop is clicked in the Transport window.
If post-roll is enabled, playback continues for
the specified post-roll amount.
If recording nondestructively, a new audio file is
written to your hard drive and a new audio region appears in the record track and Audio Regions List.
If recording in Destructive Record mode, the
new audio overwrites the previous material in
the existing audio file and region.
Monitoring During Punch-Ins
Pro Tools provides two monitoring modes for
recording: Auto Input monitoring and Input
Only monitoring. For details, see “Auto Input
Monitoring” on page 140.
Loop Recording Audio
Pro Tools provides a loop recording feature that
allows you to record take after take while the
same section of audio repeats over and over.
This is a convenient technique for quickly recording multiple takes of a part without losing
spontaneity.
When loop recording, you must first specify the
start and end points for the loop. Though there
are several ways to set record and play ranges
(see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on page 168),
perhaps the easiest is to select within the track’s
playlist the material to be looped.
To set a record or play range by selecting
within a playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked (select Operations >
Link Edit and Timeline Selection).
To loop record an audio track:
1 Select Operations > Loop Record. When Loop
Record mode is enabled, a loop symbol appears
in the Record button.
Loop Recording enabled
2 Record enable the audio track by clicking its
Record Enable button.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
4 With the Selector, drag in the track’s playlist
until the selection encompasses the loop range.
For other methods of setting the record range,
see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on page 168.
5 To hear track material up to the start point of
You can listen to track material up to and after
the loop record range by enabling pre- and postroll.
the loop, enable and set the pre-roll time. For
details, see “Setting Pre- and Post-Roll” on
page 170.
The pre-roll setting, if enabled, is used only during the first record pass, and the post-roll setting, if enabled, is used only on the last pass.
Pre- and post-roll times are ignored on each successive loop. To compensate for this, you may
want to make the loop range slightly longer.
Later, you can trim back the recorded takes to
the proper length with the Trimmer tool (see
“The Trimmer Tool” on page 267).
6 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
When loop recording audio, Pro Tools creates a
single audio file that comprises all takes. Takes
appear as individual regions in the Audio Regions List and are numbered sequentially. Once
you stop recording, you can audition any of the
recorded takes.
The Record button flashes during the pre-roll.
When the start point is reached, Pro Tools begins recording. When the end point is reached,
Pro Tools loops back to the start time and continues playing and recording.
7 To cancel all recorded takes while loop recording, press Control+period (Windows) or Command+period (Macintosh).
8 When you have finished recording, click Stop
in the Transport window.
If you stop recording before you reach the midpoint of the loop, Pro Tools discards that take. If
you record more than half of the looped take,
Pro Tools will leave the take in the track when
you stop recording.
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The recorded takes appear as regions in the Audio Regions List and are numbered sequentially.
The most recently recorded take is left in the
record track. For details on auditioning the various takes, see “Auditioning Record Takes” on
page 166.
Loop Playback and Audio Recording
Pro Tools ignores “loop playback” when recording. The only way to loop while recording is to
enable Loop Record mode.
Auditioning Record Takes
After recording multiple takes with loop or
punch recording, you can replace the take currently residing in the track with previous takes
to audition them. (Takes must have the same
start time to be available.) Takes can also be auditioned from the Regions List, or from the
Takes List pop-up menu.
Auditioning from the Takes List
Pop-up Menu
Each region resulting from a punch or loop
record pass has an identical start time (the User
Time Stamp). This allows you to easily select and
audition takes from the Takes List pop-up
menu—even while the session plays or loops.
To select a take from the Takes List pop-up:
1 Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) with the Selector at the precise beginning of the loop or punch range.
– or –
If the take currently residing in the track is selected, Control-click (Windows) or Commandclick (Macintosh) it with the Selector.
All takes are numbered sequentially.
Auditioning from the Regions List
To select a take from the Regions List:
A pop-up menu appears containing a list of regions that share the same User Time Stamp.
1 In the Edit window, select the current take
2 Choose a region from the Takes List pop-up
with the Grabber.
menu. The region replaces the previous take and
snaps precisely to the correct location.
2 Control-drag (Windows) or Command-drag
(Macintosh) another take from the Audio Regions List into the playlist.
The region replaces the previous take and snaps
precisely to the correct location.
3 Repeat the above steps to audition other takes.
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3 Repeat the above steps to audition other takes.
One way to ensure that future takes have the
same User Time Stamp (and appear in the Takes
List pop-up) is to store punch and loop record
selections as Memory Locations. Then if you
later need to record additional takes, simply recall the Memory Location. For more information, see “Memory Locations” on page 169.
To change the User Time Stamp of other regions
so that they appear in the Takes List pop-up for
a certain location, use the Time Stamp Selected
command in the Regions List pop-up menu. For
more information, see “Time Stamping” on
page 570.
Editing Preferences for Takes
Takes List and Multiple Tracks
To set editing preferences for takes:
If you have recorded multiple tracks, and each
contains takes with identical User Time Stamps,
you can use the Takes List pop-up menu to replace all takes simultaneously.
To replace the takes for multiple tracks:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, click the Editing
tab, and enable the following options:
• Take Region Name(s) That Match Track
Names
• Take Regions Lengths That Match
2 Click Done to close the Preferences dialog.
3 With the Selector, select the take range for
each track you want to replace.
4 Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) any of the select takes with the Selector.
A pop-up menu appears containing a list of regions that share the same User Time Stamp for
that track.
5 Choose a region from the Takes List pop-up
menu. The region replaces the previous take and
snaps precisely to the correct location. The same
take numbers for the other selected tracks are
also automatically selected.
In addition to having the same User Time
Stamp, regions that appear in the Takes List
pop-up are also restricted according to options
in the Preferences dialog.
■ Choose Setups > Preferences, click the Editing
tab, and enable or disable the following options
in the “Matching Start Time” Take List section:
Take Region Name(s) That Match Track
Names When selected, only regions that share
the same root name with the track/playlist appear in the Takes List pop-up menu. For example, the Takes List for a track named “Gtr.L”
would show the regions “Gtr.L_01” and
“Gtr.L_02-01,” but not “Guitar.L_01.”
Take Region Lengths That Match When selected,
only regions that match the length of the current
selection (even if it is not an entire region) appear
in the Takes List pop-up menu. If there is no selection, all takes with the same User Time Stamp
are displayed.
“Separate Region” Operates On All Related
Takes When selected, editing a region with the
Separate Region command also affects all other
related takes with the same User Time Stamp.
This option helps you compare different sections from a group of related takes. For example,
you can quickly separate an entire group of related vocal takes into sections, then audition
and select the best material from each section
independently.
If this option is selected, make sure the “Take
Region Names That Match Track Name(s)” and
“Take Region Lengths That Match” options are
also selected. If they are not, all regions in the
session that have the same User Time Stamp will
be affected.
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In most instances, you’ll want to deselect the
“Separate Region Operates On All Related
Takes” option, to prevent a large number of regions from being created when you use the Separate Region command.
You can also enter start and end point during playback. Press the Down Arrow to set
the start point, and press the Up Arrow to
set the end point. Note that when in Grid
mode, entering start and end point in this
manner will not snap to the grid.
Setting Punch/Loop Points
To set the record range in a Timebase Ruler:
The start and end points of a record range for
punch and loop recording can be set by the following methods:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
• Select a range in a track’s playlist
• Select a range in a Timebase Ruler
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag with the Selector in any Timebase Ruler
until the selection encompasses the record
range.
• Drag the Playback Markers in the Ruler
• Enter start and end times in the Transport
window
• Recall a Memory Location
Timeline selection
To set the record range in a track’s playlist:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
3 With the Selector, drag in a track’s playlist un-
til the selection encompasses the record range.
If the Selector is not active, you do not need
to manually select it. Other Edit tools (such
as the Grabber) automatically turn into the
Selector when used in the Timebase Ruler.
Playback Markers
When tracks are record enabled, Playback Markers for start and end times appear as red
up/down arrows in the Ruler. If no tracks are
record enabled, the Playback Markers are blue.
Playlist selection
– or –
If a region’s start and end points define the
record range, click the region with the Grabber.
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Playback Markers in Ruler
The Playback Markers can be moved, either separately or at the same time, to set record and
play ranges.
To set the record range by dragging the Playback
Markers:
To set the record range by entering start and end
times in the Transport window:
1 If you want the dragged Playback Markers to
1 Select Display > Transport Shows > Expanded.
snap to the current grid value, set the Edit mode
to Grid
2 In the Transport window, click in the start
2 Drag the first Playback Marker (down arrow)
to the start point of the range.
field.
– or –
Press Alt+slash (Windows) or Option+slash
(Macintosh) on the numeric keypad to select the
start field in the Transport window.
Dragging a Playback Marker (start time) in Ruler
3 Drag the second Playback Marker (up arrow)
to the end point of the range.
If the current record range is already the
right length and the range needs only to be
moved, Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag
(Macintosh) either Playback Marker to
move both to a new location (while keeping
the same length).
Start, End, and Length Fields
The Transport window can be resized to display
start, end, and length times, and pre- and postroll settings (choose Display Transport Window
Shows > Expanded). When setting a record or
play range, it is reflected in these fields.
3 Type in the start location and press slash on
the numeric keypad to enter the value and automatically move to the end field.
4 Type in the end location and press Enter to ac-
cept the value.
Use the period (.) or Left/Right Arrow keys
to move through the different time fields for
start/end. Use the Up/Down Arrow keys to
increase or decrease the numerical values.
Memory Locations
You can store Edit selections as Memory Locations, which can include current pre- and postroll values.
For more information on Memory Locations,
see “Memory Locations and Markers” on
page 324.
To save an Edit selection with a Memory Location:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
Transport window with Start, End, and Length fields
displayed
You can enter locations in the start and end
fields to set the record or play range. The Playback Markers in the Ruler are updated accordingly.
2 Set the record range by making a playlist or
Ruler selection, or by entering start and end
times in the Transport window.
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169
3 To save the pre- and post-roll values, enable
2 Choose Windows > Show Memory Locations.
and set the pre- and post-roll amounts by entering them in the Transport window, or by dragging the Pre- and Post-Roll Flags in the Ruler.
(For details, see “Setting Pre- and Post-Roll” on
page 170.)
4 Press Enter on the numeric keypad.
5 In the New Memory Location dialog, set Time
Properties to Selection, and if saving pre- and
post-roll values, select the General Properties
option for Pre/Post Roll Times.
Memory Locations window
3 In the Memory Locations window, click the
name or number of the Memory Location.
– or –
Recall the Memory Location by typing period,
the Memory Location number, and period again
on the Numeric Keypad. (See “Numeric Keypad
Modes” on page 31).
New Memory Location dialog
6 Enter a name for the new Memory Location
and click OK to save it.
The start and end times and pre- and post-roll
settings stored with the Memory Location are recalled.
Setting Pre- and Post-Roll
To recall an Edit selection with a Memory
Location:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
Pre- and post-roll times appear as flags in the
Ruler. When pre- and post-roll are enabled, the
flags are green, otherwise they are gray.
Green Pre- and Post-Roll Flags (enabled) in the Ruler
Pre- and post-roll amounts can be entered in the
Transport window, set from a track’s playlist or
Timebase Ruler, or by recalling a Memory Location.
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Setting Pre- and Post-Roll in the
Transport Window
Pre- and post-roll can be enabled and set from
the fields in the Transport window.
To set and enable the pre- and post-roll times in
the Transport window:
1 Select Display > Transport Shows > Expanded.
2 In the Transport window, click in the pre-roll
field.
4 With the Selector, Alt-click (Windows) or Op-
tion-click (Macintosh) in the track’s playlist after the selection to enable the post-roll at that
location.
To disable the pre- and post-roll by clicking in a
playlist:
1 With the Selector, Alt-click (Windows) or Op-
tion-click (Macintosh) within a track selection
near the start to disable the pre-roll.
2 With the Selector, Alt-click (Windows) or Op-
3 Type in the pre-roll amount and press slash on
the numeric keypad to enter the value and automatically move to the post-roll field.
tion-click (Macintosh) within a track selection
near the end to disable the pre-roll.
In the timeline, you can reset the pre- and
post-roll to zero. First, drag the Pre-Roll Flag
to the Playback Marker at the start point of
the range, then drag the Post-Roll Flag to
the Playback Marker at the end point of the
range
4 Type in the post-roll amount and press Enter
to accept the new value.
5 To enable either pre- or post-roll, click the ap-
propriate button so it becomes highlighted.
Use the period (.) or Left/Right Arrow keys
to move through the different time fields for
pre and post-roll. Use the Up/Down Arrow
keys to increase or decrease the numerical
values.
Setting Pre- and Post-Roll in a Playlist
You can use the Selector to enable and disable
pre- and post-roll by clicking in a track’s playlist.
To set and enable the pre- and post-roll by clicking
in a playlist:
1 Make sure that Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection is enabled.
2 With the Selector, drag in the track’s playlist
until the selection encompasses the record
range.
3 With the Selector, Alt-click (Windows) or Op-
tion-click (Macintosh) in the track’s playlist before the selection to enable the pre-roll at that
location.
3 Drag the Pre-Roll Flag to the Playback Marker
at the start point of the range.
4 Drag the Post-Roll Flag to the Playback Marker
at the end point of the range.
Enabling Pre- and Post-Roll from the
Operations Menu
Pre- and post-roll (as a pair) can be enabled and
disabled from the Operations menu.
To enable both pre- and post-roll from the
Operations menu:
■
Select Operations > Pre/Post Roll Playback.
Dragging Pre- and Post-Roll Flags in the
Timebase Ruler
The Pre- and Post-Roll Flags can be moved in the
Ruler, either separately or at the same time, to
set their location.
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171
To set the pre- and post-roll amounts by dragging
in the Ruler:
1 If you want the dragged flags to snap to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag the Pre-Roll Flag to a location in the
Ruler.
Dragging a Pre-Roll Flag in Ruler
3 Drag the Post-Roll Flag to a location in the
Ruler.
To set pre- and post-roll values to the same
amount, Alt-drag (Windows) or Optiondrag (Macintosh) either the Pre- or the PostRoll Flag in the Ruler. The deselected flag
will immediately reset to the same value,
and will adjust accordingly as you drag the
selected flag.
Recording from a Digital
Source
If you plan to use a DAT player, digital-output
CD recorder, or other digital input and output
device with your Pro Tools system, make sure it
supports the correct digital format. For example,
your interface’s AES/EBU inputs and outputs
should only be connected to another AES/EBU
device.
Pro Tools|HD Systems
The 192 I/O, 192 Digital I/O, and 96 I/O include
AES/EBU, S/PDIF, and ADAT digital options. Additionally, the 192 I/O and 192 Digital I/O include TDIF digital I/O options. The 96i I/O includes only the S/PDIF digital option.
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On a 192 I/O, 192 Digital I/O, or 96 I/O,
Pro Tools can receive digital audio from the factory-installed Optical (ADAT) I/O at any time (if
it is not set to S/PDIF). However, Pro Tools can
only receive digital audio from one of its enclosure [Encl] digital sources—AES, S/PDIF or Optical (S/PDIF) at a time.
Enclosure digital sources come standard with
HD I/Os and are labelled on-screen as [Encl] versions, to differentiate them from digital inputs
and outputs available on the 192’s Digital I/O
card. For example, the AES/EBU inputs and outputs that come standard in the 192 I/O enclosure are identified as AES/EBU [Encl].
The additional digital ports on the 192 I/O and
192 Digital I/O are TDIF, AES/EBU, and ADAT.
Pro Tools can only receive digital audio from
one of these ports at a time.
However, inputs on both the 192 I/O enclosure
I/O and Digital card can be used simultaneously.
For example, on a 192 I/O, it is possible to clock
off a source from one of the enclosure inputs
and have another digital input from the digital
ports doing a sample rate conversion, thus having two digital sources.
Pro Tools|24 MIX Systems
On the 888|24 I/O, 24-bit ADAT Bridge I/O, and
the original ADAT Bridge I/O, both AES/EBU
and S/PDIF outputs are active at all times, so you
can actually send digital audio to two different
digital devices simultaneously at mix time.
However, Pro Tools can only receive digital audio from one digital source (AES or S/PDIF) at a
time.
In addition, although the 888|24 I/O has four
stereo AES input pairs, only input pair 1–2 on
the master audio interface, (the first audio interface connected to your main DSP card), can accept an external digital clock source.
Pro Tools LE Systems
7 Assign the Input Selectors for the track to the
The Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, and Digi 001 include S/PDIF and ADAT digital options.
appropriate inputs. Since this is a digital-domain transfer, you don’t need to worry about input levels.
The Mbox includes only the S/PDIF digital option.
All digital outputs are active at all times, so you
can actually send digital audio to different digital devices simultaneously at mix time.
Recording from Digital Sources
To record from a digital source with Pro Tools (in
this example, from a DAT recorder):
1 Connect the digital output of the DAT re-
corder to the appropriate digital input of your
audio hardware.
2 If you want to start a new session with a dif-
ferent sample rate, choose File > New Session,
and select the sample rate. Click Save.
3 Make sure to specify the format (digital) of the
inputs of the audio interface you will be using.
Choose Setups > Hardware Setup, choose the audio interface, and select the format for the appropriate channel pair. Some Digidesign I/O
units, such as Digi 001, only have two channels
(Ch 1–2) that can be set for analog or digital.
Also, if your audio hardware supports different
digital formats (such as AES/EBU and S/PDIF),
select the digital format you will use.
4 For HD systems, choose Setups > Hardware
Setup and select the appropriate Clock Source
connected to the appropriate I/O audio interface; or use the Session Setup window to select
the appropriate Clock Source.
5 Click OK to close the Hardware Setup dialog.
6 Choose File > New Track and specify 1 Stereo
Audio Track, then click Create.
8 In the Mix window, click the track’s Output
Selector and assign a stereo hardware output.
– or –
In the Edit window, with I/O view enabled, use
the track’s Output Selector to assign a hardware
output.
9 In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive
Record, Loop Record, QuickPunch and TrackPunch.
10 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero so the start and end times are cleared. This
ensures that you’ll start recording from the beginning of the track.
11 In the Mix or Edit window, record enable the
new audio track by clicking its Record Enable
button.
12 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
13 Start playback on the DAT deck.
14 When the material from the DAT has finished, click Stop in the Transport window.
For more information on configuring your
particular Pro Tools system for recording
from a digital source, see your Getting
Started Guide.
After a Digital Transfer
After you have finished recording digitally, set
the Clock Source pop-up menu in the Session
Setup window back to Internal. Otherwise,
Pro Tools will not switch back to its own internal clock and will not record or play audio properly. Failure to switch back to Internal sync typically results in pitch problems (fast or slow
Chapter 12: Basic Audio Recording
173
playback) or DAE errors, since a DAT recorder or
CD Recorder that is idle can default to a different sample rate or stop outputting a sample rate
clock altogether.
Half-Speed Recording and
Playback
Pro Tools lets you play and record at half-speed.
This capability is similar to that of a tape deck
where you can record material at half-speed and
then play it back at normal speed (up an octave)
for special effects.
To record at half-speed:
1 Press Shift+Control+Spacebar (Windows) or
Shift+Command+Spacebar (Macintosh). Recording begins and all existing track material
plays at half-speed.
2 When you have finished recording, click Stop.
When played at normal speed, the material recorded at half-speed plays twice as fast (up an
octave).
Use half-speed recording to record difficult
to play MIDI tracks or to record complex automation moves.
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To play at half-speed
1 Press Shift+Spacebar. Playback begins and
track material plays at half-speed. Any audio
tracks recorded at normal speed will sound half
as fast and an octave lower, and any audio tracks
playing back that were recorded at half-speed
will sound like they are playing back at normal
speed.
You can also play at half-speed by Shiftclicking the Play button.
2 Click Stop in the Transport window to stop
playback.
Use half-speed playback to learn or transcribe difficult passages in recorded tracks.
Chapter 13: MIDI Recording
Although recording MIDI in Pro Tools is similar
to recording audio, there are some important
differences:
Unlike audio, MIDI recording is almost always
destructive. See “The Record Modes and MIDI”
on page 150 for details.
◆
Unlike audio tracks, MIDI tracks can be record
enabled on-the-fly during playback or recording.
◆
Similar to audio tracks, MIDI tracks have an
Input Selector that determines which ports on
your MIDI interface (devices) and which MIDI
channels are routed and recorded to the track. If
the Input Selector is set to All, all channels for
all devices are routed to the track.
◆
It is not necessary to use QuickPunch or
TrackPunch to punch in on-the-fly with MIDI
tracks. This capability is available in normal
Nondestructive Record mode, and in Destructive Record mode.
◆
MIDI tracks are not automatically delay compensated when using Delay Compensation. Delay Compensation corrects audio track latency
only. For more information, see “Delay Compensation” on page 428.
◆
Recording from MIDI Devices
The MIDI Inputs for record-enabled MIDI tracks
determine which MIDI data is recorded in
Pro Tools. MIDI Inputs can be set to a specific
device (port) and channel, or they can be set to
“All,” where all channels for all devices are
merged to the track.
MIDI tracks in Pro Tools do not contain multiple channels and always play back on the track’s
assigned (MIDI output) devices and channels.
Multiple MIDI channels can be simultaneously
recorded to multiple tracks.
The following Pro Tools options determine
whether you can record from a MIDI controller
device:
◆ Devices that are assigned as a MIDI Controller
in the Peripherals dialog are ignored when MIDI
tracks are recorded. This is to avoid recording
data from MIDI control surfaces (such as the
Digidesign Command|8).
To record and play MIDI, the device must be
enabled in the Input Devices dialog (Macintosh
Only). For more information, see “Enabling Input Devices” on page 176.
◆
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175
In addition, the following options affect how
MIDI data is recorded in Pro Tools.
The MIDI Input Filter can filter out MIDI messages that you may not want to record, such as
Polyphonic Aftertouch or System Exclusive
data. For more information, see “MIDI Input Filter” on page 178.
◆
To enable input devices:
1 Choose MIDI > Input Devices.
2 In the MIDI Input Enable dialog, select the
MIDI devices you will record from. Also, make
sure any devices that will be used as a control
surface are also selected.
◆ Input Quantize, when enabled, automatically
quantizes (time corrects) all MIDI notes that are
recorded. For more information, see “Input
Quantize” on page 178.
Enabling Input Devices
(Macintosh Only)
To record from a MIDI controller in Pro Tools,
the device must be enabled in the Input Devices
dialog. You can also use this dialog to make sure
unwanted notes from certain devices, such as
drum machines or arpeggiators, are not recorded.
MIDI Control Surfaces ◆In order to use any MIDI
control surfaces (such as the Digidesign Command|8), they must be enabled in the Input Devices dialog.
MIDI Input Enable dialog
3 Deselect any devices you want to ignore while
recording MIDI.
4 When you are finished, click OK.
Pro Tools Inputs
MMC In order for Pro Tools to sync to MMC, the
MMC source must be enabled in the Input Devices dialog.
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(Mac OS X Only)
Pro Tools has four virtual MIDI inputs, called
Pro Tools Inputs, that can receive MIDI from
other supported software applications. For example, you can use Pro Tools Inputs to synchro-
nize to MIDI Time Code generated from another
supported software application, or record MIDI
data from another MIDI sequencer to Pro Tools
MIDI tracks.
MIDI Patchbay is a useful application for
routing MIDI between applications that
support virtual MIDI inputs (such as
Pro Tools), and applications that don’t
(such as Reason). For more information, see
http://pete.yandell.com/software.
MIDI Thru
To monitor MIDI tracks while recording, enable
MIDI Thru. When enabled, Pro Tools routes
MIDI from your controllers to the device and
channels assigned to the MIDI track currently
record enabled.
The MIDI Preference for Global MIDI Playback Offset and individual MIDI track offsets do not affect MIDI routed with MIDI
Thru.
The Default Thru Instrument
In addition to any MIDI tracks that are record
enabled, you can also route MIDI to the Default
Thru Instrument. This saves you the trouble of
creating a MIDI track and record enabling it to
hear a particular MIDI device and channel.
Unlike MIDI tracks, which only listen to the device and channel assigned to its Input Selector,
all incoming MIDI data is routed to the Default
Thru Instrument.
If the Default Thru Instrument is assigned to a
record-enabled MIDI track, Pro Tools only
routes to the record-enabled track.
To set the Default Thru Instrument:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click the
MIDI tab.
2 From the pop-up menu for Default Thru In-
strument, select the MIDI device and channel to
which MIDI data will be routed. To disable the
Default Thru Instrument, select None.
When MIDI Thru is enabled, System Exclusive events are echoed to the MIDI device assigned to the record-enabled track—but only
if the Sysex events are smaller than 256
bytes.
To enable MIDI Thru:
■
Select MIDI > MIDI Thru.
When using MIDI Thru, you should disable
Local Control, if present, on your MIDI devices. Otherwise, your MIDI device may receive double MIDI notes, which can lead to
stuck notes. If you are unsure how to disable
Local Control for your instrument, refer to
the manufacturer’s documentation.
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177
MIDI Input Filter
Input Quantize
Use the MIDI Input Filter to prevent certain
MIDI messages from being recorded. The MIDI
Input Filter can be set to record “All” messages,
“Only” the specified messages, or “All Except”
the specified messages.
When Input Quantize is enabled, all recorded
MIDI notes are quantized automatically. To preserve the original “feel” of your recorded MIDI
tracks, make sure to disable this option.
To enable Input Quantize:
For example, to filter out Polyphonic Aftertouch:
1 Choose MIDI > Input Filter.
2 In the MIDI Input Filter dialog, select the All
1 Choose MIDI > Input Quantize.
2 In the Input Quantize window, select the En-
able Input Quantize option.
Except option.
Input Quantize window
MIDI Input Filter
3 Select the option for Polyphonic Aftertouch.
Leave all other messages deselected.
Configure the other options in the Input Quantize window. For details on the various Quantize
options, see “Quantize” on page 380. When finished, close the Input Quantize window.
4 Click OK.
When using the All Except option, the selected
MIDI messages will not be recorded. Conversely,
when using the Only option, only the MIDI
messages that are selected will be recorded.
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For drum machine style loop recording, use Input
Quantize while loop recording MIDI in Merge
mode (see “Loop Recording with Merge Mode”
on page 185).
Wait for Note
MIDI Merge/Replace
The Wait for Note button, located in the Transport window, determines how Pro Tools begins
recording. When enabled, Pro Tools will not begin recording until a MIDI event is received.
This ensures that you begin recording when
you’re ready to play, and that the first note, or
other MIDI data, is recorded precisely at the beginning of the record range (start time).
The MIDI Merge button, located in the Transport window, determines how MIDI is recorded
when overdubbing or punching in. When MIDI
Merge is on (Merge mode), recorded MIDI is
merged with existing track material. When
MIDI Merge is off (Replace mode), existing data
within the punched region is replaced by the
newly recorded material.
Wait for Note can be used when recording normally, when punching in, or when loop recording. If pre-roll is enabled, it occurs after the
MIDI event is received and before recording begins.
The MIDI Merge button can be turned on and
off while playing or recording. In Loop Record
mode, MIDI Merge has no effect, so its button is
dimmed.
To enable Wait for Note:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Transport
window, select Display > Transport Window
Shows > MIDI Controls.
To enable MIDI Merge with a keyboard
shortcut, set the Numeric Keypad Mode to
Transport, and press the 9 key on the numeric keypad.
To enable MIDI Merge:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Transport
window, select Display > Transport Window
Shows > MIDI Controls.
2 In the Transport window, click the MIDI
Transport window with MIDI Controls
Merge button so it becomes highlighted.
2 In the Transport window, click the Wait for
Note button so it becomes highlighted.
MIDI Merge button
MIDI Merge enabled
Wait for Note button
Wait for Note enabled
With the Operation Preference for “Use F11
for Wait for Note” enabled, you can press
F11 to turn on Wait for Note.
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179
Configuring MIDI Tracks for
Recording
3 In the Mix window, click the track’s MIDI In-
put Selector and assign the device and channel
to be recorded.
To configure one or more MIDI tracks for
recording:
1 If you do not have a MIDI track to record to,
choose File > New Track and specify 1 MIDI
Track, then click Create.
New Track dialog
2 Rename the MIDI track. Track names are used
to auto-name recorded regions. For more information, see “Default Track Names” on page 144.
MIDI Input Selector, Mix window
– or –
In the Edit window, with I/O view enabled, click
the track’s MIDI Input Selector and assign the
device and channel to be recorded.
MIDI Input Selector, Edit window
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4 In the Mix window, click the track’s MIDI Output Selector and assign a device and channel
from the pop-up menu. Channels already assigned to other tracks appear bold in this menu.
5 To assign multiple destinations to a single
MIDI track, Start-click (Windows) or Controlclick (Macintosh) the MIDI Output Selector and
select additional channels from any device.
When multiple destinations are selected for a
single MIDI track, a “*” sign will appear next to
the first destination name in the track’s MIDI
Output Selector on Windows and Mac OS X,
and a “+” sign will appear next to the first destination name in the track’s MIDI Output Selector
on Mac OS 9.
6 If you want to assign a default program
change to the track, click the Patch Select button, make the necessary selections for program
and bank select, then click Done.
Default program changes are sent whenever the
track is played. For more information, see
“Patch Select (Program and Bank Changes)” on
page 366.
MIDI Output Selector, Mix window
– or –
In the Edit window, with I/O view enabled, click
the track’s MIDI Output Selector and assign a
device and channel from the pop-up menu.
Channels already assigned to other tracks appear bold in this menu.
7 If recording to multiple MIDI tracks, repeat
the above steps for each track, then continue to
the next step.
8 If you want to use a click, enable and config-
ure the click, and set a default tempo and meter
for the session. For details, see “Recording with a
Click” on page 151.
9 Enable Wait for Note or Countoff in the Trans-
port window if you want to use these features.
10 To replace existing track material, disable
MIDI Merge in the Transport window.
11 If you want to automatically quantize material as it is recorded, enable Input Quantize (see
“Input Quantize” on page 178).
12 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero so the start and end times are cleared. This
ensures that you’ll start recording from the beginning of the track.
MIDI Output Selector, Edit window
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181
13 In either the Mix or Edit window, click the
MIDI track’s Record Enable button to record enable the track.
14 Make sure MIDI > MIDI Thru is selected, then
play some notes on your MIDI controller. The
MIDI instrument assigned to the track should
sound, and the track’s meters should register
MIDI activity.
You are now ready to record MIDI data to the
record-enabled MIDI tracks. See “Recording to
MIDI Tracks” on page 182.
3 Record enable the MIDI track you want to
record by clicking its Record Enable button.
Shift-click to toggle on record enable for
multiple MIDI tracks.
4 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect
Destructive Record, Loop Record, and QuickPunch.
5 Click Record in the Transport window to enter
Record Ready mode. The Record button flashes.
Recording to MIDI Tracks
In Pro Tools, you can record to one or more
MIDI tracks. Recording simultaneously to multiple MIDI tracks allows you to:
• Record from multiple MIDI devices at the
same time, capturing material from several
performers
• Record multiple channels from the same device, capturing data from a split keyboard
• Transfer MIDI tracks from an external MIDI
sequencer
To take full advantage of the MIDI editing
capabilities in Pro Tools, make sure to
record with the click enabled. This ensures
that recorded data aligns with the session’s
bar and beat boundaries.
Record button
6 When you are ready to begin recording, click
Play. If using Countoff, Pro Tools counts off the
specified number of measures and then begins
recording.
– or –
If using Wait for Note, the Play, Record, and
Wait for Note buttons flash. Recording begins
when a MIDI event is received.
7 When you have finished recording, click Stop
in the Transport window.
For each record-enabled track, a new MIDI region is created and appears in the playlist. The
new MIDI regions also appear in the MIDI Regions List.
To record to one or more MIDI tracks:
1 For HD systems (using Pro Tools 6.4) deacti-
vate Automatic Delay Compensation. (For more
information, see “Delay Compensation” on
page 428.)
2 Configure a MIDI track for recording. Refer to
“Configuring MIDI Tracks for Recording” on
page 180.
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There are several keyboard shortcuts you
can use to begin recording. See “Record
Shortcuts” on page 161 for details.
To play back recorded MIDI tracks:
1 Click the Record Enable button on each MIDI
track so that they are no longer record enabled.
2 In the Transport window, click Return to Zero.
Punch Recording MIDI
To replace a portion of a MIDI track, you can
punch in by specifying the record range before
recording.
3 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
playback.
To punch in on a MIDI track:
The recorded MIDI data plays back through
each track’s assigned device (port) and channel.
1 Configure a MIDI track for recording. Refer to
Undo and MIDI Recording
2 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
You can undo previous MIDI record takes.
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect
Destructive Record, Loop Record, and QuickPunch.
“Configuring MIDI Tracks for Recording” on
page 180.
To undo a MIDI recording:
Once the Transport has been stopped, choose
Edit > Undo MIDI Recording.
■
3 In the Transport window, disable Wait for
Note and Countoff.
4 Select Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Se-
The track’s playlist is restored to its previous
state. However:
If you punched in and out several times before stopping the Transport, only the last punch
is undone.
◆
When using Loop Record mode, all takes from
each record pass are discarded.
◆
lection.
5 With the Selector, drag in the track’s playlist
until the selection encompasses the punch
range.
For other methods of setting the record range,
see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on page 168.
6 To hear existing track material up to the start
Canceling a Record Take
It is also possible to discard the current record
take before the Transport is stopped.
point, or after the end point, enable and set preand post-roll times. For details, see “Setting Preand Post-Roll” on page 170.
7 Record enable the track containing the previ-
To cancel a record take while recording:
ous take by clicking its Record Enable button.
Press Control+period (Windows) or Command+period (Macintosh) before the Transport
is stopped.
8 Click Record in the Transport window to enter
If using Loop Record mode, all takes from each
record pass are discarded.
Play.
■
Record Ready mode. The Record button flashes.
9 When you are ready to begin recording, click
Chapter 13: MIDI Recording
183
If pre-roll is enabled, the track material leading
up to the punch-in point plays. You can start
playing during the pre-roll to get the “feel.” Material is not recorded until the start point is
reached.
5 Start playback by clicking Play in the Trans-
port window.
6 When you reach the punch-in point, click
Record in the Transport window.
– or –
When the start point is reached, Pro Tools begins recording. Recording continues until the
end point is reached, unless Stop is clicked in
the Transport window. If post-roll is enabled,
playback continues for the specified post-roll
amount.
For Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, and Digi 001 systems (or Digidesign ProControl and Control|24
dedicated controllers) with a connected footswitch, press the footswitch at the punch-in
point.
10 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
The Record button stops flashing and stays lit
during recording.
The newly recorded MIDI data appears in the
track.
7 To punch out, click Record again (or press the
Punch Recording During Playback with
MIDI
You don’t have to set a record range to punch in
on a MIDI track. In fact, you can punch in and
out on-the-fly at any time during playback. Unlike audio tracks, it is not necessary to enable
QuickPunch to perform real-time punch recording.
To punch record on-the-fly with MIDI:
1 Configure a MIDI track for recording. Refer to
“Configuring MIDI Tracks for Recording” on
page 180.
2 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect
Destructive Record, Loop Record, and QuickPunch.
3 In the Transport window, disable Wait for
Note and Countoff.
4 Record enable the track containing the previous take by clicking its Record Enable button.
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footswitch).
Pro Tools exits Record mode and continues
playing. You can perform additional punches
during the same pass.
Regions and Punch Recording
Depending on the record range, new regions
may be created after punch recording. For example, Figure 7 shows two existing regions before
recording. Since the start and end times occur
within both of the existing regions, a new region is created to fill the space between them.
Loop Recording MIDI
Loop recording with MIDI is supported by two
methods:
• In normal Nondestructive Record mode, enable Loop Playback and MIDI Merge for drum
machine style loop recording.
– or –
before punch record
• Use Loop Record mode to record multiple
takes on each record pass. This is similar to
loop recording audio.
after punch record
newly recorded
material
new region
Figure 7. Region added after punch record
However, when selecting an entire region, or a
section within a region, before punching, no
new regions are created. In this instance, only
the material residing within the existing region
changes, with no new material recorded outside
the region.
Unlike audio recording, MIDI recording in this
scenario is destructive. If a region is altered because of a record take, the original material is
lost (unless you choose Edit > Undo MIDI Recording), or combined with new material (if
MIDI Merge was enabled during recording). If
an existing region contains important material,
use Duplicate to make a copy of the region (“Duplicate Command” on page 283) or the track’s
playlist (see “Working with Playlists” on
page 218).
Loop Recording with Merge Mode
For drum machine style loop recording, use normal Nondestructive Record mode with Loop
Playback and MIDI Merge enabled. With this
method, MIDI is recorded and merged to the
same region with each new record pass—
thereby allowing you to, for example, record hihats on the first pass and kick and snare on the
next.
Make sure that MIDI Merge is enabled in the
Transport window, otherwise (in Replace mode)
each subsequent take will destructively replace
the previous.
You can record enable a different MIDI
track on-the-fly while loop recording. While
pressing Control (Windows) or Command
(Macintosh), use the Up/Down Arrows to
record enable the previous or next MIDI
track.
To loop record with MIDI Merge:
1 Configure a MIDI track for recording. Refer to
“Configuring MIDI Tracks for Recording” on
page 180.
Chapter 13: MIDI Recording
185
2 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect
Destructive Record, Loop Record, and QuickPunch.
3 Select Operations > Loop Playback. When
Loop Playback is enabled, a loop symbol appears
in the Play button.
Loop Playback enabled
4 Record enable the MIDI track by clicking its
Record Enable button. Make sure no audio
tracks are record enabled.
5 In the Transport window, click the MIDI
Merge button so it becomes highlighted.
6 Disable Wait for Note and Countoff in the
Transport window.
7 Select Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Se-
lection.
8 With the Selector, drag in the track’s playlist
until the selection encompasses the loop range.
For other methods of setting the record range,
see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on page 168.
9 To hear track material up to the start point of
the loop, enable and set the pre-roll time. For
details, see “Setting Pre- and Post-Roll” on
page 170.
10 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
The Record button flashes during the pre-roll.
When the start point is reached, Pro Tools begins recording. When the end point is reached,
Pro Tools loops back to the start point and continues playing and recording.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
11 Play some notes on your MIDI controller.
Newly recorded MIDI data appears as a region in
the record track. On each successive take, recorded material shows up in the region, without
replacing material from previous takes.
12 If you want to switch to a new record track,
press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh), and press the Up/Down Arrow keys to
record enable the previous or next MIDI track.
13 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
The newly recorded MIDI data appears as a MIDI
region in the track’s playlist, and in the MIDI
Regions List.
Loop Recording Multiple Takes
When recording MIDI in Loop Record mode,
new regions are created each time new material
is received during a record pass. This differs
somewhat from loop recording audio, where
Pro Tools creates a single audio file that comprises all takes, which appear as individual regions in the Audio Regions List.
You can use MIDI loop recording to record successive takes without stopping the record process, thereby capturing your creative spontaneity. Another advantage with this method of
recording MIDI, which is nondestructive, is that
existing and newly recorded regions remain intact (and available in the MIDI Regions List).
To record MIDI in Loop Record mode:
1 Configure a MIDI track for recording. Refer to
“Configuring MIDI Tracks for Recording” on
page 180.
2 Select Operations > Loop Record. When Loop
Record mode is enabled, a loop symbol appears
in the Record button.
6 With the Selector, drag in the track’s playlist
until the selection encompasses the loop range.
For other methods of setting the record range,
see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on page 168.
7 To hear track material up to the start point of
the loop, enable and set the pre-roll time. For
details, see “Setting Pre- and Post-Roll” on
page 170.
8 Click Record in the Transport window. When
you are ready to begin recording, click Play.
The Record button flashes during the pre-roll.
When the start point is reached, Pro Tools begins recording. When the end point is reached,
Pro Tools loops back to the start point and continues playing and recording.
9 Play your MIDI controller. A new MIDI region
containing the newly recorded material is automatically created and appears in the track’s playlist, replacing the previous region.
Regions are replaced (nondestructively) during
subsequent record passes when new MIDI material is received.
10 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window. The most recently recorded take is left in the record track.
Loop Recording enabled
3 If you have not done so already, record enable
the MIDI track by clicking its Record Enable button. Make sure no audio tracks are record enabled.
The recorded takes appear as regions in the
MIDI Regions List and are numbered sequentially. The takes, which are the same length and
easily interchangeable, can be auditioned from
the Takes List pop-up menu—even while the session plays or loops.
4 Disable Wait for Note and Countoff in the
Transport window.
5 Select Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Se-
lection.
Chapter 13: MIDI Recording
187
To audition the various record takes:
1 Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) with the Selector at the precise beginning of the loop record range.
– or –
If the take currently residing in the track is selected, Control-click (Windows) or Commandclick (Macintosh) it with the Selector.
A pop-up menu appears containing a list of regions that share the same User Time Stamp.
Recording System Exclusive
Data
Pro Tools supports recording and playing System Exclusive data (Sysex) with MIDI tracks.
This allows you to use MIDI tracks in Pro Tools
to store patch and configuration data for your
MIDI devices, or to record real-time Sysex
changes for a particular parameter of a MIDI device that cannot be controlled by a standard
MIDI controller.
To record a Sysex dump at the beginning of a MIDI
track:
1 Make sure that the MIDI OUT for the device
sending the Sysex is connected to your MIDI interface’s MIDI IN.
Auditioning loop record takes
2 Choose a region from the Takes List pop-up
menu. The region replaces the previous take and
snaps precisely to the correct location.
For more information on auditioning and managing takes, see “Auditioning Record Takes” on
page 166.
2 Configure a MIDI track for recording. Refer to
“Configuring MIDI Tracks for Recording” on
page 180.
3 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect
Destructive Record, Loop Record, and QuickPunch.
4 In the MIDI Input Filter, enable recording of
System Exclusive data.
5 If you have not done so already, record enable
the MIDI track by clicking its Record Enable button.
6 Enable Wait for Note in the Transport win-
dow.
7 In the Transport window, click Return to Zero
so the start and end times are cleared. This ensures that you’ll start recording from the beginning of the track.
8 When you are ready to begin recording, click
Record in the Transport window.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
The Record, Play, and Wait for Note buttons
flash, indicating that Pro Tools is waiting for
MIDI data.
9 Initiate the Sysex transfer from the MIDI de-
vice, according to the instructions in the guide
for your MIDI device. When receiving the MIDI
data, Pro Tools automatically begins recording.
10 When the transfer is complete (as defined in
in the guide for your MIDI device), click Stop in
the Transport window.
The newly recorded MIDI data appears as a MIDI
region in the track’s playlist, and in the MIDI
Regions List. MIDI regions that contain System
Exclusive data appear blank when the track’s
Display Format is set to Regions.
To see the Sysex event blocks, which indicate
the location of the data, set the MIDI Track View
to display Sysex (see “Regions View for MIDI
Tracks” on page 216). For details on moving and
copying of Sysex data, see “System Exclusive
Events” on page 369.
To resend the Sysex from Pro Tools:
1 For the device receiving the System Exclusive
data, make sure its MIDI IN is connected to your
MIDI interface’s MIDI OUT. Also, make sure the
device is set to receive Sysex. Some devices require that memory protect be off.
2 For the previously recorded track, click its
Record Enable button so that it is no longer
record enabled.
3 Click the track’s MIDI Device/Channel Selec-
tor and assign the device from the pop-up
menu.
4 In the Transport window, click Return to Zero.
5 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
playback. Pro Tools begins playing and transmits the previously recorded Sysex to the assigned MIDI device.
Chapter 13: MIDI Recording
189
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Chapter 14: Advanced Recording
There are two advanced recording methods that
differ from basic recording, QuickPunch and
TrackPunch.
QuickPunch A nondestructive recording mode
that lets record enabled tracks be punched in
and punched out during playback by clicking
the Transport’s Record button.
TrackPunch (TDM only) A nondestructive recording mode that lets individual tracks be punched
in, punched out, and taken out of record enable
without interrupting online recording and playback.
QuickPunch Audio Recording
Pro Tools features an intelligent on-the-fly
punch capability called QuickPunch. QuickPunch lets you instantaneously punch in and
out on record-enabled audio tracks during playback by merely clicking the Record button in
the Transport window.
For Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, and Digi 001
systems, and Digidesign control surfaces,
you can use a footswitch to punch in and
out when recording with QuickPunch.
When using QuickPunch, Pro Tools begins recording a new file when playback begins, automatically generating regions in that file at each
punch-in and punch-out point. These regions
appear in the track’s playlist; and the complete
audio file appears in the Regions List along with
the QuickPunch created regions. Up to 200 of
these “running punches” can be performed in a
single pass. Unlike normal punch recording (see
“Punch Recording Audio” on page 163), QuickPunch provides instantaneous monitor switching on punch-out. All QuickPunch recording is
nondestructive.
You don’t need to use QuickPunch to punch
on-the-fly with MIDI tracks. This capability
is available in normal Nondestructive
Record mode, and in Destructive Record
mode.
QuickPunch/TrackPunch Crossfade
Length
Pro Tools can automatically write a crossfade for
each punch point when using QuickPunch. The
length for these crossfades is set with the QuickPunch Crossfade/TrackPunch Length option in
the Editing Preferences.
Chapter 14: Advanced Recording
191
To set the QuickPunch Crossfade Length:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and select the
Editing tab.
2 Enter a new value (in msec) for the QuickPunch /TrackPunch CrossFade Length.
A good general-purpose crossfade length for
punches is 10 milliseconds. If you set the preference to zero, Pro Tools will not create any crossfades at the punch-in/out points.
To free up voices on tracks that are not recordenabled, and do not need to be heard while
recording:
■
Set voice assignments for tracks to Off.
– or –
Make tracks inactive.
3 Click Done.
■
If a value other than zero is specified for the
QuickPunch/TrackPunch Crossfade Length,
Pro Tools writes a pre-crossfade at the punch-in
point (which occurs up to but not into the
punched region boundary), and a post-crossfade
at the punch-out point (which occurs after the
punched region).
As necessary, voices in use by other tracks,
which are not record-enabled, may be “stolen”
while recording with QuickPunch. Priority for
tracks while recording with QuickPunch are as
follows:
Even if the QuickPunch/TrackPunch Crossfade
Length is set to zero, Pro Tools always executes a
4 millisecond “monitor only” crossfade (which
is not written to disk) to avoid distracting pops
or clicks that might occur as you enter and exit
record mode.
• Tracks with assigned voices that are record-enabled
QuickPunch crossfades can later be edited in the
same manner as standard crossfades. For details,
see “Using Crossfades” on page 295.
QuickPunch Guidelines for
TDM Systems
When using QuickPunch on TDM systems, two
voices are required for each record-enabled,
mono track. This means that you can record up
to half the total number of voices available on
your system. For example, a Pro Tools|HD system configured for 128 voices can simultaneously record on up to 64 mono tracks with
QuickPunch (or 32 stereo tracks).
192
If the required number of voices for the recordenabled tracks is not available when switching
to QuickPunch mode, you will be prompted to
free up the necessary voices.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
• Tracks with assigned voices that are not
record-enabled
• Auto-voiced tracks that are not record-enabled
• Auto-voiced tracks that are record-enabled
If the session has plenty of available voices, you
may have no trouble using QuickPunch with
auto-voiced tracks. However, if you are running
out of voices, and want to ensure that a track
will be heard when recording with QuickPunch,
assign it a voice.
QuickPunch and Auto Voice
(TDM Systems Only)
When using QuickPunch with a Pro Tools TDM
system configured for the maximum 128- or 64voices, make sure to set the voice assignment for
each audio track to Auto. This ensures that
Pro Tools will automatically handle the distribution of voices between each set of voices. For
example, for a 128-voice configured
Pro Tools|HD system, auto-voice distributes
voices evenly across four sets of voices (1–32,
33–64, 65–96, and 96–128).
If you do not use auto-voicing, the voices must
be evenly distributed between all DSP engines.
For example, to use QuickPunch on 32 tracks
without auto-voicing, tracks 1–16 must be assigned to voices 1–16 and tracks 17–32 must be
assigned to voices 33–48.
QuickPunch Guidelines for
LE Systems
2 Select Operations > QuickPunch. When
QuickPunch is enabled, a “P” appears in the
Record button.
QuickPunch enabled
3 To change the automatic crossfade used by
QuickPunch, configure QuickPunch Crossfade
Length option in the Editing Preferences (see
“QuickPunch/TrackPunch Crossfade Length”
on page 191).
4 Record enable the tracks you want to punch in
For LE systems, 16 audio tracks can be simultaneously recorded with QuickPunch in addition
to the maximum number of mono tracks supported by your specific Pro Tools LE system (see
“Pro Tools LE System Capabilities” on page 10).
To simultaneously record more tracks than this
with QuickPunch, you’ll need to reduce the
number of tracks in the session.
With Pro Tools LE, QuickPunch uses CPU
processing power, and may reduce the number of tracks and plug-ins you can use.
Recording with QuickPunch
on. Make sure there are enough available voices
on your system.
5 Prepare to record by cueing Pro Tools to an ap-
propriate location. If you want to use pre-roll,
enable a pre-roll value in the Transport window.
6 Start playback by clicking Play in the Trans-
port window.
7 When you reach the punch-in point, click
Record in the Transport window.
– or –
For Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, or Digi 001 systems
with a connected footswitch, press the footswitch at the punch-in point.
To punch on-the-fly with QuickPunch:
1 For HD systems (with Pro Tools 6.4), make
sure that Use Delay Compensation is deselected
in the Operations menu.
The Record button stops flashing and stays lit
during recording.
8 To punch out, click Record again (or press the
footswitch).
Digidesign recommends recording without
Delay Compensation. For more information, see “Delay Compensation” on
page 428.
As Pro Tools continues playing, you can perform additional punches (up to 100). When recording multiple punches during a single pass, a
single audio file is recorded from which
Pro Tools creates the appropriate regions.
Chapter 14: Advanced Recording
193
QuickPunch with an Edit Selection
If you make an Edit selection and use QuickPunch, the following rules apply:
If the Transport is not online, recording begins and stops whenever you click the Record
button—regardless of the selection’s start or end
point.
◆
◆ If the Transport is online, punch-in/out behavior is controlled by the Online Options setting in the Operations Preferences. If you select
Record Online at Insertion/Selection, QuickPunch punches in and out only within the selection (or in the case of an insertion point, only
after the insertion point). If you select Record
Online at Time Code Lock, QuickPunch disregards the selection and punches in and out
whenever you want (after Pro Tools has locked
to time code).
Region and Take Numbering with
QuickPunch
After recording with QuickPunch, the new audio regions appear in the Audio Regions List.
This includes the whole-file audio region encompassing all punches from the record pass,
along with the regions derived for each punch.
Names for the punched regions are numbered
consecutively starting with “01.” For example, if
QuickPunch is used to punch in twice on a track
called “Lead Gtr,” a region for the parent audio
file appears and is named “Lead Gtr_01,” and
two regions for the punches are named “Lead
Gtr_01-01” and “Lead Gtr_01-02.”
If you stop playback and record additional
punches with QuickPunch, subsequent regions
are named by incrementing the first two digits
in the name. For example, on the second pass,
the punched regions are named “Lead Gtr_0201,” “Lead Gtr_02-02,” and so forth.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
TrackPunch Audio Recording
(Pro Tools|HD Systems Only)
TrackPunch makes Pro Tools more useful as a
digital dubber for film re-recording (dubbing)
and mixing. Keyboard shortcuts and Preference
settings for recording and input monitoring,
provide flexibility that makes TrackPunch
equally useful for loading dailies and recording
Foley, as well as over-dubbing and tracking in
music sessions.
TrackPunch Usage Guidelines
TrackPunch and Dynamically Allocated Voicing
When using TrackPunch with a Pro Tools TDM
system configured for maximum voices, make
sure to set the voice assignment for each audio
track to dyn for Dynamically Allocated Voicing
(this mode was previously known as Auto Voice
mode). This ensures that Pro Tools can automatically manage voices most efficiently.
Audio Files and TrackPunch
After a TrackPunch recording pass, the punched
track’s playlist in the Edit window displays the
regions created by punching. You can use the
Trimmer tool after punch recording to open up
the head or tail of TrackPunch (and QuickPunch) recorded regions, or to reveal the parent
audio file that was recorded in the background.
This lets you compensate for any late or missed
punches (from as early as the start of playback,
or the point at which the track was TrackPunch
or QuickPunch enabled).
Voice Requirements for
TrackPunch Recording
Recording with TrackPunch
Overview
TrackPunch requires two voices for each record
enabled, mono track. This means that you can
record up to half the total number of voices
available on your system.
Before using TrackPunch, configure Pro Tools
and TrackPunch as follows:
When switching to TrackPunch mode, you will
be prompted to free up additional voices if not
enough are available.
1 Configure TrackPunch preference settings as
To configure Pro Tools and TrackPunch:
suggested in “TrackPunch Preferences” on
page 196.
2 If necessary, configure Pro Tools synchroniza-
To free up voices on tracks that are not record
enabled, and do not need to be heard while
recording:
■
Set voice assignments for tracks to Off.
– or –
■
Make tracks inactive.
As necessary, voices in use by other tracks may
be “stolen” while recording with TrackPunch
(thus silencing some tracks).
TrackPunch voice playback priority follows the
same guidelines as QuickPunch, as follows
(from highest to lowest playback priority):
• Tracks with assigned voices that are not record
enabled
• Tracks with assigned voices that are record enabled
• Auto-voiced (dynamically allocated voicing)
tracks that are not record enabled
• Auto-voiced tracks (dynamically allocated
voicing) that are record enabled
If the session has plenty of available voices, you
may have no trouble using TrackPunch with
auto-voiced tracks. However, if you are running
out of voices, and want to ensure that a track
will be heard when recording with TrackPunch,
assign it a voice.
tion settings for online recording and track arming (see “Configuring Synchronization and
Track Arming” on page 197).
3 If necessary, program and configure the mas-
ter synchronizer for remote control of TrackPunch and TrackInput switching (refer to the
documentation from the manufacturer).
To use TrackPunch:
1 Make sure Pro Tools is not recording or play-
ing back (the Transport is stopped).
2 Make sure that Use Delay Compensation is de-
selected in the Operations menu. (Pro Tools 6.4)
Digidesign recommends recording without
Delay Compensation. For more information about using Delay Compensation, see
“Delay Compensation” on page 428.
3 Enable TrackPunch mode (see “Enabling
TrackPunch Mode” on page 198).
4 TrackPunch enable all audio tracks that you
want to punch during the record pass (see
“TrackPunch Enabling Tracks” on page 199).
Chapter 14: Advanced Recording
195
5 Configure monitoring for record enabled
tracks by selecting the appropriate mode from
the Operations menu, as appropriate. Choices
include:
• Change Record Enabled Tracks to Auto Input
• Change Record. Enabled Tracks to Input
Only
Choosing either monitoring mode only affects
tracks that are record enabled.
10 While continuing local or remote playback,
do any of the following:
• Punch in on other TrackPunch enabled
tracks individually.
• After punching out, take tracks out of
record enable then record enable different
TrackPunch enabled tracks.
• Repeat as needed to punch other stems,
tracks, or takes.
TrackPunch Preferences
You can also use the track Input buttons to
switch the monitor source for record enabled
tracks, as explained below.
6 Begin playback.
7 If you want to compare levels of the input
source with audio on disk, click the track Input
button. When lit (green), the track is monitoring input. When unlit (grey), the track is monitoring from disk. (For more information see
“TrackInput Monitoring” on page 141.)
The following preference settings let you customize TrackPunch performance.
QuickPunch/TrackPunch Crossfade
Length
Pro Tools can automatically write a crossfade for
each punch point when using TrackPunch. The
length for these crossfades is set with the QuickPunch Crossfade/TrackPunch Length option in
the Editing Preferences.
8 To punch tracks one at a time, arm the Trans-
port Record and then use the individual track
Record buttons to punch each track in and out
on-the-fly.
To set the TrackPunch Crossfade Length:
9 To punch multiple tracks simultaneously, do
2 Enter a new value (in msec) for the Quick-
either of the following:
Punch /TrackPunch CrossFade Length.
• Record enable as many as 16 TrackPunch
enabled audio tracks, then use the Transport Record button to punch them in and
out simultaneously.
– or –
• Arm the Transport Record first, then use
Alt+Shift (Win) or Option+Shift (Macintosh) to simultaneously punch on all currently selected TrackPunch enabled tracks.
Use groups for single-click selection of multiple tracks (click to the left of the group
name in the Groups list).
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and select the
Editing tab.
Transport and Track Record Settings
Destructive Recording and Transport RecordLock
The TrackPunch preferences appear on the Operation page of the Pro Tools Preferences dialog.
As a precaution against accidentally recording
over previous material, the Transport RecordLock preference is automatically disabled and
greyed out when Destructive record mode is enabled.
These preferences specify how track and Transport record status respond when the Transport is
stopped (during playback and recording), and
let you optimize Pro Tools for film, video, and
music production workflows as noted in the following sections.
TrackPunch
Preferences
Audio Track RecordLock
This setting lets Pro Tools tracks be configured
to either emulate a digital dubber, or to maintain legacy behavior for track record status.
◆ When the Audio RecordLock preference is enabled, the record-enabled audio tracks remain
armed when playback or recording stops.
◆ When the Audio RecordLock preference is not
enabled, record-enabled audio tracks are taken
out of record enable when Pro Tools is stopped.
This prevents tracks from remaining armed
from pass to pass, emulating track record behavior of a digital dubber.
TrackPunch Preferences
Transport RecordLock
This setting lets the Transport Record be configured to either emulate a digital dubber, or to
maintain legacy behavior for the Transport master Record.
When not enabled, the Transport Record disarms when Pro Tools is manually stopped or
stops due to a loss of time code. This replicates
legacy Pro Tools recording behavior.
◆
When enabled, the Transport Record remains
armed when playback or recording stops. This
saves having to re-arm the Transport between
takes, emulating digital dubber behavior.
◆
Punching out of record by pressing Record
on the Transport will take the transport out
of record enable.
Destructive Recording and Transport
RecordLock
As a precaution against accidentally recording
over previous material, the Transport RecordLock preference is automatically disabled and
greyed out when Destructive record mode is enabled.
Configuring Synchronization and
Track Arming
For online recording and punching, configure
the following Peripheral and Session Setup settings. For best lockup times when synchronizing, it is recommended that no more than 16
tracks be TrackPunch-enabled at a time.
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To record online using TrackPunch and TrackInput
switching:
1 Choose Setup > Peripherals, and make sure the
SYNC I/O is the selected synchronization peripheral, and is communicating with Pro Tools.
2 Choose Windows > Session Setup, and do the
following:
• Select a Clock and Positional reference.
• If you want Pro Tools to be the time code
master, enable Using SYNC/USD. This option is located in the Generator controls in
the Time Code Settings section of the Session Setup window.
3 If you are controlling Pro Tools via 9-pin protocol, do the following:
• Click the Machine Control tab to display
the Machine Control page of the Peripherals dialog.
Enabling TrackPunch Mode
Before you can enable individual audio tracks
for TrackPunch recording, TrackPunch mode
must be enabled in the Pro Tools transport.
To enable TrackPunch mode:
1 Make sure Pro Tools is not recording or play-
ing back (the Transport is stopped).
2 Do one of the following:
• Select Operations > TrackPunch.
• Start-click (Windows) or Control-click
(Macintosh) the Transport Record button
to cycle through available Record modes
until TrackPunch mode is selected (a “T”
indicates TrackPunch mode).
• Press Control+Shift+T (Windows) or Command+Shift+T (Macintosh).
• Configure Remote 9-pin Deck Emulation
mode settings (see the MachineControl
Guide for details).
• Click OK to close the Peripherals dialog.
4 Configure your master synchronizer as required to control Pro Tools track Record and Input switching through P2 commands. See the
documentation for your controller for more information.
Consult the manufacturer of your controller
for the most recent machine profiles and updates available for Pro Tools support.
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Transport Record with TrackPunch mode enabled
Transport Display of TrackPunch
Status
TrackPunch Enabled
Record LED
Input Status
LED
TrackPunch and TrackInput status LEDs in the Transport
window
Transport Record Button
The Transport Record button indicates TrackPunch and Record status as follows:
When TrackPunch mode is enabled:
◆
A “T” appears in the Transport Record button.
If at least one track is TrackPunch-enabled,
the Transport Record button lights solid blue.
◆
Record and Input Status LEDs
Record and Input LEDs next to the Transport
Record button indicate track Record and Input
status as follows, in all recording modes:
Record Status LED When lit (red), indicates that
at least one audio track is currently record-enabled. When off (grey), no tracks are currently
record-enabled.
Input Status LED When lit (green), indicates
that at least one audio track is currently set to
Input Only monitoring (regardless of record enable status). When off (grey), all tracks are in
Auto Input monitoring.
Track record buttons also appear in blue to
indicate that track is TrackPunch-enabled.
See “Track Record Status Display” on
page 200 for more information.
TrackPunch Enabling Tracks
When TrackPunch mode is enabled and the
transport is armed for recording:
If no tracks are TrackPunch-enabled, the
Transport Record button flashes gray and red.
◆
If at least one track is TrackPunch-enabled,
the Transport Record button flashes blue and
red.
◆
If at least one TrackPunch-enabled track is
also record enabled, the Transport Record button flashes blue and red, and the record LED
lights.
◆
Whenever at least one audio track is recording, the Transport Record button lights solid
red.
◆
You can TrackPunch enable tracks without
record enabling them, which lets you punch in
individual tracks after you start playback.
To TrackPunch enable or disable an audio track:
■ Start-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the track’s Record Enable button to toggle the button to solid blue.
To TrackPunch enable or disable all audio tracks:
■ Alt-Start-click (Windows) or Option-Controlclick (Macintosh) a track’s Record Enable button
to toggle the all Record Enable buttons to solid
blue.
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To TrackPunch enable or disable all selected audio
tracks:
• While a track is recording (in any mode), its
Record Enable button lights solid red.
■ Start-Alt-Shift-click (Windows) or ControlOption-Shift-click (Macintosh) a track’s Record
Enable button to toggle the Record Enable buttons for the selected audio tracks solid blue.
Red (not flashing) indicates recording
(all modes)
Track Record status in the Edit window
Create track groups for each stem or set of
tracks on which you plan to punch. Use the
Groups List to quickly select all tracks in the
group. This makes it easier and faster to
take multiple tracks in and out of TrackPunch enable simultaneously.
TrackPunch Recording
After you have put Pro Tools in TrackPunch
mode, and enabled tracks for TrackPunch recording, you can record with TrackPunch in several ways.
Track Record Status Display
Each track’s Record Enable button indicates its
TrackPunch and record enable status as follows:
• When a track is both TrackPunch-enabled and
record-enabled, its Record enable button
flashes blue and red.
Record Enable button
Punching In On Single Tracks
To punch in on single tracks:
1 Put Pro Tools in TrackPunch mode.
2 Start-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the Record Enable button for each track
you want to punch in, so that the track is TrackPunch-enabled only. The track’s Record Enable
button should light solid blue.
3 Click Record in the Transport window to enter
the TrackPunch Record Ready mode. The Record
button flashes blue and red.
4 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
TrackPunch status indication in an audio track in the
Mix window
• When a track is TrackPunch-enabled but not
record-enabled, its Record Enable button
lights solid blue.
• When a track is record-enabled only, its
Record Enable button flashes red.
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playback.
5 During playback, punch in and out on indi-
vidual TrackPunch-enabled tracks by clicking
their Record Enable buttons.
6 Stop playback. When you are finished with
the record pass, track Record Enable status and
transport Record Arm status follow the current
TrackPunch preference settings.
Punching In on Multiple Tracks
To punch in on multiple tracks simultaneously:
1 Put Pro Tools in TrackPunch mode.
2 Click the Record Enable button on each track
you want to punch in, so that the track is both
TrackPunch- and Record-enabled. The track’s
Record Enable button should flash blue and red.
3 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
playback.
4 During playback, click Record in the Transport
window to punch in and out on all TrackPunchenabled tracks simultaneously.
5 Stop playback. When you are finished with
the record pass, track Record Enable status and
transport Record Arm status follow the current
TrackPunch preference settings.
Start Recording on All Tracks
1 Put Pro Tools in TrackPunch mode.
2 Click the Record Enable button on each track
you want to punch in, so that the track is both
TrackPunch- and Record-enabled. The track’s
Record Enable button should flash blue and red.
3 Click Record in the Transport window to enter
the TrackPunch Record Ready mode. The Record
button flashes blue and red.
4 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
playback.
5 During playback, punch out and back in on
individual TrackPunch-enabled tracks by clicking their Record Enable buttons.
6 Stop playback. When you are finished with
the record pass, track Record Enable status and
transport Record Arm status follow the current
TrackPunch preference settings.
Example TrackPunch Workflows
With TrackPunch, Pro Tools emulates and enhances the following four types of production
work (or “workflows”) commonly performed in
film, video, and music production:
• Dubbing and mixing film (see “Film Dubbing
and Mixing with TrackPunch” on page 201)
• Loading dailies (see “Loading Dailies with RecordLock” on page 202)
• Recording Foley (see “Foley Recording with
TrackPunch” on page 203)
• Tracking and overdubbing in music production and any other recording situation (see
“Tracking and Overdubbing Music with
TrackPunch” on page 203)
Each of these workflows takes advantage of
TrackPunch features and options.
In the following example workflows, it is assumed you already familiar with routing, selecting, and grouping Pro Tools tracks. If you are
not, see the appropriate topic in Pro Tools Reference Guide.
Film Dubbing and Mixing with
TrackPunch
By providing all the essential online punch recording and monitor switching capabilities of a
digital dubber, TrackPunch optimizes Pro Tools
for re-recording and mixing for film.
Film dubbing and mixing features of TrackPunch let you do the following:
• Arm and punch Pro Tools audio tracks remotely from a master synchronizer such as
SoundMaster through P2 commands at any
time, without having to stop playback and
while maintaining time code lock. (Requires
Digidesign MachineControl.)
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• Toggle Pro Tools audio tracks between input
and disk monitoring. Track input switching
can be controlled remotely by supported synchronizers to fully emulate PEC/direct switching (requires Digidesign MachineControl).
• Use TrackPunch when Pro Tools is the time
code master (generating) and when slaving.
• Use Pro Tools file management features to
consolidate and “clean up” sessions in a fraction of the time required by tape-based dubbers.
6 Assign the console PEC/direct paddles to the
first eight-track group in the session.
7 Begin the pre-dub pass. Use the console pad-
dles to arm Pro Tools, and to punch in and out
on the first group.
• Because Pro Tools can be networked, TrackPunch (and all other) audio files and whole
sessions can be available for secure transfer to
other systems for review, editing, and archiving.
8 When the first pre-dub is over and all tracks
A typical pre-dub session using TrackPunch
includes the following steps:
10 Punch in and out on the second group of
tracks.
1 Configure synchronization between Pro Tools
and other devices as appropriate.
11 Repeat as needed.
2 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click to
show the Operations pane, then do the following:
Loading Dailies with RecordLock
• Check (enable) the preference Transport
RecordLock. This will keep the Transport
Record armed after the transport stops.
• Deselect the preference Audio Track RecordLock. This will cause the audio track
record to disarm when the transport stops.
3 Choose Operations > TrackPunch to enable
TrackPunch mode.
4 Create 32 new tracks, then do the following:
• Assign their inputs
• Group them into eight-track groups.
5 Click the record enable buttons in the first
eight tracks to TrackPunch enable the first eight
tracks (or, the group for the first pre-dub).
