Medical Instruments
Medical Instruments
Applications Guide
Motor/Solenoid Drive
and Control
Isolation
Sensor Interface
Precision Analog and
Data Conversion
Clock Management
Embedded Processing
Wired and Wireless
Interfaces
Endoscope
Connectivity Solutions
www.ti.com/medical
2010
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
➔ Table of Contents
Disclaimer
TI products are not authorized for use
in safety-critical applications (such as
life support) where a failure of the TI
product would reasonably be expected
to cause severe personal injury or
death, unless TI and the customer have
executed an agreement specifically
governing such use. The customer
shall fully indemnify TI and its repre­sent­
atives against any damages arising out
of the unauthorized use of TI products
in such safety-critical applications. The
customer shall ensure that it has all
necessary expertise in the safety and
regulatory ramifications of its applications and the customer shall be solely
responsible for compliance with all legal,
regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning its products and
any use of TI products in customer’s
applications, notwithstanding any
applications-related information or
support that may be provided by TI.
Medical Instruments
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
DLP® Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Component Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Endoscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medical USB Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wired Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless Interface, RFID and Tag-it™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-Power RF Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZigBee® / Bluetooth® Low Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
18
19
20
23
24
Resources
Enhanced Products/Die and Wafer Sales Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TI Design Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
TI Worldwide Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
TI’s Medical Applications
Guides available for
individual download:
• Consumer
Medical
• Diagnostic, Patient
Monitoring and Therapy
• Medical
• Medical
Imaging
Instruments
Visit:
www.ti.com/medicalguides
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
2
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Overview
Medical instruments are used in a
wide range of caregiver laboratory
and clinical applications. Some typical
applications include:
• Analytical instrumentation, ultrasonic
devices, spectrophotometers,
• Endoscopes and smart pills,
• Surgical instrumentation, surgical
power tools, robots and cameras,
• Laboratory instruments, in-vitro
diagnostic equipment (for outsidethe-body analysis), blood gas
analysis, labs on a chip, flow
cytometry, microfluidic analysis,
• Robotics prosthetics,
• Therapeutics/hospital beds and
power wheel chairs,
• Dental equipment, GaAIAs lasers,
ultrasonic scalers, autoclaves.
These applications are very specific in
design, consuming a wide variety of
sensor, actuation or receiving mechanisms. Most medical instruments share
general common system blocks and
needs. Examples include the need for
high-precision circuits to support the
precise acquisition of pressure, light
and temperature values and the
need to leverage ultra-low-power
processing to conserve battery life.
This includes the acquisition of small
capacitance, changes in capacitance
and currents, or changes in voltages or
impedances.
TI’s portfolio provides several integrated
circuit (IC) solutions for these applications. Our precision linear portfolio
meets the need for typical ICs by
offering low-bias amplifiers (both
precision and high-speed) with
J-FET inputs, zero-drift operational
amplifiers for precision-over-lifetime
applications and low-noise amplifiers
for sensitive measurement circuits.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
Our data acquisition portfolio complements these components by offering
high-resolution, low-noise, analog-todigital and digital-to-analog data
acquisition systems. TI’s ultra-lowpower MSP430 microcontroller family,
or a member of one of these three DSP
families — TMS320F28x,
TMS320DM64x and TMS320C64x™
— can easily manage signal
processing tasks. TI’s wired and
wireless interface integrated circuit
products can facilitate a variety of
data transmission tasks.
For more information on TI’s offering
for Medical Instruments, please visit
www.ti.com/medicalinstruments
Ultrasonics
Ultrasonic technology is not often
thought of when leveraging ultra-highperformance analog and embedded
processing technology. Today, ultrasonic
devices are commonly used for cell disruption and homogenization for a broad
range of liquid processing applications,
such as:
• Emulsification
• Reaction acceleration
• Dispersion
• Fine mixing
• Degassing
Ultrasonic technology is typically
used for therapy, dermally administered drugs and skin/wound therapy.
Ultrasonic waves are generated at a
frequency above 20 kHz to avoid audible detection and are propagated in a
gaseous liquid or solid medium. One
benefit of utilizing ultrasonic waves is
the esoteric directional nature of this
technology, which can be focused
onto the density and elasticity of the
medium of interest.
Piezoelectric transducers are commonly
used to convert electrical oscillations
to corresponding mechanical vibrations, resulting in intense agitation of
the medium of choice. This intense
3
disturbance causes millions of microscopic cavities or voids to form and
collapse, which is known as cavitation.
When the cavities collapse or implode,
they release energy and produce the
desired effect.
Endoscopes
In medicine, an endoscope is used
to look inside the body to examine
the interior of a body cavity or hollow
organ such as gastrointestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts. A rigid or flexible
endoscope tube is inserted into the
body through a natural body orifices or
small incision to provide images of the
organs.
Surgical instruments are often incorporated into the endoscope to enable
minimally invasive procedures such as
biopsies and removal of polyps. Some
common procedures include colonoscopy, gastroscopy, angioscopy and
bronchoscopy.
The primary components of an endoscope include a light source, a tube
to guide the light, a lens or fiber optic
system to capture reflected light of the
organ and an image capture system to
process, display and store images. For
more information, refer to endoscope
section on page 15.
Smart Pills
First introduced in 1992, a smart pill
refers to any pill that delivers or controls
the delivery of medicine without patient
intervention beyond consuming the
device.
The most common application is
controlled drug delivery within the
gastrointestinal tract. Other applications include monitoring or electronic
stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract
to achieve the desired result, combined
with a controlled pharmaceutical
delivery. Variables such as time,
temperature, pressure, pH and/or
location within the intestinal tract are
monitored and measured.
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Overview
Common smart-pill system components include analog signal conversion,
data processing, an RF transceiver
(ISM band or other) and the conversion
of digital signals for actuator control. A
patient can wear a data receiver, and
the receiver will provide data that can
be downloaded at a later time. The data
receiver commonly comprises an RF
transceiver, potential data processing
and memory for data storage.
Surgical Robotics
Sophisticated surgical robots now
enable complex surgery using minimally invasive approaches. These
systems consist of a surgical control
system leveraging pressure, acceleration and angular rate sensors interfaced to high-performance amplifiers
and data converters on the front end,
then coupled to embedded processors
communicating with robotic arms containing several degrees of motion and
low-voltage DC motors. Some systems
can also include a high-definition or
stereoscopic 3-D display/vision system. These systems filter and translate
the surgeon’s hand movements into
minute and precise movements of the
robotic arms and attached medical
instruments.
Robotic Prosthetics
Robotic prosthetics are being adapted
to work with various control systems.
The electrical system required is much
like a surgical robot, with the exception
that one such approach being tested
today includes an interface to myoelectric switches, which are wired to
residual nerves and muscles in the
upper body and respond to movement
impulses from the brain. Robotic prosthetics are now being controlled by
thought.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
In addition, by combining carbon nanotubes with a specially designed polymer, researchers are making a material
that looks, feels and functions like
human skin. This synthetic skin could
lead to next-generation prosthetic arms
with which patients could experience
the sense of feel, shake hands and
more easily perform ordinary tasks.
The most important feature of flow
cytometric analysis is that large numbers of particles (100,000 or more) are
analyzed one after the other, typically
in about one minute. The detection limit
is as low as 100 fluorescent molecules
per cell. Submicron particles, such as
small bacteria and picoplankton, are
well resolved.
Flow Cytometry
Flow cytometry is the measurement
(“meter”) of single-cell (“cyto”) characteristics suspended in a flowing saline
stream. A focused beam of laser light
illuminates each moving cell and light
is scattered in all directions. Detectors
placed in front or to the side of the
laser beam’s intersection point receive
pulses of scattered light and convert
them into a form suitable for computer
analysis and interpretation. The total
amount of detected forward-scattered
light depends on cell size and refractive index, but is closely correlated with
the cross-sectional area of the cell as
seen by the laser. The amount of sidescattered light can indicate nuclear
shape or cellular granularity.
In contrast to microscopic analysis,
which is based on a very limited
number of cells seen on a slide (1 to
100), a flow cytometer provides useful information about a broad range of
cells and their functions. Fluorescence
analysis makes it possible to quantify
fluorescence from single cells up to
millions of cells after a single sample
run from one test tube. Statistical data
(like the mean fluorescent intensity and
its shifts in time or dependence on cell
function) has proven very reliable.
The improved signal-chain concept
shown below supports the dynamic
range, speed and linearity required
to transfer the signal stream from the
photodiodes to the processor. The
differential signal transmissions over
twisted-pair lines provide commonmode noise rejection and therefore
a significant improvement in signal
quality. Better signal quality ensures
more accurate measurements and
more reliable statistical analysis.
4
Key features of flow cytometry include:
• Minimal analog errors
• Miniaturization
• Increased analysis speed for pulse
throughput
• Increased flexibility for pulse-shape
analysis
• Eventual power reduction for
battery-operated equipment
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ DLP® Technology
DLP® Discovery™ 4100
Get more information at: www.ti.com/mems
Key Features
The D4100 Kit offers developers high perform­ance and high resolution with the
0.95" 1920 x 1080p 2xLVDS DLP chip, an optical semiconductor module that
allows developers to manipulate light digitally. When integrated with a light source
and optics, this unique device creates binary light patterns with speed, precision
and efficiency surpassing that of other spatial light modulators. The D4100 Kit
provides performance improvements including increased data rate, frame rate and
flexible, random row addressing. The D4100 also supports the 0.55" diagonal and
0.7" XGA 2xLVDS chipsets.
• ±12° mirror operation
• Fill factor > 91percent
• Works with visible, near-infrared and
ultraviolet light
• DMD: Options include 0.95" 1080p,
0.7" XGA, 0.55" XGA 2xLVDS
• DAD2000 power and reset driver
• Generates reset control of 16
banks of DLP mirrors
• DDC4100 digital controller
• Provides high-speed (400MHz)
LVDS data and control interface
and provides mirror reset and
timing information to the DAD2000
• Supports random row addressing
The DLP Discovery 4100 chipset features the DLP chip and other supporting
components. Unlike TI DLP controllers optimized for projection display, the D4100
is designed to support a wide variety of DLP-based applications by delivering
maximum flexibility in
Reset
Texas Instruments Control
format­ting and sequencing
DAD2000
data light patterns.
Reset Driver
Texas Instruments
DMD
DDC4100 User
Interface
Applications
• Vascular imaging
• Phototherapy
• Chemical analysis
• Micro-array development
• 3-D metrology
• Genomics
Mirror
• Surgical lighting
(2 states)
“Off”
State
(–12°)
“On”
State
(+12°)
Flat Position
(No control input)
Texas Instruments
DDC4100
Data and
Control
DLP Discovery 4100 chipset block diagram.
Light
Dump
48°
e
at
St y
ff- erg
O n
E
t
Fla y
rg
e
En
24°
Projection
Lens
On-State
Energy
Illum
0°
inat
ion
F
Light
Source
D –24°
F/# = F/D = 2.4
for 11.5° beam
How the light is steered.
DLP Discovery 4100 starter kit.
