Appendix B Groundwater Upwelling Survey Reports

Appendix B Groundwater Upwelling Survey Reports
Appendix B
Groundwater Upwelling Survey Reports
Data Report
Groundwater Upwelling Survey
Dundalk Marine Terminal – Baltimore, Maryland
April 2007
Submitted to:
CH2M HILL
99 Cherry Hill Rd., Suite 200
Parsippany, NJ 07054
Submitted by:
Coastal Monitoring Associates, LLC
4741 Orchard Ave.
San Diego, CA 92107
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
3
4
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 1
1.1
BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2
SITE CHARACTERISTICS ....................................................................................... 1
1.3
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT ............................................................................... 1
PROJECT TECHNOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY ........................................ 3
2.1
TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION ................................................................................ 3
2.2
SAMPLING DESIGN ............................................................................................... 3
2.3
TRIDENT SENSOR SAMPLING ................................................................................ 3
2.4
MONITORING WELL LEVEL LOGGING .................................................................. 4
RESULTS .................................................................................................................. 7
3.1
DATA QUALITY RESULTS..................................................................................... 7
3.2
FIELD SAMPLING RESULTS................................................................................. 12
REFERENCES........................................................................................................ 31
i
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ii
LIST OF ACRONYMS
COPR
Chrome Ore–Processing Residue
DMT
Dundalk Marine Terminal
GPS
Global Positioning System
MDE
Maryland Department of Environment
MPA
Maryland Port Administration
NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology
PARCC
Precision, Accuracy, Representativeness, Completeness, and/or
Comparability
QA
Quality Assurance
RSD
Relative Standard Deviation
UNITS
C
degrees Celsius
ft
feet
%FS
percent full scale
mS/cm
millisiemens per centimeter
iii
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iv
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3-1. Conductivity calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Conductivities reported in millisiemens per centimeter (mS/cm) and relative
standard deviations reported as percent of full scale (%FS)....................................... 9
Table 3-2. Temperature calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Temperatures reported in degrees Celsius (C) and relative standard deviations
reported as percent of full scale (%FS)....................................................................... 9
Table 3-3. Trident sensor results for transects 1-7............................................................ 15
Table 3-4. Trident sensor results for transects 8-13.......................................................... 17
Table 3-5. Trident sensor results for transects 14-19........................................................ 19
Table 3-6. Trident sensor results for supplemental stations. ............................................ 21
Table 3-7. Statistical summary for the Trident sensor survey. ......................................... 23
v
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vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1. Complete Trident Probe showing sensor and water sampling probes, pushpole, GPS unit, expanded view of sensors and water sampler, and deck unit. ........... 5
Figure 2-2. Sampling grid for the Trident Probe sensor survey offshore from DMT.
Labels indicate transect numbers. Individual stations were designated 1,2,3… with
increasing distance from shore. Intermediate transects were designated with
fractional designations based on the relative position between adjacent primary
transects (e.g. T3.5)..................................................................................................... 6
Figure 3-1. Trident probe conductivity sensor calibration................................................ 10
Figure 3-2. Trident probe temperature sensor calibration. ............................................... 10
Figure 3-3. Trident reference conductivity sensor calibration.......................................... 11
Figure 3-4. Trident reference temperature sensor calibration........................................... 11
Figure 3-5. Trident subsurface conductivity distribution (mS/cm). ................................. 23
Figure 3-6. Trident subsurface temperature distribution (C). ........................................... 24
Figure 3-7. Relationship between subsurface conductivity and temperature. .................. 25
Figure 3-8. Potential discharge zones based on Trident subsurface conductivity and
temperature. .............................................................................................................. 26
Figure 3-9. Bottom depth readings (ft) obtained during the Trident survey. Depths were
measured by hand-held acoustic sounder and are not corrected for tidal variation.. 27
Figure 3-10. Trident reference sensor conductivity (mS/cm). Reference conductivities
were measured within 1 ft of the bottom. ................................................................. 28
Figure 3-11. Trident reference sensor temperature (C). Reference temperatures were
measured within 1 ft of the bottom. .......................................................................... 29
Figure 3-12. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-11S/EA-11M compared to
variations in the harbor tide. ..................................................................................... 30
Figure 3-13. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-7S compared to variations in the
harbor tide. ................................................................................................................ 30
vii
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viii
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
This data report describes the results of groundwater upwelling surveying near Dundalk
Marine Terminal (DMT) in Baltimore, Maryland. The work was performed in support of
a 2006 Consent Decree entered into among the Maryland Department of the Environment
(MDE), the Maryland Port Administration (MPA), and Honeywell International Inc.
(Honeywell).
1.2 SITE CHARACTERISTICS
DMT is a major maritime port operated by the MPA encompassing approximately 560
acres in the inner Harbor of Baltimore. Approximately 120 acres of DMT is constructed
on land reclaimed from prior marshlands and the Patapsco River by means of fill
composed primarily of chrome ore–processing residue (COPR). COPR fill may be in
contact with groundwater. Groundwater flow from the site may serve to convey
chromium into the Patapsco River.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The objective for this work was to identify potential groundwater upwelling locations.
The results of the analysis will be used to help characterize the nature and extent of
potential chromium releases from the DMT.
1
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2
2 PROJECT TECHNOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION
The primary technology utilized for the study was a screening probe for determining
where groundwater may be discharging with an integrated porewater sampler for
collecting subsurface samples from areas identified as potential discharge zones (the
Trident Probe; Figure 2-1). The Trident probe is a direct-push, integrated temperature
sensor, conductivity sensor, and porewater sampler developed to screen sites for areas
where groundwater may be discharging to a surface water body (Figure 2-1; Chadwick et
al., 2003). Spatial patterns in observed subsurface and surface water conductivity and
temperature indicate areas where groundwater discharge may be occurring. The integral
porewater sampler can be used to rapidly confirm the presence of freshwater or other
chemical constituents. The pole-mounted global positioning system (GPS) receiver
records the location of the push. Only the sensor component of the system was used
during this survey.
2.2 SAMPLING DESIGN
The experimental design for the Trident survey at DMT focused on identifying potential
groundwater discharge zones along the shoreline of the terminal. The sampling grid
consisted of the 19 primary transects of 3 stations each, and 17 supplementary stations to
further delineate potential groundwater discharge zones around the periphery of the
terminal (Figure 2-2). Testing occurred at 100-foot intervals out from the periphery at
each of those locations, beginning immediately adjacent to the terminal (i.e. at 0 feet, 100
feet, and 200 feet). Exact locations were adjusted depending on site conditions. At
identified groundwater upwelling locations, additional samples were taken along and
adjacent to the transect to better identify the upwelling area. Ancillary measurements of
water levels were collected in two monitoring wells and in the harbor adjacent to DMT.
2.3 TRIDENT SENSOR SAMPLING
The Trident Probe survey was conducted in the harbor adjacent to DMT during the period
extending from 12/8/06 – 12/11/06. A total of 74 Trident stations were sampled for
3
subsurface temperature/conductivity contrast. At each station, average sensor readings
were determined based on a minimum of nine replicate readings. The Trident sensor
survey was conducted by inserting the probe into the seabed to a depth of approximately
2 ft from a small boat. Once on station with the probe inserted, data was collected from
the probe (subsurface) and reference (surface water at 1 ft above the interface)
conductivity and temperature sensors and the GPS using the TridentTalk software. Once
the sensor readings had stabilized, the data was recorded by activating the “Log current
data” button on the TridentTalk display. The real-time data was then reviewed in numeric
format, and displayed spatially using the AGIS™ graphical information system software.
The spatial AGIS™ display provided a capability for rapidly evaluating the most likely
areas of groundwater discharge based on spatial patterns of subsurface temperature and
conductivity and contrast between subsurface and surface water conditions. The resulting
survey data were used to develop spatial maps indicating potential areas of groundwater
discharge.
2.4 MONITORING WELL LEVEL LOGGING
Level loggers were installed in two monitoring well pairs and at a single location in the
harbor to monitoring water level fluctuations during the study period. The level loggers
were internal-recording Solinst™ units that were suspended within the well using a
stainless steel wire. The level loggers were not vertically geo-referenced, so only relative
variations were monitored. Levels were monitored at 10 minute intervals for the period
extending from about 1300 12/8/06 to 1300 12/11/06. The monitoring well pairs included
well EA-11S/EA-11M located on the southwestern corner of the terminal, and EA7S/EA-7M located at the southwestern shoreline of the terminal.
4
Temperature
Sensor
GPS Unit
Water
Sampler
Conductivity
Sensor
Push Pole
Cables &
Sampling
Line to
Deck Unit
Replaceable
Filter Screen
Sample Port
Removable
Tip
Sample
Line to
Surface
Probes
Reference
Temperature &
Conductivity
Sensor
Sensor
Telemetry
Cables to
Surface
Adjustable
Stop Plate
Probe
Water
Sampler
Probe
Temperature &
Conductivity
Sensor
Figure 2-1. Complete Trident Probe showing sensor and water sampling probes, pushpole, GPS unit, expanded view of sensors and water sampler, and deck unit.
5
Figure 2-2. Sampling grid for the Trident Probe sensor survey offshore from DMT.
