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Table of Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Introductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
1. Why Virtualization? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Understanding Dynamic IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Microsoft’s Infrastructure Optimization Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Virtualization and the Infrastructure Optimization Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Benefits of Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
How Virtualization Enables Dynamic IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Achieving the Benefits of Datacenter Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Achieving the Benefits of Client Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Achieving the Benefits of Cloud Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Windows Optimized Desktop Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Mobile Worker Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Office Worker Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Task Worker Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Contract/Offshore Worker Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Anywhere-Access Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Microsoft’s Integrated Virtualization Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Microsoft’s Commitment to Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Microsoft’s IT Infrastructure Optimization Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Microsoft’s Dynamic IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Microsoft Virtualization Technologies and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Windows Optimized Desktop Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
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2. Server Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Understanding Server Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Understanding Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Understanding Hypervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Understanding the Hyper-V Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Understanding the Parent Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Understanding Child Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Key Features of Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
New Features in Hyper-V R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Comparing Hyper-V and Virtual Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Key Benefits of Using Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Hyper-V Usage Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Server Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Testing and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
The Dynamic Datacenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Working with Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Hyper-V Role vs. Microsoft Hyper-V Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
System Requirements for Using Hyper-V R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Supported Guest Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Functionality Provided by Integration Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Planning for Hyper-V Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Installing the Hyper-V Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Using the Hyper-V Management Snap-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Using the Virtual Machine Connection Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Creating a Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Working with Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Working with Live Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Tools for Managing Hyper-V and Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Planning for Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Deploying Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Managing and Maintaining Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Securing Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Resources for Hyper-V Developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
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Hyper-V Bloggers at Microsoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Other Hyper-V Bloggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Hyper-V Forum on TechNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3 Local Desktop Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Examining the Benefits of Each Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Key Benefits of Windows Virtual PC and the
Windows XP Mode Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Key Benefits of MED-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Key Benefits of App-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Examining Usage Scenarios for Each Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Usage Scenarios for Windows Virtual PC and the
Windows XP Mode Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Usage Scenarios for MED-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Usage Scenarios for App-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Availability of Each Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Availability of Windows Virtual PC and the
Windows XP Mode Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Availability of MED-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Availability of App-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Understanding Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP
Mode Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Understanding Windows Virtual PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Understanding Virtual Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Understanding Windows XP Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Requirements for Windows Virtual PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Installing Windows Virtual PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Requirements for Windows XP Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Installing the Windows XP Mode Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Configuring Virtual Machine Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Using Windows XP Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Understanding MED-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Introducing Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . 147
How MED-V Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Understanding App-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
App-V Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
How App-V Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
App-V Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
App-V Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
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Working with App-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
App-V Deployment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Using the Management Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Using the Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Working with App-V Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Resources for Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode . . . . . . . . . 219
Resources for MED-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Resources for App-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
4 Remote Desktop Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Examining the Benefits of Remote Desktop Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Examining Usage Scenarios for Remote Desktop Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . 224
Usage Scenarios for Remote Desktop Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Usage Scenarios for App-V for RDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Usage Scenarios for Microsoft VDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Availability of Remote Desktop Virtualization Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Availability of Remote Desktop Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Availability of App-V for RDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Availability of Microsoft VDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Understanding Remote Desktop Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Understanding Remote Desktop Connection Client Experience
Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Understanding the Remote Desktop Session Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Understanding Remote Desktop Web Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Understanding RemoteApp and Desktop Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Understanding Remote Desktop Connection Broker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Understanding Remote Desktop Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Understanding Remote Desktop Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Understanding Remote Desktop Virtualization Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Deploying Remote Desktop Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Understanding Microsoft Application Virtualization for
Remote Desktop Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Understanding Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Understanding Microsoft’s VDI Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
How Microsoft VDI Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
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Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Additional Resources on Remote Desktop Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Additional Resources for App-V for RDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Additional Resources for Microsoft VDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
5 Virtualization Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Understanding Virtual Machine Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
VMM Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
VMM Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Key Features of VMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Features and Improvements Introduced in VMM 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
New Features and Enhancements in VMM 2008 R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Key Benefits of VMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Usage Scenarios for VMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Server Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Provisioning of Virtualized Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Business Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Working with VMM 2008 R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Planning for Deploying VMM 2008 R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
System and Infrastructure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Installing VMM 2008 R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Using the VMM Administrator Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Working with Managed Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Working with the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Working with Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Performing P2V Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Performing V2V Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Configuring User Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Using the Self-Service Portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Microsoft System Center Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
System Center Server Management Suite Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
System Center Essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Other System Center Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Benefits of System Center for Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
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Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Administering VMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
System Center Blog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
VMM Forums on TechNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
6 Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
What Is Cloud Computing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Private vs. Public Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Examining the Benefits of Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Benefits of Using a Private Cloud vs. a Public Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Increasing Use of IT Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Examining Cloud-Computing Usage Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Understanding Microsoft’s Cloud-Computing Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Understanding Different Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Implementing Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Understanding the Dynamic Data Center Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Comparing the Toolkits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Understanding the Private-Cloud Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Implementing a Private-Cloud Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Windows Azure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
The Dynamic Data Center Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Availability of Microsoft’s Cloud-Computing Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Additional Resources for Microsoft’s Cloud-Computing Initiative . . . . 447
Additional Resources for Windows Azure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
What do you think of this book? We want to hear from you!
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Acknowledgments
This book would not have been possible without the support and assistance of numerous
individuals. First, I would like to especially thank Michael Cooper, Senior Product Manager
and Field Technical Community Lead for System Center and Virtualization Business Group;
Aurora Santiago, Product Manager for System Center and Virtualization Technical Readiness;
and Kenon Owens, Technical Product Marketing Manager for Integrated Virtualization, all
of whom helped drive this project forward and provided liaison with other members of the
virtualization team at Microsoft. Next, my sincere thanks to each of following experts at
Microsoft who provided key technical insights, peer-reviewed chapter content, contributed
Direct from the Source sidebars, and assisted me in many other ways with this project:
Aaron Holzer, Alex Balcanquall, Arun Jayendran, Balagopan Nikhil, Chuck Timon, Fei Lu, Isaac
Roybal, Karri Alexio-Tiernan, Max Herrmann, Megan Kidd, Mohit Srivastava, Peter Ballantyne,
Prashant Ketkar, Ran Kohavi, Ran Oelgiesser, Rick Kingslan, Vipul Shah and Wole Moses
Thanks also to Brett Polen of Xtreme Consulting Group, Rex Backman of Simplicity
Consulting, and Nicole Pargoff of iSoftStone who assisted me with certain topics covered in
this book. Special thanks to Bill Noonan, Mark Kitris, and the CTS Global Technical Readiness
(GTR) team at Microsoft for contributing their expertise to this project.
I’d also like to thank again others at Microsoft together with several Microsoft Most Valuable
Professionals (MVPs) who contributed their expertise to the previous edition of this book,
namely:
Anshul Rawat, Baldwin Ng, David Greschler, Edwin Yuen, Falko Gräfe, James O’Neill, Jason
Leznek, Jeff Woolsey, Kalle Saunamäki Kyle Beck, Michelle Foley, Ming Zhu, Peter Larsen,
Sean Donahue and Tim Mangan
Next, special thanks Devon Musgrave, the development editor for this project, and Valerie
Woolley, the project editor for this project, both of whom work at Microsoft Press. I’ve
­enjoyed working with on this book and hope to do so again on another one in the near
­future. Thanks also to Steve Sagman of Waypoint Press who managed the editing and
­production for this book, to Bob Hogan the technical editor for this project, and to the
­ever-insightful Roger LeBlanc who copy edited the manuscript. Thanks also to Ken Jones who
was project planner for this title.
As always, heartfelt thanks to my friend and agent, Neil Salkind of the Salkind Agency, which
is part of Studio B Productions, Inc.
And last but never least, thanks to my wife, Ingrid, for her encouragement and support
­during this project.
—Mitch Tulloch
ix
-
Introduction
Welcome to Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the
Datacenter, 2nd Edition. This is the book for IT p
­ rofessionals who want to learn more about
the latest Microsoft virtualization technologies, including Hyper-V and Remote Desktop
Services in Windows Server 2008 R2, Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure, Microsoft
Application Virtualization 4.5, Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization, Windows Virtual
PC and Windows XP Mode, System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008, and Microsoft’s
private and public cloud computing platforms ­including Windows Azure.
Who Is This Book For?
The primary target audience for this book is IT administrators, implementers, and decision
makers of large and mid-sized organizations who want to learn about the benefits of the
latest virtualization technologies and how to plan, implement, and manage virtual infrastructure solutions based on these technologies. The book assumes that you are familiar with core
Windows Server technologies and how to implement an Active Directory Domain Services
infrastructure. The book also assumes you have experience working with the latest client and
server versions of Windows, namely Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Finally, the
book assumes you are already familiar with earlier Microsoft virtualization products such as
Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 and Microsoft Virtual PC 2007.
How This Book Is Organized
The book is intended to be read from cover to cover and will give you a good understanding
of the capabilities, features, and operation of Microsoft virtualization technologies. You can
also read individual chapters to gain an understanding of a particular product or technology.
The topics covered by the various chapters are as follows:
n
Chapter 1: Why Virtualization? This chapter provides an overview of Microsoft’s
­integrated virtualization solution and how it plays a key role in Dynamic IT, Microsoft’s
strategy for enabling agile business. The chapter also describes the benefits businesses
can achieve through virtualization and how Microsoft’s virtualization platforms, products and technologies can help these businesses move their IT infrastructures toward
the goal of Dynamic IT.
xi
xii
Introduction
n
Chapter 2: Server Virtualization This chapter covers the Hyper-V role of Windows
Server 2008 R2 and Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 and how these platforms can be
used to manage virtualization server workloads in the datacenter. The chapter explores
features of Hyper-V including the new Live Migration feature of Windows Server 2008
R2. It also describes the benefits of deploying Hyper-V, and various usage scenarios.
n
Chapter 3: Local Desktop Virtualization This chapter describes various Microsoft
virtualization technologies that enable client operating systems and applications to
run within a virtualized environment hosted on the user’s computer. The platforms
and products covered in this chapter include Windows Virtual PC and the Windows
XP Mode environment, Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization (MED-V), and
Microsoft Application Virtualization (App-V).
n
Chapter 4: Remote Desktop Virtualization This chapter describes various Microsoft
virtualization technologies that enable client operating systems and applications to
run within a virtualized environment hosted on a server located in the datacenter. The
platforms and products covered in this chapter include Remote Desktop Services in
Windows Server 2008 R2, Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), and App-V for
Remote Desktop Services.
n
Chapter 5: Virtualization Management This chapter describes how System Center
Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 2008 can be used to centrally manage all aspects of
a virtualized IT infrastructure. The chapter explains how VMM works and explores how
to use the platform to manage virtual machines running on Windows Server 2008 R2
Hyper-V servers. The chapter also describes the benefits of the other members of the
System Center family of products.
n
Chapter 6: Cloud Computing This chapter examines Microsoft’s emerging cloud
computing platform, how it works, and what benefits businesses can obtain from it.
The chapter examines both private and public cloud solutions including Windows
Azure, and describes how Microsoft’s Dynamic Data Center Toolkit can be used to integrate cloud computing as a part of your virtualized IT infrastructure.
Conventions Used in This Book
The following elements have been used in this book to help keep the text clear and easy to
follow:
n
Note Provides additional detail or a sidelight on the topic under discussion
n
Tip Gives you some cool pointers that you’ll probably want to know because they will
make your job easier
n
Caution Informs you of things to be aware of so that you can avoid potential pitfalls
Introduction
xiii
An important feature of the book is sidebars written by Microsoft product groups and
experts in the field. Sidebars written by individuals or teams inside Microsoft are titled
Direct from the Source; sidebars written by other experts such as Microsoft Most Valuable
Professionals (MVPs) are titled Direct from the Field.
Other Virtualization Resources
While this book is intended as a broad introduction to the technical aspects and benefits
of Microsoft virtualization technologies, Microsoft provides many other useful resources
from which you can learn more about these technologies. These resources include Microsoft
TechNet, Microsoft bloggers, and other online resources. To help you find the most relevant
resources, each chapter concludes with an “Additional Resources” section that provides
­descriptions and URLs for these resources.
Contact the Author
Feel free to contact me at [email protected] if you have comments, questions, or suggestions
regarding anything in this book. Although I respond to all queries from readers and will do
my best to answer your question to your satisfaction, I cannot provide readers with technical
support.
Support
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this book. As corrections or changes
are collected, they will be added to a Microsoft Knowledge Base article accessible via the
Microsoft Help and Support site. Microsoft Press provides support for books, including
­instructions for finding Knowledge Base articles, at the following Web site:
http://www.microsoft.com/learning/support/books
If you have questions regarding the book that are not answered by visiting the site above or
viewing a Knowledge Base article, send them to Microsoft Press via e-mail to
[email protected]
Please note that Microsoft software product support is not offered through these addresses.
xiv
Introduction
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Chapter 1
Why Virtualization?
I’m writing this chapter as the first decade of the twenty-first century draws to a close,
and the fundamental point I want to convey in my book is this: businesses of all sizes need
­virtualization more than ever before.
Why? Because times have changed. With the global economy in the doldrums, the
key c­ oncern for many businesses is survival—how to keep the lights turned on. And
­virtualization—with its potential gains in efficiency and ability to lower costs—is viewed by
many businesses as a key strategy to enable their future survival in the marketplace.
Survival is not their only concern, however. Based on surveys conducted by Microsoft, some
specific concerns of businesses at this time in history include
n
How to control capital expenditures (CapEx) and make operational expenditures (OpEx)
more predictable
n
How to create more business value by providing services faster yet cheaper
n
How to make their business more “Green” while avoiding higher costs
n
How to ensure security, safeguard privacy, and meet compliance regulations and
standards
These are some of the key concerns that are driving the spending decisions of today’s
­businesses, and virtualization can address each one of these concerns. A recent study that
surveyed Chief Information Officers (CIOs) indicated that more than one third of respondents
identified server, storage, and cloud virtualization as drivers of their spending decisions for
2009 and 2010, and almost one quarter of respondents also identified desktop virtualization
as similar drivers. The study even indicated that virtualization would influence their spending
decisions more than issues such as labor optimization, wireless computing, Green computing,
or security concerns.
As a result of these concerns, more businesses than ever are investigating how Microsoft
virtualization platforms, products, and solutions can help them address their concerns. In
other words, more businesses than ever are aligning themselves with Dynamic IT, Microsoft’s
strategic vision for implementing IT infrastructures that can automatically adjust to changing
business conditions by aligning computing resources with business objectives.
1
2
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Understanding Dynamic IT
The goal of Dynamic IT is to lower cost and improve business agility by establishing a highly
optimized IT infrastructure that can respond to changing needs in an automated fashion. A
dynamic IT infrastructure is one that is
n
Logically based instead of physically based
n
Managed by policy
n
Services based
n
Federated and connected
n
State aware and self-healing
n
Highly available
n
Secure
Dynamic IT infrastructures have efficient development-to-IT operations and can include any
combination of on-premise, off-premise, and hosted IT services.
Most businesses today have not achieved the ideal of Dynamic IT, but many are steadily
progressing toward this vision. Microsoft’s Infrastructure Optimization Model can help you
evaluate where your own organization is located on the continuum that ranges from the
­traditional enterprise to the dynamic datacenter.
Microsoft’s Infrastructure Optimization Model
Without an IT environment that is efficient, reliable, and easily managed—at the lowest
­possible cost—businesses today won’t survive. This observation is true particularly in the
midmarket sector, where the pressure to grow your business is greatest, where competition
for IT talent is most intense, and where budgetary constraints are often felt the hardest.
As a response to the needs of this segment, Microsoft developed the IT Infrastructure
Optimization Model, a framework that helps you understand and improve your organization’s IT infrastructure by using specific, concrete actionable items. The framework outlines
the steps a business can take to determine where it is today with its IT infrastructure, where it
needs to go, and exactly how to get there. The application of this framework can help a business create an IT environment that is easy to manage and makes the most efficient use of IT
resources—including people, hardware, and software—as might be possible.
Microsoft’s Infrastructure Optimization Model is particularly helpful for midsized businesses because they generally don’t have the luxury of having a large IT staff. Yet they do
have a critical need for an IT infrastructure that provides the level of service their workers
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
3
need when operating in today’s business environments. Workers today need quick access
to ­corporate resources, an ability to easily communicate and collaborate online, and the
most up-to-date business tools in order to perform their jobs. Microsoft’s Infrastructure
Optimization Model—together with virtualization as a key enabler of this framework—can
help make this happen for your company.
As shown in Figure 1-1, Microsoft’s Infrastructure Optimization Model defines your existing
IT infrastructure as being in one of four possible categories: Basic, Standardized, Rationalized,
and Dynamic. These categories range from least optimized (Basic) to most optimized
(Dynamic).
Basic
Standardized
Rationalized
Dynamic
FIGURE 1-1 Microsoft’s Infrastructure Optimization Model.
Basic IT Infrastructure
A typical Basic IT infrastructure is one characterized by manual, localized business processes;
minimal central control of resources; and nonexistent or unenforced IT policies and standards
for security, backup, deployment, compliance, and other common IT practices. In a Basic IT
infrastructure, the health of your applications and services is generally unknown because of
a lack of suitable tools and resources for gauging this. In addition, patch management, software deployment, and desktop services are provisioned and maintained manually.
Standardized IT Infrastructure
A typical Standardized infrastructure builds on the Basic one by introducing controls through
implementing standards and policies for managing desktops and servers, controlling provisioning and deployment of computers onto the network, and using Active Directory Domain
Services (AD DS) to centralize management of network resources, security policies, and access control. Patch management, software deployments, and desktop services have been
4
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
partially automated using light-touch technologies. Efforts are made for inventorying hardware and software and for managing licenses. Security at the perimeter of the network has
been enhanced by the use of a firewall and malware filtering, but security inside the network
is not yet a primary focus.
Rationalized IT Infrastructure
A typical Rationalized infrastructure is one in which the costs involved in managing desktops
and servers has been significantly lowered and the processes and policies that support your
business have been optimized. The approach to security is now proactive both at the perimeter and within the network, and threat response is methodical in its approach. Zero-touch
deployment technologies simplify software deployment and minimize cost. Hardware and
software are carefully inventoried, and the business purchases only the licenses it needs.
Dynamic IT Infrastructure
A typical Dynamic infrastructure is one in which the business is fully aware of the strategic
value of its IT infrastructure, and this awareness enables it to run its business efficiently and
remain ahead of competitors. IT costs are now fully controlled, and there is tight integration between users, data, desktops, and servers. Collaboration between users is pervasive,
and mobile users have nearly the same level of access as desktop users. IT processes have
been fully automated, which facilitates managing IT according to the needs of the business.
Any additional technology investments made by your IT department tend to yield specific,
measurable benefits for the operation of the business. Both manageability and security have
been greatly enhanced by the use of self-provisioning software and quarantine-like systems,
and these systems help ensure compliance with established security policies to improve reliability, lower costs, and increase service levels.
Virtualization and the Infrastructure Optimization Model
Where does your IT infrastructure fit in the Infrastructure Optimization Model? Are you at
the Basic or Standardized stage, or are you moving toward having a Rationalized or Dynamic
infrastructure? And how can implementing virtualization technologies help move your infrastructure further along toward the goal of an efficient, reliable Dynamic IT infrastructure?
Figure 1-2 summarizes some of the many benefits of virtualization technologies and how
these benefits align with the Infrastructure Optimization Model.
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
Basic
Standardized
Rationalized
Dynamic
Reduces
TCO
Increases
Availability
Enables
Dynamic IT
Accelerated server
provisioning/
consolidation
Simplified backup &
recovery
Transformation of
physical IT
infrastructure
(data center &
desktop) into
logical layers
Power/Space
reduction
Business continuity
built into model
App incompatibilities
eliminated
ROI in often less than
6 months
Dynamic
provisioning
Management
becomes policybased, enabling
self-managing
dynamic systems
FIGURE 1-2 How the business benefits of virtualization align with Microsoft’s IT Infrastructure
Optimization Model.
From Basic to Standardized
As the figure illustrates, from a business perspective, virtualization can help move your IT
infrastructure from the Basic stage to the Standardized stage by reducing your total cost of
ownership (TCO). Virtualization does this in the following ways:
n
Reducing power and space requirements By reducing the number of physical computers you need on your network to host your services and applications, virtualization
can help you reduce your power requirements and thus the cost of supplying power
for your IT infrastructure. And reducing the number of physical computers you need
also means less space is required in your server room or hosting area. The cost savings
involved can be especially significant in large data centers, where the amount of electricity needed to run thousands of computers, the amount of floor space you need to
lease to locate them, and the expensive cooling equipment needed to maintain them
can cause costs to reach six figures or higher each year.
5
6
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
n
Accelerating server provisioning and consolidation By enabling you to consolidate
multiple servers onto fewer physical computers, virtualization makes the utilization
of your IT assets more efficient. And by providing you with tools for quickly and easily provisioning servers, your infrastructure becomes more flexible and adaptive to
change.
n
Eliminating application incompatibility issues By allowing you to run older
­applications in their own virtual environments while running other applications
­simultaneously on the latest physical hardware, application compatibility issues are
minimized or even eliminated. In addition, you can retire the inefficient, old hardware
your older applications used to run on.
n
Rapid return on investment (ROI) All the aforementioned benefits of using
­virtualization to move your IT infrastructure toward the Standardized stage can result in
a significant ROI for your business, even in as short a time frame as six months.
From Standardized to Rationalized
From a business perspective, virtualization can also help move your infrastructure from the
Standardized stage to the Rationalized stage by increasing the availability of business-critical
applications and services. Virtualization does this in the following ways:
n
Simplifying backup and recovery By enabling you to back up and recover entire
­virtual machines easily, virtualization helps rationalize your backup and restore processes, making them simpler to use and more reliable. Recovering from backup becomes
a rapid process that minimizes service interruptions for workers and customers, thus
increasing availability of business-critical network services.
n
Enhancing business continuity By allowing you to capture point-in-time snapshots of
running virtual machines, you can save an image of the machine that you can then return to at any later stage if needed. From a business-continuity perspective, this means
you can recover your business more quickly after a disaster. For example, snapshots of
virtual machines can quickly be restored onto hardware located at a standby location,
allowing the business to resume operations with minimal interruption. This enhanced
capability for business continuity is built right into the virtualization business model.
You can also gain enhanced disaster recovery capabilities by replicating your storage
area network (SAN) from one location to another and by using stretch clustering.
n
Enabling dynamic storage provisioning Virtualization also enables the addition or
removal of virtualized storage resources as needed. The flexibility provided by dynamic
storage provisioning not only reduces costs by preventing underutilization of storage
resources, it also prevents storage capacity from running out and causing application
crashes. For example, virtual machines can be automatically unmapped from a lower
priority use, reconfigured as might be needed, and quickly brought up for some new
use to meet evolving demand.
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
7
From Rationalized to Dynamic
From a business perspective, virtualization can also help move your infrastructure from the
Rationalized stage to the Dynamic stage by increasing the agility (flexibility and responsiveness to change) of your infrastructure. Virtualization does this in the following ways:
n
Providing a logical IT infrastructure By enabling you to view and manage your IT
infrastructure as a series of logical layers instead of a collection of physical hardware,
virtualization simplifies the provisioning, management, and troubleshooting of systems
and applications. These benefits can be felt throughout your infrastructure—from the
data center to the desktop.
n
Facilitating self-managing dynamic systems The holy grail of business computing is
an agile IT infrastructure that enhances the dynamic capabilities of people, processes,
and technology. Microsoft’s Dynamic IT, formerly known as Dynamic Systems Initiative
(DSI), is designed to provide technology and solutions that enable businesses to be as
agile as possible, and agility is a key to success in the fast-moving world of the Internet
economy. And as described next, virtualization is one of the key enablers of Dynamic IT.
Benefits of Virtualization
Virtualization is a key driver that can help you move your IT infrastructure to the Dynamic
stage of Microsoft’s Infrastructure Optimization Model. To accomplish this, Microsoft provides a broad selection of virtualization technologies, platforms and products that make it
easier than ever to achieve the goal of Dynamic IT.
How Virtualization Enables Dynamic IT
Three major business benefits of virtualization are lower total cost of ownership (TCO),
­increased availability, and improved business agility. Your business can achieve these benefits
by implementing a virtualization solution that takes advantage of the different capabilities of
Microsoft virtualization technologies, platforms, and products that can help you realize the
goal of Dynamic IT.
Cost is usually the most important consideration for a business upgrading its IT infrastructure, and implementing a Microsoft virtualization solution allows you to lower your TCO by
n
Increasing hardware utilization to ensure more efficient use of resources through server
consolidation
n
Reducing power consumption and use of space in the datacenter
n
Reducing your licensing costs and other up-front costs
n
Simplifying application and desktop life-cycle management
n
Lowering operational costs for maintenance and training
8
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Another important consideration for today’s dynamic businesses is to increase server
­availability to ensure that services are provided to customers without delay or interruption.
Microsoft’s virtualization technologies can help you in this area by enabling you to do the
following:
n
Increase your service levels, and minimize disruption to services
n
Reduce application and desktop deployment time by using virtual applications and
­virtual desktops
n
Enhance desktop business continuity across your organization
Another key goal of Dynamic IT is to improve business agility. In today’s highly competitive
global marketplace, being able to respond to market changes by being flexible and efficient
is a critical key to ongoing success. Microsoft virtualization products help you increase your
business agility by
n
Integrating your physical, virtual, and application management
n
Enabling flexible desktop and application deployments
n
Resolving application compatibility issues that can block desktop migration to the
­latest version of Windows
n
Providing capacity on demand that accelerates responses to changing business needs
These three drivers of lowering TCO, increasing availability, and making business more agile
can be applied to three different areas of how IT services are delivered:
n
Datacenter virtualization The virtual datacenter forms the foundation of a dynamic
IT infrastructure that can rapidly change in response to changing workloads and demands. The Hyper-V role in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Microsoft Hyper-V Server R2
form the foundation of Microsoft’s solution for virtualizing the datacenter. These platforms are described in detail in Chapter 2, “Server Virtualization.”
n
Client virtualization Virtualizing desktop operating systems and applications ­allows
users to have access to the resources they need from anywhere in order to get their
work done. This optimized desktop scenario is enabled by a number of Microsoft
technologies and products, including Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server
2008 R2, Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), Microsoft Enterprise Desktop
Virtualization, Microsoft Application Virtualization, and Windows Virtual PC and the
Windows XP Mode environment. These client virtualization technologies are described
in detail in Chapter 3, “Local Desktop Virtualization” and Chapter 4, “Remote Desktop
Virtualization.”
n
Cloud virtualization Cloud computing makes your business more agile by enabling
you to expand or contract your IT infrastructure on demand to provide your users with
the resources they need to consume when they need them. Microsoft’s private and
public cloud computing platforms are described in Chapter 6, “Cloud Computing.”
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
9
While these three pillars of datacenter, client, and cloud virtualization are necessary to enable
Dynamic IT, they aren’t sufficient. The final piece needed for this is a fourth pillar: a unified
management platform that can manage all aspects of the physical, virtual, and cloud computing resources, including hardware, servers, desktops, applications, and user settings and
data. (See Figure 1-3.). Without such an integrated management platform, your virtualized
IT infrastructure is just so many disconnected pieces and cannot fulfill the potential of the
Dynamic IT vision. Microsoft’s unified management platform for doing this is the Microsoft
System Center family of products, particularly a key product from this family—System
Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008—is described in detail in Chapter 5, “Virtualization
Management.”
Management
Unify physical, virtual, and application components and services
Datacenter
Cloud
Client
Dynamic Foundation
On-Demand
Infrastructure
Optimized Desktops
FIGURE 1-3 The four pillars of Dynamic IT.
Achieving the Benefits of Datacenter Virtualization
Server consolidation—running multiple virtual servers on a single physical host—is clearly
one technique you can use to save your organization money by enabling you to better use
your IT resources. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Microsoft Hyper-V Server R2 provide you with the tools you need to consolidate servers in your datacenter.
Server consolidation by itself is not enough, however, because it results in a series of silos—
separate physical hosts with virtual machines running on them. This structure creates a situation in which when a physical host goes down, the virtual machines on that host also go
down, and that leads to service interruptions that can cost your organization money.
A more dynamic solution is to create a clustered pool of hosts in which virtual servers
can be easily moved from one host to another. When a host needs to be taken down for
­maintenance, the virtual servers running on the host are temporarily moved to another host
so that services are uninterrupted. The result is higher availability of services and ­happier
10
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
c­ ustomers. The new Live Migration feature of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 and
Microsoft Hyper-V Server R2, enabled through the enhanced Failover Clustering feature of
Windows Server 2008 R2, makes it possible to create such clustered pooled resources in your
datacenter.
Another benefit of being able to create such clustered pools is the ability to increase the
agility of your IT infrastructure by allowing you to move virtual servers between hosts to better balance the use of your resources. By adding Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine
Manager (VMM) to the mix, not only can you easily perform a Live Migration, but you can
also easily add virtual servers to hosts or remove virtual servers from hosts to meet changing
demand.
From the perspective of the users who access these servers to perform their work, it doesn’t
matter which host a particular virtual server is running on. All that matters is that the virtual
server is always available.
Achieving the Benefits of Client Virtualization
Business agility can be significantly increased through being able to work anytime, anywhere,
using any device. Today’s business users need to be able to access applications and services
on a variety of platforms, including desktop computers, laptop computers, netbooks, and
mobile phones. Whether the user is sitting at her own desk or at a branch office, at a partner
site, at home, in an airport lounge, in a coffee shop, or in her car—if she can’t run her applications or access corpnet services, she can’t do her work. Microsoft desktop virtualization
technologies, such as Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Microsoft
VDI, can help make such “anytime, anywhere, any device” access a reality for your business.
Significant costs can be saved by making application deployment and maintenance faster
and easier. Traditional application deployment ties the client operating system and installed
applications to the hardware. The result is that the more different types of hardware devices
the user needs to access, the more work it is for your IT department to deploy and maintain
these devices. For example, if a user has a desktop PC, laptop, and mobile phone that are all
managed devices on your network, the operating systems for each device must be separately
installed and maintained, and the applications for each device must also be separately installed and maintained.
By using virtualization to separate desktop operating systems and applications from the
hardware they run on, however, the deployment and maintenance of such operating systems
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
11
and applications becomes easier. This can be achieved in two different ways: by virtualizing
desktop operating systems or applications as they run on the user’s device (an approach
called local desktop virtualization) or by centralizing the execution of virtual desktop operating systems or applications on servers located in the datacenter (an approach called remote
desktop virtualization). Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization, Microsoft Application
Virtualization, and Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP Mode environment are three
Microsoft virtualization solutions that can be used to implement local desktop virtualization for your business. And to implement remote desktop virtualization, you can use Remote
Desktop Services in Windows Server 2008 R2 alone or as part of a Microsoft VDI solution.
Desktop virtualization not only reduces the effort and cost of deploying and maintaining
desktops and applications; it also helps resolve application compatibility issues that can
make traditional deployment difficult and time-consuming. By using Microsoft Application
Virtualization, for example, you can reduce application-to-application conflicts that can arise
when a user needs to run two different versions of the same application but is unable to install both versions locally on the same computer. And for resolving application-to-operating
system compatibility issues, you can use a managed solution such as Microsoft Enterprise
Desktop Virtualization when many users face such issues. Or if only a few users have such
­issues, you can use Windows XP Mode and Windows Virtual PC.
Achieving the Benefits of Cloud Virtualization
Cloud computing can significantly increase the agility of your business by enabling you to
have capacity on demand. As your business needs and resource requirements change, you
can quickly consume either more or less IT infrastructure resources as needed. Such virtualized infrastructure resources can be located either on your premises (by implementing a
private cloud solution) or off-premises (by using a public cloud solution implemented by a
hosting service provider).
Another benefit from cloud virtualization is that it reduces the management complexity of
your IT infrastructure. Your IT department can simply purchase the cloud services it needs,
in the amount it needs, whenever the need arises. The result is increased business agility
and lower cost. By combining Microsoft server, desktop, and application technologies with
the System Center management platform and the automation capabilities of Microsoft’s
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit, both private enterprises and hosting service providers can
implement cloud computing solutions that deliver the benefits of Dynamic IT.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Windows Optimized Desktop Scenarios
Users can benefit in many ways from implementing virtualization technologies within your IT
infrastructure. Here are five client computing scenarios common to today’s businesses that
can directly benefit from virtualization:
n
The mobile worker
n
The office worker
n
The task worker
n
The contract or offshore worker
n
The worker who needs to access to his applications or data from anywhere
As we briefly examine each of these different client computing scenarios, known as Windows
Optimized Desktop Scenarios, you will see how users in your organization can benefit from
the implementation of Microsoft’s virtualization technologies, platforms, and products.
Mobile Worker Scenario
Businesses are increasingly relying on a mobile workforce to meet the demands of the
­evolving marketplace, and Microsoft Application Virtualization (App-V) together with
Windows roaming desktop technologies (Roaming User Profiles, Folder Redirection and
Offline Files) can bring big benefits to both the mobile users themselves and the IT departments that manage them. Specifically, App-V and Windows roaming desktop technologies
provide the following end-user benefits for mobile workers:
n
A rich user experience that enables users to run multiple applications simultaneously
and that, from the user’s perspective, feels the same as having these applications
­installed locally and having data accessible locally on his computer
n
Flexible configurations for managing the roaming user data and settings in different
ways
n
The ability to access applications and data when not connected to the company
network
And adding BitLocker Drive Encryption to the formula ensures that the environment for the
mobile workforce is a secure, reliable, and efficient option for enterprises to move toward.
From the IT side, implementing App-V and Windows roaming desktop technologies provides
the following benefits when managing mobile workers and their computers:
n
Safeguarding user data through centralized profile storage, redirection of folders to
network file servers, or both
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
n
The ability to migrate user data and settings from previous versions of Windows to
Windows 7 by using the User State Migration Tool (USMT)
n
The ability to share user data between v1 and v2 user profiles by using Folder
Redirection
13
Office Worker Scenario
In a traditional office worker environment where users have desktop computers, three
­virtualization technologies (App-V, Remote Desktop Services, and Windows roaming desktop
technologies) can provide significant benefits for both users and the IT department.
From the perspective of the office worker, the benefits are similar to two of those for mobile
users described in the previous section—namely, a rich user experience and flexible configurations for managing roaming user data and settings. The ability to access applications and
data when not connected to the network is not an issue, however, because uninterrupted
network connectivity is a defining aspect of this scenario.
From the IT department perspective, implementing these virtualization technologies
­provides the following direct benefits:
n
Simplifies desktop maintenance and application upgrades, and reduces the need to
­replace PCs
n
Simplifies the task of moving users to different desktop computers when they are
transferred between departments or locations
n
Helps to ensure compliance by enabling sensitive applications to be executed centrally
on servers instead of on less secure desktop computers
Task Worker Scenario
Task workers generally need access to only a few task-specific applications to be able to perform their job. Examples of such workers include bank tellers, customer service personnel,
shipping/receiving personnel. Remote Desktop Services, Microsoft’s presentation virtualization technology, is ideal in this scenario because it can provide users with the specific remote
applications they need by using Remote Desktop Services RemoteApps or it can provide
them with an entire remote desktop if this is required. Combining Remote Desktop Services
with Group Policy in an Active Directory environment allows administrators to lock down
functionality presented to users and provide them with a limited, task-oriented user interface
that enables them to do their job and nothing else.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
IT departments also benefit significantly in this scenario because Remote Desktop Services
enables centralized management and enhanced security at a lower cost than other clientcomputing scenarios. In addition, businesses that want to leverage older hardware can
also use Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (WinFLP), which gives organizations the
­opportunity to extend the life of their older PCs and provides task workers with a costefficient, no-frills client device that, when used with Remote Desktop Services, supplies them
with all the business application functionality they require.
Contract/Offshore Worker Scenario
Businesses that need to hire outside contractors or offshore developers often cope with
­having unmanaged, noncorporate PCs connected to their network. Connecting unmanaged
PCs to your corporate network can expose your network to possible threats from malwareinfected computers. And if access is not carefully controlled, your sensitive business information might also be exposed. Microsoft’s recommended virtualization solution in this case is to
use Windows Virtual Enterprise Centralized Desktop (VECD). VECD is a unique licensing option of Microsoft’s Virtualized Desktop Infrastructure that—when implemented with Hyper-V,
App-V, WinFLP, and Vista Roaming Desktop technologies—can provide access to the right
applications and data, and nothing else.
IT departments also benefit in this scenario by having centralized management of applications and data. Security and compliance are also facilitated by these technologies. And
although this scenario might be a little more complex to implement than, say, setting up a
Remote Desktop Session Host server or two, the benefit of having your business secrets safe
while allowing lower-cost contract or offshore workers to access your network are clear and
compelling for most organizations.
Anywhere-Access Scenario
Sometimes a user needs to access her applications or data but cannot get into the office—
for example, during a snowstorm, while away on vacation, or simply when at home during
the evening. If your users need “anywhere access” like this from computers not owned by
the company, you can provide it for them by using Remote Desktop Gateway, which allows
users to access their individual applications or their entire desktop through Remote Desktop
Services over the Internet from any computer running Windows 7, Windows Vista with
Service Pack 1, or Windows XP with Service Pack 3 or by using Internet Explorer.
The benefits for users in this scenario are clear: secure access to their desktop, applications,
and data from anywhere, at anytime. The benefits for IT departments that implement these
solutions are also compelling and include centralized management, security, and compliance.
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
15
Microsoft’s Integrated Virtualization Solution
What really distinguishes Microsoft’s vision and strategy for virtualization from that of its
competitors is this: instead of providing products that implement only one or two types of
virtualization technologies, Microsoft offers businesses a comprehensive and integrated set
of virtualization platforms and products that range from the datacenter to the desktop and
allows all your IT assets—including both physical and virtual assets—to be easily managed
from a single integrated management platform.
Figure 1-4 summarizes how Microsoft’s various virtualization platforms, products, and
­technologies provide a comprehensive, integrated solution to organizations seeking to
­implement the benefits of virtualization in their IT infrastructures.
Management
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 and other System Center products
Datacenter
Hyper-V in Windows
Server 2008 R2
Microsoft Hyper-V
Server 2008 R2
Cloud
Client
Microsoft Dynamic
Data Center Toolkit
for Enterprises
Remote Desktop
Services in Windows
Server 2008 R2
Microsoft Dynamic
Data Center Toolkit
for Hosters
Microsoft Virtual
Desktop Infrastructure
Windows Azure
Microsoft Enterprise
Desktop Virtualization
Microsoft Application
Virtualization
Windows Virtual PC
and Windows XP Mode
FIGURE 1-4 Microsoft’s integrated virtualization solution.
The remaining chapters of this book will dig deeper into each of the virtualization
­technologies, platforms, and products listed in the Figure 1-4. But for now, let’s conclude
this introductory chapter with a simple question: Why should I use Microsoft’s virtualization
technologies, platforms, and products instead of those of a competitor? Four answers to this
question immediately come to mind.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
First, Microsoft is the platform you know and has created the tools you are familiar with.
Windows Server 2008 R2 is the latest version of Microsoft’s Windows Server operating
system, and in addition to features such as Hyper-V, it also includes enhanced versions of
features present in previous Windows Server operating systems, such as Remote Desktop
Services and Failover Clustering. And because Microsoft virtualization technologies leverage existing product features, such as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the path to
learning is clear and training costs are reduced for both IT personnel and end users.
Second, in addition to the integrated suite of virtualization technologies, platforms, and
products offered by Microsoft, there also exists a large and thriving partner ecosystem
­surrounding these technologies, platforms, and products. This clearly gives you another
­compelling reason to implement Microsoft virtualization solutions instead of those from
competing vendors.
Third, Microsoft not only provides you with the technologies to virtualize your servers,
­desktops, and applications, it also provides you with the tools to manage these technologies,
regardless of which components of your infrastructure are physical and which are logical
or virtual. Microsoft’s management solutions also support interoperability with third-party
­virtualization solutions from vendors such as VMware, allowing you to manage a cross-­
hypervisor virtual environment.
Finally, Microsoft virtualization solutions can provide better TCO than any vendor’s virtualization solution and the fastest return on investment. With both lower up-front cost and lower
ongoing cost in many scenarios, with a comprehensive and integrated set of virtualization
products, and with tools that let you manage both virtual and physical computing resources
from a single management platform, Microsoft virtualization products and technologies can
clearly help you solve the critical technological and business issues facing your business.
Microsoft’s Commitment to Virtualization
In conclusion, I remind you of what Steve Ballmer, CEO of Microsoft, said at the Microsoft
Management Summit back in 2005 (from “Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer Affirms Commitment
to Dynamic Systems Initiative” on Microsoft PressPass, April 5, 2005):
“We’ve heard from our enterprise IT customers loud and clear that they need
their systems to be more automated and flexible. That’s why we’re investing in
the Dynamic Systems Initiative and areas like virtualization, more secure network
access and interoperability—we’re committed to helping IT deliver greater
efficiency and value.”
This year (2009) saw the release of the following Microsoft virtualization products:
n
Windows Server 2008 R2 with its enhanced Remote Desktop Services and Hyper-V
roles and its support for Cluster Shared Volumes that enables Live Migration
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
n
Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2
n
Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode
n
Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack 2009 R2 with Windows 7 support for Microsoft
Enterprise Desktop Virtualization 1.0 and Microsoft Application Virtualization 4.5 SP1
17
With the release of these products, Microsoft continues to fulfill its commitment to providing
an integrated virtualization solution that reaches all the way from the datacenter to the desktop, down to individual applications, and up to the cloud.
Direct from the Source: The Compelling Argument for
Virtualization
There’s no doubt that virtualization is one of the most compelling technologies, and for
good reason. From server consolidation to business continuity to accelerated desktop
deployments to Green IT, virtualization is a key enabler for making IT more dynamic,
efficient, and agile. However, today a number of barriers are blocking wide-scale adoption of virtualization, including deployment complexities, training, and high costs.
To overcome those barriers, Microsoft is offering virtualization products that cover
everything from the datacenter to the desktop, including comprehensive management solutions. The Microsoft approach is to make it as seamless as possible to integrate virtualization into your existing IT environment. On the server, Microsoft
Hyper-V and Remote Desktop Services are key features of Windows Server 2008 R2.
So if you know Microsoft Windows Server, you’ll know virtualization. On the desktop,
Microsoft Application Virtualization integrates with Active Directory, making it easy to
add to your existing desktop environments while accelerating migrations to Windows
7. And all Microsoft virtualization products can be managed with System Center, so
you can manage your virtual infrastructure the same way you manage your physical
infrastructure.
But it doesn’t end here. Microsoft sees virtualization as a strategic investment that will
provide a foundation for the next generation of IT innovation, so it’s continuing to
develop its virtualization products and work closely with its partners so that Microsoft
customers have all they need to make virtualization ubiquitous across their entire IT
infrastructure. Virtualization is just the beginning of something much bigger.
—David Greschler, Director, Integrated Virtualization Strategy
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Additional Resources
The resources listed in this section were either referred to in the chapter or provide
­additional information concerning concepts and products discussed in this chapter.
General
For a brief history of IBM virtual machines, see http://www.cap-lore.com/Software/CP.html.
Bob Muglia’s executive e-mail on virtualization technologies can be found at
http://www.­microsoft.com/mscorp/execmail/2008/01-21virtualization.mspx.
Steve Ballmer’s commitment to Microsoft’s Dynamic Systems Initiative (now called Dynamic
IT), which includes virtualization, can be found at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/
press/2005/Apr05/04-20VirtualizationInvestmentsPR.mspx.
Microsoft’s IT Infrastructure Optimization Model
You can find a description of Microsoft’s IT Infrastructure Optimization Model, together with
specific recommendations for moving your infrastructure from the Basic stage toward the
Dynamic stage, at the Infrastructure Optimization TechCenter on Microsoft TechNet at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-ca/infrastructure/default.aspx.
Another good source of information is the Infrastructure Optimization blog on TechNet at
http://blogs.technet.com/io/default.aspx.
Microsoft’s Dynamic IT
Bob Muglia, senior vice president of the Server and Tools Business at Microsoft, outlined
Microsoft’s strategic vision for Dynamic IT at TechEd 2007. You can read about it on Microsoft
PressPass at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/press/2007/jun07/06-04TechED07PR.mspx.
You can also watch videos of Bob Muglia and other senior leaders at Microsoft explaining the
benefits of Dynamic IT at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/press/2007/jun07/­
06-­0 4DynamicITVideos.mspx.
Learn more about how virtualization technologies provide one of the architectural
­underpinnings of dynamic systems by downloading the virtualization white paper found at
http://www.microsoft.com/business/dsi/virtualization.mspx.
You can download a white paper in PDF format titled “Optimize and Secure Your
Core Infrastructure” from the Microsoft Download Center at http://download.microsoft.com/
download/8/d/8/8d8fd1f8-9af5-4ae9-898d-ffbe130d1ca9/Whitepaper-OSCI-all-up-­CoreIOFY08.pdf.
Chapter 1 Why Virtualization?
19
Microsoft Virtualization Technologies and Solutions
Get the big picture concerning Microsoft’s integrated virtualization vision and learn about
Microsoft’s various virtualization products and technologies at http://www.microsoft.com/
virtualization/default.mspx.
Read technical details concerning virtualization and partitioning on the Windows Hardware
Developer Central Web site at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/platform/virtual/­
default.mspx.
Stay up to date on the latest virtualization developments from Microsoft by subscribing to
the newsfeed of the Microsoft Windows Virtualization Product Group Team Blog at
http://blogs.technet.com/virtualization/default.aspx.
Windows Optimized Desktop Scenarios
For more information about how Microsoft virtualization technologies can benefit users
in different client computing scenarios, see http://www.microsoft.com/windows/products/­
windowsvista/enterprise/scenarios.mspx.
For additional examples of virtualization in action for different types of workers, see
http://www.microsoft.com/virtualization/action.mspx.
Chapter 2
Server Virtualization
A key benefit of virtualization technologies is server virtualization—the ability to virtualize
server workloads. Server virtualization can save businesses money and simplify management
overhead by allowing them to reduce the number of physical servers they need through
server consolidation. Microsoft offers three business-level server virtualization products.
The first is Microsoft Hyper-V, a hardware-assisted virtualization server role that is available
in Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2. The second is Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2, a
free standalone hypervisor-based server virtualization product that lets businesses virtualize
workloads onto a single physical server. And the third is Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1,
a server virtualization product that runs on Windows Server 2003 or later and can use, but
does not require, hardware-assisted virtualization.
This chapter focuses primarily on Hyper-V and describes how Hyper-V works, its key features,
and the new features and enhancements found in the R2 release of both the Hyper-V role
of Windows Server 2008 and the standalone Hyper-V Server product. The chapter then describes how to deploy and manage Hyper-V and how to use it to create and work with virtual
machines. The chapter concludes by summarizing the key benefits of using Hyper-V and
looking at common Hyper-V usage scenarios.
Understanding Server Virtualization
Hyper-V is an example of server (or machine) virtualization technology. What this means is
that Hyper-V allows you to virtualize entire computers by running multiple operating systems
(usually server operating systems) on a single physical computer (typically server-class hardware). Each guest operating system thinks (if operating systems could think) that it owns the
computer and has exclusive use of the computer’s hardware resources (or to whatever subset
of the total machine resources that have been allocated to the virtual machine). Each operating system is therefore said to be running in a separate virtual machine, with these multiple
virtual machines running on the same physical computer. In a typical nonvirtualized environment, only one operating system can run on a computer—it’s Hyper-V that makes running
multiple virtual machines possible. Clearly, we need to dig deeper into the concept of virtual
machines before we can understand how Hyper-V works.
Understanding Virtual Machines
A virtual machine is a computing environment that is implemented in software and that
­abstracts the hardware resources of the physical computer so that multiple operating
­systems can run simultaneously on a single computer. Each operating system runs in its
21
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
own virtual machine and is allocated logical instances of the computer’s processors, hard
disks, network cards, and other hardware resources. An operating system that is running in
a virtual machine is unaware that it is executing in a virtual environment and behaves as if it
­exclusively controls the underlying physical computer’s hardware.
Realizing virtual machines as described in the preceding paragraph means that server
­virtualization must be implemented in a way that meets the following requirements:
n
Management interfaces Server virtualization requires management interfaces so
that administrators can create, configure, and monitor virtual machines running on
the computer. These interfaces should also support programmatic administration, and
they must be able to work over the network so that virtual machines can be managed
remotely.
n
Memory management Server virtualization requires a memory manager, which
ensures that each virtual machine receives its allocation of memory resources and that
those memory resources are isolated between each virtual machine.
n
Scheduler Server virtualization requires a scheduler to manage access to physical resources by different virtual machines. The scheduler must be configurable by
the administrator so that different virtual machines can be given different priority to
­hardware as might be needed.
n
State machine Server virtualization requires a state machine that can track information concerning the current state of all virtual machines on the computer. State information for a virtual machine includes its CPU, memory, devices, and whether the virtual
machine is running or stopped. The state machine must also be designed to manage
transitions between different states.
n
Storage and networking Server virtualization requires functionality that can abstract
storage and networking resources on the computer so that each virtual machine is presented with the view that it owns its own exclusive hard disks and network interfaces. In
addition, machine virtualization must be able to multiplex access to physical devices in
a way that is consistent, isolated, and secure.
n
Virtualized devices Server virtualization requires virtualized devices that can provide
operating systems running in virtual machines with logical representations of devices
that behave in a similar manner as their physical counterparts. In other words, when an
operating system running in a virtual machine needs to access a physical device on the
computer, it does so by accessing a corresponding virtualized device, and this virtualized device is accessed in the same manner as a physical device would be accessed.
n
Virtual device drivers Server virtualization requires that virtual device drivers
be installed on operating systems running in virtual machines. These virtual device
­drivers enable applications to access the virtual representations of hardware and I/O
­connections in the same manner that they would access hardware and I/O connections
on the underlying physical hardware.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
23
As we’ll see in a moment, Microsoft designed Hyper-V, its server virtualization solution, to
meet all the above requirements. But first let’s examine the key software component that
makes server virtualization possible: the hypervisor.
Understanding Hypervisors
A hypervisor is a virtualization platform that enables you to run multiple operating systems
on a single physical computer called the host computer. The main function of the hypervisor
is to provide isolated execution environments for each virtual machine and to manage access
between the guest operating systems running in virtual machines and the underlying hardware resources on the physical computer.
The term “hypervisor” goes way back to 1972 when IBM updated the control program of
its System/370 mainframe computing platform to support virtualization. The creation of
the hypervisor was a milestone in the evolution of computing because it provided a way to
­overcome the architectural limitations and high cost of using mainframe computers.
Hypervisors come in several different flavors. They can be categorized, for example, by
type—that is, by whether they run directly on the physical hardware or within (hosted by)
an operating system environment. Hypervisors can also be categorized by design—that is,
whether they are monolithic or microkernel.
Type 1 Hypervisor
Type 1 hypervisors run directly on the underlying physical hardware of the host computers
and function as a control program. In other words, they run on bare-metal systems. Guest
operating systems then run within multiple virtual machines positioned above the hypervisor
layer as shown in Figure 2-1.
Type 1
VM1
VM2
VM3
Hypervisor
Hardware
FIGURE 2-1 Type 1 hypervisors run directly on bare metal.
Because Type 1 hypervisors run directly on bare metal instead of within an operating system
environment, they can generally provide the best performance, availability, and security of
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
any form of hypervisor. Some examples of server virtualization products that implement
Type 1 hypervisors include these:
n
Microsoft Hyper-V
n
Citrix XenServer
n
VMware ESX Server
Type 2 Hypervisor
Type 2 hypervisors run within an operating system environment running on the host
­computer. Guest operating systems then run within virtual machines above the hypervisor as
shown in Figure 2-2. This type of virtualization is typically referred to as hosted virtualization.
Type 2
VM1
VM2
VM3
Hypervisor
Operating System
Hardware
FIGURE 2-2 Type 2 hypervisors run within an operating system environment.
As you can see by comparing Figure 2-2 with Figure 2-1, guest operating systems running in
virtual machines on Type 2 hypervisor platforms are one level further separated from underlying physical hardware than guest operating systems on Type 1 hypervisor platforms. This
extra level of separation between the virtual machines and the hardware results in a performance hit being incurred on Type 2 hypervisor platforms, and the effect of this added overhead limits the number of virtual machines you can realistically run on Type 2 platforms.
Examples of server virtualization products that use Type 2 hypervisors include these:
n
Microsoft Virtual Server
n
VMware Server
The desktop machine virtualization product Microsoft Virtual PC also uses a Type 2
­hypervisor architecture.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
25
Monolithic Hypervisor
Monolithic hypervisor design involves using hypervisor-aware device drivers that are hosted
within and managed by the hypervisor as shown in Figure 2-3.
Monolithic
VM1
Admin
VM2
VM3
Hypervisor
Drivers
Hardware
FIGURE 2-3 Monolithic hypervisor platforms require hypervisor-aware device drivers.
The monolithic design choice results in some benefits but also some drawbacks. For example,
monolithic hypervisors do not need a controlling, or parent, operating system because all
guest operating systems interact directly with the underlying physical hardware of the host
computer by using hypervisor-aware device drivers. This is an example of the benefit of the
monolithic design.
On the other hand, the fact that device drivers must be specifically developed for the
­hypervisor creates significant challenges because there are so many different types of
­motherboards, storage controllers, network adapters, and other types of hardware devices
on the market. The result is that vendors of monolithic hypervisor platforms have to work
closely with manufacturers of hardware devices to ensure these manufacturers develop
hypervisor-aware versions of device drivers for their hardware. It also means that vendors
of monolithic hypervisor platforms are dependent on manufacturers of hardware devices to
supply such drivers for their products. The result is that the number of devices that can be
used in virtualized operating system environments running on monolithic hypervisor platforms can be more limited than when those same operating system environments are run
directly on physical computers.
One important point is that in this design you’re ignoring one of the most important ­security
tenets: defense in depth. With defense in depth, you provide multiple layers of defense to
prevent against attacks. In this model, there is no defense in depth because everything is
running in the most privileged part of the system.
An example of a server virtualization product that uses a monolithic hypervisor design is
VMware ESX Server.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Microkernel Hypervisors
Microkernel hypervisors do not require hypervisor-aware device drivers because they have
an operating system acting as the root, or parent, partition. This parent partition then provides the execution environment needed for device drivers to access the underlying physical
hardware of the host computer. We’ll talk more about partitions in a moment, but for now,
simply think of the term “partition” as being equivalent to the previously introduced concept
of a virtual machine.
On microkernel hypervisor platforms, you need to install device drivers only for physical
­devices in the operating system running in the parent partition. You do not need to install
these drivers in guest operating systems running in child partitions because when these
guest operating systems need to access physical hardware on the host computer, they simply
do so by communicating with the parent partition. In other words, in the microkernel design,
the guest operating systems do not have direct access to the underlying hardware. They can
access physical devices only by communicating with the parent partition. Figure 2-4 shows
the microkernel hypervisor design.
Microkernel
VM1 (Parent)
VM2 (Child)
VM3 (Child)
Drivers
Hypervisor
Hardware
FIGURE 2-4 Microkernel hypervisor platforms require that guest operating systems that want to access
­hardware must do so via the parent partition.
The microkernel hypervisor design has several advantages over the monolithic design.
First, because microkernel hypervisors do not need hypervisor-aware drivers, they can
­immediately use the wide range of existing drivers that are available from device manufacturers. Second, because device drivers are not part of the hypervisor, the hypervisor has less
overhead, which means it’s smaller and might therefore be more reliable. Third and perhaps
more importantly, the attack surface is minimized because foreign code is not loaded in the
hypervisor. (Device drivers are manufactured by third parties and are therefore considered
to be foreign code from the standpoint of the hypervisor vendor.) After all, the last thing you
want to have happen is for malware to infect your hypervisor and thus take control of all the
virtual operating systems running on your computer!
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
27
The only downside of the microkernel design is that a special partition, the parent partition,
is required. This adds measurable (but usually minimal) overhead to your system because of
the communication between parent and child partitions that is required to allow the child
partitions to access the hardware through the parent.
One great benefit to Hyper-V microkernelized architecture is the use of the defense in depth.
Hyper-V has been architected to run as little as possible in its hypervisor and push more
functionality up into the stack, such as its state machine and management interfaces, which
reside up the stack in user mode.
So what’s an example of a server virtualization platform that implements the microkernel
­design? You guessed it—it’s Microsoft Hyper-V, which runs Windows Server 2008 or later in
the parent partition.
Understanding the Hyper-V Architecture
Figure 2-5 shows the big picture concerning the Hyper-V architecture.
Ring 3
User
Mode
Ring 0
Kernel
Mode
Ring 1
Parent Partition
Child Partition
Child Partition
Child Partition
Windows
Server 2008 R2
Hyper-V Aware
Windows OS
Hyper-V Aware
Non-Windows
OS
Non-Hyper-V
Aware OS
Virtualization
Stack
Virtualization
Service Provider
(VSP)
Virtualization
Service
Consumer (VSC)
Device Drivers
Device Drivers
Enlightenments
3rd party VSC
VMBus
VMBus
VMBus
WinHv
WinHv
3rd party
Hypercall
Interface
Device Emulation
Hypercalls
Hypercalls
Hypercalls
Intercepts
Microsoft Hypervisor
Hardware
FIGURE 2-5 Overview of Hyper-V architecture.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
As you can see from Figure 2-5, Hyper-V consists of the Microsoft Hypervisor component
running on top of bare metal, which demonstrates that Hyper-V is a Type 1 hypervisor
platform. Running on top of the hypervisor are one parent partition and one or more child
partitions. In virtualization terminology, a partition is simply a unit of isolation within the
hypervisor that is allocated physical memory address space and virtual processors. There are
two types of partitions:
n
The parent partition is the controlling partition in which the virtualization stack runs.
The parent partition is also the partition that owns the hardware devices and manages
resources for the child partitions
n
A child partition is any partition that has been created by the parent partition. Guest
operating systems and their applications run in child partitions.
In the Microsoft implementation of the Type 1 hypervisor model—that is, in Hyper-V—the
parent partition runs either a Full or Server Core installation of the Standard, Enterprise, or
Datacenter edition of Windows Server 2008 or later as its operating system. For more information on what kind of computer you need for running Hyper-V, see the section titled
“System Requirements for Using Hyper-V R2” later in this chapter.
Partitions communicate with the hypervisor layer by using hypercalls, which are application
programming interfaces (APIs) that partitioned operating systems can use to leverage the
optimizations that the hypervisor provides. Developers who are interested in learning how to
develop applications that use hypercalls can learn more about them in the MSDN Library at
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb969694.aspx.
Understanding the Parent Partition
In the Hyper-V implementation of server virtualization, the parent partition includes a
number of special components not present in child partitions. Figure 2-6 shows the various
components of the parent partition in more detail, including both user-mode (ring 3) and
kernel-mode (ring 0) processes.
The parent partition is the first partition created on the system when the hypervisor is
started. The parent partition is created for the Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system
instance that hosts the Hyper-V server role. The parent partition in Hyper-V serves the
­following purposes:
n
The parent partition is used for creating and managing other (child) partitions on
the system and includes the WMI provider, which provides an interface for remote
administration.
n
The parent partition manages and assigns hardware devices, except for processor
scheduling and physical memory allocation, which are handled by the hypervisor.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
29
n
The hardware resources of the parent partition are shared or allocated for use by child
partitions.
n
The parent partition handles power management, plug and play operations, and
­logging of any hardware failure events when they occur.
Parent Partition
Windows
Server 2008 R2
Ring 3
User
Mode
Virtualization
Stack
VMM Service
WMI Provider
VM Worker
Processes
Virtualization
Infrastructure
Driver
Ring 0
Kernel
Mode
Virtualization
Service Provider
(VSP)
Device Drivers
VMBus
WinHv
FIGURE 2-6 Detailed view of components of parent partition in Hyper-V.
The Virtualization Stack
The virtualization components hosted in the parent partition are referred to collectively as
the virtualization stack. The virtualization stack runs in the parent partition and has direct
­access to the hardware of the underlying host computer through mechanisms ­described ­later.
In Microsoft’s Hyper-V implementation of the Type 1 hypervisor model, the v­ irtualization
stack consists of the following components:
n
Virtual Machine Management Service
n
Virtual Machine Worker Process
n
Virtual Devices
n
Virtualization Infrastructure Driver
n
Windows Hypervisor Interface Library
Other components of the parent partition include the following:
n
Virtualization Service Providers
n
Virtual Machine Bus
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
The sections that follow examine each of the remaining components of the parent partition
in detail.
Virtual Machine Management Service
The Virtual Machine Management Service (VMM Service or VMMS) is responsible for
­managing the state of all virtual machines in child partitions. This includes managing stopped
or offline virtual machines, handling the creation of snapshots, and managing the addition or
removal of devices. When a virtual machine in a child partition is started, the VMMS spawns
a new Virtual Machine worker process, which is used to perform the management tasks for
that virtual machine.
The VMMS also controls which operations can be performed on a virtual machine in a given
state. For example, when you are deleting a snapshot of a virtual machine, the VMMS prevents you from applying the snapshot. (See the section titled “Working with Snapshots” later
in this chapter for more information concerning snapshots.) Specifically, the VMMS manages
the following virtual machine states:
n
Starting
n
Active
n
Not Active
n
Taking Snapshot
n
Applying Snapshot
n
Deleting Snapshot
n
Merging Disk
Online virtual machine operations—such as Pause, Save, and Power Off—are not managed
by the VMMS. Instead, they are managed by the Virtual Machine worker process that the
VMMS spins up for the virtual machine being managed.
The VMMS is implemented in both user mode and kernel mode as a system service
(VMMS.exe) and has dependencies on the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and Windows
Management Instrumentation (WMI) services. The VMMS comprises a number of components, one of which is a WMI Provider that exposes a set of WMI-based APIs for managing and controlling virtual machines. These Hyper-V WMI APIs can be used together with
Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript) or Windows PowerShell to manage most aspects of
a Hyper-V environment either from the command line or by using scripts. The Hyper-V WMI
APIs also allow Microsoft System Center products to manage Hyper-V servers. We’ll talk more
about how System Center leverages Hyper-V in Chapter 5, “Virtualization Management.”
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
31
Virtual Machine Worker Processes
A Virtual Machine worker process (vmwp.exe) is a user-mode process that provides virtual
machine management services from the Windows Server 2008 R2 instance in the parent
partition to the guest operating systems in the child partitions. The VMMS spawns a separate
VM worker process for each running virtual machine to isolate one virtual machine from another. That way, if one VM worker process fails, only the virtual machine associated with that
VM worker process is affected. For enhanced security, VM worker processes run under the
Network Service built-in identity.
The VM worker process manages the following aspects of its associated virtual machine:
n
Creation, configuration, and running of the virtual machine
n
Pausing and resuming the virtual machine
n
Saving and restoring the virtual machine
n
Taking snapshots of the virtual machine
In addition, the VM worker processes contains the Virtual Motherboard (VMB). The VMB
­exposes guest memory, IRQ generation, and memory-mapped and port-mapped I/O to the
virtual machine as separate devices. The VMB is also responsible for the management of
­virtual devices, which are described next.
Tip You can view the globally unique identifier (GUID) for the virtual machine associated with
a particular VM worker process by opening Task Manager, selecting the Processes tab, and
­adding the Command Line column to the Processes view. This displays each running instance of
vmwp.exe on the computer along with its GUID.
Virtual Devices
Virtual Devices (VDevs) are software modules that provide device configuration and c­ ontrol
for child partitions. The VMB includes a basic set of VDevs, including a PCI bus and the
­chipset-level devices found on the Intel 440BX motherboard. VDevs come in two types:
n
Core VDevs These virtual devices model existing hardware devices and are available
to each virtual machine. They are typically used in situations where compatibility is
­important so that existing software such as the BIOS or device drivers can work properly without needing modifications. Core VDevs can be either of the following:
o
Emulated devices These virtual devices emulate a specific hardware ­device,
such as a VESA video card. Most Core VDevs are emulated devices like this, and
examples include BIOS, DMA, APIC, ISA Bus, PCI Bus, PIC Device, PIT Device,
Power Mgmt device, RTC device, Serial Controller, Speaker device, 8042 PS/2
­keyboard/mouse controller, Emulated Ethernet (DEC/Intel 21140), Floppy
­controller, IDE Controller, and VGA/VESA video.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
o
n
Synthetic devices These virtual devices do not model specific hardware
­devices. Examples of synthetic devices include a synthetic video controller,
­synthetic Human Interface Device (HID) controller, a synthetic network interface
card (synthetic NIC), a synthetic storage devices, synthetic interrupt controller,
and memory service routines. These synthetic devices are available only to guest
­operating systems that support Integration Services, which are discussed later in
this section.
Plug-in VDevs These virtual devices do not model existing hardware devices and are
used to instantiate, configure, and manage Virtualization Service Providers running in
the parent partition, which is the partition that controls the hardware. Plug-in VDevs
enable direct communication between the parent and child partitions through the
VMBus.
Virtualization Infrastructure Driver
The Virtualization Infrastructure Driver (Vid.sys) is the kernel-mode component of the virtualization stack and provides partition management services, virtual processor management
services, and memory management services for all child partitions. The Vid.sys also enables
user-mode components of the virtualization stack to communicate with the hypervisor.
Windows Hypervisor Interface Library
The Windows Hypervisor Interface Library (WinHv.sys) is a kernel-mode dynamic-link library
(DLL) that loads within the Windows Server 2008 R2 instance running in the parent partition,
and within the guest operating system in any child partition where the guest is Hyper-Vaware. WinHv.sys abstracts the hypercall implementation details and enables the operating
system’s drivers to call the hypervisor by using standard Windows calling conventions.
Virtualization Service Providers
Virtualization Service Providers (VSPs) are hosted in the parent partition and provide a
way of ­publishing device services to child partitions by providing I/O-related resources to
Virtualization Service Clients (VSCs) running in child partitions. VSPs are the server endpoint
and VSCs are the client endpoint for client/server communications for device functionality.
All communications between VSPs and VSCs take place over the VMBus.
Virtual Machine Bus
The Virtual Machine Bus (VMBus) is a logical, channel-based, interpartition communication
mechanism between the parent partition and child partitions. The purpose of the VMBus is
to provide a high-speed, highly optimized communications mechanism between virtualized
partitions rather than other techniques that are slower because of the higher overhead that
emulation imposes.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
33
Guest operating systems that do not support Integration Services are not hypervisor-aware
and must use emulation. That means that the hypervisor must intervene to intercept calls to
the physical hardware from these guests and route them to the emulated device, which runs
in the VM worker process in the parent partition. Emulation requires much more overhead
for processing than communication using the VMBus, which is why it is recommended that
users install the Hyper-V Integration Services after the guest operating system is installed.
The way it works is that the parent partition hosts VSPs, which communicate over the VMBus
to handle device access requests from child partitions. Child partitions host VSCs, which
redirect device requests to VSPs in the parent partition via the VMBus. The communication
process between parent and child partitions over the VMBus is transparent to the guest
­operating system.
