Allied Telesis | AT-9410GB | User`s guide | Allied Telesis AT-9410GB User`s guide

Allied Telesis AT-9410GB User`s guide
Management
Software
®
AT-S45
◆
User’s Guide
FOR THE AT-9410GB GIGABIT ETHERNET SWITCH
VERSION 1.0
PN 613-50290-00 Rev B
Copyright © 2003 Allied Telesyn, Inc.
960 Stewart Drive Suite B, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from Allied Telesyn, Inc.
Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation, Netscape Navigator is a registered trademark of Netscape
Communications Corporation. All other product names, company names, logos or other designations mentioned herein are
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Allied Telesyn, Inc. reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without
prior written notice. The information provided herein is subject to change without notice. In no event shall Allied Telesyn, Inc. be liable
for any incidental, special, indirect, or consequential damages whatsoever, including but not limited to lost profits, arising out of or
related to this manual or the information contained herein, even if Allied Telesyn, Inc. has been advised of, known, or should have
known, the possibility of such damages.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Preface ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................10
How This Guide is Organized ...........................................................................................................................................................................10
Document Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................................................11
Where to Find Web-based Guides .................................................................................................................................................................12
Contacting Allied Telesyn Technical Support ............................................................................................................................................13
Obtaining Management Software Updates ...............................................................................................................................................14
Section I
Overview
.......................................................................................................................................................... 15
Chapter 1
Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................................................16
Local Management Session ..............................................................................................................................................................................18
Telnet Management Session ............................................................................................................................................................................19
Web Browser Management Session ..............................................................................................................................................................20
SNMP Management Session ............................................................................................................................................................................21
Section II
Local and Telnet Management .................................................................................................. 22
Chapter 2
Starting a Local or Telnet Management Session ................................................................................................................................23
Local Management Session ..............................................................................................................................................................................24
Starting a Local Management Session................................................................................................................................................. 25
Quitting from a Local Session ................................................................................................................................................................. 26
Telnet Management Session ............................................................................................................................................................................27
Starting a Telnet Management Session .............................................................................................................................................. 27
Quitting from a Telnet Management Session................................................................................................................................... 27
3
Chapter 3
Basic Switch Parameters ................................................................................................................................................................................28
When Does an AT-9410GB Switch Need an IP Address? .......................................................................................................................29
AT-9410GB Switch....................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
How Do You Assign an IP Address? ...................................................................................................................................................... 29
Configuring an IP Address ................................................................................................................................................................................30
Configuring System Administration Information .....................................................................................................................................32
Activating the DHCP Service ............................................................................................................................................................................34
Configuring SNMP Community Strings and Trap IP Addresses ..........................................................................................................36
Activating the AT-S45 Management Software Default Values ............................................................................................................38
Resetting the Switch ...........................................................................................................................................................................................40
Configuring the AT-S45 Management Security Features ......................................................................................................................41
Viewing the AT-S45 Version Number and Switch MAC Address ........................................................................................................44
Pinging a Network Device ................................................................................................................................................................................45
Bootstrap Configuration ....................................................................................................................................................................................47
Chapter 4
Port Parameters ..................................................................................................................................................................................................50
Displaying Port Status ........................................................................................................................................................................................51
Configuring Port Parameters ...........................................................................................................................................................................53
Chapter 5
Port Security .........................................................................................................................................................................................................56
Port Security Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................................57
Configuring Port Security ..................................................................................................................................................................................58
Configuring the Limited Security Mode ......................................................................................................................................................60
Chapter 6
Port Trunking .......................................................................................................................................................................................................62
Port Trunking Overview .....................................................................................................................................................................................63
Creating a Port Trunk ..........................................................................................................................................................................................65
Deleting a Port Trunk ..........................................................................................................................................................................................68
Chapter 7
Port Monitoring ..................................................................................................................................................................................................69
Port Monitoring Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................70
Creating a Port Monitor .....................................................................................................................................................................................71
Disabling a Port Monitor ...................................................................................................................................................................................73
Chapter 8
Spanning Tree Protocol ..................................................................................................................................................................................74
STP Overview .........................................................................................................................................................................................................75
Selecting a Root Bridge ............................................................................................................................................................................. 75
Finding and Resolving Redundant Paths ........................................................................................................................................... 76
Handling Topology Changes .................................................................................................................................................................. 77
Communicating Between Bridges ........................................................................................................................................................ 77
Configuring a Bridge’s STP Settings ..............................................................................................................................................................78
Configuring STP Port Settings .........................................................................................................................................................................81
Chapter 9
Virtual LANs ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................84
VLAN Overview .....................................................................................................................................................................................................85
VLAN Modes.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 86
Tagged and Untagged VLAN Overview .......................................................................................................................................................87
VLAN Name.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 87
VLAN Identifier ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 87
4
Untagged and Tagged Ports ................................................................................................................................................................... 88
General Rules to Creating an Untagged or Tagged VLAN............................................................................................................ 90
Creating a Tagged or Untagged VLAN .........................................................................................................................................................91
Phase 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 91
Phase 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 94
Viewing or Modifying a Tagged or Untagged VLAN ...............................................................................................................................96
Phase 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 96
Phase 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 98
Deleting a Tagged or Untagged VLAN ...................................................................................................................................................... 101
Port-based VLAN Mode Overview .............................................................................................................................................................. 102
Creating a Port-based VLAN .......................................................................................................................................................................... 103
Modifying a Port-based VLAN ...................................................................................................................................................................... 105
Setting GVRP Status ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 107
Resetting the VLAN Parameters to Default .............................................................................................................................................. 108
Setting the VLAN Type .................................................................................................................................................................................... 109
Chapter 10
MAC Address Table ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 110
MAC Address Overview .................................................................................................................................................................................. 111
Displaying MAC Addresses ............................................................................................................................................................................ 113
Viewing MAC Addresses by Port ................................................................................................................................................................. 115
Viewing the MAC Addresses by MAC ........................................................................................................................................................ 116
Viewing the MAC Addresses of a VLAN ..................................................................................................................................................... 117
Adding Static MAC Addresses ...................................................................................................................................................................... 118
Deleting Static MAC Addresses .................................................................................................................................................................... 119
Changing the Aging Time .............................................................................................................................................................................. 120
Chapter 11
Quality of Service ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 121
Quality of Service Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................... 122
Configuring QoS ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 123
Chapter 12
IGMP Snooping ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 125
IGMP Snooping Overview .............................................................................................................................................................................. 126
Activating IGMP Snooping ............................................................................................................................................................................ 127
Viewing Group Members ............................................................................................................................................................................... 129
Chapter 13
Storm Control Configuration .................................................................................................................................................................... 131
Storm Control Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................. 132
Activating Broadcast Storm Control .......................................................................................................................................................... 133
Chapter 14
Port Statistics .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 135
Displaying Port Statistics ................................................................................................................................................................................ 136
Chapter 15
Management Software Updates ............................................................................................................................................................. 138
Obtaining Software Updates ........................................................................................................................................................................ 139
Downloading New Management Software from a Local Management Session ....................................................................... 140
Downloading a New Management Software Image Using TFTP .................................................................................................... 143
5
Section III
Web Browser Management
........................................................................................................ 146
Chapter 16
Starting a Web Browser Management Session ................................................................................................................................ 147
Starting a Web Browser Management Session ...................................................................................................................................... 148
Browser Tools............................................................................................................................................................................................. 149
Quitting from a Web Browser Management Session .................................................................................................................. 150
Chapter 17
Basic Switch Parameters ............................................................................................................................................................................. 151
Configuring an IP Address ............................................................................................................................................................................. 152
Configuring System Administration Information .................................................................................................................................. 154
Setting the User Interface Configuration ................................................................................................................................................. 156
Activating DHCP ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 158
Configuring the SNMP Parameters and Trap IP Addresses ................................................................................................................ 160
Resetting a Switch ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 162
Viewing the AT-S45 Version Number and Switch MAC Address ..................................................................................................... 164
Pinging a Network Device ............................................................................................................................................................................. 166
Bootstrap Configuration ................................................................................................................................................................................. 168
Chapter 18
Port Parameters ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 170
Configuring Port Parameters ........................................................................................................................................................................ 171
Displaying Port Status ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 173
Displaying Statistics ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 176
Chapter 19
Port Security ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 178
Configuring Port Security ............................................................................................................................................................................... 179
Displaying Port Security Settings ................................................................................................................................................................ 181
Chapter 20
Port Trunks ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 182
Creating or Deleting a Port Trunk ............................................................................................................................................................... 183
Chapter 21
Port Monitoring ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 185
Creating or Deleting a Port Monitor ........................................................................................................................................................... 186
Chapter 22
Spanning Tree Protocol ............................................................................................................................................................................... 187
Configuring a Bridge’s STP Settings ........................................................................................................................................................... 188
Configuring STP Port Settings ...................................................................................................................................................................... 190
Chapter 23
Virtual LANs ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 192
Creating a Tagged or Untagged VLAN ...................................................................................................................................................... 193
Phase 1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 193
Phase 2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 195
Viewing or Modifying a Tagged or Untagged VLAN ............................................................................................................................ 197
Phase 1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 197
Phase 2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 200
Deleting a Tagged or Untagged VLAN ...................................................................................................................................................... 202
Creating a Port-based VLAN .......................................................................................................................................................................... 203
Viewing or Modifying a Port-based VLAN ................................................................................................................................................ 205
6
Setting GVRP Status ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 207
Resetting the VLAN Parameters to Default .............................................................................................................................................. 208
Setting the VLAN Type .................................................................................................................................................................................... 209
Chapter 24
MAC Address Table ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 210
Viewing the MAC Address by Port .............................................................................................................................................................. 211
Viewing the MAC Addresses by MAC ........................................................................................................................................................ 212
Viewing the MAC Addresses of a VLAN ..................................................................................................................................................... 214
Adding Static MAC Addresses ...................................................................................................................................................................... 216
Deleting Static MAC Addresses .................................................................................................................................................................... 217
Chapter 25
Quality of Service ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 218
Configuring QoS ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 219
Chapter 26
IGMP Snooping ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 221
Activating IGMP Snooping ............................................................................................................................................................................ 222
Viewing Group Members ............................................................................................................................................................................... 224
Chapter 27
Storm Control Configuration .................................................................................................................................................................... 225
Activating Broadcast Storm Control and Setting a Threshold .......................................................................................................... 226
Chapter 28
Management Software Updates ............................................................................................................................................................. 227
Obtaining Software Updates ........................................................................................................................................................................ 228
Downloading a New Management Software Image Using TFTP .................................................................................................... 229
Appendix A
AT-S45 Default Settings .............................................................................................................................................................................. 232
Index ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 234
7
List of Figures
Figure 1: Connecting a Terminal or PC to the RS232 Terminal Port ..................................................................................................27
Figure 2: Main Menu ...........................................................................................................................................................................................28
Figure 3: Basic Switch Configuration Menu ................................................................................................................................................32
Figure 4: System IP Configuration Menu .....................................................................................................................................................33
Figure 5: System Administration Configuration Menu ...........................................................................................................................34
Figure 6: System IP Configuration Menu .....................................................................................................................................................37
Figure 7: SNMP Configuration Menu ............................................................................................................................................................38
Figure 8: System Reboot Menu .......................................................................................................................................................................40
Figure 9: User Interface Configuration Menu ............................................................................................................................................44
Figure 10: General Information Window .....................................................................................................................................................46
Figure 11: Ping Execution Menu .....................................................................................................................................................................47
Figure 12: Ping Results .......................................................................................................................................................................................48
Figure 13: Bootstrap Configuration Menu ..................................................................................................................................................49
Figure 14: Port Configuration Menu .............................................................................................................................................................52
Figure 15: Port Configuration Window ........................................................................................................................................................54
Figure 16: Port Security Configuration Menu ............................................................................................................................................59
Figure 17: Intrusion Detection Status Menu ..............................................................................................................................................62
Figure 18: Port Trunk Example 1 .....................................................................................................................................................................65
Figure 19: Port Trunk Example 2 .....................................................................................................................................................................65
Figure 20: Trunking Configuration Menu ....................................................................................................................................................67
Figure 21: Port Trunk Status Window ...........................................................................................................................................................68
Figure 22: Port Monitoring Configuration Menu ......................................................................................................................................73
Figure 23: Spanning Tree Configuration Menu .........................................................................................................................................80
Figure 24: Spanning Tree Port Configuration Menu ...............................................................................................................................83
Figure 25: VLAN Management Menu ............................................................................................................................................................93
Figure 26: VLAN Creation Menu ......................................................................................................................................................................94
Figure 27: VLAN Port Configuration Menu .................................................................................................................................................96
Figure 28: Config VLAN Member Menu .......................................................................................................................................................99
Figure 29: VLAN Port Configuration Menu .............................................................................................................................................. 101
Figure 30: VLAN Creation Menu ................................................................................................................................................................... 105
Figure 31: Config VLAN Member Menu .................................................................................................................................................... 107
Figure 32: Forwarding Database Menu ..................................................................................................................................................... 115
Figure 33: Display MAC Address by MAC Window ............................................................................................................................... 116
Figure 34: Quality of Service Configuration Menu ................................................................................................................................ 125
Figure 35: IGMP Snooping Configuration Menu ................................................................................................................................... 130
Figure 36: View Group Members Menu .................................................................................................................................................... 132
Figure 37: Broadcast Storm Control Window ......................................................................................................................................... 137
8
Figure 38: Ethernet Statistics Menu ............................................................................................................................................................ 140
Figure 39: XModem Software Upgrade Menu ........................................................................................................................................ 146
Figure 40: Hilgraeve HyperTerminal Window ......................................................................................................................................... 146
Figure 41: Send File Window ........................................................................................................................................................................ 147
Figure 42: XModem File Send Window ..................................................................................................................................................... 147
Figure 43: TFTP Software Upgrade Menu ................................................................................................................................................. 149
Figure 44: TFTP client software window ................................................................................................................................................... 150
Figure 45: Entering a Switch’s IP Address in the URL Field ................................................................................................................ 154
Figure 46: Home Page ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 155
Figure 47: IP Configuration menu ............................................................................................................................................................... 158
Figure 48: Administration Configuration menu ..................................................................................................................................... 160
Figure 49: User Interface ................................................................................................................................................................................. 162
Figure 50: IP Configuration ............................................................................................................................................................................ 164
Figure 51: SNMP Configuration ................................................................................................................................................................... 166
Figure 52: System Reboot .............................................................................................................................................................................. 168
Figure 53: Switch Information ...................................................................................................................................................................... 170
Figure 54: Ping Test Configuration ............................................................................................................................................................. 172
Figure 55: Ping Test Result ............................................................................................................................................................................. 173
Figure 56: Bootstrap Configuration ............................................................................................................................................................ 174
Figure 57: Port Configuration window ...................................................................................................................................................... 177
Figure 58: Front Panel window .................................................................................................................................................................... 179
Figure 59: Configuration of a Port Window ............................................................................................................................................. 180
Figure 60: Statistics Window ......................................................................................................................................................................... 182
Figure 61: Port Security Window ................................................................................................................................................................. 186
Figure 62: Port Security Overview Window ............................................................................................................................................. 188
Figure 63: Trunk Configuration Window .................................................................................................................................................. 190
Figure 64: Port Monitoring Configuration Window .............................................................................................................................. 193
Figure 65: Spanning Tree Window - Configuration .............................................................................................................................. 196
Figure 66: Spanning Tree Port Configuration ......................................................................................................................................... 198
Figure 67: Create/Modify VLAN .................................................................................................................................................................... 202
Figure 68: VLAN Port Configuration ........................................................................................................................................................... 205
Figure 69: VLAN Information (802.1Q VLANs) ........................................................................................................................................ 206
Figure 70: VLAN Create/Modify (802.1Q VLANs) ................................................................................................................................... 207
Figure 71: VLAN Port Configuration ........................................................................................................................................................... 209
Figure 72: VLAN Information ........................................................................................................................................................................ 211
Figure 73: Confirmation Prompt .................................................................................................................................................................. 211
Figure 74: Create/Modify VLAN .................................................................................................................................................................... 212
Figure 75: VLAN Information (Port-based) ............................................................................................................................................... 214
Figure 76: Create/Modify VLAN (Port-based VLANs) ............................................................................................................................ 214
Figure 77: VLAN Information ........................................................................................................................................................................ 216
Figure 78: VLAN Information ........................................................................................................................................................................ 217
Figure 79: Sort by Port Window ................................................................................................................................................................... 221
Figure 80: Sort by MAC Window .................................................................................................................................................................. 222
Figure 81: Forwarding Database Configuration - Sort by VLAN Window ..................................................................................... 225
Figure 82: Static MAC Address Configuration Window ....................................................................................................................... 226
Figure 83: Static MAC Address Configuration Window ....................................................................................................................... 227
Figure 84: Quality of Service Window ........................................................................................................................................................ 229
Figure 85: IGMP Snooping ............................................................................................................................................................................. 233
Figure 86: IGMP Snooping Group Members ........................................................................................................................................... 235
Figure 87: Broadcast Storm Control Window ......................................................................................................................................... 237
Figure 88: Image Upgrade Page .................................................................................................................................................................. 241
Figure 89: TFTP client software window ................................................................................................................................................... 243
9
Preface
This guide contains instructions on how configure the AT-9410GB
Gigabit Ethernet Switch using the AT-S45 management software.
How This Guide is Organized
This manual is divided into three sections.
Section I: Overview
This section has just one chapter. The chapter reviews the different ways
that you can access the AT-S45 management software on a switch.
Section II: Local and Telnet Management
The chapters in this section explain how to manage a switch from a local
management session or a Telnet management session.
A local management session is established by connecting a terminal or
PC to the RS-232 Terminal Port on the front panel of the switch.
A Telnet management session is established using the Telnet application
protocol. This type of management session can be performed from any
workstation on your network that has the application protocol.
Section III: Web Browser Management
The chapters in this section explain how to manage a switch using a web
browser, such as Microsoft® Internet Explorer or Netscape® Navigator.
10
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Document Conventions
This document uses the following conventions:
Note
Notes provide additional information.
Warning
Warnings inform you that performing or omitting a specific action
may result in bodily injury.
Caution
Cautions inform you that performing or omitting a specific action
may result in equipment damage or loss of data.
11
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Where to Find Web-based Guides
The Allied Telesyn web site at www.alliedtelesyn.com contains PDF files
of the Installation and User Guides for all Allied Telesyn products. The
documents can be viewed on-line or downloaded onto a local
workstation or server.
For hardware installation instructions for the AT-9410GB switch, refer to
the following guide:
❑
AT-9410GB Installation Guide
PN 613-50289-00
This guide is available on the documentation CD included with the
switch and also from the Allied Telesyn web site.
12
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Contacting Allied Telesyn Technical Support
This section provides Allied Telesyn contact information for technical
support as well as sales or corporate information.
Online Support
E-mail and
Telephone
Support
For Sales or
Corporate
Information
You can request technical support online by accessing the Allied Telesyn
Knowledge Base from the following web site:
http://kb.alliedtelesyn.com. You can use the Knowledge Base to
submit questions to our technical support staff and review answers to
previously asked questions.
For Technical Support via E-mail or telephone, refer to the Support &
Services section of the Allied Telesyn web site:
http://www.alliedtelesyn.com.
You can contact Allied Telesyn for sales or corporate information at our
web site: http://www.alliedtelesyn.com. To find the contact
information for your country, select Contact Us, then Worldwide
Contacts.
13
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Obtaining Management Software Updates
New releases of management software for our managed products can
be downloaded from the Allied Telesyn web site:
http://www.alliedtelesyn.com.
14
Section I
Overview
The chapter in this section provides a brief overview of the AT-S45
management software. It explains some of the functions that you can
perform with the management software and reviews the different
methods for accessing the AT-S45 software on an AT-9410GB Gigabit
Ethernet Switch.
15
Chapter 1
Overview
The AT-S45 management software is intended for the AT-9410GB
Gigabit Ethernet Switch. You use the software to adjust the operating
parameters of the switch. Some of the functions that you can perform
with the software include:
❑ Enable and disable ports
❑ Configure port parameters, such as port speed and duplex mode
❑ Create virtual LANs (VLANs)
❑ Create port trunks and port mirrors
❑ Assign an Internet Protocol (IP) address and subnet mask
❑ Activate and configure the Spanning Tree Protocol
❑ Configure port security
The AT-S45 management software comes pre-installed on the switch
with default settings for all its operating parameters. The default settings
may be adequate for some networks and may not need to be changed. If
this is true for your network, then you can use the switch as an
unmanaged switch by simply connecting the unit to your network, as
explained in the hardware installation guide.
Note
The default settings for the management software can be found in
Appendix A, AT-S45 Default Settings on page 232.
16
AT-S45 User’s Guide
To actively manage a switch, such as to change or adjust its operating
parameters, then you must access the switch’s AT-S45 management
software. The AT-S45 software has a menu interface that makes it very
easy to use. It also has a special interface for managing a switch with a
web browser.
There are four different ways that you can access the management
software on an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet switch. The methods are
referred to as management sessions in this guide. They are:
❑ Local Management Session
❑ Telnet Management Session
❑ Web Browser Management Session
❑ SNMP Management Session
The following sections in this chapter briefly describe each type of
management session.
17
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Local Management Session
You establish a local management session with an AT-9410GB Gigabit
Ethernet switch by connecting a terminal or a PC with a terminal
emulator program to the RS232 Terminal port on the front panel of the
switch, using the null-modem management cable include with the
switch. This type of management session is referred to as “local” because
you must be physically close to the switch, such as in the wiring closet
where the switch is located.
Once the session is started, you will see a menu from which you can
make selections to configure and monitor the switch. You can configure
all of a switch’s operating parameters from a local management session.
Note
For instructions on starting a local management session, refer to
Starting a Local Management Session on page 25.
18
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Telnet Management Session
Any management workstation on your network that has the Telnet
application protocol can be used to manage an AT-9410GB Gigabit
Ethernet Switch. This type of management session is referred to in this
guide as a remote management session because you can manage the
switch from any workstation on your network that has the application
protocol.
Establishing a Telnet management session with an AT-9410GB switch
requires that the switch have an IP address. You cannot manage an
AT-9410GB switch remotely using the Telnet application protocol if it
does not have an IP address.
If you are just beginning to build your network and have not assigned
any IP addresses to switches, you might want to start by reading When
Does an AT-9410GB Switch Need an IP Address? on page 29. This
section contains a brief discussion about when it makes sense to assign
IP addresses to the AT-9410GB switches in your network.
Note
For instructions on how to start a Telnet management session, refer
to Starting a Telnet Management Session on page 27.
A Telnet management session gives you complete access to all of a
switch’s operating parameters. You can perform all the same functions
from a Telnet management session as you can from a local management
session.
19
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Web Browser Management Session
You can also use a web browser to manage a switch. This too is a type of
remote management, just like a Telnet management session, because
any workstation on your network that has a web browser can be used to
manage a switch.
Note
For instructions on starting a web browser management session,
refer to Starting a Web Browser Management Session on page
148.
20
AT-S45 User’s Guide
SNMP Management Session
Another way to remotely manage an AT-9410GB switch is with an SNMP
management program. A familiarity with Management Information Base
(MIB) objects is necessary to manage a switch with an SNMP
management program.
The AT-S45 software supports the following MIBs:
❑ SNMP MIB-II (RFC 1213)
❑ Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
❑ Interface Group MIB (RFC 1573)
❑ Ethernet MIB (RFC 1643)
❑ Remote Network MIB (RFC 1757)
❑ Allied Telesyn managed switch MIB
You must download the Allied Telesyn managed switch MIB file from the
Allied Telesyn web site and compile the file with your SNMP program.
For instructions, refer to your SNMP management documentation.
Note
You must assign an IP address to each switch that you want to
manage with an SNMP program.
