netvistajuly00
The IBM NetVista Thin Client Family
From a technical point of view
IBM PSG, Nordic
Thin Clients
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This presentation will give you an introduction to the IBM Thin Client Family.
The presentation has a strong technical bias, but will try to explain the details
so everyone can understand.
1
Topics
Ø
Why thin clients?
Ø
NT/Terminal Server, Windows 2000, Citrix Metaframe
Ø
IBM's thin client family overview
Ø
IBM NetVista N2200w - the Windows-based Terminal
Ø
IBM NetVista N2200 & N2800 with Thin Client Manager
Ø
Other IBM thin client offerings (TCM Express, Linux)
Ø
Positioning the IBM thin client offerings
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
2
The evolution...
Personal Computing
Client
Server
Network Computing
Network Computer “thin client”
Web Server
Database
Server
Applications
Server
Pervasive Computing
Smart
mobile
Digital
set-top box
Networked
vehicle
Personal digital
assistant
Thin client
(NC)
Screen
phone
Connectivity* to Web Server
Database
Server
Sources: IBM; The Economist
Applications
Server
*To convert web applications for each device
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This picture is taken from an article (written by IBM) in The Economist, September 1998. It
shows where we stand today and where we are heading in the very near future.
Today, in the Personal Computing paradigm, most companies use a client-server computing
model with fat PC clients and a wide range of servers (NT, Unix, mainframes etc.). In most of
these companies, the PC clients are doing most of the work - and therefore has a huge amount
of code installed locally - while the servers are merely database servers. In addition to taking
care of the user interface, the clients also perform database lookups and processes the results.
This is a very demanding task that require high performance PC’s. As our demands grow the
applications grow and we need to upgrade our PC’s ever 18/24/30 months to cope with the
latest applications. And the more code you need to manage on the client, the more expensive it
gets...
What is happening in the next stage of the evolution is the Network Computing paradigm.
Now we move the demanding data processing back to the servers in the network, and leave
only the user interface part at the client, the thin client. Ultimately the user interface will be
as simple as a browser. Software like Microsoft Windows NT/Terminal Server and Citrix
Metaframe are being used as the migration path to allow coexistence of Windows applications.
But evolution does not stop here. Computers are being used everywhere! Pervasive Computing
(svenska: genomgripande) will give us computing power in our fridges, mobile phones, TV
sets, cars etc. Since these new computers will have even less computing power and flexibility
than thin clients, the servers have to take even more responsibility. And as these devices have
very different display capabilities, the Web server will need to present the data in a way the
client can display.
3
Why thin clients?
Ø Get applications out there - faster !
Ø Get more applications out there !
Ø Reduce Total Cost of Ownership !
Ø Take control !
Thin Clients
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
One common problem in todays PC environments is that it is difficult to get new applications
and upgrades out to all PCs that need them. Some PCs may even be mobile laptops, making
them even harder to reach. When using thin clients, the applications run on the servers so
they do not even have to be distributed to the clients!
As the company faces new challenges and need to react to customer demands, using thin
clients makes it easier to get more applications to the users, assisting them in their job.
As the applications run on the servers, under administrators' control, it reduces the hassle the
end-user experiences. When something is wrong, you know the administrators are already
working on it, just like in the good old mainframe/terminal days!
Taken together, this all works to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership.
4
Thin client vs. "stripped-down PC"
A thin client....
Ø is easier and less expensive to install / setup
Ø has a longer lifetime
Ø provides better security - no floppy - no viruses
Ø provides better ergonomy - no fan
Ø takes up less desktop space
Ø not a target for theft
Ø has good graphics performance
Ø
Ø
can use Metaframe for Terminals - less expensive
can use Citrix Device Services - free-of-charge!
?
A PC is a good choice when you....
Ø have mobile users
Ø need both local and server-based Windows applications
Ø need advanced multimedia capabilities
Ø need external devices (floppy, CD, scanners etc.)
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
A thin client is a great choice for many purposes. It will not replace 100% of the PCs
however. The ratio between thin clients and PCs varies between companies and between
groups within companies, depending on their needs.
A thin client is built for network computing and needs no or a minimum of local software thus it is easier to install.
As it performs less work, it lasts longer. All upgrades are done on the server.
Metaframe for Terminals is a version of Citrix Metaframe that allows only thin clients to
connect to the NT/TSE-Metaframe server. Metaframe for Terminals is less expensive than
Metaframe Enterprise.
Citrix Device Services is a software from Citrix/IBM that allows IBM thin clients to connect
to NT/Terminal Servers via the ICA protocol - free-of-charge! More on this later.
A PC is a great choice for mobile users. However, all mobile users may not need a mobile PC
of their own. Using thin clients in the office, the mobile users could share mobile PCs in a
pool (like car sharing). When they leave the office their data is copied over to one of the
available mobile PCs and when they come back the data is synchronized with the version in
their home directory.
Some applications do not run well in a Terminal Server environment, using a PC with that
particular application installed locally and an ICA/RDP client to connect to the server for all
other applications is a perfect combination.
Video and audio capture, image processing (requiring many colors - high color depth) is not a
task for a thin client. A PC is still the best choice.
Scanners, CD, floppy and other "exotic" external devices still fits best on PCs.
PalmPilot/WorkPad type of devices do work on IBM's thin clients however.
5
IBM Desktop product positioning
PC 300
Traditional PC
NetVista
Legacy Free System
NetVista
Internet
Appliance
ü User
optimized,
designed for Web
based solutions
ü Hardware,
software, services
ü Broadband
enabled
NetVista
Thin Clients
N2200, N2800
ü Windows
Terminal
version 1.5
ü Open
source Linux
version
NetVista
All-In-One System
3 Legacy
3 Space
reduced PC
saving design
3 Powerful
desktop technology
3 Professional image
ü New
legacy free system
ü Desktop,
micro-tower,
mini-tower form factors
ü Variety
of operating
systems
ü Space
saving design with
innovative Workpad / Palm
cradle
ü Powerful
ü Access
desktop technology
IBM key/icon
ü New
generation of operating
systems
ü Preconfigured
Flash
install of Thin Client
Manager that does not
require a TCM server
ü Server-managed
TCM
version that exploits
TCM's servermanagement capabilities
ü Zero
footprint flat panel
option for N2200
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
The IBM Network Station family of thin clients have now been renamed and migrated into
the rest of the IBM PSG product line. The new family name is NetVista (the eye to the net).
IBM can now provide a wide range of clients, spanning from the most simple Internet
Appliance, providing only a browser, via thin clients, and up to high-performance PCs.
The PC era has proven that one size does not fit all (with PCs everyone needs the XXXL
size...). Therefore it is important to choose a vendor that has devices for all needs. IBM is that
vendor!
6
Traditional PC environment
S/390
AS/400
RS/6000
Web
DB
File
MS Office
Internet Explorer
Notes
SAP
Personal Comm.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This is the traditional PC environment as we all know it. We all have our own copy of the
software we need, installed locally on our PC’s. Using those applications we access a number
of server systems, ranging from the massive mainframes to smaller servers.
Having all software installed locally is an administrative nightmare. Even with the absolutely
best management tools, it’s still tricky and expensive to keep a large number of PC’s up-todate so everyone use the same version of the software and can access the right systems. Not to
mention all the problems our ingenious users create for themselves when trying to tune their
systems themselves...
Instead of having one copy each, wouldn’t it be better to have only one copy that we all used?
One copy to maintain, update & troubleshoot!
7
Thin Client Environment
S/390
S/390 AS/400
RS/6000
Web
DB
AS/400
RS/6000
Web
DB
File
File
MS Office
Internet Explorer
Notes
SAP
Personal Comm.
MS Office
Internet Explorer
Notes
SAP
Personal Comm.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This is exactly what a thin client environment is all about!
We move the software we use into a server that is capable of serving many users at the same
time. We use exactly the same software as we had on our PCs in this so called NT Terminal
Server. Then we give the user a small device, a thin client, that they use to connect to this
server and work with their applications. For the end-user it looks exactly like their old PC
environment, thus they require an absolute minimum of training. For the administrator it
means that he can now concentrate on maintaning the servers and their software and not have
to run around between the PCs to solve individual problems.