Understanding Child Partitions
As shown in Figure 2-7, the Hyper-V implementation of the Type 1 hypervisor model
­supports three types of child partitions:
n
Child partitions hosting Hyper-V-aware Windows operating systems
n
Child partitions hosting Hyper-V-aware non-Windows operating systems
n
Child partitions hosting non-Hyper-V-aware operating systems, either Windows or
other types
Child Partition
Child Partition
Child Partition
Hyper-V Aware
Windows OS
Hyper-V Aware
Non-Windows
OS
Non-Hyper-V
Aware OS
Ring 3
User
Mode
Ring 0
Kernel
Mode
Virtualization
Service
Consumer (VSC)
Device Drivers
Enlightenments
3rd party VSC
VMBus
VMBus
WinHv
3rd party
Hypercall
Interface
Device Emulation
FIGURE 2-7 Different types of child partitions supported by Hyper-V.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Child Partitions Hosting a Hyper-V-Aware Windows Operating System
As shown on the left side of Figure 2-7, child partitions running Windows operating systems
that are Hyper-V aware include the following kernel-mode virtualization components:
n
Virtualization Service Clients VSCs are synthetic devices residing in the child
­partition that use hardware resources provided by the VSPs in the parent partition by
communicating over the VMBus. VSCs are automatically made available for installation when Integration Services are installed in the child partition, which enables the
child partition to use synthetic devices. Without Integration Services installed, a child
­partition can only use emulated devices as shown on the right side of Figure 2-7.
n
Enlightenments This term refers to modifications made to operating system code
to make the operating system hypervisor aware so that it runs more efficiently when
it detects that it is running as a guest within a hypervisor environment. Hyper-V supports enlightenment of the following resources: storage, networking, graphics, and
input subsystems. An enlightened guest is an operating system whose kernel can detect
whether or not it is running in a virtualized environment. Windows Server 2008 R2 is
an enlightened guest and is therefore a fully enlightened operating system. Windows
Vista is an operating system that can reach a degree of enlightenment by installing
Integration Services onto it.
Note The VMBus and WinHv.sys components were discussed previously in the section titled
“Understanding the Parent Partition” earlier in this chapter.
Child Partitions Hosting a Hyper-V-Aware Non-Windows Operating
System
As shown in the middle portion of Figure 2-7, child partitions running non-Windows
­operating systems that are Hyper-V aware use third-party VSCs to communicate over
the VMBus with VSPs in the parent partition in order to access hardware. These VSCs are
­provided to the child partition by installing Integration Services in the partition.
Integration Services are primarily used to address usability issues that occur because of the
isolated environment that is inherent to virtual machines. Integration services also provide
the components that allow child partitions to communicate with other partitions and the hypervisor. In previous Microsoft virtualization platforms, such as Microsoft Virtual Server and
Microsoft Virtual PC, integration services were referred to as Virtual Machine Additions.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
35
Integration Services also provides the following functionality to the child partition:
n
Heartbeat Used to verify that the child partition is responding to requests from the
parent partition.
n
Key\Value Pair Exchange Registry key pairs exchanged between child and parent
partitions (used in management tools).
n
Time Synchronization Synchronizes the child partition time with the parent
partition.
n
Shutdown Allows the child partition to respond to shutdown requests from the
­parent partition.
n
Volume Shadow Copy Service Works with the VSS component in the parent
­partition to facilitate data-consistent backups.
Hyper-V includes Integration Services for both x86 and x64 versions of the following
Windows guest operating systems:
n
Windows XP with Service Pack 3 (SP3)
n
Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 (SP1) or later
n
Windows 7
n
Windows Server 2003 SP2
n
Windows Server 2008
n
Windows Server 2008 SP2
n
Windows Server 2008 R2 (x64 only)
Microsoft has also developed Linux Integration Components For Hyper-V, which can
be ­obtained by searching for “Linux Integration Components for Windows Server 2008
Hyper-V R2” at the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads.
These components have been released by Microsoft under the GPL v2 license, and the
code is being integrated into the Linux kernel tree via the Linux Driver Project found at
http://www.linuxdriverproject.org.
Child Partitions Hosting a Non-Hyper-V-Aware Operating System
As shown on the left side of Figure 2-7, child partitions running non-Hyper-V-aware operating systems (whether versions of Microsoft Windows or some third-party operating system)
cannot have Integration Services installed on them. This means that these guest operating
systems must use emulated devices instead of synthetic devices and suffer the performance
hit that is incurred by the use of such emulated devices.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Key Features of Hyper-V
The following are some of the key features of the original release of Microsoft’s Hyper-V
platform:
n
Broad operating system support Hyper-V includes broad support for simultaneously running different types of operating systems, including both 32-bit and 64-bit
operating systems across different server platforms, such as Windows, Linux, and
others.
n
Extensibility Hyper-V has standards-based Windows Management Instrumentation
(WMI) interfaces and application programming interfaces (APIs) to enable independent software vendors (ISVs) and developers to quickly build custom tools, utilities, and
­enhancements for the virtualization platform.
n
Network Load Balancing Hyper-V includes virtual switch capabilities that provide
the ability to use the Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB) service to load-balance
across virtual machines running on different servers.
n
Microkernelized architecture Hyper-V has a 64-bit microkernelized hypervisor
­architecture that enables the platform to provide a broad array of device support
methods and enhanced performance and security.
n
Hardware-assisted virtualization Hyper-V requires and uses either Intel-VT or
AMD-V hardware-assisted virtualization technologies.
n
Hardware-sharing architecture Hyper-V includes a Virtualization Service Provider
(VSP) and Virtualization Service Client (VSC) architecture, which provides enhanced access and use of hardware resources, such as disks, networking, and video.
n
Quick migration Hyper-V provides the ability to migrate a running virtual machine
from one physical host computer to another with minimal downtime, leveraging the
high-availability capabilities of Windows Server 2008 and System Center management
tools.
n
Scalability Hyper-V includes support for multiple processors and cores at the host
level and improved memory access within virtual machines. This support enables virtualization environments to be scaled to support a large number of virtual machines on a
given host, while continuing to leverage quick migration for scalability across multiple
hosts.
n
Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) support Hyper-V includes support for up to
four processors in a virtual machine environment in order to take advantage of multithreaded applications running in a virtual machine.
n
Virtual machine snapshots Hyper-V provides the ability to take snapshots of
a ­running virtual machine to enable you to easily revert to a previous state, thus
­improving backup and recoverability solutions.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
37
Many of these features are discussed elsewhere in this chapter, but what’s really exciting is
what has been added to Hyper-V in the R2 release, which is discussed next.
New Features in Hyper-V R2
New features have been added to the Hyper-V role in Windows Server 2008 R2. These
new features improve the flexibility, performance and scalability of Hyper-V. Let’s explore
them now.
Enhanced Flexibility
Hyper-V R2 includes the following new features that can provide enhanced flexibility to how
you deploy and maintain your server virtualization infrastructure:
n
Live Migration Hyper-V R2 introduces Live Migration, which allows you to move a
virtual machine from one Hyper-V server to another without dropping the network
connection and without any user-perceived downtime or service interruption other
than performance slowing for a few seconds. Live Migration can provide high availability to servers and applications running on clustered Hyper-V servers within a virtualized
datacenter environment. Live Migration can also simplify the process of upgrading
and maintaining host hardware, and it can enable new scenarios such as load balancing virtual machines for maximum power efficiency or optimal processor usage. Live
Migration is described in detail in the section titled “Working with Live Migration” later
in this chapter.
n
Cluster Shared Volumes Cluster Shared Volumes is a new feature of Failover
Clustering available in Windows Server 2008 R2 that provides a single consistent
file namespace so that all nodes in the cluster see the same storage. Cluster Shared
Volumes are highly recommended for Live Migration scenarios and are described
­further in the section titled “Working with Live Migration” later in this chapter.
n
Support for hot adding and hot removal of storage In the R2 release of Hyper-V,
you can now add or remove virtual hard drives (VHDs) and passthrough disks to a
running virtual machine without the need of shutting down and restarting the virtual
machine. This enables you to reconfigure the disk storage capacity used by a virtual
machine in response to changing workloads without the need of any downtime, and
it can enable new scenarios for Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Exchange Server, and
datacenter backup. To use this feature, the VHDs and passthrough disks must be attached to the virtual machine using the virtual SCSI controller. For more information
about adding SCSI controllers to virtual machines, see the section “Managing Virtual
Machines” later in this chapter.
n
Processor compatibility mode The new processor compatibility mode available
in Hyper-V R2 allows you to migrate a VM between host machines having the same
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
­ rocessor architecture (either AMD or Intel). This makes it easier for you to upgrade
p
your Hyper-V host infrastructure by simplifying the migration of VMs from host machines running on older hardware to host machines running on newer hardware. It also
provides more flexibility for the migration of virtual machines between the nodes of a
cluster. For example, you can use processor compatibility mode to migrate virtual machines from an Intel Core 2 host to an Intel Pentium 4 host or from an AMD Opteron
host to an AMD Athlon host. Note that processor compatibility mode allows you to
migrate VMs only between host machines having the same processor architecture. (In
other words, it supports both AMD-to-AMD and Intel-to-Intel migrations.) It does not
allow you to migrate VMs between host machines running different processor architectures. (In other words, it does not support either AMD-to-Intel or Intel-to-AMD migrations.) To learn more about processor compatibility mode and how to configure it, see
the sidebar titled “How It Works: Processor Compatibility Mode” later in this chapter.
Improved Performance
Hyper-V R2 includes the following new features that can improve the performance of your
server virtualization infrastructure:
n
Support for up to 384 concurrently running virtual machines with up to 512
­virtual processors per server If your server hardware is sufficient, you can use
Hyper-V R2 to achieve greater levels of server consolidation than ever before. For
­example, on a single Hyper-V host machine you can run
o
384 single virtual processor VMs (which is well beneath the 512 virtual processor
limit)
o
256 dual virtual processor VMs (totaling 512 virtual processors)
o
128 quad virtual processor VMs (again totaling 512 virtual processors)
Or you can run any combination of single, dual, and quad virtual processor VMs as long
as your total number of VMs is less than or equal to 384 and the total number of virtual
processors assigned to your VMs is less than or equal to 512. This enhanced capability allows Hyper-V R2 to achieve the highest virtual machine density that is currently
available in the market at the time of this writing. By comparison, the previous version
of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 SP2 supported only up to 24 logical processors
and up to 192 running virtual machines. Note that when Failover Clustering is used,
Hyper-V R2 only supports running up to 64 VMs per cluster node.
n
Support for second-level address translation (SLAT) In Hyper-V R2, the processor handles address translations across virtual machines instead of the Hyper-V code
doing page table remapping in software. This means that SLAT adds a second level of
paging below the architectural x86/x64 paging tables found in x86/x64 processors by
providing an indirection layer from virtual machine memory access to physical memory
access.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
39
With the right processor, such as an Intel processor with Extended Page Tables (EPT,
first introduced with i7) or an AMD processor with Nested Page Tables (NPT, which
most current AMD processors have), Hyper-V R2 can provide significant performance
gains in many scenarios. These gains are a result of the improved memory management and reduction in memory copies needed when these processor features are
used, and the gains are especially significant with large working sets (for example, with
Microsoft SQL Server). In fact, the memory usage for the Microsoft Hypervisor can
shrink from 5 percent to 1 percent of the total physical memory. This means that more
memory can be available for child partitions, which in turn can mean higher consolidation ratios.
n
VM Chimney This feature enables TCP/IP traffic for a virtual machine to be offloaded
to a physical network adapter on the host computer. The physical network adapter
and operating system must, of course, support TCP Chimney Offload for this to benefit
the performance of the virtual machine by reducing the CPU burden on the logical
processors. (Support for TCP Chimney Offload was first added to Microsoft Windows
in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.) VM Chimney is disabled by default and
must be enabled on both the physical network adapter and the host operating system.
(See http://support.microsoft.com/kb/951037 for instructions.)
Note that not all applications can benefit from this feature. In particular, applications
that use pre-posted buffers and those that use long-lived connections with large data
transfers will benefit most from enabling this feature. Note also that physical network
adapters that have TCP Chimney Offload–capable hardware support only a fixed
­number of offloaded connections, and these are shared between all virtual machines
running on the host.
n
Support for Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ) Hyper-V R2 includes support for
Virtual Machine Device Queues (VMDq), a feature of Intel Virtualization Technology
For Connectivity. VMQ offloads the sorting burden of virtual machine data traffic
from the Virtual Machine Manager to the network controller. This enables a physical
network adapter to appear as multiple network adapters (queues) on the host, which
improves CPU utilization and helps accelerate network throughput, providing better
traffic management capabilities to the virtual machine’s data traffic. The host machine
no longer has device Direct Memory Access (DMA) data in its own buffer because the
network adapter can use DMA to direct packets into the virtual machine’s memory.
The resulting shorter path length for input/output leads to the performance gain. For
more information about VMDq, see the Intel Web site at http://www.intel.com/network/­
connectivity/vtc_vmdq.htm.
n
Support for jumbo frames Jumbo frames are Ethernet frames that contain more
than 1500 bytes of payload. Jumbo frames have been available previously in nonvirtual environments; Hyper-V R2 extends this capability to virtual machines, supporting
jumbo frame sizes up to 9014 bytes if the underlying physical network supports this.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
The result is improved network throughput and reduced CPU utilization when large file
transfers are performed by virtual machines.
Greater Scalability
Hyper-V R2 includes the following new features that can make your server virtualization
­infrastructure more scalable:
n
Support for up to 64 logical processors in the host processor pool The number
of logical processors supported by Hyper-V in this release has been increased fourfold
over the previous, original version of Hyper-V. This allows businesses to take advantage
of the latest large, scale-up server systems to maximize their benefits from consolidating their existing server workloads at a higher server density than has previously been
possible. In addition, using such server systems lets you more easily provide multiple
processors per virtual machine. (Hyper-V supports up to four logical virtual processors
per virtual machine.)
n
Support for core parking Core parking allows Windows and Hyper-V to consolidate
processing onto the fewest number of possible processor cores. This is done by suspending inactive processor cores by putting them in deep C state (that is, by “parking”
them or putting them to “sleep”). This lets you schedule virtual machines on a single
host machine for higher density instead of dispersing them onto multiple hosts. The
benefit of doing this is to significantly enhance green IT objectives by allowing you to
reduce the power required by CPUs in the hosts in your datacenter.
Comparing Hyper-V and Virtual Server
Because of its advanced capabilities, Hyper-V has already replaced Microsoft Virtual Server
for many enterprises that have been using Virtual Server for server consolidation, business
continuity, and testing and development. However, Virtual Server can still have its place
in the virtualization infrastructure of today’s enterprises. Table 2-1 compares some of the
­features and specifications of Hyper-V and Virtual Server.
TABLE 2-1 Comparison
of Features and Specifications of Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1
and Hyper-V R2
Feature or Specification
Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1
Hyper-V R2
Hosted
Hypervisor based
32-bit VMs
Yes
Yes
64-bit VMs
No
Yes
Architecture
Type of virtualization
Performance/Scalability
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
Feature or Specification
Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1
Hyper-V R2
32-bit hosts
Yes
No
64-bit hosts
No
Yes
Multiprocessor VMs
No
Yes
Maximum guest RAM per VM
3.6 GB
64 GB
Maximum guest CPUs per VM
1
4
Maximum host RAM
256 GB
1 TB
Maximum number of running VMs
64
384
Resource management
Yes
Yes
Guest-to-guest failover
Yes
Yes
Host-to-host failover
Yes
Yes
Host migration
Yes
Yes
VM snapshots
No
Yes
Scriptable/extensible
Yes, COM
Yes, WMI
User interface
Web Interface
MMC 3.0 Interface
SCVMM integration
SCVMM 2007
SCVMM 2008
41
Availability
Management
More Info For more information about the capabilities of Virtual Server and to download it,
see http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserversystem/virtualserver/downloads.aspx. To learn
how to migrate virtual machines from Virtual Server to Hyper-V, see the topic “Virtual Machine
Migration Guide: How To Migrate from Virtual Server to Hyper-V” in the TechNet Library at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd296684.aspx.
Key Benefits of Using Hyper-V
The benefits of using Hyper-V in business environments of all sizes can be numerous. The
­following is a quick summary of three key benefits:
n
Hyper-V allows you to easily consolidate systems, workloads, and operating
­environments. For example:
o
You can use Hyper-V to combine multiple workloads and operating systems onto
one physical server, thus reducing the costs of hardware and operations.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
n
n
o
You can use Hyper-V to test versions of software on the hardware that they will
later use in production mode, without affecting your production workloads.
o
You can use Hyper-V virtual systems as low-cost test systems without
­jeopardizing your production workloads.
o
You can run multiple operating system types and releases on a single ­physical
computer, with each virtual system running the operating system that best
matches its application and user requirements.
Hyper-V allows you to optimize use of your computing resources. For example:
o
Using Hyper-V can allow you to achieve high resource usage by assigning virtual
resources such as processors and memory to physical resources through mechanisms such as dispatching and paging. The virtual resources that can be provided
in this manner can exceed the physical system resources in both quantity and
functionality.
o
Using Hyper-V can allow you to dynamically share physical resources and
­resource pools. The result is higher resource usage, particularly for variable
­workloads where the average needs are much less than those that might be
­supplied by using an entire dedicated resource.
o
Because different workloads tend to show peak resource usage at different times
of the day and week, implementing multiple workloads in the same physical
­server using Hyper-V can help you improve system use, cost, and performance.
Hyper-V can improve the flexibility and responsiveness of your IT infrastructure and
thus bring the same kinds of benefits to your business. For example:
o
Hyper-V can allow service providers to create one virtual system or clone many
virtual systems on demand, thus facilitating dynamic resource provisioning.
o
Hyper-V allows you to implement virtual systems with variable resources to
­enable the manual or automated management of workload resources.
Hyper-V Usage Scenarios
Four common usage scenarios involving Hyper-V are
n
Server Consolidation
n
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
n
Testing and Development
n
The Dynamic Datacenter
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
43
Server Consolidation
A key use of server or machine virtualization is to help consolidate many servers onto a single
system while maintaining isolation between the servers. One of the main benefits of using
Hyper-V for this purpose is the lower total cost of ownership (TCO), which is achieved not
only by lowering hardware requirements but also by lowering the costs of power, cooling,
physical hosting space, network hardware and cabling costs, and hardware maintenance fees.
Another benefit of using Hyper-V for this purpose is its ability to integrate 32-bit and 64-bit
workloads in the same environment.
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
Business continuity is the ability to minimize both scheduled and unscheduled downtime.
Hyper-V includes powerful business continuity features, such as live backup and quick migration, that allow businesses to meet stringent uptime and response metrics. Disaster recovery
is also a key component of business continuity, and by leveraging the Failover Clustering
feature of Windows Server 2008 R2, Hyper-V provides support for disaster recovery within IT
­environments and across datacenters, even for geographically dispersed clusters.
Testing and Development
Testing and development are important business functions that can leverage the use of
­virtualization technologies such as Hyper-V. By using virtual machines in place of physical systems, developers can create and test a wide variety of scenarios in an isolated, self-­
contained environment that closely resembles the behavior of physical systems. With its
extensive guest operating system support and checkpoint features, Hyper-V also helps
­maximize the use of test hardware, which can help reduce development costs, improve
­software life-cycle management, and improve test coverage.
The Dynamic Datacenter
When integrated with Microsoft System Center, Hyper-V can help you realize the promise
of the dynamic datacenter—the vision of self-managing dynamic systems and operational
agility. Because Hyper-V includes features such as automated virtual machine reconfiguration, flexible resource control, and quick migration, datacenter administrators can create a
dynamic IT environment that employs virtualization not only for responding to problems but
also to anticipate increased demands. For more information about Microsoft System Center
products and how they can be used with Hyper-V to provide an integrated virtualization
­solution, see Chapter 5.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Direct from the Source: Virtualizing Server Applications
More and more companies are using virtualization to deploy server applications such
as Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Exchange Server, and Microsoft Office SharePoint
Server, as well as packaged and custom line-of-business (LOB) applications. These
­customers can recognize significant benefits, including increased resource utilization,
enhanced business continuity, and a more efficient management solution.
Microsoft Virtualization provides the best choice for virtualizing Microsoft server
­applications with recommended deployment scenarios that increase deployment
­options with one-stop support and that offer a complete management solution at a
competitively low cost.
Key Benefits of Virtualizing Server Applications
The benefits your business can achieve by using Microsoft server virtualization
­solutions include the following:
n
Microsoft Server Applications Built for Windows The built-in architecture of Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V eliminates the need for an
additional hypervisor purchase, and you also benefit from one-stop support.
Features from server applications and Windows Server together help provide
increased deployment options. Additionally, the broad network of experienced Microsoft partners can provide support by rapidly responding to your
diverse business needs.
n
Complete Management Solution Microsoft Virtualization offers you a
complete, end-to-end management solution. It enables you to optimize your
assets and centrally monitor and manage all your physical and virtual resources across multiple hypervisors, from the hardware to the application level.
With Microsoft System Center, you will have the ability to patch and deploy
your applications with System Center Configuration Manager and access best
practices and deep knowledge through System Center Operations Manager
management packs. Additionally, System Center delivers a backup and recovery solution with System Center Data Protection Manager and dynamic management of virtualized infrastructure through System Center Virtual Machine
Manager and Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO) packs.
n
Low-Cost, Complete Solution Because a comparable virtualization solution can cost up to six times more than Microsoft Virtualization, organizations worldwide are using Microsoft Virtualization to help reduce costs and
deliver greater value. You can simplify your IT infrastructure and processes,
resulting in lower ongoing costs by saving on space, power, and resources.
Microsoft also offers virtualization-friendly licensing specifically designed for
your ­virtualization needs, allowing you to move virtualized applications to a
­different server when you need to, without licensing restrictions.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
Microsoft Virtualization for SQL Server
Virtualizing Microsoft SQL Server helps you reduce hardware and maintenance costs
with a flexible server consolidation solution. You can centralize data services on fewer
physical servers and leverage virtualization for high availability. SQL Server can be deployed in a pure virtual or a mixed physical and virtual environment, depending on the
flexibility and service levels you require. You can consolidate database servers and improve business continuity by using a combination of Windows Server Hyper-V and SQL
Server technologies, such as Live Migration, guest clustering, and database mirroring.
You can perform rapid provisioning and scale out Business Intelligence (BI) infrastructure components such as OLAP cubes and reporting services. And you can streamline
development, testing, and staging environments for database applications.
Microsoft Virtualization for SharePoint
Virtualizing Microsoft Office SharePoint Server allows your IT department to build
and manage scalable Office SharePoint Server farms to provide for an infrastructure
that supports collaboration and content management. SharePoint architects can create a deployment model that is reliable and scalable without introducing unnecessary
costs or overarchitecting the environment. All SharePoint roles are supported for virtualization; however, certain roles make better virtualization candidates than others.
SharePoint Web, Query, and Application roles are the best candidates for virtualization,
whereas Index and Database roles can be deployed as physical or virtual roles, depending on resource needs.
Microsoft Virtualization for Exchange Server
For most businesses today, e-mail is the mission-critical communication tool.
Virtualization offers IT professionals new options to provide deployment flexibility and
realize the benefits in terms of reduced hardware and energy costs. Exchange ClientAccess Server (CAS), Hub Transport, and Mailbox roles, which are underutilized, are
best candidates for virtualization. Additionally, the Edge Transport role along with other
security gateways on the edge server can be considered for virtualization to maximize
hardware utilization.
Learn More
To learn more about how you can virtualize Microsoft server applications, see http://
www.microsoft.com/virtualization/solutions/business-critical-applications. Additional
Virtualization resources can be found at http://www.microsoft.com/virtualization/
resources.
—Vipul Shah, Senior Product Manager, Virtualization
45
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Working with Hyper-V
This section provides a brief overview of how you can deploy, configure, manage, and use
Microsoft’s Hyper-V platform. Topics are treated in different levels of detail and are intended
as an overview only rather than as a comprehensive Hyper-V operations guide. For detailed
technical information on implementing and maintaining Hyper-V, see the Hyper-V product
and feature information available from the Virtualization TechCenter on Microsoft Technet at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/virtualization/default.aspx.
Hyper-V Role vs. Microsoft Hyper-V Server
The new “R2” version of Hyper-V is available in two forms:
n
The Hyper-V server role, which you can install on systems running Windows Server
2008 R2 Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter edition.
n
Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2, a standalone, hypervisor-based server virtualization
product that lets you virtualize workloads onto a single physical server.
Both products are based on the same hypervisor technology and Windows Server 2008 R2
operating system. Microsoft Hyper-V Server, however, is
n
Totally free.
n
Has no graphical user interface (think Server Core—you’ll have to manage it remotely).
n
Has no guest virtualization rights, which means you’ll need licenses for any Windows
operating systems you run on it.
n
Does not support any other server roles. In other words, you can’t use it as a DNS
­server, DHCP server, and so on. You can of course use it to host a virtual machine that
runs these roles, but you’ll need a license for the guest operating system installed on
the virtual machine.
On the face of it, it sounds like Microsoft Hyper-V Server is a bit limited in functionality.
However, the R2 version of Microsoft Hyper-V Server also includes support for
n
Installing the Failover Clustering feature, which means you can use Microsoft Hyper-V
Server systems as nodes in a cluster
n
Live Migration, which is another great reason for using Microsoft Hyper-V Server
­systems as nodes in a cluster
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
47
n
Up to 8 physical processor sockets with up to 32 logical cores, and up to 1 terabyte of
memory on the host system
n
Almost every other feature of the Hyper-V role in Windows Server 2008 R2, including
virtual machine snapshots, multiple virtual processors per virtual machine, Live Backup
support through Volume Shadow Services, and so on
You can even manage Microsoft Hyper-V Server systems using System Center Virtual
Machine Manager 2008 R2. And to help you get Microsoft Hyper-V Server up and running,
it includes the Server Configuration Utility (SConfig), which is the same initial configuration
command-line interface available on the Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 R2.
(See Figure 2-8.)
FIGURE 2-8 The Server Configuration Utility for Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2.
Note that you cannot upgrade from a previous version of Windows Server to Microsoft
Hyper-V Server because Microsoft Hyper-V Server is a separate, standalone product. You also
cannot upgrade from Microsoft Hyper-V Server to Windows Server 2008, again because they
are different products. However, you can migrate from a Microsoft Hyper-V Server environment to a Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V environment by exporting the virtual machines
from Microsoft Hyper-V Server, installing Windows Server 2008, enabling the Hyper-V role,
and importing the virtual machines.
Table 2-2 compares the features of Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 with the Hyper-V role of
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
TABLE 2-2 Feature
Comparison Between Hyper-V Server and the Hyper-V Role
Feature
Hyper-V Server
2008 R2
Windows Server
2008 R2 Standard
Windows Server
2008 R2 Enterprise
and Datacenter
Host clustering
4
4
Live Migration
4
4
Large Memory
­support (> 32 GB) on
the host system
4
4
Support for > 4
­processors on the
host system
4
4
Local graphical user
interface
4
4
Support for adding
additional server roles
4
4
Guest virtualization
rights included in the
host server license
4
4
Application failover
4
Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 can be used for almost any server virtualization scenario, ­including
server consolidation, branch server consolidation, testing and development, and mixed
operating system (Windows and Linux) virtualization—even as part of a Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure (VDI). The only place this product is not really suitable for is the dynamic
­datacenter, where the more powerful capabilities of Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise and
Datacenter editions are more suitable.
More Info For more information about Microsoft Hyper-V Server and to download a free copy,
see http://www.microsoft.com/hyper-v-server/en/us/r2.aspx.
System Requirements for Using Hyper-V R2
The Hyper-V server role is available only in the Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions
of Windows Server 2008 R2. In addition to having the correct operating system, the Hyper-V
role also has certain requirements concerning the host machine on which it is installed. These
requirements include the following:
n
Support for hardware-assisted virtualization, which is included in the Intel VT and
AMD-V line of processors. Processors that support hardware-assisted virtualization
include extensions to provide the ability to load a hypervisor virtualization platform in
between the computer hardware and the main, or host, operating system.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
49
n
Support for hardware-based Data Execution Prevention (DEP), a security feature
that prevents a process from executing code from a nonexecutable memory region.
Although an implementation of DEP can be hardware based, software based, or a
combination of the two, support for hardware-based DEP is required in order to use
Hyper-V. Hardware-based DEP requires processors that can mark memory pages as
nonexecutable. Examples of processors that support hardware-based DEP include the
Intel XD (Execute Disable) and AMD NX (No-Execute) lines of processors.
n
Sufficient physical memory (RAM) to allow you to run the virtualized workloads you
plan to run on the system. The Standard edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 supports
up to 32 GB of RAM and up to four x64 processor sockets. The Enterprise edition supports up to 2 TB of RAM and up to eight x64 processor sockets. The Datacenter edition
supports up to 2 TB of RAM and up to 64 x64 processor sockets. In addition, each virtual machine on the Enterprise or Datacenter edition can address up to 64 GB and the
sum of the memory assigned to virtual machines cannot exceed the system’s physical
RAM minus 1 GB allocated for the parent partition.
Note Hyper-V is not supported on Itanium versions of Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows
Server 2008.
Direct from the Source: Hardware Assisted Virtualization
Since the introduction of the 80286 CPU, operating system architectures have
­supported four modes of execution called rings (for example, ring 0 – 3). Ring 0 is the
most privileged mode, and components running in ring 0 have direct access to the
­underlying hardware. Ring 3 is the least-privileged mode, and operations to modify the
hardware are generally not allowed in this ring. Windows historically has used only ring
0 (for kernel-mode components) and ring 3 (for user-mode components).
Virtual Server uses ring compression, or ring deprivileging, so the Virtual Machine
Manager (VMM) can control the execution of a guest operating system in a virtual
machine. With this design, kernel-mode operations in a virtual machine are performed
in ring 1. Most privileged operations issued by the kernel in a guest operating system
result in a transition to the VMM to interact with the underlying hardware. Because it
is unlikely that the guest operating system running in a virtual machine is aware of the
VMM, virtual machine additions are implemented to facilitate the VMM transitions for
these operating systems.
These VMM transitions are expensive in terms of CPU cycles, and therefore, they affect
system performance. To overcome this limitation, Intel and AMD have implemented
extensions to the classical four-ring architecture to provide an additional level, often
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
called ring –1, for a VMM to execute. This allows virtual guest operating systems’ kernels to run at ring 0 and invoke the VMM in ring –1 for critical operations with much
less overhead. The hypervisor is synonymous with the VMM in this context. The basic
concept is that components running in the new ring –1 can control components running in ring 0. These extensions also implement extended page tables and tagged
Translation Lookaside Buffers (TLBs) to support the isolation of virtual machines.
The Microsoft implementation of a hypervisor requires these processor virtualization
extensions. The extensions are currently implemented in the Intel VT and AMD-V lines
of processors.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Supported Guest Operating Systems
Below is a list of operating systems that are supported at the time of this writing for use as
guest operating systems running in virtual machines on Hyper-V.
The following editions of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 can be used as
a supported guest operating system on a virtual machine configured with from one to four
virtual processors:
n
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard, Windows Server 2008 Standard, and Windows
Server 2008 Standard without Hyper-V
n
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise, Windows Server 2008 Enterprise, and Windows
Server 2008 Enterprise without Hyper-V
n
Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter, Windows Server 2008 Datacenter, and Windows
Server 2008 Datacenter without Hyper-V
n
Windows Web Server 2008 R2 and Windows Web Server 2008
n
Windows High Performance Computing (HPC) Server 2008 edition
The following editions of Windows Server 2003 can be used as a supported guest operating
system on a virtual machine configured with either one or two virtual processors:
n
Windows Server 2003 R2 Standard edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 R2 Datacenter edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 Standard edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 Datacenter edition with Service Pack 2
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
n
Windows Server 2003 Web edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 R2 Standard x64 edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise x64 edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 R2 Datacenter x64 edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 Standard x64 edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise x64 edition with Service Pack 2
n
Windows Server 2003 Datacenter x64 edition with Service Pack 2
51
The following versions of Windows 2000 can be run on a virtual machine configured with
one virtual processor:
n
Windows 2000 Server with Service Pack 4
n
Windows 2000 Advanced Server with Service Pack 4
The following versions of Windows 7 can be used on a virtual machine ­configured with either
one or two virtual processors:
n
Windows 7 Professional
n
Windows 7 Enterprise
n
Windows 7 Ultimate
The following versions of Windows Vista can be used on a virtual machine configured with
either one or two virtual processors:
n
Windows Vista Business with Service Pack 1 or later
n
Windows Vista Enterprise with Service Pack 1 or later
n
Windows Vista Ultimate with Service Pack 1 or later
The following versions of Windows XP can be run on a virtual machine as specified:
n
Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 3 (configured with one or two virtual
processors)
n
Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 2 (configured with one virtual processor)
n
Windows XP Professional x64 edition with Service Pack 2 (configured with one or two
virtual processors)
The following Linux distributions can be run on a virtual machine configured with one virtual
processor:
n
Suse Linux Enterprise Server 10 with Service Pack 2 (x86 or x64 edition)
n
Suse Linux Enterprise Server 10 with Service Pack 1 (x86 or x64 edition)
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
n
Suse Linux Enterprise Server 11 (x86 or x64 edition)
n
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5.2 and 5.3 (x86 Edition or x64 Edition) (Emulated
­devices only)
Note You can run both 32-bit and 64-bit guest operating systems at the same time on a single
server running Hyper-V.
Functionality Provided by Integration Services
Although Hyper-V comes with Integration Services for all supported guest operating systems
(with the exception of Linux Integration Components For Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V,
which is provided out-of-band as a download), not all guests receive the same usability
and performance enhancements from these Integration Services. Table 2-3 describes the
­enhancements provided by Integration Services for each supported guest.
TABLE 2-3 Usability
and Performance Enhancements Provided by Integration Services
for Different Guest Operating Systems
Guest Operating System
Device and Service Support
Windows Server 2008 R2
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Windows Server 2008 (x64 editions)
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Windows Server 2008 (x86 editions)
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Windows Server 2003 (x64 editions) with
Service Pack 2
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Windows Server 2003 (x86 editions) with
Service Pack 2
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Windows 2000 Server with Service Pack 4
Drivers: IDE, networking, video, and mouse
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Windows 2000 Advanced Server with
Service Pack 4
Drivers: IDE, networking, video, and mouse
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
Guest Operating System
Device and Service Support
Windows 7 (x64 editions)
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
53
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Windows 7 (x86 editions)
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Windows Vista (x64 editions) with Service
Pack 1 or later
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Windows Vista (x86 editions) with Service
Pack 1 or later
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Windows XP Professional (x86 editions)
with Service Pack 2 or 3
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Windows XP Professional x64 edition with
Service Pack 2
Drivers: IDE, SCSI, networking, video, and mouse
Suse Linux Enterprise Server 10 (x64 edition) with Service Pack 1 or 2
Drivers only: IDE, SCSI, networking, and mouse
Suse Linux Enterprise Server 10 (x86 edition) with Service Pack 1 or 2
Drivers only: IDE, SCSI, networking, and mouse
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, heartbeat, and online backup
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, and heartbeat
Services: Operating system shutdown, time synchronization, data exchange, and heartbeat
Planning for Hyper-V Deployment
The Windows Server Virtualization Guide can help you design and plan for your Hyper-V
deployment to ensure its success. This guide is part of Microsoft’s Infrastructure Planning
and Design (IPD) Guides for Virtualization, which help streamline and clarify the process for
designing a virtualization infrastructure by describing the critical architectural decisions that
need to be addressed and the available options for these decisions. The guides also provide
you with tools for validating your design decisions to ensure the solutions you are planning
to implement meet both your business requirements and the requirements of your organization’s IT stakeholders.
Version 2.0 of the Windows Server Virtualization Guide explains the critical infrastructure
design elements necessary for a successful implementation of a server virtualization solution
using Windows Server 2008 R2. The guide leads you through the following nine steps of the
server virtualization design process:
Step 1: Determine the Virtualization Scope
Step 2: Create the List of Workloads
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Step 3: Select the Backup and Fault-Tolerance Approaches for Each Workload
Step 4: Summarize and Analyze the Workload Requirements
Step 5: Design and Place Virtualization Host Hardware
Step 6: Map Workloads to Hosts
Step 7: Design Backup and Fault Tolerance
Step 8: Design the Storage Infrastructure
Step 9: Design the Network Infrastructure
More Information For more information about the Windows Server Virtualization Guide and
to download this guide, go to http://technet.microsoft.com/en-ca/library/bb897507.aspx.
Installing the Hyper-V Role
Hyper-V is implemented as a server role on both Full and Server Core installations of
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions. You can install
Hyper-V on a Full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 using the following methods:
n
By launching the Add Roles Wizard from the Initial Configuration Tasks (ICT) interface
n
By launching the Add Roles Wizard from the Server Manager MMC snap-in
n
By using the ServerManagerCmd.exe command-line tool
To install Hyper-V on a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 R2, you must use
the Ocsetup.exe utility by typing start /w ocsetup Microsoft-Hyper-V at the command
prompt.
After you install Hyper-V, you must restart your computer before the role can take effect. If
you discover that Hyper-V does not start properly after performing one of the listed procedures, try shutting down your computer completely and performing another cold boot of the
system. If Hyper-V still fails to start, follow these steps to troubleshoot the problem:
n
Verify with the manufacturer that the processors in your system support both
­hardware-assisted virtualization and hardware Data Execution Prevention.
n
Make sure that hardware-assisted virtualization is enabled in the BIOS. If it isn’t, enable
it and then shut down your computer before rebooting it so that the BIOS change can
take effect.
n
Check the manufacturer’s Web site to see whether an updated version of the BIOS is
available for your computer; install the update if one is available.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
n
55
Verify that the BCD store is configured properly by typing bcdedit /enum and
­verifying that HypervisorLaunchType is set to AUTO.
For more information about deploying Hyper-V, see the “Hyper-V Planning and Deployment
Guide,” which is available from the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/cc794762.aspx.
Direct from the Source: Considerations for Physical Servers
Hosting the Hyper-V Role
Before setting up a physical server to host the Hyper-V role, download, read, and
­understand information included in the white paper “Performance Tuning Guidelines
for Windows Server 2008” available at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/­sysperf/
Perf_tun_srv.mspx. Three sections in this white paper that can have a significant impact on the performance of the physical server discuss tuning the server hardware
and setting up the networking and storage subsystems. These are especially critical for
Hyper-V because the hypervisor itself sits on top of the hardware layer as described
earlier and controls all hardware in Windows Server 2008. The operating system itself
essentially runs in a virtual machine, better known as the Parent Partition.
Best practices for physical servers hosting the Hyper-V role are described in the following sections of this sidebar.
Avoid Overloading the Server
Determining the number of virtual machines that will be hosted on the Hyper-V server
and the workloads they will be handling is critical. The version of the operating system
that will be installed on the physical server can help in this regard, so the first “best
practice” is to consider using Windows Server 2008 Datacenter x64 with Hyper-V. The
Datacenter x64 edition supports up to 64 processors, 2 terabytes of physical memory,
and 16 failover cluster nodes for Quick Migration scenarios and allows unlimited virtual
machines to be run in Hyper-V. Selecting a Server Core installation provides added
benefits, including enhanced security and lower maintenance.
Ensure High-Speed Access to Storage
For storage, consider using a storage area network (SAN) that is configured with highspeed (10,000 rpms or greater) drives (SATA or SAS) that support queued I/O and Raid
0 +1 configurations. You can use either Fibre Channel or iSCSI SAN hardware.
Install Multiple Network Interface Cards
For networking, be sure to have more than one network card installed on the physical server and dedicate one network interface to Hyper-V server administration. This
means no virtual networks in Hyper-V will be configured to use this NIC. For highworkload virtual machines, you might want to dedicate a physical network adapter on
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
the server to the virtual network the virtual machine is using. Ensure virtual machines
that share a physical adapter do not oversubscribe to the physical network. Use the
Reliability And Performance Monitor to establish a performance baseline for the load
and then adjust NIC configurations and loads accordingly.
If you have only a single NIC in the machine that you are configuring the Hyper-V
role on and you are doing the configuration remotely—say, in an RDP session—if you
choose to bind the Virtual Switch Protocol to the single NIC in the machine, you will
be disconnected from your session and a reconnection might not be possible until the
newly created virtual network adapter has been properly configured.
Avoid Mixing Virtual Machines That Can Use Integration Services with Those
That Cannot
Do not mix on the same physical server virtual machines that can take advantage of
Hyper-V Integration Services with those that cannot. Virtual machines that cannot use
Integration Services must use legacy network adapters to gain access to the physical
network. To accommodate legacy network adapters, you might need to disable some
high-end features on the network interface, which can unnecessarily limit the functionality of the synthetic devices. Additionally, using emulated devices places an extra
workload on the Hyper-V server.
Configure Antivirus Software to Bypass Hyper-V Processes and Directories
If you are running antivirus software on the physical server, you might want to consider
excluding the Vmms.exe and Vmswp.exe processes. Also, exclude the directories that
contain the virtual machine configuration files and virtual hard disks from active scanning. An added benefit of using passthrough disks in your virtual machines is that you
can use the antivirus software running on the physical server to protect that virtual
machine.
Avoid Storing System Files on Drives Used for Hyper-V Storage
Do not store any system files (Pagefile.sys) on drives dedicated to storing virtual
­machine data.
Monitor Performance to Optimize and Manage Server Loading
When running multiple high-workload virtual machines on a Hyper-V server, ensure a
proper aggregate performance baseline is obtained over a specified period of time—
say, five days during normal working hours—to ensure the hardware configuration for
the physical server is optimal to support the load being placed on it by the virtual machines. If adding more memory, processors, or higher performing storage is not possible, you might need to migrate the virtual machines to other Hyper-V servers.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
57
Using the Hyper-V Management Snap-in
When you install the Hyper-V role on a Full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2, the
Hyper-V Manager snap-in is also installed and is available from both the Administrative Tools
menu as a separate MMC console (Virtmgmt.msc) and from within the Server Manager console. You can also install the Hyper-V Manager console on the following systems:
n
A computer running a Full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 that does not have
the Hyper-V role installed. Install Hyper-V Tools from the Remote Administration Tools
section of the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) feature by using the Add
Features Wizard.
n
A computer running Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, or
Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, or Ultimate edition on which you have downloaded
and installed the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) for Windows 7. RSAT for
Windows 7 lets you manage roles and features that are installed on remote computers
that are running Windows Server 2008 R2 (and, for some roles and features, Windows
Server 2008 or Windows Server 2003) from a remote computer that is running
Windows 7. RSAT for Windows 7 includes support for remote management of computers that are running either the Full or Server Core installation options of Windows
Server 2008 R2, and for some roles and features, Windows Server 2008. Some roles
and features on Windows Server 2003 can also be managed remotely by using RSAT
for Windows 7, although the Server Core installation option is not available with the
Windows Server 2003 operating system. You can obtain RSAT for Windows 7 from the
Microsoft Download Center.
Figure 2-9 shows the Hyper-V Manager snap-in remotely connected to a Hyper-V server
named SEA-SCV running Server Core, which can be used to manage both the Hyper-V
server (parent partition) itself and the virtual machines that are running in child partitions
on the server. Note that no virtual machines (child partitions) have been created yet on this
server. You can connect to more Hyper-V servers by right-clicking on the root node in the
left pane to bring up the Select Computer dialog box. This enables you to use the Hyper-V
Manager snap-in running from a single computer running Windows Server 2008 R2 (or from
a Windows 7 computer that has RSAT for Windows 7 installed) and use it to manage multiple
Hyper-V servers remotely.
Tip If you plan to use a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 as your Hyper-V
platform, you must manage the Hyper-V role remotely because the Hyper-V Manager snapin is not available on Server Core. However, the R2 version of Server Core does include a new
command-line interface tool, named SCONFIG, that simplifies the initial configuration of a Server
Core installation, making it easier to use Server Core as a Hyper-V host. For more information on SCONFIG, see “Windows Server 2008 R2 Core: Introducing SCONFIG” on the Microsoft
Virtualization Team Blog at http://blogs.technet.com/virtualization/­archive/2009/07/07/windowsserver-2008-r2-core-introducing-sconfig.aspx.
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FIGURE 2-9 The Hyper-V Manager snap-in.
Configuring Server Settings
As shown in Figure 2-9, when a Hyper-V server is selected in the left pane, a series of configuration actions is displayed in the Actions pane on the right side. These configuration actions can also be selected from a context menu by right-clicking on the server node in the
left pane. Some of these server-level management actions are self-explanatory (such as Stop
Service or Remove Server). Others require some degree of explanation as follows:
n
New | Virtual Machine Selecting this action starts the New Virtual Machine Wizard,
which steps you through creating a new virtual machine (child partition) on the host
computer. The steps for creating a new virtual machine are as follows:
1. Name the virtual machine.
2. Select a location to store the virtual machine configuration file.
3. Assign memory.
4. Configure networking.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
5. Configure storage.
6. Install an operating system.
7. Start the virtual machine (optional).
n
59
New | Hard Disk Selecting this action starts the New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard, which
steps you through creating a new virtual hard disk. The steps involved are as follows:
1. Choose the type of disk (Dynamically Expanding, Fixed Size, Differencing).
2. Name and choose a storage location for the disk.
3. Configure the disk (including specifying the size of disk or copying the contents
of an existing disk).
n
New | Floppy Disk Selecting this action creates a 1.4-MB virtual floppy disk (.vfd) file
in the location specified.
n
Import Virtual Machine Selecting this action enables you to import previously
exported virtual machines by pointing to the appropriate virtual hard disk (.vhd) file.
Selecting this option allows you to move virtual machines between different Hyper-V
servers.
Note The Import Virtual Machine action does not let you import virtual machines created
in Virtual Server 2005.
n
Hyper-V Settings Selecting this action allows you to configure both Server and User
settings as shown in Figure 2-10.
There are two Server settings you can configure:
o
Default Location for Virtual Hard Disks Selecting this option enables you to
specify the default location for virtual hard disk (.vhd) files to be used by the virtual machines running on the server. The default location is the C:\Users\Public\
Documents\Hyper-V\Virtual Hard Disks directory.
o
Default Location for Virtual Machine Configuration Files Selecting
this option enables you to specify the default location for the virtual machine ­configuration (.vmc) files on the server. The default location is the C:\
ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Hyper-V directory.
Tip For the best performance, move the location for virtual hard disks to a non-system drive
and move the configuration files to the same location.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
FIGURE 2-10 Configuring Server and User settings for a Hyper-V server.
There are five User settings that apply to users managing the Hyper-V server, the
­virtual machines running on the server, or both. These settings are as follows:
o
Keyboard This option allows you to specify the default setting for how
­keyboard combinations such as Alt+Tab will be used.
o
Mouse Release Key This option allows you to specify the setting for the keystroke sequence used to release the mouse from inside a virtual machine. The
default is Ctrl+Alt+Left Arrow, and you can change this to Ctrl+Alt+Right Arrow,
Ctrl+Alt+Space, or Ctrl+Alt+Shift as desired. Note that this configuration option
does not apply to guests that have had Integration Services installed on them.
o
User Credentials This option allows you to specify the credentials that will be
used to connect to a virtual machine. The default is to use the same credentials
you used to run the Hyper-V Manager snap-in; otherwise, you will be prompted
when connecting.
o
Delete Saved Credentials This option allows you to delete any saved user
­credentials on the Hyper-V server for enhanced security.
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Reset Check Boxes This option allows you to reset all Hyper-V confirmation
messages and wizard pages to their defaults when the Hyper-V role was installed.
Virtual Network Manager Selecting this action enables you to configure virtual
­networking settings for the virtual machines running on the server. As illustrated by
Figure 2-11, there are three types of virtual networks you can configure:
o
External virtual networks This type of virtual network binds to a physical
­network adapter on the host computer. An external network is required in order
to access the Internet or to connect to organizational resources that do not reside in the parent partition. You can bind only one external network per physical
adapter or port, so if multiple external networks are needed, additional physical
adapters or ports will have to be installed in the Hyper-V server. VLAN access is
also supported on external virtual networks if the physical network the parent
partition is connected to is properly configured. You should use the external type
of virtual network when you want to allow communication between different
virtual machines running on the same host computer, between virtual machines
and the parent partition, and between virtual machines and externally located
(­physical or virtual) servers.
o
Internal virtual networks This type of virtual network is an external virtual
network that is not bound to a physical network adapter. You should use this type
of virtual network when you want to allow communication between different virtual machines running on the same host computer and between virtual machines
and the parent partition, but not between virtual machines and externally located
servers. You can also isolate virtual machines on an internal virtual network by
selecting the Enable Virtual LAN Identification For Parent Partition check box
for a particular adapter or port. A common use for internal virtual networks is to
build test environments where you need to connect to the virtual machines from
the parent partition.
o
Private virtual networks This type of virtual network is an internal virtual
network without a virtual network adapter in the parent partition. You should
use this type of virtual network when you want to allow communication only between different virtual machines running on the same host computer. A typical
use for private virtual networks is when you want to isolate virtual machines from
network traffic in the parent partition and in the external networks.
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FIGURE 2-11 Configuring a virtual network.
New in the R2 release of Hyper-V is the setting Allow Management Operating System
To Share This Network, which is shown in Figure 2-11. This new configuration option
can be enabled when the virtual network type is External, and it determines whether
the specified physical network adapter can be used to access the management (host)
operating system that runs the Hyper-V role. You can use this option to isolate the
management operating system from communications between virtual machines and
other computers on your physical network. Note that if this option is not enabled, you
will not be able to connect to the management operating system remotely through this
physical network adapter.
Also new in Hyper-V R2 is the MAC Address Range option found under Global Network
Settings in the Virtual Network Manager settings page. (See Figure 2-12.) This new configuration option has been added to help prevent MAC address conflicts when multiple
Hyper-V servers are hosting virtual machines on the same physical network subnet.
By default, the MAC address range option is dynamically configured, but you can also
­configure this setting manually if desired.
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FIGURE 2-12 Configuring the MAC address range for virtual machines hosted by the Hyper-V server.
Table 2-4 summarizes the different types of virtual networks you can configure and the
connectivity allowed by each type. For more information about how networking works
in Hyper-V, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: The Hyper-V Networking
Model” later in this section.
TABLE 2-4 Connectivity
Type of Virtual
Network
Allowed by Different Types of Virtual Networks
Between VMs on the
Host Computer
Between VMs and the
Parent Partition
External
4
4
Internal
4
4
Private
4
Between VMs and
External Servers
4
Note Microsoft recommends that you have at least two physical network adapters on the host
computer running Hyper-V: one network adapter dedicated to the physical machine and used
for remote management, and one or more network adapters dedicated to the virtual machines.
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n
Edit Disk Selecting this action starts the Edit Virtual Hard Disk Wizard, which enables
you to make changes to existing virtual hard disks. The actions you can perform include
the following:
o
Compact This option allows you to shrink a disk by removing blank space that
remains when data is deleted from the disk.
o
Convert This option allows you to convert a dynamic virtual hard disk to a fixed
hard disk by creating a new fixed-size virtual disk having a different name and
then copying the contents of the dynamic disk to the new fixed disk. The new
fixed disk can then be associated with the virtual machine, and the virtual machine can be started, after which the old dynamic disk can be deleted.
o
Expand This option allows you to expand the capacity of a virtual hard disk.
o
Inspect Disk Selecting this option displays information about a virtual hard
disk.
Direct from the Source: The Hyper-V Networking Model
One of the more challenging concepts to grasp in Hyper-V is how networking is implemented both from the perspective of the Hyper-V server, which is essentially a virtual
machine itself called the parent partition, and also from the perspective of the child
partitions created and supported by the parent partition.
In general, when the Hyper-V role is installed and prior to creating any virtual
­networks, the parent partition is functioning as seen in this diagram:
Parent Partition
Application
TCP/IP
Physical
Network
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In the configuration just shown, all protocols are bound to the physical network card,
which provides direct connectivity for the Hyper-V server to the physical network.
After a virtual network is created and configured to be used by virtual machines (child
partitions) running on the Hyper-V server, the networking model shifts as seen the diagram that follows.
Parent Partition
Child Partition
Application
Application
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
Virtual NIC
Physical NIC
Virtual Network
Switch
Virtual NIC
Physical
Network
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Managing Virtual Machines
In addition to using the Hyper-V Manager snap-in to manage the Hyper-V server, you can
also use this snap-in to manage various aspects of virtual machines running on the server.
Figure 2-13 shows a Hyper-V server with a new virtual machine that has just been created on
it. This virtual machine has not been started and has no operating system installed on it.
As you can see from Figure 2-13, the Actions pane now has two sections: an upper section
named after the Hyper-V server (SEA-SCV) that displays the server-level settings that we have
already described, and a lower section named after the new virtual machine (SEA-SRV1-V),
which provides options you can select for managing various aspects of the virtual machine.
If your Hyper-V Manager console is connected to additional Hyper-V servers and/or the
servers have additional virtual machines, more sections are displayed in the Actions pane
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
­ ccordingly. Some of these VM-level management actions are self-explanatory (such as Start
a
or Delete). Others require more explanation, as follows:
n
Connect Let’s you connect to and manage an individual virtual machine using the
Virtual Machine Connection interface. There are two ways to connect to a virtual
­machine whether it is running or not:
o
By selecting the virtual machine in the center pane and then selecting the
Connect action.
o
By double-clicking on the virtual machine in the center pane.
FIGURE 2-13 Hyper-V server with a new virtual machine created.
More Info For more information about connecting to virtual machines, see the section
titled “Using the Virtual Machine Connection Tool” later in this chapter.
n
Settings Selecting this action allows you to configure or modify different settings
that apply to the selected virtual machine. These virtual machine settings fall into two
categories: Hardware and Management settings.
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The hardware settings you can configure for each virtual machine include the following:
o
Add Hardware Allows SCSI, network adapters, and legacy network adapters
to be added to a virtual machine. (See Figure 2-14.) Each virtual machine can be
configured with up to 12 virtual network adapters where eight of these can be
of the “network adapter” type and four can be of the “legacy network adapter”
type. The “network adapter” type provides better performance it’s a synthetic
device that takes advantage of the new high-speed Hyper-V I/O architecture. For
more information about network adapters and legacy network adapters, see the
sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: Network Adapters in Hyper-V” later in this
section.
o
BIOS Allows changes to be made to the virtual machine’s BIOS, such as
­changing the Numlock status or the boot order.
o
Memory Allows changes to be made to the amount of physical RAM allocated
to the virtual machine.
o
Processor Allows changes to be made to the number of virtual processors
­allocated to the virtual machine and the host physical processor resources allocated to virtual machines.
o
IDE Controller Allows you to add hard drives and DVD drives to the virtual machine. There are two IDE controllers, and two drive types can be supported per
controller. Note that Hyper-V virtual machines can boot only from IDE drives, not
from SCSI drives.
o
SCSI Controller Allows you to add up to four SCSI controllers with up to 64
disks each, for a total of 256 drives, per virtual machine.
o
Network Adapter Displays the configuration for the virtual network the virtual
machine is connected to. You can also configure network adapter MAC addresses
and enable VLAN IDs.
o
COM 1\2 Allows for communication with the parent partition via a named pipe
connection. This can be useful for debugging a virtual machine.
o
Diskette Drive Provides a connection to a 1.4-MB floppy disk created as a
.vfd file.
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FIGURE 2-14 Configuring the Add Hardware settings for a virtual machine.
In addition to configuring the hardware settings just described, you can also use the
Hyper-V Manager snap-in to configure different management settings for each virtual
machine as follows:
o
Name Allows the name of the virtual machine to be changed and for
­descriptive notes to be added.
o
Integration Services Displays what Integration Services have been installed
and are currently in effect. There are five services available: Operating System
Shutdown, Time Synchronization, Data Exchange, Heartbeat, and Backup (volume
snapshot).
o
Snapshot File Location Displays the location of snapshots that have been
­taken of the selected virtual machine. Note that if there is an active snapshot of
the virtual machine, the file location cannot be changed.
o
Automatic Start Action Specifies the action the virtual machine executes
when the parent partition starts. The default action is Automatically Start If It
Was Running When The Service Stopped. A start delay can also be configured
so that virtual machines starting up do not contend with the parent partition for
­resources on the host computer.
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Automatic Stop Action Specifies the action the virtual machine executes when
the parent partition or the Virtual Machine Management Service stops. The default action is to save the state of the virtual machine.
Snapshot Selecting this action takes a point-in-time snapshot of a virtual machine.
The virtual machine can be running, saved, or stopped when the snapshot is taken. As
shown in Figure 2-15, taking consecutive snapshots of a virtual machine builds a snapshot tree in the Snapshots pane with a green arrow followed by Now, indicating which
snapshot is active in the virtual machine. Snapshots can also be annotated by adding
descriptive notes to them. For more information about snapshots, see the section titled
“Working with Snapshots” later in this chapter.
FIGURE 2-15 Snapshots of a virtual machine.
n
Rename Selecting this action allows you to rename a virtual machine. This change
is reflected only in the Hyper-V Manager interface—the names of the virtual machine
files or the machine name (as known to the guest operating system) are not changed.
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Direct from the Source: Network Adapters in Hyper-V
Hyper-V contains two types of network adapters that can be used by guests: a legacy
network adapter and a network adapter.
The legacy network adapter is an emulated adapter (Intel 21140 PCI) that is available
to guests who either cannot take advantage of Integration Services or must have connectivity to the physical network to download and install prerequisites before they can
take advantage of Integration Services (for example, Windows XP Professional x86 must
download and install Service Pack 3).
A network adapter is a synthetic device that can be used only after Integration Services
are installed in nonenlightened guests. Enlightened guests already have the necessary
components installed in the operating system to begin taking advantage of this type of
network adapter.
The default is to configure a network adapter when creating a new virtual machine. If a
legacy network adapter needs to be added, it must be done after the virtual machine is
created. This is accomplished by selecting the virtual machine in the Hyper-V Manager
console and modifying the settings by using the Add Hardware process. If this is not
done, there will be no virtual NIC present in the guest after it boots.
After Integration Services are installed on a guest, the legacy network adapter can be
removed and replaced with a network adapter (synthetic NIC).
Note If a guest operating system is going to be installed using PXE boot to download an
image, a legacy network adapter must be used and the boot order must be modified in
the virtual machine settings.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Using the Virtual Machine Connection Tool
You can use the Virtual Machine Connection tool to connect to and manage an individual
virtual machine running on a Hyper-V server. The Virtual Machine Connection tool uses the
same Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) technology used for remotely connecting to Windows
desktops.
VMConnect links RDP to a simulated virtualized display of the VM. It’s sometimes easier to
think of it as a virtual keyboard video mouse (KVM) device in the parent partition—on one
side, it’s RDP; on the other, it’s the keyboard and screen of the VMs.
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Figure 2-16 shows the Virtual Machine Connection tool connected to a virtual machine
named SEA-SRV1-V running on a Hyper-V server named SEA-SCV. The Virtual Machine
Connection tool is currently running in windowed mode and shows that a guest operating
system—a Full installation of Windows Server 2008 x64 Standard edition—is in the process
of being installed in the virtual machine.
FIGURE 2-16 The Virtual Machine Connection tool.
The Virtual Machine Connection tool’s menu bar provides the following options to select
from:
n
File This menu option allows you to access the Settings dialog box for the virtual
machine (as shown earlier in Figure 2-13) or to exit from (close) the Virtual Machine
Connection tool.
n
Action This menu option allows you to perform any of the following actions for the
virtual machine:
o
Display the Windows Logon screen (the screen that would result if you pressed
Ctrl+Alt+Del in the virtual machine).
o
Turn Off, Shut Down, or Save the state of the virtual machine.
o
Pause or Reset the virtual machine.
o
Take a Snapshot of the virtual machine or Revert to a previous snapshot.
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o
Choose the Insert Integration Services Setup Disk option, which launches the
­process of installing Integration Services on the virtual machine.
n
Media This menu option includes a DVD Drive option that allows you to insert a
DVD/CD/ISO file into the virtual machine’s DVD drive or eject a disk from it, or to capture the physical DVD/CD drive on the host computer. It also provides a Diskette Drive
option that allows you to insert or eject a virtual floppy disk drive (.vfd file).
n
Clipboard This menu option includes a Type Clipboard Text option that allows you
to transfer text from the parent partition into the child partition, and a Capture Screen
option that allows you to capture a screen shot in the child partition so that you can
paste it into an imaging program, such as Microsoft Paint, that is running in the parent
partition.
n
View This menu option includes a Full Screen Mode option that allows you to expand
the Virtual Machine Connection interface so that it fills the screen, and a Toolbar option
that allows you to return the Virtual Machine Connection tool to windowed mode.
Tip The Virtual Machine Connection tool also displays a toolbar when running in windowed
mode. This toolbar is shown in Figure 2-16 immediately below the menu bar. You can use it to
send Ctrl+Alt+Del to the virtual machine, start or stop the virtual machine, pause the machine,
take a snapshot of the virtual machine’s state, and perform other actions.
Installing the Virtual Machine Connection Tool
The Virtual Machine Connection tool is installed by default when you add the Hyper-V
role to a Full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2. When you use the Virtual Machine
Connection tool to connect to and manage virtual machines running on your local Hyper-V
server, the title bar of each Virtual Machine Connection tool displays localhost as the name
of the Hyper-V server on which each virtual machine runs. If you use the Virtual Machine
Connection tool to connect to and manage virtual machines running on a different Hyper-V
server, the title bar of each Virtual Machine Connection tool displays the name of the
Hyper-V server on which the virtual machines are running.
You can also install the Virtual Machine Connection tool onto a Windows Server 2008 R2
computer that is not running the Hyper-V role, and then use the Virtual Machine Connection
tool on this computer to manage virtual machines running on your Hyper-V servers. To
do this, install Hyper-V Tools from the Remote Administration Tools section of the Remote
Server Administration Tools (RSAT) feature using the Add Features Wizard.
You can also install the Virtual Machine Connection tool onto a computer ­running
Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, or Ultimate edition and use this computer to manage
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virtual machines running on your Hyper-V servers. To do this, download and install RSAT for
Windows 7 from http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=en&Family
ID=7d2f6ad7-656b-4313-a005-4e344e43997d and follow the instructions on that page for
­enabling the tools you need.
Note If your Hyper-V server is running Server Core, you will not be able to install either the
Hyper-V Manager snap-in or the Virtual Machine Connection tool directly on your server.
Instead, you must use these tools remotely from a different computer running either Windows 7
with RSAT or a Full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2.
Connecting to a Virtual Machine
To use the Hyper-V Manager console to connect to and manage a virtual machine by using
the Virtual Machine Connection tool, do one of the following:
n
Right-click on a virtual machine listed in the top center Virtual Machines pane of the
Hyper-V Manager console and select Connect.
n
Click on a virtual machine listed in the top center Virtual Machines pane of the Hyper-V
Manager console to select the virtual machine, and then click Connect in the Actions
pane or select Connect from the Action menu.
n
Double-click on a virtual machine listed either in the top center Virtual Machines pane
or on a thumbnail of a virtual machine displayed in the lower center pane.
You can also launch the Virtual Machine Connection tool from the command prompt. For
example, to connect to a virtual machine named SEA-SRV1-V running on the local Hyper-V
server, type "C:\Program Files\Hyper-V\vmconnect.exe" localhost SEA-SRV1-V at the
command prompt. If you have two or more virtual machines with the same display name,
you can connect to the desired virtual machine by specifying the GUID of the virtual machine instead of its display name as shown in the preceding command example. To specify a
GUID, you must use the –G switch like this: "C:\Program Files\Hyper-V\vmconnect.exe"
­localhost –G <GUID>.
Note Although the Hyper-V Manager snap-in always runs in an elevated state, the Virtual
Machine Connection tool does not. To avoid authentication issues when running the Virtual
Machine Connection tool on a computer running Windows 7, you must either run the tool with
elevated privileges or add your user account to the Hyper-V Administrators role by using the
Authorization Management tool.
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Using Windows Keyboard Accelerators
Standard Windows keyboard accelerators must be replaced by their equivalents when
­managing a virtual machine using the Virtual Machine Connection tool. These differences are
summarized in Table 2-5.
TABLE 2-5 Changes
to Standard Keyboard Accelerators When Managing a Virtual
Machine Using the Virtual Machine Connection Tool
Standard Windows
Virtual Machine
Keyboard Accelerator Connection Equivalent
Description
CTRL+ALT+DEL
CTRL+ALT+END
Displays the Windows Security dialog box
ALT+TAB
ALT+PAGE UP
Switches between programs from left to
right
ALT+SHIFT+TAB
ALT+PAGE DOWN
Switches between programs from right to
left
ALT+ESC
ALT+INSERT
Cycles through the programs in the order
they were launched
CTRL+ESC
ALT+HOME
Displays the Windows Start menu
N/A
CTRL+ALT+PAUSE
Changes the Virtual Machine Connection
window to or from full-screen mode
N/A
CTRL+ALT+LEFT ARROW
Releases the mouse and keyboard focus
from the Virtual Machine Connection
window when Integration Services is not
installed
Note By default, standard Windows keyboard accelerators are not sent to the virtual machine
unless you are working in full-screen mode. You can modify this, however, so that standard
Windows keyboard accelerators are always sent to the virtual machine when the Virtual Machine
Connection tool has the focus. You do this by opening the Hyper-V Manager console, selecting
Hyper-V Settings, choosing Keyboard, and selecting the Use On The Virtual Machine option.
Note, however, that Ctrl+Alt+Del will always go to the host (physical) computer, so you must use
Ctrl+Alt+End regardless of the setting you have selected here.
Creating a Virtual Machine
Once your Hyper-V server has been deployed and configured and you are familiar with how
to use the Hyper-V Manager console and the Virtual Machine Connection tool, you can create new virtual machines (child partitions) on your server and install a guest operating system
onto each virtual machine.
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Based on how you configure disk storage, there are two types of virtual machines you can
create:
n
Virtual machines that have their guest operating system installed on a virtual hard disk,
which is implemented as a file on the hard drive of the host computer
n
Virtual machines that have their guest operating system installed on a separate hard
drive on the host computer, a configuration that is known as a passthrough disk
The following sections outline the general procedures for creating virtual machines using
each of these storage configurations. For additional information concerning how Hyper-V
storage works and how it can be configured, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source:
Understanding Hyper-V Storage” later in this section.
Tip Before you create a new virtual machine, make sure you have sufficient disk storage space
on your host computer for the operating system and applications you will be installing in the
virtual machine. Also make sure that you have configured a virtual network so that guests will be
able to access the physical network if needed.
Direct from the Source: Understanding Hyper-V Storage
Hyper-V supports several different storage options, including Direct Attached Storage
(DAS)—for example, SATA or SAS—and SAN Storage—for example, FC or iSCSI. After
the Hyper-V server has been connected to storage, it can be made available to guests
in many different ways.
After storage has been exposed to the Hyper-V server, there are two choices available
for hosting the guest operating system.
n
Creating a virtual hard disk (VHD) on one of the volumes on the Hyper-V
server. The virtual hard disk is simply a file that is stored on one of the storage
volumes on the Hyper-V server. There are two types of virtual hard disks: dynamic and fixed. The maximum size of a VHD file is 2040 gigabytes (just short
of 2 terabytes).
n
Using a passthrough disk, which allows the virtual machine to access the disk
directly. The raw disk (no size limit) can be a disk local to the Hyper-V server
or a logical disk (logical unit number [LUN]) on a SAN. Before configuring a
guest with a passthrough disk, the disk must be placed in an offline state so
that there is no contention between the virtual machine and the Hyper-V
server. This is accomplished in the Windows Disk Management snap-in or by
using the Diskpart.exe command-line interface (CLI).
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Connecting Storage to the Guest
There are three methods available to connect storage to a virtual machine:
n
IDE The Hyper-V IDE controller allows for disks up to 2048 gigabytes.
Additionally, the new filter driver used for IDE in Hyper-V essentially bypasses
the emulation path for IDE, providing much higher performance that is almost
on par with SCSI. The IDE controller can support either virtual hard disks or
passthrough disks. There can be up to four IDE disks configured on a guest
(2 controllers with 2 disks each). One important note is that Hyper-V virtual
machines can boot only from IDE. Booting from virtual SCSI is not supported.
This is mainly because a SCSI controller is a synthetic device and must be
added only after Integrated Services have been installed on the guest.
n
SCSI The Hyper-V SCSI controller is a synthetic device and therefore cannot
be added to a guest configuration until after Integrated Services have been
installed. There can be up to four SCSI controllers configured per guest. Each
controller can support 64 disks each, for a total of 256 disks per virtual machine. SCSI disks backed with VHD are limited to 2040 GB. A guest cannot be
configured to boot from a SCSI controller.
n
iSCSI Guests connected to a physical network can take advantage of iSCSI
storage. Guests can connect directly to iSCSI storage over an iSCSI network,
completely bypassing the Hyper-V server itself. All that is required is the proper configuration of an iSCSI client in the guest and an iSCSI target running
somewhere on the network that is accessible by the guest. There is no limit to
the number of iSCSI disks that can be supported on the guest. A guest cannot
boot from an iSCSI disk.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Tip You can bypass the 2048-GB size limitation for IDE and SCSI virtual disks by using
passthrough disks.