DLP Discovery 4100
DMD (Digital Micromirror Device)
Array
Mirror Pitch
Window Options
(Visible, Ultraviolet, Near Infrared)
Clock Rate (Maximum)
Data Rate
Binary Frames Per Second (Maximum)
0.55-inch XGA
0.7-inch XGA
0.95-inch 1080p
1024 x 768
1024 x 768
1920 x 1080
10.8µm
13.68µm
10.8µm
VIS
VIS, UV, NIR
VIS, UV
400MHz (2 x LVDS)
400MHz (2 x LVDS)
400MHz (2 x LVDS)
25.6GbPs
25.6GbPs
48GbPs
32,552
32,552
23,148
To view more system block diagram compatible products, visit www.ti.com/medical
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
5
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ DLP® Technology
DLP® Pico™ Projector Development Kit v2
DLP1PICOKIT
For more information, visit www.ti.com/mems
Key Features
• Very small form factor,
44.8 x 67.4 x 14.2mm3
• Direct connection to a PC,
via a HDMI or DVI port
• Selectable DMD pattern rates,
up to 2400Hz
• Sync signal output
• Auxiliary connector, for direct
access to I2C bus
Applications
• Portable display devices
• 3-D optical measurement
• Augmented reality
• Embedded display devices
• Microscopy
• Medical imaging
The DLP Pico Projector Development Kit v2 enables developers to integrate DLP
Technology into innovative and portable applications. The projection device utilizes
the DLP 0.17-inch HVGA chipset with a light engine containing three solid-state
color LEDs as a low-power light source. The kit includes a power supply, video
cable and HDMI-to-DVI adapter. The DLP Pico Projector Development Kit is a
fully integrated projection solution that enables a vast array of new and portable
medical devices.
Pico Projector Specifications
DMD Resolution
0.17-inch HVGA
Brightness
Up to 10 lumens
Contrast ratio
1000:1
Light source
Solid-state 3 LED
Video input
DVI-D 888RGB VGA 50 and
60Hz
Dimensions
44.8 x 67.4 x 14.2mm3
DLP Pico Projector Development Kit.
DLP 0.17 HVGA Chipset
Functions
Benefits
DLP1700
GPN
(DMD) Digital
Micromirror Device
Description
MEMS component containing an array
of aluminum micromirrors, atop a CMOS
substrate, that digitally switch in a binary state
Fast and reliable spatial
light modulator to
enable light processing
and embedded display
applications
DLPC100
DMD Digital
Controller
Conveniently interfaces user electronics to
the DMD
Provides developers the
flexibility to control the
mirrors independently
and at high speeds
DLPR100
Controller
Configuration PROM
Contains the DMD digital controller
program data
Enables more advanced
spatial light modulation
than found in traditional
projection systems
DVI
Receiver
5VDC
24-bit RGB DATA
Voltage Control
Voltage
Regulator
Illumination
Optics
I2C
IC
2
MSP430
Control
5V
TI
DLPC100
RGB ENABLE
LED
Driver
Projection
Optics
DLP1700
Configuration
Mobile
SDR
Memory
DLPR100
OSC
Block diagram of projection system using 0.17 HVGA chipset.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
6
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Design Considerations
Motor Control Example
5 V/TTL
Temperature
Sensor
MicroController
Controller
Interface
Voltage
References
Isolation
LEGEND
Processor
Interfac e
RF/IF
Amplifier
PWM
Motor
Solenoid
Drive
Circuit
ADC
DAC
Battery
Battery
Management
System
Power
Core and
I/O Power
Current
Sense
Auxiliary Input
Relay/LED
Driver
OR
Miscellaneous
I/O
Auxiliary Output
Optional
Battery
Solenoid
or Motor
Hi-V
Op-Amp
ADC
Logic
Power
ADC/DAC
Clocks
Other
9 V+
9+V
Motor
Power
AC Adapter
AC/DC
Supply
Plug
AC Line
Given the broad nature of this medical
subsegment, design considerations
are broken down into some popular
motor control and sensor interface
applications. Simple system block diagrams are provided along with analog
and embedded processing solutions.
Referring to the motor control block
diagram example, small electromechanical drives can include solenoid
drives, single-direction small electromechanical drives include solenoid
drives, single-direction DC,
bidirectional DC or brushless DC
systems and are typically sized
according to their frame size and power
in watts. Digital controllers, software,
and complementary analog and digital
solutions from TI can help solve most
drive requirements.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
Core Subsystems
Controllers
TI offers a range of solutions for the
control processor, from the ultra-low
power MSP430 microcontroller to the
C2000™ and Stellaris® ARM® Cortex
M3 microcontrollers. The right controller can optimize motor drive efficiency,
improve reliability and lower overall
system costs. The 32-bit DSP-class
performance- and motor-control optimized on-chip peripherals of C2000
controllers enable users to easily
implement advanced algorithms such
as sensorless vector control of threephase motors. The C2000 DSC family
offers software-compatible controllers
ranging from the low-cost F28016 to
the industry’s first floating-point DSC,
the TMS320F28335.
7
Motor/Solenoid Drive Circuit
PWM drivers like the 1.2-A DRV104 are
compatible with resistive or inductive
loads for driving solenoids or valves
from a single supply. New PWM power
drivers such as the DRV8811 provide
an integrated stepper motor solution
that includes two H-bridge drivers as
well as microstepping indexer logic for
stepper control. For higher drive currents, try a high-voltage, high-current
op-amp with a current limit between
0 and 5 A (OPA548) externally controlled via a resistor/potentiometer or a
current-out DAC like the DAC7811 or
DAC8811. MOSFET drivers such as
UCC37321 or the UCC37323 can drive
small motors directly or drive power
devices such as MOSFETs or IGBTs.
Note: “Motor Control Guide” (slyy017)
www-s.ti.com/sc/techlit/slyy017
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Design Considerations
Isolation
TI digital isolators have logic input and
output buffers separated by TI’s silicon
dioxide (SiO2) isolation barrier, providing
4 kV of isolation. Used in conjunction
with isolated power supplies, these
devices block high voltage, isolate
grounds, and prevent noise currents
from entering the local ground and
interfering with or damaging sensitive
circuitry.
Designers might consider the new
ISO1050, which is a galvanically
isolated CAN transceiver that meets
or exceeds the specifications of the
ISO11898 standard, with IEC 61010-1
approval pending. As a CAN transceiver, the ISO1050 provides differential transmit capability to the bus and
differential receive capability to a CAN
controller at signaling rates up to
1 megabit per second (Mbps).
Designed for harsh environments, the
ISO1050 provides additional features
such as failsafe outputs, 50-kV/µs
transient immunity, and the 3.3-V
inputs are 5V-tolerant.
Motion Feedback
Isolated delta-sigma modulators
(AMC1203/AMC1210) are ideal for
shunt measurements to flatten glitches
and increase current feedback resolution. These modulators are easy to use
and provide oversampling and filtering
for an encoder. For measuring
controller inputs and system feedback,
the INA159 difference amplifier
provides ±10 V (20-V pp) signals
for an analog-to-digital converter
(ADC) using 5-V or 3.3-V supplies.
ADCs like the ADS7861/ADS7864 or
ADS8361/ADS8364 provide four- or
six-channel simultaneous current
sampling. The INA19x (x = 3 to 8) and
INA20x (x = 1 to 9) provide wide common-mode voltages and are capable
of both low-side and high-side current
shunt monitoring.
Controller Interface
USB, RS-232 or RS-422 are adequate
for many systems. RS-485 signaling may be bundled with protocols
such as Profibus, Interbus, Modbus
or BACnet, each tailored for the
specific requirements of the end
user. Sometimes CAN or Ethernet/
IP (industrial protocol) are preferred
due to network requirements. M-LVDS
can provide a lower power dissipation
alternative.
See the application note at
www.ti.com/comparingbussolutions
for additional information on
interface selection.
Sensor Signal Chain
Weigh Scale Sensor Example
LCD
Backlight
LCD
Display
Data Transmission
ZigBee
Bluetooth
Filtering
No Gain Stage
Low Power Wireless
Embedded
Processor
USB
Controller
Gain
Transient
Protection
USB Port
Gain Stage
USB Power
Load Cell
Keypad
Legend
Plug
AC
Adapter
System
Power
AC Line
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
8
Processor
Interface
RF/IF
Amplifier
Logic
Power
ADC/DAC
Clocks
Other
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Design Considerations
Sensor Signal Chains
Pressure Sensor Signal Chain Example
Nonlinear Integrated
Bridge
Solution
Transducer
P
psi
0 50
Linearization
Circuit
VEXC
VRef
Analog Output
DAC
4-20 mA
Analog Sensor Linearization
Over/Under
Scale Limiter
Fault
ADC
Analog Signal Conditioning
+125ºC
Digital
Temperature
Compensation
T
-40ºC
TMP
ADC
VRef
Clock
RF/LPW
Processor
CAN
Control
Registers
RS232/
RS485
LEGEND
Core
and I/O
Power
Low
Noise
Power
Power Management
Flow Meter Sensor Signal Chain
Example
Common
Interfaces
DC Power
Source
Processor
Interface
RF/IF
Amplifier
Logic
Power
ADC/DAC
Clocks
Other
Common
Interfaces
VRef
Clock
RF
CAN
ADC
Processor
RS232/RS485
4-20 mA
Driver
The Magnetic-Inductive Flowmeter
Common
Interfaces
VRef
Clock
RF
CAN
ADC
Processor
RS232/RS485
4-20 mA
Driver
Low
Noise
Power
ADC
The Coriolis Flowmeter
Core
and I/O
Power
Power Management
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
9
LEGEND
DC Power
Source
Processor
Interfac e
RF/IF
Amplifier
Logic
Power
ADC/DAC
Clocks
Other
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Design Considerations
Sensor Interface
Electronic weigh scales, pressure sensors and flow meters are among the
most common forms of measurement
in the medical instrumentation market.
Manufacturers of medical instruments
occasionally develop proprietary ASICs
to tailor the performance of the analog front end for the highest accuracy
and stability possible, while maintaining an IP edge over their competition.
Although TI supports and encourages
this custom ASIC approach, there are
design approaches using standard
products offering up to 23 noise-free
bits of resolution, which parallels the
performance of customized solutions.
A major challenge in designing for
these sensor interfaces is the sampling of multiple load cells while offering extremely low referred-to-input
(RTI) noise. The ADS1230, ADS1232
and ADS1234 offer the low RTI noise
required in this application.
Another important factor is the analog circuitry’s long-term stability with
regard to offset drift and gain over time
and temperature, especially since realworld sensors have span and offset
errors ever changing as temperatures
rise and fall. In addition, many bridge
pressure sensors have a nonlinear
output with applied force. Here, the
accuracy of the amplified input signal,
either single-ended or differential, must
be reliable over years of operation.
Auto-zero amplifiers such as the
OPA335 and the INA326 instrumentation amplifier easily meet these stringent requirements by achieving offset
drifts of 0.05µV/°C (OPA335) and
0.4µV/°C (INA326).
There are highly integrated solutions
as well, such as the PGA309, tailored
for bridge pressure sensors. These
sensors comprise precision, low-drift
programmable gain instrumentation
amplifiers using auto-zero techniques
and include programmable fault monitors and over/under scale limiters. The
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
PGA309 also offers a digital temperature compensation circuit. If temperature compensation is not required, try
the PGA308.
Other recommended lowest noise
amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers for pressure sensor conditioning include the OPAx227, OPAx132,
INA118, INA122 and INA333.
The INA333 is becoming a popular
choice for several applications within
medical instrumentation, selected for
its low power, high accuracy and gainsetting capabilities. A single external
resistor sets any gain from 1 to 1,000
using the standard gain equation
G = 1 + (100kΩ/RG).
Analog to Digital Conversion
For analog to digital conversion, the
ADS125x family of devices are well
suited. These are precision, wide
dynamic range, delta-sigma ADCs
with 18- to 24-bit resolution operating
from a single +5V supply and have no
missing codes. They are designed
for high-resolution measurement
applications in cardiac diagnostics
and medical instrumentation.