202
Use the Groups list to quickly select all
tracks in the group, and Alt-Shift-click
(Windows) or Opt-Shift-click (Macintosh)
to record-enable all the tracks in the group.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
are punched out, clear all TrackPunch enabled
tracks.
9 Select the next group of tracks and Track-
Punch-enable them.
In addition to its uses on dub and mix stages,
Pro Tools with TrackPunch makes it easy to load
dailies. Dailies and similar types of transfers are
comprised of multiple takes or scenes, each recorded while locked to unique time-of-day time
code. In between each take, time code does not
continue but stops completely. Because of this,
the time code on dailies and similar source material is said to be “discontiguous” or discontinuous (also known as broken time code).
When a session is taken offline while recording
due to broken time code, Pro Tools remains
armed and waits for time code to resume.
Pro Tools begins recording again when lock is
re-established with the time code of the next
take. Each take is recorded to its own audio file.
To configure RecordLock for loading:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click to
show the Operations pane.
2 Select the preference Transport RecordLock.
3 Select the preference Audio Track RecordLock.
4 Configure synchronization and other settings
as required. Put Pro Tools online, and start the
external source player.
5 Whenever time code drops out or stops,
Pro Tools remains online and waits to receive
new time code. The Transport and record enabled tracks remain record enabled (or TrackPunch enabled). When time code resumes,
Pro Tools begins recording to a new audio file
(properly time stamped based on the incoming
code).
Because Pro Tools has a 13-hour timeline
limit, you will have to use multiple sessions
to load dailies if the span is more than
13 hours.
Foley Recording with TrackPunch
Foley recording is one of the more specialized
forms of recording in film production with
unique monitoring requirements. Between
punches and takes, inputs must be muted while
Foley artist move themselves and equipment as
they progress through a scene.
TrackInput monitoring can be configured to
support Foley style TrackPunch recording using
the preference “Stop” Mutes Audio Inputs
(When In Auto Input).
To configure Pro Tools for Foley-style punch record
monitoring:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click to
show the Operations pane.
2 Enable the preference “Stop” Mutes Audio In-
puts (When In Auto Input.)
3 Configure synchronization and other settings
for Pro Tools and your other devices, then enable TrackPunch mode and proceed with punch
recording. (See “Recording with TrackPunch
Overview” on page 195 for the complete steps.)
While Mute Audio Inputs in Auto Input is enabled, and while recording online, record-enabled tracks mute when the Transport is
stopped. Input can still be monitored at any
time by using the track Input switch.
Tracking and Overdubbing Music
with TrackPunch
Modern multitrack recording requires the flexibility to “capture the moment” by allowing onthe-fly record enabling and punch recording, as
provided by TrackPunch. Features of TrackPunch for all tracking, overdubbing, and punching situations include the following:
• Record enable tracks on-the-fly.
• Punch tracks in and out using onscreen
Record buttons, remotely from a synchronizer, from a control surface, or using a foot
switch.
• Compare and match levels using TrackInput
monitor switching.
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Part IV: Editing
205
206
Chapter 15: Editing Basics
Pro Tools Editing
The Edit window in Pro Tools provides a powerful collection of tools for editing and assembling
audio and MIDI. Track material can be edited
nondestructively and in real time during playback.
The Edit window also lets you graphically edit
track automation. For more information on Automation in the Edit window, see Chapter 28,
“Automation.”
Nondestructive Editing
Editing During Playback
Pro Tools lets you perform many editing tasks
while the session plays. This powerful capability
allows you to interactively modify and edit a
session, hearing the changes as you make them.
You’ll find many instances where you can use
this capability to increase your productivity
when working with a session.
Following are just a few examples of editing that
can be performed while your tracks loop or play:
• Capture, separate, and trim regions
• Place, spot, or rearrange regions
• Add fades or crossfades to audio regions
The vast majority of audio editing in Pro Tools is
nondestructive. Whether cutting, pasting, trimming, separating, or clearing regions, you are
only performing these functions on a map of
the actual audio data. The source audio files remain untouched. If a particular process or tool
works destructively (that is, if it can permanently change audio files on your hard disk),
this guide alerts you.
While editing for MIDI tracks is in some instances destructive, with a few precautions you
can keep important MIDI tracks and regions safe
when performing edits (see “Nondestructive
MIDI Editing” on page 217).
• Transpose, quantize (including Groove Quantize), and otherwise modify MIDI tracks
• Nudge audio or MIDI regions
• Audition different playlists
• Adjust or scale automation data
• Insert a real-time plug-in
• Process audio with an AudioSuite plug-in
• Automation breakpoint editing
There are a few things that cannot be changed
while Pro Tools plays. These include routing to
sends and assigning outputs.
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207
Track Material
Each time you record or import audio and MIDI,
Pro Tools creates regions for the new track data,
which not only indicate where the material begins and ends, but also provides good feedback
on its general shape and content. When you
record additional takes, or “punch in” on a specific location within a track, Pro Tools creates
additional regions.
Regions are also created by cutting and pasting,
resizing, separating, and re-capturing existing
regions. Regions in a session are listed in the Audio Regions List and MIDI Regions List, where
they can be dragged to existing tracks. A track
can contain any number of regions, in any arrangement. The order and location of regions in
a track define its playlist.
In addition to audio and MIDI regions,
tracks also provide automation playlists.
Automation can be recorded and edited in
the Edit or Mix windows. For more information, see Chapter 28, “Automation.”
Region Types
There are different region types, based on how
they are created:
Whole-File Audio Regions These audio regions
are created when recording or importing audio,
consolidating existing regions, and when nondestructively processing with an AudioSuite
plug-in. Whole-file audio regions reference an
entire audio file that resides on your hard drive.
Whole-file audio regions are displayed in bold
in the Audio Regions List (see “The Audio and
MIDI Regions Lists” on page 220). Normal regions often reference only a portion of the parent audio file and are created in the course of editing and, in some instances, when punch
recording.
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User-Defined Regions These are regions that are
explicitly defined, such as when you record or
import audio or MIDI; capture, separate, or consolidate a selection; trim a whole-file audio region; and rename an existing region.
Auto-Created Regions These regions are automatically created in the course of editing, and,
in some instances, when punch recording over
existing regions. Since these regions can accumulate rapidly in a session, you can hide them
so they don’t appear in the Audio and MIDI Regions List (see “Naming and Displaying Regions” on page 311). Auto-created regions can
be turned into user-defined regions by renaming
them.
Offline Regions Regions are offline when their
parent audio files cannot be located, or are not
available, when opening a session or importing
a track. Offline regions appear in the Audio Regions List as italicized and dimmed; they appear
in playlists as light blue regions with italicized
names. Offline regions can be edited like other
regions, but they cannot be processed with AudioSuite plug-ins.
Multichannel Regions These regions, which are
displayed as a single region in the Audio Regions
List, reference multiple regions and audio files
for stereo and surround tracks. Multichannel regions can be expanded (by clicking the triangle
next to their name) to see the individual channels, which can be dragged independently to
tracks.
Track View
The Track View determines which data is displayed and edited in the track’s playlist area.
Track View data can be set to Blocks, Waveform,
Volume, Pan, Mute, or an automated control or
continuous controller, based on the track type:
Audio Tracks These tracks can be set to Blocks,
Waveform, Volume, Pan, Mute, or any plug-in
controls that have been automated. Except
when editing automation data, audio tracks are
by default set to Waveform, where track material is graphically drawn with amplitude waveforms (a time-domain representation of sound).
This Track View provides the necessary detail for
important region edits.
Track View set to Waveform for audio track
Auxiliary Input Tracks These tracks can be set to
Volume, Pan, Mute, or any plug-in control that
has been automated.
Master Fader Tracks These tracks can be set to
Volume, or any plug-in control that has been automated.
MIDI Tracks These tracks can be set to Blocks, Regions, Notes, Volume, Pan, Mute, Velocity, Pitch
Bend, After Touch, Program, Sysex, and any continuous controller type. Except when editing
controller data, program changes, or Sysex
events, MIDI tracks are commonly set to Notes
or Regions, each of which displays notes in a
“piano roll” format. Use Notes View for inserting, editing, and copying and pasting MIDI
notes; use Regions View to arrange, capture, or
consolidate regions.
Track View set to Regions for MIDI track
With the Track View set to Blocks, audio and
MIDI regions are displayed as empty blocks
bearing the region’s name. This mode is most
useful once you have finished capturing and editing regions at the waveform or MIDI event
level and are moving and rearranging them.
Screen redraws are fastest with this format.
When an audio track is displayed as Volume,
Pan, or another automated control, or when a
MIDI track is set to one of the continuous controller types (Volume, Pitch Bend, After Touch),
the data for that track appears in the form of a
line graph with a series of editable breakpoints.
The breakpoints can be dragged to modify the
automation data, and new breakpoints can be
inserted with the Pencil or Grabber.
Track View set to Pan for audio track
For details on editing automation data for audio
tracks, see Chapter 28, “Automation.” For details on inserting and editing controller data for
MIDI tracks, see “Continuous Controller
Events” on page 364.
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To set the Track View:
Click the Track View Selector for the track and
choose the format from the pop-up menu.
■
Click for Track View pop-up menu
2 Press Start+Minus (Windows) or Control+Mi-
nus (Macintosh) on the alpha keyboard.
– or –
With the Commands Focus enabled, press Minus on the alpha keyboard.
Audio tracks are toggled between Waveform and
Volume View. MIDI tracks are toggled between
Notes and Regions View.
Audio Track View Selector
The Master View Format
Click for Track View pop-up menu
Audio and MIDI tracks have Track Views that
act as “master.” When a track is displayed in its
master format, any edits performed apply to all
data in the track. For instance, when an audio
track is set to Waveform, copying and pasting
affects not just the waveform information, but
all of the automation data as well.
The Track Views that act as master for audio and
MIDI tracks are:
MIDI Track View Selector
The track displays the new format. If the track is
part of an active Edit Group, all tracks in the
group are set to the new format.
Toggling Track Views
Most editing of audio tracks occurs in Waveform
and Volume View. For MIDI tracks, most editing
occurs in Notes and Regions View. Pro Tools
provides an easy way to toggle these views for
tracks containing an edit selection or the edit
cursor.
To toggle Track Views:
1 Click in the track you want to toggle. To toggle multiple tracks, Shift-click or drag the Selector to select additional tracks.
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• Audio tracks: Waveform and Blocks
• MIDI tracks: Regions, Blocks, and Notes
(when using the Selector)
Auxiliary Input tracks and Master Fader tracks
do not have a Master View. This means that any
edits made to an Auxiliary Input or Master Fader
track affect any automation data in that track
Track Height
Tracks can be viewed in the Edit window at any
of six heights: Mini, Small, Medium, Large, Jumbo,
and Extreme. Larger track heights are particularly
useful for precise editing. Smaller track heights
are useful for conserving screen space in a large
session.
You can adjust track heights on an individual
track basis or set all tracks to the same height.
Track heights can be adjusted during playback.
To set the Track Height:
Click the small arrow next to the Track View
Selector to get the Track Height pop-up menu.
■
Click for Track Height pop-up menu
With Expanded Track Display, you can display
playlists individually for each channel, thereby
allowing for more accurate breakpoint editing.
This is also useful for editing pan or multi-mono
plug-in data, both of which can be different for
each channel.
Track Height pop-up menu
– or –
Click in the area just to the right of the track
controls and choose the height from the pop-up
menu.
■
The track is resized to the new height. If the
track is part of an Edit Group, all tracks in the
group are set to the new height.
Press Start+Up/Down Arrow key (Windows) or Control+Up/Down Arrow key
(Macintosh) to increase/decrease track
height of any track that contains a selection
or in which the edit cursor is currently
placed.
Stereo track in Expanded Track Display
Expanded Track Display also provides for a
larger waveform display (equal to that of mono
audio tracks), as well as a separate Track View Selector and meter for each channel.
To turn on Expanded Track Display for a stereo or
multichannel track:
■ From the Track Height pop-up menu, select
Expanded Track Display.
Expanded Track Display
Stereo and multichannel tracks share a single
playlist for volume and mute. This shared playlist normally occupies the entire height of the
track, extending across all channels.
Track Height pop-up menu
Track Controls and Track Height
Volume playlist for stereo track
The Track Height affects how the various track
controls appear in the Edit window. For instance, when a track’s height is set to Small,
most of the buttons are reduced in size.
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When the Track Height is set to Mini, only controls for Record, Solo and Mute appear, and the
menus for Playlist, Track Height, and Track
View are accessed from the same pop-up menu.
When the Track Height is set to Large, Jumbo, or
Extreme, all track controls are displayed at their
full size.
To display region times:
■ From Display > Display Time In Regions, select one of the following options:
None Disables display of region times.
Current Time Displays start and end times for regions.
Original Time Stamp Displays the Original Time
Stamp for each region. The Original Time Stamp
is the original time code location for the region
when it was first recorded or created.
Track Height set to Large
Displaying Region Names and
Times
Region names can sometimes get in the way of
editing audio waveforms and MIDI data. In
these instances you may want to disable their
display.
User Time Stamp Displays the User Time Stamp
for each region. The User Time Stamp, which
defaults to the Original Time Stamp, can be redefined with the Time Stamp Selected command.
Audio Regions and Waveforms
When the Track View for audio tracks is set to
Waveform, Pro Tools draws a waveform diagram
of the audio. Audio waveforms tell you several
things about the recorded sound.
To disable the display of region names in playlists:
■
Deselect Display > Display Name In Regions.
To enable the display of region names in playlists:
Figure 8. Audio waveform of an electric piano
■ Choose Display > Display Name In Regions.
This is extremely useful when working with film
and video.
Figure 8 shows an audio waveform for a drum
track. The “peaks” represent places in the recording (beats) where the attack of the sound
causes the volume to increase momentarily.
These are followed by “valleys,” where the volume decreases.
Display enabled for region names and times
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Different types of sounds produce different
types of waveforms. Drums, for example, generally produce waveforms with sharp transients
(peaks of short duration) that are clearly defined. A drum hit has a loud, sharp attack and a
rapid decay.
Other sounds, such as vocals or sustained keyboard sounds, produce very different waveforms, ones that have less pronounced peaks
and valleys. That’s because these sounds generally have softer attacks and longer decays.
Draw Waveforms Rectified Preference
When the Display Preference for Draw Waveforms Rectified is selected (Setups > Preferences
> Display), audio waveforms are displayed so
that their positive and negative waveform excursions are summed together and viewed as a
single positive-value signal. However, even
when this preference is enabled, zooming in beyond a certain point will cause the waveforms to
be displayed normally.
Guidelines for Editing Waveforms
With the Selector tool in the Edit window, you
can select portions of audio waveforms and divide them into segments called regions, so that
you can rearrange and manipulate them in
tracks.
While editing, try to create regions that allow
you to maintain a consistent beat. If you always
define regions so that they contain a whole
number of beats, you’ll be able to string the regions together and maintain a smooth, steady
rhythm.
It’s sometimes useful to have a steady, well-defined waveform (such as a drum track) as a guide
when selecting and defining other regions. If
you’ve played in time with the beat, chances are
that you can create rhythmically accurate regions by referring to the drum waveform.
Some important rules to keep in mind when defining regions:
◆ Whenever possible, begin a region precisely
before a volume peak, and end it immediately
before another volume peak.
◆ Whenever possible, make sure a region starts
and ends on exactly the same part of a beat.
Audio displayed in Rectified mode
Avoiding Clicks and Pops
If an edited region begins or ends at a point of
high amplitude, you may hear an unpleasant
click when Pro Tools plays from one region to
another. In order to avoid clicks or pops do any
of the following:
Audio displayed in Normal mode
Rectified mode displays more detailed waveforms when using track heights of Medium or
Small, and can be particularly useful when editing volume automation data, since it depicts
waveform “levels” as starting at the bottom of
the track.
◆ Make sure that the start and end points of
your selection are as close as possible to the
point where the amplitude of the waveform
tapers down to meet the zero-crossing line (the
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center line of the track’s waveform display). If
necessary, use the zooming tools in the Edit
window (see “Zooming” on page 226) to display
waveforms in greater detail.
Audio Regions and Automation
Data
Automation data for audio resides in tracks and
not in the Regions List. This means that when
you drag an audio region from the Audio Regions List to a new track, no automation data is
placed in the track. However, if you drag an audio region from an existing track (that contains
automation data) to another track, the automation from the source track is placed in the destination track.
Selection that begins and ends at zero crossings
◆ On Pro Tools TDM systems, use the AutoFade
feature to apply real-time fade-ins/outs to all region boundaries that do not touch or overlap
other regions. See “Using AutoFades” on
page 305 for details.
◆ Apply a crossfade between regions where a
click or pop occurs. See “Creating a Crossfade”
on page 302 for details.
Nondestructive Audio Editing
When editing an audio track’s playlist in
Pro Tools, you’re not actually cutting and moving pieces of sound as you would if you were
cutting and splicing analog tape. Instead,
Pro Tools creates a map of the audio file on your
hard disk, which describes the order in which to
play the track portions.
When trimming audio regions with the Trimmer tool, or when editing the placement or order of regions within a track, use multiple playlists to easily return to a track’s previous state.
See “Playlists” on page 217 for details.
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MIDI Regions and MIDI Data
The two most common Track Views you’ll use
for MIDI tracks are Notes and Regions. Use
Notes View for inserting and editing individual
MIDI notes, and for working with and affecting
groups of notes.
When you need to experiment with the arrangement of regions, or define new ones, use Regions View.
For more information on setting Track View, see
“Track View” on page 209.
To toggle the track view, click in the track
you want to toggle and press Start+Minus
(Windows) or Control+Minus (Macintosh)
on the alpha keyboard.
Notes View for MIDI Tracks
When a MIDI track’s Track View is set to Notes,
MIDI notes are displayed in a “piano roll” format. Each note is displayed as a small rectangle
with its vertical placement indicating pitch and
its horizontal placement indicating location
(and duration).
Up arrow
To scroll the Notes display up or down for a MIDI
track:
■ Click either the up or down arrow of the minikeyboard.
Track note above the
current display
Scrolling notes with the Up arrow on mini-keyboard
– or –
■ With any of the Edit window tools (such as
the Grabber tool) selected, press Control+Alt+Start (Windows) or Command+Option+Control (Macintosh) and drag up or down
on the mini-keyboard.
keyboard reference
MIDI note
Down arrow
Figure 9. MIDI track displaying notes
To the left of the MIDI track’s playlist is a vertical mini-keyboard, complete with octave numbering, for pitch reference. You can Controlclick (Windows) or Command-click (Macintosh) the mini-keyboard to audition pitches. Arrows at the top and bottom of the mini-keyboard (not available in the smaller track heights)
are used to scroll the Notes display up and
down.
The pitch range of MIDI notes that can be displayed depends on the track height, and on the
current zoom value. Any time a track’s notes do
not fit within its current height, notes above or
below the viewed area are displayed as singlepixel lines at the very top and bottom of the
range (see Figure 9).
Scrolling Notes display by dragging
Using the Edit window tools, notes can be inserted, transposed, trimmed, and moved. For
more information, see “Manually Editing MIDI
Notes” on page 359.
In Pro Tools 6.1, if you have a mouse with a
scroll wheel, you can use it to scroll a MIDI
track’s Notes display. Place the mouse over
a MIDI track in the Edit window, and AltStart-Control-scroll (Windows) or Command-Control-Option-scroll (Macintosh)
the scroll wheel to scroll the Notes display
for that MIDI track.
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Regions View for MIDI Tracks
MIDI tracks can also be viewed as Regions,
which is similar to Waveform View for audio
tracks. While a track’s notes are visible in Regions View, individual note editing is not available in this view. Instead, all editing occurs
across a time range encompassing all track data,
including continuous controller events, program changes, and System Exclusive events.
◆ When copying or cutting a region selection
that includes a note’s end point (but not its start
point), the note remains and overlaps the edge
of the region.
Use Regions View to define regions that represent song sections and clips, or to rearrange or
assemble track material.
For more information on setting the Track View,
see “Track View” on page 209.
To toggle the track view, click in the track
you want to toggle and press Start+Minus
(Windows) or Control+Minus (Macintosh)
on the alpha keyboard.
There are, however, a few things to keep in
mind when selecting, copying and cutting, and
trimming MIDI regions:
◆ When cutting or clearing a region selection
that includes a note’s start point, the entire note
is removed. This is even the case when only a
portion of the note (that includes its start point)
is selected.
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Cutting a MIDI region with note overlap
◆ Similar rules also apply when MIDI regions
are trimmed with the Trimmer tool. If the MIDI
region’s start point is moved beyond a note’s
start point, the note is removed. If the region’s
end point is trimmed so that a note’s start point
is within the region but its end point is not, the
note remains and overlaps the edge of the region.
When moving and placing MIDI regions with
overlapping notes, the notes always move with
the regions. When placing MIDI regions with
overlapping notes next to or near another region, the overlapping notes extend into the adjacent region.
Nondestructive MIDI Editing
While editing audio regions is usually nondestructive, this is not always the case for MIDI regions. For instance, if a MIDI region resides in
just one track at a single location, editing for
that region is destructive. This means that altering the pitch, duration, or placement of notes in
Notes View permanently alters the region.
However, when editing a MIDI region that occurs elsewhere, in the same track (at another location or in a different playlist) or in another
track, the editing is nondestructive and occurs
to an auto-created region. To go back to the previous material, drag the original region from the
MIDI Regions List, or return to a previously
saved playlist.
One way to safely return to a track’s previous state is with playlists. Before you edit
notes, trim regions, or rearrange the order of
regions, make a duplicate of the track’s existing playlist and instead work with it (see
“Playlists” on page 217).
MIDI Regions and Continuous
Controller Events
Continuous controller events reside in MIDI regions and not in tracks. This means that when
dragging regions that contain controller data
from either a track or the MIDI Regions List, the
controller data is written to the destination
track.
Unlike continuous controller events, which represent nuances that are part of a MIDI performance, Mute in Pro Tools is an automation
playlist that actually mutes the MIDI engine.
Mute automation does not correspond to actual
MIDI events and is therefore not exported when
saving as a Standard MIDI File.
Playlists
The ability to create playlists is one of the most
powerful features of Pro Tools, and one reason
why it is infinitely more versatile than traditional multitrack recorders.
Edit playlists allow you to take a snapshot of a
track’s current arrangement of regions, thereby
freeing you to experiment with alternate arrangements, returning as necessary to previously saved playlists.
Playlist Selector pop-up
A playlist, which can consist of a single region or
many regions, can only be assigned to a track if
it is not in use by another track. While you can
create an almost unlimited number of edit playlists, which are shared among all tracks, each
track has its own set of dedicated automation
playlists.
Automation playlists for audio tracks store data
for volume, pan, mute, and plug-in controls.
Automation playlists for MIDI tracks, however,
store only mute information; continuous controller events, program changes, and Sysex
events are stored in MIDI regions and therefore
reside within edit playlists.
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Playlists and Groups
Creating a Playlist
Playlist functions affect all tracks within an Edit
Group (if the group is active). This is useful
when you want to switch multiple tracks to a
new or existing playlist (such as all the drum
tracks).
You can also create a new playlist and record or
drag regions to it.
To create a new (empty) playlist:
1 Click the track’s Playlist Selector and choose
New from the pop-up menu.
Working with Playlists
When you create a new track, it contains a single, empty playlist until you record, import, or
drag material to it from the Regions Lists or a DigiBase browser.
New playlists can be created that are empty or
duplicates of the current playlist. Once created,
you can recall, rename, and delete playlists as
needed
Duplicating a Playlist
OK. An empty playlist with the specified name
appears in the track.
Recalling a Playlist
You can recall a previously-created playlist to assign it to that track.
To recall and assign a playlist:
■ Click the track’s Playlist Selector and choose
the playlist from the pop-up menu.
When you edit a track, you can work with a
copy of the track's playlist and keep the original
playlist arrangement intact.
The selected playlist appears in the track and the
track’s name is updated to that of the selected
playlist.
To duplicate a track’s current playlist:
As long as a playlist is unassigned, it can be recalled and assigned to any track. Only unassigned playlists appear in the Playlist Selector
pop-up menu.
1 Click the track’s Playlist Selector and choose
Duplicate from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter a name for the new playlist and click
OK.
The duplicated playlist appears in the track and
the track’s name is changed to the name of the
new playlist.
New and duplicated playlists are auto-named
with the track name, followed by a period and
the playlist number (such as the first playlist for
a “Kick” track being auto-named “Kick.01”). In
this example, subsequent playlists would be
auto-named “Kick.02,” “Kick.03,” and
“Kick.04.”
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2 Enter a name for the new playlist and click
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Renaming a Playlist
You can rename a playlist by renaming the track
to which it is assigned.
To rename a track’s assigned playlist:
1 Double-click the track’s name.
2 Enter a new name and click OK. Both the track
and playlist names are updated.
Deleting a Playlist
You can delete a playlist from a session entirely.
However, since playlists take almost no disk
space, you don’t need to delete them for space
reasons.
For example, suppose the following operations
have been performed, with item 1 being the
most recent (first in the queue):
1 Region cut from track
2 Region pasted to track
To delete one or more playlists from a track:
3 Region slid forward
1 Click the track’s Playlist Selector and choose
4 Regions shuffled
Delete Unused from the pop-up menu.
2 Select the unassigned playlists you want to de-
lete. Shift-click to select multiple playlists.
3 Click OK to delete the playlists. This operation
cannot be undone.
When deleting a track from a session, you
have the option of deleting or keeping its
playlists, so they can be used on other
tracks.
5 MIDI note trimmed
6 MIDI note inserted with Pencil
In this example, to Undo the region shuffle, you
would have to choose Edit > Undo four times,
which would also Undo the first three operations in the queue.
If you then choose Edit > Redo, followed by another edit operation, such as a region trim, the
Undo queue would then be:
1 Region trimmed
Multiple Undo
Pro Tools 6.1 can keep track of up to 32 of the
last undoable operations, allowing you to return
to a previous editing state. Pro Tools 6.0 and
lower support up to 16 Levels of Undo.
2 Regions shuffled
3 MIDI note trimmed
4 MIDI note inserted with Pencil
To undo the last operation:
The Undo operations in Pro Tools are stored in a
queue, in the order in which they were invoked.
When choosing Edit > Undo, the most recent
operation is undone. If you choose Undo again,
the next operation in the queue is undone. You
can also choose Edit > Redo to redo an operation, which moves back through the Undo
queue by one step.
■
– or –
■ Press Control+Z (Windows) or Command+Z
(Macintosh).
To redo the last undone operation:
■
When the number of operations in the Undo
queue reaches the maximum Level of Undo,
performing another undoable operation will remove the oldest operation at the bottom of the
queue.
Choose Edit > Undo.
Choose Edit > Redo.
– or –
■ Press Shift+Control+Z (Windows) or
Shift+Command+Z (Macintosh).
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Operations that Clear the Undo Queue
Pro Tools will not warn you of operations that
clear the Undo Queue. Operations that clear the
Undo Queue include:
• Deleting a track, or clearing a region from the
Audio or MIDI Regions List
• Selecting “Select Unused” in the MIDI Regions List pop-up
• Selecting “Select Unused Regions,” or “Select
Unused Regions Except Whole Files” in the
Audio Regions List pop-up
• Importing tracks or session data
Levels of Undo and Memory
Because Pro Tools needs to keep track of the
playlists for all tracks that are edited, the use of
multiple Levels of Undo can be memory intensive. You can lower the Levels of Undo in
Pro Tools to reduce the amount of system memory (RAM) used by the Undo queue. If you have
plenty of memory allocated to Pro Tools, you
can use higher Levels Of Undo.
The Audio and MIDI Regions
Lists
All regions that are recorded, imported, or created by editing appear in the Audio and MIDI
Regions Lists. Regions can be dragged from either list to tracks and arranged in any order. Regions can also be auditioned from the Regions
List by Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Macintosh) them.
In the Audio Regions List, whole-file audio regions are displayed in bold, and stereo and multichannel regions can be expanded to display individual channels.
Because region names can become lengthy, the
Regions List can be scrolled or resized as necessary (see Figure 10). In addition, you can use the
pop-up menu at the top of either list to sort,
search, rename, and clear regions.
Drag to resize width of
Regions Lists
Click for pop-up menus
Key Focus
To set the Levels of Undo in Pro Tools:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click the Ed-
iting tab.
2 Click in the Levels of Undo field and enter a
value of between 1–32 (Pro Tools 6.1) or 1–16
(Pro Tools 6.0 and lower).
Drag to resize
height of Regions
Lists
Levels of Undo preference
Click to hide
3 Click Done to close the Preferences dialog.
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Figure 10. Audio and MIDI Regions Lists
If the Editing Preference for “Region List Selection Follows Track Selection” is enabled, clicking a region in the Regions List highlights it in
the track that contains it.
Use the MIDI Regions List as a bin for storing your favorite MIDI clips. Save the session as a template and the regions are available for future sessions (see “Creating
Custom Session Templates” on page 51).
Since MIDI regions are tick-based (unlike
audio regions), they scale seamlessly for use
with any tempo.
Sorting and Searching the
Regions Lists
Most sessions will contain many regions, which
may make it difficult to locate a particular region in the Regions Lists. The ability to sort regions and search for them will help greatly in
keeping track of large numbers of regions.
To sort regions in a Regions List:
1 From the Regions List pop-up menu, choose
Sorting and select the basis for sorting from the
submenu.
Displaying File Info for Audio Regions
In addition to region names, the Audio Regions
List can also display information about the region’s parent audio file:
• Disk name, which represents the name of the
hard drive on which it resides
• File name, which represents the audio file
from which the region originated
• The full directory Pathname of the region’s location
Sort attributes for audio regions
MIDI regions can be sorted by name, length, or
timestamp. In addition to these, audio regions
can be sorted by region start and end times, various attributes of the source audio file, disk
name, and track format.
Audio Regions with file info
Pro Tools defaults to displaying just the region
portion of a region’s name. To display file information for audio regions, choose Show File
Names, Show Disk Names, or Show Full Pathnames from the pop-up menu at the top of the
Audio Regions List.
2 From the Regions List pop-up menu, select Ascending or Descending to switch the order of
the displayed regions.
For details on displaying audio file
information using DigiBase, see the
DigiBase Guide.
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Finding Regions
Selecting in the Region Lists
Use the Find command to display all regions in
a list whose names contain a particular word or
phrase.
In the Regions Lists you can select multiple regions so they can be dragged to tracks, processed
with AudioSuite plug-ins, or exported.
To find and display regions that match a word or
phrase:
To select a range of regions in a Regions List:
1 Choose Find from the pop-up menu in the
Audio or MIDI Regions List.
■ Move the cursor to the left of the region
names, so the Marquee appears, and drag
around the regions you want to select.
2 Type the name, or any portion of the name,
for the regions you want to find, then click OK.
Pro Tools displays all regions whose names contain the name that was specified. Figure 11
shows regions found when searching on the
word “loop.” When displaying regions with the
Find command, a small diamond appears at the
top of the Audio and MIDI Regions List.
Regions selected with Marquee
– or –
■ Shift-click, to the left of the region names, the
first and last region you want to select. All regions between become selected.
To select discontiguous regions in the Regions
List:
Figure 11. Regions located with Find command
To return the Regions List to displaying all regions:
■ Choose Display All from the Regions List popup menu.
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■ Move the cursor to the left of the region
names, so the Marquee appears, then Command-click each region you want to select.
– or –
■ Move the cursor over the region names, then
Shift-click each region name you want to select.
Keyboard Selection of Regions
If the Audio Regions Key Focus or MIDI Regions
Key Focus is enabled, you can type the first few
letters of a region’s name and Pro Tools will automatically locate and select the region in the
Regions List.
Stereo and multichannel regions are displayed
in the Regions List by default in collapsed view.
The individual regions can be displayed by clicking the arrow to the left of the region to expand
the name.
Expand/Collapse
To enable and use the Audio Regions Key Focus or
MIDI Regions Key Focus:
1 Click the a-z button in upper right of the Au-
dio Regions List or MIDI Regions List.
Stereo regions, collapsed (top) and expanded (bottom)
To expand or collapse all stereo and multichannel
regions:
Click to enable Key Focus
■ Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh)
while clicking the triangle.
Individual items of an expanded-view stereo or
multichannel region can be selected independently of the other associated regions in the Audio Regions List.
Audio Regions List Key Focus enabled
2 Type the first few letters of the region to auto-
matically locate and select it. Once a region is located and selected, it can be dragged to a track.
Keyboard selection of audio regions locates regions based on their region name, not on the
names for their parent audio files or the volumes on which they reside.
Stereo and Multichannel Tracks in
the Audio Regions List
Rules for Stereo and Multichannel
Regions
For stereo and multichannel regions to be
shown as collective regions, the component regions must be the same length. If an existing stereo or multichannel region has been dragged
onto multiple mono tracks and edited such that
one or more components are no longer the same
length, the stereo display is removed and the regions are displayed as individual regions in the
Regions List.
Stereo and multichannel regions, whether imported or recorded into Pro Tools, are displayed
as single items in the Audio Regions List. For example, two mono source regions named “Main
Piano.L” and “Main Piano.R” are listed as “Main
Piano (Stereo).” An Expand/Collapse triangle indicates stereo and multichannel regions.
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Edit Modes
Pro Tools has four Edit modes: Shuffle, Spot,
Slip, and Grid. (With Pro Tools 6.x, Grid mode
provides two modes of operation: Relative and
Absolute, explained below). The Edit mode is selected by clicking the corresponding button in
the upper left of the Edit window.
Edit mode buttons
You can also use F1 (Shuffle), F2 (Slip), F3
(Spot), and F4 (Grid) to set the Edit mode.
The Edit mode affects the movement and placement of audio and MIDI regions (and individual
MIDI notes), how commands like Copy and
Paste function, and also how the various edit
tools (Trimmer, Selector, Grabber, and Pencil)
work.
Shuffle
In Shuffle mode, you can move, trim, cut, or
paste regions freely within a track or to other
tracks, but their movement is constrained by
other regions. That is, if you place several regions in a track, they automatically snap to each
other. You can then “shuffle” their order, but
you cannot separate them from each other and
you cannot make them overlap as in Slip mode.
However, if there is silence between existing regions, and the regions are shuffled, the silence is
maintained, and not removed.
In Shuffle mode, adding another region to the
beginning of a track moves all subsequent regions to the right by the length of the region
added.
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When using the Trimmer in Shuffle mode,
changing a region’s start or end point automatically moves the adjacent regions as necessary.
The placement and insertion of MIDI notes is
not affected by Shuffle mode.
Slip
In Slip mode, regions can be moved freely
within a track or to other tracks. In this mode, it
is possible to place a region so that there is space
between it and other regions in a track. When
the track is played back, this space is silent. It is
also possible to move a region so that it overlaps
or completely covers another region.
Use Slip mode when you want the Trimmer, Selector, Grabber, and Pencil tools to work without any restrictions to placement in time.
Spot
Use Spot mode to place regions at precise locations. In Spot mode you can specify a frame location (or a location based on any of the other
time formats), capture an incoming Time Code
address, or use a region’s time stamps as reference points for spotting. This can be particularly
useful when performing post production tasks
around SMPTE frame locations.
When Spot mode is enabled, Pro Tools asks you
to specify a destination location when a region
is dragged from either of the Regions Lists, or
from a supported DigiBase browser.
Grid
The Grid Value selector is located in the Edit
window Options bar.
In Grid mode, regions and MIDI notes that are
moved, trimmed or inserted “snap” to the currently selected grid value, or to precise increments on a user-definable time grid.
Grid mode can be applied in Absolute or Relative mode.
In Absolute Grid mode, moving any region
snaps the region start to Grid boundaries. If a region’s start point falls between beats, and the
Grid is set to 1/4 notes, dragging the region will
snap its start time to the nearest 1/4 note (the
current absolute Grid value).
◆
In Relative Grid mode, regions can be moved
by Grid (or Nudge) units. If a region’s start point
falls between beats and the Grid is set to 1/4
notes, dragging the region will be constrained to
1/4 notes, preserving the region’s relative position to the nearest beat.
◆
To select Absolute or Relative Grid mode:
Click the Grid mode selector and choose Absolute or Relative.
■
To temporarily suspend Grid mode and
switch to Slip mode while dragging a region,
hold down the Control key (Windows) or
Command key (Macintosh).
Selecting the Grid Value
The current Grid value is also used for the
Quantize Regions Command. For information, see “Quantizing Regions” on
page 279.
Also available in the Grid Value pop-up is an option for Regions/Markers. When selected, events
can be placed freely (as in Slip mode) but will
snap to region locations (start, end, and sync
points), Markers, and Edit selections when
placed near them.
MIDI notes inserted with the Pencil tool ignore the Regions/Markers option, and instead snap to the time value selected in the
Grid Value pop-up menu.
For more information on Relative Grid
mode, see “Sliding Regions in Grid Mode”
on page 274.
Configuring the Grid
The actual Grid size, chosen from the Grid Value
pop-up can be based on a time value using the
Main Time Scale; or, if Follow Main Time Scale is
deselected, another time format can be used for
the Grid size.
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To display the Grid lines in the Edit window:
Choose Setups > Preferences > Display then
enable Draw Grids in Edit Window.
Zooming
■
Zooming options in Pro Tools include the Horizontal and Vertical Zoom buttons, the Zoomer
tool, the Zoom Preset buttons, and the Zoom
Toggle command.
Horizontal and Vertical Zoom
Buttons
Turning on Grid lines from Edit Window
– or –
■ Enable (and disable) Grid lines by clicking any
Timebase Ruler Name.
Use the Horizontal and Vertical Zoom buttons
to zoom in and out on track data. Unlike the
horizontal zoom value, the vertical zoom value
for audio and MIDI tracks are independent, and
therefore have separate buttons.
To zoom in horizontally for all tracks:
Click for Grid lines
Horizontal Zoom button
Turning on Grid lines from Ruler
For more information on Grid options, see
“Sliding Regions” on page 271.
■ Click the right Horizontal Zoom button. To
zoom out, click the other (left) Horizontal Zoom
button.
– or –
■ Press Control+] (Windows) or Command+]
(Macintosh). To zoom out, press Control+[
(Windows) or Command+[ (Macintosh).
– or –
■ Click and drag on the Horizontal Zoom button to zoom continuously.
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To zoom in vertically for all audio tracks:
To return to the previous zoom level:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) any of the Horizontal or Vertical Zoom
buttons.
– or –
Vertical Zoom button (audio)
Click the (top) Vertical Zoom button with the
audio waveform. To zoom out, click the bottom
Vertical Zoom button.
■
– or –
Press Control+Alt+] (Windows) or Command+Option+] (Macintosh). To zoom out,
Control+Alt+[ (Windows) or press Command+Option+[ (Macintosh).
■
■ Press Control+Alt+E (Windows) or Command+Option+E (Macintosh).
To zoom in on a selection:
■ Press Alt+F (Windows) or Option+F (Macintosh).
To zoom so that all regions are visible in the Edit
window:
– or –
■
Click and drag on the Vertical Zoom button to
zoom continuously.
■
To zoom in vertically for all MIDI tracks:
Double-click the Zoomer tool in the toolbar.
– or –
■ Press Alt+A (Windows) or Option+A (Macintosh).
Vertical Zoom button (MIDI)
Click the (top) Vertical Zoom button with the
MIDI notes. To zoom out, click the bottom Vertical Zoom button.
■
– or –
Press Control+Shift+] (Windows) or Command+Shift+] (Macintosh). To zoom out, press
Control+Shift+[ (Windows) or Command+Shift+[ (Macintosh).
■
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Zoomer Tool
Use the Zoomer tool to zoom in and out around
a particular area within a track. The Zoomer tool
offers two modes: Normal, and Single Zoom
mode.
In Normal Zoom mode, the Zoomer tool remains selected after zooming.
◆
In Single Zoom mode, the previously selected
tool is automatically reselected after zooming.
◆
To zoom into a particular track area:
1 Click the Zoomer tool pop-up menu and se-
lect Normal Zoom mode.
– or –
Press the F5 key to toggle to Normal Zoom
mode.
2 To zoom horizontally, drag with the Zoomer
in the track’s playlist.
– or –
Normal Zoomer Tool
To zoom around a certain track point:
To zoom horizontally and vertically, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) while
dragging in the track’s playlist.
1 Click the Zoomer tool pop-up menu and select Normal Zoom mode.
– or –
Press the F5 key to toggle to Normal Zoom
mode.
Zoomer tool
Zooming horizontally with Zoomer tool
2 Click once with the Zoomer at the point
within the track. All tracks are zoomed in by one
level and the Edit window is centered around
the zoomed point.
3 To zoom back to the previous level, Alt-click
(Window) or Option-click (Macintosh) with the
Zoomer.
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The zoomed area fills the entire Edit window.
Single Zoom Mode
Zooming in the Ruler
Single Zoom mode returns you to the previously
selected tool after a zoom has been performed.
To zoom horizontally in the Ruler:
1 Press Control+Alt (Windows) or Com-
For example, when using the Smart Tool you
can click the Single Zoom tool, and once the
Zoom operation has been performed, Pro Tools
automatically switches back to the Smart Tool.
mand+Control (Macintosh) and move the cursor into the Ruler area, so the Zoomer appears.
To use Single Zoom mode:
Click the Zoomer tool pop-up menu and select Single Zoom mode.
■
– or –
Zooming in the Ruler
2 Click once to zoom in one level around a certain point.
– or –
Press the F5 key to toggle to Single Zoom
mode.
Drag to zoom in around a particular Ruler range.
Single Zoom is identified with an arrow to the
right of the Zoomer icon.
Zoom Preset Buttons
■
Single Zoom mode
Normal Zoom mode doesn’t have the arrow.
Pro Tools lets you save up to 5 horizontal Edit
window Zoom presets, which can be recalled by
typing a number or by clicking a Zoom Preset
button.
To store a zoom preset:
1 Using either the Horizontal Zoom buttons or
the Zoomer tool, navigate to the zoom level you
want to store.
Normal Zoom mode
2 While pressing Control (Windows) or Com-
mand (Macintosh), click one of the five Zoom
Preset buttons.
Storing a zoom preset
The button flashes, indicating it is being written
to, and then becomes selected.
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229
To recall a zoom preset, do one of the following:
■
Click the Zoom Preset button.
■ While pressing the Start key (Windows) or
Control (Macintosh), type the Zoom Preset’s
number on the alpha keyboard.
The selection is zoomed to fill the Edit window,
and the tracks containing the selection are set to
a Track Height of Large. MIDI tracks automatically change to Notes view.
■ With Commands Focus enabled, type the
Zoom Preset’s number on the alpha keyboard.
Horizontal zoom levels for all tracks are recalled.
Zoom settings can also be stored with Memory Locations. For details, see “Naming and
Displaying Regions” on page 311.
Zoom Toggle
The Zoom Toggle command lets you zoom in
and increase the current track's height and
zoom level with one keystroke.
To use Zoom Toggle:
1 Make a selection on one or more tracks.
Using the Zoom Toggle
Setting a Default Zoom Toggle Track Height
Zoom Toggle provides single-key toggling between the current track zoom setting and the
default (Large) track height. You can change the
default height for toggled tracks in the Display
preferences.
2 Press Start+E (Windows) or Control+E (Macin-
tosh).
– or –
With Commands Focus enabled, press E.
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To set a default Zoom Toggle Track Height:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences.
2 In the Display pane, select a default from the
Zoom Toggle Track Height selector.
Zooming with a Scroll Wheel
If you have a mouse with a scroll wheel, you can
use the scroll wheel to zoom in and out of
tracks, both vertically and horizontally.
To zoom in and out horizontally in the Edit window:
1 Place the mouse over the tracks in the Edit
window.
2 Alt-scroll (Windows) or Option-scroll (Macintosh) the scroll wheel up or down to zoom in or
out horizontally.
Audio material residing in audio tracks is represented by a single, horizontal line in the Universe window. Each channel in a stereo or multichannel track is represented individually.
Since Auxiliary Input and Master Fader tracks do
not contain audio, they are displayed as blank
areas in the Universe window.
Similar to audio tracks, MIDI tracks containing
note material are represented by single, horizontal lines.
Resizing the Universe Window
To zoom in and out vertically in the Edit window:
1 Place the mouse over the tracks in the Edit
window.
2 Alt-Shift-scroll (Windows) or Option-Shift-
scroll (Macintosh) the scroll wheel up or down
to zoom tracks in or out vertically.
The Universe Window
(TDM Systems Only)
The Universe window displays an overview of
the entire session, representing audio and MIDI
material on all tracks that are not hidden (including tracks that are inactive, or that contain
offline regions). The order in which material is
displayed in the Universe window corresponds
to the track order in the Edit window.
Even though the Universe window can be resized horizontally and vertically, the length of
the entire session is always displayed in the Universe window. If the Universe window is resized
so some of the session’s track are not displayed,
a vertical scroll bar becomes available.
Highlighted Material in the Universe
Window
The highlighted, shaded area in the Universe
window represents the material displayed in the
Edit window. If you change what’s displayed in
the Edit window—by zooming, scrolling horizontally or vertically, hiding or unhiding tracks,
or changing track heights—the highlighted area
in the Universe window updates.
During playback, if the Edit window is set to
scroll, the highlighted area in the Universe window also scrolls.
To open the Universe window:
■
Choose Windows > Show Universe.
highlighted material
Universe window
Scrolling in the Universe Window
By clicking in the Universe window, you can automatically scroll, either horizontally or vertically, the material displayed in the Edit window.
This provides a convenient method of locating
anywhere in the session, or adjusting which
shown tracks are visible in the Edit window.
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231
To move the highlighted area in the Universe
window:
Timebase Rulers
1 Choose Windows > Show Universe.
2 To affect which tracks are displayed in the Edit
window, click lower or higher (vertically) in the
Universe window.
All Rulers displayed
Any or all of the following Timebase Rulers can
be displayed at the top of the Edit window:
• Bars:Beats
• Minutes:Seconds
3 To scroll to a different session location, click
later or lower (horizontally) in the Universe
window.
• Time Code (All TDM systems and Pro Tools LE
systems with DV Toolkit only)
• Feet+Frames (All TDM systems and Pro Tools
LE systems with DV Toolkit only)
• Samples
In addition to providing a timing reference for
track material, the Timebase Rulers are also used
to define Edit selections for track material, and
Timeline selections for record and play ranges.
When all tracks are visible in the Edit window
and the session is zoomed all the way out, with
all regions visible, the entire Universe window is
shaded.
With the Selector, drag in any Timebase
Ruler to select material across all tracks in
the Edit window. To include the Conductor
Tracks in the selection, press Alt (Windows)
or Option (Macintosh) while dragging.
Any or all of the following Conductor Rulers can
be displayed:
• Tempo
• Meter
• Markers
The Meter and Tempo Rulers indicate changes
in meter and tempo within the Session. The
Markers Ruler displays Markers to important
track locations.
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To display all Rulers:
■
Select Display > Ruler View Shows > All.
To remove a Ruler from the display:
Option-click the Ruler’s name (to the left of
the Ruler display).
■
– or –
Main Time Scale
While all Timebase Rulers can simultaneously
be displayed in the Edit window, there is only
one that represents the Main Time Scale. The
Main Time Scale determines the time format
used for:
• The Transport’s Main Counter
Deselect the Ruler in Display > Ruler View
Shows.
■
• Start, end, and length values
• Pre- and post-roll amounts
To display only the Main Time Scale in the Ruler:
Select Display > Ruler View Shows > None.
(See “Main Time Scale” on page 233.)
• Grid and Nudge values
■
The Main Time Scale can be set to the following
formats:
To add a specific Ruler to the display, such as the
Markers Ruler, for instance:
Bars:Beats Displays the Time Scale in bars and
beats. Use this Time Scale if you are working
with musical material that must align with bars
and beats.
■
Select Display > Ruler View Shows > Markers.
To change the display order for the Rulers:
Click a Ruler’s name and drag up or down to
the new location.
■
Ruler Options Pop-up Menu
The Ruler display options are also available from
a pop-up menu.
Click for Ruler Options pop-up menu
To ensure your tracks align with the bars and
beats in your session, make sure to record with
the click (see “Recording with a Click” on
page 151).
Material that is recorded without listening to
the click can still be aligned to bar and beat
boundaries in Pro Tools with the Identify Beat
command (see “Identify Beat Command” on
page 318).
Minutes:Seconds Displays the Time Scale in
minutes and seconds. As you zoom in farther
with the Zoomer, the Time Scale begins to display tenths, hundredths, and thousandths of a
second.
Ruler Options pop-up menu
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233
Time Code (All TDM Systems and Pro Tools Systems with DV Toolkit Only) Displays the Time
Scale in SMPTE frames. The Timecode Rate and
Session Start time are set from the Session Setup
window. (Pro Tools 6.4. In Pro Tools 6.2 and below, Timecode Rate is called Frame Rate.)
Setting the Main Time Scale
To set the Main Time Scale:
■ Select a Time Scale at the bottom of the Display menu.
– or –
Pro Tools supports the following frame rates:
23.976, 24, 25, 29.97 Non-Drop, 29.97 Drop, 30
Non-Drop, and 30 Drop frames per second.
■ Select from the Main Time Scale pop-up (also
available in the Transport window, when it is set
to display Counters).
Feet+Frames (All TDM Systems and LE Systems
with DV Toolkit Only) Displays the Time Scale in
feet and frames for referencing audio-for-film
projects. The Feet+Frames time display is based
on the 35 millimeter film format.
The Redefine Current Feet+Frame Position command lets you define a Feet+Frame number for
the current insertion point.
Main Time Scale pop-up
– or –
■ If a Timebase Ruler is displayed, click its name
so it becomes highlighted.
Feet+Frames dialog
To set a relative frame position for a session:
Switching the Main Time Scale
Choose Setups > Redefine Current
Feet+Frames Position and enter a Feet+Frame
position to correspond to the timecode shown
in the dialog.
■
Samples Displays the Time Scale in samples.
This format is very useful for high-precision
sample editing.
Navigating with the Main Counter.
The Main Counter (in the Main Time Scale popup or the Transport window) provides a convenient way to navigate to a specific time location.
To navigate with the Main Counter:
1 Click in the Main Counter.
2 Type in a location.
3 Press Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh)
to automatically locate to a new location.
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Setting the Sub Time Scale
There is also a Sub Location Indicator displayed
below the Main Location Indicator, and below
the Transport’s Main Counter, which provides
an additional timing reference.
To set the Time Scale for the Sub Location
Indicator:
Select from the Sub Time Scale pop-up next to
the Location Indicator
■
– or –
Select from the Sub Time Scale pop-up in the
Transport Window.
■
Sub Time Scale pop-up
Tick-Based Timing
Pro Tools is a sample-based program with an internal MIDI resolution of 960,000 pulses per
quarter note (ppq). However, when the Time
Scale is set to Bars:Beats, the display resolution
in Pro Tools is 960 ppq.
In Bars:Beats, Pro Tools is tick-based (960 ticks
to a quarter note), which means that some
amount of sample-rounding may occur when
placing events at certain locations (see “Sample
Rounding and Edit Operations” on page 236).
When working in Bars:Beats, you’ll often want
to specify tick values for a number of operations,
including:
• Placing and spotting regions
• Setting lengths for regions or MIDI notes
• Locating and setting play and record ranges
(including pre- and post-roll)
• Specifying settings in the Quantize and
Change Duration windows
• Setting the Grid and Nudge values
The following table lists the number of ticks for
each of the main note sizes:
Note Value
Normal
Dotted
Triplet
1/2 note
1920
2880
1280
1/4 note
960
1440
640
1/8 note
480
720
320
1/16 note
240
360
160
1/32 note
120
180
80
1/64 note
60
90
40
Ticks versus Samples
Audio material in Pro Tools is sample-based.
This means that if an audio region is located at a
particular sample (or SMPTE) location, it will
not move from this location if the tempo
changes in the session (though the audio region’s bar and beat location will change).
MIDI data in Pro Tools is tick-based. This means
that if a MIDI region is located at a particular bar
and beat location, it will not move from that location if the tempo changes in the session—
though its sample location will change, thereby
adjusting its relationship to audio.
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235
When creating Markers and Selection Memory
Locations, you can specify whether they have
an Absolute (sample-based) or Bar|Beat (tickbased) reference. For more information, see
“Bar|Beat and Absolute Reference” on page 325.
Sample Rounding and Edit Operations
Because audio material in Pro Tools is samplebased, some amount of sample-rounding may
occur with some edits when the Main Time
Scale is set to Bars:Beats. This is most evident
when you need audio regions to fall cleanly on
the beat (as when looping) and notice that the
material is sometimes a tick or two off. With a
few simple precautions, this can be avoided.
When selecting audio regions to be copied, duplicated, or repeated, make sure to select the material with the Selector (enable Grid mode for
precise selections), or set the selection range by
typing in the start and end points in the Event
Edit area. Do not select the material with the
Grabber (or by double-clicking with the Selector). This ensures that the selection will be precise in terms of bars and beats (and not based on
the length of the material in samples).
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Chapter 16: Playing and Selecting
Track Material
Playing Tracks
After recording or importing to tracks, you’ll
want to listen to the material to find track
ranges that require editing, or material that can
be turned into regions for use elsewhere.
To set where playback begins, you can click anywhere in a track with the Selector tool (as long as
the Edit and Timeline selections are linked, see
“Linking or Unlinking Edit and Timeline Selections” on page 245).
The edit cursor, on the other hand, is a flashing
line that appears when you click with the Selector in a track’s playlist. The blinking edit cursor
indicates the start point for any editing tasks
performed. If you make a selection and perform
an edit, the selection is the target of the edit.
The selected Scrolling Option determines how
the Edit window scrolls during playback, and
how the playback cursor functions. See “Scrolling Options” on page 241 for details.
To begin playing from a specific point within a
track:
1 Select Operations > Scrolling Options > No
Auto Scrolling.
Setting a playback point with the Selector
Depending on the selected Scrolling Option, the
playback cursor, a solid unblinking line, moves
across the Edit window to indicate the current
playback position. The playback location is displayed in the Counters in the Transport window, in the Big Time window, and also in the
Location Indicators.
2 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
3 With the Selector, click in the track where you
want playback to begin.
4 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
playback.
5 Click Stop in the Transport window to stop
playback.
To jump to a different location and begin playing from there, click with the Selector at that
point and click Play in the Transport window.
Transport with Counters displayed
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237
With the Edit and Timeline selections linked,
you can click a region or MIDI note with the
Grabber to automatically update the Timeline
with the selection’s start time, allowing you to
easily play from that point.
Page Scroll During Playback
You can set Pro Tools to scroll the track display
while playing, and also have the edit cursor appear wherever playback stops.
To make the track display and the edit cursor
follow playback:
1 Select Operations > Scrolling Options > Page
Scroll During Playback.
2 Choose Setups > Preferences. In the Operation
page of the Preferences dialog, select the option
for “Timeline Insertion Follows Playback,” then
click Done.
Pressing Start+N (Windows) or Control+N
(Macintosh) toggles Timeline Insertion Follows Playback.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
Pressing Shift+slash (/) toggles Link Edit
and Timeline selection on and off.
4 With the Selector, click in the track where you
want playback to begin.
5 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
playback. The playback cursor scrolls across the
Edit window, indicating the current playback
position.
6 Click Stop in the Transport window to stop
playback. The edit cursor appears at the location
where playback stops.
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Locating and Auditioning with Fast
Forward/Rewind
You can use the Fast Forward and Rewind buttons in the Transport window to locate material
in your tracks. If the Operation Preference for
“Audio During Fast Forward/Rewind” is selected, you’ll actually hear the scanned audio
(similar to a CD player) when clicking the Fast
Forward and Rewind buttons.
You can also fast forward or rewind incrementally by repeatedly clicking the appropriate button. The size of these increments is determined
by the Main Time Scale:
• Bars:Beats: moves to the beginning of the previous or next bar.
• Min:Sec: moves back or forward in one-second steps.
• Time Code: moves back or forward in one-second steps (while adjusting for current SMPTE
format).
• Feet+Frames: moves back or forward in onefoot steps.
• Samples: moves back or forward in one-second steps.
Location Indicators
The Location Indicators, in the upper portion of
the Edit window, display the current playback
location. All Location Indicators (except the Sub
Location Indicator) let you enter a location in
their counter display to navigate to a specific
time location.
Location Indicators
The Main Location Indicator displays the playback location in the time format for the Main
Time Scale. The Sub Location Indicator can be
set to any of the other Time Scale formats for another timing reference. Both the Main and Sub
indicators also appear in the Transport window
when it is set to display Counters.
To scroll the entire contents of the Edit window
from the Ruler:
■ While pressing Control+Alt+Start (Windows)
or Command+Option+Control (Macintosh),
drag left or right in any of the Timebase Rulers.
To navigate with the Location Indicators:
1 Click in one of the Location Indicators.
– or –
Press asterisk (*) on the numeric keypad to highlight the Main Location Indicator (or the Transport Counters or Big Time window, if either are
displayed).
Scrolling in the Ruler
Scrolling with a Scroll Wheel
If you have a mouse with a scroll wheel, you can
use the scroll wheel to scroll vertically or horizontally in any Pro Tools window that has a
scroll bar (such as the MIDI Event List).
2 Type in the new location. Press period (.) to
cycle through to the different time fields.
To scroll a Pro Tools window vertically:
3 Press Enter to accept the new value and auto-
1 Place the mouse over the window you want to
scroll (for example, in the Edit window you
might want to scroll either the track display or
the Regions List).
matically locate there.
Select the time format from the pop-up
menus next to the Main and Sub indicators
in either the Edit or Transport window.
2 Scroll the scroll wheel up or down to scroll the
window up or down.
Scrolling in the Ruler
To scroll a Pro Tools window horizontally:
You can scroll the contents of the Edit window
by clicking and dragging in the Ruler. While this
doesn’t actually update the session’s Current Location, it does let you conveniently shift the display left or right for the sake of finding and editing material.
This method of scrolling is especially useful
when using Continuous Scroll With Playhead
(TDM systems only), which does not update or
follow Timeline selections.
1 Place the mouse over the window you want to
scroll (for example, in the Edit window you
might want to scroll either the track display or
the Regions List).
2 Shift-scroll the scroll wheel up or down to
scroll the window to the left or right.
Locating the Playback Cursor
Use the Playback Cursor Locator to locate the
playback cursor when it is off-screen. The Playback Cursor Locator will appear on the right
edge of the Main Timebase Ruler if the playback
cursor is located beyond the time visible in the
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239
Edit window. If the playback cursor is located
before the time visible in the Edit window, the
Playback Cursor Locator will appear on the left
edge of the Main Timebase Ruler.
Playback Cursor Locator
Playback Cursor Locator, recording enabled (Playback
Cursor located after currently viewed audio)
The Playback Cursor Locator is red when a track
is record enabled and blue when no track is
record enabled.
For example, if the Scrolling Option is set to No
Auto-Scrolling, the playback cursor will move
off-screen after it has played past the time currently visible in the Edit window. The Playback
Cursor Locator will appear on the right edge of
the Main Timebase Ruler after the playback cursor moves beyond the time visible in the Edit
window.
To locate the playback cursor when it is off-screen:
■ Click the Playback Cursor Locator in the Main
Timebase Ruler.
The Edit window will change to center the playback cursor on-screen.
Auto-Scrolling Tracks in the
Edit and Mix Windows
(Pro Tools 6.2 and Higher on Pro Tools|HD
Systems Only)
If you are working with more tracks than can be
displayed at one time in the Edit or Mix windows, you can select a track in one window and
Pro Tools will automatically scroll to that track
in the other window.
To auto-scroll the Mix window to show a selected
track in the Edit window:
■ In the Edit window, Start-click (Windows) or
Control-click (Macintosh) the track name.
The track becomes selected, and the Mix window scrolls to display the selected track.
To auto-scroll the Edit window to show a selected
track in the Mix window:
■ In the Mix window, Start-click (Windows) or
Control-click (Macintosh) the track name.
The track becomes selected, and the Edit window scrolls to display the selected track.
Navigation using Track Position
Numbers
(Pro Tools 6.4 Only)
Track Position Numbering assigns each track a
number corresponding to its position in the Mix
and Edit Windows. When tracks are reordered,
track position numbers stay in numerical sequence. You can scroll directly to any track by
its positional number.
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To navigate directly to any track using track
position numbers:
1 Choose Display > Display Track Position
Numbers
2 Choose Operations > Go To Track Position
Number
– or –
Press Command+Option+G (Macintosh) or
Control+Alt+G (Windows)
Scroll To Track dialog
3 In the Scroll To Track dialog, enter the track
Scroll After Playback The playback cursor moves
across the Edit window, indicating the playback
location. When playback has stopped, the Edit
window scrolls to the final playback location.
Page Scroll During Playback The playback cursor
moves across the Edit window, indicating the
playback location. When the right edge of the
Edit window is reached, its entire contents are
scrolled, and the playback cursor continues
moving from the left edge of the window.
Making a selection in the Timeline or a
playlist, or manually scrolling the Timeline
while in Page Scroll or Continuous Scroll
mode will suspend page scrolling. To resume page scrolling and jump to the current
playback location, click the Playback Cursor Locator in the Main Timebase ruler (see
“Locating the Playback Cursor” on
page 239).
position number.
4 Click OK.
Continuous Scroll During Playback
(TDM Systems Only)
The track is selected, and the windows scroll as
follows:
• The Edit window tracks scroll to bring the selected track as close to the top as possible.
• The Mix window tracks scroll to bring the selected track as close to the left as possible.
This scrolling option causes the Edit window’s
contents to scroll continuously past the playback cursor, which remains in the center of the
window. With this option, playback is always
based on the Timeline selection (unlike Continuous Scroll With Playhead).
Continuous Scroll With Playhead
Scrolling Options
Pro Tools offers the following options for how it
scrolls the contents of the Edit window during
playback and recording. Choose Operations >
Scroll Options and select one of the following
from the submenu:
(TDM Systems Only)
This scrolling option causes the Edit window’s
contents to scroll continuously past the Playhead, which is a blue line in the center of the
window (red when recording).
No Auto-Scrolling The Edit window does not
scroll during or after playback. The playback
cursor moves across the Edit window, indicating
the playback location.
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241
The Playhead indicates where playback begins
when clicking Play in the Transport window.
Continuous Scroll With Playhead
To move the Playhead to a particular location
for playback, you can scroll there in the Ruler
(see “Scrolling in the Ruler” on page 239), use
the Edit window’s horizontal scroll bar, or type
the location into one of the Location Indicators
or one of the Counters.
Moving the Playhead with these methods does
not update the Timeline selection. However, updating the Timeline selection automatically
moves the Playhead to the Timeline insertion
point.
With the Playhead enabled, you can jump to
and play an Edit or Timeline selection. For details, see “Playing Edit and Timeline Selections
with the Playhead” on page 258.
Half-Screen Edit Window
When either Continuous Scroll During Playback
or Continuous Scroll With Playhead is enabled,
a half-screen appears at the far left of the Edit
window (before the beginning of the session).
The Scrubber
The Scrubber lets you “scrub” up to two tracks of
audio in the Edit Window. Scrubbing is a technique that originated in tape editing, where the
tape was rocked back and forth past the playhead at slower than normal speeds to find a particular location (usually for the sake of performing splices).
While viewing an audio waveform in Pro Tools
can be helpful in visually finding an edit point,
sometimes a waveform display (because of its
sonic characteristics) may not reveal the desired
spot in the audio material. By scrubbing back
and forth over an edit point in Pro Tools, you
can listen and zero in on the exact edit point
you're looking for.
When the Operation Preference for “Edit Insertion Follows Scrub/Shuttle” is enabled, the edit
cursor automatically locates to the point where
scrubbing stops.
When the Scrolling Option is set to Continuous
Scroll During Playback or Continuous Scroll
With Playhead, clicking with the Scrubber in a
track’s playlist centers the Edit window around
that point, and moves the Playhead there. With
these Scrolling Options, scrubbed material
moves past the Playhead, which remains stationary and centered.
Scrubbing is only supported for audio
tracks. MIDI tracks cannot be scrubbed.
Half-screen for Continuous Scroll With Playhead
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To scrub a single audio track:
1 With the Scrubber selected, drag within the
track—left for reverse, right for forward.
The maximum number of channels
scrubbed in Pro Tools is eight, which would
allow you to scrub two stereo tracks (four
channels), but not two 5.1 surround tracks
(12 channels).
Scrub/Shuttle Mode
Scrubbing an audio track with the Scrubber
The distance and speed with which you drag
(with either the mouse, or an external MIDI
controller wheel) determine the length and
speed of the scrubbed audio. Audio from the
scrubbed track is routed to its output, along with
any effects assigned to the track.
The resolution for the Scrubber is dependent
upon the zoom factor for the scrubbed track.
When scrubbing normally, you can scrub at normal playback speeds or slower. Scrub/Shuttle
mode, however, lets you scrub at several times
normal speed, which is helpful in playing
through large ranges and locating material.
To scrub in Shuttle mode (at several times normal
speed):
1 Select the Scrubber tool.
2 While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
You can temporarily switch the Selector to
the Scrubber by Right-clicking (Windows) or
Control-clicking (Macintosh). For finer resolution, Control-Right-click (Windows) or
Command-Control-click (Macintosh).
(Macintosh), drag within the track—left for reverse, right for forward. The Fast Forward and
Rewind buttons in the Transport window engage.
To scrub multiple audio tracks:
The distance and speed dragged determine the
speed for the scrubbed audio.
With the Scrubber selected, drag between two
adjacent tracks.
Shuttle Lock Mode
■
Scrubbing between two audio tracks
– or –
Shuttle Lock mode lets you use the numeric keypad to shuttle up to two tracks forward or backwards at specific speeds: 5 is normal speed, numbers from 6 up to 9 provide increasingly faster
fast-forward speeds, and numbers from 4 down
to 1 provide progressively faster rewind speeds
(4 is the slowest rewind Shuttle Lock speed, 1 is
the fastest). If multiple tracks are selected, only
the first two tracks are shuttled.
Scrub within a selection that contains multiple tracks. Only the first two tracks are heard.
■
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243
To play one or two tracks with the shuttle lock:
To configure Custom Shuttle Lock Speed:
1 For TDM systems, make sure the Operation
Preference for Numeric Keypad Mode is not set
to Shuttle.
1 In Pro Tools, select Setups > Preferences, and
2 With the Selector, click in the track where you
to Transport or Classic.
want playback to begin. To shuttle on two
tracks, Shift-click in a second track.
3 Enter a desired percentage for the Custom
3 Press the Start key (Windows) or Control
(Macintosh) and a number on the numeric keypad: 0–9 (9 is fastest, 5 is normal speed, and 0
stops shuttling).
Once Shuttle Lock mode is initiated, Fast Forward and Rewind become highlighted in the
Transport window.
4 Press additional keys to change the playback
speed, or press Plus (+) or Minus (–) to switch the
playback direction (plus for forward, minus for
backward).
click the Operations tab.
2 Be sure that the Numeric Keypad mode is set
Shuttle Lock Speed setting. The range for this
setting is 50–800%. You can use the Up and
Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease the setting.
4 Click OK.
The Custom Shuttle Lock Speed will be saved
with your Pro Tools preferences (not with the
session).
To enable Custom Shuttle Lock Speed:
■ Press Start+9 (Windows) or Control+ 9 (Macintosh) on the numeric keypad.
5 To stop playback, press Start+0 (Windows) or
Control+0 (Macintosh).
To exit Shuttle Lock mode:
■
Press Stop in the Transport window.