8
Windows NT/TSE & Citrix Metaframe
Windows NT 4.0 / Terminal Server Edition
ICA
protocol
ü
A separate edition of Windows NT 4.0 Server
ü
Provides multi-user functionality in NT
ü
Users execute their Windows applications IN this
server - using its CPU, memory and disks
ü
Provides the RDP protocol (RDP4)
RDP
protocol
• 1 NT server license per server
• 1 NT/TSE CAL per physical client HW
Multi-user
hook
Citrix Metaframe
ü
Provides the ICA protocol
ü
Application publishing
ü
Shadowing - remote desktop control
ü
Local serial & parallel port mapping
ü
Audio
ü
Load Balancing add-on product
• 1 Metaframe server license per server
• 1 Metaframe client license per active client
Citrix MetaFrame
Windows NT 4.0 /
Terminal Server Edition
x86 server
ICA slices user interface calls
during application execution
Application's user
interface executes at client
Application's logic
executes at server
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Windows NT 4.0, Terminal Server Edition is the latest edition of the NT 4.0 Operating System (released summer
1998). In addition to doing file and print as a normal NT 4.0 Server, it gives the users the ability to LOG IN and
EXECUTE applications ON this server. Each user is given their own "virtual NT machine" in this server, using the
server's CPU, RAM and disks. This is called "multi-user NT".
RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) is the protocol developed by Microsoft to deliver the screen images out to the client
and to transport the mouse movements and keyboard data back to the server. RDP in NT/TSE is a LAN protocol, not
suitable for WAN connections due to its high bandwidth requirements.
To connect thin clients to a NT/TSE server you need 1 server license per server and 1 client license per physical
client.
RDP clients are available for thin clients, Windows 3.1, Windows 9X/NT4/2000. There is no RDP clients for Unix.
Citrix Metaframe is an add-on product to NT/TSE and provides many necessary functions that NT/TSE and the RDP
protocol lacks. With Metaframe, you also get the ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) protocol, which is a
more robust and proven protocol than RDP. ICA is more optimized than RDP and requires less bandwith.
Application publishing allows a user to connect to an application (such as Word, Excel etc.) instead of connecting to
a server. This is useful e.g. when a company needs to support multiple language versions of, say MS Office. One
server can have the English version of Office and another server can have the Swedish version. The users can then
connect to the application "English Office" instead of having to know which server IP address has the English version.
Metaframe also provides Shadowing, the ability to allow e.g. the help desk to take over the user's screen (remote
desktop control).
Metaframe also supports use of local external devices , such as printers and scanners, via parallel and serial ports.
One, almost necessary, function in a thin client setup is Load Balancing, which Metaframe supports (but not
NT/TSE) as an add-on. This allows companies to build server farms with multiple servers and when a user connects to
an application (uses published applications) he/she is directed to the least busy server in the farm. It must be
emphasized that it is not a fail-over solution, it is load balancing at logon only. If a server becomes unavailable, the
users working on that server gets a black screen and has to restart. The Load Balancing function then redirects them to
another, working, server.
To use Citrix Metaframe, you need the licenses for NT/TSE (as above) plus 1 Metaframe server license per server and
1 Metaframe client license per logged-on (simultaneous) user.
ICA clients are available for a wide range of platforms, including Unix.
NOTE: Neither the RDP nor the ICA protocol currently supports more than 256 colors (July 2000).
9
Windows 2000 & Citrix Metaframe
Windows 2000 w/Terminal Services
ü
NT/TSE functions integrated into Windows 2000
ü
Provides the RDP5 protocol (enhanced)
ü
Shadowing
ü
Local parallel port mapping
ü
'Trivial' Load Balancing (NTLB)
ICA
protocol
Citrix MetaFrame
for Windows 2000
• 1 NT server license per server
• 1 NT/TSE CAL per physical client HW
Citrix Metaframe for Windows 2000
ü
Provides the ICA protocol
ü
Application publishing
ü
Shadowing
ü
Local serial & parallel port mapping
ü
Audio
ü
Load Balancing add-on product
RDP
protocol
Multi-user
hook
Windows 2000 w/
Terminal Services
x86 server
• 1 Metaframe server license per server
• 1 Metaframe client license per active client
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Windows 2000 Server has the multi-user functions from NT/TSE built-in as services you can
choose to add at install time. The Teminal Services is therefore no longer a separate product.
Windows 2000 has a new, enhanced, version of the RDP protocol. This provides shadowing
and local printer support. It also supports a type of load balancing. This load balancing
technique measures the outgoing traffic on the network adapters in each server and redirects
new requests to the least-network-busy server. It is primarily intended for e.g. web servers, file
servers etc, where it probably works fine. In a thin client environment, however, the network
load does not say very much about how busy the server is. For example, if users have
disconnected sessions on the server, the server is still processing them, but it creates no network
load at all for these sessions. Therefore the servers in the farm may not be evenly loaded, as
with the Citrix Load Balancing function.
The RDP protocol in Windows 2000 is optimized both in terms of performance and bandwidth
requirements compared to the RDP protocol in NT/TSE.
Citrix also has a version of Metaframe for Windows 2000, which provides the more intelligent
and proven Citrix Load Balancing feature as well as the optimized ICA protocol.
10
Citrix Device Services - "Metaframe light"
Facts....
ü
Provides the ICA protocol
ü
Local serial & parallel port mapping
ü
Targets small businesses
ü
Provided by IBM
Pros....
ü
Free-of-charge!
ü
Supports the NetVista thin clients
Cons....
ü
No load balancing option
ü
No shadowing
ü
No audio
ü
Supports only the NetVista thin clients... no PCs
NT 4.0
Windows 2000
ICA
protocol
ICA
protocol
Citrix Device Services
Citrix Device Services
RDP
protocol
RDP
protocol
Multi-user
hook
Multi-user
hook
Windows NT 4.0 /
Terminal Server Edition
Windows 2000 w/
Terminal Services
x86 server
x86 server
A tip...
A trivial form of Load Balancing can easily be
implemented using a Round-Robin DNS setup.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
For those customers who think that NT/TSE and the RDP protocol is not enough, but do not
want to pay for the full Metaframe (Enterprise) version, Citrix has released a 'light' version of
the Metaframe product, called Citrix Device Services (CDS). IBM ships this product to our
IBM NetVista thin client customers free-of-charge.
CDS includes the optimized and proven ICA protocol. It allows mapping of serial and parallel
local devices. It does not include audio, shadowing or application publishing support and it is
not possible to add Load Balancing.
Also, CDS allows connections only from IBM NetVista thin clients. If you install CDS on a
NT/TSE server, you can not connect PCs, Unix clients etc. to this server via the ICA protocol.
You can, however, still use the RDP protocol in parallel with the ICA protocol.
Also, as Citrix Load Balancing is not an option, you could setup a Round-Robin DNS and get
a trivial form of load balancing. When the first user asks for the server's IP address, the DNS
responds with the IP address for the first server (server1). When the second user asks the DNS
responds with the IP address for the second server (server2). When the third user asks, the
DNS responds with the IP address for the first server again. This continues in an endless loop.
You can of course have more than two servers. The drawback with this Round-Robin
technique is that if one server becomes unavailable, the DNS will still respond with that
server's IP address, and those users will not get a connection. Also, if one server is heavily
over-loaded, it still gets new users, even if there are other servers with less load. But in many
cases it may be a very good compromise, especially since the price tag is appealing....
11
NT/TSE & Metaframe server sizing
Server hardware
Ø 1 x PentiumII/450 CPU per 25 concurrent users
Ø
64 MB RAM for NT/TSE+Metaframe base
Ø
16-32 MB RAM per concurrent user
Ø
No more than 75-80 concurrent users per server
Ø
Plan for the fact that a server may be unavailable - add extra HW
Ø
Use 2 servers instead of 1, use 3 servers instead of 2....