Creating a Virtual Machine Using a Virtual Hard Disk
The general procedures for creating a new virtual machine that uses a virtual hard disk (.vhd
file) and installing a guest operating system are as follows:
1. Launch the New Virtual Machine Wizard from the Hyper-V Manager console. Follow
the steps of the wizard to assign memory, configure a network, and perform other
required steps. If the operating system you plan on installing in your virtual machine
is an unenlightened guest, do not configure a network at this point because you need
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to either install Integration Services first or configure a legacy network adapter for
connectivity.
Note If your virtual machine will be running a 64-bit version of either Windows XP
or Windows Server 2003, there is no driver for the legacy network adapter included
in Hyper-V. This means the synthetic network adapter must be used, which requires
Integration Services to be installed first.
2. When you get to the Connect Virtual Hard Disk page of the wizard, choose the Create
A Virtual Hard Disk option and verify the location for the disk.
3. When you finish the wizard, the virtual machine will start and you can install the guest
operating system from CD or DVD media. Connect to the virtual machine using the
Virtual Machine Connection tool so that you can respond to any prompts displayed
during the install process.
4. After you install any guest operating system, the next thing you should do is install the
Integration Services components on your virtual machine.
5. At this point, shut down your virtual machine to configure additional storage controllers, additional hard disks, and additional processors as needed. Then boot your virtual machine and install roles and features, install applications, join the domain, and
­perform other initial configuration tasks as needed.
Creating a Virtual Machine Using a Passthrough Disk
The general procedures for creating a new virtual machine that uses a passthrough disk and
installing a guest operating system are as follows:
1. Ensure that you have at least one dedicated disk volume of sufficient size on your host
computer to use as the system/boot volume for your new virtual machine.
2. Ensure that you have a separate location available for storing the virtual machine configuration (.xml) files for your new virtual machine. This is required because a virtual
machine configured with a passthrough disk uses the entire passthrough disk volume
for its operating system. The .xml files for the virtual machine must be stored on a different volume. The location you choose for storing the .xml files can be a different hard
disk volume on your Hyper-V server, or it can even be a shared folder on a network file
server. For more information, see the sidebar titled “Direct from The Source: Relocating
Virtual Machine Configuration Files” later in this section.
3. Launch the New Virtual Machine Wizard from the Hyper-V Manager console. Follow
the steps of the wizard to assign memory, configure a network, and perform other
required steps. If the operating system you plan on installing in your virtual machine
is an unenlightened guest, do not configure a network at this point because you need
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to either install Integration Services first or configure a legacy network adapter for
connectivity.
4. When you get to the Connect Virtual Hard Disk page of the wizard, choose the Attach
A Virtual Hard Disk Later option and continue through the wizard.
5. This time, when you finish the wizard, the virtual machine will not start because no
storage has been configured for it to use.
6. Select your virtual machine in the Hyper-V Manager console, and click Settings in the
Actions pane.
7. Select IDE Controller 0, click Add, select the Physical Hard Disk option, and then choose
the correct physical disk volume from the drop-down list.
8. Select IDE Controller 1, and select the physical CD/DVD drive, or mount an .iso image
file that has your operating system files.
9. Apply the settings you have configured, start your virtual machine, and install the
guest operating system. Connect to the virtual machine by using the Virtual Machine
Connection tool so that you can respond to any prompts displayed during the install
process. Continue as described in the previous section.
Direct from the Source: Relocating Virtual Machine
Configuration Files
The typical configuration of a virtual machine (guest) includes storing the virtual
­machine configuration files in the default location on the system drive under
\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Hyper-V in a folder corresponding to the name
given to the virtual machine in the New Virtual Machine Wizard. This location can be
changed by manipulating the settings for the Hyper-V server using Hyper-V Settings in
the Actions pane in the Hyper-V Manager console.
There are scenarios where storing virtual machine configuration files on a remote server that is not running Hyper-V is a very real possibility. Storing Hyper-V configuration
files in an alternate location is required when using passthrough disks. This is because
the entire disk is used for the operating system files and there is no room for the configuration files. This is true whether this configuration is used in a standalone Hyper-V
server or when making a virtual machine highly available in a failover cluster.
As an example, follow these steps to store configuration files in a remote location (for
example, File Server):
1. First, configure a folder on a remote machine that will be shared and used to
store the virtual machine configuration files. In this example, the shared folder
VMCONFIG is created on a remote server that can be accessed from the Hyper-V
server.
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2. When configuring the virtual machine, use the network share for the location of
the virtual machine configuration files (UNC path).
3. If the default permissions on the share are not modified, an error will be encountered when you are trying to complete the New Virtual Machine Wizard.
4. Permissions need to be modified on the share such that the user running the New
Virtual Machine Wizard and the Hyper-V server computer account both have
Write permissions to the share. After that has been accomplished, the wizard will
complete and the configuration files will be placed on the file share.
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—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Working with Virtual Machines
You can use the Hyper-V Manager console to perform a number of management tasks involving virtual machines. This section briefly examines three of these tasks:
n
Exporting and importing virtual machines
n
Working with snapshots
n
Working with Live Migration (new in Hyper-V R2)
Exporting and Importing Virtual Machines
You can use the Hyper-V Manager console to export a virtual machine from one Hyper-V
server so that you can import it onto a different Hyper-V server. This import/export functionality allows you to migrate a virtual machine from one host computer to another using a
process called Quick Migration.
The procedure for exporting a virtual machine from one Hyper-V server and importing it into
another involves two steps:
1. Export the virtual machine from the first Hyper-V server as a collection of exported files
and folders.
2. Import the exported files and folders onto your destination Hyper-V server.
The following is an outline of the steps involved for exporting a virtual machine:
1. Begin by shutting down the virtual machine you want to move. To shut down a virtual
machine, select the virtual machine in the Hyper-V Manager console and click Shut
Down in the Actions pane.
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2. Decide on the location to which you will export your virtual machine. Your export
­location could be any one of the following:
o
A temporary folder on an external hard drive to transport the exported virtual
machine files from the first Hyper-V server to the destination server.
o
A shared folder on a network file server used to temporarily store the virtual
­machine files until they are moved to the destination server.
o
A shared folder on your destination server that represents the final location to
which your virtual machine is being migrated.
3. Select the virtual machine you want to export, and click Export in the Actions pane.
When the Export Virtual Machine dialog box is displayed, type or browse to the path of
the export location. If the destination folder is a shared folder on the network, specify
the path to the folder as a UNC path.
4. Click the Export button to initiate the export process.
When the export process is finished, the following files and folders will be present in the
­export location:
n
Confix.xml An XML file that contains information about the original locations of all
virtual hard disks configured for the exported virtual machine.
n
Virtual Machines A folder that contains an export file whose name is of the form
<GUID>.exp. This export file contains configuration information for the exported virtual
machine and is converted during the import process into an XML configuration file.
n
Virtual Hard Disks A folder that contains the virtual hard disks (.vhd files) for the
­exported virtual machine.
n
Snapshots A folder that contains information about any snapshots taken of the virtual machine, including the snapshot differencing disks (.avhd files) and state information
files (.vsv and .bin files) for those snapshots.
After you have exported your virtual machine and copied the export files and folders to their
final locations on your destination server, you are ready to import these files and folders so
that you can re-create your virtual machine on the destination server.
But there are two things you need to know about first concerning this import process. First,
you can import only virtual machines that were exported from another Hyper-V server. You
cannot import virtual machines that were imported from either Virtual Server 2005 or Virtual
PC. This is because even though all three server virtualization products (Hyper-V, Virtual
Server, and Virtual PC) use the same virtual hard drive (.vhd) file format, they store virtual
machine configuration information differently and also have additional incompatibilities in
terms of the features they each support.
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Second, you can perform the import process only once per exported virtual machine. This is
because, during the import process, the export (.exp) files are converted into XML configuration (xml) files. What this also means is that if the import process fails or is performed incorrectly—for example, if you import the exported files and folder into the wrong location—the
only way to recover is to delete the virtual machine, relocate the .vhd files to the correct
­location, and then re-create the virtual machine by recalling the settings that were used.
The following is an outline of the steps involved for importing your exported virtual machine
files and folders:
1. Make sure your exported files and folders are in their correct locations on your destination server.
2. Connect to your destination server using the Hyper-V Manager console, and click
Import Virtual Machine in the Actions pane.
3. In the Import Virtual Machine dialog box, type or browse to the location of the
­exported files and folders.
4. Click the Import button to initiate the import process.
After the virtual machine has been imported, try starting it and make sure it is functioning
properly.
Working with Snapshots
A snapshot is a point-in-time picture of the state and settings of a virtual machine. Hyper-V
allows you to capture snapshots of virtual machines and revert back to those snapshots. For
example, you could install a guest operating system on a virtual machine, take a snapshot,
make some configuration changes to the guest, and then revert back to your snapshot to
undo your configuration changes.
Snapshots can be taken when a virtual machine is running, saved, or shut down. Snapshots
cannot be taken, however, when a virtual machine is paused. You can take multiple snapshots of a virtual machine to create a snapshot tree, which is a sequence of snapshots taken
at different times. You can manage this tree of snapshots by deleting individual snapshots or
an entire subtree of snapshots. And you can revert to any particular snapshots in a tree by
­applying that snapshot to your virtual machine.
Snapshots can be particularly useful during the test and development stages of a product
development cycle. For example, you can install an application you are developing on a virtual machine, take a snapshot, and then try working with the application. If the application
crashes, you can revert back to your snapshot and try to reproduce the steps that led to the
crash, which can help you troubleshoot the cause of the crash.
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Note Snapshots should generally not be used in production environments because they are not
intended as replacements for proper backup and recovery processes. For example, although running domain controllers in virtual machines is supported on Hyper-V, taking snapshots of domain
controllers and then reverting to them later can cause replication problems and should therefore
not be done in a production environment.
You can use the Hyper-V Manager console to take a snapshot of a virtual machine. To do
this, select the virtual machine in the Virtual Machines pane and click Snapshot in the Actions
pane for the selected virtual machine. As Figure 2-17 shows, when a new snapshot is created,
an icon for the snapshot is displayed in the Snapshots pane in the center of the console. The
new snapshot is given a descriptive name that includes the name of the virtual machine from
which the snapshot was made and the date and time when the snapshot occurred.
FIGURE 2-17 Snapshot of a virtual machine.
As shown in Figure 2-17, when you take a snapshot of a virtual machine, a green arrow
­labeled Now is also displayed in the Snapshots pane. This Now arrow represents the current
running configuration of the virtual machine.
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You can also take snapshots of a virtual machine using the Virtual Machine Connection tool.
You can do this in two ways:
n
By selecting Snapshot from the Action menu bar item.
n
By clicking the Snapshot icon on the toolbar.
When you take a snapshot using the Virtual Machine Connection tool, a Snapshot Name
­dialog box is displayed, prompting you to provide a descriptive name for the new snapshot.
By default, all snapshot files are stored in the following folder on your Hyper-V server:
%SystemRoot%\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\HyperV\Snapshots
You can change this location on a per-VM basis by configuring the settings for each VM.
Taking a snapshot of a virtual machine creates the following types of snapshot files:
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Virtual machine configuration (.xml) file
n
Virtual machine saved state (.vsv) files
n
Virtual machine memory contents (.bin) files
n
Snapshot differencing disk (.avhd) files
As shown in Figure 2-17 when you select a snapshot in the Snapshots pane, the Actions pane
displays various actions you can perform with that snapshot. These include the following:
n
Apply Selecting this action allows you to copy the complete virtual machine state
from the selected snapshot to the active virtual machine. This allows you to revert your
virtual machine to the state contained in the selected snapshot. When you select this
action, any unsaved data in your currently active virtual machine will be lost. Because of
this, you are prompted to choose whether you want to create a new snapshot of your
current virtual machine state before the state contained in the selected snapshot is
applied.
n
Rename Selecting this action allows you to modify the descriptive name of the
­selected snapshot.
n
Delete Snapshot Selecting this action allows you to remove only the files associated
with the selected snapshot. (Files for other snapshots will not be affected.) After you
delete a snapshot, you will be unable to revert to the state contained in that snapshot.
The current state of the active virtual machine is not affected by this action.
n
Delete Snapshot Tree Selecting this action allows you to delete the selected snapshot and any snapshots hierarchically beneath it. The current state of the active virtual
machine is not affected by this action.
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Note Snapshots are read-only. The only settings you can configure for a snapshot are its name
and any attached descriptive notes.
If you select the virtual machine in the Virtual Machines pane, the tasks displayed in the
Actions pane change to the following:
n
Snapshot Selecting this action allows you to take another snapshot of your virtual
machine.
n
Revert Selecting this action allows you to apply the previous snapshot (the snapshot
directly above the green Now arrow in the Snapshots pane).
Tip When you delete an entire snapshot tree, the result will be the last snapshot applied to the
running virtual machine. If your intention, instead, is to have the result be the pristine installation of your virtual machine, your first snapshot should be taken after your virtual machine is
configured and before you make any alterations for testing your configuration. That way, you can
apply your first snapshot (the root snapshot) before deleting the snapshot tree, and the result is
that your virtual machine’s configuration will return to where you started before you made your
alterations.
Direct from the Source: Best Practices for Configuring Virtual
Machines
Virtual machine performance is affected not only by how the physical server is configured but also by the selections made when configuring the virtual machine itself. The
following sections discuss best practices that should be considered when configuring
virtual machines in Hyper-V.
Change Default Locations for Virtual Hard Disk and Machine Configuration Files
Change the default locations for storing the virtual hard disks and the virtual machine
configuration files. By default, they are stored on the drive where the operating system
is installed. For better performance, move the location to another disk on a SAN, if possible. If no SAN storage is configured, use another internal, fault-tolerant drive or drives
that can be dedicated to storing virtual machine data and are not supporting the operating system.
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Install Integration Services
The first, and probably most important, best practice for virtual machines is to install
Integration Services, which comes with Hyper-V, as soon as possible if the operating
system running in the virtual machine is supported. Then update Integration Services
as needed.
Uninstall VM Additions and Compact VHDs
When migrating virtual machines from Virtual PC or Virtual Server 2005 R2, uninstall
the VM Additions and compact the virtual hard disk before moving the disk to the
Hyper-V server.
Set Display for Best Performance
For the best display in a virtual machine, ensure the display interface is set for Best
Performance. This ensures the hardware acceleration is set to Full.
Configure Fixed-Size VHDs
Choose to configure fixed-size virtual hard disks rather than dynamically expanding
disks. Performance is faster, the file system is less likely to fragment, and managing
space on the physical disk is easier. Always defragment a physical disk before creating a
virtual hard disk.
Use SCSI Virtual Adapters for Data Drives
Hyper-V requires the virtual machine to boot from a virtual IDE controller; however,
SCSI virtual adapters can be used after that for mounting additional virtual hard disks.
Although performance differences between a virtual IDE controller and a virtual SCSI
controller in Hyper-V is negligible (with Integration Services installed), more and larger
capacity virtual hard disks can be attached to a virtual SCSI controller (4 controllers
with 64 virtual disks each, for a total of 256). So, if you need more than four virtual hard
disks attached to a virtual machine, use a virtual SCSI controller.
Allocate CPU Resources Based on Anticipated Usage
It is also important to determine virtual machine performance to ensure CPU resource
allocation on the physical server is adequate to support the workload inside the virtual
machine. The default in Hyper-V server is to treat all virtual machines equally. In reality,
this might not be a practical or wise business decision. When allocating physical machine CPU resources to a virtual machine, it is important not to over-subscribe—that is,
trying to allocate more physical machine resources than are really available. The next
version of System Center Virtual Machine Manger (SCVMM 2008) will play a key role in
monitoring virtual machine performance.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
To help with this process, the following figure shows the Processor configuration setting for a virtual machine:
The interpretation of the Processor configuration settings shown in the preceding
­figure are as follows:
n
Virtual Machine Reserve Percent of the logical CPU that is set aside for the
running virtual machine. As each VM is started, the available capacity on the
Hyper-V server itself is reduced.
n
Virtual Machine Limit Percentage of logical CPU that a running virtual machine is not allowed to exceed.
n
Relative Weight Determines how CPU is distributed when there is contention among all running virtual machines. The higher the number, the more
processing power allocated to the VM. Relative weight can range from 1 to
10,000.
n
Migrate To A Physical Computer With A Different Processor Version
This configuration option is new in Hyper-V R2 and enables or disables processor compatibility mode. For more information on this feature, see the sidebar titled “How It Works: Processor Compatibility Mode” later in this chapter.
n
Run An Older Operating System, Such As Windows NT Reduces vulnerability of some operating systems to high central processing unit ­identification
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(CPUID) values. Unexpected, high CPUID values can cause a crash. This option was called Limit Processor Functionality in the original release version of
Hyper-V.
Consider Using Passthrough Disks
When creating a virtual machine, it is a best practice to use virtual hard disks; however,
circumstances might dictate using passthrough disks. Performance using passthrough
disks is slightly better than performance achieved using a virtual hard disk (VHD), you
can conserve drive letters, and you can configure disks larger than two terabytes (if the
external storage supports that). However, when using passthrough disks, the virtual
machine configuration files need to be relocated to either another hard disk or a file
share. Additionally, you lose snapshot functionality when using passthrough disks, and
they are not portable like a file (VHD).
Ensure File Share High Availability
If a file share is being used to store virtual machine configuration data, it is a best practice to ensure the file share is highly available (for example, a file share being hosted
in a failover cluster). You also need to modify the security on the file share to allow the
Hyper-V server (all nodes of it if it’s in a failover cluster) write access to the share.
Configure Domain Controllers to Optimize Performance
Domain controllers are supported in Hyper-V. The following best practices are recommended for these configurations:
n
Never save state in a domain controller because this might cause synchronization issues in the domain.
n
Never pause a domain controller virtual machine for long periods of time because this might adversely affect replication.
n
Always shut down a domain controller.
n
Do not take snapshots of a domain controller.
n
Make a determination regarding time synchronization. The decision is either
to use the Hyper-V Integration Service For Time Synchronization or not. If
the decision is to treat the virtualized domain controllers like hardware-based
domain controllers, disable the Time Synchronization capability in the settings for each virtual machine and point the PDC Emulator to an external time
source and allow all the other domain controllers to synchronize with the PDC
Emulator. If the decision is to synchronize with the parent partition, enable
only the Time Synchronization capability for the domain controller holding
the PDC Emulator FSMO role.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
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Working with Live Migration
Live Migration is a new feature of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 that makes running
virtual machines highly available by allowing them to be transparently moved between the
nodes of a failover cluster without perceived downtime or dropped network connections.
Live Migration relies on the new Cluster Shared Volumes feature of the Failover Clustering
feature of Windows Server 2008 R2, which is described in the next section. Live Migration
can also take advantage of the new Processor Compatibility Mode feature of Hyper-V R2
to transparently migrate running virtual machines between host machines that have the
same processor architecture (AMD or Intel) but different processor features. For more information on processor compatibility mode, see the sidebar titled “How It Works: Processor
Compatibility Mode” later in this chapter.
Understanding Cluster Shared Volumes
Cluster Shared Volumes are a new type of storage volume supported by the Failover
Clustering feature of Windows Server 2008 R2. The feature allows multiple cluster nodes
to concurrently read from and write to a single shared volume. Cluster Shared Volumes is
intended only for use by Hyper-V and is not supported for other uses unless specified by
Microsoft.
When Cluster Shared Volumes is implemented on a failover cluster of Hyper-V servers, the
clustered virtual machines (the virtual machines residing on the different nodes of the cluster) can all access their virtual hard disks at the same time. These virtual hard disks all reside
on the cluster shared volume, which is a single logical unit number (LUN) in the cluster storage array. This arrangement enables the clustered virtual machines to fail over independently
of each another. At any given time, the state of each running virtual machine is managed by
only one of the cluster nodes.
Without the Cluster Shared Volumes feature, making clustered virtual machines highly available requires additional complexity. This is because each LUN in the storage cluster array can
be accessed only by one cluster node at a time. Each clustered virtual machine, therefore,
requires its own separate LUN, which makes implementing and managing clustered virtual
machines and LUNs more complex. The new Cluster Shared Volumes feature helps remove
this complexity, making highly available virtual machines easier to implement.
Implementing Clustered Hyper-V
The simplest form of highly available clustered Hyper-V is a two-node failover cluster. The
cluster typically consists of the following:
n
Two servers running Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise or Datacenter edition and
having the Hyper-V role and Failover Clustering feature installed. The same version of
Windows Server 2008 R2 must be used for each node—you cannot have one node
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running Enterprise edition and the other running Datacenter. The same architecture
must also be used—you cannot have one be an Itanium server and the other x64. The
same installation option must also be used for each node—you cannot have one node
running a Full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 and the other running a Server
Core installation. The hardware for these servers should also generally be as identical
as possible, and the servers should have the same service packs and software updates
installed. Finally, both servers should be member servers of the same Active Directory
Domain Services (AD DS) domain.
n
A storage array that consists of two LUNs configured at the hardware level. The ­storage
array can use Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), iSCSI, or Fibre Channel. The storage array
should include
o
One LUN configured as the witness disk for the cluster. The witness disk holds a
copy of the cluster configuration disk. The quorum configuration for the cluster
will be Node And Disk Majority, which is the default for a two-node cluster and
which stores the cluster configuration on the nodes and the witness disk.
o
One LUN configured as the shared storage on which the virtual machines and
their virtual hard disks reside. Cluster shared volumes must be basic disks, not
dynamic. They can be either master boot record (MBR) or GUID partition table
(GPT) disks and should be formatted using NTFS.
A network infrastructure that connects the cluster nodes with each other and with the storage array. This can be implemented in different ways, but you should do it in a way that
avoids single points of failure. In particular, make sure that the network connection used by
the cluster shared volume is fault tolerant.
All storage and networking hardware in the cluster, including the servers themselves, must
be “Certified for Windows Server 2008 R2.” You should use the Validate A Configuration
Wizard to verify that your hardware and configuration will support failover clustering before
you implement your clustering solution.
Setting Up for Live Migration
The steps for setting up for Live Migration using the Hyper-V and Failover Clustering roles of
Windows Server 2008 R2 are as follows:
1. Set up the server, storage, and network architecture described in the previous section
to support failover clustering and management of your virtual machines.
2. Install Windows Server 2008 R2 on each server, and add the Hyper-V role.
3. Install the Failover Clustering feature on each server, and configure the servers as
nodes in a failover cluster. Validate your cluster configuration by running the Validate A
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Configuration Wizard. You can do this by opening the Failover Cluster Manager console
and clicking Validate A Configuration in the Management central pane:
4. Using Failover Cluster Manager, right-click on your failover cluster and select Enable
Cluster Shared Volumes. After you have done this, all nodes in the cluster will be able
to use shared volumes. You can enable Cluster Shared Volumes only once per failover
cluster. A node named Clustered Shared Volumes will be displayed in the console tree
after you complete this step.
5. Select the cluster you want to manage, and click Add Storage in the Actions pane. In
the Add Storage dialog box, select a disk from the list of available disks and click OK to
add the disk to the cluster shared volume. The cluster shared volume storage location
will be displayed as SystemRoot\ClusterStorage for all nodes of the failover cluster, and
each disk you add will be displayed as a folder underneath this.
6. Now create your clustered virtual machines, choosing a cluster shared volume as the
location to store both the virtual machines and their virtual hard disks. For the cluster shared volume to be available to the virtual machines, you must create the virtual
­machines on the cluster node that owns the cluster shared volume.
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7. Now use Hyper-V Manager to open the settings for each virtual machine, select
Automatic Start Action in the left pane, and select Nothing to specify what you want
the virtual machine to do when the physical computer starts. Doing this enables the
management of the virtual machine state to be controlled through the Cluster service.
8. Now use Failover Cluster Manager to make your clustered virtual machines highly
available. To do this, select Services And Applications in the console tree and click
Configure A Service Or Application in the Actions pane to launch the High Availability
Wizard. Click Virtual Machine on the Select Service Or Application page; then on the
Select Virtual Machine page, select the check box beside the virtual machine you want
to make highly available and finish the wizard. The virtual machine will be displayed
under the Services And Applications node, and you should start the virtual machine by
right-clicking on it and selecting Bring This Service Or Application Online. Then install
the guest operating system and applications on the virtual machine. Repeat the process
with any other virtual machines that you want to make highly available.
9. Now in Failover Cluster Manager, under Services And Applications, select the clustered
virtual machine for which you want to configure the cluster network for Live Migration.
In the center pane, right-click on the virtual machine resource and select Properties,
click the Network For Live Migration tab, and select one or more cluster networks to
use for Live Migration.
You can use the Up and Down buttons to re-order the networks, with the network at
the top being the preferred one for use during a live migration. Generally, you will want
to ensure that a private cluster network is the preferred network for a live migration,
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while a network used only for cluster traffic and by cluster shared volumes should be
last on your list. Configuring this setting for one clustered virtual machine automatically
makes it apply globally to all virtual machines on the cluster.
At this point, you have set up a failover cluster of Hyper-V servers with highly available clustered virtual machines running on them that support Live Migration. The next section shows
how to perform a live migration.
Performing a Live Migration
To perform a live migration and move a virtual machine from one cluster node to another,
do the following:
1. Open Failover Cluster Manager, select the cluster, and expand Services And
Applications.
2. Right-click the virtual machine resource in the center pane, and click Live Migrate
Virtual Machine To Another Node; then select the node you want to move the virtual
machine to.
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In the preceding screen shot, the two virtual machines are initially owned by R2NODE1, and the virtual machine CONTOSO-FS5 is being migrated to R2-NODE2.
3. The progress of the live migration will be displayed in the center pane.
The time it takes to perform the live migration depends on the amount of RAM configured for the virtual machine, the load on the source and destination cluster nodes,
and the network connection speed and bandwidth available for moving the virtual
machine.
4. After the migration is complete, the ownership of virtual machine CONTOSO-FS5 has
been transferred from R2-NODE1 to R2-NODE2.
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In the R2 release of Hyper-V and Failover Clustering, you can also use Windows PowerShell to
perform a live migration. The command for doing this is as follows:
Get-Cluster "<Cluster Name>" | Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole -Name "<VM group name>" -Node
"<Destination node name>"
In the preceding command, <Cluster Name> is the name of the cluster on which the virtual
machine resides, <VM group name> is the name of the virtual machine resource group, and
<Destination node name> is the name of the destination cluster node to which you want to
move the virtual machine using Live Migration.
More Info To learn more about how to configure Failover Clustering for highly available virtual
machines, see the topic “Hyper-V: Using Hyper-V and Failover Clustering” in the TechNet Library
at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc732181.aspx. To learn more about how to perform a live migration, see the topic “Hyper-V: Using Live Migration with Cluster Shared Volumes
in Windows Server 2008 R2” at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd446679.aspx.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
How It Works: Processor Compatibility Mode
Processor compatibility mode is a new feature of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008
R2 that lets you migrate a virtual machine between host machines having the same
processor architecture (either AMD or Intel). When you start a virtual machine on a
Hyper-V host, the hypervisor exposes the supported processor features that are available on the host’s hardware. The exposed processor features are known as guest visible
processor features, and these processor features are available to the virtual machine
until it is restarted.
If you now enable processor compatibility mode on the virtual machine, Hyper-V normalizes the processor feature set. What this means is that only processor features that
are available on all processors having the same architecture are exposed as guest visible processor features. In other words, the guest operating system sees either a “standard” Intel processor or a “standard” AMD processor, regardless of the actual physical
processor on the host machine. By hiding the real processor features and exposing only
a standard processor that has limited features, the ability to migrate the virtual machine between processors having the same architecture is enabled. The actual way this
hiding of processor features occurred was by having the hypervisor intercept the virtual
machine’s CPUID instruction in order to clear the returned bits that correspond to the
processor features being hidden.
You do not have to make any changes in your system BIOS to enable processor
­compatibility mode. In addition, your processor does not need to support advanced
features such as Extended Migration or Flex Migration for processor compatibility
mode to function. For AMD processors, the processor features you lose when you
enable processor compatibility mode include SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.A, SSE5, POPCNT,
LZCNT, AMD 3DNow!, Extended AMD 3DNow!, and Misaligned SSE. For Intel processors, the processor features you lose include SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT, Misaligned
SSE, XSAVE, and AVX.
Note that if a virtual machine has processor compatibility mode enabled and is
­running a third-party application that can make use of one or more of these hidden processor features, it is up to the application to determine how to behave in the
­absence of these features. For this reason, processor compatibility mode is disabled by
default on Hyper-V virtual machines—just in case having it enabled might cause problems with a third-party application running in the virtual machine. Be sure to test all
applications installed on your virtual machine before enabling processor compatibility
mode on the machine. Multimedia applications in particular might fail to perform as
well on virtual machines that have processor compatibility mode enabled on them. This
is because multimedia applications often use specialized processor features to optimize
how they perform.
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Note also that enabling processor compatibility mode is not required if you are moving
a virtual machine to a new host machine that has a superset of the processor features
of the old host machine. You have to enable this mode only if you are moving the virtual machine to a new host machine that has a subset of the processor features of the
old host machine.
Processor mode is enabled on a per-virtual-machine basis. To enable processor compatibility mode for a virtual machine, begin by shutting down the virtual machine
using Hyper-V Manager. Open the properties sheet for the virtual machine, and click
Processor in the left pane. In the right pane, select the check box labeled Migrate To A
Physical Computer With A Different Processor Version as shown in the following screen
shot:
Enabling processor compatibility mode on a virtual machine allows you to perform
either a live migration or a quick migration of the virtual machine between Hyper-V
hosts having the same processor architecture. Processor compatibility mode also makes
saved states and snapshots compatible as well. For more information on using processor compatibility mode, see the topic “Configure Memory and Processors” in the
TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc742470.aspx.
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Tools for Managing Hyper-V and Virtual Machines
We’ve already described in detail two tools you can use for managing Hyper-V servers and
virtual machines: the Hyper-V Manager snap-in and the Virtual Machine Connection tool,
which can be installed on any Windows Server 2008 R2 computer and can be used on a
Windows 7 computer by installing RSAT for Windows 7 on the computer. There are several
other ways, however, that you can remotely manage Hyper-V servers and virtual machines
running on them, including the following:
n
Remote Desktop Connection
n
RemoteApp
n
Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
n
Windows PowerShell
n
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2 is covered in detail in Chapter 5, so the
­sections that follow deal with the remaining management tools.
Managing Hyper-V Using Remote Desktop Connection
Instead of connecting to a remote Hyper-V server using the Hyper-V Manager snap-in, you
can use Remote Desktop Connection (Mstsc.exe) to connect to the desktop of the remote
server and then run the Hyper-V Manager console locally on that server. To do this, you simply have to enable Remote Desktop on the remote Hyper-V server.
There are some downsides to this approach for managing Hyper-V, however:
n
If your Hyper-V server is running on a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008
R2, the Hyper-V Manager snap-in and Virtual Machine Connection tools are not available locally on the server, so this management approach won’t work in this case.
n
If you are connected to the remote desktop of a Hyper-V server and you open the
Virtual Machine Connection tool on the server, you might have to contend with the
­following issues:
o
You will not have any mouse control inside the virtual machine unless Integration
Services has been installed. The workaround is of course to make sure Integration
Services is installed on your virtual machines.
o
Certain keyboard accelerators such as Ctrl+Alt+Del might have unexpected
results when the Virtual Machine Connection tool is running within a Remote
Desktop session. This is because Remote Desktop Connection intercepts these
keyboard accelerators before the Virtual Machine Connection can see them. To
resolve this, you have to modify your Hyper-V Server settings to allow Windows
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keyboard a
­ ccelerators to go to the virtual machine—for example, by changing
the release key combination to something other than Ctrl+Alt+Left Arrow and by
using the toolbar button or Action menu of Virtual Machine Connection to send
a Ctrl_Alt+Del signal to the virtual machine.
Managing Hyper-V Using RemoteApp
If you want to manage Hyper-V servers from a computer running an earlier version of
Microsoft Windows, such as Windows XP Professional, you can do so by using RemoteApp
to publish the Hyper-V Manager application on the Hyper-V server using Remote Desktop
Services. In brief, the procedure for doing this is as follows:
1. Install the Remote Desktop Services role on a server running a Full installation of
Windows Server 2008 R2. Be sure to include the Remote Desktop Web Access role
­service in your Remote Desktop Services role installation.
2. Install the Hyper-V role or Hyper-V role management tools on the server.
3. Configure user/group membership as needed for the Remote Desktop Users and
Remote Desktop Web Access Computers security groups. Also, configure RDP and
­security settings as needed.
4. Launch the RemoteApp Wizard from RemoteApp Manager, and add the Hyper-V
Manager console (Virtmgmt.msc) to the list of published applications on the server.
Now, from the computer running the earlier Windows operating system, connect to the
­server using Remote Desktop Web Access, select the remotely published application
(Hyper-V Manager) to launch the connection screen, and authenticate with the server. At this
point, the Hyper-V Manager console will be running on your computer—it will look and work
just as if the console was installed locally on your computer, with the exception of the word
Remote in the title bar indicating that it is a RemoteApp and not a local program.
Managing Hyper-V Using Windows Management Instrumentation
Hyper-V also includes a Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) provider that enables developers and scripters to build custom tools, utilities, and scripts for most aspects
of a Hyper-V platform. This WMI provider exposes WMI classes for the following types of
functionality:
n
BIOS
n
Input
n
Integration components
n
Memory
n
Networking
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n
Processor
n
Profile registration
n
Resource management
n
Serial devices
n
Storage
n
Video
n
Virtual system
n
Virtual system management
99
For example, the BIOS classes include the Msvm_BIOSElement class, which represents
virtual BIOS software that is loaded into memory to configure and start the system,
and the Msvm_SystemBIOS class used to associate a virtual system with its BIOS. The
Msvm_BIOSElement class exposes properties such as BaseBoardSerialNumber, BIOSGUID,
BIOSNumLock, BootOrder, and so on. Some of these properties are read-only, while others
are read/write.
More Info You can find more information concerning the Hyper-V WMI provider in the MSDN
Library at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc136992.aspx.
Managing Hyper-V Using Windows PowerShell
You can also use Windows PowerShell to manage most aspects of a Hyper-V platform.
Windows PowerShell is a command-line shell and task-based scripting technology that
helps administrators control and automate system administration tasks. Windows PowerShell
includes numerous system administration utilities, has consistent syntax and naming conventions, and enables improved navigation of common management data, such as the Windows
registry, the certificate store, and WMI namespaces. Windows PowerShell also includes an
intuitive scripting language specifically designed for Windows administration.
Version 2.0 of Windows PowerShell, which is included in Windows Server 2008 R2 and
Windows 7, has many additional features and enhancements including the following:
n
Support for remoting Lets you run remote commands on one or many computers
using a single Windows PowerShell command.
n
Support for background jobs Makes use of remoting to allow you to run local and
remote commands in the background while using the Windows PowerShell console for
other tasks. You can then retrieve the results of your jobs at your convenience.
n
Support for ScriptCmdlets Lets you write new Windows PowerShell cmdlets in
Windows PowerShell language instead of C#.
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n
Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) A new graphical user interface for
Windows PowerShell that includes a scripting interface with syntax coloring and
­selective execution.
n
Windows PowerShell debugger cmdlets You can use these new cmdlets to set
breakpoints, step through a script or function, and display the contents of the call
stack.
n
Script internationalization Lets you display user messages and help text for a script
in the user’s local language.
n
Data sections A special section of a script or function where you can isolate your
data from the script logic instead of mixing data with logic. Data sections also let you
keep resource file strings together.
n
Out-GridView A cmdlet that lets you create interactive tables from command output
so that you can manipulate data using the mouse or keyboard.
n
New and improved WMI cmdlets These include Remove-WmiObject,
­Set-WmiInstance, and Invoke-WmiMethod. In addition, all WMI cmdlets now also
­support the EnableAllPrivileges parameter as well as Impersonation, Authentication, and
Authority, parameters.
n
Improved Help files Many new examples have been added to the Help files for
­various cmdlets.
More Info For more information about Windows PowerShell, see the Windows PowerShell
Blog at http://blogs.msdn.com/PowerShell/. You can also find a collection of useful resources for
learning Windows PowerShell at the Script Center on Microsoft TechNet at http://www.microsoft.
com/technet/scriptcenter/hubs/msh.mspx.
A growing Windows PowerShell management library for Hyper-V can be found on the
CodePlex Project at http://www.codeplex.com/PSHyperv. CodePlex is Microsoft’s opensource project-hosting Web site that allows you to start a new project, join an existing
one, or download software created by the CodePlex community. Note that the CodePlex
site is p
­ rovided by Microsoft to the developer community solely as a Web storage site and
­service—Microsoft does not control, review, revise, endorse, or distribute any third-party
projects hosted on this site. For more information about CodePlex, see its Terms Of Use at
http://www.codeplex.com/Legal/Terms.aspx.
At the time of this writing, the CodePlex Windows PowerShell management library for
Hyper-V includes 80 Windows PowerShell functions that can be used to perform Hyper-V
management tasks, such as finding a VM, connecting to a VM, discovering and manipulating
the state of a VM, backing up a VM, exporting a VM, taking a snapshot of a VM, and many
other common administrative tasks. Table 2-6 lists the various cmdlets currently available for
different categories of Hyper-V management tasks.
Chapter 2 Server Virtualization
TABLE 2-6 Windows
PowerShell Available from CodePlex
Type of management task
Available cmdlets
Finding a VM
Get-VM
Choose-VM
Get-VMHost
Connecting to a VM
New-VMConnectSession
Discovering and manipulating virtual
­machine states
Get-VMState
Set-VMState
Convert-VMState
Ping-VM
Test-VMHeartBeat
Shutdown-VM
Start-VM
Stop-VM
Suspend-VM
Get-VMKVP
Add-KVP
Remove-KVP
Get-VMJPEG
Backing up, exporting, and taking ­
snapshots of VMs
Export-VM
Import-VM
Get-VMSnapshot
Choose-VMSnapshot
Apply-VMSnapshot
New-VMSnapshot
Remove-VMSnapshot
Rename-VMSnapshot
Update-VMSnapshot
Get-VMSnapshotTree
Get-VMBackupScript
Adding and removing VMs, and
­configuring motherboard settings
New-VM
Remove-VM
Set-VM
Get-VMCPUCount
Set-VMCPUCount
Get-VMMemory
Set-VMMemory
Set-VMSerialPort
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Type of management task
Available cmdlets
Manipulating disk controllers, drives, and
disk images
Get-VMDiskController
Add-VMSCSIController
Remove-VMSCSIController
Get-VMDriveByController
Add-VMDRIVE
Remove-VMdrive
Get-VMDiskByDrive
Add-VMDisk
Set-VMDisk
Get-VMDisk
Get-VMFloppyDisk
Add-VMFloppyDisk
Add-VMNewHardDisk
Manipulating network interface cards
Get-VMNic
List-VMNic
Choose-VMNIC
Add-VMNIC
Remove-VMNIC
Set-VMNICAddress
Set-VMNICConnection
Get-VMNicPort
Get-VMnicSwitch
Choose-VMSwitch
New-VMSwitchPort
Get-VMByMACaddress
Choose-VMExternalEthernet,
New-VMExternalSwitch
New-VMInternalSwitch
New-VMPrivateSwitch
Working with VHD files
Get-VHDDefaultPath
Get-VHDInfo
New-VHD
Compact-VHD
Test-VHD
Convert-VHD
Merge-VHD
Mount-VHD
Unmount-VHD
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Tip Because the Server Core installation option of Windows Server 2008 R2 now includes
Windows PowerShell as an optional feature, you can use these Windows PowerShell cmdlets to
remotely manage virtual machines running on Server Core Hyper-V servers.
Direct from the Source: Managing Hyper-V with Windows
PowerShell
Hyper-V provides an MMC snap-in that can be used to manage it remotely, but no
command-line tools. Fortunately, the MMC invokes a set of WMI interfaces that are all
documented on MSDN, which allows for development of tools using any language capable of supporting WMI.
Windows PowerShell has built-in support for WMI with a Get-WmiObject cmdlet.
After the cmdlet retrieves the object, its properties and methods are available to a
Windows PowerShell script. Because you need to script Hyper-V operations, and because Windows PowerShell is positioned as Microsoft’s scripting tool for the future, I
set about developing a library of Windows PowerShell functions that are available from
Microsoft’s CodePlex Open Source repository http://www.codePlex.com/PSHyperV.
These functions range in complexity from a simple Get-VM—which takes a name and
returns the matching MSVM_VirtualMachine WMI object (in its raw state)—to complex
tools for modifying the configuration of VMs and their virtual hard disks. The same
handful of Windows PowerShell techniques are used again and again. For example,
here is the basic form of GET-VM:
Function Get-VM
{Param ($machineName, $Server=".")
$WQL="Select * From MsVM_ComputerSystem Where ElementName Like '$machineName' AND
Caption Like 'Virtual%' "
Get-WmiObject -computername $Server -NameSpace "root\virtualization" -Query $WQL
}
As you can see, the function has two parameters. The Server parameter defaults to “.”,
the local machine. Later, I decided to default the machine name to a wildcard, which
is the % sign in the WMI query language. Because I kept using Name*, I added code
to replace * with % in the name, and I added switches that modify the WMI Query
Language (WQL) to return only running machines. So now I use the command like this:
Get-VM –Server "HV-Core"-Running | suspend-VM
The MSVM_ComputerSystem object has a method called Request State Change, so
suspend-VM calls this asking for a change in state to Suspended. Changing the settings
for a VM is a task that needs a bit more work. This involves calling the Modify Virtual
System Resources method of the MSVM_VirtualSystemManagementService WMI object.
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This is given a machine name, a block of XML, and a Null variable to contain the result.
Building the XML usually means getting a WMI object, which describes the object being changed, and then calling it’s getText method and asking for XML text, like this:
Function Set-VMMemory
{Param ($VM , $memory, $server=".")
if ($VM -is [String]) {$VM=(Get-VM -Machinename $VM -Server $Server) }
$memSettingData=Get-WmiObject -computerName $vm.__server NameSpace
"root\virtualization" Query "select * from Msvm_MemorySettingData
where instanceId Like 'Microsoft:$($vm.name)%' "
$memsettingData.Limit
=$Memory / 1MB
$memsettingData.Reservation
=$Memory / 1MB
$memsettingData.VirtualQuantity =$Memory / 1MB
[email protected]($VM.__Path, @($memsettingData.psbase.GetText([System.Management.
TextFormat]::WmiDtd20)) , $null)
$VSMgtSvc = (Get-WmiObject -computerName $vm.__server -NameSpace
"root\virtualization" -Class "MsVM_virtualSystemManagementService")
$result=$VSMgtSvc.psbase.invokeMethod("ModifyVirtualSystemResources",$arguments)
if ($result -eq 0) {"Set memory for '$($vm.elementName)' to $memory."} else
{"Failed to set memory for '$($vm.elementName)', result code: $result."} }
}
With these two techniques under your belt and documentation of the WMI provider
from MSDN (not forgetting the examples from CodePlex), you can put together your
own scripts to do pretty much anything.
—James O’Neill, IT Pro Evangelist, Microsoft UK
Additional Resources
The resources listed in this section were either referred to in the chapter or provide
­additional information concerning concepts and products discussed in this chapter.
General
A general overview of the features and benefits of Hyper-V can be found on the Windows
Server 2008 R2 product information page at http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/
en/us/hyperv-main.aspx.
For detailed technical information concerning implementing and maintaining Hyper-V,
the best place to start is the Virtualization TechCenter on Microsoft Technet at http://
technet.microsoft.com/en-us/virtualization/default.aspx. On this page in the “Products and
Technologies” section, you will find a Hyper-V link that takes you to another page that
­displays a growing list of technical resources for IT administrators who want to learn more
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about deploying and managing Hyper-V in their organizations. The following two TechNet
resources are especially helpful:
n
On the page “Browse Windows Server Technologies” in the TechNet Library at http://
technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd283012.aspx, scroll down and click the Hyper-V
link to find useful information on how to plan, install, configure, migrate, evaluate, and
get started working with the Hyper-V role in Windows Server 2008 R2. Be sure to explore each of these sections—there’s a lot you can learn in them.
n
The installed Help file for Hyper-V Manager can be found online at http://technet.­
microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc730764.aspx. Be sure to familiarize yourself with the
­material contained in this Help file.
If you want to learn more about the hypervisor in Hyper-V, there’s no better source of information than the “Hypervisor Functional Specification v2.0: For Windows Server 2008 R2,”
which is available from the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/
downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=0c34932c-1bac-41a6-9b69-bc03d63ad739.
Planning for Hyper-V
Be sure to download the latest version (4.0) of the Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP)
Toolkit if you are planning on deploying Hyper-V in your environment. MAP 4.0 can take an
inventory of your current server environment and determine which servers are underutilized.
MAP can then generate recommendations for server placements and virtualization candidate assessments for Hyper-V implementation within your environment. MAP also includes a
Power Savings Calculator you can use to calculate potential power cost savings with Hyper-V
prior to deployment. Finally, MAP includes a VMware discovery feature you can use to identify already-virtualized servers running on VMware servers that you can manage using System
Center Virtual Machine Manager or migrate to Hyper-V servers. For more information, see
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/solutionaccelerators/dd537566.aspx.
The Windows Server Virtualization Guide, which is part of Microsoft’s Infrastructure Planning
and Design (IPD) Guides for Virtualization, can also be used to help you design and plan
for your Hyper-V deployment to ensure its success. For more information concerning the
Windows Server Virtualization Guide and to download this guide, go to http://technet.­
microsoft.com/en-ca/library/bb897507.aspx.
Deploying Hyper-V
For a quick introduction on installing and using Hyper-V, see the “Step-byStep Guide to Getting Started with Hyper-V” white paper available from the
Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?
FamilyID=bcaa9707-0228-4860-b088-dd261ca0c80d&DisplayLang=en.
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The most up-to-date resource for deploying Hyper-V is the “Hyper-V
Planning and Deployment Guide,” which is available from the Microsoft
Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloadS/details.
aspx?FamilyID=5da4058e-72cc-4b8d-bbb1-5e16a136ef42&displaylang=en.
Managing and Maintaining Hyper-V
A useful resource to use after you’ve got Hyper-V installed is the “Microsoft
Hyper-V Server 2008 Configuration Guide,” which is available from the
Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.
aspx?familyid=E1E111C9-FA69-4B4D-8963-1DD87804C04F&displaylang=en.
To remotely manage Hyper-V servers from a Windows 7 administrative workstation, use
the Remote Server Administration Tools for Windows 7, which can be downloaded from
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=
7d2f6ad7-656b-4313-a005-4e344e43997d.
Detailed information concerning the Hyper-V WMI provider can be found in the MSDN
Library at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc136992(VS.85).aspx.
A growing Windows PowerShell management library for Hyper-V can be found on the
CodePlex Project at http://www.codeplex.com/PSHyperv.
To learn more about networking in Hyper-V, download the guide “Understanding
Networking with Hyper-V” from the Microsoft Download Center at
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=3fac
6d40-d6b5-4658-bc54-62b925ed7eea.
The white paper “Windows Server 2008 R2 & Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 - Hyper-V
Live Migration Overview & Architecture” describes the Live Migration feature of Windows
Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V in detail, including how Live Migration moves running virtual machines and the requirements for implementing Live Migration. You can obtain this white paper from the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx
?displaylang=en&FamilyID=fdd083c6-3fc7-470b-8569-7e6a19fb0fdf.
The white paper “Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V and BitLocker Drive Encryption,” available from the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.
aspx?FamilyID=2c3c0615-baf4-4a9c-b613-3fda14e84545&DisplayLang=en, explains how to
use Hyper-V and BitLocker Drive Encryption together for enhanced security.
The white paper “Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2008” contains a
­section on tuning performance for the Hyper-V role and can be downloaded from Windows
Hardware Developer Central (WHDC) at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/sysperf/
Perf_tun_srv.mspx.
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Securing Hyper-V
The Hyper-V Security Guide is a Solution Accelerator that provides instructions and recommendations to help strengthen the security of computers running the Hyper-V role on Windows Server 2008. You can obtain this guide from
the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.
aspx?familyid=2220624B-A562-4E79-AA69-A7B3DFFDD090&displaylang=en.
Ensuring that your virtual machines are fully up to date with software patches is also important to ensure the security of these virtual machines. To help you do this, you can use the
Offline Virtual Machine Servicing Tool 2.1, which provides best practices and automated
tools to help you keep your offline virtualized machines updated to prevent vulnerabilities from being introduced into your IT infrastructure. This tool combines the Windows
Workflow programming model with the Windows PowerShell interface to allow you to
automatically bring groups of virtual machines online, service them by applying the latest
security updates, and return them to an offline state. For more information about Solution
Accelerator and to download it, go to http://technet.microsoft.com/en-ca/library/cc501231.
aspx?SA_CE=OVMST21-Release-VIRTPROD-2009-12-07.
Note that Hyper-V is certified at the Common Criteria level EAL4 augmented by ALC_FLR.3
(also known as EAL4+). Common Criteria certification is vital, especially to government
agencies, as it provides them with reassurance that Hyper-V has gone through a rigorous
and internationally accepted security review. For more information about Hyper-V certification, see https://www.bsi.bund.de/cln_136/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/BSI/Zertifizierung/
Reporte05/0570b_pdf.html.
Resources for Hyper-V Developers
Developers who are interested in learning how to develop applications that use hypercalls
can learn more about them in the MSDN Library at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
bb969694.aspx.
Hyper-V Bloggers at Microsoft
A good place to begin traversing the blogosphere in search of the latest Hyper-V information
is the Microsoft Virtualization Team Blog found at http://blogs.technet.com/virtualization.
John Howard, Senior Program Manager, Hyper-V team, Windows Core Operating System
Division, has many helpful posts concerning Hyper-V on his blog at http://blogs.technet.com/
jhoward/archive/tags/Hyper-V/default.aspx. Mike Kolitz, Software Design Engineer in Test on
the Virtualization Technologies team at Microsoft, has lots of helpful “how-to” posts concerning Hyper-V on his blog at http://blogs.msdn.com/mikekol/archive/tags/Microsoft+Hyper-V/
default.aspx.
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James O’Neill, a Windows Server Evangelist at Microsoft UK, has tons of helpful information
about managing Hyper-V using Windows PowerShell on his blog at http://blogs.technet.com/
jamesone/archive/tags/Virtualization/default.aspx.
Another Microsoft blogger who often posts about managing Hyper-V using Windows PowerShell is the Virtual PC Guy, Ben Armstrong, Program
Manager on the core virtualization team at Microsoft. You can find the Hyper-V
posts on Ben’s blog at http://blogs.msdn.com/virtual_pc_guy/archive/tags/
Operating+Systems+under+Virtual+PC+_2F00_+Virtual+Server+_2F00_+Hyper-V/Hyper-V/
default.aspx.
Matthijs ten Seldam, a Principal Consultant with Microsoft Consulting Services who focuses
on virtualization, has been developing a “Virtual Server to Hyper-V import tool” that can
simplify the task of taking virtual machines created on Virtual Server/Virtual PC and using
them on Hyper-V. You can read more about this tool in his blog at http://blogs.technet.com/
matthts/default.aspx.
Taylor Brown, Test Lead for Windows Core OS Division on the Hyper-V Team, has a helpful
post titled “Hyper-V WMI: Creating/Applying/Deleting Virtual Machine Snapshots” on his
blog at http://blogs.msdn.com/taylorb/archive/2008/06/16/hyper-v-wmi-creating-applyingdeleting-virtual-machine-snapshots.aspx. Other useful posts about Hyper-V on Taylor’s blog
can be found at http://blogs.msdn.com/taylorb/archive/tags/Hyper-V/default.aspx.
Tony Voellm, the lead of the Hyper-V Performance Team, has a blog called All Topics
Fundamental that has many useful posts about Hyper-V performance monitoring at
http://blogs.msdn.com/tvoellm/archive/2008/06/06/hyper-v-performance-faq.aspx.
Clive Watson, Virtualization Architectural Product Technical Specialist at Microsoft UK, often
posts about Hyper-V on his blog at http://blogs.technet.com/clive_watson.
The Microsoft Enterprise Support Windows Server Core Team has some helpful posts about
Hyper-V on their blog ASKCORE found at http://blogs.technet.com/askcore/archive/tags/
Hyper-V/default.aspx.
Other Hyper-V Bloggers
Mark Wilson, a Senior Customer Solution Architect for a leading IT services company, has
compiled a useful list of videos from the Hyper-V product team on his blog at http://www.
markwilson.co.uk/blog/2008/07/how-hyper-v-works-product-team-videos.htm.
Hyper-V Forum on TechNet
To obtain help with your questions and problems concerning Hyper-V, and to help others,
use the Hyper-V forum on Microsoft TechNet at http://forums.technet.microsoft.com/en-US/
winserverhyperv/threads.
Chapter 3
Local Desktop Virtualization
The term desktop virtualization refers to any type of technology that creates an additional
virtualized operating system environment (the guest operating system installed in a virtual
machine) on a physical desktop computer (the host). This additional virtualized environment can be either visible or invisible to the user. If the environment is visible to the user, the
user sees a window that displays the desktop of the guest operating system within its virtual
­machine. (The virtual machine can also be displayed in full-screen mode, hiding the underlying host computer’s desktop.) If the environment is invisible, the virtualized applications
are displayed on the host computer’s desktop even though these applications are a
­ ctually
running within the guest operating system. Such virtual applications look and behave just
like native applications (applications that are locally installed on the host computer), and
the user might not even know that virtualization is being used. This second scenario, where
the virtual machine runs invisibly on the client computer, is sometimes known as application
virtualization.
Desktop virtualization can be either local or remote. In local desktop virtualization, the virtual
environment is running on the user’s computer (the host), while in remote desktop virtualization the virtual environment runs on a server, typically a Hyper-V server or a server with the
Remote Desktop Service role installed. This chapter deals with local desktop virtualization
and covers three technologies currently available from Microsoft:
n
Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP Mode Environment Windows Virtual PC
is an optional component of the Windows 7 operating system that lets users run more
than one operating system at the same time on a single computer. Windows XP Mode
is a preconfigured virtual machine with Windows XP Service Pack 3 (SP3) pre-installed.
n
Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization (MED-V) MED-V is an enterprise solution for desktop virtualization that allows administrators to create, deliver, and manage
corporate Virtual PC images on any Windows-based desktop.
n
Microsoft Application Virtualization (App-V) App-V lets administrators transform
applications into centrally managed virtual services to reduce the cost of application
deployment, eliminate application conflicts and reboots, simplify your base image
­footprint to expedite PC provisioning, and increase user productivity.
We’ll dig deeper into how each of these technologies works later in this chapter. But first let’s
examine how these technologies can benefit your organization.
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Note A related virtualization technology called user state virtualization allows application and
desktop users to virtualize their user settings and data by storing them on the network. Three
Microsoft technologies make user state virtualization possible: roaming user profiles, Folder
Redirection, and Offline Files. For information on how to implement these technologies in a
Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 environment, refer to Chapter 14 of the Windows 7
Resource Kit from Microsoft Press. More information about this title can be found at
http://www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/Books.aspx?Id=13811&locale=en-us.
Examining the Benefits of Each Technology
Which of these local desktop virtualization technologies you deploy in your organization ­depends on what benefits they can provide to your business. The sections that follow
­highlight the key benefits of each technology.
Key Benefits of Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP
Mode Environment
If your business has only a small number of users and you want to migrate their computers to Windows 7 but are concerned about whether your older applications will continue to
work on the new platform, Windows Virtual PC with Windows XP Mode is the answer. With
Windows Virtual PC with Windows XP Mode, each user can have a separate virtual instance
of Windows XP SP3 running on their computers together with older applications installed
on this virtual machine. Then, when a user wants to run one of these older applications, she
launches it from her Start menu just as if the application was installed locally on her computer. (The application is actually installed in and runs within the virtual machine.) In other
words, the key benefit of Windows Virtual PC with Windows XP Mode is that you can use it
to mitigate application compatibility issues that are blocking your desktop migration to the
newest version of Windows. With Windows Virtual PC with Windows XP Mode, you can migrate your desktop computers to Windows 7 and take advantage of all the new and exciting
features of Windows 7 while still being able to run your older applications.
The limitation with Windows Virtual PC with Windows XP Mode is the lack of centralized
management functionality—each virtual machine running on each desktop computer
must be managed locally on that desktop computer. This means that Windows Virtual PC
with Windows XP Mode is mainly suitable for small networks of computers. If you are contemplating migrating a larger network to Windows 7 but are concerned about application
­compatibility, MED-V provides the answer as described next.
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Key Benefits of MED-V
The ability for MED-V to allow you to deploy Virtual PC images onto Windows desktops and
to manage them while maintaining a seamless end-user experience can provide businesses
with many advantages. The key benefit from deploying MED-V is being able to m
­ aintain
support for running legacy applications when upgrading desktop operating systems. MED-V
allows you to run legacy applications in a virtual machine running an older version of
Microsoft Windows, thus accelerating the deployment of the latest version of Windows by
resolving application incompatibility issues. MED-V also lets you test your migration plans
­using virtual machines instead of physical computers, and it reduces user training costs by
making virtual desktops invisible and seamlessly integrating legacy applications into the
user’s local desktop.
Other benefits of deploying MED-V can include
n
Accelerating application development MED-V reduces the time and work involved
in deploying and reconfiguring applications on users’ desktops, and it increases quality
assurance by allowing you to test and document application functionality on multiple
operating systems using virtual machines.
n
Centralizing desktop management and deployment MED-V lets you use policies
to lock down corporate virtual machines and to easily deploy managed virtualized
­applications to any desktop computer, including less controlled assets such as employee PCs, contractor PCs, and desktop computers in partner subsidiaries, branch offices,
and offshore operations. And because virtual machines deployed using MED-V live
­locally on the user’s computer, users have access to their virtual desktop and applications even when their computers are disconnected from the corporate network. This
makes MED-V an ideal solution for enterprises that have a large proportion of mobile
users with laptops.
n
Driving business continuity MED-V allows you to rapidly reconstitute corporatemanaged virtual desktops on any Windows computer independent of the underlying hardware. MED-V also lets you test and deploy software on different versions of
Windows more easily because one failed application or operating system won’t affect
others.
Key Benefits of App-V
Some of the key benefits of deploying an App-V infrastructure within your organization
include
n
Centralized management of the entire application life cycle
n
Faster application deployment
n
Simplified application versioning
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n
Fewer side-by-side application compatibility issues
n
Reduced need for regression testing
n
On-demand application delivery
n
Integrates with existing Terminal Services or electronic software distribution (ESD)
infrastructures
See also the sidebar titled “MED-V and App-V: Comparing the Benefits” later in this chapter.
MED-V and App-V: Comparing the Benefits
The key benefit of MED-V is that it helps enterprises deal with incompatibility between
applications and the operating system. For instance, if a user needs to run an early
version of Internet Explorer and that version of Internet Explorer is not supported on
Windows Vista, the administrator can use MED-V 1.0 to deploy this early version of
Internet Explorer to the user as part of a Windows XP virtual image. (And when MED-V
1.0 SP1 becomes available in Q1 of 2010, the user will be able to do the same thing on
computers running Windows 7.) The user can then have two copies of Internet Explorer
running simultaneously on his desktop—the most recent version (running on the host
computer) and the earlier version (running in the MED-V workspace). From the user’s
perspective, both copies of Internet Explorer appear as if they were running on the
­local computer. MED-V does this by allowing users to run legacy applications within
a virtual machine that has an earlier version of Microsoft Windows installed. The user
can then access these applications either from a virtual desktop (as with Virtual PC
2007 running natively on a system) or by using application windows that are seamlessly ­integrated into the local desktop of the user’s computer (similar to RemoteApp in
Remote Desktop Services).
Microsoft Application Virtualization (App-V) also helps enterprises handle application compatibility issues, but it addresses challenges differently than MED-V does.
Specifically, App-V lets you resolve conflicts that arise between different applications
or different versions of the same application; MED-V, on the other hand, allows users
to run older versions of Microsoft Windows concurrently with the local desktop of their
computers, which can help with issues where legacy applications are unable to run
­natively on the most recent version of Windows installed on the user’s computer.
Examining Usage Scenarios for Each Technology
Each of these local desktop virtualization technologies can be implemented in
­various ways to bring benefit to an organization. The sections that follow describe some
of these scenarios.
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113
Usage Scenarios for Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP
Mode Environment
The key usage scenario for Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode is to resolve application-to-operating system incompatibility on a machine-by-machine basis. A typical scenario
is a small business that has computers running Windows XP and that has older applications
installed that don’t work properly when installed on Windows 7. Typically, such a situation
would be a showstopper that would prevent the business from migrating its computers to
Windows 7 because small businesses typically don’t have the resources to shim applications
using the Application Compatibility Toolkit, and a small business also might not have the
budget to purchase newer versions of these applications (if such newer versions exist). In such
a scenario, Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode can enable the business to upgrade
its desktop computers while still enabling older applications to run properly—all at no extra
cost because Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode are free downloads from Microsoft.
Usage Scenarios for MED-V
The key usage scenario for MED-V is resolving application-to-operating system
­incompatibility to accelerate the upgrade path to a new operating system. Businesses that
need to continue to run legacy line-of-business applications on users’ desktop computers
can do so by using Virtual PC. Incompatibility between legacy applications and newer versions of Microsoft Windows can often be a primary blocking issue preventing an enterprise
from upgrading to the latest version of Windows, such as Windows Vista, to take advantage
of the many new features and enhancements offered by this version. By delivering those
­applications in a Virtual PC that runs a previous version of the operating system (for example,
Windows XP or Windows 2000), MED-V allows administrators to break the tight dependency between a computer’s underlying hardware and the operating system, and it can help
­remove such blocking issues so that your users can benefit from having the latest version of
Windows deployed on their desktop computers. From the user’s perspective, with MED-V,
these applications are accessible from the Start menu and appear side by side with regular
applications—so there is minimal change to the user experience.
Usage Scenarios for App-V
App-V supports a wide range of different usage scenarios, ranging from a full application virtualization infrastructure to a lightweight infrastructure to standalone deployment.
Specifically, App-V supports the following usage scenarios:
n
Full Infrastructure This scenario uses the App-V Management Server, which provides
full streaming capabilities, Desktop Configuration Service, active/package upgrade,
and basic licensing and metering. This infrastructure requires Active Directory and SQL
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Server and is an update to the existing SoftGrid Virtual Application Server that version
4.2 customers are familiar with using.
n
Lightweight Infrastructure This scenario uses the App-V Streaming Server,
which includes streaming capabilities such as active/package upgrade without the
Active Directory or SQL Server requirements. However, it does not have a Desktop
Configuration Service or licensing or metering capabilities. This service relies on the
manual or scripted addition of a manifest file for virtual application configuration. The
Desktop Configuration Service of the App-V Management Server can also be used
in conjunction with the App-V Streaming Server such that the Management Server
­configures the application but the Streaming Server delivers it.
n
Standalone mode The App-V Sequencer has an option to create an .msi file that automates the addition of the virtual application. The .msi contains metadata so that an
ESD system can recognize it and control the virtualized applications. Standalone mode
requires the App-V Client to go into Standalone mode, which allows only ­.msi-based
updates of the virtual applications. (Streaming is not allowed while in Standalone
mode.) This mode is meant for rarely connected users that need the power of virtualized applications but do not have access to a server.
For more information about various App-V usage scenarios, see the section titled “App-V
Deployment Scenarios” later in this chapter.
Availability of Each Technology
Now that we’ve examined the benefits and usage scenarios for each technology, let’s look at
how you can obtain them from Microsoft.
Availability of Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP Mode
Environment
Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode are available for Windows 7 as free downloads
from Microsoft. To download the appropriate version of these products, go to http://www.
microsoft.com/windows/virtual-pc and click Get Windows XP Mode And Windows Virtual PC
Now. This takes you to a page where you can specify your edition and language of Windows
7 so that you can download the correct installation packages for each product.
Availability of MED-V
MED-V 1.0 is available to volume-licensed customers as part of the Microsoft Desktop
Optimization Pack (MDOP) for Software Assurance, an add-on subscription license available
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115
to Software Assurance (SA) customers. The current version as of this writing (MDOP 2009)
includes five other key technologies that help enterprises manage their desktops more easily:
n
Microsoft Application Virtualization
n
Microsoft Asset Inventory Service
n
Microsoft Advanced Group Policy Management
n
Microsoft Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset
n
Microsoft System Center Desktop Error Monitoring
For more information about MDOP, see http://www.microsoft.com/windows/enterprise/­
products/mdop/default.aspx.
For more information about Microsoft’s Software Assurance (SA) licensing program, see
http://www.microsoft.com/licensing/sa/default.mspx.
Availability of App-V
Microsoft Application Virtualization is also available as part of the Microsoft Desktop
Optimization Pack (MDOP) for Software Assurance. For more information about MDOP, see
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/bb899442.aspx.
Understanding Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP
Mode Environment
As described earlier in this chapter, Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP Mode
Environment complement each other to provide businesses with a simple way of mitigating application compatibility issues that can block deployment of the latest versions of the
desktop Windows operating system. This section examines how Windows Virtual PC and the
Windows XP Mode Environment work and then demonstrates how to install, configure, and
use them together.
Understanding Windows Virtual PC
Figure 3-1 shows a high-level view of the architecture of Windows Virtual PC. The left side of
the diagram shows the components of the host operating system, while the right side shows
the components of the guest.
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Windows Virtual PC High Level
Architecture
User Mode
Kernel Mode
Host
Guest
Root Mode
Windows
UI
V
P
C
VPC
Settings
VM
Window
VPC
Wizard
VM SAL
TS
TS
ActiveX ActiveX
116
ICs
ICs
RDP ET
COM
Guest-Host
Comm. Channel
Guest-Host
Comm. Channel
Devices
NAT
App.Pub.
Arb.Res.
Time Sync
Heart Beat, etc.
App.Pub.
Arb.Res.
Time Sync
Heart Beat, etc.
RAIL
RDP
Stack
USB VSC
NDIS
Stack
USB
Stub
Switch
USB
Stack
USB VSP
RPM
VSP BUS
VMM
VMM
Services
VPC BUS
VMX/SVM Root
FIGURE 3-1 Architecture of Windows Virtual PC.
The architecture of the host side of Windows Virtual PC can be further broken down into
user interface (UI) components, user-mode engine components, and kernel-mode engine
components.
Host-Side Components
The UI components of the Windows Virtual PC host include the following:
n
VPC Settings dialog Lets you modify configuration options such as networking,
memory, integration features, and virtual hard disks for each virtual machine.
n
VPC Wizard Walks you through the steps of creating new virtual machines.
n
VM Window (VMWindow.exe) When you start a virtual machine (VM), an instance
of VMWindow.exe is launched to manage the display window that you use to interact
with that VM. VMWindow.exe also loads MSTSCAX.dll, which functions as a Remote
Desktop Protocol (RDP) client and is essentially the same ActiveX control that is used to
run RemoteApps and Remote Desktops from a Remote Desktop Web Access server in
Windows Server 2008 R2. One unique instance of VMWindow.exe is launched for each
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117
running VM, except for VMs running virtual applications, which is discussed in the next
bullet.
n
VM SAL (VMSAL.exe) When you launch a virtual application from the host, an
­instance of the Virtual Machine Seamless Application Launcher is launched to initiate,
monitor, and control the application. As with VMWindow.exe, the in-process ActiveX
control MSTSCAX.dll acts as the RDP client.
