[9] [BRM] Base of Body Repair

[9] [BRM] Base of Body Repair
9-1
GROUP 9
BASE OF BODY
REPAIR
CONTENTS
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-2
USING A FRAME STRAIGHTENER . . . . . .
9-27
FRAME REPAIR PROCEDURES . . . . . . . .
9-28
9-2
NOTES REGARDING REPAIR WORK . . . .
9-31
9-2
ELECTRIC RESISTANCE SPOT
WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HEAT-WITHSTAND TEMPERATURES OF
RESIN-PLASTIC PARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-34
9-2
GAS SHIELD ARC WELDING . . . . . . . . . .
9-8
HOW TO DISTINGUISH TYPES OF
PLASTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-36
OTHER TYPES OF WELDING . . . . . . . . . .
9-12
CORROSION PROTECTION . . . . . . .
9-37
9-14
STANDARD BODY REPAIR
PROCEDURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ANTICORROSION TREATMENT AT THE
FACTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-37
9-14
THEFT PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-22
ANTICORROSION TREATMENT AT THE
TIME OF BODY REPAIR WORK . . . . . . . .
9-40
ATTACHMENT OF SILENCERS . . . . . . . .
9-24
POSITIONING DIMENSIONS FOR
OPENINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-25
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN
PARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-43
STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SHEET
METAL WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-26
SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS REPAIR
PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-43
WELDING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BODY REPAIR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-2
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
GENERAL
GENERAL
M4090000100018
Group 9 is applicable for all models.
WELDING
WELDING
M4090001000047
Welding is the partial joining of two or more metals
by deposition; the welding methods used for body
maintenance and repair can be classified into the following methods.
Fusion methods
Temperature: 1,130 – 1,550˚C
(2,066 – 2,822˚F)
Welding methods
Shielded arc welding
CO2 gas arc welding
Gas welding
Electric resistance spot welding
Pressure methods
[Temperature approximatery 1,500˚C (2,732˚F) or higher at weld area]
Brazing methods
Brazing
Temperature: 620 – 950˚C
(1,148 – 1,742˚F)
Soldering
Temperature: 183 – 310˚C
(361 – 590˚F)
AB301447AB
FUSION WELDING
BRAZING
Fusion welding is a method of welding in which the
weld connection is made by forming or supplying the
weld metal at the part where the weld is to be made.
Brazing is a method of welding in which the weld
connection is made by supplying a filler metal (which
is molten at a temperature lower than the melting
temperature of the base metal) at the place where
the joining is to be made without melting the base
metal itself.
PRESSURE WELDING
Pressure welding is a method of welding in which the
weld connection is made by applying external pressure while the part where the weld is to be made is in
a molten or semi-molten condition.
ELECTRIC RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING
Electric resistance spot welding is a method for fusing metal parts together. Two or three metal sheets
are positioned between two copper-alloy electrode
tips, and pressure and a large current are then
applied, thus causing the contacting surfaces to heat
up and fuse together because of the electric contact
resistance.
.
ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC
RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING
M4090002000039
• Because the time required for welding at each
point is brief, the work can be done quickly and at
reduced cost.
• Because both metals are fused and pressure
applied to make the weld, the strength and reliability are both high.
• Because the time required to make the welds is
short, there is little occurrence of distortion of the
panel due to heat.
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
9-3
PROCEDURE
There are three basic stages in electric resistance spot welding.
1. Initial pressure application stage
This stage precedes the current application. Applying
pressure to the steel panels through the electrode tips
ensures a uniform contact resistance and a smoother
current flow.
AB200026
2. Current application stage
While an ample amount of pressure is being applied, the
current is sent through the electrode tips. The contact
resistance causes the contact surfaces of the steel panels to
heat up and fuse together.
AB200027
3. Holding stage
When the current application is finished and a nugget (a
solidified piece of molten metal) forms at the weld, the
pressure application is continued in order to strengthen the
weld. This is the most important stage of electric resistance
spot welding in ensuring the strength of the weld.
AB200028
.
9-4
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
NUGGET FORMATION
Weak ← Shear strength per point → Strong
Cooling water
More than
1.6 mm
(0.06 in)
C
D
Melting point
C'
D'
B'
B
A' A
Electrode
1.6 mm (0.06 in)
or less
C is the scatter point
Steel
panel
Nugget
Electrode
Small ← Welding current → Large
Water
540
1,095 1,650˚C
Cooling water temperrature
(1,000) (2,000) (3,000)˚F
Max. Heating temperature
AB301468 AC
Generally speaking, the size of the nugget will
increase as the welding current increases, and as
the size of the nugget increases, the strength of the
weld will also increase.
Nugget formation will not begin until the current level
reaches a certain point; however, once this welding
current level is passed, the strength will increase rapidly (between points A and B).
As the current level increases further, the weld
strength for thick panels [more than 1.6 mm (0.06
inch)] continues to increase proportionately (between
points B and C); however, for thin panels [1.6 mm
(0.06 inch) or less], the weld strength reaches a peak
very quickly and will increase only slightly, even if the
current level increases (between points B' and C').
Then, for both thick panels and thin panels, the molten metal will scatter if the current level increases
past a certain point.
.
9-5
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
NOTES REGARDING WELDING
D
t
90 – 120˚
D : Diameter of the electrode tip
t : Thickness of the panel
AB301455AC
1. Selection of the electrode tips
• Select the electrode tips according to the
thickness of the panels to be welded.
D = 2t + 3 mm (D = 2t + 0.1 inch)
• The angle of the tip should be between 90
degree angle and 120 degree angle.
• To always keep the end of tip in the correct
shape, use a tip cutter, file or similar tool to
shape it if it becomes worn.
2. Alignment of the electrode tips
• Adjust the arms so that the upper and lower
electrode tips are in a straight line.
3. Alignment and length of the arms
• Adjust the electrode tips so that the upper and
lower arms are parallel.
• Select an appropriate arm length. Note, however, that the arm length should not be more
than 350 mm (13.8 inches) in order to ensure
nugget strength.
4. The weld points
• The overall strength will increase as the pitch
decreases; however, if the pitch decreases
too much, the current will be short-circuit
diverted to the previous weld point and the
strength of the individual nuggets will be insufficient.
• Make the spot welds at the center of the
flanges to provide sufficient adhesion. When
welding at an edge, make the spot welds at
least 5 mm (0.2 inch) from the edge of the
flange.
• The number of spot weld points should be the
same as, or slightly more than the number of
original repair welds.
• When spot welding three or more panels
together, if painted surfaces cause a loss of
conductivity, make the welds at the same
places as the factory welds. If this is done,
extra welds will not be necessary, but if extra
welds are necessary, switch to plug welding.
.
WELDING REQUIREMENTS
Standard steel plate (SPCC, etc.)
CAUTION
If the total thickness of the plates at the weld
places is 3 mm (0.12 inch) or more, use plug
welding, because spot welding will not provide
sufficient welded strength.
Example
• Center pillar (outer): plate thickness 1.4 mm (0.06
inch), material SPCC
• Center pillar (inner): plate thickness 1.5 mm (0.06
inch), material SPCC
The number of weld points are as below when the
outer and inner center pillars are repaired by welding.
9-6
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
Factory welds (F)
8 Points
8 Points
Repair welds (R)
11 Points
11 Points
As shown by the Welding Requirements table, the number of repair welds is as follows.
8 (points) × 130 (%) = 10.4 (points)
The number of weld points should, therefore, be ten or eleven.
If, however, a pitch of 26 mm (1.0 inch) or more cannot be maintained, the plug
welding method (eight weld points) should be used.
AB200031AC
PANEL
THICKNESS*
[mm (in)]
NUMBER OF REPAIR WELD (PERCENTAGE OF FACTORY WELD)
SAFETY
EQUIPM
ENT
AREA
1.0 (0.04) or
less
100% Same number as factory welds
1.2 (0.05)
150% Maintain pitch of at least 22 mm (0.9 inch); if not possible, plug weld.
1.4 (0.06) or
more
100% Same number as factory welds; plug welding
OTHER
AREA
1.2 (0.05) or
less
100% Same number as factory welds
1.4 (0.06)
130% Maintain pitch of at least 26 mm (1.0 inch); if not possible, plug weld.
1.6 (0.06) or
more
100% Same number as factory welds; plug welding
NOTE: *: For welding steel plates of different thickness, conform to the welding conditions for the thinner
plate.