– or –
■
Press the spacebar.
Custom Shuttle Lock Speed
(Pro Tools 6.2 and Higher on Pro Tools|HD
Systems Only)
Use the Custom Shuttle Lock Speed preference
to customize the highest fast-for-ward Shuttle
Lock speed (key 9) to better match your editing
and auditioning needs.
Numeric Keypad Set to Shuttle
(TDM Systems Only)
Pro Tools offers another form of shuttling, different from that of Shuttle Lock mode. With the
Numeric Keypad Mode set to Shuttle, playback
of the current Edit selection is triggered by pressing and holding the keys on the numeric keypad—playback stops once the keys are released.
Various playback speeds are available in both
forward and reverse. In this mode, pre- and postroll are ignored.
To shuttle with the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Shuttle:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Opera-
tions.
2 Set the Numeric Keypad Mode to Shuttle and
click Done.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
3 With the Selector, click in the track where you
want playback to begin. To shuttle on two
tracks, Shift-click in a second track.
4 Press and hold any of the following keys (or
key combinations) on the numeric keypad to
trigger playback.
Shuttle Speed
Rewind Key
Forward Key
1 X Speed
4
6
4 X Speed
7
9
1/4 X Speed
1
3
1/2 X Speed
4+5
5+6
2 X Speed
7+8
8+9
To unlink the Edit and Timeline selections:
■ Deselect Operations > Link Edit and Timeline
Selection.
– or –
■ In the upper left of the Edit window, click the
Link Selection button so it becomes unhighlighted.
Link Selection disabled and enabled
5 Press a different key to switch the playback direction or speed. Release to stop.
Linking or Unlinking Edit and
Timeline Selections
Pro Tools lets you link or unlink the Edit and
Timeline selections.
By default, the Edit and Timeline selections are
linked. In this mode, selecting in a track’s playlist (an Edit selection) also defines the play and
record range (the Timeline selection).
Unlinking Edit and Timeline selections lets you
make a selection within a track for editing purposes that is distinct from the selection in the
Timeline (which determines the playback and
recording range).
If you are working with a film or video scene,
you may want to unlink the Edit and Timeline
selections to find or audition material that is at
a different location than the current Timeline
selection. Edit selections can be played (choose
Operations > Play Edit Selection) without disrupting the current Timeline selection. Once
you find the material, you can then go back to
the Timeline selection and place it within the
context of the scene.
Figure 12 illustrates another reason you’d want
to unlink the Edit and Timeline selections. In
this example, the Timeline selection sets a range
to be looped on playback, while a MIDI region
(residing within the loop) is selected for editing
purposes. During playback, the Edit selection
can be nudged, quantized, or transposed while
the loop plays back completely independent
and uninterrupted.
Figure 12. Edit and Timeline selections unlinked
Chapter 16: Playing and Selecting Track Material
245
While you could theoretically do this with the
Edit and Timeline selections linked, as soon as
playback is stopped, the playback range would
then be updated to that of the more recent edit
range.
Playback/Edit Markers
Timeline selections are displayed in the Ruler
with Playback Markers, which appear as blue arrows (red when recording). In addition, there
are Pre- and Post-Roll Flags (which are green
when enabled) indicating the location for preand post-roll.
Selecting Track Material
Before audio and MIDI material can be edited, it
must first be selected. A track’s Display Format
determines how the material is viewed and selected.
When you make a selection, it appears as a highlighted area of the tracks, and is also indicated
by blue start and end arrows (Playback Markers)
in the Ruler at the top of the Edit window. If any
track (audio or MIDI) in the session is record-enabled, even if it is hidden, these markers appear
red.
Playback Markers with Pre- and Post-Roll Flags
When the Edit and Timeline selections are unlinked, Edit selections are displayed in the Ruler
with Edit Markers, which appear as black brackets.
Figure 13. Edit Markers
If the Edit and Timeline selections are linked,
Edit selections are represented by the blue Playback Markers.
See the following sections for details on working
with Edit and Timeline selections:
• “Selecting Track Material” on page 246
• “Timeline Selections” on page 257
• “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on page 168
• “Setting Pre- and Post-Roll” on page 170
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Playback Markers indicating Edit selection
If the Edit and Timeline selections are unlinked,
the Edit selection range is indicated by Edit
Markers in the Ruler. See “Linking or Unlinking
Edit and Timeline Selections” on page 245 for
details.
Selections and Edit Groups
When making selections on tracks that are part
of an Edit Group, all tracks within the group become selected.
Selections and Hidden Tracks
When editing tracks that are part of an active
Edit Group, any tracks within the group that are
hidden are not affected by the edits. To edit all
members of a group, make sure they are visible
by highlighting their names in the Show/Hide
Tracks List.
Selections in Multiple Tracks
To select all regions in all tracks:
1 Select the “All” Edit Group in the Groups List.
To make a selection in multiple tracks:
With the Selector, click and drag horizontally
to include adjacent tracks in a selection (drag
vertically to define the time range).
■
Selecting Regions
To select a portion of a region:
With the Selector, drag within a region (left or
right) to select the material on a single track.
(You can also use the Selector across multiple,
adjacent tracks to make multitrack selections.)
■
Selecting a portion of a region
To select an entire region:
■
Click the region with the Grabber.
– or –
■
Double-click the region with the Selector.
To select two regions and the time range between
them:
1 With the Grabber, click the first region.
2 Shift-click the second region. Both regions be-
come selected, along with the time range between them (including any other regions).
2 Click in any track with the Selector and
choose Edit > Select All.
– or –
Triple-click with the Selector in any track.
Another way to select all regions in all
tracks, without having to select the “All”
Edit Group, is to press Enter (Windows) or
Return (Macintosh), then type Control+A
(Windows) or Command+A (Macintosh).
Region List Selection Follows Track
Selection
When the Editing Preference for “Region List Selection Follows Track Selection” is enabled, selecting a region in a track also causes the region
to become selected in the Audio or MIDI Regions List.
Conversely, if the Editing Preference for “Track
Selection Follows Region List Selection” is
enabled, selecting a region in the Audio or MIDI
Regions List causes the initial occurrence of that
region to become selected within the track.
Selecting All from Timebase Rulers
To select all material in all displayed audio and
MIDI tracks:
1 Make sure the Edit and Timeline selections are
linked.
To select an entire track:
Click in the track with the Selector and then
choose Edit > Select All.
■
2 Double-click in any Timebase Ruler. All re-
gions in all displayed audio and MIDI tracks are
selected. Tracks that are hidden are not selected.
– or –
■
Triple-click in the track with the Selector.
Chapter 16: Playing and Selecting Track Material
247
To select all material in all tracks, along with
Conductor events:
1 Make sure the Edit and Timeline selections are
linked.
2 While pressing Control (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), double-click in any Timebase
Ruler. All regions in all displayed audio and
MIDI tracks are selected, along with all events in
each of the Conductor tracks.
Making Selections While Playing
Pro Tools lets you make on-the-fly selections
with the arrow keys.
sume page scrolling and jump to the current
playback location, click the Playback Cursor Locator in the Main Timebase ruler (see “Locating
the Playback Cursor” on page 239).
Object Selections (TDM Systems Only)
You can use the Object Grabber to select noncontiguous regions on one or more tracks. Noncontiguous selections must encompass entire regions. If you want a non-contiguous selection to
include a portion of a region, first turn the portion into a new region with the Separation
Grabber (see “Separation Grabber” on page 263)
or the Separate Region command (see “Separate
Region Command” on page 262).
To make a selection while playing:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline selection.
The Object Grabber is not available when
the Edit mode is set to Shuffle or Spot.
2 With the Selector, click somewhere near the
To select non-contiguous regions:
beginning of the track in which you want to
make the selection.
1 Make sure the Edit mode is set to either Slip or
3 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
2 Choose the Object Grabber from the Grabber
playback.
tool pop-up menu.
Grid.
4 When playback reaches the point where you
want the selection to begin, press the Down Arrow key.
5 Press the Up Arrow key at the point where you
want the selection to end. The selected range becomes highlighted.
6 To stop playback, click Stop in the Transport
Object Grabber
3 Shift-click each region you want to include in
the selection. The regions can even reside on different tracks.
window.
To automatically scroll to the beginning of the
selection (or to the location of the on-screen
cursor), press the Left Arrow key. To scroll to the
end of the selection, press the Right Arrow key.
Non-contiguous selection
While in Page Scroll or Continuous Scroll mode,
making a selection in the Timeline or a playlist
during playback as the playback cursor moves
off-screen will suspend page scrolling. To re248
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Each clicked region becomes surrounded by a
dark rectangle, indicating it is selected.
The Object Grabber ignores Edit Groups when
making selections. For instance, selecting a region on a grouped track does not cause regions
in the other tracks in the group to become selected.
2 With the Object Grabber selected, doubleclick the Grabber icon in the toolbar. The regions falling within the selection range become
selected as objects. Regions that were partially
selected become deselected.
Object to Time Selection (TDM Systems Only)
You can convert between Time- and Objectbased selections. Time selections are made with
the Selector and Time Grabber. Object selections
are made with the Object Grabber.
Converting to an Object selection is useful
when you are working with large selections, especially across multiple tracks, and you want to
remove certain regions from the selection.
To select regions that were partially selected,
press the Control key while double-clicking the
Grabber icon.
To change an Object selection to a Time selection:
Converting to a Time selection is useful if you
want to select all regions between a non-contiguous Object selection.
1 Select any number of regions with the Object
Grabber.
2 Double-click the Selector icon in the toolbar.
To change a Time selection to an Object selection:
1 Drag with the Selector in any track to define a
selection. Select in a Timebase Ruler to select
across all tracks.
The time range between the first and last region
becomes selected.
If using the Object Grabber (TDM systems only),
regions on the other tracks in the group are selected if they fall within the range of the selected region.
Chapter 16: Playing and Selecting Track Material
249
Changing a Selection Length
Nudging a Selection Range
The selection range can be shortened or lengthened; this does not affect the material within
the selection.
The selection range (not the material within the
selection) can be moved by the Nudge value.
To nudge a selection range:
To change the length of a selection:
With the Selector, position the cursor over
one end of the current selection and Shift-click
or Shift-drag left or right.
■
– or –
In the Ruler, drag the Playback Marker for the
selection’s start or end point.
■
1 Configure the Nudge value. For details, see
“Defining the Nudge Value” on page 276.
2 Make the initial selection with the Selector.
3 While pressing Shift, press Plus (+) or
Minus (–) on the numeric keypad to move the
selection range by the Nudge value.
Nudging Selection Start/End Points
Start and end points for selections can be moved
by nudging them.
Dragging a Playback Marker
– or –
■ If the Edit and Timeline selections are unlinked, drag the Edit Markers (see Figure 13 on
page 246) to change the selection length.
To move a selection start or end point by the
Nudge value:
1 Configure the Nudge value. For details, see
“Defining the Nudge Value” on page 276.
2 Make the initial selection with the Selector.
To make a long-length selection:
3 While pressing Alt+Shift (Windows) or Op-
1 With the Selector, click at the beginning of the
tion+Shift (Macintosh), press Plus (+) or
Minus (–) on the numeric keypad to move the
selection’s start point by the Nudge value.
selection.
2 Scroll to the end point of the selection and
Shift-click at that point.
To verify the start and end points of a long selection, press the Left Arrow key to scroll to the beginning of the selection, or press the Right Arrow key to scroll to the end.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
– or –
While Control+Shift (Windows) or pressing
Command+Shift (Macintosh), press Plus (+) or
Minus (–) on the numeric keypad to move the
selection’s end point by the Nudge value.
Extending Selections
You can extend selections to region start and
end points, to include an adjacent region, or to
Markers and Memory Locations.
To extend a selection to a region start or end
point:
1 With the Selector, select a portion of a region,
or click anywhere in the region.
2 Press Shift+Tab to extend the selection to the
region’s end point.
– or –
Press Shift+Control+Tab (Windows) or
Shift+Option+Tab (Macintosh) to extend the selection to the region’s start point.
2 Shift-click a Marker in the Markers Ruler.
– or –
Shift-click a Memory Location in the Memory
Locations window.
The selection is extended from the original Insertion point to the Marker or Memory Location.
Using the Selection Indicators
(Start, End, and Length)
The Selection Indicators at the top of the Edit
window can define precise edit selections. Time
values for the Selection Indicators use the time
format for the Main Time Scale.
To extend a selection to include an adjacent
region:
1 Select the first region with the Grabber.
Selection Indicators
2 Press Shift+Start+Tab (Windows) or
To make a selection with the Selection Indicators:
Shift+Control+Tab (Macintosh) to extend the
selection to include the next region.
1 Click with the Selector in the track you want
– or –
Press Shift+Start+Control+Tab (Windows) or
Shift+Control+Option+Tab (Macintosh) to extend the selection to include the previous region.
To extend a selection to a Marker or Memory
Location:
to select.
2 Click in the Start field at the top of the Edit
window.
3 Type in the start point for the selection and
press the slash key to enter the value and automatically move to the end field.
4 Type in the end point for the selection and
press Enter to accept the value.
1 Click in a track with the Selector at the selec-
tion’s start or end point.
– or –
Make a selection with the Selector or Grabber.
Chapter 16: Playing and Selecting Track Material
251
Numeric Entry Shortcuts for Selection
Indicators
3 Type the amount you want to subtract from
You can use the following shortcuts for entering
values in the Selection Indicators:
4 Press Enter again to apply the change.
Press the slash key to cycle through the three
Selection Indicators.
■
■ Use period (.) or the Left and Right Arrow keys
to move through the different time fields in
each Selection Indicator.
Press the Up or Down Arrow keys to increase
or decrease the numerical values.
■
Control-drag (Windows) or Command-drag
(Macintosh) in a field to scroll to a new value.
the current time value, then press Enter.
To add time values:
1 In the Selection Indicator, highlight the time
field you want to change.
2 Press Plus (+) on the numeric keypad.
3 Type the amount you want to add to the cur-
rent time value, then press Enter.
4 Press Enter again to apply the change.
■
■ Press Plus (+) or Minus (–), along with an accompanying number, to add or subtract from
the current field value.
For example, to add 10 to a current field value,
cycle to the field, press the Plus (+) key, type
“10” and then press Enter.
If using Calculator Entry mode with the
Time Scale set to Bars:Beats, see “Calculator Entry Mode” on page 252.
■ Press Escape to exit the Selection Indicators
without entering any values.
Selecting Across Multiple Tracks
To perform edits across multiple tracks or all
tracks, you must first select the tracks. Do this by
making selections on tracks that are grouped
(see “Grouping Tracks” on page 103), by including other tracks in the selection, or by selecting
in a Timebase Ruler (for all tracks).
To make a selection in multiple tracks:
With the Selector, click and drag vertically to include adjacent tracks in a selection (drag horizontally to define the time range).
To extend a selection to another track:
These shortcuts can also be used to enter
start and end values in the Transport window.
Calculator Entry Mode
You can perform calculator-style editing of values in the Selection Indicators.
To subtract time values:
1 In the Selection Indicator, highlight the time
field you want to change.
2 Press Minus (–) on the numeric keypad.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
1 Using the Selector or Grabber, make a selec-
tion in the first track or tracks.
2 Shift-click in additional tracks with the Selec-
tor. An identical range is selected for each additional track.
To shorten or lengthen the selection across each
of the tracks, press Shift while dragging to
change the range of the selection.
To select across all tracks:
Enable the All Edit Group and make a selection in any track.
■
In either instance, the original Edit selection becomes deselected.
To extend a selection to an adjacent track:
– or –
1 Enable the Commands Focus.
Drag with the Selector in any Timebase Ruler
(make sure the Edit and Timeline Selections are
linked).
■
These selections include all tracks in the Edit
window, but do not include the Conductor
tracks (for Tempo, Meter, and Markers).
To select across all tracks, including the
Conductor tracks (for Tempo, Meter, and
Markers):
Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Macintosh) with the Selector in any Timebase Ruler.
■
2 With the Selector or Grabber, make a track selection.
3 Press Shift+P to extend the selection to the
previous track.
– or –
Press Shift+semicolon to extend the selection to
the next track.
In either instance, the original Edit selection remains selected.
To remove the bottom track from a selection:
Moving and Extending Selections
Between Tracks
With Commands Focus enabled, Edit selections
can be moved or extended to adjacent tracks.
■ Press Start+Alt+semicolon (Windows) or Control+Option+semicolon (Macintosh) to remove
the bottom track.
Other Useful Selection Techniques
To move a selection to an adjacent track:
1 Enable the Commands Focus by clicking its
button in the upper left of the Edit window.
Following are some additional selection techniques.
To position the edit cursor precisely at a region
start, end, or sync point:
Commands Focus button enabled
2 With the Selector or Grabber, make a track se-
lection.
3 Press P on your computer keyboard to move
the selection to the previous track.
– or –
Press semicolon (;) to move the selection to the
next track.
1 Make sure the Tab to Transients button is not
enabled. (See “Tabbing to Transients” on
page 254.)
2 Click with the Selector in the track.
3 Press Tab to move the cursor to the next re-
gion start, end, or sync point.
– or –
Press Control+Tab (Windows) or Option+Tab
(Macintosh) to move the cursor to the previous
region start, end, or sync point.
Chapter 16: Playing and Selecting Track Material
253
To make a selection with the Scrubber:
3 Drag left or right to move the Edit selection
1 Choose Setups > Preferences. In the Operation
back or forward in time, while preserving its
length.
page of the Preferences dialog, select the option
for “Edit Insertion Follows Scrub/Shuttle,” then
click Done.
2 Scrub with the Scrubber to find an appropriate
start point for the selection, then release.
3 While pressing Shift, scrub to an appropriate
end point for the selection, then release. The
range between the initial and final scrub becomes selected.
To move a selection to an adjacent region on the
same track:
1 Select a region with the Grabber.
2 Press Start+Tab (Windows) or Control+Tab
(Macintosh) to move the selection to the next
region.
– or –
Press Start+Control+Tab (Windows) or Control+Option+Tab (Macintosh) to move the selection to the previous region.
In either instance, the original region becomes
deselected.
To slide an Edit selection in the Ruler:
1 With the Selector or Grabber, make a track se-
lection.
2 While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), move the cursor over either of the
Playback Markers in the Ruler (the Grabber appears).
Sliding an Edit selection in the Ruler
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
If the Edit and Timeline selections are unlinked,
Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Macintosh)
the Edit Markers instead.
Tabbing to Transients
With the Tab to Transients button, you can automatically navigate to transients in audio
waveforms, placing the cursor just before the detected transient peak. This allows you to easily
define selections and play ranges, as well as start
and end points for new regions, without having
to zoom in on the waveform.
Tab to Transients button enabled
When Tab to Transients is enabled, the Tabbing
function also locates the cursor to region start
and end points, but not to sync points.
To set the start and end points of a selection with
Tab to Transients:
1 In the upper left of the Edit window, click the
Tab to Transients button so it becomes selected.
2 If you will be setting the play range with this
selection, selection Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
3 Click in the audio track just before the beginning of the material you want to select.
4 Press Tab repeatedly until the cursor locates to
the transient at the start of the selection.
If necessary, you can move to the previous transient by pressing Control+Tab (Windows) or
Option+Tab (Macintosh).
5 Press Shift+Tab until the cursor locates to the
end of the material you want to select.
To move the selection end point to the previous
transient, press Shift+Control+Tab (Windows)
or Shift+Option+Tab (Macintosh).
Once selected, the material can be looped for recording or playback, or it can be turned into a
new region with the Separate or Capture command.
Peak transients are usually visible in the
waveform. However, some low-frequency
transients may not appear as visible peaks
in the waveform.
Auditioning Pre- and Post-Roll
You can audition and play just the pre-roll or
post-roll material for a selection.
To play from the pre-roll point to the start of a
selection, or to the current cursor location:
■ Press Alt+Left Arrow (Windows) or Option+Left Arrow (Macintosh).
To play to the post-roll point from the end of a
selection, or from the current cursor location:
■ Press Control+Right Arrow (Windows) or
Command+Right Arrow (Macintosh).
Auditioning Start and End Points for
Selections
Playing Selections
Once an Edit selection is made, you can audition the track range by clicking Play in the
Transport window. If enabled, the pre- and postroll amounts play as well.
There may be times when you want to audition
the start or end of a selection without hearing
the entire selection. This allows you to check,
for instance, whether the beginning or end of a
selection includes any unwanted clicks or pops.
To play a selection:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
2 With the Selector or Grabber, make a track se-
lection.
3 If you want to use pre-or post-roll, enable and
set the pre- and post-roll amounts. For details,
see “Setting Pre- and Post-Roll” on page 170.
4 Click Play in the Transport window, or press
the Space bar.
All tracks play for the range of the selection, including pre- and post-roll if enabled.
plays start
(for post amount)
plays pre-roll + start
plays end
(for pre amount)
plays end + post-roll
Playback ranges for auditioning start/end points
To audition a selection start point:
■ Press Control+Left Arrow (Windows) or Command+Left Arrow (Macintosh).
When auditioning the beginning of a selection,
the selection plays from the start point for a duration equal to the post-roll amount.
Chapter 16: Playing and Selecting Track Material
255
To audition a selection start point with pre-roll:
To loop playback of a selection:
■ Press Control+Alt+Left Arrow (Windows) or
Command+Option+Left Arrow (Macintosh).
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
To audition a selection end point:
2 With the Selector, select the track range you
want to loop.
■ Press Alt+Right Arrow (Windows) or Option+Right Arrow (Macintosh).
When auditioning the end of a selection, playback begins before the end point by the pre-roll
amount.
3 Select Operations > Loop Playback. When enabled, a loop symbol appears in the Play button
in the Transport window.
To audition a selection end point with post-roll:
Press Control+Alt+Right Arrow (Windows) or
Command+Option+Right Arrow (Macintosh).
Loop Playback enabled
■
Looping Playback
When Loop Playback is enabled, the selected
track range repeats on playback. If there is no selection, playback occurs normally from the current cursor location.
A selection must be at least 500 ms in
length for it to loop on playback.
Looping playback is a useful way to check the
rhythmic continuity of a selection when working with musical material. If you’re working
with one-bar selections, you can loop playback
to see if the material loops cleanly. If it seems to
skip, you should then adjust the length of the
selection until it works “musically” within the
context of the playlist and the other tracks.
– or –
You can also enable Loop Playback by doing one
of the following:
• Right-clicking (Windows) or Control-clicking (Macintosh) the Play button in the
Transport window.
• With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 4 on the numeric keypad.
4 Click Play in the Transport window.
Playback begins from the pre-roll point (if enabled) and continues to the selection’s end
point, where it loops back to the start point.
5 Click Stop in the Transport window to stop
playback.
Loop Playback and Audio Recording
When Loop Playback is enabled, Pro Tools will
not loop when attempting to record audio
tracks with QuickPunch, Destructive Record, or
Nondestructive Record mode.
To loop record audio tracks in Pro Tools, you
must enable Loop Record mode. (See “Loop Recording Audio” on page 165.)
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Timeline Selections
With the Edit and Timeline selections unlinked,
selections can be made in the Timeline that are
distinct and separate from Edit selections.
With the Edit and Timeline selections linked,
any Edit selections that are made are mirrored in
the Timeline.
To set the Timeline selection by dragging the
Playback Markers:
1 If you want to constrain movement to the cur-
rent grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 With the Grabber, drag the first Playback
Marker (down arrow) to set the start point.
3 Drag the other Playback Marker (up arrow) to
set the end point.
Whether the Edit and Timeline selections are
linked or not, the range indicated by the Playback Markers always determines the range for
playback and recording.
Dragging a Playback Marker
For TDM systems, when Continuous Scroll With
Playhead is enabled, it determines where playback begins. For details, see “Playing Edit and
Timeline Selections with the Playhead” on
page 258.
To make a Timeline selection with the Selector:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag with the Selector in any Timebase Ruler.
To set the Timeline selection by typing into the
Transport window:
1 If necessary, resize the Transport window by
clicking in the upper right so the start and end
times are displayed.
2 In the Transport window, click in the start
field.
– or –
Press Alt-slash (Windows) or Option-slash (Macintosh) to select the start field in the Transport
window.
3 Type in the new start location and press slash
Making a Timeline selection with the Selector
The Timeline selection is indicated in the Ruler
by the blue Playback Markers (red if a track is
record-enabled). The start, end, and length for
the Timeline selection is displayed in the corresponding fields in the Transport window.
To select all tracks, including Conductor
tracks, press Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh) while dragging in a Timebase
Ruler with the Selector.
to enter the value and automatically move to
the end field.
4 Type in the new end location and press Enter
to accept the value.
Shortcuts for entering start and end values
in the Transport window are listed in “Numeric Entry Shortcuts for Selection Indicators” on page 252.
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Sliding a Timeline Selection
Like Edit selections, Timeline selections can be
slid in the Ruler.
Playing Edit and Timeline
Selections with the Playhead
(TDM Systems Only)
To move a Timeline selection in the Ruler:
1 While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), move the cursor over either of the
Playback Markers (the Grabber appears).
2 Drag left or right to move the Timeline selection back or forward in time, while preserving
its length.
When Continuous Scroll With Playhead is enabled, selections in the Timeline do not determine when playback begins. The Playhead, itself, denotes where playback begins when
clicking Play in the Transport.
The Edit and Timeline selections, however, can
still be played when the Playhead is enabled.
Timeline Selections to/from Edit
Selections
To play an Edit selection with the Playhead
enabled:
When the Edit and Timeline selections are unlinked, you can copy selections between them.
1 Deselect Operations > Linked Edit and
To copy an Edit selection to the Timeline:
■ Choose Operations > Copy Edit Selection to
Timeline.
Timeline Selections.
2 Select Operations > Scroll Options > Continuous Scroll With Playhead.
3 With the Selector or Grabber, make a track selection.
To copy a Timeline selection to an Edit selection:
4 Choose Operations > Play Edit Selection.
■ Choose Operations > Copy Timeline Selection
to Edit.
The Playhead jumps to the Edit selection and
plays it from beginning to end, and then stops.
To play a Timeline selection with the Playhead
enabled:
1 Deselect Operations > Linked Edit and
Timeline Selections.
2 Select Operations > Scroll Options > Continuous Scroll With Playhead.
3 Drag with the Selector in any Timebase Ruler
to set the play range.
4 Choose Operations > Play Timeline Selection.
The Playhead jumps to the Timeline selection
and plays it from beginning to end, and then
stops.
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Moving the Playhead
When Continuous Scroll With Playhead is enabled, the Playhead can be moved forward or
back to the next region boundary in the selected
track.
To move the Playhead through a track’s region
boundaries:
1 Make sure the Tab to Transients button is not
enabled. (See “Tabbing to Transients” on
page 254.)
2 Click in the track with the Selector.
3 Press Tab to move the Playhead forward to the
next region boundary.
– or –
Press Control+Tab (Windows) or Option+Tab
(Macintosh) to move the Playhead back to the
previous region boundary.
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Chapter 17: Working with Regions and
Selections
Because regions are the basic building block of
audio and MIDI tracks, understanding how they
are created, edited, and arranged is essential to
taking full advantage of the editing capabilities
of Pro Tools.
This chapter covers basic editing functions as
they apply to regions and selections. The material, for the most part, applies to both MIDI and
audio data.
For editing procedures more specific to MIDI,
see Chapter 23, “MIDI Editing.” For more advanced editing procedures, see Chapter 18, “Advanced Editing (TDM Systems Only).” You
should, however, become familiar with the information in this chapter before moving on to
the others.
Creating New Regions
When creating a new region from an existing region, the original region remains in the Regions
List.
Capture Region Command
The Capture Region command defines a selection as a new region and adds it to the Regions
List. From there, the new region can be dragged
to any existing tracks.
To capture a new region:
1 With the Selector, drag within an existing region to select the material for the new region.
Selecting a region portion
2 Choose Edit > Capture Region.
Pro Tools provides you with several commands
for creating regions, each of them having a
slightly different effect on the selection. When
you create a new region, it appears in the Regions List and in the track’s playlist. For details
on how these new regions are automatically
named, see “Auto-Naming Options” on
page 312.
3 Enter a name for the new region and click OK.
The new region appears in the Regions List. The
selected region portion remains intact and unchanged.
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Separate Region Command
The Separate Region command defines a selection within an existing region, or a partially selected region, as a new region and separates it
from adjacent material. If there is no selection
and the Edit cursor is placed within the region,
the region is split at the insertion point.
Auto-Name Separated Regions
With the Auto-Name Separated Regions option
in the Editing Preferences selected, Pro Tools automatically names separated regions for you.
The name is a numbered variation of the original region’s name.
By separating a region, additional regions are
auto-created from data on either side of the separation, which have new numbers assigned to
their names. The original region remains intact
and unchanged on the Regions List.
If the Editing Preference for “Separate Region Operates On All Related Takes” is selected and you are editing a region that is
one of a number of related takes with the
same User Time Stamp (for example, as created with loop recording), the Separate Region command affects each take. For details
see, “Editing Preferences for Takes” on
page 167.
Separating Multiple Tracks
To separate one or more regions:
1 With the Selector, drag to select the material
for the new region or regions. The selection can
reside within a single region, across adjacent regions within the same track, or across multiple
tracks.
Figure 14 illustrates a separation across three
mono audio tracks and one stereo track. For
some tracks, the selection resides within a region, while others reside at the start or end of a
region.
– or –
Click with the Selector at the point within a region, where you want to split the region in two.
2 Choose Edit > Separate Region.
– or –
Press Command+E (Windows) or Control+E
(Macintosh).
3 If the Editing Preference for Auto-Name Sepa-
rated Regions is disabled, enter a name for the
new region when prompted, then click OK.
The new regions appear in the tracks in which
they were created, separate from the data surrounding it. They also appear in the Regions
List. From there they can be dragged to other
tracks.
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Figure 14. Separating across multiple tracks
Once separated, this material can be easily
moved or copied to another location.
Separation Grabber
To separate a selection without affecting the
original regions:
You can use the Separation Grabber to automatically separate an edit selection and move it to
another location or another track.
To separate a selection with the Separation
Grabber:
1 With the Selector, drag to select the material
for the new region or regions. The selection can
reside within a single region, across adjacent regions within the same track, or across multiple
tracks.
1 With the Selector, drag to select the material
for the new region or regions. The selection can
reside within a single region, across adjacent regions within the same track, or across multiple
tracks.
2 From the Grabber pop-up, choose the Separation Grabber.
3 While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), drag the selection to the new location, or to another track.
2 From the Grabber pop-up menu, choose the
Separation Grabber.
Separation Grabber
3 Drag the selection to the new location, or to
another track.
Dragging to another track with Separation Grabber
New regions containing the previous selection
are created and placed at the new location. The
original selection and regions remain intact.
before
after
Dragging later in track with Separation Grabber
A new region (or regions) containing the previous selection is created, separate from the original selection. New regions are also created from
the material outside the original selection.
Trim To Selection Command
The Trim To Selection command removes data
before and after a region or MIDI note selection,
leaving only the selection. This command provides a handy means of quickly removing all
data in a region (and in some instances the entire track) except for the current selection.
To trim unwanted data from a region or note:
1 With the Selector, select a portion of a region
or note (or a range of notes).
2 Choose Edit > Trim > To Selection to remove
material outside of the selection.
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263
Healing a Separation
Placing Regions in Tracks
The Heal Separation command returns separated regions to their original state—provided
the regions are still next to each other and their
relative start/end points haven’t changed since
the separation.
Once you have created a region, it appears in the
Audio or MIDI Regions List. From there you can
drag it to a track to add to an existing arrangement of regions, or you can create a new track
and start adding regions from scratch. The exact
placement of regions in a track depends on
whether the Edit mode is set to Shuffle, Slip,
Spot, or Grid (see “Edit Modes” on page 224 for
details).
If you have trimmed or otherwise changed the
start or end points of the two regions, or moved
them further away from each other, you won’t
be able to repair them with the Heal Separation
command. It is not possible to heal two regions
created from different audio files.
To heal a separation between two regions:
1 With the Selector, make a selection that includes part of the first region, the entire separation between the regions, and part of the second
region.
2 Choose Edit > Heal Separation.
If the regions won’t heal, there are other ways to
return the separated regions to a single region.
◆ Delete one of the two separated regions (make
sure you’re in Slip mode so the gap doesn’t
close) and use the Trimmer to expand the remaining region to its original length. For information on using the Trimmer, see “The Trimmer
Tool” on page 267.
– or –
◆ Delete both of the separated regions and drag
the original region from the Regions List to the
original location. For information on placing regions, see “Placing Regions in Tracks” on
page 264.
For information on locating regions in the Regions List by typing the first few letters of their
name, see “Keyboard Selection of Regions” on
page 223.
To place a region in a track:
1 In the Audio or MIDI Regions List, select the
region or regions you want to place.
2 Drag the selected regions from the Regions
List to a location in a track.
If dragging multiple regions, the regions are
placed on adjacent tracks. If dragging a stereo region, it must be placed in a stereo track or in two
mono tracks.
Regions are placed according to the current Edit
mode:
• In Shuffle mode, existing track regions are slid
as necessary to make room for the new region.
• In Spot mode, you are prompted by the Spot
dialog to enter a location for the dragged region (see “Spotting Regions” on page 273).
• In Grid mode, the dragged region snaps to the
nearest Grid boundary.
In Pro Tools 6.x, you can temporarily disable Grid mode while dragging a region by
holding down the Control key (Windows) or
Command key (Macintosh).
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• In Slip mode, the regions are placed freely
anywhere in the destination track.
Use the Replace Region function to replace
all occurrences of a region (in all tracks)
with a different region from the Regions
List. See “Replacing Audio Regions” on
page 291.
Defining Region Sync Points
The placement of regions in Grid and Spot
mode can be based on the definition of a region
sync point. Sync points are used when a point
within a region must be aligned to the Grid or to
a particular SMPTE or bar/beat location. This capability is important in placing music and
sound effects for film and video work.
For example, suppose you had an audio region
for a door slam that included the creak of the
door closing, the actual slam, and the reverb of
the slam. You may want to align the “slam” to
other locations within the session.
To define a region sync point:
1 Set the Edit mode to Slip by clicking its button
in the upper left of the Edit window.
To remove a sync point:
■ Select the entire region and choose Edit > Remove Sync Point.
To change the location of a sync point:
■ Click with the Selector at a point in a region
and choose Edit > Identify Sync Point. The new
location is identified as the sync point for the region.
Placing Regions at the Edit
Insertion Point
You can place and align a region’s start, end, or
sync point to the Edit insertion point. This technique is useful in post production applications
since it allows you to set a reference point and
quickly place sound effects while ensuring that
their start point remains consistent.
You can drag a region from the same track, from
another track, or from the Audio or MIDI Regions List.
For TDM systems, when Continuous Scroll
with Playhead is selected, regions snap to
the playhead, instead of the Edit insertion
point.
2 Click with the Selector at the point in the re-
gion, usually the peak of the waveform, where
you want to define the sync point.
To place the start of a region at the Edit insertion
point:
3 Choose Edit > Identify Sync Point. A small
1 Click with the Selector in the track at the time
location where you want to place the start of the
region.
down arrow appears at the bottom of the region,
indicating the location of the sync point.
Sync point defined
Chapter 17: Working with Regions and Selections
265
2 While pressing the Start key (Windows) or
Control (Macintosh), drag the region from the
Regions List, or from another track, to the destination track.
– or –
If the region is already in the track, Start-click
(Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the region with the Grabber.
To place the end of a region at the Edit insertion
point:
1 Click with the Selector in the track at the time
location where you want to place the end of the
region.
2 While pressing Control+Start (Windows) or
Command+Control (Macintosh), drag the region from the Regions List, or from another
track, to the destination track.
– or –
If the region is already in the track, ControlStart-click (Windows) or Command-Controlclick (Macintosh) the region with the Grabber.
To place the sync point of a region at the Edit
insertion point:
1 Click with the Selector in the track at the time
location where you want to place the sync point
of the region.
2 While pressing Shift+Start (Windows) or
Shift+Control (Macintosh), drag the region
from the Regions List, or from another track, to
the destination track.
– or –
If the region is already in the track, Shift-Startclick (Windows) or Shift-Control-click (Macintosh) the region with the Grabber.
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Aligning to Region Start Points
The start, end, and sync point of one region can
be aligned to the start of a different region on
another track.
For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll with
Playhead is enabled, region start, end, and
sync points align to the playhead.
To align the start points of regions on different
tracks:
1 With the Grabber, select the region you want
to align to by clicking it.
2 For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll with
Playhead is enabled, move the playhead to the
start of the selected region. For details, see
“Moving the Playhead” on page 259.
3 With the Grabber, Start-click (Windows) or
Control-click (Macintosh) the region you want
to move.
– or –
Start-drag (Windows) or Control-drag (Macintosh) a region from the Regions List to another
track.
The start point of the second region is aligned to
the start of the first region.
To align the end point of a region to the start of
another region (on a different track):
1 With the Grabber, select the region you want
to align to by clicking it.
2 For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll with
Playhead is enabled, move the playhead to the
start of the selected region. For details, see
“Moving the Playhead” on page 259.
3 With the Grabber, Control-Start-click (Windows) or Command-Control-click (Macintosh)
the region you want to move.
– or –
Control-Start-drag (Windows) or CommandControl-drag (Macintosh) a region from the Regions List to another track.
The end point of the second region is aligned to
the start of the first region.
To align the sync point of a region to the start of
another region (on a different track):
1 With the Grabber, select the region you want
to align to by clicking it.
2 For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll with
Playhead is enabled, move the playhead to the
start of the selected region. For details, see
“Moving the Playhead” on page 259.
3 With the Grabber, Shift-Start-click (Windows)
or Shift-Control-click (Macintosh) the region
you want to move.
– or –
Shift-Start-drag (Windows) or Shift-Controldrag (Macintosh) a region from the Regions List
to another track.
The sync point of the second region is aligned to
the start of the first region.
The Trimmer Tool
The Trimmer tool provides region, note, and
data trimming functions.
Pro Tools TDM systems provide three Trimmers,
including the Standard, Time, and Scrub Trimmer. Pro Tools LE provides the Standard and
Time Trimmers.
The Trimmer is constrained by boundary regions, regardless of the current Edit mode, as follows:
• Trimming towards the left is constrained
by the adjacent region's left-most boundary (region start).
• Trimming towards the right is constrained
by the region's right-most boundary (region end).
Standard Trimmer
With the Trimmer tool, you can quickly shorten
or expand a region (up to the entire length of
the source audio file). The first time you trim a
region, Pro Tools automatically adds it to the
Regions List as a new region (with a name derived from the original) in order to differentiate
it from the original.
The Standard Trimmer is a nondestructive tool
and doesn’t actually modify the original audio
or MIDI data (when working on regions). To return to the length of the original region, drag it
from the Regions List, or resize the edited region
with the Trimmer to its original length.
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Use of the Trimmer is affected by the current
Edit mode: Shuffle, Slip, Spot, or Grid. See “Edit
Modes” on page 224 for more information.
The Standard Trimmer can also be used to
lengthen and shorten MIDI notes (see
“Trimming Note Start and End Times” on
page 361), and also to scale automation
and controller data up or down “Drawing
Automation” on page 465.
3 If trimming the end, drag left to shorten the
region, right to lengthen.
– or –
If trimming the start, drag right to shorten the
region, left to lengthen.
When working with audio, you cannot trim
past adjacent regions.
When trimming regions in a stereo or multichannel track, all channels are trimmed.
For TDM systems, the Trimmer has three
modes: Standard Trimmer (discussed in
this section), Scrub Trimmer (see “The
Scrub Trimmer” on page 270), and Time
Trimmer (see “The Time Trimmer” on
page 268).
To trim a region with Standard Trimmer:
1 Select the Trimmer tool. For TDM systems,
make sure the Standard Trimmer is selected in
the Trimmer pop-up menu.
When using Shuffle mode, adjacent regions are
slid as necessary to make room for the edited region. If using Grid mode, the dragged start/end
times snap to the nearest Grid boundary. If using Spot mode, the Spot dialog opens, where
you can enter the new location for the region’s
start or end point.
The Time Trimmer
The Time Trimmer is a convenient tool for
matching an audio region to the length of another region, a tempo grid, a video scene, or to
practically any other reference point you want.
Standard Trimmer
2 Move the cursor near the start or end of the re-
gion, so the Trim cursor appears.
Time Trimmer over a region
Trim cursor
To reverse the direction of the Trim cursor, press
Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh).
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The Time Trimmer works by using the Time
Compression/Expansion (TC/E) AudioSuite
plug-in (or a third party plug-in) to create a new
audio file. You use the Time Trimmer by dragging the region’s start or end point to expand or
compress the region.
Time Compression/Expansion Plug-In
Preferences
You can select settings for the Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite plug-in by choosing
from the Default Settings pop-up list in the Processing Preferences, under “TC/E.” The settings
available are presets included with Pro Tools; in
addition, if you save your own presets for the
Time Compression/Expansion plug-in, they will
also appear here.
Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for
more information about AudioSuite plugins.
Using the Time Trimmer in Grid Mode
The Time Trimmer can be used in Grid mode to
match a region to the tempo of a session or a
section of a session. For example, you might import a one-bar drum loop with a tempo of 90
BPM into a session with a tempo of 120 BPM. In
Grid mode, you can use the Time Trimmer to
simply and quickly “time compress” the drum
loop to the length of one measure, with minimal loss of audio fidelity.
In Pro Tools 6.x, trimming regions while in
Relative Grid mode will trim the regions in
grid increments while maintaining their relative offset (if any) from the grid.
3 With the Time Trimmer, drag the region’s start
or end point to compress or expand the region
to the Grid (for example, by quarter notes). The
region is automatically processed using the
Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite plugin. The new region appears in the playlist and in
the Regions List.
Using the Time Trimmer in Slip Mode
To use the Time Trimmer in Slip mode:
1 Set the Edit mode to Slip.
2 Select “TCE Trimmer” from the Trimmer pop-
up menu.
3 With the Time Trimmer, drag the region’s start
or end point to compress or expand the region
freely. A new region is automatically processed
using the Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite plug-in. The new region appears in the
playlist and in the Regions List.
Using the Time Trimmer in Spot Mode
In Spot mode, clicking with the Time trimmer in
a region opens the Spot Dialog. You can specify
the location you want the region to start or end
at, or the duration of the region, and the region
is automatically compressed or expanded as
specified.
To use the Time Trimmer in Grid mode:
To use the Time Trimmer in Spot mode:
1 Set the Edit mode to Grid.
1 Set the Edit mode to Spot.
2 Select “TCE Trimmer” from the Trimmer pop-
2 Select “TCE Trimmer” from the Trimmer pop-
up menu.
up menu.
Trimmer set to TCE
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269
3 Click the region near its start or end point.
The Spot Dialog opens. Using any Time Scale,
enter a new start or end time (or duration) for
the region, then click OK. A new region is automatically processed using the Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite plug-in. The new
region appears in the playlist and in the Regions
List.
To scrub trim a track:
The Scrub Trimmer
To scrub trim two tracks, click with the Scrub
Trimmer between two adjacent tracks and drag.
(TDM Systems Only)
The Scrub Trimmer is a convenient tool for auditioning material (on up to two tracks) to find a
trim point. You can drag in a track to hear the
audio information, then trim at a specific location by releasing the mouse button.
This action creates a new region. Note that the
cursor changes into a “right trim” or “left trim”
shape as it is placed over the right or left side of
a region. To reverse the direction of the Scrub
Trimmer, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh) before you click the region.
1 Click the Scrub Trimmer tool. The cursor
changes to a speaker with a bracket.
2 Drag within a track to the left or right. Audio
from a scrubbed track is routed through the
track signal path, including any TDM effects.
When you locate the trim point, release the
mouse button to trim the region.
To scrub with finer resolution (without having
to zoom in), press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) while scrubbing.
Trim To Insertion Command
You can trim a region or MIDI note by automatically removing the material between the Edit
insertion point and the start or end point.
To trim from a start point to insertion:
1 With the Selector, click inside the region or
note where you want the new start point to be.
2 Choose Edit > Trim > Start To Insertion. The
region’s start point is automatically trimmed to
the insertion point.
Scrub Trimmer over a region
Scrub playback speed and direction vary with
controller movement. Scrubbed audio is routed
through the track signal path, so you hear any
effects in the signal path.
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To trim from an end point to insertion:
1 With the Selector, click inside the region or
note where you want the new end point to be.
2 Choose Edit > Trim > End To Insertion. The region’s end point is automatically trimmed to the
insertion point.
Sliding Regions
A region or group of selected regions (on the
same track or on multiple tracks) can be slid
with the Grabber tool to new locations or to
other tracks. This feature is useful in music and
post production applications where the timing
of audio events such as sound effects and dialog
need to be spotted to music, film, or video.
Sliding regions is affected by whether the current Edit mode is set to Shuffle, Slip, Spot, or
Grid. See “Edit Modes” on page 224 for details.
You can slide a copy of a region to another
location or track by pressing Alt (Windows)
or Option (Macintosh) while dragging.
Region end trimmed to insertion
Trimming with Nudge
You can trim the start and end points of a region
by nudging them.
To retain a region’s location when dragging
to another track, press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while dragging.
Shuffling Regions
To trim a region’s start or end point by the Nudge
value:
1 Configure the Nudge value. For details, see
“Defining the Nudge Value” on page 276.
2 With the Grabber, select the region you want
to trim.
3 While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), press Plus or Minus on the numeric keypad to trim the region’s start point by
the Nudge value.
– or –
In Shuffle mode, you can move regions freely
within a track or onto another track, but their
movement is constrained by other regions. That
is, if you place several regions in a track, their
start and end points automatically snap to each
other. You can then “shuffle” their order, but
you cannot separate them from each other and
you cannot make them overlap as in Slip mode.
In Shuffle mode, adding another region to the
beginning of a track moves all subsequent regions to the right by the length of the region
added.
While pressing Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh), press Plus or Minus on the
numeric keypad to trim the region’s end point
by the Nudge value.
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271
To shuffle regions:
1 Set the Edit mode to Shuffle by clicking its
button in the upper left of the Edit window.
2 Drag a mono region from the Regions List to
an empty track. The region snaps to the beginning of the track.
3 Drag a second region from the Regions List to
the same track, somewhere in the middle. The
start point for the second region snaps to the
end of the first region.
Shuffling Multiple Tracks and
Multichannel Regions
Selections across multiple tracks or on multichannel tracks can be shuffled. Unlike shuffling
regions on a single, mono track, any partially selected regions will be cut and moved along with
the dragged region. This lets you retain only the
material that corresponds to the dragged region,
similar to a tape splice and multitrack.
4 With the Grabber, drag the second region to
the beginning of the track.
Pro Tools “shuffles” the position of the two regions. The second region now occurs first, yet
the two still cling together.
Shuffling this region cuts this
channel
5 Experiment more with Shuffle mode by dragging additional regions to the track and rearranging them.
Locked regions (see “Locking Regions” on
page 279), and all regions occurring after the
locked region, are not displaced when other
neighboring regions are moved in Shuffle mode.
If there is not enough room to place or duplicate
a region in front of a locked region, the insertion
area is disabled.
If you place a region while in Slip mode and
switch to Shuffle mode, Pro Tools preserves the
relative timing and position of the slipped region, and any blank space between it and other
regions.
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Shuffling multichannel regions
Slipping Regions
In Slip mode, regions can be moved with the
Grabber freely within a track, or onto other
tracks. In this mode, it is possible to place a region so that there is space between it and other
regions in a track. When the track is played
back, this space is silent. It is also possible to
move a region so that it overlaps or completely
covers another region.
To slip regions:
To spot a region:
1 Set the Edit mode to Slip by clicking its button
1 Set the Edit mode to Spot by clicking its but-
in the upper left of the Edit window.
ton in the upper left of the Edit window.
2 Drag a region from the Regions List to an
2 Drag a region from the Regions List, or drag
empty track.
audio files or sessions from a DigiBase browser,
to an existing track.
3 Drag a second region from the Regions List to
the same track, somewhere in the middle. The
second region is placed wherever you release it.
It doesn’t snap to the first region as in Shuffle
mode.
4 Drag the regions to different locations within
the track to get a feel for moving them in Slip
mode. Try placing the second region so that it
slightly overlaps the first region. Play back the
results.
– or –
Click a region already in a track with the Grabber.
3 In the Spot dialog, select a time format from
the Time Scale pop-up menu.
Each of the fields in the Spot dialog are displayed in the chosen Time Scale.
Spotting Regions
Spot mode is useful for sessions in which you
want to spot regions to precise locations based
on any of the Time Scales. This can be particularly useful when performing post production
tasks. In Spot mode you can spot a region by
specifying a SMPTE frame (all TDM systems and
LE systems with DV Toolkit only) or bar and
beat location, by capturing an incoming time
code address, or by using the region’s time
stamps.
For even quicker spotting, if you are using
VITC, use the Auto-Spot Regions command
to spot a region to the current SMPTE frame
location with the Grabber. For more information, see “Auto-Spotting Regions” on
page 569.
Spot dialog
4 For TDM systems or LE systems with DV Toolkit, if the Time Scale is set to Time Code, select
the Use Subframes option to display subframes
in the fields for improved accuracy.
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5 Click in the field for Start, Sync Point, or End
and type in a new location. Changing one of
these locate points automatically updates the
other locate points.
– or –
Click one of the up arrows next to Original Time
Stamp or User Time Stamp to enter the associated values into the currently selected field.
Unlike the Original Time Stamp, the User Time
Stamp can be redefined with the Time Stamp Selected command in the Regions List pop-up
menu. For more information, see “Time Stamping” on page 570.
Time Stamps in DigiBase
Columns are provided in DigiBase browsers for
both the Original and User Time Stamps.
– or –
If you are using an external SMPTE time code
source, click the down arrow next to the Current
Time Code display—or press Equal (=) on the
numeric keypad—to capture an incoming time
code address.
6 Click OK. The region is moved to the new location specified for its start, end, or sync point.
If a region does not have a sync point defined,
the Sync Point field in the Spot dialog functions
the same as the Start field.
To learn more about using SMPTE with
Pro Tools, refer to Chapter 35, “Working with
Synchronization.”
Region Time Stamps
When a region is created, it is time stamped relative to the SMPTE start time specified for the
session. This Original Time Stamp is permanently stored with the region and cannot be
changed. If a region is ever moved, it can easily
be placed at its original position from the Spot
dialog.
When the Original Time Stamp for a region is
initially set, this same location is also used to define the region’s User Time Stamp.
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Time Stamps and the Takes List
Regions with identical User Time Stamps appear
together in the Takes List pop-up menu when
auditioning takes. For more information, see
“Auditioning from the Takes List Pop-up Menu”
on page 166.
Sliding Regions in Grid Mode
Grid mode provides several useful capabilities
for sliding and moving regions in track playlists.
This mode is especially useful for lining up regions at precise intervals, as when working with
a session that is bar- and beat-based. Grid
boundaries, depending on the Main Time Scale,
can be based on frames, bar and beat values,
minutes or seconds, or a number of samples.
Grid mode also provides two operational
modes, Absolute and Relative. These modes control how the Grid is applied. (See “Absolute and
Relative Grid Mode” on page 276 for more information.)
To temporarily suspend Grid mode and
switch to Slip mode while dragging a region,
hold down the Control key (Windows) or
Command key (Macintosh).
Setting Up the Grid
When the Display Preference for “Draw Grid in
Edit Window” is enabled, vertical Grid lines appear in the Edit window.
2 From the Grid Value pop-up menu in the Edit
window, select the time value that will define
the Grid boundaries.
Grid lines in the Edit window can also be enabled and disabled by clicking the Timebase
Ruler name (Pro Tools 6.x) or its Indicator Dot
(Pro Tools 5.x) so it becomes highlighted.
Defining the Grid Value
In addition to affecting the placement of regions, the Grid value also constrains Edit and
Timeline selections, and determines how the
Quantize Regions command works.
To set the Grid value:
1 From the Display menu, select the Time Scale
you will use for the Grid value.
Grid Value pop-up menu showing Bars:Beats
– or –
– or –
To keep the Main Time Scale and use a different
time format for the Grid, deselect Follow Main
Timebase in the Grid Value pop-up menu in the
Edit window.
To define a Grid based on the session’s Markers,
selections, and region boundaries, select Regions/Markers from the Grid Value pop-up
menu.
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Absolute and Relative Grid Mode
Grid mode can be applied in Absolute or Relative mode.
◆ In Absolute Grid mode, moving any region
snaps the region start to Grid boundaries. If a region’s start point falls between beats, and the
Grid is set to 1/4 notes, dragging the region will
snap its start time to the nearest 1/4 note (the
current absolute Grid value).
◆ In Relative Grid mode, regions can be moved
by Grid (or Nudge) units. If a region’s start point
falls between beats and the Grid is set to 1/4
notes, dragging the region will be constrained to
1/4 notes, preserving the region’s relative position to the nearest beat.
To select Absolute or Relative Grid mode:
■ Click the Grid mode selector and choose Absolute or Relative.
To temporarily suspend Grid mode and
switch to Slip mode while dragging a region,
hold down the Control key (Windows) or
Command key (Macintosh).
To place or move a region while in Grid mode:
1 Configure the Grid value. For details, see “Defining the Grid Value” on page 275.
2 Drag a region from the Regions List to an existing track.
– or –
With the Grabber, drag a region already in a
track to a new location.
The region’s start point snaps to the closest Grid
boundary. If the region has a sync point defined, the sync point snaps to the Grid boundary.
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Nudging
Pro Tools can nudge regions (or MIDI notes) by
precise increments with the Plus (–) and Minus
(+) keys on the numeric keypad. The amount of
the nudge is determined by the value specified
in the Nudge pop-up menu. The Nudge function can be used in any of the Edit modes.
Nudging can be invaluable for adjusting the
“groove” of a musical phrase or a sound effect
relative to other elements in the session. Since
Pro Tools can nudge material during playback,
you can nudge continuously in real time to adjust the timing relationship between tracks.
Nudge can also be used to adjust the placement
of automation breakpoints. For more information, see “Editing Automation” on page 467.
Defining the Nudge Value
The Nudge value determines how far regions
and selections are moved when nudging.
Start and end points for selections can also be
moved by the Nudge value (see “Nudging Selection Start/End Points” on page 250). In addition, regions can be trimmed by the Nudge
value (see “Trimming with Nudge” on
page 271).
To set the Nudge value:
1 From the Display menu, select the Time Scale
you will use for the Nudge value.
– or –
To keep the Main Time Scale and use a different
time format for the Nudge value, deselect Follow Main Timebase in the Nudge pop-up menu
in the Edit window.
2 From the Nudge pop-up menu in the Edit win-
dow, select the Nudge value.
Nudging Regions on Multiple Tracks and
in Multichannel Tracks
When nudging a selection of multiple regions,
within a single track or across multiple tracks,
that also contains silence, any automation data
residing within the silence is also nudged.
Nudging by Next Nudge Value
In addition to nudging by the current Nudge
value, you can also nudge by the next, larger
value in the Nudge pop-up menu.
Nudge pop-up menu showing Time Code
To specify a Nudge value not listed in the Nudge
pop-up, click in the Nudge field and type in the
value.
For example, if the Nudge value is set to 1 frame
and you want to nudge by a larger valuer, you
can nudge by the next, larger Nudge value of 10
frames.
To nudge forward or back by the next, larger Nudge
value:
Nudging Regions
1 Enable the Key Commands Focus by clicking
To nudge one or more region:
the a-z button in the upper left of the Edit window.
1 Configure the Nudge value. For details, see
“Defining the Nudge Value” on page 276.
2 With the Grabber or Selector, select the region
or regions you want to nudge. The regions can
reside on multiple tracks. Only regions that are
entirely selected will be nudged.
3 On the numeric keypad, press Plus (+) to move
the selection forward by the Nudge value.
– or –
2 With the Selector or Grabber, select the regions or notes you want to nudge.
3 Press slash (/) to nudge the selected material
forward by the next Nudge value. Press M to
nudge the selection back.
You can also nudge by the next Nudge value
without enabling the Commands Focus.
While pressing the Start key (Windows) or
Control (Macintosh), press slash (/) or M.
Press Minus (–) to move the selection back by
the Nudge value.
The Nudge command works the same regardless
of the Edit mode. Adjacent regions are overlapped in Shuffle mode, the Spot dialog does not
appear when in Spot mode, and shifted material
does not snap to the Grid when in Grid mode.
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Nudging a Region’s Contents
Often a region’s start point will reside at the correct location, perhaps at a SMPTE frame or bar,
but the material within the region starts too late
or early. You can, in effect, nudge a region’s audio waveform or MIDI notes without displacing
the region’s start and end points.
before
Shift Command
Use the Shift command to move track material
forward or back in time by a specified amount.
The Shift command can operate on selections,
regions, MIDI notes, MIDI controller data, and
automation breakpoints.
To shift a selection or region:
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, select the
track material you want to shift. The selected
material can reside on multiple tracks.
region contents are slid, moving waveform material into and out of the current region boundaries
2 Choose Edit > Shift. In the Shift dialog, select
whether the data will be moved Earlier or Later.
3 Click in one of the Timebase fields to specify
after
the amount the material will be shifted. Entering a value in one Timebase field automatically
updates the others.
Nudging region content
This “sliding” of region contents is only possible
if there is material residing outside the region’s
start and end points—from the region having
been trimmed, or perhaps captured from a larger
region.
To nudge the contents of a region without
changing the region start and end points:
1 Configure the Nudge value. For details, see
“Defining the Nudge Value” on page 276.
2 With the Grabber, select the region whose
contents you want to nudge.
Shift dialog
3 While pressing the Start key (Windows) or
cision, select the Use Subframes option.
Control (Macintosh), press Plus (+) or Minus (–)
on the numeric keypad to move the material by
the Nudge value.
4 If you want to shift material with greater pre-
5 Click OK. The material is shifted back or for-
ward by the specified amount.
If a portion of a region was selected, new regions
are created from the selection and from any material outside of the selection.
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The Shift command works the same regardless
of the Edit mode. Adjacent regions are overlapped in Shuffle mode, the Spot dialog does not
appear when in Spot mode, and shifted material
does not snap to the Grid when in Grid mode.
Locking Regions
If you have a region or group of regions that you
want to permanently associate with a particular
location in a track (a beat, SMPTE frame, or sample location), you can lock it in place so it will
not be accidentally moved.
Quantizing Regions
The Quantize Regions command adjusts the
placement of selected audio and MIDI regions
so that their start points (or sync points, if they
contain one) precisely align to the nearest Grid
boundary, which can be based on frames, bar
and beat values, minutes or seconds, or a number of samples.
To lock a region:
1 With the Grabber, select the region or regions
to lock. The regions can even reside on multiple
tracks.
2 Choose Edit > Lock/Unlock Region.
To quantize one or more regions:
1 Configure the Grid value. For details, see “Defining the Grid Value” on page 275.
2 With the Grabber or Selector, select the region
or regions you want to quantize. The regions
can be on multiple tracks. Only regions that are
entirely selected will be quantized.
3 Choose Edit > Quantize Regions. Region start
times (or sync points) are aligned to the boundaries for the defined Grid.
For MIDI regions, all data contained within the
regions (such as notes) are moved equally,
thereby retaining their rhythmic relationships.
To quantize individual MIDI notes, use the
Quantize command in the MIDI menu (see
“Quantize” on page 380).
Locked audio region
A small lock appears in the region, indicating it
has been locked and cannot be moved. If you attempt to perform edits that would move a
locked region, Pro Tools alerts you.
In Shuffle mode, locked regions, and all regions
occurring after the locked region, are not displaced when other neighboring regions are
moved. If there is not enough room to place or
duplicate a region in front of a locked region,
the insertion area is disabled.
Locking a region prevents it from being
moved or deleted only—operations such as
recording and automation editing still affect it.
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279
Muting/Unmuting Regions
Choosing the Mute/Unmute Region command
mutes playback of a selected region. Choosing
the command a second time unmutes the region. Regions that are muted become dimmed
to indicate their status.
Track View and Edit Content
When cutting or copying track material, the
Track View determines the type of data placed
on the Clipboard. When displaying waveforms
for audio tracks, or notes or regions for MIDI
tracks, selections include all underlying automation and controller data. Thus, cutting an audio
region also cuts any volume, pan, mute, send, or
plug-in automation that is also on the track.
This saves you from having to individually cut
from each automation playlist on the track.
Muted audio region (middle)
To mute a region or regions:
1 With the Grabber, select the region or regions
you want to mute. The regions can even reside
on multiple tracks.
Audio waveform data
2 Choose Edit > Mute/Unmute Region. The selected regions become dimmed, indicating they
are muted.
To unmute a region, select it and choose Edit >
Mute/Unmute Region.
Automation data (breakpoint-type data)
Edit Commands
Cut, Copy, Clear, and Paste
Use the Cut, Copy, Clear, and Paste commands
to rearrange and edit track material. Edits can
operate on entire regions selected with the
Grabber, or on track ranges selected with the Selector. Edits can also work across multiple tracks
(see “Editing Across Multiple Tracks” on
page 283).
For TDM systems, you can cut, copy, and
paste discontiguous regions selected with
the Object Grabber.
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However, when selecting groups of MIDI notes
with the Grabber (by drawing a rectangle
around them), only the note data is placed on
the Clipboard. When selecting a time range of
MIDI notes with the Selector, all controller data
in the track is selected (similar to selecting with
the Selector for audio tracks in Waveform view).
When a track is displaying automation data or
controller data, only that data is placed on the
Clipboard. Also, whenever you cut or copy automation data, bounding breakpoints are created
at each end of the selected area, in order to preserve the slope of the automation both inside
and outside the selection.
If tracks are grouped, copying and pasting on
any of the tracks affects each of the other tracks
in the group. Tracks that are hidden—even if
they are part of a group being edited—are not affected by edits.
Clear Command
The current Edit mode affects how material is selected, copied, and pasted:
To clear a selection or region:
• In Slip mode, the Cut command leaves an
empty space corresponding to the data removed from the track.
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
• In Shuffle mode, the Cut command leaves no
empty space, since the regions to the right of
the cut slide over, closing the gap.
• In Slip mode, pasted data can overlap an adjacent region.
• In Shuffle mode, pasted data causes all regions
to slide over to make room for the pasted material.
Use the Clear command to remove a selection
from a track without placing it on the Clipboard.
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
2 Set the Display Format for the tracks you want
to edit.
When displaying waveforms for audio tracks, or
notes or regions for MIDI tracks, selections include underlying automation and controller
data. If the track is displaying automation data,
only the automation data is affected by the edits.
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to select
the material you want to clear.
New regions are often auto-created when performing edits. For instance, when clearing a selection from a region, new regions are auto-created from the material residing outside of the
selection.
Copying and Pasting Automation
The following are two special functions for
copying and pasting automation data.
To copy all automation playlists for a track,
press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh) when copying from any of the track’s
automation playlists. This special function also
works across multiple tracks.
◆
To paste from one type of automation playlist
to another similar playlist (for instance, from a
volume playlist to a send level playlist), press
the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh)
when pasting.
◆
– or –
Use the Grabber to select one or more regions
(or a group of MIDI notes).
4 Choose Edit > Clear to remove the selection.
If a portion of a region was cleared, new regions
are auto-created from the material residing outside of the selection. If working in Shuffle mode,
adjacent regions are slid over, as necessary, to
fill the blank space.
Cut and Copy Commands
Use the Cut command to place the selection on
the Clipboard while also removing it from the
track.
Use the Copy command to place a selection on
the Clipboard so it can be pasted to another
track, or to the same track at a different location.
For more information on working with automation data, see Chapter 28, “Automation.”
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281
To cut or copy a selection or region:
Deleting Underlying Region Data
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
When removing a region or selection, you can
choose to remove or keep the underlying region
data.
2 Set the Display Format for the tracks you want
to edit.
When displaying waveforms for audio tracks, or
notes or regions for MIDI tracks, selections include underlying automation and controller
data. If the track is displaying automation data,
only the automation data is affected by the edits.
To delete a region or selection along with the
underlying region data:
■
Choose Edit > Cut.
To delete a region or selection without removing
the underlying region data:
■
Choose Edit > Clear.
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to select
the material you want to cut or copy.
– or –
Use the Grabber to select one or more regions
(or a group of MIDI notes).
4 Choose Edit > Cut to remove the selection and
place it on the Clipboard.
– or –
Choose Edit > Copy to place the selection on the
Clipboard, without removing it.
If a portion of a region was cut or copied, the
material on the Clipboard appears as a new region in the Regions List. If a portion of a region
was cut, new regions are auto-created from the
material residing outside of the selection.
Paste Command
Use the Paste command to place the Clipboard’s
contents at the Edit insertion point, overwriting
existing material already there.
To paste a selection or region:
1 If you want to constrain the insertion point or
the selection to the current grid value, set the
Edit mode to Grid.
2 With the Selector, click in a track at the point
where you want to paste the material. Press Tab
to move the insertion point forward to region
start and end times; to move back, press Control+Tab (Windows) or Option+Tab (Macintosh).
– or –
When working in Shuffle mode, adjacent regions are slid over, as necessary, to fill blank
spaces.
Use the Selector or Grabber to make a selection
where the material will be placed.
3 Choose Copy > Paste.
If pasting at an insertion point in Shuffle mode,
material to the right of the paste point is shifted
to the right. In Slip mode, the material is overwritten with the paste.
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If pasting into a selection in Shuffle mode, the
selection is replaced by the Clipboard’s contents
with the adjacent material slid left or right as
necessary. In Slip mode, the selection is also replaced but with the surrounding material remaining unchanged.
When working with MIDI, you can merge
the contents of the Clipboard with material
in the destination track. For details, see
“Merge Paste Command” on page 285.
For TDM systems, the Fill Paste command
can be used to fill a selection with the contents of the Clipboard. For details, see “Repeat Paste To Fill Selection” on page 293.
Editing Across Multiple Tracks
When working with data from multiple tracks,
there are some important points to remember.
For instance, if any of the selected tracks are set
to their master view (see “The Master View Format” on page 210), edits affect not only audio
and MIDI for the selected tracks, but all automation and controller data as well.
If all selected tracks are displayed as automation
data, edits only affect the type of automation
data displayed in each track. Furthermore, if
track 1 displays Pan automation, track 2 displays
Volume automation, and track 3 displays Mute
automation, the Cut command cuts only pan
data from track 1, volume data from track 2, and
mute data from track 3.
For details on selecting data on multiple
tracks, see “Selecting Across Multiple
Tracks” on page 252.
When copying only automation or controller
data for selected tracks, press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh) to copy all types
of automation on all selected tracks.
To paste to multiple tracks, place the insertion
point in each of the destination tracks by Shiftclicking in them—or to select all tracks, AltShift-click (Windows) or Option-Shift-click
(Macintosh) in a track, or make a selection in
one of the Timebase Rulers.
When you paste multiple types of data, whatever data has been copied is pasted into the correct type of playlist. Automation data is pasted
into the corresponding automation playlist. Audio/MIDI data is pasted into the audio/MIDI
playlist. You don’t need to set target tracks to
the specific type of data being pasted for the
paste to work correctly.
If all destination tracks in a multitrack paste are
displayed as automation, the paste replaces any
previous data on the target track without shuffling—regardless of whether you are in Slip or
Shuffle mode.
Duplicate Command
The Duplicate command copies a selection and
places it immediately after the end of the selection. Though this is similar to using Copy and
Paste, Duplicate is more convenient and faster,
particularly when working with data on multiple tracks.
