IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009 2055 Broadband Lumped-Element Integrated N -Way Power Dividers for Voltage Standards Michael M. Elsbury, Student Member, IEEE, Paul D. Dresselhaus, Norman F. Bergren, Charles J. Burroughs, Samuel P. Benz, Senior Member, IEEE, and Zoya Popović, Fellow, IEEE Abstract—This paper presents a monolithically integrated broadband lumped-element Wilkinson power divider centered at 20 GHz, which was designed and fabricated to uniformly distribute power to arrays of Josephson junctions (JJs) for superconducting voltage standards. This solution achieves a fourfold decrease in chip area, and a twofold increase in bandwidth (BW) when compared to the previous narrowband distributed circuit. A single Wilkinson divider demonstrates 0.4-dB maximum insertion loss (IL), a 10-dB match BW of 10–24.5 GHz, and a 10-dB isolation BW of 13–30 GHz. A 16-way four-level binary Wilkinson power divider network is characterized in a divider/attenuator/combiner back-to-back measurement configuration with a 10-dB match BW of 10–25 GHz. In the 15–22-GHz band of interest, the maximum IL for the 16-way divider network is 0.5 dB, with an average of 0.2 dB. The amplitude balance of the divider at 15, 19, and 22 GHz is measured to be 1.0 dB utilizing 16 arrays of 15 600 JJs as on-chip power detectors. Index Terms—Cryogenic electronics, Josephson arrays, lumpedelement microwave circuits, microwave integrated circuits (ICs), power dividers, superconducting coils, superconducting ICs, superconducting microwave devices. I. INTRODUCTION HIS PAPER addresses the design, analysis, and testing of superconducting microwave integrated-circuit (IC) lumped-element Wilkinson power dividers for a programmable Josephson voltage standard . On-chip power division is needed to enable multiple arrays of many Josephson junctions (JJs) periodically loading coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines in niobium (Nb) on a silicon (Si) substrate . The goal of the current research is to utilize a monolithically integrated 16-way power divider to excite 250 000 junctions at 20 GHz producing a 10-V programmable Josephson voltage standard . The present National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) programmable Josephson voltage standard systems are limited to 1 V without on-chip power division. The scale of the inverse of the Josephson constant, T Manuscript received February 27, 2008; revised October 13, 2008. First published July 28, 2009; current version published August 12, 2009. This work was supported in part by the University of Colorado (CU)–National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) seed research funding for collaborations and the Department of Education Graduate Assistance in Areas of National Need (GAANN) Fellowship. M. M. Elsbury and Z. Popović are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0425 USA (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org). P. D. Dresselhaus, N. F. Bergren, C. J. Burroughs, and S. P. Benz are with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO 80305 USA (e-mail: email@example.com). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMTT.2009.2025464 Fig. 1. Micrograph of a portion of the broadband balanced 16-way divider/combiner configuration. Three binary levels of power division utilizing the 20-GHz lumped-element Wilkinson divider are shown. The light colored yellow material (in online version) is Nb, the darker blue material (in online version) is the Si substrate. V/GHz per junction, drives the increase in frequency and number of junctions to achieve the higher output voltage . The superconducting Nb used for the junctions gives the IC designer the advantage of creating complex low-loss circuits using integrated superconducting CPW transmission lines, high-quality inductors, and very low series resistance capacitors . This enables broadband lumped-element Wilkinson power dividers with very low loss, compact size, and broad bandwidth (BW) compared to commercial and published dividers in CMOS, stripline, and other technologies –. Fig. 1 is a micrograph showing a section of a fabricated Wilkinson divider test circuit with a design frequency of 20 GHz and BW in excess of 10 GHz. Here, the design of a lumped-element Wilkinson divider unit cell is presented, followed by a discussion of fabrication, and then cryogenic measurement results are shown from 10 to 30 GHz. Next, a four-level binary balanced divider utilizing these unit cells was designed to meet the challenge of increasing the number of junction arrays under parallel microwave excitation on a chip. Cryogenic measurements are performed on the 16-way Wilkinson divider in