Labels indicate transect numbers. Individual stations were designated 1,2,3… with
increasing distance from shore. Intermediate transects were designated with fractional
designations based on the relative position between adjacent primary transects (e.g.
T3.5).
6
3 RESULTS
3.1 DATA QUALITY RESULTS
The quality assurance (QA) objective of this field investigation was to collect data of
known quality. The QA processes included the application of: (1) appropriate field
techniques; (2) appropriate analytical methods; and (3) measurement objectives for
precision, accuracy, representativeness, completeness, and comparability (PARCC).
Results for the QA objectives for the Trident measurements are summarized below.
Precision
Precision for the Trident sensors including temperature and conductivity was assessed on
the basis of replicate analysis performed under controlled laboratory conditions prior to
commencement of the survey. Sensor replicates consisted of a minimum of nine
individual measurements for each standard. Results for the Trident laboratory precision
were generated for replicate measurements of two separate National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) conductivity standards and two fixed temperature
water baths monitored by a highly accurate digital oceanographic thermometer.
Laboratory relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the Trident conductivity sensors
ranged from 0.47 – 0.53% of full scale for the Probe, and 0.00 – 0.45% for the Reference
(Table 3-1). RSDs for the Trident temperature sensors were 0.02 – 0.29% full scale for
the Probe, and 0.05 – 0.22% for the Reference (Table 3-2). This range of variation is
generally 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the variations observed at the site.
Accuracy
For Trident temperature and conductivity sensors, accuracy was established by applying
laboratory calibrations. Calibration curves for the Trident probe conductivity and
temperature sensors are shown in Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2. Calibration curves for the
Trident reference conductivity and temperature sensors are shown in Figure 3-3 and
Figure 3-4.
Representativeness
Representativeness is a qualitative expression of the degree to which sample data
accurately represent the characteristics of a population, parameter variations at a
7
sampling point, or an environmental condition that they are intended to represent.
Representativeness was maximized by (1) selecting the appropriate number of samples
and sampling locations, and (2) using appropriate and established sample collection,
handling, and analysis techniques to provide information that reflects actual site
conditions.
Completeness
Completeness assesses the amount of valid data obtained from a measurement system
compared to the amount of data required to achieve a particular statistical level of
confidence. The percent completeness was calculated as the number of samples yielding
acceptable data divided by the total number of samples planned to be collected and
multiplied by 100. Results for completeness were assessed for the Trident sensor data
based on the number of stations where acceptable data was collected. Completeness for
the Trident sensor data was 100%.
Comparability
Comparability is a qualitative parameter that expresses the degree of confidence that one
data set may be compared to another. This goal was achieved through the use of (1)
standardized techniques to collect and analyze samples, and (2) appropriate units to
report analytical results. The comparability of the data was maximized by using standard
analytical methods when possible, reporting data in consistent units, reporting data in a
tabular format, and by validating the results against commonly accepted methodologies
and target limits.
8
NIST
Standard
(mS/cm)
0
9.86
Reps
9
9
Trident Probe
Cond
StDev
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.233
0.050
9.422
0.044
Slope
Offset
RSD
(%FS)
0.53
0.47
1.073
-0.250
Trident Reference
Cond
StDev
RSD
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
(%FS)
0.000
0.000
0.00
9.722
0.044
0.45
Slope
Offset
1.014
0.000
Table 3-1. Conductivity calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Conductivities reported in millisiemens per centimeter (mS/cm) and relative standard
deviations reported as percent of full scale (%FS).
Temp.
Standard
(C)
5
20
Reps
9
9
Temp.
(C)
4.465
20.816
Slope
Offset
Trident Probe
StDev
RSD
(C)
(%FS)
0.060
0.29
0.004
0.02
0.917
0.904
Trident Reference
Temp.
StDev
RSD
(C)
(C)
(%FS)
5.999
0.046
0.22
20.518
0.011
0.05
Slope
Offset
1.033
-1.198
Table 3-2. Temperature calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Temperatures reported in degrees Celsius (C) and relative standard deviations reported as
percent of full scale (%FS).
9
10.0
9.0
y = 1.073x - 0.25
8.0
NIST (mS/cm)
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
Trident Probe (mS/cm)
Figure 3-1. Trident probe conductivity sensor calibration.
25.0
y = 0.917x + 0.904
Temp. Standard (C)
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
Trident Probe (C)
Figure 3-2. Trident probe temperature sensor calibration.
10
20.0
25.0
10.0
y = 1.014x + 0.000
9.0
8.0
NIST (mS/cm)
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
Trident Reference (mS/cm)
Figure 3-3. Trident reference conductivity sensor calibration.
25.0
y = 1.033x - 1.198
Temp. Standard (C)
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
Trident Reference (C)
Figure 3-4. Trident reference temperature sensor calibration.
11
20.0
25.0
3.2 FIELD SAMPLING RESULTS
3.2.1 TRIDENT CONDUCTIVITY AND TEMPERATURE MAPPING
Horizontal Trident mapping of conductivity and temperature contrast at the groundwater
– surface water interface was used to identify likely areas of groundwater discharge to the
harbor area adjacent to the terminal. During the winter, groundwater in this region was
expected to be warmer and fresher than the surface water. Trident measurements were
performed at the stations shown in Figure 2-2. Complete results for the Trident
conductivity and temperature mapping are given in Table 3-3 through Table 3-6, and
statistics are summarized in Table 3-7. The results for subsurface conductivity and
temperature for the offshore study area were classified and posted spatially with an aerial
photo basemap in Figure 3-5 and Figure 3-6.
Subsurface conductivities ranged from 1.64 to 11.89 mS/cm, with the lowest values
concentrated in the southeastern extent of the study area from transect 17-19. A smaller
zone was identified along the western shore near transect 3. Isolated stations with
relatively low conductivities (i.e. < 4 mS/cm) were also identified particularly in the
stations along the southern shoreline between transects 12-15.
Subsurface temperatures in the offshore region varied by about 8 C, ranging from 8.38 C
to 16.24 C. Cooler subsurface temperatures were observed in association with the low
conductivity zone in the southeastern extent of the study area from transect 17-19.
Warmer subsurface temperatures were generally observed in the near shore stations,
particularly along the southern shoreline, but also in areas along the eastern and
southeastern shores. There was a weak correlation between subsurface conductivity and
temperature, with lower temperatures corresponding with lower conductivities (Figure
3-7).
Based on the subsurface conductivity and temperature mapping, potential groundwater
discharge zones were identified (Figure 3-8). The zone in the southeast extent of the
study area had the strongest low conductivity anomaly. While this corresponded with
comparatively cooler subsurface temperatures, the subsurface temperatures in this zone
were still generally warmer than the surface water by about 3-7 C. The spatial pattern of
lower subsurface temperature associated with this zone could indicate groundwater
12
discharge from a pathway other than the warm shallow groundwater source that appears
to underlay the terminal. Alternatively, it was observed that the bottom depths in this
zone were significantly shallower (Figure 3-9), and that the surface water itself had a
lower conductivity and temperature characteristic (Figure 3-10 and Figure 3-11). Thus
the signal in this area could also reflect the exchange of surface water into the high
permeability sandy gravel substrate that was present at many of these stations. This
explanation is consistent with the lower subsurface vs. surface water temperature and
conductivity contrast in this zone. Other areas of low subsurface conductivity showed
some overlap with warmer subsurface temperature, particularly along the southern
shoreline. These anomalies were generally weaker, and limited in extent to fewer
stations.
3.2.2 MONITORING WELL ELEVATIONS
Results for the EA-11 and EA-7 well pairs are shown in comparison to the tidal elevation
in the harbor in Figure 3-12 and Figure 3-13, respectively. The level logger in EA-7M
was set too deep and over-scaled the sensor so no data were obtained. The results
generally indicate minimal response in the shallow wells, and significant response in the
deeper well relative to the tidal variation in the harbor. This suggests that there is a low
degree of groundwater-surface water interaction between the harbor and the shallow
aquifer, while the connection between the harbor and the deeper aquifer appears to be
stronger. In addition, this suggests relatively little connection between the shallow and
deeper aquifers, although the data set is of limited extent and should not be viewed as
representing the entire site.
13
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14
Station
Station ID Reps.