The user-mode engine components of the Windows Virtual PC Host include the following:
n
VPC (VPC.exe) The core Virtual PC engine that manages virtual machines and provides services for them. VPC.exe includes the following subcomponents that provide
specialized services for virtual machines: RDP Encoder Technology, device emulators,
COM servers, Network Address Translation (NAT), and Integration Components (ICs).
VPC.exe also provides a set of COM APIs you can use to develop custom applications
for performing tasks such as creating and managing virtual machines, creating and
managing virtual hard drive (VHD) images, and modifying the configuration settings of
VMs.
n
RDP ET (RDP Encoder Technology) A group of components that uses RDP to provide
the console experience for accessing a virtual machine and converts keyboard, mouse,
and video actions between the RDP format and the format used by the VM device
emulators.
n
Devices Device emulators for devices such as virtual hard drives, COM ports, and
­network interfaces.
n
COM port redirector Provides access for the virtual machine to remote serial devices
such as modems.
n
NAT Allows a virtual machine to use the physical network adapter for network
connectivity.
n
Integration Components (ICs) Provides advanced features such as video resizing and
audio redirection within virtual machines.
The kernel-mode engine components of the Windows Virtual PC Host include the following:
n
Virtualization Server Provider (VSP) Provides I/O device-related resources to
Virtualization Service Clients (VSCs) running in virtual machines.
n
VPCBus.sys A kernel-mode bus driver used by the VSP to communicate between the
host and guests.
n
VMM.sys The Virtual Machine Monitor, which virtualizes the physical processing
­resources across the host and virtual machines and provides resource management,
including memory and interrupts.
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n
USB Connector (vpcusb.sys) Provides USB virtualization to the guest operating
­systems, and manages the virtual root hubs for connected USB devices. Each virtual
machine has one virtual hub that can be assigned between zero and eight devices.
n
USB Stub Driver (vpcuxd.sys) A stub driver that is loaded by the operating system in
lieu of the normal USB client driver.
Guest-Side Components
The architecture of the guest side of Windows Virtual PC can be further broken down into
Integration Components, RAIL (Remote Applications Installed Locally)/RDP components, and
kernel-mode components.
The Integration Components of a Windows Virtual PC guest include the following two
­services, which provide Integration Component services to the guest:
n
Virtual PC Integration Components Services Application service (VMSrvc.exe)
n
Virtual Machine User Services (VMUSrvc.exe)
The RAIL/RDP components of a Windows Virtual PC guest include the following:
n
RDP Server service Listens for RDP connections from the RDP clients running in a
­virtual machine window or application.
n
RDP Shell (RDPShell.exe) A shell designed to present virtual applications as if they
are running locally on the host and to make the seamless running of virtual applications possible.
Note For more information about RAIL, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source:
RAIL and RemoteApp” later in this chapter.
The kernel mode of a Windows Virtual PC guest includes the following:
n
VSC Consumes resources provided to it by the VSP running on the host.
n
VMX/SVM Root Kernel Built upon the Virtual Machine Extensions (VMX) of Intel
Virtualization Technology (Intel VT) technology. It includes the Virtual Machine Monitor
(VMM) runtime layer, which provides support for virtual machine execution, memory
management, intercept and exception handling, and routing of interrupts raised by
virtual machines. For more information, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source:
Windows Virtual PC vs. Hyper-V” later in this section.
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Direct from the Source: Windows Virtual PC vs. Hyper-V
Windows Virtual PC is not built on hypervisor technology in the way that Hyper-V
server is. Instead, Windows Virtual PC uses the VMX kernel to provide support similar
to that provided by the hypervisor.
In Virtual PC and Virtual Server, device support was done primarily through emulation
of hardware; this is also done in Windows Virtual PC. In Windows Virtual PC, the disk,
network, and display subsystems manifest themselves as physical devices that are detected by the guest operating system at boot and are indistinguishable (to the guest)
from real hardware. The drivers for these corresponding devices get loaded by the
guest operating system and execute I/O commands as they would in a real environment. These I/O commands are intercepted by the VMM runtime, which is the VMX/
SVM kernel that triggers callbacks of device emulators running within the user mode
process VPC.exe. Windows Virtual PC uses VPCBus-based devices coexisting with the
current device framework.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) Team
Understanding Virtual Applications
Virtual applications are applications installed on virtual machines that run on the desktop of
the host. From the user’s perspective, a virtual application is launched the same way as a local application (an application installed on the host)—that is, by clicking on the application’s
shortcut in the Start menu and similar methods. Virtual applications are a key feature of
Windows Virtual PC. They let you transparently run applications that are not fully compatible
with the host operating system by running them in a guest operating system.
Two Windows Virtual PC components play a key role in allowing applications installed on the
guest to run transparently on the host computer’s desktop:
n
VMSAL.exe When you start a virtual application from the host, an instance of ­
VMSAL.exe is launched to initiate, monitor, and control the virtual application. An
­in-process ActiveX control called MSTSCAX.dll then performs the role of the RDP client and creates a named pipe to connect to the appropriate RDP server service on the
guest using the TCP port on which the service is listening, which by default is 3389. The
difference between opening a virtual application and opening the virtual machine is
that in the first case the management process on the host is VMSAL.exe, while in the
second case it is VMWindow.exe.
n
RDPShell.exe To display a virtual application as if it is running locally (instead of
­displaying a full virtual desktop), a unique virtual application shell called RDPShell.exe is
started when the RDP session is initiated.
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Launching a virtual application works like this:
1. Starting the application initiates a Remote Desktop session on the server.
2. The normal logon process (WinLogon.exe) calls the user initialization process
(UserInit.exe) to process group policies, run logon scripts, and perform similar tasks.
3. If the logon was initiated by starting a virtual application, UserInit.exe then loads
RDPInit.exe, which is an initialization process specific to virtual applications.
4. RDPInit.exe then loads RDPShell.exe instead of loading the standard desktop shell
(Explorer.exe) so that the remote application is presented to the user as if it is running
locally.
Enabling Support for Virtual Applications
The Windows XP Mode virtual machine is preconfigured to support virtual applications,
­making it easy to use this environment to mitigate application compatibility issues that might
be blocking your desktop refresh cycle. However, any virtual machine installed on Windows
Virtual PC can run virtual applications if the guest operating system has RemoteApp support
enabled. Windows 7 supports RemoteApp by default, but for earlier operating systems you
must download a software update to provide RemoteApp support. Specifically,
n
If your guest operating system is running Windows XP SP3 and you want to install
­virtual applications on the guest, you must install the KB961742-v3.exe update, which is
available from http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=
en&FamilyID=e5433d88-685f-4036-b435-570ff53598cd. For more information
­concerning this update, see http://support.microsoft.com/kb/961742.
n
If your guest operating system is running Windows Vista SP1 or later and you want to
install virtual applications on the guest, you must install the Windows6.0-KB961741-x86.
msu update, which is available from http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/
details.aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=26a2de17-8355-4e8d-8f33-9211e48651fb. For
more information concerning this update, see http://support.microsoft.com/kb/961741.
After you have installed the appropriate update in your guest operating system, you must
also perform the following additional steps to enable virtual application support on the
­virtual machine:
n
You must install the Integration Components on the virtual machine.
n
You must enable the Auto Publish setting on the virtual machine.
For more information on performing these tasks, see the section titled “Configuring Virtual
Machine Settings” later in this chapter. For more information on how RemoteApp is used by
Windows Virtual PC, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: RAIL and RemoteApp”
later in this section.
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Direct from the Source: RAIL and RemoteApp
A key technology that enables virtual application support in Virtual PC is commonly
referred to as RAIL (Remote Applications Installed Locally). This is the same technology
that is used in Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server 2008 and later to enable
RemoteApps (Remote Applications). RemoteApps are applications that are installed and
executed on a Terminal Server or Remote Desktop Session Host server, but they are
integrated with the Remote Desktop client machine in a way that makes them appear
to be running locally on the client. Although a Remote Desktop Session has been established to a server, the user does not see the desktop of that session; he just interacts
with the application as if it was installed locally. These applications are referred to as
virtual applications, but when the terms RAIL or RemoteApp are used in the context of
Virtual PC, they should be considered synonymous with “virtual applications.” For more
information, see the section titled “Understanding Virtual Applications” earlier in this
chapter.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) Team
Installing Virtual Applications
After support for virtual applications has been enabled on a virtual machine, you can publish
applications installed on the virtual machine to the host simply by installing the application
on the guest operating system.
Tip When you install an application on a guest, if an option is displayed that allows you to
choose whether the application should be made available for either the current user or for all
users, you must select the All Users option for the application to be published. If the installation
routine does not install an application shortcut to the All Users Start menu, you must copy or
move the application’s program groups and shortcuts to the %SystemDrive%\Documents and
Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs folder for the application to be published.
Understanding Windows XP Mode
Windows XP Mode is a virtual machine and a virtual hard disk (VHD) that has Windows XP
SP3 x86 pre-installed and pre-activated on it. The virtual machine has also been preconfigured for publishing virtual applications to provide businesses with a rapid way of mitigating
application compatibility issues that can block desktop deployment of the latest version of
Windows. When older applications are installed into this virtual machine, users can transparently run such applications on the host even if the applications cannot be installed locally on
the host.
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Installing and using a Windows XP Mode virtual machine requires that Windows Virtual PC
has already been installed on the host computer. You cannot use Windows XP Mode with
older Microsoft desktop virtualization platforms such as Virtual PC 2007 or with Microsoft
Virtual Server or Hyper-V.
When Windows XP Mode is installed, two virtual hard disks are created on the host
computer:
n
A parent virtual hard disk named Windows XP Mode base.vhd located in the
%SystemDrive%\Program Files\Windows XP Mode folder. This parent disk is write-­
protected and approximately 1.2 GB in size.
n
A differencing virtual hard disk named VM_name.vhd, where VM_Name is the name
of the virtual machine. This differencing disk varies with size (it grows as needed) and
is located in the hidden %SystemDrive%\Users\username\AppData\Local\Microsoft\
Windows Virtual PC\Virtual Machines folder, where username is the user’s profile folder.
The virtual machine configuration file (.vmc file) for the virtual machine is also located
in this folder.
Tip You should back up the parent disk in case it becomes corrupted, because the differencing
disk won’t work without the parent.
Windows XP Mode is designed for running older business productivity applications that
­cannot be installed on Windows 7 because of compatibility issues. Windows XP Mode is not
designed to run graphic-intensive applications such as games or AutoCAD.
Tip You should install antivirus and antimalware software on your Windows XP Mode virtual
machine. You should also make sure that Automatic Updates is enabled on the virtual machine.
Direct from the Source: Comparing XP Mode to a Custom XP
Virtual Machine
Windows XP Mode does not differ much from a virtual machine that a user can
­manually create and then install Windows XP SP3 into. The primary differences are
n
The Windows XP Mode installation is pre-activated.
n
The Windows XP Mode installation is preconfigured.
The main steps used to install and configure the Windows XP Mode virtual machine are
1. Install Windows XP SP3.
2. Install the latest Windows Virtual PC Integration Components.
Chapter 3 Local Desktop Virtualization
3. Install the Windows XP RemoteApp update required for virtual applications.
4. Apply all of the latest mandatory Windows XP updates (as of the date the XP
Mode VM was built).
123
None of the features of Windows Virtual PC, such as virtual application support, are
limited to Windows XP Mode VMs. A user can use the steps just listed to create her
own XP SP3 virtual machine (with modifications if desired) and use the same feature set
as she can with a Windows XP Mode VM.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) Team
Requirements for Windows Virtual PC
This section outlines the requirements for installing Windows Virtual PC.
Host Operating System
Windows Virtual PC requires that Windows 7 be installed as the host operating system.
Specifically, Windows Virtual PC can be installed on host computers that have any of the
­following Windows 7 editions installed:
n
Windows 7 Starter (32-bit only)
n
Windows 7 Home Premium (32-bit or 64-bit)
n
Windows 7 Professional (32-bit or 64-bit)
n
Windows 7 Ultimate (32-bit or 64-bit)
n
Windows 7 Enterprise (32-bit or 64-bit)
Guest Operating System
The supported guest operating systems (32-bit only) for Windows Virtual PC are as follows:
n
Windows XP Professional SP3
n
Windows Vista Business SP1 or later
n
Windows Vista Ultimate SP1 or later
n
Windows Vista Enterprise SP1 or later
n
Windows 7 Professional
n
Windows 7 Ultimate
n
Windows 7 Enterprise
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Note that the virtual application feature of Windows Virtual PC is not supported for the
­following guest operating systems:
n
Windows Vista Business SP1 or later
n
Windows 7 Professional
CPU
Windows Virtual PC requires a processor capable of hardware virtualization using either
AMD-V or Intel VT technology. In addition, hardware virtualization must be turned on in the
BIOS of the host computer.
Tip You can use the Microsoft Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Detection Tool to determine
whether your computer supports AMD-V or Intel VT hardware virtualization. You can obtain
this tool from the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.
aspx?FamilyID=0ee2a17f-8538-4619-8d1c-05d27e11adb2&displaylang=en.
Memory
Microsoft recommends that your host computer have at least 2 GB of memory to use
Windows Virtual PC.
Installing Windows Virtual PC
To install Windows Virtual PC, begin by downloading the appropriate version (32-bit or 64bit) from the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/virtual-pc/
Then double-click on the downloaded .msu file and follow the prompts to install Windows
Virtual PC.
After Windows Virtual PC has been installed on your computer, a Windows Virtual PC
­program group and shortcuts are added to your Start menu. (See Figure 3-2.)
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FIGURE 3-2 The Windows Virtual PC program group on the Start menu.
Requirements for Windows XP Mode
This section outlines the requirements for installing Windows XP Mode.
Host Operating System
Windows XP Mode requires that one of the following Windows 7 editions be installed on
your host computer:
n
Windows 7 Professional (32-bit or 64-bit)
n
Windows 7 Ultimate (32-bit or 64-bit)
n
Windows 7 Enterprise (32-bit or 64-bit)
In addition, your host computer must have Windows Virtual PC installed and must meet all of
the requirements of Windows Virtual PC.
Disk Space
The disk space requirements for Windows XP Mode are as follows:
n
At least 2 GB for installing Windows XP Mode
n
An additional 15 GB for the virtual Windows environment
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Installing the Windows XP Mode Environment
To install Windows XP Mode on a host computer that has Windows Virtual PC installed, begin by downloading the appropriate language version from the Microsoft Download Center.
For example, the English language version of Windows XP Mode (WindowsXPMode_en-us.
exe) can be downloaded from http://www.microsoft.com/windows/virtual-pc/download.aspx.
Note that the Windows XP Mode download is almost 500 MB in size.
Tip If you need a localized version of Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode, you can
download it from http://www.microsoft.com/windows/virtual-pc/download.aspx.
After you have downloaded the installation file, double-click on it to begin installing
Windows XP Mode. During installation, you have the option of specifying where you want
the VHD file installed. (See Figure 3-3.)
FIGURE 3-3 Specify where you want to install the Windows XP Mode VHD file.
When Setup is finished, leave the Launch Windows XP Mode check box selected so that you
can begin configuring Windows XP Mode. (See Figure 3-4.)
Read and accept the licensing agreement, and click Next. Then on the Installation Folder And
Credentials page of the wizard, type a password for the XPMUser account. (See Figure 3-5.)
This account is created by the wizard and has administrator privileges on the guest operating
system. You can leave the Remember Credentials check box selected so that you won’t have
to enter the password each time you start the virtual machine.
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FIGURE 3-4 Leave the check box selected to begin configuring Windows XP Mode on your computer.
FIGURE 3-5 Configuring credentials for running virtual applications.
On the next wizard page, select the option to enable automatic updates to keep the virtual
machine up to date with the latest software updates. When you finish the wizard, a screen is
displayed indicating that Windows XP Mode is being set up on your computer. (This might
take several minutes.)
Once Windows XP Mode has been installed, the virtual machine starts and a window opens
displaying the desktop of the virtual machine (as shown in Figure 3-6).
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FIGURE 3-6 The Windows XP Mode virtual machine console window open on the desktop of the host
computer.
Tip You can resize this virtual machine console window by dragging its corners.
To view the installed virtual machines on your computer, click Start, click All Programs, click
Windows Virtual PC, and click Windows Virtual PC. This opens an Explorer window showing
the installed virtual machines (.vmcx files) and their status, memory used, VHD file, and configuration file. (See Figure 3-7.)
The toolbar of this Explorer window lets you create new virtual machines on the host
­computer. In addition, when the virtual machine is selected a Settings button is displayed
that lets you configure virtual machine settings, which are described in the next section.
Tip You can also right-click on a virtual machine displayed in the Virtual Machines folder and
select Settings from the context menu to modify the virtual machine’s settings.
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FIGURE 3-7 Viewing the installed virtual machines on the host computer.
Configuring Virtual Machine Settings
Windows Virtual PC lets you easily modify the settings for a virtual machine. To do this, open
the Virtual Machines folder as shown in the previous figure, select the virtual machine you
want to modify, and click Settings on the folder toolbar. Doing this opens the Settings dialog
for the selected virtual machine as shown in Figure 3-8.
FIGURE 3-8 Configuring the settings for a virtual machine.
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The sections that follow examine some of the settings you can configure for a virtual
machine.
Name
You can use the Name settings page to assign a descriptive name to the virtual machine. This
descriptive name is displayed in the Virtual Machines folder, and it is not the same as the
NetBIOS name you assign in the guest operating system. For example, the descriptive name
for a Windows XP Mode virtual machine is Windows XP Mode.vmcx, while the NetBIOS name
assigned by default to the guest operating system is VirtualPC-#####, where ##### is a
randomly assigned numeric string. Note that you must shut down the virtual machine before
you can modify this setting.
Memory
You can use the Memory settings page to assign some of your host computer’s physical
memory to the virtual machine. Note that virtual machines consume such memory only
when they are running. Be sure to assign sufficient memory so that the virtual machine runs
well, but not so much as to starve the host computer of the memory it needs. Note that you
must shut down the virtual machine before you can modify this setting.
Hard Disk
You can use the Hard Disk settings pages to do the following:
n
Create a new virtual hard disk, and attach it to the virtual machine. You can create any
of the following types of virtual hard disks:
o
Dynamically expanding
o
Fixed-size
o
Differencing
n
Attach an existing virtual hard disk to the virtual machine.
n
Compact, convert, or merge existing virtual hard disks connected to the virtual
machine.
Note that performing any of these actions requires that you first shut down the virtual
machine.
Note also that for Windows XP Mode, the Hard Disk 1 page displays the settings for the
differencing disk and you can add up to three additional virtual hard disks to the virtual
machine.
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Undo Disks
You can use the Undo Disks settings page to configure an undo disk for your virtual machine.
Undo disks enable changes to a virtual disk to be saved to a separate undo disk file (.vud file)
while keeping the original disk unmodified. When Enable Undo Disks is selected, the undo
disk setting configured here applies to all virtual hard disks attached to the virtual machine.
Undo disks are typically used in testing environments, so this feature is disabled by default
for all virtual machines. Note that you must shut down the virtual machine before you can
modify this setting.
Note Changes made using undo disks can be applied or discarded when the virtual machine is
turned off. Changes cannot be selectively applied or discarded; it is all or nothing.
DVD Drive
You can use the DVD Drive settings page to specify a physical or virtualized DVD drive for
use by the virtual machine (as shown in Figure 3-9). When a physical DVD device has been
attached to the guest, the device is unavailable on the host while the virtual machine is running. You can also select an ISO image file on the host computer and attach it to the DVD
drive of the virtual machine, which makes it easy to install applications in the virtual machine
because you do not need to burn DVD media first.
FIGURE 3-9 Configuring DVD Drive settings for a virtual machine.
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COM
You can use the COM port settings pages to specify a physical COM port on the host
­machine, a named pipe, or a text file. Possible uses for these settings include the following:
n
Select the Physical Serial Port option to bind the virtual machine to the specified
­physical serial port. Optionally, select the Wait For Modem Command To Open Port
check box if you want the serial port to be captured when the virtual machine attempts
to access the COM port. (Selecting this check box causes the virtual machine to wait for
the AT modem command to be sent to the port.)
n
Select the Named Pipe option to allow the virtual machine to connect to a Windows
named pipe on the host or across the network. Named pipes can be used to create virtual null modem cables between two virtual machines to allow for kernel or user-mode
debugging of the virtual machine.
n
Select the Text File option to send COM port output from the virtual machine to a text
file for troubleshooting purposes. You can configure the output location of the text file
when you choose this option.
Networking
You can use the Networking settings page (shown in Figure 3-10) to attach up to four ­virtual
network adapters to a virtual machine, and the network connectivity for each network
adapter can be configured as any of the following:
n
Not Connected The virtual machine has no network connectivity through this
­network adapter.
n
Internet Network Select this option to enable the virtual machine to communicate
only with other virtual machines running on the same host. The virtual machine will
be isolated from the host’s network, but you will still be able to access the virtual machine using RDP and run virtual applications on it. Choose this approach if you will not
be running any network-aware applications on your virtual machine and you want to
completely isolate the virtual machine from the host computer’s physical network for
increased security.
n
Shared Networking (NAT) Select this option to enable the virtual machine to share
the host computer’s physical network adapter. The virtual machine will have an IP address of the form 192.168.131.x automatically assigned using a built-in Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server that has an IP address of 192.168.131.254. The
virtual machine is then connected to the host computer’s physical network through a
NAT gateway that uses the same address as the DHCP server. The result is that the virtual machine can access the host computer’s physical network but the virtual machine
is not displayed on this network as a separate computer. Choose this approach if you
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need to move your host computer between different networks—for example, from a
local area network (LAN) connection to a virtual private network (VPN) connection.
n
NIC_name This option displays the name of the physical network interface card
(NIC) on the host. If you have more than one physical NIC, each will be displayed as a
separate option here. This option, sometimes called Bridge mode, bridges the virtual
network adapter to the selected physical NIC and allows the virtual network adapter to
acquire an IP address from a DHCP server running on the host computer’s physical network. The result is that the virtual machine is displayed on the host computer’s physical
network as a separate computer from the host computer.
FIGURE 3-10 Configuring Networking settings for a virtual machine.
You can change the network connectivity of a virtual network adapter without needing to
shut down the virtual machine. To add a new virtual network adapter, however, you must first
shut down the virtual machine.
Note Bridge mode has poorer performance than Shared Networking (NAT) but is more secure
because the guest operation system is hidden behind a NAT.
Integration Features
You can use the Integration Features page to selectively enable or disable Integration
Features for the virtual machine provided that Integration Components (ICs) have been installed on the virtual machine. (ICs are installed by default on a Windows XP Mode virtual
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machine). If access to drives on the host is enabled, you can also selectively enable or disable
access by the guest to drives on the host. (See Figure 3-11.)
FIGURE 3-11 Configuring Integration Features settings for a virtual machine.
For more information on Integration Features and Integration Components in Windows
Virtual PC, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: Understanding Integration
Features” later in this chapter.
Direct from the Source: Understanding Integration Features
Integration of the host operating system with a guest virtual machine can be described
as “none,” “basic,” or “enhanced.” Host-guest integration features are not available until
the Integration Components (ICs) are installed on a guest VM. Basic integration is activated by installing the ICs on the guest. Enhanced integration is activated by enabling
the Integration Features.
No Integration
When the ICs are not installed on a guest VM, the only built-in interaction between
the host and the guest is through an emulated “native” console (VMWindow.exe). The
benefit of this method is that the user can interact with the virtual machine from the
beginning of the boot process before the guest operating system has been initialized,
and it even allows them to enter the setup for the BIOS. The main disadvantage of this
method is that the user does not get the benefit of some Integration Features, such as
the redirection of host devices to the guest machine. For example, mouse movement
will not be seamless across host and guest. The mouse will be stuck inside the guest
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window, or it will be outside of the guest window. The user will have to use the host key
combination, Ctrl+Alt+Left Arrow, to leave the guest window.
Basic Integration Mode
Basic integration mode is made available by installing the ICs on a guest VM. Basic
mode Integration Features include
n
Time synchronization between guest and host This feature is responsible
for synchronizing the date and time on the guest operating system with the
host. For example, if the time (System clock) is out of sync because the system
is sleeping or hibernating, the time synchronization feature is used to force
an adjustment immediately after the machine is awakened. The time synchronization feature also periodically adjusts the guest VM time if it is out of sync
because of clock drift (lost clock interrupts). Additionally, the time settings
of the guest are synchronized with the host during a boot operation. Note
that the synchronization operation does not affect the time zone or Daylight
Savings Time settings on the guest. The date and time are adjusted based on
the GMT date and time derived from the host machine.
n
Guest heartbeat monitoring The heartbeat provides a mechanism
to ­detect an unresponsive (crashed, blue-screened, or hung) guest VM.
Heartbeat requests are sent every 60 seconds by the host. If the guest is
­unresponsive, three retries are made for getting the heartbeat response. If
the correct heartbeat response is not received within the allowed heartbeat
latency, the guest is declared dead. The heartbeat information flow consists of
a heartbeat request sent from the host to the guest followed by a heartbeat
response sent from the guest to the host.
n
Host-initiated shutdown This feature allows shutdown of the guest
­operating system with a request message generated by the host. COM APIs
provide the messaging channel. The options available through the virtual
­machine window are Sleep, Restart, Hibernate, Shutdown, and Turn Off. The
API additionally provides the option to log off the current user.
n
Guest video resize (arbitrary guest resolution) This is a feature of Virtual
PC (VPC) by which the guest resolution is changed in basic mode when the
guest window is resized such that the guest desktop fits in the host side VM
window.
n
Mouse movement across host and guest The same “native” console
­emulation available when Integration Components are not installed is available in basic mode. But because the mouse integration component is activated in basic mode, users will be able to move their mouse cursor inside and
outside of the virtual machine window without using the release key.
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Enhanced Mode
Installing the Integration Components and enabling the Integration Features on a
guest VM activates the enhanced host-guest integration mode. When the Integration
Features are enabled, a console experience that more resembles a “classic” Remote
Desktop Connection is enabled. This experience is very similar to the one a user would
observe when establishing an RDP connection from a Remote Desktop Connection
client (Mstsc.exe) to a Terminal Server or Remote Desktop Session Host server. This experience includes the ability to redirect the local devices in the following list. Enhanced
mode includes the ability to share the following devices and features located on the
host with the guest:
n
Audio This setting controls whether audio input and output for the virtual machine is redirected to audio devices in the host or is managed by an
emulated audio device. To improve audio performance, clear the check box
for a virtual machine running Windows XP, and select the check box for a
virtual machine running Windows Vista or Windows 7. Note that for Vista
and later guest operating systems, a virtual audio device is used for redirection of sound from the guest to the host. For earlier versions of Windows, a
SoundBlaster 16 audio adapter is emulated.
n
Clipboard You can copy and paste data and files between the host operating system and the guest operating system. For example, you can copy a URL
from the browser in a guest operating system and paste it to a browser in the
host operating system.
n
Printer This IC gives the user the ability to redirect printing from the guest
machine to printers on the host machine. To share printers when Windows
XP is the guest operating system, you must also install the printer drivers. In
enhanced mode, the drivers need to be present on the host and on the guest.
However, basic mode does not require host side drivers to be present.
n
Smart Cards This IC provides the ability to support smart cards connected
to the host inside the guest operating system. The smart-card redirection
works in a similar way as printer redirection.
n
Drives This feature shares the drives you select on the host with the virtual machine so that you can easily access host data from within the virtual
machine. This feature also makes it possible to access the host desktop and
Documents folder from virtual applications when you select those resources
to share. Note that host hard drives are listed in the guest operating system
by using the computer name of the host operating system. For example, on a
host computer named WindowsTest, the C drive would be listed in the guest
operating system as “C on WindowsTest”.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) Team
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Keyboard
You can use the Keyboard settings page to configure whether Windows key combinations
such as Alt+Tab are sent
n
In Full Screen View Only (the default)
n
To Virtual Machine
n
To This Computer
Windows Virtual PC includes a number of keyboard shortcuts. Different keyboard shortcuts
are available for Windowed mode and for Running mode. Interaction with a virtual machine window is in Windowed mode when the focus of the mouse and keyboard are on the
border, title bar, or menu bar of the VM window, and it is in Running mode when the focus
of the mouse and keyboard are on the desktop of the guest operating system. To switch
from Windowed mode to Running mode, click anywhere on the desktop of the guest. To
switch from Running mode to Windowed mode, press the “release” key combination of
Ctrl+Alt+Left Arrow. Table 3-1 lists the keyboard shortcuts available in Windowed mode,
while Table 3-2 lists those available in Running mode.
TABLE 3-1 Keyboard
Shortcuts Available in Windowed Mode
Operation
Keyboard Shortcut
Ctrl+Alt+Del
Ctrl+Alt+End
Alt+Tab
Alt+Page Up
Alt+Shift+Tab
Alt+Page Down
Windows key/Ctrl+Esc
Alt+Home
Print Scrn
Ctrl+Alt+Plus Sign (+)
Alt+Print Scrn
Ctrl+Alt+Minus (–)
Release keyboard and mouse
Ctrl+Alt+Left Arrow
TABLE 3-2 Keyboard
Shortcuts Available in Running Mode
Operation
Keyboard Shortcut
Pause
Alt+P
Resume/Wakeup
Alt+U
Settings
Alt+E
USB Menu
Alt+B
Full screen toggle
F11/Ctrl+Alt+Break
Help
F1
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Logon Credentials
You can use the Logon Credentials settings page to delete the saved credentials of the user
account used to log on to the virtual machine. For Windows XP Mode, this user account is
VirtualPC-#####\XPMUser, where ##### is a numeric string that is randomly assigned to
the virtual machine when Windows XP Mode is installed. When you create a new virtual machine, you have the option of storing the user name and password so that you can be logged
on automatically to the virtual machine when it is booted.
Auto Publish
By selecting the Automatically Publish Virtual Applications check box on the Auto Publish
settings page, applications you have installed on the guest operating system can be launched
using the Start menu of the host operating system. There are additional requirements before autopublishing will work, however; see the section titled “Enabling Support for Virtual
Applications” earlier in this chapter for more information.
Close
You can use the Close settings page to configure the action that Windows Virtual PC
­performs when you click the Close button at the top right of the virtual machine window.
You can either configure Windows Virtual PC to prompt you to choose an action to perform
or configure it to perform one of the following actions: Hibernate, Shut Down, Turn Off, or
Turn Off And Discard Options. (The last of these options is available only when the Undo
Disks feature is enabled for the virtual machine.)
Using Windows XP Mode
Although you can use Windows Virtual PC to create your own custom virtual machines, the
most likely scenario in business environments is to use Windows XP Mode to mitigate problems running older applications. The following sections describe some of the things you can
do using Windows XP Mode.
Working with Windows XP Mode
You can open the Windows XP Mode virtual machine in the Windows Virtual PC console window to interact with the guest operating system installed on the virtual machine. You might
do this, for example, to configure the guest operating system by installing software updates
or attaching USB devices. You would also do this to install applications on the guest.
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As shown in Figure 3-12, the Windows Virtual PC console window has four menu items you
can choose from: Action, USB, Tools, and Ctrl+Alt+Del. The Action menu has four options:
n
View Full Screen Displays the guest desktop in full-screen mode with a Remote
Desktop Services bar at the top
n
Sleep Puts the guest into sleep mode without closing the window
n
Restart Reboots the guest operating system
n
Close Hibernates the guest operating system
FIGURE 3-12 The Windows Virtual PC console window showing Action menu items.
The USB menu displays USB devices attached to the host computer and allows you to attach
them to the virtual machine using USB redirection. To do this, click the USB menu and then
click Attach for the USB device. (See Figure 3-13.)
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FIGURE 3-13 A USB device on the host is available for redirection to the virtual machine.
The host computer then installs a stub driver that enables redirection of the USB device to
the virtual machine, while the guest operating system uses Plug and Play to install drivers for
the device. (See Figure 3-14.)
FIGURE 3-14 Drivers are installed on the guest and the host.
After the USB device has been attached (redirected) to the virtual machine, it can be
­configured and used using the appropriate programs. (See Figure 3-15.)
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FIGURE 3-15 The USB device is available to the guest operating system.
While attached to the guest, the USB device is exclusively available to the guest and cannot
be used from the host unless you use the USB menu again to release it from the guest. (See
Figure 3-16.)
FIGURE 3-16 You must release a redirected USB device before you can use it again on the host.
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Some USB devices—including printers, storage devices, and smart card readers—can be
shared by both the guest and the host. When you connect such devices to the host computer, they are displayed in the Action menu as Shared (as shown in Figure 3-17). Other USB
devices cannot be shared and must be redirected instead, which enables them to be used
exclusively by the guest until they are released. Examples of USB devices that must be redirected include digital cameras, MP3 players, cell phones, PDAs, CD/DVD readers/writers,
wireless network adapters, and webcams.
FIGURE 3-17 Shared USB devices can be accessed simultaneously from the guest and the host.
The Tools menu lets you choose from the following actions to perform:
n
Disable Integration Features Selecting this option disables all Integration Features
except basic features and locks the desktop on the guest. Select the option again to
­re-enable Integration Features on the guest.
n
Settings Selecting this option displays the Windows Virtual PC Settings dialog for the
virtual machine.
Finally, the Ctrl+Alt+Del menu lets you display the Windows Security dialog on the guest.
Installing and Using a Virtual Application
This overview of Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode concludes with examining how
to install and use a virtual application on Windows XP Mode. To illustrate how to do this, we
will install Microsoft Office XP Professional on a Windows XP Mode virtual machine and show
how to access Microsoft Word XP from the Start menu of the host.
Begin by configuring the DVD Drive settings page of the virtual machine settings to access
the physical drive on the host, and then insert the Office XP DVD media in the DVD drive on
the host computer. Alternatively, you can configure the DVD Drive settings page to open an
.iso image, copy the .iso image for Windows XP to the host, and double-click on the DVD
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drive icon in My Computer. Either method will launch the Setup program for Office XP on the
host. (See Figure 3-18.)
FIGURE 3-18 Installing Office XP on the Windows XP Mode guest.
After Office XP has been installed on the guest, you can launch Word XP from the Start
menu of the guest, which opens a document window within the virtual machine console
­window. (See Figure 3-19.)
FIGURE 3-19 Running Word XP within the Windows XP Mode console window.
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Close the console window, which puts the virtual machine into hibernation. Now, on the
host computer, click Start, All Programs, Windows Virtual PC, and then Windows XP Mode
Applications. This displays a list of published applications installed on the guest (as shown in
Figure 3-20).
FIGURE 3-20 The Office XP suite of applications have been published on this virtual machine.
Now select Microsoft Word (Windows XP Mode) from the list of virtual applications available
on the host computer. A progress bar is displayed indicating that Windows Virtual PC is trying to launch the application, as shown in Figure 3-21.
FIGURE 3-21 The virtual machine is being started in order to run the virtual application.
A dialog box is then displayed indicating that the XPMUser account is still logged on to the
Windows XP Mode console window and must be logged off before the virtual application
can be launched. (See Figure 3-22.)
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FIGURE 3-22 You must log off from the Windows XP Mode console window before the virtual application
can start.
At this point, the progress bar indicates that the virtual application is being started. (See
Figure 3-23.)
FIGURE 3-23 The virtual application is being started.
Moments later, a Word XP document window is displayed on the host computer. (See
Figure 3-24.)
FIGURE 3-24 The published application is now running on the host.
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When you select Save As from the File menu in this application, the open document is
saved by default to the user’s Documents folder on the host computer, not the guest. (See
Figure 3-25.) In other words, you can work with this virtual instance of Word XP as if you had
the program installed locally on your host computer instead of on the guest.
FIGURE 3-25 The default save location for a virtual application is the Documents folder on the host.
Finally, if you close the virtual application and then re-open it from the Start menu on the
host computer, this time the progress dialogs are not displayed. That’s because closing a running virtual application leaves the virtual machine running in the background for a period of
time (5 minutes), during which the virtual application can be immediately restarted without
having to restart the virtual machine.
More Info For more information about Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode, see the
resources listed in the “Additional Resources” section at the end of this chapter.
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Understanding MED-V
Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization (MED-V) is a desktop virtualization ­technology
that builds upon the highly popular and easy-to-use Microsoft Virtual PC 2007, a first-­
generation desktop virtualization product. The coverage of MED-V in this chapter is limited
to the current version, MED-V 1.0, which is available to Software Assurance customers as part
of MDOP 2009 R2 and currently works on desktop computers running Windows Vista. The
next version, MED-V 1.0 SP1, which is scheduled for release in the first quarter of 2010, will
include the following new features:
n
Support for 32-bit and 64-bit hosts running Windows 7.
n
Support for virtual machines (guests) running Windows XP SP3 (recommended),
Windows XP SP2, and Windows 2000 SP4. (No support is planned for Windows 7 or
Windows Vista guests in the immediate future.)
Note that MED-V 1.0 SP1 will still use Microsoft Virtual PC 2007 as its foundation, not
Windows Virtual PC. The reason for this is because Windows Virtual PC requires that the
computer support hardware virtualization while Virtual PC 2007 does not require such
support.
Introducing Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization
Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization enhances deployment, management, and user
experience for Virtual PC images to streamline operating system upgrades and to increase IT
control and user flexibility in enterprise environments. With MED-V, application-to-operating
system compatibility issues are minimized; operating system migrations are accelerated; and
delivery and reconstitution of corporate desktops are made easy, simplifying support tasks,
business continuity, and incorporation of heterogeneous IT environments.
Based on the technology acquired from Kidaro, MED-V adds four additional features on top
of Virtual PC 2007. These mechanisms are designed to facilitate the creation, storage, delivery, and management of Virtual PC images to desktop computers. At a high level, the four
additional technologies provided by MED-V are as follows:
n
Virtual images repository and delivery Simplifies the process of creating, testing,
delivering, and updating virtual images
n
Centralized management and monitoring Manages the life cycle of virtual
­images, provisions virtual images to authenticated users according to Microsoft
Active Directory users and groups, and aggregates client events for monitoring and
reporting purposes.
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n
User policy and data transfer control An endpoint agent enforces usage policies and
data transfer permissions on the virtual machine.
n
Seamless end-user experience The user remains unaware of the virtualization
­running in the background and keeps one desktop environment.
Virtual Image Repository and Delivery
MED-V provides mechanisms for storing and delivering standard Virtual PC images (also
called virtual images) onto user’s desktop computers. These mechanisms simplify the process
of creating, testing, deploying, and maintaining virtual images from a central location.
The virtual image repository and delivery capabilities provided by MED-V include
n
A central repository for storing, versioning, and delivering virtual images you create
n
An administrator console for virtual image creation and testing
n
A format for packaging the MED-V client and virtual images for automatic deployment
over the network, over the Web, or via removable media such as DVD media or USB
key drives
n
A client component that uses standard MSI installation and allows users to retrieve
­virtual images using a standard Web infrastructure, together with an automated process for keeping users’ computers updated with the most recent image build without
interrupting their work
n
An efficient, bandwidth-conserving Trim Transfer mechanism for delivering virtual
images over both high-speed local area network (LAN) and slow wide area network
(WAN) connections
n
An auto-installation package that allows self-deployment of the client component and
the virtual images using removable media such as DVD or from a Web site
n
Support for image delivery using standard enterprise content distribution systems
For a closer look at some of these technologies, see the section titled “How MED-V Works”
later in this chapter.
Centralized Management and Monitoring
MED-V provides the means for managing the entire life cycle of virtual machines deployed
on desktop computers throughout an enterprise. The centralized management and monitoring capabilities provided by MED-V include
n
A central management server that can be used to control virtual machines that have
been deployed onto desktop computers
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n
Integration with Microsoft Active Directory Domain Services to enable provisioning of
virtual images based on group membership or user identity
n
The requirement that users must authenticate using a valid account before being
granted access to the virtual desktop, regardless of whether the virtual machine is
­online or offline
n
A mechanism for automating the first-time setup of virtual machines—for example,
by specifying a unique computer name, performing initial network setup, joining a
­domain, and performing other needed deployment steps
n
The ability to remotely assign the amount of RAM allocated and the network settings
used by Virtual PC on endpoint computers, which facilitates deployment of virtual
­images across diverse computers in heterogeneous environments
n
A central database of all client activity and events, making it easy for helpdesk
­personnel to remotely monitor for problem conditions and to facilitate troubleshooting
n
The ability to revert a virtual machine back to its base image, making it easy for
­helpdesk personnel to support the virtual desktops
Usage Policy and Data Transfer Control
MED-V includes an agent on the endpoint (client) that can be used to enforce the application
of corporate usage policies and permissions to virtual machines for specified users, groups,
or both. The usage policy and data-transfer control capabilities provided by MED-V include
n
The ability to protect a virtual image from unauthorized execution
n
The ability to configure an expiration date for a virtual machine and specify a time limit
for offline use of the virtual machine.
n
The ability to allow or block inbound and outbound data transfer between the virtual
machine and the endpoint, regardless of whether data transfer is performed using
copy/paste, file transfer, or printing.
n
The ability to automatically redirect specified Web sites (such as the corporate intranet
or sites that require an older version of the browser) from the endpoint browser to the
virtual machine so that they run automatically when the browser installed on the virtual
machine is started.
Seamless End-User Experience
MED-V provides a seamless experience for end-users, making users unaware of the virtual
machines running in the background. Overall, it reduces the training required for deploying Virtual PC images by making the deployment process transparent to the end user and
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s­ implifying the work process with virtual machines. The end-user experience provided to
­users by MED-V includes
n
The user does not have to learn how virtualization works or how to work with a separate desktop as is required when running Microsoft Virtual PC 2007 without MED-V.
Instead, the virtual machine is “invisible” to the user and the user interacts with it only
through an icon in the system notification area of the taskbar on the user’s computer.
n
Applications that are published to endpoints using MED-V and are installed in Virtual
PC are made available to the user via the Start menu, desktop shortcuts, or both on the
user’s computer. These applications run within Virtual PC and are seamlessly integrated
into the desktop of the user’s computer in a way that makes the applications work as if
they were locally installed on the user’s computer.
n
Advanced users and administrators have access to a power user mode that lets them
view the virtual machine loading processes and can even display the desktop of the
virtual machine if needed for troubleshooting purposes.
n
The user has access to any applications published to him via MED-V even when the
user’s computer is disconnected from the corporate network (offline) or when network
connectivity is limited.
How MED-V Works
The following description of how MED-V works is based on a prerelease version of the product and is subject to change. The sections below cover the following topics:
n
MED-V terminology
n
System requirements
n
Supported applications
n
Deploying packages
n
Workspace initialization
n
Using the workspace
n
Configuring usage policies
n
Managing and maintaining virtual images
n
Domain managed vs. self-cleaning virtual machines
n
Single desktop vs. full desktop modes
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MED-V Terminology
The following terminology is used for describing different components of a MED-V
environment:
n
Guest The operating system installed on the virtual machine.
n
Host The end user’s physical computer, typically a desktop or laptop computer. It’s
also called an endpoint computer.
n
MED-V Client Software that runs on the host that can download and run Virtual PC
images seamlessly on the host, according to MED-V usage policies.
n
MED-V Image Repository An IIS Web server that stores and distributes virtual images
to endpoints.
n
MED-V Management Server A MED-V server that authenticates, provisions, and
­controls all users of the system. Client-server communication is based on HTTP or
HTTPS.
n
MED-V Server The server that holds the main image repository and is the
­management server.
n
MED-V Package A mechanism for installing Virtual PC, the MED-V client, and
­optionally a virtual image on a host.
n
Virtual image A file representing the file system of a virtual machine. This file can be
delivered to multiple endpoints, independent of their hardware or software.
n
Workspace The Virtual PC image that the MED-V client runs on the host. It’s also
called a virtual machine or guest.
System Requirements
The system requirements for version 1.0 of MED-V can be broken down into the following
categories:
n
System Requirements for MED-V Clients
n
System Requirements for the MED-V Server
n
Active Directory Domain Services Requirements
n
Database Server Requirements
System Requirements for MED-V Clients The system requirements on the client side (the
user’s host computer) for MED-V are shown in Table 3-3.
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TABLE 3-3 System
Memory
Requirements for MED-V 1.0 on the Client Side
Minimum: 1 GB
Recommended: 2 GB
Operating system
Windows XP SP2/3 (Professional, Home), Vista SP1
(Enterprise, Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Ultimate)
32-bit
Web browser
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 SP2, 7.0
File system
NTFS
Supported locales
English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese (Brazil), Spanish
Note The system requirements for MED-V 1.0 SP1 are not available at the time of this writing.
However, it will support both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows 7 on the client side.
System Requirements for the MED-V Server The system requirements for deploying the
MED-V server are shown in Table 3-4.
TABLE 3-4 System
Requirements for MED-V Server Version 1.0
Memory
4 GB RAM or greater
Processor
Dual Processor (2.8 GHz)
Operating system
Windows Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise x86 & 64-bit
Database
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Enterprise SP2
Microsoft SQL Server 2008
Express/Standard/Enterprise editions
Supported locales
English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese (Brazil), Spanish
Active Directory Domain Services Requirements The MED-V server can be installed ­either
on a member server belonging to an Active Directory Domain Services domain or on a
standalone server when using a workgroup scenario. If a domain environment is being used,
authentication and authorization of the user is performed against Active Directory Domain
Services. (If users are not part of the same domain the server belongs to, a trust must be created between the domains.) If a workgroup environment is being used, authentication and
authorization is performed using user and group accounts stored locally on the server.
Database Server Requirements Microsoft SQL Server is needed for hosting the MED-V
report database where MED-V workspace logs are stored. This log database is then used
for generating MED-V reports. SQL Server can be installed either on the same server as the
MED-V server or on a remote server. As Table 3-4 indicates, the following versions of SQL
Server are supported for hosting the MED-V database:
n
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Enterprise SP2
n
Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express/Standard/Enterprise editions
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Supported Applications
Because MED-V does not add any additional layer of virtualization functionality on top of
Virtual PC 2007, any application that has vendor support for running on Virtual PC 2007 will
typically run in MED-V without encountering any issues. There are no special restrictions on
the type of applications that can run in MED-V workspaces.
Deploying Packages
MED-V packages are used to deploy full Virtual PC images to host computers as MED-V
workspaces. These virtual images include a guest operating system, applications, and user
data. Guest operating systems can be either domain members or standalone systems, and if
the host computer is a domain member, the virtual machine can even belong to a different
domain if needed. MED-V workspaces are fully functional virtual desktop computers and can
be associated with any Active Directory Domain Services environment. For example, a workspace that is a domain member can be locked down using Group Policy.
MED-V packages are typically deployed onto host computers that already have Virtual PC
installed on them. If a host computer does not have Virtual PC installed, a MED-V package
can be constructed that will deploy Virtual PC together with the Virtual PC image being
­deployed to the host.
Note Local Administrator privileges on the host system are required in order to install a MED-V
package. Alternatively, MED-V and Virtual PC can be installed using a software distribution
mechanism such as Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM).
When a MED-V package is installed on a host system and the workspace is active, a prespecified amount of RAM on the host system is allocated for running the Virtual PC image. In other words, when you create a MED-V package to deploy a virtual image to a host system, you
can specify how much RAM the host system will use to run the virtual image using Virtual PC.
MED-V packages can be deployed over any network connection, including high-speed LAN
connections, slow WAN links, or virtual private network (VPN) connections. You can also deploy virtual images to users on removable media, such as USB key drives or CD/DVD media,
when network connectivity is not available for the user. Packages that are deployed via removable media can be encrypted so that only authorized users will be able to install and use
the virtual images.
Note To enforce MED-V usage policies, Virtual PC images that have been deployed to host
computers via MED-V packages will not run natively in Virtual PC on systems where the MED-V
client has not been installed. In other words, users cannot bypass MED-V by running MED-V–­
deployed virtual images directly in Virtual PC. The reason this is not possible is because MED-V
creates encrypted virtual images that can be accessed only by the MED-V client.
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Workspace Initialization
After a MED-V package has been deployed to a host computer, the host has the following
software installed:
n
MED-V client software
n
Virtual PC 2007
n
A virtual machine image
The next step is to initialize the MED-V workspace. Figure 3-26 illustrates the steps involved
in the process of initializing the workspace on a host computer to which a MED-V package
has been deployed.
Host
1
MED-V
Server
2
3
VM
FIGURE 3-26 Connection sequence for initializing the workspace on a host.
The steps involved in this initialization sequence are as follows:
1. When the MED-V client is installed and started on the host, the client tries to establish
a communications channel with the MED-V server using a preconfigured port.
2. After this communications channel has been established, the user’s credentials are
­authenticated against the MED-V server.
3. If user authentication is successful, the MED-V server provides the host with an
­encryption key that can be used to decrypt the virtual machine (VM) image that the
MED-V server has previously deployed to the host. After the VM has been decrypted,
the MED-V client running on the host uses Virtual PC to launch the VM, which initializes
the MED-V workspace on the host. The user can then access either of the following:
o
The full virtual desktop of the active virtual machine. In this case, the virtual
­desktop is displayed as a separate window on the user’s local desktop just like
when using Virtual PC natively.
o
Individual applications that the administrator has published from the virtual
­machine. Any application window that appears on the virtual desktop is fully
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i­ntegrated into the host desktop; this includes context menus, system tray icons,
and system tray notifications. Applications from the system tray of the workspace
are displayed as “shadow icons” in the system tray on the host. The way this works
is that the virtual machine starts in the background when the MED-V client is
launched, and the MED-V client can display applications running in the virtual
machine as windows on the local desktop of the host. If the user closes all applications running in his workspace, the state of the virtual machine is saved. To restart the virtual machine, the user clicks the MED-V client icon in the system tray.
Note Any number of Virtual PC images can be installed on a host system. However, only one
Virtual PC image can be running on the host at any given time. When starting the MED-V client,
the user will be asked which workspace he would like to run if more than one is configured for
him.
Using the Workspace
The MED-V workspace and the user’s local desktop are two separate and distinct entities,
and by default there is no direct interaction between them. For example, if the user launches
a local copy of Microsoft Office Word, creates a document, and tries to save the document,
the document is saved by default in the Documents (in Windows Vista and later) or My
Documents (in Windows XP) folder on her local computer. If, however, the user launches a
copy of Word from within the workspace, creates a second document, and tries to save the
document, this second document is saved by default in the Documents (or My Documents)
folder in the user’s workspace—that is, in the virtual machine running in Virtual PC on
the user’s computer. This means that by default the user will have two Documents (or My
Documents) folders to deal with—the one on the local computer and the one in the user’s
workspace.
Although this situation can be confusing to some users, administrators can give users permissions to use the MED-V file transfer tool (accessible from the MED-V tray menu) to copy files
or directories between the host and the guest. Alternatively, they can work around this issue
by implementing Folder Redirection on the host (the user’s physical computer), the workspace (the user’s virtual computer), or both computers. For example, an administrator could
use Group Policy to redirect both Documents (or My Documents) folders—the physical one
and the virtual one—to the same shared folder on a network file server.
In fact, because a virtual machine running Windows looks and behaves just like any physical computer running Windows, the full power of Group Policy can be used within an Active
Directory Domain Services environment to manage user data and application settings within
the workspace. For example, in addition to configuring Folder Redirection for MED-V virtual machines, you can also implement Roaming User Profiles and Offline Files if these are
needed. For more information on using these different corporate roaming technologies, see
Chapter 15 of the Windows 7 Resource Kit from Microsoft Press.
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Virtually anything a user can do on his physical host computer, he can also do in his MED-V
workspace, provided the guest operating system and applications in the Virtual PC image are
installed and configured appropriately. For example, if the virtual image includes third-party
VPN client software, the user will be able to launch this software from within his workspace
and use it to connect to a remote network to which he is authorized to connect.
It’s important to realize, however, that MED-V provides users with two separate computers—their physical host computer and a virtual workspace—and that these two computers
are completely separate and do not normally interact with one another. For example, the
user cannot use Microsoft Outlook running in the workspace to open a PDF file attachment
using Adobe Acrobat Reader running on the local desktop. Instead, the user needs a copy
of Adobe Acrobat Reader installed in the virtual machine image. In other words, local applications and virtual applications cannot interact with one another unless they can do so
as applications running on separate computers residing on the same network. Simple data
exchange between the host and guest is possible, however, using a shared clipboard. The
process for doing this is explained in the next section.
Configuring Usage Policies
MED-V usage policies allow administrators to configure the following kinds of behaviors:
n
Set expiration dates for the virtual machine and time limits for offline work.
n
Control inbound/outbound data transfer control (for example, copy/paste, file transfer,
printing) between the virtual machine and the endpoint.
n
Enable automatic redirection of predefined Web sites (for example, corporate intranet)
from the endpoint browser to the virtual machine.
n
Configure published applications. (Applications that are installed in the virtual machine
become available through the user's Start menu.)
The MED-V server is used to assign usage policies and data transfer control permissions,
which are then enforced by an endpoint agent. The following are additional details concerning two of the policies you can configure.
Configuring Clipboard Behavior MED-V usage policies allow administrators to configure the behavior of the clipboard for copying/pasting between the workspace and the host
computer. Options for configuring the sharing of clipboard data between the host and the
workspace include
n
Disabling shared clipboard functionality entirely
n
Enabling one-way copy/paste functionality—for example, from the workspace to the
host or from the host to the workspace
n
Enabling two-way copy/paste functionality
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Configuring Virtual Images to Expire MED-V allows administrators to configure Virtual
PC images so that they will expire under certain conditions, including
n
If a new connection to the MED-V server is not made within a specified interval of time
n
At a date and time you specify
The way MED-V configures the expiration of virtual images is similar to the way App-V
­configures the expiration of applications. This is a security feature that ensures virtual desktops and applications will not be used outside of the purposes for which they are intended.
This capability of configuring the expiration of virtual images is especially important because
MED-V enables users to continue to use their virtual desktop and applications even when
their computer becomes disconnected from the network—for example, by undocking a
­laptop computer from its docking station to take the computer home or on the road.
Creating, Managing, and Maintaining Virtual Images
Management of a MED-V environment is performed by using the MED-V Management
­console. Using this console, administrators can manage the inventory and versioning of
Virtual PC images, create packages, and perform other related management tasks. In future
versions of MED-V, such management functionality might be integrated into the Microsoft
System Center family of products.
Virtual images can be retrieved by the MED-V client from the MED-V server using Microsoft
Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) version 2, which streams data over HyperText
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Secure HTTP (HTTPS) sessions. The first time a virtual image is
delivered to the host, the entire image must be streamed before the virtual image can start
working. After this is done, however, if the image is later updated on the MED-V server, only
the deltas between the old and new images must be streamed. This is possible because the
MED-V client employs advanced de-duplication techniques to detect blocks in the virtual
machine image that already exist on the host, and then it downloads only the missing blocks
that might be needed. The result of this implementation is to significantly reduce the time it
takes to launch applications that have been updated in virtual images stored in the repository on the server. This implementation also enables MED-V to work well in low-bandwidth
scenarios—for example, over a slow WAN link or modem connection—because it significantly reduces the amount of data that needs to be downloaded when an image is distributed or
updated over a low-bandwidth connection.
Administrators need to maintain Virtual PC images stored in the repository on the MED-V
server. For standardized virtual images that do not contain any user data, administrators can
choose to create a master virtual image and then create a new version of this image in the
repository. They can then update the new image by making configuration changes, installing
or upgrading applications, applying service packs or software updates, and performing similar maintenance tasks on the image. Then the next time the client tries to run an application
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using the deployed image, the MED-V client on the user’s computer will download the deltas
from the server, thus updating the local copy of the image on the user’s computer.
For Virtual PC images that have already been deployed and that contain user data—for
­example, data stored within user profiles in the guest operating system—administrators can
choose to update the deployed virtual image using traditional software maintenance methods. For example, they can deploy or upgrade applications on the guest by using Group
Policy Software Installation. And they can ensure the guest is fully up to date with the latest
critical security updates by using Group Policy to configure the guest to download software
updates from Windows Update or from a server running Windows Server Update Services
(WSUS). In this scenario, the virtual machine is being maintained in the same way that a
­physical system would be maintained using standard tools.
The following list of steps provide a high-level overview of the tasks involved in creating,
­deploying, and maintaining virtual images using MED-V:
1. Create the virtual image within Microsoft Virtual PC.
2. Define a MED-V workspace by doing the following:
o
Create a list of applications installed in the virtual image that are to be made
available to end users through their Start menu.
p
Specify Web sites that should be viewed inside or outside the virtual machine
browser and which should be redirected to the appropriate location by the
MED-V client.
o
Provision the MED-V workspace to users and groups in Active Directory.
o
Configure a usage policy (such as expiration, permission to work offline, and
so on) and data transfer permissions (such as file transfer, copy and paste, and
­printing) for these users and groups.
3. Test the virtual mage using the MED-V management console, and load it into the
MED-V Image Repository.
4. Deploy the MED-V client to users’ computers by using one of these methods:
o
Use an enterprise software distribution tool to deploy the MED-V client and
Virtual PC software as standard Windows Installer files.
o
Create a MED-V self-install package that includes the MED-V client and Virtual
PC software, and deliver the package via a self-service Web site or on removable
media such as a CD or DVD.
5. Deliver the virtual image to the users’ computers by using one of these methods:
o
Over the network using HTTP or HTTPS
o
Using an enterprise software distribution tool
o
Using removable media such as a CD or DVD.
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At this point, users can authenticate against the MED-V management server and are ready to
work within the virtual image deployed to their computers. After the first online authentication, offline work is also supported if this has been enabled by the administrator.
Ongoing maintenance involves managing and updating the MED-V workspace. The MED-V
management console lets administrators update usage policies, provision MED-V workspaces
to additional users, deprovision existing users, and update virtual images. Updates are automatically distributed to appropriate users when they work online. The MED-V management
console also lets administrators monitor clients by generating a report that contains detailed
information concerning client events. This report can help the administrator understand the
source of the problem remotely when an error occurs and instruct the user on how to resolve
the problem.
After a virtual image has been deployed, it must be managed in the same way that any
­desktop operating system must be managed within a corporate IT environment. This means
delivering new applications to the virtual machine, patching the guest operating system of
the virtual machine, updating security definitions and policies, and so on. To manage deployed virtual machines, simply join them to an Active Directory Domain Services domain
and manage them just like physical desktop computers on your network using standard administration tools and services to patch, update, deliver applications, and apply policies on
the virtual machine.
Single Desktop vs. Full Desktop Modes
The MED-V user experience can take two forms:
n
Single desktop mode In this approach, which is recommended, the administrator
publishes the applications installed on the virtual machine to make these applications
available on the Start menu on the users’ computers. Users then launch these virtual
applications from their Start menu or by double-clicking on desktop shortcuts, and the
running virtual applications are displayed side by side, together with native applications
that are locally installed on the user’s computer. (The virtual applications can optionally
be differentiated by enclosing them in a colored frame.) In this approach, the virtual
machine desktop is not visible to the user, which simplifies the user experience and
makes it easier for the user to use the virtual applications to perform his work.
n
Full desktop mode In this approach, the user sees and works with the whole virtual
machine, either in a console window or full screen. The user has to manually toggle
between his physical desktop and the virtual machine desktop to switch between using
native applications and virtual applications.
Figure 3-27 shows the Start menu on a user’s computer and displays a list of virtual
­applications that are delivered to the user’s computer using MED-V.
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FIGURE 3-27 Launching a MED-V application from the Start menu.
Figure 3-28 shows several virtual applications running on the user’s computer in single desktop mode. Note that these applications look just like they are locally installed on the user’s
computer.
Figure 3-29 shows the MED-V system tray icon and the menu that can be displayed by rightclicking on this icon.
These screen shots show that the MED-V user experience is similar to the Windows XP Mode
user experience described earlier in this chapter. The difference between these technologies
is that Windows XP Mode cannot be centrally managed the way MED-V does it, which makes
MED-V suitable for large environments with hundreds or thousands of computers to deliver
virtual applications to.
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FIGURE 3-28 MED-V applications running on a host computer’s desktop.
FIGURE 3-29 Using the MED-V system tray icon.
Finally, Figure 3-30 shows the MED-V Management Console with the Policy section selected
and the focus on the Applications tab, which lists the published applications and menus on
the clients. You can verify that Microsoft Office 2003 applications have been published to the
Start menu on the clients by referring back to Figure 3-27.
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FIGURE 3-30 The MED-V Management Console showing which applications and menus have been published
to the clients.
More Info For more information about MED-V, see the MED-V resources listed in the
“Additional Resources” section at the end of this chapter.
Understanding App-V
Another important component of Microsoft’s integrated virtualization strategy is ­application
virtualization, which refers to any technology that lets you decouple applications from desktop operating systems to dynamically deliver applications on demand to your users. When
you run applications centrally instead of installing them on each user’s computer, software
update management is simplified, application-to-application conflicts are reduced, and
­application compatibility regression testing is made easier.
Microsoft’s primary platform for delivering application virtualization solutions is Microsoft
Application Virtualization (App-V) 4.5, formerly known as SoftGrid Application Virtualization.
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App-V improves upon the earlier SoftGrid Application Virtualization platform in four broad
areas:
n
Dynamic Suite Composition App-V includes Dynamic Suite Composition (DSC),
which provides a method for administrators to control which virtual applications will be
combined to create a unified, virtual working environment for an application set. DSC
also provides a way for administrators to specify mandatory or optional dependencies
between virtual applications. This means that when a virtual application is run on the
client, it will also launch the dependent virtual application’s environment, allowing for
the combination of both virtual environments.
DSC also enables a one-to-many scenario for middleware applications. For example,
let’s say that you have some applications that require the Java Runtime Environment
(JRE). You first sequence the JRE into its own virtual application. Then you reset the
Sequencer, install the JRE locally, and sequence the dependent application; then you
edit the OSD file to manually create a dependency between the single virtual JRE
package and the different virtual dependent applications that enables multiple virtual
applications to share the same virtual JRE package. DSC also reduces the sequencing
overhead because only one JRE needs to be sequenced instead of having to resequence the JRE into each individual package. Package updates are also simplified because you need to update only the single JRE package instead of multiple packages.
n
Enhanced scalability App-V provides numerous scalability improvements. For
­example, App-V has flexible deployment modes and is interoperable with Microsoft
Systems Management Server (SMS), Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager
(SCCM), and third-party ESD systems. App-V also supports a standalone mode for
­virtual application delivery and has increased supportability over the earlier SoftGrid
version. These scalability enhancements can benefit enterprises of all sizes, especially
those with branch offices and those that have existing ESD systems in place.
Other scalability enhancements in version 4.5 of App-V include
o
Background streaming with autoload options The client stream policy can be
set so that the entire virtual application will be delivered on first launch or on login. The application can also be used while it is still streaming in the background.
o
Offline availability The virtual application can be accessed when offline as well
as online.
o
More applications The DSC capabilities described earlier, together with the enhanced support for side-by-side applications, expands the number of applications
that can be serviced by the platform.
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n
o
Application Source Root The Application Source Root (ASR) provides the capability to specify a server name through Group Policy or a script on the target
client. When the manifest or domain controller refresh occurs, the .osd file in
its current state is delivered to the client. However, at runtime, the ASR value
­replaces the DNS server name in the RSTP URL of the .osd file. This will route the
stream request to the ASR server name. This server is typically a server that is
­local to the client.
o
Windows Server 2008 Terminal Services support Application Virtualization for
Terminal Services supports Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Terminal Services (32bit only).
o
Enhanced data metering The App-V Windows Management Instrumentation
(WMI) provider collects application usage information and provides a simplified
way to pull the data into your organization’s reporting store. Data metering can
even occur while users are offline.
o
Microsoft Update App-V includes Microsoft Update support for virtualized
­applications at sequencing time (but this is not available at run time).
o
Backup and recovery App-V includes Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS)
Writer support.
o
Enhanced management You can manage your App-V system using tools such
as the System Center Operations Manager 2007 Management Pack, ADM template, and Best Practice Analyzer.
o
Improved diagnostics App-V has Watson integration and event log support on
both the client and the server.
o
MSI creation capability App-V allows for Microsoft Installer (MSI) creation for
standalone use. App-V also supports streaming MSIs, where the MSI sets up the
virtual application and settings but the application is streamed from the server
when the user clicks on the application.
o
Enhanced command-line interface Additional capabilities for batch operations
are provided by the SFTMIME command. Batch MSI creation is also supported.
o
Differential SFTs App-V allows for the creation of package content files (SFTs)
with only sequenced differences (updates) for use with Standalone mode only
(merged by client action).
Globalization The globalization and localization features of App-V support localized
applications and operating systems. Specific enhancements include
o
Installation on any Windows language version supported by the earlier SoftGrid
version.
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o
Installation in mixed-language environments (server/client). For example, a
Japanese employee traveling to her German branch office could use the Japanese
App-V Client with the German App-V Server.
o
Autodetecting the system and user locale, and autoloading the appropriate
­resource files.
o
Respecting all user locale and regional settings.
o
Sequencing non-English or localized applications.
o
Support for foreign language applications with special characters.
o
Foreign language Active Directory and server support.
o
Run-time locale detection.
o
Localization in 12 Languages: Portuguese (Brazil), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese
(Traditional), Dutch (client only), French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean,
Russian, and Spanish.
Enhanced security The enhanced security features in this version of App-V include
o
Support for Internet-facing scenarios where users run virtual applications over the
Internet without needing to use a VPN connection. App-V can securely provide
virtual applications to users when both the App-V Server and the App-V Client
are on untrusted networks.
o
A secure-by-default configuration out of the box that includes locked-down client
privileges, Transport Layer Security (TLS) turned on by default, Kerberos support,
and certificate-based server authentication.
App-V provides the ability to deliver applications to end users without actually installing
the applications on their client computers. This section is designed to help you understand
App-V and covers the following topics:
n
App-V terminology
n
How App-V works
n
App-V components
n
App-V architecture
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App-V 4.5 SP1 and App-V 4.6
This sidebar provides information on the latest and soon-to-be-released updates to
App-V.
App-V 4.5 SP1
At the time of this writing, App-V 4.5 SP1 has been released as part of MDOP 2009 for
Software Assurance customers. This latest release of App-V includes the following new
features:
n
Full support for Windows 7, including the ability to pin virtual applications to the taskbar and leverage jump lists for navigation to maintain user
productivity.
n
Increased IT control using AppLocker integration, which helps enforce
­compliance of virtual applications to provide consistent policy management
for all application types.
n
Support for BranchCache, a feature of Windows Server 2008 R2 that enables
content from file and Web servers on a WAN to be cached on computers at a
local branch office. This means that virtual applications only need to traverse
the WAN once and will thus be available to users more quickly, eliminating the need for an Internet Information Services (IIS) server in every branch
location.
n
The ability to secure applications on removable devices with BitLockerToGo
and stream virtual applications from USB, thus allowing only authorized users,
including remote disconnected users, to access the virtual applications.
n
Integration with third-party Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
directories to reduce administrative overhead when user accounts are
­maintained in these directories.
n
Several other additional improvements, including instant access to or removal
of applications assigned to users.
App-V 4.6
Still in beta at the time of writing this chapter, App-V 4.6 is scheduled to become
­available in the first half of 2010 and promises the following improvements to the
­sequencing experience and more:
n
A convenient Welcome page that helps you get started with commonly used
tasks, such as package creation, editing, and upgrading.
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n
A redesigned Monitoring page that helps guide you through the various steps
of monitoring, including starting the virtual environment, installing applications, and stopping to collect system changes.
n
Support for both x64 and x86 Windows platforms, including the ability to
­sequence true 64-bit applications.
Other improvements in App-V 4.6 haven’t been announced yet—stay tuned to the
App-V Team Blog at http://blogs.technet.com/softgrid/default.aspx for more information
as it becomes available.