To make more than one copy of a selection, use
the Repeat command (see “Repeat Command”
on page 284).
As with the Copy and Paste commands, certain
rules apply when duplicating material on multiple tracks. For details, see “Editing Across Multiple Tracks” on page 283.
The Duplicate command does not operate
on conductor events.
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To duplicate a selection or region:
1 If working with material that is bar- and beatbased, such as loops, set the Main Time Scale to
Bars:Beats.
2 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to select
the material you want to duplicate.
– or –
Click in the track and enter the start and end
points for the selection in the Event Edit area.
4 Choose Edit > Duplicate. The material is
placed immediately after the selection’s end
point.
Repeat Command
The Repeat command is similar to Duplicate,
but allows you to specify the number of times
the selected material is duplicated.
As with the Copy and Paste commands, certain
rules apply when repeating material on multiple
tracks. For details, see “Editing Across Multiple
Tracks” on page 283.
In Shuffle mode, the duplicated data is placed
directly after the end of the selection. Regions
occurring after it are slid to accommodate the
duplicated material. In Slip mode, the duplicated material overlaps any adjacent data.
To repeatedly paste copied data until it completely fills a selection (TDM systems only), see
“Repeat Paste To Fill Selection” on page 293.
When using Duplicate or Repeat with MIDI
notes that were selected with the Grabber, material is always duplicated one measure later, and
is merged with existing track material (instead
of replacing).
To repeat a selection or region:
Duplicating Audio
When using Duplicate or Repeat for audio that
must fall cleanly on the beat (for loops), it is important that you select the audio material with
the Selector, or by typing in the start and end
points in the Event Edit area. If you select an audio region with the Grabber (or by double-clicking it with the Selector), the material may drift
by several ticks because of sample-rounding.
284
If, on the other hand, you want to Duplicate or
Repeat audio that is not bar- and beat-based, set
the Time Scale to any format except Bars:Beats.
This ensures that the duplicated audio material
will have the correct number of samples and will
be placed accordingly.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
The Repeat command does not operate on
conductor events.
1 If working with material that is bar- and beatbased, such as loops, set the Main Time Scale to
Bars:Beats.
2 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to select
the material you want to repeat.
– or –
Click in the track and enter the start and end
points for the selection in the Event Edit area.
4 Choose Edit > Repeat. In the Repeat dialog,
3 Choose Edit > Cut to remove the selection and
enter the number of times you want the material to repeat, then click OK.
place it on the Clipboard.
– or –
Choose Edit > Copy to place the selection on the
Clipboard without removing it.
4 With the Selector, click in a MIDI track at the
point where you want to merge the material.
5 Choose Edit > Merge Paste. The Clipboard’s
Repeat dialog
The material is placed immediately after the selection’s end point, and duplicated by the number of times specified.
In Shuffle mode, the repeated data is placed directly after the end of the selection. Regions occurring after it are slid to accommodate the repeated material. In Slip mode, the repeated
material overlaps any adjacent data.
Merge Paste Command
Use the Merge Paste command to merge MIDI
notes from the Clipboard with material already
residing in the paste destination. To replace
track material, use the Paste command instead.
To merge MIDI data:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag with the Selector in the track to select
the MIDI notes you want to merge.
– or –
Use the Grabber to select one or more MIDI regions (or a group of MIDI notes).
contents are pasted at the insertion point, without removing the existing material already residing there.
If any portion of the material is pasted outside
of existing regions, a new region is created for
the data.
Editing Stereo and
Multichannel Tracks
Regions on individual channels within stereo
and multichannel tracks cannot be independently selected. All selections for these tracks are
time-based, which means that selections made
with the Selector and Grabber extend to each
channel in the track.
When regions in multichannel tracks are edited
with the Trimmer or dragged with the Grabber,
material on all channels is affected equally as a
group.
Split Selected Tracks
To edit a specific channel within a stereo or multichannel track without affecting the other
channels, you can split the track into separate
mono tracks. Once the edits have been made to
the separated material, you can then drag or
copy it back to the original multichannel track.
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To split a stereo or multichannel track:
1 Select the track you want to split by clicking
its name in the Edit or Mix window. To split
multiple tracks, Shift-click additional tracks.
2 Choose File > Split Selected Tracks Into Mono.
Regions from the channels on the selected
tracks are placed on new, mono audio tracks.
Names for the new tracks are based on the
source track name and channel suffix. For example, if a stereo track called “Funkit” is split, two
new tracks called “Funkit.L” and “Funkit.R” are
created.
Output and send assignments and volume and
pan settings are retained in the new tracks.
Mono equivalents of stereo and multi-mono
plug-in assignments are assigned in the new
tracks; multichannel plug-in assignments are
not assigned in the new tracks.
Dragging Regions to and from Stereo
and Multichannel Tracks
◆ The source and destination for dragged regions can be mixed. For example, you can drag
regions from a 5.0 track (containing five channels) to a stereo track and three mono audio
tracks.
◆ When dragging multichannel regions to
mono tracks, the destination tracks must be adjacent.
◆ When dragging regions from mono tracks to a
multichannel track, the source tracks need not
be adjacent.
Multichannel regions can also be dragged from
the Audio Regions List, to multichannel tracks
of the same format, groups of mono audio
tracks, or a combination of both.
Conversely, a collection of single, mono regions
can be dragged from the Audio Regions List to
multichannel tracks—provided the dragged
number of regions matches the number of channels in the destination track.
Processing Audio with
AudioSuite Plug-Ins
Dragging a stereo region to two mono audio tracks
When dragging regions to or from stereo or multichannel tracks, the following rules apply:
◆ Provided the number of tracks and channels
are the same for the source and destination, you
can drag regions between multichannel tracks
and mono tracks.
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The AudioSuite plug-ins included with your
Pro Tools system can be used to process and
modify an audio region or entire audio file. You
may do this in order to apply a specific AudioSuite process, such as Normalization or DC Offset Removal, that you know you will always
want applied to the audio.
Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for
more information about AudioSuite plugins.
Waveform Repair with the
Pencil Tool
The Pencil tool allows you to destructively “redraw” waveform data. This tool is most commonly used to repair a pop or click in an audio
file. A pop or click appears as a sudden sharp
spike in a waveform. This tool only becomes active when the Edit window is zoomed in to the
sample level.
The Pencil tool is a destructive editing tool
that permanently modifies the audio file on
disk and should be used with caution.
Although you can Undo a Pencil tool edit, it is
recommended that you create a backup copy of
the target audio, before using the Pencil tool.
You can do this by using the AudioSuite Duplicate plug-in.
To destructively edit an audio waveform with the
Pencil tool:
1 Locate the area you want to edit.
2 Using the Zoomer tool or the Vertical Zoom
buttons, zoom down to the sample level so the
waveform appears as a continuous thin line. Adjust the Track Height, as necessary, to edit the
waveform with greater precision
You can recall zoom levels with the Zoom
Preset buttons (see “Zooming” on
page 226), or with Memory Locations (see
“Memory Locations and Markers” on
page 324).
3 Select the Pencil tool.
Pencil tool
To make a copy of an audio region:
4 Carefully draw with the Pencil by dragging
1 Select the source region in the track’s playlist.
over the area of the waveform.
2 Choose AudioSuite > Duplicate.
Don’t over-edit or the results may be undesirable. You can use the Undo command to undo
your previous edit.
3 In the AudioSuite dialog, make sure that Playlist is enabled as the processing preference, and
that Use In Playlist is enabled.
4 Click the Process button.
The AudioSuite Duplicate plug-in creates a new
audio file that is a duplicate of the original. The
duplicate replaces the original on the track, and
it is automatically named with the region name
and the suffix DUPL.
Repairing a “pop” with the Pencil tool
Try to limit editing to smoothing over a very
small problem area, and keep the “fixes” in
character with the shape of the surrounding
waveform.
If you have trouble zooming in far enough to
perform Pencil editing, check the Edit window (session) length. Shorten the overall
Edit window (session) length, if possible,
until the Pencil tool becomes usable.
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287
◆ For the Grabber, position the cursor over the
middle of a region, in the lower half.
The Smart Tool
With the Smart Tool you can instantly access
the Selector, Grabber, and Trimmer, and you
can also perform fades and crossfades. The position of the cursor in relation to a region or note,
or within an automation playlist, determines
how the Smart Tool functions.
Smart Tool in Edit window
To select the Smart Tool, click its icon in the upper left of the Edit window, or press F6+F7 (or
F7+F8) simultaneously.
◆ For the Trimmer, position the cursor near the
region’s start or end point.
◆ For a fade-in or fade-out, position the cursor
near an audio region’s start or end point, near
the top. Once the Fade cursor appears, drag into
the region to set the fade length. The fade is created automatically with the Default Fade Settings (in the Editing Preferences).
◆ For a crossfade, position the cursor between
two adjacent audio regions, near the bottom.
Once the Crossfade cursor appears drag left or
right to set the crossfade length. The crossfade is
created automatically with the Default Fade Settings (in the Editing Preferences).
The Smart Tool in Notes View
To temporarily switch the Smart Tool to the
Scrubber, place the cursor over the region so
that the Selector is enabled, then press the
Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), or right-click the mouse.
The Smart Tool in Waveform View (or
MIDI Track Regions View)
Selector
Trim
Start
Grabber
Trim End
Smart Tool in Notes View
Fade-In
Selector
Fade-Out
Trim
Start
Trim
End
Grabber
The following capabilities are available with the
Smart Tool when working with audio tracks in
Waveform or Blocks View, or MIDI tracks in Regions View:
◆ For the Selector, position the cursor over the
middle of the region, in the upper half.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
◆ For the Selector, position the cursor so it
doesn’t cover any notes.
Crossfade
Smart Tool in Waveform View
288
The following capabilities are available with the
Smart Tool when working with MIDI tracks in
Notes View:
To get the Selector while positioning the cursor
over notes, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh).
◆ For the Grabber, position the cursor over the
note, near its middle.
To get the Marquee so you can select a group of
notes, position the cursor so it doesn’t cover any
notes and press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh).
For the Trimmer, position the cursor near the
note’s start or end point.
Grabber
To create breakpoints with the Grabber, press
Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh)
and the Grabber will appear.
◆
To temporarily switch the Smart Tool to the
Eraser, place the cursor over the region so
that the Selector is enabled, then press
Start+Alt (Windows) or Control+Option
(Macintosh).
To edit existing breakpoints, move the cursor
near a breakpoint and the Grabber will appear.
For fine control with the Grabber, Control
(Windows) or press Command (Macintosh)— or
continue to hold the key if you are creating a
new breakpoint.
The Smart Tool in Automation and
Controller Views
To vertically constrain Grabber movement,
press Shift.
The following capabilities are available with the
Smart Tool when working in both automation
and controller views:
To vertically constrain Grabber movement with
fine control, press Control+Shift (Windows) or
Command+Shift (Macintosh).
Selector
The Smart Tool with Stereo and
Multichannel Tracks
Position the cursor anywhere in the bottom
75% of the playlist for the Selector. Drag with
the Selector to select breakpoints.
Trimmer
Position the cursor in the top 25% of the playlist
for the Trimmer. Drag with the Trimmer to trim
breakpoints. Press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) after you begin trimming for
fine control.
When using the Smart Tool on stereo and multichannel tracks, individual channels cannot be
independently edited. All edits affects all channels as a whole.
The tool switching for the Smart Tool in stereo
and multichannel tracks is determined by the
position within the entire track, and not within
individual channels.
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Chapter 18: Advanced Editing
(TDM Systems Only)
Replacing Audio Regions
(TDM Systems Only)
You can use the Replace Region function to replace multiple instances of an audio region in a
playlist with another region that you Controldrag (Windows) or Command-drag (Macintosh)
from the Regions List.
This is useful in post production if you use a
sound effect, room noise, or atmosphere region
many times in a session, and later decide to replace one or all of the original regions with a different region.
This is also useful in music production if you
want to replace a certain loop or sample (for example, a drum beat) with a new one. You can
use this compositionally, if you know the tempo
of a section or session, to create a scratch piece
with “rough” regions of the correct length, and
later replace them with “final” regions of the
same length.
The following options are available in the Replace Region dialog:
Replace Original Region Replaces only the selected region with the replacement region
dragged from the Regions List.
Replace All Regions That Match Original Replaces all regions that fit the Match criteria and
the Find Match On criteria with the replacement region from the Regions List.
Replace Region dialog
Match: Start Position Replaces all regions that
have the same original start time as the selected
region. This includes regions that may have
been auto-created when trimming end points.
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291
Match: End Position Replaces all regions that
have the same original end time as the selected
region. This includes regions that may have
been auto-created when trimming start points.
Match: Region Name Replaces all regions that
have the same name as the selected region.
Region matching uses all specified Match criteria. For example, if you select Start Position and
End Position, all regions from the same original
audio file as your selection with the same original start and end times will be replaced.
Find Match On: This Track Only Replaces regions
that fit the Match criteria and are on the same
track as the original region.
Find Match On: All Tracks Replaces regions that
fit the Match criteria for all tracks in the session.
Fit To: Replacement Region Length The replacement region is placed in its entirety, regardless
of the length of the original region or selection.
The Replace Region function only works on a selection that includes a single region on one
track. The function is not available when the
playlist selection includes the start points for
two or more regions. Also, if the selection is
across several tracks, only the selection in the
first (top) track is used.
To replace regions:
1 Select a region in a track’s playlist that you
want to replace. The selection can extend beyond the region’s end point, to include material
from the replacement region that is longer than
the original region.
2 Control-drag (Windows) or Command-drag
Fit To: Original Region Length If the replacement
region is smaller than the original region, the region is placed in the playlist and any remaining
audio from the original region is removed.
If the replacement region is larger than the selection, it is placed in the playlist and trimmed
to fit within the length of the original region.
Fit To: Original Selection Length When the playlist selection extends beyond the original region, the replacement region (if larger than the
original region) is trimmed to fit within the selection.
(Macintosh) the replacement region from the
Regions List to the selected region. The Replace
Region dialog opens.
3 If you want to replace only the original region,
select Replace Original Region.
– or –
If you want to replace multiple regions, select
Replace All Regions That Match Original, and
set the Match criteria.
4 Select whether to apply the replacement to all
tracks, or only to the track with the current selection.
5 Select whether to fit the replacement regions
to the current selection, the entire region, or the
entire replacement region regardless of the destination length.
6 When you have set all the options, click OK.
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Replace Region and Multichannel
Tracks
To fill a selection with Paste to Fill:
The Replace Region command supports dragging multichannel regions from the Audio Regions List to multichannel tracks, provided they
are the same format.
copy and choose Edit > Copy.
For example, you can replace a stereo region, selected in a stereo audio track, with another stereo region from the Audio Regions List. But you
cannot replace it with two mono audio regions.
In addition, replacing regions in multiple mono
tracks with multichannel regions is not supported.
Repeat Paste To Fill Selection
(TDM Systems Only)
1 Select the audio or MIDI region you want to
2 Select the area you want to fill using the Selec-
tor and choose Edit > Repeat Paste To Fill Selection.
3 If pasting audio regions to larger areas, the
Batch Fades dialog opens. Configure the dialog
to insert crossfades between each pasted region,
then click OK.
– or –
If you do not want crossfades for the pasted audio, click Cancel in the Batch Fades dialog.
Compress/Expand Edit To
Play
The Repeat Paste To Fill Selection command allows you to automatically fill a selection with
audio or MIDI data without requiring you to duplicate the regions manually. To use Repeat
Paste, copy an audio or MIDI region, then make
a selection and use the command to fill the selection. When pasting audio regions, you are
prompted to specify a crossfade to be used for
the pasted regions.
(TDM Systems Only)
If you fill an area that is an exact multiple of the
copied region size (for example, filling 16 bars
with a 4-bar loop), the copied selection is pasted
in exactly as many times as it takes to fill the selection. If you fill an area that is not an exact
multiple of the copied region size (for example,
filling 15 seconds of a track with a 2-second atmosphere or room noise region), the remaining
selection area is filled with an automatically
trimmed version of the original selection.
1 Deselect Operations > Link Edit and Timeline
When the Edit and Timeline selections are unlinked, you can compress or expand an audio selection to fit the Timeline selection. This feature
works by using the Time Compression/Expansion plug-in to expand or compress the selected
audio material.
To fit an Edit selection to the Timeline:
Selection.
2 With the Selector, select the audio material to
be compressed or expanded.
3 In any Timebase Ruler, select the time range
where you want to fit the audio material.
4 Choose Edit > Compress/Expand Edit To Play.
The Edit selection is compressed or expanded to
the length of the Timeline selection.
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293
Compress/Expand Edit to Play on
Multiple Tracks and Channels
The Compress/Expand Edit to Play command
can be used on multichannel selections, and selections across multiple tracks.
However, all regions are compressed or expanded equally by the same percentage value,
based on Edit selection range. This ensures that
the rhythmic relationship between the different
channels or tracks is retained.
Fitting an Audio Region to an Edit
Selection
Regions can be dragged from the Audio Regions
List to fit within an Edit selection. The dragged
region is compressed or expanded to fit within
the selection. This feature uses the Time Compression/Expansion plug-in to expand or compress the audio region.
To fit an audio region to an Edit selection:
1 With the Selector, select a time range in an au-
dio track.
2 Control-Alt-drag (Windows) or CommandOption-drag (Macintosh) the region from the
Audio Regions List to the track with the selection. The start of the region is positioned at the
selection start, and the region is compressed or
expanded to match the length of the selection.
Fit to Selection on Multiple Tracks and
Channels
The Fit to Selection command supports dragging multiple regions from the Audio Regions
List to multiple tracks, or multichannel tracks.
However, all dragged regions are compressed or
expanded equally by the same percentage value,
based on length of the region last clicked before
dragging.
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Chapter 19: Fades and Crossfades
Using Crossfades
You can quickly and easily crossfade between
two adjacent audio regions. Crossfading is the
process of fading two regions of audio to prevent pops, clicks, or sudden changes in sound.
Crossfades have many applications, from
smoothing transitions between regions to creating special audio effects. The crossfade duration,
position, and shape are all user-definable.
Crossfades are computed and written to disk.
Crossfades that are written to disk are stored in a
folder named “Fade Files” within the session
folder. When you play back your track,
Pro Tools reads and plays back the crossfade file
from disk.
Pro Tools does not allow you to replace fade-ins
and fade-outs with crossfades. To add a crossfade between regions, any existing fade-ins and
fade-outs between the regions must first be deleted.
Pro Tools TDM systems include an Auto
Fade feature that provides real-time fades
without processing them to disk. See “Using
AutoFades” on page 305.
About Crossfades and Curves
To create a crossfade between two regions, use
the Selector to select across the end point of the
first region and the start point of the second.
The length of the selection determines the
length of the crossfade. Though fades may appear to be discrete regions, they cannot actually
be separated from the regions in which they
were created. You can, however, create fade-ins
and fade-outs for individual regions (see “Creating Fades at the Beginnings and Ends of Regions” on page 303).
You can use the Fades dialog to select, view, and
manipulate the curves used to perform the
crossfade. Different volume curves can be assigned to the fade-out and fade-in portions of
crossfades. The Fades dialog can also render a
preview of the fade.
The following examples illustrate common
crossfade types, and explain how the type of selection you make determines the character of
the crossfade.
Since crossfades are created by fading between overlapping audio material, a crossfade cannot be performed on regions that do
not contain audio material beyond their region boundaries.
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295
Standard Crossfade (Centered)
splice point
region 1
fade out
curve
fade in
curve
region 2
This type of selection creates a crossfade before
the splice point. This lets you maintain the volume of the very beginning of region 2 instead of
fading across it, which is useful if there is a
strong attack at the beginning of region 2 that
you want to preserve. When making selections
for crossfades that occur on the border of two regions, you can use the Tab key to move the cursor to the exact beginning or end of a region.
crossfade selection
Centered crossfade
This type of selection creates a crossfade on both
sides of the splice point, which affects the volume of region 1 and region 2. It is the most
common type of crossfade.
This crossfade type requires that region 2 contain audio material before its start point.
Post Crossfade
border of region 1 and 2
This crossfade type requires that region 1 contain audio material beyond its end point, and
region 2 contain audio material before its start
point.
Pre Crossfade
region 1
region 2
selection range begins just after end of region 1
Post crossfade
border of region 1 and 2
region 1
region 2
selection range extends just up to beginning of region 2
This type of selection creates a crossfade after
the splice point. It is useful if you want to maintain the amplitude of region 1 until its very end.
When making selections for crossfades that occur on the border of two regions, you can use
the Tab key to move the cursor to the exact beginning or end of a region.
Pre crossfade
This crossfade type requires that region 1 contain audio material beyond its end point.
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The Fades Dialog
When choosing the Edit > Fades command you
can use the Fades dialog to select, view, and preview the crossfade, and to edit the curves used
to perform the crossfade.
View Second Track
If you are fading between more than one track
this button allows you to view and preview the
audio of the second pair of adjacent tracks.
View Both Tracks
Click this button to display the waveforms of
the first two adjacent tracks in a multitrack fade.
Fade Curves Only
Click this button to display the specified fade
curves without showing the actual audio waveforms. This is the default view when you open
the Fades dialog.
Fades dialog
Fade Curves and Separate Waveforms
The controls in the Fades dialog include:
Audition
Click this button to display the specified fade
curves along with separate views of the fade-in
and fade-out waveforms.
Click this button to audition your crossfade.
Pro Tools plays the audio in one of two ways,
depending on your system:
Pro Tools TDM and LE systems allow crossfade auditioning directly from your audio interface outputs.
Fade Curves and Superimposed Waveforms
◆
Click this button to display the specified fade
curves along with superimposed views of the
fade-in and fade-out waveforms.
View First Track
Fade Curves and Summed Waveform
If you are fading between more than one track,
this button allows you to view and preview the
audio of the first pair of adjacent tracks.
Click this button to display the specified fade
curves along with a single waveform representing the summation of the crossfaded audio.
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Zoom In
Click this button to scale the view of the waveform’s amplitude upwards. Control-click (Windows) or Command-click (Macintosh) for the
default view scale.
Preset Curves Seven commonly used preset
curves are provided for fast crossfade creation.
These can be edited by dragging the end points
of the curve in the curve editor portion of this
dialog. The seven presets are as follows:
◆ Preset Curve 1 keeps region 1 at full volume
throughout the crossfade, then immediately
drops the volume at the end of the crossfade.
Zoom Out
Click this button to scale the view of the waveform’s amplitude downwards. Control-click
(Windows) or Command-click (Macintosh) for
the default view scale.
Preset Curve 1
◆ Preset Curve 2 fades out region 1 relatively
slowly, keeping the volume fairly high throughout the duration of the fade.
Fade Out Shape Setting
Preset Curve 2
◆ Preset Curve 3 fades out region 1 slightly
faster, keeping the volume slightly lower during
the fade.
Fade Out Shape
The Out Shape setting allows you to choose the
shape of the fade-out from region 1.
Standard Selects a single continuous fade curve.
This creates a general-purpose fade that can be
edited by dragging the curve itself.
S-Curve Selects an S-shaped curve, which inverts
its beginning and end characteristics. This
makes it possible to fade out faster at the curve’s
start and slower at its end, for example. S-shaped
curves can be useful with material that is difficult to crossfade effectively. S-curves can be edited by dragging the curve in the curve editor.
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Preset Curve 3
◆ Preset Curve 4 fades out region 1 with a linear
fade. This is the default curve.
Preset Curve 4
◆ Preset Curve 5 fades out region 1 quickly at
the beginning of the crossfade.
Preset Curve 5
Preset Curve 6 drops the volume of region 1
even more quickly at the beginning of the crossfade.
◆
Preset Curve 6
Preset Curve 7 silences region 1 at the beginning of the crossfade.
◆
Preset Curve 7
Link Settings
that can occur when using an Equal Power crossfade. With this fade, you can Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the fade
curve to reset it to its default shape.
None Disables linking between the fade-out and
fade-in curves, and lets you freely adjust them
separately, including start and end points. This
option also allows you to create custom crossfade shapes. To edit only the fade-in portion of
the curve, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh) while dragging. To edit only the fadeout portion of the curve, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) while dragging.
Fade Link
The Link setting links the selected fade-out and
fade-in curves. If you adjust one curve, the corresponding curve also adjusts. This ensures that
the resulting crossfade is an equal power or equal
gain crossfade, depending on which you select.
Equal Power Recommended for material that is
not phase coherent, as in the case of a crossfade
between two completely different types of material. Use this option to avoid the volume drop
that can occur with an Equal Gain crossfade.
With this fade, you can Alt-click (Windows) or
Option-click (Macintosh) the fade curve to reset
it to its default shape.
Equal Gain Recommended for material that is
phase-coherent or nearly phase-coherent, as in
the case of a crossfade between identical regions/instruments (for example, a repeated
drum loop). Use this option to avoid clipping
Adjusting the end point of a fade curve
Use Dither
Dither option for Fade
The Use Dither option turns on a preset, noiseshaped dither function that improves audio performance when fading in or fading out of silence, and crossfading between low amplitude
regions. Dithering is usually not necessary when
fading between two regions of high amplitude.
You can disable Dither while editing your crossfades in the Fades dialog to speed up previews
and fade recalculation, then re-enable Dither to
create the final crossfade.
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Fade In Shape Settings
◆ Preset Curve 2 fades in region 2 quickly in the
beginning, reaching full amplitude fairly early
in the crossfade.
Preset Curve 2
Fade In Shape
◆ Preset Curve 3 fades in region 2 moderately
fast.
The In Shape setting allows you to choose the
shape of the fade-in to region 2.
Standard Selects a single continuous fade curve.
This creates a general-purpose fade that can be
edited by dragging the curve itself.
S-Curve Selects an S-shaped curve, which inverts
its beginning and end characteristics. This
makes it possible to fade in faster at the start of
the curve, and slower at the end. S-shaped
curves are useful with material that is difficult to
crossfade effectively. S-curves can be edited by
dragging the curve in the curve editor.
Preset Curves Seven commonly used preset
curves are provided for fast crossfade creation.
These can be edited by dragging the end points
of the curve in the curve editor portion of this
dialog. The seven presets are as follows:
◆ Preset Curve 1 fades in region 2 at full volume
immediately at the beginning of the crossfade
and keeps it there throughout the crossfade.
Preset Curve 3
◆ Preset Curve 4 fades in region 2 with a linear
fade curve. This is the default curve.
Preset Curve 4
◆ Preset Curve 5 fades in region 2 slowly at the
beginning of the crossfade.
Preset Curve 5
◆ Preset Curve 6 fades in region 2 even more
slowly than the previous curve.
Preset Curve 6
◆ Preset Curve 7 silences region 2 until the end
of the crossfade.
Preset Curve 1
Preset Curve 7
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Typical Curve Combinations
Fade and Crossfade Preferences
Following are the available combinations of
fade-out and fade-in curves.
(TDM Systems Only)
Linear Crossfade This is a good general purpose
crossfade with a smooth, even transition between region 1 and region 2.
1-out
2-in
You can set default fade and crossfade settings.
These settings load as your “base” settings when
you use the Create Fades command, and the
Fade to Start and Fade to End commands.
To set the crossfade preferences:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Editing.
2 Set the Pre-Roll and Post-Roll times for Fade
Linear Crossfade
previews.
Equal Power Crossfade This is a good general
purpose crossfade useful in cases where a linear
crossfade seems to create a noticeable drop in
volume across the splice point.
1-out
2-in
Fade and Crossfade Preferences
3 Click Fade In and set the default shape for
fade-ins, then click OK.
Equal Power Crossfade
Overlap Fade This combination of curves keeps
both regions at full amplitude throughout the
crossfade: region 2 “jumps in” at the beginning
and region 1 “jumps out” at the end.
4 Click Fade Out and set the default shape for
fade-outs, then click OK.
5 Click Crossfade and set the default shape for
crossfades, then click OK.
6 Click Done.
1-out
2-in
Overlap Crossfade
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301
Creating a Crossfade
To create a crossfade between two regions:
1 With the Selector, click at the point where you
want the crossfade to begin in the first region
and drag to where you want it to end in the second region. Crossfade selections can begin and
end anywhere in their respective regions.
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
– or –
Press Control+F (Windows) or Command+F
(Macintosh).
3 Use the view buttons to adjust the view of the
crossfade. It may take a few moments to calculate the waveform display for long selections.
is calculated and written to disk, but the audio
files and regions remain unchanged. Crossfades
are stored in the Fades Folder within the session
folder.
Crossfade lengths can later be resized with
the Trimmer.
To remove a crossfade:
■ Select the area of the track containing the
crossfades you want to delete and choose Edit >
Fades > Delete Fades.
– or –
■ Select the crossfade with the Grabber and
press Backspace (Windows) or Delete (Macintosh).
4 Select an Out Shape and an In Shape.
To trim a crossfade:
5 Choose a Linking option.
1 Select the crossfade with the Grabber, or double-click it with the Selector.
6 Click the Audition button, or play the session,
to hear the crossfade. For long crossfades, it may
take Pro Tools a few moments to calculate and
load the audio into playback RAM.
7 Adjust the curves by choosing different preset
shapes with the Out Shape and In Shape pop-up
menus.
– or –
Drag the Fade In/Out curves to a custom shape.
By choosing None as the Linking option, you
can drag the beginning or end points of a fade
curve to adjust its beginning or end point.
8 Click the Audition button, or play the session,
to hear the crossfade again.
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9 When the crossfade is right, click OK. The fade
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2 With the Trimmer, trim either side of the
crossfade. The crossfade is recalculated to reflect
the newly trimmed length.
Pre and Post Crossfade Selections
By making a selection that begins or ends precisely on the border of two regions, you can create “pre” or “post” crossfades. Use the Tab key to
place the insertion point at the exact beginning
or end of a region.
Creating Fades at the
Beginnings and Ends of
Regions
In addition to crossfades between regions,
Pro Tools lets you create fade-ins and fade-outs
at the beginnings and ends of regions.
To create a pre- or post-crossfade:
1 With the Selector, click in the track that con-
tains the regions you want to crossfade.
2 Press Tab to move forward to the next region
boundary.
– or –
On Pro Tools TDM systems, you can also use an
automatic fade-in/out option, which applies real
time fade-ins/outs to all regions during playback. These fades are not written to disk, but automatically applied during playback. See “Using
AutoFades” on page 305.
Press Control+Tab (Windows) or Option+Tab
(Macintosh) to move back to the previous region boundary.
3 Shift-drag to adjust your selection, or press
Shift+Tab to extend the selection forward to the
next region boundary.
– or –
Press Control+Shift+Tab (Windows) or Option+Shift+Tab (Macintosh) to extend the selection back to the previous region boundary.
4 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
Region with a fade-in
Creating Fade-Ins and Fade-Outs
Depending on how you make the selection, you
can position a fade-in/out at the exact beginning or end of a region, or position it so it extends into a blank area of the track. The length
of the selection in the region determines the
length of the fade-in/out.
– or –
Press Control+F (Windows) or Command+F
(Macintosh).
You can also fade to the beginning or end of a
region from an insertion point.
5 Choose a fade type and click OK.
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303
To create a fade-in:
1 Select the beginning of the region that you
want to fade in. The selection must extend to
the exact beginning of the region or a blank area
prior to the region in the track.
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
– or –
Press Control+F (Windows) or Command+F
(Macintosh).
3 Choose the fade-out curve and other settings.
4 Click the Audition button to hear the fade (or
press the Spacebar to start and stop playback).
5 You can adjust the curve by dragging it or by
Selecting the beginning of a region for a fade-in
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
– or –
Press Control+F (Windows) or Command+F
(Macintosh).
3 Choose the fade-in curve and other settings.
4 Click the Audition button to hear the fade (or
press the Spacebar to start and stop playback).
5 You can adjust the curve by dragging it or by
choosing a different shape with the In Shape
pop-up menu.
6 When you are finished, click OK. Pro Tools
calculates the fade and writes it to disk. The chosen fade curve appears in the region.
To create a fade-out:
1 Select the end of the region that you want to
fade out. The selection must extend to the exact
end of the region or a blank area after the region
in the track.
choosing a different shape with the Out Shape
pop-up menu.
6 When you are finished, click OK. Pro Tools
calculates the fade and writes it to disk. The chosen fade curve appears in the region.
Fade lengths can later be resized with the
Trimmer.
To fade from the insertion point to a region start
point:
1 Place the cursor at a location in the region.
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Fade To Start.
– or –
Press Start+D (Windows) or Control+D (Macintosh).
The fade is applied based on the Fade In Preferences.
To fade from the insertion point to a region end
point:
1 Place the cursor at a location in the region.
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Fade To End.
– or –
Selecting the end of a region for a fade-out
Press Start+G (Windows) or Control+G (Macintosh).
The fade is applied based on the Fade Out Preferences.
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Using AutoFades
To set the length of automatic fade-ins/outs:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Opera-
(Pro Tools TDM Only)
tion.
On Pro Tools TDM systems, you can choose to
have Pro Tools automatically apply real-time
fade-ins and fade-outs to all region boundaries
in the session. These fade-ins and fade-outs are
performed during playback and do not appear
in the Edit window, and are not written to disk.
2 Enter a value between 0 and 10 ms for the
This automatic fade-in/out option also has an
effect on virtual track switching in a session.
Whenever a lower-priority virtual track “pops
thru” a silence in a higher-priority track on the
same voice, a fade-in and fade-out is applied to
the transition.
This feature is especially useful in post production situations such as dialogue tracking. For example, you could assign both a dialogue track
and a “room tone” track with matching background to the same voice. You could then set
the Auto-Fade option to a moderate length
(4 ms or so) so that whenever a silence occurred
in the dialog, playback would switch smoothly
to and from the background track without clicks
or pops.
Using automatic fade-ins/outs saves you the
trouble of editing to zero-crossings or creating
numerous rendered fades in order to eliminate
clicks or pops in playback. However, since these
autofades are not written to disk, those clicks or
pops still exist in the underlying sound file.
Consequently, those anomalies still appear if
the Duplicate AudioSuite plug-in or the Export
Selected as Sound Files command (from the Audio Regions List) are used to duplicate multiple
regions as a continuous file. To render these
real-time auto fades to disk, choose File >
Bounce to Disk.
Auto Region Fade In/Out Length. A value of zero
(the default) means that no auto-fading will occur.
3 Click Done. The Auto Fade value is saved with
the session, and is automatically applied to all
free-standing region boundaries until you
change it.
Creating Fades and
Crossfades in Batches
In “Batch mode” you can create many fades at
once. You select across several regions and use
the Create Fades command to create crossfades
for each region transition. If your selection includes regions that already have crossfades, this
feature allows you to modify them.
To create crossfades between multiple regions at
once:
1 With the Selector, click in the first region in
which you want to create a crossfade.
2 Drag to extend the selection to the last region
you want to crossfade. Make sure that the selection includes the entire region.
Selected regions for Batch Fades
3 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
– or –
Press Control+F (Windows) or Command+F
(Macintosh).
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4 Select whether you want to Create New Fades,
Create New Fade-Ins & Outs, Adjust Existing
Fades, or a combination of these options.
If you select to create new fades and new fadeins and outs, new crossfades are created at each
region boundary that is bordered by another selected region, a fade-in is created at the start of
the first region, and a fade-out is created at the
end of the last region.
Batch Fades dialog
5 Choose the placement of your Fades. You can
choose Pre-Splice, Centered, or Post-Splice.
6 Enter a crossfade length in milliseconds.
7 Click OK. Pro Tools creates the fades for the
selected regions.
Fade lengths can later be resized with the
Trimmer.
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Chapter 20: Managing Regions
Managing the regions in a session lets you keep
system and storage requirements to a minimum,
and simplify archiving requirements. This chapter describe several tools available to manage
files and regions in Pro Tools sessions.
For more information on file management
see the DigiBase Guide.
Stripping Silence from
Regions
The Strip Silence command analyzes audio selections—across multiple regions or multiple
tracks—and removes any areas of silence, dividing the selection into smaller regions and removing the silent areas.
You can use Strip Silence to automatically divide
a track into regions, which is useful if you want
to quantize audio to musical values, or locate
sound effects to SMPTE locations. It is also useful if you want to get rid of silent areas to prepare for compacting audio (see “Use this “power
delete mode” with caution, since deletion of
these files cannot be undone.” on page 313).
The Strip Silence Window
The Strip Silence window contains the following
four slider controls that allow you to set the parameters by which silence will be defined for this
operation. Adjusting these controls will cause
rectangles to appear in the selection (see
Figure 15 on page 308), indicating areas of silence that will be removed.
Strip Threshold Sets the amplitude threshold
(from –48 dB to 0 dB) for Strip Silence. Audio
falling below this threshold is considered silence
and removed. Audio above the threshold is retained and defined as new regions.
Minimum Strip Duration Sets the minimum duration (from 0 to 10,000 ms) that the material below the threshold must last to be considered silence.
Use this control to avoid countless small regions
that may occur within a selection.
Region Start Pad Specifies a time value to be
added to the beginning of each new region created with Strip Silence. This is useful for preserving musical material that falls below the threshold, such as the breath before a vocal phrase, or
the finger slide before a guitar chord.
Region End Pad Specifies a time value to be appended to the end of each new region created
with Strip Silence, thereby preserving the nuances in the decay of the material.
Strip Silence window
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Auto-Naming for Strip Silence
The Rename button in the Strip Silence window
opens the Rename Selected Regions dialog,
which determines how regions are named with
the Strip Silence command.
Using Strip Silence
To strip silence from an audio selection:
1 Select one or more audio regions.
2 To select across multiple tracks, Shift-click in
additional tracks.
3 Choose Windows > Show Strip Silence.
4 To set the naming scheme for regions created
with Strip Silence, click Rename to open the Renaming dialog. For details, see “Auto-Naming
for Strip Silence” on page 308.
5 In the Strip Silence window, adjust the sliders
Rename Selected Regions dialog
Name Specifies the base name for regions created with Strip Silence.
for Strip Threshold and Minimum Strip Duration until the Strip Silence rectangles appear in
the selection.
Number Specifies the number at which sequential auto-numbering starts.
Zeros Specifies the number of zeroes that occur
before the appended auto numbers.
Suffix Specifies text appended to the end of the
name, after the auto numbering.
Figure 15. Strip Silence rectangles
For finer resolution on these sliders, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) while
adjusting them.
6 To retain material before and after the new re-
For example, if you set these naming options to:
• Name = SFX
gions, adjust the sliders for Region Start Pad and
Region End Pad.
• Auto Number Start = 23
• Leading Zeros = 1
• Suffix = .Reel1
The names generated for regions created by Strip
Silence would be:
Attack to be
padded
Decay to be
padded
• SFX023.Reel1
• SFX024.Reel1
• SFX025.Reel1
• SFX026.Reel1
• SFX027.Reel1
• SFX028.Reel1
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Strip Silence, padding region start and end points
7 Once the Strip Silence rectangles encompass
the audio that you want to keep, press the Strip
button.
The material defined as silence is removed from
the selection and new regions are created, which
also appear in the Audio Regions List.
The Strip Silence command is nondestructive
and does not remove audio data from parent audio files. In addition to the Undo command,
you can use the Heal Separation command to restore stripped material.
Strip Silence works with stereo and multichannel tracks, and keeps their audio regions phase-coherent.
Inserting Silence
The Insert Silence command is a simple and
convenient way to insert silence in sessions.
This command allows you to make a selection
on a track (or tracks) and insert precisely that
amount of silence. In Shuffle mode, all data on
the track is shuffled later in the track by an
amount equal to the selection.
In Grid mode, the Insert Silence command
works just like the Clear command.
Shuffle Mode When inserting silence on multiple tracks in Shuffle mode, the following conditions apply:
If any track is displayed as audio or MIDI data,
the selected duration of silence is inserted into
the audio or MIDI data and all underlying automation data on all selected tracks. All subsequent regions are shuffled by the amount of
silence inserted. On MIDI tracks, only notes that
are selected from the beginning are affected, so
if you have selected the tail of a note and you Insert Silence, the note will remain unchanged.
◆
◆ If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, the selected range is cleared of automation data only of the type visible on each
track. Regions are not shuffled. Instead, a blank
gap appears equal to the length of the selection.
◆ If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while choosing the Insert
Silence command to inserts silence on all automation playlists for all selected tracks. Regions
are not shuffled.
Slip Mode When inserting silence on multiple
tracks in Slip mode, the following conditions
apply:
◆ If any track is displayed as audio or MIDI data,
the selected range is cleared of audio or MIDI
data and all underlying automation data on all
selected tracks.
◆ If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, silence is inserted only into the automation type visible on each track.
◆ If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while choosing the Insert
Silence command to insert silence on all automation playlists for all selected tracks.
To insert silence into a track:
1 Make a selection in a track or tracks. The
length of the selection determines the duration
of the silence inserted.
2 Choose Edit > Insert Silence.
For Shuffle mode, Pro Tools inserts the selected
amount of silence. In the process, it splits the regions at the beginning of the insertion point,
and moves the new regions later in the track by
an amount equal to the length of the selection.
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Consolidate Selection
Command
During the course of normal edit operations, a
track may eventually contain many regions.
However, once a track or track range (such as a
verse or chorus) reaches a satisfactory state, you
may want to consolidate its regions into a single
region—thus making the material much more
easy to work with.
When consolidating an audio track, a new audio
file is written that encompasses the selection
range, including any blank space.
Consolidating an audio track does not consolidate underlying automation data. To
create a single file with automation data
applied to the audio, use Bounce to Disk
(see “Bounce to Disk” on page 482).
To consolidate regions within a track:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the regions you want to consolidate.
– or –
To select all regions in a track, triple-click in its
playlist with the Selector.
2 Choose Edit > Consolidate Selection.
A new, single region is created that replaces the
previously selected regions, including any blank
space. If working with an audio track, a new audio file is written (with the Audio Suite Duplicate plug-in).
When consolidating audio regions with the
Consolidate Selection command, if the selection contains muted regions, the muted regions
are treated as silence. Whether or not a track is
muted, or contains Mute automation, does not
affect the Consolidate Selection command.
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Compacting an Audio File
The Compact Selected command deletes unused
portions of audio files to conserve disk space,
and to prepare for cleaner hard drive back-ups.
The Compact Selected command deletes audio
if there are no regions referencing the data. For
this reason you should delete any unused regions before compacting.
Because it permanently deletes audio data, the
Compact Selected command should be used
only after you have completely finished your
editing and are sure that you have no further use
for the unused audio data.
The Compact Selected command can pad the regions of the compacted file by a user-selectable
amount. You may want to do this because
Pro Tools requires extra audio data before and
after audio regions to create crossfades. So, if
your regions have crossfades, or if you want to
pad the regions for the sake of any future trimming, you should enter an appropriate amount
of padding (in milliseconds) to allow for this.
The Compact Selected command is destructive and cannot be undone. It permanently
alters the original audio files. There is no
way to recover data deleted with this command.
To compact an audio file:
1 Choose Select Unused > Regions from the Audio Regions List pop-up menu. All regions that
have not been placed in a track in the current
session are highlighted in the Audio Regions
List.
2 To remove all of these unused audio regions,
choose Clear Selected from the Audio Regions
List pop-up menu. When the dialog appears,
choose Remove.
3 In the Audio Regions List, select the region or
regions you want to compact.
4 Choose Compact Selected from the Audio Re-
gions List menu.
5 Enter the amount of padding in milliseconds
that you want to leave around each region in
the file.
6 Click Compact to compact the file or Cancel
to cancel the command.
Once the Compact operation has been completed, the session is automatically saved.
Naming and Displaying
Regions
A typical session can become quite busy with
many tracks and dozens of regions. There are a
number of things you can do, however, to keep
track of and manage a session’s regions, which
include:
Renaming Regions
In the course of a session you can rename regions to give them more descriptive names, or
merely to shorten or simplify an existing name.
When renaming a region that was auto-created
from an edit, the region becomes a user-defined
region and is displayed in the Regions List when
auto-created regions are hidden.
Perhaps the easiest way to rename a region, if it
resides in a track, is to double-click it with the
Grabber. However, if the region does not yet reside in a track, or if you want to rename several
regions, use the Rename Selected command.
To rename one or more regions:
1 If you will be renaming an auto-created re-
gion, make sure to select Display > Auto-Created
Regions.
2 Select one or more regions to be renamed in
either the Audio or MIDI Regions List.
If the Editing Preference for “Regions List
Selection Follows Track Selection” is enabled, you can highlight a region in the Regions List by selecting it in a track.
3 Choose Rename Selected from the Regions
List pop-up menu.
4 When prompted, enter a new name for the re-
gion. If a whole-file audio region was selected,
specify whether to rename just the region, or
both the region and the disk file.
• Renaming existing regions
• Specifying how auto-created regions are
named
• Hiding auto-created regions
• Removing unused regions
Rename Selected dialog
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311
5 Click OK to rename the region. If renaming
multiple regions, you are prompted, successively, to rename each region.
Suffix Specifies text to be appended to the end of
the name, following the auto numbering.
4 When you are finished, click OK to accept the
new naming options.
Auto-Naming Options
You can specify the auto-naming options for a
region when new regions are created from it in
the course of editing.
Auto-naming of regions does not affect the
names of parent audio files. Instead, it stores
pointers to the regions within the parent source
file.
To set auto-naming options for a region:
1 Select a region in the Audio or MIDI Regions
List.
Hiding and Removing Unwanted
Regions
In the course of editing a session, the Audio and
MIDI Regions Lists can fill up quickly with regions—ones you’ve created purposely and those
that are automatically created by cutting, pasting, and separating other regions. Pro Tools allows you to hide or remove regions in your session so you don’t have to scroll through
unnecessarily long Regions Lists.
Hiding Auto-Created Regions
2 Choose Auto Rename Selected from the Re-
gions List pop-up menu.
You can hide regions that were automatically
created during the course of editing.
3 In the Rename Regions dialog, enter the text
to be used when naming regions created from
the selected region.
To hide auto-created regions:
■ Deselect Display > Display Auto-Created Regions. With this option deselected, only usercreated regions appear in the Audio and MIDI
Regions List.
User-defined regions include:
• Whole-file regions
• Regions created during recording
• Imported regions
Rename Regions Selected dialog
• Renamed regions
Name Determines the root name for the autocreated regions.
• Regions created as a result of AudioSuite processing
Number Sets the start number for the sequentially numbered new regions.
• New regions created with Capture Region and
Separate Region commands
Zeros Determines the number of zeros that occur before the auto numbers.
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• Regions created by trimming whole-file audio
regions
When auto-created regions are hidden,
Pro Tools warns you if the number of auto-created regions exceeds a certain threshold, and
gives you the option of deleting them. If you
choose to delete them, all auto-created regions
are deleted at the same time.
To ensure that you keep a particular auto-created region, turn it into a user-created region by
renaming it. For details, see “Renaming Regions” on page 311.
Removing Unwanted Regions
You can locate and remove unused regions in a
session with the Clear Selected command.
The Clear Selected command cannot be undone.
To find and remove unused regions in a session:
1 For MIDI regions, choose Select Unused from
the MIDI Regions List pop-up menu.
Clear Selected dialog (audio regions)
When deleting audio files for multiple regions,
Pro Tools presents a warning dialog for each audio file.
To bypass repeated warning dialogs:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the Delete button in the Clear Audio dialog. This permanently deletes each successive
audio file from your hard drive (for each of the
unused regions) without any further warnings.
Use this “power delete mode” with caution,
since deletion of these files cannot be undone.
2 For audio regions, choose one of the following
from the Select Unused submenu in the Audio
Regions List pop-up menu:
• Unused Regions
• Unused Regions Except Whole Files
• Offline Regions
3 After all unused regions are selected, choose
Clear Selected from the Regions List pop-up
menu.
4 Click Remove to remove the unused regions
from the session.
– or –
If clearing a whole-file audio region and you
want to permanently remove the audio file from
your hard drive, click Delete.
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Chapter 21: Conductor Tracks and
Memory Locations
Inserting Tempo Events
Tempo Events
Tempo events, which are displayed in the
Tempo Ruler, can be inserted at the beginning of
a session to replace the default tempo (of 120
BPM), and they can be inserted anywhere
within the session for additional tempo
changes. Tempo events cannot be inserted in
Manual Tempo mode.
To display the Tempo Ruler:
■
To insert a tempo event:
1 Click in the Tempo Ruler where you want to
insert the tempo event and then choose MIDI >
Change Tempo.
– or –
Click in the Tempo Ruler where you want to insert the tempo event and then click the Change
Tempo button in the far left of the Tempo Ruler.
Select Display > Ruler View Shows > Tempo.
When in Manual Tempo mode, the Tempo
Track is ignored and the session plays at the
tempo defined in the Transport window.
For details, see “Using Manual Tempo
Mode” on page 154.
Current Tempo
As tempo events are encountered during playback, the session’s current tempo is displayed in
the Transport window.
Change Tempo button
– or –
While pressing the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), move the cursor into the
Tempo Ruler (where the cursor changes to the
Grabber with a “+”) and click at the location
where you want to insert the event.
Manually inserting a tempo event
current tempo
Current tempo displayed in Transport window
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315
2 In the Tempo Change window, enter the Location and BPM value for the tempo change.
Editing and Moving Tempo Events
Existing tempo events can be moved, edited, deleted, and copied and pasted.
To move a tempo event by dragging:
■ In the Tempo Ruler, drag the triangle for the
tempo event left or right.
Tempo Change window
Dragging a tempo event
Select the Snap To Bar option to place the inserted tempo event cleanly on the first beat of
the nearest measure.
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged event
snaps to the current Grid value.
3 To base the BPM value on something other
To edit a tempo event:
than the default quarter note, select a different
note value.
1 In the Tempo Ruler, double-click the tempo
4 Click Apply. The new tempo event is inserted
2 In the Change Tempo dialog, enter a new Lo-
and appears in the Tempo Ruler.
cation or BPM value for the tempo event.
event.
3 Click OK.
Inserted tempo event
To delete a tempo event:
Each tempo event has a small green triangle
next to it that indicates its location. These triangles can be dragged to move the tempo event,
and they can be double-clicked to edit the
tempo event.
■ While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), move the cursor over the tempo
event (where the cursor changes to the Grabber
with a “–”) and click to remove it.
To copy and paste several tempo events:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag in the Tempo Ruler to select the range of
measures that includes the tempo events.
Tempo events selected
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If an existing tempo event is near the beginning
of the selection, press Control (Windows) or
Command (Macintosh) so the Selector appears.
Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh)
while dragging to select across all Conductor tracks.
3 Choose Edit > Copy.
4 Click in the Tempo Ruler at the point where
you want to paste the tempo events.
5 Choose Edit > Paste. The contents of the Clip-
board are pasted from the insertion point, replacing any existing tempo events.
Tempo and MIDI and Audio
When editing or moving tempo events, the
Bars:Beats Ruler expands or shrinks, as necessary, to accurately reflect the placement of audio
regions (which remain constant in terms of
sample location). This, in turn, affects the relative placement of MIDI notes, and ensures that
the visual relationship between MIDI and audio
is accurate.
Figure 16 illustrates how MIDI notes shift and
expand in relation to audio after the tempo is reduced.
To extend an Edit selection in a track to the Tempo
Ruler:
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, select a
track range.
Ruler and MIDI
events expand
after tempo
change
2 Shift-click in the Tempo Ruler.
Shift-click again in the Tempo Ruler to remove it
from the selection.
To select all tempo events:
Figure 16. Before and after change in tempo
Double-click with the Selector in the Tempo
Ruler.
After editing or moving a tempo event:
■
To clear a range of selected tempo events:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag with the Selector in the Tempo Ruler to
select the tempo events you want to remove.
3 Choose Edit > Clear to delete the selected
tempo events.
◆ Bar and beat locations for audio regions
(which are sample-based) are adjusted for the
new tempo. The audio region’s sample and
SMPTE locations remain unchanged.
◆ MIDI notes (which are tick-based) remain at
the same bar and beat location. In relation to audio, however, the notes shrink or expand based
on the new tempo, and result in new sample
and SMPTE locations for the note start and end
times.
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317
Default Tempo
New sessions open with a default tempo of 120
BPM. This tempo can be changed by inserting a
tempo event at 1|1|000. However, this is not the
same as inserting normal tempo events at other
locations. The tempo event that resides at
1|1|000 is actually a Bar|Beat Marker (notice that
it has a blue triangle).
The main distinction is that this Bar|Beat Marker
can be dragged to any location within the session (such as to align with a particular SMPTE
frame) to redefine where 1|1|000 is.
Identify Beat Command
Bar|Beat Markers
The Identify Beat command lets you establish a
tempo/meter map for audio that was recorded
without listening to the click, or for imported
audio with unknown tempos.
The Identify Beat command analyzes a selection
range (usually with a distinct number of beats or
measures) and calculates its tempo based on the
specified meter. In doing this, Bar|Beat Markers
for the calculated tempo are inserted and appear
in the Tempo Ruler at the beginning and end of
the selection; in addition, meter events are inserted into the Meter Ruler.
Bar|Beat Markers
Bar|Beat Markers look similar to tempo events,
but instead have small blue triangles to indicate
their location.
Bar|Beat Marker
The key to accurately defining tempos for a
range of audio with the Identify Beat command
is to make sure that the initial selection represents an accurate length of beats or measures. In
fact, you may want to first loop the selection on
playback (see “Looping Playback” on page 256)
to see if it plays cleanly without skipping. To
avoid drift, and remain sample-accurate, select
the audio material with the Time Scale set to
Samples rather than Bars:Beats.
Tempo events and Bar|Beat Markers cannot
be mixed. If a session contains tempo
events and you attempt to insert Bar|Beat
Markers, existing tempo events are converted to Bar|Beat Markers (and vice versa).
Identifying Beats
To add Bar|Beat Markers for a one-bar drum loop:
1 Place a one-bar drum loop at the beginning of
an audio track.
2 Select Display > Samples. This ensures that the
selected audio material will be sample-accurate.
Pro Tools TDM systems can use Beat Detective to generate Bar|Beat Markers within
a selection that includes rhythmic changes
on every beat and sub-beat. For more information, see Chapter 22, “Beat Detective.”
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3 Select the audio region with the Grabber and
choose Edit > Identify Beat.
4 In the Bar|Beat Markers dialog, specify the
start and end locations for the inserted Bar|Beat
Markers. Since this example deals with a one-bar
loop, enter 1|1|000 and 2|1|000.
When working with a selection, the Identify
Beat command only calculates a single tempo
for the selected range. If the tempo varies from
measure to measure, or beat to beat, you’ll need
to use the Identify Beat command for each
tempo variance (making sure to accurately define a precise selection range or beat location for
the tempo change).
Inserting Bar|Beat Markers One at
a Time
Audio Material with Varying Tempos
Identify Beat dialog
5 If necessary, specify a time signature for the
start and end range.
6 Click OK to automatically calculate the new
tempo and insert the necessary Bar|Beat Markers
and meter events. Any existing tempo and
meter events residing within the selection are
deleted.
You can insert Bar|Beat Markers one at a time by
setting an Edit insertion point (instead of making a selection) before using the Identify Beat
command. The ability to identify each beat, one
at a time, is especially useful when working with
audio with varying tempos.
For instance, if you have a measure that accelerates slightly, you could insert a Bar|Beat Marker
on each beat (see Figure 17) so the tempo is accurately reflected.
Figure 17. Bar|Beat Markers on each beat
Bar|Beat Markers inserted
Once the tempo has been determined for the audio, you can duplicate the original audio region
with the Repeat command.
After the Bar|Beat Markers are inserted, further
adjustments in the tempo map are possible by
dragging each of the Markers, as necessary, to
align with the associated beat within the audio.
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319
Dragging Bar|Beat Markers
Bar|Beat Markers can be dragged to new locations so they can align with audio regions that
have been moved, or so that they can align to a
slightly different point within an audio region.
This results in neighboring MIDI data being adjusted to align with the new tempo map.
When dragging a Bar|Beat Marker:
• Its BPM value is recalculated along with the
Bar|Beat Marker to its immediate left. Bar|Beat
Markers to the right of the dragged marker remain unchanged.
• Its bar and beat location is dragged with the
Bar|Beat Marker. If the Bar|Beat Marker was
originally placed at 3|1|000, it remains there
(unless it is edited).
• Its sample and SMPTE locations change, as
calculated for by the new tempo for the
Bar|Beat Marker.
• Neighboring MIDI events, along with the
Bars:Beats Ruler, shrink or expand as necessary to adjust for the new tempo.
Dragging a Bar|Beat Marker
Editing Bar|Beat Markers
Tempo Events Versus Bar|Beat Markers
Bar|Beat markers and Tempo Events behave differently when you drag them in the Tempo
Ruler.
A Bar|Beat Marker can be edited to redefine its
bar and beat location, which also redefines the
start or end point of the range being analyzed
for tempo. This is different from dragging a
Bar|Beat Marker.
When dragging a tempo event:
• The tempo event is placed at a new bar and
beat location. The sample and SMPTE locations for the event are updated as well.
• The BPM value for the dragged tempo event
remains constant, as do any other tempo
events in the session.
• Neighboring MIDI events, along with the
Ruler, shrink or expand as necessary to adjust
for the new tempo location.
To edit a Bar|Beat Marker:
1 In the Tempo Ruler, double-click the Bar|Beat
Marker.
2 In the Identify Beat dialog, enter a new Loca-
tion for the Bar|Beat Marker.
3 Click OK to recalculate the new tempo.
Like meter and tempo events, Bar|Beat Markers
can also be deleted.
To delete a Bar|Beat Marker:
■ While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), move the cursor over the Bar|Beat
Marker (where the cursor changes to the Grabber with a “–”) and click to remove it.
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Meter Events
Meter events can be inserted at the beginning of
a session to replace the default meter (of 4/4),
and they can be inserted anywhere within the
session for additional meter changes. Meter
events are displayed in the Meter Ruler.
To display the Meter Ruler:
■
Select Display > Ruler View Shows > Meter.
While pressing the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), move the cursor into the
Meter Ruler (where the cursor changes to the
Grabber with a “+”) and click at the location
where you want to insert the event.
Manually inserting a meter event
2 In the Meter Change window, enter the Loca-
tion and Meter for the meter change.
Current Meter
As meter events are encountered during playback, the session’s current meter is displayed in
the Transport window.
current meter
Current meter displayed in Transport window
Inserting Meter Events
To insert a meter event:
1 Choose MIDI > Change Meter.
– or –
Click the Change Meter button in the far left of
the Meter Ruler.
Change Meter button
– or –
Meter Change window
Select the Snap To Bar option if you want the inserted meter event to fall cleanly on the first
beat of the nearest measure.
3 Select a note value for the number of clicks to
sound in each measure. For a dotted-note click
value, select the dot (.) option.
For some meters, it may be desirable to use
a dotted value for the click. For instance, if
using a meter of 6/8, a dotted quarter note
click (yielding two clicks per measure) is
generally more suitable than a straight
eighth note click (six clicks per measure).
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321
4 Click Apply to insert the new meter event. The
new meter event is inserted and appears in the
Meter Ruler.
To copy and paste several meter events:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag in the Meter Ruler to select the range
that includes the meter events.
Inserted meter event
Each meter event has a small yellow triangle
next to it that indicates its location. These triangles can be selected for copying and pasting, and
they can be double-clicked to edit the meter
event.
Editing Meter Events
Existing meter events can be edited, deleted,
and copied and pasted.
To edit a meter event:
1 In the Meter Ruler, double-click the meter
event.
2 In the Change Meter dialog, enter a new Loca-
tion or Meter for the event.
3 Click OK.
To delete a meter event:
■ While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), move the cursor over the meter
event (where the cursor changes to the Grabber
with a “–”) and click to remove it.
Meter events selected
If the beginning of the selection includes a
meter event, press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) so the Selector tool appears.
Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh)
while dragging to select across all Conductor tracks.
3 Choose Edit > Copy.
4 Click in the Meter Ruler at the point where
you want to paste the meter events.
5 Choose Edit > Paste. The contents of the Clipboard are pasted from the insertion point, replacing any existing meter events.
To extend an Edit selection in a track to the Meter
Ruler:
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, select a
track range.
2 Shift-click in the Meter Ruler.
Shift-click again in the Meter Ruler to remove it
from the selection.
To select all meter events:
■ Double-click with the Selector in the Meter
Ruler.
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To clear a range of selected meter events:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag in the Meter Ruler to select the meter
events you want to remove.
3 Choose Edit > Clear to delete the selected
meter events.
Partial Measures
Renumbering Bars
You can use the Renumber Bars command to renumber all bars in the session, effectively
changing the bar locations for all regions, meter
and tempo events while leaving their position
intact. In doing so, however, the SMPTE and
sample locations of the session data are not
changed.
To renumber bars:
Aligning Beat 1 to a SMPTE Location
1 Choose MIDI > Renumber Bars.
When scoring to film or video, you will often
need to start a section of music at a precise
SMPTE time code location. Since this location
will usually not fall cleanly at the beginning of a
measure, you can insert a meter event at the
time code location where the music needs to
start.
2 Specify the bar you want to renumber, along
As necessary, Pro Tools will create a partial measure to accommodate the inserted meter event.
When a meter event is preceded by a partial
measure, the meter event is displayed in italics
in the Meter Ruler.
with the new bar number, then click Renumber.
Renumber Bars dialog
Partial measure of 4/4
Partial measures can also occur when pasting
meter events to locations other than beat one.
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323
Memory Locations and
Markers
Each session can save up to 200 Memory Locations that can be used to recall:
Properties of Memory Locations
When creating a new Memory Location (see
“Creating Memory Locations” on page 326) you
are prompted to define its Time Properties and
General Properties.
• Markers to important locations in the session
• Edit selections across one or more tracks
• Record and play ranges, along with pre- and
post-roll times
• Track settings that include Show/Hide status,
Track Heights, and zoom values
• Edit and Mix Groups enables
Memory Locations are viewed and sorted in the
Memory Locations window, where they can be
recalled by clicking the Memory Location.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Classic, Memory Locations can be recalled
from the numeric keypad by pressing the
Memory Location number followed by period (.).
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport or Shuttle, Memory Locations
can be recalled from the numeric keypad by
pressing period (.), the Memory Location
number, and period (.) again.
Memory Location dialog
Time Properties
Under Time Properties, a Memory Location can
be set to Marker, Selection, or None. This determines the type of Memory Location that is created. Each of these three Memory Location
types can also save any combination of General
Properties.
Marker Recalls a Timeline location whose reference can be either Bar|Beat (tick-based) or Absolute (sample-based). When recalling a Marker
Memory Location, the playback cursor moves to
the Marker’s location and the start and end
times in the Transport window are also updated.
If the Edit and Timeline Selections are linked,
the edit cursor also moves to the Marker location.
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Markers appear in the Markers Ruler with a thin
yellow line extending down through all tracks
in the Edit window (to assist in arranging and
aligning track material). You can click a Marker
in the Markers Ruler to recall its location along
with its stored General Properties.
When set to Absolute, the Memory Location is
sample-based and its bar and beat location shifts
if the tempo is changed—though its sample location remains constant, along with its relation
to audio material.
Bar|Beat Marker (left) and Absolute Marker (right)
In the Markers Ruler, Markers that are Bar|Beat
appear as yellow chevrons, and Markers that are
Absolute appear as yellow diamonds.
Markers in the Markers Ruler
Selection Recalls an edit selection or edit cursor
location whose reference can be either Bar|Beat
(tick-based) or Absolute (sample-based). A Selection Memory Location lets you store edit selections, for one or more tracks, that you return to
often within a session. If the Edit and Timeline
Selections are linked, a Selection Memory Location can recall record and play ranges.
Only contiguous selections can be saved
with Memory Locations. Discontiguous selections, made with the Object Grabber, will
be recalled as if the selections were made
with the Time Grabber.
None Recalls no Time Properties and is therefore
referred to as a General Properties Memory Location.
Bar|Beat and Absolute Reference
The Reference pop-up determines whether the
Marker or Selection Memory Location is
Bar|Beat or Absolute. When set to Bar|Beat, the
Memory Location is tick-based and its bar and
beat location remains constant if the tempo is
changed—though its relation to audio is scaled,
resulting in a new sample location.
General Properties
Any of the three types of Memory Locations
(Marker, Selection, and None) can store and recall any combination of the following General
Properties:
Zoom Settings Recalls the horizontal and vertical zoom values for both audio and MIDI tracks.
Pre- and Post-Roll Times Recalls pre- and postroll times (but not whether they are enabled).
This property can be stored with a Selection
Memory Location to recall record and play
ranges along with pre- and post-roll.
Track Show/Hide Recalls which tracks are hidden. Use this property to display groups of
tracks for editing and mixing.
Track Heights Recalls all Track Heights. Use this
option along with the Zoom Settings option to
recall edit environments that are suited for particular tasks, such as editing down to the sample
level or trimming MIDI notes.
Group Enables Recalls which Edit and Mix
Groups are enabled. This option is helpful in recalling groups for particular edit and mixing operations, such as muting all drum tracks or fading a stereo pair.
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325
Creating Memory Locations
Memory Locations can be created in different
ways, based on the type of Memory Location.
5 In the New Memory Location dialog, select
the Marker option and specify the Reference as
either Bar|Beat or Absolute.
6 Enter a name for the new Marker and select
When creating Memory Locations, the next
available number is assigned to it (1–200). This
number is used in recalling the Memory Location from the numeric keypad.
To create a Marker Memory Location:
1 Configure any session settings you will save
with the Marker Memory Location, such as
zoom settings, pre- and post-roll times,
Show/Hide status for tracks, Track Heights, and
Edit and Mix Group enables.
2 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
3 If the Markers Ruler is not displayed, select
Display > Ruler View Shows > Markers.
4 Click with the Selector in any track or Ruler at
the location where you want to place the
Marker. To place a Marker at the beginning of a
region, select the region with the Grabber. Click
the Marker Well button to the left of the Markers
Ruler (or press Enter on the numeric keypad).
any General Properties you want to save with
the Marker.
7 Click OK. The Marker is created and appears in
the Markers Ruler, and in the Memory Locations
window.
To create a Selection Memory Location:
1 Configure any session settings you will save
with the Selection Memory Location, such as
zoom settings, pre- and post-roll times,
Show/Hide status for tracks, Track Heights, and
Edit and Mix Group enables.
2 Select a range of material in one or more
tracks.
3 Press Enter on the numeric keypad.
– or –
From the pop-up menu in the Memory Locations window (click the Name button), choose
Add Memory Location.
4 In the New Memory Location dialog, select
the Selection option and specify the Reference
as either Bar|Beat or Absolute.
Marker Well button
– or –
While pressing the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh), move the cursor into the
Markers Ruler (where the cursor changes to the
Grabber with a “+”) and click at the location
where you want to place the Marker.
Manually inserting a Marker
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5 Enter a name for the new Memory Location
and select any General Properties you want to
save with it.
6 Click OK. The Selection Memory Location is
created and appears in the Memory Locations
window.
To create a General Properties Memory Location:
To create a Marker during playback:
1 Configure any session settings you will save
1 From the pop-up menu in the Memory Loca-
with the Selection Memory Location, such as
zoom settings, pre- and post-roll times,
Show/Hide status for tracks, Track Heights, and
Edit and Mix Group enables.
tions window, select Default To Marker. This ensures that new Memory Locations default to
being Markers.
2 Press Enter on the numeric keypad.
3 In the Memory Location dialog, select the
2 From the pop-up menu in the Memory Loca-
tions window, select Auto-Name Memory Locations.
None option.