a back-to-back divider/10-dB attenuator/combiner configuration. This configuration preserves the desired matched-load -way divider in a two-port through test circuit suitable for insertion-loss measurements. A 0018-9480/$26.00 © 2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 2056 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009 L TABLE I 45 AND C VALUES FOR = EQUIVALENT SECTIONS OF VARIOUS USEFUL IMPEDANCES AT 20 GHz a negligible penalty in loss and a very modest 30% increase in area for approximately double the BW compared to that of a single-section lumped-element Wilkinson divider. A. Design The values for a cannonical low-pass network with series and shunt capacitance of electrical length inductance in radians, frequency in hertz, and characteristic impedance in ohms are given by  and Fig. 2. 20-GHz broadband Wilkinson power divider circuit schematics. (a) Distributed 50- input and output impedance divider. (b) Forward even-mode divider half-circuit Butterworth transformers. (c) Divider with =4 transmission line elements replaced by 5 section lumped-element equivalents. prototype 10-V programmable Josephson voltage standard is also built and utilized as an on-chip power detector to evaluate the amplitude balance of the divider. Finally, the unit cell is successfully implemented in Triquint’s commercial TQPED1 process at room temperature with a modest penalty in area and loss. II. BROADBAND LUMPED ELEMENT CPW WILKINSON A lumped-element Wilkinson power divider can be synthesections of transmissized by replacing the typical physical sion line with lumped-element equivalent networks . This lumped-element topology allows a tenfold reduction in physical length. The availability of superconducting planar spiral inducequivalent sections tors allows multiple lumped-element in a broadband Butterworth configuration , –. The two-section Wilkinson power divider, shown in Fig. 2, incurs 1Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by NIST, nor is it intended to imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose. (1) While used most often to realize transmission-line segments, these expressions can be used to generate arbitrary length and impedance transmission-line equivalents. This allows pseudodistributed circuit design in lumped elements, examples of which are shown in Table I. A broadband Wilkinson power divider can be synthesized matching section from 100 to by replacing the single 50 in the forward even-mode Wilkinson analysis circuit with multiple sections designed for a Butterworth/binomial response. A published study of several possible distributed broadband Wilkinson designs shows that a design with two sections has a broader BW than a design series (low-pass) with one series (low-pass) and one shunt (high-pass) section, trading BW for out-of-band isolation . A reduced component count and smaller area can be achieved by placing section before, rather than after, the the additional series split between the two legs of the Wilkinson, as in Fig. 2(a), with negligible effect on divider performance. Analysis of the even-mode half circuit, shown in Fig. 2(b), yields design equations for the characteristic impedance of each and in terms of the desired input and output port section and , respectively, impedances (2) (3) These expressions are derived from the general binomial transformer equations  (4) (5) Here, is the total number of binomial transformer sections and is the current section. Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ELSBURY et al.: BROADBAND LUMPED-ELEMENT INTEGRATED -WAY POWER DIVIDERS FOR VOLTAGE STANDARDS 2057 TABLE II NIST IC FABRICATION PROCESS LAYER STACK. Nb TRACES ARE MODELED IN HFSS USING PEC. NB1 AND NB2 ARE USED WITH THE SiO INTERLAYER DIELECTRIC TO FORM MIM CAPACITORS. THE JJ BARRIER IS NOT USED IN THE DIVIDER CIRCUITS B. Layout and Fabrication Fig. 3. Layout of the broadband lumped-element 20-GHz Wilkinson from Fig. 2(c). Red (in online version) hatch is Nb1, black hatch is Nb1–2 via, blue (in online version) hatch is Nb2 and green (in online version) hatch is AuPd. Solid blue lines (in online version) in the CPW ground planes show the HFSS simulation cell boundaries. Approximate divider dimensions are 400 m (0:07) 300 m (0:05) with minimum trace width and spacing of 1.5 m (0:0002). 