If multi-axis motor control is required,
consider the new ADS8556/7/8 converter family. These ADCs contain six
low-power, 16-, 14- or 12-bit successive
approximation register (SAR)-based
analog-to-digital converters (ADCs)
with true bipolar inputs. Each channel
contains a sample-and-hold circuit that
allows simultaneous high-speed multichannel signal acquisition supporting
data rates of up to 740kSPS in parallel
interface mode, or up to 500kSPS if the
serial interface is used. As appropriate
for motor control application, a wide
input configuration range is possible
from ±1V to ±12V.
10
Clocks
The CDCE9xx clock family comprises
modular, PLL-based, low-cost, highperformance, programmable clock
synthesizers, multipliers and dividers.
They generate up to nine output clocks
from a single input frequency. Each
output can be programmed
in-system for any clock frequency up
to 230MHz using independent
configurable PLLs.
Power
Low dropout regulators (LDOs) are
good for low noise power for amplifiers and data converters because they
provide low-ripple power rails leading
to better signal fidelity. The REF31xx
family comprises precision, low-power,
low-dropout series voltage references
available in a tiny SOT23-3 package.
The REF31xx does not require a load
capacitor, but is stable with any capacitive load and can sink/source up to
10 mA of output current.
Embedded Processing
OMAP™/DaVinci™ Processors
One of the most important features in
today’s medical instruments is ease
of use. Ease of use can be achieved
with touch-screen displays and multilevel menu-driven profiles that can be
configured for the environment as well
as the patient’s vital statistics. Data
transfer across everything from wireless to RS232 needs to be possible as
well. Hospitals may support a specific
infrastructure throughout all areas;
ambulance, home and other environments may need support for different
protocols.
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Design Considerations
The challenges in implementing this
ease of use is strikingly similar to
cellular phone systems. TI’s OMAP
technology with embedded ARM ®
and DSP processor cores directly
addresses these challenges. The
OMAP 3 processor performs further
digital signal processing, measurements and analytics to monitor
equipment and patient conditions.
A powerful ARM processor runs a
high-level OS (HLOS), which makes
adding multi-modal equipment control
monitoring easy and provides extensive user interface and system control.
Detecting abnormal conditions or
faults and communicating to a central
server or health care provider is essential. OMAP 3 has an extensive peripheral set to support various control and
interface/connectivity options such as
Bluetooth® technology, WiFi, ZigBee®
and other emerging standards.
C5000™ Processors
TI’s TMS320VC5504/05/14/15 DSPs
offer the industry’s lowest standby
power consumption (<150µW) and the
industry’s lowest active power
consumption (0.15mW/MHz). These
two new pin-to-pin compatible processors maximize energy efficiency,
extending battery life for portable
devices while reducing system cost
and enabling user-friendly features.
While successful in the portable monitoring space, these devices also find
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
themselves well positioned for the
medical instrumentation segment, providing high integration of peripherals
such as a 1024-point programmable
fast Fourier transform (FFT) hardware
accelerator, a high speed USB 2.0 with
physical layer (PHY), LCD display
controller, and a MultiMedia Card/Secure
Digital (MMC/SD) and 10-bit, fourchannel successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter.
The Stellaris® MCU Family of
Processors (Luminary)
Medical instrumentation requires
accuracy, reliability and responsiveness.
Whether connected or standalone,
Stellaris processors offer solutions
useful to medical equipment manufacturers. Safety is enhanced through an
MPU (memory protection unit), multiple
error detection mechanisms in the
processor, peripheral fault detection,
priority of interrupts to handle
faults and critical operations, and
a highly deterministic operation.
Communications include Ethernet
and serial for connected devices.
Stellaris MCUs and ARM Cortex-M3
offer a direct path to the strongest
ecosystem of development tools,
software and knowledge in the industry. Designers who migrate to Stellaris
will benefit from great tools, small
code footprints and outstanding
performance.
11
The Stellaris family offers the industry's
first and broadest implementation of
Cortex-M3 and the Thumb-2 instruction
set. With blazingly fast responsiveness,
Thumb-2 technology combines both
16- and 32-bit instructions to deliver
the best balance of code density and
performance. Thumb-2 uses 26 percent
less memory than pure 32-bit code to
reduce system cost while delivering 25
percent better performance.
Newly acquired into TI's expansive
microcontroller portfolio, Stellaris microcontroller users will benefit from:
• Assured product longevity, with the
backing of a global top-three semiconductor supplier with more than
75 years of industry experience.
• Access to and support from a large
direct global sales force, in addition to extensive global distribution
access.
• Ability to pair your Stellaris MCU with
the complete signal chain and power
management solutions, support and
applications know-how that only TI
can offer.
The era of pervasive 32-bit computing,
control and communication has arrived.
Other Embedded Processors
The MSP430 microcontroller or
TMS320C55x DSP provides functions
including calculation and signal processing, a friendly user interface such
as LCD display and keypad control, and
wireless/wired data transfer and connectivity interfaces. TI's MSP430 and
MSC12xx integrated microcontroller
solutions family allow the definition of
filters and thresholds of critical pressure
levels by including integrated ADCs.
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Component Recommendations
Amplifiers
Component
Description
Key Features
Benefits
Other TI Solutions
PWM High-Side
1.2A output drive, +8V to +32V supply range
Driver Amp for
Solenoids, Coils
High-Speed,
Gain of 0.2 to interface ±10V signals to single-supply ADCs
Precision Gain
Level Translation
Difference Amp
Low Power, Precision 25μV (max) offset, 50nV/°C drift, 50μA (typ) Iq
Instrumentation Amp
PWM operation conserves power and allows for fine
control
OPA211
Precision Op-Amp
1.1nV/√Hz at 1kHz low noise, 0.2µV/°C offset drift,
80MHz (G = 100) BW
<1µs settling time to 16-bit accuracy
OPA277
Precision Op-Amp
10µV offset voltage, ±0.1µV/°C low drift, 134dB open-loop
gain, 140dB CMRR
Available in S, D, Q
OPA177, OPA627
OPA380
90MHz GBW, over 1MHz transimpedance BW, 25µV offset
(max), 0.1µV/°C drift (max)
Precision, dynamic range 4 to 5 decades, excellent
long term stability
OPA350, OPA335
OPA735
Transimpedance
Amp
CMOS Op-Amp
0.05µV/°C zero drift (max), 750µA IQ (max), 5µV offset
voltage
Zero-drift series, dual version available
OPA734
OPA827
JFET-Input Op-Amp
1µV/°C drift, 4.5mA/ch IQ, 250µV offset voltage, 18MHz BW
Outstanding DC precision w/excellent AC performance
OPA141
PGA309
Sensor error compensation: span, offset, temp drifts
Complete bridge sensor conditioner
PGA308
THS4520
Prog. Sensor
Conditioner
High-Speed Op-Amp
450MHz (G = 2V/V), 570V/µs SR, 2nV/√Hz noise
(f>10MHz)
Single-to-differential conversion
THS4131
High-Speed Op-Amp
150MHz (–3dB) BW, 51V/µs SR, –100dB HD3 at 250kHz
Low noise, fully differential I/O
THS4631
High-Speed Op-Amp
210MHz GBW, 900V/µs (G = 2) SR, –76dB SFDR at 5MHz
±5 and ±15V supply operation, 95mA output current
16-bit, 860SPS, 4 SE, 2 diff input, PGA, MUX, comparator,
VREF
24-bit, 2kSPS, 7 channels w/dual current sources, GPIO, low
drift VREF, and temp sensor
Smallest 16-bit ADC – 2.0 x 1.5 x .04 mm leadless QFN
pkg – reduces system size/component count
Flexible front end for flow or temperature measurement
ADS1113/4,
ADS1013/14/15
ADS1148, ADS1247,
ADS1147
DRV104
INA159
INA333
DRV102, DRV101
Maintains gain accuracy and common-mode rejection
over temperature
Best offset/noise combination, supply down to 1.8V,
low power
INA321, INA118,
INA326
Data Converters
ADS1115
Delta-Sigma ADC
ADS1248
Delta-Sigma ADC
ADS1258
Delta-Sigma ADC
16-channel, 24-bit, 125kSPS, 23.7kSPS/channel
Fastest multichannel delta-sigma ADC, measures all
16 inputs in <675µs
ADS1274, ADS1278,
ADS1605, ADS1602,
ADS1601
ADS1278
ADS1298
Delta-Sigma ADC
ECG/EEG AFE
24-bit, 128kSPS, 8-channel, 111dB SNR
24-bit, 8PGA, 8ADC, plus RLD and RESP
ADS1271, ADS1274
ADS1294, ADS1296,
ADS1198, ADS1251/58
ADS1605
ADS7864, ADS8361,
ADS8364
ADS1610
Delta-Sigma ADC
16-bit, 10MSPS, parallel interface
Simultaneous measurement, onboard decimation filter
Complete front end, reduction in power and size, increase
reliability
SYNC pin for simultaneous sampling
ADS7861
SAR ADC
Dual, 500kHz, 12-bit 2+2ch
Simultaneous sampling
ADS8254/55
SAR ADC
16-bit, 1MSPS, 98dB (typ) SNR, 270mW power, onboard
4V int reference, driver amp and MUX
Flexible input configuration, multichannel modes
ADS8284/85
SAR ADC
18-bit, 1MSPS, 98dB (typ) SNR, 270mW power, onboard
4V int reference, driver amp and MUX
Flexible input configuration, multichannel modes
ADS8317
SAR ADC, Serial
16-bit, 250kSPS, 2.7V to 5.5V, pseudo-bipolar, diff inputs
Excellent linearity, micropower, high speed
ADS8422
ADS8326
SAR ADC, Serial
16-bit, 250kSPS, 2.7V to 5.5V, pseudo-bipolar, diff inputs
Low noise, low power, high speed
ADS8325
ADS8410
SAR ADC
16-bit, 2MHz, 87.5dB at 10kHz I/P SNR, int. ref.
200Mbps LVDS serial interface
ADS8413
ADS8413
SAR ADC
16-bit, 2MSPS, LVDS interface int. ref. and buffer
LVDS, serial interface, daisy-chain capable
ADS8410, ADS8406
ADS8422
SAR ADC
16-bit, 4MSPS, 1 LSB INL (typ), parallel interface
Zero latency
ADS8412, ADS8472
ADS8556
SAR ADC
16-bit, 6-channel, ±1V to ±12V input configuration
Six SAR ADCs grouped in 3 pairs, pin selectable input range
ADS8557, ADS8558
DAC7811
Multiplying DAC
12-bit, single channel, serial input, multiplying DAC
Multiplying, current output
DAC7613, DAC8811,
DAC8871
DAC8550/2/4
Low-Power DAC
16-bit, 1-4 chs, ±3 LSB (typ) INL, 0.1 to 0.15nV-s glitch
Excellent AC/DC performance
DAC8560, ADS8564
DAC8560
VOUT DAC
16-bit, 0.15nV-s glitch, ±10µs to 0.003% FSR settling time
Small package, low power
DAC7731, DAC8411
DAC8564/5/8
Quad DAC
16-bit, 2.5V VREF, 2ppm/°C drift, 0.15nV-s glitch
Quad and octal versions
DAC8551
DAC8812
MDAC
16-bit, ±1-LSB INL, –105dB THD, 0.5µs settling time
Multiplying, current output
DAC8814
DAC8814
Multiplying DAC
16-bit, 0.5µs settling time, –105dB THD, 1 LSB (max)
relative accuracy
Double-buffered serial data interface
DAC7715, DAC8811
DAC8820
DAC
16-bit, parallel input multiplying, ±1.5 LSB DNL, ±1 LSB INL
2.7V to 5.5V supply, low noise, low power
DAC8814, DAC8822
To view more system block diagram compatible products, visit www.ti.com/medical
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
New products are listed in bold red. Preview products are listed in bold blue.