T1-1
10
T1-2
9
T1-3
9
T2-1
9
T2-2
9
T2-3
9
T3-1
9
T3-2
9
T3-3
9
T4-1
10
T4-2
9
T4-3
9
T5-1
9
T5-2
9
T5-3
9
T6-1
9
T6-2
9
T6-3
10
T7-1
9
T7-2
9
T7-3
9
Date
Time (EST)
12/8/2006
15:13:01
12/8/2006
14:56:49
12/8/2006
14:45:35
12/8/2006
16:08:14
12/8/2006
15:49:04
12/8/2006
15:36:07
12/11/2006 15:44:24
12/11/2006 15:32:26
12/11/2006 15:19:34
12/9/2006
16:52:20
12/9/2006
16:37:01
12/9/2006
16:21:45
12/11/2006 14:09:57
12/11/2006 14:22:35
12/11/2006 14:33:53
12/9/2006
15:46:40
12/9/2006
15:30:02
12/9/2006
15:13:30
12/9/2006
14:40:13
12/9/2006
14:26:16
12/9/2006
14:13:33
Long
(deg. W)
76.53563
76.53602
76.53630
76.53628
76.53670
76.53690
76.53712
76.53747
76.53782
76.53807
76.53840
76.53875
76.53927
76.53902
76.53882
76.53650
76.53682
76.53708
76.53548
76.53575
76.53613
Lat
(deg. N)
39.25545
39.25552
39.25567
39.25333
39.25335
39.25337
39.25067
39.25072
39.25080
39.24802
39.24808
39.24818
39.24493
39.24515
39.24542
39.24288
39.24273
39.24257
39.24182
39.24160
39.24152
Notes: Probe = subsurface
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
15.351
15.152
15.541
14.838
12.576
12.380
14.582
13.676
12.701
15.901
15.611
12.801
14.954
15.944
15.346
13.818
13.758
12.434
16.237
15.874
12.274
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.014
0.039
0.002
0.049
0.018
0.057
0.022
0.041
0.022
0.014
0.076
0.021
0.045
0.047
0.027
0.029
0.027
0.049
0.042
0.061
0.056
∆ Temp
(C)
6.841
6.520
6.245
6.453
4.072
4.105
4.797
3.405
2.635
5.855
5.583
2.719
4.831
5.992
5.612
3.599
3.678
2.480
5.802
5.771
2.179
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
5.405
0.067
4.877
0.083
4.948
0.053
5.913
0.053
6.760
0.087
5.985
0.136
3.989
0.078
3.400
0.050
4.889
0.105
4.550
0.085
4.233
0.112
5.344
0.230
4.300
0.000
11.889
0.033
4.311
0.033
11.400
0.087
3.944
0.053
4.040
0.052
8.700
0.240
3.756
0.368
5.778
0.685
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-3. Trident sensor results for transects 1-7.
15
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-8.703
-9.130
-9.454
-0.736
-7.382
-7.909
-12.833
-15.100
-13.711
-11.950
-12.267
-10.956
-14.233
-5.033
-12.489
-4.400
-12.356
-12.360
-5.811
-11.978
-10.033
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
8.510
8.631
9.296
8.385
8.503
8.275
9.785
10.270
10.066
10.046
10.028
10.082
10.123
9.952
9.734
10.220
10.080
9.954
10.435
10.103
10.094
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.019
14.107
0.032
0.045
14.007
0.078
0.015
14.402
0.000
0.036
6.649
0.053
0.049
14.142
0.053
0.021
13.894
0.000
0.023
16.822
0.044
0.031
18.500
0.000
0.020
18.600
0.000
0.005
16.500
0.000
0.012
16.500
0.000
0.004
16.300
0.000
0.040
18.533
0.050
0.038
16.922
0.067
0.023
16.800
0.000
0.002
15.800
0.000
0.008
16.300
0.000
0.016
16.400
0.000
0.033
14.511
0.060
0.031
15.733
0.050
0.027
15.811
0.033
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16
Station
Station ID Reps.
T8-1
9
T8-2
9
T8-3
10
T9-1
9
T9-2
9
T9-3
9
T10-1
9
T10-2
9
T10-3
9
T11-1
9
T11-2
9
T11-3
9
T12-1
9
T12-2
9
T12-3
9
T13-1
9
T13-2
9
T13-3
9
Date
Time (EST)
12/10/2006
9:39:55
12/10/2006
9:27:40
12/10/2006
9:12:03
12/10/2006 10:34:47
12/10/2006 10:17:08
12/10/2006 10:04:14
12/11/2006
9:43:58
12/11/2006
9:29:16
12/11/2006
9:06:35
12/11/2006 10:08:12
12/11/2006 10:18:24
12/11/2006 10:35:08
12/10/2006 11:28:46
12/10/2006 11:15:49
12/10/2006 11:03:47
12/9/2006
13:35:30
12/9/2006
13:19:38
12/9/2006
13:03:50
Long
(deg. W)
76.53440
76.53472
76.53498
76.53335
76.53363
76.53388
76.53157
76.53158
76.53147
76.53015
76.53003
76.52988
76.52842
76.52835
76.52822
76.52692
76.52670
76.52670
Lat
(deg. N)
39.24070
39.24055
39.24043
39.23957
39.23943
39.23928
39.23957
39.23927
39.23905
39.24010
39.23990
39.23963
39.24068
39.24037
39.24017
39.24115
39.24093
39.24093
Notes: Probe = subsurface
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
14.254
15.924
14.703
13.273
13.235
11.592
15.341
13.465
14.205
15.668
12.098
11.847
14.469
12.188
13.738
15.703
10.994
12.099
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.019
0.035
0.041
0.012
0.042
0.004
0.060
0.008
0.013
0.046
0.072
0.029
0.043
0.026
0.025
0.071
0.017
0.053
∆ Temp
(C)
4.517
5.303
4.478
3.084
2.575
0.884
5.325
3.314
3.904
5.832
2.541
1.952
3.875
1.557
3.200
6.142
1.349
2.452
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
3.911
0.033
6.100
0.000
7.930
0.048
9.178
0.067
5.122
0.044
5.922
0.067
4.200
0.000
4.622
0.044
3.989
0.078
8.044
0.053
4.633
0.050
4.700
0.000
3.900
0.071
4.311
0.033
4.256
0.073
6.389
0.033
5.000
0.071
4.500
0.050
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-4. Trident sensor results for transects 8-13.
17
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-12.389
-12.889
-10.820
-8.611
-14.578
-13.911
-14.600
-14.078
-15.011
-9.956
-14.233
-13.856
-15.767
-15.378
-15.444
-8.111
-9.900
-10.400
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
9.737
10.621
10.225
10.189
10.660
10.708
10.016
10.151
10.301
9.835
9.557
9.895
10.595
10.630
10.538
9.561
9.645
9.647
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.024
16.300
0.000
0.032
18.989
0.033
0.061
18.750
0.053
0.004
17.789
0.033
0.045
19.700
0.000
0.020
19.833
0.071
0.055
18.800
0.000
0.014
18.700
0.000
0.019
19.000
0.000
0.033
18.000
0.000
0.074
18.867
0.050
0.055
18.556
0.053
0.046
19.667
0.050
0.036
19.689
0.033
0.040
19.700
0.000
0.030
14.500
0.000
0.024
14.900
0.000
0.018
14.900
0.000
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18
Station
Station ID Reps.
T14-1
10
T14-2
10
T14-3
9
T15-1
9
T15-2
9
T15-3
9
T16-1
9
T16-2
9
T16-3
9
T17-1
9
T17-2
9
T17-3
9
T18-1
10
T18-2
9
T18-3
9
T19-1
10
T19-2
9
T19-3
9
Date
Time (EST)
12/9/2006
11:08:33
12/9/2006
10:53:17
12/9/2006
10:34:15
12/9/2006
10:01:09
12/9/2006
9:42:15
12/9/2006
9:24:12
12/9/2006
11:58:41
12/9/2006
11:49:40
12/9/2006
11:38:48
12/10/2006 12:09:32
12/10/2006 12:19:28
12/10/2006 12:29:36
12/10/2006 13:21:07
12/10/2006 13:30:50
12/10/2006 13:38:31
12/10/2006 14:39:52
12/10/2006 14:49:40
12/10/2006 14:58:35
Long
(deg. W)
76.52517
76.52503
76.52500
76.52370
76.52347
76.52328
76.52245
76.52253
76.52255
76.52162
76.52187
76.52222
76.52107
76.52120
76.52138
76.51933
76.51915
76.51905
Lat
(deg. N)
39.24177
39.24150
39.24123
39.24218
39.24203
39.24180
39.24228
39.24195
39.24170
39.24180
39.24165
39.24157
39.24092
39.24063
39.24043
39.24145
39.24125
39.24097
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
15.947
14.085
15.215
16.008
15.682
15.833
14.144
12.820
12.850
9.855
10.611
11.439
10.565
12.692
13.432
10.651
9.131
10.491
Notes: Probe = subsurface
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.059
0.039
0.042
0.046
0.066
0.066
0.042
0.056
0.043
0.008
0.017
0.016
0.011
0.026
0.078
0.009
0.019
0.030
∆ Temp
(C)
6.393
4.419
5.475
6.258
6.129
6.385
7.290
6.069
6.794
2.921
4.075
4.977
3.514
5.109
5.575
3.451
2.147
3.436
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
3.940
0.070
4.410
0.032
4.778
0.044
3.811
0.033
6.111
0.033
11.656
0.113
6.000
0.000
8.478
0.067
5.700
2.729
2.922
0.044
4.422
0.044
4.311
0.033
2.600
0.000
2.622
0.044
3.367
0.050
1.640
0.052
3.444
0.101
3.100
0.000
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-5. Trident sensor results for transects 14-19.