.
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
9-7
Galvanized steel plate (SECC)
CAUTION
If the total thickness of the plates at the weld
places is 3 mm (0.1 inch) or more, use plug welding, because spot welding will not provide sufficient welded strength.
PANEL
THICKNESS*
[mm (in)]
NUMBER OF REPAIR WELD (PERCENTAGE OF FACTORY WELD)
SAFETY
EQUIPM
ENT
AREA
0.9 (0.04) or
less
100% Same number as factory welds
1.0 (0.04)
200% Maintain pitch of at least 18 mm (0.7 inch); if not possible, plug weld.
1.2 (0.05) or
more
100% Same number as factory welds; plug welding
OTHER
AREA
0.9 (0.04) or
less
100% Same number as factory welds
1.0 (0.04)
140% Maintain pitch of at least 18 mm (0.7 inch); if not possible, plug weld.
1.2 (0.05) or
more
100% Same number as factory welds; plug welding
NOTE: *: For welding steel plates of different thicknesses, conform to the welding conditions for the thinner
plate.
.
USING A TEST PIECE TO CHECK NUGGET
FORMATION
Weld point
1
2
3
AB200032AC
Weld a test piece of the same type of steel plate as the panels
to be welded. Try to twist the piece, and also check the nugget
diameter.
Using the weld point as an axis, apply force in the direction indicated by the arrows in the illustration, and determine the
strength of the weld.
1. Good (The welded part remains at one side).
2. and 3.
The weld conditions are unsatisfactory; adjust the welding
current, the current application time, and/or the applied
pressure.
.
9-8
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
CHECKING NUGGET STRENGTH FOLLOWING
SPOT WELDING
3 mm (0.1 in)
AB200033AB
CAUTION
• Stop wedging the tip or the chisel or flat-tipped screwdriver as soon as the size of the nuggets can be determined; do not wedge it in more than 30 mm (1.2
inches).
• After checking the nugget diameter, correct the place
where the checking was done.
Wedge the tip of a chisel or flat-tipped (-) screwdriver into the
space between two weld points.
• The nuggets should not break apart.
• The nugget diameter should be 3 mm (0.1 inch) or more.
GAS SHIELD ARC WELDING
M4090003000032
Wire
Nozzle
Contact tip
Metal vapor
Shield gas
AB301456 AC
Gas shielded arc welding is one method of arc welding. In this method, while the area to be welded is
shielded from the air by a layer of inert gas (such as
argon) or carbon dioxide gas, the filler metal (wire) is
fed from the torch nozzle at a constant rate and an
electric arc is generated between the tip of the wire
and the area being welded, thus generating heat to
fuse the area. There are two types of gas shielded
arc welding, classified according to the gas they use
as the shield gas: carbon dioxide (CO2) gas shielded
arc welding, and MIG welding, which uses an inert
gas (such as argon).
However, herein we will refer to all gas shielded arc
welding as MIG welding.
MIG SPOT WELDING
Wire
Gas cup
Gas outlet
AB200036 AD
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
This welding method is used in areas where regular
spot welding cannot be done. The two panels are
stacked together, the tip of the torch (one designed
for use in MIG spot welding) is positioned on one
side, an arc is generated for a short time, and a partial melting is done to obtain a spot weld.
9-9
2. Being sure that the two prongs are not leaning to
either side, set them in direct contact with the
panel to the welded.
3. Welding will begin when the torch trigger is
squeezed, and will stop automatically when the
weld is complete.
.
Procedure
.
CAUTION
• Make sure that the area to be welded is perfectly clean; remove oxidation film, scales,
rust, dirt, etc.
• The two panels to be welded must be in perfect contact with each other.
• The number and pitch of the weld points
should be approximately the same as for the
factory welds.
1. Position the tip of the nozzle at a right angle to the
surface to be welded.
FEATURES OF MIG SPOT WELDING
In comparison to resistance spot welding, MIG spot
welding has the following advantages and disadvantages.
ITEM
MIG SPOT WELDING
ELECTRIC RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING
Working
characteristics
• Light weight
• Welding possible at various
positions (no limit upon welding
positions)
• Although the torch with separate
transformer is lightweight, the torch
combined with transformer type is heavy.
• The arm must be exchanged to conform
to the weld location.
Weld time/point
Slow (0.5 second or more)
Fast (0.5 second or less)
Treatment after
welding
Necessary (grinding by grinder,
etc.)
Unnecessary
Power
High voltage, low current
(15 −30 V, 50 −200 A)
Low voltage, high current
(2 −4 V, 4 −10 kA)
Flux material
• CO2 (carbonic acid gas)
• Weld wire
Unnecessary
Weld points/10
minutes
(rate of use)
• 25 points or less
• Arc instability and contact tip
burn if rate of use is exceeded.
• 50 −60 points
• Welding rod deformation and transformer
overheating if rate of use is exceeded.
Distortion caused by
welding
Occurs easily
Rare
9-10
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
ITEM
MIG SPOT WELDING
ELECTRIC RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING
Welding strength
Depends on strength of welding
wire itself.
• Same as base material
• Little oxidation
• Uniform welding quality
Weld traces
Button head (slightly convex)
Slight concave
(Almost no indentation if swivel tip
used.)
Swivel tip
AB200037AC
Re-repairability
(cutting away welded
area)
Difficult
Easy
(Much welding trace High hardness (Can be separated by spot cutter.)
of weld points)
.
The MIG welding done around the doors, wheelhouse arches,
etc., to prevent the flanges from coming undone after hemming
work is also called MIG spot welding.
AB200038 AB
PLUG WELDING
Torch
5 – 6 mm
(0.2 in)
Diameter hole
Perfect contact
AB301460AC
CAUTION
In order to prevent the formation of blowholes, fill in each
hole completely in one pass.Be sure that the two panels
are in perfect contact.Be sure that the penetration goes all
the way to the bottom panel.
Plug welding is done by making holes 5 −6 mm (0.2 inch) in
diameter in one of the panels to be welded together, positioning
the torch at a right angle to the holes and then filling in the
holes one at a time.
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
9-11
CONTINUOUS WELDING
There are several types of continuous welding: fillet (lap joint)
welding, butt welding, T joint welding, gap welding, etc.; these
are called short-circuit arc welding, and provide a stable arc at
a relatively low current.
AB200041
.
Torch angle and welding technique
15 – 30˚
There are two welding techniques: forehand welding and backhand welding.
Forehand welding: Penetration is shallow and the bead is flat.
Backhand welding: Penetration is deep and the bead has a
convex shape.
The angle of the torch should be 15 −30 degree angle for either
technique, and the tip should be maintained at a distance of 6 −
10 mm (0.2 −0.4 inch) from the surface being welded.
15 – 30˚
Furehand
technique
Backhand
technique
AB301457AC
.
Preventing warping
Anti-warp welding techniques
1.
5
4
3
2
1
Backhand technique
4
2
1
3
2.
3.
Symmetrical technique
1
4
2
5
3
"Stepping stone" technique
AB200043 AC
1. Backhand technique
Because the direction for each weld pass and that for the
fusion progression are opposite, the residual stress is
evenly distributed.
2. Symmetrical technique
Because the welds are made in symmetrical positions in
relation to the center of the joint, the residual stress is also
symmetrical.
3. "Stepping stone" technique
Because the welds are made at random positions, the
residual stress is the most evenly distributed; however, the
possibility of flaws at the starting and stopping points is relatively high.
9-12
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
NOTES REGARDING MIG WELDING
Note the following notes regarding MIG welding.
1. The surface to be welded must be perfectly
clean; be sure to remove any non-conductive
paint.
2. If the end of the wire forms into a ball, it will
adversely affect the formation of the arc; cut the
end off with a pair of wire snips or a similar tool.
3. Select a welding current to match the thickness of
the panels being welded.
4. For continuous welding, maintain a constant weld
speed and keep both the height and the width of
the bead constant.
In addition, the tack welding pitch and the welding
bead should be shorter as the thickness of the
panels being welded decreases.
OTHER TYPES OF WELDING
M4090004000035
BRAZING
In brazing, a filler metal is melted into the joint of the
panels to be welded at a comparatively low temperature to fuse them together without melting the panels
themselves. In other words, through the aid of a flux
and because of the capillarity phenomenon, the molten filler metal will flow into the joint between the two
panels which are in contact with each other and
spread along the metal surfaces. When this molten
filler metal cools and solidifies, it will from a strong
joint of the two panels. Note that, if two panels of different kinds of metal are brazed, the electrolysis generated between the two metals will cause moisture to
from, which will result in corrosion.