Network load
Ø Common figures for ICA are 20-30 kBit/s per active user
ICA
RDP
MS Word 97 (text)
~ 8 kBit/s/user
~ 10 kBit/s/user
MS PowerPoint 97 (graphics)
~ 60 kBit/s/user
~ 220 kBit/s/user
Measured using:
NT 4.0 TSE
Metaframe 1.0
Win32 ICA client
Win32 RDP client
Note: These figures are not IBM official figures.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Sizing an NT/TSE-Metaframe server is a tough task! The amount of RAM and CPU power
depends on what applications the users use, how they use them, how often etc. The
recommendation is to run a quick pilot to verify that the applications do work and at the same
time measure the network load and CPU and RAM requirements. The more users involved in
such a pilot the better, but do not use less than 10 people.
This slide gives some very generic guidelines for applications such as MS Office, Outlook,
Internet Explorer etc.
The reason for my recommendation of no more than 75-80 users per server is that experience
has shown that with more users the performance of the NT 4.0 kernel drops. It seems like the
server gets too much ’administration work’ in keeping track of all its processes.
An 'ideal' server is a 2xCPU server with, perhaps, Pentium III/600 and 2GB of RAM. A server
like this can handle about 60 simultaneous users with good performance. The IBM Netfinity
4000R is a perfect server for NT/TSE-Metaframe server farms. Being only 1 unit high you can
squeeze approximately 40 servers in one rack.
Network utilization is also difficult to predict, as it also depends on what applications are
being used and how they are being used. Graphics intensive applications (Powerpoint, browser
etc.) require much more bandwidth than text applications (Word).
The figures in the table is the result of a test I did using NT/TSE, Metaframe 1.0, ICA and
RDP clients for Win32 (NT 4.0). Using a macro program I simulated the use of Word and
Powerpoint during approximately 10 minutes each. Compression was activated in both the
ICA and RDP client.
12
Common thin client server setup
File server - stores the data
• Windows NT
• RAID5 disk configuration
• UPS
• Data backup (e.g. tape drive)
• User's home dir (H:)
• Other data
Application servers - executes the applications
• Windows NT/TSE with Metaframe
• 2 disks in RAID1 configuration (mirroring)
• Windows applications (Office, IE, Notes etc.)
• Only swap and other temporary storage
• No user data stored here
• No UPS necessary
• No data backup necessary
Thin clients - displays the user interface
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
A thin client environment is best built using a 3-tier hierarchy.
The top server stores the users' data (their home directories). This is a normal file server,
already in use by most PC networks. It should have a high degree of redundancy, such as
RAID5 disks and backup systems.
The application servers execute the users' applications. They have NT/TSE-Metaframe (or
Windows 2000-Metaframe) and all applications the users require installed. It is usually better to
use more, but less powerful, servers. As these servers do not store any data, backup can be done
by 'Ghosting' the servers so they can quickly be restored in case of a hard disk failure. It may,
however, be a good idea to install dual hard disks in a RAID1 mirrored setup. The data is then
written to both disks, improving redundancy if one disk should break, and increases
performance as the data can be read from the least busy disk. For even better performance a
RAID5 disk system could be used.
The swap file on the NT/TSE-Metaframe servers should be roughly 1.5-2 x the amount of
RAM in the server.
One may think that these application servers require huge amounts of hard disk space, but they
generally do not. A typical installation with NT/TSE, Metaframe, Office, browser and a few
other applications usually require less than 1GB of hard disk space. To this add, say, 2GB for
swap space and another 1GB for temporary user data and print spool files and you end up with
a 4GB disk. Of course, the more applications you add the more disk space you need.
13
IBM Netvista N2200 & N2800
MS Windows-based
Terminal Standard 1.5
Netvista N2200
Windows CE OS (flash boot)
ü RDP
ü ICA
ü 3270/5250/VT emulators
ü IE4.0 (to be released)
ü Ethernet
ü
N2200w
N2200 TCM
N2200e
N2200 Linux
Netvista N2800
N2800 TCM
N2800e
N2800 Linux
IBM Thin Client Manager
NetBSD OS (flash or server boot)
ICA
3270/5250/VT emulators
ü Netscape 4.5
ü Java VM 1.1.8
ü User authentication
ü User-specific settings
ü Ethernet & Token-Ring
ü
ü
ü
IBM Thin Client Manager
NetBSD OS (flash or server boot)
ICA
3270/5250/VT emulators
ü Netscape 4.5
ü Java VM 1.1.8
ü User authentication
ü User-specific settings
ü Ethernet & Token-Ring
ü
ü
ü
Linux
Linux OS (flash or server boot)
Everything Linux provides....
User authentication
ü User-specific settings
ü Ethernet
ü
ü
ü
Linux
Linux OS (flash or server boot)
Everything Linux provides....
User authentication
ü User-specific settings
ü Ethernet
ü
ü
ü
Ø
Wide range of operating environments - all on the same hardware!
Ø
Functionality depends on the operating environment;
Windows CE, TCM or Linux
Ø
Transition between environments possible!
Note: IBM Thin Client Manager (TCM) was formerly called IBM Network Station Manager (NSM).
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
The IBM NetVista thin client comes in two basic hardware models, the N2200 and the N2800. The N2200 is
available in three different shapes; as the recently announced N2200w - the Windows-based Terminal, the N2200 with
Thin Client Manager or Linux and the N2200e - with Thin Client Manager Express.
The N2200w is the IBM Windows-based Terminal and comes with a flash card preinstalled with the latest version of
the Windows CE operating system for thin clients, the WBT Standard 1.5. This provides emulators, RDP and ICA
clients and soon also a stripped-down version of Internet Explorer 4.0. This environment has all software and
configuration settings stored IN the client and is ready to run out-of-the-box.
The N2200 is an N2200w without a flash card and it comes without any software. IBM provides - free-of-charge - the
Thin Client Manager (TCM, former Network Station Manager) that can be downloaded from the Internet. This installs
on a server (NT, AS/400, AIX) and then - after the client has booted from the server - provides the N2200 with
emulators, ICA client, local Netscape browser and a Java Virtual Machine. In this environment all software and
configuration settings are stored on the server, making it easier to administrate. The server also provides a login
mechanism, making it possible to tailor an 'NC desktop' with icons and settings for each user, or group of users.
For those customers who do not want to install the TCM software on a server but still want the functionality of the
TCM software, the N2200e - NetVista N2200 Express - is the perfect choice. This is a N2200 that comes with a flash
card preinstalled with a subset of the TCM software. It provides emulators and ICA client and soon also a Netscape
browser. By default there is no connection to a server (TCM server) as with the full TCM offering, so all software and
configuration settings are stored IN each client. It is very easily, however, to connect this machine to a TCM server and
start using the benefits of it. The N2200e is as easy to setup as the N2200w and provides an alternative to the
WindowsCE platform.
For those customers who want Linux, IBM has - in cooperation with RedHat - certified RedHat Linux 6.1 to run on the
N2200. The N2200 then boots off a Linux server much in the same way the N2200 does with TCM.
The N2800 is the big brother of the N2200 and works with TCM and Linux (but not with WindowsCE/WBT
Standard), and provides even better performance than the N2200 hardware. There is also a N2800e version that works
like the N2200e.
A customer who buys the N2200w - the Windows-based Terminal - can install TCM on a server and then very easily
migrate to and start using TCM with their N2200w terminals. The flash card in the N2200w is then not being used. If
they want they can also use Linux instead of TCM. It is also possible to 'migrate back' to the WBT environment later, if
desired.
A customer with only the N2200 hardware (N2200 or N2200e) can not migrate to WindowsCE/WBT on their
hardware, due to licensing issues. To run WindowsCE/WBT the N2200w must be bought.
14
Netvista N2200 & N2800 hardware specification
N2200
N2800
CPU
x86/233MHz
x86/266MHz
RAM
32-288 SDRAM DIMM
(One slot available)
64-256 SDRAM DIMM
512KB L2 Cache
Network
10/100 Mbit Ethernet
16/4 Mbit T/R*
10/100 Mbit Ethernet
16/4 Mbit T/R
I/O Ports
• 2 USB (only)
-1 used for mouse/kbd
-1 available:
• Printers via USBParallel converter
• Serial via USB-Serial
converter
• 2 Serial
-Printers
-Touch screen
-SmartCard (GCR410)
-Other serial devices
• 1 Parallel
-Printers
• 2 USB
Expansion
• Compact Flash card
• Compact Flash card
• 2 PCI (short)
-Quatech Multiport serial
Audio
• External speakers out
• External microphone in
• External speakers out
• External microphone in
Hardware support depends on the operating environment used; Windows CE, TCM or Linux.