21
Section II
Local and Telnet Management
The chapters in this section explain how to manage an AT-9410GB
Gigabit Ethernet switch from a local or Telnet management session. The
chapters include:
❑ Chapter 2: Starting a Local or Telnet Management Session on
page 23
❑ Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters on page 28
❑ Chapter 4: Port Parameters on page 50
❑ Chapter 5: Port Security on page 56
❑ Chapter 6: Port Trunking on page 62
❑ Chapter 7: Port Monitoring on page 69
❑ Chapter 8: Spanning Tree Protocol on page 74
❑ Chapter 9: Virtual LANs on page 84
❑ Chapter 10: MAC Address Table on page 110
❑ Chapter 11: Quality of Service on page 121
❑ Chapter 12: IGMP Snooping on page 125
❑ Chapter 13: Storm Control Configuration on page 131
❑ Chapter 14: Port Statistics on page 135
❑ Chapter 15: Management Software Updates on page 138
22
Chapter 2
Starting a Local or Telnet
Management Session
This chapter contains the procedure for starting a local or Telnet
management session on an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch. The
sections in the chapter are:
❑ Local Management Session on page 24
❑ Telnet Management Session on page 27
23
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Local Management Session
On the front panel of the AT-9410GB switch is a port labelled RS232
Terminal Port. You use this port to establish a local management session
with the switch’s AT-S45 management software.
A local management session is so named because you must be close to
the switch, usually within a few meters, to start this type of management
session. This typically means that you must be in the wiring closet where
the switch is located.
A switch does not need an IP address for you to manage it with a local
management session. You can start a local management session at any
time on any AT-9410GB switch in your network. Additionally, running a
local management session does not interfere with the flow of Ethernet
traffic through the unit.
When you start a local management session on an AT-9410GB switch,
you can manage just that switch. To start a local management session on
another AT-9410GB switch, you must go to where that switch is located.
24
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Starting a Local
Management
Session
To start a local management session, perform the following procedure:
1. Connect one end of the management cable included with the switch
to the RS232 Terminal Port on the unit.
AT-
12-P 9410
ort G GB
igab
it Ma
n
aged
RS2
PW
R
Swit
32
ch
10G
b
00M E
bps
10/1
ACT
FDX
Figure 1 Connecting a Terminal or PC to the RS232 Terminal Port
2. Connect the other end of the cable to an RS-232 port on a terminal or
PC with a terminal emulator program.
3. Configure the terminal or terminal emulator program as follows:
❑ Baud rate: 9600
❑ Data bits: 8
❑ Parity: None
❑ Stop bits: 1
❑ Flow control: None
Note
The port settings are for a DEC VT100 or ANSI terminal, or an
equivalent terminal emulator program.
4. Press the Return key twice.
5. When prompted for a user name and password, enter the user name
and password for the management software. The default for both is
“manager”. (The user name and password are case-sensitive.)
25
AT-S45 User’s Guide
The Main Menu is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Main Menu
[G]eneral Information
[B]asic Switch Configuration...
[A]dvanced Switch Configuration...
Switch [T]ools...
[S]tatistics
[Q]uit
Command>
Figure 2 Main Menu
To select a menu item, type the corresponding letter or number.
Pressing the letter Q from a submenu or window returns you to the
previous menu.
Quitting from a
Local Session
To quit a local session, return to the Main Menu and type Q for Quit.
You should always exit from a management session when you are
finished managing a switch. This can prevent unauthorized individuals
from making changes to a switch’s configuration should you leave your
management station unattended.
Note
You cannot operate both a local management session and a Telnet
management session on the same switch simultaneously. Failure to
properly exit from a local or Telnet management session may block
future management sessions.
26
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Telnet Management Session
You can use the Telnet application protocol from a workstation on your
network to manage an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch. This type of
management is referred to as remote management because you do not
have to be physically close to the switch to start the session, such as with
a local management session. Any workstation on your network that has
the application protocol can be used to manage the switch.
In terms of functionally, there are no differences between managing a
switch locally through the RS232 Terminal Port and remotely with the
Telnet application protocol. You see the same menu selections and have
the same management capabilities.
An AT-9410GB switch must have an IP address for you to remotely
manage it using the Telnet application protocol. An AT-9410GB switch
without an IP address cannot be managed remotely.
Starting a Telnet
Management
Session
To start a Telnet management session, specify the IP address of the
switch in the Telnet application protocol. Enter the management
software user name and password when prompted. The default for both
is the user name and password “manager” and both are case-sensitive.
The Main Menu of a Telnet management session is the same menu that
you see in a local management session, shown in Figure 2 on page 26. All
of the functions from a local management session are available to you
from a Telnet management session.
The menus also function the same. To make a selection, type the letter
enclosed in brackets. To return to a previous menu, type Q.
Note
You can run only one Telnet management session on a switch at a
time. Additionally, you cannot run both a Telnet management
session and a local management session on the same switch at the
same time.
Quitting from a
Telnet
Management
Session
To end a Telnet management session, type Q for Quit from the Main
Menu.
27
Chapter 3
Basic Switch Parameters
This chapter contains a variety of information and procedures. There is a
discussion on when to assign an IP address to a switch and the different
ways that you can go about it. There are also procedures for resetting
the switch, activating the original switch default settings, and more.
Sections in the chapter include:
❑ When Does an AT-9410GB Switch Need an IP Address? on
page 29
❑ Configuring an IP Address on page 30
❑ Configuring System Administration Information on page 32
❑ Activating the DHCP Service on page 34
❑ Configuring SNMP Community Strings and Trap IP Addresses
on page 36
❑ Activating the AT-S45 Management Software Default Values
on page 38
❑ Resetting the Switch on page 40
❑ Configuring the AT-S45 Management Security Features on
page 41
❑ Viewing the AT-S45 Version Number and Switch MAC Address
on page 44
❑ Pinging a Network Device on page 45
❑ Bootstrap Configuration on page 47
28
AT-S45 User’s Guide
When Does an AT-9410GB Switch Need an IP Address?
One of your first tasks as you begin to build your network will be to
determine which of the switches in your network should be assigned
unique IP addresses. The following two subsections help to explain how
to go about making this decision.
AT-9410GB
Switch
Every AT-9410GB switch on your network that you want to manage
remotely using the Telnet application protocol, a web browser, or an
SNMP management program must have a unique IP address. You cannot
remotely manage an AT-9410GB switch if it does not have an IP address.
You use the address to identify the switch when you start a remote
management session.
If you decide to assign an AT-9410GB switch an IP address, you must also
assign it a subnet mask. (The switch uses the subnet mask to determine
which portion of an IP address represents the network address and
which the node address.)
You must also assign the switch a gateway address if there is a router
between the switch and the remote management workstation. This
gateway address is the IP address of the router through which the switch
and management station will communicate.
You do not need to assign an IP address, subnet mask, or gateway
address if you do not intend to manage an AT-9410GB switch remotely.
The switch will function fine without these values and you can still
configure all switch parameters through a local management session.
How Do You
Assign an IP
Address?
Once you have decided which, if any, switches on your network need an
IP address, you have to access the AT-S45 software on the switches and
assign the addresses. You can do this two different ways.
The first method is to assign the IP configuration information manually.
The procedure for this is explained in the next procedure. Initially
assigning an IP address to a switch can only be done through a local
management session.
The second method is by activating the DHCP service on the switch and
have the switch automatically download its IP configuration information
from a DHCP server on your network. This procedure is explained in
Activating the DHCP Service on page 34.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring an IP Address
The procedure in this section explains how to manually assign an IP
address, subnet mask, and gateway address to the switch from a local or
Telnet management session. (If you want the switch to obtain its IP
configuration from a DHCP server on your network, go to the procedure
Activating the DHCP Service on page 34.)
To manually set a switch’s IP address, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select the Basic Switch Configuration
Menu.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu in Figure 3 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Main Menu -> Basic Switch Configuration Menu
System [A]dministration Configuration
System [I]P Configuration
S[N]MP Configuration
[P]ort Configuration
[U]ser Interface Configuration
[F]orwarding Database Menu...
[S]panning Tree Configuration
Storm [C]ontrol Configuration
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 3 Basic Switch Configuration Menu
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select
System IP Configuration.
30
AT-S45 User’s Guide
The System IP Configuration Menu in Figure 4 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration -> System IP Configuration Menu
MAC Address:
IP Address:
Subnet Mask:
Default Gateway:
DHCP Mode:
00:30:AB:00:09:20
149.35.19.168
255.255.253.0
149.35.19.1
Disabled
------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------Set [I]P Address
Set Subnet [M]ask
Set Default [G]ateway
Enable/Disable [D]HCP Mode
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 4 System IP Configuration Menu
3. Change the parameters as desired.
The commands for changing the parameters are described below:
Set [I]P Address
This command specifies the IP address of the switch. You must
specify an IP address if you intend to remotely manage the switch
using a web browser, a Telnet utility, or an SNMP management
program.
Set Subnet [M]ask
This command specifies the subnet mask for the switch. You must
specify a subnet mask if you assigned an IP address to the switch.
Set Default [G]ateway
This command specifies the default router’s IP address. This
address is required if you intend to remotely manage the switch
from a management station that is separated from the switch by
a router.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring System Administration Information
The procedure in this section explains how to assign a name to the
switch, along with other optional information, such as the name of the
administrator responsible for maintaining the unit and the location of
the switch.
To set the name, contact or location information on a switch, perform
the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the System Administration
Configuration.
The System Administration Configuration Menu in Figure 5 is
displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration Menu -> System Admin. Configuration Menu
Description:
Object ID:
Name:
Location:
Contact:
AT-9410GB
1.3.6.1.4.1.207.1.4.52
-------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set System [N]ame
Set System [L]ocation
Set System [C]ontact Information
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 5 System Administration Configuration Menu
2. Change the parameters as desired. The commands for changing the
parameters are described below.
Set System [N]ame
This command sets a name for the switch (for example, Sales
Ethernet switch). This parameter is optional.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Note
It is advised that you assign each switch a name. The names can help
you identify the various switches when you manage them, and can
help you avoid performing configuration procedures on the wrong
switch.
Set System [L]ocation
This command sets the location of the Gigabit Ethernet switch (for
example, 4th Floor - wiring closet 402B). This parameter is
optional.
Set System [C]ontact Information
This command sets the name of the network administrator
responsible for managing the switch. This parameter is optional.
33
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Activating the DHCP Service
This application protocol was developed to simplify network
management. It is used to automatically assign IP configuration
information to the devices on your network, such as an IP address,
subnet mask, and, in some instances, a default gateway address.
The AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch supports this protocol and can
obtain its IP configuration information from a DHCP server on your
network. If you activate this feature, the switch will seek its IP address
and other IP configuration information from a DHCP server. Naturally, for
this to work there must be a DHCP server residing on your network and
you must configure the service by entering in the switch’s MAC address.
Most DHCP services allow you to specify how the IP address is to be
assigned to the switch. Choices are static and dynamic. If you choose
static, the server will always assign the same IP address to the switch
when the switch is reset or powered on. If you choose dynamic, the
server will assign any unused IP address that it has not already assigned
to another device.
Note
The DHCP option is disabled by default on the switch.
To activate or deactivate the DHCP protocol on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select
System IP Configuration.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
The System IP Configuration Menu in Figure 6 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration -> System IP Configuration Menu
MAC Address:
IP Address:
Subnet Mask:
Default Gateway:
DHCP Mode:
00:30:AB:00:09:20
149.35.19.168
255.255.253.0
149.35.19.1
Disabled
------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------Set [I]P Address
Set Subnet [M]ask
Set Default [G]ateway
Enable/Disable [D]HCP Mode
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 6 System IP Configuration Menu
3. From the System IP Configuration Menu, type D to select
Enable/Disable DHCP Mode.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable DHCP mode (E/D)>
4. Enter E to enable or D to disable the protocol. The default setting is
disabled.
Changes are immediately activated on the switch.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring SNMP Community Strings and Trap IP Addresses
To configure the SNMP community strings for the switch and to assign
up to four IP addresses of management stations to receive traps from
the switch, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration window in Figure 7 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration Menu -> SNMP Configuration Menu
SNMP Read Community: public
SNMP Write Community:private
Trap Authentication: Enable
SNMP Trap Receivers:
No.
-1
2
3
4
Status
------Enabled
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
IP Address
---------------145.35.19.1
<empty>
<empty>
<empty>
Community
--------------------------Orion
<empty>
<empty>
<empty>
-------------------------- <COMMAND> --------------------------Set SNMP [R]ead Community
Set SNMP [W]rite Community
[M]odify SNMP Trap Receiver
Authentication Trap
Enable/Disable SNMP [T]rap Receiver
[A]dd SNMP Trap Receiver
[D]elete SNMP Trap Receiver
[E]nable/Disable
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 7 SNMP Configuration Menu
3. Adjust the parameters as desired. The commands for changing the
parameters are described below.
Set SNMP [R]ead Community
This command sets the SNMP community name. The maximum
length for a read community name is 20 characters.
Set SNMP [W]rite Community
This command sets the SNMP write community. The parameter
can be set to private or public.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
[M]odify SNMP Trap Receiver
This command specifies trap receiver information. This allows you
to modify the IP address and community name of a trap receiver.
Enable/Disable SNMP [T]rap Receiver
This command specifies the status of a trap receiver. This
parameter can be set to E for enable or D to disable.
[A]dd SNMP Trap Receiver
This command allows you to add an SNMP trap receiver. The
range is set of 1 to 4.
[D]elete SNMP Trap Receiver
This command deletes a specified SNMP trap receiver.
[E]nable/Disable Authentication Trap
This command specifies a community’s trap authentication. This
parameter can be set to E for enable or D to disable.
Changes to the SNMP parameters are immediately activated on
the switch.
37
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Activating the AT-S45 Management Software Default Values
The procedure in this section returns all AT-S45 management
parameters to their default values. This procedure also deletes any
VLANs that you have created on the switch.
Note
The AT-S45 default values can be found in Appendix A, AT-S45
Default Settings on page 232.
To return the AT-S45 management software to its default settings,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools.
2. From the Switch Tools Configuration Menu, type R to select System
Reboot.
The System Reboot window in Figure 8 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Main Menu -> System Reboot Menu
Reboot Status:
Reboot Type:
Stop
Normal
--------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set Reboot [O]ption
Start [R]eboot Process
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 8 System Reboot Menu
3. From the System Reboot Menu, type O to select Set Reboot Option.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select reboot option (F/I/N)>
4. Select the desired reset option. The options are described below.
F - Factory Defaults
Resets the switch and returns all parameter settings to their
factory default values.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
I - Factory Defaults Except IP
Resets the switch and returns all parameter settings, except for
the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway address, to their factory
default values.
N - Normal Defaults
Resets the switch but retains all current parameter settings.
5. Type R to select Reboot.
The reboot process takes approximately 1 minute to complete.
39
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Resetting the Switch
To reset a switch, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools Menu.
Caution
Check the Reboot Type field in the window. It should indicate the
reboot type as “Normal”. If this field is indicating Factory Default or
Factory Default Except IP, change the setting using the Set Reboot
Option command. For further information on the other reboot
types, refer to the previous procedure.
2. From the Switch Tools Configuration Menu, type R to select System
Reboot.
3. From the Switch Tools Menu, type R to select Start Reboot Process.
The following prompt is displayed:
Are you sure to reboot the system (Y/N)>
4. Type Y to reset the switch or N to cancel the procedure.
The switch immediately reloads its operating system, a task
requiring only seconds to complete.
Caution
The switch will not forward traffic during the brief period required to
reload its operating software. Some data traffic may be lost.
40
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring the AT-S45 Management Security Features
The AT-S45 management software has several security features that can
help prevent unauthorized individuals from changing the parameter
settings of the AT-9410GB switches in your network. These security
features are:
❑ User Name and Password - The management software prompts
you for a user name and password whenever you start a local or
remote management session on a switch. The default user name
and default password are both “manager”. The user name and
password are case-sensitive. The switches in your network can
have the same or different user names and passwords.
❑ Console and Telnet Timeouts - These parameters cause the
management software to automatically end a management
session if it does not detect any activity from the local or Telnet
management station after the specified period of time. This
security feature can prevent unauthorized individuals from using
your management station should you step away from your
system while configuring a switch. The default for the console and
Telnet timeout values are 5 (five) minutes.
❑ Access Methods - You can also disable web browser, Telnet, and
SNMP management on the switch, and so prevent individuals
from managing the switch remotely using these methods.
To configure the user interface features of the AT-S45 management
software, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type U to select User
Interface Configuration.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
The User Interface Configuration window in Figure 9 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration Menu -> SNMP Configuration Menu
Basic Switch Configuration -> User Interface Configuration Menu
Console UI Idle Timeout:
Telnet UI Idle Timeout:
Telnet Server:
SNMP Agent:
Web Server:
User Name:
5 Min.
5 Min.
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
manager
---------------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------------Set [C]onsole UI Time Out
Set [T]elnet UI Time Out
Change Administrator User [N]ame
Change Administrator [P]assword
Enable/Disable Te[l]net Server
Enable/Disable [S]NMP Agent
Enable/Disable [W]eb Server
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 9 User Interface Configuration Menu
3. Adjust the parameters as desired. The commands for changing
the parameters are described below:
Set [C]onsole UI Time Out
Configures the console time out in minutes. The switch will
automatically end a local management session if it does not
detect any management activity after the time period
specified with this command.
For example, if you specify a 2 minute time out, the
management software automatically ends the management
session if it detects no activity from the terminal connected to
the console port after 2 minutes.
The range is 0 to 60 minutes. A value of “0” means the switch
will never time out the management session. The default is 5
minutes.
Set [T]elnet UI Time Out
Configures the Telnet time out in minutes. The switch will
automatically end a Telnet management session if it does not
detect any management activity after the time period
specified with this command.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
For example, if you specify a 2 minute time out, the
management software automatically ends the Telnet
management session if it detects no activity from the remote
management station after 2 minutes.
The range is 0 to 60 minutes. A value of “0” means the switch
will never time out the management session. The default is 5
minutes.
Change Administrator User [N]ame
Sets the login name. The management software will prompt
you for this name whenever you start a local or remote
management session.
Note
Changing the login name requires entering the current password.
You will not be able to change the user name unless you know the
password.
Change Administrator [P]assword
Sets the login password. The management software will
prompt you for this password whenever you start a local or
remote management session.
Note
Changing the login password requires entering the current
password.
Enable/Disable Te[l]net Server
Enable/Disable [S]NMP Server
Enable/Disable [W]eb Server
Controls remote management. You can use these three
commands to disable remote management of the switch
using the Telnet application protocol, an SNMP management
program, or a web browser. For example, if you do not want
the switch to be managed from a web browser, you would use
the Enable/Disable Web Server command to disable this
feature on the switch.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Viewing the AT-S45 Version Number and Switch MAC Address
The procedure in this section displays the following switch information:
❑ AT-S45 version number
❑ Bootloader version number
❑ Serial number
❑ MAC Address
To display the information, type G to select General Information from
the Main Menu. The General Information window in Figure 10 is
displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Main Menu -> General Information
System up for:
05hr(s), 02min(s), 04sec(s)
Boot Code Version/Date:
1.00A / Dec 8 2001 09:05:22
Runtime Code Version/Date:
1.00E / Jan 15 2002 19:48:12
Hardware Information
Version:
.
DRAM Size:
8MB
Fixed Baud Rate:
9600bps
Flash Size:
4MB
Administration Information
Switch Name: 9410GB
Switch Location: Lab 304
Switch Contact: x5260
System Address Information
MAC Address:
00:30:AB:00:09:20
IP Address:
149.35.19.249
Subnet Mask:
255.255.252.0
Gateway:
149.35.16.1
Automatic Network Features
DHCP Mode:
Enabled
Figure 10 General Information Window
The information in this window cannot be changed.
44
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Pinging a Network Device
This procedure explains how to instruct the switch to ping a network
device. This procedure is useful in determining if there is a valid link
between the switch and an end node.
To instruct the switch to ping a network device, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools.
2. From the Switch Tools Configuration Menu, type P to select Ping
Execution.
The Ping Execution Menu is displayed in Figure 11.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Main Menu -> Ping Execution
Target IP Address:
Number of Requests:
Timeout Value (sec):
=============== Result
0.0.0.0
10
3
===============
-------------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------Set Target [I]P Address
[E]xecute Ping
Set [N]umber of Requests
[S]top Ping
Set [T]imeout Value
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command> _
Enter the character in square brackets to select option...
Figure 11 Ping Execution Menu
3. Adjust the parameters as desired. To change a value, type its
corresponding bracketed letter and, when prompted, enter the new
value. The parameters are described below.
Set Target [I]P Address
This command specifies the IP address of the end node you want
the switch to ping.
Set [N]umber of Requests
Number of ping attempts the switch should make before it stops
pinging if it does not receive a response. The default number of
ping requests is 10.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Set [T]imeout Value
The length of time for which the switch will continue to send
pings if it does not receive a response. The default timeout setting
is 3 seconds.
4. Select one of the two ping test options by typing the corresponding
bracketed letter: Execute Ping or Stop Ping.
[E]xecute Ping
Starts the ping process and displays ping test results. Also allows
you to clean out the ping test configuration cache by typing C for
Clean Ping Data. When you clean out the ping data, you will
remove the ping test results from view.
[S]top Ping
Ends the ping process and displays ping test results gathered
before the pinging was stopped.
An example of the Ping Execution Menu with ping test results is
displayed in Figure 12.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Main Menu -> Ping Execution
Target IP Address:
Number of Requests:
Timeout Value (sec):
=============== Result
No.
No.
No.
No.
1
2
3
4
0.0.0.0
10
3
===============
60
100
100
100
ms
ms
ms
ms
-------------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------Set Target [I]P Address
[E]xecute Ping
Set [N]umber of Requests
[S]top Ping
Set [T]imeout Value
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command> _
Enter the character in square brackets to select option...
Figure 12 Ping Results
The “No.” designation indicates the number of the ping attempt.
For example, No. 1 represents the first ping attempt.
The milliseconds value represent the time taken for the ping
attempt. For example, the first ping test was completed in 60
milliseconds.
46
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Bootstrap Configuration
The bootstrap feature allows you to download new software and
configuration settings when you boot up the switch.
To configure the bootstrap settings on the switch, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools.
2. From the Switch Tools Configuration Menu, type B to select Bootstrap
Configuration.
The Bootstrap Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 13.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Switch Tools Configuration -> BootStrap Configuration Menu
Boot Load Mode :
Boot Mode :
File Type :
Local
TFTP
IMAGE
------------------------ <COMMAND> ---------------------Set [B]oot Load Mode
Set Boot [M]ode
Set [F]ile Type
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Figure 13 Bootstrap Configuration Menu
3. Adjust the parameters as desired. To change a value, type its
corresponding bracketed letter and, when prompted, enter the new
settings. The parameters are described below.
Set [B]oot Load Mode
Allows the user to determine how the switch should boot up.
There are two boot load options: local and remote.
❑ Local
If you choose the local boot load mode, the switch boots using the
management software that is saved in the switch memory. This is
the default boot load mode. If you are going to use the local boot
load mode, you do not need to configure any of the other
parameters on the Bootstrap Configuration Menu and the switch
will not download any files when it boots up.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
❑ Remote
If you choose the remote boot load mode, the switch downloads
software from a TFTP server and boots using the newly
downloaded management software.
Set Boot [M]ode
If you are using the remote boot load mode, you need to specify
how the stack should download the new management software.
There are two boot mode options: DHCP and TFTP.
When downloading the image:
❑ DHCP
The stack will get an IP address, TFTP server IP address, and a
filename from the DHCP server. The stack will then use this
information to connect to the TFTP server and download the
filename it received and boot the downloaded file as the image. If
this file does not exist, it uses the file which it last booted off of
successfully.
❑ TFTP
The stack will use the IP address it had prior to reboot to download
the image file from the server through TFTP using the information
configured in “Switch Tools -> Software Upgrade -> TFTP
Software Upgrade”.
When downloading the configuration:
The stack will get the TFTP server and file information from what
is configured in the menu; “Switch Tools -> Configuration File
Upload/Download -> TFTP Configuration File Upload/Download”.
This information cannot be learned from the DHCP server.
❑ DHCP
The stack will get an IP address from a DHCP server which will
then be used to TFTP the configuration file from the server. If the
configuration file has a static IP address assigned in it, then the IP
address would be overwritten after the configuration file has
been loaded.
❑ TFTP
The stack will use the IP address it had prior to reboot to download
the configuration file from the server through TFTP.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Set [F]ile Type
If you selected the remote boot load mode, you can choose what
kind of files the switch will download while it is booting up. There
are three file type options:
❑ Image
An image file is the management software for the switch.