Panels should not be connected together by brazing
at any place except those places indicated. The following materials (filler metals) are usually used for
brazing.
1. Brass filler metal (brass solder)
Brass filler metal is an alloy consisting of 60%
copper and 40% zinc with a melting temperature
of approximately 850 −1,050° C (1,562 −
1,922° F), and it is the most commonly used brazing filler metal used for body repair.
The filler metal itself is coated with flux to facilitate penetration between the panels to be joined.
2. Silver alloy filler metal (silver solder)
Silver alloy filler metal consists of silver, copper,
zinc or cadmium, nickel, and tin, or other metals.
This filler metal is most applicable for the brazing
of steel and non-ferrous alloy other than aluminum, magnesium, and others with low melting
points.
Notes with regard to brazing work
Examples of brazed joints
• Use a wire brush, sandpaper, file etc., to remove
any oxide film grease, dirt, etc., from the surfaces
of the panels to be brazed.
AB200044 AD
• When doing brass brazing, if the panels and the
filler metal are heated excessively, a weak
iron-copper alloy will form, which could crack
easily. Be careful not to apply excessive heat.
• The joint of the panels must overlap as indicated
in the illustration.
9-13
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
WELDING
GAS WELDING
Oxy-acetylene
flame
Welding rod
Deposite
Base metal
Gas welding is a method in which a high temperature flame is
used to melt both a welding rod and the base metal (panels) to
make a fused joint. Oxy-acetylene is the most common type of
gas welding. However, because of the extremely high temperature of the fused joint, the strength of the steel plate deteriorates, and there is a higher possibility of warping. This method,
therefore, is not very suitable for body repair.
AB200049 AC
.
The flame in gas welding can be classified according
to the ratio of acetylene and oxygen.
Flame core
Acetylene core
3. Peroxide flame
2. Standard flame
1. Carburizing flame
Flame core
Outer flame
Outer flame
Flame core
Outer flame
AB200050 AD
1. Carburizing flame (acetylene-rich flame)
This flame has an excess of acetylene or a deficiency of oxygen. The incomplete combustion
gives off a black smoke, and two flame cores can
be seen inside the deformed yellow flame. The
flame itself is large, but the temperature is relatively low, making this flame unsuitable for welding.
2. Standard flame (neutral-mixture flame)
This flame has approximately equal amounts of
acetylene and oxygen. The length is shorter than
that of the carburizing flame; the flame core is
rounded; and it is clear and bright.
The carbon in the acetylene is burned completely,
resulting in the maximum obtainable temperature.
This is the flame most commonly used for welding.
3. Peroxide flame (oxygen-rich flame)
This flame has an excess of oxygen or a deficiency of acetylene. The flame core is shorter
and sharper, and the entire flame has a blackish-purplish color. The combustion is unstable,
and the flame flickers continuously.
.
Notes with regard to gas welding
1. Handle the oxygen and acetylene tanks carefully.
2. Adjust the flame in accordance with the type of
metal being welded.
3. Select a nozzle to match the work to be done.
Avoid overheating and adhesion of foreign matter
(dirt, etc.)
4. The following points are particularly important
when welding mild steel plate.
• Melt a sufficient amount of welding rod, but be
careful not to melt the base metal. Use the
same amount of welding rod on both sides.
• Use the correct amount of welding rod in
accordance with the melting point of the base
metal.
• Avoid welding over places which have been
welded before.
• In order to avoid warping, do only the amount
of tack welding that is absolutely required.
9-14
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
STANDARD BODY REPAIR PROCEDURES
The following is an explanation of the standard repair
procedures for the monocoque body and the
frame-type body. Furthermore, please refer to the
replacement of welded panels for the applicable
model for information concerning the procedures for
replacement of panels (as classified by position) for
the various models.
NOTE: That reference should be made to page
P.9-27 concerning repair procedures for the frame of
frame-type vehicles.
M4090006000064
STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR
REPLACEMENT OF WELDED PANELS
In order to maintain the proper levels of strength,
rigidity, and precision when making welded panel
replacements, it is essential to first gain a thorough
understanding of the body structure, and then to perform all repair operations carefully and correctly. In
addition, when performing the operations, be sure to
use the proper protective equipment for each operation.
.
AB200051
CAUTION
• Select an appropriate location for the cutting operation,
and perform the work carefully, so as not to cut into the
reinforcements located inside the pillars, panels which
are not be replaced, or any other such parts.
• There are harnesses, hoses, and other such parts
routed inside the front pillar, the rear pillar, the fender
shield, the side sill, etc.; perform the repair work only
after any such material has been removed.
• For overlap cutting, allow an overlap of approximately
30 −50 mm (1.2 −2.0 inches) when performing the cutting operation.
1. Rough cutting of panels
First make a rough cutting of a portion of the panel to be
replaced, and then remove that portion, thus making it
easier to break the spot welds.
2. Removal of the paint coat from spot-welded points
In order to clearly identify the spot-welded points, remove
the paint coat from areas where it is difficult to determine the
spot welds.
AB200052
AB200053
3. Cutting and separation of spot-welded points
In order to perform cutting and separation of spot-welded
points, use a spot weld cutter which is larger than the size of
the nugget to make a hole only in the panels to be replaced.
When cutting and separating spot-welded points in places
where the surrounding panel or other parts interfere with the
spot weld cutter, or if the operation is hampered by a lack of
space, bend back the flanges in order to make the work
easier.
If a spot-weld cutter cannot be used at all, cut and separate
the spot welds by using a chisel or similar tool.
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
9-15
NOTE: If a replacement panel is to be mounted by doing
plug welding from the side of the panel remaining on the
body, either a hole can be made in the panel on the body, or
a hole can be made right through both the panel which is to
remain on the body and the panel to be replaced.
CAUTION
When performing this operation, warping of the surrounding panels may occur if an excessive amount of heat is
applied; therefore, be careful to avoid doing this.
4. Breaking of brazing and arc welds
Heat only the brazed or arc welded portion (such as the
upper portion of pillars, etc.), and then separate by using a
screwdriver while melting occurs.
AB200054
5. Finishing work of spot welding
Grind and smooth any weld traces which might be left on the
body surface by using an air grinder or similar tool, being
careful not to damage any of the panels which is not to be
replaced. When performing this operation, be sure to wear
safety goggles (dust proof glasses).
AB200055
6. Making of holes in new parts for MIG plug welding
Make holes approximately 5 −6 mm (0.2 inch) in diameter at
points where plug welding is to be performed because spot
welding is not possible.
AB200056
AB200057
9-16
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
7. Flange correction for spot weld traces
Correct any flanges that become bent or deformed when
spot welds are broken or during other work.
AB200058
CAUTION
Do not use a flame for paint coat removal because doing
so might damage the paint coat of panels which are not to
be replaced, thus causing corrosion.
8. Removal of the paint coat from new parts and from the
vehicle body
In order to provide for the proper flow of electric current
during spot welding operations, remove the paint coat from
both sides of the new part and the body by using a polisher
wheel or similar tool.
AB200059
9. Rough cutting of new parts
Cut off the unnecessary portions of new parts. Allow an
overlap of approximately 30 −50 mm (1.2 −2.0 inches) when
performing overlap cutting of the pillars, side sills, or other
locations.
AB200060
Edge of the
new part
Edge of the
panel on the body
AB200061AC
CAUTION
Carefully select the location for cutting, taking care not to
cut a reinforcement at the inner side of a pillar, etc. or a
panel that is not to be replaced.
10.Overlap cutting of new parts
For locations in which butt welding is to be done, first
temporarily attach the new parts to the body, and then cut
the two panels simultaneously.
NOTE: If a reinforcement or a panel which is not to be
replaced is cut accidentally, first repair the mistake by welding before proceeding with the rest of the work.
CAUTION
Perform the operations carefully so that the cut ends fit
together properly.
11.Cutting of new parts by using a measurement marking
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
Two-layer construction
Outer panel
Approx. 50 mm (2.0 in)
Inner panel
9-17
If overlap cutting is not possible in a place where butt
welding is to be done, make a measurement marking on the
new part at the exact same measurement which was used
for the cutting of the body panel, and then cut the new part
by using this measurement marking.