2 These distributed sections can then be converted to LC sections using (1), as shown in Fig. 2(c). For a two-stage broadband Wilkinson centered at 20 GHz, the desired section impedances and corresponding L and C values are shown in Table I. These values are well within the range of impedance values realizable in the NIST IC process discussed in Section II-B. The lumped-element Wilkinson models derived from the closed-form expressions were optimized in Agilent’s ADS circuit simulator to obtain the desired tradeoff between BW and reflections. Initial layout geometries were obtained based on an ideal parallel plate capacitor model and Stanford Spiralcalc  planar spiral inductor models, then simulated and tuned as single L and C elements embedded in a CPW transmission line using Ansoft’s High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) v10 3-D FEM simulator. Superconducting Nb traces are modeled with 3-D perfect electric conductors (PECs) in HFSS. The solid blue lines (in the online version) in the ground planes of the divider layout in Fig. 3 indicate the HFSS cell boundaries. The HFSS results were exported as -parameter blocks into ADS for further tuning of the entire circuit via this hybrid simulation. This final design was then verified using a complete HFSS simulation. For comparison: the single L or C element HFSS simulations required less than 50 000 tetrahedra, a few hundred megabytes of memory, and less then 20 min of processor time per element simulation; the hybrid simulations in ADS utilized a few megabytes of memory and less than 1 min; the full divider simulations in HFSS required 141 000 tetrahedra, over 4 GB of memory space, and 7 h of real time to solve on a 32-bit Pentium D 3.4 GHz with 3-GB RAM. The NIST superconducting IC fabrication process layer stack is shown in Table II. Minimum linewidths and spacings are , 1 m for all layers. This process generates resistors of 2 metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitors of 0.1 fF m , and under-passed spiral inductors in the range of 100–5000 pH. sections with and integrated into Nb on Si Lumped CPW with a center conductor width of 16 m and gap of 8 m can be realized in a 130- m length of CPW, as compared to section at 20 GHz. 1600 m for a distributed Fig. 3 shows a typical layout of a 20-GHz center-frequency broadband lumped-element Wilkinson power divider with 50- input and output impedances. Approximate dimensions of this lumped-element Wilkinson are 300 m , as compared with a 400 m standard distributed Wilkinson at 20 GHz, which would be 400 m in this approximately 1600 m technology. Several test circuits were considered to facilitate testing, shown in Fig. 4. In the test circuit 1, Fig. 4(a), no on-chip termination is required, but the port 2 and port 3 -parameter responses are not directly measurable. In addition, power reflections between the two dividers can cause deviations in the measurement from the desired matched load case. Circuit 2 [see Fig. 4(b)] allows port 2 characterization, but introduces another unknown in the on-chip termination. Circuit 3 [see Fig. 4(c)] uses an on-chip resistive termination at port 1. This allows isolation characterization of port 2 to port 3 with the caveat of a separate physical device and possible process variations across the wafer. Only circuits 2 and 3 were realized for Wilkinson unit-cell testing. All superconducting circuits reported here were fabricated in the NIST Boulder Quantum Device Fabrication Facility. C. Testing Measurements were performed with an Agilent 8722ES vector network analyzer (VNA). Calibration was accomplished using on-chip through-reflect (short)-line (1.5 mm) (TRL) standards custom-fabricated with a band of 8–35 GHz at 4K dewar. The repeataimmersed in a liquid helium bility of the measurements is limited by several factors in the test setup. The calibration procedure requires three thermal cycles from room temperature to 4 K, boiling 1 L of helium. Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 2058 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009 Fig. 4. Three-port Wilkinson divider to two-port network analysis conversion circuits. (a) Circuit 1: back-to-back dividers. (b) Circuit 2: port 3 terminated on-chip. (c) Circuit 3: port 1 terminated on-chip. Fig. 5. Broadband lumped-element Wilkinson (Fig. 3) HFSS simulated data (blue dashed lines in online version) and measurement results (red solid lines in online version) from test circuit 2 [see Fig. 4(b)] using 4K TRL calibration on-chip. S is marked with , S with 2, and S with . + TABLE III BROADBAND DIVIDER MEASUREMENT SUMMARY COMPARING THE NIST SUPERCONDUCTING IC PROCESS, SECTION II, AND THE TRIQUINT COMMERCIAL TQPED PROCESS , SECTION IV. SUMMARY DATA IS CALCULATED FROM THE RESULTS SHOWN IN FIGS. 5, 6, AND 11 This changes the thermal gradient along the 1.2-m cryoprobe coaxial cable; hence, its electrical length and loss, with each successive measurement. The chip contact is made via a pressure screw that engages a set of copper–beryllium (Cu–Be) spring fingers with the gold–palladium (Au–Pd) coated