App-V Terminology
The following are some of the key concepts and terms you need to understand when
­working with App-V:
n
Active Upgrade A feature of App-V that provides for automatically upgrading an
application on all end-user computers at their next publishing refresh cycle. To gain
the benefit of this feature, you must have either an App-V Management Server or an
App-V Streaming Server in your environment.
n
Content Folder A directory, named Content by default, where the virtual application
package contents (.sft files) are stored and streamed from. This directory can be in a
shared folder on your App-V Management Server, in a highly available Distributed File
System (DFS) share, or on a storage area network (SAN) or network-attached storage
(NAS) device.
n
Desktop Client An application that resides on a Microsoft Windows–based computer
desktop and that communicates and authenticates with the Microsoft System Center
Virtual Application Server to receive the application code and allow a sequenced
­application to be run locally.
n
Dynamic Suite Composition A feature that enables a virtual application package to
allow dependent plug-ins or middleware packages to use the primary package’s registry settings so that the packages behave and interact with one another in the same
way as if they were installed locally on a computer. This feature allows applications to
be sequenced in separate virtual environments yet selectively communicate with each
other.
n
Installation directory The directory where the installer for the application
­virtualization sequencer places its files.
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n
Management Console A Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that is
used to administer a specific deployment of the App-V platform that includes all of the
­components that are managed by a single data store.
n
Management Server One of two App-V server types (the other being Streaming
Server) from which a sequenced application package can be streamed. The
Management Server also offers other services, such as publishing, management,
­reporting, and so on.
n
Microsoft Application Virtualization for Terminal Services Refers to the client
­component of App-V running in a Terminal Services environment.
n
Publishing an application This makes an application available to authorized users
whose computers have the App-V Client installed. Publishing delivers the icons (.ico
file), package definition information, and content source location (.osd file) to each
computer where the App-V Client has been installed.
n
Q: drive The default virtual application client drive from which sequenced applications are “run”. For more information, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source:
The Q: Drive” later in this chapter.
n
Sequenced application An application that has been monitored by the Sequencer,
broken up into primary and secondary feature blocks, streamed to a computer running
the App-V Terminal Services Client or the App-V Desktop Client, and that can run inside
of its own virtual environment. A sequenced application is an application that has been
transformed from a traditional installed application to one that runs inside an App-V
virtual environment.
n
Sequenced application package The files that make up a virtual application and
­allow the virtual application to run. These files are created after sequencing and include
.osd, .sft, .sprj, and .ico files.
n
Sequencer A utility that monitors and records the installation and setup process
for applications so that an application can be sequenced and run in the virtual environment. Sequencing The process of creating an application package by using the
Application Virtualization Sequencer. In this process, an application is monitored, its
shortcuts are configured, and a sequenced application package is created containing
the .osd, .sft, .sprj, and .ico files. Sequencing is performed by using the Sequencing
Wizard, which walks you through sequencing an application, including configuring a
package, installing the application or applications to be sequenced, and sequencing the
application package for streaming.
n
Sequencing computer The computer used to perform sequencing and create a
­sequenced application package.
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n
Streaming The process of obtaining content from a sequenced application package
(.sft file) starting with the primary feature block (feature block 1) and then obtaining
additional blocks as needed.
n
Streaming Server One of two App-V server types (the other being Management
Server) from which a sequenced application package can be streamed. The Streaming
Server only streams applications to the client machines and does not offer other
­services, such as publishing, management, reporting, and so on.
n
Terminal Services Client An application that resides on a terminal server and that
communicates and authenticates with the App-V Server to receive the application code
and allow a sequenced application to be run locally.
n
Virtual application An application packaged by the Sequencer to run in a self-­
contained, virtual environment that contains the information necessary to run the
­application on the client without installing the application locally.
How App-V Works
App-V lets you create virtual applications, which are applications that have been packaged so
that they can run within a self-contained virtual environment or “sandbox” on client computers. This virtual environment contains all the information needed to be able to run the virtual
application on the client computer and runs within the App-V Client software on the client
computer. After you have sequenced applications and deployed the App-V Client software to
client computers, you can deliver these applications to the client computers in various ways
that resolve many of the issues associated with the traditional application deployment life
cycle. The sections that follow examine these processes in more detail.
App-V Virtual Environment
The App-V virtual environment is a run-time container that defines the resources available
to application processes launched from a sequenced application package. The resources that
are defined by the virtual environment include
n
Virtual COM A subsystem that manages COM objects created by application processes running in the virtual environment and prevents conflict with the same objects
created outside the virtual environment.
n
Virtual directory An opaque directory where only files and subdirectories defined in
the virtual application package or created through interaction with an application in a
virtual environment are visible. Any files that are in an identically named local directory
are not visible to the virtual application.
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n
Virtual file A file name within the virtual environment that is mapped to an alternate
target location. A virtual file appears alongside other files in the containing directory,
regardless of whether that directory is virtual or local.
n
Virtual file system A subsystem that intercepts and redirects file system requests
from application processes running in a virtual environment. These requests are processed based on the virtual files and directories defined in the application package and
created or modified through interaction with a virtual application.
n
Virtual registry A subsystem that intercepts and redirects registry requests for keys
and values from application processes running in a virtual environment. The redirection
is based on the registry information defined in the application package and created or
modified through interaction with a virtual application.
n
Virtual services A subsystem that acts as the Service Control Manager for services
running in a virtual environment.
This virtual environment is created by the App-V Client software, which runs on the client computer and enables the end user to interact with virtualized applications after they
have been delivered to the client computer. For more information concerning App-V Client
­software, see the section titled “App-V Clients” later in this chapter.
Sequencing Applications
Before you can use App-V to deliver applications to users on client computers, you first
need to package the applications for delivery. The process of packaging an application to
enable it to run within its own self-contained virtual environment on a client computer is
called ­sequencing the application. Sequenced applications are virtualized and are completely
­isolated from one another, which eliminates any application conflicts that might occur
­between two applications.
A sequenced application package contains four types of files that make up a virtual application and allow the virtual application to run. These files are created after sequencing and
include the following types of files:
n
.ico file This is the type of file for the icon on the client’s desktop used to launch a
sequenced application.
n
.osd file This is an XML-based Open Software Descriptor file that instructs the client
on how to retrieve the sequenced application from the App-V Management Server or
Streaming Server and how to run the sequenced application in its virtual environment.
n
.sft file This type of file contains one or more sequenced applications that the
Sequencer has packaged into streaming blocks, as well as the associated delivery information. An .sft file is stored on each server that must stream the packaged applications
to a client.
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.sprj file This is an XML-based Sequencer Project file in which the Sequencer stores
its Exclusion Items and Parse Items information. An .sprj file is used in the creation of
­application records and when upgrading a package.
In addition, a sequenced application package can also contain a Microsoft Windows Installer
(.msi) file that can be used for standalone distribution of virtual applications, for publishing
application packages using an electronic software distribution (ESD) system such as Microsoft
System Center Configuration Manager 2007, or for both purposes.
For more information concerning sequencing applications, see the sections titled “App-V
Sequencer” and “Using the Sequencer” later in this chapter.
Publishing Applications
After an application has been sequenced to create a virtual application package consisting
of the aforementioned files, the application must be published on the App-V Management
Server. Publishing an application delivers the icons, package definition information, and
­content source location to each client that has the App-V Client installed. There are three
publishing delivery methods supported by App-V:
n
Using the App-V Management Server
n
Using an ESD system such as System Center Configuration Manager 2007
n
Standalone delivery
For organizations that already have an existing ESD system in place, using this publishing
delivery mechanism provides the benefits of reducing the cost of acquiring and deploying
additional hardware, operating systems, and database licenses. Leveraging your existing
ESD infrastructure can also help your organization avoid the support issues associated with
­needing to maintain two infrastructures.
If you use ESD as your publishing delivery mechanism, you can choose from the following
three approaches for publishing the application to the clients:
n
MSI files Uses Microsoft Windows Installer (.msi) files
n
MSI Manifest Uses the MSI Manifest contained in the .msi file.
n
SFTMIME commands Uses a command-line window and SFTMIME commands for
adding the applications and loading the .sft file.
Streaming Packages
After an application has been published and its .ico and .osd files have been streamed to the
client, the virtual application package content file (.sft file) must be delivered to the client.
App-V supports various ways of doing this, including using the App-V Management Server,
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an Internet Information Services (IIS) Web server, a file server, standalone delivery, or a distribution point running IIS within a System Center Configuration Manager 2007 environment.
The first time a user double-clicks on an application icon that has been placed on a computer
via the publishing process, the App-V Client first performs authorization and license checking. The client then begins streaming the virtual application package content (.sft file) from
the configured streaming source location. The way this works is that the .sft file is mounted in
RAM on the streaming server, which then delivers the application in blocks of 32 KB size by
default over the wire to the client. The streaming source location is typically a server that is
“local” to (accessible over a well-connected network) the user’s computer, but some electronic distribution systems such as System Center Configuration Manager 2007 can distribute .sft
files to a folder on the user’s computer and then stream the package from that local folder. A
streaming source location for virtual application packages can even be set up on a computer
that is not a server—that is, on a workstation. This type of solution can be especially useful in
a small branch office location that has no server.
Virtual Application Management
App-V greatly simplifies application deployment by helping you resolve several key issues
that often arise during the traditional application management life cycle:
n
App-V can help resolve the kind of problems that can arise when you install two
­applications that are incompatible with one another onto the same computer. Because
each virtual application deployed using App-V runs within its own isolated virtual environment, registry and file conflicts are significantly reduced between different virtual
applications running on the same client computer.
n
App-V can help reduce or eliminate the time-consuming regression testing that is
needed before deploying applications onto client computers to ensure that application-compatibility issues are detected before the applications are installed.
n
App-V can help reduce the headache of maintaining applications installed on ­client
computers by applying service packs, security fixes, and other types of software
updates.
n
App-V helps prevent the mess that can result when applications that are no longer
needed by users are uninstalled from their computers but leave remnant files and
­registry settings that can create conflicts later on when other applications are installed.
For more information on how App-V helps resolve these problems and other kinds of i­ssues
associated with the traditional application management life cycle, see the sidebar titled
“Direct from the Source: App-V and the Application Management Life Cycle” in this chapter.
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Direct from the Source: App-V and the Application Management
Life Cycle
Every organization faces the challenges of deploying, updating (that is, installing patches, service packs, and upgrades), supporting (such as troubleshooting, license compliance, and training), and terminating all the applications in the enterprise in an ongoing
cycle. There are many diverse solutions to this problem, but most of these solutions
target only one or two areas of this life cycle.
Deployment is the initial process that organizations take to install their applications
onto the client machines. This can be done using any of several traditional methods,
ranging from having a support engineer touch every client PC with the install media to
remotely using an electronic software distribution method to having the client access a
terminal server (or Citrix XenApp server) remotely.
Updates are a natural and necessary process in the application management life cycle.
As applications gain maturity in the market place, they will undoubtedly be revised and
updated through service packs or hot fixes. It is the burden of the support engineer
in an enterprise to update every client PC that has a particular application version installed on it.
Providing support for the entire library of applications in an enterprise environment
can be a daunting task. Issues from the most basic elements of application conflict to
users inadvertently damaging their own application installations by deleting critical files
can result in considerable overhead to an organization’s support team.
Termination of installed applications is the last phase of the application management
life cycle. Applications are eventually replaced or retired and, as such, need to be removed from the client environment. In a traditional management model, this might
necessitate the support engineer visiting those clients PCs and uninstalling that application. In doing so, it is not 100 percent guaranteed that the process will remove all of the
files and registry entries, meaning some are left to be orphaned and possibly to cause
an issue later on.
One of the most basic challenges that enterprises encounter with the standard application management life cycle is the possibility that two or more applications will
conflict with each other. When an application is allowed to install onto a host or client
computer, its programmed behavior is to add or modify files and registry settings on
that client‘s operating system. If that application did not add or modify settings in the
registry and was contained exclusively in its own directory on the file system, conflicts
would never occur. However, because thousands of applications have been made available since 1995, the application will almost always place its own files (.dll, .vxd, .sys, and
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so on) in numerous directories throughout the file system. It will also populate the registry of that client with its own values or modify existing values. One of the advantages
of deploying applications this way is that they will take advantage of the local resources
on the device onto which they were installed.
Having incompatible applications on a system would not be so frequent an occurrence
if enterprises ran only one or a very select group of applications. Because most enterprises need to run countless applications, ending up with applications that conflict with
one another is almost guaranteed. Until App-V Application Virtualization, the solution
for many organizations was to separate these applications by placing them on different
computers. In essence, a user would have two or more computers on her desk, one to
run Application A and another separate computer to run Application B, although one
of these computers could be a virtual machine running on the user’s physical computer.
Although this is a possible solution, it is very impractical from an expense and support
perspective.
Applications that are App-V enabled are never allowed to install or modify the local
file system or local registry. When an application is App-V enabled, it is made to run
inside its own virtual environment. (See Figure 3-31.) Contained inside of this virtual
environment are all the files, registry information, fonts, COM, embedded services, and
environment variables that the application normally would have installed and been
expected to use on the client PC. Instead, with all of these assets residing inside the
virtual environment, the application leverages them from this virtual environment and
remains isolated from other applications, which are also running inside of their own
separate virtual environment. The process of creating the virtual environment is known
as sequencing.
Operating System
read-only
read & write
read & write
App-V Enabled
Application
Virtual Environment
(Registry, .ini, DLL,
group policy, etc.)
read & write
System Files
(Registry, .ini,
DLL, etc.)
System Services
(cut & paste, OLE,
printers, etc.)
Profile Data
FIGURE 3-31 The App-V virtual environment.
The Sequencer is the component in the App-V system that is vital in creating the
SystemGuard for an application or suite of applications. App-V-enabled applications
will be able to use local and network drives, CPU, RAM, the local Windows Installer
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Service, and other local resources on the App-V Client to which they are streamed to,
cached, and run.
Regression testing has always been a top priority inside enterprises when the enterprise
is deploying any new or updated application. In enterprises with formalized processes
for doing this, every application is tested against every known configuration that could
exist within that organization. This could, and often does, exceed 40 hours of effort for
a single application. With an App-V-enabled application, however, this is reduced to
only the time required to sequence that application. When the application is deployed,
it is isolated from any other applications that were sequenced or that are still locally
installed on the client, guaranteeing a conflict-free environment.
Updates
It is a natural part of an application‘s life cycle to have updates in the form of service
packs or hot fixes become available. These updates need to be applied to that application, and this is often done by having the support engineer visit every client PC or
terminal server machine and manually apply the update in question. This process can
be very time consuming, and it can also increase the likelihood of causing an application conflict because the update modifies files and registry settings on the client. With
an App-V-enabled application, updates are performed centrally and occur at only one
time. The sequence engineer takes the original App-V-enabled application‘s package
back to a clean sequencer workstation and performs a package upgrade, appending
the original package with the updates. This updated package is then used to replace
the original package on the App-V Server, and the App-V Client receives the updated
files seamlessly.
Support
In addition to eliminating application conflicts, the App-V platform can solve many
other support-related issues. When you run each application inside of its own protected SystemGuard environment, App-V-enabled applications remain immune to users
inadvertently or intentionally deleting critical files needed by that application to run.
Because the App-V-enabled applications are running inside of their own SystemGuard
environment, users and local system administrators never see any of the application‘s
files or registry entries if they look at those local resources. This can effectively reduce
the number of help desk calls an organization requires. Another issue facing support
personnel inside an enterprise is the concern surrounding licensing. App-V enables
organizations to control the number of users who can gain access to App-V-enabled
applications concurrently. This licensing feature is administered centrally from the
sole administrative utility for Microsoft App-V Application Virtualization, the App-V
Management Console.
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Termination
At the end of an application‘s life cycle, it is time to retire or terminate that application.
In a traditional method, someone is required to visit every client PC or terminal server
machine and uninstall that application. This approach has the potential to leave some
files and registry settings orphaned and create conflicts later on. With App-V-enabled
applications, the organization simply needs to deactivate or remove that retired application centrally from the App-V Management Console. By doing so, the users subsequently have the application removed from their desktop, and all previously cached
data blocks of the application are removed as needed. Because applications are no longer truly installed when App-V is used, there is never a need to remove the application
from the client‘s computer.
—Sean Donahue, Senior Program Manager,
System Center Alliance, Microsoft Corporation
App-V Components
The App-V environment consists of the following components:
n
App-V Management Server
n
App-V Management Web Service
n
App-V Data Store
n
App-V Streaming Server
n
App-V Management Console
n
App-V Sequencer
n
App-V Client
In addition, you can publish your virtual application packages using your existing electronic
software distribution system such as Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager 2007
instead of using the App-V Management Server. You might also need one or more file
­servers, Web servers, or both, depending on how you want to use App-V.
Note Not all of these components need to be installed in your environment; the components
that need to be installed depend on how you plan on using App-V to deploy virtual applications
to users. For more information on different App-V deployment scenarios, see the section titled
“App-V Deployment Scenarios” later in this chapter.
The sections that follow provide more information concerning each component of the App-V
environment.
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App-V Management Server
The App-V Management Server is used for streaming the virtual application package content
and for publishing virtual application shortcuts and file type associations to the App-V Client.
Because the Management Server streams virtual applications to end users on demand, these
servers are ideally suited for environments that have reliable, high-bandwidth local area
networks (LANs), such as head office environments. The Management Server also supports
Active Upgrade; the Publishing Service, which is used by the client to retrieve the applications
that the logged-in user has access to; and licensing and metering capabilities.
The Management Server should be installed on a dedicated server computer and needs
­access to a Microsoft SQL Server database that can either be installed on the same server or
on a different server on your network. Microsoft SQL Server is used to manage the database
and data store for the App-V environment. You can deploy a single Management Server or
use many of them. In a typical App-V environment, multiple Management Servers share a
common data store for configuration and package information. For more information concerning the App-V Data Store, see the section titled “App-V Data Store” later in the chapter.
The Management Server also needs access to the Content folder, which is a repository for
the virtual application packages you want to publish and stream to the client computers on
your network. The Content folder is where the SFT files are loaded and stored, and it can be
located on either the Management Server itself, on a separate file server on your network,
on a Distributed File System (DFS) share, or on a SAN. For more information concerning the
Content folder, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: Using the Content Folder” in
this chapter.
The Management Server handles user requests for application data and then streams this
data on demand to authorized users. This streaming of application data takes place using
one of the following protocols:
n
Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
n
Real-Time Streaming Protocol Secure (RSTPS), which is RTSP over Transport Layer
Security (TLS)
n
Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
n
Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS), which is HTTP over Transport Layer
Security (TLS)
You configure and manage the Management Server by using the Application Virtualization
Management Console, which is described in the section titled “App-V Management Console”
later in the chapter.
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App-V Management Web Service
The App-V Management Web Service is the component responsible for communicating
read/write requests to the App-V Data Store. The App-V Web Service functions as an intermediary between the Management Console and the Data Store.
Note that even though the administrator makes his changes in the GUI of the App-V
Management Console, those changes do not get written to the Data Store by this MMC
console. Instead, the Management Console makes a .NET Remoting connection to the
Management Web Service. This service then makes an OLE DB connection to the SQL Data
Store and performs the actual read/write operations.
The App-V Management Web Service can be installed either on the Management Server
itself or on a separate server that has IIS 6.0 or higher installed. In addition, Microsoft Data
Access Components (MDAC) 2.7 or higher and the .NET Framework 2.0 must be installed on
the server running the App-V Management Web Service in order to allow connectivity with
the data store.
App-V Data Store
The App-V Data Store is a required component when you deploy an App-V Management
Server. The data store is responsible for storing all information related to the App-V
­infrastructure, including the following:
n
App-V Management Server configuration information
n
App-V Management Server reporting information
n
Application records
n
Application assignments
n
Application licensing information
n
Logging information
The Data Store consists of a SQL Server database that can be installed on either Microsoft
SQL Server 2005 or Microsoft SQL Server 2008.
When a user tries to launch an application that has been virtualized using App-V, the
Management Server that receives the user’s request contacts Active Directory Domain
Services for authorization and the data store for application licensing information.
App-V Streaming Server
The App-V Streaming Server is responsible for hosting and streaming virtual application
packages to App-V clients. You can think of the Streaming Server as a lightweight version
of the Management Server that includes only streaming functionality, doesn’t include the
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App-V Management Web Service or the Management Console, and doesn’t require using a
Microsoft SQL Server database. Instead, the Streaming Server uses access control lists (ACLs)
for granting user access to the package files. The Streaming Server also supports Active
Upgrade, but it doesn’t have a Publishing Service, licensing or metering capabilities.
Like the Management Server, the Streaming Server also needs access to the Content folder,
which is the repository for your virtual application packages. The Content folder can be located either on the Streaming Server itself, on a separate file server on your network, or on a
SAN.
The Streaming Server can be used in environments that have an existing ESD, such as System
Center Configuration Manager 2007. The Streaming Server can be used together with the
Management Server. For example, the Streaming Server can be used at a branch office while
the Management Server is deployed at the head office, with a slow wide area network (WAN)
link between the two locations. Alternatively, the Streaming Server can be used alone without the Management Server in environments that don’t have the infrastructure to support
the Management Server. For more information on different App-V deployment scenarios, see
the section titled “App-V Deployment Scenarios” later in this chapter.
App-V Management Console
The App-V Management Console is an MMC snap-in you can use to manage your App-V
­environment. Using the Management Console, an administrator can do the following:
n
Import applications
n
Manage file type associations for applications
n
Manage application licenses
n
Create and manage server groups
n
View and configure server settings
n
Create provider policies
n
Generate reports
The Management Console can be installed locally on the Management Server, and it can also
be installed on any workstation that has MMC 3.0 and .NET Framework 2.0 installed to allow
remote management of the App-V environment.
Figure 3-32 shows the layout of the Management Console and displays a list of the applications that have been sequenced on the local Management Server.
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FIGURE 3-32 The Application Management Console showing a list of virtual application packages on the local
App-V Management Server.
App-V Sequencer
The App-V Sequencer is a wizard-based tool that can be used to monitor and capture the
installation of an application to create a virtual application package you can publish and
stream to client computers. After an application has been sequenced, the resulting App-Venabled application package can be delivered to users on demand to run within an isolated
virtual environment on the user’s computer.
The output of the sequencing process includes an application’s icon (.ico) files, an .osd file
containing the package definition information, a package manifest file (manifest.xml), and
the .sft file that contains the application program’s content assets. The sequencing process is performed once for each application or suite of applications you want to virtualize,
and the process protects the application’s integrity by not making any modifications to the
source code of the application. After an application has been sequenced, its files must be
copied to the Content folder before they can be streamed or published to the App-V Client.
Alternatively, the .ico and .osd files can be hosted on a Web server and delivered to the
App-V Client using HTTP or HTTPS.
The Sequencer component typically must be installed on a separate computer from the other
App-V components. This separate computer is called the sequencing computer. This sequencing computer needs to be a clean image that can be restored back to its virgin state at the
end of every successful sequencing operation.
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During the sequencing process, the Sequencer is first placed in monitor mode. The application to be sequenced is then installed on the sequencing computer. The sequenced application is then started, and common tasks are performed with the application so that the
monitoring process can configure the primary feature block, which contains the minimum
application package content that is needed for the virtualized application to run properly.
When all of these steps are finished, monitoring mode is stopped and the sequenced application is saved. The sequenced application should then be thoroughly tested to ensure that it
works properly when virtualized.
Tip Some applications cannot be sequenced, including Internet Explorer, device drivers, applications that start services at boot time, and some other parts of the Windows operating system.
For more information about sequencing applications, see the section titled “Using the
Sequencer” later in this chapter.
App-V Client
The App-V Client is the software component that resides on the client computer and provides the virtual environment for running virtual applications. The App-V Client also handles
the streaming of the application content from a Management Server and also from a
Streaming Server if one has been deployed. The streaming process structures the application content so that the initial user interaction is streamed to the client computer first. This is
done so that the user can launch the application immediately without needing to wait for the
entire application content to be streamed to the client. Users can launch virtual applications
by clicking on icons on their desktop or Start menu, or by double-clicking on file types associated with the application.
There are two kinds of App-V Client software:
n
App-V Desktop Client This client is used on standard desktop computing environments. The App-V Desktop Client is included in the Microsoft Desktop Optimization
Pack (MDOP) for Software Assurance (SA). The App-V Desktop Client is installed on
end-user workstations to C:\Program Files\Microsoft Application Virtualization Client
and is responsible for caching and launching virtualized applications. The App-V
Desktop Client turns desktop applications into services to be deployed on demand
without installation and without administrators having to be concerned about conflicts
with any existing applications. The App-V Desktop Client also allows applications to be
centrally managed with real-time license compliance.
n
App-V Terminal Services Client This client is used in Terminal Services environments.
The App-V Terminal Services Client behaves much like the App-V Desktop Client except
that it provides for installation on a terminal server, which hosts the virtualized application instead of having the virtualized application run directly on the client computer.
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The App-V Terminal Services Client allows administrators to deliver any application to
any Terminal Services or Citrix XenApp server without having to perform the installation, without being concerned about conflicts or testing, and without disruption of
service.
The App-V Client must be configured at installation time using the Client Management
Console to specify the name or IP Address of the Publishing Server that it contacts at login
to retrieve application icons and .osd files that the user has access to. If you are going to
use the App-V Desktop Client, you must also deploy this software to your client computers. This is typically done using ESD system such as Microsoft System Center Configuration
Manager 2007, but it can also be done using other methods, such as Group Policy Software
Installation, scripting, or even manual installation.
App-V Architecture
Figure 3-33 illustrates the App-V architecture, showing the different components of the
App-V platform and the protocols and other transport mechanisms used for communications
between these components.
App-V
Sequencer
Move .ico and
.osd files
App-V
Management
Console
Web Server
and/or
File Server
Move .sft file
HTTP or HTTPS
and/or SMB
.NET
Remoting
App-V
Management
Web Service
OLE DB
ADSI
App-V
Data Store
Active
Directory
Domain
Services
FIGURE 3-33 The App-V architecture.
ODBC
ADSI
App-V
Management
Server
RTSP
or
RTSPS
App-V
Client
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The section titled “App-V Components” that preceded this section summarized the function
of each of the different App-V components. The following is a summary of the protocols and
other transport mechanisms used for communications between these components:
n
.NET Remoting A component of the .NET Framework that enables client applications
to use objects in other processes on the same computer or on any other computer
available on its network. This used by the Management Web Service to connect to the
SQL Data Store.
n
ADSI Active Directory Service Interfaces, a set of COM interfaces used to access the
features of directory services from different network providers. ADSI is used in a distributed computing environment to present a single set of directory service interfaces
for managing network resources. This is used by the Management Server to retrieve
user group associations from Active Directory.
n
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol, an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems, such as text, graphic images, sound, video,
and other multimedia files on the World Wide Web. This can be used to stream the SFT
file to the App-V clients.
n
HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer, an extension of HTTP
that securely encrypts and decrypts Web page requests using Secure Sockets Layer
(SSL). SSL is a security protocol that supports confidentiality and integrity of messages
in client and server applications communicating over open networks. This can be used
to stream the SFT file to the App-V clients with added security.
n
OLE DB A set of COM-based interfaces that expose data from a variety of sources.
OLE DB interfaces provide applications with uniform access to data stored in diverse
information sources or data stores. This is used by the Management Web Service to
connect to the SQL Data Store.
n
ODBC Open Database Connectivity, a universal data access interface that enables
applications to concurrently access, view, and modify data from multiple, diverse databases. This is also used by the Management Web Service to connect to the SQL Data
Store.
n
RTSP Real-Time Streaming Protocol, an application-level protocol that controls the
transport of multimedia content, session announcements, and tear-downs. When the
App-V client communicates with the App-V Management Server, the client uses RTSP
over port 554 to establish the initial connection with the server. After the initial connection has been made, however, the client continues to send and receive blocks of
the streamed application package content using two other protocols, the Real-Time
Transport Protocol (RTP) and the Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP). These two protocols open connections with the clients, starting with ports 49152 up to 65535, concurrently for send/receive.
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n
RTSPS Real-Time Streaming Protocol Secure, which is RTSP over Transport Layer
Security (TLS). When the App-V client communicates with an App-V Management
Server that has a certificate assigned to it, the client uses RTSPS over port 322 to establish the initial connection with the server and then uses RTP and RTCP for streaming of
blocks of application package content. If there is no certificate assigned to the server,
the communication uses RTSP over port 554 if the option to allow nonsecure connections is selected.
n
SMB Server Message Block, a protocol used to request file and print services from
server systems over a network. Standard ports are used when App-V is deployed
in a trusted environment, such as a corporate LAN, while restricted ports are used
when App-V is delivering virtual applications to untrusted clients—for example,
over the Web. Restricted reports require that a server certificate be installed on the
Management Server during installation of the server, and also on any file, Web servers,
or both that are used to stream application package content to clients.
Table 3-5 lists the various ports that must be open for App-V components to communicate
with one other.
TABLE 3-5 App-V
Communications Ports
Communications Function
Standard
Port
Protocol
Restricted
Port
Secure
Protocol
Between the Management Console and
the Management Web Service
80
HTTP
443
HTTPS
Between the Data Store and the
Management Web Service
1433
ODBC
1433
(IPsec)
ODBC
Between the Data Store and the
Management Server
1433
ODBC
1433
(IPsec)
ODBC
Between App-V clients and the
Management Server
554
RTSP
322
RTSPS
Used by RTSP and RTSPS to manage
communications after initial
communication has been established
between App-V clients and the
Management Server
49152-65535
RTP
RTCP
Note For more information on the protocols and other transport mechanisms used by App-V,
see article KB 932017 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base on Microsoft TechNet at http://support.
microsoft.com/kb/932017.
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Working with App-V
Microsoft App-V provides organizations with powerful and flexible solutions for delivering
virtualized applications to end users. This section covers some of the basics of working with
App-V and includes the following topics:
n
App-V deployment scenarios
n
Obtaining App-V
n
Using the Management Console
n
Using the Sequencer
n
Working with App-V clients
Note A full treatment of how to deploy, configure, use, and maintain an App-V environment
is beyond the scope of this chapter. For detailed information on these topics, see the “Planning
and Deployment Guide for the Application Virtualization System” and ”Operations Guide for the
Application Virtualization System” on Microsoft TechNet at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/cc843770.aspx.
App-V Deployment Scenarios
Microsoft App-V has a great deal of flexibility in how it can be deployed within an organization. For example, you can choose from the following three publishing delivery methods for
transferring the .osd and .ico files from their designated location (typically, \Content) to the
App-V Client software running on client computers:
n
Using the App-V Management Server alone as the core of your virtual application
­deployment platform to transfer the .osd and .ico files from the Content folder on your
Management Server. You can also use an App-V Streaming Server, such as an IIS Web
server or file server, to host your Content folder if you already have such infrastructure
in place and want to use it.
n
Using an electronic software distribution (ESD) system, such as System Center
Configuration Manager 2007, to move .osd and .ico files to clients via standalone
Microsoft Windows Installer (.msi) files, the MSI manifest contained within .msi files, or
SFTMIME commands.
n
By standalone (locally-installed) delivery of .msi files to users via network shares,
­removable media, or some other method.
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You also have several choices as to which package delivery method you use to stream the
virtual application packages or .sft files from your Management Server to the App-V Client
software running on client computers:
n
An IIS Web server, which streams package content using HTTP or HTTPS
n
A file server, which streams package content using SMB
n
An App-V Streaming Server, which streams package content using RTSP, RTSPS, or
HTTP/S (if IIS is installed)
You can also deliver package content via standalone delivery or by using an ESD system, but
the most typical ways of streaming packages are by using a Streaming Server, IIS server, or
file server. Table 3-6 lists some of the advantages and disadvantages of each of these package delivery methods.
TABLE 3-6 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Different Package Delivery Methods
Package Delivery
Method
Advantages
Disadvantages
App-V Streaming
Server
Supports Active Upgrade and RTSPS
for enhanced security; needs only one
firewall port open
Requires supporting a dual
infrastructure; requires additional
server administration
IIS server
Supports streaming to remote clients
via the Internet and HTTPS for
enhanced security; highly scalable;
needs only one firewall port open
Adds the overhead of managing
IIS servers
File server
Supports using existing file servers to
provide a simple low-cost solution
Does not support Active Upgrade
For more information on the power and flexibility of the various ways you can deploy App-V
in your organization, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: App-V—A Scalable
Solution for Application Virtualization” in this chapter.
Direct from the Source: App-V—A Scalable Solution for
Application Virtualization
One of the features in the new version of App-V that I am most excited about is the
number and variety of deployment methods for the virtual application packages. In
SoftGrid versions 4.2 and earlier, you were limited to deploying your virtual applications with a full SoftGrid back-end infrastructure only. This could prove to be quite
limiting for a branch office environment. In short, you had to deploy a SQL data store
at each of your branch offices along with a SoftGrid Streaming Server. App-V, however,
is much like choosing from a cafeteria line of selections for how you deploy your virtual
applications. You pick and choose the options you want—and those you don’t want,
you leave under the warming lights for later.
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The way I look at App-V, today is by looking at the virtual application package first.
Because this package can be deployed to multiple clients in various ways, the package
is the constant. For example, I can take the same package and deploy it to a collection
of Windows Vista clients at Corporate HQ using what is considered to be a traditional
method. That is, I use the App-V Management Console to publish the application to a
group of Active Directory users. This is written in the SQL data store, and the package
files (.SFT, .ICO, .OSD, .SPRJ) are stored in the Content folder of the Streaming Server.
The client logs in and contacts his Publishing Refresh Server, which is most often the
same server as the App-V Streaming Server, and gets a list of his applications from the
SQL data store. The icons and OSD files are transferred to the client, and upon initial
launch of the icon the SFT file starts streaming, using RTSPS, to the client. Nothing new
here.
However, if I’m in a branch office instead, I could use what is referred to internally as
the Lightweight Streaming Server. This is an App-V server whose only purpose and
function is to stream App-V SFT files using RTSPS (by default). As an administrator, I
publish the App-V applications to my user groups in Active Directory as I did in the
traditional model. I then copy the SFT file to a server in the local branch office that had
the lightweight streaming server (LWS) installed on it. The user logs on to his computer,
authenticates, and then contacts the Publishing Refresh Server to receive a list of applications he has permissions to. The icons and OSD files transfer to the client as they do
with the method used at Corporate HQ. However, when the user launches the application shortcut, the application streams from the local LWS instead of over the WAN from
Corporate HQ. This happens because as the administrator, I have set the Application
Source Root in the client’s registry that told the clients in the branch to override whatever the HREF line in the OSD file said and use the local branch server instead. Also, I
can set the Icon Source Root and the OSD Source Root in the same way and have all
traffic, except the refresh, occur from the local LWS. But wait! There’s more!
What if I told you that in addition to this you could now deploy your App-V packages
to remote users who did not have regular access to an office connection? During the
sequencing process you could select the check box that generates an MSI file in addition to the standard App-V package’s files. You could then deploy the MSI and SFT
files to a location accessible to this remote user—for example, to a DVD or local share.
The user double-clicks the MSI file, and it uses the Windows Installer Service to “install”
the virtual application. Rest assured that nothing is actually installed. Instead, what
really happens is the installer service calls one of the App-V client executables called
Sftmime.exe. If you open the MSI in Orca or another MSI edit utility, you see a bunch
of SFTMime commands that basically add the application to the client, publish the
­shortcuts, add the OSD, and load the SFT file into the local file system cache, sftfs.fsd.
This is combined with a registry setting that sets the RequireAuthorizationIfCached option to 0. I use this all the time when testing applications from independent software
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vendors (ISVs) that I’ve sequenced. I simply copy the MSI and SFT to a client and launch
it. No back-end whatsoever is needed.
As if that weren’t enough, you also have the ability to use an ESD, such as System
Center Configuration Manager R2. With this option, the administrator advertises the
package in System Center Configuration Manager as he would with a physically installed application. However it is really a Virtual Application instead. By using System
Center Configuration Manager, you would still need the App-V client on the desktop in
addition to the System Center Configuration Manager Advanced Client. System Center
Configuration Manager uses a new file added to the App-V packages called the manifest file (_manifest.xml) which stores information about all of the applications in the
package. This file is used to populate several of the fields in the new applications added
to the System Center Configuration Manager console. System Center Configuration
Manager also allows distribution points, which are most likely already established in the
organization, to act as the streaming points for the App-V packages. When the System
Center Configuration Manager Advanced Client does its policy refresh it will pick up the
App-V applications just like it does the physically installed Apps. The beauty here is that
this requires no special App-V infrastructure, it uses all of the existing System Center
Configuration Manager configuration. It also allows the publishing of App-V packages
to physical collections and not just users.
Sometimes I feel like a proud Papa bragging on and on about how great their prodigy
child is. But this last feature on scalability that I will call out here in this sidebar is the
introduction of HTTPS streaming instead of RTSPS. Now to some this might seem an
anticlimactic way of ending. “Isn’t this an obvious evolution?” One might say. As obvious as it might seem it introduces a whole new world to App-V. Imagine being able to
stream virtual applications that never change or alter the foot print on a client devices,
over the Internet. Yes Virginia, there is a Santa Claus. This means that a company, or an
ISV, could host their applications on a Web server and deliver those virtual applications
to their clients anywhere in the world. The client would still need the App-V client and
a Web server would need to be configured with a content location under the root. But
the question is, “Who doesn’t have a Web server?”
Back in my day we didn’t have these fancy delivery methods. We had to have a
Streaming Server and SQL data store in every branch office. And we liked it! Nowadays
you kids have it easy. You take your App-V package and pick and choose your delivery
method. “I think I’ll stream this to these clients with RTSPS. But deliver it to these clients
with an LWS, and then burn to DVD and mail it to these remote users. Oh but for this
segment of machines I’ll use System Center Configuration Manager to advertise to a
collection and then stream it over the Web using HTTPS to these customers.” What’s
next? A better network topology than ARCNet?
–Sean Donahue, Senior Program Manager,
System Center Alliance, Microsoft Corporation
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Deploying App-V at a Single Site
If your organization is located at a single site and has a fast, reliable LAN throughout, you
can deploy App-V using the traditional or classic approach familiar to earlier SoftGrid 4.2 administrators. (See Figure 3-34.) Here are the App-V components you need to deploy for this
scenario:
n
App-V Management Server
n
App-V Management Web Service
n
App-V Data Store
n
Content Folder location
n
App-V Management Console
n
App-V Client software
For smaller sites, all of the components just listed can be installed on a single server with the
Content folder located on any of the following:
n
A share on the server itself
n
A highly available DFS share
n
A highly available SAN/NAS device
Active
Directory
App-V
Management
Server
Content
Folder
SAN/NAS
Publishing and
streaming apps
Computers with App-V
Client installed
FIGURE 3-34 Deploying App-V at a single site.
After you’ve deployed the App-V components needed for this scenario, you can use the
Sequencer to create virtual application packages and copy the package folder to the Content
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share to create a subfolder under Content for each application. Then the administrator can
publish each application to groups of users in Active Directory Domain Services so that when
the user logs on to his computer he sees shortcuts on his Start menu and desktop to launch
these applications. When the user double-clicks on a shortcut, the App-V Client on the user’s
computer streams the .sft file for the application package from the Management Server and
then launches the application for the user to use. The application package is also cached locally on the user’s computer so that the application can be launched more quickly next time
the user needs to run the application.
Deploying App-V at Branch Offices
Larger organizations that include branch offices at remote sites can add another App-V component, the App-V Streaming Server, to enable users to efficiently use virtual applications
that are provisioned from the head office site over slower WAN links. For this scenario, you
can deploy a Streaming Server at each branch office and your remaining App-V components
at the central head office location. (See Figure 3-35.) In this scenario, virtual applications are
published to client computers at the branch office over the WAN link while application package content is streamed to these clients over the branch office LAN. In this branch office scenario, it is possible to either have the .ico and .osd files delivered to the client over the WAN
or to modify the client’s registry so that these files are also delivered from the local branch
office’s server.
App-V
Management
Server
Publish
apps
App-V
Streaming
Server
Publish and
stream apps
Stream
apps
WAN link
Branch Office
Head Office
FIGURE 3-35 Deploying App-V for branch offices.
Deploying App-V Using an Existing ESD System
Large enterprises that already have an electronic software distribution (ESD) system in place
can leverage their existing infrastructure to provide application virtualization to users in a
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number of different ways. For example, Figure 3-36 shows an enterprise that has two sites
(head and branch offices) plus external users who need to access virtual applications over the
Internet. In this particular implementation, client computers at the head office stream virtual
application package content from an App-V Streaming Server. This gives these clients the
benefits of Active Upgrade, a feature of App-V that requires App-V servers to be deployed
and that enables automatic upgrading of virtual applications on end-user computers at their
next publishing refresh cycle. By contrast, client computers at the branch office stream their
virtual application package content directly from the ESD distribution point running on a file
server on their local network. This scenario is a simple, low-cost solution that uses SMB to
stream the package content from an existing file server that hosts the Content Folder for the
clients, but it doesn’t support Active Upgrade. Finally, an IIS server on the perimeter network
at the head office is used to stream virtual application package content over the Internet using HTTPS to external client computers such as mobile users with laptops, which is another
scenario that is simple to implement but doesn’t support Active Upgrade.
Head Office
ESD
Server
Branch Office
Distribution Point
(File Server)
App-V
Streaming
Server
WAN link
Web Server
on perimeter
network
Internet
External client computers
FIGURE 3-36 Sample App-V deployment leveraging an existing ESD system.
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Standalone Deployment of Virtual Applications
The App-V Sequencer also has an option to create an .msi file that automates the “installation” of a virtual application. This .msi file contains additional metadata that enables an
ESD system to recognize and control virtualized applications. Standalone mode requires the
App-V Client to be configured for standalone mode, which allows only .msi-based updates of
virtual applications. (Streaming is not allowed while in standalone mode.) This mode is meant
to be used by rarely connected users that need the power of virtualized applications but do
not have access to a server. So, in this scenario, you need to provide the .msi file to the user
directly—for example, on CD or DVD media.
It is important to note that the package’s content file (.sft) is not included inside of the .msi
file. The .sft file must be available in tandem with the .msi. The .ico and .osd files, however,
are in the .msi file. When the user double-clicks the .msi file for a virtual application, a series
of commands using the App-V client’s built in SFTMIME command are used to add the application and load the .sft file into the local cache. In this standalone deployment scenario,
third-party products such as FullArmor’s GPAnywhere can be used to apply Group Policy settings to the virtual applications.
Deploying App-V with Terminal Services
You can also deploy App-V with Terminal Services so that users can run virtual applications
on a terminal server instead of on their local computers. In this scenario, the user employs
the App-V Terminal Services Client instead of the App-V Desktop Client. For more information on the benefits of deploying App-V together with Terminal Services, see the blog
post titled “SoftGrid and Terminal Services: Better Together” on the Microsoft Application
Virtualization team blog at http://blogs.technet.com/softgrid/archive/2008/04/10/softgridand-terminal-services-better-together.aspx.
Using the Management Console
The App-V Management Console is your central location for performing all App-V-related
management tasks. The following sections describe common administrative tasks you can
perform when using this console.
Managing Applications
The Applications node of the Management Console lets you perform the following tasks:
n
Import an application This action makes an application available for streaming from
an App-V server. To import an application, you need to have either its .osd or .sprj file
available on the server. Importing an application automatically creates a package for
the application during the import process.
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n
Manually add an application This action requires that you manually specify all the
information that is normally determined automatically by the Import Applications
Wizard. Adding an application manually also requires that you manually add a package
for the application. For information about adding packages, see the next section.
n
Grant or deny access to an application These actions let you specify which groups of
users will be allowed to access the application.
Other actions you can perform using this node include renaming, deleting, and moving an
application and changing an application icon.
As an example of how you can manage applications using this console, the following procedure demonstrates how you can import an application. Figure 3-37 shows the Applications
node before any applications have been imported.
FIGURE 3-37 No applications have been imported yet.
Right-clicking on the Applications node brings up a shortcut menu. From this menu, select
Import Applications. In the Open dialog box that appears, browse to locate the .osd or .sprj
file for the application. (See Figure 3-38.) By using the .osd file, the administrator would need
to add each application in a suite individually. By importing from the .sprj file, however, all
the applications in the suite will be imported at one time.
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FIGURE 3-38 Selecting an application to import.
After you’ve selected the application you want to import, click Open. This launches the New
Application Wizard. The first page of this wizard is automatically populated with the name,
version, OSD path, icon path, application license group, and server group of the application.
(See Figure 3-39.) If you want to stream the application to clients, make sure that the Enabled
check box is selected as shown. You can also add a description for the application if desired.
Verify that the remaining information displayed is correct before proceeding with the wizard.
The OSD path and Icon path should reference either a UNC path or a URL because this will
tell the user where those files can be copied from during the client’s refresh.
FIGURE 3-39 The New Application Wizard.
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The next page of the wizard lets you specify the locations where you would like application
shortcuts to appear on client computers. (See Figure 3-40.) By default, these will mimic what
the application’s installation would have populated as captured during sequencing.
FIGURE 3-40 Specifying the application shortcuts that should appear on client computers.
The next page of the wizard displays the file associations that are currently configured for
the application. (See Figure 3-41.) This screen also allows you to add new file associations for
the application by clicking the Add button and to edit or remove existing file associations by
clicking the corresponding buttons for these actions. By default, these will mimic what the
application’s installation would have populated as captured during sequencing.
FIGURE 3-41 Viewing and modifying file associations for the application.
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The next wizard page lets you assign which groups of users will be granted permission to use
the application. (See Figure 3-42.)
FIGURE 3-42 Granting access to the application.
The final page of wizard ask you to confirm the selections you have made. (See Figure 3-43.)
If any conflicts were detected (such as File Type association) with an already existing application, you will receive a warning in this dialog box.
FIGURE 3-43 Summary page of the wizard.
Clicking Finish imports the application you have selected. The result of the import process is
shown in Figure 3-44.
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FIGURE 3-44 The application has been imported.
After the application has been imported, it is ready to be streamed to clients.
You can also use the Applications node to organize your applications into groups for easier
management. For example, you might create application groups for specific departments, divisions, or sites in your organization. You can also create application groups for specific types
of applications such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) applications, customer resource
management (CRM) applications, and so on. Using application groups also makes it easier to
grant permissions to applications and manage application licenses.
Managing Packages
Virtual application packages can be managed using the Packages node in the Management
Console. (See Figure 3-45.) Packages let you control virtual application versions on your
App-V Management Servers. Using the Packages node, you can
n
Manually add a package by specifying the package name and the path to the
­application’s .sft file.
n
Add a new version of a package. (You can leave the previous version in place for
­compatibility reasons if needed.)
n
Delete all versions of a package or only the specified version.
n
Upgrade a package. (An automatic upgrade occurs when you perform an Open For
Package Upgrade action of an existing package in the Sequencer.)
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FIGURE 3-45 Managing packages.
Managing Application Licenses
You can use the Application Licenses node to add, remove, configure, and control application license groups. Depending on the type of license group you create, you will be able to
control which users have access to your applications and how many users will be allowed to
access applications at a given time. App-V helps administrators ensure license compliance:
if there is a license available when a user tries to launch an application, the user is allowed
to launch the application; if there is no available license, the client‘s system tray will report
Launch Failed and an error message will be displayed indicating that there is no available
license.
Note License Groups are not application specific. This means that one license group can be
­ pplied to multiple applications, although license groups are typically created with specific
a
­applications in mind.
Three types of licenses can be created using the Management Console:
n
Concurrent License This type of license allows a limited number of users to have
­simultaneous access to the applications that have the license groups assigned to them.
Concurrent License groups are the most common type of licensing used for virtual
­applications and can reduce licensing costs by limiting the number of copies of an
­application that can be run concurrently.
n
Unlimited License This type of license allows any number of users to have simultaneous access to the applications that have the license groups assigned to them. Unlimited
License groups are useful for evaluating the number of licenses that will be required
for an application, and when used in conjunction with Reporting they can assist in your
purchasing decisions for applications.
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Named License This type of license allows only the specified users to have access to
the application associated with the license. Named License groups are typically used for
applications whose use must be restricted to certain groups of users, such as administrators, members of the management team, and specially trained users.
Managing Servers
You can use the Server Groups node of the Management Console to manage the App-V
servers in your environment, including your Management Servers and Streaming Servers,
provided these servers share the same SQL Server database. Specifically, you can
n
Create or remove server groups to organize your servers for easier management.
n
Add a server to a server group or remove it from a group.
n
Adjust the maximum memory allocation for the server cache of a server, specify the
maximum block size to be used when streaming content from the server, or modify the
port number used for RTSP or RTSPS streaming from the server.
By right-clicking on a server group and selecting Properties, you can manipulate the settings
of all App-V servers in the selected server group.
The Default Server Group is created when you set up your App-V environment. (See
Figure 3-46.) Small and mid-sized organizations might be able to get by with using only the
Default Server Group.
FIGURE 3-46 The Default Server Group.
Managing Reports
The Reports node of the Management Console can be used to generate different kinds of
reports that contain information about your App-V system. These reports are created using
a SQL Reports run-time agent, which is installed by default with the Management Console.
Reports can be viewed, printed, or exported to PDF format to gather information about
how your App-V system has been used over the course of daily, weekly, or monthly periods.
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Before running a report, metering and logging to a database must be enabled in your App-V
system.
The following types of reports can be generated using this node:
n
Application Utilization This report graphs the total daily and concurrent sessions
over time during the reporting period for the specified application. The report uses a
simple line graph with an independent y-axis for each metric. The report also lists all
users who used the application, as well as the number of sessions, total session duration, average session duration for each user, and a summary of total usage for all users.
n
Software Audit This report lists usage information during the reporting period for
all applications defined in the database. For each application, this report lists the top
N ­users who used the application together with the number of sessions, total session
duration, average session duration for each user, and a summary of total usage for all
users.
n
System Utilization This report graphs the total daily and concurrent usage over time
during the reporting period for the specified server, server group, or entire enterprise.
This report uses a simple line graph with an independent y-axis for each metric. The
report also graphs usage by day of week and by hour of day.
n
System Error This report graphs the number of fatal errors, errors, and warnings
logged by the specified server, server group, or entire enterprise during the reporting period. This report uses a simple stacked bar graph with an independent y-axis for
each metric. The report also lists each of the fatal errors, errors, and warnings logged in
­ascending order by time.
File Type Associations
The File Type Associations node lets you display and manage all the file type associations for
all the applications you have imported. (See Figure 3-47.)
FIGURE 3-47 Displaying file type associations for all imported applications.
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Provider Policies
The Provider Policies node lets you specify a set of rules that are applied to users making
connections to virtual applications. As connections come into the server group (provider), the
server appends several rules (provider policy) to the connection. If the user does not specify
a custom provider policy, the rules of the Default Provider are applied. (See Figure 3-48.)
FIGURE 3-48 The Provider Policies node.
Administrators
The Administrators node lets you view the group specified during installation as responsible
for the administration of your App-V system. You can also add new groups to this node or
remove groups you no longer need.
For more information on using the App-V Management Console to manage an App-V system, see the “Operations Guide for the Application Virtualization System” in the TechCenter
Library on Microsoft TechNet at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc843770.aspx.
Using the Sequencer
The Sequencer is used to create a virtual application package for an application. The sequencer does this by monitoring and recording the installation and setup processes for an
application. The result of sequencing an application is a set of files (.ico, .osd, .sft, .sprj, _manifest.xml, and optionally .msi) that contain all the necessary information for running the application within a virtual environment on the client.
To sequence an application, log on to your sequencing computer and select Microsoft
Application Virtualization Sequencer from under Microsoft Application Virtualization in the
Programs section of your Start menu. This launches the App-V Sequencer Console as shown
in Figure 3-49.
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FIGURE 3-49 The Application Virtualization Sequencer Console.
From the File menu of your Sequencer Console, select New Package. This launches the
Sequencing Wizard and displays the first page of the wizard, which lets you specify a name
and add an optional comment for your new package. (See Figure 3-50.)
FIGURE 3-50 Specifying a package name, and adding an optional comment.
Select the Show Advanced Monitoring Options check box if you want to display the
Advanced Options page of the wizard. The Advanced Options page can be used to specify
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the block size for your virtual application, which determines how the .sft file will be divided
up when the package is streamed to client computers.
The third page of the wizard is called Monitor Installation. (See Figure 3-51.) Click the Begin
Monitoring button to start monitoring the installation of your application.
FIGURE 3-51 Monitoring the installation of an application.
After the virtual environment has been loaded, begin installing your application.
(See Figure 3-52.)
FIGURE 3-52 Launch setup for your application.
Choose the Custom installation option for your application. (See Figure 3-53.)
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FIGURE 3-53 Select the Custom installation option.
Specify a location on your App-V virtual drive (Q: drive) where the application will be installed. (See Figure 3-54.) For more information about the Q: drive, see the sidebar titled
“Direct from the Source: The Q: Drive” later in the chapter.
FIGURE 3-54 Install the application in a folder on the Q: drive.
After your application has been installed, click the Stop Monitoring button on the
Sequencing Wizard.
The next page of the wizard lets you specify additional files to be added to the virtual file
system. (See Figure 3-55.) You can also click the Reset button to clear any existing files from
the virtual file system.
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FIGURE 3-55 Adding files to the virtual file system.
On the next page of the Sequencing Wizard, you can configure shortcuts and file associations for the virtual application if needed. (See Figure 3-56.)
FIGURE 3-56 Configuring shortcuts and file associations for the package.
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The next page of the wizard is named Launch Applications. (See Figure 3-57.) Select your
­application, and click the Launch All button to start the application to ensure that the ­virtual
application package is properly optimized for streaming. Doing this is useful for several
reasons:
n
It allows you to configure how the application initially runs on client computers.
n
It allows you to accept any license agreement for the application prior to making the
application available to users.
FIGURE 3-57 The Launch Applications page of the wizard.
When you have finished with this step, click Next to sequence the application. The final page
of the wizard, named Sequence Package, appears and displays the progress of the sequencing process. (See Figure 3-58.)
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FIGURE 3-58 Sequencing progress.
When the sequencing process is complete, click Finish to close the wizard and return to the
App-V Sequencer Console. The console now displays the results of the sequencing operation.
The Properties tab shows basic information for the package, such as creation date, maximum
block size, launch size, compression algorithm, and block size. (See Figure 3-59.)
FIGURE 3-59 Properties tab of the new package.
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The Deployment tab lets you configure the streaming protocol, Streaming Server, port,
­application path, supported operating systems, and other options. (See Figure 3-60.) You can
also select the Generate Microsoft Windows Installer (MSI) Package check box on this tab to
generate an .msi file for the package.
The Change History tab displays the version history of the virtual application package.
FIGURE 3-60 Deployment tab of the package.
The Files tab displays the files the application copied, modified, or created and where those
files reside. (See Figure 3-61.)
The Virtual Registry tab displays every registry setting that was created or modified and
lets you view or change the settings and manually create or delete keys and values. (See
Figure 3-62.)
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FIGURE 3-61 Files tab of the package.
FIGURE 3-62 Virtual Registry tab of the package.
The Virtual File System tab displays the hierarchical directory of the files that comprise the
package in common system folders.
The Virtual Services tab displays information about any Windows services that were detected
and that are included as part of the sequence. (See Figure 3-63.)
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FIGURE 3-63 Virtual Services tab of the package.
Finally, the OSD tab displays a hierarchical representation of the .xml descriptor file contents
and lets you modify these values if needed to suit the application.
After you’ve reviewed your package settings and modified them as needed, select Save from
the File menu and specify the name and location where your package should be saved. (See
Figure 3-64.)
FIGURE 3-64 Saving the package.
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Direct from the Source: The Q: Drive
As you may well be aware, one of the best practices for sequencing an application is
to have the application install itself during the monitoring phase to an 8.3 directory on
the Q: drive. What came up during launch of App-V is the need for deeper clarification
on the reasons and even an extension to this particular best practice.
During sequencing, you enter the information in the package configuration phase that
is common for all .osd files in the suite, and then you enter what is called the “installation phase.” It is during this phase that you Install, Test, and Configure the application
or applications being virtualized. Also during this phase, the Sequencer monitors the
actual installation of the application so that it can capture all of the files, registry settings, COM settings, embedded services, fonts, and so on that the application would
normally lay down on a client during its native install.
The best practice states, “You should install the application to an 8.3 root directory on
the Q: drive of the Sequencer. Each installer in the package should then have its own
subdirectory under this 8.3 root. For example, if sequencing Microsoft Office 2007, during the installation phase the installer of Office will ask you where it should install into:
n
Default: C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\
n
Best Practice: Q:\Off2k7.v1\Microsoft Office\
In the preceding example, we followed the best practice with an 8.3 root and
each piece of the suite having its own subdirectory. If we were to add Microsoft
Communicator to this SoftGrid suite, we would put it during the monitoring phase into
the Q:\Off2k7.v1\Microsoft Office Communicator\ folder.
But why?
Good question. Let’s break this into pieces, shall we?
Question: “Why do I need to install it to Q:\?”
Answer: The App-V System has been built to try to remove any restrictions on where
you install applications to during sequencing and which drive is used for the App-V File
System on your deployed clients. This is done by searching for paths in the sequenced
application that point to the installed path and replacing them with the variable %SFT_
MNT%. However, some applications might have paths hard-coded in nonstandard configuration files that are not found by App-V. When that happens, the application will
stream to the client, launch into the virtual environment and look to Q:\, yet the Mount
Point of the client might actually be B:\ and the application will not work properly.
Essentially, the application is looking for what it was always told to look for, yet when it
gets there its ideal does not exist.
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Question: “Why do I need to install it to an 8.3?”
Answer: Most, if not all, applications will generate a backward-compatible 8.3 directory
name even when they install into a long folder name. If you do not even remember the
days when we were limited by our directory and file names to an 8.3 convention please,
do me a favor, and just skip ahead. You’re too young. Now an application such as
Microsoft Office 2000 will install into a long folder of “Microsoft Office.” When it autogenerates the 8.3, it follows the algorithm of first 6 characters, a tilde (~) and a number
(1). So Office 2000 would be Micros~1.
Following proper sequencing practices, you would revert the Sequencer back to its
clean state at the end of every successful sequence and start over fresh. If you were
then to sequence Office 2003, it would install to a long folder of “Microsoft Office”
again. And again, because the Sequencer is clean, it would autocreate its 8.3 as
Micros~1.
So if you stream these two packages to a single client, there is a short name collision.
By specifying an 8.3 name, you avoid the autogenerated short name and generate
packages that won’t have the short name collision.
Question: “Why should I put each component of the suite in its own
subdirectory of the 8.3 root?”
Answer: Even if it is its own single application and no other applications will coexist in
the suite, it should get its subdirectory under the 8.3 root. In the path of the application, it might have been “told” to always look under the relative path to that directory
for its components. For example, Microsoft Office Help is coded to always look to a
path relative to “Microsoft Office.” In the preceding example, the Q:\Off2k7 takes the
place of the C:\Program Files and the \Microsoft Office is still in its expected relative
path.
Question: “When I click Stop Monitoring, the sequencer prompts me to select
the directory that the application was installed to. Why do I have to choose the
8.3 root as the directory the application was installed to? Why wouldn’t I select
the actual subdirectory of the 8.3 root?”
Answer: Primarily because you did install the application to the 8.3 root, albeit you
put it into a subdirectory of that root. What if you had installed both Office and
Communicator to the same 8.3 root during the same sequence? By selecting the 8.3
root, you avoid the short path generation we mentioned previously.
Also, by selecting the 8.3 root here you are essentially saying, “OK. I installed the bulk
of the assets under this root. But as with almost all applications, some files went to
common folders such as C:\Windows\System32.”
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The Sequencer caught those common file locations. And it is at this point, as a result of
you selecting the 8.3 root as the install folder, that the Sequencer will then create the
Virtual File System (VFS) structure. As you may well know, the VFS folder structure and
the Virtual Environment file get placed in whatever directory is selected at the end of
monitoring. These are two components that are shared by all applications in this suite.
What you will end up with is the following:
Q:\Off2k7
\Microsoft Office
\Microsoft Office Communicator
\VFS
\Osguard.cp
When teaching the App-V class, I used to use this analogy:
n
Q:\ is the town in which you live.
n
The 8.3 root is your house.
n
The First Subdirectory (Microsoft Office) is the boys’ bedroom.
n
The second subdirectory (Microsoft Office Communicator) is the girls’
bedroom.
n
The VFS directory is the common dining room.
n
The Osguard.cp file is the common rumpus room.
n
Each child (application) gets his or her own bedroom where the bulk of that
child’s assets live, but they all share the common areas of the dining room and
the rumpus room.
I hope this better clarifies the what and the why behind the 8.3 root.
—Sean Donahue, Senior Program Manager,
System Center Alliance. Microsoft Corporation
More Info For more information on using the App-V Sequencer to sequence applications, see
”Operations Guide for the Application Virtualization System” in the Virtualization TechCenter
Library on Microsoft TechNet at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc843770.aspx.
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Working with App-V Clients
App-V Clients are small programs residing on desktop computers or terminal servers
that communicate and authenticate with the App-V Server, receive the streamed application code, and enable the application to be executed for the user to use it. Administrators
can configure the App-V Desktop Client and App-V Terminal Services Client and manage
­applications by using the Application Virtualization Client console.
Applications
The Applications node in this console can be used to manually manage virtual applications.
(See Figure 3-65.) By selecting this node and then right-clicking on a virtual application, you
can perform various tasks, such as the following:
n
Load or unload an application from the cache.
n
Clear an application from the console, which also removes the application's settings,
shortcuts, and file type associations.
n
Repair an application to remove any customizations and restore the application's
­default settings.
n
Import an application into the cache.
n
Lock or unlock an application. (A locked application cannot be removed from the cache
to make room for new applications.)
n
Delete an application, which means that the application will no longer be available to
any users on that client. This operation also removes any shortcuts and file type associations for the application. The operation also removes the application from the cache
unless another application refers to the selected application's file system cache data.
n
Change the icon associated with an application.
n
Manually add an application to the client by selecting New Application from the
­shortcut menu.
n
Publish shortcuts to an application on the desktop, Quick Launch toolbar, Send To
menu, Programs section of the Start menu, or some other location.
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FIGURE 3-65 Managing applications using the Application Virtualization Client console.
You can also right-click on the Applications node itself to perform the following actions:
n
Change the cache size and drive letter designation for the client.
n
Change the log reporting level for the client.
n
Modify user access permissions for the client.
n
Configure the import search path where the client looks for .sft files when you try to
import them.
File Type Associations
The File Type Associations node of the Application Virtualization Client console lets you add
or delete a file type association for the application. When you add a new file association, you
specify the file name extension, whether the new file type association should be global for all
users, and which existing file type the new extension should be associated with.
Publishing Servers
The Publishing Servers node lets you set up new publishing servers and perform related tasks
on the client. (See Figure 3-66.)
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FIGURE 3-66 Managing publishing servers using the Application Virtualization Client console.
For example, to set up a new publishing server, first add the server by right-clicking on the
Publishing Servers node and selecting New Server. Follow the steps of the wizard to specify a
display name and select a server type. The supported server types are these:
n
Application Virtualization Server—Uses RTSP as its streaming protocol
n
Enhanced Security Application Virtualization Server—Uses RTSPS as its streaming
protocol
n
Standard HTTP Server—Uses HTTP as its streaming protocol
n
Enhanced Security HTTP Server—Uses HTTPS as its streaming protocol
After you have added the publishing server, right-click on it and select Properties to display
its Properties dialog box. You can use the tabs on this dialog box to configure the following:
n
Server name and type
n
Host name and port
n
Whether to refresh publishing on user login
n
Publishing refresh rate
Managing App-V Clients from the Command Line
You can also manage App-V Clients from the command line by using the SFTMIME command. For example, to add a virtual application package for all users of the computer,
type SFTMIME ADD PACKAGE:<name> /MANIFEST <path> /GLOBAL at the command
prompt.
For more information on using the SFTMIME command to manage App-V Clients, see the
SFTMIME Command Reference on Microsoft TechNet at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/cc817090.aspx.
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Direct from the Source: App-V Troubleshooting
The following are some tips for troubleshooting different aspects of an App-V system.
Troubleshooting Publishing and Streaming Issues
A common problem among those who are new to App-V is understanding how application publishing works with App-V and what paths, directories, and protocols are
involved when using classic streaming-based publishing when a Management Server
is involved. It’s somewhat unfortunate that the publishing process does not take full
advantage of the existing delivery channel—RTSP or its secure version RTSPS—that
already exists between the server and client components, but that’s just the way it is as
of now.
Sometimes confusion also stems from the purpose of the various file formats used by
App-V not being understood thoroughly. Each App-V virtual application package consists of a package data file (SFT) and a bunch of help files (an OSD file for describing
one individual application from the package data file, an ICO file for creating the shortcut, and so on), some of which are delivered using different methods than the others.
When troubleshooting application publishing and streaming problems, you should
double-check all the components involved. Following are a few things to check for that
affect the delivery and visibility of the applications.
One thing to check is the content directory path, which is the file system path you need
to select during the installation of every App-V server. This directory represents a logical starting point for the service that listens on the network for the clients’ requests.
The content directory path, as defined during installation (for example, C:\content\), is
used solely by the App-V service on the server when it tries to find physical SFT files for
streaming. If you ever see or define this path in any of the management screens, that’s
an error because the server itself handles SFT delivery through RTSP or RTSPS channels.
When using the classic application delivery with App-V, SFT files cannot be published
through UNC paths or HTTP URLs (except, of course, if you are using that new-fangled
HTTP-streaming introduced in 4.5, but that’s a whole different scenario).
Also check the package relative path. This path is the one you see under the Packages
node in the Management Console for each version of each package (for example,
myapp\package.sft). This path usually resolves correctly automatically when you have
imported App-V packages, but sometimes it might be incorrect if the person who
packaged the virtual application wasn’t careful. The import procedure reads this relative path from the first OSD file for each package it imports. This path is the second
piece of information that the App-V Management Server uses to find a package a client requests when it tries to stream something in. Just as the content directory path
was the logical starting point, this relative path is the logical conclusion of that path.
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Together, they form a full, valid file system path to SFT file (for example, C:\content\ +
myapp\package.sft = C:\content\myapp\package.sft).
Completely unrelated path settings from the ones just described are the OSD and ICO
paths. These paths, as defined in the application publishing records (the screen you get
when running Import in the Management Console), are delivered by the Management
Server to the App-V Client when it issues a refresh operation against the server. Refresh,
as the name implies, refreshes the client’s list of applications that are known to the user
under which the refresh is running.
Part of this procedure, in addition to getting the list of applications available for the
user, is to get paths to the OSD and ICO files. The content of those files are not delivered as part of the refresh data itself, but rather as a separate reference. So you have
a choice of which delivery channel you want to use: a file system path (effectively a
UNC path) or an HTTP URL. And here’s what causes so much confusion: because you
can actually use a file system path as OSD and ICO paths, you are tricked into thinking
that those paths can refer to content directory using server’s local path (for example,
C:\content\myapp\myapp.osd) or in the way relative package paths are used for SFT
files (for example, myapp\myapp.osd). The issue, however, is that those paths are not
interpreted by the server but by the client when it gets the paths as part of a refresh
operation and the client doesn’t have C:\content\ to get OSDs and ICOs from! To make
matters worse, the Management Console defaults to using whatever path you used to
browse to SPRJ (the project file that rules all other files) as OSD and ICO paths, unless
you happened to set something called Default Content Path before the import.
Troubleshooting Virtual Service Issues
Not many packages contain virtual services because services are normally associated
more with server-side software. However, sometimes virtual services do exist in an
App-V package. Virtual services are very straightforward (the App-V Sequencer picks
up newly created services during packaging) and people tend not to touch them. There
are some catches to using them, and being aware of those oddities might help in the
longer run.