• Two-layer construction
When cutting a front pillar or center pillar which has a
two-layer construction but no reinforcement, make the cutting of the inner panel and that of the outer panel approximately 50 mm (2.0 inches) apart in order to obtain
maximum strength.
AB200062AC
Three-layer coustruction
Inner panel
cut line
Outer panel and
reinforcemant
Inner panel cut line
cut line
Inner panel
• Three-layer construction
When cutting a front pillar or center pillar which has a
three-layer (including a reinforcement) construction (double-box construction), cut the outer panel and the reinforcement at the same position, and don't forget to butt weld the
reinforcement. If the inner panel is an assembly replacement part, cut it at two places in order to provide ample
working space for the butt welding of the reinforcement.
AB200063AC
12.Application of spot sealer to spot-welded points
Apply an electro-conductive spot sealer to the connecting
surfaces of both the new parts and the vehicle body in order
to provide corrosion protection.
AB200064
9-18
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
AB200065
CAUTION
During temporary mounting, it is extremely important to
obtain accurate measurements for each component. The
mounting positions for the front and rear suspensions are
especially crucial with regard to safety; therefore, it is necessary that all work concerning these areas be done carefully and correctly.
13.Temporary mounting of new parts
(1) In order to bring the new parts into the proper mounting
position, measure each part carefully and make any
corrections necessary in order to obtain agreement with
the measurements.
(2) In addition, make temporary welds, and then check to
confirm that the closing and fit of the doors, fenders, etc.,
are correct.
For parts which should be symmetrical to the body
center, measure the distances from the body center point
to both the left part and the right part, and confirm that the
distances are the same.
AB200066
CAUTION
Weld completely so that there are no pinholes.
14.Butt welding
For burr welding, make a 10 −15 mm (0.4 −0.6 inch) MIG
spot weld, and then, in order to prevent warping which might
be caused by the welding heat, complete the welding by
making welds of the specified width at alternate positions.
AB200067
AB200068
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
9-19
AB200070
15.Spot welding
When doing spot welding, it is not only important to correctly
position the electrode tips, but also to hold the two panels
securely together with vise-grip pliers or some other type of
clamps, being sure that they are in perfect contact with each
other.
• Be sure that the force applied by the arm is sufficient.
• Use a test piece to check the secondary current and the
current application time of the spot welder, and adjust the
values as appropriate.
AB200070
16.Plug welding
If spot welds cannot be made, make holes for plug welding
in the new parts, and then MIG weld. Because the quality of
the fusion varies according to the size of the holes, they
should be about 5 −6 mm (0.2 inch) in diameter. In addition,
be sure the two surfaces are in complete contact with each
other by using vise-grip pliers to securely hold them.
NOTE: Depending on the working conditions, it might also
be necessary to make holes in the panel remaining on the
body
17.Hemming (Adhesion type)
(1) Apply an adhesive to the area to be hemmed of the door
outer panel.
Section
A–A
A
AB401282
A
AB500010 AC
(2) For the area to be hemmed of the door outer panel, apply
an adhesive and smooth the panel with a hammer and a
dolly. Then, hem the panel with a hemming tool.
Hemming tool
AB200072 AC
9-20
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
18.Hemming (Welded type)
(1) For the area to be hemmed of the door outer panel, etc.,
smooth the panel with a hammer and a dolly, and hem it
with a hemming tool.
Hemming tool
AB200072 AC
(2) After completing the hemming work, make MIG spot
welds at 50 −60 mm (2.0 −2.4 inches) intervals on the
inside.
AB200073
CAUTION
Be sure not to grind the panel down too much. Before
welding the outer panel, be sure to apply an anticorrosion
agent.
19.Finishing work for butt welding and plug welding
Do the finishing work to smooth the protruding weld traces.
However, the butt joints of reinforcements and other internal
parts will be stronger if the weld traces are not finished.
AB200074
20.Application of body sealant
Apply a coating of sealant carefully, without breaks, as
described in the section (of the manual corresponding to
that model).
NOTE: After application has been made to any external surfaces, perform smooth-finishing work.
AB200076
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
AB200077
9-21
CAUTION
Wipe off any anticorrosion agent which oozes out onto
surfaces to be painted later; the presence of such anticorrosion agent would prevent correct adhesion of the paint
coat.
21.Application of an anticorrosion agent
Apply an ample amount of anticorrosion agent to any
welded areas and to all surfaces from which the paint coat
was removed.
The paint coat of welded areas will have been damaged by
the heat; be sure to apply an anticorrosion agent to surfaces
to be repaired.
Use an aerosol-type anticorrosion agent for application to
the side sills, the pillars, and other similar parts which have a
hollow construction, by utilizing the trim mounting holes, etc.
AB200078
22.Application of undercoating
If the underbody is repaired or replaced, carefully apply a
coating of undercoating as described in the section (of the
manual corresponding to that model).
AB200079
CAUTIONS REGARDING BODY REPAIR
At the time of repair, it is particularly necessary to
take measurements at the components noted
below, and to make all welds and installations
with special care.
• Front sidemember
• Rear floor sidemember
• Front wheelhouse (inner)
• Rear wheelhouse (inner) (Independent rear
suspension type)
2. Because the places where the floor panel and
sidemember parts are joined have an important
effect upon the rigidity of the entire body, welds in
these places must be done with particular care.
3. After repairs have been completed, the wheel
alignment, wheel base, tread, etc., must be carefully checked to be sure that there is no deviation.
Because each component part of a single-unit construction body makes some contribution, more or
less, to the overall strength of that body, it is necessary to sufficiently understand the actual function of
any part to be repaired before attempting any repair
or welding procedure.
.
STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY
1. The suspension installation part plays an important role, determining the wheel alignment. Wheel
misalignment is of course potentially very dangerous because it can lead to driving instability,
one-sided braking, abnormal tire wear, abnormal
vibration, etc.
.
9-22
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
SAFETY
1. Procedures related to the installation of any component related to safety must be done with particular care in order to assure full maintenance of
safety.
• Suspension installation parts
• Fuel pipe
• Brakes
• Fuel tank installation parts, etc.
2. Because seat belts are directly related to driver
and passenger safety, any welds of seat belt
anchor points or reinforcements must be done
with particular care in order to maintain strength.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
.
VIBRATION AND NOISE
1. Prevent any decrease of tensional rigidity caused
by welding distortion.
2. Carefully apply body sealant to panel connection
joints and other fitting places.
3. Tape over any unused holes in the panel inner
side by using sealing tape.
.
PREVENTION OF CORROSION AND OF
WATER OR DUST ENTRY
1. After any work is completed, it is important to
completely remove any welding residue, particles
or residue from cutting, and any other dirt, etc.
2. Corrosion-prevention material must without fail
be applied at the following places:
• At any place where paint has flaked off or
peeled away.
• At any surfaces that have been cut.
• At the outer and inner side of every welded
place.
• Within any semi-enclosed structure or component (aerosol-type rust inhibitors are effective
for difficult-to-reach places).
• At the outer and inner side of any place subjected to heat.
Apply a coating of undercoating if the underbody
is repaired.
Use spot sealer if spot welds are made.
Repair any scratches to panels made by moldings, sashes, etc.
Carefully apply body sealant to panel connection
joints and other fitting places.
Tape over any unused holes in the panel inner
side by using sealing tape.
.
CONTACT AND ALIGNMENT
1. In order to maintain the precision of openings,
make careful measurements as repairs are being
made.
2. Make contact/alignment adjustments of door
hinge, lid, and hood hinge installation parts.
THEFT PROTECTION
M4090007000056
In order to prevent theft, following Vehicle Identification Number
(VIN) has been engraved and attached, in the form of a label to
the engine, transaxle, and main of the outer body:
Engine cylinder block, Transaxle housing, Fender,
Doors, Quarter panel, Hood, Liftgate, Trunk lid,
Bumpers
Furthermore, supplementary parts for the main portions of the
outer body have theft protection labels attached and the supplementary parts for the engine and the transaxle are engraved
with the same details.
Theft protection label
For original parts
For replacement parts
AC211646 AC
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
9-23
PANEL REPAIR CAUTION
1. Take care when respraying the original part to cover the theft
protection label with masking tape prior to respraying. In
addition, remember to peel off the masking tape after
completion of the respray.
2. Because theft protection labels on the supplementary parts
are covered with masking tape already, they can be
resprayed just as they are.