pads on the chip with only moderate repeatability. The economical subminiature A (SMA) connectors used have resonances in the upper end of the band of interest. A flip-chip bonded permanent mounting solution has been developed by the authors to address these issues in the final programmable Josephson voltage standard system , but is not practical for use with the many test circuits and VNA calibration standards needed here. Table III shows a summary of Wilkinson divider test circuit measurement results. Fig. 5 shows a comparison of HFSS simulations and measurements for test circuit 2 from Fig. 4(b). HFSS simulation and measurement results for test circuit 3 from Fig. 4(c) are shown in Fig. 6. The 15–22-GHz band is considered the band of interest for this design, allowing for ample tuning around the 20-GHz junction array design point. Average Fig. 6. Broadband lumped-element Wilkinson (Fig. 3) HFSS simulated data (blue dashed lines in online version) and measurement results (red solid lines in online version) from test circuit 3 [see Fig. 4(c)] using 4K TRL calibration on-chip, in red solid lines (in online version). S is marked with 2, S is marked with . in-band values in Table III are computed as the base-10 logarithm of mean power Mean (6) Insertion loss (IL) for this work is defined as (7) is asBy circuit symmetry and from simulation results, sumed to be approximately equal to for IL calculations in Table III. Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ELSBURY et al.: BROADBAND LUMPED-ELEMENT INTEGRATED -WAY POWER DIVIDERS FOR VOLTAGE STANDARDS 2059 Fig. 7. Simplified schematic of the balanced divider/attenuator/combiner configuration test circuit, showing broadband lumped-element Wilkinson power dividers, =4 lumped 5 sections for reflection cancellation, 10-dB isolation attenuators, and 1.2-pF coupling capacitors between the third and fourth levels of division and combination. Simulated transmission line interconnects and bends are not shown. The dotted cut plane indicates the position of the junction arrays in the 10-V programmable Josephson voltage standard. III. BALANCED 16-WAY POWER DIVIDER The concept of a balanced divider/combiner (D/C), widely used in broadband amplifier design , can be applied here to achieve a many-way power division to many identical arrays of junctions. A balanced divider relies upon the fact that each array has a nearly identical return loss. By inserting an additional transmission line between port 2 of the Wilkinson and the junction array, the round-trip reflection path is 180 longer than the corresponding round-trip reflection path from the junction array connected to port 3 of the Wilkinson. These two reflections are out of phase at port 1 and cancel, leading to a well matched and very broadband system. Many-way power division can be achieved as shown in Fig. 7. This solution addresses the fundamental issue with 360 , round-trip in-phase reflection com-section binary power dividers rebining in -way evenported in . Here, the total interconnect layout length between delta between branches dividers is unconstrained, only the (implemented in lumped elements) is required. the output, as well as the ability to measure IL through the device. The back-to-back circuit shown in Fig. 4(a) has a fundamental flaw of terminating a divider circuit with its own complex output impedance, rather than the desired real 50- load needed to obtain valid -parameters. To solve this problem 10-dB attenuators are monolithically integrated between the divider circuit under test, and the combiner output circuit. A schematic of this balanced divider/attenuator/combiner (D/A/C) configuration is shown in Fig. 7. Identical length 50- CPW superconducting transmission lines were used to interconnect the divider, attenuators, and sections were arranged such that the net combiner; the phase delays along any given division and recombination path are equal. A 1.2-pF coupling capacitor was inserted between the third and fourth levels of power division and recombination to ac-couple each pair of junction arrays and enable connecting all of the arrays in series at dc to achieve 10 V. A lithographically identical 10-dB attenuator was fabricated on the same test chip as the D/A/C to allow deembedding of the divider performance. A. Design A 16-way power split allows 16 junction arrays of 15 600 junctions  fabricated on a prototype 10-V programmable Josephson voltage standard chip at 20 GHz reported in . The chip area required for a 16-way divider on-chip is reduced by a factor of 4 using the lumped-element Wilkinson dividers 50- LC sections, from Table I, compared to the and distributed matching sections. The previously used