*IBM NetVista N2200w is Ethernet only.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
CPU speed is less interesting in the thin client world than in the PC world. Still it determines
somewhat the performance of the thin client.
The N2200 (and of course also the N2200w and N2200e) has a 233MHz CPU, giving the
N2200 (and N2200w) very good performance compared to other WBTs.
RAM upgrades may be neccessary when you run more applications locally in the thin client.
For example, running the local Netscape browser from TCM in the N2200 requires more than
32MB (64MB is fine). Running local Java applications in the N2200 also requires more than
32MB. http://www.ibm.com/nc has guidelines on RAM requirements with TCM.
The N2200 can be bought in TokenRing version (8363-Txx) or Ethernet version (8363-Exx).
If you buy the TokenRing version, you can later unplug the TokenRing card and you get an
Ethernet box (it has Ethernet on the motherboard). This is not possible with the N2800 (8364Txx or 8364-Exx) which is either TokenRing or Ethernet and the box must be replaced to
switch between them.
The N2200w only comes in an Ethernet version. There is no TokenRing version available.
The N2800 has a standard set of ports. Note, however, that TCM does not support the USB
ports on the N2800 yet!
The N2200 (and N2200w) has only USB ports. Mouse/keyboard uses one, leaving one for
external devices. What device you can attach depends on what you run on the client; Windows
CE (N2200w), TCM (N2200 or N2200e) or Linux (N2200). As of today, July 2000, not very
many USB devices are supported. Therefore the best bet is to use USB->Serial and USB>Parallell converters. www.ibm.com/nc has information on the tested and supported converter
cables.
The N2200 has a standard PS/2 mouse which connects to the keyboard. The keyboard is a
USB keyboard which connects to the USB port. The N2800 has standard PS/2 mouse & kbd.
15
IBM NetVista N2200w
Windows-based Terminal Standard 1.5
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
On April 28, 2000, IBM launched its first Windows-based Terminal. Not only is this our first
pure WBT offering, it is also the first WBT on the market to use Microsoft’s new WBT
platform, the Windows-based Terminal Standard 1.5.
The hardware in the WBT is the same as for the NetVista N2200 with a 16MB flash card
added. This flash card has the Windows CE operating systems, ICA and RDP clients and
emulators preinstalled.
16
IBM NetVista N2200w - our WBT offering
Ø
IBM Netvista N2200w WBT Standard 1.5 is first to market
ü
ü
First to offer the benefits of WBT Standard 1.5 and RDP 5.0
Microsoft DirectX multimedia enabled - equal to Win32
ü
ü
ü
Ø
ü
Optimized video device drivers for IBM's implementation of WBT 1.5
Proven performance of N2200 hardware vs. WBTs
Client-side WBT Internet Explorer 4.0 browser ready
ü
ü
Ø
Fast set-up - no server software required for setup and configuration
IBM WBT 1.5 outperforms other WBTs
ü
Ø
Microsoft media streaming formats including MP3, WAV
ICA support for Citrix VideoFrame (Metaframe 2.0 in 3Q)
Offered within 90 days of availability of IE 4.0 for WBT Standard 1.5 (3Q)
Reflash existing card - no need to exchange/upgrade hardware!
Ability to transition to other IBM thin client environments
ü
ü
IBM Thin Client Manager or Linux
Help protect investment in IBM thin client hardware
Ø
Standard IBM NetVista N2200 hardware with 16MB Compact Flash
card factory-installed and pre-configured with WBT Standard 1.5
Ø
IBM NetVista N2200 hardware supports 64K colors
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
First to market with RDP 5.0 - first thin client on the market to utilize the new enhanced
functions of the Windows 2000 RDP protocol.
Citrix VideoFrame is a product that allows video publishing (like application publishing).
IBM has taken the standard set of video device drivers in the Microsoft Windows CE platform
and replaced with drivers optimized for the N2200w hardware - giving the N2200w very good
graphics performance. The N2200 also has a 233MHz CPU which helps to improve
performance.
Microsoft will release a stripped-down version of the IE 4.0 browser for the Windows CE
operating system. The N2200w is prepared to install this browser as soon as Microsoft makes
it available. The current time schedule is release sometime during 3Q 2000. As the flash card
in the N2200w is 16MB, it should have space enough to accomodate the IE4 browser without
needing to upgrade any hardware.
A customer who has the N2200w hardware, can easily migrate to an IBM TCM or Linux
environment if they would like to. No other WBT on the market has this opportunity!
17
IBM NetVista N2200w capabilities at a glance
Microsoft WBT Standard 1.5 software
ü RDP 5.0
ü ICA 3.0++
ü 3270/5250/VT420 emulators
ü Internet Explorer 4.0 (3Q 2000)
ü Microsoft DirectX multimedia enabled (equal to Win32)
ü MS Media Player
ü Built-in SNMP functions
ü Flash card software updates from HTTP or FTP server - at boot or on request
• All software installed locally on 16MB Compact Flash card.
• All configuration settings stored locally in each thin client.
3270
Emulator
5250
Emulator
VT420
Emulator
Internet
Internet
Explorer
Explorer
4.0
4.0
RDP 5.0
client
ICA 3.0++
client
Microsoft Windows CE - WBT Standard 1.5
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
The base of the N2200w is Microsoft's latest version of the Windows CE operating system,
packaged in the WBT Standard 1.5 platform. On top of this operating system the WBT can run
(all software resides locally on the 16MB flash card, no network boot necessary):
• 3270 emulator for connection to IBM mainframe (S390)
• 5250 emulator for connection to IBM AS/400
• VT emulator for connection to Unix and Digital VAX/VMS systems via the VT protocol
• RDP client for connection to NT/TSE or Windows 2000 servers
• ICA client for connection to NT/TSE or Windows 2000 servers with Citrix Metaframe
You are not limited to only one connection at a time, you can run e.g. the ICA client at the
same time as you run a VT emulator session. The number of sessions depends on the amount
of RAM (standard 32MB) in the box.
As Windows CE lacks windowing capabilities all sessions are displayed full-screen, thus you
can not see the ICA client and the VT emulator on the screen at the same time. To switch
between the active sessions you use a hot-key (Ctrl-Alt-UpArrow/DownArrow) combination.
MS is also developing a stripped-down version of the Internet Explorer 4.0 browser for the
Windows CE platform. IBM, as the first vendor on the market, intends to make this available
for its N2200w customers within 90 days of MS releasing the code. Estimated delivery is 3Q.
New in the WBT Standard 1.5 platform is also enhanced multimedia support. DirectX and MS
Media Player has been added to support multimedia applications and playback of audio and
video.
To update the software on the 16MB flash card, the WBT can be configured to contact an ftp
or http (web) server with the latest release. If the WBT finds out it is backlevel, it downloads
the necessary changes and updates its flash card.
18
IBM NetVista N2200w with local applications
S/390
AS/400
RS/6000
Web
MS Office
Internet Explorer
Notes
SAP
Local emulators
RDP/ICA client
Internet Explorer
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
The IBM NetVista N2200w is capable of running both local applications (emulators and, soon,
Internet Explorer 4.0) as well as RDP and ICA clients to connect to a Terminal Server. This
gives us the ability to design flexible solutions that fit the customers environment.
By running simple applications IN the client we get a couple of benefits:
• Reduced network load - the 3270/5250/VT protocols require less network load than the ICA
or RDP protocols. This is especially important if you have an environment with WAN links.
• Improved performance - since the client can connect directly to the S390, AS/400 or Unix
host, the Terminal Server does not become a bottleneck. The reduced network load is also a
major factor for improving the performance end-users experience.
• Improved redundancy - if the Terminal Server becomes unavailable the client can still
connect to the business-critical systems in the host servers.
Of course, if the applications we use to connect to the host servers require anything else than
an emulator session, we need to run them in the Terminal Server. One example is Client
Access for AS/400 connections. If a customer uses features only available in Client Access, a
local 5250 emulator is not sufficient.