3 For inserted Markers to have a Bar|Beat refer-
4 Enter a name for the new Memory Location
ence, make sure to set the Time Scale to
Bars:Beats.
and select any General Properties you want to
save with it.
4 Click Play in the Transport window.
5 Click OK. The General Properties Memory Lo-
5 When the location is reached, press Enter on
cation is created and appears in the Memory Locations window.
the numeric keypad. A Marker is automatically
created and appears in the Markers Ruler.
In the New Memory Location dialog, you
can Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click
(Macintosh) any General Property to enable
or disable all properties. You can also Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) any property to toggle its state
and the state of all other General Properties.
Creating Memory Locations On-the-Fly
When the Editing Preference for “Auto-Name
Memory Locations When Playing” is enabled,
Memory Locations can be created during playback, without raising the New Memory Location
dialog. This option can also be selected from the
pop-up menu in the Memory Locations window.
Auto-created Markers are named with increasing
numbers, as in “Marker 1,” “Marker 2,” and
“Marker 3.”
When the option for Default To Marker is deselected, new Memory Locations default to whatever type was last created. Therefore, if a Selection Memory Location was created last, it will be
the type that is created on-the-fly. In this case,
the name for the created Memory Location is
based on the start of the Edit selection using the
time format for the Main Time Scale (such as
“2|2|305” or “0:02.658”).
This capability is useful if you want to mark certain locations while listening during a record
pass, or if you want to mark frame locations
while viewing a video scene.
Chapter 21: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations
327
Recalling Memory Locations
Memory Locations can be recalled from the
Memory Locations window and from the numeric keypad. In addition, Marker Memory Selections can be recalled by clicking them in the
Markers Ruler.
To recall a Memory Location:
1 If the Memory Locations window is not al-
ready open, choose Windows > Show Memory
Locations to display it.
2 Click the Marker. The playback cursor locates
to the Marker and any General Properties stored
with the Marker are recalled.
Even if the Markers Ruler is not displayed,
Markers can be recalled from the Memory Locations window, or from the numeric keypad.
Editing Memory Locations
Memory Locations can be renamed, edited, deleted, and copied and pasted.
2 If recalling a Selection Memory Location that
To rename a Memory Location:
will define a record or play range, make sure to
select Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Selection.
1 In the Memory Locations window, double-
click the Memory Location you want to rename.
– or –
3 In the Memory Locations window, click the
Memory Location to recall it.
– or –
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Classic,
press the Memory Location number followed by
period (.).
– or –
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Transport or Shuttle, press period (.), the Memory Location number, and period (.) again.
When recalling a Memory Location from
the numeric keypad, the Memory Locations
window does not need to be open.
To recall a Marker from the Markers Ruler:
1 If the Markers Ruler is not displayed, select
Display > Ruler View Shows > Markers.
If renaming a Marker Memory Location, doubleclick the Marker in the Markers Ruler.
2 Enter the new name for the Memory Location,
and click OK.
To redefine the General Properties stored with a
Memory Location:
1 Make changes to the session’s zoom settings,
pre- and post-roll times, Show/Hide status of
tracks, Track Heights, or Group Enables.
2 In the Memory Locations window, Right-click
(Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the
Memory Location you want to redefine.
– or –
If changing a Marker Memory Location, Rightclick (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh)
the Marker in the Markers Ruler.
3 In the Memory Location dialog, select the
General Properties you want to save with the
Memory Location.
4 Enter a new name for the Memory Location, if
desired, and click OK.
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To change a Memory Location from one type to
another:
1 In the Memory Locations window, double-
click the Memory Location you want to change.
– or –
If changing a Marker Memory Location, doubleclick the Marker in the Markers Ruler.
2 In the Memory Location dialog, select either
Marker, Selection, or None as the Memory Location type.
3 Enter a new name for the Memory Location, if
To align a Marker to a different location:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
2 In any of the Timebase Rulers, click with the
Selector at the new location.
– or –
Click in the playlist for any track. To align the
Marker to the start of a region, select the region
with the Grabber.
3 In the Memory Locations window or the
desired, and click OK.
Markers Ruler, Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the Marker Memory Location that you want to redefine.
To change the Selection stored with a Memory
Location:
4 Enter a new name for the Marker, if desired,
1 If the Memory Locations window is not al-
and click OK.
ready open, choose Windows > Show Memory
Locations to display it.
Deleting Memory Locations
2 Select a range of material in one or more
To delete a Memory Location:
tracks.
3 In the Memory Locations window, Right-click
(Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the
Memory Location that you want to redefine.
4 Enter a new name for the Memory Location, if
desired, and click OK.
■ In the Memory Locations window, select the
Memory Location and choose Delete Memory
Location from the pop-up menu.
– or –
■ In the Memory Locations window, Alt-click
(Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the
Memory Location.
To move a Marker by dragging:
1 In the Markers Ruler, drag the Marker left or
To delete all Memory Locations:
right.
■ In the Memory Locations Window, choose
Delete All from the pop-up menu.
– or –
Dragging a Marker
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged event
snaps to the current Grid value. If using Spot
mode, the Spot dialog opens.
■ Alt-Shift-click (Windows) or Option-Shiftclick (Macintosh) any Memory Location in the
Memory Locations window.
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329
To delete a Marker from the Markers Ruler:
While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), move the cursor over the Marker
(where the cursor changes to the Grabber with a
“–”) and click to remove it.
Memory Locations Window
■
Memory Locations are listed, with their name
and assigned number, in the Memory Locations
window. To recall a Memory Location from this
window, simply click it.
Copying Marker Memory Locations
To copy and paste a range of Markers:
1 If you want to constrain the selection to the
current grid value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Drag in the Tempo Ruler to select the range of
measures that includes the Markers.
If the beginning of the selection includes a
Marker, press Control (Windows) or Command
(Macintosh) so the Selector tool appears.
Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh)
while dragging to select across all Conductor tracks.
3 Choose Edit > Copy.
Memory Locations window with View Filter icons
You can select viewing and sorting options,
along with commands for creating and removing Memory Locations, from the pop-up menu
in the Memory Locations window (obtained by
clicking the Name button in the upper left).
4 Click in the Markers Ruler at the point where
you want to paste the tempo events.
5 Choose Edit > Paste. The contents of the Clipboard are pasted from the insertion point, replacing any existing Markers.
To extend an Edit selection in a track to the
Markers Ruler:
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, select a
track range.
2 Shift-click in the Markers Ruler.
Shift-click again in the Tempo Ruler to remove it
from the selection.
To select all Markers in the Markers Ruler:
■ Double-click with the Selector in the Tempo
Ruler.
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Memory Locations window pop-up menu
Memory Locations Commands and
Options
Show Markers Only When selected, only Marker
Memory Locations are displayed in the Memory
Locations window. However, even when Selection Memory Locations and General Property
Memory Locations are hidden, they can still be
recalled from the numeric keypad.
Show View Filter Icons When selected, the
Memory Locations window provides an iconbased “View Filter” that allows you to show or
hide Memory Locations based on the properties
they contain. To show or hide Memory Locations containing a specific property, click the
appropriate icon.
Marker
In addition, the View Filter provides a handy
reference for which properties are stored in each
Memory Location (indicated by a row of icons
for each Memory Location).
Show Main/Sub Counter When selected, a column appears in the Memory Locations window
that displays the locations for Markers, and the
start times for Selection Memory Locations.
General Property Memory Locations display
nothing in this column.
Main
Time Scale
Sub
Time Scale
Show/Hide
Zoom
Track Heights
Settings
Main/Sub Counters in Memory Locations window
Pre- and Post-Roll
Selection
Memory Location
Active
Groups
You can click at the top of these columns for a
pop-up menu that will let you change the Main
and Sub Time Scale.
Memory Locations View Filter
If an icon is disabled, all Memory Locations associated with that property are hidden. However, if a Memory Location contains other properties for an icon that is enabled, it is still
displayed. When a view icon is enabled, it appears in color. When it is disabled, it appears
gray.
Sort by Time When selected, Markers are sorted
by their order in the Timeline, followed by Selection and General Properties Memory Locations, which are listed in the order in which
they were created.
When Sort by Time is deselected, all Memory
Locations are listed in the order of their assigned
numbers.
Add Memory Location Choose this command to
create a new Memory Location.
Remove Memory Location Deletes the currently
selected Memory Location in the Memory Locations window.
Memory Locations window with View Filter icons
Delete All Deletes all Memory Locations
(Marker, Selection, and General Property) in the
session.
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331
Default To Marker When selected, new Memory
Locations default to Markers, though in the New
Memory Location dialog you can still define the
new Memory Location as one of the other types.
Auto-Name Memory Location When selected,
Memory Locations are created automatically
without encountering the New Memory Location dialog. If the Default To Marker option is
selected, a Marker Memory Location is auto-created. Otherwise, the Memory Location type is
determined by whatever type (Marker, Selection, or None) was created last.
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Chapter 22: Beat Detective
Beat Detective (TDM systems only) is a powerful
tool for analyzing, editing, and manipulating
audio with an inherent rhythmic character.
Beat Detective analyzes an audio selection, identifies its peak transients, and generates beat triggers based on the detected peak transients. From
these beat triggers, Beat Detective can:
• Extract tempo and beat information to create
Bar|Beat Markers that can be used to define
the session’s tempo map. See “Generating
Bar|Beat Markers with Beat Detective” on
page 341.
• Extract tempo and groove information as
groove templates, called DigiGrooves. These
templates can be used in Beat Detective to apply to audio (TDM systems only). DigiGroove
templates can also be used with Groove Quantize for MIDI data (all Pro Tools systems). See
“DigiGroove Templates” on page 342.
• Separate the audio selection into discrete regions, and then conform (or “quantize”) separated regions to the session’s tempo map, or
to groove templates (Pro Tools 6.x only). See
“Separating Regions with Beat Detective” on
page 344 and “Conforming Regions with Beat
Detective” on page 346.
Beat Detective and Source Material
Beat Detective is most effective with rhythmic
audio material that has strong percussive attacks
(including most instruments used in popular
music, such as drums, guitar, or bass). Beat Detective will be less successful with audio material
with soft attacks, or legato phrasing (such as
strings and vocals).
While Beat Detective has intelligent analysis algorithms with extrapolation for detecting
rhythmic material, some material may deviate
too far from the rhythmic grid, or have tempo or
meter changes that are too varied, to be useful
with Beat Detective.
Uses for Beat Detective
Beat Detective can be useful in many situations,
including:
Extracting Tempo from Audio Beat Detective can
generate Bar|Beat Markers, from which it can extract the tempo—even if the audio contains
varying tempos, or material with a swing feel.
Additionally, once Bar|Beat Markers have been
generated, other audio and MIDI regions can be
quantized to them.
Chapter 22: Beat Detective
333
Creating DigiGrooves (Pro Tools 6.x Only) Beat
Detective can extract groove templates, called
DigiGrooves, from an audio selection. DigiGrooves can be used to apply the groove, or feel
of the captured passage to other audio selections
(using Groove Conform) or MIDI data (using
Groove Quantize).
Smoothing Post Production Edits Beat Detective’s Edit Smoothing can be used to automatically clean up foley tracks that contain many regions requiring trimming and crossfading,
effectively removing the gaps of silence between
the regions (thus retaining the room tone
throughout the track).
Conforming Audio Regions Beat Detective can
conform (“quantize”) audio with a different
tempo, or with varying tempos, to the session’s
current tempo map, or to a groove template
(Pro Tools 6.x only).
Beat Detective Requirements
“Tighten Up” Performances Beat Detective can
be used to improve the timing of some audio
material by calculating and extracting its average tempo, and then conforming its rhythmic
components—regions separated with Beat Detective—to the session’s tempo map.
Loop Matching Since Beat Detective can extract
tempo and beat information from audio, and
conform audio to an existing tempo map or
groove template, this makes it very useful for
aligning loops with different tempos or grooves.
If a loop is at a different tempo than the current
session, Beat Detective lets you quickly separate
each beat in the loop and conform them to the
tempo map (as an alternative to time compressing or expanding the loop, which can alter the
pitch and tone of the audio).
Remixes Beat Detective can be used for remixes
or creating new rhythms. It can extract tempo
from the original drum tracks, or in some instances the original stereo mix. New audio or
MIDI tracks can then be conformed to the original material, or the original material can be
conformed to new drum tracks, achieving an
entirely new feel.
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Beat Detective is only available on Pro Tools
TDM systems.
RAM Requirements for Beat Detective
Beat Detective operations can require a large
amount of RAM, especially when working with
multiple tracks and lengthy selections.
To avoid low memory situations with Beat Detective, do the following:
• If you begin to experience slower Beat Detective response, add more RAM to your computer.
• If your computer does not have the extra
RAM, work with shorter selections, or individual tracks.
• Set the Editing Preference for Levels of Undo
to a smaller value (see “Levels of Undo and
Memory” on page 220). Memory-intensive
editing operations, such as Edit Smoothing
with Beat Detective, can use up a large
amount of memory when in the Undo queue.
The Beat Detective Window
The Beat Detective window appears as shown in Figure 18, below.
Figure 18. Beat Detective
To open the Beat Detective window:
■
Choose Windows > Show Beat Detective.
– or –
Press Control+8 (Windows) or Command+8
(Macintosh) on the numeric keypad.
■
Beat Detective is a floating window that can be
left open while working. This lets you adjust the
controls in real time during playback, while
viewing the beat triggers that appear in your selection in the Edit window.
Beat Detective Modes
The Beat Detective window is divided into three
sections: Mode, Selection, and Detection. Depending on the current mode, the other controls in the window change. The Selection options for Beat Detective are available in each of
the modes.
Groove Template Extraction Extracts the rhythmic and dynamic information from audio, and
saves this information to the Groove Clipboard,
or as a DigiGroove template.
Region Separation Separates and creates new regions based on transients detected in the audio
selection.
Region Conform Conforms all separated regions
within the selection to the current tempo map.
In Pro Tools 6.x, Beat Detective can conform audio regions to groove templates (such as DigiGroove templates) in addition to standard
quantization.
Edit Smoothing Fills the gaps between conformed regions by automatically trimming
them, and if you choose, inserts crossfades.
The Beat Detective modes include the following:
Bar|Beat Marker Generation Generates Bar|Beat
Markers corresponding to transients detected in
the audio selection.
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335
Defining a Beat Detective
Selection
Whether you will be generating Bar|Beat Markers, extracting a DigiGroove template, or separating regions to be conformed, you must always define the audio selection to be analyzed.
The Beat Detective window provides tools to define and capture the selection range, time signature, and swing (sub-division) content for the
selected audio.
To ensure the best possible results with Beat
Detective, make sure the selected passage
starts exactly on the attack of the first beat.
Zooming in to the sample level to start the
selection will help ensure there is no space
before the first beat.
For Beat Detective to generate beat triggers that
are metrically accurate, the length and meter of
the selection must be correctly defined. In addition, the selection should not contain any meter
or tempo changes.
Use Loop playback to check the accuracy of
your selection.
To define a selection for Beat Detective:
1 In the Edit window, select a range of audio
material in a single track or in multiple tracks.
To keep the Edit selection intact while playing or looping from any location, deselect
Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Selection.
Making an audio selection for Beat Detective
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Make sure the selection’s start and end points
fall cleanly on the beat. To zero in on start and
end points, zoom to the sample level and use
the Tab to Transients option (see “Tabbing to
Transients” on page 254).
Save and recall an Edit selection by saving it
as a Memory Location. See “Memory Locations and Markers” on page 324.
2 Choose Windows > Show Beat Detective.
3 You must define or capture the selection every
time you make a new selection or change the
tempo map. To define the selection range, do
one of the following:
• If the tempo and meter of the audio selection do not match the session’s default
tempo and meter, enter the Time Signature, and Start Bar|Beat and End Bar|Beat
locations. For a four-bar selection that
starts on beat 1, enter 1|1 and 5|1.
• If the tempo and meter of the audio selection do not match the session’s default
tempo and meter, and you are unsure of
the length of the material, enter the Time
Signature and the Start Bar|Beat location;
then start playback, and click the Tap button repeatedly to automatically calculate
the End Bar|Beat. When using Tap with
long selections, continue to tap until the
End Bar|Beat stabilizes. Once stabilized,
you may need to manually adjust the number to the nearest bar boundary.
• If the selection’s tempo and meter match
the session tempo and meter (see “Calculating Tempo with Beat Detective” on
page 337), and it aligns correctly with the
session’s bars and beats, click the Capture
Selection button. The correct Time Signature, and Start Bar|Beat and End Bar|Beat
values will be filled in automatically.
Calculating Tempo with Beat
Detective
If you know the meter, and start and end points
of the audio selection, use Beat Detective to calculate its tempo.
To calculate a selection’s tempo with Beat
Detective:
1 Make an audio selection in the Edit window
and define the selection in the Beat Detective
window as described in “Defining a Beat Detective Selection” on page 336.
Beat Detective, Selection options
As long as the audio material is correctly
aligned with the session’s tempo map, use
Capture Selection each time you make a
new selection or make any changes to the
tempo map (such as changing tempo or
meter).
2 Select Bar|Beat Marker Generation mode.
3 In the Detection section (Normal mode), click
Analyze.
4 Set the Sensitivity slider set to 0%
The Selection definition is not retained
when a session is closed and re-opened
Beat Detective, Detection mode
4 To improve Beat Detective’s accuracy in ana-
lyzing swung notes, select the Contains option
that indicates the smallest sub-division of the
beat contained in the selection. The Contains
options include eighth-note, sixteenth-note
(the default setting), thirty-second-note, and
triplet modifier. In Pro Tools 6.x, the selected
Contains option determines the groove template grid locations for DigiGroove templates.
5 Click Generate.
Bar|Beat Markers are automatically generated at
the beginning and end of the selection, indicating the material’s tempo and meter.
Beat Detective generated Bar|Beat Markers identifying
tempo and meter
Chapter 22: Beat Detective
337
Generating Beat Triggers
Once you’ve accurately defined the selection
range, Beat Detective can generate beat triggers
based on detected peak transients. The range
and type of transients found can be adjusted
with the Detection settings, allowing you to
zero in on the bars, beats, and sub-beats in the
material, while avoiding the non-rhythmic content.
6 Depending on the rhythmic content of the se-
lection, set the Resolution to Bars, Beats, or SubBeats.
7 Adjust the Sensitivity slider until beat triggers
appear on the beats and sub-beats in the selection.
Bar triggers are indicated with thick lines, beat
triggers with medium lines, and sub-beat triggers with thin lines.
Beat
Sub-Beats
Bar
Beat Detective, Detection (Normal mode) options
Beat triggers
To generate beat triggers for the selection:
8 In Pro Tools 6.x, you can zoom to the sample
1 In the Edit window, make an audio selection.
level and click the Scroll Next button to scroll to
the next trigger within the selection. To scroll to
the previous trigger, Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the Scroll Next button
(see “Navigating Consecutive Beat Triggers” on
page 341). This is useful to confirm that the beat
triggers are appearing in the appropriate locations. If false triggers appear between the beats or
sub-beats (representing non-rhythmic material)
delete them (see “Deleting Beat Triggers” on
page 339), or reduce the Sensitivity value.
2 In the Beat Detective window, select one of
the following modes:
• Bar|Beat Marker Generation
• Groove Template Extraction (Pro Tools 6.x
only)
• Region Separation
3 Define or capture the selection as described in
“Defining a Beat Detective Selection” on
page 336.
4 From the Analysis pop-up menu, choose one
9 To display the metric locations for the triggers,
select the Show Trigger Time option.
of the following detection algorithms:
• High Emphasis, works well with high frequency, inharmonic material, such as cymbals and hi-hats, while avoiding low
frequency material.
• Low Emphasis, works well with low frequency material, such as bass guitar and
kick drum, as well as with most harmonic
material, such as piano or rhythm guitar.
5 Click the Analyze button.
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10 If you cannot get the beat triggers to appear
at the right locations, repeat steps 4–9 trying the
other Analysis algorithm (High or Low Emphasis). In addition, see the following tips.
Tips for Getting Useful Beat Triggers
Editing Beat Triggers
Use the following tips to verify beat triggers:
Even though Beat Detective offers a great deal of
flexibility in how transients are detected, there
may be times when beat triggers must be deleted, moved, or manually inserted. Additionally, triggers can be promoted so they are retained at lower sensitivity settings.
To focus on a particular area in the selection,
unlink the Edit and Timeline Selections and set
the playback range by clicking or dragging in
any Timebase Ruler.
◆
Check the thickness of the beat triggers to see
if they align properly with the audio material.
Thick triggers fall on barlines, medium triggers
fall on beats, and thin triggers fall on sub-beats.
◆
Select the option for Show Trigger Time and
see if the (assumed) metric locations of the triggers align with the material. A false trigger
should be moved or deleted because it can cause
subsequent triggers to appear in the wrong locations (see “Editing Beat Triggers” on page 339).
◆
Consider whether lengthy selections should
first be broken down into smaller selections,
which could be more easily managed. For example, working in 8- or 4-bar sections might yield
better results more quickly.
◆
For selections across multiple tracks, consider
whether it may be easier to work with them individually, or in Collection mode (see “Detection (Normal) and Collection Mode” on
page 349).
◆
Deleting Beat Triggers
False triggers, which do not represent an actual
beat or sub-beat in the source material, may appear when raising the Sensitivity slider to detect
quiet material. In these instances you can locate
and manually delete any false triggers.
To delete a beat trigger:
1 With the Beat Detective window open, choose
the Grabber tool in the Edit window.
2 Locate the false trigger you want to delete.
Transients for false triggers usually have smaller
peaks than the other trigger points, and typically fall between the sub-beats.
Deleting a beat trigger
3 Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macin-
tosh) the trigger to delete it.
Moving Beat Triggers
You can adjust the placement of triggers to allow for the attack of their transients, or to compensate for an individual transient that is
slightly ahead of or behind the beat.
Chapter 22: Beat Detective
339
To move a beat trigger:
Promoting Beat Triggers
1 With the Beat Detective window open, choose
the Grabber tool in the Edit window.
To ensure that important beat triggers do not
disappear when lowering the Sensitivity value,
you can promote them. This is useful if a selection has numerous false triggers (too many to
bother deleting) at a Sensitivity level where crucial, necessary beat triggers are also displayed. If
lowering the Sensitivity slider causes the needed
triggers to disappear, simply promote them first.
2 Locate the beat trigger you want to move and
drag it left or right.
To promote a beat trigger:
1 Raise the Sensitivity slider until the desired
transient is detected and a beat trigger appears.
2 Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the beat trigger to promote it.
3 If necessary, repeat steps 1–2 to promote addi-
tional beat triggers.
Moving a beat trigger
4 Lower the Sensitivity slider to a value where
Inserting Beat Triggers
the false triggers disappear.
If an important beat or sub-beat is not detected,
because it is too quiet, you can manually insert a
beat trigger.
Once beat triggers are promoted, they will only
disappear if the Sensitivity value is set to 0%. To
demote all beat triggers in the selection—returning them to their original state—click the Analyze button.
To insert a beat trigger:
1 With the Beat Detective window open, choose
the Grabber tool in the Edit window.
2 Click in the selection where you want to insert
the new trigger. After inserting a beat trigger,
you can drag it left or right to adjust its placement (see “Moving Beat Triggers” on page 339).
If you click too close to an existing trigger, the
existing trigger will be moved to the new location.
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Redefining a Beat Trigger’s Metric
Location
It is vital that beat triggers are accurately placed
at the correct metric location. If a detected transient is slightly off the beat, Beat Detective may
assign it, as well as other transients in the selection, to the wrong metric location.
For example, if you have a bass track where a
note was intended to be a downbeat, but was
played too early, Beat Detective may define its
location as occurring a little before the down-
beat. If you then separate and conform the region containing this note, it will be moved to
the wrong location. Subsequent regions may be
moved to the wrong locations as well.
If a beat trigger is not assigned the correct metric
location, relocate it using Identify Trigger.
To change the metric location of a beat trigger:
1 Double-click the beat trigger you want to relo-
cate. The Identify Trigger dialog opens.
2 In the Identify Trigger dialog, enter the correct
location for the trigger, then click OK.
Identify Trigger dialog
Navigating Consecutive Beat Triggers
Use the Scroll Next button to move from the
currently selected beat trigger to the next beat
trigger. To move to the previous beat trigger,
Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the Scroll Next button. This is particularly
useful for editing consecutive beat triggers when
zoomed in at the sample level.
Generating Bar|Beat Markers
with Beat Detective
Once Beat Detective has accurately detected the
peak transients in the audio selection and accurately generated beat triggers, the triggers can be
converted to Bar|Beat Markers. Bar|Beat Markers
generated by Beat Detective create a tempo map
that can be used throughout the session.
Once beat triggers are accurately represented according to Bars, Beats, and Sub-Beats, other audio regions and MIDI notes can be conformed to
the Bar|Beat Markers generated by Beat Detective.
If you want to match the audio material to the
session’s existing tempo map or a groove template, do not generate Bar|Beat Markers from the
material. Instead, use Beat Detective to separate
and conform the material (see “Separating Regions with Beat Detective” on page 344).
To generate Bar|Beat Markers with Beat
Detective:
1 In the Edit window, make an audio selection.
2 In the Beat Detective window, select Bar|Beat
Marker Generation mode.
3 Define or capture the selection as described in
“Defining a Beat Detective Selection” on
page 336.
4 Set the Detection resolution to Bars or Beats,
and configure the Detection settings so the selection’s peak transients are accurately detected
(see “Generating Beat Triggers” on page 338).
5 Click the Generate button.
Chapter 22: Beat Detective
341
Bar|Beat Markers are generated, based on the
beat triggers, and appear in the Tempo Ruler.
DigiGroove Templates
Bar|Beat Markers generated at Bar resolution
Beat Detective allows the fine timing nuances of
a rhythmic performance to be extracted and
saved as a groove template, called a DigiGroove
template. DigiGrooves can be saved locally to
the Groove Clipboard, or saved to disk as DigiGrooves.
Groove templates can be used to transfer the feel
of a particular performance to:
• Selected audio regions using Groove Conform
(see “Groove Conform” on page 347).
Bar|Beat Markers generated at Beat resolution
Working with Sub-Beats
Tempo is derived from Bar|Beat Markers.
Groove, or feel, is derived from Sub-Beats—the
deviation of subdivisions of the beat from the
strict tempo grid determines the groove or feel.
To extract the groove from a selection, set the
Detection Resolution to Sub-Beats. This ensures
that the inner rhythms within each bar (if they
indeed exist) are represented when generating
Bar|Beat Markers. These Bar|Beat Markers can
then be used to quantize other audio regions or
MIDI tracks, thereby conforming to the Bar|Beat
Markers generated by Beat Detective.
When quantizing regions or MIDI notes to
Bar|Beat Markers on sub-beats that represent a swing feel, make sure to use a
straight quantize value (with the Swing option for Quantize disabled).
• Selected MIDI data using Groove Quantize
(see “Groove Quantize” on page 385).
Groove templates are “quantization maps” derived from real musical performances. The
rhythmic character of each performance is analyzed and stored as a groove template. Beat Detective analyzes an audio selection for transient
peaks according to a defined threshold and
maps the rhythmic relationships to a 960 parts
per quarter note (ppq) template.
When create DigiGroove templates, Beat Detective also analyzes the dynamics of a performance. Accents and peak levels are incorporated
into the groove template as velocity data, which
can be applied to change the dynamics of MIDI
tracks. Beat Detective translates amplitude to
MIDI velocity according to a linear scale. For example, a 0 dBFS signal equals a MIDI velocity of
127, a signal at –6 dBFS equals a MIDI velocity of
64, a signal at –12 dBFS equals a MIDI velocity of
32, and –48 dBFS equals a MIDI velocity of 1.
Capturing this information is very important to
preserving the feel of a performance, and can
add life to MIDI tracks that lack dynamics.
Beat Detective does not capture duration
data.
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To extract a Groove Template:
1 In the Edit window, make an audio selection.
The selection should consist of one or more
complete bars, starting and ending on downbeats.
When extracting Groove Templates, the
captured selection must not include
Bar|Beat Markers. Otherwise, the accuracy
of the Groove Template will be compromised.
2 In the Beat Detective window, select Groove
Template Extraction mode.
3 Define or capture the selection as described in
“Defining a Beat Detective Selection” on
page 336.
4 Configure the Detection options so the selec-
tion’s peak transients are accurately detected
(see “Generating Beat Triggers” on page 338).
5 Click the Extract button.
6 In the Extract Groove Template dialog, enter
comments about the groove. You can enter a
maximum of 255 characters to describe the
groove. Comments can be viewed using the
Show Info button in the Beat Detective window.
Extract Groove Template dialog
7 Do one of the following:
• To save the extracted template for use in
the current session, without writing the
template file to disk, click Save To Groove
Clipboard. (This template will be lost when
you close the current session.)
• To save the extracted template to disk in order to use it in other sessions or share it
with other Pro Tools users, click Save To
Disk. Enter a name for the template and
click Save. (Do not change the location of
DigiGroove template files and folders or
they will not be available in your sessions.)
• Click Cancel to cancel without saving the
template.
Use folders and subdirectories to organize
DigiGroove templates. However, be sure
they are always located in
Applications/Digidesign/Pro Tools/Groove.
Groove template files located elsewhere will
not be available in either Groove Quantize
or Beat Detective).
Swing Content for Generating Groove
Templates
When defining swing content of the selection,
select the Contains eighth-note option if the audio selection has a heavily swung eighth-note
groove. If the audio selection has relatively
straight eighth-notes, use the Contains sixteenth-note option. This lets the resultant DigiGroove template be applied more easily elsewhere. Although a groove might be based upon
non-swung eighth-note material, you might
want to apply the template to material that contains sixteenth-notes. If a template only has
eighth-note resolution, but the material being
conformed contains sixteenth-notes, adjacent
sixteenth-notes will be mapped to the same
eighth-note location.
Chapter 22: Beat Detective
343
Groove Extrapolation
To separate regions with Beat Detective:
Beat Detective’s ability to extract tempo data
from a wide range of material is enhanced by its
powerful “groove extrapolation” logic. Groove
extrapolation automatically generates beat triggers for inclusion in groove templates even if a
peak transient is not detected. For example, a
drum loop might not have a hit on beat 3, consequently no peak transient is detected and no
beat trigger is generated. Beat Detective will extrapolate from other beat triggers in the selection and create a trigger for beat 3 in the groove
template.
1 In the Edit window, make an audio selection.
In addition, extrapolated triggers preserve the
feel of triggers generated from detected peak
transients. For example, if a bar of kick drum detected three beat triggers, all of which were 20
ticks ahead of the beat, any extrapolated beat
triggers will also be mapped 20 ticks ahead of
the beat.
2 In the Beat Detective window, select Region
Separation mode.
3 Define or capture the selection as described in
“Defining a Beat Detective Selection” on
page 336.
4 Configure the Detection options so the selec-
tion’s peak transients are accurately detected
(see “Generating Beat Triggers” on page 338).
5 Click the Separate button.
Regions are separated based on the detected beat
triggers.
Trigger Pad
When separating regions, the Beat Detective
window displays an option called Trigger Pad.
Separating Regions with
Beat Detective
Once beat triggers appear in your selection, they
can be used to define start and end points for
new regions that can be separated automatically. The new regions can then be conformed
to the session’s existing tempo map, or to a
groove template (Pro Tools 6.x only).
If you want to clean up the timing for the selection, without affecting the tempo, make sure to
first calculate the tempo by generating Bar|Beat
Markers (see “Calculating Tempo with Beat Detective” on page 337).
Detection settings, Region Separation mode
Enter a value (0–50 ms) in this field to pad region start points—where the point of separation
is located in relation to the beat trigger (transient). This creates a space between the region
start point and the region sync point, thereby
ensuring that the attack portion of the material
remains intact.
Region start
(point of separation)
20 ms
Sync point
(beat trigger)
Separated region with 20 ms Trigger Pad
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When conforming separated regions, the region
sync point, not the region start point, determines where the region is placed.
For more information on region sync points,
see “Defining Region Sync Points” on
page 265.
Extending the selection to the snare, hi-hat, and
overhead microphones tracks, and then performing the separation, results in separated regions in each of the drum tracks at the same location, based on the beat triggers from the kick
drum track (see Figure 20).
Separating Multiple Tracks
You can use beat triggers from a single track, or
subset of tracks, to separate a group of tracks.
In the following example, the defined selection
is a drum loop consisting of two bars of 5/4. The
kick, snare, hi-hat, and overhead microphones
are recorded to separate tracks.
Analyzing the loop’s kick drum track, with Detection Resolution set to Beats, Beat Detective
places beat triggers at the transients on beats 1
and 4 (see Figure 19).
Figure 20. Kick drum, snare, hi-hat, and overhead
microphones tracks
The separated regions can then be conformed as
a group.
Figure 19. Kick drum track
You can also utilize Collection mode when
working with multiple tracks. Collection mode
lets you analyze and detect triggers on tracks individually, and if you choose, add only the
unique triggers from the current track to the
overall collection. For more information, see
“Detection (Normal) and Collection Mode” on
page 349.
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345
Conforming Regions with
Beat Detective
After regions have been separated with Beat Detective, the regions can then be conformed using one of two modes:
Standard Conform Uses the session’s current
tempo map (Grid)
Groove Conform (Pro Tools 6.x only) Uses groove
templates.
Beat Detective will conform any selected region,
whether or not it was separated with Beat Detective. However, in order to successfully conform
regions with Beat Detective, the region start
points must correspond to the start of the material that will align with the session’s bars and
beats. This should generally not be a problem if
the regions were separated with Beat Detective
(rather than manually separated or trimmed).
Standard Conform
This is similar to using the Quantize Regions
command, but with one important difference:
With a single operation, Beat Detective can adjust the position of all regions, whether they
have a straight or swing feel.
To conform regions using Standard Conform:
1 In the Beat Detective window, select Region
Conform mode.
2 In Pro Tools 6.x, make sure Standard is se-
lected.
3 In the Edit window, if not already selected, select the separated regions you want to conform.
Make sure the selection’s start and end points
fall cleanly on the beat.
4 In the Beat Detective window, define or recapture the selection as described in “Defining a
Beat Detective Selection” on page 336.
5 To affect how strongly the regions are conformed to the Grid (tempo map), select the
Strength option and specify a percentage value
with either the slider or by typing in a value:
• Lower percentage values preserve the original feel of the regions.
• Higher percentage values align the regions
more tightly to the tempo map, with 100%
aligning precisely to the tempo map.
To “tighten up” the original feel, while retaining it, set the Strength option to
85–88%.
6 To affect which regions are conformed, select
the Exclude Within option and specify a percentage value with the slider or by typing in a
value:
Beat Detective, Standard Conform options
• Lower percentage values ensure that regions further away from the Grid are conformed, while those closer to the Grid are
not.
• Higher percentage values ensure that regions closer to the Grid, as well as those
further away, are conformed.
To “tighten up” the original feel, while retaining it, set the Exclude Within option to
10–15%.
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7 To achieve a swing feel for the conformed re-
gions, select the Swing option and whether the
swing is based on eighth-notes or sixteenthnotes, then specify a percentage value with the
slider or by typing in a value:
• Smaller percentage values yield less swing,
with 0% yielding none.
• Larger percentage values yield more swing,
with 100% yielding a triplet, swing feel.
• Percentage values between 100–150 move
the regions beyond a triplet, swing feel, toward the next sixteenth-note boundary
(provided the Swing note value is set to
eighth-notes).
Groove Conform
(Pro Tools 6.x Only)
Instead of using a grid based on the session’s
tempo map, Groove Conform uses a grid based
on a groove template, or DigiGroove. DigiGrooves can be used to apply the feel of a captured passage to the selected audio regions. For
information about creating DigiGroove templates, see “DigiGroove Templates” on
page 342.
To conform regions using Groove Conform:
1 In the Beat Detective window, select Region
Conform mode.
If Beat Detective has successfully captured
enough of the sub-beats from a selection before separating, you can successfully conform with the Swing option to change the
groove from a “straight” feel to one that is
swung. You can also import a groove template containing a swing feel (see “Groove
Conform” on page 347).
8 Click the Conform button to automatically
conform all regions in the selection.
Regions conformed with Beat Detective
9 Audition the new conformed regions by clicking Play in the Transport window.
10 If necessary, select Edit > Undo, and repeat
steps 4–8 trying a different set of Conform settings.
– or –
If necessary, apply Edit Smoothing (see “Edit
Smoothing” on page 348).
2 Select Groove.
Beat Detective, Groove Conform options
3 In the Edit window, if not already selected, select the separated regions you want to conform.
Make sure the selection’s start and end points
fall cleanly on the beat.
4 In the Beat Detective window, define or recapture the selection as described in “Defining a
Beat Detective Selection” on page 336.
When using Groove Conform, the captured
selection must not include Bar|Beat Markers. Otherwise, the accuracy of the Groove
Template will be compromised.
5 From the Groove Template pop-up menu, se-
lect the Groove Clipboard or a saved groove
template (for information on creating groove
templates, see “DigiGroove Templates” on
page 342).
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347
6 To see comments about the selected template,
click Show Info.
9 Click the Conform button to automatically
7 To affect how strongly the regions are con-
10 Audition the new conformed regions by
clicking Play in the Transport window.
formed to the groove template, select the Timing option and specify a percentage value with
either the slider or by typing in a value:
• Lower percentage values preserve the original feel of the regions.
conform all regions in the selection.
11 If necessary, select Edit > Undo, and repeat
steps 4–9 trying a different groove template or
Groove Conform settings.
– or –
• Higher percentage values align the regions
more tightly to the groove templates grid,
with 100% aligning precisely to the template grid.
If necessary, apply Edit Smoothing (see “Edit
Smoothing” on page 348).
• If the slider is set to 200%, regions move to
a location that is twice the difference between the original region location and the
position of the referenced template event.
Edit Smoothing
For example, if a note was played at Bar 1|1|060
(a 16th note), and the corresponding template
event is at 1|1|073, a slider value of 100% results
in the note being shifted to 1|1|073; a slider
value of 200% shifts the note to 1|1|086.
8 If desired, enable the Pre-Process using Standard Conform option. With this option enabled, Beat Detective conforms regions to the
current Standard Conform settings before applying the groove template. With material in
which the performance was not accurate, PreProcess using Standard Conform can lead to better results by ensuring that the performance is
accurately mapped to the correct bars, beats,
and sub-beats before the groove template is applied. Experimentation is the best way to determine when it is appropriate to use this option.
When conforming an audio passage to a
heavily swung groove template, enabling
Pre-Process using Standard Conform will often yield better results.
After regions are conformed, there may be gaps
between the regions. These gaps can cause the
material to sound unnatural on playback.
Beat Detective, Smoothing options
Beat Detective can automatically fill the gaps between regions, and even add crossfades if you
choose. This Edit Smoothing option can be used
with regions that have been conformed, or with
a track that contains many regions that need to
be trimmed and crossfaded (such as in a sound
effects track). This automated process of
smoothing region edits can save many hours of
tedious editing.
To use Edit Smoothing on conformed regions:
1 In the Beat Detective window, select Edit
Smoothing mode.
2 Select one of the following Smoothing op-
tions:
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• Select Fill Gaps to trim region end points so
that the gaps between regions are filled.
• Select Fill And Crossfade to trim region end
points and automatically add a pre-fade (in
ms) directly before each region start point.
3 In the Edit window, if not already selected, se-
lect the range of conformed audio regions you
want to smooth. Make sure the selection’s start
and end points fall cleanly on the beat.
4 Click the Smooth button to smooth the edits
for the selected regions.
Regions before and after Edit Smoothing
5 Audition the results by clicking Play in the
Transport window.
6 If necessary, select Edit > Undo, and repeat
steps 2–5 trying a different Crossfade Length.
Edit Smoothing Creates Sync Points
After smoothing edits with Beat Detective, sync
points (corresponding to the material’s start
point) are automatically created for the conformed regions. This allows you to later conform the regions to a different tempo map or
groove template, or use different Conform settings. However, sync points are only created as
they are needed: If gaps between regions are created during Region Conform, Fill Gaps in Edit
Smoothing mode will trim regions to fill the gap
and a sync point will be created at each region’s
original start point. If there is no gap between
regions, no sync point will be created by Edit
Smoothing.
For more information on region sync points,
see “Defining Region Sync Points” on
page 265.
Consolidating Regions after Edit
Smoothing
The process of separating, conforming, and
smoothing with Beat Detective can leave tracks
with many regions and many crossfades. If you
are working with multiple tracks, the density of
these edits may lead to system performance
problems.
Once you are satisfied with the results from Beat
Detective, it is recommended that you flatten
the tracks with the Consolidate Selection command. For all regions selected, Consolidate Selection creates a single, contiguous audio file to
reduce the session’s edit density. See “Consolidate Selection Command” on page 310.
Before consolidating a large selection across
multiple tracks, make sure there is enough
RAM available. See “RAM Requirements for
Beat Detective” on page 334.
Detection (Normal) and
Collection Mode
In some instances, it may be difficult for Beat
Detective to successfully analyze multiple tracks
with the same Detection settings. With Beat Detective’s Collection mode, you can collect a set
of beat triggers from different tracks, each with
different Detection settings, and use the collection of triggers to generate Bar|Beat Markers or
Chapter 22: Beat Detective
349
DigiGroove templates, or separate new regions.
Collection mode is the only way to analyze and
create beat triggers on one track, and apply
them to another track.
This method of selectively adding beat triggers
from separate analysis passes on different tracks,
until you get only the triggers you want, is potentially much more effective than manually
deleting, inserting, or adjusting incorrect or
false triggers.
tion, or you can choose to collect only the
unique triggers from a track. The collection of
triggers that results can then be used to generate
Bar|Beat Markers or a DigiGroove template, or
separate new regions.
Using Collection Mode
Drum Tracks and Collection Mode
Collection mode is available in Bar|Beat Marker
Generation, Groove Template Extraction, or Region Separation mode, and is accessed by clicking the Collection Mode button in the Detection section.
Suppose you have drum tracks for kick, snare,
hi-hat, and overhead mics. If you analyze a selection across all of the tracks, you may get
many false triggers when you raise the Sensitivity slider high enough to capture the hi-hat material (coming mainly from the tracks for the
overhead mics).
Beat Detective, Collection mode options
However, if you analyze only the track for the
overhead mics, the resulting beat triggers are
slightly later than the material on the other
tracks (since it will take more time for the sound
to reach the overhead mics). If you then extend
the selection to the other drum tracks and separate them, the regions from the kick, snare, and
tom tracks will be cut slightly late (see Figure 21
below).
To use Collection mode:
1 In the Edit window, make an audio selection
on a single track. Make sure the selection’s start
and end points fall cleanly on the beat.
2 In the Beat Detective window, select one of
the following modes:
• Bar|Beat Marker Generation
• Groove Template Extraction (Pro Tools 6.x
only)
• Region Separation
Figure 21. Overhead mics generate late beat triggers
Using Collection mode, you can analyze each
drum track separately, one at a time, optimizing
the Detection settings for each track until you
get the triggers you want. The triggers for each
track can be added successively to the collec350
Pro Tools Reference Guide
3 Define or capture the selection as described in
“Defining a Beat Detective Selection” on
page 336.
4 Configure the Detection options so the selec-
tion’s peak transients are accurately detected
(see “Generating Beat Triggers” on page 338).
5 Click the Collection Mode button.
6 In the Detection (Collection Mode) section,
click Add to add all the current beat triggers to
the collection.
7 Click the Normal Mode button and move the
selection to the next track you want to analyze.
Make sure to keep the selection range constant
for each track.
Press Start+P (Windows) or Control+P
(Macintosh) to move the selection up, or
Start+Semi-colon (Windows) or Control+Semi-colon (Macintosh) to move the
selection down.
With Commands Focus enabled, press “P”
to move the selection up, or Semi-colon (;) to
move the selection down. Hold down the
Shift key to retain and add to the current selection
8 Configure the Detection options so the selec-
tion’s peak transients are accurately detected
(see “Generating Beat Triggers” on page 338).
9 Click the Collection Mode button again.
Beat triggers
detected in Kick track
added to collection
Unique beat triggers
detected in Snare track
added to collection
Unique beat triggers
detected in Hi-hat track
added to collection
Collected beat triggers
applied to Overhead
microphones track
Figure 22. Overhead mic track displaying a collection of beat triggers containing unique triggers generated from the
kick, snare, and hi-hat tracks
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351
10 In the Detection (Collection Mode) section,
click Add Unique Triggers to add only the unique
triggers from the track to the collection
(Pro Tools 6.x only).
– or –
Click Add All to add all triggers to the collection.
– or –
Click Clear All to clear all triggers from the collection.
Each new set of triggers added to the collection
appears in a different color. If successive triggers
in the collection are located closely together (for
example, because of microphone leakage), Beat
Detective keeps only the earlier triggers (see
Figure 22).
11 Repeat steps 7–10 for each additional track
you are analyzing.
The beat triggers stored in the Collection mode
are saved with sessions. Therefore, when a session is opened later, the previous collection material is still there (until it is cleared).
12 Once the desired beat triggers have been
added to the collection, you can use them to
generate Bar|Beat Markers or groove template, or
separate regions. However, this must be done
from the Collection Mode sub-pane (when the
triggers are displayed in multiple colors).
To separate regions across multiple tracks,
make sure to extend the selection to any additional tracks before separating.
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Part V: MIDI Editing
353
354
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
Pro Tools provides powerful MIDI editing tools.
You can create and edit individual MIDI notes
and controller events with the Pencil, Trimmer,
and Grabber in the Edit window. You can also
use the various MIDI Operations (such as Quantize, Transpose, Change Velocity, and Change
Duration) to transform groups of MIDI notes to
affect pitch, timing, and phrasing. For information on region-specific editing for both MIDI
and audio, see Chapter 17, “Working with Regions and Selections.”
2 Select a Pencil tool shape.
The Pencil Tool
Pencil tool shape pop-up menu
The Pencil tool is useful for creating and editing
MIDI data. The Pencil tool shapes (Freehand,
Line, Triangle, Square, and Random) can be
used to enter pitches with varying durations and
velocities (note velocities are determined by the
Pencil shape). The various Pencil tool shapes
can be particularly useful for drawing and editing different types of MIDI control data—for example, try using Line for volume, Triangle for
pan, Freehand for pitch bend, and Square or
Random for velocity.
To select the Pencil tool shape:
1 Click the Pencil tool icon in the Tool Bar for
the Pencil tool shape pop-up menu.
Freehand
When in Note view, the Freehand shape inserts
a single MIDI note whose velocity is defined by
the Default Note On Velocity MIDI preference
(Setups > Preferences > MIDI). The pitch, location, and duration of the note are determined
by where on the MIDI track you click and release
with the mouse.
When editing MIDI velocities or continuous
controller data, the Freehand shape draws freely
according to the movement of the mouse. The
shape is reproduced as a series of steps according
to the Pencil Tool Resolution. When Drawing
Controller Data MIDI preference (Setups > Preferences > MIDI).
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
355
Line
When in Note view, the Line shape inserts a series of MIDI notes on a single pitch whose velocities are defined by the Default Note On Velocity
MIDI preference (Setups > Preferences > MIDI).
The duration of each note is determined by the
current Grid value.
When editing MIDI velocities or continuous
controller data, the Line shape draws in a
straight line from click to release. MIDI continuous controller values change in steps according
to the Pencil Tool Resolution When Drawing
Controller Data MIDI preference (Setups > Preferences > MIDI).
Triangle
When in Note view, the Triangle shape inserts a
series of MIDI notes on a single pitch whose velocities oscillate between the defined Default
Note On Velocity MIDI preference (Setups >
Preferences > MIDI) and 127 according to a triangle pattern. The duration of each note is determined by the current Grid value.
When editing MIDI velocities or continuous
controller data, the Triangle shape draws a triangular pattern that changes direction according
to the current Grid value. MIDI controller values
change in steps according to the Pencil Tool Resolution When Drawing Controller Data MIDI
preference (Setups > Preferences > MIDI).
Square
When in Note view, the Square shape inserts a
series of MIDI notes on a single pitch whose velocities alternate between the defined Default
Note On Velocity MIDI preference (Setups >
Preferences > MIDI) and 127. The duration of
each note is determined by the current Grid
value.
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When editing MIDI velocities or continuous
controller data, the Square shape draws a square
pattern that repeats at a rate based on the current Grid value.
Random
When in Note view, the Random shape inserts a
series of MIDI notes on a single pitch whose velocities change randomly within the range between the defined Default Note On Velocity
MIDI preference (Setups > Preferences > MIDI)
and 127. The duration of each note is determined by the current Grid value.
When editing MIDI velocities or continuous
controller data, the Random shape draws a series of random values that change at a rate based
on the current Grid value.
Custom Note Duration
(Pro Tools 6.x Only)
The Custom Note Duration command lets you
define the default note duration for inserting
notes manually.
To select a Custom Note Duration:
1 Click the Pencil tool icon in the Tool Bar for
the Pencil tool shape pop-up menu.
2 Select Custom Note Duration. A note icon will
appear below the Pencil tool icon in the Tool
Bar.
Pencil tool with note icon
3 Click the note icon for the Custom Note Du-
ration pop-up menu, and select a note duration.
Inserting MIDI Notes
The note icon changes to show the selected note
value.
In addition to recording and importing MIDI
into Pro Tools, you can manually insert MIDI
notes using the Pencil tool.
To insert a MIDI note:
1 Set the MIDI track to Notes view.
2 Select the Pencil tool and make sure it is set to
Freehand. The cursor will change to the Pencil
when located over the playlist area of a MIDI
track in Note view.
Custom Note Duration pop-up menu
Pencil tool set to Freehand
3 To insert quarter notes on the beat, set the
Setting the Grid Value
When inserting MIDI notes, the Grid Value determines the duration of each note, or other
characteristics, based on the Pencil tool shape
(see “The Pencil Tool” on page 355).
Time Scale to Bars:Beats, and set the Edit mode
to Grid and the Grid value to quarter notes
(0|1|000).
4 Move the Pencil into the playlist area for the
MIDI track. Use the Edit window’s Ruler and the
track’s mini-keyboard to locate the pitch and
time location you want.
To set the Grid value for MIDI editing:
1 Set the Main Time Scale to Bars:Beats (see “Set-
ting the Main Time Scale” on page 234).
When using the Pencil, the Current Cursor display in the Options Bar provides information
about its time location.
2 From the Grid Value selector, select a note
value (such as 1/4, 1/8, or 1/16).
3 Verify the default session meter and tempo
Current Cursor display
(see “Setting the Default Meter” on page 153
and “Setting the Default Tempo” on page 153).
For more information on Grid mode, see
“Grid” on page 225.
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
357
5 When you reach the pitch and time location
you want, click to insert the note.
The Pencil can be dragged after clicking (and before releasing) to adjust the note’s pitch or duration. Click and drag right to lengthen the note
without changing its start point. Click and drag
left to shorten the note without changing its
end point.
MIDI note inserted with the Pencil
With the Smart tool active (see “The Smart
Tool” on page 288), Start-click (Windows)
or Control-click (Macintosh) to change the
cursor to the Pencil tool and insert MIDI
notes; Option-Control-click (Macintosh) or
Alt-Start-click (Macintosh) to delete notes.
In Pro Tools 6.x, with Grid mode enabled,
the start point of the MIDI note snaps to the
nearest Grid boundary by default. Controlclick (Windows) or Command-click (Macintosh) with the Pencil to temporarily disable snap to grid.
The velocity for inserted notes is determined by
the Default Note On Velocity MIDI preference
(Setups > Preferences > MIDI). When in Grid
mode, the duration of the note is determined by
the Edit window’s Grid value. In Pro Tools 6.x,
the duration of the note can also be determined
by the Custom Note Duration value (see “Custom Note Duration” on page 356).
If the “Play MIDI Notes when Editing” preference is enabled (Setups > Preferences > MIDI),
each inserted note will sound.
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Adjusting the duration for an inserted note
In Pro Tools 6.x, with Grid mode enabled,
the end point of the MIDI note snaps to the
nearest Grid boundary by default. Controldrag (Windows) or Command-drag (Macintosh) with the Pencil to temporarily disable
snap to grid.
In Pro Tools 5.x, with Grid mode enabled,
Control-drag (Windows) or Command-drag
(Macintosh) with the Pencil to snap the
note’s end point to the nearest Grid boundary.
The Pencil tool shapes (Line, Triangle, Square,
and Random) can be used to enter a series of
identical pitches with varying velocities. The
length and spacing for the inserted notes are determined by the current Grid value, or by the
Custom Note Duration value (Pro Tools 6.x
only). The note velocities are determined by the
Pencil shape.
Use the Square shape for alternating velocities of
loud and soft. Use the Triangle shape for a ramp
up and down of velocities. The Line shape enters notes with identical velocities.
To insert a series of notes with random velocities:
To select MIDI notes:
1 Set the MIDI track to Notes view.
■ With the Grabber or Pencil, Shift-click each
note.
2 Select the Pencil tool and make sure it is set to
Random.
– or –
■ With the Grabber, move the cursor to where
there are no notes (the Marquee appears) and
click and draw a rectangle around the group of
notes.
Pencil tool set to Random
3 Set the Time Scale to Bars:Beats. In addition,
set the Edit mode to Grid and the Grid value to
quarter notes (0|1|000).
With these settings, the inserted notes will be
spaced one quarter note apart.
4 Click at the point where the first note will be
inserted and drag to the right until you have the
number of notes you want.
Selecting notes with the Grabber
When using the Grabber, if any portion of the
rectangle touches a note (either its start or end
point), the note is included in the selection. Selections made with the Grabber do not include
underlying controller and automation data for
the MIDI track.
Inserting a series of notes with the Pencil
– or –
■
With the Selector, drag across a range of notes.
Manually Editing MIDI Notes
All aspects of a MIDI note can be edited from the
Edit window, including start and end points,
duration, pitch, and velocity. The Grabber, Pencil, and Selector can operate on individual notes
or groups of notes.
Selecting MIDI Notes
Selecting notes with the Selector
MIDI notes must be selected, before they can be
edited.
When using the Selector, a note’s start point
must be included in order for it to be selected.
When a MIDI track is in Notes or Regions View,
selections made with the Selector include underlying controller and automation data.
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
359
To select a single pitch for the entire length of a
track:
■ On the mini-keyboard, regardless of the currently selected edit tool, Control-Shift-click
(Windows) or Command-Shift-click (Macintosh) the note.
The Shift key ensures that the transposed note
retains its start point. While dragging, each new
note sounds and the Current Cursor display indicates the number of semitones and direction
(+/–) for the transpose.
To transpose a copy of the note, leaving the
original unchanged, press Control (Windows) or Option (Macintosh) while dragging.
Moving Notes
Selecting a pitch from the mini-keyboard
■ With the Grabber or Pencil, Shift-click the
notes so they become deselected.
Like regions, MIDI notes can be dragged left or
right with the Grabber or Pencil to change their
start point. If several notes are selected before
dragging, each is moved.
Transposing Notes
To move a MIDI note:
MIDI notes can be transposed by dragging up or
down with the Grabber or Pencil. If several
notes are selected before dragging, each is transposed.
1 Set the MIDI track to Notes view.
To deselect one or more notes from a selection:
To transpose a MIDI note:
1 Set the MIDI track to Notes view.
2 Select the Grabber or Pencil.
3 While pressing Shift, drag the note up or
down.
2 With the Grabber or Pencil, drag the note left
or right (press Shift while dragging to preserve
the note’s pitch).
As the note is dragged, the Current Cursor display indicates the new start point.
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged note
snaps to the nearest Grid boundary. If the Edit
mode is set to Spot, the Spot dialog opens.
To copy the selected notes, leaving the originals intact, press Control (Windows) or
Option (Macintosh) while dragging.
Transposing with the Grabber
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The placement of MIDI notes can also be
adjusted with Shift (see “Shift Command”
on page 278) or Nudge (see “Nudging” on
page 276).
Trimming Note Start and End Times
Like regions, start and end points for MIDI notes
can be adjusted with the Trimmer tool. If several
notes are selected when performing the trim,
each note is changed.
Move the cursor near the end of any of the highlighted notes, so the Trim cursor appears. Drag
left to shorten the notes, drag right to lengthen
them.
In Pro Tools 6.x, the Pencil tool can function like the Trimmer tool for changing the
start and end points of MIDI notes.
To change the start or end points for a group of
MIDI notes:
1 Set the MIDI track to Notes view.
Changing note end times with the Trimmer
2 Using the Grabber or Pencil, Shift-click each
note you want to trim.
3 Select the Trimmer. For TDM systems, make
sure the Standard Trimmer is selected in the
Trimmer Tool pop-up menu.
Trimmer tool set to Standard
– or –
Use the Pencil tool (Pro Tools 6.x only).
4 Move the cursor near the beginning of any of
the highlighted notes, so the Trim cursor appears. Drag right to shorten the notes, or drag
left to lengthen them.
– or –
If using Grid mode, the dragged start or end
point snaps to the nearest Grid boundary. If using Spot mode, the Spot dialog opens, where
you can enter the new location for the note’s
start or end point.
In Pro Tools 6.x, when in Grid mode, use
the Control key (Windows) or the Command key (Macintosh) to temporarily disable Grid mode.
Notes can also be trimmed with the Trim To Selection command (see “Trim To Selection Command” on page 263) and the Trim To Insertion
command (see “Trim To Insertion Command”
on page 270).
Manually Editing Note Velocities
When a MIDI track is set to Velocity view, each
note’s attack velocity is represented with a velocity stalk. The taller the velocity stalk, the
higher the velocity value (0–127).
To edit MIDI velocity:
1 Set the MIDI track to Velocity view.
2 Select the Grabber tool.
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
361
3 Drag the top (diamond) of the velocity stalk
up or down.
3 Click at the beginning of the note range, near
the bottom of the velocity range, and drag to
the right and up until the line encompasses the
range of notes you want to include in the fade.
Dragging a velocity stalk
– or –
If two notes have the same start time (with velocity stalks on top of each other), Control-drag
(Windows) or Command-drag (Macintosh) the
actual note up or down.
Changing velocities with the Line shape
You can also use the Trimmer tool to scale the
velocities for all selected notes. This is useful if
you like the velocity relationship between the
notes, but want them to be louder or softer.
In Pro Tools 6.x, when in Velocity view, the
Trimmer tool can be used to trim note durations in addition to changing velocities.
Editing simultaneous velocities
Drag up to increase the velocity value, or down
to decrease it. While dragging, the diamond
turns blue and the associated note becomes selected. The dragged velocity values are reflected
in the Current Cursor display.
The velocities for a range of notes can be edited
with the Pencil tool, either by Freehand or with
any of the Pencil tool shapes.
To scale velocities with the Trimmer:
1 Set the MIDI track to Velocity view.
2 Using either the Selector or Grabber, select the
range of notes to be edited.
3 With the Trimmer, click near the range of selected notes and drag up or down. Dragging up
increases the velocities for each note; dragging
down decreases them.
To draw velocity values that fade in:
1 Set the MIDI track to Velocity view.
2 Select the Pencil tool with the shape set to
Line.
Changing velocities with the Trimmer
In Pro Tools 6.x, click in the upper 25% of
the track height to scale velocities. When in
Velocity view, clicking in the lower 75% of
the track height lets you trim note lengths.
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Typing in Note Attributes
Multiple Notes and Event Edit Area
When an individual note is selected with the
Grabber or Pencil, its attributes are displayed in
the Event Edit area.
When multiple notes are selected, you can enter
values in the Event Edit area fields to affect all
selected notes. A triangle (delta symbol) to the
left of the displayed note indicates that multiple
notes are selected.
Selection Indicators
Pitch
Attack Velocity
Release Velocity
A new value in the Start field moves the first
note in the selection to that location, with all
other notes moving with it.
Event Edit Area showing MIDI track information
Pitch is listed by note name and octave number.
Attack and release velocities are listed with their
MIDI values (0–127). Times for Start, End, and
Length are displayed in the Main Time Scale.
To change an attribute for a MIDI note:
1 In the MIDI track’s playlist area, select the
note with the Grabber or the Pencil.
Multiple notes in the Event Edit area
Values entered in the pitch and velocity fields
add to or subtract from the values for all selected
notes. For example, to transpose all selected
notes down an octave, enter a value of –12 for
pitch.
2 Click in the Attributes text box and do one of
the following:
• Enter the new value on the numeric keypad.
• Press the Up or Down Arrow to scroll to the
new value.
• In Pro Tools 6.x, drag up or down to scroll
to the new value. In Pro Tools 5.x, press
Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh), then drag up or down to scroll to the
new value.
Deleting MIDI Notes
In addition to deleting selected notes with the
Clear command in the Edit menu, individual
notes can also be deleted with the Pencil tool.
To delete a group of MIDI notes with the Clear
command:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector tool, select the
notes to be deleted. For details, see “Selecting
MIDI Notes” on page 359.
• Play the new note value on your MIDI controller keyboard.
Press the slash key (/) to move between the fields
in the Event Edit area.
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
363
2 Choose Edit > Clear to delete the selected
notes. The track’s underlying controller data remains intact.
– or –
Press the Delete (Backspace) key.
When deleting MIDI notes within a time
range selection, all underlying controller
and automation data is also deleted.
Continuous Controller Events
Continuous controller events for MIDI tracks
are displayed in the form of a line graph with a
series of editable breakpoints. Controller events
for MIDI tracks differ somewhat from automation data for audio tracks in that the breakpoints
are stepped (instead of vector-based), where
each breakpoint represents a single controller
event.
To delete a single MIDI note with the Pencil:
■ With the Pencil tool selected, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Macintosh) so the tool
changes to an Eraser, then click the note to delete it.
MIDI track displaying volume events
Continuous controller events that can be inserted and edited in Pro Tools include:
• volume
Deleting a note with Pencil
• pan
• pitch bend
Program change events and Sysex events
can also be deleted by Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Macintosh) them
with the Pencil tool.
• aftertouch (mono)
• MIDI controllers, 0–127
Polyphonic aftertouch cannot be viewed in
the Edit window. To view polyphonic aftertouch in Pro Tools, use the MIDI Event List
(see Chapter 25, “MIDI Event List”).
MIDI controller #7 (volume) and #10 (pan) are
treated by Pro Tools as automation data. This
means that these controller events (along with
Mutes) can be recorded and automated from the
Mix window; in addition, each MIDI track’s automation mode affects how these events are
played back and recorded. While a MIDI track’s
volume and pan (and mute) events can be suspended, all other controller events in the track
always play.
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To avoid overwriting existing MIDI volume and
pan automation data, record in MIDI Merge
mode. In Pro Tools 6.x, when recording in MIDI
Merge mode, existing volume and pan data will
play back while recording new MIDI data. However, in Pro Tools 5.x, existing volume and pan
data will not play back while recording new
MIDI data.
Continuous controller events (including volume and pan) can be recorded from an external
MIDI controller (such as a keyboard or control
surface), and they can be inserted in a MIDI
track’s playlist using the Grabber or the Pencil.
Inserting/Editing Controller
Events
Continuous controller events can be edited with
any of the following methods:
Individual breakpoints can be dragged with
the Grabber to adjust their location or value.
◆
A group of selected breakpoints can be scaled
up or down with the Trimmer.
◆
New controller events can be drawn in with
the Pencil tool to replace existing events. Events
can be drawn with the Pencil set to Freehand, or
using any of the shapes (Line, Triangle, Square,
or Random).
For details on these editing procedures, see
Chapter 28, “Automation.”
Edits to volume data affect all tracks within
an enabled Edit Group. This is not the case,
however, for other controller playlists (such
as pan). To insert and edit other controller
types across all tracks in an Edit Group,
press the Start key (Windows) or Control
(Macintosh) while performing the edits.
Resolution for Inserted Controller
Events
When inserting controller events with the Pencil, the density of the events is determined by
the MIDI Preference for “Pencil Tool Resolution
When Drawing Controller Data.”
To set the Pencil tool resolution:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, then click the
MIDI tab.
2 Enter a value for “Pencil Tool Resolution
When Drawing Controller Data.” The value
range is from 1 to 100 milliseconds.
◆
3 Click OK.
Controller events can be copied and pasted,
nudged, and shifted.
◆
To copy continuous MIDI controller events
and paste to a different MIDI controller, use
Special Paste: Control+Start+V (Windows)
or Command+Control+V (Macintosh). For
example, you might want to use the same
control data for volume and a cut-off filter,
or for pan and pitch bend. For more information, see “Special Paste Function for Automation Data” on page 472.
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
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Patch Select (Program and
Bank Changes)
Each MIDI track can have a default program
change that is sent each time the track plays.
Additional program changes can be inserted at
any point within the track.
To set the default program change for a MIDI
track:
1 From the Edit or Mix window, click the Pro-
gram button.
About Program and Bank Changes
The MIDI protocol lets you choose from a range
of 128 programs (0–127). Most MIDI instruments have several banks of 128 programs. To
specify which bank you’re selecting from, a bank
select message must be sent. Some instruments
use Controller 0 to switch the bank while others
use Controller 32; some use a combination of
the two. The Patch Select dialog in Pro Tools allows you to use either of these bank select messages when inserting a program change event.
Check the manufacturer’s documentation for
your MIDI device to see which Controller it
uses.
Some older MIDI devices (such as the Kurzweil K1000) use a program change instead
of a Bank Select message to switch banks.
For these devices you may find it necessary
to send two program change messages to access a particular program, where the first
sets the bank and the second sets the program.
Default Program Change
The default program change for each MIDI track
is specified by clicking on the Patch Select button, from either the Edit or Mix window. Once
specified, the default program change message
is sent to your instrument when playing the
track.
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Program button
Program button, Edit window
Program button
Program button, Mix window
2 Do one of the following:
• In the Patch Select dialog, select a program
number.
Patch Select dialog
• If you are using patch name files (Mac OS X
only), choose a bank from the pop-up
menu in the upper right of the Patch Select
dialog and select a patch name. See “Patch
Names” on page 367.
To import MIDI patch names into Pro Tools:
1 Verify the MIDI Device name in Audio MIDI
Setup (Setups > Edit MIDI Studio Setup).
2 Verify the MIDI track’s output is correctly assigned to the MIDI device.
3 Click the MIDI track’s Program button.
4 In the Patch Select dialog, click the Change
button.
5 In the resulting Open dialog, navigate to /Li-
Choosing a bank in Patch Select dialog (Pro Tools 6.x)
3 Click Done.
Once selected, the program number (or patch
name) appears in the Program button in the Edit
window.
brary/Audio/MIDI Patch Names/Digidesign/<name of manufacturer>, and select the
MIDI Patch Name file (.midnam) for the MIDI
device.
6 Click Open.
7 The Patch Select dialog will be populated with
patch names and the Patch Name Bank pop-up
menu will appear in the upper left hand corner
of the window.
patch name
Program button, Edit window
Unlike recorded and inserted program change
events, the default program change does not appear in the track’s playlist.
To clear the default program change, select
None in the Patch Select dialog.
Patch Names
(Mac OS X Only)
Pro Tools supports XML (Extensible Markup
Language) for storing and importing patch
names for you external MIDI devices. Pro Tools
installs MIDI patch name files (.midnam) for the
factory default patch names of many common
MIDI devices. These files reside in directories,
sorted by manufacturer, in /Library/Audio/MIDI
Patch Names/Digidesign/.
Patch Select dialog with patch names
Once patch names have been imported into
Pro Tools, they will be available for that MIDI
device in all sessions.
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367
To clear patch names:
To edit a program change event:
■ In the Patch Select dialog, click the Clear button.
1 With the Grabber or Pencil, double-click the
program change event you want to edit.
