Elenco Electronics | FG-500K | Fg-500K REV-A.qxd - Carl`s Electronic Kits

FUNCTION GENERATOR KIT
MODEL FG-500K
Assembly and Instruction Manual
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
Copyright © 2000 Elenco Electronics, Inc.
Revised 2001
REV-A
753069
PARTS LIST
Contact Elenco Electronics (address/phone/e-mail is at the back of this manual) if any parts are missing or
damaged. DO NOT contact your place of purchase as they will not be able to help you.
RESISTORS
Qty
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Symbol
R6
R1
R5
R7
R8
R4
R9
R2
R3
Description
200Ω 5% ¼W
620Ω 5% ¼W
3.9kΩ 5% ¼W
8.2kΩ 5% ¼W
10kΩ 5% ¼W
22kΩ 5% ¼W
100kΩ 5% ¼W
10kΩ Potentiometer
100kΩ Potentiometer
Qty
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
Symbol
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2, C7, C8
C1
C9
Value
820pF (821) 10%
.01µF (103) 10%
.1µF (104) 10%
1µF 50V
10µF 16V
100µF 16V
1,000µF 16V
Qty
1
Symbol
U1
Value
XR-2206
Qty
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
3
3
Description
PC Board
DPDT Switch PC Mount
Switch Rotary 2p6pos
Battery Snap
Top Panel
Knob
Jack Ear Phone with Nut
Case
Spacer 5/8”
Binding Post Black
Nut Binding Post
Lockwasher Binding Post
Color Code
red-black-brown-gold
blue-red-brown-gold
orange-white-red-gold
gray-red-red-gold
brown-black-orange-gold
red-red-orange-gold
brown-black-yellow-gold
Part #
132000
136200
143900
148200
151000
152200
161000
192531
192612
CAPACITORS
Description
Discap
Mylar
Mylar
Electrolytic (Lytic)
Electrolytic (Lytic)
Electrolytic (Lytic)
Electrolytic (Lytic)
Part #
228210
241017
251017
261047
271015
281044
291044
SEMICONDUCTORS
Description
Integrated Circuit
Qty
2
4
3
1
2
1
1
1
2”
1.5’
1
Part #
511003
541009
542207
590098
614111
622009
622130
623003LP
624432
625031
625031HN
625031LW
Part #
332206
Description
Binding Post Yellow
Screw 4-40 x ¼” Phillips
Hex Nut 7mm
Hex Switch Nut 9mm
Flat Washer 8mm x 14mm
Flat Washer 9mm
16-pin IC Socket
Handle
Weather Strip
Black Wire 22ga.
Solder
Part #
625034
641433
644101
644102
645101
645103
664016
666600
790007
814120
9ST4
PARTS IDENTIFICATION
Resistors
Spacer
Capacitors
Integrated Circuit
Switches
PC Mount
Potentiometer
Socket
Knob
Electrolytic
Mylar
Discap
Rotary
Binding Post
DPDT
Battery Snap
Screw
Earphone
Jack
-1-
IDENTIFYING RESISTOR VALUES
Use the following information as a guide in properly identifying the value of resistors.
BAND 1
1st Digit
Bands
1 2 Multiplier
Tolerance
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Multiplier
BAND 2
2nd Digit
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Resistance
Tolerance
Color
Multiplier
Black
1
Brown
10
Red
100
Orange
1,000
Yellow
10,000
Green
100,000
Blue
1,000,000
Silver
0.01
Gold
0.1
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Color
Silver
Gold
Brown
Red
Orange
Green
Blue
Violet
Tolerance
+10%
+5%
+1%
+2%
+3%
+.5%
+.25%
+.1%
IDENTIFYING CAPACITOR VALUES
Capacitors will be identified by their capacitance value in pF (picofarads), nF (nanofarads) or µF (microfarads).
Most capacitors will have their actual value printed on them. Some capacitors may have their value printed in the
following manner.
Second Digit
First Digit
Multiplier
Tolerance
Multiplier
For the No.