single entire 16-way divider network is simulated in ADS using the hybrid simulation methodology discussed in Section II-A. In order to appropriately characterize a many-way divider, a test circuit is needed that preserves both the desired loading at B. Testing The 16-way D/A/C configuration test chip was evaluated in the same manner as the Wilkinson divider chips, discussed in Section II-C. A 16-way D/C test circuit without attenuators, shown in Fig. 1, was also fabricated and tested to demonstrate the utility of the added attenuators. Figs. 8 and 9 compare measured and simulated results from the 16-way balanced D/C and D/A/C configurations, respectively. Table IV summarizes the measurement data from both configurations and the 10-dB attenuator (10 dB A). The measured IL and return loss of the back-to-back test configuration both improve markedly with the Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 2060 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009 TABLE IV 16-WAY BALANCED DIVIDER SUMMARY. VALUES ARE CALCULATED FROM THE MEASUREMENTS OF D/C CONFIGURATION (FIG. 8), THE ON-CHIP 10-dB ATTENUATOR, AND D/A/C CONFIGURATION (FIG. 9) Fig. 8. D/C configuration measured versus simulated results for 16-way balanced broadband Wilkinson divider (Fig. 1). Hybrid HFSS 3-D FEM and ADS circuit simulated data (blue dashed lines in online version), and measurements using 4K TRL calibration on-chip (red solid lines in online version). S is marked with , S is marked with 2, and IL is marked with . Note the standing waves between the divider and the combiner apparent in the S measurement. + Fig. 10. Measured power division uniformity results from broadband Wilkinson in 16-way balanced divider feeding a prototype 10-V chip with 16 arrays of 15 600 junctions at 15 GHz (red solid line in online version marked ), 19 GHz (blue dashed–dotted line in online version marked 2), and 22 GHz (green dashed line in online version marked ). The x-axis indicates the array number, coinciding with Fig. 7 with 1 at the bottom and 16 at the top. The y -axis is the change from nominal source input power at which each =I ratio (an indicator of equal microwave power array exhibits a equal I delivered to that array). + Fig. 9. D/A/C configuration 16-way balanced Wilkinson divider measured versus simulated (Fig. 7) results. S and IL are calculated by deembedding the 10-dB attenuator data from the D/A/C test configuration data. Hybrid HFSS 3-D FEM and ADS circuit simulated data (blue dashed lines in online version), and measurements (red solid lines in online version) using 4K TRL calibration on-chip. S is marked with , S is marked with 2, and IL is marked with . + incorporation of the 10-dB attenuators. This D/A/C configuration is a useful measurement technique for characterization of many-port integrated dividers. Assuming the loss in the division is the same as the loss in the recombination, the average and maximum IL through a single can be computed as half of the 16-way divider network . The D/A/C measured data in Fig. 9 and total for the D/C, Table IV has been calculated by deembedding the measured IL of a matched lithographically identical 10-dB attenuator on the same chip. The 0.5-dB maximum 16-way power divider loss is very small compared to the 3-dB cable loss incurred in the 1.2-m cryoprobe, or to any commercially available broadband divider solution in the 15–22-GHz band. While not measured, the simulated isolation of the 16-way divider is similar for adjacent branches, and improved for nonadjacent branches, when compared to the single Wilkinson divider. The bulk of the IL is due to the balanced out-of-phase divider reflections producing a voltage drop across the Wilkinson isolation resistor before they cancel. This assertion is supported by simulations, as well as the noted drop in IL with the addition of the attenuators, suppressing the reflections from the combiner. A tradeoff in a balanced divider, versus a standard corporate direflection canceling sections, is that the vider without the uniformity of division in simulations suffers slightly away from section. By inspection, a balthe center frequency of the anced divider will have a 90 phase progression between outputs rather than phase balance. A prototype 10-V programmable Josephson voltage standard was fabricated using the 16-way balanced divider to split a single microwave feed from a room temperature power amplifier into 16 arrays of 15 600 junctions each . The dc-bias current range over which the Shapiro zero-voltage step is quantized in the junction dc IV curve is a strong indicator of microwave current through the junction . This property allows the arrays themselves to be used as an