❑ Configuration
A configuration file is a file that contains all of the existing
configurations and settings for a switch. You can upload the
configuration file and modify the switch settings and then
download the configuration file back to the switch or onto
multiple switches that you want to have the same configurations.
The switch(es) will then update their configuration(s) based on
the settings in the configuration file.
❑ Image and Configuration
This option allows you to download both the management
software and the configuration file.
49
Chapter 4
Port Parameters
The chapter contains procedures for viewing and changing the
parameter settings for the individual ports on a switch.
This chapter contains the following procedures:
❑ Displaying Port Status on page 51
❑ Configuring Port Parameters on page 53
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Displaying Port Status
To display the status of the ports on the switch, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Configuration.
The Port Configuration Menu in Figure 14 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration -> Port Configuration Menu
Port
Trunk Type
Link
Status
Mode
Flow Ctrl
---------------------------------------1
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
2
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
3
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
4
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
5
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
6
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
7
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
8
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
9
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
10
--1000TX
Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
11
--1000X
Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Enabled
12
--1000X
Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Enabled
-------------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------Set [S]tatus
Set [M]ode
Set [F]low control
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 14 Port Configuration Menu
The columns in the window are described below:
Port
The port number.
Trunk
The trunk group number. A number in this column indicates that
the port is a member of a port trunk.
Type
The maximum operating speed of the port.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Link
The link status between the port and the end node connected to
the port. Possible values are:
Up - indicates that a valid link exists between the port and the end
node.
Down - indicates that the port and the end node have not
established a valid link.
Status
The current operating status on the port. Possible values are:
Enabled - Indicates that the port is enabled.
Disabled - Indicates that the port is disabled.
Mode
The operating mode of the port. Possible values are:
❑ Auto-Negotiate: The port will Auto-Negotiate both speed and
duplex mode. This is the default.
❑ 1000Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 100Mbps - Full Duplex
❑ 10Mbps - Full Duplex
❑ 1000Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 100Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 10Mbps - Half Duplex
Flow Control
The flow control setting for the port. Possible values are:
Disabled - No flow control on the port.
Enabled - Flow control is activate on the port.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring Port Parameters
To configure the parameter settings for a port on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Configuration.
The Port Configuration Menu in Figure 15 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration -> Port Configuration Menu
Port
Trunk Type
Link
Status
Mode
Flow Ctrl
---------------------------------------1
1
1000TX Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Disabled
2
1
1000TX Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Disabled
3
1
1000TX Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Disabled
4
1
1000TX Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Disabled
5
--1000TX Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
6
--1000TX Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
7
--1000TX Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
8
--1000TX Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
9
--1000TX Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
10
--1000TX Down
Enabled
Auto
Enabled
11
--1000X
Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Enabled
12
--1000X
Down
Enabled
1000-FDx Enabled
-------------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------Set [S]tatus
Set [M]ode
Set [F]low control
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 15 Port Configuration Window
3. Set the port parameters as desired. To set a parameter, type the letter
of the appropriate command. This toggles the parameter through its
possible settings. The commands are described below.
Set [S]tatus
You use this command to enable or disable a port. When disabled,
a port will not receive or transmit frames.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
You might want to disable a port and prevent packets from being
forwarded if a problem occurs with the node or cable connected
to the port. Once the problem has been fixed, you can enable the
port again to resume normal operation. You can also disable an
unused port to secure it from unauthorized connections.
Possible settings are:
Enabled - The port will receive and forward packets. This is the
default setting.
Disabled - The port will not receive or forward packets.
Set [M]ode
You use this selection to manually configure a port’s speed and
duplex mode.
Auto-Negotiation is the default setting. In the Auto-Negotiation
setting, the switch will set both speed and duplex mode for the
port automatically.
The additional selections are displayed in the command prompt:
Enter new mode for port 1 (a/h/H/f/F/t/T)>
The possible settings for this selection are:
❑ a - Auto (Auto-Negotiation)
❑ h - 10-HDx (10 Mbps, half-duplex)
❑ H - 100-HDx (100 Mbps, half-duplex)
❑ f - 10-FDx (10 Mbps, full-duplex)
❑ F - 100-FDx (100 Mbps, full-duplex)
❑ t - 1000-HDx (1000 Mbps, half-duplex)
❑ T - 1000-FDx (1000 Mbps, full-duplex)
Note
Ports 11 and 12 are automatically set to the default setting of
1000-FDx.
Set [F]low Control
Flow control applies only to ports operating in full-duplex mode.
The switch uses a special pause packet to stop the end node from
sending frames. The pause packet notifies the end node to stop
transmitting for a specified period of time.
Possible settings are:
Disabled - No flow control on the port.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Enabled - Flow control for both packets entering and leaving the
port.
Configuration changes are immediately activated on a port.
55
Chapter 5
Port Security
This chapter contains the procedures for setting port security. The
sections in this chapter include:
❑ Port Security Overview on page 57
❑ Configuring Port Security on page 58
❑ Configuring the Limited Security Mode on page 60
Note
Port security does not apply to ports on GBIC modules in an
AT-9410GB switch.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Port Security Overview
The port security feature can enhance the security of your network. You
can use the feature to control the number of MAC addresses learned on
the ports, and so control the number of network devices that can
forward frames through the switch.
There are four levels of port security. The security level can be set on a
per port basis.
Normal
This operating mode disables port security. The switch learns and adds
addresses to its dynamic MAC address table as it receives frames on the
ports.
Note
The Normal security mode is the default security level for the switch.
Limited
You can use this security level to specify the maximum number of
dynamic MAC addresses a port on the switch can learn. Once a port has
learned its maximum limit of MAC addresses, it discards ingress frames
with source MAC addresses not already stored in the MAC address table.
The MAC aging time remains active under this security level. Inactive
dynamic MAC addresses learned on a port are aged out of the table.
Note
Static MAC addresses are retained by the switch and are not
included in the count of maximum addresses that can be learned by
a port. You can continue to add static MAC addresses to a port even
if the port has already learned its maximum number of dynamic
MAC addresses.
Secure
The Secure level stops a port from learning any new dynamic MAC
addresses. The port will forward ingress frames based on the dynamic
MAC addresses it has already learned and on any static MAC addresses.
The dynamic MAC addresses learned are not aged out of the table, even
when an end node is inactive.
You can continue to add static MAC addresses to a port operating under
this security level.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring Port Security
To set a switch’s port security level, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Security Configuration.
The Port Security Configuration Menu in Figure 16 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Port Security Configuration Menu
Port
Secure Level
Threshold
Intrusion Detection Status
-----------------------------------------------------1
Secure
----No action
2
Secure
----No action
3
Secure
----Notify with trap only
4
Secure
----No action
5
Secure
----No action
6
Secure
----No action
7
Secure
----No action
8
Secure
----No action
9
Secure
----No action
10
Secure
----No action
11
Secure
----No action
12
Secure
----No action
-------------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------[S]et Secure Level
Set [T]hreshold
Set Intrusion [D]etection
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 16 Port Security Configuration Menu
3. To select the desired security level, type S to select Set Secure Level.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set secure level->Enter port number >
4. Enter the number of the port you want to configure. Press Return.
The following prompt is displayed:
Limited or Secure port (L/S/N)>
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
5. Select the desired security level:
❑ To disable security on a port, type N to select Normal mode. This
is the default setting.
❑ To specify a maximum number of MAC addresses the port can
learn, type L to select Limited mode. To specify the limit, perform
the procedure in Configuring the Limited Security Mode on
page 60.
❑ To stop a port from learning new dynamic MAC addresses, type S
to select the Secured mode.
A change to the security level is immediately activated on the
port.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring the Limited Security Mode
The Limited security mode lets you set a maximum number of dynamic
MAC addresses a port on a switch can learn. Once the maximum number
of MAC addresses have been learned by a port, frames with new source
MAC addresses are discarded and are not forwarded by the port.
Static MAC addresses are not included in the count of the maximum
MAC addresses a port can learn. You can continue to add static MAC
addresses even after a port has learned its maximum number of dynamic
MAC addresses.
To configure Limited security mode for a port, perform the following
procedure:
1. Perform the procedure Configuring Port Security on page 58 to
configure the port with Limited security.
2. Type T to select Set Threshold.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set threshold->Enter port number >
3. Enter the number of the port you want to configure. Press Return.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set threshold->Enter port number >
4. Enter a Threshold value. The range is 1 thru 170 MAC addresses. Press
Return.
Note
Threshold is not supported in Normal and Secure modes.
5. Type D to select Set Intrusion Detection.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set intrusion detection status->Enter port number >
Port number is in range of 1 to 12
6. Enter the number of the port to configure. Press Return.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
The Intrusion Detection Status menu in Figure 17 is displayed
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Select item number for intrusion detection status
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Port Security Configuration Menu
Item
-----1
2
3
4
Description
------------------------------------No action
Disable the port only
Notify with trap only
Notify with trap and disable the port
Set intrusion detection status->Enter item number >
Figure 17 Intrusion Detection Status Menu
7. Type the number associated with the desired setting for Intrusion
Detection Status. The following parameters are available:
1 - No action
2 - Disable the port only
3 - Notify with trap only
4 - Notify with trap and disable the port
Note
Intrusion Detection is not supported in Normal and Secure modes.
61
Chapter 6
Port Trunking
This chapter contains the procedures for creating and deleting port
trunks. Sections in the chapter include:
❑ Port Trunking Overview on page 63
❑ Creating a Port Trunk on page 65
❑ Deleting a Port Trunk on page 68
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Port Trunking Overview
Port trunking is an economical way for you to increase the bandwidth
between an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch and another network
device, such as a server, router, workstation, or another switch. A port
trunk is two or more data ports that have been grouped together to
increase the bandwidth between a switch and a network node by
functioning as one logical path. This increase in bandwidth can prove
useful in situations where a single connection between the switch and a
node is insufficient to handle the traffic load.
Port trunks are also useful in adding redundancy to the critical devices of
your network. If one link of a port trunk fails, the remaining links will
continue to provide a communications link to the end node.
Despite the software configuration and physical connections, there are
no data loops in a port trunk because of load balancing. The port trunk
always sends packets from a particular source to a particular destination
over the same link within the trunk. A single link is designated for
flooding broadcasts and packets of unknown destination.
Below are the guidelines to follow when planning a port trunk:
❑ The switch can support up to four port trunks at a time.
❑ A port trunk can have as many as four ports.
❑ A port can be a member of only one trunk at a time.
❑ The duplex mode, speed, and flow control settings must be the
same for all of the ports in a trunk.
❑ The ports of a port trunk must be members of the same VLAN. A
port trunk cannot consist of ports that are members of different
VLANs.
❑ When cabling a trunk, the order of the connections should be
maintained on both nodes. The lowest numbered port in a trunk
on the switch should be connected to the lowest numbered port
of the trunk on the other device, the next lowest numbered port
on the switch should be connected to the next lowest numbered
port on the other device, and so on.
For example, assume that you are connecting a trunk between
two AT-9410GB switches. On the first AT-9410GB switch you
had chosen ports 2, 3, 4, and 5 for the trunk. On the second
AT-9410GB switch you had chosen ports 1, 2, 3, and 4. To
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
maintain the order of the port connections, you would
connect port 2 on the first AT-9410GB switch to port 1 on the
second AT-9410GB, port 3 to port 2, and so on.
❑ The ports of a port trunk must be of the same type. For example,
they can be all twisted pair ports or all fiber optic ports.
❑ You can create a port trunk of the GBIC modules installed in the
GBIC1 and GBIC2 slots, provided that the GBIC modules are of the
same type.
❑ The ports on the end node must also be configured as a port
trunk.
Figure 18 shows an example of a port trunk between an AT-9410GB
switch and a network server. The server is connected to the switch with
four data links. The links are connected to ports 1 through 4 on the
switch.
AT-9410GB
12-Port Gigabit Managed Switch
RS232
10GbE
10/100Mbps
ACT
LINK
LINK
FDX
PWR
GBIC1
GBIC2
Figure 18 Port Trunk Example 1
You can also use port trunks to increase the bandwidth between
switches. The example in Figure 19 shows a port trunk of four data links
between two AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet switches.
AT-9410GB
12-Port Gigabit Managed Switch
RS232
10GbE
10/100Mbps
ACT
PWR
LINK
LINK
FDX
GBIC1
GBIC2
AT-9410GB
12-Port Gigabit Managed Switch
RS232
10GbE
10/100Mbps
ACT
PWR
LINK
LINK
FDX
GBIC1
GBIC2
Figure 19 Port Trunk Example 2
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Creating a Port Trunk
This section contains the procedure for creating a port trunk on the
switch. Be sure to review the guidelines in Port Trunking Overview on
page 63 before performing the procedure.
Caution
Do not connect the cables to the trunk ports on the switch until
after you have configured the trunk with the management
software. Connecting the cables before configuring the software
will create a loop in your network topology. Data loops can result in
broadcast storms and poor network performance.
Note
Before creating a port trunk, examine the parameter settings of the
ports that will make up the trunk. Check to be sure that the settings,
such as speed and duplex mode, are the same for all the ports of the
trunk. You should also check to be sure that the ports are members
of the same VLAN.
To create a port trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type T to select
Trunk Configuration.
The Trunking Configuration Menu in Figure 20 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Trunk Configuration Menu
Group
----1
2
3
4
Status
-------Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Port Members
-------------------------------
Note: The trunk port members must be within the same port group.
The port members of each port group are shown below.
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------[A]dd Trunk Member
[R]emove Trunk Member
[S]et Trunk status
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Figure 20 Trunking Configuration Menu
3. Type A to select Add Trunk Member.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enter trunk group number>
Trunk group is in the range from 1 to 4
4. Enter the trunk group number to configure and press Return.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enter port members (up to 4 ports) for trunk 1>
Separate each port number with a comma;
Specify a range of ports by a hyphen
5. Enter the ports that will constitute the port trunk and press Return.
You can specify up to a maximum of 4 ports either individually
(e.g., 1,2,3,4) or as a range (e.g., 7-10).
6. To set trunk status, type S to display the status of the trunk.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enter trunk group number>
Trunk group is in the range from 1 to 4
7. Enter the trunk group number you want to set and press Return.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enable or Disable trunk group 1 (E/D)>
E for Enable; D for Disable
8. Type E to enable the new port trunk.
Figure 21 shows an example of the Port Trunking status window
with a port trunk.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Trunk Configuration Menu
Group
----1
2
3
4
Status
-------Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Port Members
------------------------------1, 2, 3, 4
Note: The trunk port members must be within the same port group.
The port members of each port group are shown below.
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------[A]dd Trunk Member
[R]emove Trunk Member
[S]et Trunk status
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Figure 21 Port Trunk Status Window
9. Configure the ports on the remote end node for port trunking. Refer
to the instructions included with the node for directions on how to
create a port trunk.
10. Connect the cables to the ports of the trunk on the switch.
The port trunk is ready for network operations.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Deleting a Port Trunk
Caution
Disconnect the cables from the port trunk on the switch before
performing the following procedure. Deleting a port trunk without
first disconnecting the cables can create loops in your network
topology. Data loops can result in broadcast storms and poor
network performance.
To delete a port trunk from the switch, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type T to select
Trunk Configuration.
The Port Trunking menu in Figure 20 on page 66 is displayed.
3. Type R to select Remove Trunk Member.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enter trunk group number>
Trunk group is in the range from 1 to 4
4. Enter the trunk group number you want to remove and press Return.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enter port members (up to 4 ports) for trunk 1>
Separate each port number with a comma;
Specify a range of ports by a hyphen
5. Enter the port members of the trunk and press Return.
Note
You must delete all port members from a trunk group in order to
delete a trunk. Disabling a trunk group will not delete the port
members from a trunk group and could cause a data loop.
The Trunk Configuration window should now show that the port
trunk has been removed from the switch.
68
Chapter 7
Port Monitoring
This chapter contains the procedures for creating and deleting a port
monitor. Sections in the chapter include:
❑ Port Monitoring Overview on page 70
❑ Creating a Port Monitor on page 71
❑ Disabling a Port Monitor on page 73
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Port Monitoring Overview
The port monitoring feature allows you to unobtrusively monitor the
traffic being received and transmitted on a port on a switch by having
the traffic copied to another switch port. You can connect a network
analyzer to the port where the traffic is being copied and monitor the
traffic on the other port without impacting network performance or
speed.
Observe the following guidelines when creating a port trunk:
❑ You can monitor only one port on a switch at a time.
❑ The port to be monitored and the monitoring port must be
located on the same switch.
❑ The port to be monitored and the monitoring port must be
operating at the same speed. For example, you cannot use a
10/100 Mbps port to monitor traffic on a 1000 Mbps GBIC port.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Creating a Port Monitor
To create a port monitor, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Switch Advanced
Configuration.
2. From the Switch Advanced Configuration Menu, type M to select
Port Monitoring Configuration Menu.
The Port Monitoring Configuration Menu in Figure 22 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Port Monitoring Configuration Menu
Monitoring Port
--------------1
Monitored Port
-------------4
Status
----------Enabled
------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------[S]et Monitoring Port
Set [M]onitored Port
[E]nable/Disable Port Monitoring
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 22 Port Monitoring Configuration Menu
3. Type S to select Set Monitoring Port.
The following prompt is displayed.
Set monitoring port->Enter port number>
Port number is in range of 1 to 12
4. Enter the number of the port to function as the monitor port (that is,
the port to where the traffic will be copied). Press Return.
You can specify only one monitor port.
5. Type M to select Set Monitored Port.
The following prompt is displayed.
Set monitored port->Enter port number>
Port number is in range of 1 to 12
6. Enter the number of the port whose traffic is to be monitored. You can
specify only one port to be monitored.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
7. Type E to select Enable/Disable Port Monitoring.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enable or Disable monitoring (E/D)>
E for Enable; D for Disable
8. Type E to activate the port monitor.
9. To confirm the creation of the port monitor, view the Status area in
the Port Monitoring Configuration menu displayed in Figure 22.
The management software displays the number of the monitor
port and the port whose traffic is to be monitored.
The port monitor is now functional.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Disabling a Port Monitor
To disable a port monitor, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Switch Advanced Configuration
Menu.
2. From the Switch Advanced Configuration Menu, type M to select
Port Monitoring Configuration Menu.
The Port Monitoring Configuration menu in Figure 22 on page 71
is displayed.
3. Type E to select Enable/Disable Port Monitoring.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enable or Disable monitoring (E/D)>
4. Enter D to disable port monitoring.
The port monitor on the switch is now disabled. The port that was
functioning as the port monitor is now available for normal
network operations.
73
Chapter 8
Spanning Tree Protocol
This chapter provides introductory information on the Spanning Tree
Protocol (STP) and explains how to adjust the STP bridge and port
parameters. The sections in this chapter include:
❑ STP Overview on page 75
❑ Configuring a Bridge’s STP Settings on page 78
❑ Configuring STP Port Settings on page 81
Note
For detailed information on the Spanning Tree Protocol, refer to
Section 4 of IEEE Std 802.1D, ISO/IEC 10038: 1993.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
STP Overview
The AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch supports the Spanning Tree
Protocol, as specified in the IEEE 802.1D standard. STP can be an
important part of large networks where loops, either planned or
unplanned, exist in the network topology.
A loop exists when two or more nodes on your network can transmit
data to each other over more than one data link. A network loop can
pose a danger to network performance and operability. Data packets
can become caught in repeating cycles, referred to as broadcast storms,
that needlessly consume network bandwidth and often significantly
reduce network performance.
STP prevents data loops from forming in your network by ensuring that
only one path exists between the end nodes in your network. Where
multiple paths exist, STP places the extra paths in a standby or blocking
mode, leaving only one main active path.
The redundant paths can be activated by STP if the main path goes
down. So not only does STP guard against multiple links between end
nodes, but it can also activate backup redundant paths in case a main
link fails.
Selecting a Root
Bridge
The first task that bridges perform when STP is activated on a network is
the selection of a root bridge. The root bridge is used by the other
bridges to determine if there are redundant paths in the network. The
root bridge also distributes network topology information to the other
network bridges.
A root bridge is selected by a combination of a bridge’s priority number,
also referred to as the bridge identifier, and sometimes its MAC address.
The bridge with the lowest bridge priority number in the network is
selected as the root bridge. If two or more bridges have the same bridge
priority number, of those bridges the one with the lowest MAC address
is designated as the root bridge.
The bridge priority number is adjustable on the AT-9410GB Switch. By
adjusting the value, you can designate which switch on your network
you want as the root bridge by giving it the lowest bridge priority
number. You should probably also consider which bridge should
function as a backup in the event you need to take the primary root
bridge off-line, and assign that bridge the second lowest bridge
identifier number.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Finding and
Resolving
Redundant
Paths
Once the Root Bridge has been selected, the bridges must determine if
the network contains redundant paths and, if one is found, they must
select a preferred path while placing the redundant paths in a backup or
blocking state.
Where there is only one path between a bridge and a root bridge, the
bridge is referred to as the designated bridge and the port through which
the bridge is communicating with the root bridge is referred to as the
designated port.
If redundant paths exist, the bridges that are a part of the paths must
determine which path will be the primary, active path, and which path(s)
will be placed in the standby, blocking mode. This is accomplished by an
evaluation of port costs. The path offering the lowest cost to the root
bridge becomes the primary path and all other redundant paths are
placed into blocking state.
Every port on a bridge participating in STP has a cost associated with it.
The cost of a port on a bridge is typically based on port speed. The faster
the port, the lower the port cost. The exception to this is the ports on the
root bridge, where all ports have a port cost of 0.
Below are standard default values for port costs. The port costs of the
ports on the AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch are adjustable through
the management software.
Table 1 Standard Port Costs
Port Speed
Port Cost
10 Mbps
100
100 Mbps
10
1000 Mbps
4
The cost of a path is cumulative; the final cost of a path is the value of all
ports between a bridge and the root bridge.
The AT-S45 management software assumes that the ports will operate at
1000 Mbps. It assigns each port a default path cost of 4. If a port will be
operating at a slower speed, you may want to change its port cost.
If two paths have the same port cost, the preferred path is selected
through port priority. This too is a value that you can adjust on a per port
basis on the switch.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Handling
Topology
Changes
If there is a change in the network topology due to a failure, removal, or
addition of any active components, the active topology also changes.
This may trigger a change in the state of some blocked ports. However, a
change in a port state is not activated immediately.
It might take time for the root bridge to notify all bridges that a topology
change has occurred, especially if it is a large network. If a topology
change is made before all bridges have been notified, a temporary data
loop could occur, and that could adversely impact network
performance.
To forestall the formation of temporarily data loops during topology
changes, a port designated to change from blocking to forwarding
passes through two additional states, listening and learning, before it
begins to forward frames. The amount of time a port spends in these
states is set by the Forwarding Delay value. This value states the amount
of time that a port spends in the listening and learning states prior to
changing to the forwarding state.
The Forwarding Delay value is adjustable on the AT-9410GB Gigabit
Ethernet Switches through the management software. The appropriate
value for this parameter will depend on a number of variables, with the
size of your network being a primary factor. For large networks, you
should specify a value large enough to allow the root bridge sufficient
time to propagate a topology change throughout the entire network.
For small networks, you should not specify a value so large that a
topology change is unnecessarily delayed, which could result in the
delay or loss of some data packets.
Communicating
Between
Bridges
The bridges that are part of a spanning tree domain communicate with
each other using a bridge broadcast frame that contains a special
section devoted to carrying STP information. This portion of the frame is
referred to as the Bridge Packet Data Unit (BPDU). When a bridge is
brought on-line, it will issue a BPDU in order to determine whether a
root bridge has already been selected on the network. and if not,
whether it has the lowest bridge priority number of all the bridges and
should therefore become the root bridge.
The root bridge will periodically transmit a BPDU to determine whether
there have been any changes to the network topology and to inform
other bridges of topology changes. The frequency with which the root
bridge sends out a BPDU is called the Hello Time. This is a value that you
can set on the AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switches. The interval is
measured in seconds and the default is 2 seconds. Consequently, if an
AT-9410GB Switch is selected as the Root Bridge of a spanning tree
domain, it will transmit a BPDU every two seconds.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring a Bridge’s STP Settings
This section contains the procedure for configuring a bridge’s STP
settings.