0
1
2
3
Multiply By
1
10
100
1k
The above value is 10 x 1,000 = 10,000pF or .01µF
The letter K indicates a tolerance of +10%
The letter J indicates a tolerance of +5%
4
5
8
10k 100k .01
9
0.1
Note: The letter “R” may be used at times to
signify a decimal point; as in 3R3 = 3.3
INTRODUCTION
Assembly of your FG-500 Function Generator will prove to be an exciting project and give much satisfication and
personal achievement. The FG-500 contains a complete function generator capable of producing sine, square
and triangle wave forms. The frequency of this generator can be contiuously varied from 1Hz to 1MHz in 6 steps.
A fine frequency control makes selection of any frequency in between easy. The amplitude of the wave forms
are adjustable from 0 to 3Vpp. This complete function generator system is suitable for experimentation and
applications by the student. The entire function generator is comprised of a single XR-2206 monolithic IC and a
limited number of passive circuit components.
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTPUT:
• Waveforms: Sine, Triangle, Square
• Impedance: 600Ω + 10%.
• Frequency: 1Hz - 1MHz in 6 decade steps with variable ranges.
SINE WAVE:
TRIANGLE WAVE:
• Amplitude: 0 - 3Vpp at 9VDC input.
• Distortion: Less than 1% (at 1kHz).
• Flatness: +0.05dB 1Hz - 100kHz.
• Amplitude: 0 - 3Vpp at 9VDC input.
• Linearity: Less than 1% (up to 100kHz).
POWER REQUIREMENTS:
SQUARE WAVE:
•
•
•
•
• Standard 9V Battery or 9V to 18VDC at input.
Amplitude: 8V (no load) at 9VDC input.
Rise Time: Less than 50ns (at 1kHz).
Fall Time: Less than 30ns (at 1kHz).
Symmetry: Less than 5% (at 1kHz).
OPERATING TEMPERATURE:
• 0OC TO 50OC.
-2-
CONSTRUCTION
Introduction
The most important factor in assembling your FG-500K Function Generator Kit is good soldering techniques.
Using the proper soldering iron is of prime importance. A small pencil type soldering iron of 25 - 40 watts is
recommended. The tip of the iron must be kept clean at all times and well tinned.
Safety Procedures
• Wear eye protection when soldering.
• Locate soldering iron in an area where you do not have to go around it or reach over it.
• Do not hold solder in your mouth. Solder contains lead and is a toxic substance. Wash your hands
thoroughly after handling solder.
• Be sure that there is adequate ventilation present.
Assemble Components
In all of the following assembly steps, the components must be installed on the top side of the PC board unless
otherwise indicated. The top legend shows where each component goes. The leads pass through the
corresponding holes in the board and are soldered on the foil side.
Use only rosin core solder of 63/37 alloy.
DO NOT USE ACID CORE SOLDER!
What Good Soldering Looks Like
Types of Poor Soldering Connections
A good solder connection should be bright, shiny,
smooth, and uniformly flowed over all surfaces.
1.
Solder all components from
the copper foil side only.
Push the soldering iron tip
against both the lead and
the circuit board foil.
1. Insufficient heat - the
solder will not flow onto the
lead as shown.
Soldering Iron
Component Lead
Foil
Soldering iron positioned
incorrectly.
Circuit Board
2.
3.
4.
Apply a small amount of
solder to the iron tip. This
allows the heat to leave the
iron and onto the foil.
Immediately apply solder to
the opposite side of the
connection, away from the
iron.
Allow the heated
component and the circuit
foil to melt the solder.
Allow the solder to flow
around the connection.
Then, remove the solder
and the iron and let the
connection cool.
The
solder should have flowed
smoothly and not lump
around the wire lead.
Rosin
2. Insufficient solder - let the
solder flow over the
connection until it is
covered. Use just enough
solder
to
cover
the
connection.
Soldering Iron
Solder
Foil
Solder
Gap
Component Lead
Solder
3. Excessive solder - could
make connections that you
did not intend to between
adjacent foil areas or
terminals.
Soldering Iron
Solder
Foil
4. Solder bridges - occur
when solder runs between
circuit paths and creates a
short circuit. This is usually
caused by using too much
solder.
To correct this,
simply drag your soldering
iron across the solder
bridge as shown.
Here is what a good solder
connection looks like.
-3-
Soldering Iron
Foil
Drag
ASSEMBLE COMPONENTS TO THE PC BOARD
Care must be given to identifying the proper components and in good soldering habits. Refer to the soldering
tips section in this manual before you begin installing the components. Place a check mark in the box
after
each step is complete.