12
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Component Recommendations
Component
Description
Key Features
Benefits
Other TI Solutions
Data Converters (Continued)
TPDxE001
ESD Protection
Industry's lowest leakage spec, 15kV ESD solution in
two-, three-, four- and six-channel packages
-3dB bandwidth at 200MHz, 15kV contact ESD, and four-,
six- and eight-channel available
Back-to-back clamp for bipolar signal interface
System-level ESD protection for USB 2.0, Ethernet,
analog I/O interfaces
System-level EMI immunity for high-speed data
interface
System-level ESD protection for RS485, RS422,
RS232, LVDS, and CAN interfaces
System-level ESD protection for HDMI, eSATA,
USB 2.0, and DisplayPort high-speed interfaces
TPDxE004
TPDxF003
EMI Filter
TPD2E007
ESD Protection
TPD4S009
ESD Protection
Industry's lowest leakage spec, less than 0.05pF
differential capacitance
TXS0102
Autodirection
Sensing VoltageLevel Translator
2-bit, 1.2V to 5.5V, works with push-pull and open drain
(e.g. I2C) drivers
Bridges incompatible digital switching voltages
TPDxE001
ESD Protection
EMI Filter
TPD2E007
ESD Protection
TPD4S009
ESD Protection
TXS0102
Autodirection
Sensing VoltageLevel Translator
System-level ESD protection for USB 2.0, Ethernet,
analog I/O interfaces
System-level EMI immunity for high-speed data
interface
System-level ESD protection for RS485, RS422,
RS232, LVDS, and CAN interfaces
System-level ESD protection for HDMI, eSATA, USB
2.0, and DisplayPort high-speed interfaces
Bridges incompatible digital switching voltages
TPDxE004
TPDxF003
Industry's lowest leakage spec, 15kV ESD solution in
two-, three-, four- and six-channel packages
–3dB bandwidth at 200MHz, 15kV contact ESD, and four-,
six- and eight-channel available
Back-to-back clamp for bipolar signal interface
TPD6F002
TPD2E009,
TPD8S009,
TPD4S010
TXS010x, TXB010x,
SN74AVCxxT245
Interface
Industry's lowest leakage spec, less than 0.05pF
differential capacitance
2-bit, 1.2V to 5.5V, works with push-pull and open drain
(e.g. I2C) drivers
TPD6F002
TPD2E009, TPD8S009,
TPD4S010
TXS010x, TXB010x,
SN74AVCxxT245
Clocking Products
CDCE(L)9xx
1.8V Programmable
VCXO Multi-PLL
Clock Synthesizer
LVCMOS or Xtal Inputs; VCXO Input with ±150ppm (typ)
pulling range
Low power consumption, low jitter, low skew;
EEPROM programmable
CDCE706, CDCE906
CDCE72010
2:10 Ultra-Low Jitter
Cleaner w/ VCXO
Wide-range integer divide; <35fs RMS jitter; on-chip
EEPROM
Wide input/output freq. range supports high and low
end of freq. standards
CDCE6200x
CDCM6100x
1:4/2/1 Xtal-In
44MHz - 683MHz
Clock Generator
Fully integrated VCO and loop filter generates various
frequencies; <1ps RMS jitter
One single device across multiple designs, replacing
up to four discrete XOs
CDCS50x
Xtal-In Clock
Generator with
Optional SSC
Selectable multiplier rates of 1x and 4x; selectable spreadspectrum modulation
Reduces EMI up to 10dB; replaces more costly crystal
oscillators
15ppm/°C, 0.2% accuracy at 25°C
Low power consumption, low dropout.
Triple processor supervisor
Two fixed and one adjustable supervisor for system
flexibility
Protection from short between any pins and between
any pin to ground
Flexible, fail safe solution
Power Products
REF3130
TPS3307
TPS61081
TPS61093
TPS62110
TPS62400
TPS62750
TPS63000
TPS63030
TPS717xx
TPS718xx-yy
TPS74201
TPS74401
TPS74701
TPS79901
UCC37321
SOT23-3 Series
Voltage Reference
Voltage
Supervisor
LED Boost
Converter
OLED Boost
Converter
Step-Down
Converter
Dual Output StepDown Converter
Step-Down
Converter
Buck-Boost
Converter
Buck-Boost
Converter
Single-Channel LDO
Dual-Channel LDO
Single-Channel LDO
Single-Channel LDO
Single-Channel LDO
Single-Channel LDO
Single 9A Peak
Low-Side
MOSFET driver
Input-to-output isolation
Wide VIN range, input-output disconnect
3.1V to 17V VIN, 1.5A conversion, synchronization pin, Low
battery indicator, power save mode
180° out of phase operation, serial interface
Programmable input current limit, hot plug and reverse
current protection
1.8A switch, automatic transition between step down and
boost mode
1A switch, automatic transition between step down and boost
mode
Very high rejection of power-source noise
Very high rejection of power-source noise
1.5A ultra-low-dropout linear regulator
3.0A ultra-low-dropout linear regulator
0.5A ultra-low-dropout linear regulator
Very high rejection of power source noise
High-speed, 20ns typical rise and fall times
REF3112, REF3120,
REF3125, REF3133
TPS3808
TPS61042
TPS61080
Very low noise/high efficiency
TPS62050
Flexible voltage adjustment for processors and MCUs
TPS62410
Supports USB powerde applications and large.output
caps
Stable output voltage over entire entire VIN range
TPS62040
Extending Application run time, Small Solution
TPS61020
Low-noise power rails for sensitive analog components
Low-noise power rails for sensitive analog components
Split bias and supply pin minimize heat generation
Split bias and supply pin minimize heat generation
Split bias and supply pin minimize heat generation
Low-noise power rails for sensitive analog components
Industry standard pin-out, handles extreme Miller
currents
TPS799xx
TPS719xx-yy
TPS74301, TPS74801
TPS74901
TPS63010
TPS79501
UCC37323
To view more system block diagram compatible products, visit www.ti.com/medical
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
13
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Component Recommendations
RF Transceivers
Component
CC1101
Description
Sub-1GHz RF
Transceiver
Key Features
Wake-on-radio functionality; integrated packet handling
with 64-byte data FIFOs; high RF flexibility: FSK, MSK,
OOK, 1.2-500Kbps; extremely fast PLL turn-on/hop time
Best-in-class coexistence and selectivity properties;
excellent link budget (103dBm); extended temperature
range; AES-128 security module
Benefits
Ideal for low-power systems; any low-end MCU
can be used; backwards-compatible with existing
systems; suitable for fast frequency-hopping systems
Reliable RF link with interference present; 400-m
line-of-sight range with the development kit; ideal for
industrial applications; no external processor needed
for secure communication
CC2520
2.4GHz ZigBee®/
IEEE 802.15.4 RF
Transceiver
2.4GHz Bluetooth®
2.1 chipset
Sub-1GHz
System-on-Chip
Single-chip Bluetooth® solution using TI’s digital radio
processor technology.
MCU, USB 2.0, flash and RAM in one package; four flexible
power modes for reduced power consumption; includes
CC1101 transceiver frequency synthesizer; built-in
AES-128 encryption coprocessor
System-on-Chip
Solution for
ZigBee® location
engine
Second Generation
System-on-Chip
Solution for 2.4GHz
IEEE 802.15.4/
RF4CE/ZigBee
2.4GHz
Bluetooth® Low
Energy compliant
RF System-on-Chip
2.4GHz 802.11b/g/n
and Bluetooth® 2.1
Chipset
2.4/5GHz
802.11a/b/g/n
and Bluetooth®
2.1 Chipset
CC2431 has 32/64/128 KB hardware AES encryption
engine, excellent selectivity, blocking performance and
hardware location
Sophisticated low-power technology ideal for battery
operated solutions
Complete low-cost solution on single chip; ideal for
low-power, battery-operated systems; robust and
secure link with good noise immunity; no external
processor needed for secure communication; can
connect directly to a PC
Ideal for battery operated systems; suitable for
proprietary and ZigBee systems; adds location
awareness and accuracy of 3 to 5 meters
RF System-on-Chip
CC2560
CC1110/11
CC2431
CC2530/31
CC2540
WL1271
WL1273
Other TI Solutions
CC2500
CC2530
CC2510, CC2511
Excellent RX sensitivity, low power, easy-to-use
development tools
RF design SOC for quick time to market; provides a
robust and complete ZigBee USB dongle or firmwareupgradable network node
CC2590/91,
CC2530ZNP
Excellent link budget enabling long range applications
without external frontend, receiver sensitivity, selectivity
and blocking performance
A fast-to-market Bluetooth® low energy compliant
solution
Single-chip 802.11b/g/n WLAN and Bluetooth® solution
using TI’s digital radio processor technology using a single
antenna.
Single-chip 802.11a/b/g/n WLAN and Bluetooth® solution
using TI's digital radio processor technology using a single
antenna.
Sophisticated low-power technology ideal for battery operated
solutions; coexistence features enable simultaneous WLAN
and Bluetooth® operations; supports ANT+ standard.
Sophisticated low-power technology ideal for battery
operated solutions; coexistence features enable
simultaneous WLAN and Bluetooth® operations;
supports ANT+ standard.
Second
Generation
Z-Stack™
Network Processor
ZigBee® stack and radio in one chip; implements ZigBee
certified stack; configurable device type and network
settings
Add CC2530ZNP and your system is ZigBee enabled;
ideal for battery-operated excellent selectivity and
blocking performance systems; excellent coexistence
with Bluetooth® technology and Wi-Fi.
Applications
Processor
Stellaris®
Microcontroller
Microcontroller
ARM® Cortex-A8, graphics accelerators, Ethernet, CAN
High performance at handheld power levels
AM3505
ARM® Cortex M3 core, 50MHz, 64kB single-cycle flash
Hardware-division and single-cycle multiplication,
21 interrupt channels
Ultra-low-power, integrated SoC
LM3S600
PowerVR SGX graphics accelerator, HD resolution
output
OMAP3525,
OMAP3515,
OMAP3503
WL1273
WL1271
RF Network Processor
CC2530ZNP
Processors
AM3517
LM3S800
MSP430FG461x
OMAP3530
Digital Signal
Processor
OMAP-L137
Low-Power
Applications
Processor
TMS320F2803x
Microcontroller
TMS320VC5505
Digital Signal
Processor
Ultra-low power, 16-bit operation, up to 120kB flash, up
to 8kB RAM, 12-bit ADC, 12-bit DAC, three op-amps, LCD
controller
Low power 64x + ARM® Cortex-A8 CPU, 3440 MMACS,
720MHz
300MHz ARM9™ w/MMU + 300MHz C674x™ floatingpoint DSP core, rich peripheral set including 10/100
Ethernet MAC, LCD controller, USB 2.0 HS OTG, USB 1.1
full speed, SPI and MMC/SD
32-bit operation, 60MHz, up to 128kB flash, up to 20kB
RAM, high-speed 12-bit ADC, high-resolution PWM
High-performance, low-power TMS320C55X DSP
generation CPU core
Highly integrated, dual-core solution drives low system cost
and maximum flexibility for connectivity, GUI and high-level OS
options. Extends product battery life by providing greater than
60% power reduction over existing solutions in the market.
ADC capable of 5MSPS, programmable CLA (control
law accelerator)
GPIO, 10-bit SAR ADC and I/O for displays
±12° mirror operation, works with Visible, UV and near-IR
light
This device can surpass the speed, precision and
efficiency of other spatial light modulators
DLP® Pico™
44.8x67.4x14.2mm3, I2C command interface
Well suited for incorporating digital projection into
portable devices
DLP® Discovery™
TMS320VC5504
Toolkits
DLP®
Discovery™
4100
*Page 5
DLP®
Pico™ Kit
*Page 6
An optical semiconductor module
that allows digital
manipulation of light
Fully integrates
projection solutions
for portable medical
devices
*For additional product information see designated page number.