The first issue with the virtual services is what the startup type of Automatic causes to
happen on the client side. Because virtual services do not exist on the client system’s
real service list, nothing starts them automatically when you start your machine. As
a result, the App-V Client must start virtual services just before the main application
starts from the package. Sometimes these services will start fast enough, but there are
some type of services and environmental conditions that cause them to take some
time. And this additional time, much to the dismay of the user starting the application,
results in delaying the startup of the actual application. And if there are many such
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services in the package, the delay can be even longer, causing the user to wonder if the
start of the application failed for some reason.
The solution? Either set virtual services to start manually if possible or disable virtual
services totally if they are not needed. In the case where such services were present in
the package, the application launch time exceeded one minute solely because of slowstarting services, and changing to a manual start caused the launch time to drop to a
reasonable level.
Another issue that might arise with virtual services is a conflict with the locally present identical service. This is not uncommon with some software licensing components
that install themselves as services. If you happen to use multiple products that use that
same licensing service, each one might contain a virtual copy if they are sequenced
separately. Typically, what happens is that the copy that starts first (either the one on
the virtual machine or the one on the local machine) will run perfectly, but any subsequent copies will not. The service will either terminate on start or consume lots of CPU
time when trying to do something that overlaps with the existing instance.
The solution? There’s no easy way out of this problem, but something worth trying is to
disable all but one copy of the service. Usually, the locally installed service is preferred,
as the ordering of which virtual application (and thus the virtual service in it) will launch
first is unknown.
–Kalle Saunamäki, MVP
Additional Resources
The resources listed in this section were either referred to in the chapter or provide
­additional information about concepts and products discussed in this chapter.
Resources for Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode
General information about Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode, including how to
obtain them, can be found at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/virtual-pc/.
The Windows Virtual PC Evaluation Guide, which shows you how to set up Windows Virtual
PC and Windows XP Mode, can be found in the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.
com/en-us/library/dd744684.aspx.
Release notes for Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode can be found in the TechNet
Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee681620.aspx.
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The Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode Setup and Installation Guide can be found
in the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee681616.aspx.
Windows Virtual PC Help can be found in the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.
com/en-us/library/ee449411.aspx.
Ben Armstrong’s blog, called the “Virtual PC Guy’s Blog,” has lots of useful tips and tricks on
deploying, managing, and using Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode. You can find it
at http://blogs.msdn.com/virtual_pc_guy/archive/tags/Windows+Virtual+PC/default.aspx and
http://blogs.msdn.com/virtual_pc_guy/archive/tags/Windows+XP+Mode/default.aspx.
To ask questions about Windows Virtual PC or Windows XP Mode, or to help others with
their questions, use the Windows 7 Virtualization forum on Microsoft TechNet at http://social.
technet.microsoft.com/Forums/en-US/w7itprovirt/threads.
Resources for MED-V
For a description of what’s available in MDOP 2009, see http://www.microsoft.com/windows/
enterprise/products/mdop/default.aspx. For additional information, see the Official MDOP
Blog at http://blogs.technet.com/mdop/default.aspx.
For a general description of MED-V, see http://www.microsoft.com/windows/enterprise/­
products/mdop/med-v.aspx.
The “MED-V 1.0 Architecture Overview” white paper is available from the Microsoft
Download Center at http://download.microsoft.com/download/A/A/F/AAF7988A-94F0-­483A9610-E0E6AB51DA79/MEDV%20Architecture%20June09.pdf.
Release notes for MED-V 1.0 can be found on TechNet at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/ee348918.aspx.
“MED-V Planning, Operations and Deployment Guide” can be found at http://technet.­
microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee348978.aspx.
The MED-V Team Blog can be found at http://blogs.technet.com/medv/default.aspx.
At the time of writing this chapter, there is no TechNet Forum dedicated to discussing MED-V.
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Resources for App-V
For a general description of App-V, see http://www.microsoft.com/windows/enterprise/­
products/mdop/app-v.aspx.
The launching page for all App-V product documentation and related information is
http://www.microsoft.com/systemcenter/appv/default.mspx.
For detailed technical information about App-V, see the Application Virtualization
TechCenter on Microsoft TechNet at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/appvirtualization/
default.aspx.
“Planning and Deployment Guide for the Application Virtualization System” can be found at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc843778.aspx.
Also, be sure to review Microsoft Application Virtualization Management System Release
Notes at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc817171.aspx prior to deploying App-V
within your organization.
If you plan on upgrading your existing SoftGrid 4.2 system to App-V, be sure to review the
“Upgrading to Microsoft Application Virtualization 4.5 Frequently Asked Questions” article
found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/appvirtualization/cc664494.aspx.
“Operations Guide for the Application Virtualization System” can be found at http://technet.
microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc843770.aspx.
Also, be sure to read the various white papers available on the Application Virtualization
4.5 Documentation section of the Application Virtualization TechCenter at http://technet.­
microsoft.com/en-us/appvirtualization/cc843994.aspx.
To keep abreast of the latest developments and find tips about App-V, subscribe to the RSS
feed for the App-V Team Blog at http://blogs.technet.com/softgrid/default.aspx.
To ask questions about App-V or SoftGrid, or to help others with their questions, use the
Microsoft Application Virtualization forums on Microsoft TechNet at http://social.technet.­
microsoft.com/forums/en-US/category/appvirtualization/.
Chapter 4
Remote Desktop Virtualization
As described in the previous chapter, desktop virtualization can be either local or remote. In
local desktop virtualization, the virtual environment is running on the user’s computer (the
host). Microsoft provides several virtualization technologies for local desktop virtualization,
including Windows Virtual PC and the Windows XP Mode environment, Microsoft Enterprise
Desktop Virtualization (MED-V), and Microsoft Application Virtualization (App-V).
Remote desktop virtualization on the other hand is different. In this approach, the virtual
environment runs on a server, typically on a Windows Server host. This chapter deals with
remote desktop virtualization and covers the following Microsoft technologies and solutions:
n
Remote Desktop Services With the release of Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, the
Terminal Services role has now been renamed Remote Desktop Services and has been
enhanced with the capability of delivering virtual machine desktops to users ­using
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). Remote Desktop Services is a key component of all
other Microsoft remote desktop virtualization solutions.
n
Microsoft Application Virtualization for Remote Desktop Services (App-V for
RDS) Formerly known as Application Virtualization for Terminal Services (App-V
for TS), App-V for RDS lets you transform applications into centrally managed virtual
­services and deliver them to users using RDP. This can help you reduce the cost of
­application deployment, eliminate application conflicts and reboots, simplify your base
image footprint to expedite PC provisioning, and increase user productivity.
n
Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) Microsoft VDI is an architectural
model composed of a number of components, including Hyper-V, Remote Desktop
Services, Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack (MDOP), and Microsoft System Center
products. Microsoft VDI enables entire desktop operating systems such as Windows 7
Enterprise to run on a hypervisor server located in a datacenter and be delivered to
­users as virtual desktops using RDP. By deploying a Microsoft VDI infrastructure, users can access either their own personal virtual desktop, which they can customize as
­desired, or a shared pool of identically configured virtual desktops.
This chapter begins by examining the benefits, usage scenarios, and availability of each
­remote desktop virtualization technology or solution. The chapter then describes each
­technology or solution in detail by describing how it works and what its capabilities are.
Note At the time of this writing, the final name for App-V for RDS has not yet been finalized.
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Examining the Benefits of Remote Desktop Virtualization
Which remote desktop virtualization technologies and solutions you deploy in your
­organization depends on what benefits they can provide to your business. Table 4-1
­compares the advantages and disadvantages of deploying the following remote desktop
­virtualization technologies and solutions:
n
Remote Desktop Services alone
n
Remote Desktop Services together with App-V for RDS
n
Microsoft VDI using shared virtual desktop pools
n
Microsoft VDI using personal virtual desktops
TABLE 4-1 Comparing
the Benefits of Different Remote Desktop
Virtualization Scenarios
Comparison of
benefits
Remote
Desktop
Services
Remote Desktop
Services with
App-V for RDS
Microsoft VDI
using shared
virtual desktop
pools
Microsoft VDI
using personal
virtual desktops
Cost of image
­management
Low
Low
Medium
High
Ease of
­administration
Least
­complex
More complex
More complex
Most complex
Amount of
­resources needed
Least
More
More
Most
Compatibility with
legacy applications
Some
Better
Better
Best
Examining Usage Scenarios for Remote Desktop
Virtualization
Each remote desktop virtualization technology or solution can be implemented in various
ways to bring benefit to an organization. The sections that follow describe some of the scenarios in which you might deploy these different technologies and solutions advantageously
for your business.
Usage Scenarios for Remote Desktop Services
Common usage scenarios for Remote Desktop Services include
n
Branch Office Deploying line-of-business software applications for users at multiple
branch offices can be time-consuming and costly. Remote Desktop Services can help
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reduce this cost by allowing you to run such software on a Remote Desktop Session
Host server located at a central headquarters. Employees at branch offices can then
access these applications on an as-needed basis via remote desktops or as RemoteApp
programs, even over low-bandwidth connections.
n
Controlled Partner Access or Outsourcing The burden and complexity of deploying and maintaining line-of-business software applications on computers belonging to
business partners or outsourcing firms can be significantly reduced by using Remote
Desktop Services. Partners and outsourced workers are able to access the applications
they need to do their job without having to obtain and install these applications on
their own computers. This can make for a smoother business relationship between your
organization and your business partners or outsourcing firms, plus it provides added
security by limiting the access these businesses will need to resources on your corporate network.
n
Easing the Burden of Regulatory Compliance By running applications and storing
application data on centrally located servers, Remote Desktop Services helps reduce
the risk of accidental data loss caused, for example, by the accidental loss of a laptop.
The zero-application footprint and data delivery model employed by Remote Desktop
Services also helps to ensure that as little data as possible resides on the client computing device. And if you use Remote Desktop Gateway together with RemoteApp, your
employees, partners, and customers no longer require full access to your corporate
network and computers. Instead, you can limit the applications they can access, even to
using a single application, if needed.
n
Merger Integration During a corporate merger, companies typically need to use
­consistent line-of-business (LOB) applications on a variety of Windows operating system versions and configurations. Rather than going through the effort and incurring
the high cost of deploying all your LOB applications to all the computers in the merged
company, these applications can simply be installed on a Remote Desktop Session Host
server and made available to those who need it via RemoteApp. This can be especially
useful when an application is difficult to maintain, cannot be deployed easily, or has
other management issues.
n
Mobile Workers Organizations that support employees who work from home or
work while traveling can implement a Remote Desktop Services solution to help enable
employee productivity anytime and anywhere. Remote Desktop Services can also increase effective collaboration between users without compromising security, and it can
offer secure access to applications over low-bandwidth connections without requiring
those applications to be installed on client computers.
n
Task Workers Organizations that have structured task workers—such as call center
employees, factory floor workers, or both—can use Remote Desktop Services to provide such employees with a more productive user experience. Typically, task workers
like these do not need to access many applications to complete the tasks they have
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been assigned, and RemoteApp together with Remote Desktop Web Access provide an
easy way for them to access the applications they need, when they need them. A similar
user experience can be provided even if the user’s computer is an older desktop computer running an earlier version of Windows, a non-PC desktop computer, or a mobile
computing device. Deploying applications for task workers in this way can help extend
the reach of Windows-based applications within an enterprise and is a valuable, costeffective way to deliver the right business tools to the people who need them.
Usage Scenarios for App-V for RDS
Because App-V for RDS is implemented within a Remote Desktop Services environment, the
usage scenarios for this technology are similar to those just described. However, App-V for
RDS also provides a number of additional benefits to these scenarios, including being able to
n
Consolidate servers and end server siloing App-V for RDS eliminates the need for
server silos, and thus it significantly improves server utilization and increases server
farm return on investment (ROI) for organizations. This is because App-V for RDS allows
any application to run alongside any other application, including applications that normally conflict, multiple versions of the same application, and many applications that
cannot run RD Session Host servers without App-V.
n
Accelerate application deployment Because applications deployed using App-V for
RDS need to be packaged only a single time for deployment to both desktops and RD
Session Host servers, application deployment is streamlined.
n
End application conflicts and regression testing Because App-V for RDS eliminates
the need to permanently install applications on RD Session Host servers, the need to
perform lengthy regression testing of applications is significantly reduced, which also
helps to speed the deployment of applications within your Remote Desktop Services
environment.
n
Reduce application deployment risk Because using App-V for RDS applications can
be deployed and updated on demand to users without the need to reboot servers or
log off users from their sessions, installing applications on RD Session Host servers is
easier and less can go wrong.
n
Simplify profile management Because App-V for RDS allows application settings and
data to be stored in a single network location, each user’s application settings can be
available regardless of which RD Session Host server the user connects to—without the
need to implement roaming profiles. App-V for RDS also makes mandatory profiles viable within a Remote Desktop Services environment because operating system settings
can remain locked within the mandatory profile while per-application settings can still
be modified by users.
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Usage Scenarios for Microsoft VDI
Usage scenarios for Microsoft VDI also have many similarities with those for Remote Desktop
Services. This is because Remote Desktop Services is one of the key components of a
Microsoft VDI solution. However, Microsoft VDI also adds capabilities that enable new kinds
of usage scenarios that include the ability for users to
n
Centralize all desktop deployment, updating, and management in the datacenter
n
Provision virtual desktops dynamically on demand from gold images
n
Work from home or at offsite contractor locations
n
Personalize their own virtual desktop by configuring it and installing applications
n
Access shared pools of identically configured virtual desktops
n
Hot-desk between different desktop PCs
Availability of Remote Desktop Virtualization
Technologies
Now that we’ve examined the benefits and usage scenarios for each remote desktop
­virtualization technology, let’s look at how you can obtain them from Microsoft.
Availability of Remote Desktop Services
Remote Desktop Services is included as an installable server role in the Standard, Enterprise,
and Datacenter editions of Windows Server 2008 R2. No additional download is needed.
Availability of App-V for RDS
Obtaining App-V for RDS requires that you have
n
A valid licensed copy of Microsoft Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2
n
A valid Windows Server 2008 Terminal Services (TS) client access license (CAL) or
Windows Server 2008 Remote Desktops Services (RDS) CAL
If you meet these conditions, you can obtain App-V for TS/RDS from
n
The Microsoft Volume License Services (MVLS) Web site at http://www.microsoft.com/
licensing/Default.aspx. Note that after December 6, 2009, the MVLS site will automatically redirect to the new Volume Licensing Service Center (VLSC).
n
By searching for “Microsoft Application Virtualization for Terminal Services / Remote
Desktop Services” on the Microsoft Download Center, or by downloading directly from
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http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?displaylang=en&FamilyID=0890d6
cd-0d3b-4c9d-b208-231c65d3e55a. The App-V for RDS client is a free download, but
the site requires that you enter a valid 20-digit Windows Server 2008 Remote Desktop
Session Host Product Identification Key or Windows Server 2008 R2 Remote Desktop
Services Product Identification Key.
Note that at the time of writing this chapter, the latest version of this product is called
Application Virtualization 4.5 for Remote Desktop Services Service Pack 1. (The corresponding App-V desktop client is called Application Virtualization Hosting for Desktops Version 4.5
Service Pack 1.) It is currently available only for the x86 architecture, which means that App-V
for RDS SP1 can be installed only on Windows Server 2008 x86 terminal servers, and not on
Windows Server 2008 R2 RD Session Hosts (because R2 is x64 only). However, an x64 version
of App-V for RDS SP1 is expected to be released in the first half of 2010 when App-V 4.6 is
released.
Availability of Microsoft VDI
Microsoft VDI suites are available only to volume licensed customers. You can purchase the
different components of the server and management infrastructure required to deploy a
Microsoft VDI infrastructure through a single licensing vehicle. This vehicle has two SKUs:
VDI Standard suite and VDI Premium suite. In addition, to use Windows 7, Windows Vista, or
Windows XP within a Microsoft VDI infrastructure, you need to purchase a Windows Virtual
Enterprise Centralized Desktop (VECD) license. These licenses are available to volume licensed
customers under Enterprise Agreement, Select, Open Value, and Campus arrangements and
to Software Assurance (SA) customers.
Understanding Remote Desktop Services
Remote Desktop Services provides a server-based execution environment that enables users
to run Windows-based programs as if they were locally installed on the users’ computers,
when in fact the programs are centrally installed on a server. Remote Desktop Services also
enables users to access entire session-based desktops running on an RD Session Host server
or virtual machine desktops running on an RD Virtualization Host server.
Remote Desktop Services works by transmitting the key presses and mouse clicks on a
user’s computer over the network to a server (either an RD Session Host or RD Virtualization
Host), where they are accepted as input for actions performed using the remote program,
remote desktop, or remote virtual machine being accessed. The server then transmits the
result over the network to the user’s computer, where it is displayed on the user’s monitor.
Keyboard and mouse activity and display information is transmitted between the terminal
server and the client by using Remote Desktop Protocol 7.0 (RDP 7.0), which runs over a
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network via TCP port 3389 as shown
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
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in Figure 4-1. The software running on the client side that makes such communications possible is called Remote Desktop Connection (RDC).
FIGURE 4-1 How Remote Desktop Services works.
In Windows Server 2008 and earlier, this server role was called Terminal Services; with the
release of Windows Server 2008 R2, however, this server role is now called Remote Desktop
Services and new capabilities have been added. Table 4-2 summarizes the changes to the
names of the role services, while Table 4-3 summarizes the changes to the names of the tools
for managing this server role. The sections that follow then describe each of the role services
included in Remote Desktop Services and examines the new and enhanced capabilities that
have been added to the role service.
TABLE 4-2 How
Terminal Services Role Services in Windows Server 2008 Have Been
Renamed in Windows Server 2008 R2
Terminal Services role services in
Windows Server 2008
Remote Desktop Services role services in
Windows Server 2008 R2
Terminal Server
Remote Desktop Session Host (RD Session Host)
Terminal Services Gateway (TS Gateway)
Remote Desktop Gateway (RD Gateway)
Terminal Services Licensing (TS Licensing)
Remote Desktop Licensing (RD Licensing)
Terminal Services Session Broker (TS Session
Broker)
Remote Desktop Connection Broker (RD
Connection Broker)
Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access)
Remote Desktop Web Access (RD Web Access)
N/A
Remote Desktop Virtualization Host (RD
Virtualization Host)
TABLE 4-3 How
Terminal Services Management Tools in Windows Server 2008 Have
Been Renamed in Windows Server 2008 R2
Terminal Services management tools in
Windows Server 2008
Remote Desktop Services management tools in
Windows Server 2008 R2
Terminal Services Manager
Remote Desktop Services Manager
Terminal Services Configuration
Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration
TS Gateway Manager
Remote Desktop Gateway Manager
TS Licensing Manager
Remote Desktop Licensing Manager
TS RemoteApp Manager
RemoteApp Manager
N/A
Remote Desktop Services PowerShell provider
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Understanding Remote Desktop Connection Client
Experience Improvements
The Remote Desktop Connection (RDC) client has been enhanced in Windows 7 and
Windows Server 2008 R2 to make your experience of using a remote desktop closer to the
experience of using the local desktop on your computer. The enhancements found in the
RDC 7.0 client include the following:
n
Audio and video playback redirection Audio and video content played back using
Windows Media Player can now be redirected from the RD Session Host server to the
client computer in its original format and rendered using the client computer’s resources. Other types of multimedia content, such as Microsoft Silverlight content, are still
rendered on the server.
n
Audio recording redirection Audio recording devices, such as microphones, can
now be redirected from the client computer to the remote desktop session—an improvement that can be useful for organizations using voice chat or Windows Speech
Recognition.
n
Desktop composition Windows Aero is now supported within an RD Session Host
session when using the RDC 7.0 client.
n
Language bar redirection You can now use the language bar on the client computer
to control the language settings within your RemoteApp programs.
n
Multiple-monitor support Remote desktop sessions can now support up to 16
­monitors using any monitor configuration supported on the client computer. Note that
desktop composition is not supported on an RD Session Host session when using multiple monitors.
In addition to the preceding client experience improvements, RDC 7.0 also includes support
for other new features:
n
Web Single Sign-On (SSO) and Web forms–based authentication
n
Access to personal virtual desktops by using RD Connection Broker
n
Access to virtual desktop pools by using RD Connection Broker
n
Status and disconnect system tray icon
n
RD Gateway–based device redirection enforcement
n
RD Gateway system and logon messages
n
RD Gateway background authorization and authentication
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
n
RD Gateway idle and session timeouts
n
Network Access Protection (NAP) remediation with RD Gateway
231
Many of these additional enhancements are described in more detail in later sections of this
chapter.
RDC 7.0 is also available as a free download for Windows Vista SP1 or later and for Windows
XP SP3. For more information and to obtain RDC 7.0 for these earlier versions of Windows,
see Microsoft Knowledge Base article KB969084 at http://support.microsoft.com/kb/969084.
However, the following features of RDC 7.0 are available only when connecting from
Windows 7 to Windows Server 2008 R2:
n
Support for Aero Glass and language-bar docking
n
Support for starting applications and desktops by using RemoteApp and Desktop
Connection
n
Using the remote application task scheduler to automatically start remote applications
on the Remote Desktop client that might be required by the user
Understanding the Remote Desktop Session Host
The Remote Desktop Session Host (RD Session Host) role service of Windows Server 2008
R2 was formerly called Terminal Server in Windows Server 2008. Installing the RD Session
Host role service enables the server to deliver Windows-based programs (called RemoteApp
programs) or entire Windows desktops to users over the network. New features of the RD
Session Host role service introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 include the following:
n
n
Configure Client Experience page Adds a new wizard page to the Add Roles Wizard
when installing the RD Session Host role service of the Remote Desktop Services role.
This new wizard page lets you enable the following advanced experiences for RD
Session Host session users:
o
Audio and video playback redirection Lets users redirect audio and video
­output from their computer to an RD Session Host session.
o
Audio recording redirection Lets users redirect the output of an audio
­recording device, such as a microphone, from their computer to an RD Session
Host session.
o
Desktop composition Provides Windows Aero user interface elements within
an RD Session Host session.
Per-user RemoteApp filtering Lets you filter the list of RemoteApp programs
­available to a user account when logged on using RD Web Access.
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n
Fair-share CPU scheduling Dynamically distributes processor time across RD Session
Host sessions based on the number of active sessions and the load on those sessions
using the kernel-level scheduling mechanism of Windows Server 2008 R2. The result is
that one user of an RD Session Host server will not affect the performance of another
user’s session even when the RD Session Host server is under heavy load.
n
Windows Installer RDS compatibility Allows per-user application installations to be
queued by the RD Session Host server and then handled by the Windows Installer. This
enables you to install a program on the RD Session Host server in the same way you
would install the program on a local desktop, provided you install the program for all
users of the computer and provided all components of the application are installed
­locally on the RD Session Host server.
n
Roaming user profile cache management Lets you limit the size of the overall profile cache for users of your RD Session Host server. Then if the size of the profile cache
grows larger than the configured size, the least recently used profiles are deleted until
the cache size goes below the quota. The size of the cache can be configured using the
following Group Policy setting:
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\
Remote Desktop Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Profiles\Limit the size of the
entire roaming user profile cache
n
Remote Desktop IP Virtualization Lets IP addresses be assigned to Remote Desktop
connections on either a per-session or per-program basis. Assigning IP addresses for
multiple programs causes them to share a session IP address. To configure this feature,
use the new RD IP Virtualization tab in the Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration
snap-in. If your RD Session Host server has more than one network adapter, you must
choose one network adapter for Remote Desktop IP Virtualization.
Installing an RD Session Host Server
You can install the RD Session Host role service on the Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter
edition of Windows Server 2008 R2, with the Standard edition limited to 250 Remote
Desktop Services connections. You can use any of the following methods to install this role
service:
n
Launching the Add Roles Wizard from either Server Manager (ServerManager.msc) or
the Initial Configuration Tasks window (Oobe.exe)
n
Using ServerManager.cmd from the command line
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
233
n
During the installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 by using Microsoft Deployment
Toolkit 2010 (MDT 2010), System Center Configuration Manager 2007 SP2 (SCCM 2007
SP2), or both
n
Using the Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM.exe) tool included in
the Windows Automated Installation Kit 2.0
n
Using Windows PowerShell
Follow these steps to add the RD Session Host role service to you server by using the Add
Roles Wizard:
1. Launch the wizard from either Server Manager or the Out-Of-Box Experience (OOBE)
window. (Skip the Before You Begin page if it is displayed.)
2. Select the Remote Desktop Services role:
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3. Select Remote Desktop Session Host from the list of available role services:
4. The next page of the wizard warns you that any user applications already installed on
the server might need to be uninstalled before they can work properly in a multi-user
environment (for more information, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: Best
Practices for Installing Applications on RD Session Host Servers” later in this chapter):
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
235
5. The next few pages of the wizard allow you to configure security (discussed later in the
section titled “Configuring RD Session Host Security”) and licensing (discussed later in
the section titled “Understanding Remote Desktop Licensing”) for your RD Session Host
server.
6. The next-to-last page of the wizard allows you to configure the client experience. For
example, by selecting Desktop Composition you can enable session-based desktops
to be delivered to users from this RD Session Host server to display Windows Aero
features:
Note that enabling these client experience features requires additional network
­bandwidth and system resources on the server.
7. The final page of the wizard summarizes the selections you have made so that you can
review them before installing the role service.
Configuring RD Session Host Security
Security can be configured for your RD Session Host server either during the installation of
the role or afterward. You must take the following additional steps to provide secure access
to your RD Session Host server:
n
Specify an authentication method for your RD Session Host server.
n
Specify which groups of users are allowed access to your RD Session Host server.
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The sections that follow provide more details concerning these steps. In addition, the sidebar
titled “Direct from the Source: Using SSL for Remote Desktop Services Connections” provides
additional information on how you can protect your RD Session Host server.
Configuring RD Session Host Authentication Support for Network Level Authentication
(NLA) was first introduced in the Terminal Services role of Windows Server 2008. NLA is an
authentication method that completes the user authentication process before an RD Session
Host session is established and the logon screen is displayed. NLA provides greater security
and requires fewer initial resources during the authentication process. As Figure 4-2 shows,
the option to require NLA can be configured during the installation of the RD Session Host
role service.
FIGURE 4-2 Requiring Network Level Authentication for remote connections to an RD Session Host server.
To use NLA for authenticating remote connection attempts to an RD Session Host server, the
computer must be using RDC 6.0 or later client software. This means that the computer must
be running Windows 7, Windows Vista SP1 or later, Windows XP SP3 or later, Windows Server
2008, or Windows Server 2008 R2.
Configuring RD Session Host Access Before any users can establish RD Session Host
­sessions with your RD Session Host server, you must add their appropriate security groups
to the Remote Desktop Users group on your RD Session Host server. You can do this either
during the RD Session Host role service installation process or afterward. By default, the local
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237
Administrators group on your RD Session Host server has such access, which by default also
provides access to members of the Domain Admins group. To allow domain users the ability to establish RD Session Host sessions with your RD Session Host server, add the Domain
Users global group as shown in Figure 4-3.
FIGURE 4-3 Allowing users access to an RD Session Host server.
Direct from the Source: Using SSL for Remote Desktop Services
Connections
By default, RD Session Host sessions use native RDP encryption. However, RDP does
not provide authentication to verify the identity of an RD Session Host server. You can
enhance the security of RD Session Host sessions by using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Transport Layer Security (TLS 1.0) for server authentication and to encrypt RD Session
Host communications. The RD Session Host server and the client computer must be
correctly configured for TLS to provide enhanced security. The three available security
layers are shown in Table 4-4.
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TABLE 4-4 RDP
Security Layers
Security Layer
Description
SSL (TLS 1.0)
SSL (TLS 1.0) will be used for server authentication and for encrypting
all data transferred between the server and the client.
Negotiate
The most secure layer that is supported by the client will be used. If
supported, SSL (TLS 1.0) will be used. If the client does not support SSL
(TLS 1.0), the RDP Security Layer will be used. This is the default setting.
RDP Security Layer
Communication between the server and the client will use native RDP
­encryption. If you select RDP Security Layer, you cannot use Network
Level Authentication.
A certificate is needed to authenticate an RD Session Host server when SSL (TLS 1.0) is
used to secure communication between a client and an RD Session Host server during
RDP connections. You can select a certificate that you have already installed on the RD
Session Host server, or you can use the default self-signed certificate. Figure 4-4 shows
how to enable SSL for Remote Desktop connections using the RDP-Tcp Properties
dialog box, which is accessed from the Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration
snap-in.
FIGURE 4-4 Configuring the security layer settings for your RD Session Host server.
For Remote Desktop connections, data encryption protects data by encrypting it on
the communications link between the client and the server. Encryption protects against
the risk of interception of the client/server communication.
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By default, Remote Desktop connections are encrypted at the highest level of security
available (128-bit). However, some older versions of the Remote Desktop Connection
client application do not support this high level of encryption. If a high level of encryption is needed to support legacy clients, the encryption level of the connection can be
configured to send and receive data at the highest encryption level supported by the
client. There are four levels of encryption available, as shown in Table 4-5.
TABLE 4-5 RDP
Encryption Levels
Level of Encryption
Description
Low
Data sent from the client to the server is encrypted using 56-bit
­encryption. Data sent from the server to the client is not encrypted.
Client Compatible
Encrypts client/server communication at the maximum key strength
­supported by the client. Use this level when the terminal server is running in an environment containing mixed or legacy clients. This is the
default encryption level.
High
Encrypts client/server communication using 128-bit encryption. Use
this level when the clients accessing the terminal server also support
128-bit encryption. When encryption is set at this level, clients that do
not ­support this level of encryption will not be able to connect.
FIPS Compliant
All client/server communication is encrypted and decrypted with the
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) encryption algorithms. FIPS 140-1 (1994) and its successor, FIPS 140-2 (2001), describe
U.S. ­government requirements for encryption.
Figure 4-5 shows how to configure the encryption level using the RDP-Tcp Properties
dialog box, which is accessed from the Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration
snap-in.
RD Session Host authentication and encryption settings also can be configured by
­applying the following Group Policy settings:
n
Set Client Connection Encryption Level
n
Require Use Of Specific Security Layer For Remote (RDP) Connections
n
Server Authentication Certificate Template
n
Require User Authentication For Remote Connections By Using Network Level
Authentication
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FIGURE 4-5 Configuring the encryption layer settings for your RD Session Host server.
These Group Policy settings are located in the following container:
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\
Remote Desktop Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Security
FIPS can be specified as the encryption level by applying the System Cryptography: Use
FIPS Compliant Algorithms For Encryption, Hashing And Signing Group Policy setting
located in the following container:
Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\
Security Options
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Installing Applications on an RD Session Host Server
Applications developed for end users of your system must be installed properly on an RD
Session Host server so that they can be accessed remotely. Before you install an application
on an RD Session Host server, make sure you understand any compatibility issues associated
with the application when it is running in a Remote Desktop Services environment.
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Make sure you install the RD Session Host role service on your server before you install
any applications that users will need to run within their remote sessions or as RemoteApp
­programs. If you install the RD Session Host role service after you have installed your
­applications, the applications might not function correctly in a multi-user environment.
To install an end-user application on an RD Session Host server, the RD Session Host server
must first be switched into a special install mode called RD-Install to ensure that the application will be able to run in a multi-user environment. After your applications have been installed on your RD Session Host server, you must switch the server back into execution mode
(RD-Execute) before users can remotely connect to your server. You can switch between the
install and execute modes from the command line using these commands:
change user /install
change user /execute
To determine the current install mode of your RD Session Host server, use this command:
change user /query
You can also install applications on your RD Session Host server by using the Programs
­portion of Control Panel (shown in Figure 4-6). If you do this on an RD Session Host server,
an additional option, Install Application On Remote Desktop Server, is displayed that is not
available on a Windows Server 2008 R2 computer that does not have the RD Session Host
role service installed. Clicking this option launches the Install Program From Floppy Disk
Or CD-ROM Wizard, which walks you through the installation process by automatically
­switching the server to RD-Install mode, installs the program, and switches the server back to
RD-Execute mode.
FIGURE 4-6 Installing an application on an RD Session Host server.
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For additional tips on installing applications on terminal servers, see the sidebar titled “Direct
from the Source: Best Practices for Installing Applications on RD Session Host Servers” in this
chapter.
Direct from the Source: Best Practices for Installing Applications
on RD Session Host Servers
Install related applications, or applications that have dependencies on other local
­applications, on the same RD Session Host server. For example, you should install
Microsoft Office as a suite on the same RD Session Host server instead of installing ­individual Office programs on separate RD Session Host servers. This reduces the
­installation, management, and servicing overhead required for the programs.
You should consider installing individual applications on separate RD Session Host
­servers in the following circumstances:
n
The application has compatibility issues that might affect other programs.
n
The number of application users might exceed server capacity.
n
The applications are resource (CPU, memory, and so forth) intensive and
­negatively affect performance when multiple instances are running at the
same time.
It is also a good practice always to consult with the application vendor to ensure that
the application being installed will function correctly for multiple users in an RD Session
Host server environment. Application vendors sometimes provide fixes or compatibility
scripts for applications to ensure that they function correctly in a multi-user Remote
Desktop Services environment.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Managing RD Session Host Servers
After the RD Session Host role service has been installed and configured on your servers, you
are ready to begin administering your RD Session Host servers, licenses, and users. Windows
Server 2008 R2 includes a number of tools for administering RD Session Host servers, including the following:
n
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-ins
n
Command-line tools
n
Group Policy
n
Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
n
Windows PowerShell
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Managing RD Session Host Servers Using MMC Snap-ins Installing the RD Session Host
role service installs four MMC snap-ins in the Remote Desktop Services program group ­under
Administrative Tools on your Start menu. These snap-ins include:
n
Remote Desktop Services Manager Lets you manage users, sessions, and applications running on a local or remote RD Session Host server. For example, using this
snap-in you can connect to and disconnect from sessions; display information about
servers, sessions, users, and processes; log off users; monitor sessions; remotely control a user’s session; reset sessions; send messages to users; and terminate processes.
You can also use the My Group feature to organize your RD Session Host servers into
groups to manage them more easily, and you can even import a list of RD Session Host
servers from an RD Connection Broker farm. Figure 4-7 shows the Remote Desktop
Services Manager console with user Karen Berg (CONTOSO\kberg) remotely connected
to an RD Session Host server named SEA-RDS4. The Action Pane on the right side
shows some of the actions you can perform for this connected user.
FIGURE 4-7 The Remote Desktop Services Manager console.
n
Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration Lets you configure various properties
of an RD Session Host server, including listeners, temporary folders, security, and licensing. For example, using this snap-in you can enable or disable automatic logons; enable
or disable logons through the connection; enable or disable session remote control;
rename a connection; override user profile settings for wallpaper; set client device
mapping and connection parameters; set connection timeouts; set permissions on the
connection; set the level of encryption; set the maximum number of sessions allowed;
set whether to disconnect broken connections; specify a connection transport and
transport properties; specify a connection type; and specify a program to run when a
user logs on.
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n
Remote Desktops Lets you manage connections to RD Session Host servers and to
client computers that have the Remote Desktop feature enabled on them. For example,
using this snap-in, you can remotely administer multiple computers from a central
­location by connecting directly to the remote desktop of each computer. Note that by
default, when you add a connection to the Remote Desktops console, the console connects you to an administrative session on the remote computer. This is equivalent to
launching the Remote Desktop Connection client using the /admin option, which was
first introduced in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1. For more information
about the /admin option, see the article titled “Changes to Remote Administration in
Windows Server 2008” in the Microsoft Knowledge Base at http://support.microsoft.
com/kb/947723.
n
RemoteApp Manager Lets you make programs installed on an RD Session Host
­server available to users as RemoteApp programs so that users can launch these programs from the user’s local Start menu. After they are launched, RemoteApp programs
actually run on an RD Session Host server, but to the user they appear as if they are
running on the user’s local computer. For more information about this feature, see the
section titled “Understanding RemoteApp” later in this chapter.
In addition to the snap-ins just mentioned, you can also use the Active Directory Users and
Computers snap-in to manage certain per-user aspects of an RD Session Host environment.
Specifically, you can use the settings on the following tabs of the properties sheet for a user
account:
n
Remote Control Used to enable or disable remote control, specify the desired level of
remote control (view or interact), and require the user’s permission to observe or control sessions.
n
Remote Desktop Services Profile Used to set the path to the Remote Desktop
Services user profile for each user, set the path to the user’s home folder, and enable or
disable RD Session Host logons for the user.
n
Environment Used to specify a program to run when a user logs on, specify that
client drives and printers connect at logon, and select to default to the client’s main
printer.
n
Sessions Used to set the maximum duration on sessions, set the maximum idle
time for a session, set the maximum time a disconnected session remains active,
specify whether to disconnect or reset a broken connection, and modify settings for
­reconnecting disconnected sessions.
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Note Many of these settings can also be configured using the Remote Desktop Services
Configuration snap-in or by configuring Group Policy settings. When settings configured using
these different methods conflict, they will be overridden according to the following order of
­precedence:
1. Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in
2. Remote Desktop Services Configuration snap-in
3. Group Policy
In other words, Group Policy settings trump any other method for configuring Remote Desktop
Services settings.
Managing RD Session Host Servers Using Command-Line Tools Many aspects of RD
Session Host servers can be administered from the command line. Table 4-6 lists the command-line tools for doing this that are available in Windows Server 2008 and Windows
Server 2008 R2, while Table 4-7 lists some command-line tools that were deprecated beginning with Windows Server 2008.
TABLE 4-6 Remote
Desktop Services Command-Line Tools Available in Windows Server
2008 and Later
Command
Description
Change
Changes RD Session Host settings for logons, Component Object Model (COM)
port mappings, and install mode
Change logon
Enables or disables logons from client sessions on an RD Session Host server, or
displays current logon status
Change port
Lists or changes the COM port mappings to be compatible with MS-DOS
­applications
Change user
Changes the install mode for the RD Session Host server
Chglogon
Enables or disables logons from client sessions on an RD Session Host server, or
displays current logon status
Chgport
Lists or changes the COM port mappings to be compatible with MS-DOS
­applications
Chguser
Changes the install mode for the RD Session Host server
Flattemp
Enables or disables flat temporary folders
Logoff
Logs off a user from a session on an RD Session Host server, and deletes the
session from the server
Msg
Sends a message to a user on an RD Session Host server
Mstsc
Creates connections to an RD Session Host server or other remote computers
Qappsrv
Displays a list of all RD Session Host servers on the network
Qprocess
Displays information about processes that are running on an RD Session Host
server
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Command
Description
Query
Displays information about processes, sessions, and RD Session Host servers
Query process
Displays information about processes that are running on an RD Session Host
server
Query session
Displays information about sessions on an RD Session Host server
Query termserver
Displays a list of all RD Session Host servers on the network
Query user
Displays information about user sessions on an RD Session Host server
Quser
Displays information about user sessions on an RD Session Host server
Qwinsta
Displays information about sessions on an RD Session Host server
Reset session
Enables you to reset (delete) a session on an RD Session Host server
Rwinsta
Enables you to reset (delete) a session on an RD Session Host server
Shadow
Enables you to remotely control an active session of another user on an RD
Session Host server
Tscon
Connects to another session on an RD Session Host server
Tsdiscon
Disconnects a session from an RD Session Host server
Tskill
Ends a process running in a session on an RD Session Host server
Tsprof
Copies the Remote Desktop Services user configuration information from one
user to another
TABLE 4-7 Remote
Desktop Services Command-Line Tools That Have Been Deprecated
in Windows Server 2008 and Later
Command
Function
Tsshutdn
Shuts down an RD Session Host server
Register
Registers a program so that it has special execution characteristics
Cprofile
Removes user-specific file associations from a user’s profile
Managing RD Session Host Servers Using Group Policy Many aspects of RD Session Host
servers can be administered using Group Policy. Table 4-8 summarizes the various policy
areas for managing RD Session Host servers. Of particular interest are the policy settings for
configuring application compatibility for RD Session Host servers, which are found here:
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Remote
Desktop Services\ Remote Desktop Session Host\Connections
These policy settings are new in Windows Server 2008 R2, and there are four of them:
n
Do Not Use Remote Desktop Session Host Server IP Address When Virtual IP
Address Is Not Available This policy setting specifies whether a session uses the
IP address of the Remote Desktop Session Host server if a virtual IP address is not
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247
­ vailable. If you enable this policy setting, the IP address of the RD Session Host server
a
is not used if a virtual IP address is not available. The session will not have network connectivity. If you disable or do not configure this policy setting, the IP address of the RD
Session Host server is used if a virtual IP address is not available.
n
Select The Network Adapter To Be Used For Remote Desktop IP Virtualization This
policy setting specifies the IP address and network mask that corresponds to the network adapter used for virtual IP addresses. The IP address and network mask should be
entered in Classless Inter-Domain Routing notation—for example, 192.0.2.96/24. If you
enable this policy setting, the specified IP address and network mask are used to select
the network adapter used for the virtual IP addresses. If you disable or do not configure
this policy setting, Remote Desktop IP Virtualization is turned off. A network adapter
must be configured for Remote Desktop IP Virtualization to work.
n
Turn Off Windows Installer RDS Compatibility This policy setting specifies whether
Windows Installer RDS Compatibility runs on a per-user basis for fully installed applications. Windows Installer allows one instance of the msiexec process to run at a time.
By default, Windows Installer RDS Compatibility is turned on. If you enable this policy
setting, Windows Installer RDS Compatibility is turned off, and only one instance of the
msiexec process can run at a time. If you disable or do not configure this policy setting,
Windows Installer RDS Compatibility is turned on, and multiple per-user application
installation requests are queued and handled by the msiexec process in the order in
which they are received.
n
Turn On Remote Desktop IP Virtualization This policy setting specifies whether
Remote Desktop IP Virtualization is turned on. By default, Remote Desktop IP
Virtualization is turned off. If you enable this policy setting, Remote Desktop IP
Virtualization is turned on. You can select the mode in which this setting is applied. If
you are using Per Program mode, you must enter a list of programs to use virtual IP
­addresses. List each program on a separate line—for example, explorer.exe\mstsc.exe.
(Do not enter any blank lines between programs.) If you disable or do not configure
this policy setting, Remote Desktop IP Virtualization is turned off.
Tip For detailed information concerning what policy settings are available in each policy area
and what each policy does, see “Group Policy Settings for Remote Desktop Services in Windows
Server 2008 R2,” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee791928.aspx. For additional information, see “Group Policy Settings Reference for Windows and Windows Server,” available
from the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?display
lang=en&FamilyID=18c90c80-8b0a-4906-a4f5-ff24cc2030fb.
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TABLE 4-8 Group
Policy Settings for Administering RD Session Host Servers
Type of Policy Settings
Path in Group Policy Management Editor
Computer Configuration Policy Settings
Policy settings for configuring application compatibility for RD Session Host
servers (new in Windows Server 2008 R2)
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Connections
Policy settings for configuring
Connections settings for RD Session Host
servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Connections
Policy settings for configuring Device
And Resource Redirection settings for
RD Session Host servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Device and
Resource Redirection
Policy settings for configuring Licensing
settings for RD Session Host servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Licensing
Policy settings for configuring Printer
Redirection settings for RD Session Host
servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Printer
Redirection
Policy settings for configuring Profiles
settings for RD Session Host servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Profiles
Policy settings for configuring RD
Connection Broker settings for RD
Session Host servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Remote Session
Environment
Policy Settings for configuring Remote
Session Environment settings for RD
Session Host servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Remote Session
Environment
Policy settings for configuring Security
settings for RD Session Host servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Security
Policy settings for configuring Session
Time Limits settings for RD Session Host
servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Session Time
Limits
Policy settings for Temporary Folders
settings for RD Session Host servers
Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative
Templates\Windows Components\Remote Desktop
Services\Remote Desktop Session Host\Temporary
f­olders
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Type of Policy Settings
249
Path in Group Policy Management Editor
User Configuration Policy Settings
Policy settings for configuring
Connections settings for RD Session Host
servers
User Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\
Windows Components\Remote Desktop Services\
Remote Desktop Session Host\Connections
Policy settings for configuring Device
And Resource Redirection settings for
RD Session Host servers
User Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\
Windows Components\Remote Desktop Services\
Remote Desktop Session Host\Device and Resource
Redirection
Policy settings for configuring Printer
Redirection settings for RD Session Host
servers
User Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\
Windows Components\Remote Desktop Services\
Remote Desktop Session Host\Printer Redirection
Policy settings for configuring Remote
Session Environment settings for RD
Session Host servers
User Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\
Windows Components\Remote Desktop Services\
Remote Desktop Session Host\Remote Session
Environment
Policy settings for configuring Session
Time Limits settings for RD Session Host
servers
User Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\
Windows Components\Remote Desktop Services\
Remote Desktop Session Host\Session Time Limits
Managing RD Session Host Servers Using WMI There is also a WMI provider to enable
administration of RD Session Host servers and also other Remote Desktop Services role services by using WMI interfaces. Specifically, there are five categories of WMI classes available
for managing Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server 2008 R2:
n
Remote Desktop Services Configuration Classes
n
Remote Desktop Gateway Classes
n
Remote Desktop License Server Classes
n
RemoteApp Classes
n
Remote Desktop Connection Broker Classes
For more information on these WMI classes, properties, and methods supported by Windows
Server 2008 Terminal Services, see “Remote Desktop Services WMI Provider Reference” in the
MSDN Library at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa383515.aspx.
Managing RD Session Host Servers Using Windows PowerShell Beginning with Windows
Server 2008 R2, you can use Windows PowerShell to manage many aspects of RD Session
Host servers and also aspects of other �����������������������������������������������
Remote Desktop Services role services. This allows administrative tasks to be scripted, allowing you to automate complex and recurring
­administrative tasks. You can also change settings and perform tasks directly from the
Windows PowerShell command line, without having to write, save, or run a script. Examples
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of administrative tasks you can perform by using the Remote Desktop Services Provider for
Windows PowerShell include the following:
n
View configuration settings for a remote desktop server.
n
Edit configuration settings for a remote desktop server.
n
Create and configure a remote desktop server connection.
n
Publish or remove a RemoteApp program.
n
Create and configure a remote desktop server farm.
n
Configure RemoteApp and Desktop Connection for virtual desktops and RemoteApp
programs.
n
Manage a Remote Desktop Licensing server.
n
Manage a Remote Desktop Gateway server
.For more information about using Windows PowerShell with Remote Desktop Services,
see “Remote Desktop Services Management” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/dd939782.aspx.
Understanding RemoteApp
Terminal Services on Windows Server 2003 and earlier could provide users only with ­entire
session-based desktops that included Terminal Services–enabled applications. This was
sometimes confusing to users because it meant they had to contend with having two desktops—their local computer’s desktop and the remote desktop—presented to them via
Terminal Services.
For example, at any given time a user might have several applications running on her local
desktop plus additional applications running on her remote desktop. This presented users
with interesting challenges. For instance, if a user wanted to quickly switch between applications on her local desktop, she could use the Alt+Tab or Alt+Esc keyboard accelerators
to do this. But if the user wanted to do the same with applications on her remote desktop,
she needed to use Alt+Page Up, Alt+Page Down, or Alt+Insert instead. And if she wanted to
switch from a local application to a remote one, the easiest way was probably just to use the
mouse! Such confusion and occasional frustration introduced by having two desktops created inefficiencies that resulted in loss of worker productivity.
Beginning with Windows Server 2008, however, Terminal Services introduced the ability for
terminal servers to provide users with access to individual applications running on a terminal server. These remote applications, known as RemoteApp programs, can be launched
from the user’s Start menu or desktop shortcuts, and when they are open they look and feel
the same as locally installed programs. This look and feel extends to resizing, maximizing,
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
251
­ inimizing, and cascading program windows; cut and paste operations between program
m
windows; drag and drop support between multiple monitors; and notification icons displayed in the notification area. The result is that a user running both local and RemoteApp
programs on his computer’s local desktop might be unaware of the difference between a
program installed locally and one running on a terminal server. RemoteApp thus integrates
Terminal Services applications into the user’s own desktop instead of presenting the user with
a ­second, separate desktop.
In Windows Server 2008, this functionality was known as Terminal Services RemoteApp (TS
RemoteApp). Beginning with Windows Server 2008 R2, however, this functionality is now
simply known as RemoteApp.
How RemoteApp works RemoteApp functionality is implemented as part of the RD
Session Host role service and requires Windows Server 2008 or later on the server side and
RDC 6.0 or later on the client side. This means that the user’s computer must be running either Windows 7, Windows Vista SP1 or later, or Windows XP SP3.
The process by which a RemoteApp program is launched on an RD Session Host server is as
follows:
1. When a remote user tries to launch a RemoteApp program, a new instance of Rpdinit.
exe, the RemoteApp Logon Application, is started in the session space on the RD
Session Host server.
2. Rpdinit.exe then launches Rdpshell.exe, which provides the functionality for running the
RemoteApp program’s process. Rdpshell.exe replaces the usual Explorer.exe shell, which
does not support RemoteApp functionality, and provides event hooks and APIs for
monitoring the state of the user’s taskbar, the position of windows, notification icons,
and so on. Rpdshell.exe also opens a virtual channel that allows RemoteApp-specific
commands to be transmitted from the client to the server.
3. Rpdinit.exe then monitors the RemoteApp program’s process during the lifetime of the
process. For example, if the process terminates abnormally, Rpdinit.exe will restart it.
4. If the user then launches additional RemoteApp programs on the same RD Session
Host server, these programs all share the same Remote Desktop Services session with
the first program launched above.
Tip When you are using a RemoteApp program and save a document or other file you are
working on with the program, the document or other file is saved within your user profile on
the RD Session Host server, not on your local workstation. The user profiles for Remote Desktop
Services users are stored on RD Session Host servers under the %SystemDrive%\Users directory.
If you need to save a document or other file on your local computer instead of on the RD Session
Host server, save it to a redirected drive by browsing to \\tsclient in the Save file dialog box and
selecting a redirected drive.
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When a user terminates a RemoteApp program, the RemoteApp session between the user
and the RD Session Host server is placed into a disconnected state. The RD Session Host
server then applies heuristics to determine whether the RemoteApp session should remain
disconnected or whether the user should be logged off from the RD Session Host server to
end the session. The termination logic for RemoteApp programs is configurable using Group
Policy and basically works like this:
1. The user closes a RemoteApp program window on his desktop.
2. The RD Session Host server checks the user’s session to see whether there are any
­remaining active RemoteApp windows still open on the user’s desktop. If the answer to
this is Yes, the user’s session remains connected.
3. If there are no remaining active RemoteApp program windows on the user’s desktop,
the RD Session Host server next checks whether there are any RemoteApp program
­notification icons being displayed in the system tray on the user’s desktop. If the answer to this is Yes, the user’s session continues to remain connected.
4. If there are no RemoteApp program windows or notifications remaining on the user’s
desktop, the RD Session Host server waits 20 seconds before terminating the user’s
session, just in case the user decides to launch another RemoteApp program immediately. If no RemoteApp program is launched during this time interval, the RD Session
Host server disconnects the user’s session and the RDC client process exits. If another
RemoteApp program is launched within the time interval, the user’s session remains
connected and the new process runs within the existing session.
5. After the user’s session has been disconnected, the session remains disconnected for a
configurable period of time, after which the user is logged off from the disconnected
session. The time interval between disconnection and logoff can be configured using
the Group Policy setting Set Time Limit For Logoff Of RemoteApp Sessions. The reason
for providing for the configurability of this time interval is because it is much faster to
connect to a disconnected session than to start a new session.
Adding RemoteApp Programs You must add RemoteApp programs to your RD Session
Host server before they can be made available to users on your network. To add RemoteApp
programs to your RD Session Host server, you use the RemoteApp Manager snap-in, which
is found in the Remote Desktop Services program group under Administrative Tools on
the Start menu. Figure 4-8 shows the RemoteApp Manager snap-in with no RemoteApp
­programs yet configured.
In this example, Microsoft 2007 Office System has been installed on an RD Session Host
server running Windows Server 2008 R2 and named SEA-RDS4 in the contoso.com domain.
To add Word 2007 to the list of RemoteApp programs on the RD Session Host server, open
RemoteApp Manager and click Add RemoteApp Programs in the Actions pane to launch the
RemoteApp Wizard. Then on the Welcome screen, click Next and select the check box for
Word 2007. (See Figure 4-9.)
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
FIGURE 4-8 The RemoteApp Manager snap-in.
FIGURE 4-9 Adding Word 2007 as a RemoteApp program.
When you finish the wizard, Word is listed as a RemoteApp program in the RemoteApp
Manager snap-in (as shown in Figure 4-10).
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
FIGURE 4-10 Word is now available as a RemoteApp program.
Configuring and Deploying RemoteApp Programs To configure a RemoteApp program,
select the program in the RemoteApp Manager snap-in and then select the action you want
to perform in the Actions pane on the right side.
For users to make use of RemoteApp programs, these programs must first be deployed to
their client computers. This can be done by
n
Packaging the RemoteApp programs as Windows Installer (.msi) files, and distributing
them to users using the Software Installation feature of Group Policy
n
Packaging the RemoteApp programs as either Remote Desktop Protocol (.rdp) files or
Windows Installer (.msi) files, and making them available to users by copying them to a
network share
n
Publishing the RemoteApp programs on the intranet or over the Internet using RD Web
Access and, optionally, RD Gateway when greater security is required
The Create .Rdp File and Create Windows Installer Package actions that are available in the
Actions pane when a RemoteApp program is selected allow you to package the RemoteApp
program for deployment in enterprise environments. For smaller environments, RD Web
Access provides an easy way of deploying RemoteApp programs to users. By default, adding a RemoteApp program also makes it available to users through RD Web Access if this
additional role service has been installed. For more information about using RD Web Access
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to deploy RemoteApp programs to users, see the sections titled “Understanding Remote
Desktop Web Access” and “Understanding RemoteApp and Desktop Connections” later in
this chapter.
To configure the properties of the selected RemoteApp program, click Properties in the
Action pane. Beginning with Windows Server 2008 R2, the properties sheet for RemoteApp
programs includes an additional tab named User Assignment. (See Figure 4-11.) This new tab
lets you specify which domain users and domain groups will be able to see the icon for the
RemoteApp program when they access the RD Web Access Web page. By default, all authenticated domain users can see the icon for a RemoteApp program on the RD Web Access Web
site unless otherwise configured. Note that to assign users to a RemoteApp program, the RD
Session Host server on which the RemoteApp program is configured must be a member of
an Active Directory domain. In addition, to run the RemoteApp program the user must be a
member of the Remote Desktop Users group on the RD Session Host server.
FIGURE 4-11 Configuring which users are allowed to access the RemoteApp program using the RD Web
Access Web page.
To use this new feature to assign users, groups, or both to a RemoteApp program, follow
these steps:
1. On the RD Session Host server, open RemoteApp Manager. To open RemoteApp
Manager, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, point to Remote Desktop Services,
and then click RemoteApp Manager.
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2. In the RemoteApp Programs list, click the program to which you want to assign domain
users and domain groups.
3. In the Actions pane for the program, click Properties, and then click the User
Assignment tab.
4. Click the specified domain users and domain groups, and then click Add.
5. Use the Select Users Or Groups dialog box to select the domain users and domain
groups to assign to the RemoteApp program.
6. Click OK to close the Select Users Or Groups dialog box.
7. Click OK to close the RemoteApp Properties dialog box.
Understanding Remote Desktop Web Access
The Remote Desktop Web Access (RD Web Access) role service of Windows Server 2008 R2
was formerly called Terminal Services Web Access (TS Web Access) in Windows Server 2008.
Installing the Remote Desktop Web Access role service lets you use Internet Information
Services (IIS) to simplify the deployment of RemoteApp programs, session-based desktops,
and virtual desktops to users on your network. New features of the RD Web Access role
­service introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 include the following:
n
Per user RemoteApp program filtering using RemoteApp and Desktop
Connections RD Web Access is now integrated with RemoteApp and Desktop
Connections, a new feature of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 that provides a
personalized view of RemoteApp programs, session-based desktops, and virtual desktops to users. This enables RD Web Access to filter the view on a per-user basis so that
each user logging on to RD Web Access sees only the programs that the administrator
has configured for them to see. For more information on this feature, see the section
titled “Understanding RemoteApp and Desktop Connections” later in this chapter.
n
Single sign-on between RD Session Host and RD Web Access This enhancement
allows users to enter their user name and password only once when connecting to a
RemoteApp program by using RD Web Access.
n
Public and private computer option There are now two ways for users to access
the RD Web Access Web page: public and private mode. When a user selects public
mode, her user name is not remembered in the Web browser and RD Web Access
cookies storing her user name time out in 20 minutes. When the user selects private
mode, cookies storing her user name remain available for four hours. In either mode,
­passwords are not stored.
n
Forms-based authentication This enables applications to provide their own logon
page and perform their own credentials verification, and it uses ASP.NET to authenticate users, redirect unauthenticated users to the logon page, and perform all the necessary cookie management.
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RD Web Access enables administrators to deploy RemoteApp programs via a Web browser to
users on a corporate intranet. Using RD Web Access, a user who needs to run a RemoteApp
program simply connects to a special Web site and clicks on the RemoteApp program’s icon,
and the program starts on the user’s desktop. Although deploying RemoteApp programs
using Group Policy is effective for a large enterprise, RD Web Access can provide a simple
means of deploying RemoteApp programs for small and medium-sized businesses because
of its ease of use. In addition, by implementing RD Web Access together with RD Gateway,
administrators can securely deploy RemoteApp programs to users over an unsecure Internet
connection without the need to configure a virtual private network (VPN) for those users.
The experience of running RemoteApp programs deployed using RD Web Access is identical
to the experience of launching them from .rdp files or from .msi files deployed using Group
Policy. Whichever way a user launches a RemoteApp program, the user can interact with the
program just as if it was locally installed on her computer.
RD Web Access also includes a customizable Web Part that provides flexibility in how you
display RemoteApp programs you want to deploy. By using this customizable Web Part, administrators can also create their own customized Web page or Windows SharePoint Services
site for deploying RemoteApps to users.
RD Web Access also provides users with the option of connecting to the remote desktop of
any computer on which they have logon privileges. When implemented together with RD
Gateway, this enables a user to remotely access the desktop of his corporate desktop computer over the Internet. For more information concerning RD Gateway, see the section titled
“Understanding Remote Desktop Gateway” later in this chapter.
How RD Web Access Works
RD Web Access is implemented as a separate role service of the Remote Desktop Services
role of Windows Server 2008 R2. Installing the RD Web Access role service on a server also
installs the Web Server (IIS) role along with some of its components, which is needed to
host the Web site that users connect to using their Web browsers to launch RemoteApp
programs.
Both the RD Web Access and RD Session Host role services must be present for RD Web
Access to work. The simplest configuration is to install both the RD Web Access and RD
Session Host role services on a single server. Users can then connect to the RD Web Access
Web page using their Web browser, log on using their domain credentials, and launch
RemoteApp programs, which then run on the RD Session Host server.
The RD Web Access and RD Session Host role services can also be installed on separate
­servers if needed. If this is done, however, you must add the computer account of the RD
Web Access server to the RD Web Access Computers security group on your RD Session Host.
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For larger deployments, you might install RD Web Access on a front-end Web server to
service multiple RD Session Host servers on the back end. You can then configure RD Web
Access to populate its list of RemoteApp programs from all your RD Session Host servers,
­including servers that belong to an RD Session Host farm.
To use RD Web Access and fully use the new features available in Windows Server 2008 R2,
your client computers need Remote Desktop Connection 7.0 (RDC 7.0), which is included
by default in Windows 7. If your client computers are running Windows Vista SP1 or SP2, or
Windows XP SP3, you can download RDC 7.0 from http://support.microsoft.com/kb/969084.
To connect to the RD Web Access server, a user opens a Web browser such as Internet
Explorer and types https://<server_name>/rdweb in the address bar as described in the
next section.
Installing, Configuring, and Using RD Web Access
You can install the RD Web Access role service on the Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter
edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 using any of the methods described earlier in the section titled “Installing an RD Session Host Server.” After you have installed the role service, you
need to log on to the RD Web Access Web site to finish configuring your server.
To access the RD Web Access Web page (shown in Figure 4-12), use one of these methods:
n
On the RD Web Access server, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, point to Remote
Desktop Services, and then click Remote Desktop Web Access Configuration.
n
Open the URL https://<server_name>/rdweb in Internet Explorer, where <server_name>
is the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the RD Web Access server.
If you connect to the RD Web Access Web site using a public computer—for example, a kiosk
computer at a coffee shop or airport, or using a computer that you share with others—select the This Is A Public Or Shared Computer option. Selecting this option requires that you
provide both your user name and password each time you sign in to the RD Web Access
Web site. However, if you connect to the RD Web Access Web site using your own work computer (which you don’t share with other users), select the This Is A Private Computer option.
Selecting this option means that your user name is remembered so that you only need to
enter your password each time you sign in to the RD Web Access Web site.
To configure your RD Web Access server, log on to the RD Web Access Web site using either the local Administrator account or an account that belongs to the RD Web Access
Administrators group on the RD Web Access server. After you’ve logged on, you must specify
the source that provides the RemoteApp programs and desktops to users. To do this, select
the Configuration tab of the RD Web Access Web page as shown in Figure 4-13.
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
FIGURE 4-12 The logon page for the RD Web Access Web site.
FIGURE 4-13 Specify the source from which the RD Web Access server will pull RemoteApp lists.
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Formerly in Windows Server 2008, the TS Web Access server could pull the RemoteApps
configuration only from a single source, which was either a single terminal server or a terminal server farm. Beginning with Windows Server 2008 R2, however, you can configure the
RD Web Access server so that users can pull RemoteApp lists from multiple RD Session Host
and RD Virtualization Host servers while routing the connection request to the proper server.
To provide users with access to RemoteApp programs, session-based desktops, and virtual
desktops, you must first configure your RD Web Access to specify the source that hosts those
resources. That source can be either of the following:
n
An RD Connection Broker server
n
One or more RD Session Host servers
An RD Connection Broker server can provide users with access to RemoteApp programs,
session-based desktops hosted on RD Session Host servers, and virtual desktops hosted on
RD Virtualization Host servers. RD Session Host servers provide users with access only to
RemoteApp programs and session-based desktops.
After the source has been configured, the RemoteApp Programs tab of the RD Web Access
Web page displays the available RemoteApp programs and desktops. Users can then launch
RemoteApp programs on their client computers by following these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer, and type the URL https://<server_name>/rdweb, where
<server_name> is the FQDN of the RD Web Access server.
2. On the RD Web Access logon page, type your credentials in the form
<domain>\<username> along with your password and click Sign In.
3. On the RD Web Access Web page, select the RemoteApp Programs tab to display the
available RemoteApp programs and desktops you can access:
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4. Double-click on a RemoteApp program or desktop to launch the item. (You might need
to supply additional credentials.)
Note Ordinary users do not see the Configuration tab that administrators see when they access
the RD Web Access Web site.
In addition to being able to access RemoteApp programs and desktops, users can also use
the RD Web Access Web site to connect to the desktop of any computer on the network,
a feature known as Remote Desktop Web Connection. For this to work, however, the remote computer must have Remote Desktop enabled, and the user must be a member of
the Remote Desktop Users group on the remote computer. This can be especially useful, for
example, when the user at home needs to connect to the desktop of his computer on the
corporate network. (To do this in a secure fashion, you must implement RD Web Access together with RD Gateway.)
For example, let’s say that you are a user named Karen Berg who wants to connect to a
­computer named SEA-CLI-888 by using Remote Desktop Web Connection from another
computer. You could do this as follows:
1. Open Internet Explorer, log on to the RD Web Access Web site, and select the Remote
Desktop tab.
2. Type the name of the computer you want to connect to, and select other options as
desired:
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3. Specify your credentials in the Windows Security dialog:
4. The desktop of the remote computer is now displayed using Remote Desktop
Connection:
5. You can now run programs and open files on the remote computer as if you were
­sitting in front of it and using its keyboard.
Although you can use the preceding approach to make RemoteApp programs and desktops
available to users using a Web browser, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 also includes a new feature called RemoteApp and Desktop Connection that gives you even greater
control over deploying RemoteApp programs and desktops for your users. This is described
in the next section.
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Understanding RemoteApp and Desktop Connections
RemoteApp and Desktop Connection is a new feature of Windows 7, and Windows Server
2008 R2 provides users with a personalized view of RemoteApp programs, session-based
desktops, and virtual desktops. Specifically,
n
When you start a RemoteApp program or a session-based desktop, a Remote Desktop
Services session is started on the RD Session Host server that hosts the remote desktop
or RemoteApp program.
n
When you connect to a virtual desktop, a Remote Desktop connection is made to a
­virtual machine running on an RD Virtualization Host server.
By using RemoteApp and Desktop Connection, you can create an aggregated, customized view of RemoteApp programs and desktops and assign them to users. After you have
assigned them, users can then subscribe to a Web feed that will seamlessly integrate the
RemoteApp programs and desktops into the Start menu on their Windows 7 computers and
automatically update the list as the published RemoteApp programs and desktops change.
Specifically, RemoteApp and Desktop Connections provides the following benefits:
n
Published RemoteApp programs can be launched from the user’s Start menu just like
locally installed applications.
n
Published Remote Desktop Connections are included alongside RemoteApp programs
on the user’s Start menu.
n
Any changes to a published connection—for example, additional published
RemoteApp programs—automatically appear on the user’s Start menu without any
action needed on the user’s part. Users have to log on only once when they create
the connection, after which updates happen automatically with no prompt for user
credentials.
n
Users can use Start menu search to find RemoteApp programs in the same way they
search for locally installed programs.
n
RemoteApp and Desktop Connections supports per-user application filtering
of RemoteApp programs.
n
Client computers do not have to be domain-joined to use RemoteApp and Desktop
Connections.
In addition, RemoteApp and Desktop Connections is built on standard technologies such as
XML and HTTPS. This means that developers can use standard tools to build solutions around
RemoteApp and Desktop Connections.
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How RemoteApp and Desktop Connections Works
RemoteApp and Desktop Connection functionality is not provided by a single component.
Instead, different aspects of RemoteApp and Desktop Connection functionality are provided
by Remote Desktop Services role services and by other components including the following:
n
Remote Desktop Session Host servers
n
Remote Desktop Virtualization Host servers
n
Remote Desktop Connection Broker
n
Remote Desktop Web Access
n
Remote Desktop Gateway
n
Remote Desktop Connection 7.0
n
Windows 7 client computers
Configuring RemoteApp and Desktop Connections
You can use RemoteApp and Desktop Connections to configure which RemoteApp
­programs, session-based desktops, and virtual desktops should be available for users on your
network. For example, to make RemoteApp programs available via a Web browser and using
an RD Connection Broker server, follow these steps:
1. Install the Remote Desktop Connection Broker role service on a server running
Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information about this role service, see the section
titled “Understanding Remote Desktop Connection Broker” later in this chapter.
2. On your RD Session Host server, use RemoteApp Manager to add applications to
the RemoteApp programs list. Make sure these programs are enabled for RD Web
Access. For information on how to do this, see the section titled “Adding RemoteApp
Programs” earlier in this chapter.
3. Install the RD Web Access role service on a server running Windows Server 2008 R2.
This can be the same server as your RD Session Host server, but it should not be the
same as your RD Connection Broker server.
4. If your RD Web Access and RD Session Host servers are separate servers, add the computer account of the RD Web Access server to the RD Web Access Computers security
group on your RD Session Host server.
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5. Open the RD Web Access Web site using one of the methods described in the section
titled “Installing, Configuring, and Using RD Web Access” earlier in this chapter. Log on
to the site using either the local Administrator account on the RD Web Access server
or an account that is a member of the RD Web Access Administrators group on the RD
Web Access server.
6. Select the Configuration tab on the RD Web Access Web site, choose An RD Connection
Broker Server, and type the NetBIOS name or FQDN of your RD Connection Broker
server:
7. On your RD Connection Broker server, open the Remote Desktop Connection Manager
snap-in, right-click on the root node labeled Remote Desktop Connection Manager:
<server_name>, and select Properties to display the RemoteApp and Desktop
Connection Properties dialog.