19
IBM NetVista N2200w for Windows 2000 access
Ø
Ø
RDP 5 - standard in Windows 2000 Terminal Services
ü
Increased performance - WAN and LAN
ü
Supports printing to the client (all printer drivers supported by Windows 2000)
ü
Session shadowing
ü
'Trivial' Load Balancing function (NTLB)
ü
56-bit encryption
ICA 3.0++
ü
Socks support
ü
Citrix VideoFrame support (MetaFrame 2.0 in 3Q)
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
The N2200w is optimized for Windows access, to NT/TSE or Windows 2000 servers with or
without optional Citrix Metaframe software.
The N2200w is the first WBT on the market to utilize the enhanced features of the RDP5.0
protocol, found in Windows 2000. This protocol gives:
Enhanced performance - less bandwidth requirements.
Printers locally attached to the client. All printer drivers supported by Windows 2000 are
supported.
Session shadowing - remote desktop control, for help desks
A 'trivial' form of Load Balancing has been introduced in Windows2000/RDP5. The
functionality is not as advanced or complete as Citrix Load Balancing, however. The Windows
2000 introduces a mechanism to measure the outgoing network load of the network adapters
and to redirect incoming requests (RDP sessions) to the least-network-busy server.
The ICA protocol has been enhanced with SOCKS support for access through firewalls.
Support for Citrix VideoFrame product is also added. VideoFrame allows video clips to be
'published' to clients, much like application publishing allows applications to be published.
The ICA and RDP clients support Cut/Copy/Paste within each session (so you can
cut/copy/paste from e.g. MS Word to MS Excel running within the same ICA session), but not
between sessions or into the emulators.
20
IBM NetVista N2200w emulators
Ø
Emulators from FutureSoft
ü
3270
ü
5250
ü
VT420
Ø
Cut / Copy / Paste between sessions
Ø
Keyboard remapping
Ø
Dynamically resized, scalable fonts
Ø
Local printing using HP PCL driver
Ø
Network printing using FutureSoft NetPrint
(sold separately by FutureSoft)
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
For the WBT platform, IBM is licensing 3270/5250/VT emulators from Futuresoft. These are
well-working basic emulators without too much "bells-and-whistles".
The emulators support Cut/Copy/Paste within each emulator session, but not between emulator
sessions or into ICA or RDP sessions.
Local printing (screen dumps) can be done to local printers compatible with HP PCL.
For network printing support, an add-on software, FutureSoft NetPrint, must be used. The
client then prints to a print server with NetPrint and the print server then forwards the data
stream to the network printer.
21
Internet Explorer 4.0 for WBT Standard 1.5
Ø
Supported technologies
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
Ø
Dynamic HTML (4.0)
Win32 Internet functions
Asynchronous pluggable protocols
URL monikers
MSHTML
WebBrowser control
MLang
ActiveX controls installed on the device (no downloads)
Cascading Style Sheets Level 1 (CSS1)
Full event model for all tags and objects
Integration of JScript (3.0) and objects
International Language Support (unicode characters)
Images (GIF, JPEG, BPM, XBM)
Multimedia (Microsoft DirectShow)
Plug-in support -- under evaluation
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Microsoft is currently working on a stripped-down version of the Internet Explorer 4.0
browser and plans to make it available for the WBT 1.5 platform shortly. IBM, as the first
vendor on the market, intends to make this browser available for its N2200w customers in 3Q
2000.
The 16MB flash card in the N2200w has space enough to accomodate the browser, without
needing to upgrade the hardware.
The browser supports most Internet standard features, as shown on this slide.
22
Internet Explorer 4.0 for WBT Standard 1.5
Ø
IE4 for WBT Standard 1.5 supports the same features included in the Win32 version,
except for the following:
ü
Data Binding
ü
ü
ü
ü
Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript)
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Downloadable ActiveX controls
PNG image format
ü
Microsoft Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
Gopher
Recreation Software Advisory Council on the Internet (Parental control)
ü
Filters and transitions
ü
ü
Ø
No EMAIL support (Outlook Express not available for WBT 1.5)
Ø
Microsoft JScript supports the same features included in the Win32 version,
except for the following:
ü
RegExp support
ü
SafeArray support (used for co-existence with VBScript etc.)
SCRRUN.DLL support
ü
ü
ü
Automatic loading of type libraries
Referencing cross window objects
Note: As the WBT platform does not have a
window manager, all windows are displayed
full-screen, completely overlapping each other.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This slide lists the functions and features found in Internet Explorer 4.0 on the Win32 platform
that are not found in the IE4 browser for WBT Standard 1.5 platform.
Also important to note is that the WBT Standard platform does not have a window manager.
This means that all windows (emulator sessions, ICA/RDP sessions, IE4 browser windows)
are displayed full-screen, covering the whole screen area, and overlapping each other
completely. To switch between the windows the Ctrl-Alt-UpArrow/DownArrow key sequence
is used.
This means that if a web page opens up a new window, it will completely overlap the other
windows on the screen. Therefore it is very important to verify that the IE4 browser for WBT
Standard 1.5 works with the web pages it is supposed to access. For Internet surfing, it may
not always be suitable. It may, however, be the perfect, inexpensive, fit for basic browser
applications not opening up multiple windows.
Note: This limitation is based on early information from Microsoft and may, or may not,
change once the IE4 browser for WBT Standard 1.5 is released.
23
IBM NetVista N2200w printing scenarios
Printing from Windows
applications to network printer.
Handled by normal NT print functions. Thin
client not involved at all.
Network printer
NT/TSE+Metaframe
or Windows 2000
Printing from Windows
applications to local printer
NT/TSE+Metaframe
or Windows 2000
Local printer
Printing from local emulators
to local printer
Handled by the Metaframe print capabilities
(ICA) or by the Windows 2000 print
capabilities (RDP5). All printer drivers
supported by NT/TSE or Windows 2000
can be used.
Handled directly by built-in HP PCL driver.
Local printer
Printing from local emulators
to network printer
Network printer
Handled by NetPrint software on NT4 print
server. All printer drivers supported by NT4
can be used.
NT4 print server with
FutureSoft NetPrint.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Some print scenarios:
•Printing from Windows applications on NT/TSE-Metaframe server to a network printer
the NT/TSE server uses its installed printer driver, creates the print job and sends it off directly
to the network printer. The thin client is not involved at all.
•Printing from Windows applications on NT/TSE-Metaframe server to locally attached printer
the NT/TSE server uses its installed printer driver, creates the print job and sends it off, via
ICA (or RDP5 in Windows 2000) to the thin client. The thin client receives the data and
simpy outputs it, untouched, to the local printer.
•Printing from a thin client LOCAL emulator (3270/5250/VT) to a local printer
the emulator uses the print functions in the Windows CE platform to create the print job. The
Windows CE platform has a pre-installed HP PCL printer driver that is used to format the data.
The print job is then output to the local printer.
•Printing from a thin client LOCAL emulator (3270/5250/VT) to a network printer
the emulator sends the data to print to a separate print server on the network.. This is an NT
server running FutureSoft NetPrint software. The server uses the printer driver installed on the
server to format the data and then sends it off to the network printer.
24
IBM NetVista N2200w - future enhancements
Ø
Internet Explorer 4.0 browser
Ø
Enhanced support for external devices
Ø
Ø
ü
USB-to-serial modems for dial-up
ü
USB-to-serial printers
ü
Selected USB-connected printers
ü
Selected USB-connected modems for dial-up
ü
Selected USB hubs
Enhanced management capabilities
ü
Configuration clone-and-pull
ü
Configuration clone-and-push
Client properties lock-down
ü
Password-protect local configuration settings
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
IBM intends to, in the near future, add the following features to the N2200w:
Internet Explorer 4.0 browser - 3Q
Support for more external devices. As of today (July 00) the only supported devices are USBSerial (Belkin F5U103) and USB-Parallel (Belkin F5U002) cable converters. To these cables
serial and parallel devices such as PalmPilots/Workpads and printers can be attached. In
subsequent ServicePacks support for serial modems (via USB-Serial cable) for dialup, directly
connected USB printers and modems and USB hubs will be added.