MIDI patch name files (.midnam) can be
edited in any text editor (such as TextEdit),
so you can create you own custom patch
names.
Inserting and Editing Program
Changes
Program changes can be inserted into a track’s
playlist with the Pencil tool. Existing program
changes can be edited, moved, and copied and
pasted.
On some instruments, changing programs
during playback can interrupt playback. To
avoid this, place program change events in
the track where there are no notes sounding.
To insert a program change with the Pencil:
1 Set the MIDI track to Program view.
2 If you want the inserted event to snap to a grid
value, set the Edit mode to Grid.
3 Click with the Pencil in the track’s playlist at
the point where you want to insert the program
change.
4 In the Patch Select dialog, select a program
number (or name) and, if necessary, specify a
bank change value.
5 Click Done to insert the program change
event in the track’s playlist.
2 In the Patch Select dialog, select the new pro-
gram number (or name) and, if necessary, specify a bank change value.
3 Click Done.
To move a program change event:
■ With the Grabber or Pencil, drag the program
change event left or right.
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged event
snaps to the nearest Grid boundary. If the Edit
mode is set to Spot, the Spot dialog opens.
The placement of program changes can also
be adjusted with Shift (see “Shift Command” on page 278) or Nudge (see “Nudging” on page 276).
To delete a program change event:
1 With the track set to Notes view, click the program change event with the Grabber to select it.
– or –
If the region contains other events you want to
delete, select the entire region with the Grabber
(when the track is displaying regions).
2 Choose Edit > Clear to remove the selected
events from the track.
– or –
Press the Delete (Backspace) key.
Individual program change events can also
be deleted by Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Macintosh) them with the
Pencil.
Program change event
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Auditioning Programs
When the Patch Select dialog is open, you can
have Pro Tools automatically scroll through the
different patches for a track’s assigned MIDI device.
To audition patches for a MIDI track during
playback:
System Exclusive Events
System Exclusive (Sysex) events can be recorded
to MIDI tracks in Pro Tools (see “Recording System Exclusive Data” on page 188). Once the
events are recorded, they appear in the track’s
playlist as blocks when the Display Format is set
to Sysex.
1 Click Play in the Transport window.
2 Open the Patch Select dialog by clicking the
Program button in the Mix window, or by inserting or editing a program change event in a
MIDI track.
3 Click a program number—the starting point
from which you will scroll through the patches.
Sysex event block
While the contents of recorded System Exclusive events cannot be directly edited in
Pro Tools, the events can be moved or nudged,
copied and pasted, or deleted.
4 Enter a value for the number of seconds that
will elapse between each program change.
To move a Sysex event:
5 Select the option for Increment Patch.
1 Set the MIDI track to Sysex view.
After the specified number of seconds, Pro Tools
selects the next patch and transmits the program change to the track’s assigned MIDI device.
2 With the Grabber, drag the Sysex event left or
To audition patches from the Patch Select dialog:
1 Open the Patch Select dialog by clicking the
Program button in the Mix window, or by inserting or editing a program change event in a
MIDI track.
right.
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged event
snaps to the nearest Grid boundary. If the Edit
mode is set to Spot, the Spot dialog opens.
The placement of Sysex event blocks can
also be adjusted with Shift (see “Shift Command” on page 278) or Nudge (see “Nudging” on page 276).
2 Click a program number—the starting point
from which you will scroll through the patches.
3 Enter a value for the number of seconds that
will elapse between each program change.
4 Select the option for Increment Patch.
After the specified number of seconds, Pro Tools
selects the next patch and transmits the program change to the track’s assigned MIDI device.
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369
To delete one or more Sysex events:
To enable Note Chasing for a MIDI track:
1 With the track to Sysex view, click the Sysex
event with the Grabber to select it.
■ Click the track’s Playlist Selector and select
the option for Note Chasing.
– or –
If the region contains other Sysex events you
want to delete, select the entire region with the
Grabber (when the track is displaying regions).
2 Choose Edit > Clear to remove the selected
events from the track.
– or –
Press the Delete (Backspace) key.
Individual Sysex event blocks can also be
deleted by Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Macintosh) them with the
Pencil.
Note and Controller Chasing
Note Chasing
Note Chasing allows long, sustained MIDI notes
to be heard when playing from a point after
their start time. For example, if a note’s start
time is at 1|1|000 and lasts for 8 measures (until
9|1|000), note chasing lets you begin playing
from bar 5 and still hear the note that started at
1|1|000 as it continues to sustain until 9|1|000.
Note Chasing is something that can turned on
and off individually for each MIDI track. By default, new MIDI tracks have Note Chasing enabled.
Note Chasing enabled in Playlist Selector pop-up
Make sure to disable Note Chasing when working with samplers that are playing loops. If a
MIDI track, for example, is triggering a 4-bar
drum loop and you begin playing at bar 3, the
loop will begin playing at the wrong time and be
out of sync with the other tracks.
Controller and Program Chasing
Pro Tools always chases continuous controller
events and program changes for MIDI tracks.
This ensures that controller values and patches
for MIDI devices are always appropriately set.
For example, suppose a MIDI track lasting 32
measures starts with a volume of 127 and in the
last bar fades the volume down to 0. If after
playing the track in its entirety you attempt to
play from bar 8, the initial volume of 127 is
chased and sent to the track’s assigned device—
otherwise the track would not be heard since the
most recent volume event sent would have
been 0.
Chasing also occurs for a MIDI track’s default
program change, along with any program
change events residing within the track. Therefore, if you have chosen a default program
change for a track, when playing from any point
within the track, the program change event is
sent to the track’s assigned device.
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Default Controller Values and Chasing
Though new MIDI tracks appear to have default
values for continuous controller playlists, this is
actually not the case. For example, when viewing a MIDI track’s Mod Wheel playlist, you’ll see
that the breakpoint line is set to a default of
zero. However, since the modulation wheel on
your synth may purposely be set to a different
value, the default value in the track is not transmitted when playing.
This can cause some confusion, however, if you
insert a fade (for example, from 0–90) in the
Mod Wheel playlist towards the end of the
track. If you then play from the beginning of the
track, or from anywhere before the fade, the
Mod Wheel value on your synth will be at 90
until the beginning of the fade data is reached—
which is likely not what you want.
To ensure that the default controller value for a
playlist is sent (and chased), click the initial
breakpoint at the beginning of the track, move
it slightly, and set it back to the default value.
Offsetting MIDI Tracks
Pro Tools can offset MIDI tracks globally or individually.
Global MIDI Playback Offset
Pro Tools offers a MIDI offset preference that allows MIDI tracks to play back earlier or later
(than audio tracks) by a specified number of
samples. The offset affects playback only and
does not alter in any way how MIDI data is displayed in the Edit window.
This capability is provided in large part to compensate for the audio monitoring latency in
Pro Tools LE. If you are monitoring the output
of your MIDI devices with an external mixer or
sound system (or headphones), there is no latency. If, however, you are monitoring the output of your MIDI devices through a Digi 002,
Digi 002 Rack, Digi 001, or Mbox, your MIDI
tracks will appear to play slightly later than your
audio tracks. The larger the setting for the H/W
Buffer Size (128, 256, 512, or 1024 samples), the
larger the latency.
By configuring the Global MIDI Playback Offset,
you can get your MIDI tracks to play back
slightly earlier (by a specified number of samples), thereby compensating for the latency in
monitoring audio within Pro Tools LE.
To configure the Global MIDI Playback Offset:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click MIDI.
2 For the “Global MIDI Playback Offset” option,
enter the number of samples (–10,000 to
10,000) for the offset. A negative value causes
the MIDI tracks to play back earlier than the audio tracks; a positive value causes the MIDI
tracks to play back later.
To allow for monitoring latency in Pro Tools LE,
set the offset to a value that is roughly equivalent to the H/W Buffer Size.
3 Click Done.
The Global MIDI Playback Offset can also
be set from the MIDI Track Offsets window.
Individual MIDI Track Offsets
You can offset individual MIDI track offsets in
Pro Tools to compensate for delays in MIDI devices (the time it takes to trigger events on a
sampler or synth).
For example, if you have some kick drums that
are being played by an audio track in Pro Tools
and want them to be perfectly “in sync” with
kick drums that are being played by a MIDI de-
Chapter 23: MIDI Editing
371
vice, you may need to use a MIDI offset. In this
example, it will usually take at least 5 ms to trigger the MIDI notes, and it could take even
longer, depending on the MIDI device.
You can measure the latency for a MIDI device
assigned to a MIDI track by recording its audio
output back into Pro Tools. Compare the sample locations for the recorded audio events
against the original MIDI notes to calculate the
latency.
To configure a MIDI track offset for a track:
1 Choose Windows > Show MIDI Track Offsets.
MIDI Track Offsets
2 Click in the Sample Offset column for the
MIDI track and enter the number of samples
(–10,000 to 10,000) for the offset. A negative
value causes the MIDI tracks to play back earlier
than the audio tracks; a positive value causes the
MIDI tracks to play back later.
The equivalent offset in milliseconds is displayed in the Msec Offset column. This value
cannot be edited, but updates when a new value
is entered in the SMPTE Offset column.
3 Press Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh)
to accept the entered offset value.
To reset all offsets for all MIDI tracks, click the
Reset button in the upper left of the window.
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Stuck Notes
If you encounter stuck notes with any of your
MIDI devices, you can silence them with the All
Notes Off command.
To turn off all stuck notes:
■
Choose MIDI > All Notes Off.
Press Control+Shift+Period (Windows) or
Command+Shift+Period (Macintosh) for
the All Notes Off command.
Chapter 24: MIDI Operations
MIDI Operations Window
To show or hide the MIDI Operations window:
■
Choose Windows > Show MIDI Operations.
The MIDI Operations window opens when
choosing any of the following commands from
the MIDI menu:
• Quantize
• Groove Quantize
• Restore Performance
• Flatten Performance
• Change Velocity
• Change Duration
• Transpose
• Select Notes
• Split Notes
• Input Quantize
To reconfigure the MIDI Operations window for
a different command, select the command from
the MIDI menu or from the pop-up menu at the
top of the window.
The MIDI Operations window can be left open,
revisiting it as necessary to apply a command, or
to try out different options for a particular command.
Figure 23. MIDI Operations window
To apply the command in the MIDI Operations
window:
■ Click Apply or press Enter on the numeric
keypad. This applies the command and leaves
the window in the foreground.
– or –
■ Press Enter on the alpha keyboard (Windows)
or Return (Macintosh). This applies the command and closes the window.
Chapter 24: MIDI Operations
373
To undo the command in the MIDI Operations
window:
To open the Select Notes window:
■
■
Choose MIDI > Select Notes.
Choose Edit > Undo.
Using the MIDI Operations Window
Use the following methods to easily configure
the various options, which vary from command
to command, in the MIDI Operations window:
To move forward and back through the various fields, press Tab or Shift+Tab.
◆
◆ Increment or decrement selected fields with
the Up and Down Arrows. Press and hold these
keys to scroll quickly through the values.
Control-drag (Windows) or Command-drag
(Macintosh) up or down in a selected field to
scroll to a new value.
◆
◆ Press Control (Windows) or Command (Macintosh) while adjusting sliders for finer resolution.
For selected pitch and velocity fields, play a
note on your MIDI controller keyboard to automatically enter it.
◆
◆ Changing a value for a particular control
(such as the Swing Percentage in the Quantize
window), automatically enables the control.
Select Notes
The Select Notes command allows you to further narrow a selection of MIDI notes based on
pitch. The command can be used to select a single note or note range for the entire length of a
region or track, or to select the upper or lower
voices within chords.
Select Notes window
Options for the Select Notes command include:
All Notes Selects all notes.
Notes Between Selects a range of notes between
the specified upper and lower note. Values for
the notes can be entered in pitch (C1–G8) or
MIDI note numbers (0–127).
Top Selects the highest note or notes in each
chord.
Bottom Selects the lowest note or notes in each
chord.
Selecting a Pitch Range of Notes
A common use for Select Notes is to select a single note for the entire length of a region or track.
This is especially useful if you want to select a
note in a MIDI drum track (such as a hi-hat),
and affect it over the selected time range with
the Quantize, Groove Quantize, Transpose, or
Change Duration command.
To select only the hi-hats in a General MIDI drum
track:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the range
of MIDI notes that contains the note.
2 Choose MIDI > Select Notes.
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3 Select the Notes Between option with the note
range set to F#1 and F#1 (if the MIDI Note Display preference is set to Standard Pitch).
To open the Split Notes window:
■
Choose MIDI > Split Notes.
For a General MIDI drum kit, the closed hi-hat is
assigned to MIDI note number 42 (F#1 at Standard Pitch). If the hi-hat for your drum kit is assigned to a different note, make sure to specify
it.
4 Click Apply.
Selecting Notes in a Chord
Another use for Select Notes is to select only the
upper or lower notes in a chord. Many times
you’ll want to affect only the upper or lower
notes in a chord—to boost their velocities, or
transpose their pitch.
To select only the bass notes in a chord:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the range
of MIDI notes that contains the notes.
– or –
To affect all the MIDI notes on a track, click in
the track with the Selector, so that it contains a
blinking Edit cursor.
2 Choose MIDI > Select Notes.
3 Select the Bottom option and leave the num-
ber of notes set to 1.
4 Click Apply.
In order for notes to be considered a chord,
their start times must be within five ticks of
each other.
Split Notes
The Split Notes command has the same selection criteria as the Select Notes command, but
also lets you automatically cut or copy the selected notes when clicking Apply.
Split Notes window
One use for this command would be if you recorded a track with chords in the left hand and
melody in the right. With the Split Notes command, you could cut the melody notes and
paste them to another track so you could assign
them to play on a different device or channel.
Another use is split the various notes of a drum
track (such as kick, snare, and toms) from a single drum track to create separate tracks for each
instrument.
To cut a specific pitch range of notes:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the range
of MIDI notes that contains the notes.
– or –
To affect all the MIDI notes on a track, click in
the track with the Selector, so that it contains a
blinking Edit cursor.
2 Choose MIDI > Split Notes.
3 In the Split Notes dialog, select the option for
Notes Between and enter the low and high notes
for the pitch range.
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375
When either of the Pitch fields are selected, you
can play a pitch on your MIDI controller to automatically enter it.
To open the Change Velocity window:
■
Choose MIDI > Change Velocity.
4 Select Cut.
5 Click Apply. Notes falling within the specified
pitch range are removed from the selection and
placed on the Clipboard. The notes can then be
pasted or merged to another track.
Change Velocity
The Change Velocity command automatically
adjusts attack and release velocities for selected
MIDI notes. Use it to make notes louder or
softer, or to create crescendos or decrescendos.
Velocities can also be edited manually with the
Pencil and Grabber Tools (see “Manually Editing
MIDI Notes” on page 359).
Velocity values usually affect the loudness
of MIDI notes. They may also affect other
aspects of an instrument’s sound, such as
filter cutoff, envelopes, and modulations.
The settings in the Change Velocity window
are saved with each session. To store your
favorite settings as the default for use in future sessions, save them as part of a session
template (see “Creating Custom Session
Templates” on page 51).
Change Velocity window
While there are options for adjusting both
the attack and release velocities for notes,
most MIDI devices ignore release velocity information. To see if your instrument supports release velocities, refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.
Set All To Sets all velocities to the specified value
(1–127).
Add Adds to existing velocity values by the specified amount (1–127).
Subtract Subtracts from existing velocity values
by the specified amount (1–127).
Scale By Scales all velocities by a percentage
amount (1–400%).
Change Smoothly Allows velocities to change
smoothly from one value to another over time.
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Change Smoothly by Percentage Allows velocities to change smoothly from one percentage
value to another over time.
The curve for this change can be adjusted
(+/– 99) to affect how gradually the change occurs.
Limit To When selected, restricts the Change Velocity command to a minimum and maximum
range.
Randomize When selected, the Change Velocity
command is randomized by the specified percentage value. For example, using “Set all to”
with a value of 64, along with a Randomize
value of 50%, yields velocities anywhere between 48 and 80 (+/– 25% of the velocity value).
To preserve (somewhat) the existing velocity relationships and still achieve velocity fades, use
the option for Change Smoothly by Percentage.
Figure 24 illustrates the difference between the
two Change Smoothly options.
Original velocities
After Change Smoothly by Percentage, 100% to 20%
Velocity Ranges
The valid range for MIDI note velocities is
1–127. The Change Velocity command will
never result in moving velocities outside this
range; 1 will always be the lowest and 127 will
always be the highest. This means that you may
reach a state where the Change Velocity command has no effect on a particular note.
For example, if a note with a velocity 64 is scaled
by 200%, the new velocity would be 127. Attempting to scale or increase the velocity any
further would yield no change.
After Change Smoothly, from velocity of 100 to 10
Figure 24. Change Smoothly by Percentage
Scaling Velocities
Many times existing note velocities will have
the relationship you want, but will either be too
soft or too loud overall. In these instances, use
the Scale By option.
For example, to make velocities 20% louder:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be edited.
Fading Velocities
To change velocities smoothly over time:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be edited.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Velocity.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Velocity.
3 Select the Scale By option with the percentage
value set to 120.
4 Click Apply.
3 Select the Change Smoothly option with the
range set from 127 to 0.
4 Click Apply.
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377
Change Duration
Scale by Shortens or lengthens durations based
on a percentage value (1–400%).
The Change Duration command adjusts durations for selected MIDI notes. Use it to make
melodies and phrases more staccato or legato.
Move Releases to the Closest Attack Shortens
or lengthens durations so that end times are
moved to the closest attack.
The settings in the Change Duration window are saved with each session. To store
your favorite settings as the default for use
in future sessions, save them as part of a
session template (see “Creating Custom Session Templates” on page 51).
To open the Change Duration window:
■
Choose MIDI > Change Duration.
Extend Releases to the Next Attack Lengthens
durations so that end times are extended to the
next attack. To limit the duration change, select
either of the Add No More Than options, using
either a percentage value or a number of quarter
note and ticks.
Change Smoothly Allows note lengths to change
smoothly from one duration to another over
time. Duration values are specified in quarter
notes and ticks.
Change Smoothly by Percentage Allows note
lengths to change smoothly from one percentage value to another over time.
The curve for this change can be adjusted
(+/– 99) to affect how gradually the change occurs.
Limit Range When selected, restricts the Change
Duration command to a minimum and maximum range (in quarter notes and ticks).
Change Duration window
378
Randomize When selected, the Change Duration
command is randomized by the specified percentage value. For example, using “Set all to”
with a value of 480 ticks, along with a Randomize value of 50%, yields durations anywhere between 360 and 600 (+/– 25% of the duration
value).
Set All To Sets all durations to a length specified
in quarter notes and ticks.
Change Duration Examples
Add Adds to the durations by a specified number
of quarter notes and ticks.
To make notes more staccato:
Subtract Subtracts from the durations by a specified number of quarter notes and ticks.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Duration.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be edited.
3 Select the option for Scale By with a percent-
age value of 50.
4 Click Apply. The durations for the selected
notes are reduced by 50%.
With this option you may have to experiment
with the percentage value to achieve the desired
effect.
To make notes more legato:
Transpose
While the Grabber Tool can be used to manually
transpose individual MIDI notes, or small
groups of notes, the Transpose command can be
used for entire MIDI tracks and regions.
To open the Transpose window:
■
Choose MIDI > Transpose.
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be edited.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Duration.
3 Select the “Extend Release to the Next Attack”
option.
4 Click Apply. The end points for the selected
notes are extended to the start point of the next
note, thereby eliminating the space between
each note.
To vary this effect, making it more or less legato,
select the Add No More Than percentage option.
Percentage values larger than 100 extend note
end times so that the notes essentially overlap.
Transpose window
The two options for the Transpose command
are:
Transpose By (Semitones) Transposes chromatically, up or down, by up to 60 semitones. To
transpose down by an octave, for example, use
–12 semitones.
Transpose (From and To) Transposes by semitones, as expressed by the difference between
the source and destination pitches. Transposing
from C3 to F#3, for example, transposes the
notes up by an augmented fourth (six semitones).
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379
One of the more common uses for Transpose is
to change the key for your MIDI tracks. You can
define an Edit Group for MIDI tracks that you
want to transpose, making sure to exclude any
drum tracks from the group so they aren’t transposed.
To transpose MIDI notes to another key:
1 If you will be transposing a group of tracks,
make sure to enable the Edit Group.
2 With the Selector or Grabber, select the range
of MIDI notes to be transposed.
3 Choose MIDI > Transpose.
4 Select the option for Transpose (From, To).
5 Set the “From” and “To” values, for example,
to C4 and E4 to transpose from C to E.
With either of the pitch fields selected, you can
play a note on your MIDI controller to automatically enter it as the pitch value.
6 Click Apply.
It is also common to transpose MIDI tracks up or
down by an octave.
To transpose a MIDI track up by an octave:
1 With the Selector, double-click in the track to
select all of its notes.
2 Choose MIDI > Transpose.
3 Select the Transpose By option.
4 Enter a value of 12 semitones and then click
Apply.
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Quantize
The Quantize command adjusts MIDI note locations and durations so that timing is improved,
or so that a particular rhythmic “feel” is
achieved. Quantize works by aligning notes to a
Quantize Grid, the size of which is defined in
the Quantize window by a standard note duration.
The Quantize command is not the same as the
Quantize Regions command (in the Edit menu).
The Quantize Regions command adjusts the
start point for a selected region, and its contents
are moved along with the region (with rhythmic
relationships remaining intact).
The Quantize command, on the other hand, affects MIDI notes individually. Some notes may
be moved back in time, others forward; and,
some notes will be more drastically affected
than others.
The settings in the Quantize window are
saved with each session. To store your favorite settings as the default for use in future
sessions, save them as part of a session template (see “Creating Custom Session Templates” on page 51).
To open the Quantize window:
■
Choose MIDI > Quantize.
Figure 25 shows how notes are adjusted by the
different What To Quantize options.
before quantize
Quantize window
What to Quantize
The options under “What to Quantize” determine which aspects of the notes are quantized:
attacks, releases, or both.
Attacks When selected, note start points are
quantized.
Releases When selected, note end points are
quantized.
Preserve Note Duration When selected, note durations are preserved.
When deselected with the Attacks option selected, note end points are not moved.
When deselected with the Releases option selected, note start points are not moved.
If the options for both Attacks and Releases are
selected, the Don’t Change Durations option is
ignored (and dimmed).
Figure 25. What To Quantize examples
Quantize Grid
The Quantize Grid determines the beat boundaries to which notes are aligned. Any size from
whole notes to thirty-second notes (including
dotted values) can be selected for the Grid size.
Relative Grid mode does not affect the
Quantize Grid.
Tuplet Select the Tuplet option to quantize irregular note groupings like triplets or quintuplets.
The Quantize Grid for tuplets is calculated from
the note size selection and the Tuplet value. For
example, if an eighth note equals 480 ticks, tuplet eighth notes with 3 in time of 2 would yield
a Grid size of 320 ticks (480 ticks / 3 * 2).
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Offset Grid By Offsets the Quantize Grid forward
or back in time by a specified number of ticks.
Use this option to achieve a pushed feel (by using positive values) or a laid back feel (by using
negative values).
To Quantize just the backbeats, set the
Quantize Grid to half-notes with an Offset
of 960 ticks.
Swing When selected, every other Grid boundary is shifted by the specified percentage value
(0–300) to achieve a “swing” feel. A Swing value
of 0% yields no swing, while 100% yields a triplet feel. With Swing set to 300%, every other
Grid boundary is moved to the next Grid point.
0% Swing
(480 ticks)
Every other Grid point
shifted by swing
Figure 26. Include Within option
Exclude Within When selected, attacks and releases are not quantized if located within the
specified percentage of the Quantize Grid. Use
this option to preserve the feel of notes close to
the beat, while correcting others that are drastically away from the beat.
Figure 27 shows the Quantize Grid set to quarter
notes with the Exclude Within option set to
25%. Attacks and releases falling within the
shaded area (equivalent to a sixteenth note area
around each beat) are not quantized.
100% Swing
(640 ticks)
100% Swing, eighth note Grid
Options
Additional Quantize options include:
Include Within When selected, attacks and releases are only quantized if located within the
specified percentage of the Quantize Grid. Use
this option to clean up downbeats without affecting notes that are “swung” or wildly off the
beat.
Figure 26 shows the Quantize Grid set to quarter
notes with the Include Within option set to
50%. Only attacks and releases falling within
the shaded area (equivalent to an eight note
area around each beat) are quantized.
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Figure 27. Exclude Within option
Strength When selected, notes are moved a percentage toward the Quantize Grid. Lower percentages preserve the original feel of the notes,
higher percentages align the notes more tightly
to the Grid.
Randomize When selected, notes are moved randomly forward or back in time (after the Quantize occurs). For example, with the Quantize
Grid set to eighth notes and Randomize set to
50%, notes are placed up to a 32nd note before
or after the beat boundary. The Randomize setting also affects note durations (if Releases is selected).
Quantize Examples
The following examples illustrate some of the
more common uses for the Quantize command.
If you intend to loop playback while quantizing,
you may want to deselect Operations > Link Edit
and Timeline Selection. This ensures that the
play range will not change when selected notes
are moved in the course of quantizing and undoing.
Quantizing While Preserving the
Original “Feel”
You can quantize less strictly, to preserve the
original feel of your recorded MIDI tracks.
To quantize while preserving the original feel:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be quan-
tized.
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
In Pro Tools 6.x, you can use Restore Performance to revert to the original version (See
“Restore Performance” on page 390.)
3 Under What to Quantize, select the Attacks
With Pro Tools 5.x, you must duplicate the
playlist before quantizing.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to the note value you
Straight Quantize
To quantize to a straight sixteenth note feel:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be quan-
tized.
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
3 Under What to Quantize, select the Attacks
option. To quantize note durations as well, select the Releases option.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to sixteenth notes.
Make sure that the other options for Tuplet, Offset Grid By, and Swing are not selected.
option. To quantize note durations as well, select the Releases option.
want to use. Make sure that the other options
for Tuplet, Offset Grid By, and Swing are not selected.
5 Select the Exclude Within option with a value
of 10–15%.
6 Select the Strength option with a value of
70–80%.
7 Leave the remaining Quantize options dese-
lected and click Apply.
Audition the change and if the desired effect is
not achieved, undo the edit and experiment
with different values for Exclude Within and
Strength.
5 Leave the remaining Quantize options dese-
lected and click Apply.
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Quantizing with Swing
To “humanize” the rhythmic feel of notes:
If you’re working with hi-hats or bass lines, you
may want to apply more of a swing feel to the
track.
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be quan-
tized.
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
To quantize with an eighth note swing feel:
3 Under What to Quantize, select the Attacks
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be quan-
option. To quantize note durations as well, select the Releases option.
tized.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to the note value you
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
want to use.
3 Under What to Quantize, select the Attacks
option. To quantize note durations as well, select the Releases option.
5 Select the Randomize option with a value of
5%.
6 Click Apply.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to eighth notes.
5 Select the Swing option with the Swing per-
centage you want:
Audition the change and if the desired effect is
not achieved, undo the edit and experiment
with a different Randomize percentage.
• For a light swing, use 12%.
• For a tighter swing-like groove, use 24%.
• For a true “triplet-like” swing feel, use
50–75%.
6 Make sure the options for Tuplet, Offset Grid
By, and Randomize are not selected. Click Apply.
Audition the change and if the desired effect is
not achieved, undo the edit and experiment
with a different Swing percentage.
Quantizing with Randomize
If quantized notes sound too mechanical or “on
the beat,” use the Randomize option in the
Quantize window to make them sound more
natural.
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Experimenting with Quantize
When using the Quantize command, you’ll often have to experiment with many of the controls. You may have to try different values for
Include and Exclude Within, and Strength;
these controls determine which notes are affected and how drastically they are changed. In
addition, the Randomize control, which adds a
percentage of randomness to the quantize, can
be used to make tracks feel less mechanical—less
perfect.
Although quantize is a wonderful tool for cleaning up tracks and playing with the feel of your
music, sometimes the recorded data may not be
salvageable. In these instances it is wise not to
spend too much time trying to fix something
that should probably just be re-recorded.
Input Quantize
Groove Quantize
When Input Quantize is enabled, all recorded
MIDI notes are quantized automatically. To preserve the original “feel” of your recorded MIDI
tracks, make sure to disable this option.
The Groove Quantize command adjusts MIDI
note locations and durations according to a
groove template rather than a strict quantization
grid. Groove templates extract the particular
rhythmic feel of a recorded performance so that
is can be applied to a MIDI sequence. DigiGroove templates can be generated using Beat
Detective (TDM systems only).
To enable Input Quantize:
1 Choose MIDI > Input Quantize.
2 In the Input Quantize window, select the En-
able Input Quantize option.
To open the Groove Quantize window, choose
MIDI > Groove Quantize.
Input Quantize window
Configure the other options in the Input Quantize window. For details on the various Quantize
options, see “Quantize” on page 380. When finished, close the Input Quantize window.
Groove Quantize window
For drum machine style loop recording, use Input
Quantize while loop recording MIDI in Merge
mode (see “Loop Recording with Merge Mode”
on page 185).
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385
Figure 28. A DigiGroove template (derived from the audio shown) applied to a series of sixteenth-notes with Timing
and Velocity both set to 100%
Groove Template
Groove templates (such as DigiGroove templates) are “quantization maps” derived from
real musical performances. The rhythmic character of each performance is analyzed and stored
as a groove template. Groove templates can be
used to transfer the feel of a particular performance to MIDI data (Timing, Duration, and Velocity).
DigiGroove templates can be created using Beat
Detective (TDM systems only). Beat Detective
analyzes an audio file for transient peaks according to a defined threshold and maps the rhythmic relationships to a 960 parts per quarter note
(ppq) template. This template can then be used
within Groove Quantize, as well as within Beat
Detective.
For information on Beat Detective and creating Groove Templates, see Chapter 22,
“Beat Detective.”
Additionally, DigiGroove templates are available from Digidesign and third party manufacturers.
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Numerical Sound’s Feel Injector Templates
(960 ppq) are supported in Pro Tools, but
DNA Groove Templates (192 ppq) are not.
Groove Template Pop-Up Menu All groove template files in the Grooves folder are available in
the Groove Template pop-up menu. The directory path for the Grooves folder is: C:\Program
Files\Digidesign\Pro Tools\Grooves (Windows), or Applications/Digidesign/Pro Tools 6/
Grooves (Mac OS X). If you organize your
groove templates in sub-folders in the Groove
folder, they will appear as sub-menus in the
Groove Template pop-up menu. Once you have
selected a groove template, specific information
about the template’s meter and duration (in
bars) is displayed under the Groove Template
pop-up menu.
Comments The Comments field displays any
comments saved with the Groove Template
from Beat Detective. The Comments field cannot be edited in the Groove Quantize window,
but can be edited when saving a groove template from the Groove Quantize window.
Options
Pre-Process Using Quantize Enable to hard
quantize the selected MIDI notes according to
the Quantize command’s settings before applying Groove Quantize.
The Pre-Process Using Quantize option is only
available when the Timing option is enabled.
Timing Enable to apply Groove Quantize to the
selected MIDI notes. Use the slider to change the
amount of quantization applied to the selection. If the slider is set to 0%, there is no change
in timing. A setting of 100% moves notes to the
underlying template locations. If the slider is set
to 200%, notes move to a tick location that is
twice the difference between the original note
location and the position of the referenced template event.
For example, if a note was played at Bar 1|1|060
(a 16th note), and the corresponding template
event is at 1|1|073, a slider value of 100% results
in the note being shifted to 1|1|073 (a slider
value of 200% shifts the note to 1|1|086).
The default value for the Timing slider is 100%.
Duration Enable to influence the durations of
the selected MIDI notes. At a setting of 100%,
durations are changed to match the current
groove template. Set to 200%, durations increase and decrease based on the ratio of the
original duration of the selected notes and the
durations in the template.
The default value for the Duration slider is
100%.
Beat Detective does not currently extract duration information from audio performances. DigiGroove templates created using Beat Detective contain a fixed duration
value that is 50% of the selected template
resolution (see “Defining a Beat Detective
Selection” on page 336).
Velocity Enable to influence the velocities of the
selected MIDI notes. If the slider is set to 0%
there is no change to the selected velocities, a
setting of 100% sets all velocities to match the
current groove template. A velocity setting of
200% typically results in over-exaggerated velocities—loud notes increasing and soft notes
decreasing in volume.
For example, if two adjacent notes have equal
velocities of 80, and the two corresponding template velocities are 70 and 90, setting the slider
to 200% changes both to velocities of 60 and
100.
The default value for the Velocity slider is 100%.
Slider Settings
To Save the groove template with the current
Options Slider Settings:
1 In the Groove Quantize window, click the
Save button.
Save User Groove Template Settings
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387
2 Enter or edit any comments you want to save
4 Enable Timing, Duration, and Velocity, and
with the template.
adjust their sliders to the percentages you want.
3 Click the Save button to save the groove tem-
5 If desired, enable Pre-Process using Quantize.
plate with the current Options Slider Settings.
6 Click the Apply button.
– or –
Click the Save As button to make a copy of the
groove template with the current Options Slider
Settings. In the resulting Save dialog, enter a
name for the copy and click Save.
Slider settings may be lost if any of the following
operations are performed without saving the
settings first:
• Another MIDI Operations pane is selected.
• The MIDI Operations window is closed.
Mapping Groove Templates
Pro Tools applies groove templates relative to
the song start. For example, a two-bar groove
template repeats starting at every odd-numbered bar in the session (bar 1, 3, 5, 7…).
2-Bar
Groove
Template
2-Bar
Groove
Template
2-Bar
Groove
Template
2-Bar
Groove
Template
• You switch to another groove template.
2-bar groove template, repeating template grid
Recall With Template Restores all Groove Quantize Options to the settings that are saved with
the current template.
Applying Groove Templates
Groove templates can be of any length and can
be applied to any number of bars. Typically, you
will apply groove templates to selections of the
same length and meter. However, groove templates can be applied to different meters—for example, a groove template in 6/8 can be applied
to a selection in 4/4. Also, it is not necessary to
start on the downbeat when making a selection
to apply a groove template.
To apply Grove Quantize:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the MIDI
notes you want to Groove Quantize.
2 Choose MIDI > Groove Quantize.
3 Select a groove template from the Groove
Template pop-up menu.
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Template Mapping for Equal Meters And Odd
Numbered Bars
If a two-bar groove template is applied to a selection of one bar of the same meter, only the first
bar of the template is used. If the selection does
not encompass bar boundaries, for example
1|2|000 to 2|1|000, the groove template will only
modify the selected notes.
4/4 1-bar selection
4/4 Bar 1
4/4 Bar 2 (not used)
(groove template)
Applying 2-bar groove template to a 1-bar selection,
odd numbered bar
Template Mapping for Equal Meters And Even
Bars
If a selection starts on an even bar, only the appropriate portion of the groove template will be
used. For example, if the selection is two bars
long and starts on an even bar, the template will
apply bar 2 before bar 1.
If the Groove Template contains more beats
than the selection on a track, such as a one-bar
template in 6/4 being applied to a two-bar selection in 4/4, only the appropriate number of
beats will be used.
4/4 1-bar selection
4/4 1-bar selection
4/4 Bar 1 (not used)
4/4 Bar 2
(groove template)
Applying a 2-bar groove template to a 1-bar selection,
even numbered bar
Template Mapping for Unequal Meters
In cases where the Groove Templates and track
selections are based on different meters, the
template will be repeated or truncated to match
the number of beats in the selection.
For example, if the Groove Template contains
fewer beats than the selection, such as a one-bar
template in 6/8 being applied to a one-bar selection in 4/4, the template will repeat to make up
the difference.
6/4 Bar 1 (beats 5–6 not used)
(groove template)
Applying a 1-bar groove template in 6/4 to a 1-bar
selection in 4/4
Behavior for Mixed Meters
If the selection contains mixed meters, the
groove template will always be mapped so that
the downbeats are aligned. For example, if the
Groove Template consists of one-bar of 4/4 and
it is being applied to a selection of one-bar of 4/4
followed by a bar of 3/8 and one-bar of 3/4, the
4/4 1-bar selection
6/8 Bar 1 repeated
(beats 3–6 not used)
6/8 Bar 1
(groove template)
Applying a 1-bar groove template in 6/8 to a 1-bar
selection in 4/4
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389
downbeat of the Groove Template will be
aligned with the downbeats in the selection and
only the appropriate number of beats from the
Groove Template will be applied.
3-bar selection of changing meters
Restore Performance
The Restore Performance command reverts all
selected MIDI notes to their original state (when
first recorded or manually inserted), even after
the session has been saved, or the Undo queue
has been cleared. The following MIDI note attributes can be restored:
• Timing (Quantization)
(not used)
4/4 Bar 1
(groove template)
• Duration
• Velocity
4/4 Bar 1
(groove template)
4/4 Bar 1
(groove template)
Applying a 1-bar groove template in 4/4 to a 3-bar
selection in different meters
You can reset the groove template grid by
adding a new meter marker (it can be the
same meter). The groove template will restart at the meter marker regardless of the
measure number or whether or not the meter
has actually changed.
• Pitch
The Restore Performance command can be
undone.
To restore a note’s original time, duration,
velocity, or pitch:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the MIDI
notes you want to restore.
2 Choose MIDI Operations > Restore Perfor-
mance to open the Restore Performance window.
Restore Performance window
3 Select the note attributes to restore.
4 Click Apply.
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Any changes made through the standard Quantize, Groove Quantize, Change Duration,
Change Velocity, or Change Pitch commands
will be undone and the original “performance”
will be restored. Also, any notes that were recorded with Input Quantize enabled will be restored.
Restore Performance does not undo cut, copied, pasted, or otherwise manually moved
MIDI notes.
Restore Performance also does not undo
Duration changes made by trimming the
start of a note. Trimming the start of a note
is essentially changing the note’s timing,
and therefore is treated by Pro Tools as
manually moving it.
Flatten Performance
The Flatten Performance command “locks in”
the current performance for selected notes, creating a new “restore to” state for the specified
note attributes when using Restore Performance.
To flatten the performance:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the MIDI
notes you want to flatten.
2 Choose MIDI Operations > Flatten Perfor-
mance to open the Restore Performance window.
Timing (Quantization) Enable to restore the original start times of the selected notes. This will
change the durations of the notes if the Duration option is not enabled.
Duration Enable to restore the original durations
of the selected notes. If the Timing (Quantization) option is not enabled, the start time of the
note will not be restored and the note end time
will be affected.
Velocity Enable to restore the original velocities
of the selected notes.
Pitch Enable to restore the original pitches of
the selected notes.
Flatten Performance window
3 Select the note attributes to flatten.
4 Click Apply
The Flatten Performance command can be
undone.
Removing Input Quantize
Restore Performance can be used to remove
quantization on input. For example, if you recorded a performance with Input Quantize on,
you can still restore the performance as it was
actually played.
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Chapter 25: MIDI Event List
The MIDI Event List
The MIDI Event List displays a detailed list of all
events in a single MIDI track. The events are displayed with text and numbers, allowing you to
precisely edit their location, length, and event
values.
Events in the MIDI Event List can be copied and
pasted, selected, or deleted. Any MIDI event (except Sysex) can be inserted and edited in the list.
Certain MIDI event types can be hidden with
the View Filter.
Unlike playlists in the Edit window, you can
insert and display polyphonic aftertouch in
the MIDI Event List.
Mute data for MIDI tracks is not displayed
in the MIDI Event List.
Opening the MIDI Event List
To open the MIDI Event List, do one of the
following:
■
Choose Windows > Show MIDI Event List.
■ Start-double-click (Windows) or Control-double-click (Macintosh) a track name in the Edit or
Mix window.
MIDI Event List
■ Press Alt+Equal (Windows) or Option+Equal
(Macintosh).
You can also use Alt+Equal (Windows) or
Option+Equal (Macintosh) to toggle between the MIDI Event List and the Edit
window.
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393
Menus in the MIDI Event List
At the top of the MIDI Event List are three popup menus:
When several events reside at the same location,
the location is only indicated for the top event,
with the others dimmed. The dimmed locations
can be edited by double-clicking them.
MIDI Track Selector Indicates the MIDI track
currently displayed, and can be used to choose a
different MIDI track to be displayed.
Event Column Displays the event type, indicated
by an icon, and associated event values.
Options Menu Contains commands and options
for the MIDI Event List (see “MIDI Event List
Options” on page 400).
Length/Info Column Displays the end point or
length for notes, depending on which option is
selected in the Options pop-up menu. Also displayed are the names for continuous controller
events and program changes.
Insert Menu Contains a list of event types that
can be inserted.
View Filter for MIDI Event List
To the right of these pop-up menus, the number
of displayed events is indicated.
Columns in the MIDI Event List
Information for the events in the MIDI Event
List is displayed in the following three columns:
Start Column Displays the start location, using
the Main Time Scale, for each event. Locations
can also be displayed in the Sub Time Scale
when the Show Sub Counter option is selected
in the Options pop-up menu.
The Playback cursor appears as a blue arrow (red,
when tracks are record-enabled) in the Start column.
Playback cursor
You can use the View Filter to specify which
event types are displayed in the MIDI Event List.
This can help you zero in on only the events you
want to affect; it also protects MIDI events from
being edited or deleted. Events not displayed in
the MIDI Event List still play back.
The View Filter can be set to display “all” messages, “only” the specified messages, or “all except” the specified messages.
When inserting an event type that has been
filtered from the MIDI Event List, that event
type will no longer be filtered.
For example, to filter the display of aftertouch and
System Exclusive Messages in the MIDI Event
List:
1 In the MIDI Event List, choose View Filter
from the Options pop-up menu.
double-click
to edit
simultaneous
MIDI events
MIDI Event List columns
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2 In the MIDI Event List View Filter dialog, se-
lect the All Except option.
• Press Tab or the Down Arrow to move to the
next event (with or without the edit field selected).
• Press Control+Tab (Windows) or Option+Tab
(Macintosh) or the Up Arrow to move to the
previous event (with or without the edit field
selected).
• With an edit field selected, press the Right Arrow to move to the next edit field to the right.
• With an edit field selected, press the Left Arrow to move to the next edit field to the left.
To keep the last event selected, press Shift while
moving to the next or previous event.
To go to the Edit start point:
■ In the MIDI Event List, choose Scroll To Edit
Selection from the Options pop-up menu.
MIDI Input Filter
To go to a specific location in the MIDI Event List:
3 Select the options for Mono Aftertouch, Poly-
phonic Aftertouch, and System Exclusive. Leave
all other messages deselected.
When using the All Except option, the selected
events are not displayed. Conversely, when using the Only option, only the selected events are
displayed.
1 In the MIDI Event List, choose Go To from the
Options pop-up menu.
2 In the Go To dialog, choose a format from the
Time Scale pop-up menu.
4 Click OK.
Navigating in the MIDI Event List
You can use the Tab and Arrow keys to move
through the MIDI Event List. You can also locate
to the Edit start point, or any other specified location.
To move through the MIDI Event List, do one of the
following:
• Double-click to edit a value.
Go To dialog
If using Time Code (all TDM systems and
Pro Tools LE systems with DV Toolkit only), you
can select the Use Subframes option.
Chapter 25: MIDI Event List
395
3 Enter the location you want to go to, then
click OK.
The following items from the Options menu affect navigating in the MIDI Event List:
2 Enter the location, pitch, attack and release
velocities, and length for the new note. To move
between the Event Entry fields, use the Left and
Right Arrow keys.
• When Page Scroll During Playback is selected, the MIDI Event List scrolls during
playback.
• When Scroll During Edit Selection is selected, the MIDI Event List is scrolled automatically when the Edit selection changes
in the Edit window.
Pitch
Release velocity
Attack velocity
Event Entry fields for note
When a field is selected, enter a value with any
of the following methods:
Inserting Events in the MIDI
Event List
• Enter the value on the numeric keypad.
• Drag up or down to scroll to the value.
In Pro Tools 5.x, drag up or down while
pressing Control (Windows) or Command
(Macintosh) to scroll to the value.
• Play the note on your MIDI controller keyboard, then press Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh) on the alpha keyboard to
confirm the value.
Insert menu, MIDI Event List
You can insert events in the MIDI Event List by
choosing an event type from the Insert menu.
Following are several examples of inserting
events in the MIDI Event List.
To insert a note in the MIDI Event List:
1 Click the Insert button and choose Note from
the pop-up menu.
– or –
Press Control+N (Windows) or Command+N
(Macintosh).
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With the Start field selected, you can automatically enter the location of another event
already in the track by clicking that event.
3 To insert the note and remain in Event Entry
mode, press Enter on the numeric keypad.
– or –
To insert the note and exit Event Entry mode,
press Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh)
on the alpha keyboard.
– or –
To exit Event Entry mode, without inserting the
note event, press Escape on the alpha keyboard.
To insert a controller event in the MIDI Event List:
3 To insert the controller event and remain in
1 Click the Insert button and choose Controller
Event Entry mode, press Enter on the numeric
keypad.
from the pop-up menu.
– or –
– or –
Press Control+L (Windows) or Command+L
(Macintosh).
2 Enter the location, controller “type” number,
and controller value for the new event. The controller name is displayed in the Length/Info column, to the right of the controller value. To
move between the Event Entry fields, use the
Left and Right Arrow keys.
To insert the controller event and exit Event Entry mode, press Return on the alpha keyboard.
– or –
To exit Event Entry mode, without inserting the
controller event, press Escape on the alpha keyboard.
To insert a program change in the MIDI Event List:
1 Click the Insert button and choose Program
Change from the pop-up menu.
– or –
Controller number
Controller name
Controller value
Press Control+P (Windows) or Command+P
(Macintosh).
Event Entry fields for controller event
2 Enter the location for the new event.
When a field is selected, enter a value with any
of the following methods:
3 Enter a Program Change number and Bank Select value (if necessary). The program change
name is displayed in the Info column.
• Enter the value on the numeric keypad.
• Press the Up or Down Arrow to scroll to the
value.
• While pressing Control (Windows) or
Command (Macintosh), drag up or down
to scroll to the value.
• Play the controller event on your MIDI
controller keyboard, then press Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh) on the alpha
keyboard to confirm the value.
With the Start field selected, you can automatically enter the location of another event
already in the track by clicking that event.
Program number
Program name
Controller 32 value
Controller 0 value
Event Entry fields for program change
You can click in the Info column to open the
Program Change window (for details, see “Patch
Select (Program and Bank Changes)” on
page 366).
With the Start field selected, you can automatically enter the location of another event
already in the track by clicking that event.
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397
4 To insert the program change and remain in
Event Entry mode, press Enter on the numeric
keypad.
– or –
To insert the program change and exit Event Entry mode, press Return on the alpha keyboard.
– or –
Editing in the MIDI Event List
Events in the MIDI Event List can be edited, selected, deleted, and copied and pasted.
To edit an event in the MIDI Event List:
1 Double-click the event field you want to edit.
– or –
To exit Event Entry mode, without inserting the
program change, press Escape on the alpha keyboard.
To edit a selected event, press Control+Enter
(Windows) or Command+Enter (Macintosh).
2 Enter a new value with any of the following
Inserting Another Event
methods:
After inserting an event, you can easily insert
another event of the same type. The event type
to be inserted is indicated at the bottom of the
Insert menu.
• Enter the new value on the numeric keypad.
For example, after inserting a note, to insert
another:
• While pressing Control (Windows) or
Command (Macintosh), drag up or down
to scroll to a new value.
■ Click the Insert button and choose Another
Note from the pop-up menu.
– or –
■ Press Control+M (Windows) or Command+M
(Macintosh).
When the option for Insert At Playback Location is enabled (see “MIDI Event List Options” on page 400), you can use the keyboard shortcuts for inserting “another”
event to insert events on-the-fly.
• While pressing Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh), press the Up or Down Arrow
to scroll to a new value.
• Play the new note or controller value on
your MIDI controller keyboard, then press
Enter (Windows) or Return (Macintosh) on
the alpha keyboard to confirm the value.
3 To accept the new value, do one of the follow-
ing:
• To enter the new event value and move to
another field or event, use the Arrow keys.
• To enter the new value and remain in Edit
Entry mode, press Enter on the numeric
keypad.
• To enter the new value and exit Edit Entry
mode, press Enter (Windows) or Return
(Macintosh) on the alpha keypad.
– or –
To exit Edit Entry mode without entering the
new value, press Escape on the alpha keyboard.
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Selecting in the MIDI Event List
3 Choose Edit > Clear to delete all selected
events.
To select a range of events in the MIDI Event List:
Click the event at the beginning of the selection and drag to the ending event.
■
– or –
Press Backspace (Windows) or Delete (Macintosh) on the alpha keyboard.
– or –
■
Shift-click the event at the beginning of the
selection, then Shift-click the ending event.
Copy and Paste in the MIDI Event
List
To select discontiguous events in the MIDI Event
List:
To copy and paste in the MIDI Event List:
Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) each event.
dragging in the MIDI Event List. To select discontiguous events, Control-click (Windows) or
Command-click (Macintosh) each event you
want to copy.
■
To remove an event from the selection in the MIDI
Event List:
1 Select the range of events you want to copy by
Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the selected event.
■
Notes selected in the MIDI Event List can be
modified by any of the commands in the
MIDI Operations window. For details, see
Chapter 24, “MIDI Operations.”
Deleting in the MIDI Event List
To delete an event in the MIDI Event List:
Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the event you want to delete.
■
Selecting in the MIDI Event List
To delete a selection of events in the MIDI Event
List:
2 Choose Edit > Copy.
1 Select the events you want to delete, by either
3 To paste the material at an existing event’s location, click the event in the MIDI Event List.
dragging in the Start column, or by Shift-clicking each event.
2 To view only the events you want to delete,
use the View Filter (see “View Filter for MIDI
Event List” on page 394). Events not displayed
cannot be deleted.
– or –
To paste the material at any location, choose Go
To from the Options menu in the MIDI Event
List, enter the location you want to paste to, and
click OK.
Chapter 25: MIDI Event List
399
4 Choose Edit > Paste. The events from the Clipboard are pasted, replacing any existing events
already there.
To paste events without overwriting other
events, use the Merge Paste command.
MIDI Event List Options
Show Note Length Displays note lengths, instead of note end times, in the Length/Info column of the MIDI Event List.
Show Note End Time Displays note end times,
instead of note lengths, in the Length/Info column of the MIDI Event List.
Insert At Edit Location Defaults the location for
inserted events defaults to the Edit start point or
Edit insertion point.
Insert At Playback Location Lets you insert
events in the MIDI Event List in real time while
listening to the session playback.
Insert At Playback Location With Grid Snaps the
location for events inserted in real time to the
grid.
Options menu, MIDI Event List
Show Sub Counter Displays event times in the
Sub Time Scale.
Go To Opens the Go To dialog, where you can
specify a location, based on any of the supported Time Scales, to which the Edit insertion
point is moved.
Scroll To Edit Selection Scrolls the MIDI Event
List to the Edit start point or Edit insertion
point.
Page Scroll During Playback Scrolls the MIDI
Event List during playback.
Scroll During Edit Selection Scrolls the MIDI
Event List automatically when the Edit selection
changes in the Edit window.
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View Filter Opens the View Filter dialog, where
you can specify which events are displayed in
the MIDI Event List. Events that are not displayed are not affected by Cut, Copy, and Paste
operations in the MIDI Event List. Events that
are not displayed still play back. For more information, see “View Filter for MIDI Event List” on
page 394.
Part VI: Mixing
401
402
Chapter 26: Basic Mixing
In addition to the final mixdown, mixing tasks
can occur any time during a recording session.
This chapter covers Pro Tools mixing, including
audio signal flow, output and bus paths, sends,
and signal routing.
During mixing, real-time plug-ins and hardware
inserts provide effects and signal processing (see
Chapter 27, “Plug-In and Hardware Inserts”).
Mixing Concepts
Mixing involves making decisions about elements such as volume levels, panning, and effects. These mixing decisions are initially based
on what you hear in your studio. While you can
control many variables in your studio (such as
speakers and room acoustics), you cannot control the listening environment in which your final mix will be heard. The following tips include
a few ways to make sure your mix will sound as
good as possible to as many listeners as possible:
Alternate Speakers and Reference
Monitoring Listen to your mixes on a variety of
different speakers, to gauge how well the mix
will translate. By listening to a mix through different playback systems, you are attempting to
anticipate what the intended audience will hear.
Format Compatibility Monitoring Stereo mixes
must often be mono-compatible. When you are
mixing in multichannel surround, mixes may
also need to be compatible with stereo or mono
playback systems (see Chapter 30, “Surround
Concepts”).
Metering and Calibration
Meters provide a visual display of signal levels.
They tell whether signal is getting to a channel,
and how loud or soft a signal is relative to
(above or below) “0.”
By calibrating all your equipment to standard
reference levels, a consistent level can be
achieved (and metered) among different recording devices in a studio, throughout a facility, or
throughout an entire production chain of a feature-length film. For example, a level of, say,
–18 dBFS coming out of a DAT deck should play
and meter at –18 dBFS in Pro Tools.
For more information about calibrating
your studio, refer to your Getting Started
Guide. For audio interfaces that have trims
(such as the 192 I/O), see the interface’s
guide for calibration instructions.
Reference Mixes Tapes and discs of rough mixes
let you audition mixes outside the studio in different listening environments.
Chapter 26: Basic Mixing
403
Audio Signal Flow
Pro Tools provides three different types of audio
tracks:
• Audio tracks
Source
or Input
Source: any mono, stereo, or
multichannel audio file, playing
back from disk
Input: while record-monitoring or
in TrackInput monitoring mode
Inserts
• Auxiliary Inputs
• Master Faders
Mono and stereo audio tracks are available on
all Pro Tools systems.
Multichannel audio tracks and surround mixing
formats require Pro Tools|HD-series or MIX-series systems.
(plug-ins or
hardware
inserts)
Sends, pre-fader
Mute
Volume
Tracks can be identified in the Mix window by
their Track Type icon:
Track Type icons
Sends, post-fader
Audio, MIDI, Auxiliary Input, and Master Fader tracks
Panner
Audio Tracks
Audio tracks play audio from disk, record audio
to disk, or monitor input signals when record
enabled, or in TrackInput monitoring mode. Inserts on audio tracks are pre-fader. Sends can be
pre- or post-fader.
Output
Main Output
+ Additional Outputs
Audio signal flow, audio tracks
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To create an audio track
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 In the New Track dialog, specify the number
of tracks.
3 From the Track Type pop-up menu, select Au-
dio Track.
Auxiliary Inputs
Auxiliary Inputs provide the same signal routing
options as audio tracks, except that their input
must come from an internal bus or hardware input. Inserts on Auxiliary Inputs are pre-fader.
Input
Source: bus or
hardware input path
4 From the Track Format pop-up menu, select
the number of channels (for example, Stereo).
5 Click Create.
Inserts
(plug-ins or
hardware
inserts)
Sends, pre-fader
Mute
Volume
Sends, post-fader
Panner
Output
Main Output
+ Additional Outputs
Audio signal flow, audio tracks
Auxiliary Inputs are used as inputs for audio
from MIDI devices and other sources, as well as
to submix internal bus and output paths. They
can be fully automated. When using Auxiliary
Inputs as inputs for external sources, adjust the
source output levels to achieve proper recording
levels.
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Common Uses for Auxiliary Inputs
Master Faders
By bussing tracks to the Auxiliary Input, you
can:
Master Faders control the master output levels
of output and bus paths. When assigned to an
active output or bus path, they provide postfader effects processing and master level control
for a main mix, headphone and cue mixes,
stems, effects sends, and other signal routing applications. Master Faders support all track formats supported on your Pro Tools system.
• Apply real-time plug-ins or an external processor to a submix, using the Auxiliary Input
as an effects return
• Input MIDI and other audio sources into the
mix, to monitor or route to audio tracks for recording to disk
• Consolidate control of any submix under a
single fader (see “Submixing for Signal Routing and Effects Processing” on page 423)
Input (source) determined by output assignment
(of other tracks)
To create an Auxiliary Input:
Volume
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 In the New Track dialog, specify the number
of tracks.
3 From the Track Type pop-up menu, select Aux
Input.
4 From the Track Format pop-up menu, select
the number of channels (for example, Mono).
5 Click Create.
To route an Auxiliary Input:
1 Click the Input Selector of the Auxiliary Input
and choose an input or bus path.
Inserts,
post-fader
(plug-ins or
hardware)
Output
2 Click the Output Selector of the Auxiliary In-
put and choose an output or bus path.
3 Adjust the Auxiliary Input fader to set the return volume (it defaults to 0 dB).
Submix examples begin in “Submixing for
Signal Routing and Effects Processing” on
page 423.
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Main Output
+ Additional Outputs
Audio signal flow, Master Faders
Unlike inserts on audio tracks and Auxiliary Inputs, Master Fader inserts are post-fader. This
lets you insert a dither plug-in, or similar plugin, on your master mix. For more information
about dithering, see “Dither” on page 430.
Master Faders provide up to five post-fader inserts and no sends. Also, Master Fader tracks do
not have Pan controls, or Mute and Solo buttons.
If you absolutely must have a pre-fader insert on your Master Fader signal, set up an
Auxiliary Input before the Master Fader.
To use a Master Fader as a stereo master volume
control:
1 Create a stereo Master Fader track (as de-
scribed above).
2 Set the outputs of all audio tracks in the ses-
sion to the main output path (for example, outputs 1–2 of your primary audio interface) and
set the panning of each track.
Common Uses for Master Faders
3 Set the output of the Master Fader to the main
Master Faders can be used to:
output path.
• Control and process output mixes
• Monitor and meter an output (such as a bus or
hardware output) to guard against clipping
• Control submix levels
• Control effects sends levels
Master Fader Meters
Meters on Master faders always show post-fader
levels, regardless of the Pre-Fader Metering setting in the Operations menu.
• Control submaster (bussed tracks) levels
Master Faders and Paths
• Apply dither or other inserts to an entire mix
Master Faders can be assigned to main and subpaths. When more than one Master Fader is assigned to the same output or bus path, only one
can be active at the same time. If you try to assign a Master Fader to a main or sub-path that is
already actively assigned on another Master
Fader, the new assignment will be assigned, but
be inactive. Master Faders can be assigned to different sub-paths of the same main path, as long
as the sub-paths do not overlap.
Use Master Faders to control submix levels, send
level masters, and other outputs. Master Faders
do not consume any of your system’s audio processing power.
To create a Master Fader:
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 In the New Track dialog, specify the number
of tracks.
3 From the Track Type pop-up menu, select
Master Fader.
4 From the Track Format pop-up menu, select
the number of channels (for example, Stereo).
5 Click Create.
6 In the Mix window, click the Master Fader’s
Output Selector and choose the output that you
want to control. You can choose either audio interface outputs or internal busses. A Stereo Master Fader controls the level of a pair of outputs.
Active and Inactive Master Faders
(TDM Systems and Pro Tools LE 6.x Only)
When a Master Fader track is inactive, its associated plug-ins, I/O assignments, and their resources are made inactive.
When a Master Fader output assignment (path
assignment) is made inactive, the Master Fader
no longer controls the master gain of that path.
When you duplicate a Master Fader track, the
duplicated track’s assignment will be inactive.
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407
Inserts
Pro Tools lets you insert up to five inserts on
each audio track, Auxiliary Input, or Master
Fader. Each insert can be either a software plugin insert or a hardware insert.
Inserts provide the following features:
• Plug-ins and hardware inserts route the signal
from the track through the effect of your
choice, and automatically return it to the
same track.
• Hardware inserts send and return the signal to
corresponding input and output channels of
an audio interface, to which you can connect
outboard effects.
• Inserts on audio tracks and Auxiliary Inputs
are pre-fader.
• Inserts on Master Faders are post-fader.
• Inserts can be bypassed or made inactive.
• Most plug-in controls are fully automatable.
• On TDM systems, RTAS plug-ins can be inserted on audio tracks, but not on Auxiliary
Inputs or Master Faders.
See Chapter 27, “Plug-In and Hardware Inserts” for details about using plug-ins and
inserts.
Track Output Format and Plug-Ins
Pro Tools supports mono, multi-mono, stereo,
and (on systems that support surround mixing)
multichannel plug-ins.
Because inserts process in series, changing the
plug-in format can alter the channel format. For
example, inserting a mono-to-stereo plug-in on
a mono Auxiliary Input changes the signal path
from that plug-in through the rest of the track.
This restricts all hardware inserts or plug-ins after the stereo plug-in to be stereo-in/stereo-out
plug-ins (or the supported multichannel format).
Plug-In Formats
All Pro Tools TDM and LE systems support
mono and stereo plug-ins. The following three
types of plug-in paths are supported on all
Pro Tools systems:
• mono-in/mono-out
• mono-in/stereo-out
• stereo-in/stereo-out
Pro Tools TDM systems running the Surround
mixer also support 3–8 channel, multi-mono
and multichannel plug-ins.
Views in the Mix and Edit
Windows
Both the Mix and Edit windows can be configured to show or hide various mixing controls.
Comments, inserts, sends, and mic preamp
views can be shown or hidden in both the Mix
and Edit windows.
The I/O view is always shown in the Mix window and can be shown or hidden in the Edit
window.
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The Delay Compensation view is only available
in the Mix window.
To show or hide available views in the Mix and Edit
windows:
2 Choose any or all of the following:
Comments View Shows any text entered as comments in the Track Name dialog. For more information, see “Naming Tracks” on page 91.
1 Choose Display > Mix Window Shows or Display > Edit Window Shows for one of the view
types (such as Inserts View).
– or –
Click the View Selector in the Edit window.
View Selector
Comments view
Comments View in the Mix and Edit windows
I/O View (Edit Window Only) Shows input and
output, volume, and pan controls in each track.
Deselect to hide.
Selecting an Edit window view with the View Selector
\
Inserts View Shows inserts (software plug-ins
and hardware I/O inserts) in each track. Deselect
to hide.
Sends View Shows send assignments in each
track. Deselect to hide. For more information,
see “Configuring Sends View in the Mix and
Edit Windows” on page 416.
Edit window views
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To view Delay Compensation information:
■ Choose Display > Mix Window Shows > Delay
Compensation View.
Inserts
Delay values can be specified in either samples
or milliseconds, as determined in the Display
page of the Preferences dialog. For more information, see “Delay Compensation” on
page 428.
Sends
I/O
Track Input
Mix Window views
Mic Preamps View Shows controls in each track
for the Digidesign PRE. Deselect to hide. For detailed information, see the PRE Guide.
Input Selectors determine the source input for
audio tracks and Auxiliary Inputs. Track input
can be a hardware input, or bus. While recording, the Input Monitor mode determines when
live input will be monitored through a recordenabled audio track.
You can also define what physical ports are
routed to Pro Tools input ports in the “Main”
page of the Hardware Setup dialog. For more information, see “Configuring Pro Tools System
Settings (in the Playback System Engine)” on
page 37.
Mic Preamps view
Delay Compensation View The Delay Compensation View displays the total amount of plug-in
delay on each track, lets you apply a user offset
of track delay, and displays the total amount of
delay that Pro Tools applies to each track. The
Delay Compensation View can be shown in the
Mix Window.
To assign track input:
■ Select an input path or sub-path from the
track Input Selector.
Plug-in
Delay indicator
User Offset
Track Compensation
indicator
Selecting input path (Mix window)
Delay Compensation view
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To assign multiple tracks to the same input:
Alt-select (Windows) or Option-select (Macintosh) a track input to assign all tracks to the selected input.
■
– or –
Alt-Shift-select (Windows) or Option-Shift-select (Macintosh) a track input to assign all selected tracks to the selected input.
■
To assign multiple tracks to unique inputs
(ascending, incrementing):
Control-Alt-click (Windows) or CommandOption-click (Macintosh) a track input to assign
it to an input path and auto-assign each subsequent track to the next available input path
(moving top-to-bottom in the Edit window, leftto-right in the Mix window).
■
When you create new tracks, their default Output assignment is determined by your selection
of Default Output Path in I/O Setup. You can
change the Default Output Path in I/O Setup to
any available path. For more information, see
“Default Output Path” on page 84.
Sends, and Send windows, provide another
way to route track audio. See “Sends” on
page 414 for more information.
To assign a track output:
■ Select an output path or sub-path from the
track Output Selector.
Auto-assigning is determined by the path format, and the active/inactive state of the tracks,
as follows:
• Only tracks of a matching format (such as
two mono tracks) will be auto-assigned.
• Only active tracks and outputs will be autoassigned.
Track Output
Track Output Selectors route the post-fader signals to the assigned output or bus paths.
The Output Selector routes the main track output to the chosen main or sub-path. Tracks can
be routed directly to hardware outputs, or to internal bus paths for submixing (main or subpaths).
Assigning track output (Mix window)
To assign all audio or Auxiliary Input tracks to the
same output:
■ Alt-select (Windows) or Option-select (Macintosh) a track output to assign all tracks to the
same path.
To assign all selected audio or Auxiliary Input
tracks to the same output:
■ Alt+Shift (Windows) or Option+Shift (Macintosh) a track output, to assign all selected tracks
to the same path.
The track format (mono, stereo, or multichannel) determines the available main and sub-path
choices for track output.
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To assign multiple tracks to unique outputs
(ascending, incrementing):
■ Control-Alt-click (Windows) or CommandOption-click (Macintosh) a track output to assign it to an output path and auto-assign each
subsequent track to the next available output
path (moving top-to-bottom in the Edit window, left-to-right in the Mix window).
These windows appear differently for mono, stereo, and multichannel tracks. For multichannel
mixing, there is also an X/Y panner Output window available. For more information on using
multichannel Output windows, see Chapter 33,
“Surround Panning and Mixing.”
Output Paths
Pan controls
When audio tracks, Auxiliary Inputs, and Master Faders are created, their mono, stereo, or
greater-than-stereo multichannel format is defined.
Level Faders
• Mono tracks can be assigned to any available
mono, stereo, multichannel main and subpaths.
• Stereo tracks can be assigned to any available
mono, stereo, or multichannel main and subpaths.
• Multichannel tracks can be assigned to any
mono path, or path of the same number of
channels (for example, an LCRS track can be
assigned to a mono or LCRS path).
Mono
Stereo
Output windows (mono and stereo tracks)
Multiple Output Assignments
Output Windows
Output windows provide the essential track
mixing controls (such as track panning and volume), as an alternative to Mix and Edit window
views. Multichannel Output and Send windows
also provide expanded Panner views, and other
surround-specific controls. (See Chapter 33,
“Surround Panning and Mixing.”)
Output windows are useful in large sessions to
leave important tracks in an anchored location,
unaffected by Mix and Edit window (or control
surface) banking. See “Output Windows for
Tracks and Sends” on page 418.
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Pro Tools audio tracks and Auxiliary Inputs can
have multiple track output and send assignments. Multiple outputs are limited only by the
paths and resources available on your system.
Assigning to multiple paths is an efficient way
to route an identical mix to other discrete outputs, for simultaneous monitor feeds, headphone mixes, or other situations where a parallel mix is needed. Master Faders can only be
assigned to a single path.
You can also define what physical ports are
routed to Pro Tools output ports in the “Main”
page of the Hardware Setup dialog. For more information, see “Configuring Pro Tools System
Settings (in the Playback System Engine)” on
page 37.
Inactive Outputs
To assign a track to multiple outputs:
the track’s Output Selector.
When opening sessions, outputs will be made
inactive automatically if the required hardware
or other resources are not available.
2 Start-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) an additional output path in the track’s
Output Selector. The newly selected output destination is added as an additional output.