on-chip relative power meter to evaluate the amplitude balance of the divider. Fig. 10 shows the amplitude balance of the divider at 15, 19, Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ELSBURY et al.: BROADBAND LUMPED-ELEMENT INTEGRATED -WAY POWER DIVIDERS FOR VOLTAGE STANDARDS TABLE V COMPARISON OF THIS WORK AND OTHER PUBLISHED AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE POWER DIVIDERS SORTED BY 2061 N , THEN IL/BW and 22 GHz across the 16 output arrays. This data is derived for the top of the zero-voltage from a measurement of Shapiro step over a sweep of power from approximately 2 to 200 mW on-chip for all 16 arrays. The normalization by helps account for junction variation across the wafer, where is the junction critical current . With the exception of array 3, all of the arrays cross an arbitrarily selected constant within a 1-dB range of input power, indicating a good microwave power division amplitude balance. Array three displayed an isolated junction fabrication defect and is omitted. IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Table V shows a comparison of this work to other published and commercially available -way power dividers. Comparisons can be made upon the basis of number of divider outputs, , BW (defined by match and isolation specification ), BW, maximum IL in band, IL, and size. Table V is sorted first by , then by IL/BW to aid in this comparison. The availability of superconducting low-loss inductors enables very large and complex circuits including many lumped sections to emulate distributed microwave circuit designs in a small fraction of the area with very little penalty in loss. This work exhibits the best BW and IL for its size scale, normalized across , when compared to published work and commercially available devices. The lumped-element Wilkinson divider shown in Fig. 2(c) was also implemented in the Triquint commercial TQPED GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process in 4- m-thick gold microstrip on a 100- m substrate. The port 1 and port 2 through test configuration shown in Fig. 4(b) was designed and fabricated requiring an area of approximately 1200 m 1500 m. This normal metal design at room temperature exhibited a measured average IL of 0.6 dB compared to the measured superconducting device average IL of 0.1 dB in the 15–22-GHz band of interest, shown in Table III. The measured and simulated -parameters of this device are compared Fig. 11. Broadband lumped-element TQPED Wilkinson simulated data (blue dashed lines in online version) and measurement results (red solid lines in onis marked line version) using room-temperature TRL calibration on-chip. is marked with 2, and is marked with . This device was fabriwith , cated using the commercial Triquint TQPED GaAs MMIC process and tested at room-temperature. Port 3 is terminated with an on-chip resistor. The inset is a micrograph of the fabricated device. S S + S in Fig. 11 using wafer probe measurements with on-chip TRL calibration. Even without the advantage of superconducting inductors, this implementation compares favorably to other published and commercial dividers, as shown in Table V. This validates the broadband lumped-element design methodology presented here for room-temperature IC design with a modest penalty in loss and area. In this work, very broadband low-loss compact lumped-element many-way Wilkinson power dividers were demonstrated using NIST and Triquint TQPED microfabrication processes. A balanced power division solution was presented to address the -segfundamental in-phase reflections problem of an evenment many-way binary power divider . This solution occu-segment dividers, and removes the pies less area than three- Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 2062 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009 constraints on the interconnect layout, at the cost of phase balance. Additionally the balanced divider solution improves the divider match assuming phase and amplitude matched loads, as is often the case for integrated devices. A back-to-back test configuration for many-way dividers utilizing integrated 10-dB attenuators was devised to present a 50- load at the divider output while maintaining the ability to measure IL through the device. The area and performance gains of these innovative circuits over conventional distributed power dividers are an enabling microwave technology for the NIST 10-V programmable Josephson voltage standard. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Triquint, Hillsboro, OR, for providing the IC fabrication services utilized to fabricate the room-temperature devices reported here. REFERENCES  S. P. Benz and C. A. Hamilton, “Application of the Josephson effect to voltage metrology,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 1617–1629, Oct. 2004.  