Caution
STP on a bridge is disabled by default. If you enable STP, the bridge
provides default STP parameters that are adequate for most
networks. Changing them without prior experience and an
understanding of how STP works might have a negative effect on
your network. You should consult the IEEE 802.1d standard before
changing any of the STP parameters.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select
Spanning Tree Configuration Menu.
The Spanning Tree Configuration Menu is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration -> Spanning Tree Configuration Menu
STP Status:
Enabled
Root Port:
Root Path Cost:
0
0
Designated Root:
Hello Time:
Maximum Age:
Forward Delay:
8000 0030AB000850
2
Sec.
20
Sec.
15
Sec.
Bridge
Bridge
Bridge
Bridge
ID: 8000 0030AB000920
Hello Time:
2
Sec.
Maximum Age:
20
Sec.
Forward Delay: 15
Sec.
---------------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------Enable/Disable [S]TP
Set Bridge Pr[i]ority
Set Bridge [H]ello Time
[Q]uit to previous menu
Set Bridge Maximum [A]ge
Set Bridge Forward [D]elay
Spanning Tree [P]ort Configuration
Command>
Figure 23 Spanning Tree Configuration Menu
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
The window displays the current STP operating parameters in two
columns labeled Designated Root and Bridge ID. The column
labeled Designated Root displays the STP parameters from the
root bridge. The parameters in the Bridge ID column are from the
AT-9410GB switch you are currently managing.
3. Adjust the bridge STP settings as needed. The commands for setting
the parameters are described below.
Enable/Disable [S]TP
Enables and disables STP on the switch. The default setting is
disabled.
Set Bridge Pr[i]ority
Sets the priority number for the bridge. This number is used in
determining the root bridge for STP. The bridge with the lowest
priority number is selected as the root bridge. If two or more
bridges have the same priority value, the bridge with the
numerically lowest MAC address becomes the root bridge. When
a root bridge goes off-line, the bridge with the next priority
number automatically takes over as the root bridge. This
parameter can be from 0 (zero) to 65,535, with 0 being the highest
priority.
The default value for bridge priority for an AT-9410GB switch is
8000. The current value for the unit is displayed in the Bridge ID
field in the window and is followed by the MAC address (i.e.,
Bridge ID: 8000 0030AB000920).
Set Bridge [H]ello Time
Sets the time interval between generating and sending
configuration messages by the bridge. This parameter can be
from 1 to 10 seconds. The default is 2 seconds.
Set Bridge Maximum [A]ge
Sets the length of time after which stored bridge protocol data
units (BPDUs) are deleted by the bridge. All bridges in a bridged
LAN use this aging time to test the age of stored configuration
messages called bridge protocol data units (BPDUs). For example,
if you use the default 20, all bridges delete current configuration
messages after 20 seconds. This parameter can be from 6 to 40
seconds. The default is 20 seconds.
Note
The aging time for BPDUs is different from the aging time used by
the MAC address table.
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Set Bridge Forwarding [D]elay
Sets the waiting period before a bridge changes to a new state, for
example, from blocking to forwarding. If the bridge transitions
too soon, not all links may have yet adapted to the change,
resulting in network loops. The default is 15 seconds.
Spanning Tree [P]ort Configuration
Configures Port Priority, Path Cost, Trunk Priority, and Trunk Path
Cost. This procedure is explained in Configuring STP Port
Settings on page 81.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring STP Port Settings
To configure STP port parameters, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select
Spanning Tree Configuration.
3. From the Spanning Tree Configuration menu, type P to select
Spanning Tree Port Configuration.
The STP Port Configuration Menu in Figure 24 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Spanning Tree Configuration->Spanning Tree Port Configuration Menu
Port Trunk
Link
State
---- ------- ---- ---------1
1
Down Blocking
2
--Up
Forwarding
3
1
Down Blocking
4
1
Down Blocking
5
--Down Blocking
6
--Down Blocking
7
--Down Blocking
8
--Down Blocking
9
--Down Blocking
10
--Down Blocking
11
--Down Blocking
12
--Down Blocking
-----------------------------[S]et Port Priority
Set Path [C]ost
[Q]uit to previous menu
Speed Priority Path Cost
MAC Address
----- -------- --------- ----------------1000
80
1000:30:AB:00:09:21
100
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:22
1000
80
1000:30:AB:00:09:23
1000
80
1000:30:AB:00:09:24
10
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:25
10
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:26
10
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:27
10
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:28
10
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:29
10
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:2A
1000
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:2B
1000
128
4
00:30:AB:00:09:2C
<COMMAND> ---------------------------------Set [T]runk Priority
Set T[r]unk Path Cost
Command>
Figure 24 Spanning Tree Port Configuration Menu
4. Adjust the parameter settings as desired. The commands for setting
the parameters are described below.
Set Port Pr[i]ority
Sets the parameter used as a tie breaker when two or more ports
are determined to have equal costs to the root bridge. The range
is 0-255. The default value for priority is 128.
Note
Set Port Priority cannot be used on ports that are part of a trunk
group.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Set Path [C]ost
Sets the cost parameter used in deciding which port provides the
lowest cost path to the root bridge for that LAN. The default value
is 4. The range is 1 to 65535.
Set [T]runk Priority
Sets the parameter used as a tie breaker when two or more trunk
groups are determined to have equal costs to the root bridge. The
default value for priority is 128. The range is 0-255.
Set Trunk Path [C]ost
Sets the cost parameter to decide which trunk group provides the
lowest cost path to the root bridge for that LAN. The default
values for this parameter are 100 for a 10 Mbps port, 10 for a 100
Mbps port, and 4 for a 1 Gbps port. The range is 1 to 65535.
This following information is for display purposes only and cannot be
changed from the Spanning Tree Port Configuration Menu.
Port
The port number.
Trunk
The trunk group number. A number in this column indicates that
the port is a member of a port trunk.
Link
The link status between the port and the end node connected to
the port. Possible values are:
Up - indicates that a valid link exists between the port and the end
node.
Down - indicates that the port and the end node have not
established a valid link.
State
This parameter indicates the current STP status of the port.
Possible values are:
❑ Forwarding
❑ Listening
❑ Learning
❑ Blocking
Speed
The operating speed of the port.
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MAC Address
The MAC addresses of the ports on the switch.
83
Chapter 9
Virtual LANs
This chapter contains basic information about virtual LANs (VLANs). It
also contains the procedures for creating, modifying, and deleting
VLANs from a local or Telnet management session.
This chapter contains the following sections:
❑ VLAN Overview on page 85
❑ Tagged and Untagged VLAN Overview on page 87
❑ Creating a Tagged or Untagged VLAN on page 91
❑ Viewing or Modifying a Tagged or Untagged VLAN on page 96
❑ Deleting a Tagged or Untagged VLAN on page 101
❑ Port-based VLAN Mode Overview on page 102
❑ Creating a Port-based VLAN on page 103
❑ Modifying a Port-based VLAN on page 105
❑ Setting GVRP Status on page 107
❑ Resetting the VLAN Parameters to Default on page 108
❑ Setting the VLAN Type on page 109
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
VLAN Overview
A VLAN is a group of ports on an Ethernet switch that form a logical
Ethernet segment. The ports of a VLAN form an independent broadcast
domain where the traffic generated by the nodes of a VLAN remains
within the VLAN.
With VLANs, you can segment your network through the switch’s
management software and so be able to group nodes with related
functions into their own separate, logical LAN segments. These VLAN
groupings can be based on similar data needs or security requirements.
For example, you could create separate VLANs for the different
departments in your company, such as one for Sales and another for
Accounting.
VLANs offer several important benefits:
❑ Improved network performance
Network performance often suffers as networks grow in size and
as data traffic increases. The more nodes on each LAN segment
vying for bandwidth, the greater the likelihood overall network
performance will decrease.
VLANs improve network perform because VLAN data traffic stays
within the VLAN. The nodes of a VLAN receive traffic only from
nodes of the same VLAN. This reduces the need for nodes to
handle traffic not destined for them. It also frees up bandwidth
within all the logical workgroups.
Additionally, since each VLAN constitutes a separate broadcast
domain, broadcast traffic remains within the VLAN. This too can
improve overall network performance.
❑ Increased security
Since data traffic generated by a node in a VLAN is restricted only
to the other nodes of the same VLAN, VLANs can be used to
control the flow of data in your network and prevent data from
flowing to unauthorized end nodes.
❑ Simplified network management
VLANs can also simplify network management. Before the advent
of VLANs, physical changes to the network often had to been
made at the switches in the wiring closets. For example, if an
employee changed departments, changing the employee’s LAN
segment assignment might require a change to the wiring at the
switches.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
But with VLANS, you can change the LAN segment assignment of
an end node connected to the switch through the switch’s AT-S45
management software. VLAN memberships can be changed any
time through the management software without moving the
workstations physically, or having to change group memberships
by moving cables from one switch port to another.
Additionally, a virtual LAN can span more than one switch. This
means that the end nodes of a VLAN do not need to be connected
to the same switch and so are not restricted to being in the same
physical location.
VLAN Modes
The AT-9410GB switch features two VLAN modes: 802.1Q and portbased. The 802.1Q VLAN mode of the switch complies with the IEEE
802.1Q standard and supports two types of VLANs:
❑ Untagged VLANs
❑ Tagged VLANs
Untagged and tagged VLANs are described in the next section. The Portbased VLAN mode is described on page 102.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Tagged and Untagged VLAN Overview
As explained in the VLAN Overview section earlier in this chapter, a
VLAN consists of a group of ports on one or more Ethernet switches that
forms a logical Ethernet segment and an independent broadcast
domain. Traffic generated by the end nodes of a VLAN remains within
the VLAN and does not cross over to the end nodes of other VLANs
unless there is an interconnection device, such as a router or Layer 3
switch.
A VLAN can consist of all the ports on an Ethernet switch, or just a few
ports. A VLAN can also span switches and consist of ports from multiple
Ethernet switches.
The parts that make up a VLAN are:
❑ VLAN name
❑ VLAN Identifier
❑ Untagged ports
❑ Tagged ports
❑ Port VLAN Identifier
VLAN Name
Every VLAN in your network should be given a name. The name should
reflect the function of the network devices that are be members of the
VLAN. Examples include Sales, Production, and Engineering. You will be
required to specify a name when you create a VLAN.
VLAN Identifier
Each VLAN in a network must be assigned a number. This number is
called the VLAN identifier (VID). This number will uniquely identify each
VLAN in your network. You assign the VID number when you create the
VLAN.
If a VLAN consists of ports located on only one physical switch in your
network, you must assign it a VID unique from all other VLANs in your
network.
In instances where a VLAN spans multiple switches, the VID for the VLAN
must be the same on each switch where a part of the VLAN resides. This
enables the switches to recognize and forward frames belonging to the
same VLAN even though the VLAN spans multiple switches.
For example, if you had a VLAN titled Marketing that spanned three AT9410GB switches, you would assign the Marketing VLAN on each switch
the same VID.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Untagged and
Tagged Ports
There are two kinds of ports that you can assign to an IEEE 802.1Qcompliant VLAN: tagged ports and untagged ports. The basic different
between the two is that an untagged port can be a member of only one
VLAN at a time while a tagged port can be a member of multiple VLANs.
Untagged Ports
When the ports on an Ethernet switch are divided into independent
VLANs, the switch needs a mechanism for determining which ports
belong to which VLANs. For instance, if a switch needs to broadcast a
frame to the ports of a particular VLAN, it needs to know which ports
comprise the VLAN.
In a VLAN that consists of untagged ports, port membership is
determined by what is referred to as the port VLAN identifier (PVID). This
is a number that you must assign to a port when you assign it as an
untagged member of a VLAN. The PVID of a port will be the same as the
VID of the VLAN in which the port is to be an untagged member.
Here is an example. Let’s assume that you are creating a new VLAN
called Sales and that you assigned the VLAN a VID of 4. You have
decided that Ports 1 through 4 on the switch will be untagged members
of the new VLAN. Consequently, you would assign Ports 1 to 4 PVIDs of 4,
same as the VID. Now, when the switch receives a frame on one of the
ports on the Sales VLAN and it needs to broadcast the frame to the other
ports of the VLAN, it will know that the Sales VLAN consists of Ports 1 to
4.
A VLAN that consists of only untagged ports is referred to as an untagged
VLAN. In order for frames from untagged VLANs to cross a VLAN
boundary, there must be a Layer 3 switch or router providing an
interconnection between the VLANs.
You can assign each port only one PVID. Consequently, a port can be an
untagged member of only one VLAN at a time.
Note
The AT-9410GB Switch is pre-configured with one untagged VLAN,
called the Default VLAN. All ports on the switch are members of this
VLAN. The Default VLAN has a VID of 1. Consequently, all the ports in
the VLAN have a PVID value of 1.
The reason the ports are called untagged is because it is assumed that
the frames received on this type of port will not to contain any
information that indicates VLAN membership, and that VLAN
membership will be determined solely by a port’s PVID. (This contrasts
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
with tagged ports, explained next, where VLAN membership is
determined by information within the frames themselves.) Frames
received on untagged ports and lacking any VLAN identifying
information are referred to as untagged frames.
When a switch receives a frame on an untagged port, it first examines
the PVID of the port on which the frame was received and then adds the
PVID to the frame itself. It then examines the destination MAC address of
the frame. If the destination address is in the MAC address table and if
the switch port where the destination node is located is part of the same
VLAN as the port that received the frame, the switch sends the frame out
the port to the destination node.
If the destination MAC address is not in the MAC address table, the
switch broadcasts the frame to all the ports that share the same PVID as
the port that received the frame.
Tagged Ports
The second type of port that can be a member of a VLAN is called a
tagged port. There are several principal differences between a tagged
port and an untagged port.
As explained earlier, a switch determines the VLAN membership of a
frame received on an untagged port by examining the PVID that you
assigned to the port.
But when a frame is received on a tagged port, the switch examines the
frame itself to determine VLAN membership. The VLAN information
within an Ethernet frame is referred to as a tag or tagged header. A tag,
which follows the source and destination addresses in a frame, contains
the VID of the VLAN to which the frame belongs (IEEE 802.3ac standard).
When a switch receives a frame with a VLAN tag, referred to as a tagged
frame, the switch forwards the frame only to those ports that share the
same VID.
Any network device connected to a tagged port must be IEEE 802.1Qcompliant. This is the standard that outlines the requirements and
standards for tagging. The device must be able to process the tagged
information on received frames and add tagged information to
transmitted frames.
The principal benefit of tagged ports is that they can belong to more
than one VLAN at one time. This can greatly simplify the task of adding
shared devices to the network. For example, an IEEE 802.1Q-compliant
server can be configured to accept and return packets from many
different VLANs simultaneously.
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Tagged VLANs are also useful where multiple VLANs span across
switches. You can use one port per switch for connecting all VLANs on
the switch to another switch.
The IEEE 802.1Q standard deals with how this tagging information is
used to forward the traffic throughout the switch. The handling of
frames tagged with VIDs coming into a port is straightforward. If the
incoming frame’s VID tag matches one of the VIDs of a VLAN that the
port is a tagged member of, the frame will be accepted and forwarded to
the appropriate ports. If the frame’s VID does not match any of the
VLANs that the port is a member of, the frame will be discarded.
A VLAN that contains only tagged frames or that contains a combination
of tagged and untagged ports is referred to as a tagged VLAN. And, as
explained previously, any device that you connect to a tagged port of a
tagged VLAN must be IEEE 802.1Q-compliant.
So how do you indicate which ports are to be tagged and which are to
be untagged when you create a VLAN? The rule is straightforward. If you
assign a port to only one VLAN, the switch assumes it is to be an
untagged port. If you assign a port to more than one VLAN, the switch
assumes that the port is to be both a tagged and untagged port.
General Rules
to Creating an
Untagged or
Tagged VLAN
Below are general rules to observe when creating a VLAN.
❑ An AT-9410GB switch can support up to 256 tagged and
untagged VLANS.
❑ Each VLAN must be assigned a unique VID. However, if a particular
VLAN spans multiples switches, each part of the VLAN on the
different switches must be assigned the same VID.
❑ A port can be an untagged member of only one VLAN at a time.
❑ A port can be a tagged member of multiple VLANs.
❑ You must assign each untagged port a PVID. The PVID must match
the VLAN’s VID. You must assign this value manually when you
create the VLAN.
❑ An untagged VLAN that spans multiple switches requires a port
on each switch where the VLAN is located to function as an
interconnection between the switches where the various parts of
the VLAN reside.
❑ If there are end nodes in different VLANs that need to
communicate with each other, a router or Layer 3 switch is
required to interconnect the VLANs.
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Creating a Tagged or Untagged VLAN
The procedure for creating a new VLAN is divided into the following
phases:
❑ Phase 1: Assigning a VID and name and specifying the port
members
❑ Phase 2: Converting tagged ports into untagged ports
Performing Phase 1 is required whenever you create a new VLAN. Every
VLAN must have a name, VID, and, of course, ports. You will need to
perform Phase 2 if some or all of the ports of a VLAN will be untagged
ports. Ports that you want to function as untagged ports must be
converted by changing their PVIDs, as explained in Phase 2.
To create a new VLAN, start by performing the procedure in Phase 1.
Phase 1
This phase assigns a VID and a name to your VLAN, and also designates
the VLAN port members.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
The VLAN Management Menu in Figure 25 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> VLAN Management Menu
VLAN Type : 802.1Q
GVRP Status :Disabled
VLAN ID
VLAN Name
VLAN Type
------- -------------------------------- ---------1
Default VLAN
Permanent
--------------------------- <COMMAND> ------------------------------[N]ext Page
[P]revious Page
[R]eset VLAN to Default
[Q]uit to previous menu
[C]reate VLAN
[D]elete VLAN
Set [G]VRP Status
C[o]nfig VLAN Member
[S]et Port Config
Set VLAN [T]ype
Command>
Figure 25 VLAN Management Menu
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Note
It is a good idea to check the VLAN Type field in the window to make
sure it is set to 802.1Q, which happens to be the default. You can
create tagged and untagged VLANs only when the switch is
operating in the 802.1Q mode. For instructions on how to change
the switch’s VLAN mode, see Setting the VLAN Type on page 109.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, select C for Create VLAN.
The VLAN Creation Menu in Figure 30 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> VLAN Creation Menu
VLAN Index :
VLAN Name :
Device
--------
Member
-----------------------------------------------------
---------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set VLAN [I]D/[I]ndex
Set VLAN [N]ame
[Q]uit to previous menu
[S]elect Port Member
[A]pply
Command>
Figure 26 VLAN Creation Menu
4. Type I to select Set VLAN ID/Index.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID ->Enter VLAN ID >
5. Enter a V ID for the new VLAN. The VID can be between 2 and 4094.
Press Enter.
If this VLAN will be unique in your network, then its VID must also be
unique from all other VIDs in the network.
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If this VLAN will be part of a larger VLAN that spans multiple switches,
than the VID value for the VLAN should be the same on each switch.
For example, if you are creating a VLAN called Sales that will span
three switches, you must assign the Sales VLAN on each of the
switches the same VID value.
6. Type N to select Set VLAN Name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN Name ->Enter VLAN Name >
7. Enter a VLAN name of up to 32 characters. Press Enter
The name should reflect the function of the nodes that will be a part
of the VLAN (for example, Sales or Accounting). The name can contain
spaces, but not special characters, such as asterisks (*) or exclamation
points (!).
If the VLAN will be unique in your network, then the name should be
unique as well.
If the VLAN will be part of a larger VLAN that spans multiple switches,
then the name for the VLAN should be the same on each switch
where nodes of the VLAN are connected.
8. Type S to choose Select Port Member.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port number>
9. Enter all the ports, both tagged and untagged, that are to be
members of the new VLAN. Press Return.
You can specify the ports individually (e.g., 2,3,5), as a range (e.g., 7-9),
or both (e.g., 2,5,7-9)
10. Type A to select Apply.
You have now created a new VLAN. You gave it a VID and a name. You
also specified which ports are to be members of the new VLAN.
It is important to note, however, that by default all of the ports that
you just added to the new VLAN are tagged ports, meaning they are
shared ports. The ports are still members of their current VLANs.
If you want to convert the ports into untagged ports, you must
perform the procedure in Phase 2.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Phase 2
This phase of creating a new VLAN converts the tagged ports that you
added to the new VLAN into untagged ports. This involves changing the
PVIDs of the ports so that they match the VID of the new VLAN. For
example, if you assigned the new VLAN a VID of 4, you must change the
PVIDs of the untagged ports to 4. The following procedure explains how
this is accomplished.
The following procedure assumes that you are continuing directly from
Phase 1.
1. From the VLAN Creation Menu, type Q to select Quit to Previous
Menu.
The VLAN Management Menu is displayed again.
2. Type S to select Set Port Config.
The VLAN Port Configuration Menu is displayed. An example is
shown in Figure 26.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
VLAN Management -> VLAN Port Configuration Menu
Port
PVID
------1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
-------------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------[N]ext page
[P]revious Page
[Q]uit to previous menu
Set Port [V]ID
Command> _
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Figure 27 VLAN Port Configuration Menu
This window lists the ports on the switch and each port’s current PVID
assignment. For example, referring to the figure above, Ports 1 to 8 all
have a PVID of 1, meaning that they are untagged members of the
Default VLAN, which has a VID of 1.
3. To set a PVID, type V to select the Set Port VID option.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
The following prompt is displayed:
Set PVID->Enter port number>
4. Enter the port number whose PVID you want to change.
A prompt similar to the following is displayed:
Enter PVID for port 1>
5. Enter the new PVID for the port.
Once a new PVID has been assigned to a port, the port is removed as
an untagged port from its current VLAN and added to the new VLAN
as an untagged port.
If the port is also an tagged member of any VLANs, it remains as a
tagged member of those VLANs.
6. Repeat Steps 3 to 5 to assign new PVIDs to any other ports that are to
be untagged members of the new VLAN.
7. Once you have changed all of the appropriate PVIDs, type Q to select
Quit to Previous Menu.
The VLAN Management Menu in Figure 25 on page 91 is displayed
again.
This completes the procedure for creating a new VLAN.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Viewing or Modifying a Tagged or Untagged VLAN
There are two phases to modifying a VLAN. You might need to perform
both phases or just one, depending on what it is you want to change in
the VLAN. The phases are:
❑ Phase 1: In this phase, you can view a VLAN’s configuration, as well
as change a VLAN’s name and add or remove tagged ports.
❑ Phase 2: In this phase, you can add or remove untagged ports.
Phase 1
This phase explains how to display the Config VLAN Member Menu of a
VLAN. This window displays a VLAN’s configuration. You can also use the
window to change a VLAN’s name and add or remove tagged ports.
Note
If you do not want to change a VLAN’s name or add or remove
tagged ports, then skip this procedure and go straight to Phase 2 to
add or remove untagged ports.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, select O for the Config VLAN
Member option.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID>
4. Enter the VID of the VLAN you want to view or modify.
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The Config VLAN Member Menu for the VLAN is displayed. This
VLAN contains all the current information about the VLAN. An
example is shown in Figure 26.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
VLAN MAnagement-> Config VLAN Member Menu
VLAN ID: 3 VLAN Name: Engineering
Port
---8
9
10
11
16
23
Participation
------------Static
Static
Static
Static
Static
Static
Tagging
------No
No
No
No
No
No
------------------------------Command---------------------------[N]ext Page
[C]hange VLAN Name
[A]dd VLAN Member
[P]revious Page
[M]odify Participation [R]emove VLAN Member
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command> _
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Figure 28 Config VLAN Member Menu
The columns in the window are defined below:
Port
This column lists the ports that are members of the VLAN.
Participation
This column indicates whether the port is participating in GVRP. For
more information on this selection, refer to Setting GVRP Status on
page 107.
Tagging
This column indicates whether the port is a tagged or untagged port
in the VLAN. No indicates that the port is an untagged member while
Yes indicates that it is a tagged member.
5. To modify the VLAN, use the commands at the bottom of the screen.
The commands are described below:
[C]hange a VLAN Name
This command is used to change a VLAN’s name. To use the
command, type C and enter the new name at the command prompt.
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[M]odify Participation
This command is explained in the section Setting GVRP Status on
page 107
[A]dd VLAN Member
This command adds tagged ports to the VLAN. Type A and then
specify the ports that you want to add as tagged ports to the VLAN.