19
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-10.960
-10.490
-10.122
-10.556
-8.467
-1.000
-7.000
-4.500
-7.222
-10.078
-8.578
-8.689
-10.480
-10.578
-9.833
-11.360
-9.556
-9.900
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
9.554
9.666
9.739
9.750
9.553
9.449
6.854
6.750
6.056
6.934
6.536
6.461
7.051
7.583
7.857
7.200
6.984
7.055
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.048
14.900
0.000
0.035
14.900
0.000
0.019
14.900
0.000
0.009
14.367
0.050
0.023
14.578
0.044
0.028
12.656
0.088
0.101
13.000
0.000
0.016
12.978
0.044
0.018
12.922
0.044
0.061
13.000
0.000
0.003
13.000
0.000
0.001
13.000
0.000
0.010
13.080
0.042
0.003
13.200
0.000
0.005
13.200
0.000
0.021
13.000
0.000
0.001
13.000
0.000
0.016
13.000
0.000
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20
Station
Station ID Reps.
T2.5-1
9
T3.5-1
9
T3.75-1
9
T5.5-1
9
T7.5-1
9
T8.5-1
9
T9.5-1
9
T10.5-1
9
T12.5-1
9
T13.5-1
9
T17.5-3
9
T18-4
10
T18-5
9
T18.5-5
9
T19-4
9
T19-5
9
T19-6
9
Date
Time (EST)
12/11/2006 16:16:06
12/11/2006 16:04:47
12/11/2006 16:27:35
12/11/2006 14:51:59
12/11/2006 13:42:30
12/11/2006 11:20:00
12/11/2006 13:28:20
12/11/2006 10:59:36
12/11/2006 13:10:24
12/11/2006 12:53:47
12/11/2006 11:46:39
12/10/2006 14:06:53
12/10/2006 13:57:25
12/11/2006 12:01:09
12/10/2006 15:12:38
12/10/2006 15:31:02
12/10/2006 15:45:29
Long
(deg. W)
76.53690
76.53738
76.53758
76.53757
76.53490
76.53390
76.53232
76.53098
76.52762
76.52597
76.52200
76.52145
76.52170
76.52008
76.51898
76.51882
76.51870
Lat
(deg. N)
39.25138
39.24983
39.24920
39.24410
39.24122
39.24010
39.23937
39.23977
39.24095
39.24143
39.24102
39.24017
39.23990
39.24008
39.24078
39.24057
39.24033
Notes: Probe = subsurface
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
14.804
15.742
15.131
13.938
14.400
13.126
15.804
15.944
15.958
15.913
10.513
12.999
14.026
11.836
8.513
10.124
8.384
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.068
0.017
0.122
0.072
0.041
0.027
0.021
0.045
0.014
0.026
0.023
0.036
0.043
0.067
0.001
0.010
0.003
∆ Temp
(C)
5.019
5.784
5.602
4.466
4.803
3.647
5.735
5.939
5.918
5.843
5.049
5.084
6.006
5.700
1.286
2.759
0.900
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
4.767
0.050
3.533
0.050
5.033
0.087
6.467
0.100
5.967
0.132
5.289
0.033
7.878
0.044
5.233
0.071
3.933
0.050
4.022
0.097
5.122
0.044
3.510
0.032
6.556
2.544
4.567
0.206
2.900
0.000
5.422
0.044
3.822
0.044
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-6. Trident sensor results for supplemental stations.
21
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-12.267
-11.844
-11.122
-10.333
-10.956
-10.756
-9.300
-12.611
-14.389
-13.978
-6.178
-9.690
-6.689
-7.867
-10.100
-7.667
-9.278
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
9.785
9.958
9.529
9.472
9.597
9.480
10.069
10.006
10.040
10.070
5.464
7.915
8.020
6.136
7.227
7.365
7.484
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.030
17.033
0.050
0.020
15.378
0.083
0.059
16.156
0.159
0.070
16.800
0.000
0.036
16.922
0.044
0.016
16.044
0.053
0.019
17.178
0.044
0.065
17.844
0.133
0.038
18.322
0.044
0.027
18.000
0.000
0.083
11.300
0.071
0.001
13.200
0.000
0.014
13.244
0.053
0.022
12.433
0.050
0.002
13.000
0.000
0.003
13.089
0.033
0.010
13.100
0.000
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22
Subsurface
Average
Minimum
Maximum
Stdev
Probe
Temp
(C)
13.61
8.38
16.24
2.05
Probe
Cond
(mS/cm)
5.16
1.64
11.89
1.97
Surface water
Ref
Temp
(C)
9.18
5.46
10.71
1.37
Ref
Cond
(mS/cm)
15.60
6.56
19.83
2.56
Table 3-7. Statistical summary for the Trident sensor survey.
Figure 3-5. Trident subsurface conductivity distribution (mS/cm).
23
Figure 3-6. Trident subsurface temperature distribution (C).
24
14
R2 = 0.11
Sub-surface Conductivity (mS/cm)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Sub-surface Temperature (C)
Figure 3-7. Relationship between subsurface conductivity and temperature.
25
18
Figure 3-8. Potential discharge zones based on Trident subsurface conductivity and
temperature.
26
Figure 3-9. Bottom depth readings (ft) obtained during the Trident survey. Depths were
measured by hand-held acoustic sounder and are not corrected for tidal variation.
27
Figure 3-10. Trident reference sensor conductivity (mS/cm). Reference conductivities
were measured within 1 ft of the bottom.
28
Figure 3-11. Trident reference sensor temperature (C). Reference temperatures were
measured within 1 ft of the bottom.
29
12
9
11
8
10
7
5
12/8/06
13:00
9
Tide
EA11S
EA11M
6
12/9/06 1:00
12/9/06
13:00
12/10/06
1:00
12/10/06
13:00
12/11/06
1:00
Well Ht. (rel ft)
Tide Ht. (rel ft)
10
8
7
12/11/06
13:00
Figure 3-12. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-11S/EA-11M compared to
10
8
9
7
8
6
7
5
Tide
EA7S
6
5
12/8/06
13:00
12/9/06 1:00
12/9/06
13:00
12/10/06
1:00
12/10/06
13:00
12/11/06
1:00
Well Ht. (rel ft)
Tide Ht. (rel ft)
variations in the harbor tide.
4
3
12/11/06
13:00
Figure 3-13. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-7S compared to variations in the
harbor tide.
30
4 REFERENCES
Chadwick, D.B., J. Groves, C. Smith, and R. Paulsen. 2003. Hardware description and
sampling protocols for the Trident Probe and UltraSeep system: Technologies to evaluate
contaminant transfer between groundwater and surface water. Technical Report #1902,
SSC San Diego, United States Navy.
31
Data Report
Groundwater Upwelling Survey – Round 2
Dundalk Marine Terminal – Baltimore, Maryland
February 2008
Submitted to:
CH2M HILL
99 Cherry Hill Rd., Suite 200
Parsippany, NJ 07054
Submitted by:
Coastal Monitoring Associates, LLC
4741 Orchard Ave.
San Diego, CA 92107
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
3
4
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 1
1.1
BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2
SITE CHARACTERISTICS ....................................................................................... 1
1.3
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT ............................................................................... 1
PROJECT TECHNOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY ........................................ 2
2.1
TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION ................................................................................ 2
2.2
SAMPLING DESIGN ............................................................................................... 2
2.3
TRIDENT SENSOR SAMPLING ................................................................................ 2
2.4
MONITORING WELL LEVEL LOGGING .................................................................. 3
RESULTS .................................................................................................................. 6
3.1
DATA QUALITY RESULTS..................................................................................... 6
3.2
FIELD SAMPLING RESULTS................................................................................. 12
REFERENCES........................................................................................................ 24
ii
LIST OF ACRONYMS
COPR
Chrome Ore–Processing Residue
DMT
Dundalk Marine Terminal
GPS
Global Positioning System
MDE
Maryland Department of Environment
MPA
Maryland Port Administration
NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology
PARCC
Precision, Accuracy, Representativeness, Completeness, and/or
Comparability
QA
Quality Assurance
RSD
Relative Standard Deviation
UNITS
C
degrees Celsius
ft
feet
%FS
percent full scale
mS/cm
millisiemens per centimeter
iii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3-1. Conductivity calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Conductivities reported in millisiemens per centimeter (mS/cm) and relative
standard deviations reported as percent of full scale (%FS)....................................... 8
Table 3-2. Temperature calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Temperatures reported in degrees Celsius (C) and relative standard deviations
reported as percent of full scale (%FS)....................................................................... 9
Table 3-3. Trident sensor results for transects 1-7............................................................ 14
Table 3-4. Trident sensor results for transects 8-13.......................................................... 15
Table 3-5. Trident sensor results for transects 14-19........................................................ 16
Table 3-6. Trident sensor results for supplemental stations. ............................................ 17
Table 3-7. Statistical summary for the Trident sensor survey. ......................................... 17
Table 3-8. Water depths and bottom type for the DMT stations. ..................................... 18
iv
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1. Complete Trident Probe showing sensor and water sampling probes, pushpole, GPS unit, expanded view of sensors and water sampler, and deck unit. ........... 4
Figure 2-2. Sampling grid for the Trident Probe sensor survey offshore from DMT.