Inactive outputs retain all associated automation playlists. Edits made in the session also affect the inactive track’s output automation playlists.
1 Assign a main output path by selecting it from
Alt-Start-click (Windows) or Option-Control-click (Macintosh) to add the assignment to all tracks, or Alt-Shift-Start-click
(Windows) or Option-Shift-Control-click
(Macintosh) to add to all selected tracks.
Display of Multiple Output Assignments
When a track is assigned to multiple output
paths, the Output Selector denotes multiple assignment status and active/inactive status with
the following indicators:
• A plus sign (+) indicates that the track has
multiple output assignments.
Indication of multiple output assignments
• In the Output Selector menu, all currently assigned track outputs are checked to indicate
they are active for the current track.
• An asterisk (*) indicates that one or more currently assigned outputs is Inactive.
An output path can be made inactive, either globally in the I/O Setup window (affecting all
tracks assigned to that path), or locally per assignment (only affecting that output on that audio track or Auxiliary Input).
See “Making Tracks Inactive” on page 102.
Inactive Outputs and DSP Resources
Making a track output inactive silences the output, while retaining all automation and playlist
data. Inactive outputs do not consume resources
for TDM mixer connections, but any assigned
plug-ins on the track continue to use their required DSP resources. RTAS plug-ins require
CPU resources, and TDM plug-ins use the DSP
available on Pro Tools audio cards.
You can free up DSP of unused plug-ins by setting a track to inactive, or by setting just the
plug-in to inactive.
See “Active and Inactive Items” on page 17,
and “Making Inserts Inactive” on page 436
for more information.
About the “No Output” Option
Track outputs can be set to No Output. Assigning a track output to No Output loses any panning automation associated with the track.
Tracks assigned to No Output will not be audible, but they do not free their associated DSP resources.
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Sends
Pro Tools lets you insert up to five sends on each
audio track or Auxiliary Input.
Sends provide the following features:
• Sends can be set as pre- or post-fader.
• Send level and mute can be configured to follow Groups.
Assigning Sends to Tracks
To add a send to a track:
1 Make sure Sends View is enabled in the Mix or
Edit window (see “Views in the Mix and Edit
Windows” on page 408 for information).
2 Click the Sends button on the track and
choose a path from the pop-up menu.
• Send level, send mute, and send pan (for stereo and multichannel sends) are fully automatable. See “Automating Sends” on page 460.
• Send controls can be displayed and edited
from the Mix or Edit windows, or in their own
output windows.
• Sends can be assigned to available output and
bus paths (main or sub-paths), in mono or stereo, or any of the supported multichannel formats for surround mixing.
• Each send can have multiple assignments (for
example, to available output and bus paths).
Assigning a send to a stereo bus path
The send can be a mono or stereo (or any of the
supported multichannel formats for surround
mixing) output or bus path.
Sends must be returned to the mix through an
Auxiliary Input or audio track to be audible in
Pro Tools. They can be monitored and processed
through an Auxiliary Input, recorded to audio
tracks, and bounced to disk. (Bouncing and mixdown are explained in Chapter 29, “Mixdown.”)
Send window (mono)
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3 Set the output level of the send in the Send
window:
• Adjust the send level fader.
Send Path Choices
The choices available in track Send Selectors include bus and output paths.
– or –
• Set the send level to unity gain (0 dB) by
Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking
(Macintosh) the send fader.
The first time you create a new send, its output
level is automatically set to off, displayed onscreen as –INF (–∞).
To change the default setting for sends:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click the Operation tab.
2 Select Sends Default to “–INF.”
– or –
Deselect Sends Default to “–INF” and new sends
will default to unity gain (0 dB).
To remove a send from a track:
The names, format, and channel mapping
of busses and output paths can be customized in the I/O Setup dialog. See “Creating
and Editing Paths” on page 73.
Internal Mix Busses Pro Tools TDM systems provide 64 busses and Pro Tools LE systems provide
16 busses for routing signals internally. Internal
bus paths are useful for submixing and processing with plug-ins. Bus paths are defined in the
I/O Setup dialog, and are available in all supported channel formats (mono, stereo, or multichannel, as supported on your system).
Hardware Outputs Hardware sends are often
used for headphone cue mixes, or for sending
signals to external effects processors. Sends do
not automatically return audio as do hardware
inserts.
Click the Sends button on the track and
choose No Send from the pop-up menu.
■
Send Formats
Mono and Stereo Sends Available on all
Pro Tools systems. When you click the Sends
button on a track, you can choose from a list of
mono or stereo output or bus paths.
Multichannel Sends Supported on Pro Tools|HDseries and MIX-series systems only
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Configuring Sends View in the Mix
and Edit Windows
Sends are displayed in the Mix and Edit window
according to the Sends View Shows settings.
Choices include Assignments View, plus the five
Send A–E Views, explained below.
Assignment View
This is the default Send Display mode, showing
the five available sends on all tracks displayed in
the Mix and Edit windows.
To display the controls for an individual send
across all tracks:
1 If sends are not currently visible on your
tracks, choose Display > Mix Window Shows (or
Edit Window Shows) > Sends View.
Send A, Assignment View
Send Selectors
2 Do one of the following:
• Choose Display > Sends View Shows and
select the send (A–E).
• In Assignment View, Control-click (Windows) or Command-click (Macintosh) the
Send Selector.
Assignments View, no sends (left) and with an assigned
send (right)
• When displaying sends in a Send A–E View,
select the send (A–E).
In Assignment View, send controls are adjusted
from Send windows. See “To view a different
track Output or Send window:” on page 419.
To show all send assignments:
Choose Display > Sends View Shows > Assignments.
Send A–E Views
■
– or –
The Send A–E views provide send level, pan, and
mute controls.
■ When displaying sends in a Send A–E View,
Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the Send Selector and select Assignments.
Send Selector
multichannel
stereo
pre-fader
post-fader
no assignment
Send A View, with different types of send assignments
Sends Views
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Send controls can be adjusted directly from
these Send views. Sends can also be opened for
control or metering in Send windows. See “Output Windows for Tracks and Sends” on
page 418.
Editing Sends in the Mix and Edit
Windows (Send A–E Views)
Send A–E Views display all the controls of an individual send in the sends area of the Mix and
Edit windows. These views provide full access to
all controls for that send on all tracks.
send
send
indicator assignment
path assignment
send
level
send pan
send mute
pre/post
send meter
Send A View, with stereo send shown
Send level and mute can follow Mix groups, to
adjust multiple send controls from a single set of
controls. (See “Sends and Groups” on page 423.)
Sends View Meters
When you display the controls for an individual
send, you also have the option of displaying
send level meters.
Send level meters show peak values and indicate
clipping that occurs while the meter is displayed
(if a send clips any time before its meter is displayed, this is not shown). If you are using a
slower computer, hiding send level meters can
improve screen redraw times.
To clear all meters, do one of the following:
■
Option-click any Clip indicator.
■
Choose Operations > Clear All Clips.
■ Press Alt-C (Windows) or Option-C (Macintosh).
In Assignment View, edit sends by opening
their Output windows. See “To view a different track Output or Send window:” on
page 419.
Send Status Display
When displaying sends in a Send A–E View, the
Send status is visible directly in the Mix or Edit
windows.
In Assignment View, Send status is displayed as
follows:
• By default, the Send button is grey, to indicate
that it is unmuted.
• The Send button text is red when the send has
clipped.
• The Send button is blue when the send is
muted.
• The Send button is lit whenever a send’s window is open.
Unmuted
Clipped
(red text)
Muted
(blue)
Window is open
(lit Send)
To display send level meters when viewing
individual sends:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Display.
2 Select Show Meters in Sends View and click
Done.
To clear a send meter’s Clip indicator:
■
Click the Clip indicator.
Indication of Send mute, clipping, and window status
If you use a control surface (such as D-Control,
ProControl or Control|24) with Pro Tools, colored outlines around sends, inserts, and Outputs indicate the current controller focus.
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417
Inactive Sends
To toggle sends in the same position (A–E) on all
selected tracks active or inactive:
Sends can be made inactive. Inactive sends free
their DSP and mixer resources, while retaining
their position in track Sends View. Inactive
sends do not output audio. However, Inactive
sends retain all related automation playlists. In
addition, any edits made in the session affect
the sends automation playlists.
When opening sessions, sends will automatically be made inactive if the required hardware
or other resources are not available.
inactive send
active
(italicized and
send
greyed out) (plain text)
■ Control-Start-Alt-Shift-click (Windows) or
Command-Control-Option-Shift-click (Macintosh) a send button in the position you want to
toggle.
Output Windows for Tracks
and Sends
Track outputs and sends can be opened for display and editing in dedicated windows.
• Track Output windows provide track fader,
pan, automation, solo, and mute controls.
• Send windows provide send level, pan, automation, and mute controls.
inactive track
(entire track is italicized
and greyed out)
• Standard Output and Send window controls
provide additional routing, assignment, and
display settings.
To open a track Output window:
■
Click the Output icon in the channel strip.
Display of inactive sends
To make a send inactive:
■ Control-Start-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) on the Send assignment.
– or –
■ Make the Track inactive. See “Making Tracks
Inactive” on page 102.
To toggle sends in the same position (A–E) on all
tracks active or inactive:
■ Control-Start-Alt click (Windows) or Command-Control-Option click (Macintosh) a send
button in the position you want to toggle.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Opening a track Output window
To open a Send window:
■
Click the send in the Mix or Edit window.
click here
or here
Opening Multiple Output Windows
Multiple track and Send windows can be displayed simultaneously using either of the following methods.
To open additional Output windows:
■
Shift-click any output icon or send.
To set a window to remain open when opening
additional Output windows:
■
Make sure the Target is disabled.
Target enabled
Target disabled
Opening a Send window
To view a different track Output or Send window:
Click an output icon, or send, in the Mix or
Edit window.
■
If a similar Output window was already open
with a highlighted Target icon (red, lit), the
newly selected send will open in its place.
Multiple Send windows
Arrange multiple windows as needed. For additional information, see “Targeted Windows” on
page 422.
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Panner Linking
Inverse Linked Panning
Stereo outputs provide two panning controls,
one for each side of the left/right pair. Multichannel outputs provide a multichannel panner.
When linked and set to Inverse mode, panning
moves are inverted, or reversed, in the other
channels.
The Output window provides controls to unlink
(or link) channels for precise panning of stereo
and multichannel tracks.
In the default Linked mode, all sides match
changes to any other side’s pan control. This is
Absolute Link mode. To mirror panning
changes, see “Inverse Linked Panning” on
page 420.
When unlinked, pan controls are completely independent of each other.
Inverse panning reflects one side’s location and
direction in the other side. For example, when
enabled for Front Inverse, if you pan one side of
a stereo track output from right to left, the other
side will exactly mirror that movement and pan
left to right.
Front Inverse linking is available on all systems.
Rear Inverse, and Front/Rear Inverse linking are
available on Pro Tools|HD-series and MIX-series
systems only, and only appear as options on
multichannel plug-ins and panners/output windows.
Link
Front Inverse
Front/Rear Inverse
Rear Inverse
Linked (left), unlinked (middle), front inverse linked
(right) Output windows
To enable linking:
■
Enable the Link icon.
To unlink an output for independent panning:
■
420
Deselect the Link icon.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Link, and Inverse Selectors (multichannel track)
To enable inverse linking:
1 Enable the Link icon.
2 Select an Inverse mode.
Standard Selector Controls in Output Windows
All Output windows provide standard selectors for path, automation, and other controls in the top
area of the window (the Output Editor area).
Path Meter View
Track Selector
Output Selector
Path Selector
Automation Safe
Close
Target
Inverse Pan
Link
Close
Track Selector
Output Selector
Path Selector
Automation Safe
Path Meter View
Target
Inverse Pan
Link
Output window standard controls, Windows (left) and Macintosh (right)
Path Meter View
Track Selector
Send Selector
Path Selector
Pre/Post Fader
Close
Target
Inverse Pan
Link
Automation Safe
Close
Track Selector
Send Selector
Path Selector
Pre/Post Fader
Path Meter View
Target
Inverse Pan
Link
Automation Safe
Send window standard controls, Windows (left) and Macintosh (right)
Close Closes the window.
Track Selector Provides access to any audio
track, Auxiliary Input, or Master Fader in the
session.
Output Selector Provides access to other outputs
(track and send) in the track, if any, displaying
the selected output in the current window.
Send Selector (Send Window Only) Provides access to other sends on the track.
Path Selector Allows you to assign the Output
path for the current track or send.
Inverse Pan Reflects one side’s panning location
and direction in the other side (for example,
left- and right-channel pan controls).
Link and Unlink Allows linking and unlinking of
left and right (or other) outputs in stereo (or
multichannel). Unlinked mode provides discrete adjustment of individual sides, or channels. When linked, all changes affect all channels. See “Panner Linking” on page 420.
Target Identifies the target of plug-in settings
commands. Also sets the current window for
display of Output windows. See “Targeted Windows” on page 422.
Pre/Post Fader (Sends Window Only) Determines whether the send is pre- or post-fader.
Automation Safe Protects track and send level,
pan, and other controls from automation overwrites by placing them in Automation Safe
mode. See Chapter 28, “Automation” for more
information.
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421
Meter View opens the path Meter View. These
meters display levels of the selected path (not
the levels of the track or send).
To set an open Send window as the Target window:
■
Click the Target, so that it is lit (red).
Plug-in windows have additional features
related to the Target (such as Focus of Settings commands). See “The Plug-In Window” on page 440.
Meters View
Using Output Windows
Output windows provide standard Pro Tools
track, send, Target, and other controls.
To move to a different track:
track meter
path
meters
■ Click the Track Selector button and choose a
track from the pop-up menu.
Path Meter
Selector
Meters View in a Send window
Track Fader, Solo, Mute, and Auto
Selecting a track from the Output window
Output windows provide the associated track’s
volume fader, pan controls, solo and mute
switches, and Automation Mode Selector. Use
these to adjust or automate the controls of the
Output window.
To reassign output:
■ Click the Path Selector button and select a
path from the pop-up menu.
Targeted Windows
When lit (red), the Target indicates its window is
“targeted,” and the next window opened of the
same type replaces the current display (unless it
is opened as an additional window with the
Shift modifier). When unlit, the target is gray,
and the current window anchors to its current
contents and location on-screen. Opening additional windows does not affect anchored windows.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Selecting a path in the Output window
To display the controls for a different send on the
same track:
Click the Send Selector button and select the
send.
■
For more information on groups, see
“Grouping Tracks” on page 103.
Copying Track Settings to Sends
(TDM Systems Only)
Sometimes you need send settings to match the
settings in the track itself—for example, to provide a headphone mix based on the main mix.
To copy track settings to sends:
1 Select the tracks you want to edit by clicking
Accessing another send in the Output window
on the track names to highlight them.
To add a different send to the same track:
2 Choose Edit > Copy To Send.
Click the Send Selector button and choose an
output or bus path from the pop-up menu, then
click the Send Path Selector and choose a destination from the pop-up menu.
■
To add an additional output assignment to the
current send:
Press Start (Windows) or Control (Macintosh)
while selecting an additional output path from
the Send Selector.
■
Sends and Groups
Copy To Send dialog
3 Select the controls you want to copy.
Send level and mute can follow Mix groups in
each of the five available sends (A–E). Use this
option to adjust multiple send controls from a
single set of controls.
To configure sends and Mix groups:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click the Automation tab.
2 Enable Send Level Follows Groups, or Send
Mute Follows Groups.
3 Click Done to set the new Preferences.
4 Select the sends you want to copy the settings
to, and click OK.
Submixing for Signal Routing
and Effects Processing
The bussing and mixing features in Pro Tools
support myriad possibilities for submixing and
signal routing, including the ability to:
• Create inputs for MIDI devices and other audio sources, to monitor or record in Pro Tools.
Chapter 26: Basic Mixing
423
• Control and automate any submix from a single fader and channel strip.
Mixing Audio Input from MIDI Devices
and External Sources
• Apply real-time plug-ins or an external processor to the submix, using the Auxiliary Input as an effects return.
By mixing MIDI and other audio sources
through Pro Tools, you can apply mix automation to the volume, pan, mute, send level, send
pan, send mute, and plug-in controls of the
Auxiliary Input.
Audio Input from MIDI Devices and
Other External Sources
You can use an Auxiliary Input to bring external
audio sources such as MIDI devices, tape, microphone inputs, and instruments, into a Pro Tools
mix.
To use Auxiliary Inputs to bring external audio
sources into a mix:
1 Connect the audio outputs of your MIDI and
other external devices to available inputs on
your Pro Tools audio interfaces.
Auxiliary Inputs can be routed to audio tracks
through internal send busses, or using their
track output, to record them to disk.
Using plug-ins, inserts, and sends on Auxiliary
Inputs, you can process instruments and other
inputs with real-time plug-ins, or external devices. See “Send and Return Submixing for Effects Processing” on page 425.
Creating a Submix
2 If necessary, configure the I/O Setup dialog for
the input paths you plan to utilize. The
I/O Setup dialog configuration determines the
choices available for track sends, inputs, busses,
and hardware inserts. (For more information,
see Chapter 7, “I/O Setup.”)
Audio is routed to a submix by assigning any
combination of sends and track outputs to available bus or output paths.
3 Specify the track type (Aux Input), and mono,
stereo, or any of the supported multichannel
formats for surround mixing.
Submixing with Track Outputs or Sends
4 Click Create.
5 Set the input of the Auxiliary Input track to
the appropriate input path.
Auxiliary Inputs can serve as effects returns by
inserting plug-ins or external effects processors.
You can use both track outputs and sends to
route audio for submixing, depending on
whether you want a discrete or send and return
submix.
Discrete Submix Output
6 Assign the track output to the appropriate
path, or paths. (See “Multiple Output Assignments” on page 412 for more information.)
7 Adjust the Auxiliary Input fader to control the
track, and any assigned post-fader send levels.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pro Tools lets you discretely route source audio
through a submix. This is preferred for dither or
other mastering processing, where you do not
want unprocessed audio heard in addition to
the processed signals. Use track outputs (not
sends) to assign tracks to a bus path for discrete
submixing. In this arrangement, the balance of
processed and unprocessed signal is controlled
by plug-in wet/dry settings.
For another way to submix effects, see
“Send and Return Submixing for Effects
Processing” on page 425.
To create a discrete submix:
1 Set the output of the tracks you want to in-
clude in the submix to a stereo bus path.
2 Pan each track.
3 Choose File > New Tracks.
4 Specify the track type (Aux Input) and format
(stereo), then click Create.
5 Set the input of the Auxiliary Input to the
You can also bounce a submix to disk to free up
the voices for use by other tracks. See
Chapter 29, “Mixdown” for information.
Send and Return Submixing for Effects
Processing
When you are submixing for reverb, delay, and
similar effects processing, use sends to achieve
traditional send/return bussing. You can use a
real-time plug-in or a hardware I/O insert as a
shared resource for all tracks included in a submix. The wet/dry balance in the mix can be controlled using the track faders (dry level) and
Auxiliary Input fader (effect return, or wet,
level).
See Chapter 27, “Plug-In and Hardware Inserts” for more information.
same bus path to which you assigned all contributing tracks.
Send and Return with a Plug-In or Hardware
Insert
6 Set the output of the Auxiliary Input track to
your main stereo mix outputs (typically, outputs
1–2).
To create an effects return submix with a plug-in or
hardware insert:
7 Set the Auxiliary Input Track level.
8 To process the submix, assign a plug-in or
hardware insert on the Auxiliary Input.
9 Set the controls of the plug-in. The plug-in By-
pass and Wet/Dry controls (if available) determine the amount of effect heard.
The contributing track faders control the balance within the submix. The Auxiliary Input
track controls the output levels of all tracks
routed to it.
1 Assign each track’s main output to your main
mix outputs.
2 On the source tracks, assign a send (mono or
stereo) and select a mono or stereo bus path
from the send’s Output Selector. Configure the
sends for pre- or post-fader, as needed.
3 Choose File > New Tracks.
4 Specify the track type (Aux Input) and format
(stereo), then click Create.
5 From the Auxiliary Input track’s Input Selec-
tor, select the send bus path.
You can apply mix automation to the volume,
pan, mute, and send level, send pan, and send
mute controls of the Auxiliary Input.
6 Assign a plug-in or hardware insert on the
Auxiliary Input.
7 Set the effect to “100% wet,” and set any other
controls as needed.
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425
8 From the Auxiliary Input track’s Output Selec-
2 Assign a send (mono or stereo) and set the
tor, select an output path (main outputs).
send destinations on the source tracks to the
output path connected to the external device.
Configure the sends for pre- or post-fader, as
needed.
Adjust the individual track faders to balance the
dry (unprocessed) tracks. The amount of effect is
controlled by the level of the Send fader or the
Auxiliary Input fader.
Effect (plug-in or hardware)
Insert
3 Choose File > New Tracks.
4 Specify the track type (Aux Input) and format
(stereo or mono), then click Create.
5 From the Auxiliary Input track’s Input Selec-
Send to effect bus
tor, select the input path connected to the external device.
Controls level of send to effects bus
6 From the Auxiliary Input track’s Output Selec-
tor, select an output path (main outputs).
Input set to send bus path
Output set to main mix outs
Adjust the individual track faders to balance the
dry (unprocessed) tracks. The amount of effect is
controlled by the level of the Send fader or the
Auxiliary Input fader.
Send to external device
Controls level of dry signal
Controls level of effect return
Input set to device’s return
Output set to main mix
outs
Send/return setup for a plug-in or hardware insert
Controls level of dry signal
Send and Return with an External Device
Controls level of effect
To create an effects return submix with an
external device:
1 Assign each track’s main output to your main
mix outputs.
Send/return setup for an external device
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Creating a Master Send Level Control
A Master Fader can control the overall level of
bus and output paths.
To create a Master send level control:
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 Specify the track type (Master Fader), and
mono, stereo, or any of the supported multichannel formats for surround mixing.
Generating Stereo Output from a Mono
Send/Return
You can use an Auxiliary Return arrangement to
generate a stereo output from a mono send. Set
the send destination to a mono Auxiliary Input
track and place a mono to stereo plug-in on the
Auxiliary Input. The output of the Auxiliary Input becomes stereo.
To create a “stereo” effect from a mono source,
you must use “reverb” or “delay” effects.
3 Click Create.
4 Do one of the following:
• Set the output of the Master Fader to the
same path that you are using to send to an
Auxiliary Input track.
• Set the output of the Master Fader to match
the path that you have chosen for your effects send.
You can then adjust send levels to balance the
source tracks, and use the Master Fader as a master level control for the entire submix.
Soloing Tracks in a Submix
Before you solo any tracks in a submix, you can
solo safe the Auxiliary Input track to eliminate
the necessity of having to also solo the Auxiliary
Input (to hear any effects) when you solo a
source track.
To solo safe an Auxiliary Input:
Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the Solo button on the Auxiliary
Input track.
■
To solo an individual track that is part of a group:
Start-click (Windows) or Control-click (Macintosh) the Solo button.
■
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427
Delay Compensation
(HD-series Systems with Pro Tools 6.4 Only)
Pro Tools provides Delay Compensation for
managing DSP delays that occur on audio
tracks, Auxiliary Inputs, or Master Faders because of plug-in use and mixer routing.
Pro Tools maintains time-alignment between
tracks that have plug-ins with differing DSP delays, tracks with different mixing paths, tracks
that are split off and recombined within the
mixer, and tracks with hardware inserts.
To maintain time alignment, Pro Tools adds the
exact amount of delay to each track necessary to
make that particular track’s delay equal to the
delay of the track that has the longest delay.
Delay Compensation should be enabled during
mixing and playback for optimal delay compensated sound. In some cases, Delay Compensation should be turned off when recording.
Long Allocates maximum DSP resources of delay
compensation for each mixer channel. Long delay compensation uses the same DSP resources
used by high DSP overhead plug-ins.
To configure the Delay Compensation Engine:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
2 From the Delay Compensation Engine pop-up
menu, select a Delay compensation setting.
3 Click OK.
The delay compensation option will be saved as
a session and system preference.
Delay Compensation View
The Delay Compensation View displays the total amount of plug-in delay on each track, lets
you apply a user offset of track delay, and displays the total amount of delay that Pro Tools
applies to each track. The Delay Compensation
View can be shown in the Mix Window.
To enable Delay Compensation:
■ Choose Operations > Use Delay Compensation.
Plug-in
Delay indicator
User Offset
Delay Compensation Settings
There are three settings in the Playback Engine
dialog for dedicating DSP resources for Delay
Compensation:
428
Track Compensation
indicator
Delay Compensation view
To view Delay Compensation information:
None Allocates no DSP resources for automatic
delay compensation.
■ Choose Display > Mix Window Shows > Delay
Compensation View.
Short Allocates minimal DSP resources of delay
compensation for each channel. This is the
most efficient setting for Pro Tools|HD Accel
systems.
Delay values can be specified in either samples
or milliseconds, as determined in the Display
page of the Preferences dialog.
Pro Tools Reference Guide
Plug-In Delay (dly) Indicator
This indicator shows the total plug-in and hardware insert delay on the track. This delay total is
used by Pro Tools to calculate the delay applied
to other tracks to keep them time-aligned. The
track with the highest plug-in and insert delay
displays delay information in orange.
Bypassing the track’s reported delay to Pro Tools
can be useful if your total plug-in delay on a
track exceeds the amount allowed in the Delay
Compensation Engine setting. After bypassing
the track’s reported delay, you must manually
nudge your track earlier by the reported amount
to achieve the proper delay compensation for
that track, while continuing to use Delay Compensation (see “User Offset (+/–) Field” on
page 429.)
2 To set your delay value (in samples or milliseconds depending on your current preferences),
do one of the following:
• Enter a positive number (with or without
the “+” modifier) or negative number (with
the “–” modifier.)
• Control-drag (Windows) or Commanddrag (Macintosh) in the User Offset field to
scroll to a new value.
• Press the Up and Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease the numerical values.
3 Press Enter.
To bypass the user delay:
■ Start-Control-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the User Offset field.
The user defined delay will appear greyed out,
and it will no longer be applied to the track.
To bypass reporting plug-in delay to Pro Tools:
Start-Control-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the Plug-in Delay indicator. The track delay will appear greyed out,
and Pro Tools will not use that track’s plug-in
delay to calculate Delay Compensation for the
other tracks.
Track Compensation (cmp) Indicator
User Offset (+/–) Field
When the total delay on a track exceeds the
amount of compensation available, Pro Tools
applies the maximum available compensation,
and displays the delay information in red (in the
Delay Compensation View) for any tracks that
cannot be fully compensated. The Delay Compensation indicator in the Edit window also
turns red to indicate that the track delay exceeds
the delay compensation limit. In this case, you
need to bypass the track’s reported delay (see
“Plug-In Delay (dly) Indicator” on page 429),
then manually nudge the track to maintain
proper delay compensation (see “User Offset
(+/–) Field” on page 429).
■
This field lets you adjust track delays manually.
In addition to the automatic delay, positive or
negative delay times can be entered in the user
offset (+/–) field.
This is useful for changing the feel of a track or
for time-aligning a track in case a plug-in is incorrectly reporting its delay.
To change track delay using the User Offset field:
1 In the Delay Compensation view, click in the
User Offset edit field.
This indicator shows the amount of compensation Pro Tools applies to each track.
Delay that Exceeds the Compensation
Limit
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429
Low Latency Monitoring During
Recording
For recording, Pro Tools automatically suspends
delay compensation to provide a low-latency
monitor path through the main outputs of the
record-enabled tracks. When an audio track is
TrackInput-enabled, armed for recording (in
stop), or punched in, the track’s delay compensation is automatically suspended (and the
Track Compensation indicator displays 0).
Delay compensation can be intentionally applied to audio tracks regardless of input mode.
To apply delay compensation to automatically
bypassed tracks:
■ Start-Control-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the Track Compensation indicator. Track delay will be applied to the
track and the Track Compensation Indicator
will display in blue.
Track Compensation on Auxiliary Inputs
Delay compensation on Auxiliary Inputs can be
bypassed to let you monitor outside sources
(such as the audio tracks of a slaved video deck)
with minimal latency, while still reporting the
track’s delay.
To bypass an Auxiliary Input’s delay
compensation:
Start-Control-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the Track Compensation indicator. The reported track delay will be
zero, and will appear greyed out.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
Dither
Dither is a special form of randomized noise
used to mask quantization noise in digital audio
systems. Digital audio’s poorest distortion performance exists at the lowest end of the dynamic range, where quantization distortion can
occur. Dither reduces quantizing errors by introducing very low-level random noise, thereby
minimizing distortion artifacts as audio reaches
low level. With dither there is a trade-off between signal-to-noise performance and less-apparent distortion. Proper use of dither lets you
squeeze better subjective performance out of a
16-bit data format (such as Red Book compact
discs).
Pro Tools TDM systems process all audio internally at 24-bit, and Pro Tools LE processes internally at 32-bit, floating. Without Dither to process the 24-bit data to 16-bit, the extra 8 bits are
truncated (dropped entirely) when written to
media or a device with a 16-bit maximum (such
as CD recorders, and many DAT machines).
Dithering, on the other hand, preserves lowlevel (quiet) fidelity in a surprising way—by
adding a small amount of noise to a signal.
Dither in Pro Tools
There are several dither options provided in
Pro Tools. Each has a specific application within
the various operations that could benefit from
dithering.
In addition to the TDM, RTAS and AudioSuite
dither plug-ins, Pro Tools has a built-in dither
capability.
Dither Mixer Plug-Ins (Pro Tools|HD Systems
Only) There are two Mixer plug-ins that feature
dither with noise shaping: Stereo Dithered and
Surround Dithered. For more information, see
“Surround Dithered and Stereo Dithered Mixers” on page 607. Standard Stereo and Surround
Mixers do not have dither and require use of
dither plug-ins.
The following AudioSuite plug-ins can automatically apply dither when processing:
• EQ II
• Compressor II
• Limiter II
• Gate II
• Expander/Gate II
Dither on Final Output for Mixdown You can insert a real-time dither plug-in on a Master Fader
that controls your output mix, to dither your final mix for CD or other 16-bit media. Inserts on
Master Fader process post-fader. This form of
dithering lets you use dither plug-ins from
Digidesign or third-party manufacturers. To use
dither when recording to disk (Bounce to Disk),
see “Dither and Bounce to Disk” on page 480.
AudioSuite Dither For AudioSuite plug-in processing, dither is based on the Dither plug-in.
• Normalize
• Gain
• DC Offset Removal
• Time Compression/Expansion
• Pitch Shift
For information about AudioSuite Dither,
see the Digi-Rack Plug-Ins Guide.
Fades and Crossfades In the Fades dialog (Edit >
Fades > Create Fades), the Use Dither checkbox
enables a preset, noise-shaped dither.
Operation Preferences, for AudioSuite dither
For most AudioSuite plug-ins, dither can be automatically applied in the Pro Tools Preferences
dialog, under Processing. The Use AudioSuite
Dither checkbox enables a preset, N-shaped
dither.
Create Fades dialog
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Noise Shaping
Noise is an integral part of the dithering process.
Noise shaping can further improve audio performance and reduce perceived noise inherent in
dithering. Noise shaping utilizes digital filtering
to move noise from frequencies around 4 kHz to
near the Nyquist frequency. Essentially, noise
shaping lessens our perception of the noise inherent in dithering by shifting audible noise
components into a less audible range.
Noise Shaping is available in the Dither plug-in.
For more information about dither during
mixdown, see Chapter 29, “Mixdown.”
Using a Control Surface with
Pro Tools
Control surfaces add hands-on control to
Pro Tools functions. You can use a control surface to adjust on-screen faders and knobs, activate transport controls, or scrub and shuttle in
Pro Tools.
There are several optional control surfaces for
mixing in Pro Tools:
• Digidesign’s D-Control, an innovative tactile
worksurface that employs a familiar, intuitive
channel strip/center section console layout.
• ProControl and Control|24, dedicated controllers that provide access to Pro Tools recording, mixing, editing, signal routing, plugin control, and automation features.
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• Digidesign’s Command|8, a low cost USBbased control surface for Pro Tools, developed
in a collaboration between Digidesign and Focusrite. Command|8 is a compact, convenient, and flexible control surface for
Pro Tools systems running on Windows XP or
Mac OS X.
For more information on using MIDI control surfaces with Pro Tools, refer to the
Pro Tools MIDI Control Surfaces Guide.
Chapter 27: Plug-In and Hardware
Inserts
Pro Tools provides up to five unity-gain inserts
on each audio track, Auxiliary Input, or Master
Fader. Audio track and Auxiliary Input inserts
are pre-fader, and Master Faders inserts are postfader only.
Additional real-time plug-ins are available from
Digidesign and from many third-party developers.
For information about optional Digidesign
plug-ins, see the electronic Digidesign PlugIns Guide. For information about thirdparty plug-ins, visit the Digidesign Web site
(www.digidesign.com).
An insert can be either a software DSP plug-in or
a hardware insert. A Pro Tools insert routes the
signal from the track to a plug-in or external
hardware effect of your choice and automatically returns it to the same track. Inserts do not
alter the original audio source files, but process
audio in real time, during playback. You can
permanently apply real-time effects to tracks by
recording or bouncing the effect to disk (see
Chapter 29, “Mixdown” for more information).
Hardware I/O Inserts Hardware I/O inserts can
route audio through an external device connected to parallel inputs and outputs of an audio interface. You can process the audio material on a track with a hardware insert in real
time.
Plug-In Inserts Plug-in inserts are software inserts that process audio material on a track in
real time. For example, the EQ, Dynamics, and
Mod Delay plug-ins supplied with your
Pro Tools system are real-time plug-in inserts.
Hardware I/O insert
For more information about the plug-ins
supplied with your Pro Tools system, see the
DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide.
Insert paths require audio interface inputs and
outputs, and are determined by the I/O Setup
configuration of your system.
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General Information
Insert Formats
When more than one insert is used on a track,
they are processed in series. Each effect is added
to that of any previous plug-ins or inserts, (flowing from top to bottom in the Mix window Inserts View, and left to right in the Edit window
Inserts View).
Mono Inserts Used on mono tracks. Inserts that
occur on a track after a stereo insert are automatically used in stereo as well.
Inserts on audio tracks and Auxiliary Inputs are
pre-fader. You can cause clipping if you boost
their gain to extremes, especially on tracks recorded at high amplitude. Watch on-screen metering for indication of clipping. (Inserts on
Master Faders are post-fader.)
How to Use Inserts for Effects
Processing
Inserts can be used in two ways:
On Single Tracks An insert can be applied to an
individual audio track, Auxiliary Input, or Master Fader.
With in-line inserts, you control the amount of
effect by adjusting the balance (or, wet/dry)
controls of the plug-in or external device.
As Shared Resources An insert can be used as a
shared resource in a send-and-return arrangement, by bussing signals from several tracks to
an Auxiliary Input, and then applying the insert
to the Auxiliary Input track. You can then control the send level for each track, and the overall
level of the effect can be controlled from the
Auxiliary Input track. Using sends and other signal routing features helps maximize your system’s processing power.
For examples of send and return busses and
other submixing setups, see “Submixing for
Signal Routing and Effects Processing” on
page 423.
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Stereo Inserts Used on stereo tracks. A stereo
hardware I/O insert sends the signal to an input/output path.
Mono In/Stereo Out Plug-In Inserts Used to return a stereo effect from a mono source. Certain
plug-ins (such as D-Verb) let you generate stereo
output from a mono channel. A track made into
stereo in this way has pan controls for each
channel of the stereo signal. Any inserts that occur on a track after a stereo insert are automatically used in stereo as well.
Multi-Mono Plug-In Inserts Used on stereo or
greater-than-stereo multichannel tracks when a
multichannel version of the plug-in is not available. Controls for all channels are linked by default so that you can adjust them in tandem.
You can unlink controls for independent adjustment using the Master Link button. See “Linking and Unlinking Controls on Multi-Mono
Plug-Ins” on page 443.
Multichannel Plug-In Inserts Used on stereo and
greater-than-stereo multichannel tracks. On
greater-than-stereo multichannel tracks, the
controls for all channels are generally ganged
together.
Relinking may cause automation to be lost.
See “Linking and Unlinking Controls on
Multi-Mono Plug-Ins” on page 443
TDM and RTAS Plug-Ins
Viewing Inserts
There are three plug-in formats supported by
Pro Tools (TDM, RTAS, and AudioSuite), two of
which can be used as real-time inserts, as follows:
Both the Mix and Edit windows can be configured to show or hide inserts. Plug-in windows
provide complete access to plug-in controls.
TDM Plug-Ins Used on TDM-based Pro Tools systems, and rely on the processing power of
Digidesign DSP cards.
To show (or hide) inserts:
■ In the Mix or Edit window, choose Display >
Mix Window Shows > Inserts View, or Edit Window Shows > Inserts View.
RTAS Plug-Ins Similar to their TDM counterparts, but unlike TDM plug-ins, they rely on and
are limited by the host processing power of your
computer.
Inserts
For information on AudioSuite plug-ins, see
the DigiRack Guide, the Digidesign PlugIns Guide, or the guides for your third-party
plug-ins.
Sends
Use the following guidelines for plug-ins supported on your system:
Pro Tools TDM Systems
• TDM plug-ins can be used on audio tracks,
Auxiliary Inputs, and Master Faders.
• RTAS plug-ins can be used on Auto-Voiced audio tracks only.
• When using RTAS and TDM plug-ins on the
same track, RTAS plug-ins must precede TDM
plug-ins in the insert signal path.
Showing Inserts in the Mix Window
– or –
■ In the Edit window, select Inserts View from
the View Selector (located next to the Rulers
View).
View Selector
Pro Tools LE Systems
• RTAS plug-ins can be used on audio tracks,
Auxiliary Inputs, and Master Faders.
For tips on maximizing RTAS performance,
see the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide.
Showing Inserts using the View Selector
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435
Display of Plug-In Window Status
Making Inserts Inactive
In the Mix and Edit window, the plug-in button
and selector display the currently inserted plugin, its bypass state (see “Bypassing Plug-Ins” on
page 443), target status, and window status.
Plug-in and hardware inserts can be made inactive to free up their resources for other uses.
When a plug-in insert is inactive it retains its assignment, position, and related automation
playlists. However, it will not pass audio and
does not consume any DSP or TDM resources.
lit plug-in name
Indication of open plug-in window
When opening sessions, inserts will automatically be made inactive in any of the following
situations:
Indicating the Controller Target
• The system has insufficient DSP resources.
If you are using a control surface with Pro Tools,
only one plug-in can be targeted at a time. The
current controller target, if any, is indicated
with a color outline around its name:
target outline
The controller target
For more information on controller targets,
refer to the MIDI Control Surfaces Guide, or
the documentation for your Digidesign control surface.
• A plug-in is not installed.
• A plug-in type is not available (RTAS or TDM).
• Opening the session results in plug-in type
substitutions. This can happen if the type is
available but substituting would result in an
unsupported condition, such as an RTAS plugin after TDM plug-ins in a track.
To make an insert inactive:
■ Control-Start-click (Windows) or CommandControl-click (Macintosh) the Insert button.
– or –
■ Make the track inactive. See “Making Tracks
Inactive” on page 102.
To toggle inserts in the same position on all tracks
active or inactive:
■ Control-Start-Alt click (Windows) or Command-Control-Option click (Macintosh) an Insert button in the position you want to toggle.
To toggle inserts in the same position on all
selected tracks active or inactive:
■ Control-Start-Alt-Shift-click (Windows) or
Command-Control-Option-Shift-click (Macintosh) an Insert button in the position you want
to toggle.
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Inactive Plug-In Inserts
Inactive plug-in inserts retain all associated automation playlists. In addition, any edits made
in the session affect the plug-in automation
playlists. You cannot record automation or adjust the controls for an inactive plug-in.
Inserting Plug-Ins on Tracks
To use a real-time plug-in, insert it on a track.
To insert a plug-in on a track:
1 Make sure the Inserts View is shown in the
Mix or Edit window.
inactive
(italicized)
active
(plain text)
2 Click the Insert Selector on the track and se-
lect the plug-in that you want to use. (See “TDM
and RTAS Plug-Ins” on page 435 for related information.)
Display of inactive plug-ins (Pro Tools 6.x)
Insert Selector
Display of inactive Plug-In window
Inactive Hardware Inserts
Inactive hardware inserts retain their assignments, but do not pass audio and do not consume any DSP resources.
Hardware inserts do not provide a bypass
control. You can use the inactive feature
whenever you need to mute or bypass a
hardware insert.
Inserting a TDM plug-in
To remove an insert from a track:
■
Click the Insert Selector and choose No Insert.
Removing a plug-in
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Plug-In Menu Organization
Plug-in Favorites
(Pro Tools 6.4)
For faster navigation to commonly used plugins, a plug-in can be designated a favorite. Favorite plug-ins are shown at the top of the plug-in
menu.
In Pro Tools 6.4, plug-ins are automatically organized by category (effect type). Plug-ins that
do not fit into a standard category (such as the
DigiRack Signal Generator), or third-party plugins that have not been defined by their developers, appear in the Other category. Plug-ins can
appear in more than one category.
Favorite plug-ins
Plug in categories include:
Plug-in categories
• EQ
• Dynamics
• Pitch Shift
Menu display of favorite plug-Ins
• Reverb
To designate a plug-in favorite:
• Delay
• Modulation
• Harmonic
• Noise Reduction
■ Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) on a plug-in Insert button, and select the plug-in that you want to designate as a
favorite.
• Dither
• Sound Field
• Hardware
• Instrument
• Other
• Wrapped Plug-Ins
Plug-Ins by Category
To organize plug-ins by category:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences.
2 Click on the Display tab.
3 Select Organize Plug-In Menus By Category.
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To remove a plug-in favorite:
■ Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) on a plug-in Insert button, and select the favorite plug-in that you want to remove.
Inserting Plug-Ins During Playback
Plug-ins can be inserted or removed during playback, with the following restrictions:
• Plug-ins cannot be inserted or removed during recording.
• A plug-in cannot be dragged to a different insert location during playback or recording.
Stop playback to do this.
• Plug-ins that change a track’s format (a monoto-stereo plug-in, for example) cannot be inserted or removed during playback. Stop playback to do this.
• Plug-ins that contain automation cannot be
removed during playback. Stop playback to
do this.
Moving and Duplicating PlugIn and Hardware Inserts
You can move or duplicate an insert by dragging
it to a different position on the same track or a
different track. Inserts that are moved or duplicated retain their original settings and automation.
Plug-ins cannot be moved or duplicated
during playback or recording.
To move an insert:
■
Drag the insert to a new insert location.
• Playback must be stopped when enabling
plug-in controls for automation.
• Side-chain inputs cannot be created during
playback. Stop playback to do this.
Moving a plug-in
Dragging an insert on top of an existing insert will replace it and any automation.
To duplicate an insert:
■ Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Macintosh) the insert to a new insert location. Duplicated plug-in inserts retain their original
settings and automation.
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439
The Plug-In Window
Phase Invert buttons
Plug-in clipping LED
The Plug-In window appears whenever you click
a plug-in’s Insert button on a track. This floating
window lets you edit the adjust the controls of
any real-time plug-in insert in use on a track.
Settings menu
Plug-In Selector
Insert button
Track Selector
Insert
Selector
Automation Safe
Compare
Librarian menu
Effect bypass
Insert Position
Selector
Auto button
Convert plug-In
Target button
LFE Enable
Plug-In window (multichannel Compressor shown)
Settings Menu Lets you copy, paste, save, and
import plug-in settings.
Track Selector Accesses any non-MIDI track in
your session.
Librarian Menu Recalls settings files saved in the
plug-in’s root settings folder or in the current
session’s Settings folder.
Plug-In window (mono 1-Band EQ shown)
Master Link button
Link Enable buttons
Channel Selector
Phase Invert
Insert Position Selector Accesses any insert on
the current track.
Key Input Selector Lets you select audio on a
particular input or bus and route it to trigger the
plug-in. This menu only appears on plug-ins
that feature side-chain processing. Key inputs
are monophonic.
Plug-In Selector Lets you select any real-time
plug-in installed in the DAE Plug-Ins folder.
Compare Toggles between the original saved
plug-in setting and any changes you have made
to it so you can compare them.
Plug-In window (multi-mono 1-Band EQ shown)
Effect Bypass Disables the currently displayed
plug-in. This lets you compare the track with
and without the effect.
Auto Lets you enable individual plug-in controls
for automation recording. See “Automating
Plug-Ins” on page 461.
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Safe When enabled, prevents existing plug-in
automation from being overwritten.
Convert Plug-In Lets you convert the insert from
a TDM plug-in to an RTAS plug-in of the same
type (or vice-versa). This feature can only be
used on plug-ins that are available in both TDM
and RTAS formats.
Target Plug-In When multiple Plug-In windows
are open, clicking this button in a Plug-In window until it is lit, selects that plug-in as the target for any computer keyboard commands.
Clicking the button until it is unlit leaves the
window open when other Plug-Ins windows are
opened. The target in the Plug-In window functions the same as the target in Output and Send
windows. For more information, see “Targeted
Windows” on page 422.
Phase Invert Inverts the phase polarity of the input signal.
Plug-In Clip LED In addition to clipping displays
that are a part of a plug-in’s individual interface,
plug-ins that display internal clipping also report the clipping in the plug-in header.
Clip
LED
Plug-In Clipping indicator in the plug-In header
Channel Selector Accesses a specific channel
within a multichannel track for plug-in control
editing. This menu appears only on multi-mono
plug-ins inserted on tracks with more than one
channel. Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click
(Macintosh) this Selector to open a separate
Plug-In window for each channel of the multichannel track on which the plug-in is inserted.
Link Enable Buttons Lets you selectively link the
controls of specific channels of a multi-mono
plug-in. Each square represents a plug-in output. The Master Link button must be disabled to
use the Link Enable buttons. See “Linking and
Unlinking Controls on Multi-Mono Plug-Ins”
on page 443.
LFE Enable Enables plug-in processing of the
LFE (low frequency effects) channel on a 5.1,
6.1, or 7.1 multichannel track. To disable LFE
processing, deselect this button.
Master Link Button When enabled, links the
controls on all channels of a multi-mono plugin so that they can be adjusted in tandem.
Opening Plug-In Windows
To open a Plug-In window:
■ Click the plug-in button in the Mix or Edit
window channel strip.
By default, each plug-in you open will appear in
the same location as a currently open plug-in,
replacing it in the same window location.
Opening Multiple Plug-In Windows
Pro Tools normally displays a single Plug-In
window from which you can adjust the controls
of any session plug-in. You can also open additional Plug-In windows for specific plug-ins.
Once you begin working with multiple Plug-In
windows, you will need to click the Target button on the plug-in whose controls you want to
adjust using keyboard commands.
To open an additional Plug-In window:
■ In the Mix window, Shift-click the Insert button of a plug-in.
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441
To open Plug-In windows for each channel of a
multi-mono plug-in:
Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the Channel Selector in the Plug-In window of a plug-in insert.
■
To choose a different track:
■ Click the Track Selector and choose a track
from the pop-up menu.
To close all currently open Plug-In windows:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the close box of any currently open PlugIn window.
Plug-In Window Controls
All plug-ins provide standard Pro Tools controls
for track and insert selection, bypass, and other
controls, in addition to the EQ, dynamics, and
other processor-specific controls.
To select a different plug-in on the same track:
■ Click the Insert Selector and select a plug-in
from the pop-up menu.
Choosing a plug-in from the Plug-In window
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Choosing a track from the Plug-In window
Target Window and Settings Shortcuts
When multiple Plug-In windows are open, a
highlighted target indicates the target window.
Pro Tools keeps a single plug-in target window.
Opening a new plug-in opens it as the new target window, in the same location. In addition,
the plug-in target window is also the focus of
keyboard shortcuts for plug-in settings.
Bypassing Plug-Ins
Plug-ins can be bypassed from their Plug-In window, or from the Mix and Edit window Inserts
View.
When a plug-in insert is bypassed, the Insert Selector in the Mix window changes its
color to blue for easy visual reference. If
some, but not all channels of an unlinked
multi-mono plug-in are bypassed, the Insert
Selector appears purple (Pro Tools 6.x) or
half blue and half black (Pro Tools 5.x).
To bypass a plug-in:
■
Linking and Unlinking Controls on
Multi-Mono Plug-Ins
(TDM Systems Only)
When a multi-mono plug-in is used on a multichannel track of more than two channels, the
controls are normally linked. Adjusting the
Gain control on one channel, for example, will
adjust it for all channels.
You can unlink multi-mono plug-in controls on
specific channels of a track and edit them independently. You can also selectively link the controls of specific channels.
Master Link button
Click the Plug-In window’s Bypass button.
Link Enable buttons
– or –
Channel Selector
Control-click (Windows) or Command-click
(Macintosh) the plug-in’s Insert button in the
Mix or Edit window.
■
bypassed (blue)
some channels
bypassed (purple)
not bypassed
Channel Selector and Link controls (shown with Link
disabled)
To unlink controls on a multi-mono plug-in:
■
Indication of bypassed plug-in state (Pro Tools 6)
To access controls for a specific channel:
■
some channels bypassed (half blue)
bypassed
(blue)
unbypassed
(black)
Deselect the Master Link button.
Select the channel from the Channel Selector.
To link the controls of specific channels:
1 Deselect the Master Link button if it is not al-
Indication of bypassed plug-in state (Pro Tools 5.x)
ready deselected.
2 Click the Link Enable buttons for the chan-
nels whose controls you want to link. For example, to link all channels except the LFE,
highlight the icons representing the five fullrange speakers in a multi-mono plug-in.
All channels linked except the LFE
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443
Editing Plug-In Controls
You can adjust plug-in controls by dragging the
control’s slider or knob, or by typing a value into
the control’s text box. For instructions on editing specific plug-ins, see the plug-in’s documentation (such as the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide and
Digidesign Plug-Ins Guide).
To adjust a plug-in control:
1 Begin audio playback so that you can hear the
control changes in real time.
2 Adjust the controls of the plug-in for the effect
you want.
3 Close the Plug-In window to save the most re-
cent changes.
Keyboard Shortcuts
◆ For finer adjustments, Control-drag (Windows) or Command-drag (Macintosh) the control.
To return a control to its default value, Altclick (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh)
the control.
◆
Keyboard Shortcuts for Plug-In
Controls
You can use your computer keyboard to edit
plug-in controls.
If multiple Plug-In windows are open, Tab and
keyboard entry remain focused on the plug-in
that is the Target window.
To adjust controls from a computer keyboard:
• Click or Tab to the control text field that you
want to edit to activate the field. Type an appropriate value.
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• In fields that support values in kilohertz, typing “k” after a number value will multiply the
value by 1,000. For example, type “8k” to enter a value of 8,000.
• To increase a value, press the Up Arrow on
your keyboard. To decrease a value, press the
Down Arrow on your keyboard.
• Press Enter on the numeric keyboard after typing a value to input the value (without leaving
the selected control field).
• Press Enter on the alpha keyboard (Windows)
or Return (Macintosh) to enter the value and
leave keyboard editing mode.
• To move forward through the different control fields, press the Tab key. To move backward, press Shift+Tab.
• Press Alt-C (Windows) or Option-C (Macintosh) to clear plug-in clipping.
The plug-in target window is the focus of
keyboard shortcuts for plug-in settings. To
make a plug-in the target for any computer
keyboard commands (including key shortcuts), click the plug-in’s Target button in its
Plug-In window.
Plug-In Automation and Safe
All real-time plug-ins can be fully automated,
and support all Pro Tools automation modes
(Write, Touch, and Latch, plus Trim).
The Auto button opens the Plug-in Automation
dialog, where you can enable individual plug-in
controls for automation recording. (See “Automating Plug-Ins” on page 461 for more information.)
The Safe button engages Automation Safe mode.
When enabled, existing plug-in automation is
protected from being overwritten. (See “Record
Safing Plug-In Automation” on page 462.)
Using a Key Input for Side-Chain
Processing
Some plug-ins (such as the DigiRack Compressor, Limiter, Gate, and Expander/Gate) feature
side-chain processing capabilities. Side-chain
processing allows you to trigger a plug-in from a
separate reference track or external audio
source. The source used for triggering is referred
to as the Key Input. Key inputs are monophonic.
A typical use for this feature is to control the dynamics of one audio signal using the dynamics
of another signal (the Key Input). For example, a
kick drum track could be used to trigger gating
of a bass track to tighten it up, or a rhythm guitar track could be used to gate a keyboard pad.
Another side-chain usage, is to create a tunable
signal generator: Use a Signal Generator plug-in
on an Auxiliary Input, add a gate plug-in to the
track, then feed its gate with a side-chain from
the kick. The generator is tunable (based on
what tone you record).
RTAS plug-ins do not provide side-chain
processing when used on TDM-based systems; use the TDM versions of plug-ins on
TDM-based systems if you want to use sidechain processing.
Key Input Filters
Some plug-ins feature key high pass and low
pass filters. These controls allow you to define a
specific frequency range in the Key Input signal
with which to trigger the plug-in effect. A common production technique is to use these controls to filter a drum track so that only specific
high frequencies (a hi-hat, for example) or low
frequencies (a tom or a kick, for example) trigger
the effect.
To use a Key Input for side-chain processing:
1 From the Key Input menu, choose the input
or bus carrying the audio you want to use to trigger the plug-in.
Choosing a Key Input
2 Click External Key to activate side-chain pro-
cessing.
3 To hear the audio source you have selected to
control side-chain input, click Key Listen.
4 To filter the Key Input so that only specific frequencies trigger the plug-in, use the Key HPF
and Key LPF controls (if available) to select the
frequency range.
5 Begin playback. The plug-in uses the input or
bus that you chose as a Key Input to trigger its
effect.
6 Adjust the plug-in’s Threshold control (if
available) to fine-tune Key Input triggering. Also
experiment with the Send level, by feeding the
side-chain more or less gain.
7 Adjust other controls to achieve the desired effect.
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445
Using Hardware Inserts
You can connect external devices, such as reverb
or effects processors, to your Pro Tools system
and use them as inserts, or in a send-and-return
arrangement.
Assigning Hardware Inserts
To assign a hardware insert to a track:
■
Select an insert from the track Insert Selector.
Pro Tools inserts utilize corresponding hardware
input and output channels to send and return
the audio. Inserts can be defined, and their
channels mapped to audio interface channels,
in the I/O Setup dialog.
If you plan to use a device as an insert, be sure to
connect the device to matching inputs and outputs on your system. For example, to use outputs 7–8, the insert has to use inputs 7–8. Routing the physical inputs and outputs of the
interface to Pro Tools inputs and outputs can be
done in the Hardware Setup dialog (or I/O Setup
dialog). For more information, see “Configuring
Pro Tools System Settings (in the Playback System Engine)” on page 37, or “Routing Hardware
I/O to Pro Tools I/O” on page 71.
To define a hardware insert:
1 Choose Setups > I/O Setup, then click the Inserts tab.
2 Select an insert path, or click New Path to create a new Insert path.
3 Double-click the Path Name to enter a custom
path name for the insert.
4 Make sure the insert path is set to the correct
format (mono, stereo, or other).
5 Map inserts in the Channel Grid as needed.
Insert and Output paths have special rules regarding channel mapping (see “Overlapping
Channels and Valid Paths” on page 77).
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Selecting a hardware I/O insert
Bypassing Hardware Inserts
Hardware inserts do not provide a bypass control. To monitor playback without a hardware
insert, either set it to Inactive, remove it by reassigning it to No Insert, or use a bypass switch on
the hardware device itself.
See “Making Inserts Inactive” on page 436 for
more information.
Connecting and Integrating
External Devices
Connecting Effects Units Digitally
Pro Tools TDM and LE systems can create dedicated connections to external analog or digital
devices. The number and type of connections
depends on what kind of system you have.
If you want to use the digital inputs and outputs
on your Pro Tools system as effects sends and returns to a digital effects device, Pro Tools should
be the clock master in most cases. Set your digital effects device to accept an external digital
clock so that it synchronizes to Pro Tools.
To connect an external device to a Pro Tools
system:
To set up a digital send to an external device from
a TDM system:
1 Connect an unused output (or pair of outputs
1 Do one of the following:
for a stereo device) of your Pro Tools system to
an input of the external signal processor.
2 Connect the output of the external signal pro-
cessor to an unused input (or pair of inputs for a
stereo device) of your Pro Tools system.
3 Define what physical ports are routed to
Pro Tools input and output ports, as appropriate, in either the Hardware Setup dialog or
I/O Setup dialog.
4 Define output, input, or insert paths as appro-
priate in the I/O Setup dialog.
If you plan to use a device as an insert, be sure to
connect the device to matching inputs and outputs on your system. For example, to use outputs 7–8, the insert has to use inputs 7–8 also.
• On a 192 I/O, 192 Digital I/O, 96 I/O,
96i I/O, or 888|24 I/O in an HD-series system, choose Setups > Hardware Setup,
choose the peripheral, and set the channel
pair to Digital.
• On an 888|24 I/O that is used on a MIX-series system, choose Setups > Hardware,
choose the peripheral, click Other Options,
and set the channel pair to Digital.
• On an 882|20 I/O or 1622 I/O, choose Setups > Hardware Setup, choose the peripheral, and set Channel 1–2 input to Digital.
2 Choose Internal from the Clock Source pop-
up menu (Pro Tools 5.3 and higher) or Sync
Mode pop-up menu (Pro Tools 5.2 and lower).
3 Click OK.
For additional information on connecting
external devices, refer to your Pro Tools Getting Started Guide.
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To set up a digital send to an external device from
a Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, or Digi 001 system:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine and choose
the peripheral.
2 Do one of the following:
• If the external device is connected to the
S/PDIF RCA jacks, deselect S/PDIF Mirroring. (When S/PDIF Mirroring is on, digital
output at the S/PDIF RCA jacks exactly mirrors the output of analog Channels 1–2.)
• If the external device is connected to the
Optical ports, choose a format (most likely
S/PDIF for an effects device) from the Optical Format pop-up menu.
3 Choose Internal from the Clock Source popup menu.
4 Click OK.
5 Optionally, configure the I/O Setup dialog
with new path names for effects routing.
If you set the Optical Format to S/PDIF,
Pro Tools will watch the Optical port for
any audio input, and ignore any audio input on the S/PDIF RCA jacks.
Using External Clock Sources
All Pro Tools systems can synchronize to an external clock source. Options for external clock
vary according to the type of Pro Tools system
you are using.
TDM Systems
Pro Tools|HD systems can receive external clock
through any of the digital inputs on any HD-series I/O (including AES/EBU, S/PDIF, and Optical).
With Pro Tools|24 MIX-series systems, or if an
expanded Pro Tools|HD system includes Legacy
interfaces (such as the 888|24 I/O), connect to
the digital input on Channels 1–2 of the Legacy
audio interface in order to clock from them. Legacy I/Os only support 44.1 kHz and 48 kHz sample rates.
To determine correct card order and audio
interface connections for TDM systems, refer to the Getting Started Guide that came
with your system.
To select an external clock source for a TDM
system:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware Setup.
2 Select the appropriate HD I/O in order to dis-
play its settings in the Main page.
3 If necessary, enable the appropriate Digital
Format (if you have not already done so, according to the instructions in your Getting Started
Guide or I/O Guide).
4 Set the Clock Source (Pro Tools 5.3 and
higher) or Sync Mode (Pro Tools 5.2 and lower)
to match the type of input.
5 Configure input routing of the digital source,
using the Input and Output pop-up menus, if
necessary.
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6 Click OK to close Hardware Setup.
Digi 002, Digi 002 Rack, and Digi 001 Systems
Pro Tools can receive external clock from the
Optical input or S/PDIF input.
To select an external clock source for a Digi 002,
Digi 002 Rack, or Digi 001 system:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware Setup.
2 Set the Clock Source (Pro Tools 5.3 and
higher) or Sync Mode (Pro Tools 5.2 and lower)
to match the type of input.
If you choose Optical, make sure the Optical
Format matches the type of optical input you
are sending to your Pro Tools system.
If you set the Optical Format to S/PDIF,
Pro Tools will watch the Optical port for external clock, and ignore any clock input on
the S/PDIF RCA jacks.
Mbox Systems
Pro Tools can receive external clock from the
S/PDIF input on the Mbox.
To select an external clock source for an Mbox
system:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware Setup.
2 Choose the SPDIF (Windows) or SPDIF/RCA
(Macintosh) from the Clock Source pop-up
menu.
3 Click OK
Your digital input device must be connected
and powered on for Pro Tools to synchronize to it. If your input device is not powered
on, leave the Clock Source set to Internal.
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Chapter 28: Automation
Pro Tools features dynamic automation of volume, pan, and mute controls for audio tracks
and sends, MIDI tracks, and real-time plug-in
controls. In Pro Tools, you can write automation moves in real time during playback of your
session. You can also edit automation data with
the same techniques you use to edit audio and
MIDI data.
Automation Accuracy with
Control Surfaces
D-Control, ProControl and Control|24 Digidesign’s D-Control, ProControl and Control|24
control surfaces support all automation features
in Pro Tools. Digidesign control surfaces provide 10-bit resolution, or 1,024 steps of fader resolution. Pro Tools interpolates this input to 24bit resolution on playback, resulting in extremely accurate and smooth fader automation.
For details on using Digidesign control surfaces to create mix automation, refer to your
Digidesign control surface guide.
MIDI Control Surfaces Most MIDI control surfaces have 8-bit resolution, or 128 steps.
Pro Tools interpolates this input to 24-bit resolution on playback, resulting in extremely accurate and smooth fader automation.
For details on using MIDI control surfaces
to create mix automation, refer to the MIDI
Control Surfaces Guide.
Automation Quick Start
Pro Tools provides many options for recording,
replacing, and editing automation data.
The basic steps for automation recording are:
• Enable the automation type that you want to
record (volume, pan, mute, send level, send
pan, send mute, or plug-in automation).
• Put the appropriate tracks in an automation
writing mode (Write, Touch, or Latch, or a
Trim mode).
• If you are automating a plug-in, enable the individual plug-in controls to be automated.
• Automation Safe any plug-ins, outputs, or
sends that have existing automation data that
you want to protect from being overwritten.
• Begin playback to begin automation recording, and adjust controls as needed. Pro Tools
remembers all moves performed on enabled
controls.
To edit automation once it has been recorded,
you can:
• Repeat the above steps to write new automation over the previous data.
• Graphically edit the automation data in the
Edit window.
• Cut, copy, paste, or delete automation data
(certain restrictions apply).
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451
Automation Playlists
Each Pro Tools track contains a single automation playlist for each automatable parameter.
On audio tracks, these parameters include:
• Volume
Automation Playlists with Audio
and MIDI Regions
Pro Tools handles audio regions and their automation playlists differently from MIDI regions
and their automation playlists.
Audio Tracks
• Pan
• Plug-in controls
On audio tracks, automation data resides on a
separate playlist from audio data and regions.
Each edit playlist on an audio track shares the
same automation data.
On MIDI tracks, these parameters include:
MIDI Tracks
• Mute
• Send volume, pan, and mute
• Volume
• Pan
• Mute
You can display and edit each of these automatable playlists individually from Pro Tools, even
during playback.
In addition, you can display and edit other continuous MIDI controller data (such as mod
wheel, breath controller, foot controller, or sustain) in a similar manner. For more information
on editing MIDI data, see “Continuous Controller Events” on page 364.
On MIDI tracks, all controller automation data
except for Mute data is stored in the MIDI region
that contains it. Each edit playlist on a MIDI
track is separate, and represents a distinct performance, complete with controller automation.
Mute data is independent of the MIDI data
in a MIDI region. This lets you mute playback of individual MIDI tracks in Pro Tools
without altering the controller data.
Multiple Edit Playlists and Audio Track
Automation
All edit playlists on a single audio track share the
same automation data. When you record or edit
automation data in an audio track, the automation data is stored in the track automation playlist so it can be edited with, or independently
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from, its associated audio regions. (MIDI automation data always follows region editing, with
the exception of mute. See “MIDI Tracks” on
page 452 for more information.)
When you copy or cut audio data from a track
while it is in Waveform View, the underlying automation data is cut or copied with it.
◆
If you paste audio data from other locations or
tracks into an edit playlist, you may change the
underlying automation data on the track.
◆
When you trim regions using Edit > Trim, the
underlying automation data remains unchanged.
◆
For more information, see “Editing Automation” on page 467.
Automation Modes
Each track provides an Automation Mode Selector. Automation modes control how a track’s
automation data is written and played back.
Auto Off
Auto Off mode turns off automation for all automatable parameters:
• Volume
• Pan
• Mute
• Send volume, pan, and mute
• Plug-in controls
Duplicating Tracks for Playlist Editing
• MIDI volume, pan, and mute
The Duplicate Selected Track command provides a convenient way to make a working copy
of a track to experiment with routing, plug-ins,
and automation. This protects the original track
and its automation data from being edited or
overwritten.
In Auto Off mode, automation data for these parameters is ignored during playback. All other
MIDI controller data is sent.
To copy a track for automation:
1 Select the track and choose File > Duplicate
Track. Duplicate Track creates a complete copy
of the track, including all routing, plug-ins, and
automation.
2 Command-Control-click the Track Type icon,
or select that track and choose File > Make Selected Tracks Inactive.
3 Edit automation on the duplicated track.
Auto Read
Auto Read mode plays the automation that was
previously written for a track.
Auto Write
Auto Write mode writes automation from the
time playback starts to the time it stops, erasing
any previously written automation for the duration of the automation pass.
After an automation pass, Pro Tools automatically switches from Auto Write mode to Auto
Touch mode. This prevents you from accidentally overwriting automation data on later playback. On TDM systems, you can turn off this behavior and remain in Auto Write mode. See
“Write Switches To Touch After Pass” on
page 61 for details.
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453
Auto Touch
Trim Mode
Auto Touch mode writes automation only while
a fader or switch is touched or clicked with the
mouse. When the fader is released, the writing
of automation stops and the fader returns to any
previously automated position, at a rate determined by the AutoMatch and Touch Timeout
settings. See “Automation Preferences” on
page 456.
(TDM Systems Only)
In Auto Touch mode, certain control surfaces
start writing automation as soon as you touch
them. These include:
• Touch-sensitive motorized fader controllers,
such as Digidesign’s D-Control, ProControl,
Control|24, Digi 002, Command|8, or the
Mackie HUI.
With other control surfaces in Auto Touch
mode, writing of automation does not begin until the fader hits the pass-through point, or the
previously automated position. Once you reach
the pass-through point with the fader, or a nontouch sensitive rotary control, writing of automation begins and continues until you stop
moving the fader.
Pro Tools TDM systems can adjust (or trim) existing track volume and send level automation
data in real time. Pan and plug-in automation
cannot be trimmed in this manner. Trim mode
works in combination with the other Automation modes (Auto Read, Auto Touch, Auto
Latch, Auto Write) and is useful when you want
to preserve all of your volume automation
moves, but need to make levels a bit louder or
softer to balance a mix.
When editing automation in Trim mode, fader
moves write relative rather than absolute values.
The existing automation data is changed by the
amount of increase or decrease (or the delta
value) indicated by the faders. When trimming,
a track’s Volume indicator or Send Level indicator shows the delta values being written rather
than the absolute value.
When Trim mode is enabled, non-trimmable
controls behave in the same manner as in the
standard Automation modes, with the exception of Trim/Auto Write mode, where non-trimmable controls operate as in Auto Touch mode.