You can specify the ports individually (e.g., 2,3,5), as a range (e.g., 7-9),
or both (e.g., 2,5,7-9). Press Enter.
Note
To add untagged ports to the VLAN, perform Phase 2 on page 98.
[R]emove VLAN Member
This command removes tagged ports from the VLAN. Type R and
specify the tagged ports that you want to remove from the VLAN.
Press Enter. You can specify the ports individually (e.g., 2,3,5), as a
range (e.g., 7-9), or both (e.g., 2,5,7-9).
Note
You cannot use this command to remove untagged ports from a
VLAN. To remove untagged ports, perform Phase 2 below.
Furthermore, you cannot use this command to remove a port whose
GVRP participation has been set to Forbidden. You must first change
the port’s GVRP participation to Static, after which you can remove
the port from the VLAN.
Phase 2
You perform this phase whenever you need to add or remove an
untagged port from a VLAN. This phase explains how to change the
PVIDs of the ports so that they match the VID of a different VLAN. For
example, if you want to assign Port 2 as an untagged member of a VLAN
with a VID of 4, you must change the PVID of the port to 4.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
3. Type S to select Set Port Config.
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The VLAN Port Configuration Menu is displayed. An example is
shown in Figure 26.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
VLAN Management -> VLAN Port Configuration Menu
Port
PVID
------1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
-------------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------[N]ext page
[P]revious Page
Set Port [V]ID
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command> _
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Figure 29 VLAN Port Configuration Menu
This window lists the ports on the switch and each port’s current PVID
assignment. For example, referring to the figure above, Ports 1 to 4
and Ports 5 to 8 are untagged members of different VLANs.
4. To set a PVID, type V to select Set Port VID.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set PVID->Enter port number>
5. Enter the port number whose PVID you want to change.
A prompt similar to the following is displayed:
Enter PVID for port 1>
6. Enter the new PVID for the port.
Once a new PVID has been assigned to a port, the port is removed as
an untagged port from its current VLAN and added as an untagged
port to the VLAN whose VID matches the PVID.
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Note
A port that is a tagged member of another VLAN remains as a
tagged member of the VLAN.
7. If necessary, repeat Steps 4 to 6 to assign new PVIDs to other ports.
8. Once you have changed all of the appropriate PVIDs, type Q to select
Quit to Previous Menu.
The VLAN Management Menu in Figure 25 on page 91 is displayed
again.
This completes the procedure for modifying a VLAN.
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Deleting a Tagged or Untagged VLAN
To delete a VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, select D for Delete VLAN.
4. At the command prompt, enter the VLAN ID of the VLAN you would
like to delete. Press Enter.
The VLAN is removed from the switch. The PVIDs of the untagged
ports in the VLAN are changed to 1, making the ports untagged
members of the Default VLAN.
Note
You cannot delete the Default VLAN, which has a VLAN ID of 1.The
Default VLAN is a permanent VLAN.
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Port-based VLAN Mode Overview
The AT-9410GB switch features a special Port-based VLAN mode. This
VLAN mode allows you to create VLANs that are slightly different than
the tagged and untagged VLANs described earlier in this chapter.
Note
For those of you who are familiar with Allied Telesyn products,
please note that the port-based VLAN described here is not the
same as the port-based VLANs featured in our other managed
switches, such as the AT-8024 Fast Ethernet Switch. The untagged
VLAN described earlier in this chapter is analogous to the portbased VLAN featured in other Allied Telesyn switch products.
Port-based VLANs are just lists of ports that belong to different VLANs on
the switch. To create a port-based VLAN, you simply indicate which ports
you want in it. You do not configure PVIDs, as you do for untagged ports,
and, while you do specify a unique VID when you create a port-based
VLAN, its use is limited to within the switch. A VID is not used across
multiple switches to identify different port-based VLANs.
Port-based VLANs do have a couple of advantages over tagged and
untagged VLANs described earlier in this chapter. For instance, portbased VLANs are easier to configure, mainly because you do not have to
worry about setting PVIDs.
Plus, it can be easier to share network resources. Ports can be shared in
port-based VLANs and the shared devices do not need to be IEEE
802.1Q-compliant, as required with a tagged VLAN.
The major disadvantage to port-base VLANs is VLAN leakage, where
frames that originate in one VLAN end up in another. This can occur
where port-based VLANs share ports.
Here is how this can occur. Let’s assume that a frame arrives on a switch
port that is shared among three different VLANs. If the destination MAC
address in the frame has not been learned by the switch, the frame will
be broadcast out the ports of all three VLANs. Hence, the frame crosses
the boundaries of the VLANs.
This might not be a problem for you if network security is not a major
concern. However, if it is a high priority, then either the VLANs that you
create with the Port-based VLAN mode should not contain shared ports,
or you should instead create tagged VLANs, as described earlier in this
chapter.
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Creating a Port-based VLAN
To create a new port-based VLAN, perform the following procedure:
Note
This procedure assumes that the switch is already running in the
Port-based VLAN mode. For instructions on how to change the
VLAN mode of the switch, refer to Setting the VLAN Type on page
109.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch Configuration
Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is displayed.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, type C to select Create VLAN.
The VLAN Creation Menu in Figure 30 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Advanced Switch Configuration -> VLAN Creation Menu
VLAN Index :
VLAN Name :
Port Member
------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set VLAN [I]D/[I]ndex
Set VLAN [N]ame
[Q]uit to previous menu
[S]elect Port Member
[A]pply
Command>
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Figure 30 VLAN Creation Menu
4. Type I to select Set VLAN ID/Index.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID ->Enter VLAN ID >
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5. Enter a unique VID for the new VLAN. The VID can be between 2 and
4094. Press Enter.
Since the switch does not examine the VID in tagged headers of
tagged frames when operating in the Port-based VLAN mode, this
VID value does not need to be unique from all other VLANs in your
network. It only needs to be unique from the other VLANs in the
switch on which you are creating the VLAN.
6. Type N to select the Set VLAN Name option and enter a VLAN name
using 0 to 32 characters.
The name can contain spaces, but not special characters, such as
asterisks (*) or exclamation points (!). Then press Enter.
7. Type S to Select Port Members for the new VLAN.
You can specify the ports individually (e.g., 2,3,5), as a range (e.g., 7-9),
or both (e.g., 2,5,7-9)
The VLAN must include at least one port.
Note
The ports that you add to the new VLAN are not removed from their
current VLAN assignments. You must remove the ports manually
from the other VLANs if you do not want them to be shared. For
instructions, refer to Modifying a Port-based VLAN on page 105.
8. Type A to select Apply. This will save the VLAN you have just created
and make it visible in the VLAN Management Menu.
You can repeat this procedure to create additional port-based VLANs.
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Modifying a Port-based VLAN
The following procedure explains how to change the name of a portbased VLAN, as well as add or remove ports.
To modify a port-based VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, select O for the Config VLAN
Member option.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID>
4. Enter the VID of the VLAN you want to view or modify.
The Config VLAN Member Menu for the VLAN is displayed. This
VLAN contains all the current information about the VLAN. An
example is shown in Figure 26.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
VLAN MAnagement-> Config VLAN Member Menu
VLAN ID: 3
VLAN Name: Engineering
Group Members
-----------------------------------------------------1, 2, 3, 4, 5
------------------------------Command---------------------------[N]ext Page
[C]hange VLAN Name
[A]dd VLAN Member
[P]revious Page
[M]odify Participation [R]emove VLAN Member
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command> _
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Figure 31 Config VLAN Member Menu
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5. To modify the VLAN, use the commands at the bottom of the screen.
The commands are described below:
[C]hange a VLAN Name
This command changes a VLAN’s name. Type C and enter the new
name at the command prompt.
[M]odify Participation
This command is disabled when the switch is operating in the portbased VLAN mode.
[A]dd VLAN Member
This command adds ports to the VLAN. Type A and then specify the
ports that you want to add as members of the VLAN. You can specify
the ports individually (e.g., 2,3,5), as a range (e.g., 7-9), or both (e.g.,
2,5,7-9). Press Enter.
Note
Any port that you add to a VLAN remains a member of the VLAN(s)
in which it is currently assigned. If you do not want the port to be a
shared port, you must remove it from the other VLANs.
[R]emove VLAN Member
This command removes ports from the VLAN. Type R and specify the
tagged ports that you want to remove from the VLAN. Press Enter.
You can specify the ports individually (e.g., 2,3,5), as a range (e.g., 7-9),
or both (e.g., 2,5,7-9).
Note
You cannot remove a port if it is not already a member of another
VLAN.
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Setting GVRP Status
Note
Global GVRP is not supported in port-based VLAN mode.
To set the GVRP status, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, select G for Set GVRP Status.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enable or Disable GVRP status (E/D)>
E for Enable; D for Disable
4. Type E to select Enable.
The default setting is Disabled.
The GVRP Status in the VLAN Management Menu is immediately
changed to reflect the new setting.
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Resetting the VLAN Parameters to Default
This command deletes all VLANs that you created. All ports are returned
back to the Default VLAN.
To return the VLAN parameters of the switch to their default settings,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, select R for Reset VLAN to
Default.
The following prompt is displayed.
Are you sure you want to reset VLAN configuration to
factory default (Y/N)>
Y for Yes; N for No
4. Type Y to select Yes.
The following prompt is displayed.
Are you sure you want to reset VLAN configuration to
factory default (Y/N)>
Reset to factory default completed, press any key to
continue...
The default VLAN settings are immediately activated on the
switch and displayed in the VLAN Management Menu.
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Setting the VLAN Type
The AT-9410GB switch can operate in either the 802.1Q VLAN mode, for
creating tagged and untagged VLANs, or the port-based VLAN mode.
Note
The VLAN Type default is 802.1Q.
To change the VLAN mode, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select the Advanced Switch
Configuration Menu.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
3. From the VLAN Management Menu, type T to select Set VLAN Type.
The following prompt is displayed.
Set VLAN type (P/8)>
4. Enter P for the Port-based VLAN mode or 8 for the 802.1Q VLAN
mode.
Note
Changing the VLAN type setting deletes all tagged and untagged
VLANs created in the 802.1Q VLAN mode.
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Chapter 10
MAC Address Table
This chapter contains the procedures for viewing the static and dynamic
MAC address table. The sections in this chapter include:
❑ MAC Address Overview on page 111
❑ Displaying MAC Addresses on page 113
❑ Viewing MAC Addresses by Port on page 115
❑ Viewing the MAC Addresses by MAC on page 116
❑ Viewing the MAC Addresses of a VLAN on page 117
❑ Adding Static MAC Addresses on page 118
❑ Deleting Static MAC Addresses on page 119
❑ Changing the Aging Time on page 120
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MAC Address Overview
Every hardware device that you connect to your network has a unique
MAC address associated with it. A MAC address is assigned to a device by
the device’s manufacturer. For example, every network interface card
that you use to connect your computers to your network has a MAC
address assigned to it by the adapter’s manufacturer.
The AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch contains a 4 kilobyte MAC
address table. The switch uses the table to store the MAC addresses of
the network nodes connected to its ports, along with the port number
on which each address was learned.
The switch learns the MAC addresses of the end nodes by examining the
source address of each packet received on a port. It adds the address
and port on which the packet was received to the MAC table if the
address has not already been entered in the table. The result is a table
that contains all the MAC addresses of the devices that are connected to
the switch’s ports, and the port number where each address was
learned.
When the switch receives a packet, it also examines the destination
address and, by referring to its MAC address table, determines the port
where the destination node is connected. It then forwards the packet to
the appropriate port and on to the end node. This increases network
bandwidth by limiting each frame to the appropriate port when the
intended end node is located, freeing the other switch ports for
receiving and transmitting data.
If the switch receives a packet with a destination address that is not in
the MAC address table, it floods the packet to all the ports on the switch.
If the ports have been grouped into virtual LANs, the switch floods the
packet only to those ports which belong to the same VLAN as the port
on which the packet was received. This prevents packets from being
forwarded onto inappropriate LAN segments and increases network
security. When the destination node responds, the switch adds its MAC
address and port number to the table.
If the switch receives a packet with a destination address that is on the
same port on which the packet was received, it discards the packet
without forwarding it on to any port. Since both the source node and the
destination node for the packet are located on the same port on the
switch, there is no reason for the switch to forward the packet. This too
increases network performance by preventing frames from being
forwarded unnecessarily to other network devices.
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The type of MAC address described above is referred to as a dynamic
MAC address. Dynamic MAC addresses are addresses that the switch
learns by examining the source MAC addresses of the frames received
on the ports.
Dynamic MAC addresses are not stored indefinitely in the MAC address
table. The switch deletes a dynamic MAC address from the table if it does
not receive any frames from the node over a specified period of time.
The switch assumes that the node with that MAC address is no longer
active and that its MAC address can be purged from the table. This
prevents the MAC address table from becoming filled with addresses of
nodes that are no longer active.
The period of time that the switch waits before purging an inactive
dynamic MAC address is called the aging timer. This value is adjustable
on the AT-9410GB Switch. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
For instructions on changing the aging timer, refer to Changing the
Aging Time on page 120.
The MAC address table can also store static MAC addresses. A static MAC
address, once entered in the table, remains in the table indefinitely and
is never deleted, even when the end node is inactive.
You might need to enter static MAC addresses of end nodes the switch
will not learn in its normal dynamic learning process, or if you want a
MAC address to remain permanently in the table, even when the end
node is inactive.
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Displaying MAC Addresses
To display the MAC address table, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type F to select
Forwarding Database Menu.
The Forwarding Database Menu in Figure 32 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Forwarding Database Menu
[S]tatic Address Table
Display MAC Address by [P]ort
Display MAC Address by [M]AC
Display MAC Address by [V]ID
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 32 Forwarding Database Menu
3. To display MAC addresses, select from the options below.
[S]tatic Address Table
This displays all the static addresses assigned to the ports on the
switch.
Display MAC Address by [P]ort
This displays all the static and dynamic MAC addresses on a
selected port.
Display MAC Address by [M]AC
This displays all the static and dynamic MAC addresses on the
switch.
Display MAC Address by [V]ID
This displays all the MAC addresses of a particular VLAN.
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Figure 33 is an example of the Display MAC Address by MAC
window, which displays both static and dynamic MAC addresses
in numerical order.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Forwarding Database Menu -> Display MAC Address by MAC
Age-Out Time:
300 Sec.
MAC Address
Port
-------------------00:06:5B:23:0F:7E
3
00:08:C7:73:71:F5
3
00:10:40:00:DC:D7
3
00:10:40:02:00:FE
3
00:12:CD:00:12:23
9
00:30:AB:00:09:20
CPU
00:30:AB:00:09:21
1
00:30:AB:00:09:22
2
00:30:AB:00:09:23
3
00:30:AB:00:09:24
4
-------------------------- <COMMAND> --------------------------[N]ext Page
[P]revious Page
Set [A]ge-Out time
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 33 Display MAC Address by MAC Window
The information is for viewing purposes only, except for the
Set Age-Out Time. The columns in the window are defined below.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the node connected to the switch.
Port
The port on the switch where the MAC address was learned.
Set [A]ge-Out Time
This allows you to manually set the MAC aging time. The range is
10 to 1048 seconds. The default setting is 300.
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Viewing MAC Addresses by Port
This section contains the procedure for viewing the dynamic MAC
addresses that have been learned on a particular port. You can also use
this procedure to view any static MAC addresses that have been
assigned to a port.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type F to select
Forwarding Database Menu.
3. From the Forwarding Database Menu, type P to select View MAC
Addresses by Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port number >
Port number is in range of 1 to 12
4. Enter the number of the port whose static and dynamic MAC
addresses you want to view and press Return.
A window is displayed with the MAC addresses of the nodes on
the port. The columns in the window and the definitions of the
columns are the same as for the Display MAC Address by MAC
window on page 114.
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Viewing the MAC Addresses by MAC
This section contains the procedure for viewing the dynamic MAC
addresses learned on the ports of the switch. This procedure will also let
you view all static MAC addresses that have been assigned to the ports
on the switch.
To view the MAC addresses in numerical order on the switch, perform
the following procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type F to select
Forwarding Database Menu.
3. From the Forwarding Database Menu, type M to select Display MAC
Address by MAC.
The management software displays a window with a list of all
static and dynamic MAC addresses of the nodes of all ports. For an
example of the window and for definitions of the columns, refer to
the Display MAC Address by MAC window on page 114.
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Viewing the MAC Addresses of a VLAN
The procedure in this section can be useful if you created VLANs on the
switch and want to view the MAC addresses of the nodes of a particular
VLAN. (This procedure is not of much value if the switch contains only
the Default VLAN, in which case displaying the entire MAC address table,
as explained earlier in this chapter, produces the same result.)
Note
To perform this procedure, you need to know the VID number of the
VLAN whose MAC addresses you want to view.
To view the MAC addresses of a VLAN on the switch, perform the
following procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type F to select
Forwarding Database Menu.
3. From the Forwarding Database menu, type V to select Display MAC
Address by VID.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID>
VLAN ID is in range of 1 to 4094
4. Enter the VID of the desired VLAN and press Return.
The management software displays a window with a list of the
MAC addresses of the nodes in the VLAN. For an example of the
window and for definitions of the columns, refer to the Display
MAC Address by MAC window on page 114.
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Adding Static MAC Addresses
The management software allows you to assign up to 255 static MAC
addresses per port on an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch.
To add a static address to the MAC address table, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type F to select
Forwarding Database Menu.
3. From the Forwarding Database menu, type S to select Static Address
Table Menu.
4. From the Static Address Table Menu, type A to Add New Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter MAC Address(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) >
5. Enter the static MAC address in the following format:
xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
Once you have specified the MAC address, the following prompt
is displayed:
Add new entry->Enter port number >
Port number is in range of 1 to 12
6. Enter the port number where the static address is to be assigned.
Once you have specified the port number, the following prompt
is displayed:
Add new entry->Enter VLAN ID>
VLAN ID is in range of 1 to 4094
7. Enter the VID of the VLAN where the port is a member.
Once you have specified the VLAN ID, the management software
adds the static address to the MAC address table.
8. Repeat steps 4 to 7 to enter additional static MAC addresses.
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Deleting Static MAC Addresses
To delete a static MAC address, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type F to select
Forwarding Database Menu.
3. From the Forwarding Database menu, type S to select Static Address
Table Menu.
4. From the Static Address Table Menu, type D to Delete Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter MAC Address(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) >
5. Enter the static MAC address in the following format:
xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
Once you have specified the MAC address, the following prompt
is displayed:
Delete entry->Enter VLAN ID>
VLAN ID is in range of 1 to 4094
6. Enter the VID of the VLAN where the port to which the static address
was assigned is a member.
Once you have specified the VLAN ID, the management software
deletes the static address from the MAC address table.
7. Repeat steps 4 to 6 to delete additional static MAC addresses.
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Changing the Aging Time
The switch uses the aging time to delete inactive dynamic MAC
addresses from the MAC address table. When the switch detects that no
packets have been received from a particular MAC address in the table
after the period specified by the aging time, the switch deletes the
address. This prevents the table from becoming full of addresses of
nodes that are no longer active.
The default setting for the aging time is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
To adjust the aging time, perform the following procedure:
Note
The aging time can be adjusted from the following windows:
Display MAC Address by Port, Display MAC Address by MAC, and
Display MAC Address by VID.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type F to select
Forwarding Database Menu.
3. From the Forwarding Database Menu, type P to select View MAC
Addresses by Port, M to select Display MAC Address by MAC, or V to
select Display MAC Address by VID.
4. Once you have made your selection, type A to select MAC Aging
Time.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter your new value ->
Age-out time is in range of 10 to 1048 Sec
5. Enter a new value in seconds.
The aging setting is in range of 10 to 1048 seconds. The default
setting is 300 seconds.
The management software immediately activates the new aging
time value on the switch.
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Chapter 11
Quality of Service
This chapter contains the procedures for configuring the Quality of
Service (QoS) feature of the AT-S45 software. Sections in the chapter
include:
❑ Quality of Service Overview on page 122
❑ Configuring QoS on page 123
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Quality of Service Overview
The AT-9410GB switch supports QoS as specified in the IEEE 802.1p and
802.1Q standards. QoS can be important in network environments
where there are time-critical applications, such as voice transmission or
video conferencing, that can be adversely affected by packet transfer
delays.
Prior to QoS, network traffic was handled in a best-effort manner. File
transfer delays did occur, but were mostly transparent to network users.
But with the introduction of time-critical applications, packet transfer
delays can prove problematic. For example, transfer delays of voice
transmission can result in poor audio quality.
QoS was designed to address this problem. The 802.1p standard outlines
eight levels of priority, 0 to 7, with 0 the lowest priority and 7 the highest.
The AT-9410GB switch has two priority queues, 1 (low) and 0 (high).
When a tagged packet enters a switch port, the switch responds by
placing the packet into one of the two queues according to following
assignments:
IEEE 802.1p
Traffic Class
AT-9410GB
Queue
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
For example, a tagged packet with a priority tag of 6 is placed in the high
priority queue, while a packet with a priority tag of 1 is placed in the low
priority queue.
These priority-to-queue assignments can be overridden using the
AT-S45 management software on a per port basis.
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Configuring QoS
To configure QoS for the switch, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select
Quality of Service Configuration Menu.
The Quality of Service Configuration Menu is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Quality of Service Configuration Menu
QoS Status : Disabled
Traffic Class
------------0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
------------1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0 : Highest
1 : Lowest
---------------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------Set [S]tatus
Set [P]riority Queue
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 34 Quality of Service Configuration Menu
3. From the Quality of Service Configuration Menu, type S to select Set
Status.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enable or Disable QoS (E/D) >
E for Enable; D for Disable
4. Type E to enable the service or D to disable it. The default setting is
disabled.
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5. If you activate QoS and want to change the queue assignments, type
P to select Set Priority Queue.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enter Traffic Class
Traffic class is in range of 0 to 7
Note
The default setting for traffic classes 0 - 3 is the low priority queue.
The default setting for traffic classes 4 - 7 is the high priority queue.
6. Enter a traffic class.
The following prompt is displayed.
Enter queue for traffic class>
Queue is in range of 0 to 1
7. Enter a priority queue (0 - high: 1 - low).
All tagged frames will be directed to either the low or high priority
queue as specified in this step.
Note
The tagged information in a frame is not changed as the frame
traverses the switch. A tagged frame leaves a switch with the same
priority level that it had when it entered.
124
Chapter 12
IGMP Snooping
This chapter explains how to activate and configure the IGMP snooping
feature on the switch. Sections in the chapter include:
❑ IGMP Snooping Overview on page 126
❑ Activating IGMP Snooping on page 127
❑ Viewing Group Members on page 129
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IGMP Snooping Overview
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) enables routers to
create lists of nodes that are members of multicast groups. (A multicast
group is a group of end nodes that want to receive multicast packets
from a multicast application.) The router creates a multicast membership
list by periodically sending out queries to the local area networks
connected to its ports. A node wanting to become a member of a
particular multicast group responds to a query by sending a report.
Nodes that join a multicast group are referred to as host nodes.
Once the router has received a report, it notes the multicast group that
the host node wants to join and the port on the router where the node is
located. Any multicast packets belonging to that multicast group are
then forwarded by the router out the port. If a particular port on the
router has no nodes that want to be members of multicast groups, the
router does not send multicast packets out the port. This improves
network performance by restricting multicast packets only to router
ports where host nodes are located.
The IGMP snooping feature enables the switch to monitor the flow of
queries from the router and reports from the host nodes to build its own
multicast membership lists. It uses the lists to forward multicast packets
only to switch ports where there are host nodes that are members of
multicast groups. This improves switch performance and network
security by further restricting the flow of multicast packets only to those
switch ports connected to host nodes.
Without IGMP snooping, the switch would flood all multicast packets
out all of its ports, except the port on which it received the packet. Such
flooding of packets can negatively impact switch and network
performance.
Note
By default, IGMP snooping is disabled on the switch.
Note
The AT-S45 software supports both IGMP version 1 and version 2.
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Activating IGMP Snooping
To enable or disable IGMP snooping on the switch and to configure
IGMP snooping parameters, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select IGMP
Snooping Configuration Menu.
The IGMP Snooping Configuration Menu in Figure 35 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Advanced Switch Configuration -> IGMP Configuration Menu
IGMP Snooping Status:
Disabled
IGMP Snooping Age-Out Timer : 280 seconds.