As all configuration settings for a WBT are stored locally in each individual client's NVRAM
(Non-Volatile RAM) there must be a method for updating them, e.g. when you have installed a
new application on a NT/TSE-Metaframe server and you want to publish that name to the
client's "Connection Menu” or you have changed the IP address of a Unix host you
communicate with etc. To do this IBM will enhance the capabilities of the N2200w with:
Configuration clone-and-push: This method allows an administrator to take a N2200w and
manually reconfigure it to suit the new environment. The configuration settings can then be
uploaded to an NT server and then be pushed out to all other N2200w units.
In addition to this, the capability to password-protect all settings in the NVRAM (IP addresses,
data for "Connection Menu" etc.) will also be added.
These enhancements will come in ServicePacks, available from www.ibm.com/nc, during 3Q
2000. When a software update is available from IBM the administrator should download it and
install it on the internal ftp or http (web) server the clients connect to to see whether updates
are available. It is then automatically downloaded by each client at power-on.
25
Managing the clients
Configuration server
Clone..
Master client
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
As specified by Microsoft’s WBT specification, the N2200w has its software and settings
stored locally IN the client. To keep the software up-to-date the IBM N2200w can connect to a
HTTP or FTP server at each power-on and verify that it is using the latest release. If not, it
downloads the files necessary and updates its flash card.
Settings, such as what Terminal Servers to connect to, what published applications to use,
what emulator keymaps to use, which screen resolution to use etc. are also stored in the client.
To facilitate distribution of these settings to all N2200w’s in the network IBM has a technique
called cloning.
The administrator takes a WBT and reconfigures it so it has all the settings appropriate for the
environment. Then, he uploads these settings from the WBT to an FTP server in the
network.
26
Managing the clients
Configuration server
Clone..
..and pull
Master client
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
All the other N2200w terminals can then download these settings when they are powered
on and be kept up-to-date.
We call this technique Clone-and-pull.
27
Managing the clients
Configuration server
Clone..
..and pull
..and push
Master client
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Soon to come is also a new technique called Clone-and-push. The administrator can then not
only let the clients pull configuration data from the server, but also push the data out to each
client.
28
IBM NetVista N2200w - the Windows-based Terminal
Ø Get applications out there - faster !
Ø Get more applications out there !
Ø Reduce Total Cost of Ownership !
Ø Take control !
or
s!
df
e
es
z
i
c
c
tim
sa
Op
ow
d
n
Wi
N2200w
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This ends the presentation of the N2200w - The Windows-based Terminal,
optimized for accessing Windows NT/TSE and Windows 2000 servers.
29
IBM NetVista N2200 & N2800
IBM Thin Client Manager V2R1
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
In addition to the IBM NetVista N2200w - WBT Standard 1.5, IBM has a very complete
software package offering for its line of thin clients, called the IBM Thin Client Manager
(formerly called IBM Network Station Manager, NSM).
TCM runs on both the N2200 and N2800 hardware (and also the older S300/S1000 boxes).
TCM is free-of-charge, available from www.ibm.com/nc.
30
TCM V2R1 highlights
Centrally managed
Ø
All setting stored centrally - nothing on the client
Ø
User authentication during bootup
Ø
User-customized desktop, easy to lock-down
Configuration server
Ø Users
can move between TCM clients and receive their own
customized desktop wherever they are
Highly customizable - kiosk/supressed login, full-screen
applications etc.
Ø
Ø Network
Ø
server boot or local boot (flash card) - also peer boot
Windowed environment
Boot server
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
For those customers who require an even more centrally managed solution than the N2200w
WBT, the TCM offering is the perfect choice.
By keeping all settings in one central copy (not in one copy residing in each physical client)
management becomes even easier.
As TCM also uses an initial user logon, it is possible to provide each user with its own
customized desktop. This desktop can display icons for the host systems (mainframe, AS/400,
Unix, NT/TSE etc.) the user can access. It does not control what icons are displayed within the
ICA session (on the NT/TSE servers). These are still managed as per normal Windows NT
methods.
TCM is an extremely customizable environment! It can be setup to log the clients on
automatically and autostart a browser session to a special homepage, or to look like a WBT, or
to provide a user customized desktop with icons for only the systems the user is allowed to
access. However, due to its high level of flexibility, it is also somewhat more complicated to
get started than with the simple N2200w WBT.
The TCM operating system has a window manager (WM) that allows multiple windows to be
displayed on the screen simultaneously. This makes it possible to run an emulator session
and the ICA client at the same time and display them both on the screen. Each window is
displayed within its own frame and they can be moved with the mouse.
31
IBM Thin Client Manager (TCM) V2R1
Browser-based central administration
ü
Tool for configuring NetVista N2200 & N2800 hardware
ü Tool
Administrator
(with a web browser)
ü
for assigning applications and preferences to users
System-wide, group, user and terminal settings
ü
Web-based GUI - Run from ANY browser - ANYWHERE
TCM
&
web server
Intranet
TCM platforms
ü NT4,
NT/TSE
AIX
ü AS/400
ü
Windows 2000 is yet not
supported as TCM server.
TCM is free of charge!
User
Joe
User
5250
√
5250
Bob
User
John
User
Jane
5250
√
5250
√
Windows
Windows
√
Windows
Windows
√
Browser
Browser
√
Browser
Browser
√
Java
Java
√
Java
√
Java
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
TCM consists of:
• the boot code (operating system, NetBSD) the N2200 and N2800 uses when running TCM.
• the local applications (3270/5250/VT, ICA, Netscape, Java) the N2200 and N2800 is able to
run when using TCM.
• a central web-based management tool for configuring the N2200 and N2800 hardware and
the settings for the local applications (e.g. what hosts to communicate with, keyboard mapping,
color mapping etc.). All settings are stored in one copy in one central location, on the NSM
server, in contradiction when using a WBT where all settings are stored in each individual
client.
TCM is available for Windows NT 4.0 (and NT/TSE), AIX and AS/400. Windows 2000
support is currently being developed.
As the boot code and settings are stored on a server when using TCM, the N2200 and N2800
thin clients boot from the TCM server, over the network. Thus there is no need for a flash
card in the thin clients when using TCM. This allows for even more central management of
software and configuration settings. In some environments (especially when the TCM server is
on the other side of a WAN link) it is necessay to boot locally for performance reasons, and
TCM then supports the adding of a flash card to the thin clients. The boot code is then
installed on the flash card (thus resides in the client) but the configuration settings are still kept
in one central copy. The code on the flash card is managed by TCM. If one thin client has a
flash card installed, it can act as a boot server for other thin clients on the same LAN
(recommended number of "peer-booting" units is no more than 10).
32
IBM Thin Client Manager V2R1 administration interface
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
These screen shots show what the TCM management dialogs look like. Using a web browser,
the administrator browses to the TCM server, logs on, and can then administrate the clients.
Since TCM is browser-based no special management software needs to be installed at the
computers where the administrator may be, a browser is all it takes.
33
IBM NetVista N2200 & N2800 with TCM - at a glance
Ø
ICA client
Ø
Local LPR / LPD print functions
Ø
Emulators
Ø
Cut / Copy / Paste between all local applications
(even into ICA window!)
Ø
64K color support
ü
ü
ü
3270
5250
VT320
Ø
Netscape 4.5 browser w/ built-in JVM
Ø
Separate IBM Enhanced 1.1.8 JVM
Ø
Audio & Video player
Ø
RealAudio / RealVideo player
Ø
PDF Viewer
3270
Emulator
5250
Emulator
VT320
Emulator
Netscape
4.5
browser
Java
applications
JVM 1.1.8
IBM NetVista Thin Client Manager operating system
(NetBSD kernel)
ICA
client
LPR
LPD
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
When running TCM, the N2200 and N2800 thin clients use a different operating system with
completely different capabilities than the N220w WBT (that runs WindowsCE). The operating
system is a small light-weight Unix kernel called NetBSD (V1.3). On top of this emulators
(3270/5250/VT), Netscape 4.5 browser, Java Virtual Machine (Java engine) and ICA client
can run. There is no RDP client available for TCM, thus Metaframe (or CDS) is required for
NT/TSE access. To allow the Netscape browser to play back audio and video clips basic audio
and video players are available, as well as a rudimentary PDF viewer for displaying Adobe
Acrobat PDF files.