Auto Latch
Trim/Auto Off
Auto Latch mode works in the same way as Auto
Touch mode, writing automation only if you
touch or move a control. However, unlike Auto
Touch, writing of automation continues until
you stop playback or “punch out” of the automation pass by changing the automation mode
to Read or Touch. Auto Latch mode is particularly useful for automating pan controls and
plug-ins on non-touch sensitive rotary controls,
since it does not time out and revert to its previous position when you release a control.
See also “Writing Automation to the Start,
End or All of a Selection” on page 473.
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Trim/Auto Off mode turns off automation and
trimming for a track. All automation moves are
suspended during playback.
Trim/Auto Read
In Trim/Auto Read mode, volume and send faders follow the previously written automation.
When one of the faders is touched, the trim
moves (delta values) are played back, but are not
written into the automation data. This lets you
audition trim moves without affecting existing
automation.
When this mode is enabled, non-trimmable
controls (all controls other than track volume
and send level) behave as if they are in regular
Auto Read mode—no automation data is written.
Trim/Auto Touch
In Trim/Auto Touch mode, when playback begins, volume and send faders follow the previously written automation. When one of the faders is touched, real-time trimming begins. Fader
moves write delta values (an increase or decrease
in the form of an offset to existing automation
data).
When the fader is released, trimming stops and
the fader returns to a zero delta or offset value
and continues to follow the previously written
automation. The rate of the fader’s return to a
zero delta value is determined by the AutoMatch Time specified in the Automation Preferences. See “Automation Preferences” on
page 456 for more information.
When this mode is enabled, non-trimmable
controls (all controls other than track volume
and send level) behave as if they are in regular
Auto Touch mode—they follow the previously
written automation until touched. When they
are touched, their absolute positions are written
until the control is released or until playback
stops.
Trim/Auto Latch
In Trim/Auto Latch mode, when playback begins, volume and send faders follow the previously written automation. When one of the faders is touched, real-time trimming begins. Any
fader moves after trimming begins increase or
decrease existing automation data accordingly.
Trimming of the touched control continues until playback stops, or until you “punch out” of
the record pass by changing the automation
mode to Read or Touch.
When this mode is enabled, non-trimmable
controls (all controls other than track volume
and send level) behave as if they are in regular
Auto Latch mode—they follow the previously
written automation until touched. When they
are touched, their absolute positions are written
until playback is stopped.
Trim/Auto Write
In Trim/Auto Write mode, the volume and send
level faders are disengaged from displaying the
existing automation data, so you don’t have to
chase them during playback. Faders are automatically positioned at 0 dB, where no trimming occurs (they start with a delta value of
zero). From this reference point you can then set
the initial delta values before initiating playback.
In this mode, as soon as playback begins, delta
values are applied to the existing automation
data. Trimming continues until playback stops.
When Trim/Auto Write mode is enabled, nontrimmable controls (all controls other than
track volume and send level) are not in Write
mode, but behave as if they are in regular Auto
Touch mode (no automation is written unless a
control is touched). This is to prevent the controls from overwriting all of their automation
data on every pass in Trim mode.
In Trim mode, tracks do not automatically
change from Trim/Auto Write to
Trim/Auto Touch after an automation
pass. Be sure to switch out of Auto Write
when you leave Trim mode to avoid overwriting automation data.
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455
Automation Preferences
Pro Tools gives you several options for controlling the writing and playback of automation
data.
To display Automation Preferences:
■ Choose Setups > Preferences, and click Automation.
Smoothing
When you perform automation moves with a
continuous control, Pro Tools records the move
as a series of very small steps, resulting in a staircase pattern with many breakpoints. Smoothing
intelligently resolves this staircase pattern into a
single, smooth ramp from one breakpoint to the
next. (Smoothing does not apply to switched
controls such as mutes or plug-in bypasses.)
With smoothing enabled, the resulting automation is often a more accurate representation of
actual automation moves.
Thinning
Automation Preferences dialog
For detailed information on Pro Tools Automation Preferences, see “Automation
Preferences” on page 61.
Thinning automatically reduces the overall
number of breakpoints in the automation playlist in order to improve system performance.
The amount of thinning applied is determined
by the Degree of Thinning setting in the Automation Preferences. When using high amounts
of thinning, the resulting automation may differ noticeably from the original automation
moves. Thinning only applies to audio tracks,
and does not affect MIDI tracks. For instructions, see “Thinning Automation” on page 465.
AutoMatch
When you write automation in Auto Touch
mode, if you release a fader during playback,
Pro Tools returns to the level of any automation
still on the track by ramping up or down over a
certain amount of time, called the AutoMatch
Time. This time value is set in the Automation
Preferences.
The AutoMatch feature works with continuous
controls (such as Volume or Pan) by ramping
their values back to previously automated levels.
There are some stepped controls (for example,
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the EQ type in the 1-band EQ plug-in) that provide more than two discrete steps over their operational range. AutoMatch has no effect on
these controls.
AutoMatch Indicators
There are triangular AutoMatch indicators at the
bottom left of each channel strip in the Mix
window. When lit, these indicate the direction
you need to move a fader in order to match the
original automation level of that fader.
AutoMatch indicator
About Processing Bandwidth
Meters in the System Usage window indicate
how much of your system’s processing power is
being used in processing audio, and when writing and playing back automation. In
Pro Tools LE, these meters show System Activity
and CPU Processing Activity; on Pro Tools TDM
systems, they show System Activity, PCI Bus Activity, CPU Processing Activity, Disk Activity
(Pro Tools 6.x only), and TDM Time Slot usage.
Processing
meters
Triangular AutoMatch indicators on a channel strip
Setting the Automation Buffer
Size
Pro Tools lets you specify the size of the memory buffer used to write automation. If you are
working on a large session or writing a very large
number of automation moves, you may want to
increase this value.
To set the Automation Buffer size:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Auto-
mation.
2 For the option “Amount of memory to reserve
for automation recording,” enter a value between 200 and 20,000K (Pro Tools 6.4) or between 200 and 3000K (Pro Tools 6.3 and below).
The default value for a new session is 200K.
Meters in the System Usage window (TDM shown)
As these meters approach their limits, recording
or playback of automation data may be affected.
If CPU or PCI Activity are high, a System error
may occur. If System Activity is high, Pro Tools
may miss playback of some of your automation
data during particularly dense periods of activity, such as while using the Bounce to Disk command.
For more information, see “Bounce to Disk”
on page 482.
3 Relaunch Pro Tools for this change to take ef-
fect.
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457
To reduce processing load, try the following:
Deselect the Faders Move During Playback option in the Automation Preferences.
Viewing Automation
■
– or –
■ Reduce the density of automation in places
where it shows the most activity. For details, see
“Thinning Automation” on page 465.
– or –
Turn off Sends View meters, if enabled, in the
Preferences > Display window. See “Sends View
Meters” on page 417 for more information.
■
Pro Tools creates a separate playlist for each type
of automation you write. This data can be
viewed and edited in the same way as audio and
MIDI data.
To show automation data:
■ Click the Track View Selector and select from
the pop-up menu the automation type you
want to view.
Automation Safe
Outputs, sends, and plug-ins can be placed in
Auto Safe mode. In Auto Safe mode, any automation associated with an Output window
(such as track or send level, panning, or mute),
or plug-in on that track, is protected from being
overwritten while automating other items on
that track.
Safe enabled
Automation Safe enabled send
Automation Safe mode suspends automation recording for the selected track output, send, or
plug-in that is enabled. You can also suspend
automation recording and playback sessionwide from the Automation Enable window. See
“Enabling and Suspending Automation” on
page 463.
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Displaying automation data
You can easily toggle between Volume and
Waveform View for audio tracks. For more
information, see “Toggling Track Views” on
page 210.
Writing Automation
You can write automation for all automatable
controls by moving those controls during playback.
To write automation on a track:
After the first automation pass, you can write
additional automation to the track without
completely erasing the previous pass by choosing Auto Touch mode or Auto Latch mode.
These modes add new automation only when
you actually move the control. (See “Automation Modes” on page 453.)
1 Choose Windows > Automation Enable.
To write additional automation to a previous pass:
2 Make sure the automation type is write-en-
1 Enable Operations > Link Edit and Timeline
abled.
Selection.
2 In the Edit window, make a selection or place
the cursor in the location where you want to
start writing automation.
3 From the Automation Mode pop-up menu, select Auto Touch or Auto Latch mode for the
tracks you want to automate.
4 Click Play to begin writing automation.
Automation Enable window
5 Move the controls you want to automate.
3 From the Automation Mode pop-up menu, se-
6 When you have finished, click Stop.
lect an Automation mode for each track you
want to automate. For the initial automation
pass, select Auto Write.
Choosing an Automation mode
4 Click Play to begin writing automation.
5 Move the controls you want to automate.
6 When you have finished, click Stop.
If you write automation in Auto Touch
mode with Loop Playback enabled, writing
of automation will automatically stop at
the end of the looped selection. At the beginning of each successive loop, you can then
touch or move the control again to write
new data.
Storing an Initial Controller Position
When you create a new audio track, Auxiliary
Input, or MIDI track, it is automatically placed
into Auto Read mode. Even though the track is
in Auto Read mode, you can set the initial position of any automatable control, and it is saved
with your session.
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459
In this initial state, only a single automation
breakpoint appears at the beginning of each automation playlist. If you move the control without writing automation, this breakpoint will
move to the new value.
You can permanently store the initial position
of an automatable control by doing one of the
following:
• Place the track in Auto Write mode and press
Play to write a few seconds of automation data
to the track
• Manually place a breakpoint on the automation playlist somewhere after the initial breakpoint. (See “Graphical Editing of Automation
Data” on page 467 for more information.)
Automating Switched Controls
Pro Tools treats switched controls (such as
mutes and plug-in bypasses) as touch sensitive
controls. Automation data is written for as long
as the switch or button for that control is
pressed or touched.
For example, if you have just written a series of
mute on/off states on a track in quick succession, the manual method for clearing this automation data would require you to move to the
Edit window, choose automation playlist for
Mute, select the mute automation data, and delete it.
Automating Sends
Pro Tools provides automation of send level,
send mute, and send pan (for stereo and multichannel sends only). This makes it easy to control effects levels and placement during mixdown with great precision.
Send level and mute can also be configured to
follow groups.
To automate a send level, mute or pan:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
the automation type is write-enabled (send
level, send mute, send pan).
2 Choose an Automation mode for each track
you want to automate. For the initial automation pass, choose Auto Write.
3 To display send controls, do any of the follow-
ing:
• Select Windows > Mix Window Shows >
Sends View, then click the send to open the
Output window for the send that you want
to automate.
• Choose Display > Sends View Shows and
select the individual send from the submenu.
4 Click Play to begin writing automation.
5 Move the controls you want to automate.
6 When you have finished, click Stop.
In Pro Tools, it is not necessary to perform all of
these steps. Instead, perform another automation pass on the track and hold down the Mute
button when it reaches the state you want to remove. For example, when playback gets to the
first muted section, the Mute button become
highlighted. At this time, press and hold down
the Mute button. As long as the button is held
down, Pro Tools overwrites the underlying
mute data on the track with the current state of
the switch (on or off) until playback is stopped.
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Send mutes and levels can also be configured to follow Mix Groups. See “Automation Preferences” on page 456 for information.
Copying Track Automation to Sends
4 Select the controls you want to copy.
(TDM Systems Only)
5 Select the sends to which to copy the automation, and click OK.
There may be times where you want a track’s
send automation to mirror automation in the
track itself, for example, when an effect level
needs to follow the levels in a main mix. To do
this, you can copy the entire automation playlist for the selected control to the corresponding
playlist for the send.
When overwriting automation, Pro Tools
presents a confirmation dialog. To suppress
this dialog, press Alt (Windows) or Option
(Macintosh) while clicking OK.
You can undo the results of the Copy to Send
command (Edit > Undo).
To copy a track’s automation to one of its sends:
1 Select the tracks you want to edit by clicking
on the track names to highlight them.
2 Choose Edit > Copy To Send.
Automating Plug-Ins
You can automate changes to virtually all controls of the plug-ins included with your
Pro Tools system. Automating a plug-in is
slightly different from other automation procedures, because you must enable individual plugin controls for automation.
To enable plug-in controls for automation:
1 Open the Plug-In window for the plug-in you
want to automate.
Copy To Send dialog
3 In the Copy to Send dialog, select Automation
to copy the entire automation playlist for the
corresponding controls.
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461
2 Click the Automation Enable button in the
Plug-In window.
Automation Enable
Accessing the Plug-In Automation dialog
– or –
Control-Alt-Start-click (Windows) or Command-Option-Control-click the Track View Selector in the Edit window.
You can also use this keyboard shortcut to
open the Plug-In Automation dialog: Control-Alt-Start-click (Windows) or Command-Option-Control-click (Macintosh)
any plug-in parameter in the Plug-In window, then choose Open Plug-In Automation
Dialog from the pop-up menu.
4 Click OK to close the Plug-In Automation di-
alog.
As an alternative to using the Plug-In Automation window, you can enable individual
plug-in controls directly from the Plug-In
window by Control-Alt-Start-clicking (Windows) or Command-Option-Control-clicking (Macintosh) the control. Refer to the
DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide or Digidesign PlugIns Guide for more information.
To automate a plug-in:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
plug-in automation is enabled.
2 Select an Automation mode for each track
containing plug-ins you want to automate. For
the initial automation pass, choose Auto Write.
3 Click Play to begin writing automation, and
move the controls you want to automate.
4 When you have finished, click Stop.
3 Choose the controls to automate and click
Add. If there are multiple plug-ins on the same
track, you can select from among these by clicking their buttons in the Inserts section of this dialog.
Record Safing Plug-In Automation
You can protect plug-in automation from being
overwritten by using Automation Safe mode.
To enable plug-in safe mode:
1 Open a plug-in.
2 Click the Safe button so that it is highlighted.
Safe enabled
Automation Safe enabled plug-in
Plug-In automation dialog
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Enabling and Suspending
Automation
Suspending Automation Playback
You can suspend playback of automation for
tracks by clicking on the track’s View Selector.
From the Automation Enable window, you can
enable or suspend writing for the following
types of automation across all tracks:
To suspend playback (and writing) of automation
for specific controls:
• Volume
1 In the Edit window, set the Track View Selec-
• Pan
tor to show the automation playlist for the control you want to suspend.
• Mute
• Plug-in
• Send level
• Send pan
• Send mute
To suspend writing of automation on all tracks:
1 Choose Windows > Show Automation Enable.
2 Do one of the following:
• To suspend writing of all automation on all
tracks, click the Auto Suspend button.
• To suspend writing of a specific type of automation on all tracks, click the button for
that automation type (volume, mute, pan,
plug-in, send level, send mute, or send
pan).
2 Do one of the following:
• To suspend writing and playback of automation for only the displayed control,
Control-click (Windows) or Commandclick (Macintosh) the control name in the
Track View Selector.
• To suspend writing and playback of automation for all controls, Control-Shift-click
(Windows) or Command-Shift-click (Macintosh) the name of any control in the
Track View Selector.
• To suspend writing and playback of automation for a specific control on all tracks,
Control-Alt-click (Windows) or CommandOption-click (Macintosh) the name of the
control in the Track View Selector.
Enabling and suspending automation from
the Edit window obeys Edit Groups (except
for Pan automation). This grouped behavior can be suppressed by Start-clicking
(WIndows) or Control-clicking (Macintosh)
the control name.
Automation Enable window
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Automation Enable Guidelines
The following rules determine whether automation is written or played back for a track:
◆ Although Pro Tools shows a single Automation mode for each track, all automatable controls associated with that track are not
necessarily in the same Automation mode.
◆ If automation is globally suspended in the Automation Enable window, all automatable controls behave as if they were in Auto Off mode,
regardless of the track’s current Automation
mode.
◆ If automation for a control is suspended by
Command-clicking (Macintosh) or Controlclicking its name in the Track View Selector, that
control behaves as if it were in Auto Off mode,
regardless of the track’s current Automation
mode.
◆ If automation for a control is suspended in
the Automation Enable window, that control
behaves as if it is in Auto Read mode when the
track is in a recordable Automation mode (Auto
Touch, Auto Latch, or Auto Write mode).
To remove automation data, display the automation playlist you want to edit by selecting it
from the Track View Selector, and do one of the
following:
To remove a single breakpoint:
■ With the Grabber or the Pencil Tool, Alt-click
(Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) the
breakpoint.
To remove several breakpoints at once:
■ Use the Selector to select a range that contains
the breakpoints, and press Backspace (Windows)
or Delete (Macintosh).
To remove all automation data of the displayed
type:
■ Click with the Selector in the track and
choose Edit > Select All, then press Backspace
(Windows) or Delete (Macintosh).
To remove all automation for all automation
playlists on a track:
1 Use the Selector to select a range of data to be
removed.
Deleting Automation
Automation data takes the form of a line graph
with editable breakpoints. The easiest way to remove automation in a track or selection is to
manually delete breakpoints from the automation playlist.
Removing data in this manner is different from
using the Cut command, which creates anchor
breakpoints at the boundaries of the remaining
data. For details, see “Cutting, Copying, and
Pasting Automation” on page 471.
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2 Press Control+Backspace (Windows) or Con-
trol+Delete (Macintosh).
All automation data within the selection is removed for all automation playlists on that track,
regardless of whether automation is write-enabled for those controls.
Thinning Automation
Pro Tools writes a maximum density of automation data during an automation pass, in the
form of breakpoints. Since Pro Tools creates
ramps between breakpoints, it may not need all
of the captured points to create a sonically accurate representation of the automation moves
that you have made. Each breakpoint takes up
space in memory allocated for automation, so
thinning data can maximize efficiency and CPU
performance.
Pro Tools provides two different ways to thin
automation data and remove unneeded breakpoints: the Smooth and Thin Data After Pass option and the Thin Automation command.
Using Smooth and Thin Data After Pass
When this option is selected in Setups > Preferences > Automation, Pro Tools automatically
thins the automation breakpoint data after each
automation pass.
Using the Thin Automation
Command
The Thin Automation command lets you selectively thin areas in a track where automation
data is too dense. You can use the Undo command to audition the results of thinning (comparing thinning and not thinning) before you
apply it permanently.
To use the Thin Automation command:
1 In the Edit window, click the Track View Selector to display the automation type you want to
thin.
2 With the Selector, highlight the automation
data you want to thin. To thin all automation of
the selected type in the track, click the Selector
in the track and choose the Select All command.
3 Choose Edit > Thin Automation to thin the selected automation by the amount you have selected in the Automation Preferences.
Drawing Automation
Use the Pencil tool to create automation events
for audio and MIDI tracks by drawing in any automation or MIDI controller playlist.
The Smooth and Thin Data After Pass Option
In the default settings for new sessions, the
Smooth and Thin Data After Pass option is selected, with the “Some” setting chosen. In most
cases, this setting yields optimum performance
while providing an accurate reproduction of
your automation moves.
If you choose None, Pro Tools writes the maximum possible number of breakpoints. You can
still perform thinning at any time with the Thin
Automation command (Edit > Thin Automation). For more information on smoothing automation data, see “Smoothing” on page 456.
The Pencil tool can be set to draw a series of automation events with the following shapes:
Choosing a Pencil tool shape
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465
Free Hand Draws freely according to the movement of the mouse. In audio tracks, the shape
has the number of breakpoints needed to
smoothly interpolate and reproduce the automation shape. In MIDI tracks, the shape is reproduced as a series of steps, according to the
resolution setting in the MIDI preferences (Setups > Preferences > MIDI).
Line Draws a straight line. In audio tracks, the
line has a single breakpoint at either end. In
MIDI tracks, the controller value changes in
steps according to the resolution setting in the
MIDI preferences (Setups > Preferences > MIDI).
Triangle Draws a sawtooth pattern that repeats
at a rate based on the current Grid value. In audio tracks, the pattern has a single breakpoint at
each extreme. In MIDI tracks, the controller
value changes in steps according to the resolution setting in the MIDI preferences. Amplitude
is controlled by vertical movement of the Pencil
tool.
Since the pencil draws these shapes using the
current Grid value, you can use it to perform
panning in tempo with a music track, or on
frame scene changes when working in post production.
For more information on MIDI continuous
controller data, see “Continuous Controller
Events” on page 364.
Resolution of MIDI Controller Data
When using the Pencil tool to draw MIDI automation, the data is drawn as a series of discrete
steps. You can control the resolution (or density) of these steps to help manage the amount
of MIDI data sent for a given MIDI controller
move.
To set the resolution for the Pencil tool:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click the
MIDI tab.
2 Enter a value for “Pencil Tool Resolution
Square Draws a square pattern that repeats at a
rate based on the current Grid value. Amplitude
is controlled by vertical movement of the Pencil
tool.
Random Draws a random pattern of levels that
change at a rate based on the current Grid value.
Amplitude is controlled by vertical movement
of the Pencil tool.
When Drawing Controller Data.” The value can
range from 1 to 100 milliseconds.
The illustrations below show the same MIDI
controller automation drawn with different
Pencil Tools resolution settings.
Using Pencil Tool Shapes
MIDI Data drawn with resolution of 10 ms
You can draw automation for audio as well as
MIDI tracks. For example, use the Triangle pattern to control continuous functions, or the
Square pattern to control switched functions
such as Mute or Bypass.
MIDI Data drawn with resolution of 100 ms
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For better performance, consider selecting a
smaller value for MIDI controls that need higher
resolution (such as MIDI volume), and a larger
value for controls that may not require a high
resolution (such as Pan).
Using the Pencil Tool
The Pencil tool lets you create new breakpoints
by clicking once on the graph line. Alt-click
(Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) breakpoints with the Pencil tool to remove them.
Editing Automation
Pro Tools provides several ways to edit automation data for any track in your session. You can
edit automation data graphically, by adjusting
breakpoints on the automation playlist of a
track. You can also cut, copy, and paste automation data in the same manner as audio and MIDI
data.
Using the Pencil to delete a breakpoint
Using the Trimmer
The Trimmer lets you adjust all selected breakpoints up or down by dragging anywhere within
that selection.
Graphical Editing of Automation
Data
Automation data takes the form of a line graph
with editable breakpoints. By dragging these
breakpoints, you can modify the automation
data directly in the Edit window. When you
drag an automation breakpoint up or down, the
change in value is numerically or textually indicated. Dragging an automation breakpoint to
the left or right adjusts the timing of the automation event.
Using the Grabber
The Grabber lets you create new breakpoints by
clicking on the graph line, or adjust existing
breakpoints by dragging them. Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Macintosh) breakpoints
with the Grabber to remove them.
Using the Trimmer to move breakpoints
Editing Automation Types
Each automatable control has its own automation playlist, that can be displayed by choosing
it from the Track View Selector. “Viewing Automation” on page 458.
Editing Volume Automation
Drag a breakpoint up or down to change the volume (dB value). Drag a breakpoint to the left or
right to adjust the timing of the volume change.
Track volume automation
Using the Grabber to create a new breakpoint
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Editing Pan Automation
Editing Automation Breakpoints
Drag a breakpoint down to pan right, and up to
pan left. Drag a breakpoint to the left or right to
adjust the timing of the panning moves.
To edit automation breakpoints, display the automation playlist for the control you want to
edit by selecting it from the Track View Selector,
then do one of the following:
To create a new breakpoint:
■ Click with the Grabber (or the Pencil) on the
line graph.
Track Pan automation
Editing Mute Automation
Drag the breakpoint down to mute a section.
Drag a breakpoint up to unmute the section.
Drag a breakpoint to the left or right to adjust
the timing of the mute.
To edit one breakpoint:
■ Click an existing point on the line graph with
the Grabber and drag it to a new position.
To clear one breakpoint:
■ Alt-click (Windows) or Opt-click (Macintosh)
with the Grabber.
To edit several breakpoints at once:
Track mute automation
Editing Stepped Control Automation
Automation for certain controls (such as MIDI
controller values or plug-in settings) appears as a
stepped pattern on the breakpoint line. Drag a
breakpoint up or down to a different step to
change to a new control value. Drag a breakpoint to the left or right to adjust the timing of
the stepped control change.
Stepped control automation
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■ Use the Selector to select a range in the automation playlist that contains the breakpoints,
and do one of the following:
• To move the breakpoints earlier or later in
the track, press the Plus key (+) to nudge
them later (to the right) or the Minus key
(–) to move them earlier (to the left). The
breakpoints move by the current Nudge
value.
• To adjust the breakpoint values, click with
the Trimmer in the selection and drag the
breakpoints up or down.
When you use the Trimmer to edit a selection containing breakpoints, new anchor
breakpoints are created before and after the
selected area. To suppress creation of anchor breakpoints, press Alt (Windows) or
Option (Macintosh) while using the Trimmer.
To edit all breakpoint values in a region:
Click in the region with the Trimmer and drag
the breakpoints up or down.
■
2 Select the required playlist from the Track
View Selector.
Editing Automation on Stereo and
Multichannel Tracks
Stereo and multichannel tracks display a single
automation playlist per track. Only one playlist
for volume and mute is available for the stereo
or multichannel track.
For multi-mono plug-ins, automation playlists
for each individual channel can be displayed
and edited when the plug-in is unlinked, and
the track is in Expanded Track Display.
multi-mono
plug-in unlinked
Selecting an automation playlist for an unlinked
multi-mono plug-in
Expanded Track View
By default, a single automation playlist is displayed on stereo and multichannel tracks. The
playlist occupies the entire height of the track
(similar to mono automation playlists).
Optionally, you can display an expanded view
of the track whereby the same automation playlist is displayed across each channel.
Plug-In Automation Playlists on Stereo and
Multichannel Tracks
Some multichannel plug-ins provide a single set
of automatable controls for all channels in a
track. Other multi-channel plug-ins and all
multi-mono plug-ins provide a single set of controls for all channels when linked, or discrete
controls for each channel when unlinked. Refer
to your plug-in guide for more information.
To view and edit the individual playlists of a multimono plug-in:
1 Unlink the plug-in.
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469
Editing Automation on Grouped
Tracks
When you edit automation on an audio track
that is a member of an active Edit Group, the
same type of automation (with the exception of
audio and MIDI Pan controls) is also edited on
all tracks that are part of that group. This occurs
even if the playlist for that type of automation is
not currently displayed on the other grouped
tracks.
However, when you edit automation on a MIDI
track that is a member of an active Edit Group,
grouping is ignored; the same type (with the exception of audio and MIDI Pan controls) are not
edited on all tracks that are part of that group.
To edit all members of MIDI group, see the steps
below.
Examples
To individually edit a member of a group without
affecting the other members:
■ For audio tracks, press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while you perform the edit.
– or –
For MIDI tracks, do not press the Start key
(Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while you
perform the edit.
■
To edit all members of a group:
For audio tracks, do not press the Start key
(Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while you
perform the edit.
■
– or –
■ For MIDI tracks, press the Start key (Windows)
or Control (Macintosh) while you perform the
edit.
◆ If you create new automation breakpoints on
a grouped track (with the Grabber or Pencil),
other members of the group have breakpoints
placed relative to that track.
When editing automation, audio and MIDI
Pan controls work opposite from the way all
other controls work.
If you move volume or send automation on a
grouped track (with the Trimmer), other members of the group have their volume or send
breakpoints trimmed relative to that track. This
lets you trim entire sections of a mix.
For audio tracks, when you edit or trim Pan
breakpoints, Edit Groups are not obeyed.
For grouped behavior, press the Start key
(Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while
trimming.
◆
For MIDI tracks, when you edit or trim Pan
breakpoints, Edit Groups are obeyed. For individual behavior, press the Start key (Windows) or Control (Macintosh) while trimming.
Trimming automation on an active grouped track
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Cutting, Copying, and Pasting
Automation
Cutting automation data is different from deleting it, and yields different results (although both
change the existing automation data). Copying
automation leaves the original automation data
intact.
You delete automation data by selecting a range
of breakpoints and pressing Backspace (Windows) or Delete (Macintosh). See “Deleting Automation” on page 464 for details.
You cut automation data by selecting a range of
breakpoints from an automation playlist and selecting the Cut command.
When you cut automation data and when you
paste it into a new location, anchor breakpoints
are added to the beginning and end points of
the data. This is done to preserve the true slope
(of continuous controls, such as Volume faders
or pans) or state (of switched or stepped controls, such as Mutes) of the automation data
both inside and outside the selection.
The following illustrations show the difference
between cutting and deleting automation data.
In Figure 29, a track is set to display volume automation, and a range of automation data is selected.
If the Cut command is chosen, anchor breakpoints are created at each end of the selection,
and the automation slope on either side of the
cut data is preserved, as shown in Figure 30.
Figure 30. After cutting the automation data
If the data is deleted by pressing Backspace
(Windows) or Delete (Macintosh), the automation data is removed, and automation values
span the gap between pre-existing breakpoints,
as in Figure 31.
Figure 31. After deleting the automation data
In addition, if cut or copied data is pasted elsewhere in a track, breakpoints are created at the
end points of the pasted data to preserve its
“neighboring” (incoming and outgoing) automation value and slope, as shown in Figure 32.
Figure 32. After pasting the automation data in
another location
Editing and Track Views
Figure 29. Selecting automation data
Audio and MIDI tracks each have a Track View
that acts as the main format for purposes of editing. When the main format is displayed, any
edits performed on the track apply to all data in
the track.
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471
The main view formats are:
• Audio tracks: Blocks and Waveform
• MIDI tracks: Blocks, Regions, and Notes
For example, when an audio track is set to
Waveform or Blocks, cutting, copying and pasting affects the audio data and all types of automation data on that track. If the track is set to
show Pan automation, only the Pan data is affected.
When a selection includes multiple tracks, if
any of those tracks is in its main view format, all
data on all selected tracks is affected.
To edit all automation types on an Auxiliary Input or Master Fader track, do one of the following:
• Make an edit selection that includes at least
one audio or MIDI track that is displayed in its
main format.
◆ On Auxiliary Input or Master Fader tracks,
only the displayed automation data is cut or
copied. To cut or copy all automation data on
these types of tracks, press Control while cutting
or copying.
◆ In tracks where an automation playlist contains no data (when there is only a single breakpoint at the very beginning of the track), if you
cut data, no new breakpoints are created.
◆ In cases where regions overlap (such as when
moving regions in Slip mode) and an overlapping region is removed, any overlapped automation breakpoints are lost.
◆ If cut or copied data contains a type of automation not currently on the target track,
Pro Tools prompts you before allowing you to
paste the data.
◆ Cut or copied automation data for plug-ins or
sends that do not exist on the target track is ignored when pasted.
– or –
• Press Control while cutting or copying the automation data.
For additional flexibility, you can use playlists or the Duplicate Track command to
work nondestructively on a copy of the edit
data.
Tips for Cutting, Copying and Pasting
◆ On audio tracks, when you are in Waveform
View and cut or copy a section of the waveform,
any automation data associated with the waveform is also cut or copied.
◆ On audio tracks, when you are in Waveform
View and cut audio data from a track also containing automation data, breakpoints are automatically created at the boundaries of the
remaining automation data.
◆ On audio tracks, pasting waveform data also
pastes any associated automation data.
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Special Paste Function for Automation
Data
Normally, when you copy and paste automation data, it is pasted in an automation playlist
of the exact same type (for example, Left Pan
data is pasted into the Left Pan playlist).
However, there may be times when you want to
paste from one data type to another (for example, pasting Send 1 level data into the Send 2
level playlist, or track mute data into the send
mute playlist).
To paste data into a different automation playlist:
Press the Start key (Windows) or Control
(Macintosh) when choosing Edit > Paste.
■
For this special paste mode to function, the following must be true:
• Every track selected for pasting must be currently displayed as automation data.
• There must be only one automation playlist
on the Clipboard for each target track. (The
Special Paste function cannot copy multiple
automation playlists for each track.)
You cannot interchange automation data
between audio and MIDI tracks, or between
continuous controls (such as faders or pans)
and switched or stepped controls (such as
mute or MIDI controllers).
Writing Automation to the
Start, End or All of a
Selection
(TDM Systems Only)
Pro Tools lets you write current automation values from any insertion point forward (or backward) to the end (or beginning) of a selection or
track, or to an entire selection or track, while
performing an automation pass.
The standard Write to Start/All/End commands
do not operate when the Pro Tools transport is
stopped. It only affects automation for those parameters that are currently write-enabled and
currently writing automation data.
Optionally, Write to Start, End, and All can be
configured to always be applied automatically.
See “Write to Start, End, and All On Stop” on
page 474.
Requirements for Write to Start, End,
and All
For a automation data to be written for a specific
parameter, the associated track must be in one
of the following Automation modes and meet
the following conditions:
Latch Mode The control for the parameter must
be changed (touched) during the automation
pass.
Touch Mode The control for the parameter must
be changed (touched).
Write Mode All controls on that track must be in
Auto Write mode.
This command can be undone (Edit > Undo).
To write current automation values to the start,
end, or all of a track or selection:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
that the automation type is write-enabled.
2 Click in a track at an insertion point.
– or –
Write to Start, End, All
Drag with the Selector to select a portion of the
track.
3 Click Play to begin playback.
Write to Start, All, End controls in the Automation
Enable window
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473
4 Make sure you are actively writing on the appropriate track if you are in Latch or Touch
mode.
5 When you reach a point in the track or selection that contains the automation data you
want to apply, click Write to Start, Write to All,
or Write to End in the Automation Enable window.
The current values of all write-enabled automation at that point are written to the corresponding area of the track/selection.
The relative changes to the track volume and
send levels at that point are written to the corresponding area of the track/selection.
Write to Start, End, and All On
Stop
The Automation Enable window provides options for automatic Write to Start, End, and All
On Stop.
Trim Mode
Using Trim mode, it is also possible to write trim
delta values for track volume and send levels to
the start (beginning), end or all of a track.
To write current trim delta values to the start, end,
or all of a track or selection:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
that the automation type (track volume or send
level) is write-enabled.
Write On Stop controls in the Automation Enable
window
To configure Write on Stop:
1 Open the Automation Enable window.
2 Click the Automation Mode Selector on the
2 Click to enable one of the Write On Stop
track. Select Trim from the pop-up menu to enable Trim mode. The track volume and send
level faders turn yellow.
modes (Start, End, or All).
3 Click in a track at an insertion point.
– or –
Drag with the Selector to select a portion of the
track.
4 Click Play to begin playback.
5 When you reach a point in the track or selection that contains the trim setting (delta value)
you want to apply, click the Write to Start, Write
to All, or Write to End button in the Automation
Enable window.
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When any of these options are enabled, automation writing will be performed automatically
after a valid automation pass has been performed. See “Requirements for Write to Start,
End, and All” on page 473.
Trimming Automation
(TDM Systems Only)
If you have already written automation, you can
modify automation data for track volume and
send levels in real time by using Trim mode.
When a track is trim-enabled, you are not recording absolute fader positions, but relative
changes in the existing automation. See “Trim
Mode” on page 454 for more information.
To enable Trim mode:
Click the Automation Mode Selector and
choose Trim from the pop-up menu.
■
Enabling Trim mode
When Trim mode is enabled for a track, its volume and send level faders turn yellow, and its
Automation Mode button is outlined in yellow.
This outline flashes to indicate that the track is
trim-enabled, and appears solid whenever trimming is occurring on the track’s volume or send
levels.
To trim track volume or send levels in real time:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
the automation type (volume or send level) is
write-enabled.
2 Click the Automation Mode Selector, and
choose an Automation mode:
• Use Auto Touch or Auto Latch to have the
faders follow existing automation, so you
can “chase” them during the automation
pass.
• Use Auto Write if you want to disengage
the faders from existing automation.
3 Click the Automation Mode Selector on the
tracks you want to automate and select Trim
from the pop-up menu.
4 Click Play to begin trimming automation, and
move the volume or send level faders.
5 When you have finished, click Stop.
Creating Snapshot
Automation
(TDM Systems Only)
Pro Tools lets you write automation data values
for multiple parameters in a single step. You can
write snapshot automation in two ways:
To a selection Automation data is written to the
Timeline selection (as well as the Edit selection
if linked). Anchor breakpoints are placed just before and after the selection so that data outside
the selection is not affected.
To a cursor location Automation data is written
at the insertion point. After the insertion point,
the automation ramps to the next breakpoint
value, or if no breakpoints exist, remains at the
newly written value for the remainder of the session.
For more information on cutting, copying, and
pasting automation data within a session, see
“Writing Automation to the Start, End or All of
a Selection” on page 473.
To write snapshot automation:
1 In the Edit window, click the Track View but-
ton to show the automation you want to edit.
2 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
that the parameters you want to edit are writeenabled. Deselect any parameters whose automation you want to preserve.
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475
3 Select an area in the track’s playlist (or within
multiple tracks) where you want to apply the automation.
– or –
Place the cursor at an Edit insertion point.
4 Adjust the controls you want to automate.
You can also change a plug-in preset.
If you do not want the Write Automation command to write the selected automation value to
the entire playlist, you can:
• Anchor the automation data by placing the
cursor at the end of the session (or any other
endpoint) and choosing Write Automation To
Current Parameter.
– or –
5 Choose Edit > Write Automation and do one
of the following:
• Click with the Grabber on each side of the selection.
• To write the current value to only the currently displayed automation parameter,
choose To Current Parameter.
This lets the Write Automation command write
only to the selected area.
• To write the current settings for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation
Enable window, choose To All Enabled Parameters.
Adding Snapshot Automation to Empty
Automation Playlists
When you use the Write Automation command
on an automation playlist with no previously
written automation data, the selected value is
written to the entire playlist and not just the selected area.
This is because a playlist with no automation
data contains only a single automation breakpoint that corresponds to the current position
of the control for the parameter. The position of
the breakpoint is updated whenever the parameter value is changed.
Writing Snapshot Automation over
Existing Automation Data
When you move the playback cursor, the automated controls in Pro Tools update on the
screen to reflect the automation data that is already on the track. To keep the settings you
have made for a snapshot, you can suspend automation parameters to prevent them from updating.
To write snapshot automation over existing data:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
that the automation parameters you want to
edit are write-enabled. Deselect any parameters
whose automation you want to preserve.
2 Adjust the controls for the parameters you
want to automate.
3 From the Automation Mode pop-up menu, select Auto Off for the tracks you want to apply
the automation.
4 With the Selector, select the track range you
want to apply the automation.
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5 Choose Edit > Write Automation and select
5 Enable the automation parameters previously
one of the following from the submenu:
suspended.
• To write the current value to only the automation parameter currently displayed in
the Edit window, choose To Current Parameter.
• To write the current settings for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation
Enable window, choose To All Enabled Parameters.
6 From the Automation Mode pop-up menu, select Auto Read for the tracks you want to play
back with automation.
Capturing Automation and Applying it
Elsewhere
The Write Automation command can also be
used to capture automation states at specific locations in a session and apply them to other locations. This differs from simply copying and
pasting automation data in that you can set any
selection length for the application of the captured automation data.
To capture and apply automation:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
that the automation parameters you want to
edit are write-enabled. Deselect any parameters
whose automation you want to preserve.
2 Click with the Selector in the track with the
6 Choose Edit > Write Automation and select
one of the following from the submenu:
• To write the current value to only the automation parameter currently displayed in
the Edit window, choose To Current Parameter.
• To write the current settings for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation
Enable window, choose To All Enabled Parameters.
7 From the Automation Mode pop-up menu, select Auto Read for the tracks you want to play
back with automation.
Snapshot Automation and
Trimming of Automation Data
Pro Tools lets you use trim values as snapshots
and apply the relative changes (delta values) to
the selected automation by using the Trim Automation command. This works in much the
same way as the Write Automation command,
except that it writes delta values instead of absolute values to automation data.
You can use trim values in writing snapshot automation to any automatable parameter.
To create a snapshot of relative changes in
automation data:
automation you want to capture. All automated
controls update to reflect the automation at that
location. (If you make a selection, the controls
update to reflect the automation at the beginning of the selection.)
1 In the Automation Enable window, make sure
that the automation parameters you want to
edit are write-enabled. Deselect any parameters
whose automation you want to preserve.
3 From the Automation Mode pop-up menu, se-
2 Select the area of the track you want to edit.
lect Auto Off for the tracks you want to apply
the automation.
All automated controls update to reflect the automation at the beginning of the selection.
4 With the Selector tool, select the location
where you want to apply the automation.
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3 Move the controls for the parameter up or
down by the amount you want to change the
data.
4 Choose Edit > Trim Automation and do one of
the following:
• To write the current delta value to only the
currently displayed automation parameter,
choose To Current Parameter.
• To write the current delta value for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation Enable window, choose To All Enabled
Parameters.
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Chapter 29: Mixdown
Pro Tools lets you record and bounce tracks to
disk. The Bounce to Disk command lets you
write a final mix to disk, create a new loop, print
effects, or consolidate any submix. You can also
submix, route, and record busses and inputs to
new audio tracks.
Bounce to Disk This command writes the current session (if no selection), Edit, or Timeline
selection as new audio files to disk. Any available output or bus path can be selected as the
bounce source. Use Bounce to Disk to write or
master any output or bus path directly to disk.
Sample rate, bit depth, and other conversion
processes can be applied during or after the
bounce. The Bounce to Disk command lets you
bounce all available voices to disk without holding any in reserve. Though you can hear the
bounce being created in real time, you cannot
adjust mixer or other controls during a Bounce
to Disk.
Recording to Tracks This is the process of submixing and recording to new audio tracks, as
you would any input signals. This method requires available tracks, voices, and bus paths to
accommodate the submix and the new tracks.
While recording to tracks, you can adjust mixer
or other controls.
Selecting Audio for Loops, Submixes,
and Effects
Both Bounce to Disk and recording to tracks operate on the current Timeline or Edit selection, if
any. This makes it easy to turn multitrack selections into mono, stereo, or multichannel loops.
Submixes, stems, and other specialized types of
mixes can also be printed to disk using either
method, or recorded out to a DAT, MDM, or
other recording, transfer, or archiving medium.
Printing effects to disk is the technique of permanently adding real-time effects, such as EQ or
reverb, to an audio track by bussing and recording it to new tracks with the effects added. The
original audio is preserved, so you can return to
the source track at any time. This can be useful
when you have a limited number of tracks or effects devices.
AudioSuite plug-ins provide another option
for printing a plug-in effect to disk. See the
DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for details.
Use Bounce to Disk if you need to convert the
bounce files, or if you do not want or need to interact with mixer controls during the bounce.
Record to new tracks if you want to adjust controls while the files are being written.
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Dither and Bounce to Disk
Dithering can significantly improve audio quality. Generally, dithering is necessary when reducing the bit depth for digital audio.
If you use Bounce to Disk, it is important to understand that the Bounce to Disk process does
not apply dither.
To dither a bounce file, you should insert one of
the included Digidesign Dither plug-ins (such as
POW-r Dither), or another dithering plug-in, on
a Master Fader assigned to the bounce source
path. Master Faders are often preferable to Auxiliary Inputs because Master Fader inserts are
post-fader (better for dithering).
If you do not use a dithering plug-in on your
bounce source path, and you choose to convert
to a lower resolution during or after a Bounce to
Disk, the resultant file will be converted by truncation.
For this reason, whether you are using a 16-bit
session or a 24-bit session, it is recommended
that you use a Dither plug-in when mastering to
16-bits.
When mastering to 24-bits, it is not necessary to
use a Dither plug-in.
Using Dither on an Output Mix
Pro Tools includes real-time dithering plug-ins
that improve 16-, 18-, or 20-bit performance
and reduce quantization noise when mixing or
fading low-level signals.
The dithering plug-ins have no user-selectable
controls other than Bit Resolution and Noise
Shaping controls.
For more information about dither, see
“Dither” on page 430.
To use a dithering plug-in on a submix:
1 Choose File > New Track and select Master
When to Use a Dithering Plug-In
Fader (stereo) from the pop-up menu.
You should use a dithering plug-in in any situation where you are reducing bit depth, for example, when mastering to a 16-bit file with the
Bounce To Disk command, or when mastering
to an external device that records at 16-bit.
2 Set the output of the Master Fader to the out-
This is even necessary when using 16-bit sessions. Even though 16-bit sessions use 16-bit
files, they are still being processed at a higher bit
rate:
• 24-bit audio input and output signal paths
with internal 48-bit mixing and processing for
Pro Tools TDM systems
• 24-bit audio input and output signal paths
with internal 32-bit floating point processing
for Pro Tools LE systems
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put or bus path you want to bounce.
3 Assign the outputs of all audio tracks in the
session to the same path you selected in step 2.
The Master Fader now controls the output levels
of all tracks routed to it.
4 On the Master Fader, click an Insert button
and choose one of the Digidesign dithering
plug-ins (such as POW-r Dither).
5 In the dithering plug-in window, choose an
output Bit Resolution and Noise Shaping setting.
When you Bounce to Disk you can convert the
file to the appropriate resolution. Before being
converted by the Bounce to Disk command, the
signal will have been dithered to the resolution
and noise shaping settings in a dithering plugin.
For more information about the Digidesign
dithering plug-ins, refer to the DigiRack
Plug-Ins Guide.
Recording to Tracks
You can create a submix in your Pro Tools session and record it to available tracks in the same
session. This technique lets you add live input
to the mix, as well as adjust volume, pan, mute,
and other controls during the recording process.
You can also use this technique instead of
Bounce To Disk, to create mixed tracks directly
in your Pro Tools session.
Voice Requirements
Recording a submix to new tracks requires an
available voice for each track that you want to
record. Make sure you have enough voices available to play back all tracks that you want to
record and enough voices available to record the
destination tracks.
In contrast, the Bounce to Disk command lets
you bounce all available voices to disk without
holding any in reserve, but you cannot manually change any controls during the bounce. See
“Bounce to Disk” on page 482 for more information.
For information about voice management,
see “Track Priority and Voice Assignment”
on page 96.
To record a submix:
1 Apply any plug-ins or external processors you
want to add to your audio tracks or Auxiliary Inputs before you record.
2 Set the main channel output of the tracks you
want to include in the submix to a bus path. If
you are using stereo or multichannel tracks, set
the panning of each track.
3 Choose File > New Track and create one or
more mono, stereo, or multichannel audio
tracks.
4 If you are recording in stereo, pan the new ste-
reo track (or two mono tracks) hard left and
right.
5 Set the input of each destination track to
match the bus path from which you are recording.
6 Set the output of your new tracks to your main
output path.
If you are working with 16-bit files, and you
are recording submixes, you should apply
dither on the Master Fader.
7 Select Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Se-
lection.
8 Select audio to record. The start, end, and
length of the recording can be based on cursor
location or Edit and Timeline selections.
• Selection-based recording automatically
punches in and out of recording at the selection start and end. Be sure to include
time at the end of a selection for reverb
tails, delays, and other effects.
• If you don’t make a selection, recording
will begin from the location of the playback cursor. Recording will continue until
you press Stop.
9 Record enable the new tracks and click Record
in the Transport window.
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10 Click Play in the Transport window to begin
recording the submix.
11 If recording a selection of audio, recording
will stop automatically. If performing an openended recording, click Stop, or punch out of recording. Make sure Loop Playback is not enabled.
Bounce to Disk
The Bounce to Disk command lets you mix
down with all available voices on your system.
Since it records to separate audio files, you don’t
have to reserve any tracks for a bounce.
Pro Tools bounces are done in real time, so you
hear audio playback of your mix during the
bounce process (though you can’t adjust it).
You can use the Bounce to Disk command to
create and automatically import loops, submixes, or any audio into your session. You can
use it to create a final mono, stereo, or multichannel master, in any of several audio file formats. Bounce to Disk provides conversion options for sample rate, bit resolution, and format.
Selection or Track Length If you make a selection in a track, the bounced mix will be the
length of the selection. If there is no selection in
any track, the bounce will be the length of the
longest audible track in the session.
Time Stamp Information Bounced material is automatically time stamped so that you can drag it
into a track and place it at the same location as
the original material. For more information
about time stamping, see “Time Stamping” on
page 570.
Bounced Files Are “Delay-Compensated”
Pro Tools compensates for any bus delays due to
a bounce. This means that if a bounce file is imported back into a session, and placed directly in
time against the source mix, it is time-aligned
with the original source mix.
Record-Enabled Tracks and TrackInput Enabled
Tracks Cannot Be Bounced
Pro Tools does not allow you to bounce tracks
that are either record-enabled or in Input Only
monitoring mode.
To Bounce to Disk:
When you bounce a track to disk, the bounced
mix includes the following:
Audible Tracks All audible tracks that are routed
to the output which is selected as the source of
the bounce are included in the bounce. Any
muted tracks are not included in the bounce. If
you solo one or more tracks, only the soloed
tracks are included in the bounced mix.
Automation All read-enabled automation is
played back and incorporated in the bounced
mix.
Inserts and Sends All active inserts, including
real-time plug-ins and hardware inserts, are applied to the bounced mix.
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1 Choose File > Bounce to Disk.
2 Configure bounce options as needed and perform the bounce (see “Bounce Options” on
page 483).
Bouncing with Mute Frees Assigned
Voice (TDM Systems Only)
When bouncing sessions that include muted
tracks, enabling “Mute Frees Assigned Voice”
can, in some instances, increase the number of
tracks that can be successfully bounced. See
“Mute Frees Assigned Voice” on page 102.
Bounce Options
When you use the Bounce to Disk command,
you can configure several file options.
Default Settings
Available options and their default settings are
listed in the following table.
Options and Default Settings
Bounce
Option
Bounce to Disk dialog, with conversion and options
enabled
Default
Bounce
Source
current main output path
File Type
session default file type
Format
Auto Stereo Interleaved
Resolution
session default resolution
Sample Rate
session default sample rate
Conversion
Quality
Good
Use Squeezer
(8-bit only)
deselected
Convert During Bounce
deselected
Convert After
Bounce
selected
Import After
Bounce
deselected
Bounce Source
Select any mono, stereo, or multichannel output or bus path as the source for the bounce. All
currently active paths as defined in the
I/O Setup dialog are available as the Bounce
Source.
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To set the bounce source:
■ Select an output or bus path from the Source
Selector.
AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)
To use an AIFF file in Pro Tools, you can drag
and drop from the DigiBase Browser, or use the
Import Audio command. Files in this format do
not have to be converted to be used in
Pro Tools. AIFF waveform overview data is calculated and saved to a cache file, which is accessed each time the session is opened.
SND Resource
Select a bounce source
File Type
Selects the (creator) type for the bounced files.
Selecting a file type
(Macintosh Only)
This file type is supported by some Macintosh
software applications and also by Macintosh
System Software. Pro Tools does not directly
support this type of file in its sessions. To use a
SND file within Pro Tools, use the Import Audio
command. The SND format is useful if you plan
to use your audio with other Macintosh applications that do not support Sound Designer II or
AIFF formats. To use a bounced file as a System
alert sound, save it in this format and then drag
it onto the Macintosh System File.
Sound Designer II
This was the native format for older Macintoshbased Pro Tools systems. Select this to use the
bounced audio with any Digidesign application
for Macintosh.
BWF (Broadcast .WAV Format)
This was the native format for older Windowsbased Pro Tools systems, but is now supported
on Windows and Macintosh. To use a BWF
(.WAV) file in Pro Tools, you can drag and drop
from the DigiBase Browser, or use the Import
Audio command. Files in this format do not
have to be converted to be used in Pro Tools.
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QuickTime
(Macintosh Only)
This is Apple’s audio file format for QuickTimebased multimedia. Pro Tools does not directly
support this type of file in its sessions. To use a
QuickTime audio file within Pro Tools, use the
Import Audio from Other Movie command. The
QuickTime format is popular for attaching to
emails, to simplify long-distance project review
and approval. Many popular multimedia applications also support QuickTime.
Windows Media
(Windows Only)
Windows Media formatted files can contain audio, video, or script data stored in Windows Media Format. A Windows Media Format file may
have an .asf, .wma, or .wmv file name extension.
RealAudio G2
(Windows and Mac OS 9 Only)
RealAudio G2 was created by Real Networks for
streaming audio over the Internet. The RealAudio encoder file is stored in a folder named Codecs inside the DAE folder.
When you export or bounce to RealAudio G2
format, you can set the following options:
Media Clip Information Type the title, author,
and copyright information for your RealAudio
clip. This information is displayed on the RealPlayer G2 as the clip plays back.
Copy Protection These settings determine how
the clip is handled by the RealPlayer client.
• To let RealPlayer Plus users save your clip using the RealPlayer Plus recording feature, select Allow Recording.
• To let RealPlayer users download your clip to
their hard drive, select Allow Download.
If you don’t want RealPlayer users to make copies of your clip, deselect both of these options.
Audio Format From the pop-up menu, select the
setting that best matches the type of audio you
are bouncing. A brief explanation of each format is displayed.
Target Audience Select the connection speed
that most users downloading your clip are likely
to have. This setting determines the bit rate at
which the audio will be encoded. Depending on
the file type you choose (see below), you can
choose more than one connection speed.
RealAudio G2 Output Options
When you select this format, the Resolution and
Sample Rate pop-up menus in the Pro Tools
Output Options dialog are unavailable, because
resolution and sample rate are set by the encoder.
The RealAudio G2 format lets multiple streams
with different bit rates be encoded into a single
file. During playback, the RealAudio G2 server
and the RealPlayer G2 client continuously adjust the bit rate to make the best use of available
bandwidth. The RealPlayer G2 is available on
the Real Networks Web site (www.real.com).
File Type This option determines the compatibility of the output file with different RealAudio
servers and clients.
If you select SureStream, you can select more
than one connection speed under Target Audience. With this file type, multiple bit rate
streams are encoded into a single output file.
Files encoded with the SureStream option are
larger than Single Rate files, and can only be
played back from G2 servers.
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Select the “Include RealPlayer 5.0 Compatible
Stream” option to include a backward compatible stream that can be played on older version
5.0 RealPlayers. (This backward compatibility is
only available for SureStream-encoded files.)
The MP3 encoder provided as an install option
with Pro Tools is a fully functional 30-day demo
version. To purchase the full version of the MP3
encoder, visit Digidesign’s Web site
(www.digidesign.com).
If you select Single Rate, you can only select one
connection speed under Target Audience. With
this file type, a single stream is encoded into the
output file. Files encoded with the Single Rate
option can be played back from either a standard web server or a G2 server.
When you select this format, the Resolution
pop-up menu in the Pro Tools Output Options
dialog is unavailable. The resolution is set by the
encoder.
MP3 (MPEG Layer 3)
The MPEG-1 Layer 3 compression format (MP3)
is used for streaming and downloading audio
over the Internet, and for playback on portable
devices. The MP3 option is required to use this
file type.
The sample rate chosen is given to the codec as
a “base” sample rate for operations. The actual
sample rate of the resulting file is determined in
the MP3 Encoder Options dialog. For example,
if a base sample rate of 48000 Hz is chosen, the
MP3 Encoder Options dialog will allow output
streams in 48, 24, or 12 kHz, depending on encoding quality.
When you export or bounce to MP3 format, you
can set the following options:
Encoder Settings
Encoding Quality Determines the audio quality
of the bounced file. The higher the quality, the
longer it will take to process the audio. The three
options, in ascending order of quality, are Fastest Encoding, Medium Encoding, and Highest
Quality.
MP3 Output Options
On Windows and Mac OS 9, the MP3 encoder
file is stored in a folder named Codecs inside the
DAE folder; on Mac OS X, the MP3 encoder file
is stored in Applications/
Pro Tools/Codecs/MP3/. This version of the encoder uses the latest technology from the developer of the MP3 format, the Fraunhofer Institute. It features improved processing speed and
quality, and supports both constant and variable bit rate encoding.
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The Highest Quality setting can take up to five
times longer to process audio than the Fastest
Encoding setting, so you should use it only
when the highest fidelity is essential and you
have a considerable amount of time to devote to
the encoding process. You should experiment
with the other encoding quality settings, since
they can provide acceptable quality with a significantly shorter encoding time.
Encoding Method Two encoding methods are
available:
• Constant Bit Rate (CBR) encodes the file at a
single bit rate that you choose from the CBR
pop-up menu. Because the bit rate is fixed, the
quality of the encoded audio will vary depending on the nature of the material being
compressed. This option is best for streaming
over the Internet, since it has predictable
bandwidth requirements.
Genre Choose a genre for the file. This information is displayed by many MP3 players, and can
appear in searchable catalogs and databases.
• Variable Bit Rate (VBR) encodes the file at a
varying bit rate to maintain the level of encoding quality that you choose from the VBR
pop-up menu. The bit rate varies automatically depending on the nature of the material
being compressed. This option is best for personal jukebox applications.
Year Enter a year for the file. This information is
displayed by many MP3 players.
ID3 Tag Info Settings
Pad To Match Bit Rate Exactly This option determines whether MP3 frames are padded to
maintain bit rate very precisely. You should
only select this option if you need a file with an
exact bit rate, for specific applications (such as
synchronous transmission over an ISDN line).
ID3 Tag Type The ID3 tag stores data about the
encoded audio file that is used by MP3 players to
display information about the file. Pro Tools
supports three versions of this tag, in order to
provide backward compatibility with older MP3
players:
• ID3 v1.0: Appears at the end of a streaming
MP3 file, so that tag information is only displayed after software streaming is finished.
• ID3 v1.1: Same as version 1.0, but adds track
number information to the tag.
• ID3 v2.3: Appears at the front of a streaming
MP3 file, so that tag information is displayed
when streaming begins.
While ID3 v2.3 is becoming the standard
MP3 format, not all MP3 players currently
support ID3 v2.3. Contact the developer of
your player software for compatibility information.
Track Number If you select ID3 tag type v1.1 or
v2.3, you can enter a CD track number for the
file. This information is displayed by many MP3
players.
Advanced Settings
The options listed under Advanced Settings, under normal situations, do not need to be
changed from their default values.
Padding of MP3 frames can cause problems
with some versions of Internet streaming
software. If your files are destined for desktop or Internet delivery, do not select this
option.
Allow Intensity Stereo Coding This option determines whether the encoder takes into account
the frequency of a signal when encoding its
phase characteristics, allowing for more compression at low bit rates. In most cases, you
should leave this option selected. However, if
you are working with highly phase-dependent
material, such as Dolby Surround, you may
want to deselect this option.
Title/Artist/Album/Comment Type the title, artist, and other information for the MP3 file. This
information is displayed by many MP3 players.
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Write CRC Checksums This option adds errordetection data to the MP3 file. This data is not
necessary for most computer and Internet applications, and also takes away from the space
available for audio data. Select this option only
if you are sure your delivery mode requires error
correction.
Copyrighted This option sets a bit in the MP3
data stream to indicate that the audio is copyrighted. Not all MP3 players use this information. Selecting this option does not guarantee
that the audio file will not be copied.
Original This option sets a bit in the MP3 data
stream to indicate that the audio is the original
media for the track, rather than a copy. This setting is not widely used.
Private This option sets a bit in the MP3 data
stream that is interpreted differently by various
applications. It is not normally used.
Mac File Settings
Mac File Type and Creator If you expect your file
to be used on a Macintosh, you can enter the
Macintosh file type and creator. This will allow
users to double-click the file to open their MP3
player.
Default Button
To restore all settings in this dialog to their default values, click Defaults.
Format
This is the format for the bounced result.
Choices are Mono (summed), Multiple mono,
and Interleaved.
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To set the bounce file format:
■
Select a file format from the Format Selector.
Mono (Summed) Creates a single disk file that is
a summed mono mix of the current sources being monitored.
When bouncing to mono (summed) files, the
output may clip. Avoid clipping by monitoring
the meters of your bounce source Auxiliary Input or Master Fader. When bouncing stereo
tracks to mono (summed) files, clipping occurs
if left and right signals exceed –3 dB below maximum, or full code (0 dBFS).
Multiple Mono Creates multiple mono files with
the same number of channels as the source
path.
• If the source output or bus path is stereo, two
mono files will be created, and appended with
“.L” and “.R” suffixes on bounce.
• If a multichannel format is used (for example,
six-channel, 5.1), individual mono files will
be created for each member of the path. Files
will be appended with path suffixes according
to the path definition in the I/O Setup dialog.
• If the source output or bus path is mono, the
pop-up menu will switch from multiple mono
to mono, and will create one mono file (no
summing of multiple sources).
Stereo Interleaved Creates a single, interleaved
file that contains all of the bounced streams
from the chosen output path. In an interleaved
stereo bounce, tracks assigned to odd-numbered
outputs are sent to the left channel, and tracks
assigned to even-numbered outputs are sent to
the right channel.
Pro Tools also lets you create multichannel interleaved files of any supported file type. This
can simplify file management of mixes and
projects for backup and archiving.
Pro Tools does not support interleaved files natively. This means that they must be split into
multi-mono files on import (requiring additional disk space).
Resolution
This option lets you select between three different bit resolutions for the bounce conversion.
Bounce to Disk does not apply dither when converting during or after a bounce to a lower resolution (including when bouncing to 16-bit).
When you need to create a lower resolution
bounce file, use a Digidesign Dither plug-in, or
similar, on a Master Fader assigned to the
bounce source path. This dithers the bounce
file, before the Bounce to Disk conversion truncates bits into the final file resolution. (See
“Dither and Bounce to Disk” on page 480.)
Resolution choices include the following:
8-bit This resolution is often used in multimedia
applications. If the material you are working
with is relatively simple, you can use the
Pro Tools “Squeezer” feature for optimal results.
See “Sample Rate Conversion Quality Option”
on page 490 for details.
16-bit This is the Compact Disc standard bit resolution.
24-bit If you plan to use the bounced file with a
Pro Tools TDM system, you can take advantage
of the greater resolution and headroom afforded
by this higher bit rate.
To set the bounce file resolution:
■ Select a bit depth from the Resolution Selector.
Sample Rate
This option lets you save to any of several sample rates. Choices are dependent on your
Pro Tools system and Digidesign audio interfaces.
Sample Rate Conversion Quality
If you choose a sample rate that differs from the
original sample rate of the session, the conversion options become available. You can configure the conversion quality, and schedule conversion to occur during, or after, the bounce. See
“Sample Rate Conversion Quality Option” on
page 490 for more information.
The following are the more common sample
rates, and their application. Higher sampling
rates will provide better audio fidelity for recording and playback, and also for processing with
dynamics, dither (with noise shaping), and analog emulation plug-ins.
192000 This is a supported sample rate for some
audio DVDs, and provides the highest quality
audio fidelity with compatible audio interfaces
(such as the 192 I/O).
176400 You may want to work at a sample rate
of 176.4 kHz if the final delivery will be at
44.1 kHz (such as compact disc). This will provide a slightly faster sample rate conversion to
44.1 kHz than from 192 kHz.
96000 This is a supported sample rate for DVD
audio and provides high-quality audio fidelity
with compatible audio interfaces (such as the
192 I/O, 96 I/O, 96i I/O, and Digi 002).
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88200 You may want to work at a sample rate of
88.2 kHz if the final delivery will be at 44.1 kHz
(such as compact disc). This will provide a
slightly faster sample rate conversion to
44.1 kHz than from 96 kHz.
48000 This is a standard sample rate for Professional and DVD video, and is supported by DA88/98, DAT, and ADAT decks.
44100 This is the standard sample rate for compact discs (CD), and is supported by DA-88/98,
DAT, and ADAT decks.
Use Squeezer
The Use Squeezer option uses a proprietary DSP
algorithm specifically designed for performing
8-bit conversion of simple source files such as
voice-overs. It optimizes the dynamics of the audio by preprocessing it using compression, limiting, and gating before conversion to 8-bit resolution. This results in greater apparent
loudness in the signal, and improved intelligibility. If you are converting a more complex 16bit audio file to 8-bit resolution, test this option
before converting all of your material.
Custom For a custom sample rate, click in the
sample rate window and manually enter in a
value.
Pull-up and Pull-down Rates All available sample
rates support pull-up and pull-down rates, or
other specialized rates.
Bounce to Disk, Use Squeezer enabled
Convert During or After Bounce
Sample Rate Conversion Quality
Option
The Conversion Quality option sets the quality
of sample rate conversion used to create the
converted file. The higher the quality of sample
rate conversion, the longer it takes to convert
the file after the bounce has taken place. There
are five possible settings, ranging from Low to
Tweak Head. For most applications, the Better
setting yields satisfactory results.
Processing Resources and Conversion Quality
Because the Best and Tweak Head settings take
longer than the others, you may want to use
them only in cases where the highest fidelity is
essential and you are not facing strict time limitations.
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Pro Tools Reference Guide
The Bounce dialog can perform any conversion
options, including sample rate and bit depth
conversion, during a bounce or post-bounce.
Convert During Bounce This option may take less
time than Convert After Bounce, but does so at
the expense of plug-in automation playback accuracy.
Convert After Bounce The Convert After Bounce
option, though it takes more time, offers the
highest level of plug-in automation accuracy
possible.
Import Into Session After Bounce
The Import Into Session After Bounce option automatically imports the newly bounced files
into the Audio Regions List so you can place
them in tracks. If your newly bounced files are
split stereo files, they are listed together in the
Audio Regions List.
The Import Into Session After Bounce option is
only available if the target bit depth for the
bounce is the same or less as the bit depth of the
current session, and it is supported by the
Digidesign audio interface.
Help
The Help button opens a display-only dialog
that describes the Bounce to Disk features.
2 Do one of the following:
• To bounce the entire session, click Return
to Zero in the Transport window to go to
the beginning of the session.
– or –
• To bounce a portion of the session, enable
Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Selection, and make a selection in the Edit window.
3 Choose File > Bounce to Disk.
Recording a Submix (with
Bounce To Disk)
You can create a submix with the Bounce to Disk
command by muting tracks or bypassing inserts
that are not part of the submix group, and selecting the part of the session you want to
bounce. Or, you could solo only the audio you
want to bounce.
4 Configure bounce options and settings.
5 Verify the bit resolution for the bounced file
matches the bit resolution of the session.
6 Verify the sample rate for the bounced file is
supported by the session and the audio interface.
7 If required, verify the file type and format for
the bounced file matches the file type and format of the session.
You can also create a submix by recording to
new tracks. For details, see “Recording to
Tracks” on page 481.
8 Select the Import After Bounce option.
To bounce a submix to disk and bring it into the
session:
10 Select a destination for the new audio file,
enter a name, and click Save.
1 Configure your submix using sends, auxiliary
inputs, and master faders. (See “Submixing for
Signal Routing and Effects Processing” on
page 423.)
9 Click Bounce.
Pro Tools bounces are done in real time, so you
hear audio playback of your mix during the
bounce process. You cannot adjust controls during a Bounce to Disk.
Chapter 29: Mixdown
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To bring bounced files back into tracks:
1 Do one of the following:
• If the newly bounced audio was automatically imported into the session, drag the
new files from the Audio Regions List to existing tracks in your session.
Final Mixdown
In final mixdown, you create a mix that includes all your edits, automation, and effects
processing.
To bounce a final mix to disk:
If you bounced from a selection point, you
can snap the file to the bounce point: While
pressing the Start key (Windows) or Control
(Macintosh), drag the region from the Audio
Regions List to the destination track.
• If the bounced files are not available in the
Audio Regions List, import them into the
session by choosing File > Import Audio to
Track, or drag and drop the bounced files
from your DigiBase browser.
• If you are placing multiple files, keep channels time-aligned with each other by Shiftselecting them in the Regions List, and
dragging them simultaneously into existing tracks of the right format.
2 When working with stereo tracks, set the pan
controls hard left and hard right.
3 Mute or turn off the voices of original source
tracks so that you don’t double monitor your
audio material.
4 Click Play in the Transport window to hear
the results of the bounce.
1 Adjust track output levels, finalize an