3. Take care not to peel off the theft protection labels from
either the original or the supplementary parts.
HOW TO PEEL OFF THE SURFACE MASKING
FILM FROM THE THEFT-PROTECTION LABEL
Knife
Masking film
AB200080AC
CAUTION
Be careful not to damage the paint surface or the label
itself.
1. Using a sharp knife at the corner of the label surface, lift up
the masking film only.
2. Grasp the masking film and peel it all off.
NOTE: If the masking film tears, repeat from step 1. Use the
knife, however, to lift the opposite corner of the label, rather
than trying to continue peeling from the place where it tore.
9-24
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
ATTACHMENT OF SILENCERS
M4090009000041
Dash panel interior side
: Thickness: 1.6 mm (0.06 in)
: Thickness: 3.2 mm (0.13 in) (two 1.6 mm (0.06 in) silencers overlapped)
AB200097AC
Silencers (petroleum-asphalt sheets) are attached to
welded panel, cut and attach replacement material
the upper surface of the floor and at the interior side
(in the shape shown in the figure). For detailed inforof the dash panel in order to absorb vibrations and
mation concerning the locations where silencers are
shut out exhaust gas heat. If these silencers are
to be attached for individual models, refer to the
peeled off in the course of replacement or repair of a
manual for that model.
1. Heat the "silencer layer" (petroleum-asphalt sheet) with a
blow drier to soften it.
AB200098
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
9-25
2. Align the silencer layer in the position where it is to be
installed, and then press it down with a roller or a block of
wood so that it adheres well.
NOTE: An infrared light can also be used to heat both the
silencer layer and the body panels (be sure to wear gloves).
AB200099
POSITIONING DIMENSIONS FOR OPENINGS
M4090010000034
Porta power
AB200100 AC
When replacing the panel of the opening of the front
pillar, center pillar and other openings, make a point
to securely bite the poltapower, etc. so the position of
the opening is not off-center. Upon assembling,
adjust the opening dimensions to the standard specifications and then weld.
9-26
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SHEET METAL WORK
M4090012000029
REPAIRS USING A HAMMER AND DOLLY
It a damaged external panel, etc., can be reused, the
usual way to repair it is by using a hammer and dolly
to hammer out the damaged area. The following
describes these repair procedures.
.
1. Check whether or not there is foreign material (mud, etc.) on
the panel surface. If so, clean it away.
CAUTION
The surface of the hammer and dolly must be free of scars,
etc.
2. Select the appropriate hammer and dolly to be used
according
CAUTIONto the panel shape.
Care should be taken, as far as possible, not to permit the
panel plates to become elongated.
3. Use the hammer and dolly to repair the dents and other
uneven surfaces of the panel.
(1) First repair the larger areas of damage so that they are as
close as possible to the original condition before the
damage occurred.
(2) Next repair the areas of moderate damage.
(3) Finally, smooth the surface out.
(1)
(2)
(3)
AB200101
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
•
•
4.
5.
AB200102
6.
7.
9-27
CAUTION
Be careful not to file too much; this will reduce the
strength and rigidity of the panel.
Do not use the file in one direction only; alternate use
in two directions diagonally opposite each other.
Next, file the area so that convex and concave parts are no
longer clearly visible, and at the same time remove small
projections.
After once again smoothing the clearly visible dents and
projections by using the hammer and dolly, follow step 4
above.
Alternately repeat hammering and filing until there are file
traces over the entire repair area.
Make a solder build-up at the repair.
Finally, finish up the solder build-up using a body file.
USING A FRAME STRAIGHTENER
For serious and extensive damage, when for example the damage extends to the frame of members, it
is necessary to first use a frame straightener to make
a rough, overall repair of the body, and then to proceed to careful repairs of each individual area of
damage. When a frame straightener is used for body
repairs, it is a fundamental principle that the pulling
should be in the direction from which the impact was
sustained, and from the opposite direction. If this is,
in error, not done, previously undamaged components will be deformed, and repair may become
impossible.
It is for that reason that it is important to decide upon
the method of repair, especially regarding the initial
overall repair, by following the steps below.
OVERALL ROUGH REPAIRS
1. First, analyze the impact. This means analysis
and consideration of the point of collision, the
speed at the time of collision, and the strength,
weight and shape of the object hit.
2. Then get a complete understanding of the
condition of the existing damage. In particular, if
the damage extends to the suspension installation
components, an inspection must be made to
determine whether or not there is any deviation of
the frame or body alignment.
M4090013000033
3. Finally, determine what repair methods should be
used.
• To what extent will frame straightening and other
overall repairs be necessary in order to restore
the damaged areas to the way they were?
• At what stage of the repairs should panels adjoining the components to be frame straightened,
etc., be removed?
• Decide upon the work steps and restoration
methods to be followed after the rough, overall
repairs are completed.
Select the frame straightener based upon the results
of above, and use it to pull in the appropriate direction. More than one direction may be appropriate,
depending upon the damage.
If the damage is of a moderate degree or less, it may
be possible to do all that is necessary in one pull.
If, however, the damage is major, that is to say if
repairs must be made to components of the passenger compartment such as the dash panel, etc., it may
be necessary, after completing the first pull, to set up
the frame straightener at a different position and use
it again at that position.
9-28
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
FRAME STRAIGHTENING NOTES
Wires for
protection
AB200103AC
• For safety, no one must be standing in the direction of the
pull.
• Wires or chains should be used for protection in the event
of an accident.
• For frame straightening of body with frame, care should be
taken regarding the position (body mount) of installation to
the frame. The reason for this is that usually mounting rubber pieces are used at the installation part in order to
improve vibration prevention, and these mounting rubber
pieces might be deformed if there is a deviation of the
installation position.
• If the part to be pulled is made of high-tensile steel (which
has a higher tensional strength and yield point than ordinary
steel), the pulling must be done with care in order to avoid
"over pull" and "spring back". It is particularly important for
the pulling of sidemembers and other reinforcement components made of high-tensile steel that the pulling not be all
done at one time; pull gradually while using a hammer to
repair distorted areas as the pulling is done.
FRAME REPAIR PROCEDURES
The frame is subjected to the following types of
loads.
• Vertical loads: Vertical loads may occur either
while stopped or during travel.
• Lateral (horizontal) loads: This type of loads
occurs during turning, start-off and braking.
• Torsional loads: Torsional loads occur while traveling on roads with poor surface conditions.
M4090014000036
These various types of loads are compounded under
various conditions, and are applied to the frame.
As a result, it is important, before attempting to repair
the frame, to carefully observe the shape of the damaged part and to in that way fully understand the
cause of the damage.
CHECKING FOR FRAME CRACKING OR
FLAKING
Check, by using a test hammer, for flaking or cracking of the
welded surface of the sidemembers, crossmembers and brackets.
Test hammer
Sidemember
AB200127AC
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
9-29
REPAIRING CRACKS
If the check reveals a crack(s) in the frame, repair as described
bellow.
1. Remove the components near the crack.
2. Make φ 6 −8 mm (0.2 −0.3 inch) holes (to prevent further
cracking), by using a drill, at points 7 −8 mm (0.3 inch) from
the crack ends.
Crack-stop hole
A
A
Crack
Ø6 – 8 mm
(0.2 – 0.3 in)
A : 7 – 8 mm (0.3 in)
AB301469 AC
Ø10 – 12 mm (0.4 – 0.5 in)
3. Use a φ 10 −12 mm (0.4 −0.5 inch) drill to bevel the hole
openings.
Ø6 – 8 mm
(0.2 – 0.3 in)
Ø10 – 12 mm
(0.4 – 0.5 in)
AB301470 AB
Crack
Crack-stop hole
Approx. Approx.90˚
1 mm
(00.4 in)
A
Approx.
8 mm
(0.3 in)
4. Use a chisel or gouging tool to open up the crack and holes,
and then fill the crack and holes by MIG welding.
Approx.
1 mm
(0.04 in)
If a chisel
is used
If a gouge
is used
A
A
AB301471AC
AB200131AB
CAUTION
• Gas welding should be avoided because it causes thermal distortion of the frame.
• When using a grinder for finishing, be careful not to
grind the frame excessively.
5. Using a grinder for finishing after welding.
9-30
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
CAUTION
• The reinforcement plate should completely cover the
cracked part.
• The reinforcement plate should be the same thickness
and material as the frame.
6. To avoid a concentration of stress, prepare a reinforcement
plate that has been cut to 30 −45 degree angle at both ends.