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8. On the Connection Settings tab, specify a display name and connection ID or accept
the defaults:
The display name is used to identify RemoteApp and Desktop Connection resources
(RemoteApp programs, session-based desktops, and virtual desktops) that are being
provided to users by the RD Connection Broker server. Specifically, the display name
appears in the user’s Start menu under All Programs in a folder named RemoteApp
And Desktop Connections on a computer running Windows 7 that has been configured
to use RemoteApp and Desktop Connections provided by the RD Connection Broker
server. The connection ID is displayed when the user runs a RemoteApp program from
an RD Web Access Web site that has been configured to provide RemoteApp and
Desktop Connections from the RD Connection Broker server.
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9. On the RD Web Access tab, make sure your RD Web Access server’s name is displayed:
At this point, you have published the RemoteApp programs so that they can be available to
users through RemoteApp and Desktop Connections. To access these published programs,
the client side of RemoteApp and Desktop Connections must be configured on the user’s
Windows 7 computer. There are several ways this can be done:
n
The user can manually set up a new connection using the RemoteApp and Desktop
Connections Control Panel item together with a special URL provided to the user by
the administrator. For more information on how to manually configure the client side of
RemoteApp and Desktop Connections, see the section titled “Configuring RemoteApp
and Desktop Connections” earlier in the chapter.
n
The administrator can create a Workspace Configuration (.wcx) file using an RD
Connection Broker server and distribute it to Windows 7 users so that RemoteApp and
Desktop Connection can be configured without the need of having the user manually configure the RemoteApp and Desktop Connections Control Panel item. For more
information on how to create a .wcx file, see the section titled “Understanding Remote
Desktop Connection Broker” later in this chapter.
n
The administrator can create a .wcx file and use Group Policy to silently run a script on
Windows 7 computers so that RemoteApp and Desktop Connection is set up automatically when users log on to their computers.
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After the client side of RemoteApp and Desktop Connections has been configured,
Windows 7 users will see a new RemoteApp and Desktop Connections program group on
their Start menu, which they can use to launch RemoteApp programs, session-based desktops, and virtual desktops that have been published for them to use. (See Figure 4-14.)
FIGURE 4-14 RemoteApp and Desktop Connections program group on the Start menu.
After the user launches an available RemoteApp program, session-based desktop, or
­virtual desktop from the user’s Start menu, a RemoteApp And Desktop Connections icon is
­displayed in the notification area of the taskbar. (See Figure 4-15.) The presence of this icon
indicates that the user has successfully connected to RemoteApp and Desktop Connections.
The user can also use this icon to perform the following tasks:
n
List all the connections the user is currently connected to.
n
Disconnect one or all connections that are currently connected.
n
Open the RemoteApp Desktop Connections in Control Panel to view the properties of
the connection, update any or all of the connections, or both.
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FIGURE 4-15 RemoteApp And Desktop Connections icon in the taskbar notification area.
After the user is no longer connected to any connections, the icon disappears from the
­taskbar notification area.
If you also want to allow users to access the RD Web Access server from the Internet, you can
deploy an RD Gateway server on your perimeter network and configure it for doing this. For
more information, see “Understanding Remote Desktop Gateway” later in this chapter.
In smaller environments, users can manually set up RemoteApp and Desktop Connections to
pull a feed of available RemoteApp programs, session-based desktops, and virtual desktops
from your RD Web Access server. To do this, the user needs to follow these steps:
1. Open the RemoteApp and Desktop Connections Control Panel item. Initially, there will
be no connections available on the user’s computer:
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2. Next, the user needs to type the URL for the RD Web Access Web site, which is always
in the following form:
https://<server_name>/RDWeb/Feed/webfeed.aspx
where <server_name> is the FQDN of the RD Web Access server. In this example, it is
SEA-RDS4.contoso.com:
3. After the user’s computer has established a connection with the specified RD Web
Access server, the user’s computer is ready to pull a feed of the RemoteApp programs
and desktops available to the user:
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4. After the feed has been pulled from the RD Web Access server, RemoteApp and
Desktop Connections is set up. The following example shows that two RemoteApp programs are available to the user (these programs are Word and Excel as you can see by
referring back to Figure 4-14):
5. Returning to the main page of the RemoteApp and Desktop Connections Control Panel
item displays additional information concerning the available connections:
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6. The list of available connections is automatically updated on the user’s computer on
a periodic basis. However, the user can also force the list of connections to update by
clicking Properties. This opens the View Properties Or Update This Connection page,
and clicking Update Now forces the user’s computer to pull a new feed from the RD
Web Access server immediately:
For more information concerning RemoteApp and Desktop Connections, see the “Additional
Resources” section at the end of the chapter.
Understanding Remote Desktop Connection Broker
The Remote Desktop Connection Broker (RD Connection Broker) role service in Windows
Server 2008 R2 was formerly called Terminal Services Session Broker (TS Session Broker)
in Windows Server 2008. This service was first introduced in Windows Server 2003 as the
Terminal Server Session Directory service, and it allowed disconnected Terminal Services users to reconnect to a previously established terminal server session. The feature was renamed
TS Session Broker in Windows Server 2008 and was enhanced with the addition of TS Session
Broker Load Balancing, which enables load-balancing of terminal servers in a terminal server
farm and allows disconnected users to reconnect to an existing session in a load-balanced
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terminal server farm. Previously, such load-balancing support was available only through
third-party software and through Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB).
RD Connection Broker further extends the capabilities of this feature by providing a ­unified
administrative experience for traditional session-based remote desktops and for newer virtual machine–based remote desktops, which can be implemented using the new Remote
Desktop Virtualization Host role service of Windows Server 2008 R2. RD Connection Broker
also provides additional support for RemoteApp Centralized Publishing through RemoteApp
and Desktop Connections (described in the previous section) and for Remote Desktop
Connection Manager (described later).
How RD Connection Broker Works
Similar to the TS Session Broker role service of Windows Server 2008, the RD Connection
Broker role service allows a user to reconnect to an existing session of a load-balanced RD
Session Host server farm. RD Connection Broker does this by storing session state information, including session IDs and their associated user names, and the name of the RD Session
Host server where each session resides. When a user having an existing session connects to
an RD Session Host server in a load-balanced farm, the RD Connection Broker server redirects the user to the RD Session Host server where the user’s session resides, preventing the
user from being connected to a different server in the farm and thus having to start a new
session.
And if you enable the RD Connection Broker Load Balancing feature, the RD Connection
Broker server can also do the following:
n
Evenly distribute the session load between RD Session Host servers in a load-balanced
RD Session Host server farm.
n
Track the number of user sessions on each RD Session Host server in the farm.
n
Redirect users who don’t have an existing session to the RD Session Host server that
has the fewest sessions.
Installing and Configuring RD Connection Broker
You can install the RD Connection Broker role service on the Standard, Enterprise, or
Datacenter edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 using any of the methods described in the
section titled “Installing an RD Session Host Server” earlier in this chapter. After you have installed the role service, you can configure it using the Remote Desktop Connection Manager
snap-in. (See Figure 4-16.)
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FIGURE 4-16 The Remote Desktop Connection Manager snap-in is used to configure and manage the RD
Connection Broker server.
Using the Remote Desktop Connection Manager snap-in, you can perform various tasks on
your RD Connection Broker server, such as adding RemoteApp sources (RD Session Host
servers), adding RD Virtualization Host servers, creating virtual desktop pools, adding virtual
machines to a pool, configuring virtual desktops, assigning personal desktops to users, and
performing other tasks. Some of these tasks are described in more detail in the section titled
“Understanding Remote Desktop Virtualization Host” later in this chapter.
An example of a configuration task you can perform using this snap-in is to configure the
RemoteApp and Desktop Connection Web feed by creating a Workspace Configuration
(.wcx) file you can distribute to users of Windows 7 computers on your network. Doing this
allows the client side of RemoteApp and Desktop Connection to be configured on users’
computers without the need for users to manually configure the RemoteApp and Desktop
Connection Control Panel item. Performing this task requires that you be a member of the
local Administrators group on the RD Connection Broker server that you plan to configure.
To create the configuration file, follow these steps:
1. Open the Remote Desktop Connection Manager snap-in on your RD Connection
Broker server by clicking Start, Administrative Tools, Remote Desktop Services, Remote
Desktop Connection Manager.
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2. In the console tree pane on the left, click Remote Desktop Connection Manager:
­<server_name>, where <server_name> is the name of your RD Connection Broker
server.
3. In the Actions pane on the right, click Create Configuration File.
4. In the Create Configuration File dialog, enter the RemoteApp and Desktop Connection
URL that specifies the RD Web Access server that provides the RemoteApp and Desktop
Connection resources to the targeted users. Be sure to specify the FQDN of the RD
Web Access server:
5. Click Save, specify a file name, select a folder location, and click Save.
6. Distribute the configuration file to the targeted users using an appropriate method
such as Group Policy as described in the section titled “Configuring RemoteApp and
Desktop Connections” earlier in this chapter.
Another configuration task involving RD Connection Broker servers is configuring security
groups. Specifically,
n
For an RD Web Access server to provide RemoteApp and Desktop Connection
­information from an RD Connection Broker server, you must add the computer account
for the RD Web Access server to the RD Web Access Computers security group on the
RD Connection Broker server. You must be a member of the local Administrators group
on the RD Connection Broker server to do this.
n
For an RD Session Host server to provide redirection to virtual desktops, you must
add the computer account for the RD Session Host server to the Session Broker
Computers security group on the RD Connection Broker server. And if you have
­deployed a load-balanced RD Session Host server farm to provide RemoteApp programs to users through RemoteApp and Desktop Connection, you must add the
computer account for each RD Session Host server in the farm to the Session Broker
Computers security group.
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Finally, to configure the RD Connection Broker Load Balancing feature of an RD Connection
Broker server, you must use Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration snap-in described
earlier in this chapter.
Understanding Remote Desktop Gateway
The Remote Desktop Gateway (RD Gateway) role service in Windows Server 2008 R2 was
­formerly called Terminal Services Gateway (TS Gateway) in Windows Server 2008. Installing
the RD Gateway role service enables users to securely connect over the Internet to RD
Session Host servers or RD Virtualization Host behind the corporate firewall to access
session-based desktops or virtual desktops, run RemoteApp programs, and access client
computers that have Remote Desktop enabled. RD Gateway provides an alternative to virtual
private network (VPN) connections as a means for secure access to remote desktops and
­applications on an organization’s internal network.
RD Gateway enables authorized remote users to connect to resources on an internal
­corporate network over the Internet using the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). The resources
that external users can connect to via RD Gateway include
n
RD Session Host servers running RemoteApp programs and session-based desktops
n
RD Virtualization Host servers running virtual desktops
n
Client computers that have Remote Desktop enabled
By simplifying the task of enabling secure access to an organization’s internal network from
over the Internet, RD Gateway provides an alternative to deploying VPN servers and configuring VPN client software on users’ computers. RD Gateway also allows organizations that
block VPN connections at the firewall to still allow users to remotely connect to the corporate
network from home or when traveling.
RD Gateway enhances security by allowing you to place RD Session Host and RD
Virtualization Host servers needed by external users for access inside the corporate network
instead of on the perimeter network. With Windows Server 2003 Terminal Services, allowing external users RDP connectivity with terminal servers required that the terminal servers reside on the perimeter network. This configuration potentially exposed these terminal
servers to attack from outside the corporate network, an unsatisfactory situation for most
organizations. With RD Gateway, however, you can safely place your RD Session Host and RD
Virtualization Host servers inside the corporate network; only the RD Gateway server itself
needs to reside on a screened subnet of the perimeter network. This means that only the
RD Gateway server is directly exposed to outside attack. And the attack surface of the RD
Gateway server is lower than that of an RD Session Host and RD Virtualization Host server
placed in a similar location because the only external port that needs to be open on the RD
Gateway server is TCP port 443.
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RD Gateway also enhances security by providing a point-to-point RDP connection between
the remote client and the internal terminal server or a computer having Remote Desktop
enabled. RD Gateway thus allows remote users to access anything on the corporate network
that allows RDP access (provided they have appropriate privileges for doing so), including
networks that are hidden behind firewalls or must be accessed across a Network Address
Translation (NAT) device.
RD Gateway can also be implemented together with RemoteApp and RD Web Access
to allow authorized users to connect over the Internet to an RD Session Host and RD
Virtualization Host server on the corporate network and run RemoteApp programs or access session-based desktops or virtual desktops. A remote user at home or on the road can
also use RD Gateway together with Remote Desktop Web Connection, a feature of RD Web
Access, to securely connect to the desktop of her computer on the corporate network as if
she is sitting at her desk in the office.
New features of RD Gateway in Windows Server 2008 R2 include the following:
n
Configurable idle and session timeouts Allows you to configure idle and session
timeouts on the RD Gateway server to reclaim resources used by inactive user sessions
and to periodically enforce new policies on active user connections. Disconnected users
can reestablish their sessions by using Remote Desktop Connection.
n
Background session authentication and authorization Allows a remote session to
either be disconnected or silently re-authenticated and reauthorized when the session timeout has been reached. Selecting the option Silently Re-authenticate And
Reauthorize After Session, enables session authentication and authorization to happen
in the background, and sessions for users whose property information has not changed
are not affected.
n
Device redirection enforcement Allows you to configure remote desktop clients so
that they can connect only to RD Session Host servers that enforce device redirection.
This feature requires RDC 7.0 and an RD Session Host server running Windows Server
2008 R2.
n
Network Access Protection (NAP) remediation Allows you to update client
­computers that are not in compliance with your network’s health policy to ensure
­managed clients are in compliance by having the latest software updates. You can also
configure Connection Authorization Policy (CAP) policies so that unmanaged clients
do not receive updates; instead, feedback is provided to these users, allowing them to
manually update their systems.
n
Pluggable authentication and authorization Provides APIs that can be used to write
authentication and authorization plug-ins that integrate with RD Gateway.
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n
System and logon messages Allows you to configure and display system messages
that inform users about server maintenance issues such as shutdown and restarts,
and logon messages such as logon notices when users try to access remote resources.
Remote desktop clients must be running RDC 7.0 to use this feature.
How RD Gateway Works
In Windows Server 2003 Terminal Services, RDP connectivity from outside the corporate network required that TCP port 3389 be left open in the organization’s perimeter firewall. For
security reasons, however, many businesses choose to keep this port closed to help safeguard
computers on the internal network from unauthorized access. RD Gateway overcomes this
limitation by transmitting RDP traffic over TCP port 443 using an encrypted HTTPS—Secure
Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) over HTTP—tunnel. RD Gateway thus requires only that TCP port 443, the SSL/TLS port, be left open on perimeter firewalls, which is
usually the case in most corporate environments.
Figure 4-17 shows a basic RD Gateway scenario where home office workers use RD Gateway
to remotely connect to terminal servers and their company computers over the Internet.
Internal firewall—
optional (port
3389 open)
External firewall
(port 443 open)
2 RD Gateway
RDP
3 RD Session
Host servers
-orRDP
1 Home Laptop
RDP over SSL
RDP over SSL
Active Directory
Domain Services
Internet
3 Computers with
Remote Desktop Enabled
Corporate/Private Network
Basic Scenario: Home Office Worker Connecting to CorpNet Computers Through RD Gateway
FIGURE 4-17 How RD Gateway works for the home office usage scenario.
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Installing and Configuring RD Gateway
At a high level, installing and configuring an RD Gateway server involves the following steps:
1. Install the RD Gateway role service on a Windows Server 2008 R2 server using any
of the methods described in the section titled “Installing an RD Session Host Server”
­earlier in this chapter.
2. Obtain an SSL-compatible X.509 certificate, and install it on your new RD Gateway
server. This certificate can be issued by a trusted public certification authority (CA) that
participates in the Microsoft Root Certificate Program Members program, or you can
use a certificate issued by Microsoft Certificate Services running on a server in your corporate network or even a self-signed certificate that has been exported and imported
into the computer certificate store of the client computers that will need to access the
RD Gateway server from outside the corporate network.
3. Create a Remote Desktop Connection Authorization Policy (RD CAP) on your RD
Gateway server. This RD CAP allows administrators to specify the connection criteria
that must be met to connect to the RD Gateway server. For example, a simple RD CAP
might require a connecting user’s account to be a member of a specific security group
or it might require the user’s computer to have a computer account that belongs to a
specific group. The RD CAP could also require that the user use a smart card to connect
through the RD Gateway. Users and computers are granted access to the RD Gateway
server if they meet the conditions specified in the RD CAP. RD CAPs simplify administration and enhance security by providing administrators with greater control over which
users and computers are allowed to access resources on the internal network. RD CAPs
can also be used to control how device redirection is handled when users remotely
connect to terminal servers. And you can create multiple RD CAPs to define different
connectivity conditions for different groups of users and computers.
4. Create a Remote Desktop Resource Authorization Policy (RD RAP) on your RD Gateway
server. This RD RAP allows administrators to specify the internal resources (RD Session
Host and RD Virtualization Host servers and client computers that have Remote
Desktop enabled on them) that remote users will be allowed to connect to through the
RD Gateway server. When you create an RD RAP, you can create a security group containing computer accounts and associate this group with the RD RAP. For example, an
RD RAP might specify that users who are members of the HR Users security group are
allowed to connect only to computers that are members of the HR Computers group.
Then you could create a second RD RAP that specifies that users who are members of
the Finance Users group are allowed to connect only to computers that are members
of the Finance Computers group. Remote users using RD Gateway to connect to the
internal corporate network are then granted access to computers on the network only
if they meet the conditions specified in at least one RD CAP and one RD RAP.
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5. After you’ve installed the RD Gateway role service, obtained and installed an SSL
­certificate on your server, and configured at least one RD CAP and one RD RAP, the last
step you need to perform is to configure the RDC client software on users’ computers
to use your RD Gateway server. For small-scale deployments, client configuration can
be done manually through the Settings button on the Advanced tab of the Remote
Desktop Connection dialog box. Clicking this button displays the RD Gateway Server
Settings dialog box:
For larger deployments, configuration can be done using Group Policy with the settings
found at the following location:
User Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Remote
Desktop Services\RD Gateway
6. After your RDC clients have been properly configured, remote users can begin to use
RD Gateway to access resources on your organization’s internal network. For example,
users will be able to access internal servers from over the Internet to run RemoteApp
programs installed and published on RD Session Host servers, access session-based
desktops running on RD Session Host servers, or access virtual desktops running on RD
Virtualization Host servers. Users will also be able to access the desktop of their own
computers on the internal corporate network if Remote Desktop has been enabled on
these computers.
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7. At this point, you can use the RD Gateway Manager snap-in to further configure and
manage your RD Gateway server. For example, you can limit the maximum number
of simultaneous connections allowed through your RD Gateway server to optimize
server performance or ensure compliance with your organization’s security policies.
And you can use RD Gateway Manager to view information about active connections,
including the domain and user ID of the user logged on to the client, IP address of
the client, name of the target computer to which the client is connected, target port
through which the client is connected, date and time when the connection was initiated, length of time that the connection is idle, connection duration, and amount of
data (in kilobytes) that was sent and received by the client through the RD Gateway
server. You can also specify which types of events to monitor for the RD Gateway
server, such as successful or unsuccessful connection attempts. These events will be
displayed in Event Viewer under Application and Services Logs\Microsoft\Windows\
TerminalServices-Gateway.
Understanding Remote Desktop Licensing
The Remote Desktop Licensing (RD Licensing) role service in Windows Server 2008 R2 was
formerly called Terminal Services Licensing (TS Licensing) in Windows Server 2008. RD
Licensing allows you to manage Remote Desktop Services client access licenses (RDS CALs)
for users and devices that connect to your terminal servers. The RD Licensing role service
supports managing RDS CALs for Remote Desktop Session Host servers running Windows
Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, and Windows 2000 Server.
Microsoft licensing requirements require that each user or device that connects to the
Remote Desktop Session Host server have its own RDS CAL to establish a valid connection
with the server. These Remote Desktop Services licenses are separate from and in addition to the valid Windows Server 2008 R2 licenses and Windows Server CALs required on a
Windows-based network.
By installing the RD Licensing role service on a Windows Server 2008 R2 server, administrators can easily deploy, manage, and revoke RDS CALs in a Remote Desktop Services environment. RD Licensing in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for per-user tracking and
reporting, manual revocation of licenses, improved diagnostics, and a Windows Management
Instrumentation (WMI) provider.
RD licensing can be configured either during the installation of the role or afterward.
Figure 4-18 shows the licensing configuration options in the Add Roles Wizard.
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FIGURE 4-18 Installing and configuring the RD Licensing role service.
Remote Desktop Services can be licensed either per device or per user as desired. In addition,
if you select the Configure Later option during role installation, you have a 120-day grace
period before an RD license server (a server running the RD Licensing role service) must be
deployed on your network. This grace period allows you to configure and test your Remote
Desktop Services deployment before rolling it out to your production environment.
For tips on planning licensing for your Remote Desktop Services deployment, see the sidebar
titled “Direct from the Source: Tips for Planning Remote Desktop Services Licensing” later in
this chapter.
New features of RD Licensing in Windows Server 2008 R2 include the following:
n
Removal of support for automatic license server discovery for RD Session Host
servers For Windows Server 2008 R2, you must now use Remote Desktop Session
Host Configuration to specify the name of the license server an RD Session Host or RD
Virtualization Host server should use. For earlier versions of Windows Server—including
Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, and Windows 2000 Server—you could
specify a discovery scope when you installed the RD Licensing role service, where the
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discovery scope determined how the license servers were automatically discoverable by
terminal servers running these earlier operating systems.
n
Changes to the Licensing tab in Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration In
Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration in Windows Server 2008 R2, you must
specify a license server for the RD Session Host server to use. You can either choose
from a list of known license servers or manually enter the name. License servers that
are registered as a service connection point (SCP) in Active Directory Domain Services
(AD DS) will appear in the list of known license servers in Remote Desktop Session Host
Configuration. You can add more than one license server for the RD Session Host server
to use. If more than one license server is added, the RD Session Host server contacts
the license servers in the order in which they appear in the Specified License Servers
area on the Licensing tab in Remote Desktop Session Host Configuration.
n
Manage RDS CALs Wizard Windows Server 2008 R2 now includes a new Manage
RDS CALs Wizard in Remote Desktop Licensing Manager that allows you to easily
­migrate RDS CALs from one license server to another. Migrating RDS CALs can be useful when you need to replace a license server on your network. If you migrate RDS CALs
from a license server running a version of Windows Server earlier than Windows Server
2008 R2, you need to manually delete the RDS CALs from the original license server
after you have migrated the RDS CALs to the new server. The Manage RDS CALs Wizard
also allows you to rebuild the RD Licensing database on your licensing server, but be
aware that doing this deletes any RDS CALs currently installed on the license server.
This means you need to reinstall the RDS CALs on the license server after the licensing
database has been rebuilt.
n
Service Connection Point registration When you install the RD Licensing role service using Server Manager, the license server tries to register itself as an SCP in AD DS.
This causes the license server to appear in the list of known license servers in Remote
Desktop Session Host Configuration. If AD DS is not available when you install the RD
Licensing role service, you can still manually register the license server using Remote
Desktop Licensing Manager.
n
Single RDS CAL pack In versions of Windows Server earlier than Windows Server
2008 R2, you could only purchase RDS CALs in packs of 5 or 20. Beginning with
Windows Server 2008 R2, however, you can now purchase single RDS CALs.
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Direct from the Source: Tips for Planning Remote Desktop
Services Licensing
For environments with a single Remote Desktop Services license server, if the license
server becomes unavailable, previously licensed clients will still be able to connect to
the RD Session Host servers if the clients’ licenses have not expired. However, unlicensed clients will not be able to connect to the RD Session Host servers because they
cannot obtain a license. To provide a window to bring the license server back online
without disrupting users, a redundant license server can be used.
RD licensing server redundancy can be achieved using either of the following methods:
n
Install all RDS CALs on the primary license server and none on the secondary
license server. This approach provides a period of redundancy in the event of
a failure of the primary license server. If you add a second license server with
no licenses, unlicensed clients will be able to connect and obtain a temporary
license from this server if the primary license server is not available. Previously
licensed clients can also still connect if their license has not expired.
n
Install RDS CALs on both the primary license server and the secondary license
server. Ideally, each RD licensing server should contain 50 percent of the available RDS CALs. If the primary licensing server is not available or does not have
valid RDS CALs, clients are redirected to the secondary licensing server for
license issuance.
Because licensed clients attempt to renew their license seven days prior to expiration,
these redundant configurations help to ensure uninterrupted RD Session Host server
connectivity for up to seven days if one of the license servers fails.
It is also recommended that you regularly back up Remote Desktop Services licensing data to protect the data from accidental loss because of hardware or storage failure. In the event that the original data on the hard disk is inaccessible for any reason,
the licensing data can be restored from the archived copy. For additional security, a
­redundant license server can be used.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Understanding Remote Desktop Virtualization Host
Remote Desktop Virtualization Host (RD Virtualization Host) is a completely new role service of the Remote Desktop Services role in Windows Server 2008 R2. Similar to how the RD
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Session Host role service allows users to run RemoteApp programs and access session-based
desktops, the RD Virtualization Host service allows them to access virtual desktops (the
desktops of virtual machines) through Remote Desktop Services. These virtual machines that
­users access using the RD Virtualization Host role service must be running on a server running Windows Server 2008 R2 that has the Hyper-V server role installed.
RD Virtualization Host is an important component of Microsoft’s Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure (VDI), which is described in the section titled “Understanding Microsoft Virtual
Desktop Infrastructure” later in this chapter.
How RD Virtualization Host Works
The RD Virtualization Host role service integrates with the Hyper-V server role of Windows
Server 2008 R2 and must be installed on a server that has the Hyper-V server role installed.
This means that all the requirements of running Hyper-V, such as support for hardware virtualization, must be met by servers you want to install the RD Virtualization Host role service
on. For more information about the requirements for installing the Hyper-V server role, see
Chapter 2, “Server Virtualization.”
You can install the RD Virtualization Host role service on a Windows Server 2008 R2 server
using any of the methods described in the section titled “Installing an RD Session Host
Server” earlier in this chapter. After you’ve installed the role service, you can use your RD
Virtualization Host server to make virtual desktops available to your users in two forms:
n
Personal virtual desktops In this scenario, you assign a single virtual machine to a
single domain user account. Only one virtual machine can be assigned to each user,
and only that particular user can remotely access that specific virtual machine. Each
time the user establishes a Remote Desktop connection to the RD Virtualization Host
server, the user is connected to the same virtual machine. Any customizations the user
makes to her virtual desktop during a session are saved so that they can be available
the next time the user accesses her virtual machine.
n
Virtual desktop pools In this scenario, you begin by creating a pool of identically
configured virtual machines. These virtual machines must have the same operating
system and applications installed, the same service packs and updates applied, the
same configuration settings, and so on. These virtual machines must also not have already been assigned to users as personal virtual desktops. When the user establishes
a Remote Desktop Connection to the RD Virtualization Host server, he is connected
to any of the virtual machines in the pool. Because all virtual machines in the pool are
configured identically, the user experience is the same regardless of which virtual desktop he connects to. By default in this scenario, any customizations the user makes to
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his virtual desktop during a session are not saved and are discarded when the user logs
off of his Remote Desktop session. However, by combining roaming user profiles with
Folder Redirection and storing the roaming profiles and redirected folders on a separate server, any changes that the user makes to his virtual desktop can be saved so that
they will be available the next time the user accesses a virtual desktop from the pool.
With personal virtual desktops, each user has exclusive use of a single, dedicated virtual
­machine. The user can also have Administrator access to her virtual machine and is thus able
to configure any aspect of her virtual machine. With virtual desktop pools on the other hand,
users share access to a collection of identically configured virtual machines, and they do not
have Administrator access to these virtual machines.
Personal virtual desktops and virtual desktop pools can also be provisioned to users in one of
two possible ways:
n
By using RemoteApp and Desktop Connection as described in the section titled
“Configuring RemoteApp and Desktop Connections” found earlier in this chapter.
n
By using RD Web Access as described in the section titled “Installing, Configuring, and
Using RD Web Access” found earlier in this chapter.
For additional information on how the RD Virtualization Host role service works, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: How RD Virtualization Host Works.”
The section following this one demonstrates how to provision personal virtual desktops to
users by using RD Web Access. For full walkthroughs of each of these four possible scenarios,
see the following Step-by-Step guides in the TechNet Library:
n
Deploying Personal Virtual Desktops by Using RemoteApp and Desktop Connection
Step-by-Step Guide, found at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=154801.
n
Deploying Virtual Desktop Pools by Using RemoteApp and Desktop Connection Stepby-Step Guide, found at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=154802.
n
Deploying Personal Virtual Desktops by Using Remote Desktop Web Access Step-byStep Guide, found at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=147909.
n
Deploying Virtual Desktop Pools by Using Remote Desktop Web Access Step-by-Step
Guide, found at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=147906.
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Direct from the Source: How RD Virtualization Host Works
The components needed for remote desktop virtualization include the following:
n
RD Virtualization Host server The virtual machine (VM) images are hosted
here. A service, the VM Host Agent, runs on this machine. This service is controlled by the RD Connection Broker server and can perform certain actions
such as spinning up a VM image.
n
RD Connection Broker server Given an authenticated user and a request
for a particular application or desktop (for example, Microsoft Office Excel
or “my desktop”), the RD Connection Broker server determines which RD
Virtualization Host server or VM image can best satisfy the RDS client’s
request.
n
Redirector This component is an RD Session Host server whose purpose is
to query the RD Connection Broker server on behalf of the RDS client. After
querying the RD Connection Broker server, the redirector sends an RDP
­redirection packet back to the RDS client.
n
RD Web Access server This component lets an end user view a Web page
that shows the user all the applications and desktops he can access.
n
RDS Assignment Database This is a representation of the Active
Directory Schema extensions that provide user mappings to a particular RD
Virtualization Host server image.
Role of the RD Connection Broker Server
Remote desktop virtualization uses an RD Connection Broker to determine where the
user is redirected. If a user is assigned and requests a personal virtual desktop, the RD
Connection Broker server redirects the user to this virtual machine. If the virtual machine is not turned on, the RD Virtualization Host server turns on the virtual machine
and then connects the user. If the user is connecting to a shared virtual machine pool,
the RD Connection Broker server first checks to see if the user has a disconnected session in the pool. If the user has a disconnected session, she is reconnected to that virtual machine. If the user does not have a disconnected session, a virtual machine in that
pool is dynamically assigned to the user, if one is available.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
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Provisioning Personal Virtual Desktops Using RD Web Access
To demonstrate some of the capabilities of the new RD Virtualization Host role service,
let’s walk through the steps of assigning a personal virtual desktop to a user and enabling
the user to access this virtual desktop using an RD Web Access Web site on the corporate
network.
1. Begin by installing the Remote Desktop Virtualization Host role service on a server
­running Windows Server 2008 R2 that already has the Hyper-V role installed on it.
You can install the RD Virtualization Host role service on the Standard, Enterprise, or
Datacenter edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 using any of the methods described
earlier in the section titled “Installing an RD Session Host Server.” For example, you
can launch the Add Roles Wizard from Server Manager and use this wizard to add the
Remote Desktop Virtualization Host role service to your server:
2. Make sure you also have an RD Session Host server, RD Web Access server, and RD
Connection Broker server deployed on your network. These three servers perform the
following functions:
n
The RD Session Host server is used to provide redirection for virtual desktops. By
default, an RD Session Host server uses IP address redirection, which means that
a client that queries the RD Connection Broker is redirected to its existing session
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by using the IP address of the server where its session resides. When you install
the RD Session Host role service on a server for this purpose, make sure that none
of the check boxes are selected on the Configure Client Experience page of the
Add Roles Wizard. Also, don’t install any RemoteApp programs on the server
because users will not be able to access any RemoteApp programs on this server
or remotely connect session-based desktops on the server. In other words, the
RD Session Host server you use to provide redirection for virtual desktops should
be used only for this purpose and not to host RemoteApp programs or sessionbased desktops.
n
The RD Web Access server is used to make virtual desktops running on the RD
Virtualization Host server available to users on your network.
n
The RD Connection Broker server is used for coordinating the availability of virtual desktops for users and making sure a virtual machine is running before a user
connection is established. Note that you need an RD Connection Broker server
only if you are using RD Web Access to provision virtual desktops to users as you
are doing here; if instead you are using RemoteApp and Desktop Connections to
provision virtual desktops, you don’t require an RD Connection Broker server.
All three of these servers, plus the RD Virtualization Host server you deployed in the
previous step, must be joined to your AD DS domain.
3. On your RD Virtualization Host server, which in this example is named HVR2.contoso.
com, create a new virtual machine using the Hyper-V Manager snap-in. For information
on how to do this, see the section titled “Creating a Virtual Machine” in Chapter 2. In
this walkthrough, you assign the new virtual machine the name SEA-CLI-789.
4. Install a Windows client operating system such as Windows 7 Enterprise edition in your
new virtual machine. Note that you cannot provision Windows Server operating systems such as Windows Server 2008 R2 by using RD Virtualization Host—the role service
is designed to provision only Windows client operating systems to users.
5. After the OOBE appears after the final reboot during the install, assign the same name
to the guest operating system as the virtual machine itself has for its name, which in
this example is SEA-CLI-789.
6. Now log on to the guest operating system of the virtual machine using a user account
that is a member of the local Administrators group on the machine. Then join the
­virtual machine to the domain.
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7. Next, log on again using an account that has administrative privileges and enable
Remote Desktop in the guest operating system of the virtual machine:
8. Click Select Users, and add the domain user who will be assigned this personal virtual
desktop to the local Remote Desktop Users group on the machine. In this example, the
user who will be assigned this personal virtual desktop is user Karen Berg (CONTOSO\
kberg).
9. The next thing you need to do is enable Remote RPC for Remote Desktop Services. To
configure this, open Registry Editor and navigate to the following key:
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server
Under this registry key, change the value of the AllowRemoteRPC registry entry from 0
to 1, and then close Registry Editor.
10. Open Windows Firewall from Control Panel, and allow the Remote Service
Management firewall exception for the domain firewall profile.
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11. Next, open a command prompt, with the Run As Administrator option, and type the
following series of commands (modify these commands if your RD Virtualization Host
server has a name other than HVR2 and if your domain is not CONTOSO):
wmic /node:localhost RDPERMISSIONS where TerminalName=”RDP-Tcp” CALL
AddAccount “contoso\HVR2$”,1
wmic /node:localhost RDACCOUNT where “(TerminalName=’RDP-Tcp’ or
TerminalName=’Console’) and AccountName=’contoso\\HVR2$’” CALL
ModifyPermissions 0,1
wmic /node:localhost RDACCOUNT where “(TerminalName=’RDP-Tcp’ or
TerminalName=’Console’) and AccountName=’contoso\\HVR2$’” CALL
ModifyPermissions 2,1
wmic /node:localhost RDACCOUNT where “(TerminalName=’RDP-Tcp’ or
TerminalName=’Console’) and AccountName=’contoso\\HVR2$’” CALL
ModifyPermissions 9,1
The new WMI provider for Remote Desktop Services included in Windows Server
2008 R2 provides full read/write capabilities for configuring nearly all Remote Desktop
Services server settings, and the commands previously listed use the Windows
Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) interface to add RDP protocol
permissions to the virtual machine. You can find more information about the RDS WMI
provider on MSDN at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa383515.aspx.
12. After you’ve add RDP protocol permissions to the virtual machine, restart Remote
Desktop Services to make the changes take effect. You can restart Remote Desktop
Services from the command line by using these commands:
net stop termservice
net start termservice
13. Log off of the guest operating system on the virtual machine. If you like, you can also
shut down or hibernate the virtual machine because after the virtual machine has been
provisioned to Karen she will be able to start it using RPC when she tries to access it.
14. At this point, the virtual machine is ready to be provisioned to Karen as her personal
virtual desktop. Before you can do this, however, you need to configure your RD Web
Access server to work together with your RD Connection Broker server. To do this, begin by adding the computer account for your RD Web Access server to the RD Web
Access Computers security group on your RD Connection Broker server.
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15. Next, log on to the RD Web Access Web site using an account that has administrative
privileges for the domain.
16. On the Configuration tab of the RD Web Access Web site, select An RD Connection
Broker Server as the source your RD Web Access server will use and then type the name
of your RD Connection Broker server:
17. Now you are ready to configure the personal virtual desktop on the RD Connection
Broker server and assign the personal virtual desktop to user Karen Berg. To do this,
begin by logging on to your RD Connection Broker server using an account that
has administrative privileges for your domain. After you have logged on, click Start,
Administrative Tools, Remote Desktop Services, Remote Desktop Connection Manager.
Then with the Remote Desktop Connection Manager snap-in open, click Configure
Virtual Desktops Wizard in the Actions pane to launch the Configure Virtual Desktops
Wizard:
Chapter 4 Remote Desktop Virtualization
18. On the Specify An RD Virtualization Host Server page, type the NetBIOS name or
FQDN of your RD Virtualization Host server (which is HVR2.contoso.com in this
­example) and click Add:
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19. On the Configure Redirection Settings page, type the NetBIOS name or FQDN of the
RD Session Host server that will be used to provide redirection to the virtual desktops:
20. On the Specify An RD Web Access Server page, your RD Web Access server should
­already be specified because you previously used the RD Web Access Web site to
­specify your RD Connection Broker server as the source for your RD Web Access server:
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21. The final page of the wizard summarizes the changes that will be made:
Leave the Assign Personal Virtual Desktop check box selected as shown in the
­preceding screen shot, as doing this will automatically launch the Assign Personal
Virtual Desktop Wizard after you’ve clicked Finish.
22. When the Assign Personal Virtual Desktop Wizard opens, select user Karen Berg from
AD DS and then select the virtual desktop you want to assign to her from the Virtual
Machine list box:
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23. Alternatively, if your AD DS domain functional level has already been raised to
Windows Server 2008 R2, you will also be able to assign personal virtual desktops to
users by using the new Personal Virtual Desktop tab on the properties sheet for the
user’s account:
24. If you want to assign additional personal virtual desktops to other users in your
­organization, you can use the Remote Desktop Connection Manager snap-in on your
RD Connection Broker server to do this:
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25. Now user Karen Berg can at last connect to her personal virtual desktop. To do this, she
logs on to her physical computer, opens Internet Explorer, types https://SEA-RDS4.
contoso.com/RDWeb in the address bar, and presses Enter. This connects her to the
RD Web Access server (which is SEA-RDS4 in this example) and displays the logon page,
where she now enters her credentials:
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26. After Karen has logged on to the RD Web Access Web site, she sees a My Desktop item
on the RemoteApp Programs tab of the page:
27. Karen now double-clicks on the My Desktop icon and the virtual machine associated
with her personal virtual desktop spins up. After a short time—the length of which depends on whether the virtual machine was stopped, hibernated, or running—a Remote
Desktop Services connection is established with the virtual machine and the virtual
desktop is displayed, either in full-screen mode or as shown in the following screen
shot as a separate window on her physical computer’s desktop.
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For more information on the RD Virtualization Host role service, see the “Additional
Resources” section at the end of this chapter.
Deploying Remote Desktop Services
Depending on your organization’s needs, you might decide to deploy one, some, or all
Remote Desktop Services role services on one or more Windows Server 2008 R2 servers in
your environment. Figure 4-19 illustrates a simple Remote Desktop Services deployment
where all of the role services are installed on individual servers in an AD DS domain.
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RD Client
Remote RD Client
RD Web Access
RD Session Host
RD Virtualization Host
RD Connection Broker
RD Gateway
RD Licensing Server
Active Directory
Domain Controller
FIGURE 4-19 An example of a Remote Desktop Services deployment.
The interactions between the various role services in this example include the following:
n
A remote client connecting over the public Internet is using the RD Gateway server to
access an RD Session Host and an RD Virtualization Host located inside the corporate
network.
n
The RD Connection Broker server connects clients to sessions (RemoteApp programs
and session-based desktops) on the RD Session Host server and to virtual machines
(virtual desktops) on the RD Virtualization Host server.
n
The various Remote Desktop Services servers are validated by the RD Licensing server.
If needed, more complex Remote Desktop Services infrastructures can be deployed that
include load-balanced farms of RD Session Hosts and RD Virtualization Hosts. For more
­information, see Remote Desktop Services online help at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/cc770412.aspx.
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Understanding Microsoft Application Virtualization for
Remote Desktop Services
In Chapter 3, “Local Desktop Virtualization,” you learned about Microsoft Application
Virtualization (App-V), a technology that allows you to transform applications into centrally
managed virtual services by sequencing (virtualizing) them for delivery across the network.
This allows you to reduce the cost of application deployment, eliminate application conflicts,
simplify the base image footprint to expedite provisioning of client computers, and generally
increase user productivity. By using App-V 4.5 SP1 (the version available at the time of writing this chapter), you can deploy sequenced applications to users in two different ways:
n
Directly to their client computers By installing the App-V desktop client software onto client computers running 32-bit versions of Windows 7, Windows Vista, or
Windows XP, you can deliver applications to users of those computers without having
to install the applications locally on their computers. The App-V 4.5 SP1 desktop client
is available as part of the Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack (MDOP) for Software
Assurance (SA) for volume-licensed customers.
n
Via RD Session Hosts/Terminal Servers By installing the Microsoft Application
Virtualization for Remote Desktop Services (App-V for RDS) client software on terminal
server computers running 32-bit versions of Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server
2003, you can deliver applications to Terminal Services users without having to install
the applications locally on their computers. As indicated previously in the section titled
“Availability of App-V for RDS” in this chapter, 64-bit App-V for RDS client software that
can be installed on Windows Server 2008 R2 is expected to be released in the first half
of 2010 as part of App-V 4.6, the next version of the product.
The first client software, the App-V desktop client, lets you realize the benefits of App-V in
a standard AD DS networking environment and is typically deployed to resolve side-by-side
application compatibility issues that have been blocking your desktop computer migration
plans. The second client software, App-V for RDS, lets you realize the benefits of App-V for
session-based desktops running on RD Session Hosts/Terminal Servers and helps you reduce
server sprawl and eliminate RD Session Host/Terminal Server silos. Many organizations deploy more RD Session Hosts/Terminal Servers than necessary because of application conflicts
that require different versions of an application to be separated and run on different servers.
The result is often RD Session Hosts/Terminal Servers running at only 25 percent of their capacity or lower. By using App-V for RDS, however, you do not need to separate incompatible
applications onto different servers because the applications are no longer installed on the RD
Session Host/Terminal Server; instead, they are packaged into managed virtual services that
can be streamed to users who need them via Remote Desktop Services sessions.
Figure 4-20 illustrates a basic App-V for RDS infrastructure in which the App-V Sequencer
is first used to virtualize Windows applications. An App-V Streaming Server is then used to
stream the virtualized applications to an RD Session Host/Terminal Server that has the App-V
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for RDS client software installed. Users who establish sessions with the RD Session Host/
Terminal Server can then run the applications within Remote Desktop Services sessions—the
applications run as if they were locally installed on the users’ computers.
Microsoft
Application
Virtualization
Sequencer
Windows
application
Virtualized
application
Streaming
application
delivery
System Center
Application
Virtualization
Streaming Server
App-V
for RDS
RDS Sessions
via RDP
Remote Desktop
Session Host
Server
Remote Desktop
Services Clients
FIGURE 4-20 How App-V for RDS works.
More info For more information on implementing App-V for RDS, see the white paper titled
“Application Virtualization 4.5 for Terminal Services” available from the Microsoft Download
Center at http://download.microsoft.com/download/6/9/0/69095D7C-649D-4A0E-AF0B-17B26EACCF67/App-V%20Terminal%20Services.docx. See also the section titled “Additional Resources
for App-V for RDS” at the end of this chapter.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
Whereas Remote Desktop Services is an installable feature of Windows Server platforms and
App-V for RDS is a downloadable client application, Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
(VDI) is much more than a feature or application. Microsoft VDI, in fact, is an architectural
model that enables entire desktop operating systems, such as Windows 7 Enterprise edition,
to run on a server located in a datacenter.
In a typical VDI deployment, hundreds or even thousands of desktop virtual machines run on
a small number of centralized servers using shared storage such as a storage area network
(SAN). Users then access these virtual machines over the network (and even over the Internet)
using a remote desktop protocol such as Microsoft’s RDP or Citrix’s Independent Computing
Architecture (ICA). A device called a connection broker manages the connection between the
user’s computer and the servers. Users can either be assigned their own virtual desktops or
access a shared pool of virtual desktops, in which case they simply use the next virtual desktop that is available when one is needed. With VDI, administrators can dynamically provision
virtual desktops as needed, move them across different hardware and storage platforms,
back up running and stored virtual machines, reassign user rights to another device in case of
endpoint failure, and manage other aspects of the virtualization environment.
The result of implementing VDI is that the organization’s entire desktop infrastructure becomes centralized in the datacenter. Desktop operating systems and applications are stored
and executed on the server and thus use the computing resources of the server. In other
words, the workload is on the server side while the presentation is on the client side. At first
glance, this sounds a lot like Terminal Services, a technology that has already been available
on Windows Server platforms for over a decade and which is now called session virtualization
in Windows Server 2008 R2 and is based upon Remote Desktop Services. However, there are
some significant differences between VDI and session virtualization.
For instance, in session virtualization multiple users simultaneously access a single desktop
(specifically, a Windows Server desktop) or application (a RemoteApp program) and therefore
must share the operating system or application. This means that session virtualization users
cannot have Administrator access, because this would allow them to perform certain tasks
(such as rebooting the operating system or uninstalling the application) that would cause
problems for other users connected to the RD Session Host server. In VDI, however, each user
has access to an individual desktop (specifically, a Windows client desktop), and users can
even be granted exclusive access to their own personal virtual desktops. The result is that
VDI users can have (but are not required to have) Administrator access if desired to an entire
virtual desktop, which can give them greater flexibility and power. And although session virtualization offers a highly scalable solution for desktop and application virtualization, VDI is
ideal for environments where virtual machine-based isolation is an important consideration,
because the virtual desktop of one VDI user is completely isolated from that of another user.
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You already learned about the concept of personal virtual desktops and virtual desktop
pools in the section titled “Understanding Remote Desktop Virtualization Host” earlier in this
chapter. And Windows Server 2008 R2 Remote Desktop Services is indeed one of the key
components of Microsoft’s VDI architectural model. But there are other components in this
model, so let’s examine these now.
Understanding Microsoft’s VDI Architecture
At a high level, Microsoft’s VDI architecture consists of three components:
n
Hardware layer This layer includes one or more datacenter servers that support
­hardware virtualization and shared storage such as a SAN, where the virtual machines
can be stored. A good place to start for planning the hardware layer of your VDI
­infrastructure is the Windows Server Marketplace found at ­
http://www.windowsservercatalog.com/marketplace/.
n
Client access points This component includes client computing devices, which can be
either rich clients (Windows PCs) or thin clients (Windows terminal devices) connected
to the datacenter over an internal private network or even over the Internet.
n
Licensing There are two types of licensing requirements for implementing a
Microsoft VDI solution:
o
VDI suite licensing The use rights for technology developed by Microsoft that
provides virtualization, management, desktop-delivery, and application-delivery
capabilities you can use to deploy a VDI infrastructure within your organization.
o
Additional licensing In addition to the use rights for the server and management infrastructure included in the VDI suite, you also need to purchase licenses
to run virtual copies of Windows client operating systems on your servers so that
your users can legally access the virtual desktops. These licenses are known as
Windows Virtual Enterprise Centralized Desktop (Windows VECD).
In addition, Microsoft’s VDI offering can be enhanced by integrating it with third-party products such as Citrix XenDesktop. Before we examine the various VDI suites currently offered by
Microsoft, let’s examine the licensing requirements for VDI clients.
Understanding Windows Virtual Enterprise Centralized Desktop
Windows Virtual Enterprise Centralized Desktop (Windows VECD) is a type of license offered
by Microsoft that lets you license virtual copies of Windows client operating systems (such as
Windows 7) running on servers (such as Windows Server 2008 R2 servers with the Hyper-V
server role installed). Windows VECD is a device-based annual subscription, which means the
total number of licenses must equal the total number of devices (thick or thin clients) accessing the virtual environment.
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Microsoft offers two versions of Windows VECD:
n
Windows VECD for SA This version is intended for PCs that are already covered ­under
Software Assurance (SA) volume licensing. You can use this type of licensing if your VDI
deployment includes blade PCs residing in the datacenter, if you need to be able to
remote boot virtual machines from a network storage device, or if you need to deploy
virtual machines on portable media.
n
Windows VECD This version is intended for all other devices, such as PCs not covered
under SA, thin clients, and anything else. This version comes bundled with Software
Assurance, however, so that you can get more out of your license if needed. You can
use this type of licensing if your VDI deployment includes any of the requirements just
described and you also need to deliver virtual machines to work-from-home employees
who use their own PCs or to contractors or offshore workers who use their own PCs.
Tip For a good explanation of why Windows 7 is the best client operating system for Microsoft
VDI solutions, see “Windows 7 with RDP7: Best OS for VDI” on the Remote Desktop Services
(Terminal Services) Team Blog at http://blogs.msdn.com/rds/archive/2009/11/02/windows-7-withrdp7-best-os-for-vdi.aspx.
Understanding Microsoft VDI Suites
Microsoft offers two packaged VDI solutions that include server and management platforms
and tools together with licensing (as shown in Figure 4-21):
n
VDI Standard suite This VDI offering is designed to help organizations deploy the
­basic infrastructure for VDI and includes the following components:
o
Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 as the virtualization host (or you can separately license
Windows Server 2008 R2 and use the Hyper-V server role for this purpose)
o
An integrated management suite consisting of System Center Virtual Machine
Manager 2008 R2, System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2, and System
Center Configuration Manager 2007 R2
o
Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack (MDOP), which, among other technologies,
includes Microsoft Application Virtualization (App-V)
o
Connection Brokering capability through Windows Server 2008 R2 Remote
Desktop Services
Note that the use rights for Remote Desktop Services in the Standard VDI suite are restricted. This means that delivery of session-based desktops or RemoteApp programs
using RD Session Host servers is not allowed for this VDI offering—RD Session Host
servers can be used only for VDI-specific purposes—that is, they can run only in redirection mode. The Standard VDI suite allows VDI desktop virtualization only where
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there is a separate virtual machine image of the operating system for each accessing
device.
n
VDI Premium suite This VDI offering is designed for customers who want additional
flexibility in their VDI deployment and includes everything the Standard Suite includes
plus the following:
o
Full (unrestricted) Remote Desktop Services capability, including the option to
deploy session-based desktops in addition to VDI desktops.
o
Microsoft Application Virtualization for Remote Desktop Services (App-V for RDS)
VDI Standard Suite
Application
Delivery
Microsoft
Desktop Optimization Pack
for Software Assurance
Desktop
Delivery
Windows Server 2008
Remote Desktop Services
Management
Use rights for System
Center components
restricted to VDI
scenario
Virtualization
Platform
Microsoft
System Center
Operations Manager
2007 R2
Microsoft
System Center
Configuration Manager
2007 R2
VDI Premium Suite
Microsoft
Desktop Optimization Pack
for Software Assurance
(Restricted to
VDI scenario only)
Microsoft
System Center
Virtual Machine
Manager 2007 R2
Microsoft
Hyper-V Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008
Remote Desktop Services
Microsoft
System Center
Operations Manager
2007 R2
Microsoft
System Center
Configuration Manager
2007 R2
Microsoft
RemoteApp
(Unrestricted use
rights)
Microsoft
System Center
Virtual Machine
Manager 2007 R2
Microsoft
Hyper-V Server 2008 R2
FIGURE 4-21 Comparing the Standard and Premium VDI suites.
Both of Microsoft’s VDI suites are licensed using the same device-based annual subscription
model used for Windows VECD, which makes it easier for your organization to budget the
implementation of a Microsoft VDI solution. Licensing of System Center applications are also
limited in both suites to accessing devices to which the VDI suite license is assigned.
As Figure 4-22 shows, both of these VDI suites can also be deployed within your organization
in two different ways:
n
Using an RD Connection Broker server In this scenario, the connection broker for the
VDI infrastructure is a Windows Server 2008 R2 server that has the Remote Desktop
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Connection Broker role service installed. This all-Microsoft VDI scenario mainly targets
low-complexity deployments as indicated in Table 4-9.
n
Using a third-party connection broker such as Citrix XenDesktop This
Microsoft+Partner scenario targets high-complexity deployments as indicated in
Table 4-9.
Application
Delivery
Options
Microsoft
Application Virtualization
Desktop
Delivery
Options
3rd Party Connection
Broker
Microsoft
RemoteApp
Citrix
Windows Server 2008 R2
Remote Desktop Services
Windows
VECD
High-Complexity
Deployments
Microsoft
System Center
Low-Complexity
Deployments
Windows Server 2008 R2
Hyper-V
Microsoft
Hyper-V Server 2008 R2
FIGURE 4-22 Microsoft VDI solutions can be deployed using either a Microsoft or third-party connection
broker.
TABLE 4-9 Examples
of Low-Complexity and High-Complexity VDI Deployments
Comparison
Low-complexity environment
(Microsoft inbox solution)
High-complexity environment
(Microsoft+Partner solution)
Management
Single site
Multiple sites
Static image placement
Dynamic image placement
Basic user profile management
Advanced profile management
Local area network (LAN) only
Local area network/wide area network
(LAN/WAN)
Client experience
USB support limited to PnP devices
Broad USB device support
How Microsoft VDI Works
Because Microsoft VDI solutions can be deployed in so many different ways to meet the
needs of individual customers, understanding how VDI works can be difficult to grasp at first.
To get you started, Figure 4-23 shows a simple Microsoft inbox VDI environment and walks
you through the steps of a launching a virtual desktop.
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Note In this example, each Remote Desktop Services role service is running on a separate
server. This was done only to simplify your understanding of the VDI connection process. In fact,
if you don’t have any users connecting remotely from over the Internet, you can conceivably run
all Remote Desktop Services role services on a single server, though this would be suitable only
for very small VDI deployments.
RD
Connection
Broker
RD
Web Access
RDP
Client
AD DS
External
Firewall
Internet
2
6
1
7
5
3
4
RD
Gateway
RD
Session Host
8
RD
Virtualization
Host
FIGURE 4-23 An example of how a user accesses his virtual desktop in a simple VDI environment.
The steps shown in this diagram are as follows:
1. The user opens Internet Explorer on his computer and logs on to the RD Web Access
Web page. In this example, the user works from home and has to use his Internet connection to access the RD Web Access Web server, which is behind (or on) the corporate
firewall.
2. The RD Web Access server queries the RD Connection Broker server to retrieve a list of
virtual desktops that the user is allowed to use, and this list is then displayed to the user
on the RD Web Access Web page. In this example, assume that the RD Virtualization
Host has been configured for personal virtual desktops; this means the RD Web Access
Web site will publish only one virtual desktop to the user—namely, the virtual desktop
that has been assigned to the user.
3. The user clicks on a virtual desktop icon on the RD Web Access server to try and launch
the virtual desktop. This causes the Remote Desktop Connection (RDC) client running
on the user’s computer to establish a Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) connection with
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the RD Gateway server, which is also located behind (or on) the corporate firewall. (All
other Remote Desktop Services servers are safely hidden behind the corporate firewall.)
4. After the RD Gateway server has authorized the user’s connection attempt, the RD
Gateway server forwards the user’s connection to the RD Session Host. This RD Session
Host is running in redirection mode, which means its sole purpose is to redirect users to
their virtual machines.
5. The RD Session Host requests the RD Connection Broker server to orchestrate the requested virtual machine for the user.
6. The RD Connection Broker server queries AD DS to find the virtual machine assigned to
the particular user.
7. The RD Connection Broker requests the correct RD Virtualization Host server to orchestrate the delivery of the user’s virtual machine. The RD Connection Broker then returns
the IP address of the user’s virtual machine via a redirection packet to the RD Session
Host server, which forwards the packet via the RD Gateway server to the RDC client
running on the user’s computer.
8. The RDC client now establishes a connection to the virtual machine running on the RD
Virtualization Host server via the RD Gateway server, and the user’s personal virtual
desktop is displayed on the user’s computer.
If you find any of the steps confusing, refer back to the section in this chapter that deals with
the particular Remote Desktop Services role service or services mentioned in the step.
Additional Resources
The resources listed in this section were either referred to in the chapter or provide
­additional information concerning concepts and products discussed in this chapter.
Additional Resources on Remote Desktop Services
If you’re already familiar with Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008, a good place to
start learning about the new features and enhancements found in Windows Server 2008 R2
is “What’s New in Remote Desktop Services” in the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd560658.aspx.
Another good place to start is the Remote Desktop Services features page at
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/rds-product-home.aspx. Here you will
find information about the benefits of this technology, product details, case studies, and
links to technical resources, communities, and partners. This site is useful to both IT pros and
­business decision makers.
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The Remote Desktop Services page on the Windows Server TechCenter is the starting point
for IT pros who want to dig deeper into all aspects of Remote Desktop Services. This page
can be found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windowsserver/ee236407.aspx.
You can use the Infrastructure Planning and Design (IPD) guide for Windows Server
2008 R2 Remote Desktop Services to help you plan Remote Desktop Services deployment for your environment. You can download this guide from http://go.microsoft.com/
fwlink/?LinkId=177881.
The walkthroughs found in this chapter for various Remote Desktop Services role services are
only the beginning of demonstrations of RDS functionality. For more detailed walkthroughs
you can set up and test in your lab environment, see the Remote Desktop Services Step-byStep Guides available in the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
dd736539.aspx.
The installed Help content for each Remote Desktop Services role is an important learning
resource. This content can be found in the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/library/cc770412.aspx.
To learn more about the Windows PowerShell scripting capabilities of Remote Desktop
Services, see the Remote Desktop Services page on the Script Center at http://technet.­
microsoft.com/en-us/scriptcenter/ee364707.aspx.
If you have any technical questions about Remote Desktop Services, try posting them to one
of these TechNet forums:
n
Hyper-V forum at http://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/en-US/­
windowsserver2008r2virtualization/threads (preferred forum)
n
Terminal Services forum at http://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/en-US/
winserverTS/threads
Finally, to keep abreast of the latest news about Remote Desktop Services and for
­walkthroughs, tips, and tricks, see the Remote Desktop Services (Terminal Services) Team
Blog at http://blogs.msdn.com/rds/.
Additional Resources for App-V for RDS
For information about licensing App-V for RDS for your environment, see “Remote Desktop
Services Licensing” at http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/rds-product-­
licensing.aspx.
The starting place for IT pros who want to learn more about App-V is Application
Virtualization TechCenter, found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/appvirtualization/­
default.aspx.
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You can find a link where you can download the white paper “Application Virtualization 4.5
for Terminal Services” at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/appvirtualization/cc843994.aspx.
To learn the latest news about App-V 4.6 and App-V for RDS, see the App-V Team Blog at
http://blogs.technet.com/softgrid/.
Additional Resources for Microsoft VDI
You can find a brief overview of the benefits and available offerings of Microsoft VDI on the
Windows “Enterprise Solutions: Virtualization” page at http://www.microsoft.com/windows/
enterprise/solutions/virtualization/improve-flexibility.aspx.
Information about the components and licensing of VDI suites can be found on the Remote
Desktop Services Licensing page at http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/­rdsvdi.aspx.
For information on why Windows 7 is the best desktop operating system for VDI, see the
following post on the Remote Desktop Services Team Blog: http://blogs.msdn.com/rds/­
archive/2009/11/02/windows-7-with-rdp7-best-os-for-vdi.aspx.
Matt McSpirit, a Partner Technology Specialist at Microsoft, has a three-part video series that
walks you through the steps of setting up a VDI infrastructure. The series is available at the
following locations:
n
http://blogs.technet.com/mattmcspirit/archive/2009/09/24/virtualboytv-com-microsoftvdi-part-i-server-side-configuration.aspx
n
http://blogs.technet.com/mattmcspirit/archive/2009/09/24/virtualboytv-com-microsoftvdi-part-ii-virtual-desktop-configuration.aspx
n
http://blogs.technet.com/mattmcspirit/archive/2009/09/24/virtualboytv-com-microsoftvdi-part-iii-client-side-experiences.aspx
More information about Microsoft VDI is also available at http://www.microsoft.com/vdi/.
Chapter 5
Virtualization Management
Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V is a foundational part of Microsoft’s integrated
­virtualization solution for the enterprise. While Hyper-V alone might be sufficient for some
organizations, others might have virtualized workloads running on the earlier Microsoft
Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 platform or on VMware ESX 3.x Server computers within a
VMware VI3 environment. These organizations can benefit from implementing Microsoft
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2, which has the capability of managing virtualized workloads running on all three host platforms—Hyper-V, Virtual Server, and VMware
ESX Server—from a single, centralized platform. This chapter delves into the workings of
Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2, and explains how it works, its key features and benefits,
key usage scenarios, and how to use it.
Note Unless otherwise indicated, the information in this chapter applies to both Virtual
Machine Manager 2008 and Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2. An earlier product called
Virtual Machine Manager 2007, which was built upon Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 and could be
used to manage only Virtual Server hosts, is discussed only briefly in this chapter when the key
­features of VMM 2008 and VMM 2008 R2 are summarized.
Understanding Virtual Machine Manager
VMM 2008 R2 consists of a number of components that work together at different layers to
facilitate the provisioning and management of virtualized workloads across an enterprise.
This section describes the terminology, different components, and underlying architecture of
VMM 2008 R2 to explain how the product works.
Terminology
The following are some of the key concepts and terms you need to understand when
­working with VMM 2008 R2:
n
Guest operating system profile A saved collection of settings that provide
­customization of the guest operating system. This profile is analogous to a setup
­answer file and contains information about the system settings, administrator account, and domain. Specific guest operating system profiles can be saved in the library
and then used to quickly apply the settings to new virtual machines that are created
from templates.
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
n
Hardware profile A saved collection of settings that define the hardware
­characteristics of a virtual machine. These settings include items such as processors, memory, network, and DVD drives. Specific hardware profiles can be saved in
the library and then used to quickly apply the settings to new virtual machines and
templates.
n
Host Also known as a virtual machine host, a physical computer that can host one or
more virtual machines. Examples of hosts that can be managed using VMM 2008 R2
include servers running Microsoft Windows Server 2008 with the Hyper-V role installed,
servers running Microsoft Hyper-V 2008 Server and Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2,
servers running Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 R2, and servers running VMware ESX.
Hosts are added by using the Add Hosts Wizard in the VMM Administrator Console,
and until you add a host you cannot use VMM to create virtual machines.
n
Library server The component of VMM 2008 that holds stored virtual machines,
­virtual hard disks, .iso files (CD/DVD software images), post-deployment customizations
scripts, hardware configurations, and templates. The library provides a single interface
for all of these virtualization building blocks.
n
Managed host A host that has been added to a VMM library. VMM 2008 R2 a
­ llows
for controlling multiple hosts by adding them to a central library and managing these
hosts from one centralized location. After being added to the library, a host then
becomes a managed host that can be managed by only one VMM Server at a time.
Although multiple VMM Servers can exist on a network, a host can be managed by
only one of these at a time. Should a different VMM Server want to add a host to its
library and manage that host, it would have to take the host away from whatever other
VMM Server had it.
n
Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO) A feature first introduced in VMM
2008 that leverages the monitoring and alerting capabilities of Microsoft System
Center Operations Manager (OpsMgr) 2007 to surface tips or recommendations within
VMM 2008 R2 that can help administrators ensure high performance and an efficient
­virtualized environment.
n
Physical-to-Virtual (P2V) A process in VMM 2008 R2 that converts a physical
­machine into a virtual machine.
n
Stored virtual machine A managed virtual machine whose .vhd files and other
­properties are stored in the VMM library. A new .vmc file is created for a new virtual
machine created from a stored virtual machine.
­n
Template A combination of a guest operating system profile, hardware profile, and
one or more .vhd files. The .vhd file containing the operating system files has computer
identity information removed using Sysprep. Templates are used to create new virtual
machines.
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n
Virtual machine host Also known simply as a host, a virtual machine host is a ­physical
computer that can host one or more virtual machines. Examples of hosts that can
be managed using VMM 2008 R2 include servers running Windows Server 2008 or
Windows Server 2008 R2 with the Hyper-V role installed, servers running Microsoft
Hyper-V Server 2008 or Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2, servers running Microsoft
Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1, and servers running VMware ESX 3.x.
n
Virtual-to-Virtual (V2V) A process in VMM 2008 R2 that converts a virtual machine
running in a VMware environment (specifically, virtual machines running in an ESX
­environment using the .vmdk format) into a virtual machine running in a Windows
Hyper-V environment.
VMM Components
VMM 2008 R2 consist of several core components, as described in the following sections.
These components can be either installed together on a single server or distributed across
multiple servers (or even workstations in some instances).
More Info For more information on installing VMM components, see the section titled
“Installing VMM 2008 R2” later in this chapter.
Virtual Machine Manager Server
The VMM Server is the core component of a VMM 2008 R2 infrastructure—all other VMM
components interact and communicate through the VMM Server. The Virtual Machine
Management Service runs on the VMM Server and enables the running of commands and
transferring of files throughout your VMM infrastructure. The VMM Server also controls all
communications with other VMM components and with virtual machine hosts and VMM
Library Servers via VMM Agents installed on these other computers. The VMM Server also
connects to the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 or 2008 database used to store all VMM configuration information. By default, the VMM Server is also the default VMM Library Server. You
configure and manage the VMM Server using the VMM Administrator Console.
Virtual Machine Manager Library Server
The VMM Library Server maintains the VMM library, a catalog of resources that can be used
to create and configure virtual machines within a VMM infrastructure. The library contains
files stored on library shares and can contain file-based resources, including .iso images,
scripts, virtual hard disks, virtual floppy disks, virtual machine templates, guest operating
­system profiles, and hardware profiles. The library can also contain stored virtual machines
that are not in use.
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Virtual Machine Manager Agent
The VMM Agent manages virtual machines on virtual machine hosts and enables both and
Library Servers to communicate with the VMM Server. Using the VMM Administrator Console
to add a host or a Library Server belonging to a trusted domain automatically installs the
VMM Agent on that managed computer. If the host is not joined to a domain, belongs to an
untrusted domain, or resides on the perimeter network, the VMM Agent must be installed
locally on the host before you can add the host using the VMM Administrator Console.
Virtual Machine Manager Administrator Console
The VMM Administrator Console is an MMC console you can use to manage global configuration settings; manage and monitor hosts and Library Servers; and create, deploy, and manage virtual machines. You can install the VMM Administrator Console on the same computer
as the VMM Server or on a different computer. Installing the VMM Administrator Console
also installs the Windows PowerShell console, which provides Virtual Machine Manager
­cmdlets you can use to perform all tasks that you can do using the VMM Administrator
Console from the command line.
Virtual Machine Manager Self-Service Portal
The VMM Self-Service Portal is an optional, Web-based component you can use to allow
end users to create and manage their own virtual machines. You do this by configuring selfservice policies that control which templates self-service users can use to create their virtual
machines, how many virtual machines they can create, which hosts their virtual machines can
run on, and which actions the users can perform on their virtual machines.
Tip You must install the VMM Administrator Console on the same computer as your
OpsMgr server if you plan on using the Reporting feature of VMM. This is because the
Windows PowerShell console, used by Virtual Machine Manager, is needed by the System
Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 administrator in order to perform tasks from within the
Virtualization Management Pack.
VMM Architecture
VMM 2008 R2 was designed using a modular architecture to provide the greatest flexibility for managing the entire virtualization infrastructure of an enterprise. Using VMM 2008
R2, you can manage virtualized workloads on hosts running Microsoft’s Hyper-V or Virtual
Server 2005 R2 platforms, or on VMware’s ESX Server platform.