By providing an LPD (Line Printer Daemon) the thin clients running TCM can act as
network print server. This allows them to receive and print jobs from all other devices that
complies with the TCP/IP printing standard. For example, a Terminal Server could bypass the
ICA protocol and print to a local printer on the client. An AS/400 could print lists to a printer
locally attached to the client etc.
34
IBM NetVista Thin Client Manager - end user screenshots
Emulators
Launch Bar with user's icons
ICA client
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This is an example of what the display may look like when running IBM thin clients with
TCM. The upper left picture displays two simultanous emulator sessions. The lower right
displays the ICA client running in a window (it can also run full-screen if wanted). As shown
in both pictures, on the left-hand side is the user-customized launch bar with icons (an icon
can be a folder with more icons, as seen in the upper left picture).
35
IBM NetVista N2200 & N2800 with TCM printing scenarios
Printing from Windows
applications to network printer
Handled by normal NT print functions. Thin
client not involved at all.
Network printer
NT/TSE+Metaframe
Handled by the Metaframe print capabilities
(ICA) or built-in LPD function. All printer
drivers supported by NT/TSE can be used.
Printing from Windows
applications to local printer
NT/TSE+Metaframe
Local printer
Printing from local emulators /
Netscape / Java to local printer
Local printer
Printing from local emulators /
Netscape / Java to network
printer
Network printer
Handled by built-in LPR/LPD functions. ASCII,
PCL or PS printers supported. Netscape &
Java prints PS only.
Thin client becomes network print server!
Handled by built-in LPR functions.
ASCII, PCL or PS printers supported.
Netscape & Java prints PS only.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Printing from an IBM thin client running TCM is similar to the N2200w running the
WindowsCE/WBT environment.
The first two scenarios are identical, the server generates the print data stream and sends it to a
network printer or to a printer attached locally to the thin client. As TCM includes an LPD
(Line Printer Daemon) function, the thin client actually becomes a TCP/IP print server and
can receive print jobs from any host using TCP/IP printing.
When printing from applications running locally in the thin client, print jobs can be sent
either to a local printer or a network printer. As the applications running locally are
responsible for generating the print data stream only a few generic printer drivers are included.
The emulators supports ASCII, PCL and PostScript printers. The Netscape browser and Java
environment only supports PostScript printers.
One major difference between the N2200w environment and the TCM environments is that
when printing from local applications to a network printer, the TCM environment does not
require any separate print server. Instead, the local applications generates the print data stream
and (using TCM's LPR, Line Printer Requester) sends the data directly to the printer. The
printers supported are the same as above.
Technical note: If you experience poor performance with printing, check your DNS setup.
Performance may improve significantly if the thin client can do hostname and IP address
lookups of itself, the boot server, the printer etc.
36
IBM Thin Client Manager - separation of servers concept
Configuration & authentication server
Ethernet or
TokenRing LAN
• After boot-up, configuration settings are retrieved
from the central configuration server.
• User is authenticated (can use kiosk, supressed login)
and a user-customized desktop is downloaded to the
NetVista thin client.
• Keep central for ease of administration.
WAN
Boot server
Ethernet or
TokenRing LAN
• Provides the TCM operating system files, emulators,
ICA client, JVM, Netscape etc.
• Distribute in the network for good performance.
A NetVista N2200 or N2800 with a Compact Flash
card can act as boot server (peer boot) for other
NetVista thin client terminals.
TCM manages the software updates.
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This slide describes what happens when a user powers on the thin client with TCM (N2200
or N2800).
The first step is that the thin client boots. During this phase it downloads its operating system.
Normally this is done from a boot server (NT, AS/400 or AIX box) on the network. However,
in some environments it is not suitable to have a boot server on each network, and then you can
install a compact flash card in one thin client. This thin client then boots locally (from itself)
and other thin clients can boot from it. The code on the flash card is managed by the central
TCM server. We recommend no more than about 10 thin clients peer-booting from the one
with the flash card.
After boot, the thin client connects to a central TCM configuration and authentication server.
From this server the thin client downloads its configuration files that determine what it
should do and look like after it has booted. Normally, the thin client displays a logon screen,
but this can be supressed (it then performs an automatic logon using a pre-defined
userid/password) or the thin client can be configured for kiosk mode, where one single
application (for example, the browser) is automatically started and used.
If a user logs on, the thin client downloads the user's NC Desktop data, with icons for the
host systems and applications the user is allowed to access. This logon sequence does not log
the user into his Windows environment, and the icons are not Windows applications, they are
thin client applications. One of the icons could be "Windows”, that launches the ICA client
and takes the user into the Windows environment, running on NT/TSE-Metaframe servers.
As the user's NC Desktop is stored on a central NSM server, the user can logon to any thin
client in the network and receive his own desktop. Thus, the icons displayed are not tied to
one physical thin client, but rather to the person who uses it for the moment. This is not
possible to do with a Windows-based Terminal.
37
IBM NetVista N2200 & N2800 with Thin Client Manager
Ø Get applications out there - faster !
Ø Get more applications out there !
Ø Reduce Total Cost of Ownership !
Ø Take control !
N2200 / N2800
nt!
me
e
ag
!
an
ss
m
ce
al
r
c
t
a
n
s
Ce
ow
nd
i
W
!
va
Ja
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
This ends the presentation of the Thin Client Manager offering for IBM’s thin
clients. TCM is an extremely customizable solution that provides a highly
centrally managed environment combined with a strong application flora.
38
IBM NetVista Thin Clients
Other offerings
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
The next few slides describe some other IBM thin client offerings:
TCM Express - TCM preinstalled on a flash card
NetVista for Linux - when you customer wants a Linux solution
N2200 Zero Footprint Option - when desktop space is important
39
TCM Express - NetVista N2200e & N2800e
Thin Client Manager on a Compact Flash card - ready to run!
N2200e
Ø
NetVista N2200/N2800 with Compact Flash card pre-installed and
pre-configured with a subset of Thin Client Manager software
Ø
ICA & emulators only
Ø
Requires no TCM server - all code and settings on the flash card
Ø
Easy to setup - follow the wizard - as easy as a WBT
Ø
Can easily migrate to server-based solution once a TCM server is
installed
Ø
Future enhancements - Netscape 4.5 browser, modem dial-up
Ø
IBM 1.1.8 JVM possible to download to flash card
Ø
Bookmarks etc. are stored in a re-writable area on the flash card
+
N2800e
+
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
To make it easier for customers to get started with the IBM NetVista N2200 and N2800 thin
clients running TCM, IBM has announced a Compact Flash card with TCM already installed.
Just power-on the client and follow the on-screen wizard to setup the user desktop with icons
for the hosts they should access.
When a more centrally managed environment based on TCM is required, just install a TCM
server (NT, AS/400 or AIX) and load the configuration settings from it.
This is the perfect solution to show TCM's capabilities without having to setup TCM servers.
With TCM Express it is as easy to setup as a WBT.
Part numbers are: N2200e - 8363-Cxx, N2800e - 8364-Cxx
40
Linux - NetVista N2200 & N2800
Ø
Standard RedHat 6.1 Linux distribution
ü
certified by IBM to run on the NetVista N2200 and N2800 hardware
ü
not an IBM Linux distribution
Ø
Boots from Linux server or Compact Flash card
Ø
Targets customers with Linux skills
Ø
Supported by RedHat and "open source community"
Ø
Installation instructions and general guidelines provided by IBM website
Ø
Supports all Linux applications compatible with RedHat 6.1 and NetVista hardware
ü
Netscape Communicator
ü
Adobe Acrobat PDF viewer
ü
Macromedia Shockwave
ü
RealAudio / RealVideo
ü
MP3 players
ü
etc. etc. etc
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
As the N2200 and N2800 boxes are built on industry-standard x86 architecture, they are fully
capable of running Linux. However, IBM does not offer a Linux distribution itself, but rather
instructions on how to enable the thin clients to run distributions from Linux vendors. The
Linux distribution currently enabled is the RedHat Linux 6.1 (other distributions are being
certified). On IBM's thin client Web site (www.ibm.com/nc) are instructions on how to build
a Linux kernel for the thin clients and make them boot from a Linux server. The web site also
contains a discussion forum, tips and frequently asked questions about Linux on the thin
clients. Apart from this, IBM does not provide any support on Linux for thin clients.