To view more system block diagram compatible products, visit www.ti.com/medical
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
New products are listed in bold red. Preview products are listed in bold blue.
14
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Endoscopes
In medicine, an endoscope is used to
look inside the body to examine organs.
Through a small incision, endoscopes
can examine gastrointestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts, as well as internal organs. An endoscope captures
images through its long tube, which can
be rigid or flexible. Additional instruments for cutting, grasping and other
functions are often attached to the endo­
scope to permit minimally invasive
procedures that improve patient care
and minimize recovery time.
When used in a technical application to
inspect confined spaces, the tool is
often referred to as a borescope. Bore­
scopes are used to inspect machinery
interiors, building walls and to search
for victims in collapsed buildings.
Endoscopes and borescopes have four
basic requirements:
• A light source to illuminate the subject
• A tube to guide the light to the subject
• A lens or fiber optic system to capture light reflected from the subject
• An image-capture system to capture,
process and store or display the image
TI’s broad product portfolio supports
the entire image chain including generating light, capturing an image, signal
conditioning and image processing. LED
drivers supply a bright light source with
excellent directionality and minimal
waste heat. These drivers are versatile
and permit LED selection optimized for
an application’s spectral requirements.
The resolution of current steps impacts
illumination control precision: PWM
and analog dimming available from TI
LED drivers allow for precise illumination level and timing control.
The image sensor detects reflected
light and converts the light to an analog
electrical signal. Depending on the
image sensor’s location, low-noise line
drivers may be needed to transmit the
signal over the light tube’s length.
Critical considerations for line drivers
are low power, noise immunity and
data rate. LVDS technology provides
up to 800 Mbps with voltage swings of
a few tenths of a volt and high rejection
of common-mode noise.
Biopsy Tool
Control Head
LEGEND
Processor
Interface
Essential to final image quality is the
analog front end (AFE). The AFE conditions the sensor’s analog electrical
signal and converts image information
to a digitized representation. Critical to
AFE selection is the ability to condition
the signal to correct sensor-induced
distortions such as dark current
cancellation, reset level variations,
defective pixel correction and DC offset variations. Depending on the signal
level, the presence of programmable
gain amplifiers (PGAs), PGA linearity
and the range of available gains may
also be important. During digitization,
the number of bits determines image
contrast. Typically, digitizing the initial
data with two to four bits more precision than desired in the final image is
recommended. For example, if 8 bits of
final image data are required, initially
digitize to 10 bits to allow for rounding
errors during image processing. When
color reproduction is critical, differential non-linearity (DNL) and integral
non-linearity (INL) should be minimized.
Lens, Imager and
Optional Biopsy Tool
Endoscope
Electronics Head
Amplifier
Logic
Power
ADC/DAC
Other
System
Connection Cable
Need is dependent on length of scope tube and whether
AFE is in the imagining end or processing end of the scope.
Analog Video Out
Optional
Analog
Line
Drivers
CCD/CMOS
Sensor
Lens
Imager
Power
Light
Source
LED
Drivers
Low Noise
Power Rails
System Power
CCD/CMOS
Signal
Processing
(AFE)
Optional
Digital
Line
Drivers
REF
Logic
Clock
Interfaces to Display
Video
Processing
Engine
HDMI
DVI
Interfaces to PC
RS232
RS485
Ethernet
Core and
I/O Power
Memory
Power
RGB
Video
DAC
Level Shift
SDRAM
FLASH
EPROM
Product Availability and Design Disclaimer – The system block diagram depicted above and the devices recommended are designed in this manner as a reference. Please contact your local TI sales office or
distributor for system design specifics and product availability.
Endoscope system block diagram.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
15
Texas Instruments 2010
Medical Instruments
➔ Endoscopes
Component Recommendations
Component
Description
Key Features
Benefits
Other TI Solutions
Analog Front Ends
VSP2582
VSP2562
CCD/CMOS AFE
CCD/CMOS Analog
Front End
CCD/CMOS Analog
Front End
36MSPS, 12-bits (parallel output), CDS
36MSPS, 12-bits (parallel output), CDS, w/two
8-bit DACs
36MSPS, 16-bits (parallel output), CDS, w/two
8-bit DACs
Low noise, low power, smallest footprint
Low noise, low power, small footprint, includes two
8-bit DACs to simplify system design
Higher resolution, low noise, low power, small footprint,
includes two 8-bit DACs to simplify system design
OMAP3530
Applications
Processor
ARM® Cortex-A8, C64x+™, graphics accelerator, video
accelerators
Laptop-like performance at handheld power levels
TMS320DM355
Digital Media
System-on-Chip
64-channel EDMA, 135/216/270MHz ARM926EJ-S
clock rate
TMS320DM365
Digital Media
System-on-Chip
Digital Media
Processor
Digital Media
System-on-Chip
64-channel EDMA, 216/270/300MHz ARM926EJ-S
clock rate
64-channel EDMA, 400/500/600/660/700MHz
C64x+™ clock rate
64-channel EDMA, 513/594MHz C64x+ clock rate
Digital Media
System-on-Chip
Industry’s Lowest
Power FloatingPoint DSP
64-channel EDMA, 594/729/1000MHz C64x+™ clock
rate
32-/64-bit accuracy, 1.8V to 3.3V I/O supply, low power
and rich connectivity peripherals.
Encode/decode up to 720p H.264; optimized for
power, cost, and efficiency, and is even suitable for
three Li-ion AA battery inputs
Encode/decode up to 1080p H.264; high-performance
ARM® and video processing capabilities
DSP architecture means programmable solution,
Benefit from H.264 encode (D1)
Encode/decode up to 720p MPEG-4, programmable
DSP, with GUI and other processing offloaded to the
ARM® for greater efficiency and scalability
Encode/decode up to 1080p H.264; high-performance
programmable DSP and ARM
Uses three times less power that existing floatingpoint DSPs
THS8135
Video DAC
THS8200
Video DAC
Triple 10-bit 240MSPS video DAC with tri-level sync
and video-compliant (ITU-R.BT601) full-scale range
Triple 10-bit all-format video DAC
VSP2566
Processors
TMS320DM6437
TMS320DM6446
TMS320DM6467
TMS320C6747
OMAP3503,
OMAP3515,
OMAP3525
Data Converters
Amplifiers
OPA360
Video Amp
OPA3693
Video Amp
OPA830
Buffer Amp
3V video amplifier with low pass filter, internal G=2 and
SAG correction in SC70
Triple,ultra-wideband, fixed gain, video buffer with
disable
—
2.5MHz (G = +1) BW, 550V/µs slew rate, 9.2nV/√Hz
noise, 3.9mA supply current, single/dual supply
Designed to work with video processors
OPA361, THS7303
Designed to work with video processors
OPA3832
Ideal input buffer stage
OPA2830, OPA847
10MHz-66MHz; QFN and TSSOP
10MHz-135MHz, BGA and TSSOP; supports 1.8V to
3.3V TTL i/p
Available in 70% smaller QFN package
Wide frequency range, saves space, no level shifter for
1.8V powered µP
SN65LV1224B
SN75LVDS83B
Integrates charger, WLED, DCDC and LDO.
White LED driver with digital and PWM brightness
control in 2mm x 2mm package
Down to 0.7V VIN operation, pass-through function
Up to 90dB PSRR, excellent AC and transient load
regulation
180 degrees out of phase operation, serial interface
Highest integration for portable applications
Allows stepped brightness adjustment
TPS65720
TPS61061
Simple, small, low power solution
Low noise regulation, 12mm2 solution size
TPS61070
TPS62260
Flexible voltage adjustment for processors and MCUs
TPS62410, TPS62111,
TPS62260, TPS62290
TPS61020
Interface
SN65LV1023A
SN65LVDS93A
10-bit LVDS Serdes
24-bit RGB LVDS
Serdes
Power Management
TPS65073
TPS61160
PMU w/charger/WLED
White LED Driver
TPS61220
TPS62230
Boost Converter
Step-Down
Converter
Dual Output StepDown Converter
Buck-Boost
Converter
LDO
TPS62400
TPS63030
TPS71701
TPS74201
TPS74301
Single Channel
LDO
LDO
TPS74401
LDO
TPS74701
Single Channel
LDO
Linear Charge
Management
TPS75003
1A switch, automatic transition between step down and
boost mode
Low-noise, high-bandwidth-PSRR, low-dropout 150mA
linear regulator
1.5A ultra low-dropout linear regulator
Extending application run time, small solution
Single-output LDO, 1.5A, adjustable (0.8V to 3.3V), any
or no cap, programmable soft start
Single-output LDO, 3.0A, adjustable (0.8V to 3.3V), fast
transient response, programmable soft start
1.5A ultra low-dropout linear regulator
Adjust the voltage ramp rate for your processor
requirements
Adjust the voltage ramp rate for your processor
requirements
Split bias and supply pin minimize heat generation
Integrated triple-supply power management IC for
Xilinx Spartan FPGAs
Provides all three rails in one package
TPS718xx family
TPS74401
TPS71718,
TPS74801
New products are listed in bold red.
To view more system block diagram compatible products, visit www.ti.com/medical
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
Filters out wider range of incoming noise with the high
PSRR
Split bias and supply pin minimize heat generation
16
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ Overview
Connectivity plays an important role
in clinical, patient monitoring, and
consumer medical devices. While
wired (USB) connections continue to
be used, emphasis is being placed
on wireless capabilities that enable
connected or networked devices.
Portability requirements call for these
devices to be small in size, consume
minimal power and include the ability
to efficiently and accurately feed data
to remote sources.
TI has long-time experience providing a
wide range of innovative wireless tech­
nologies. Some of these technologies
include ZigBee®, radio frequency identification (RFID), low-power wireless
(ISM), Bluetooth® technology and WLAN.
USB for Medical Applications
Connectivity for portable medical
applications has become critical as
consumers and caregivers are requiring data to move from medical devices
to data hubs such as computers and
mobile phones. TI is a promoting
member of the
Continua Health
Alliance and now
offers the first
Continua-certified
USB platform for Agent Devices.
See page 18 for more information.
For more information on the
Continua Health Alliance, visit
http://www.continuaalliance.org
ZigBee® and Bluetooth®
Low Energy Solutions
for Medical Applications
More and more medical devices,
especially in patient monitoring and
home healthcare, can benefit from
wireless technologies such as ZigBee
and Bluetooth Low Energy.
The ZigBee standard enables
companies to have a simple, reliable,
low-cost and low-power standardbased wireless platform for their
medical application development.
As an example, with the use of ZigBee
wireless sensors, patients can move
around in the hospital, or even in
their homes, and the sensors will still
monitor and send critical health data
to the hospital or doctor.
Bluetooth Low-Energy
solutions are designed for
low-cost, low-power and
short range connectivity.
The technology enables
direct communication to cellular
phones, laptops and other Bluetooth
enabled devices such as sports and
fitness watches, GPS / handhelds,
and other personal monitoring devices.
For more information, visit:
www.ti.com/zigbee
www.ti.com/bluetoothlowenergy
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
TI’s high-frequency RFID product family
consists of 13.56MHz high-frequency
(HF) transponders and low-power RFID
readers that are compliant with ISO/IEC
15693 and ISO/IEC 18000-3 global
open standards.
Typical RFID medical applications
include blood bag and medical supply
tracking, patient/staff authentication,
pharmaceutical authentication, medical
imaging, product authentication and
remote digital healthcare management
applications.