Labels indicate transect numbers. Individual stations were designated A,B,C… with
increasing distance from shore. Intermediate transects were designated with
fractional designations based on the relative position between adjacent primary
transects (e.g. T3.5)..................................................................................................... 5
Figure 3-1. Trident probe conductivity sensor calibration................................................ 10
Figure 3-2. Trident probe temperature sensor calibration. ............................................... 10
Figure 3-3. Trident reference conductivity sensor calibration.......................................... 11
Figure 3-4. Trident reference temperature sensor calibration........................................... 11
Figure 3-5. Trident subsurface conductivity distribution (mS/cm). ................................. 19
Figure 3-6. Trident subsurface temperature distribution (C). ........................................... 20
Figure 3-7. Relationship between subsurface conductivity and temperature. Circle
indicates cluster of stations with relatively low conductivity and high temperature.
................................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 3-8. Potential discharge zones based on Trident subsurface conductivity and
temperature. .............................................................................................................. 22
Figure 3-9. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-11S/EA-11M compared to
variations in the harbor tide. ..................................................................................... 23
Figure 3-10. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-58S/EA-7M compared to
variations in the harbor tide. ..................................................................................... 23
v
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
This data report describes the results of groundwater upwelling surveying near Dundalk
Marine Terminal (DMT) in Baltimore, Maryland. The work was performed in support of
a 2006 Consent Decree entered into among the Maryland Department of the Environment
(MDE), the Maryland Port Administration (MPA), and Honeywell International Inc.
(Honeywell).
1.2 SITE CHARACTERISTICS
DMT is a major maritime port operated by the MPA encompassing approximately 560
acres in the inner Harbor of Baltimore. Part of DMT is constructed on land reclaimed
from prior marshlands and the Patapsco River by means of fill composed primarily of
chrome ore–processing residue (COPR). COPR fill is in contact with groundwater. The
potential for transport of chromium via the groundwater pathway is being assessed as part
of the Chromium Transport Study (CH2M HILL, 2008).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The objective for this work was to identify potential groundwater upwelling locations.
1
2 PROJECT TECHNOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION
The primary technology utilized for the study was a screening probe for determining
where groundwater may be discharging (the Trident Probe; Figure 2-1). The Trident
probe is a direct-push, integrated temperature sensor, conductivity sensor, and porewater
sampler developed to screen sites for areas where groundwater may be discharging to a
surface water body (Figure 2-1; Chadwick et al., 2003). Spatial patterns in observed
subsurface and surface water conductivity and temperature indicate areas where
groundwater discharge may be occurring. The pole-mounted global positioning system
(GPS) receiver records the location of the push. Only the sensor component of the system
was used during this survey.
2.2 SAMPLING DESIGN
The experimental design for the Trident survey at DMT focused on identifying potential
groundwater discharge zones along the shoreline of the terminal. The sampling grid
consisted of the 19 primary transects of 3 stations each, and 17 supplementary stations to
further delineate potential groundwater discharge zones around the periphery of the
terminal (Figure 2-2). Testing occurred at 100-foot intervals out from the periphery at
each of those locations, beginning immediately adjacent to the terminal (i.e. at 0 feet, 100
feet, and 200 feet). Exact locations were adjusted depending on site conditions. At
identified groundwater upwelling locations, additional samples were taken along and
adjacent to the transect to better identify the upwelling area. Ancillary measurements of
water levels were collected in two monitoring well pairs and in the harbor adjacent to
DMT.
2.3 TRIDENT SENSOR SAMPLING
The Trident Probe survey was conducted in the harbor adjacent to DMT during the period
extending from 10/29/07 – 11/2/07. A total of 74 Trident stations were sampled for
subsurface temperature/conductivity contrast. At each station, average sensor readings
were determined based on a minimum of nine replicate readings. The Trident sensor
2
survey was conducted by inserting the probe into the seabed to a depth of approximately
2 ft from a small boat. Once on station with the probe inserted, data was collected from
the probe (subsurface) and reference (surface water at 1 ft above the interface)
conductivity and temperature sensors and the GPS using the TridentTalk software. Once
the sensor readings had stabilized, the data was recorded by activating the “Log current
data” button on the TridentTalk display. The real-time data was then reviewed in numeric
format, and displayed spatially using the AGIS™ graphical information system software.
The spatial AGIS™ display provided a capability for rapidly evaluating the most likely
areas of groundwater discharge based on spatial patterns of subsurface temperature and
conductivity and contrast between subsurface and surface water conditions. The resulting
survey data were used to develop spatial maps indicating potential areas of groundwater
discharge.
2.4 MONITORING WELL LEVEL LOGGING
Level loggers were installed in two monitoring well pairs and at a single location in the
harbor to monitoring water level fluctuations during the study period. The level loggers
were internal-recording Solinst™ units that were suspended within the well using a
stainless steel wire. The level loggers were not vertically geo-referenced, so only relative
variations were monitored. Levels were monitored at 15 minute intervals for the period
extending from about 1730 10/31/07 to 1600 11/2/07. The monitoring well pairs included
well EA-11S/EA-11M located on the southwestern corner of the terminal, and EA58S/EA-7M located at the southwestern shoreline of the terminal.
3
Temperature
Sensor
GPS Unit
Water
Sampler
Conductivity
Sensor
Push Pole
Cables &
Sampling
Line to
Deck Unit
Replaceable
Filter Screen
Sample Port
Removable
Tip
Sample
Line to
Surface
Probes
Reference
Temperature &
Conductivity
Sensor
Sensor
Telemetry
Cables to
Surface
Adjustable
Stop Plate
Probe
Water
Sampler
Probe
Temperature &
Conductivity
Sensor
Figure 2-1. Complete Trident Probe showing sensor and water sampling probes, pushpole, GPS unit, expanded view of sensors and water sampler, and deck unit.
4
Figure 2-2. Sampling grid for the Trident Probe sensor survey offshore from DMT.
Labels indicate transect numbers. Individual stations were designated A,B,C… with
increasing distance from shore. Intermediate transects were designated with fractional
designations based on the relative position between adjacent primary transects (e.g.
T3.5).
5
3 RESULTS
3.1 DATA QUALITY RESULTS
The quality assurance (QA) objective of this field investigation was to collect data of
known quality. The QA processes included the application of: (1) appropriate field
techniques; (2) appropriate analytical methods; and (3) measurement objectives for
precision, accuracy, representativeness, completeness, and comparability (PARCC).
Results for the QA objectives for the Trident measurements are summarized below.
Precision
Precision for the Trident sensors including temperature and conductivity was assessed on
the basis of replicate analysis performed under controlled laboratory conditions prior to
commencement of the survey. Sensor replicates consisted of a minimum of nine
individual measurements for each standard. Results for the Trident laboratory precision
were generated for replicate measurements of two separate National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) conductivity standards and two fixed temperature
water baths monitored by a highly accurate digital oceanographic thermometer.
Laboratory relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the Trident conductivity sensors
ranged from 0.00 – 0.21% of full scale for the Probe, and 0.00 – 0.03% for the Reference
(Table 3-1). RSDs for the Trident temperature sensors were 0.02 – 0.25% full scale for
the Probe, and 0.15 – 1.04% for the Reference (Table 3-2). This range of variation is
generally 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the variations observed at the site.
Accuracy
For Trident temperature and conductivity sensors, accuracy was established by applying
laboratory calibrations. Calibration curves for the Trident probe conductivity and
temperature sensors are shown in Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2. Calibration curves for the
Trident reference conductivity and temperature sensors are shown in Figure 3-3 and
Figure 3-4.
Representativeness
Representativeness is a qualitative expression of the degree to which sample data
accurately represent the characteristics of a population, parameter variations at a
6
sampling point, or an environmental condition that they are intended to represent.
Representativeness was maximized by (1) selecting the appropriate number of samples
and sampling locations, and (2) using appropriate and established sample collection,
handling, and analysis techniques to provide information that reflects actual site
conditions.
Completeness
Completeness assesses the amount of valid data obtained from a measurement system
compared to the amount of data required to achieve a particular statistical level of
confidence. The percent completeness was calculated as the number of samples yielding
acceptable data divided by the total number of samples planned to be collected and
multiplied by 100. Results for completeness were assessed for the Trident sensor data
based on the number of stations where acceptable data was collected. Completeness for
the Trident sensor data was 100%.
Comparability
Comparability is a qualitative parameter that expresses the degree of confidence that one
data set may be compared to another. This goal was achieved through the use of (1)
standardized techniques to collect and analyze samples, and (2) appropriate units to
report analytical results. The comparability of the data was maximized by using standard
analytical methods when possible, reporting data in consistent units, reporting data in a
tabular format, and by validating the results against commonly accepted methodologies
and target limits.