C1 - 100µF 16V Electrolytic
(see Figure A)
C2 - 10µF 16V Electrolytic
(see Figure A)
C3 - 1µF 50V Electrolytic
(see Figure A)
R9 - 100kΩ 5% ¼W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
C4 - .1µF 10% Mylar (104)
(see Figure B)
R1 - 620Ω 5% ¼W Resistor
(blue-red-brown-gold)
C6 - 820pF 10% Discap (821)
J1 - 4” Black Wire 22ga.
J3 - 2.5” Black Wire 22ga.
(see Figure C)
C5 - .01µF 10% Mylar (103)
(see Figure B)
U1 - 16-pin IC Socket
U1 - XR-2206 IC
(see Figure D)
J4 - 3” Black Wire 22ga.
J8 - 3” Black Wire 22ga.
J7 - 3” Black Wire 22ga.
(see Figure C)
R6 - 200Ω 5% ¼W Resistor
(red-black-brown-gold)
C9 - 1000µF 16V Electrolytic
(see Figure A)
S2 - Slide Switch DPDT
S3 - Slide Switch DPDT
R4 - 22kΩ 5% ¼W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
R7 - 8.2kΩ 5% ¼W Resistor
(gray-red-red-gold)
C7 - 10µF 16V Electrolytic
(see Figure A)
R8 - 10kΩ 5% ¼W Resistor
(brown-black-orange-gold)
C8 - 10µF 16V Electrolytic
(see Figure A)
R5 - 3.9kΩ 5% ¼W Resistor
(orange-white-red-gold)
J2 - 2.5” Black Wire 22ga.
(see Figure C)
Figure A
Electrolytic capacitors
have polarity. Be sure
to mount them with the
negative (--) lead
(marked on side) in the
correct hole.
( )
(+)
Mount the electrolytics horizontal to the
PC board. Bend the leads at right
angles and then insert the leads into the
PC board.
Figure B
Figure D
Bend the capacitor over before
soldering.
Insert the IC socket into the PC board
with the notch in the direction shown
on the top legend. Solder the IC
socket into place. Insert the IC into
the socket with the notch in the same
direction as the notch on the socket.
Figure C
Cut two 2.5”, three 3”, and one 4”
wire and strip 1/4” of insulation off
of both ends of the wires. Solder
these wires to the points J1, J2,
J3, J4, J7, and J8.
or
-4-
Notch
ASSEMBLE COMPONENTS TO THE PC BOARD
R2 - 10kΩ Potentiometer
Hex Nut 7mm
(see Figures Ea & Eb)
Figure F
Cut off tab
S1 - 6 position Rotary Switch
(see Figure F)
Mount down
flush with PC
board.
R3 - 100kΩ Potentiometer
(see Figures Ea and Eb)
Figure G
Battery Snap
(see Figure G)
Thread the battery snap wires
through the hole in the PC board
from the solder side as shown.
Solder the red wire to the BT+
point and the black wire to the BT-point on the PC board.
Red Wire (BT+)
Black Wire (BT--)
Figure Ea
Figure Eb
Cut off tab
Red Wire (BT+)
Black Wire (BT--)
Mount the pot down flush with the PC
board. Solder and cut off excess leads.
Put a 7mm hex nut onto the pot as
shown.
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO FRONT PANEL
Install the jack to the panel with the side lug facing the direction shown in Figure H. Fasten the jack in place
with the round nut from the front side of the panel.
Side Lug
Jack
Back Side
of Panel
Figure H
Round Nut
-5-
Install the colored binding posts to the panel as shown in Figure I.
Use the hardware shown in the figure. Make sure that the small nut
is tight.
Nut
WIRING (See Figure J and Ja)
Lockwasher
Solder the wire from hole J1 on the PC board to the first yellow
binding post as shown.
Solder the wire from hole J2 on the PC board to the second yellow
binding post as shown.
Backside of
Panel
Solder the wire from hole J3 on the PC board to the black binding
post as shown.
Small Nut
Solder the wire from hole J4 on the PC board to the lower lug (A) of
the jack as shown.
Binding Post
Black
Solder the wire from hole J7 on the PC board to the upper left lug (C)
on the jack as shown.
Yellow
Yellow
Solder the wire from hole J8 on the PC board to the upper right lug
(B) on the jack as shown.