TI’s Tag-it™ HF-1 family of transponder
inlays consists of 13.56MHz HF transponders that are compliant with ISO/
IEC 15693 and ISO/IEC 18000-3 global
open standards. These products are
available in six different antenna shapes
with frequency offset for integration
into paper, PVC or other substrates
manufactured with TI’s patented lasertuning process to provide consistent
read performance.
Texas Instruments supports the ZigBee
Personal Health (PH) profile as well as
the Continua Alliance/ EN11073 profile.
Connectivity
ZigBee®/
IEEE 802.15.4
Bio Sensors
Embedded
Processor-Based
Portable Medical
Device
(Includes sensor
interface, processor,
user I/O, and power
management)
Bluetooth®
Wireless Data
Transmission
Sub-1GHz ISM RF
USB Controller
Wired Data
Transmission
TI has considerable experience designing connectivity solutions for
interoperability and coexistence.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
17
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ Overview (Continued)
Low-Power Wireless (ISM)
TI offers a wide selection of costeffective, low-power RF solutions for
both proprietary and standard-based
wireless applications. The portfolio
includes RF transceivers, RF transmitters and Systems-on-Chip for shortrange applications in the sub-1GHz
and 2.4GHz frequency bands.
To choose the right radio for specific
applications, designers need to determine at what frequency band to operate.
TI’s radios operate in either the global
2.4GHz or the sub-1GHz Industrial
Scientific Medical (ISM) bands. The
2.4GHz is available for license-free
operation in most countries around the
world and enables the same solution to
be sold in several markets without
software/hardware alterations.
The ISM bands below sub-1GHz have
limitations that vary from region to
region, but their strength is a better
range than 2.4GHz with the same output power and current consumption.
In addition, there is less interference
present in the band. Since different
sub-1GHz bands are used in different
markets, custom solutions become a
necessity.
The trade-off between the need for
interoperability and the cost of software design and development will, to
a large extent, determine the choice of
software platform. TI’s software portfolio ranges from proprietary solutions
with a high degree of design freedom
and low complexity to fully interoperable ZigBee® solutions.
➔ Medical USB Platform
TI offers a Continua-certified USB
hardware-software platform that
implements the Personal Healthcare
Device Class (PHDC) along with IEEE
11073. As personal healthcare devices
become more ubiquitous, companies
are developing products with connectivity that allow data to be exchanged
easily. PHDC (Personal Healthcare
Device Class), which is part of the
USB standard, is designed for portable
medical and wellness devices to be
able to send measurements to USB
hosts such as personal computers,
cell phones, etc. The Continua Health
Alliance has released guidelines for
interoperability between various types
of devices implementing the USB
standard. Texas Instruments offers a
hardware-software platform that has
been certified by the Continua Health
Alliance after having passed a rigorous
testing procedure. Customers can use
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
the software stacks of this platform to
reduce development time for devices
that will comply with the medical industry standards such as the Continua
Health Alliance. These stacks are available for use on TI’s industry-leading,
ultra-low-power MSP430™ MCUs.
For more information on the
Continua Health Alliance, visit
http://www.continuaalliance.org.
For more information on the
medical USB platform, visit
http://www.ti.com/usbplatform.
Medical Application
Device Specializations
IEEE 11073-104xx
Data Exchange Protocol
IEEE 11073-20601
USB API
PHDC
CDC
HID
MSD
Physical Layer
18
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ Wired Solutions
USB-to-Serial Bridge
TUSB3410
Get samples, datasheets, application reports and evaluation modules at: www.ti.com/sc/device/TUSB3410
Key Features
• USB full-speed (12Mbps) compliant
• Integrated 8052 microcontroller with
16K bytes of RAM that can be
loaded from the host or external
memory via an I2C bus
• Integrated, enhanced UART features
include:
• Programmable software/hardware
flow control
• Automatic RS-485 bus transceiver
control, with and without echo
• Software-selectable baud rate
from 50 to 921.6K baud
• Built-in, 2-channel DMA controller
for USB/UART bulk I/O
• TUSB3410UARTPDK product development kit can jump-start USB-toserial development
Applications
• Handheld meters
• Health metrics/monitors
• Legacy-free PC COM port
replacement
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
TUSB3410 and TUSBWINVCP software provides an easy way to move serialbased legacy devices to a fast, flexible USB interface by bridging a USB port and
an enhanced UART serial port. The TUSB3410 contains all of the logic needed to
communicate with the host computer using the USB bus. The TUSBWINVCP software package enables the TUSB3410 to act as a virtual COM port and appear as
legacy COM ports on the back of older model computers. This enables the use of
existing devices and application software without making any changes.
3.6V
EEPROM
Parameter
Storage
V-REG
5V
Host PC
USB
*Several new MSP430™ families
such as F552x have integrated USB
capabilities where an external USB
controller is not required
SDA
SCL
TUSB3410
USB Controller
12MHz
MSP430*
7 3728MHz
TUSB3410/MSP430™ implementation block diagram.
19
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ Wireless Interface, RFID and Tag-it™
Radio Frequency Identification
(RFID)
TI’s high-frequency RFID product
family consists of 13.56MHz highfrequency (HF) transponders and lowpower RFID readers that are compliant
with ISO/IEC 15693 and ISO/IEC
18000-3 global open standards.
Typical RFID implementations include
asset tracking, access control, blood
bag tracking, medical supply tracking,
patient/staff authentication, pharma­
ceutical authentication, medical imaging,
product authentication, remote digital
healthcare management applications and many non-medical related
applications.
open standards. These products are
available in six different antenna shapes
with frequency offset for integration
into paper, PVC or other substrates
manufactured with TI’s patented lasertuning process to provide consistent
read performance. Prior to delivery, the
transponders undergo complete functional and para­metric testing to provide
the high quality customers have come
to expect.
• Data retention time (at +55°C):
>10 years
Tag-it HF-I Family
• 256-bit user memory, 8 x 32-bit
• Password-protected write command
• Command to disable IC functionality
• FastSID
Key Features
• User and factory lock per block
• Application Family Identifier (AFI)
Standard
• 256-bit user memory, 8 x 32-bit
• FastSID
Pro
Product Specifications
• Supported standards: ISO/IEC
15693-2, -3; ISO/IEC 18000-3
• Recommended operating frequency:
13.56MHz
• Factory programmed read-only
numbers: 64-bit
• Typical programming cycles (at
+25°C): 100,000
Tag-it HF-I Transponder Inlays
TI’s Tag-it HF-I family of transponder
inlays consists of 13.56MHz HF transponders that are compliant with ISO/
IEC 15693 and ISO/IEC 18000-3 global
Plus
• 2Kbit user memory, 64 x 32 6-bit
• Data Storage Format Identifier
(DSFID)
• Combined inventory read block
Tag-it™ HF-I Plus Inlay Shapes
Part Number
Available Memory
Antenna Size (mm)
Foil Pitch (mm)
Frequency Offset for
Lamination Material
Delivery
RI-I11-112A-03
RI-I11-112B-03
RI-I02-112A-03
RI-I02-112B-03
RI-I03-112A-03
RI-I15-112B-03
RI-I16-112A-03
RI-I17-112A-03
2K bits organized in 64 x 32-bit blocks
45 x 45
45 x 45
45 x 76
45 x 76
22.5 x 38
34 x 65
θ 24.2
θ 32.5
50.8 + 0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
50.8 + 0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
96 + 0.1/
–0.4 (~3.78 in)
96 + 0.1/
–0.4 (~3.78 in)
58 +0.1/
–0.4 (~1.89 in)
101.6 +0.1/
–0.4 (4 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
Paper
PVC
Paper
PVC
Paper/PVC
PVC
Paper/PVC
Paper/PVC
Single tape row with 48mm foil width wound on cardboard reel
Tag-it™ HF-I Pro Transponder Inlays
Part Number
Available Memory
Foil Width (mm)
Antenna Size (mm)
Foil Pitch (mm)
Frequency Offset for
Lamination Material
Delivery
RI-I11-114A-S1
RI-I11-114B-S1
RI-I02-114A-S1
RI-I02-114B-S1
RI-I03-114-S1
RI-I16-114-S1
RI-I17-114-S1
256 bits organized in 8 x 32-bit blocks
48mm ±0.5mm
45 x 45
45 x 45
45 x 76
45 x 76
22.5 x 38
θ 24.2
θ 32.5
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
96 +0.1/
–0.4 (~3.78 in)
96 +0.1/
–0.4 (~3.78 in)
48 +0.1/
–0.4 (~1.89 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
Paper
PVC
Paper
PVC
Paper/PVC
Paper/PVC
Paper/PVC
RI-I02-114A-01
RI-I02-114B-01
RI-I03-114-01
RI-I16-114-01
RI-I17-114-01
Single row tape wound on cardboard reel
Tag-it™ HF-I Standard Transponder Inlays
Part Number
Available Memory
Foil Width (mm)
Antenna Size (mm)
Foil Pitch (mm)
Frequency Offset for
Lamination Material
Delivery
RI-I11-114A-01
RI-I11-114B-01
256 bits organized in 8 x 32-bit blocks
48mm ±0.5mm
45 x 45
45 x 45
45 x 76
45 x 76
22.5 x 38
θ 24.2
θ 32.5
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
96 +0.1/
–0.4 (~3.78 in)
96 +0.1/
–0.4 (~3.78 in)
48 +0.1/
–0.4 (~1.89 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
50.8 +0.1/
–0.4 (2 in)
Paper
PVC
Paper
PVC
Paper/PVC
Paper/PVC
Paper/PVC
Single row tape wound on cardboard reel
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
20
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ Wireless Interface, RFID and Tag-it™
Low-Power, Multi-Standard HF RFID Readers
TRF7960,TRF7961
Get samples and datasheets at: www.ti.com/sc/device/TRF7960 or www.ti.com/sc/device/TRF7961
Key Features
• Supports ISO14443A/B, ISO15693
and Tag-it
• High level of integration reduces total
cost, BOM and board area
• Completely integrated protocol
handling
• Separate, internal high-PSRR
LDOs for analog, digital and PA
sections provide noise isolation for
superior read range and reliability
• Integrated LDO regulator output
for MCU
• Single Xtal system with available
output clock for MCU
• Eleven user-accessible and programmable registers
• Low-power device with wide operating voltage range: 2.7V to 5.5V
Complementing the Tag-it™ HF-I family of transponder inlays is TRF7960, a highly
integrated analog front end and data framing system for any 13.56MHz RFID
reader system. Built-in programming options make TRF7960 useful for a wide
range of applications, both in proximity and vicinity RFID systems. A high level of
integration, excellent performance, miniature size and multiple low-power modes
allow TRF7960 to be used for battery-power-constrained medical applications.
• Programmable output power:
100mW or 200mW
• Parallel 8-bit or serial 4-pin SPI
interface with 12-byte FIFO
• Seven user-selectable,
ultra-low-power modes
• Power down: <1µA
• Standby: 120mA (typical)
• Active: 10mA (RX only)
• Available MSP430™ software
libraries
• Packaging: Ultra-small, 5 x 5mm,
32-pin QFN
Tag
Antenna
13.56 MHz
TRF796x
MSP430
Control
Registers
Timing
System
Supply
Regulators
Protocol Decoders/
Encoders and
Framing
Dual Rx
LC
Network
Tx AFE
Rx Gain
and Filters
SPI
Parallel
Interface
SPI/Parallel
Interface
CPU
CLK_SYS
Digitizer
VDD_X
XIN
DVCC
12 Byte FIFO
Functional block diagram.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
21
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ Wireless Interface, RFID and Tag-it™
Low-Power, Multi-Standard HF RFID Readers (Continued)
TRF7960,TRF7961
Get samples and datasheets at: www.ti.com/sc/device/TRF7960 or www.ti.com/sc/device/TRF7961
Applications
• Medical
• Patient and staff authentication
• Pharmaceutical authentication
• Product authentication and
calibration
• Remote digital healthcare
management
• Asset tracking
• Access control
• Contactless payments
• Prepaid eMetering
• eGovernment
TRF7960 Evaluation Module
(EVM)
Tag-it™ smart labels bring affordable RFID technology to a wide
range of new applications.