A
A
A : 30 – 45˚
AB301461AB
10 mm (0.4 in)
CAUTION
Be sure that the edges of the reinforcement plate are not
near any place where a concentration of stress of the
crossmember or spring hanger installation part, etc. could
easily occur.
7. Attach the reinforcement plate to the repaired crack area by
MIG welding. In order to avoid a concentration of stress at
the time, weld the reinforcement plate at points about 10 mm
(0.4 inch) from its edges.
Welded point
AB200133 AC
(1)
(2)
AB200134 AB
NOTE: If the crack is at the upper side of the frame, attach
the reinforcement plate facing downward, as shown in (1).
If the crack is at the lower side, attach the reinforcement
plate to face upward, as shown in (2).
8. Finally, apply a coating of chassis black to the repaired area
and to any places where the coating has flaked off.
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
NOTES REGARDING REPAIR WORK
9-31
M4090015000028
SAFETY MEASURES
.
PROTECTIVE GEAR
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
9
10
11
During body repair work, a work suit, a work cap, and safety
shoes should be worn at all times. Depending on the work
being done, safety glasses, gloves, ear protectors, a dustproof
mask, etc., should also be worn as needed.
1. Safety glasses
2. Work cap
3. Ear protectors
4. Head protector
5. Work suit
6. Dustproof mask
7. Work apron
8. Welding gloves
9. Foot and ankle protectors
10. Safety shoes
11. Work gloves
AB200104
.
SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEM
(SRS)
1. Items to review when servicing SRS
(1) Be sure to read Service Manual GROUP 52B,
Supplemental Restraint System (SRS). For
safe operation, please follow the directions
and heed all warnings.
(2) Wait at least 60 seconds after disconnecting
the battery cable before doing any further
work. The SRS system is designed to retain
enough voltage to deploy the air bag even
after the battery has been disconnected.
Serious injury may result from unintended air
bag deployment if work is done on the SRS
system immediately after the battery cable is
disconnected.
(3) Warning labels must be heeded when
servicing or handling SRS components.
(4) Always use the designated special tools and
test equipment.
(5) Store components removed from the SRS in a
clean and dry place. The air bag module
should be stored on a flat surface and placed
so that the pad surface is facing upward.
.
(6) Never attempt to disassemble or repair the
SRS components (SRS-ECU, air bag module
and clock spring). If there is a defect, replace
the defective part.
(7) Whenever you finish servicing the SRS, check
the SRS warning light operation to make sure
that the system functions properly.
(8) Be sure to deploy the air bag before disposing
of the air bag module or disposing of a vehicle
equipped with an air bag.
2. Observe the following when carrying out
operations on places where SRS components are
installed, including operations not directly related
to the SRS air bag.
(1) When removing or installing parts, do not allow
any impact or shock to occur to the SRS
components.
(2) If heat damage may occur during paint work,
remove the SRS-ECU, the air bag module,
clock spring, the front impact sensor, the side
impact sensor, and the seat belt pre-tensioner.
• SRS-ECU, air bag module, clock spring, front
impact sensor, the side impact sensor: 93 ° C
(200 ° F) or more
• Seat belt pre-tensioner: 90 ° C (194 ° F) or more
9-32
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
SECURING THE VEHICLE
If the vehicle is raised on a jack, be sure to always support it
with jack stands positioned at the specified points.
.
CLEARING THE AREA OF FLAMMABLE
MATERIALS
Because of the presence of many various kinds of flammable
materials, organic solvents, etc., in the work area, there is
always the possibility of a fire or explosion. It is, therefore,
important to keep the work area as clear as possible of such
dangerous materials.
.
HANDLING ELECTRONIC PARTS AND
SEMICONDUCTORS
WARNING
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds. WASH HANDS AFTER
HANDLING.
When the body is used as the ground during welding for body
repairs, be absolutely sure to first disconnect the battery's positive (+) cable.
AB200105
CAUTION
• Be sure that both the ignition and lighting switches are
"LOCK" (OFF) position before either disconnecting or
reconnecting a battery cable. (If this is not done, equipment containing semiconductors could be damaged).
• Note that the memory of electronic equipment having a
memory function will be cleared when the battery cable
is disconnected.
NOTE: Vehicles today include a great many electronic parts
and components, and these are in general very susceptible to
adverse effects caused by overcurrent, reverse current, electromagnetic waves, high temperature, high humidity, impacts,
etc. In particular, such electronic components can be damaged
if there is a large current flow during welding from the body
side, etc.
This is because, for electronic components that incorporate a
back-up circuit (for memory retention) that functions (by a
trickle current) even when the ignition switch is at OFF, an electronic circuit is formed even when the switch is at OFF.
.
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
9-33
HANDLING COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS
If welding work is to be done in the area of the fuel tank, the fuel
tank must be removed to prevent the generation of flammable
gases. Also be sure to cap the inlet port and the pipes of the
fuel tank after removal to prevent the escape of any fuel or
flammable gases.
Wipe up any fuel, oil, etc., spilled in the work area as soon as
possible.
Only the amounts of paint to be used for the day's work should
be in the work area; do not keep excessive amounts of paint, or
paint which is not going to be used, in the work area.
HEALTH AND SANITATION PROCEDURES
The following points should be noted for employee health and
sanitation.
• The work area should be well ventilated in order to prevent
the inhalation of dust, organic solvent vapors, etc.
• All unused paint cans must be securely covered.
• Care should be taken to avoid exposure to the skin of adhesives, organic solvents, etc.
If an unavoidable exposure occurs, the exposed area
should be immediately washed with clean water.
VEHICLE PROTECTION
• Vehicle covers (fender covers, seat covers, etc.) and tape (if
there is the possibility of damage by tools, equipment, etc.)
should be used to protect painted surfaces, interior/exterior
parts and components, etc., from staining and damage.
AB200106
• For welding operations, a heat-resistant protective cover
should be used to protect glass, seats, instrument panel,
carpeting, etc.
AB200107
9-34
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
HEAT-WITHSTAND TEMPERATURES OF RESIN-PLASTIC PARTS
Because resin-plastic parts are deformed by heat,
they should be removed if the heat to be applied is
high enough to cause deformation, as shown by the
table below.