7
NIST Standard
Raw NIST
(mS/cm)
Temp (C)
0
22.685
0
22.675
0
22.665
0.998
22.443
0.998
22.429
0.998
22.421
9.86
23.22
9.86
23.2
9.86
23.144
Calibration Coefficients
Slope
Full Scale
Full Scale
Cal Probe
(mS/cm)
0.218
0.218
0.218
1.19860
1.19860
1.19860
9.843
9.807
9.843
Trident Probe Sensor
Residual
(mS/cm)
RPD (% FS)
-0.218
2.21%
-0.218
2.21%
-0.218
2.21%
-0.201
2.03%
-0.201
2.03%
-0.201
2.03%
0.017
0.18%
0.053
0.54%
0.017
0.18%
Min
Max
Avg
1.090
0.18%
2.21%
1.51%
RSD (% FS)
0.00%
0.00%
0.21%
0.00%
0.21%
0.11%
9.86
NIST Standard
Raw NIST
(mS/cm)
Temp (C)
0
21.886
0
22.16
0
22.306
0.998
19.234
0.998
19.445
0.998
19.514
9.86
22.713
9.86
22.764
9.86
22.668
Calibration Coefficients
Slope
Raw Probe
(mS/cm)
0.200
0.200
0.200
1.100
1.100
1.100
9.033
9.000
9.033
Raw Ref
(mS/cm)
0.003
0.003
0.003
1.056
1.058
1.059
9.993
9.999
9.998
Trident Reference Sensor
Cal Ref
Residual
(mS/cm)
(mS/cm)
RPD (% FS)
0.003
-0.003
0.03%
0.003
-0.003
0.03%
0.003
-0.003
0.03%
1.04106
-0.043
0.44%
1.04304
-0.045
0.46%
1.04402
-0.046
0.47%
9.852
0.008
0.08%
9.858
0.002
0.02%
9.857
0.003
0.03%
Min
Max
Avg
0.986
0.02%
0.47%
0.18%
StDev Res
(mS/cm)
0.00%
0.02%
0.03%
0.00%
0.03%
0.02%
9.86
Table 3-1. Conductivity calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Conductivities reported in millisiemens per centimeter (mS/cm) and relative standard
deviations reported as percent of full scale (%FS).
8
Trident Probe Sensor
NIST Temp Bath
(C)
17.4
17.4
17.4
24.9
24.9
24.9
29.8
29.8
29.8
Raw (C)
18.053
18.132
18.191
24.876
24.875
24.865
29.840
29.783
29.726
Cal (C)
17.414
17.498
17.561
24.690
24.689
24.678
29.984
29.923
29.863
Residual (C)
-0.014
-0.098
-0.161
0.024
0.025
0.035
-0.184
-0.123
-0.063
Min:
Max:
Avg:
Calibration Coefficients
Slope
1.066
Offset
-1.840
Full Scale
0.05%
0.62%
0.27%
0.02%
0.25%
0.16%
RPD (% FS)
4.42%
4.26%
4.13%
5.76%
4.46%
3.71%
1.45%
1.61%
1.77%
RSD (% FS)
0.15%
1.45%
5.76%
3.51%
0.15%
1.04%
0.45%
0.02%
0.20%
Trident Reference Sensor
Raw (C)
16.804
16.851
16.886
23.463
23.826
24.035
29.261
29.218
29.173
Cal (C)
16.082
16.132
16.169
23.183
23.570
23.793
29.367
29.321
29.273
Residual (C)
1.318
1.268
1.231
1.717
1.330
1.107
0.433
0.479
0.527
Calibration Coefficients
Slope
1.005
Offset
0.632
Full Scale
RSD (% FS)
0.25%
29.8
NISTTemp Bath
(C)
17.4
17.4
17.4
24.9
24.9
24.9
29.8
29.8
29.8
RPD (% FS)
0.05%
0.33%
0.54%
0.08%
0.08%
0.12%
0.62%
0.41%
0.21%
Min:
Max:
Avg:
1.04%
0.16%
29.8
Table 3-2. Temperature calibration results for the Trident Probe and Reference sensors.
Temperatures reported in degrees Celsius (C) and relative standard deviations reported as
percent of full scale (%FS).
9
12
2
R = 1.00
NIST Standard (mS/cm)
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
2
4
6
8
Raw Sensor (mS/cm)
10
12
Figure 3-1. Trident probe conductivity sensor calibration.
30
2
Temperature Bath (C)
R = 1.00
25
20
15
15
17
19
21
23
25
Raw Temperature (C)
Figure 3-2. Trident probe temperature sensor calibration.
10
27
29
12
R2 = 1.00
NIST Standard (mS/cm)
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Raw Sensor (mS/cm)
Figure 3-3. Trident reference conductivity sensor calibration.
30
Temperature Bath (C)
R2 = 1.00
25
20
15
15
20
25
Raw Temperature (C)
Figure 3-4. Trident reference temperature sensor calibration.
11
30
3.2 FIELD SAMPLING RESULTS
3.2.1 TRIDENT CONDUCTIVITY AND TEMPERATURE MAPPING
Horizontal Trident mapping of conductivity and temperature contrast was used to identify
likely areas of groundwater discharge to the harbor area adjacent to the terminal. During
the fall, groundwater in this region was expected to be warmer and fresher than the
surface water. Trident measurements were performed at the stations shown in Figure 2-2.
Complete results for the Trident conductivity and temperature mapping are given in
Table 3-3 through Table 3-6, and statistics are summarized in Table 3-7. The results for
subsurface conductivity and temperature for the offshore study area were classified and
posted spatially with an aerial photo basemap in Figure 3-5 and Figure 3-6. Water depths
and bottom type at each station are summarized in Table 3-8. Water depths were recorded
with a hand-held acoustic sounder and are not corrected for tidal condition. Bottom type
is generally gaged by the relative resistance during insertion of the Trident Probe and
should be viewed as qualitative.
Subsurface conductivities ranged from 1.70 to 13.38 mS/cm, with a site-average of 6.77
mS/cm. This range is comparable to the observations from Round 1 in December 2006.
Lowest subsurface conductivity values were concentrated in the southeastern portion of
the study area from transect 17-19, both in the nearshore and offshore stations. Another
zone with relatively low conductivities (i.e. < 4 mS/cm) was also identified along the
southern shoreline between transects 12-14, predominately at the outer (B and C)
stations. More isolated areas were identified along the western shore on transects 1 and 3,
and along the southwestern shore on transects 6 and 8. These areas show a general
correspondence to the low conductivity zones identified in Round 1.
Subsurface temperatures in the offshore region varied by only about 3 C, ranging from
17.18 C to 20.28 C with a site-average temperature of 19.28 C. Temperatures were
generally about 4-5 C warmer than observed during Round 1, and the temperature range
was considerably smaller. The general uniformity of temperatures across the site
indicates that strong areas of contrasting groundwater discharge based on temperature
were not observed. Relatively warmer temperatures were observed along the southern
and southwestern shorelines in transects T6-T14, near the southeastern extent of the
12
survey area on transect T18, and along the western shore at transects T2-T3. There was
no significant correlation between subsurface conductivity and temperature, however
there was a clustering of stations with low conductivity and warmer temperatures (Figure
3-7).
Based on the subsurface conductivity and temperature mapping, potential groundwater
discharge zones were identified (Figure 3-8). Due to the weak temperature variation,
conductivity differences probably provide the best indicator of potential discharge zones.
Correspondence of these zones with warm temperature also tends to increase the
likelihood of potential influence from groundwater discharge. The zone between T17 –
T19 in the southeast extent of the study area had the strongest low conductivity anomaly.
In this area, T18 also had elevated subsurface temperatures. Subsurface temperatures in
this zone were generally warmer than the surface water by about 1-2 C. Other areas of
low subsurface conductivity showed some overlap with warmer subsurface temperature,
particularly along the southern shoreline on transects T10 and T12-T14, the western
shoreline at T3, and the southwestern shoreline at T8. These conductivity anomalies were
generally weaker than observed in the southeastern zone.
3.2.2 MONITORING WELL ELEVATIONS
Results for the EA-11 and EA-58/7 well pairs are shown in comparison to the tidal
elevation in the harbor in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10, respectively. The results at both
locations showed significant response in the deeper well relative to the tidal variation in
the harbor. At EA-58S, the shallow well also showed a strong tidal response, while at
EA-11S, the response was strongly attenuated. These results are similar to the findings
from Round 1, except in Round 1 shallow well EA-7S was monitored and showed no
significant tidal response. During Round 2 this well was substituted by EA-58S due to
concerns that EA-7S was isolated by subsurface structural barriers. The suggests that
there is a low degree of groundwater-surface water interaction between the harbor and the
shallow aquifer near EA-11, while the connection between the harbor and the deeper
aquifer appears to be stronger, as does the connection with the shallow aquifer near EA58.
13
Station
Station ID Reps.