P. D. Dresselhaus et al., “Design of SNS Josephson arrays for high voltage applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 173–176, Jun. 2007.  P. D. Dresselhaus et al., “Design of a turn-key 10 V programable Josephson voltage standard system,” in Precision Electromagn. Meas. Conf. Dig., Jun. 2008, pp. 102–103.  R. R. Mansour, “Microwave superconductivity,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 750–759, Mar. 2002.  A. R. Kerr et al., “A superconducting 180 IF hybrid for balanced SIS mixers,” in 17th Int. Space Terahertz Technol. Symp., May 2006, pp. 31–34.  J. Zhou, K. A. Morris, and M. J. Lancaster, “General design of multiway multisection power dividers by interconnecting two-way dividers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2208–2215, Oct. 2007.  Z. C. Hao et al., “Multiway broadband substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider,” in IEEE AP-S Int. Symp., Jul. 2005, vol. 1A, pp. 639–642.  A. R. Barnes et al., “A compact 6–18 GHz power amplifier module with 10 W output power,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 1999, pp. 959–962.  J. G. Kim and G. M. Rebeiz, “Miniature four-way and two-way 24 GHz Wilkinson power dividers in 0.13 m CMOS,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 658–660, Sep. 2007.  L. H. Lu et al., “X -band and K -band lumped Wilkinson power dividers with a micromachined technology,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., May–Jun. 1979, pp. 287–290.  F. Noriega and P. J. González, “Designing LC Wilkinson power splitters,” RFdesign.com Aug. 2002. [Online]. Available: http://rfdesign. com/images/archive/0802Noriega18.pdf, [cited 2007 Mar 13]  S. B. Cohn, “A class of broadband three-port TEM-mode hybrids,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. MTT-16, no. 2, pp. 110–116, Feb. 1968.  G. S. Makineni and W. T. Joines, “Comparison of broadband performance of two-way power dividers and combiners,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 29–37, Jan. 1998.  D. M. Pozar, Microwave Circuits, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1998, pp. 278–282, 632–635.  S. J. Parisi, “180 Lumped element hybrid,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., Jun. 1989, vol. 3, pp. 1243–1246.  S. S. Mohan, M. Hershenson, S. P. Boyd, and T. H. Lee, “Simple accurate expressions for planar spiral inductances,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1419–1424, Oct. 1999.  M. M. Elsbury et al., “Microwave packaging for voltage standard applications,” in IEEE Appl. Supercond. Conf. Dig., to be published. Michael M. Elsbury (S’07) received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering (magna cum laude) from the University of Idaho, Moscow, in 2003, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. While with the University of Idaho, he performed undergraduate research in analog IC design and microwave circuits. He was an Undergraduate Intern in analog IC design for three summers with both Micron Technology and the Boeing Company. He was then with the Boeing Company as an RF Integration Engineer for two years, during which time he supported the 737 AEW&C System Integration Laboratory. In 2005, he joined the Microwave Active Antenna Group, University of Colorado at Boulder. His current research, in collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), regards broadband superconducting K -band ICs to optimize the microwave performance of Josephson voltage references and quantized arbitrary signal generators. This work enables higher quantized output voltages and increased operating margins in systems deployed to the NIST Calibration Laboratory. Paul D. Dresselhaus was born on January 5, 1963, in Arlington, MA. He received the B.S. degree in both physics and electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, in 1985, and the Ph.D. degree in applied physics from Yale University, New Haven, CT, in 1991. In 1999, he joined the Quantum Voltage Project, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO, where he has developed novel superconducting circuits and broadband bias electronics for precision voltage waveform synthesis and programmable voltage standard systems. While with Northrop Grumman for three years, he designed and tested numerous gigahertz speed superconductive circuits including code generators and analog-to-digital converters. He also upgraded the simulation and layout capabilities at Northrop Grumman to be among the world’s best. His previous research as a Postdoctoral Assistant with