VLAN ID
-------
Multicast group address
-----------------------
--------------------------- <COMMAND> ------------------------------[N]ext Page
[E]nable/Disable IGMP Snooping
[P]revious Page
[S]et Age Out Timer
[V]iew group members
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 35 IGMP Snooping Configuration Menu
The fields and commands in the window are defined below:
[E]nable/Disable IGMP Snooping
Enables and disables IGMP snooping on the switch. After selecting
this option, type E to enable or D to disable this feature.
[S]et Age Out Timer
Specifies the time period in seconds after which the switch stops
sending out multicast packets out a port with an inactive host node.
An inactive host node is a node that has not sent an IGMP report
during the specified time interval. The range is from 280 to 420
seconds. The default is 280 seconds.
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This parameter also specifies the time interval used by the switch in
determining whether a multicast router is still active. The switch
makes the determination by watching for queries from the router. If
the switch does not detect any queries from a multicast router during
the specified time interval, it assumes that the router is no longer
active on the port.
VLAN ID
Specifies the VLAN’s ID configured on the switch.
Multicast Group Address
Specifies the IP multicast addresses the switch has learned. The
switch can learn up to 128 multicast addresses.
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Viewing Group Members
You can use the AT-S45 software to list the ports on the switch with host
nodes of each multicast group. To display the list, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select IGMP
Snooping Configuration Menu.
3. From the IGMP Snooping Configuration window, type V to select
View Group Members.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID>
4. Enter the VLAN ID number.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address>
5. Enter a multicast address.
The View Group Members Menu in Figure 36 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
IGMP Configuration Menu -> View Group Members Menu
VLAN ID:
3
Multicast group address: 224.0.1.22
Group members
------------------------------------------------------------------3
----------------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 36 View Group Members Menu
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The information in this window is for viewing purposes only. The
columns are defined below:
Multicast Group Address
The multicast address of the group.
Group Members
The port(s) on the switch to which one or more host nodes of the
multicast group are connected.
VLAN ID
Specifies the VLAN’s ID configured on the switch.
130
Chapter 13
Storm Control Configuration
This chapter contains the procedures for configuring the storm control
feature of the AT-S45 management software. Sections in the chapter
include:
❑ Storm Control Overview on page 132
❑ Activating Broadcast Storm Control on page 133
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Storm Control Overview
Most frames on an Ethernet network are unicast frames. A node sending
a unicast frame intends the frame for a particular node on the network.
For example, when a node needs to send a file to a network server for
storage, the node sends the file in unicast Ethernet frames containing
the destination address of the server where the file is to be stored.
Broadcast frames are different. When a node sends out a broadcast
frame, the frame is directed to all nodes on the network or all nodes
within a particular virtual LAN. Broadcast packets can perform a variety
of functions in an Ethernet network. For example, some network
operating systems use broadcast frames to announce the presence of
devices on the network.
The problem with broadcast frames is that too many of them traversing
the network can impact network performance. Should the performance
of your network has been diminished by heavy broadcast traffic, you can
use the AT-S45 management software to limit the number of broadcast
frames passing through the switch and so limit the number of broadcast
frames on your network.
In order to use this feature, you must enable the broadcast storm control
and set the threshold level.
Note
The AT-S45 default setting is no broadcast frame control on the
switch.
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Activating Broadcast Storm Control
To activate the Broadcast Storm control feature, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type C to select Storm
Control Configuration Menu.
The Broadcast Storm Control window in Figure 37 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Basic Switch Configuration -> Storm Configuration Menu
Broadcast Storm Status: Enabled
Threshold :
Low
----------------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------Set [B]roadcast Status
Set [T]hreshold
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 37 Broadcast Storm Control Window
3. Type B to Select Set the Broadcast Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable Broadcast Storm Control (E/D)>
4. Type E to enable Broadcast Storm Control or D to disable it. The
default setting is disabled.
5. If you enabled Broadcast Storm Control, type T to set Threshold.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter Threshold Level >
The values available for the threshold level are:
❑ Low (1000 64-byte packets per second)
❑ Medium (2000 64-byte packets per second)
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❑ High (5000 64-byte packets per second)
The default threshold level is Low.
6. Enter a threshold level.
Your changes are activated immediately on the switch.
134
Chapter 14
Port Statistics
This chapter contains the procedure for displaying data traffic statistics.
The chapter contains the following section:
❑ Displaying Port Statistics on page 136
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Displaying Port Statistics
To display Ethernet port statistics, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type S to select Statistics.
The Statistics menu in Figure 38 is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Main Menu -> Statistics Menu
Port: 1
Elapsed Time Since System Up: 000:00:03:01
<Counter Name>
<Total>
<Avg./s>
Total RX Bytes
0
0
Total RX Pkts
0
0
Good Broadcast
0
0
Good Multicast
0
0
CRC/Align Errors
0
0
Undersize Pkts
0
0
Oversize Pkts
0
0
Fragments
0
0
Jabbers
0
0
Collisions
0
0
64-Byte Pkts
0
0
65-127 Pkts
0
0
128-255 Pkts
0
0
256-511 Pkts
0
0
512-1023 Pkts
0
0
1024-1518 Pkts
0
0
----------------------- <COMMAND> -------------------[S]elect/[N]ext/[P]rev. Port Since [r]eset S[t]op refresh [Q]uit
Command>
Figure 38 Ethernet Statistics Menu
By default, the window displays the statistics for port 1.
2. From the Statistics menu, type S to select a port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port number>
3. Enter the number of the port whose statistics you want to view.
Press Return.
The information in the window is for viewing purposes only. The
statistics are defined below:
Total RX Bytes
Number of bytes received on the port.
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Total RX Packets
Number of packets received on the port.
Good Broadcast
Number of valid broadcast packets received on the port.
Good Multicast
Number of valid multicast packets received on the port.
CRC/Align Errors
Number of packets with a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error but
with the proper length (64-1518 bytes) received on the port.
Undersize Packets
Number of packets that were less than the minimum length
specified by IEEE 802.3 (64 bytes including the CRC) received on
the port.
Oversize Packets
Number of packets exceeding the maximum specified by IEEE
802.3 (1518 bytes including the CRC) received on the port.
Fragments
Number of undersized packets, packets with alignment errors,
and packets with FCS errors (CRC errors) received on the port.
Jabbers
Number of electrical signal errors detected on the port.
Collisions
Number of packet collisions on the port.
64-Byte Pkts
Number of 64-byte packets sent or received by the port. The
minimum length of an Ethernet packet is 64 bytes.
65-127 Pkts
Number of 65- to 127-byte packets sent or received by the port.
128-255 Pkts
Number of 128- to 255-byte packets sent or received by the port.
256-511 Pkts
Number of 256- to 511-byte packets sent or received by the port.
512-1023 Pkts
Number of 512- to 1023-byte packets sent or received by the port.
1023-1518 Pkts
Number of 1023- to 1518-byte packets sent or received by the
port. The maximum length of an Ethernet packet is 1518 bytes.)
If you want to clear the counters on the port and return them to “0”,
select the option “R - Reset” from the Port Statistics Menu.
137
Chapter 15
Management Software Updates
This chapter explains how to obtain new versions of the AT-S45
management software and how to download the software onto an
AT-9410GB switch.
You can download new management software onto a switch using
either of the following methods:
❑ Local management session
❑ Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Sections in the chapter include:
❑ Obtaining Software Updates on page 139
❑ Downloading New Management Software from a Local
Management Session on page 140
❑ Downloading a New Management Software Image Using
TFTP on page 143
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Obtaining Software Updates
New releases of the AT-S45 management software are available from the
Allied Telesyn web site at www.alliedtelesyn.com and from our FTP
server at ftp.alliedtelesyn.com. To log on to the FTP server, enter
“anonymous” for the user name and your email address for the
password. Management software for the AT-9410GB switch will have
“S45” as part of the filename.
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Downloading New Management Software from a Local
Management Session
This section contains the procedure for downloading a new version of
AT-S45 management software onto a switch from a local management
session. The procedure takes approximately 12 minutes to complete.
Note
You cannot perform this procedure from a Telnet or web browser
management session.
Caution
The switch will not forward Ethernet traffic during the software
download and initialization process.
Note
The current configuration of the switch (e.g., IP address, subnet
mask, and virtual LANs) is maintained when you install a new
software image on the switch. To return a switch to its default
configuration, refer to Activating the AT-S45 Management
Software Default Values on page 38.
This procedure assumes that you have already obtained the new version
of management software and have stored it on the computer from
which you will be performing this procedure.
To download a new software onto an AT-9410GB switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. Establish a local management session on the switch where you intend
to download the new management software.
For instructions, refer to Starting a Local Management Session
on page 25.
2. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools Configuration
Menu.
3. From the Switch Tools Configuration menu, type U to select Software
Upgrade Menu.
4. From the Software Upgrade menu, type X for XModem Software
Upgrade.
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The XModem Software Upgrade Menu is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Software Upgrade -> XModem Software Upgrade Menu
Image Version/Date:
1.00E/Jan 15 2002 19:48:12
Baud Rate :
Image File Name:
Image File Type:
9600bps
Binary
------------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------[U]pgrade Image and Reboot
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 39 XModem Software Upgrade Menu
5. Type U to select Upgrade Image and Reboot.
The following prompt is displayed:
Download file (Y/N)>
6. To continue with the procedure, type Y for Yes. To cancel the
procedure, type N for No.
If you select to continue, go to the next step.
7. Begin the file transfer. Steps 8 through 11 illustrate how to perform
the transfer using the Hilgraeve HyperTerminal program.
8. From the HyperTerminal window, select Transfer from the menu.
Then select Send File from the pull-down menu.
Figure 40 Hilgraeve HyperTerminal Window
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
The Send File pop-up window is displayed.
Figure 41 Send File Window
9. Click the Browse button on the Send File window to specify the
location of the switch’s image file.
10. Click on the Protocol field and set to 1K Xmodem transfer protocol.
11. Click Send.
The software immediately begins to download onto the switch’s
CPU. As this process begins, the Xmodem File Send window
displays the current status of the software download. This process
will take approximately 12 minutes to complete.
The XModem File Send window is displayed.
Figure 42 XModem File Send Window
Once the new software download process has completed, the
switch begins to initialize the software. This takes approximately
1 minute to complete. Once the initialization process is complete,
the switch will automatically reboot.
Note
Do not interrupt the initialization process.
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Downloading a New Management Software Image Using TFTP
TFTP software is available from various sources and is included in SNMP
which can be purchased through Allied Telesyn. A command line version
is included in most UNIX variants and in Windows NT. Please consult the
documentation or the manufacturer of the software used on the proper
use of the software.
You will need to provide the following information when using the TFTP
client software to download the AT-S45 software image:
❑ Set TFTP Server IP Address
❑ Set Image File Name
❑ Upgrade Image and Reboot
❑ Set Retry Count
This procedure assumes that you have already obtained a copy of TFTP
software and have stored it on the computer from which you will be
performing this procedure.
To download the new AS-45 software image onto your AT-9410GB
switch, perform the following procedure:
1. Establish a local management session on the switch where you intend
to download the new management software.
For instructions, refer to Starting a Local Management Session
on page 25.
2. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools Configuration
Menu.
3. From the Switch Tools Configuration menu, type U to select Software
Upgrade Menu.
4. From the Software Upgrade menu, type T for TFTP Software Upgrade.
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The TFTP Software Upgrade Menu is displayed.
AT-9410GB Local Management System
Enter the character in square brackets to select option
Main Menu -> Software Upgrade Menu
Image Version/Date:
1.00E/Jan 15 2002 19:48:12
TFTP Server IP:
Image File Name:
Retry Count:
149.35.19.3
AT9410_v100E.rom
5
----------------------- <COMMAND> -------------------------Set TFTP [S]erver IP Address
Set Image [F]ile Name
[U]pgrade Image and Reboot
Set [R]etry Count
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 43 TFTP Software Upgrade Menu
You will need to provide the following information when using the
TFTP client software to download the AT-S45 software image. The
options in the window are defined below.
Set TFTP [S]erver IP Address
Sets the IP address of the server which holds the image file.
Set Image [F]ile Name
Sets the path and filename of the software that is to be downloaded
onto the switch. The filename of the software should be “ATS45.img”. If
necessary, change the filename of the image.
[U]pgrade Image and Reboot
Upgrades the new image to your switch and reboots the switch.
Note
Do not begin the upgrade until you have configured the TFTP
client.
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Set [R]etry Count
The amount of times your system will try to download the image using
FTP. The Set Retry Count range is 1 - 20. The default setting is 5.
5. Open a TFTP client to download the software image onto the switch.
Once the TFTP software is opened, it immediately begins to listen
for incoming requests and the syslog server is running.
Steps 5 and 6 illustrate how to perform the transfer using the
Tftpd32 by Ph. Jounin program.
6. Using the TFTP client, select the current directory where the software
image is located.
Figure 44 TFTP client software window
7. Return to the local management software upgrade menu as
displayed in Figure 43.
8. Type U to select Upgrade Image and Reboot.
The following prompt is displayed:
Download file (Y/N)>
9. Type Y to select Yes.
The software immediately begins to download onto the switch’s
CPU. This process will take seconds to complete.
Once the new software download process has completed, the
switch begins to initialize the software. This takes approximately
1 minute to complete. Once the initialization process is complete,
the switch will automatically reboot.
145
Section III
Web Browser Management
The chapters in this section explain how to manage an AT-9410GB
Gigabit Ethernet switch using a web browser. The chapters include:
❑ Chapter 16, Starting a Web Browser Management Session on
page 148
❑ Chapter 17, Basic Switch Parameters on page 151
❑ Chapter 18, Port Parameters on page 170
❑ Chapter 19, Port Security on page 178
❑ Chapter 20, Port Trunks on page 182
❑ Chapter 21, Port Monitoring on page 185,
❑ Chapter 22, Spanning Tree Protocol on page 187
❑ Chapter 23, Virtual LANs on page 192
❑ Chapter 24, MAC Address Table on page 210
❑ Chapter 25, Quality of Service on page 218
❑ Chapter 26, IGMP Snooping on page 221
❑ Chapter 27, Storm Control Configuration on page 225
❑ Chapter 28, Management Software Updates on page 227
146
Chapter 16
Starting a Web Browser
Management Session
This chapter contains the procedure for starting a management session
on an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch using a web browser, such as
Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Starting a Web Browser Management Session
This section explains how to start a web browser management session.
Note
In order for you to manage an AT-9410GB switch using a web
browser, the switch must have an IP address. Initially assigning an IP
address to a switch can only be done through a local management
session. For instructions, refer to Configuring an IP Address on
page 30.
To start a web browser management session, perform the following
procedure:
1. Start your web browser.
Note
If your PC with the web browser is connected directly to the switch
to be managed or is on the same side of a firewall as the switch, you
must configure your browser’s network options not to use proxies.
Consult your web browser’s documentation on how to configure
the switch’s web browser not to use proxies.
2. Enter the IP address of the switch you want to manage in the URL field
of the browser, as shown in Figure 45.
Switch’s IP Address
Figure 45 Entering a Switch’s IP Address in the URL Field
3. When prompted, enter the user name and password. The default user
name and password is “manager” and both are case-sensitive.
On a web management session, the user name and password
cannot be changed. To change the user name and password, refer
to the local management procedure Configuring an IP Address
on page 152.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
The window shown in Figure 46 is displayed.
Figure 46 Home Page
This is the Home page of the management software. In the top portion
of the Home page is the main menu:
❑ General Info.
❑ Basic Config.
❑ Advanced Config.
❑ Tools
❑ Statistics
Note
A web browser management session remains active even if you link
to other sites. You can return to the management web pages
anytime as long as you do not quit the browser.
Browser Tools
You can use the browser tools to move around the Omega menus.
Selecting Back on your browser’s toolbar returns you to the previous
display. You can also use the browser’s bookmark feature on
frequently-used Omega menus and windows.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Quitting from a
Web Browser
Management
Session
To exit from a web browser management session, close the web
browser.
150
Chapter 17
Basic Switch Parameters
The procedure in this chapter explains how to set the following switch
parameters:
❑ Configuring an IP Address on page 152
❑ Configuring System Administration Information on page 154
❑ Setting the User Interface Configuration on page 156
❑ Activating DHCP on page 158
❑ Configuring the SNMP Parameters and Trap IP Addresses on
page 160
❑ Resetting a Switch on page 162
❑ Viewing the AT-S45 Version Number and Switch MAC Address
on page 164
❑ Pinging a Network Device on page 166
❑ Bootstrap Configuration on page 168
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring an IP Address
Note
For guidelines on when to assign an IP address, subnet address, and
gateway address to an AT-9410GB switch, refer to When Does an
AT-9410GB Switch Need an IP Address? on page 29.
To set the IP address on an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet switch, perform
the following procedure:
1. From the Home Page, select Basic Config. and then select IP. Config.
from the sub-menu.
The IP Configuration menu in Figure 47 is displayed.
Figure 47 IP Configuration menu
2. Change the parameters as desired.
The parameters are described below:
System MAC Address
This parameter specifies the MAC address of the switch. This
parameter cannot be changed.
System IP address
This parameter specifies the IP address of the switch. You must
specify an IP address if you intend to remotely manage the switch
using a web browser, a Telnet utility, or an SNMP management
program.
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System Subnet Mask
This parameter specifies the subnet mask for the switch. You must
specify a subnet mask if you assigned an IP address to the switch.
System Default Gateway
This parameter specifies the default router’s IP address. This
address is required if you intend to remotely manage the switch
from a management station that is separated from the switch by
a router.
DHCP Mode
This parameter specifies the DHCP mode of the switch. You can
enable or disable the DHCP mode. The default setting is set to
disabled. For background information on DHCP, refer to
Activating the DHCP Service on page 34.
3. After you have set the parameters, click Apply. Your changes are not
stored to flash in the switch until you select Apply.
4. If you made a change to the IP address, subnet mask, or gateway
address, you must reset the switch to activate your change. To reset a
switch from a web browser management session, refer to Resetting
a Switch on page 162.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Configuring System Administration Information
To set the switch name for an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet switch,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Home Page, select Basic Config. and then select
Admin. Config. from the sub-menu.
The Administration Configuration menu in Figure 48 is displayed.
Figure 48 Administration Configuration menu
2. Change the parameters as desired.
The parameters are described below:
System Description
This parameter specifies the model name of the switch. This
parameter cannot be changed.
System Object ID
This parameter specifies the numeric ID of the switch. This
parameter cannot be changed.
System Name
This parameter specifies a name for the switch (for example, Sales
Ethernet switch). Entering a value for this parameter is optional.
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Note
You should assign each switch a name. The names can help you
identify the various switches in your network. This can help you
avoid performing a configuration procedure on the wrong switch.
System Location
This parameter specifies the location of the switch. Entering a
value for this parameter is optional.
System Contact
This parameter specifies the name of the network administrator
responsible for managing the switch. Entering a value for this
parameter is optional.
3. After you have set the parameters, click Apply. Your changes are not
activated until you select Apply.
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AT-S45 User’s Guide
Setting the User Interface Configuration
The procedure in this section explains how to set the user interface
security features of the switch, including idle timeouts, how to enable
and disable the different management session options, and how to
change the user name and password for the switch.
To set a switch’s user interface configuration, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Home Page, select Basic Config. and then select
User Interface from the sub-menu.
The User Interface page in Figure 49 is displayed.
Figure 49 User Interface
2. Change the parameters as desired.
The parameters in the User Interface Configuration window are
described below:
Console UI Idle Timeout
This parameter causes the management software to
automatically end a management session if it does not detect any
activity from the local management station after the specified
period of time. This security feature can prevent unauthorized
individuals from using your management station should you step
away from your system while configuring a switch. The default for
the console timeout value is 5 minutes.You can set the timeout for
between 0 and 60 minutes.
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Telnet UI Idle Timeout
This parameter causes the management software to
automatically end a management session if it does not detect any
activity from the remote management station after the specified
period of time. This security feature can prevent unauthorized
individuals from using your management station should you step
away from your system while configuring a switch. The default for
the Telnet timeout value is 5 minutes. You can set the timeout for
between 0 and 60 minutes.
Enable/Disable Telnet Server
You can disable the Telnet management feature on the switch,
and so prevent individuals from managing the switch remotely
using a Telnet session.
Enable/Disable SNMP Agent
You can disable the SNMP management feature on the switch,
and so prevent individuals from managing the switch remotely
using an SNMP agent.
Enable/Disable Web Server
You can disable the Web browser management feature on the
switch, and so prevent individuals from managing the switch
remotely using a Web browser.
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Activating DHCP
This application protocol was developed to simplify network
management. It is used to automatically assign IP configuration
information to the devices on your network, such as an IP address,
subnet mask, and, in some instances, a default gateway address.
The AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet switch supports this protocol and can
obtain its IP configuration information from a DHCP server on your
network. If you activate this feature, the switch will seek its IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway from a DHCP server residing on your
network.
Most DHCP services allow you to specify whether the IP address
assignment from the server is to be static or dynamic. If you choose
static, the server will always assign the same IP address to the switch
when the switch is reset or powered on. If you choose dynamic, the
server will assign an unused IP address from its list of potential IP
addresses each time the switch is reset or powered on.
Note
The DHCP option is disabled by default on the switch.
To activate or deactivate the DHCP protocols on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Home Page, select Basic Config. and then select IP Config.
from the sub-menu.
The IP Configuration page in Figure 49 is displayed.
Figure 50 IP Configuration
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2. Click on the DHCP Mode pull-down menu, select Enable.
3. Click the Apply button.
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Configuring the SNMP Parameters and Trap IP Addresses
To change the switch’s SNMP community strings or to specify the IP
addresses of management stations to receive traps from the switch,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Home page, select Basic Config. and then select
SNMP Config. from the sub-menu.
The SNMP Configuration page in Figure 51 is displayed.
Figure 51 SNMP Configuration
2. Adjust the parameters as desired. The parameters are described
below.
Enable Community
Disable Community
Delete Community
Use these parameters to set a switch’s SNMP community strings.
Trap Receiver 1
Trap Receiver 2
Trap Receiver 3
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Trap Receiver 4
Use these selections to specify the IP addresses of up to four
management workstations on your network to receive traps from
the switch.
3. Click Apply to save your changes to the switch.
4. To restore the switch’s default setting, click Restore.
Changes are immediately activated on the switch.
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Resetting a Switch
To reset a switch, perform the following procedure:
1. On the Home page, click on the Tools menu tab. The Tools sub-menu
will appear. Choose System Reboot from the sub-menu.
The System Reboot page in Figure 52 is displayed.
Figure 52 System Reboot
The options in the System Reboot page are defined below. Change
the options as desired.
Reboot Status
Sets the reboot status of the switch. This parameter can be set to Start or
Stop. The default setting is stop.
Reboot Type
Sets the reboot type of the switch. This parameter can be set to:
❑ Factory Defaults
Resets the switch and returns all parameter settings to their
factory default values.
❑ Factory Defaults Except IP
Resets the switch and returns all parameter settings, except for
the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway address, to their factory
default values.
❑ Normal Defaults
Resets the switch but retains all current parameter settings.
2. Select the desired reboot option from the Reboot Type field.
3. Select Start from the Reboot Status field.
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4. Click Apply.
This process takes approximately 1 minute to complete.
Caution
The switch will not forward traffic during the brief period required to
reload its operating software. Some data traffic may be lost.
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Viewing the AT-S45 Version Number and Switch MAC Address
To view basic information about the switch, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Home page, select General Info. and then select
Switch Info. from the sub-menu.
The Switch Information page in Figure 53 is displayed.
Figure 53 Switch Information
This page is for viewing purposes only. You cannot change any of
the values from this window. The sections in the window are
defined below.
Hardware Information
This section displays the switch’s current software version, DRAM
size, flash size, and console baud rate.
Administration Information
This section displays the switch’s name, location and contact
information. These values are defined in the procedure
Configuring System Administration Information on page 154,
which also explains how to change the parameters.
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System MAC Address, IP Address, Subnet Mask and Gateway
This section contains a variety of information, including the IP
address of the switch and the system name. These parameters are
defined in the procedure Configuring an IP Address on page
152, which also explains how to change the parameters.