MATERIAL NAME ABBREVIATION HEAT-DEFORMATION
WHERE MAINLY USED
TEMPERATURE ° C (° F)
M4090016000032
Acrylonitrile
styrene acrylate
ASA
80 (176)
Door mirror, Pillar garnish, License
garnish, Radiator grille
Acrylonitrile
butadiene styrene
ABS
80 (176)
Air spoiler, Console box, Radiator grille,
Rear garnish, Headlight bezel
Cellulose acetate
CA
50 −90 (122 −194)
-
Cellulose acetate
butylate
CAB
60 −100 (140 −212)
Door trim molding
Polyamide
PA
140 −160 (284 −320)
Harness connector, Wheel cover,
Cooling fan, Fuel strainer
Talc filled
polyamide
PA-TD
190 −200 (374 −392)
Hood garnish, Door outside handle
Polybutylene
terephthalate
PBT
120 (248)
Dome light lens, Headlight lens
Polyethylene
PE
100 (212)
Heater duct, Fender liner, Washer tank
High density
polyethylene
PE-HD (HDPE)
70 −90 (158 −194)
Fuel tank, Splash shield
Phenole
formaldehyde
PF
170 −190 (338 −374)
Ashtray
Polymethyl
methacrylate
PMMA
80 −100 (176 −212)
Light lens
Polyacetal
POM
120 (248)
Door regulator handle, Ball joint seat
Polypropylene
PP
80 (176)
Glove compartment, Bumper face,
Pillar trim, Steering wheel, Heater unit,
Cooling fan
Polyphenylene
ether
PPE (PPO)
130 −140 (266 −284)
Accelerator pedal pad, Wheel cover,
Speaker garnish
Talc filled
polypropylene
PP-TD (PPF)
100 (212)
Front deck garnish, Stone guard, Floor
console, Instrument panel
Talc filled
polypropylene
(10%)
PP-TD10 (PPF)
110 −120 (230 −248)
Center pillar trim
Talc filled
polypropylene
(15%)
PP-TD15 (PPF)
110 −120 (230 −248)
Front pillar trim, Center pillar trim, Rear
pillar trim
Talc filled
polypropylene
(20%)
PP-TD20 (PPF)
120 −130 (248 −266)
Beltline trim, Front deck garnish, Front
pillar trim
Talc filled
polypropylene
(30%)
PP-TD30 (PPF)
130 −140 (266 −284)
Quarter trim, Rear side trim
9-35
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
MATERIAL NAME ABBREVIATION
HEAT-DEFORMATION
WHERE MAINLY USED
TEMPERATURE ° C (° F)
Polyurethane
PUR
80 −100 (176 −212)
Bumper, Steering wheel
Polyurethane
(formed)
PUR-E
80 −100 (176 −212)
Seat cushion, Arm rest, Door trim,
Instrument panel
Glass fiber
reinforced RIM
urethane
PUR-GF [RIM]
100 −120 (212 −248)
Air dam panel
Polyvinyl alcohol
PVAL
*1
-
Polyvinyl butyral
PVB
Polyvinyl chloride
PVC
80 (176)
Steering wheel, Side protector molding,
Shift lever cover, Window molding
Thermoplastic
TPO (TEO)
elastomer (olefine)
80 (176)
Mud guard, Side air dam
Urea formaldehyde UF
120 −145 (248 −293)
-
Glass fiber
reinforced
unsaturated
polyester
UP-(GT + TD)
[SMC], [BMC]
200 (392)
Rear air spoiler
Ethylene vinyl
acetate
E/VAC (EVA)
60 (140)
Mud guard
Talc filled
polypropylene
PP + E/P-TD
[HMPP]
80 −100 (176 −212)
Bumper face, Side air dam, Side
protector molding
Polyvinyl chloride,
Polyurethane
PVC, PUR-E
*2
Instrument panel pad
Thermoplastic
TES, PP-TD
elastomer
(styrene), Talc filled
polypropylene
100 −120 (212 −248)
Side splash
Polycarbonate +
Acrylonitrile
butadiene
PC + ABS
120 −125 (248 −257)
Door outside handle
Polycarbonate +
Polyethylene
terephthalate
PC + PET
120 (248)
Door outside handle
Polycarbonate +
Polybutylene
terephthalate
PC + PBT
130 −140 (266 −284)
Door outside handle
Polyphenylene
ether + Polyamide
6
PPE (PPO) + PA6 150 −160 (302 −320)
Wheel cover
Polyphenylene
ether + Polyamide
66
PPE (PPO) +
PA66
160 −170 (320 −338)
Wheel cover
120 −130 (248 −266)
Wheel cover
Polyphenylene
PPE (PPO) + PS
ether + Polystyrene
9-36
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
BODY REPAIR
NOTE: .
• A slash (/) in the abbreviation indicates that two different materials make two-layer construction.
A plus sign (+) indicates that the two different materials mix each other.
• If the new material symbols designated by the ISO differ form the old symbols, both are given, with the old
symbol being enclosed in brackets. ISO: International Organization for Standardization
• *1: Temperature differs depending on the ratio of the materials included.
• *2: Impossible to fix the temperature due to the multi-layer and foam material structure.
• If an infra-red lamp is used for drying, use a heat-resistant cover, etc., to protect parts.
HOW TO DISTINGUISH TYPES OF PLASTICS
M4090017000024
There are various methods that can be employed to
determine types of plastics, among them (1) using a
chemical solvent, etc., to check it chemically, (2)
scratching the material to determine its make-up, (3)
cutting of a small piece (where the scar can't be
seen) and burning it to judge by the way it burns, etc.
The following is an outline of the burning method,
which is a relatively simple method.
PLASTIC
NAME
ABBREVIATION
FLAME COLOR
COMBUSTION
CONDITIONS
Polyvinyl
chloride
PVC
Yellow flame top
Blue flame
bottom
Burns to black residue Yes
Irritating acid
odor
Polyethylene
PE
Yellow flame top
Blue flame
bottom
Burns cleanly while
melting
No
Candle-like
odor
Polypropylene PP
Yellow flame top
Blue flame
bottom
• Burns briskly and No
drips
• Slight white smoke
Petroleumlike odor
Polyurethane
PUR
Orange
No
Rubber odor
TRUR
Orange
Crackles as burns;
drips
Polycarbonate PC
Yellow
Cinders remain
To some extent Sweet odor
Polyamide
(nylon)
Yellow flame top
Blue flame
bottom
Melts and drips
Yes
Strong formic
acid odor
Polyester resin UP
Yellow
Ashes remain
No
Styrene odor
Glass-fiberreinforced
plastic
FRP
Yellow
Ashes with glass-fiber No
remnants remain
Differs
according to
plastic type
Phenol resin
PF
Yellow
Ashes remain
Formalin
odor
ABS resin
ABS
Orange
Burns accompanied
No
by foaming and black
smoke
PA
SELFODOR
EXTINGUISHING
Yes
Rubber odor
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
CORROSION PROTECTION
9-37
CORROSION PROTECTION
ANTICORROSION TREATMENT AT THE FACTORY
Anticorrosion treatment at the time of production
includes the following measures.
M4090019000053
THE USE OF GALVANIZED STEEL PLATE
: locations where galvanized steel
plate is used.
AB200136 AB
Because galvanized steel plate has excellent corrosion resistance, it is used in areas which have a high
possibility of painting deficiency.
ZINC PHOSPHATE COATING
1
2
3
4
5
6
AB200109
In order to improve the adhesive properties of the paint coat on
the steel plate, and also to improve the finish of the paint coat,
the entire body is coated with a film of zinc phosphate prior to
undergoing the electrodeposition undercoating process.
1. Final coat
2. Intermediate coat
3. Anticorrosion primer
4. Undercoat
5. Zinc phosphate film
6. Steel plate
9-38
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
CORROSION PROTECTION
CATIONIC ELECTRODEPOSITION UNDERCOATING
Cationic
coating
Anionic
coating
Counteragent
Counteragent
Anionic electrodeposition
Alkali
solution
Cationic electrodeposition
AB200110AC
In the cationic electrodeposition method, the car
body is the negative pole, thus preventing damage to
the zinc plating of the galvanized body panels or to
the chemically formed phosphate crystals. This
method, therefore, maximizes the corrosion resistance and the results obtained are much better than
those from conventional anionic electrodeposition.
BODY SEALING
Sealant has been applied to all body panel joints and seams in
order to provide resistance to water, dust, and corrosion.
A
A
Section A – A
AB301462 AC
UNDERBODY COATING
An underbody coating has been applied to the underside of the
floor pans, the inside of the doors, etc., in order to provide
resistance to vibration, corrosion, and wear.
AB200112
9-39
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
CORROSION PROTECTION
WAX INJECTION
Wax injection is used at the lower part of the frame, side sill and
hollow panels, etc., in order to obtain a better anticorrosion
effect.
AB200113
ANTICORROSION PRIMER
A
1
1
A
1. Rocker panel primer application
AB200114 AC
Anticorrosion primer is used at the side sill outer panels in order to prevent corrosion and to suppress
vibration.
SEALING TAPE
Sealing tape is attached at unused holes, at the inner side of
the panel, for waterproofing and anticorrosion protection.
: Locations for
attachment of sealing tape
AB301463AE
AB301463
9-40
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
CORROSION PROTECTION
ANTICORROSION TREATMENT AT THE TIME OF
BODY REPAIR WORK
M4090020000035
The following procedures should be followed for anticorrosion
protection when making repairs.
AB200116
CORROSION PROTECTION FOR HOLLOW
PARTS
AB200117
CAUTION
• Wipe away any excess anticorrosion agent on the
coated surface, because it can adversely affect the
coating.
• When spraying the anticorrosion agent, use holes in
different areas to ensure that all weld surfaces of the
hollow structure are well coated.
The insides of hollow parts (such as the side sill, pillars, etc.)
which have been welded are more susceptible to corrosion.
Spray an aerosol-type anticorrosion agent into these parts by
using the trim mounting holes and other openings.
ANTICORROSION TREATMENT OF ROUGH CUTS
An anticorrosion agent should be applied to rough cuts made in
the course of welding, because the surface film has been damaged by the heat of welding.
SPOT SEALER
In order to prevent corrosion from occurring at the contact surfaces of panels which are spot welded, apply an electroconductive spot sealer.
.
SPOT SEALER APPLICATION STEPS
1. Remove all paint, etc., from the areas to be spot welded by
using sandpaper or a pneumatic belt sander.