The TRF7960 evaluation tool
allows for quicker and simplified
system design. The TRF7960
multiple-­protocol RFID transceiver
incorporates an analog front end,
protocol handling, framing, error
checking and multiple integrated
voltage regulators with other features that allow the reader to be
customized/configured to the end
application.
TRF7960 EVM features include:
• Fully functional RFID reader with
on-board and (optional) offboard antenna capabilities
• GUI that support the
ISO14443A, ISO14443B,
ISO15693 and Tag-it commands
• Separate LEDs that indicate tag
detection—operates in standalone mode without GUI
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
Tag-it™ HF-I family transponder inlays are available in a variety of package
options, including square, circular and rectangular (regular and mini).
22
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ Low-Power RF Products
Integrated Multi-Channel RF Transceiver
CC1101
Get samples, datasheets, evaluation modules and application reports at: www.ti.com/sc/device/CC1101
Key Features
• Sub-1GHz FSK/GFSK/MSK/ASK/
OOK RF transceiver
• 1.2 to 500Kbaud data rate
• Low power, low system cost
• Sleep current: –200nA
• 90μs PLL lock time: –240μs from
sleep to RX/TX
• On-chip support for sync word
detection, address check, flexible
packet length and automatic CRC
checking
• Separate 64-byte RX and TX data
FIFOs enable burst-mode data
transmission
• Suitable for systems targeting compliance with EN 300, 200 (Europe)
and FCC CFR Part 15 (U.S.)
Need longer RF range? Try the CC2590/
CC1190 2.4GHz and sub 1GHzRF range
extender for low-power RF ICs.
The CC1101 is a highly integrated, multi-channel RF transceiver designed for
low-power wireless applications in the 315/433/868/915MHz ISM bands. The
CC1101 is an upgrade of the CC1100 transceiver with improvements for spurious
response, close-in phase noise, input saturation level, output power ramping and
extended frequency range.
Applications
• Wireless alarm and security systems
• AMR
MSP430
• Industrial monitoring
and control
CPU
• Home and building
automation
26MHz
32kHz
SPI
USART/
USC/
USI
CC1101/
CC2500
I/O
LC
Network
RAM
DMA
Chemical
Sensors
Self-Test
and Bias
Mux
Amp
ADC
LCD
Intl
GDOn
DAC
Example application block diagram – wireless blood gas analyzer.
Sub-1GHz System-on-Chip RF Solution
CC1110/F8/F16/F32
Get samples and datasheets at: www.ti.com/sc/device/CC1110
Key Features
• Low current consumption
• High-performance RF transceiver
core (same as in the CC1100)
• 8- to14-bit ADC with up to eight
inputs
• 21 general I/O pins
• Real-time clock and several timers
• 8/16/32KB in-system programmable
Flash
• 1/2/4KB RAM
• Packaging: 6 x 6mm QLP-36
See also the CC2510 and CC2511—
2.4GHz, System-on-Chip RF solutions.
Need longer RF range? Try the
CC2590/CC2591 2.4GHz RF range
extender for low-power RF ICs.
Visit: www.ti.com/cc2591
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
The CC1110 is a low-cost System-on-Chip (SoC) IC designed for low-power
and low-voltage wireless communication applications. The CC1110 combines
the excellent perform­ance of the CC1100 RF transceiver with an industry-standard
enhanced MCU, 8/16/32KB of in-system programmable Flash memory, 1/2/4KB of
RAM and many other useful peripherals. Because of several advanced low-power
operating modes, the CC1110 is designed for systems where very low power
consumption is required.
AES 128-Bit
Encryption Engine
Keypad, Analog
Sensor, LCD Display
with SPI or UART
Interface, I2S
Compatible Audio
Codec or Other
Peripherals to
be Controlled
by a MUC
8-14 Bits
8 Channel
ADC +
Temp. Sensor
2x USART
I2S
21 Digital I/O
(Including ADC)
4 Timers: 3x 8-Bit,
1x 16-Bit with ∆Σ Mode
Antenna
8051 Core with
Integrated
Memory
Management
and DMA
1/2/4kb
RAM
RF Front-End
Identical to
C1100
8/16/32kb
FLASH
General-purpose medical device using CC1110. Supports secure
RF link with embedded 128-bit AES hardware encryption.
23
Texas Instruments 2010
Connectivity Solutions for Medical
➔ ZigBee® / Bluetooth® Low Energy
ZigBee® and Bluetooth® Low
Energy Solutions for Medical
Applications
The world is going wireless and medical
applications are no exception. More and
more medical devices, especially patient
monitoring, can benefit from wireless
technology. ZigBee and Bluetooth Low
Energy can be utilized in the consumer
health, wellness, and medical space
across a range of applications.
• Z-Tool (debug tool)
• Development kits: CC2520DK,
CC2530DK and CC2530ZDK
• TIMAC: IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access
Control (MAC) software stack for TI
IEEE 802.15.4 transceivers and SoCs
TI is part of the Continua Health Alliance
and an active contributor to the evolvement of ZigBee and Bluetooth Low
Energy, the wireless standards for medical applications selected by the alliance.
Applications
• Patient monitoring
• Hospital equipment tracking
TI’s low-power RF portfolio of high-performance RF ICs offers robust and costeffective wireless connectivity solutions
for a variety of medical devices.
With the use of ZigBee wireless sensors,
the patients can move around in the hospital, or even in their homes, and the sensors
will still monitor and send critical health
data to the hospital or doctor. Being independent of a patient’s exact geographical
location has a positive impact on both the
patient and the hospital. The ZigBee standard enables companies to have a simple,
reliable, low-cost and low-power standardbased wireless platform for their application development.
Bluetooth Low-Energy solutions are
designed for low-cost, low-power and
short range connectivity. The technology
enables direct communication to cellular
For more information, visit:
www.ti.com/zigbee
IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee compliant RF ICs
Bluetooth Low Energy IC
• CC2520: Second-generation 2.4GHz
ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 RF transceiver
• CC2530/31: True System-on-Chip
(SoC) with integrated microcontroller
• CC2530ZNP: ZigBee network processor that communicates with any MCU
via an SPI or UART interface
• Reference designs downloadable for
all RF ICs
• CC2540: 2.4 GHz system-on-chip for
Bluetooth low energy applications
• Available in the third quarter of 2010
Bluetooth Low Energy Development Tools
• CC2540DK-MINI
• CC2540DK
ZigBee Software and Development Tools
Applications
• Consumer Health / Medical
• Bluetooth Low Energy Systems
• Wireless Sensor Systems
• Z-Stack™: ZigBee and ZigBee Pro
compliant protocol stack. TI offers this
For more information, visit:
www.ti.com/bluetoothlowenergy
Backlight
Patient Monitoring
and Data Upload
Display
Connectivity
Touch
Screen
Control
LVDS
SerDes
WiFi/Zigbee
PC, Monitor & Keyboard
full ZigBee stack free of charge. Z-Stack
supports over-the air download (OAD) for
firmware upgrades in the field.
phones, laptops and other Bluetooth
enabled devices such as sports and
fitness watches, GPS / handhelds, and
other personal monitoring devices.
Bluetooth
S-Video
TV
Clock
Low Power Wireless
Ethernet
Audio/Video
Codec
Analog Front End
HS USB
Transceiver
(ECG, Pulse Oximetry,
Blood Pressure, Other)
Processor
Integrated ECG
Front End
Keypad
Control
Audio
Feedback
USB
Protection
Keypad
Power
Manager
USB Port
LED
Drivers
Inst AMP
Battery
Charger
Power Source
Buffer AMP
ADC
Human Body
Level
Shifter
Isolation
Product Availability and Design Disclaimer – The system block
diagram depicted above and the devices recommended are
designed in this manner as a reference. Please contact your
local TI sales office or distributor for system design specifics
and product availability.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
On/Off
MS/MMC/
SD/SDIO
Card
Core and I/O
Supply
Gas
Gauge
System
Power
AC/DC
Supply
Battery
LEGEND
Plug
Main Power Supply
Processor
Interface
RF/IF
Amplifier
Logic
Power
ADC/DAC
Clocks
Other
Multi-parameter patient monitor
system block diagram.
24
Texas Instruments 2010
Resources
➔ Enhanced Products/Die and Wafer Sales Solutions
Enhanced Products
TI’s Enhanced Product (EP) line offers
design flexibility while still meeting HiRel
and Medical standards for operating
environments where high reliability and
long service life are a requirement. The EP
line offering can benefit avionic, defense,
aerospace, medical, and industrial
designers as well as designers in other
rugged operating environments and
long service life application fields. TI’s
Enhanced Product line is a commercial
of-the-shelf (COTS) solution with the
following key benefits:
• Fabrication/assembly controlled baseline
• Extended product change notification (PCN)
• Extended temperature performance
(typically -55°C to +125°C)
• Standalone data sheet
• Qualification pedigree
• Product traceability
• Long life cycles
TI’s EP products perform to data sheet
specifications in environments that require
extended temperatures (typically -55°C to
+125°C). To ensure that a device exhibits
the highest quality and reliability possible
for targeted applications, TI performs the
TI Die/Wafer Solutions
Texas Instruments offers bare die/wafer
solutions for applications that require
higher levels of integration to reduce
board space. TI provides a wide range
of products in bare die and wafer form.
A variety of testing and qualification
options are available based on product maturity and complexity, as well
as customer requirements. Typical
screening options include DC probe
or AC/DC probe at temperature.
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
following qualification procedures before
the device is released:
• All EP devices undergo extensive
requalification
• Qualification data is reviewed and
audited for accuracy and compliance
• Reliability and electromigration monitoring is performed at maximum recommended operating conditions in
the targeted package.
• Certified test programs & test hardware
• Electrical characterization is performed
across specified temperature range
• Package performance is confirmed
over extended temperatures (some
mold compounds are not suitable
for extended temperatures).
• Nickel/palladium/gold/lead finish eliminates “tin whisker” reliability issues
• Knowledgeable expertise in medical
related ISO requirements (ISO13485
and ISO14971)
• Certificate of compliance to datasheet
electrical specifications
• Available in military (–55°C/125°C), industrial (–40°C/85°C), commercial (0°C/70°C)
and custom temperature ranges
Enhanced Products
Expected from TI’s EP line:
• Qualification summary report
• Access to leading-edge commercial
technology
• Commitment to the Industrial, Medical,
Avionic and Defense markets
• Customer-driven portfolio
• Enhanced obsolescence management
In addition TI will evaluate the release
of other TI’s catalog devices in an
EP versions based on customer
requirements.
Get more information about TI’s
enhanced products at: www.ti.com/ep
TI offers three categories of die
screening:
Typical processing and capabilities
include:
• Commercial wafers and die
• Mount and bond diagrams
• Probed die – 55°C to +210C°
or special temp
• Shipping: Tape and reel, waffle
packs, custom trays, Gel-Pak®
• Sidewall and visual inspections
• Standard TI wafer fabrication
• Known Good Die (KGD)
• Stand alone datasheet and
warranted over temperature
• Customer defined qualification
• QML Class Q (MIL-STD)
• QML Class V (Space)
• Additional options available
25
For more information regarding
TI’s Die and Wafer offerings, visit
www.ti.com/hirel or email:
[email protected]
Texas Instruments 2010
Resources
➔ TI Design Tools
Below you’ll find a sampling of the design tools TI offers to simplify your design process. To access any of the following application
reports, type the URL www-s.ti.com/sc/techlit/litnumber and replace litnumber with the number in the Lit Number column.