the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook focused on the nanolithographic fabrication and study of Nb–AlOx–Nb junctions for single-electron and single-flux quantum applications, single-electron transistors and arrays in Al–AlOx tunnel junctions, and the properties of ultra-small JJs. Norman F. Bergren was born on March 28, 1959, in Denver, CO. He received the Associate degree in electronics from Front Range Community College, Westminster, CO, in 1988. He served six years in the U.S. Navy, four years aboard the Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine USS Sam Rayburn SSBN 635. He was Leading Petty Officer of the Torpedo Fire Control Division. In 1988, he joined the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he began testing large-scale superconductors. In 1997, he became involved with superconducting electronics, fabricating superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS), and Qbits. Most recently, he has focused on the fabrication and testing of Josephson voltage standards. Charles J. Burroughs was born on June 18, 1966. He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder, in 1988. He was with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO, initially as a student, and since 1988, as a Permanent Staff Member. While with NIST, he has been involved in the area of superconductive electronics, including the design, fabrication, and testing of Josephson voltage standards and digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters. He has authored or coauhoted 45 publications. He holds three patents in the field of superconducting electronics. Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ELSBURY et al.: BROADBAND LUMPED-ELEMENT INTEGRATED -WAY POWER DIVIDERS FOR VOLTAGE STANDARDS Samuel P. Benz (SM’00) was born in Dubuque, IA, on December 4, 1962. He received the B.A. degree (with a major in both physics and math) (summa cum laude) from Luther College, Decorah, IA, in 1985, and the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Harvard University, Boston, MA, in 1987 and 1990, respectively. In 1990, he joined the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a National Research Council (NRC) Postdoctoral Fellow and joined the permanent staff in January 1992. He has been Project Leader of NIST’s Quantum Voltage Project since October 1999. He has authored or coauthored 135 publications. He holds three patents in the field of superconducting electronics. He has been involved in a broad range of topics within the field of superconducting electronics, including JJ array oscillators, single flux quantum logic, ac and dc Josephson voltage standards, and Josephson waveform synthesis. Dr. Benz is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Pi Sigma. He was the recipient of the U.S. Department of Commerce Gold Medal for Distinguished Achievement. He was also the reicpient of an R. J. McElroy Fellowship (1985–1988). 2063 Zoya Popović (S’86–M’90–SM’99–F’02) received the Dipl.Ing. degree from the University of Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia, in 1985, and the Ph.D. degree from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in 1990. Since 1990, she has been with the University of Colorado at Boulder, where she is currently the Hudson Moore Jr. Chaired Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. In 2001, she was a Visiting Professor with the Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Since 1991, she has graduated 32 Ph.D. students and currently advises a group of 16 graduate students. Her research interests include high-efficiency, low-noise, and broadband microwave and millimeter-wave circuits, quasi-optical millimeter-wave techniques for imaging, smart and multibeam antenna arrays, intelligent RF front ends, RF optics, and wireless powering for batteryless sensors. Dr. Popović is currently an associate editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. She was the recipient of the 1993 and 2006 Microwave Prizes presented by the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (IEEE MTT-S) for the best journal papers. She was the recipient of the 1996 URSI Issac Koga Gold Medal. In 1997, Eta Kappa Nu students chose her as a Professor of the Year. She was the recipient of a 2000 Humboldt Research Award for Senior U.S. Scientists from the German Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung. She was also the recipient of the 2001 Hewlett-Packard(HP)/ American Society for Engineering Education(ASEE) Terman Medal for combined teaching and research excellence. Authorized licensed use limited to: NIST Research Library. Downloaded on August 17, 2009 at 15:48 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project