Figure I
Wire from
Point J7
Figure J
Wire from
Point J4
Wire from
Point J8
Component Side
of PC Board
(B)
Wire from
Point J1
(C)
Wire from
Point J2
Wire from
Point J3
Side Lug (A)
Figure JA
-6-
Attach the wires
to the lugs before
soldering.
FINAL ASSEMBLY
Fit the panel onto the PC board assembly. Be sure that all switches and pots come through the holes in the
panel as shown in Figure K.
Place the washers onto their locations as shown in Figure K, being careful to check the sizes. Then, tighten
the hex nuts onto the potentiometers and rotary switch noting their size as shown in Figure K. Finally, fasten
the spacers onto the top panel with two 4-40 x 1/4” black screws.
9mm Hex Switch Nut
9mm x 15mm Flat Washer
7mm Hex Pot Nuts
8mm x 14mm Washers
4-40 x 1/4”
Screws
Figure K
Spacers
Install the handle as shown in Figure L.
Cut two pieces of weather stripping. Remove the protective backing and place a piece of weather strip on
the top panel in the location shown in Figure L. Then, place the other piece on the case in the location shown.
Handle
Panel
PC Board
Figure L
Weather Strip
Weather Strip
Bottom Case
Battery
The battery should fit like this.
-7-
Attach the battery snap to the battery. Insert the PC board assembly with the panel and battery into the case
(as shown in Figure L). Insert two 4-40 x 1/4” screws into the bottom case in positions shown in Figure M
and tighten in place.
Turn the shafts on the two potentiometers and rotary switch fully counter-clockwise. Push the three knobs
onto the shafts so that the line on the knob is on the point as shown in Figure N.
4-40 x 1/4” Screws
Figure M
Figure N
TESTING THE FG-500 FUNCTION GENERATOR
The unit may be tested by following the 4 steps listed below. Should any of these tests fail, refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide.
1) Set the switches and pots as follows:
On/Off
On
Range
10
Frequency
Maximum (clockwise)
Amplitude
Maximum (clockwise)
Sine/Triangle
Set Sine/Triangle switch to Sine position
-8-
In each of the following steps, start with the switch and pots as shown on the previous page.
2) OUTPUT WAVEFORMS
Connect an oscilloscope probe to the square wave output. You should see about 8V peak to peak square wave
of a little over 15Hz. Connect the oscilloscope probe to the sine/triangle wave output. You should see a sine
wave of approximately 3V peak to peak or greater. Set the Sine/Triangle switch to the Triangle wave position.
You should see a triangle waveform of approximately 3V peak to peak or greater. In both sine and triangle
waves, the frequency is also a little over 15Hz.
3) FREQUENCY CONTROLS
6 range settings, vary the FREQUENCY pot from max to min and check that the frequency varies according to
Table 1 on page 11 or greater.
4) AMPLITUDE CONTROLS
Set the switch and pots as in Step 1. Connect the oscilloscope to the sine/triangle wave output and vary the
AMPLITUDE pot. The sine wave amplitude should vary from near zero to approximately 3V peak to peak or
greater.
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
A) NO SINE/TRIANGLE OR SQUARE WAVE OUTPUT
1) Check the soldering on switch S3.
2) Check battery and battery snap.
3) Check jack.
4) Check the soldering on IC U1.
5) Check for +9V on IC1 pin 4.
6) Check that U1 is not installed backwards.
7) Check all of the values and soldering on R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R7, R8, R9, C8, and C9.
B) WRONG FREQUENCY ON ANY RANGE SETTING
1) This indicates a wrong value capacitor in the bad range position.
C) SINE/TRIANGLE SWITCH DOESN’T WORK
1) Check the soldering on switch S2 and R6.
2) Check the value of R6.
3) Check pin 13 and 14 of U1.
D) AMPLITUDE CONTROL DOESN’T WORK
1) Check the soldering on R3, R7, R8, R4 and R9.
2) Check the values of the above mentioned components.
E) FREQUENCY CONTROL DOESN’T WORK
1) Check the soldering on R1 and R2.
2) Check the values of the above two resistors.