For a complete list of analog application reports, visit: analog.ti.com/appnotes
For a complete list of DSP application reports, visit: www.dspvillage.ti.com/tools
Title
Lit Number
Amplifiers
Single-Supply Operation of Isolation Amplifiers
SBOA004
Very Low Cost Analog Isolation with Power
SBOA013
Boost Instrument Amp CMR with Common-Mode Driven Supplies
SBOA014
DC Motor Speed Controller: Control a DC Motor without Tachometer Feedback
SBOA043
PWM Power Driver Modulation Schemes
SLOA092
Thermo-Electric Cooler Control Using a TMS320F2812 DSP and a DRV592 Power Amplifier
SPRA873
Isolation Amps Hike Accuracy and Reliability
SBOA064
Make a –10V to +10V Adjustable Precision Voltage Source
SBOA052
±200V Difference Amplifier with Common-Mode Voltage Monitor
SBOA005
AC Coupling Instrumentation and Difference Amplifiers
SBOA003
Extending the Common-Mode Range of Difference Amplifiers
SBOA008
Level Shifting Signals with Differential Amplifiers
SBOA038
Photodiode Monitoring with Op Amps
SBOA035
Single-Supply Operation of Isolation Amplifiers
SBOA004
Precision IA Swings Rail-to-Rail on Single 5V Supply
SBOA033
Pressure Transducer to ADC Application
SLOA056
Buffer Op Amp to ADC Circuit Collection
SLOA098
Amplifiers and Bits: An Introduction to Selecting Amplifiers for Data Converters
SLOA035B
Diode-Connected FET Protects Op Amps
SBOA058
Signal Conditioning Piezoelectric Sensors
SLOA033A
Diode-Based Temperature Measurement
SBOA019
Single-Supply, Low-Power Measurements of Bridge Networks
SBOA018
Thermistor Temperature Transducer to ADC Application
SLOA052
Signal Conditioning Wheatstone Resistive Bridge Sensors
SLOA034
Low-Power Signal Conditioning for a Pressure Sensor
SLAA034
Interfacing the MSP430 and TMP100 Temperature Sensor
SLAA151
Data Converters
Configuring I2S to Generate BCLK from Codec Devices & WCLK from McBSP Port
SLAA413
Interfacing the ADS8361 to the TMS320F2812 DSP
SLAA167
Interfacing the TLC2552 and TLV2542 to the MSP430F149
SLAA168
MSC1210 In-Application Flash Programming
SBAA087
Pressure Transducer to ADC Application
SLOA056
Measuring Temperature with the ADS1216, ADS1217, or ADS1218
SBAA073
SPI-Based Data Acquisition/Monitor Using the TLC2551 Serial ADC
SLAA108A
Implementing a Direct Thermocouple Interface with MSP430x4xx and ADS1240
SLAA125A
Using the ADS7846 Touch-Screen Controller with the Intel SA-1110 StrongArm Processor
SBAA070
Complete Temp Data Acquisition System from a Single +5V Supply
SBAA050
Interfacing the ADS1210 with an 8xC51 Microcontroller
SBAA010
Programming Tricks for Higher Conversion Speeds Utilizing Delta Sigma Converters
SBAA005
Retrieving Data from the DDC112
SBAA026
Selecting an ADC
SBAA004
Synchronization of External Analog Multiplexers with the
SBAA013
The DDC112’s Test Mode
SBAA025
Understanding the DDC112’s Continuous and Non-Continuous Modes
SBAA024
Thermistor Temperature Transducer to ADC Application
SLOA052
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
26
Texas Instruments 2010
Resources
➔ TI Design Tools (Continued)
Title
Lit Number
Low-Power Signal Conditioning for a Pressure Sensor
SLAA034
Data Converters (Continued)
Signal Acquisition and Conditioning with Low Supply Voltages
SLAA018
An Optical Amplifier Pump Laser Reference Design Based on the AMC7820
SBAA072
Processors/Microcontrollers
Programming a Flash-Based MSP430 Using the JTAG Interface
SLAA149
Mixing C and Assembler with the MSP430
SLAA140
Implementing an Ultra-Low-Power Keypad Interface with the MSP430
SLAA139
Heart Rate Monitor and EKG Monitor Using the MSP430FG439
SLAA280
A Single-Chip Pulsoximeter Design Using the MSP430
SLAA274
MSP430 Interface to CC1100/2500 Code Library
SLAS325
Choosing an Ultra-Low-Power MCU
SLAA207
ECG, Pulse Oximeter, Digital Stethoscope Development Kits based on C5505 Processor
SPRT523
MSP430 USB Connectivity Using TUSB3410
SLAA276A
MSP430 Flash Memory Characteristics
SLAA334
Wave Digital Filtering Using the MSP430
SLAA331
Implementing a Real-Time Clock on the MSP430
SLAA076A
Interface
CAN
A System Evaluation of CAN Transceivers
SLLA109
Introduction to the Controller Area Network
SLOA101
Using CAN Arbitration for Electrical Layer Testing
SLLA123
RS-485
Interface Circuits for TIA/EIA-485 (RS-485)
SLLA036B
422 and 485 Standards Overview and System Configurations
SLLA070C
RS-485 for E-Meter Applications
SLLA112
TIA/EIA-485 and M-LVDS, Power and Speed Comparison
SLLA106
USB
VIDs, PIDs and Firmware: Design Decisions When Using TI USB Device Controllers
SLLA154
USB/Serial Applications Using TUSB3410/5052 and the VCP Software
SLLA170
CardBus
PCI1520 Implementation Guide
SCPA033
LVDS
LVDS Design Notes
SLLA014A
Reducing EMI with LVDS
SLLA030C
Performance of LVDS Over Cables
SLLA053B
M-LVDS
Introduction to M-LVDS
SLLA108
M-LVDS Speed Versus Distance
SLLA119
Serdes
Gigabit Transmission Across Cables
SLLA091
Power Controllers
DC Brush Motor Control using the TPIC2101
SLIT110
Power Management
Technical Review of Low Dropout Voltage Regulator Operation and Performance
SLVA072
ESR, Stability, and the LDO Regulator
SLVA115
Extending the Input Voltage Range of an LDO Regulator
SLVA119
High Current LDO Linear Regulators (UCCx81-ADJ, UCCx82-ADJ, UCCx83-ADJ, UCCx85-ADJ)
SLUA256
PowerPAD™ Thermally Enhanced Package
SLMA002
Medical Instruments Applications Guide
27
Texas Instruments 2010
TI’s Medical guides feature technical and product
information for a variety of medical applications no
matter your need.
• Consumer Medical Applications Guide
• Diagnostic, Patient Monitoring and
Therapy Applications Guide
• Medical Imaging Applications Guide
To download these product
selection guides, please visit
www.ti.com/medicalguides
TI Worldwide Technical Support
Asia
Internet
TI Semiconductor Product Information Center Home Page
support.ti.com
TI E2ETM Community Home Page
e2e.ti.com
Product Information Centers
Americas
Brazil
Mexico
Phone
Phone
Phone
Fax
Internet/Email
+1(972) 644-5580
0800-891-2616
0800-670-7544
+1(972) 927-6377
support.ti.com/sc/pic/americas.htm
Europe, Middle East, and Africa
Phone
European Free Call
00800-ASK-TEXAS
(00800 275 83927)
International
+49 (0) 8161 80 2121
Russian Support
+7 (4) 95 98 10 701
Note: The European Free Call (Toll Free) number is not active in all c­ ountries.
If you have technical difficulty calling the free call number, please use the
­international number above.
Fax
+(49) (0) 8161 80 2045
Internet
support.ti.com/sc/pic/euro.htm
Japan
Phone
Fax
Internet/Email
Domestic
International
Domestic
International
Domestic
0120-92-3326
+81-3-3344-5317
0120-81-0036
support.ti.com/sc/pic/japan.htm
www.tij.co.jp/pic
Phone
International
+91-80-41381665
Domestic
Toll-Free Number
Australia
1-800-999-084
China
800-820-8682
Hong Kong
800-96-5941
India
1-800-425-7888
Indonesia
001-803-8861-1006
Korea
080-551-2804
Malaysia
1-800-80-3973
New Zealand
0800-446-934
Philippines
1-800-765-7404
Singapore
800-886-1028
Taiwan
0800-006800
Thailand
001-800-886-0010
Fax
+886-2-2378-6808
[email protected]
[email protected]
Internet
support.ti.com/sc/pic/asia.htm
Important Notice: The products and services of Texas Instruments
Incorporated and its subsidiaries described herein are sold subject to TI’s
standard terms and conditions of sale. Customers are advised to obtain
the most current and complete information about TI products and services
before placing orders. TI assumes no liability for applications assistance,
customer’s applications or product designs, software performance, or
infringement of patents. The publication of information regarding any
other company’s products or services does not constitute TI’s approval,
warranty or endorsement thereof.
B121709
The platform bar, E2E Community, C674x, C5000, C64x+, DaVinci, DLP Discovery, DLP Pico, MSP430,
OMAP, PowerPAD, Tag-it, TMS320C64x+, and Stack are trademarks of Texas Instruments and DLP and
Stellaris are registered trademarks of Texas Instruments. The Bluetooth word mark and logos are owned by
Bluetooth SIG, Inc., and any use of such marks by Texas Instruments is under license. ZigBee is a
registered trademark of the ZigBee alliance. All other marks are the property of their respective owners
© 2010 Texas Instruments Incorporated.
SSZB143A
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications, enhancements, improvements,
and other changes to its products and services at any time and to discontinue any product or service without notice. Customers should
obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All products are
sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TI’s standard
warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where
mandated by government requirements, testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. Customers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with customer products and applications, customers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any TI patent right, copyright, mask work right,
or other TI intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI products or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license from TI to use such products or services or a
warranty or endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual
property of the third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration and is accompanied
by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. Reproduction of this information with alteration is an unfair and deceptive
business practice. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional
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Resale of TI products or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that product or service voids all
express and any implied warranties for the associated TI product or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice. TI is not
responsible or liable for any such statements.
TI products are not authorized for use in safety-critical applications (such as life support) where a failure of the TI product would reasonably
be expected to cause severe personal injury or death, unless officers of the parties have executed an agreement specifically governing
such use. Buyers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications of their applications, and
acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning their products
and any use of TI products in such safety-critical applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support that may be
provided by TI. Further, Buyers must fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use of TI products in
such safety-critical applications.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in military/aerospace applications or environments unless the TI products are
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specifications. Buyers acknowledge and agree that any such use of TI products which TI has not designated as military-grade is solely at
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TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in automotive applications or environments unless the specific TI products are
designated by TI as compliant with ISO/TS 16949 requirements. Buyers acknowledge and agree that, if they use any non-designated
products in automotive applications, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet such requirements.
Following are URLs where you can obtain information on other Texas Instruments products and application solutions:
Products
Applications
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Automotive
www.ti.com/automotive
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Communications and
Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Computers and
Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
Interface
interface.ti.com
Energy
www.ti.com/energy
Logic
logic.ti.com
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
Space, Avionics &
Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
RF/IF and ZigBee® Solutions www.ti.com/lprf
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
Wireless
www.ti.com/wireless-apps
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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