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Pinging a Network Device
To configure the ping execution settings on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. Click on the Tools menu tab and select Ping from the sub-menu.
The Ping Test Configuration page is displayed, as shown in Figure
54.
Figure 54 Ping Test Configuration
2. Adjust the parameters as desired. To change a value, enter the new
information in the data entry field. The parameters are described
below.
Destination IP Address
This command specifies the IP address of the end node you are
pinging.
Timeout Value
The length of time for which the switch will continue to send
pings if it does not receive a response. The default timeout setting
is 3 seconds.
Number of Ping Requests
Number of ping attempts the switch should make before it stops
pinging if it does not receive a response. The default number of
ping requests is 10.
3. Click the Start button.
4. To view the ping results, click the Show Ping Results button.
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The Ping Test Result page is displayed, as shown in Figure 55.
Figure 55 Ping Test Result
The parameters cannot be modified on this page. They are for
informational purposes only. The parameters are described
below.
Destination IP Address
This is the IP address you entered on the Ping Test Configuration
page.
Pass
Number of successful pings.
Average Time
Average length of time for each ping request.
5. Use the Back to Ping Test link to return to the Ping Test Configuration
page.
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Bootstrap Configuration
The bootstrap feature allows you to download new software and
configuration settings when you boot up the switch.
To configure the bootstrap settings on the switch, perform the following
procedure:
1. Click on the Tools menu tab and select Bootstrap from the submenu.
The Bootstrap Configuration page is displayed, as shown in Figure
56.
Figure 56 Bootstrap Configuration
2. Adjust the parameters as desired. To change a parameter setting,
select the option from the pull-down menu and click the Apply
button. The parameters are described below.
Boot Mode
Allows the user to determine how the switch should boot up.
There are two boot load options: local and remote.
❑ Local
If you choose the local boot load mode, the switch boots using the
management software that is saved in the switch memory. This is
the default boot load mode. If you are going to use the local boot
load mode, you do not need to configure any of the other
parameters on the Bootstrap Configuration Menu and the switch
will not download any files when it boots up.
❑ Remote
If you choose the remote boot load mode, the switch downloads
software from a TFTP server and boots using the newly
downloaded management software.
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Load Mode
If you are using the remote boot load mode, you need to specify
how the switch should download the new management software.
There are two boot mode options: DHCP and TFTP.
❑ DHCP
If you choose the DHCP boot mode, the switch will use DHCP to
determine the switch IP address, the TFTP server address, and the
image or configuration file name. The switch will use this
information to download the management software from the
TFTP server.
❑ TFTP
If you choose the TFTP boot mode, the switch will use the IP
address that you assigned to the switch on the System IP
Configuration Menu as well as the TFTP server address and the
image or configuration file name that you entered in the TFTP
section of the Software Upgrade Menu.
Boot File Type
If you selected the remote boot load mode, you can choose what
kind of files the switch will download while it is booting up. There
are three file type options:
❑ Image
An image file is the management software for the switch.
❑ Configuration
A configuration file is a file that contains all of the existing
configurations and settings for a switch. You can upload the
configuration file and modify the switch settings and then
download the configuration file back to the switch or onto
multiple switches that you want to have the same configurations.
The switch(es) will then update their configuration(s) based on
the settings in the configuration file.
❑ Image and Configuration
This option allows you to download both the management
software and the configuration file.
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Chapter 18
Port Parameters
The procedures in this chapter allow you to view and change the
parameter settings for the individual ports on a switch. Examples of port
parameters that you can adjust include duplex mode and port speed.
This chapter contains the following procedures:
❑ Configuring Port Parameters on page 171
❑ Displaying Port Status on page 173
❑ Displaying Statistics on page 176
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Configuring Port Parameters
To configure the parameter settings for a port on a switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Home page, select Basic Config. and then select
Port Config. from the sub-menu.
The Port Configuration window is shown in Figure 57.
Figure 57 Port Configuration window
2. Adjust the port parameter(s) that you want to configure. You can
configure only one port at a time.
The parameters are described below.
Port Index
This number specifies the number of the port of the switch. This
parameter can not be changed.
Trunk
This number specifies the number of the trunk that the port
resides in, if any. For instructions on how to create a port trunk,
refer to Port Trunks on page 182.
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Type
This number specifies the maximum operating speed of the port.
Link Status
The link status between the port and the end node connected to
the port. Possible values are:
Up - indicates that a valid link exists between the port and the end
node.
Down - indicates that the port and the end node have not
established a valid link.
Admin. Status
The current operating status on the port. Possible values are:
Enabled - Indicates that the port is enabled.
Disabled - Indicates that the port is disabled.
Mode
The operating speed and duplex mode of the port. Possible
settings for this parameter are:
❑ Auto-Negotiate: The port will Auto-Negotiate both speed and
duplex mode. This is the default.
❑ 1000Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 100Mbps - Full Duplex
❑ 10Mbps - Full Duplex
❑ 1000Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 100Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 10Mbps - Half Duplex
Flow Control
The flow control setting for the port. Possible values are:
Enabled - Flow control is activated on the port.
Disable - No flow control on the port.
3. Once you have made the desired changes, click Apply.
The switch immediately activates the parameter changes on the
port.
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Displaying Port Status
The procedure in this section displays the operating status of the ports
on a switch. To display the status of a switch port, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Home page, select General Info. and then select
Front Panel from the sub-menu.
The Front Panel window is shown in Figure 58.
Figure 58 Front Panel window
This page displays a graphical image of the front of the switch.
Ports with valid links to end nodes have a green light.
2. Click a port. You can select only one port at a time.
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The Configuration of a Port window in Figure 59 is displayed.
Figure 59 Configuration of a Port Window
This window displays the port’s configuration and operating
status.
Set the port parameters as desired. You can set a parameter by
clicking in field you desire to modify. The parameters are
described below.
Port Type
This number specifies the maximum operating speed of the port.
This parameter can not be changed.
Operation Status
The status of the link between the port and the end node
connected to the port. Possible values are:
Up - indicates that a valid link exists between the port and the end
node.
Down - indicates that the port and the end node have not
established a valid link.
Admin. Status
The current operating status on the port. Possible values are:
Enabled - Indicates that the port is enabled.
Disabled - Indicates that the port is disabled.
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Speed Mode
The operating speed and duplex mode of the port. Possible
settings for this parameter are:
❑ Auto-Negotiate: The port will Auto-Negotiate both speed and
duplex mode. This is the default.
❑ 1000Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 100Mbps - Full Duplex
❑ 10Mbps - Full Duplex
❑ 1000Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 100Mbps - Half Duplex
❑ 10Mbps - Half Duplex
Flow Control
The port’s flow control setting. Possible values are:
Enable - Flow control is activated on the port.
Disable - No flow control on the port.
MAC Address
This specifies the MAC address of the port.
Priority
This parameter applies only when the switch is using STP. The
parameter is used as a tie breaker when two or more ports have
equal costs to the root bridge. The range is 0 - 255.
Path Cost
This parameter applies only when the switch is using STP. This
parameter is used in deciding which port has the lowest cost to
the root bridge.
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Displaying Statistics
The procedure in this section displays the statistics of a port on a switch.
To display the statistics of a port, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Home page, select Statistics from the menu.
The Statistics window is shown in Figure 60.
Figure 60 Statistics Window
2. To view statistics on a port, click and select a port on the Select Port
parameter.
3. Click Apply.
The information in this window is for viewing purposes only. The
statistics are defined below:
Total RX Bytes
Number of bytes received on the port.
Total RX Packets
Number of packets received on the port.
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Good Broadcast
Number of valid broadcast packets received on the port.
Good Multicast
Number of valid multicast packets received on the port.
CRC/Align Errors
Number of packets with a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error but
with the proper length (64-1518 bytes) received on the port.
Undersize Packets
Number of packets that were less than the minimum length
specified by IEEE 802.3 (64 bytes including the CRC) received on
the port.
Oversize Packets
Number of packets exceeding the maximum specified by IEEE
802.3 (1518 bytes including the CRC) received on the port.
Fragments
Number of undersized packets, packets with alignment errors,
and packets with FCS errors (CRC errors) received on the port.
Jabbers
Number of electrical signal errors detected on the port.
Collisions
Number of packet collisions on the port.
64-Byte Pkts
Number of 64-byte packets sent or received by the port. The
minimum length of an Ethernet packet is 64 bytes.
65-127 Pkts
Number of 65- to 127-byte packets sent or received by the port.
128-255 Pkts
Number of 128- to 255-byte packets sent or received by the port.
256-511 Pkts
Number of 256- to 511-byte packets sent or received by the port.
512-1023 Pkts
Number of 512- to 1023-byte packets sent or received by the port.
1023-1518 Pkts
Number of 1023- to 1518-byte packets sent or received by the
port. The maximum length of an Ethernet packet is 1518 bytes.)
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Chapter 19
Port Security
This chapter contains the procedures for setting port security. The
sections in this chapter include:
❑ Configuring Port Security on page 179
❑ Displaying Port Security Settings on page 181
Note
For background information on port security, refer to Port Security
Overview on page 57.
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Configuring Port Security
To configure the switch’s port security, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and
then select the Port Security tab in the sub-menu. Select Security
Config from the next sub-menu.
The Port Security window in Figure 61 as displayed.
Figure 61 Port Security Window
2. Select the port whose security you would like to configure from the
Port pull-down menu.
3. Select a security level for the port by checking one of the radio
buttons below Security Mode: The options are Normal, Limit, and
Secure. For a description of these security levels, refer to Port
Security Overview on page 57.
Note
The default Security Mode is Normal.
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4. If you selected the Limit security level, set a threshold for the
maximum number of dynamic MAC addresses the port can learn. The
default threshold is 1. Enter the number of dynamic MAC addresses
(between 1 and 170) in the threshold field you want the port to be
able to learn.
Note
A threshold cannot be set for the port if the security level is set to
Normal or Secure.
5. To control what happens on the port once the threshold has been
met, check one of the radio buttons next to the intrusion detection
Notification options.
The options are:
❑ No action
❑ Disable the port only
❑ Notify with trap only
❑ Notify with trap and disable the port
6. To configure the security for another port, select the port number
from the Port pull-down menu at the top of the Port Security page
and repeat this process.
7. To verify the new port security configurations and to see the security
settings for all of the ports at once, continue to the next section,
Displaying Port Security Settings on page 181.
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Displaying Port Security Settings
To view the switch’s port security settings, perform the following
procedure:
1. On the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and then
select Port Security from the sub-menu. Select Security Overview
from the next sub-menu.
The Port Security Overview page will appear, as displayed in
Figure 62, allowing you to see the security settings for all of the
ports on a switch.
Figure 62 Port Security Overview Window
2. To change the security settings for a port, click on the port number in
the Port Index column on the left-hand side of the page. You will be
taken to the Port Security page, where you can configure port security
as described in the previous section.
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Chapter 20
Port Trunks
This chapter contains the procedure for creating or deleting a port trunk
from a web browser management session.
❑ Creating or Deleting a Port Trunk on page 183
Note
For background information on port trunking, refer to Port
Trunking Overview on page 63.
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Creating or Deleting a Port Trunk
Caution
Do not connect the cables of a port trunk to the ports on the switch
until after you have configured the ports on both the switch and the
end node. Connecting the cables prior to configuring the ports can
create loops in your network topology. Loops can result in
broadcast storms, which can adversely effect the operations of your
network.
If you are deleting a port trunk, disconnect the cables from the ports
before you delete the trunk. Deleting the trunk without first
disconnecting the data cables can create a loop in your network
topology, which can produce broadcast storms.
To create or delete a port trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Home page, select Advanced Config. and then select
Trunk Config. from the sub-menu.
The management software displays the Trunk Configuration
window in Figure 63.
Figure 63 Trunk Configuration Window
If the switch does not contain a port trunk, all ports in the switch
image will not be checked. If there is a port trunk, the ports of the
trunk will be checked.
2. To create a port trunk, do the following:
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a. Click the ports that will make up the port trunk. A port trunk can
contain 2, 3, or 4 ports.
b. Click on the Status field, select Enable.
The new port trunk is immediately activated on the switch. You
can now connect the data cables to the ports of the trunk on the
switch.
3. To delete a port trunk, deselect all port members of the trunk you
want to delete.
4. Click on the Status field and select Disable.
5. Click Apply.
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Chapter 21
Port Monitoring
This chapter contains the procedure for creating or deleting a port
monitor.
❑ Creating or Deleting a Port Monitor on page 186
Note
For background information on port monitoring, refer to
Port Monitoring Overview on page 70.
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Creating or Deleting a Port Monitor
To create or delete a port monitor, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Home page, select Advanced Config. and then select
Port Monitoring from the sub-menu.
The management software displays the Port Monitoring
Configuration window in Figure 64.
Figure 64 Port Monitoring Configuration Window
2. To create a port monitor, do the following:
a. Use the pull-down menu from Monitoring Port to select the port
to function as the port monitor.
b. Use the pull-down menu from Port Being Monitored to select the
port whose traffic is to be copied to the monitor port. You can
select from 1 to 12 ports.
c. Click Apply.
d. Select the Monitoring Status pull-down menu, click Enable.
e. Click Apply.
The port monitor is immediately activated on the switch. You can
now connect a data analyzer to the monitor port to monitor the
traffic on the selected port.
3. To delete an existing port monitor, select Disable from the
Monitoring Status pull-down menu and click Apply.
The port monitor is deleted. The port that was functioning as the
monitor port can now be used for normal network operations.
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Chapter 22
Spanning Tree Protocol
This chapter explains how to configure the STP bridge parameters on an
AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch from a web browser management
session.
Sections in the chapter include:
❑ Configuring a Bridge’s STP Settings on page 188
❑ Configuring STP Port Settings on page 190
Note
For background information on STP, refer to STP Overview on page
75.
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Configuring a Bridge’s STP Settings
Caution
STP on a bridge is disabled by default. If you enable STP, the bridge
provides default STP parameters that are adequate for most
networks. Changing them without prior experience and an
understanding of how STP works might have a negative effect on
your network. You should consult the IEEE 802.1d standard before
changing any of the STP parameters.
To configure a bridge’s STP parameters, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Home page, click on Basic Config., Spanning Tree and
then STP Config. from the sub-menu.
The Spanning Tree Bridge Configuration window in Figure 65 is
displayed.
Figure 65 Spanning Tree Window - Configuration
2. Adjust the bridge STP settings as needed. The parameters are
described below.
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Enable/Disable STP
Enables and disables STP on the switch. The default setting is
disabled.
Bridge Priority
The priority number for the bridge. This number is used in
determining the root bridge for STP. The bridge with the lowest
priority number is selected as the root bridge. If two or more
bridges have the same priority value, the bridge with the
numerically lowest MAC address becomes the root bridge. When
a root bridge goes off-line, the bridge with the next priority
number automatically takes over as the root bridge. This
parameter can be from 0 (zero) to 65,535, with 0 being the highest
priority.
Bridge Hello Time
The time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the bridge. This parameter can be from 1 to 10
seconds. The default is 2 seconds.
Bridge Maximum Age
The length of time after which stored bridge protocol data units
(BPDUs) are deleted by the bridge. All bridges in a bridged LAN
use this aging time to test the age of stored configuration
messages called bridge protocol data units (BPDUs). For example,
if you use the default 20, all bridges delete current configuration
messages after 20 seconds. This parameter can be from 6 to 40
seconds. The default is 20 seconds.
Note
The aging time for BPDUs is different from the aging time used by
the MAC address table.
Bridge Forward Delay
The waiting period before a bridge changes to a new state, for
example, becomes the new root bridge after the topology
changes. If the bridge transitions too soon, not all links may have
yet adapted to the change, resulting in network loops. The default
is 15 seconds.
3. After you have made the desired changes, click Apply.
Changes are immediately activated on the switch.
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Configuring STP Port Settings
To display and configure the STP port settings, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Home page, click on Basic Config., Spanning Tree and
then STP Port Config. from the sub-menu.
The Spanning Tree Port Configuration window in Figure 66 is
displayed.
Figure 66 Spanning Tree Port Configuration
2. Adjust the parameter settings as desired. The parameters are
described below.
The 9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch has the “All” setting that
allows a global setting to be set for all ports on the switch.
3. Click Apply.
Priority
This parameter is used as a tie breaker when two or more ports are
determined to have equal costs to the root bridge. The range is 0255. The default value for priority is 128.
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Note
Port Priority can not be set on ports that are part of a trunk group.
Path Cost
The spanning tree algorithm uses the cost parameter to decide
which port provides the lowest cost path to the root bridge for
that LAN. The default values for this parameter are 100 for a 10
Mbps port, 10 for a 100 Mbps port, and 4 for a 1 Gbps port. The
range is 1 to 65535.
This following information is for display purposes only and cannot be
changed from the Spanning Tree Port Configuration Menu.
Port Index
The port number on the switch. “All” indicates a setting that
includes all ports on the switch.
Port Status
The current STP status of the port. Possible values are:
❑ Forwarding
❑ Listening
❑ Learning
❑ Blocking
Port Speed
The current operating speed of the port.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the port.
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Chapter 23
Virtual LANs
This chapter explains how to create, modify, and delete VLANs from a
web management session.
Note
For background information on VLANs, refer to Chapter 9, Virtual
LANs.
This chapter contains the following sections:
❑ Creating a Tagged or Untagged VLAN on page 193
❑ Viewing or Modifying a Tagged or Untagged VLAN on page
197
❑ Deleting a Tagged or Untagged VLAN on page 202
❑ Creating a Port-based VLAN on page 203
❑ Viewing or Modifying a Port-based VLAN on page 205
❑ Setting GVRP Status on page 207
❑ Resetting the VLAN Parameters to Default on page 208
❑ Setting the VLAN Type on page 209
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Creating a Tagged or Untagged VLAN
The procedure for creating a new VLAN is divided into the following
phases:
❑ Phase 1: Assigning a VID and name and specifying the port
members
❑ Phase 2: Converting tagged ports into untagged ports
Performing Phase 1 is required whenever you create a new VLAN. Every
VLAN must have a name, VID, and, of course, ports. You will need to
perform Phase 2 if some or all of the ports of a VLAN will be untagged
ports. Ports that you want to function as untagged ports must be
converted by changing their PVIDs, as explained in Phase 2.
To create a new VLAN, start by performing the procedure in Phase 1.
Phase 1
This phase assigns a VID and a name to your VLAN, and also designates
the VLAN port members.
1. On the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and then
select VLAN Config from the sub-menu. Select Create VLAN from
the sub-menu.
The Create/Modify VLAN page will appear, as displayed in Figure
67
Figure 67 Create/Modify VLAN
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Note
Check the VLAN Type field in the window to make sure it is set to
802.1Q, which happens to be the default. You can create tagged and
untagged VLANs only when the switch is operating in the 802.1Q
mode. For instructions on how to change the switch’s VLAN mode,
refer to Setting the VLAN Type on page 209.
2. Enter a VLAN ID in the VLAN ID field.
If this VLAN will be unique in your network, then its VID must also be
unique from all other VIDs in the network.
If this VLAN will be part of a larger VLAN that spans multiple switches,
than the VID value for the VLAN should be the same on each switch.
For example, if you are creating a VLAN called Sales that will span
three switches, you must assign the Sales VLAN on each of the
switches the same VID value.
The VLAN ID must be a value between 2 and 4094.
3. Enter a name for the VLAN of up to 32 characters in the VLAN Name
field.
The name should reflect the function of the nodes that will be a part
of the VLAN (for example, Sales or Accounting). The name spaces, but
not special characters, such as asterisks (*) or exclamation points (!).
If the VLAN will be unique in your network, then the name should be
unique as well.
If the VLAN will be part of a larger VLAN that spans multiple switches,
then the name for the VLAN should be the same on each switch
where nodes of the VLAN are connected.
4. In the Tagged row in the window, select the radio buttons for both the
tagged and untagged ports that are to be members of the new VLAN.
Note
The procedure in Phase 2 explains how to convert tagged ports into
untagged ports by changing the PVIDs.
Note
The rows Forbidden and Not Member are explained in the section
Setting GVRP Status on page 207.
5. Click the Apply button at the bottom right-hand side of the window.
You have now created a new VLAN. You gave it a VID and a name. You
also specified which ports were to be members of the new VLAN.
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However, it is important to note that, by default, all of the ports that
you just added to the new VLAN are tagged ports, meaning they are
shared ports. The ports are still members of their current VLANs.
If you want to convert the ports into untagged ports, you must
perform the procedure in Phase 2.
Note
There are two additional buttons in the bottom right-hand corner of
the page. The Restore button will cancel any changes you have
made to the VLAN since using the Apply button. The Clear button
removes all checks from all radio buttons, letting you select each
port’s configuration. If you leave any port columns blank when you
click the Apply button, the management software will assign those
ports to the Not Member row.
Phase 2
This phase to creating a new VLAN converts the tagged ports that you
added to the new VLAN into untagged ports. This involves changing the
PVIDs of the ports so that they match the VID of the new VLAN. For
example, if you assigned the new VLAN a VID of 4, you must change the
PVIDs of the untagged ports to 4. The following procedure explains how
this is accomplished.
The following procedure assumes that you are continuing directly from
Phase 1.
1. On the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and then
select VLAN Config from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Port Config
from the next sub-menu.
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The VLAN Port Config page will appear, as displayed in Figure 68
Figure 68 VLAN Port Configuration
This window lists the ports on the switch and each port’s current PVID
assignment. For example, referring to the figure above, Ports 5 to 12
all have a PVID of 1, meaning that they are untagged members of the
Default VLAN, which has a VID of 1.
2. Enter a PVID value in the PVID field for the port number whose PVID
you want to change.
Once a new PVID has been assigned to a port, the port is removed as
an untagged port from its current VLAN and added to the new VLAN
as an untagged port.
If the port is also an tagged member of any VLANs, it remains as a
tagged member of those VLANs.
3. Click Apply.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to assign new PVIDs to any other ports that are
to be untagged members of the new VLAN.
This completes the procedure for creating a new VLAN.
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Viewing or Modifying a Tagged or Untagged VLAN
There are two phases to modifying a VLAN. You might need to perform
both phases or just one, depending on what it is you want to change in
the VLAN. The phases are:
❑ Phase 1: In this phase, you can view a VLAN’s configuration, as well
as change a VLAN’s name and add or remove tagged ports.
❑ Phase 2: In this phase, you can add or remove untagged ports.
Phase 1
This phase explains how to display the Config VLAN Member Menu of a
VLAN. This window displays a VLAN’s configuration. You can also use the
window to change a VLAN’s name and add or remove tagged ports.
Note
If you do not want to change a VLAN’s name or add or remove
tagged ports, then skip this procedure and go straight to Phase 2 to
add or remove untagged ports.
1. On the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and then
select VLAN Config from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Info from the
next sub-menu.
The VLAN Information page will appear in Figure 69 as displayed.
Figure 69 VLAN Information (802.1Q VLANs)
This window lists all of the tagged and untagged VLANs on the
switch.
2. Click the Modify option located to the right of the VLAN you want to
modify.
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The VLAN Create/Modify (802.1Q VLANs) in Figure 70 is displayed.
Figure 70 VLAN Create/Modify (802.1Q VLANs)
The rows on the page are defined below:
Tagged
A dot in a radio button indicates the corresponding port is a
tagged member of the VLAN. For example, referring to the figure
above, ports 9 and 10 on the master switch are tagged members
of the VLAN.
Untagged
A ‘U’ for a port indicates that the port is an untagged member of
the VLAN. For example, referring to the figure above, ports 1
through 8 on the master switch are untagged members of the
VLAN.
Dynamic
tbd
Forbidden
A dot in a radio button indicates that the switch will not learn
VLANs from the end node connected to the port. This applies only
to tagged ports and only when GVRP has been activated on the
switch.
Not Member
A selected radio button in this row indicates that the port is not a
member of the VLAN.
3. To add a tagged port to the VLAN, click the Tagged radio button of
the appropriate port.
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Note
You cannot add untagged ports to a VLAN from this window. To add
untagged ports, refer to Phase 2, below.
4. If you want to remove a tagged port from the VLAN, click the
Not Member radio button of the appropriate port.
Note
You cannot remove untagged ports from a VLAN from this window.
To remove untagged ports, refer to Phase 2, below.