AB200118
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
CORROSION PROTECTION
9-41
2. Use a brush to apply spot sealer to the contact surfaces of
the panels (both the new panel and the panel remaining on
the body) to be spot welded.
AB200119
3. Do not spot welding.
NOTE: The spot welding can be done as the spot sealer is
dry to the touch.
Dry to the touch: 30 minutes or less at 20° C (68° F)
AB200120
BODY SEALING
Even if a car body is restored to the exact specified dimensions, the body repair work cannot be considered to be complete if an ample amount of sealant is not applied to each of the
panel joints and seams. Insufficient sealant will result in water
leakage, corrosion, etc.
NOTE: Use a piece of clean cloth dampened in lead-free gasoline or a similar material to clean parts and areas where sealant
is applied.
• When applying sealant to areas at which the external
appearance is important (areas which can be seen or where
the condition of the paint coat is important), be sure to apply
the sealant so that it is perfectly level with the surrounding
panels.
Clean away
any excess
AB301490AC
• Apply the sealant at the fuel port so that it is perfectly level
with the surrounding panel so that drops of fuel will not collect.
AB200122
9-42
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
CORROSION PROTECTION
• After applying sealant to the door-stop, etc., clean away any
excess so as to be sure that there is no interference with
installed parts, etc.
AB200123
UNDERCOATING
: Undercoating application locations
• Be sure to mask any parts installation holes, and
the area around the place where undercoating is
to be applied, before applying it.
• Be sure not to apply the undercoating to tires or
to the drive shaft and other drive components.
AB301464 AC
If the undercoating application inside the wheel
housing, on the under body, etc., is insufficient, it can
result in corrosion. Be sure, therefore, to apply a
good coating of undercoating to such parts after
repairs are completed.
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS
9-43
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS
SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS REPAIR PROCEDURES
M4090000300078
Bumper is taken as a repair work example for explanation.
FLOWCHART
Hole (Diameter 50 mm
(1.97 in) or smaller)
Crack, tear (Length 200 mm
(7.8 in) or smaller)
Scratch (Length 200 mm X
width 120 mm (7.8 X 4.7 in)
or smaller)
1. Cleaning
2. Reshaping of damaged area
3. Fixing of glass cloth (backing)
4. Adhesive application
5. Base surface preparation (surface grinding)
6. Rough grinding
7. Filling (putty application)
8. Surface grinding
9. Surface preparation for primer-surfacer
10. Cleaning and degreasing
11. Masking
12. Primer-surfacer coating
13. Primer-surfacer grinding
14. Coating
AB401319 AD
9-44
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS
REPAIR JUDGMENT
.
REPAIRABLE AREA
• In case of a hole, the damaged area is reshaped to be a circle or ellipse for easier filling of the repair agent. The diameter or major diameter should be 50 mm (1.97 inches) or
smaller.
• In case of a crack or tear, if the both ends of the crack or
tear are not separated from the body, the length of the area
should be 200 mm (7.8 inches) or smaller. If one of the ends
reaches the bumper edge, the length of the damaged area
should be 200 mm (7.8 inches) or smaller, and also the
width should be a half or less of the bumper width.
• In case of a scratch, the area should be 200 x 120 mm (7.8
x 4.7 inches) or smaller.
.
UNREPAIRABLE COMPONENTS
Black-base area is raw urethane base and repairable, however,
its color does not match in color of the repair agent (ash gray).
In this case, the replacement of the bumper is preferable.
.
BUMPER REMOVAL AND CLEANING
• The damage of holes, cracks, and tears requires a repair
work from the rear surface. Remove the bumper to clean
the whole surface, degrease the front and rear surfaces of
the repair area using SU Silicone Off, and then repair, holding the bumper to avoid twisting.
• In case of a scratch, a softener is applied to the bumper as
repair paint. The repair area cannot be polished after painting, and surface/gloss matching is difficult. Therefore, do
not apply gradated topcoat painting, and paint the whole
surface as a rule.
REPAIR PROCEDURE
.
1. CLEANING
Using SU Silicone Off, degrease the repair area, and then
remove the wax and oil completely.
.
AB401311AB
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS
9-45
2. RESHAPING OF DAMAGED AREA
CAUTION
The grind surface area should be larger than the resin
putty application area.
Remove burrs on the rear surface reinforcement point, and
grind with a sandpaper #60 to #80, as a surface preparation for
painting. When using a sander #80, grind at a low speed 6000
r/min. For PP, apply PP primer after grinding.
PRIMER : PP PRIMER
BRAND : 3M™ Automix Polyolefin Adhesion Promoter
5907 or equivalent
AB401317AB
.
3. FIXING OF GLASS CLOTH (BACKING)
CAUTION
• After applying the instant adhesive, fix the repair area.
• For PP, apply PP primer.
Apply the adhesive to the glass cloth fixing area of the repair
part in order to adhere the glass cloth.
• TAPE: Glass cloth tape
BRAND: 3M™ Glass Cloth Tape 6400 or equivalent
• ADHESIVE: Urethane adhesive
BRAND: 3M™ Duramix Plastic Repair Semi-rigid
4040 or equivalent
AB401293AB
AB
.
4. Adhesive application
Apply a resin adhesive to cover the fixing glass cloth and its
surrounding area. Then smooth it, using a spatula, and dry.
AB401312AB
.
5. BASE SURFACE PREPARATION (SURFACE
GRINDING)
Remove burrs on the surface, and grind with a sandpaper #120
to make the repair area surface lower than the surrounding
area. When using a sander #120, grind at a low speed 6000
r/min.
Background
.
Old paint layer
AB401316AC
9-46
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS
6. ROUGH GRINDING
Grind the base surface area with a sandpaper #80 as a surface
preparation for painting.
AB401315AB
.
7. FILLING (PUTTY APPLICATION)
AB401291AB
CAUTION
When mixing the two kinds of liquid, be sure that the air is
not mixed in.
1. Using SU Silicone Off, degrease the repair area, and then
remove the wax and oil completely.
2. For scrape, apply putty to the repair area.
• PUTTY: Epoxy resin putty
BRAND: 3M™ Automix EZ Sond Flexble Parts 5887
or equivalent
• PUTTY: Epoxy resin putty
BRAND: 3M™ Resin Putty No.1, 8120 or equivalent
NOTE: .
• The amount to be applied at a time is approximately 1.5 mm
(0.06 inches). Therefore, recoat it as needed.
• For tear and scratch, apply putty after sanding the surface.
AB401296AB
.
8. SURFACE GRINDING
After drying, grind with a sandpaper #120.
.
AB401297AB
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS
9-47
9. SURFACE PREPARATION FOR
PRIMER-SURFACER
Grind with a sandpaper #180 to #240. Grind the primer-surfacer application area as a surface preparation for painting. In
addition, remove the grind mark.
AB401297AB
.
10. CLEANING AND DEGREASING
Using SU Silicone Off, degrease and wipe off completely.
.
11. MASKING
To avoid splashing of primer-surfacer during the coating, apply
masking.
MASKING: Masking paper tape
BRAND: 3M™ Scotch Block Masking Paper or equivalent
AB401318AB
.
12. PRIMER-SURFACER COATING
CAUTION
• If an excessive amount is applied at a time, or
force-dried in a short time, the coating film may crack.
• For color separation, use masking tape.
While taking flash off time, apply 1 to 3 times of double coating,
using a spray gun.
AB401298AB
.
13. PRIMER-SURFACER GRINDING
1. Grind the base surface with a sandpaper #240 to #320.
AB401299AB
9-48
BASE OF BODY REPAIR
REPAIR OF SYNTHETIC-RESIN PARTS
2. Apply the putty to cover pinholes, grind marks, and slight
distortion. Do not apply an excessive amount at a time.
Repeat application of small amount, taking a drying time.
AB401300AB
3. Grind with a sandpaper #240 to #320. If the PP base surface
is exposed, apply PP primer.
PRIMER : PP PRIMER
BRAND : 3M™ Automix Polyolefin Adhesion Promoter
5907 or equivalent
AB401299AB
CAUTION
If an excessive amount is applied at a time, or force-dried
in a short time, the coating film may crack.
4. While taking flash off time, apply 1 to 3 times of double
coating, using a spray gun.
AB401302AB
5. Dry sand with a sandpaper #240 to #300 or finer. Then, as a
surface preparation for painting, grind lightly so as not to
expose the base surface. Finally, use a sandpaper #600
(#800 for dark color coating) or finer to remove grind marks.
AB401303AB
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