Software defects should be reported to RedHat.
The N2200 and N2800 client can boot Linux either from a Linux server (network boot) or
from a Compact Flash card in the box itself. IBM provides a flash cut tool that assists the
administrator in building the flash card image.
Once the N2200 and N2800 boxes are booted with Linux, they can run all the popular Linux
applications such as latest Netscape Communicator (with plug-ins for e.g. Macromedia
Shockwave), Adobe Acrobat Reader, StarOffice etc.
The Linux offering for IBM thin clients targets customers with Linux skills.
41
IBM NetVista N2200 Zero Footprint Option
Zero Footprint Option
Ø
Brackets to attach N2200 to IBM T55 flat panel screen
Ø
Prolongs client life vs. integrated solution
Ø
Maximum flexibility
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
IBM provides mounting brackets to attach a N2200 thin client to IBM flat screens. This
solution requires less desktop space than two separate units and also allows flexibility in
replacing the units individually.
42
Positioning the NetVista N2200 and N2800 thin clients
N2800 with TCM
or Linux
N2200 with TCM
or Linux
N2200w
Server-based applications
Web-based applications
Enhanced/interactive web apps
Integrated business applications
ü
Server-based applications
Simple web-based applications
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
Optimized for Windows access
ICA and RDP
Emulation
IE 4.0 browser
Easy to setup
ü
ü
ü
Windows access
Emulation
Light-medium browsing
Light Java
User-customized desktop
Fully centrally administered
Ø
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
Windows access
Emulation
Demanding browsing
Demanding Java
User-customized desktop
Fully centrally administered
Transition between environments possible!
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
As IBM has a wide range of thin client offerings, it is important to give some positioning
guidelines.
For those customers that mainly run Windows applications, the N2200w is the ideal box. It is
the only box to provide the RDP protocol, should the customer want to access NT/TSE or
Windows 2000 Terminal Services without Metaframe. It has a set of basic emulators
(3270/5250/VT) for host access. Microsoft will release a version of the IE4 browser, which
IBM will add to its offering, making the box suitable also for simple web-based applications
without requiring access to an NT/TSE or Windows 2000 server.
For customers requiring simple client-side Java, user-customizable desktop with individual
icons, full central administration and management the N2200 with TCM offering is a good
solution. It provides ICA client and emulators (3270/5250/VT) for accessing host systems and
the Netscape browser for light to medium browsing.
For more demanding Java applications and browser requirements the N2800 box is probably a
better fit than the N2200. Its more powerful processor provides better performance than the
N2200. The N2800 also has a full set of I/O ports (serial, parallel, mouse, keyboard) while the
N2200 only has USB ports (one available). So for extensive device attachments, the N2800 is
probably the best fit.
Both the N2200 and N2800 boxes supports Linux, which (with the right skills) can be tailored
to provide a very user-customized environment.
Note: Only if you originally bought the N2200w will you be able to downgrade do it. For
example, you can upgrade from the N2200w to N2200 with TCM and then back to the
N2200w. But if you initially bought the N2200 you can not downgrade it to the N2200w, due
to licensing issues.
43
N2200w WBT vs. N2200 with TCM
N2200w WBT advantages
+
Easy to install - no server software necessary
+
RDP protocol supported - does not require
N2200 with TCM advantages
+
Centrally stored software and configuration
settings - fully centrally managed
Citrix Metaframe
+
Client-side Java; Netscape 4.5 and IBM JVM
+
Internet Explorer 4.0 browser (3Q)
+
Full-function emulators
+
Can be upgraded to N2200 with TCM or Linux
+
User-individual NC Desktop and settings -
+
Behaves like Windows, anyone can set it up
wherever they log on
+
Windowed environment
+
Highly customizable and flexible solution; e.g.
kiosks
+
If using DHCP, easy to rollout once the TCM
servers are installed
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
44
IBM as your thin client vendor
Ø
Wide range of thin client offerings to suit all needs
Ø
Strategic partnerships with Microsoft and Citrix
Ø
Long presence in the thin client market
Ø
Clear long-term strategies
Ø
World-wide presence with sales and support
Ø
Can supply everything from network, thin clients,
servers, monitors to services and financing
For the fourth year in a row, rated the only vendor in GartnerGroup’s ‘magic quadrant’
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
IBM proudly presents..... The Gartner Group Magic Quadrant!
For the fourth year in a row, IBM has been rated the only vendor to fit into Gartner Groups
Magic Quadrant. No other thin client vendor in the market has yet been able to provide such
long-term strategies as well as ability to execute their strategies to be placed in the Magic
Quadrant by Gartner Group.
IBM is the only vendor in the market with such a wide client offering. We know one size does
not fit all, so we provide different sizes for different customer needs.
We have strategic partnerships with both Microsoft and Citrix. This ensures full compliance
with these important software vendors and also helps us in creating the right thin client
offerings.
IBM is not only a thin client box mover. IBM can supply everything necessary to get a thin
client environment up-and-running smoothly, and then support it.
45
Backup foils
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
46
Current limitations to be aware of
Ø
Thin client technology is still new - test before you promise
Ø
ICA and RDP are 256 colors only
Ø
No audio in (capture) support in ICA or RDP - only audio out (playback)
Ø
N2200 hardware uses only USB ports, external devices require converters
Ø
The TCM Netscape 4.5 browser only generates PostScript print output
Ø
Limited font support in the TCM Netscape 4.5 browser - web pages may not
look exactly like Windows users are used to
If you are unsure - run a pilot to verify!
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Even though thin client technology has been on the market for a couple of years, it is still a
new technology and there are still limitations one should be aware of.
N2200 has USB only - but currently does not support any USB devices other than USB->Serial
and USB->Parallel converters. You can not use a USB scanner, USB printer or USB modem
and expect them to work. You can use serial devices via a Belkin F5U103 USB->Serial
converter or parallel devices via a Belkin F5U002 USB->Parallel converter.
As the Netscape 4.5 browser in TCM is based on the Unix Netscape code, it is only capable of
generating PostScript output (when printing). This means you need PostScript-capable printers.
One solution is to install GhostScript on an NT or Unix server and let it convert from
PostScript to other printer data streams (e.g. PCL). This works fine, but requires installing
GhostScript.
Also an inheritage from the Unix Netscape code is the limited font support. Web pages are too
often written do display best with fonts only available on the Windows platform (web page
developers often tend to forget cross-platform support). This means that some fonts will
display with a similar, but not identical, fonts and the web pages may not look exactly as they
do on the Windows platform.
47
When to avoid thin clients
Ø
Advanced multimedia requirements
ü
Creation of multimedia presentations
More than 256 colors requirements
Video
ü
Audio in
ü
ü
Ø
Advanced external devices
ü
Floppy disks
CD ROM
ü
Scanners
ü
Ø
Windows applications that do not run well in an NT/TSE environment
ü
Can use a mix of thin clients and PCs to get the best of both worlds
If you are unsure - run a pilot to verify!
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
Thin clients are not meant to take over 100% of the PC market. The PC is a great invention
and few (no?) companies will manage without them.
When working with thin clients, its important to know the limitations of thin client
technology, so you know where to roll-out thin clients - and where not to.
Thin clients are not suitable for demanding applications, such as creation of multimedia
content. These graphics artists need high color depths, high-performance video and audio
capture capabilities. Thin clients are not suitable for that today.
Also, floppy disks and CD ROMs can not be connected to thin clients (and should not).
When these devices are required, use a PC. Scanners (serial) could be connected to thin
clients, but then again, we are probably into multimedia content creation.
Most Windows applications do run very well in an NT/TSE environment. However some
applications - notably DOS applications, but also some Win32 applications - do not perform
very well in NT/TSE. For these applications, a PC is still the best choice.
48
External devices tested for the N2200 client
Ø
USB->Parallel
ü
Ø
USB->Serial
ü
Ø
Belkin F5U002
Belkin F5U103 (F5U003)
USB hubs
ü
ü
ü
Belkin F5U001
JCCOM UT USB41
CATC U-HUB-AN14
See http://www.ibm.com/nc for the most up-to-date list!
IBM NetVista Thin Client Family - From a technical point of view
49
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