T1-A
9
T1-B
10
T1-C
9
T2-A
10
T2-B
10
T2-C
10
T3-A
9
T3-B
10
T3-C
9
T4-A
10
T4-B
9
T4-C
10
T5-A
10
T5-B
10
T5-C
10
T6-A
10
T6-B
9
T6-C
9
T7-A
9
T7-B
10
T7-C
9
Date
Time (EST)
10/30/2007 16:50:33
10/30/2007 17:04:56
10/30/2007 17:17:11
10/31/2007 16:09:25
10/31/2007 15:57:41
10/31/2007 15:44:13
11/1/2007
14:23:27
11/1/2007
14:33:02
11/1/2007
14:48:09
11/1/2007
10:58:49
11/1/2007
11:35:57
11/1/2007
11:52:28
11/1/2007
10:04:39
11/1/2007
10:18:37
11/1/2007
10:32:01
10/30/2007 15:31:18
10/30/2007 15:44:38
10/30/2007 15:57:14
10/31/2007 11:01:26
10/31/2007 11:13:44
10/31/2007 11:32:20
Long
(deg. W)
-76.53562
-76.53588
-76.53632
-76.53633
-76.53670
-76.53698
-76.53715
-76.53743
-76.53777
-76.53798
-76.53830
-76.53872
-76.53860
-76.53883
-76.53927
-76.53645
-76.53672
-76.53703
-76.53557
-76.53570
-76.53598
Lat
(deg. N)
39.25550
39.25562
39.25568
39.25330
39.25335
39.25340
39.25065
39.25072
39.25078
39.24823
39.24837
39.24842
39.24522
39.24508
39.24508
39.24292
39.24278
39.24270
39.24172
39.24167
39.24153
Notes: Probe = subsurface
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
18.874
18.172
18.537
18.717
19.706
19.587
19.572
19.799
19.724
18.408
19.151
19.597
19.269
18.489
19.000
19.949
19.509
19.692
18.405
18.437
19.844
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.003
0.018
0.022
0.006
0.016
0.007
0.001
0.010
0.004
0.003
0.016
0.003
0.004
0.009
0.001
0.007
0.006
0.007
0.001
0.006
0.004
∆ Temp
(C)
-0.858
-1.980
-1.497
-1.007
0.023
-0.189
0.484
0.552
0.373
-0.868
-0.259
0.215
0.509
-1.052
-0.141
0.634
-0.231
0.125
-1.336
-1.055
0.535
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
4.467
0.071
8.760
0.143
5.678
0.083
9.350
0.053
6.500
0.082
5.690
0.129
5.300
0.050
4.210
0.057
4.733
0.112
5.000
0.082
8.122
0.130
11.410
0.378
8.940
0.097
13.380
0.114
8.130
0.048
11.330
0.048
4.922
0.199
3.944
0.053
8.356
0.053
11.760
0.052
5.200
0.240
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-3. Trident sensor results for transects 1-7.
14
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-19.563
-12.932
-9.352
-6.162
-18.681
-19.471
-18.780
-20.375
-19.825
-19.257
-16.578
-13.280
-15.023
-5.867
-16.295
-13.358
-20.742
-21.784
-11.884
-9.555
-20.046
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
19.732
20.151
20.034
19.724
19.683
19.775
19.088
19.248
19.350
19.276
19.409
19.382
18.760
19.541
19.141
19.315
19.740
19.566
19.741
19.491
19.309
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.035
24.030
0.024
0.009
21.692
0.116
0.016
15.030
0.006
0.022
15.512
0.056
0.018
25.181
0.021
0.001
25.161
0.016
0.016
24.080
0.021
0.039
24.585
0.020
0.013
24.558
0.012
0.013
24.257
0.016
0.001
24.700
0.010
0.007
24.690
0.010
0.020
23.963
0.005
0.043
19.247
0.454
0.024
24.425
0.014
0.024
24.688
0.022
0.007
25.664
0.014
0.017
25.728
0.014
0.005
20.239
0.040
0.024
21.315
0.117
0.012
25.246
0.005
Station
Station ID Reps.
T8-A
10
T8-B
10
T8-C
10
T9-A
9
T9-B
9
T9-C
9
T10-A
10
T10-B
10
T10-C
9
T11-A
10
T11-B
10
T11-C
10
T12-A
10
T12-B
9
T12-C
9
T13-A
10
T13-B
9
T13-C
9
Date
Time (EST)
10/31/2007
9:57:18
10/31/2007 10:09:27
10/31/2007 10:22:37
10/31/2007
9:06:35
10/31/2007
9:18:34
10/31/2007
9:31:14
10/30/2007
9:22:17
10/30/2007 10:53:07
10/30/2007 11:10:53
10/30/2007 11:41:56
10/30/2007 11:54:53
10/30/2007 12:18:41
10/30/2007 14:16:02
10/30/2007 14:26:36
10/30/2007 15:02:30
10/29/2007 16:33:44
10/29/2007 16:46:10
10/29/2007 16:57:45
Long
(deg. W)
-76.53442
-76.53475
-76.53497
-76.53335
-76.53357
-76.53390
-76.53182
-76.53162
-76.53155
-76.53018
-76.53005
-76.52992
-76.52850
-76.52843
-76.52837
-76.52685
-76.52678
-76.52658
Lat
(deg. N)
39.24070
39.24060
39.24045
39.23957
39.23945
39.23930
39.23955
39.23938
39.23907
39.24010
39.23990
39.23965
39.24065
39.24043
39.24013
39.24122
39.24093
39.24078
Notes: Probe = subsurface
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
19.823
19.450
19.768
19.950
19.867
19.721
19.788
19.716
19.814
19.264
20.017
19.604
19.847
19.666
19.790
18.945
20.044
19.995
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.006
0.002
0.004
0.003
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.008
0.006
0.003
0.002
0.012
0.001
0.015
0.011
0.005
∆ Temp
(C)
0.824
0.187
0.518
0.666
0.532
0.391
-0.202
-0.241
-0.083
-0.578
0.239
-0.067
0.281
0.233
0.439
-1.085
0.270
0.106
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
6.040
0.052
4.210
0.032
4.000
3.490
9.411
0.196
5.600
0.000
5.411
0.033
6.230
0.048
8.880
0.123
4.900
0.000
10.180
0.123
5.330
0.048
6.050
0.053
5.860
2.059
5.900
0.000
3.811
0.033
9.170
0.048
4.533
0.100
4.644
0.053
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-4. Trident sensor results for transects 8-13.
15
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-18.404
-20.499
-20.915
-15.470
-19.542
-19.824
-19.476
-16.963
-20.940
-13.308
-20.379
-19.585
-19.826
-19.584
-21.608
-15.036
-21.502
-21.358
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
18.999
19.264
19.250
19.285
19.335
19.330
19.990
19.957
19.897
19.843
19.779
19.670
19.567
19.433
19.351
20.030
19.774
19.889
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.009
24.444
0.012
0.016
24.709
0.014
0.019
24.915
0.018
0.007
24.881
0.037
0.017
25.142
0.041
0.024
25.235
0.023
0.016
25.706
0.009
0.004
25.843
0.022
0.007
25.840
0.010
0.020
23.488
0.371
0.007
25.709
0.010
0.005
25.635
0.036
0.009
25.686
0.013
0.012
25.484
0.027
0.006
25.419
0.014
0.019
24.206
0.041
0.054
26.036
0.036
0.021
26.002
0.012
Station
Station ID Reps.
T14-A
9
T14-B
10
T14-C
10
T15-A
10
T15-B
10
T15-C
10
T16-A
10
T16-B
10
T16-C
10
T17-A
10
T17-B
10
T17-C
10
T18-A
10
T18-B
10
T18-C
10
T19-A
10
T19-B
10
T19-C
10
Date
Time (EST)
10/29/2007 15:26:39
10/29/2007 15:45:33
10/29/2007 16:02:47
11/2/2007
9:30:19
11/2/2007
12:30:00
11/2/2007
12:40:00
11/2/2007
13:22:00
11/2/2007
13:32:00
11/2/2007
13:45:00
11/2/2007
2:17:39
11/2/2007
2:25:51
11/2/2007
2:35:29
10/29/2007 13:53:13
10/29/2007 14:02:11
10/29/2007 14:13:57
10/29/2007 12:31:04
10/29/2007 12:41:02
10/29/2007 12:47:56
Long
(deg. W)
-76.52515
-76.52515
-76.52493
-76.52350
-76.52354
-76.52337
-76.52235
-76.52248
-76.52249
-76.52173
-76.52191
-76.52228
-76.52105
-76.52120
-76.52147
-76.51935
-76.51927
-76.51912
Lat
(deg. N)
39.24180
39.24155
39.24128
39.24208
39.24203
39.24179
39.24225
39.24193
39.24168
39.24180
39.24168
39.24151
39.24095
39.24068
39.24047
39.24143
39.24128
39.24098
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
18.342
19.713
20.113
19.590
18.832
18.804
19.393
18.908
18.638
17.182
18.159
17.829
19.277
20.023
20.281
19.426
19.244
19.479
Notes: Probe = subsurface
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.041
0.003
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.003
0.008
0.023
0.009
0.004
0.010
0.011
0.011
0.020
0.016
0.001
0.035
0.021
∆ Temp
(C)
-1.748
-0.348
0.036
1.013
0.864
-0.123
2.215
2.011
1.781
0.183
1.236
0.861
0.808
1.444
1.711
1.344
1.376
1.472
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
8.489
0.060
4.430
0.048
4.610
0.032
11.490
4.040
10.560
0.052
10.750
0.053
7.900
0.047
6.660
2.024
8.010
0.032
3.800
0.000
5.600
0.000
4.600
0.000
3.320
0.042
5.770
2.028
5.050
2.662
1.700
0.000
2.600
0.000
3.210
0.032
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-5. Trident sensor results for transects 14-19.