5. If GVRP has been activated on the switch and you do not want the
switch to learn new VLANs on a particular tagged port, click the
Forbidden radio button of the appropriate tagged port.
6. After you have made the desired changes to the VLAN, click the
Apply button.
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Phase 2
You must perform this phase whenever you need to add or remove an
untagged port from a VLAN. This phase explains how to change the
PVIDs of the ports so that they match the VID of a different VLAN. For
example, if you want to assign Port 2 as an untagged member of a VLAN
with a VID of 4, you must change the PVID of the port to 4.
1. Click on the Advanced Config menu tab and select VLAN Config
from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Port Config from the next submenu.
The VLAN Port Configuration page will appear, as displayed in
Figure 71.
Figure 71 VLAN Port Configuration
This page lists the ports on the switch and each port’s current PVID
assignment. For example, referring to the figure above, Ports 5 to 12
all have a PVID of 1, meaning that they are untagged members of the
Default VLAN, which has a VID of 1.
By default, this page initially displays the PVIDs for the ports on the
master switch.
2. Enter a new PVID value in the PVID field for the port number whose
PVID you want to change.
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For example, if you wanted to make Port 4 an untagged port of a
VLAN with a VID of 7, you would change the PVID for Port 4 to the
value 7.
3. Click the Apply button.
Once a new PVID has been assigned to a port, the port is removed as
an untagged port from its current VLAN and added to the other VLAN
as an untagged port.
If the port is also an tagged member of any VLANs, it remains as a
tagged member of those VLANs.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to assign new PVIDs to any other ports on the
switch that are to be untagged members of the VLAN.
This completes the procedure for modifying a VLAN.
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Deleting a Tagged or Untagged VLAN
To delete a VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. On the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and then
select VLAN Config from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Info from the
next sub-menu.
The VLAN Information page in Figure 72 is displayed.
Figure 72 VLAN Information
2. Click the Delete option located to the right of the VLAN you want to
delete.
A confirmation prompt is displayed in Figure 73.
Figure 73 Confirmation Prompt
3. Click OK.
The VLAN is removed from the switch. The PVIDs of the untagged
ports in the VLAN are changed to 1, making the ports untagged
members of the Default VLAN.
Note
You cannot delete the Default VLAN, which has a VLAN ID of 1.The
Default VLAN is a permanent VLAN.
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Creating a Port-based VLAN
To create a new port-based or VLAN, perform the following procedure:
Note
This procedure assumes that the switch is already running in the
Port-based VLAN mode. For instructions on how to change the
VLAN mode of the switch, refer to Setting the VLAN Type on page
209.
1. On the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and then
select VLAN Config from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Create from
the next sub-menu.
The Create/Modify VLAN page in Figure 72 is displayed.
Figure 74 Create/Modify VLAN
2. Enter a unique VID in the Index field for the new VLAN. The VID can be
between 2 and 4094.
Since the switch does not examine the VID in tagged headers of
tagged frames when operating in the Port-based VLAN mode, this
VID value does not need to be unique from all other VLANs in your
network. It only needs to be unique from the other VLANs in the
switch on which you are creating the VLAN.
3. Enter a name for the new VLAN in the VLAN Name field. The VLAN
name can contain 0 to 32 characters.
The name can contain spaces, but not special characters, such as
asterisks (*) or exclamation points (!). Then press Enter.
4. Click the ports from the Port Number Member field which you want
to add to the new VLAN.
The VLAN must include at least one port.
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Note
The ports that you add to the new VLAN are not removed from their
current VLAN assignments. You must remove the ports manually
from the other VLANs if you do not want them to be shared. For
instructions, refer to Viewing or Modifying a Port-based VLAN on
page 205.
5. Click Apply. This will save the VLAN you have just created and make
it visible in the VLAN Info Menu.
Note
There are two additional buttons in the bottom right-hand corner of
the page. The Restore button will cancel any changes you have
made to the VLAN since using the Apply button. The Clear button
removes all check marks from all check boxes, letting you re-start
the port selection process.
You can repeat this procedure to create additional port-based VLANs.
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Viewing or Modifying a Port-based VLAN
To view the configuration of a port-based VLAN or to modify a VLAN,
such as to add or remove ports or to change the VLAN name, perform
the following procedure:
1. Click on the Advanced Config menu tab and select VLAN Config
from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Info from the next sub-menu.
The VLAN Information page will appear, as displayed in Figure 75
Figure 75 VLAN Information (Port-based)
This page lists the port-based VLANs on the switch.
2. Click the Modify link in the right column for the VLAN you want to
view or modify.
The Create/Modify VLAN page will appear, as displayed in Figure
76.
Figure 76 Create/Modify VLAN (Port-based VLANs)
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The page indicates which ports on the switch which are members
of the VLAN. A check in a check box indicates that the port is a
VLAN member. An empty box indicates that the port is not a VLAN
member.
3. To change the VLAN’s name, enter a new name in the VLAN Name
text entry field. The name can be from 1 to 32 characters. The name
can contain spaces, but not special characters, such as asterisks (*) or
exclamation points (!). This menu item is optional; the management
software does not require you to provide VLAN names.
4. To add or remove a port, click on the appropriate check box.
Note
You cannot remove ports from the Default VLAN unless they already
belong to another VLAN. Additionally, port removed from other
VLANs are returned to the Default VLAN.
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Setting GVRP Status
Note
Global GVRP is not supported in port-based VLAN mode.
To set the GVRP status, perform the following procedure:
1. Click on the Advanced Config menu tab and select VLAN Config
from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Info from the next sub-menu.
The VLAN Information page in Figure 77 is displayed.
Figure 77 VLAN Information
2. Click on the Global GVRP pull-down menu, select Enable.
Note
The default is disable.
3. Click the Apply button.
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Resetting the VLAN Parameters to Default
This command deletes all VLANs that you created. All ports are returned
back to the Default VLAN.
To return the VLAN parameters of the switch to their default settings,
perform the following procedure:
1. Click on the Advanced Config menu tab and select VLAN Config
from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Info from the next sub-menu.
The VLAN Information page in Figure 78 is displayed.
Figure 78 VLAN Information
2. Click on the Reset to Default button on the right side of the page.
A confirmation prompt is displayed.
3. Click the OK button.
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Setting the VLAN Type
The AT-9410GB switch can operate in either the 802.1Q VLAN mode for
creating tagged and untagged VLANs or the port-based VLAN mode.
Note
The VLAN Type default is 802.1Q.
To change the switch’s VLAN Type, perform the following procedure:
1. Click on the Advanced Config menu tab and select VLAN Config
from the sub-menu. Select VLAN Info from the next sub-menu.
The VLAN Information page will appear.
2. Using the VLAN Support pull-down menu, select either 802.1Q to
create tagged and untagged ports or Port Based to create port-based
VLANs.
Note
The default is 802.1Q.
3. Click the Apply button.
Note
Changing the VLAN Type setting deletes all VLANs except the
Default VLAN.
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Chapter 24
MAC Address Table
This chapter contains instructions on how to view the dynamic and
static addresses in the MAC address table of the switch. This chapter
contains the following procedure:
❑ Viewing the MAC Address by Port on page 211
❑ Viewing the MAC Addresses by MAC on page 212
❑ Viewing the MAC Addresses of a VLAN on page 214
❑ Adding Static MAC Addresses on page 216
❑ Deleting Static MAC Addresses on page 217
Note
For background information on the MAC address table, refer to
MAC Address Overview on page 111.
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Viewing the MAC Address by Port
This section contains the procedure for viewing the dynamic MAC
addresses that have been learned on a particular port. You can also use
this procedure to view any static MAC addresses that have been
assigned to a port.
1. On the Home page, select the Basic Config menu tab and then select
the Forwarding DB tab from the sub-menu. Select Sort by Port from
the next sub-menu.
The Sort by Port window will appear, as displayed.
Figure 79 Sort by Port Window
2. Select the port whose static and dynamic MAC addresses you want to
view from the Port Number pull-down menu.
3. Select Apply from the menu next to the Port Number.
A window is displayed with the MAC addresses of the nodes on
the port. The columns in the window and the definitions of the
columns are the same as for the Display MAC Address by MAC
window on page 111.
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Viewing the MAC Addresses by MAC
This section contains the procedure for viewing the dynamic MAC
addresses that have been learned on all ports of a switch. This procedure
will also let you view all static MAC addresses that have been assigned to
the ports on the switch.
To view the MAC addresses in numerical order on the switch, perform
the following procedure.
1. On the Home page, select the Basic Config menu tab and then the
Forwarding DB tab from the sub-menu. Select Sort by MAC from the
next sub-menu.
The Forwarding Database Configuration - Sort by MAC window
will appear, as displayed.
Figure 80 Sort by MAC Window
The management software displays a window with a list of all
static and dynamic MAC addresses of the nodes of all ports. For
definitions of the columns, refer to the Display MAC Address by
MAC window on page 111.
2. To search by MAC address, enter a MAC address into the
Search MAC Address field. Click Apply.
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The window displays the corresponding port number where the
end node is connected.
3. To modify the aging time, enter a value in seconds in the Aging Time
field. The Aging setting is in range of 10 to 1048 seconds. The default
setting is 300 seconds.
4. Click Apply.
The management software immediately activates the new aging
time value on all ports of the switch.
For more instructions on the setting Aging, please refer to
Changing the Aging Time on page 120
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Viewing the MAC Addresses of a VLAN
The procedure in this section can be useful if you created VLANs on the
switch and want to view the MAC addresses of the nodes of a particular
VLAN. (This procedure is not of much value if the switch contains only
the Default VLAN, in which case displaying the entire MAC address table,
as explained earlier in this chapter, produces the same result.)
Note
To perform this procedure, you need to know the VID number of the
VLAN whose MAC addresses you want to view.
Note
Viewing MAC Addresses by VLAN is not supported in port-based
VLAN mode.
To view the MAC addresses of a VLAN on the switch, perform the
following procedure.
1. On the Home page, select the Basic Config menu tab and then select
the Forwarding DB tab from the sub-menu. Select Sort by VLAN
from the next sub-menu.
The Forwarding Database Configuration - Sort by VLAN window
will appear, as displayed.
Figure 81 Forwarding Database Configuration - Sort by VLAN Window
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2. Enter the VLAN ID whose static and dynamic MAC addresses you want
to view into the VLAN ID field.
3. Click the Apply button next to the VLAN ID field.
The management software displays the MAC addresses of the
nodes of all ports in the VLAN.
4. To modify the aging time, enter a value in seconds in the Aging Time
field. The Aging setting is in range of 10 to 1048 seconds. The default
setting is 300 seconds.
5. Click Apply.
The management software immediately activates the new aging
time value on all ports of the switch.
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Adding Static MAC Addresses
The management software allows you to assign up to 254 static MAC
addresses per port on an AT-9410GB Gigabit Ethernet Switch.
To add a static address to the MAC address table, perform the following
procedure:
1. On the Home page, select the Basic Config menu tab and then select
the Forwarding DB tab from the sub-menu. Select Static FDB from
the next sub-menu.
The Static MAC Address Configuration window will appear, as
displayed.
Figure 82 Static MAC Address Configuration Window
2. Enter a MAC Address you want to configure in the MAC Address field.
3. Click on the Port Number pull-down menu and select the port
number you want to configure.
4. Enter a VLAN ID value in the VLAN ID field.
5. Click Apply.
The management software adds the static address to the MAC
address table for the specified port and VLAN.
6. Repeat steps 2 and 5 to enter additional static MAC addresses.
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Deleting Static MAC Addresses
To delete a static MAC address, perform the following procedure:
1. On the Home page, select the Basic Config menu tab and then the
Forwarding DB tab from the sub-menu. Select Static FDB from the
next sub-menu.
The Static MAC Address Configuration window will appear, as
displayed.
Figure 83 Static MAC Address Configuration Window
The management software displays all static addresses from the
MAC address table.
2. Select the Delete field on the right side of the window for the MAC
Address you desire to delete.
The management software deletes the static address you have
selected from the MAC address table.
3. Repeat step 2 to delete additional static MAC addresses.
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Chapter 25
Quality of Service
This chapter contains instructions on how to configure QoS. This chapter
contains the following procedure:
❑ Configuring QoS on page 219
Note
For background information on QoS, refer to Quality of Service
Overview on page 122.
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Configuring QoS
Note
Quality of Service is not supported in port-based VLAN mode.
To configure QoS, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Home page, select Advanced Config. and then select
Quality of Service from the sub-menu.
The management software displays the Quality of Service window
in Figure 84.
Figure 84 Quality of Service Window
1. Select a Low or High priority queue for the traffic classes whose
priority you wish to change.
Note
The default setting for traffic classes 0 - 3 is the low priority queue.
The default setting for traffic classes 4 - 7 is the high priority queue.
2. Select Enable from the QoS Status pull-down menu.
3. Click the Apply button.
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All tagged frames will be directed to either the low or high priority
queue specified in Step 2.
Note
The tagged information in a frame is not changed as the frame
traverses the switch. A tagged frame exits the switch with the same
priority level that it had when it entered.
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Chapter 26
IGMP Snooping
This chapter explains how to activate and configure the IGMP snooping
feature on the switch. Sections in the chapter include:
❑ Activating IGMP Snooping on page 222
❑ Viewing Group Members on page 224
Note
For background information on this feature, refer to IGMP
Snooping on page 125.
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Activating IGMP Snooping
To enable or disable IGMP snooping on the switch and to configure
IGMP snooping parameters, perform the following procedure:
1. Click on the Advanced Config menu tab and select IGMP Snooping
from the sub-menu.
The IGMP Snooping page will appear, as displayed in Figure 85.
Figure 85 IGMP Snooping
The parameters on the IGMP Snooping page are defined below:
IGMP Snooping Status
Enables and disables IGMP snooping on the switch.
After selecting Enable or Disable, click the Apply button below the
pull-down menus.
Age Out Timer
Specifies the time period in seconds after which the switch stops
sending out multicast packets out of a port with an inactive host
node. An inactive host node is a node that has not sent an IGMP
report during the specified time interval. The range is from 280 to
420 seconds. The default is 280 seconds.
This parameter also specifies the time interval used by the switch
in determining whether a multicast router is still active. The switch
makes the determination by watching for queries from the router.
If the switch does not detect any queries from a multicast router
during the specified time interval, it assumes that the router is no
longer active on the port.
After entering a new time, click the Apply button below the pulldown menus.
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VID
The VLAN ID of the VLAN the multicast group belongs to. This
parameter will only be visible if you have created a VLAN.
Multicast Group Address
The multicast address of the group.
To view the members of the multicast group, click on the
multicast address.
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Viewing Group Members
You can use the AT-S45 software to display a list of the members of each
multicast group on a switch. To display the list, perform the following
procedure:
1. Click on the Advanced Config menu tab and select IGMP Snooping
from the sub-menu.
The IGMP Snooping page will appear, as displayed in Figure 85 on
page 222.
2. Click on a multicast group address. The group members wil appear on
the IGMP Snooping Group Members page, as displayed in Figure 86.
Figure 86 IGMP Snooping Group Members
The information on this page is for viewing purposes only. The
parameters are defined below:
VID
The VLAN ID of the VLAN the multicast group belongs to. This
parameter will only be visible if you have created a VLAN.
Multicast Group Address
The multicast address of the group.
Port Number
The ports on the switch.
Stack ID
The stack ID of the switch. An X in this row indicates that the port
in the corresponding column is a member of this multicast group.
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Chapter 27
Storm Control Configuration
This chapter contains instructions on how to configure the broadcast
frame control feature on the switch.
Note
For background information on this feature, refer to Storm Control
Overview on page 132.
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Activating Broadcast Storm Control and Setting a Threshold
To activate storm control and set a threshold, perform the following
procedure:
1. On the Home page, select the Advanced Config menu tab and then
select Storm Control from the sub-menu.
The Broadcast Storm Control page will appear, as displayed in
Figure 87.
Figure 87 Broadcast Storm Control Window
2. From the Storm Control Status pull-down menu, select the Enable
option.
3. To set the threshold, select an option from the Threshold value pulldown menu: Low, Medium, or High. If you do not select a threshold
value, the switch will retain the default setting of Low.
Note
For an explanation of broadcast storm control threshold values,
please Storm Control Overview on page 132.
4. Click the Apply button located below the pull-down menus to save
your configuration options.
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Chapter 28
Management Software Updates
This chapter explains how to obtain new versions of the AT-S45
management software and how to download the software onto an
AT-9410GB switch.
You can download new management software onto a switch using the
following method:
❑ Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Sections in the chapter include:
❑ Obtaining Software Updates on page 228
❑ Downloading a New Management Software Image Using
TFTP on page 229
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Obtaining Software Updates
New releases of the AT-S45 management software are available from the
Allied Telesyn web site at www.alliedtelesyn.com and from our FTP
server at ftp.alliedtelesyn.com. To log on to the FTP server, enter
“anonymous” for the user name and your email address for the
password. Management software for the AT-9410GB switch will have
“S45” as part of the filename.
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Downloading a New Management Software Image Using TFTP
TFTP software is available from various sources and is included in SNMP
which can be purchased through Allied Telesyn. A command line version
is included in most UNIX variants and in Windows NT. Please consult the
documentation or the manufacturer of the software used on the proper
use of the software.
You will need to provide the following information when using the TFTP
client software to download the AT-S45 software image:
❑ Download Server IP
❑ Download File Name
This procedure assumes that you have already obtained a copy of TFTP
software and have stored it on the computer from which you will be
performing this procedure.
To download the new AS-45 software image onto your AT-9410GB
switch, perform the following procedure:
1. Establish a web management session on the switch where you intend
to download the new management software.
For instructions, refer to Starting a Web Browser Management
Session on page 148.
1. On the Home page, click on the Tools menu tab. The Tools sub-menu
will appear. Choose Image Upgrade from the sub-menu.
The Image Upgrade page will appear, as displayed.
Figure 88 Image Upgrade Page
The options in the window are defined below.
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Image Version/Date
The software version and date currently on the switch.
File Type
❑ Image
An image file is the management software for the switch.
❑ Configuration
A configuration file is a file that contains all of the existing
configurations and settings for a switch. You can upload the
configuration file and modify the switch settings and then
download the configuration file back to the switch or onto
multiple switches that you want to have the same configurations.
The switch(es) will then update their configuration(s) based on
the settings in the configuration file.
❑ Image and Configuration
This option allows you to download both the management
software and the configuration file.
Download Server IP
This is the IP address of the server from which you are downloading the
new software.
Download File Name
The filename of the software that is to be downloaded onto the switch.
The filename of the software should be “ATS45.img”. If necessary,
change the filename of the image.
2. Type the IP address into the Download Server IP field.
3. Type the software image name into the Download File Name field.
4. Open the TFTP client to download the software image onto the
switch.
Once the TFTP software is opened, it immediately begins to listen
for incoming requests and the syslog server is running.
Step 5 illustrates how to perform the transfer using the Tftpd32 by
Ph. Jounin program.
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5. Using the TFTP client, select the current directory where the software
image is located.
Figure 89 TFTP client software window
6. Return to the web management Software Upgrade page as displayed
in Figure 88.
7. Click Apply to upgrade image.
The software immediately begins to download onto the switch’s
CPU. This process will take seconds to complete.
Once the new software download process has completed, the
switch begins to initialize the software. This takes approximately
1 minute to complete. Once the initialization process is complete,
the switch will automatically reboot.
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Appendix A
AT-S45 Default Settings
This appendix lists the AT-S45 factory default settings.
Setting
Default
IP Address
Subnet Mask
Gateway Address
DHCP
IGMP Snooping
System Name
MAC Aging Time
Spanning Tree Protocol
Status
Bridge Priority
Bridge Max Age Time
Bridge Hello Time
Bridge Forwarding Delay
Twisted Pair Ports
Status
Speed/Duplex Mode
Flow Control
Broadcast Storm Control
MDI/MDI-X
Security
Port Monitoring
Port Trunking
0.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
0.0.0.0
Disabled
Disabled
None
300 seconds
Disabled
32768
20
2
15
Enabled
Auto-Negotiate
Auto
Disabled
Auto
Normal
Disabled
Disabled
232
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Setting
VLANs
Port-based and Tagged VLANs
VLAN Name
Default VLAN ID
RS-232 Terminal Port
Emualtion Mode
Data Bits
Stop Bits
Parity
Flow Control
Data Rate
Key Mode
Login Name
Login Password
Default
Enabled
Default VLAN (all ports)
1
VT100
8
1
None
None
9600 bps
Terminal (not Windows)
manager
manager
233
Index
A
admin status, 172
aging time
changing, 120
defined, 112
AT-S45 default settings, 38, 232
AT-S45 software updates
downloading from a local session, 140
obtaining, 139, 228
AT-S45 version number, 44
Auto-Negotiation, 52, 172, 175
B
BOOTP
defined, 34, 158
bootstrap
configuration, 47
BPDU, see bridge protocol data unit
bridge identifier, 75
bridge priority, 75, 189
bridge protocol data unit (BPDU), 79, 189
broadcast frame control
configuring, 131, 225
defined, 132
browser tools, 149
C
Class of Service
configuring, 123, 219
defined, 122
console timeout, 41
console UI Idle Timeout
changing, 156
conventions, used in this guide, 11
D
default values, AT-S45, 38, 232
DHCP
activating, 34, 158
defined, 34
activating, 158
documentation, 12
F
flow control, 54, 172, 174
forwarding delay, 77, 80, 113, 189
G
gateway address, 31, 153
H
hello time, 77, 189
host nodes
defined, 126
displaying, 129, 224
host/router timeout interval, 127, 222
I
IEEE 802.1d standard, 78, 188
IGMP snooping
configuring, 127, 222
defined, 126
Internet Protocol (IP) address
defined, 31
234
AT-S45 User’s Guide
Internet Protocol (IP) address, 29, 152
interval timer
configuring, 133
L
Limited level, port security, 57
limited security mode
configuring, 60
defined, 57
link status, 172
local management session
defined, 18
quitting, 26
starting, 24
M
MAC address table, 110, 211
MAC address, switch, 44
Management Information Base (MIB), 21
managemet access methods, 41
multicast groups, maximum, 128
N
Normal level, port security, 57
P
password
changing, 43
default, 25, 27, 148
ping, 45
port
configuring parameters, 53, 171
disable, 53
displaying status, 51, 173, 176
speed, 54, 172, 175
port cost
defined, 76
setting, 81, 190
port index, 171
port mirroring
creating, 186
deleting, 186
port monitoring
creating, 71
defined, 70
deleting, 73
port security
configuring, 58
defined, 57
displaying, 179, 181
port statistics, 136
port trunking
creating, 65, 183
defined, 63
deleting, 68, 183
port-based VLAN
creating, 91, 96, 101, 103, 108, 109, 193, 197,
202, 203, 207, 208
defined, 87
priority queues, 122
priority, 81, 190
Q
quitting
local session, 26
Telnet session, 27
web browser session, 150
R
resetting a switch, 40, 162
root bridge, 75
RS232 port, default settings, 25
S
Secure level, port security, 57
serial number, switch, 44
SNMP Agent
changing, 157
SNMP community strings, 36, 160
SNMP management session, 21
software updates
downloading from a local session, 140
obtaining, 139, 228
Spanning Tree Protocol
configuring bridge parameters, 78, 188
configuring port parameters, 81
defined, 75
port cost, 76, 81, 190
viewing bridge parameters, 190
starting session
local, 24
Telnet, 27
web browser, 148
static MAC address
235
AT-S45 User’s Guide
adding, 118, 216
deleting, 119, 217
displaying, 113
statistics
port, 136
STP. See Spanning Tree Protocol
subnet mask, 31, 153
system name
defined, 32
system name, 154
quitting, 150
starting, 148
Web server
changing, 157
T
tagged VLAN
creating, 103, 203
defined, 89
Telnet management session
defined, 19
quitting, 27
starting, 27
Telnet server
changing, 157
Telnet UI Idle Timeout
changing, 157
trunk, 171
type, 172
U
user name
changing, 43
user name and password
configuring 41
user name, default, 148
V
version number, AT-S45, 44
virtual LAN
creating, 91, 96, 101, 103, 108, 109, 193, 197,
202, 203, 207, 208
defined, 85
port-based, defined, 87
tagged, defined, 89
VLAN identifier (VID), 87
VLAN. See virtual LAN
W
web browser management session
limitations, 20
236
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