-9-
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The FG-500 is a function generator integrated circuit capable of producing high quality sine, triangle, and square
waves of high stability and accuracy. A picture of each waveform is shown below:
Sine Wave
Triangle Wave
Square Wave
THEORY OF OPERATION
The heart of the FG-500 Function Generator is the
XR-2206 monolithic function generator integrated
circuit. The XR-2206 is comprised of four main
functional blocks as shown in the functional block
diagram (Figure 1). They are:
• A Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
AM Input
1
Sine/Saw
Output
2
Mult. Out
3
16
Multiplier
and
Sine
Shaper
• An Analog Multiplier and Sine-shaper
• Unity Gain Buffer Amplifier
V+
• A set of current switches
The VCO actually produces an output frequency
proportional to an input current, which is produced
by a resistor from the timing terminals to ground.
The current switches route one of the currents to the
VCO to produce an output frequency. Which timing
pin current is used, is controlled by the FSK input
(pin 9). In the FG-500, the FSK input is left open,
thus only the resistor on pin 7 is used. The
frequency is determined by this formula:
Timing
Capacitor
Timing
Resistor
15
+1
14
Symmetry
Adjust
Waveform
Adjust
4
13
5
12
Ground
11
Sync
Output
10
Bypass
9
FKS
Input
VCO
6
7
8
Current
Switches
Figure 1
fo = 1/RC Hz
where fo is the frequency in Hertz
R is the resistance at pin 7 in Ohms
C is the capacitance across pin 5 and 6 in Farads
Note that frequency is inversely proportional to the value of RC. That is, the higher the value of RC, the smaller
the frequency.
The resistance between pins 13 and 14 determine the shape of the output wave on pin 2. No resistor produces
a triangle wave. A 200Ω resistor produces a sine wave.
-10-
CONTROLS
RANGE SWITCHES
Six ranges of frequency are provided by the range switch as shown in Table 1.
POSITION
1
2
3
4
5
6
TYPICAL FREQUENCY RANGE
1Hz - 15Hz
10Hz - 150Hz
100Hz - 1.5kHz
1kHz - 15kHz
10kHz - 150kHz
100kHz - 1MHz
Table 1
SINE/TRIANGLE SWITCH
This SINE/TRIANGLE Switch selects the waveform, sine wave or triangle wave, sent to the SINE/TRIANGLE
output terminal.
FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER
The multiplier is a variable control allowing frequency settings between fixed ranges. The ranges are as shown
in Table 1.
AMPLITUDE CONTROL
The Amplitude Control provides amplitude adjustment from near 0 to 3V or greater for both sine and triangle
waveforms.
ON/OFF SWITCH
The ON/OFF Switch turns the power to the FG-500 on or off.
POWER JACK
This jack allows the FG-500 to be powered from an external power source of 9V to 18VDC. Putting a plug into
the jack disconnects the internal 9V battery.
OUTPUT TERMINAL
The output marked SINE/TRIANGLE provides the sine and triangle waveforms. The output marked SQUARE
WAVE provides the square wave. The output marked GND provides the ground for all output waveforms.
-11-
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
-12-
QUIZ
1) The heart of the FG-500 Function Generator is the _________ monolithic function generator integrated
circuit.
2) The XR-2206 is comprised of four main blocks.
They are ____________________,
____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
3) The VCO actually produces an output frequency proportional to an input ________________.
4) The current switches route one of the currents to the VCO to produce an output __________.
5) The frequency is determined by the formula _______________.
6) Frequency is inversely proportional to the value of _____________.
7) The resistance between pins 13 and 14 determine the shape of the __________ wave on pin 2.
8) No resistor produces a __________ wave.
9) A 200Ω resistor produces a ___________ wave.
10) The six ranges of frequency provided by the range switch are:
________ to ________.
________ to ________.
________ to ________.
________ to ________.
________ to ________.
________ to ________.
Answers: 1) XR-2206; 2) A Voltage Controlled Oscillator, An Analog Multiplier and Sine Shaper, Unity Gain Buffer
Amplifier and A Set of Current Switches; 3) Current; 4) Frequency; 5) 1/RC; 6) RC; 7) output; 8) triangle; 9) sine;
10) 1Hz to 15Hz, 10Hz to 150Hz, 100Hz to 1.5kHz, 1kHz - 15kHz, 10kHz - 150kHz, 100kHz - 1MHz.
-13-
EMPTY PAGE
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
150 W. Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
http://www.elenco.com
e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
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