16
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-16.145
-21.467
-21.192
-9.458
-12.505
-9.529
-14.488
-15.575
-14.193
-18.351
-16.628
-17.678
-18.505
-16.510
-17.346
-19.732
-19.193
-18.703
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
20.090
20.061
20.077
18.578
17.968
18.927
17.177
16.896
16.858
16.998
16.923
16.968
18.468
18.579
18.570
18.083
17.868
18.007
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.021
24.634
0.080
0.010
25.897
0.012
0.006
25.802
0.012
0.010
20.948
0.042
0.036
23.065
0.042
0.019
20.279
0.046
0.008
22.388
0.011
0.018
22.235
0.081
0.004
22.203
0.019
0.021
22.151
0.013
0.015
22.228
0.012
0.040
22.278
0.021
0.028
21.825
0.025
0.041
22.280
0.011
0.051
22.396
0.020
0.001
21.432
0.012
0.105
21.793
0.034
0.078
21.913
0.029
Station
Station ID Reps.
T2.5-A
10
T3.5-A
10
T3.5-B
9
T3.5-C
10
T5.5-A
9
T7.5-A
9
T8.5-A
9
T10.5-A
9
T12.5-A
9
T14.5-A
10
T17.5-A
10
T18-D
10
T18-E
10
T18.5-A
9
T19-D
10
T19-E
10
T19-F
10
Date
Time (EST)
10/31/2007 16:53:16
10/31/2007 16:37:41
11/1/2007
15:23:17
11/1/2007
15:21:30
10/30/2007 16:17:22
10/31/2007 12:41:56
10/31/2007 12:28:09
11/2/2007
3:10:26
11/1/2007
15:46:27
10/29/2007 17:20:40
10/29/2007 14:58:38
10/29/2007 14:22:44
10/29/2007 14:34:18
10/29/2007 13:29:09
10/29/2007 12:55:33
10/29/2007 13:02:19
10/29/2007 13:10:00
Long
(deg. W)
-76.53693
-76.53738
-76.53755
-76.53753
-76.53758
-76.53493
-76.53395
-76.53088
-76.52767
-76.52603
-76.52197
-76.52150
-76.52172
-76.52005
-76.51893
-76.51890
-76.51875
Lat
(deg. N)
39.25125
39.24982
39.24935
39.24935
39.24415
39.24128
39.24020
39.23984
39.24097
39.24148
39.24102
39.24023
39.24000
39.24002
39.24078
39.24052
39.24033
Notes: Probe = subsurface
Avg Probe
Temp
(C)
19.456
19.112
18.251
18.273
19.380
19.812
19.628
19.371
19.664
19.204
19.243
20.020
19.737
19.104
18.291
18.945
18.764
StDev
Probe
Temp
(C)
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.005
0.030
0.024
0.010
0.002
0.002
0.007
0.003
0.014
0.029
0.031
0.012
0.024
0.026
∆ Temp
(C)
-0.039
-0.275
-1.424
-1.350
0.338
0.783
0.466
0.661
0.528
-0.988
0.138
1.515
1.234
0.945
0.203
0.769
0.819
StDev
Avg Probe Probe
Cond
Cond
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
5.610
0.032
12.140
0.306
10.978
0.067
11.200
0.047
7.811
0.105
8.344
0.053
5.900
0.000
9.600
1.387
5.833
0.050
11.110
0.110
6.080
2.137
3.340
0.070
9.020
0.042
8.189
0.033
3.590
0.032
3.410
0.032
4.800
3.313
C = degrees Celsius
Reference (Ref) = surface water
mS/cm = millisiemens per centimeter
∆ Temp = subsurface – surface water temperature
∆ Cond = subsurface – surface water conductivity
Table 3-6. Trident sensor results for supplemental stations.
Subsurface
Surface water
Probe
Probe
Cond
Ref Temp Ref Cond
Temp (C) (mS/cm)
(C)
(mS/cm)
Average
19.28
6.77
19.07
23.32
Minimum
17.18
1.70
16.86
15.03
Maximum
20.28
13.38
20.19
26.04
Stdev
0.63
2.73
0.87
2.45
Table 3-7. Statistical summary for the Trident sensor survey.
17
∆ Cond
(mS/cm)
-19.281
-12.338
-5.902
-5.871
-17.154
-16.784
-19.038
-14.300
-18.781
-8.230
-16.257
-18.924
-13.268
-14.093
-18.370
-18.661
-17.310
Avg Ref
Temp
(C)
19.496
19.386
19.675
19.624
19.042
19.029
19.162
18.711
19.136
20.192
19.105
18.505
18.503
18.159
18.089
18.176
17.945
StDev Ref Avg Ref StDev Ref
Temp
Cond
Cond
(C)
(mS/cm) (mS/cm)
0.044
24.891
0.075
0.067
24.478
0.210
0.006
16.880
0.065
0.013
17.071
0.186
0.079
24.965
0.090
0.060
25.128
0.019
0.026
24.938
0.023
0.003
23.900
0.043
0.023
24.614
0.020
0.013
19.340
0.022
0.017
22.337
0.030
0.038
22.264
0.018
0.035
22.288
0.016
0.101
22.282
0.049
0.066
21.960
0.020
0.080
22.071
0.075
0.109
22.110
0.042
Station
T1-A
T1-B
T1-C
T2-A
T2-B
T2-C
T3-A
T3-B
T3-C
T4-A
T4-B
T4-C
T5-A
T5-B
T5-C
T6-A
T6-B
T6-C
T7-A
T7-B
T7-C
T8-A
T8-B
T8-C
-
Water Depth
(ft)
35.3
40.7
40.8
41.3
43.5
42.3
40.9
47.3
47
44.9
48.5
47.2
44.9
42.7
37.2
34.4
45
47.8
34.9
39.1
42.1
36.7
41
40.7
-
Bottom Type
silt
silt
silt
silt
silty sand
silty sand
silt
silty sand
silty sand
silt
silty sand
silty sand w/gravel
silt
silt
silt
silty sand
sand w/gravel
sand
silt
silt
sand
sand
sand w/clay
sandy clay
-
Station
T9-A
T9-B
T9-C
T10-A
T10-B
T10-C
T11-A
T11-B
T11-C
T12-A
T12-B
T12-C
T13-A
T13-B
T13-C
T14-A
T14-B
T14-C
T15-A
T15-B
T15-C
T16-A
T16-B
T16-C
-
Water Depth
(ft)
38.4
41.8
45
44.3
45.4
48
43.4
47.5
45.2
42.5
46.1
45.3
43.5
46.8
44.5
42.2
44.6
43.6
31.9
38.1
37.1
4.3
6.3
7.2
-
Table 3-8. Water depths and bottom type for the DMT stations.
18
Bottom Type
sand
silt
sand
silt
sand
sand
silt
silty sand
silty sand
silt
sand
silty sand
silt
silt
silt
silt
silt
silt
silt
silty sand
silt
silty sand
sand
sand
-
Station
T17-A
T17-B
T17-C
T18-A
T18-B
T18-C
T18-D
T19-A
T19-B
T19-C
T19-D
T19-E
T19-F
T2.5-A
T3.5-A
T3.5-B
T5.5-A
T7.5-A
T8.5-A
T9.5-A
T10.5-A
T12.5-A
T14.5-A
T17.5-A
T18.5-A
Water Depth
(ft)
3.2
4.7
6.7
4.6
9.2
9.3
9.3
5.2
6.8
7.6
7.3
7.1
7.2
39.4
37.8
39
38.5
38
35.9
42.9
43.3
45
43.4
6.7
8.8
Bottom Type
sand
sand
sand
sand
sand
sand
sand
silty sand
sand
sand
sand
sand
sand
silty sand
silt
silty sand
sand w/gravel
silty sand
silt
silt
silt
silt
silt
sand
sand
Figure 3-5. Trident subsurface conductivity distribution (mS/cm).
19
Figure 3-6. Trident subsurface temperature distribution (C).
20
Subsurface Conductivity (mS/cm)
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
16
17
18
19
20
Subsurface Temperature (C)
21
Figure 3-7. Relationship between subsurface conductivity and temperature. Circle
indicates cluster of stations with relatively low conductivity and high temperature.
21
22
Figure 3-8. Potential discharge zones based on Trident subsurface conductivity and
temperature.
22
12
Tide
EA11S
EA11M
Tide Ht. (rel ft)
2
11
1
10
0
9
-1
8
-2
10/31/07 18:00
11/1/07 6:00
11/1/07 18:00
11/2/07 6:00
Well Ht. (rel ft)
3
7
11/2/07 18:00
Figure 3-9. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-11S/EA-11M compared to
variations in the harbor tide.
17
Tide
EA58S
EA7M
Tide Ht. (rel ft)
2
16
1
15
0
14
-1
13
-2
10/31/07 18:00
11/1/07 6:00
11/1/07 18:00
11/2/07 6:00
12
11/2/07 18:00
Figure 3-10. Level variation in monitoring well pair EA-58S/EA-7M compared to
variations in the harbor tide.
23
Well Ht. (rel ft)
3
4 REFERENCES
Chadwick, D.B., J. Groves, C. Smith, and R. Paulsen. 2003. Hardware description and
sampling protocols for the Trident Probe and UltraSeep system: Technologies to evaluate
contaminant transfer between groundwater and surface water. Technical Report #1902,
SSC San Diego, United States Navy.
CH2M HILL. 2008. Chromium Transport Study Work Plan for the Dundalk Marine
Terminal, Baltimore, Maryland.
24
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