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Client Layer
n
Engine Layer
n
Managed Computer Layer
Administrator
Console
Self-Service
Portal
System Center
Operations
Manager
WCF
VMM Server
Managed
Computer
Layer
Hyper-V
Host
P2V
Source
ADO.NET
Library
HTTPS
DCOM
WinRM
Engine Layer
WinRM
Client Layer
WCF
n
WCF
As shown in Figure 5-1, the modular architecture of VMM 2008 R2 consists of three layers
that communicate with one another using well-known documented interfaces:
SQL
Server
VMware
ESX Host
Virtual
Server 2005
Host
FIGURE 5-1 Modular architecture of VMM 2008.
Interlayer Communications
Communications between the different layers of the VMM architecture involve the following
transport mechanisms:
n
Windows Communication Foundation WCF is a Microsoft messaging platform
for building service-oriented applications that is part of the .NET Framework 3.0 and
later. In VMM 2008 R2, WCF is used for all communication between the Client Layer
­applications and the Engine Layer.
n
Windows Remote Management WinRM is the Microsoft implementation of the
WS-Management Protocol, a standard Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)–based,
firewall-friendly protocol that enables hardware and operating systems from different vendors to interoperate. WinRM uses a client/server architecture that includes
a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) listener on the WinRM server that awaits calls
from WinRM clients. In VMM 2008 R2, WinRM is used for communication between the
Engine Layer and Hyper-V hosts, Virtual Server hosts, and Library Servers.
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n
Distributed Component Object Model DCOM is the Microsoft Component Object
Model (COM) specification that defines how components communicate over Windowsbased networks. In VMM 2008 R2, the Engine Layer communicates with Physicalto-Virtual (P2V) source servers in the Managed Computer Layer using Windows
Management Instrumentation (WMI) via DCOM.
n
Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer HTTPS is a combination of
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over Transport Layer Security (TLS). In VMM 2008
R2, HTTPS is used by the Engine Layer for calling virtual infrastructure (VI) Web Services
application programming interfaces (APIs) on VMware ESX hosts in the Managed
Computer Layer.
In addition to the preceding transport mechanisms, VMM also uses ADO.NET for communications between the VMM Server and the Microsoft SQL Server database within the Engine
Layer. ADO.NET is a suite of data access technologies included in the .NET Framework class
libraries that provide access to relational data and XML.
Communications Ports
Communication between Client Layer applications, the Engine Layer, and managed hosts
and Library Servers in the Managed Computer Layer of VMM take place using specific wellknown TCP ports. This means that if the components of VMM are distributed across multiple
computers, the host firewalls on these computers must be configured to enable communications over these ports. If Windows Firewall is enabled on these computers when VMM
components are installed on them, the necessary exceptions are automatically opened in
Windows Firewall.
Table 5-1 summarizes the transport mechanisms and default ports used for communications
by VMM 2008 R2.
TABLE 5-1 Transport
Mechanisms and Default Ports Used for Communications Between
VMM Architectural Components
Communications Endpoints
Transport
Port
VMM Server to VMM Agent (control)
WinRM
80
VMM Server to VMM Agent (data)
BITS
443
VMM Server to remote database
HTTP
1433
VMM Server to P2V source
WinRM
135
VMM Administrator Console to VMM Server
WCF
8100
VMM Administrator Console to VMM Self-Service Portal
WCF
80
VMM Library to virtual machine hosts
BITS
80
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Communications Endpoints
Transport
Port
Virtual machine host to virtual machine host
BITS
80
VMM Self-Service Portal user Internet Explorer session to Virtual
Server host
VMRC
5900
VMM Self-Service Portal user Internet Explorer session to Hyper-V host
RDP
3389
VMM Administrator Console reporting view to System Center
Operations Manager (OpsMgr) reporting server
HTTP
80
VMConnect on Hyper-V hosts for single-class console view
—
2179
319
Table 5-2 summarizes the default ports used by each component of VMM 2008 R2.
TABLE 5-2 Default
Ports Used by Each Component of VMM 2008 R2
Component
Ports Needed
VMM Server
80 (HTTP, WS-MAN)
443 (HTTPS, BITS)
8100 (WCF connections to Windows PowerShell or Administrator
Console)
VMM Library Server
80 (HTTP, WS-MAN)
443 (HTTPS, BITS)
3389 (RDP)
2179 (VMConnect on Hyper-V hosts for single-class console
view)
5900 (VMRC on Virtual Server hosts)
Virtual machine hosts
80 (HTTP, WS-MAN)
443 (HTTPS, BITS)
3389 (RDP)
2179 (VMConnect on Hyper-V hosts for single-class console
view)
5900 (VMRC on Virtual Server hosts)
SQL Server
1433 (Remote SQL instance connection)
1434 (SQL browser service—only needed for initial setup)
VMware Virtual Center server
443 (HTTPS for calling VI Web Services APIs)
VMware ESX hosts
443 (HTTPS for calling VI Web Services APIs)
22 (SSH for sFTP files to/from ESX hosts—not needed for ESX
version 3.5i)
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Client Layer
The Client Layer of the VMM architecture represents the applications and interfaces you use
to interact with VMM 2008 R2. These applications include
n
VMM Administrator Console
n
VMM Self-Service Portal
n
System Center Operations Manager
n
Windows PowerShell Command-Line Interface
Using the applications in the Client Layer, you can perform actions such as creating and
­deploying a new virtual machine, starting or stopping virtual machines, monitoring virtual
machines, and other tasks.
When you perform an action using one of the applications in the Client Layer, these actions
are transformed into a Windows PowerShell script, which is run by the Engine Layer of VMM
to perform the specified action.
More Info For more information concerning Windows PowerShell integration with VMM 2008
R2, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: Windows PowerShell Integration in VMM
2008 R2” in this chapter.
Direct from the Source: Windows PowerShell Integration in
VMM 2008 R2
Most user actions performed using the Client Layer applications result in the creation
of a Windows PowerShell script that specifies the tasks that will be performed by the
Engine Layer of VMM 2008 R2. The computer on which you install the VMM components must have either version 1.0 or 2.0 of Windows PowerShell installed. Windows
PowerShell 1.0 is included in Windows Server 2008 as an optional feature that can
be installed using the Add Features Wizard. Windows PowerShell 2.0 is included in
Windows Server 2008 R2 and is installed by default. Windows PowerShell is a Windows
command-line shell that provides an interactive command prompt and scripting environment built on the .NET Framework. Windows PowerShell introduces the concept of
a cmdlet (pronounced “command-let”), a simple, single-function command-line tool
built into the shell. Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes more than 200 core cmdlets that
can be used alone or in conjunction with one another to perform complex tasks.
Windows PowerShell is also extensible in that additional cmdlets can be created and loaded as a snap-in dynamic-link library (DLL). Windows PowerShell is
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extended to include VMM 2008 R2 cmdlets using the Microsoft.SystemCenter.
VirtualMachineManager.dll snap-in DLL, located in the following folder:
%ProgramFiles%\System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008\Bin
Launching the Windows PowerShell Virtual Machine Manager Command-Line
Interface
The VMM 2008 R2 Windows PowerShell snap-in DLL is loaded when you start Windows
PowerShell using the Windows PowerShell Virtual Machine Manager shortcut on the
Start menu or when clicking the Windows PowerShell button in the VMM Administrator
Console. The Start menu shortcut uses the following command to start Windows
PowerShell and load the snap-in DLL:
C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe
-PSConsoleFile “C:\Program Files\Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine
Manager 2008\bin\cli.psc1” -NoExit
The command starts Windows PowerShell and specifies the console file cli.psc1. The
cli.psc1 Windows PowerShell console file is an XML file containing the following elements, including the reference to Microsoft.SystemCenter.VirtualMachineManager.dll:
<?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”utf-8”?>
<PSConsoleFile ConsoleSchemaVersion=”1.0”>
<PSVersion>1.0</PSVersion>
<PSSnapIns>
<PSSnapIn Name=”Microsoft.SystemCenter.VirtualMachineManager” />
</PSSnapIns>
</PSConsoleFile>
Note that the Microsoft.SystemCenter.VirtualMachineManager.dll snap-in is not loaded
in Windows PowerShell if Windows PowerShell is started by clicking the Windows
PowerShell icon pinned to the taskbar in Windows Server 2008 R2.
Configuring Windows PowerShell for Use with VMM 2008
The following four items are needed to configure Windows PowerShell for use with
VMM 2008 R2:
n
An application-specific profile
n
An application-specific snap-in
n
A security context with sufficient permissions to run custom scripts
n
An application context
The application-specific profile and application-specific snap-in are configured when
the cli.psc1 Windows PowerShell console file is loaded. The security context must be set
by the user.
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Windows PowerShell 2.0 operates using one of the following security contexts:
n
Restricted This is the default PowerShell execution policy. When this policy
is in effect, script execution is disabled; however, Windows PowerShell can
still be used as an interactive command interpreter.
n
AllSigned Specifies that only Authenticode-signed scripts can be executed.
When running a signed script, users are asked if they want to trust the signer
of the script.
n
RemoteSigned Specifies that all scripts that are downloaded from a remote
location must be Authenticode-signed before they can be executed.
n
Unrestricted Windows PowerShell will execute any script. It will still prompt
the user when it encounters a script that has been downloaded from a
­remote location. This is the least-secure setting.
n
Bypass Nothing is blocked, and there are no warnings or prompts.
This ­execution policy is designed for configurations in which a Windows
PowerShell script is built in to a larger application or for configurations in
which Windows PowerShell is the foundation for a program that has its own
security model.
Two Windows PowerShell cmdlets, Get-ExecutionPolicy and Set-ExecutionPolicy, can
be used to view and change the current execution policy. To set the execution policy,
open a Windows PowerShell console with administrative rights and type the following
command:
Set-ExecutionPolicy –ExecutionPolicy <executionpolicy>
where <executionpolicy> is either Restricted, AllSigned, RemoteSigned, Unrestricted, or
Bypass.
The current execution policy can also be viewed by typing the following command:
Get-ExecutionPolicy
The application context sets the specific VMM Server to which all subsequent commands apply. By default, no application (server) context, even the local machine that is
running Windows PowerShell, is assumed. Before executing VMM Windows PowerShell
commands, the application context must be set. Application context refers to the specific instance of the VMM Server against which the requested script is to be run. To get
the application context, type the following command:
get-VMMServer –ComputerName <FQDN computer name>
Note that configuring these Windows PowerShell settings is not needed when tasks are
executed using the VMM Administrator Console user interface. This is because these
tasks are executed internally within the VMM engine without using Powershell.exe.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
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VMM Administrator Console The VMM Administrator Console provides a central location
for administering virtual machines and virtual machine hosts throughout an enterprise. The
Administrator Console does this by creating and executing jobs, which are collections of tasks
that perform virtual machine-related tasks, such as
n
Creating and deploying virtual machines
n
Converting physical machines to virtual machines (P2V)
n
Converting from one type of virtual machine to another type, such as converting a
VMware virtual machine to a Hyper-V virtual machine (V2V)
n
Managing virtual machines running on local or remote virtual machine hosts
n
Refreshing the VMM Administrator Console display
n
Creating and managing virtual machine templates
n
Managing the library resources needed to build virtual machines
n
Delegating management tasks through Role-Based Authorization profiles and the
­Self-Service Portal user roles
The main executable for the Administrator Console is Vmmadmin.exe, which is found in the
following directory:
%ProgramFiles%\System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008\Bin
Vmmadmin.exe loads the Virtual Machine Remote Control ActiveX Control
(Vmrcactivexclient.dll), which provides functionality for viewing (but not interacting with)
­virtual machines within the Administrator Console.
The Administrator Console also includes the Virtual Machine Viewer process
(Virtualmachineviewer.exe), which provides remote access to virtual machines running
on Hyper-V-based managed hosts. Virtualmachineviewer.exe is located in the following
directory:
%ProgramFiles%\Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008\Bin
Virtualmachineviewer.exe is automatically started by Vmmadmin.exe when a connection is made from the Administrator Console to a Hyper-V-based virtual machine.
Virtualmachineviewer.exe uses the Terminal Services ActiveX control, Mstscax.dll, to make a
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) connection to the remote connection port specified when
the host was added to the Administrator Console as a managed host. By default, TCP port
2179 is used for the RDP communication to Hyper-V-based hosts because this is the default
port that the Hyper-V Virtual Machine Management Service (VMMS) listens on for incoming
management connections.
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Virtualmachineviewer.exe can also be launched separately from outside the Administrator
Console interface by using a command prompt as follows:
virtualmachineviewer.exe /host host /computername compname [/port portnumber]
[/vmid vmid] [/vmname name] [/vgsinstalled true | false]
Table 5-3 lists the various Virtualmachineviewer.exe command-line options.
TABLE 5-3 Command-Line
Options for Virtualmachineviewer.exe
Option
Description
/host
The name of the host to connect to. When a host is provided, the
­connection feed is routed through the host so that the virtual machine
is visible even when rebooting or disconnected from the network. This
option cannot be used with the computername parameter.
/computername
The machine name of the virtual machine to connect directly to
through remote desktop. This option cannot be used with the host
­parameter.
/port
Sets the port on which to communicate with the host. This option is
ignored unless used with the host parameter. By default, this is set to
2179.
/vmid
The ID of the virtual machine to connect to. This must be provided to
connect to the virtual machine when the host parameter is specified.
/vmname
A display name for the virtual machine used in the title bar of the
­viewer. This is required when the host parameter is specified.
/vgsinstalled
A Boolean value of true or false that indicates whether the Virtual Guest
Services are installed on the virtual machine. By default, this is set to
false.
Vmmadmin.exe also starts the Virtual Machine Remote Control process (Vmrc.exe) when a
connection is made from the Administrator Console to a Virtual Server 2005 SP1–based virtual machine. Vmrc.exe provides remote access to virtual machines running on Virtual Server
2005 SP1–based managed hosts and is found in the following folder:
%ProgramFiles%\Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008\Bin
Vmrc.exe uses a modified Virtual Network Computing (VNC) protocol to communicate with
Virtual Server 2005 SP1–based virtual machines using the remote connection port that was
specified when the host was added to SCVMM as a managed host. Vmrc.exe can also be
launched directly from outside the Administrator Console by using a command prompt as
follows:
vmrc.exe [-fullscreen] [-viewonly] [-reducecolors] [vmrc server URL]
Table 5-4 lists the various Vmrc.exe command-line options.
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TABLE 5-4 Command-Line
325
Options for VMRC.exe
Option
Description
-fullscreen
Opens the VMRC console in full-screen mode
-viewonly
Disables mouse and keyboard input
-reducecolors
Enables reduced colors mode to increase performance
vmrc server URL
URL to a virtual server
Vmmadmin.exe also starts the VMware viewer process (Vmwareviewer.exe) when a VMwarebased virtual machine is selected in the Administrator Console. Vmwareviewer.exe provides
the initial connection to virtual machines running on VMware ESX Server–based managed
hosts and loads the VMware WebCenter Remote MKS Plug-in control to enable communication with the VMware VirtualCenter Server console.
VMM Self-Service Portal The VMM Self-Service Portal is a Web-based ASP.NET application that provides an interface to allow designated users to perform specific virtual machine
management tasks on managed hosts. The options that are available to Self-Service Portal
users depend on the rights assigned to them by an administrator when their specific user role
is created.
The Self-Service Portal for VMM 2008 R2 can be installed on Internet Information Services
(IIS) 7.0 on Windows Server 2008 or on IIS 7.5 on Windows Server 2008 R2. During installation, you specify which port will be used for the Self-Service Portal. By default, port 80 is
used unless another Web site, such as the Default Web Site, is already using port 80.
The Self-Service Portal is accessed by using Internet Explorer and requires the installation
of ActiveX controls to provide remote access to virtual machines on managed hosts. When
a user uses the Self-Service Portal to view or connect to any of her virtual machines, she is
prompted to install the appropriate ActiveX control in Internet Explorer on her local machine.
Direct from the Source: System Center Operations Manager and
VMM 2008 R2
System Center Operations Manager (OpsMgr), formerly Microsoft Operations Manager
(MOM), is a performance-monitoring and event-monitoring application that can be
used to monitor the health of an enterprise’s IT infrastructure, including devices, operating systems, and applications. An OpsMgr agent is installed on monitored computers
to monitor objects based on a predefined health model. The agents monitor several
sources for events or other alerts and forward the information to a central OpsMgr
server that maintains a database that includes a history of alerts. The OpsMgr server
applies filtering rules to alerts as they arrive and takes appropriate action if needed. A
filtering rule can trigger a notification, such as an e-mail or a pager message; generate
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a network support ticket; or trigger some other workflow intended to correct the cause
of the alert.
OpsMgr uses the term management pack to refer to a set of filtering rules that are
specific to a monitored application. Management packs are available for VMM 2008
as well as several other Microsoft products, such as SQL Server and Exchange Server.
OpsMgr also provides facilities for authoring custom management packs. Although
an administrator role is needed to install agents, configure monitored computers, and
­create or install management packs, rights to monitor alerts can be given to any valid
user account.
OpsMgr agents can be installed on the VMM Server, Windows-based virtualization
hosts, and Windows-based virtual machines, including Windows-based virtual machines running on VMware ESX Server. OpsMgr communicates with the agents using
the WCF over TCP port 5723.
OpsMgr integration with VMware is agentless and is accomplished using third-party
management packs, such as nWorks, communicating directly with the VMware Web
service using public VMware APIs. Users also get limited OpsMgr integration from
VMM itself.
OpsMgr Integration with VMM
System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 provides support for Performance and
Resource Optimization (PRO) for VMM 2008 R2. PRO relies on OpsMgr to monitor and
collect performance data from hosts and virtual machines within an environment. It is
designed to make recommendations or take actions that take advantage of the capabilities provided by a virtualized environment. PRO collects performance and configuration data, which is used to generate tips to help users place, migrate, or reconfigure
virtual machines to ensure workload uptime. PRO tips can be managed from the VMM
Windows PowerShell console or from the VMM Administrator Console.
PRO leverages Intelligent Placement to help determine the best location for any VMs
that are migrated as a result of tips that are generated. PRO provides workload-aware
and application-aware resource optimization within host clusters that are managed
jointly by VMM 2008 and OpsMgr. PRO is designed to help you evaluate whether
­physical resources provided by clustered host servers to the virtual machines deployed
on those hosts are used efficiently.
PRO tips suggest how to remedy the issues raised in the alerts generated by OpsMgr.
For example, a PRO tip might recommend increasing performance for a virtual machine
by moving it to a new host with more resources or by adding an additional CPU to the
virtual machine itself.
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Capabilities of PRO
PRO in VMM 2008 R2 has the following capabilities:
n
Intelligent Placement Provides intelligent placement of multimachine configurations across multiple hosts.
n
Clustering PRO works in a clustered environment.
n
Health-based decisions PRO uses health to determine when remediation
is necessary.
n
In-Guest aware PRO uses data collected from within the guest to suggest
remediation.
n
Virtual machine right-sizing PRO can make recommendations to alter the
configuration of VMs to improve performance.
n
Host-level load balancing PRO can provide a solution that ensures that
the host load is balanced.
n
Automatic Remediation PRO can be set up to automatically implement
suggested remediation.
As noted above, you can configure VMM 2008 R2 to take corrective action automatically based on PRO tips or you can choose to respond to PRO tips manually. The
­following paragraphs describe what happens if you specify that VMM 2008 R2 will
implement PRO tips automatically.
For Hyper-V hosts configured in a host cluster, VMM 2008 R2 can monitor and report
at both the guest and host level and can use the Hyper-V Quick Migration feature to
move virtual machines transparently between nodes in the cluster.
For VMware hosts configured in a host cluster, VMM 2008 R2 can also monitor and
report at both the guest and host level and can use the VMware Live Migration feature
(VMotion) to move virtual machines transparently between nodes in the cluster.
PRO Windows PowerShell Cmdlets
The following Windows PowerShell cmdlets are provided for PRO in VMM 2008 R2:
n
Get-PROTip
n
Dismiss-PROTip
n
Set-PROTip
n
Invoke-PROTip
n
Set-VMHostCluster
The Set-VMMServer SCVMM cmdlet also supports parameters to enable PRO support
in VMM 2008 R2.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
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Engine Layer
The VMM Engine Layer performs the tasks communicated to it by the Client Layer applications. The Engine Layer also controls the resources used by the Managed Computer Layer
components. The Engine Layer is comprised of the following:
n
Virtual Machine Management Service
n
Microsoft SQL Server
n
Other components
Virtual Machine Management Service The Virtual Machine Management Service
(VMMService) is a system service implemented in Vmmservice.exe that provides the WinRM,
WMI, HTTP, and WCF interfaces used for communication with the Client Layer applications
and the Managed Computer Layer components. The Virtual Machine Management Service
is also responsible for executing the individual tasks that make up a job. The Virtual Machine
Management Service is dependent on the SQL Server (Microsoft$VMM$) system service.
SQL Server VMM 2008 R2 employs a Microsoft SQL Server database to maintain the
database used to store library resource objects and certain configuration options, such as
the VMware port number to use for communication with a VMware VirtualCenter Server.
The version of SQL Server that you use with VMM depends on the needs of your environment. For example, if there is no previously installed version of SQL Server in your environment, installing VMM 2008 will install Microsoft SQL Server Express SP3. If you don’t plan
on using the PRO functionality of VMM 2008, SQL Server Express can provide the database
functionality needed by VMM. Using the PRO feature of VMM 2008 R2, however, requires
using OpsMgr 2007 R2, which requires a 32-bit or 64-bit version of either the Standard or
Enterprise edition of Microsoft SQL Server 2008 or SQL Server 2005.
Note The structure of the database and the manner in which VMM 2008 R2 interacts with the
database is the same regardless of which version of SQL Server you are using.
VMM 2008 R2 employs ADO.NET to communicate with SQL Server. ADO.NET is a .NET
Framework-based data-access technology that enables applications to connect to data stores
and manipulate the data contained in them. ADO.NET implements a disconnected database
access model whereby a connection to the database is opened to serve an application request and is then closed after the request has been completed. This mechanism conserves
system resources, has less impact on system performance, and enhances the security of
­databases. ADO.NET employs XML when interacting with a database and converts all of
the data into XML format for database-related operations.
Note If a remote SQL Server database is used, TCP port 1433 must be open for the
­communication.
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Other Engine Layer Components Some of the additional components within the Engine
Layer of VMM 2008 include
n
Authorization Manager
n
A backup and restore engine
n
Virtual Disk Service Providers
Managed Computer Layer
The Managed Computer Layer consists of the various types of virtualization hosts that VMM
2008 manages, including the Library Server and P2V Source servers. The Library Server
­maintains two kinds of resources:
n
Resources not currently in use, such as library resources and P2V Source servers
n
In-use resources, such as Hyper-V hosts, Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 hosts, VMware ESX
hosts, and V2V Source hosts
VMM Agents With the exception of VMware-based hosts, communication between VMM
2008 R2 and the hosts it manages is accomplished using an agent service installed on the
hosts. There are two types of VMM Agents:
n
Host agent
n
P2V agent
A host agent is automatically installed on a managed host when the host is added to VMM
as a managed entity. The host agent is implemented as the VMMAgent service (Vmmagent.
exe) and is used for managing Hyper-V and Virtual Server hosts. In addition to installing the
VMMAgent service on remote managed hosts, the VMMAgent service is also installed by
default on the VMM Server because it is needed for managing the library that is created on
the server. The VMMAgent service depends on the Background Intelligent Transfer Service
(BITS), Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), and Windows Remote Management
(WinRM) services.
A P2V agent is installed during a P2V conversion and is implemented using
Vmmp2vagent.exe.
Library Servers and Resources The VMM library is a collection of resources that can be
used to create and configure virtual machines. Library resources include the following:
n
Virtual Hard Drive (.vhd) and Virtual Machine Configuration (.vmc) files
n
Virtual machine templates and guest operating system profiles
n
Scripts and Sysprep answer files
n
ISO image files
n
Virtual floppy disks
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The VMM Library Server is a file server that has one or more shares. A VMM Agent runs on
the Library Server to enable communication with a VMM Server and to identify the Library
Server to the VMM Server as a Library Server. Only one VMM Agent can run on each Library
Server, which means that a Library Server can connect only to one VMM Server. A VMM
Server can connect to more than one Library Server, however.
Library Servers basically have two functions:
n
To store the objects that can be used to create and configure virtual machines
n
To transfer these objects to the hosts where they will be instantiated as running virtual
machines
Tip Because the images that are stored in the library can be very large, a significant amount of
network traffic can occur when these images are transferred to a virtual machine host during the
virtual machine creation process. You should therefore locate your Library Servers on the same
subnet as the hosts that they will be servicing.
The VMM library is more than just a collection of files in a share folder. Instead, library
­resources are organized into groups of objects that exist physically in the library share along
with other objects that exist only within the SQL database. An example of a type of library
object that does not exist physically in the library share but is still tracked as a library object
is virtual machines, which run on managed hosts while being catalogued in the SQL database
as part of the library infrastructure.
Key Features of VMM
This section lists some of the key features of the original release of System Center Virtual
Machine Manager 2008, followed by a summary of the new features and enhancements
found in Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2.
Features and Improvements Introduced in VMM 2008
The original release of VMM 2008 improves upon the earlier VMM 2007 product in the
­following areas:
n
The types of virtualization hosts that can be managed
n
Support for highly available virtual machines through Failover Clustering
n
Delegated administration based on role-based authorization
n
Tuning, alerting, and reporting through integration with OpsMgr 2007
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The sections that follow briefly describe these improvements made in the original release of
VMM 2008 and which are all also found in VMM 2008 R2.
Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V Management
VMM 2008 introduced support for managing hosts running Microsoft Hyper-V. Specifically
n
VMM 2008 is designed to fully use the foundational features and services of Windows
Server 2008 Hyper-V, including Hyper-V’s 64-bit architecture and attack-hardened
­security model.
n
VMM 2008 supports installing the Hyper-V role remotely from the VMM 2008 console.
n
VMM 2008 integrates with the Failover Clustering feature of Windows Server 2008 to
allow you to create fault-tolerant and cluster-aware virtual machines.
n
VMM 2008 supports Hyper-V functionality while providing additional VMM-specific
functions such as Intelligent Placement, the VMM Self-Service Portal, and the
­integrated VMM library.
VMware (VI3) Management
VMM 2008 introduced support for managing VMware ESX Server hosts running within a
VMware VI3 environment. Specifically
n
VMM 2008 integrates multihypervisor management into one tool with its support for
virtual machines running on VMware ESX infrastructure.
n
VMM 2008 provides comprehensive support for VMware VI3, including moving virtual
machines among virtual hosts with no downtime by using VMotion through integration
with VMware’s VirtualCenter.
n
VMM 2008–specific features—such as Intelligent Placement, consolidation candidate
recommendations, and others—can be run against virtualized infrastructure on any
supported platform, including VMware VI3.
n
Windows PowerShell scripts for customization or automation are supported across
Hyper-V, VMware ESX, and Virtual Server implementations.
Windows Server 2008 Failover Clustering Integration
VMM 2008 included expanded support for failover clusters to provide enhanced high-­
availability capabilities for managing mission-critical virtual machines. Specifically
n
VMM 2008 is fully cluster aware and can detect and manage Hyper-V host clusters as a
single unit.
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n
VMM 2008 has automatic detection of virtual hosts that are added or removed from
the cluster, which eases the burden on the administrator to manage this function.
n
VMM 2008 creates a highly available virtual machine in a one-step process: the administrator selects a check box that designates a virtual machine as highly available. Behind
the scenes, VMM 2008 orchestrates the creation of that highly available virtual machine
by instructing the Intelligent Placement feature of VMM 2008 to recommend only
hosts that are part of a host cluster.
n
VMM 2008 includes improved highly available virtual machine management features,
such as the Failover Cluster Management console for performing cluster-related tasks
such as designation and management of cluster reserves, letter-less disk drives, guest
clusters, and so on.
n
VMM 2008 also supports VMware host clusters in which the nodes of the cluster are
VMware ESX Servers.
Delegated Administration Based on Role-Based Authorization
VMM 2008 includes support for delegated administration based on role-based authorization.
Specifically
n
VMM 2008 allows administrators to create new user roles of the following types:
o
Administrator role
o
Delegated Administrator role
o
Self-Service User role
n
VMM 2008 lets you define a scope for the Delegated Administrator or Self-Service User
role to define which objects (such as host groups and Library Servers) the user can take
actions on.
n
VMM 2008 also lets you define permissions for a Self-Service User role to define what
actions a user can perform on his virtual machines.
Performance and Resource Optimization
VMM 2008 introduced a feature called Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO), which
can dynamically respond to failure scenarios or poorly configured components that are
identified in hardware, operating systems, or applications. Specifically, PRO provides these
capabilities:
n
Working via PRO-enabled management packs and using System Center Operations
Manager 2007’s monitoring capabilities, PRO can either alert an administrator of an
unhealthy system or application state and recommend corrective action, or it can
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r­ espond automatically to its recommendations to provide a self-healing virtualization
infrastructure.
n
Because of the highly granular level of monitoring available to PRO, a wide range of
hardware, operating system, or application variables can trigger PRO to take corrective
action.
n
PRO’s capabilities are also available to VMware ESX or Virtual Server hosts, allowing ­administrators to manage their entire virtualized environment regardless of the
­virtualization platform they are using.
New Features and Enhancements in VMM 2008 R2
VMM 2008 R2 introduces a number of new features and enhancements that make VMM
even more powerful, more flexible, and easier to use than before. First, VMM 2008 R2 supports all of the improvements to Hyper-V found in Windows Server 2008 R2, including Live
Migration, hot addition/removal of virtual hard disk (VHD) or iSCSI passthrough disk storage,
and support for optimized networking technologies such as Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ)
and TCP Chimney. VMM 2008 R2 also supports the new Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) feature of Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2008 R2 that makes Live Migration possible.
These improvements in Failover Clustering and Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 were
described earlier in this book in Chapter 2, “Server Virtualization,” so they won’t be discussed
further here. Instead, let’s examine what improvements are specifically found in VMM 2008
R2.
Improved SAN Transfers
Enterprise environments that use storage area networks (SANs) will benefit from significantly
improved SAN transfers in VMM 2008 R2 in several ways. Specifically
n
SAN migration into and out of clustered hosts In VMM 2008 R2, you can now use
SAN transfers to migrate highly available virtual machines into and out of a cluster.
When you migrate a virtual machine into a cluster using a SAN transfer, VMM checks
all nodes in the cluster to ensure each node can see the logical unit number (LUN).
VMM also automatically creates a cluster disk resource for the LUN. Note that even
though VMM automatically configures the cluster disk resource, it does not validate the
resource. You must therefore still use the Validate A Configuration Wizard in Failover
Cluster Management to validate the newly created cluster disk resource. Finally, to migrate a virtual machine out of a cluster, the virtual machine must reside on a dedicated
LUN that is not using cluster shared volumes (CSV).
n
Expanded support for iSCSI SANs VMM 2008 R2 now supports SAN transfers of
­virtual machines that use initiator-based iSCSI target connections. For this to work,
there must be one iSCSI target for each LUN. VMM 2008 R2 also adds support for LUN
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masking, which means you can now have multiple LUNs for each iSCSI target. Finally,
VMM 2008 R2 includes expanded support for iSCSI SAN vendors.
Improved Support for Shared Storage
In addition to the support for CSVs that is provided by Failover Clustering in Windows Server
2008 R2, VMM 2008 R2 also provides the following additional shared storage improvements:
n
Sanbolic Clustered File System VMM 2008 R2 now supports the Sanbolic Clustered
File System (CFS), a third-party shared volume solution you can use for quick migration
on hosts running Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V and for live migration on hosts
running Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V.
n
Veritas Storage Foundation for Windows VMM 2008 R2 now supports Veritas
Storage Foundation 5.1 for Windows (SFW), which is an online storage management
solution you can use for creating virtual storage devices from physical disks and arrays.
Any volumes created as part of a cluster resource group using SFW are automatically
detected by VMM 2008 R2. These volumes can then be selected during virtual machine
placement or migration. Note that an SFW volume is limited to a single virtual machine.
Improved Windows PowerShell Support
In addition to continuing to support Windows PowerShell 1.0, VMM 2008 R2 now also
­supports Windows PowerShell 2.0. This means you can now take advantage of the new
features found in Windows PowerShell 2.0 such as remote management, background jobs,
the debugger, and Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE). For more information on these
new features of Windows PowerShell 2.0, see “What’s New in Windows PowerShell” in the
TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd378784.aspx.
VMM 2008 R2 also includes two new Windows PowerShell cmdlets:
n
Disable-VMHost Places a VMM host into maintenance mode
n
Enable-VMHost Removes a VMM host from maintenance mode, and returns it to
service
VMM 2008 R2 also includes the following new parameters for existing VMM 2008 cmdlets:
n
AllowUnencryptedTransfers Lets you specify that network files transfer into or out
of a library or into, out of, or within a host group. It does not require encryption to
­improve performance when neither the source computer nor the destination computer requires encryption. You can use this parameter with the Set-LibraryServer and
­Set-VMHostGroup cmdlets.
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n
BlockLMIfHostBusy When used with the Move-VM cmdlet, this parameter enables
you to stop attempting to restart a live migration that could not previously start because the source host or destination host was already performing a live migration.
n
LimitCPUForMigration Limits the processor features for a virtual machine so that
the virtual machine can be migrated to a different physical computer having a different version of the same processor as the source computer. Note that migrating
virtual machines between physical computers with processors from different manufacturers is not supported. You can use this parameter with the New-HardwareProfile,
­Set-HardwareProfile, New-VM, Set-VM, and Set-Template cmdlets.
n
MoveWithinCluster When used with the Disable-VMHost cmdlet to place a host that
is a member of a host cluster into maintenance mode, all virtual machines currently
­deployed on the host will be migrated to another host in the same host cluster.
n
RemoveLibraryStoreSharePath When used with the Set-VMMUserRole cmdlet, this
parameter lets you clear the path to the specified library share.
n
RetainDeletedObjects When used with the Get-VMMServer cmdlet, this parameter
preserves objects in the cache that are marked for deletion.
n
RetainObjectCache When this parameter is used with the Get-VMMServer c­ mdlet,
the objects in the cache remain in memory and are not reclaimed by garbage
collection.
n
UseCluster When you move a virtual machine using the Move-VM cmdlet, this
­parameter lets you force the transfer of a virtual machine using Windows Server 2008
Cluster Migration even when Hyper-V live migration is available.
n
UseLocalVirtualHardDisks When used with the New-VM cmdlet, this parameter lets
you specify that the VHD file for the new virtual machine being created is at a specified
location on the destination host, and that no VHD files will be copied from the library.
n
VMNetworkOptimizationEnabled When used with the NewVirtualNetworkAdapter, Set-VirtualNetworkAdapter, New-P2V, and New-V2V cmdlets,
this parameter enables virtual machine network optimization detection to allow you
to improve network performance for virtual machines using network adapters that
­support Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ) or TCP Chimney Offload.
n
VMWarePortGroup Lets you specify a VMware port group.
These new cmdlets and parameters in VMM 2008 R2 enable new scenarios as described in
the sections that follow.
Maintenance Mode
If you need to perform maintenance on a VMM host—for example, by applying software
­updates or replacing a hardware component—you can use the new maintenance mode
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feature of VMM 2008 R2 to easily prepare your host for maintenance. When you start
­maintenance mode on a host, either from the Administrator Console or by using the new
Disable-VMhost cmdlet just described, VMM 2008 R2 does the following:
n
Places all running virtual machines on the host into a saved state
n
Prevents the creation of any new virtual machines on the host
n
Displays the host status as In Maintenance Mode in the Host view of the VMM
Administrator Console
n
Excludes the host from the host ratings during any placement activities
In addition, if you start maintenance mode on a host that belongs to a Windows Server
2008 R2 cluster with highly available virtual machines, you also have the option of using live
­migration to move all the virtual machines to another host in the cluster so that connected
users will not experience loss of service.
After you’ve finished performing maintenance on your host, you should stop maintenance
mode on the host either from the Administrator Console or by using the new Enable-VMhost
cmdlet. When you do this, the host status changes from In Maintenance Mode to OK in
the Host view of the VMM Administrator Console. Note that when you stop maintenance
mode, any virtual machines saved as a result of initiating maintenance mode are not automatically restarted—you must restart these virtual machines manually or by using scripts.
Furthermore, if you used live migration to move highly available virtual machines to another
host in a cluster when you initiated maintenance mode, stopping maintenance mode does
not automatically migrate the virtual machines back to their original host—you must do this
manually or by using scripts.
Support for Rapid Provisioning of Virtual Machines
In VMM 2008 R2, you can now quickly create virtual machines from a template using the new
UseLocalVirtualHardDisks parameter of the New-VM cmdlet. The UseLocalVirtualHardDisks
parameter specifies that New-VM should use an existing virtual hard disk file stored locally
on the destination host instead of copying a VHD file from the library by using BITS. This
allows you to provision virtual machines more rapidly when they are needed. For more information about how to use this parameter, type Get-Help New-VM -detailed at the VMM
Windows PowerShell prompt.
In the TechNet Library at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc967317.aspx, you can
find the sample scripts RapidProvisionVM.ps1 and RapidProvisionVMwithAnswerFile.ps1, which
demonstrate how to use rapid provisioning to create a new virtual machine. There is also the
sample script RecoverVMUsingRapidProvisioning.ps1, which demonstrates how to use rapid
provisioning to recover a virtual machine.
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Support for Quick Storage Migration
VMM 2008 R2 also supports using the Move-VirtualHardDisk cmdlet with the Move-VM
cmdlet to migrate a running virtual machine and its files (either Windows-based .vhd files or
VMware-based .vmdk files) to a different storage location on the same host or on a different
host with minimal or no downtime. This is called Quick Storage Migration, and it is supported
for both Windows Server 2008 R2 hosts and VMware Storage VMotion-capable hosts. For
more information on how to do this, type Get-Help Move-VM –examples at the Windows
PowerShell prompt.
Support for VMware Port Groups for Virtual Switches
VMM 2008 R2 uses the network location and tag specified in the hardware configuration for
the virtual network adapter to determine the network availability of a virtual machine on a
host. In addition, VMM 2008 R2 now lets you select from the VMware port groups that are
available for virtual switches when you are deploying the virtual machine to a VMware ESX
Server host.
Enhanced Administrator Console
Although the basic layout and use of the VMM Administrator Console remains the same in
this release, the design of the Administrator Console has been updated in VMM 2008 R2 to
make it friendlier and easier to use.
Updated User Role Processing
In the original release of VMM 2008, access to virtual machines, hosts, and resources was
determined using only the rights and permissions associated with VMM user roles. VMM
2008 did not actually make any changes to Hyper-V role definitions and role memberships.
Instead, it just ignored the Hyper-V authorization store for the hosts and virtual machines
under its management. In VMM 2008 R2, however, any changes you make to role definitions or role memberships are preserved in the root scope of the Hyper-V authorization
store. All changes to any other scopes are overwritten every half hour by the VMM User Role
Refresher.
Shared ISO Images for Self-Service Users
In the original release of VMM 2008, virtual machines could use a shared ISO image file.
Shared ISO images enable virtual machines to share ISO image files stored in the VMM library in a Hyper-V environment managed by VMM. Unfortunately, in VMM 2008 this did
not work for self-service users. Instead, VMM 2008 attaches a copy of the ISO image file to
the new virtual machine. VMM 2008 R2, however, now supports shared ISO images for selfservice users.
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Key Benefits of VMM
The key benefits of using System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2 to manage your
entire virtualized environment include the following:
n
Designed for virtual machines running on Windows Server 2008 R2
Hyper-V Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V is a hypervisor-based virtualization
­platform from Microsoft that is designed to offer high performance, enhanced security,
high availability, scalability, and many other improvements. VMM 2008 R2 is designed
to take full advantage of these foundational benefits through a powerful yet easyto-use console that streamlines many of the tasks necessary to manage virtualized
infrastructure. Administrators can also manage their traditional physical servers right
alongside their virtual resources through one unified console.
n
Support for Microsoft Virtual Server and VMware ESX Server VMM 2008 R2
can manage a VMware ESX virtualized infrastructure in conjunction with VMware
VirtualCenter Server. This means that administrators running multiple virtualization
platforms can rely upon a single tool to manage virtually everything within their infrastructure. With its compatibility with VMware VI3 through VirtualCenter Server, VMM
2008 R2 supports features such as VMware’s VMotion and can even provide VMMspecific features such as Intelligent Placement to VMware ESX Servers.
n
Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO) The PRO feature of VMM 2008 R2
enables dynamic management of virtual resources though PRO-enabled management
packs for System Center Operations Manager 2007. PRO lets administrators establish
remedial actions for VMM to execute if poor performance or pending hardware failures
are identified. As an open and extensible platform, PRO also encourages partners to
design custom management packs that promote compatibility of their products and
solutions with PRO’s powerful management capabilities.
n
Maximizing datacenter resources through consolidation A typical physical server
in the datacenter operates at only 5 to 15 percent CPU capacity. VMM 2008 R2 can
assess and then consolidate suitable server workloads onto a virtual machine host infrastructure, thus freeing up physical resources for repurposing or retirement. Through
physical server consolidation, continued datacenter growth is less constrained by space,
­electrical, and cooling requirements.
n
Easier machine conversions Converting a physical machine to a virtual one used to
be a daunting undertaking that was slow and problematic, and that typically required
you to halt the physical server. Thanks to the enhanced Physical-to-Virtual (P2V) conversion in VMM, however, P2V conversions can become routine. In addition, VMM 2008
R2 also provides a straightforward wizard for converting VMware virtual machines to
VHDs via a quick and easy Virtual-to-Virtual (V2V) transfer process.
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n
Fast provisioning of new machines In response to new server requests, an agile IT
department can use VMM 2008 to deliver new servers to its business clients anywhere
in the network infrastructure with a very quick turnaround. VMM 2008 enables this
agility by providing IT administrators with the ability to deploy virtual machines in a
fraction of the time it would take to deploy a physical server. Through one console,
VMM 2008 allows administrators to manage and monitor virtual machines and hosts
across an organization to ensure they are meeting the needs of business groups within
that organization.
n
Minimizing virtual machine guesswork in deployment via Intelligent
Placement VMM 2008 does extensive data analysis of a number of factors before
recommending which physical server should host a given virtual workload. This is
­especially critical when administrators are determining how to place several virtual
workloads on the same host machine. And with access to historical data provided by
System Center Operations Manager 2007, the Intelligent Placement process is able to
factor in past performance characteristics to ensure the best possible match between
the virtual machine and its host hardware.
n
Delegated virtual machine management Virtual infrastructures are commonly used
in test and development environments, where there is constant provisioning and tear
down of virtual machines for testing purposes. This new version of VMM has a thoroughly reworked and improved Web-based Self-Service Portal through which administrators can delegate this provisioning role to authorized users while maintaining precise
control over the management of virtual machines.
n
Organizing virtual machine components To keep a datacenter’s virtual house in
order, VMM 2008 provides a centralized library to store various virtual machine building blocks, such as offline machines, templates, virtual hard disks, and other virtualization components. With the library’s easy-to-use, structured format, IT administrators
can quickly find and reuse specific components and thus remain highly productive
and responsive to new server requests and modifications. Additionally, multiple
Library Servers can be deployed throughout the organization if needed for increased
scalability.
n
A rich management and scripting environment that uses Windows PowerShell The
entire VMM 2008 R2 application is built on the command line and scripting environment provided by Windows PowerShell 2.0. This version of VMM adds more Windows
PowerShell cmdlets and View Script controls that allow administrators to explore
­customizing or automating operations at an unprecedented level.
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Usage Scenarios for VMM
The following are some common usage scenarios for System Center Virtual Machine
Manager 2008 R2:
n
Server consolidation
n
Provisioning of virtualized resources
n
Business continuity
n
Performance and resource optimization
Server Consolidation
One of the key scenarios that can take maximum advantage of the features found in VMM
2008 R2 is server consolidation. By consolidating physical servers, organizations can realize significant business benefits, including power savings and increased asset utilization.
Organizations can take one of two approaches to server consolidation using VMM 2008 R2:
n
A conservative, incremental approach whereby new applications are added to the
virtual infrastructure while old applications remain on dedicated physical assets until
retired
n
A more aggressive approach that takes the form of a server consolidation p
­ roject
where the IT group identifies candidate applications for virtualization and then
­migrates the identified workloads to appropriate physical resources
VMM 2008 facilitates an aggressive approach to server consolidation by providing the
­following capabilities:
n
Integration with System Center Operations Manager (OpsMgr) 2007 to enable VMM
2008 to identify potential consolidation candidates within the OpsMgr database
n
A straightforward P2V conversion process that uses BITS to move data to the virtual
machine and that can be automated using Windows PowerShell scripts
n
A straightforward V2V conversion process that allows migration of a virtual machine
running on VMware ESX Server to either Virtual Server 2005 R2 or Hyper-V
n
An Intelligent Placement feature that helps identify the best host for running a
­virtualized workload
Provisioning of Virtualized Resources
Another key scenario for VMM 2008 R2 is facilitating the provisioning of virtualized resources
to users and business groups who need them. By using virtualization, IT administrators
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no longer have to procure and configure physical servers for new applications, a task that
sometimes takes weeks or months. Instead, IT administrators can provision new virtual machines in a matter of minutes using VMM 2008 R2. And administrators can also delegate this
provisioning role to authorized users by creating delegated administrators for groups and
departments while maintaining precise control over the management of virtual machines.
Authorized users can also access a Web page that enables them to provision their own virtual
machines within predefined restraints laid down by administrators.
VMM 2008 enables such provisioning of virtualized resources by providing the following
capabilities:
n
Support for creating Administrator, Delegated Administrator, and Self-Service User
roles and defining the scope of management action and virtual machine permissions
for members of these roles
n
A Web-based Self-Service Portal that an administrator can use to provide ordinary
­users with the capability to easily create and manage their own virtualized resources
Business Continuity
Business Continuity Planning refers to the creation and validation of a practiced logistical
plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted
­critical functions within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption. VMM
2008 R2 can help ensure an organization’s business continuity by enabling the management virtualized resources running on Windows Server 2008 R2 to be integrated with the
following:
n
An enterprise-level backup and recovery platform such as System Center Data
Protection Manager 2007 R2
n
Quick migration of virtualized workloads between nodes of a Windows Server 2008
failover clustering to ensure high availability of business-critical resources
Performance and Resource Optimization
Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO) is a feature of VMM 2008 R2 that helps administrators ensure that virtual machine hosts and their virtual machine guests are operating
in the most efficient possible manner. PRO leverages OpsMgr 2007 R2 to monitor a complete
end-to-end IT infrastructure, including hardware, host and guest operating systems, and
applications. PRO also enables an administrator to create operational policies and automatically take actions based on those policies. For instance, when an event occurs that triggers a
policy, PRO can be configured to present the issues to the administrator along with recommended resolutions. PRO can also be configured to automatically implement the preconfigured corrective actions for lights-out operations.
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Working with VMM 2008 R2
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2 is a powerful and flexible platform for
managing different virtualized resources, including Hyper-V, Virtual Server, and VMware
ESX Server virtual machines. This section examines how to install and use VMM 2008 R2 and
­covers the following topics:
n
Planning for Deploying VMM 2008 R2
n
System and Infrastructure Requirements
n
Installing VMM 2008 R2
n
Using the VMM Administrator Console
n
Working with Managed Hosts
n
Working with the Library
n
Working with Virtual Machines
n
Performing P2V Conversions
n
Performing V2V Conversions
n
Configuring User Roles
n
Using the Self-Service Portal
Planning for Deploying VMM 2008 R2
Before you jump in and install VMM 2008 R2 in your organization, you need to do some
­initial planning. One of the things you should consider is the scope of your planned virtualization infrastructure. Will you be deploying hundreds of hosts or only a handful? This question is important to consider because VMM 2008 R2 uses a component-based architecture
that can be installed in one of two ways:
n
Installing all VMM components on a single computer If you are going to be u
­ sing
VMM to manage only a dozen or two hosts, you might consider installing all the
VMM components—the VMM Server, VMM Administrator Console, VMM Self-Service
Portal, VMM Library Server, and even your VMM Database—on a single server running
Windows Server 2008 R2 with the Hyper-V role installed.
n
Installing each VMM component on a separate computer If you are planning on
using VMM to manage dozens or even hundreds of hosts, you should install the individual VMM components on dedicated computers to distribute the workload of these
component for better performance.
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Other questions to consider when planning your VMM 2008 R2 deployment include the
following:
n
Will you be implementing high availability using Failover Clustering?
n
Will you be using a storage area network (SAN) environment for storing your virtual
machine files?
n
Will you deploy (or have you already deployed) other System Center products such as
System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 in your organization?
n
Do you have an existing VMM 2008 infrastructure that you want to upgrade to VMM
2008 R2, or is this a new virtualization infrastructure you want to deploy?
n
Will your hosts be running only Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V, or will you also have
Virtual Server 2005 hosts, VMware hosts, or both?
System and Infrastructure Requirements
After you’ve finished your initial planning and before you actually deploy VMM 2008 R2 in
your production environment, you need to ensure that all prerequisites have been met. The
prerequisites for installing VMM 2008 R2 include
n
Hardware requirements
n
Software requirements
n
Infrastructure requirements
Hardware Requirements
The hardware requirements for installing VMM 2008 R2 on a computer depend on whether
you are installing all or some VMM components on a particular computer. For example, if
you are going to be managing only a handful of hosts, you can install all VMM components
on a single computer having the following recommended hardware:
n
A dual-processor or dual-core processor system running at 2 GHz or higher
n
At least 2 GB of RAM
n
At least 40 GB of hard disk space (more if you will be running a local instance of SQL
Server)
If, however, you plan on using VMM to manage around a hundred hosts, you will want to
install the various VMM components on different computers. In this case, the recommended
hardware for your VMM Server is
n
A dual-processor or dual-core-processor system running at 2.8 GHz or higher
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n
At least 4 GB of RAM
n
At least 40 GB of hard disk space (more if you will be running a local instance of SQL
Server)
And the recommended hardware for your VMM Library Server is
n
A dual-processor or dual-core-processor system running at 3.2 GHz or higher
n
At least 2 GB of RAM
n
As much hard disk space as you will need
Of course, using more cores, faster processors, and more RAM will usually boost performance. For detailed information on VMM hardware requirements, see “VMM System
Requirements” at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc764328.aspx.
Software Requirements
The software requirements for installing VMM 2008 R2 on a computer depend on whether
you are installing all or some VMM components on a particular computer. For example, if
you install all VMM components on a single computer, the computer must be running the
Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter edition of either Windows Server 2008 SP2 with Hyper-V
or Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V. Before you install all the VMM components on a
single server, you must install the Web Server (IIS) role, including the following role services:
n
IIS 6 Metabase Compatibility
n
IIS 6 WMI Compatibility
n
Static Content
n
Default Document
n
Directory Browsing
n
HTTP Errors
n
ASP.NET
n.NET
Extensibility
n
ISAPI Extensions
n
ISAPI Filters
n
Request Filtering
And if you are installing all VMM components on a single server, you will also want to install
the IIS Management Console so that you can delete the Default Web Site from the server.
(See Figure 5-2.) You will want to do this because otherwise you’ll need to create a host header for the VMM Self-Service Portal so that this portal and the Default Web Site can ­co-exist
using the same IP address and port number.
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FIGURE 5-2 Delete the Default Web Site before installing all VMM 2008 R2 components on a single
computer.
Additional software requirements for VMM 2008 R2 include
n
Windows PowerShell 1.0 or 2.0
n
Windows Remote Management (WinRM) 1.1 or 2.0
n
Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 or higher
Because Windows Server 2008 R2 has Windows PowerShell 2.0, WinRM 2.0, and the .NET
Framework 3.0 SP1 already installed, it’s the preferred platform for installing VMM 2008 R2.
Finally, you need a supported version of Microsoft SQL Server, which includes SQL Server
2008, SQL Server 2005, or SQL Server 2005 Express Edition. If you will be managing many
hosts, you should use a full version of either SQL Server 2008 or 2005 and install your VMM
Database on a separate server. If you are managing few hosts, you can install the VMM
Database server on your VMM Server computer and choose to have SQL Server 2005 Express
Edition SP3 installed on the computer as part of the VMM installation process.
Tip For the best performance, especially when your VMM Server will be managing a large
­number of hosts, you should use a separate server for your VMM database.
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Some VMM 2008 components can even be installed on computers running operating systems other than Windows Server 2008 (x64). Table 5-5 lists the supported operating systems
for installing the VMM 2008 R2 components and for Windows-based virtual machine hosts.
The table also shows which operating systems you use when installing all VMM components
on a single computer. Note that VMM 2008 R2 requires Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V
64-bit with Service Pack 2 for Hyper-V hosts.
TABLE 5-5 Supported
Operating Systems for Installing the VMM 2008 R2 Components
and Windows-Based Virtual Machine Hosts
Single
Computer
VMM
Server
Hyper-V
Hosts
Virtual Server
Hosts
Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V
64-bit, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter
editions
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Windows Server 2008 R2 without Hyper-V
64-bit, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter
editions
No
Yes
No
No
Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V
64-bit Server Core Installation, Standard,
Enterprise, and Datacenter editions
No
No
Yes
No
Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V
64-bit, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter
­editions with Service Pack 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V
64-bit, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter
­editions with Service Pack 1 or earlier
Yes
Yes
Yes
(­required
for VMM
2008 R2)
No
Windows Server 2008 without Hyper-V
64-bit, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter
editions
No
Yes
Yes
(VMM
2008
only)
No
Windows Server 2008 without Hyper-V
32-bit, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter
editions
No
No
No
Yes
Windows Server 2008 — Server Core
­installation, Standard, Enterprise, and
Datacenter editions with Service Pack 2
No
No
Yes
(­required
for VMM
2008 R2)
No
Windows Server 2008 — Server Core
­installation, Standard, Enterprise, and
Datacenter editions with Service Pack 1 or
earlier
No
No
Yes
(VMM
2008
only)
No
Operating System
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Single
Computer
VMM
Server
Hyper-V
Hosts
Virtual Server
Hosts
Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack
2, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter
­editions
No
No
No
Yes
Windows Server 2003 R2 with Service Pack 2
No
No
No
Yes
Windows Server 2003 x64 edition with
Service Pack 2
No
No
No
Yes
Windows Server 2003 R2 x64 edition with
Service Pack 2
No
No
No
Yes
Operating System
Table 5-6 lists the supported operating systems for the VMM Administrator Console,
­Self-Service Portal, and Library Server components.
TABLE 5-6 Supported
Operating Systems for the VMM Administrator Console,
­Self-Service Portal, and Library Server Components
VMM Administrator
Console
VMM SelfService Portal
VMM Library
Server
Windows Server 2008 R2 with
Hyper-V 64-bit, Standard, Enterprise,
and Datacenter editions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 R2 without
Hyper-V 64-bit, Standard, Enterprise,
and Datacenter editions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 R2 — Server
Core installation, Standard, Enterprise,
and Datacenter editions
No
No
Yes
Windows Web Server 2008 R2
No
Yes
No
Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V
64-bit, Standard, Enterprise, and
Datacenter editions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 without
Hyper-V 64-bit, Standard, Enterprise,
and Datacenter editions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 without
Hyper-V 32-bit, Standard, Enterprise,
and Datacenter editions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 - Server Core
installation, Standard, Enterprise, and
Datacenter editions
No
No
Yes
Windows Web Server 2008
No
Yes
No
Operating System
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VMM Administrator
Console
VMM SelfService Portal
VMM Library
Server
Windows Server 2003 with Service
Pack 2, Standard, Enterprise, and
Datacenter editions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2003 R2 with Service
Pack 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2003 x64 with Service
Pack 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2003 R2 x64 with
Service Pack 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows 7
Yes
No
No
Windows Vista with Service Pack 1
Yes
No
No
Windows XP Professional with Service
Pack 2 or Service Pack 3
Yes
No
No
Windows XP Professional x64 with
Service Pack 2
Yes
No
No
Operating System
For more information on VMM software requirements, see “VMM System Requirements” at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc764328.aspx.
Infrastructure Requirements
VMM 2008 must be deployed within an Active Directory Domain Services environment.
Specifically, the server or servers on which you will be installing the VMM 2008 components
must be joined to a domain. In addition, any hosts that your VMM Server will manage must
also be a domain member, either of the same domain where your VMM Server resides or in a
trusted domain.
Although a Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) network infrastructure is usually sufficient connectivity
for the servers in your VMM 2008 deployment, you should use Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps)
for best performance.
Installing VMM 2008 R2
After you’ve verified that your environment meets the system and infrastructure requirements for deploying VMM 2008 R2, you can begin the installation process.
Using the Virtual Machine Manager Configuration Analyzer
The first step of the installation process involves running the Virtual Machine Manager
Configuration Analyzer (VMMCA), a diagnostic tool that verifies the configuration settings
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for computers to verify that they can run VMM 2008. Using the VMMCA, you can scan
your computers to verify whether they are suitable to function as a VMM Server, run the
Administrator Console, function as a Self-Service Portal, or be a managed virtual machine
host.
Begin by downloading the 64-bit version of Microsoft Baseline Configuration
Analyzer (MBCA) from the Microsoft Download Center at http://go.microsoft.
com/fwlink/?LinkID=97952. You must install the MBCA before you can use the
VMMCA. Be sure to install the MBCASetup64.msi file, which is the 64-bit version
of MBCA. After you’ve installed the MBCA, download and install the VMMCA from
the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.
aspx?FamilyID=02d83950-c03d-454e-803b-96d1c1d5be24&displaylang=en.
After you’ve installed both tools, open the VMMCA from the Start menu and specify the
names of the computers on which you want to install each VMM role. (See Figure 5-3.)
FIGURE 5-3 Use the Virtual Machine Manager Configuration Analyzer to evaluate important configuration
settings for computers that might serve VMM roles or other VMM functions.
Now click Scan and wait for VMMCA to scan each computer you specified. After the scan
is complete, Internet Explorer opens and displays the results of the scan. (See Figure 5-4.) If
any issues are displayed, be sure to resolve them now before you proceed with deploying
VMM 2008 R2.
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FIGURE 5-4 Results of a VMMCA scan show the computer is ready for installing VMM 2008 R2.
Installing the VMM Server
After you’ve run the VMMCA and verified that your computer or computers will support
VMM 2008 R2, you’re ready to begin installing the various components of the product. As
mentioned earlier, these different components can be installed either on a single server or
on multiple servers on your network. For purposes of illustration, the following walkthrough
installs all VMM components on a single server running Windows Server 2008 R2 with the
Hyper-V role installed.
To being the installation, insert the product media into the server’s DVD drive. The splash
screen is displayed, showing the different VMM components you can install and other
­options. (See Figure 5-5.)
The first component you should install should be the VMM Server. When you install this component, the domain account you are currently logged in with is automatically added to the
VMM Administrator user role. You can add other user accounts to the VMM Administrator
user role afterwards—see the “Managing User Roles” topic in VMM Help for information on
how to do this.
When you install the VMM Server component, the VMM setup program performs a check to
ensure that you have met the necessary hardware and software prerequisites for installing
the component. (See Figure 5-6.) Note that this check is in addition to and complementary to
the check you performed earlier using the VMMCA. Do not rely only on the check performed
by the VMM setup program—be sure to use the VMMCA first as well.
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FIGURE 5-5 Splash screen for installing different VMM components.
FIGURE 5-6 The VMM setup program performs its own check to ensure the computer meets the necessary
hardware and software prerequisites for installing different VMM components.
The VMM setup program also prompts you to configure SQL Server settings. VMM uses a
Microsoft SQL Server database to store the information you see in the VMM Administrator
Console, such as virtual machines, virtual machine hosts, virtual machine library servers, and
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so on. You can either install SQL Server 2005 Express Edition SP3 locally on your VMM Server
or specify an existing remote instance of SQL Server 2005 or 2008. If you are installing all
VMM components on a single computer, you will likely want to use SQL Server 2005 Express
Edition. (See Figure 5-7.)
FIGURE 5-7 Configure SQL Server settings for locating the VMM Database component.
During installation of the VMM Server, you are also prompted to create a new library share
on your server or specify a preconfigured share on another server. The VMM library serves
as a central, secure store for the resources used to create virtual machines in your VMM 2008
environment and helps enable the re-use of approved images and configurations. The library
share is created as part of the VMM Server Setup process. The default is to create a share
on the VMM Server on the system drive at %SystemRoot%\ProgramData\Virtual Machine
Manager Library Files using a share name of MSSCVMMLibrary. (See Figure 5-8.) Additional
Library Servers and shares can then be added afterwards by using the VMM Administrator
Console. Note that you cannot delete or relocate the default library server or its library share,
so carefully consider the location of your default library share before installing the VMM
Server.
A best practice is to make the Library Server by using a highly available file server running on
a Windows Server 2008 or 2008 R2 Failover cluster. If a Failover cluster is not available, locate
the share on a nonsystem, high-speed (minimum 10,000 rpm) hard disk drive for best performance. Make your selection carefully because you cannot remove or relocate the default
Library Server or its library share after installing your VMM Server.
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FIGURE 5-8 Specify a default share for the VMM library.
Next, accept the default port assignments and service account for the VMM Server component or change these to ports and an account you specify. (See Figure 5-9.) If you specify a
domain user account for the VMM service account, the account should be a dedicated account not used for any other purpose. In particular, it should not be the same account used
for VMM communications with SQL Server. The service account should also belong to the
local Administrators group on the VMM Server, and if you plan on using PRO the account
should also be a member of the Administrator role in OpsMgr 2007 R2.
FIGURE 5-9 Specify the ports and service account for the VMM Server component.
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You must specify a domain account instead of Local System on this Setup page if any of the
following are true:
n
Your AD DS environment has the Restricted Groups group policy implemented,
because this policy prevents machine accounts from being members of the local
Administrators group.
n
VMM will be used to manage hosts in a disjoint namespace environment, where the
fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of a Windows Server–based host in AD DS does
not match the FQDN of the host in Domain Name System (DNS).
n
You want to use shared ISO images with your Hyper-V virtual machines.
As for port assignments, you might want to consider modifying the default port assignments
for HTTP and HTTPS to harden your server, although this can introduce some added complexity in managing your virtualization infrastructure.
Now finish the installation to install the VMM Server component and other required ­features,
such as the Windows Automated Installation Kit 1.1, SQL Server, and SQL Server Tools.
(See Figure 5-10.)
FIGURE 5-10 Completing installation of the VMM Server component.
Installing the VMM Administrator Console
After you finish installing your VMM Server, return to the splash screen and install the VMM
Administrator Console on the local server. Installing the Administrator Console also installs
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the Windows PowerShell Virtual Machine Manager console on the computer. If you modified
the default port assignments when installing your VMM Server, be sure to take this into account when installing the VMM Administrator Console. (See Figure 5-11.)
FIGURE 5-11 Be sure to specify the correct port so that your VMM Administrator Console can connect to your
VMM Server.
You might also want to install the Administrator Console on additional computers later to
­remotely access and manage your VMM Server, but it’s helpful to install this console locally
on your VMM Server in case you need it for troubleshooting purposes. In addition, if you
plan on using the reporting feature of VMM 2008 R2, you must install the Administrator
Console on the same computer as the VMM Server component. This is because the reporting feature of VMM 2008 R2 relies on System Center Operations Manager (OpsMgr) 2007
R2, and it relies on OpsMgr administrators to perform tasks on hosts and virtual machines
from within the Server Virtualization Management Pack, which requires that the Windows
PowerShell Virtual Machine Manager console be installed on the VMM Server.
Installing the VMM Self-Service Portal
An optional deployment step is to install the VMM Self-Service Portal, a Web-based component that lets users create and manage their own virtual machines within a controlled
environment. If you choose to install the Self-Service Portal, you can install it on a separate
computer from your VMM Server for best performance, but if you’re managing only a handful of hosts you can install the Self-Service Portal on your VMM Server computer. Note that
installation of the Self-Service Portal on a domain controller is not supported.
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When you install the Self-Service Portal, you are prompted to specify the FQDN of your
VMM Server and the TCP port for connecting to the server. You are also prompted to specify
a TCP port for self-service users to use the Self-Service Portal, which by default is port 80.
(See Figure 5-12.) Because the Default Web Site in IIS also uses port 80, if your VMM Server
has only one IP address assigned to the network adapter used by the Self-Service Portal, you
need to either delete the Default Web Site (as indicated previously) or specify a host header
name so that self-service users will be able to connect to and use the Self-Service Portal.
FIGURE 5-12 Make sure you have the correct port assignments for the VMM Self-Service Portal.
For more information on installing VMM 2008 R2 components, see “New Installation of
VMM” at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc793149.aspx.
Using the VMM Administrator Console
The VMM Administrator Console can be used to manage all aspects of a virtualized environment, including virtual machines on managed hosts running Microsoft Hyper-V, Microsoft
Virtual Server 2005 R2, and VMware ESX Server 3.x within a VMware VirtualCenter 2.5 or
2.0.1 environment. As mentioned previously, the Administrator Console can be installed
both locally on your VMM Server and also on additional computers in your environment
for ­remote management purposes. By default, any user account that has local administrator
privileges on your VMM Server can use the Administrator Console.
When you first open the Administrator Console, the Connect To Server dialog box opens.
(See Figure 5-13.) If you are opening the Administrator Console on your VMM Server, you
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should specify localhost:port in the Server Name field of the dialog box, where port is the
TCP port you assigned when you installed the VMM Server. (The default is TCP port 8100.)
If you are opening the Administrator Console on a different computer, you can specify the
server using its name, FQDN, or IP address.
FIGURE 5-13 Connecting to a VMM Server using the VMM Administrator Console.
The first time you open the Administrator Console after installing the VMM components
in your environment, no hosts are displayed in the console—even if you installed all the
VMM components on a Hyper-V server that has virtual machines on it. As you can see from
Figure 5-14, the Administrator Console includes the following user interface items:
n
Command menu Lets you connect to other VMM Servers, change the current view,
hide or display the navigation pane, and perform actions relating to the view selected.
n
VMM taskbar Lets you hide or display the Actions pane, display additional columns
of information in the Results pane, open the Jobs window, use PRO tips, display the
network configuration, and open the Windows PowerShell VMM console.
n
Navigation pane Lets you browse hosts and host groups, browse library servers and
profiles, and display jobs and other administrative information.
n
Filters pane Lets you filter by status, owner, operating system, and other criteria
­depending on the current view selected.
n
View buttons Lets you change the current view to perform related tasks for
­managing hosts, virtual machines, library servers, and so on.
n
Results pane Displays more information about whatever is currently selected in the
navigation pane.
n
Details pane Displays more information about whatever is currently selected in the
results pane.
n
Actions pane Lets you perform management tasks relating to whatever is currently
selected in the navigation and results panes.
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Navigation
pane
View buttons
Command menu
Filters
VMM taskbar
Details pane
Results pane
Actions pane
FIGURE 5-14 Layout of the VMM Administrator Console.
Tip The current view persists between the closing and opening of the Administrator Console.
Understanding Views
Depending on how you have deployed VMM 2008 R2, the Administrator Console can show
up to seven possible views: Hosts, Virtual Machines, Library, Jobs, Administration, Reporting,
and Diagram. It is possible that not all views are available for your installation. For example,
the Reporting and Diagram views are not available unless VMM 2008 R2 has been configured to work with System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2.
The sections that follow list the seven views available in the Administrator Console and
­describe the different administrative tasks you can perform using each view. Additional
­information about using some of these views can be found in the sections that follow.
n
Hosts view:
o
Add, remove, and monitor the status of virtual machine hosts.
Chapter 5 Virtualization Management
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n
n
n
359
o
Configure virtual networks, placement options, virtual machine paths, and
­custom properties on a host.
o
Enable remote connections to virtual machines. Register existing virtual machines
on a host.
o
Create and delete host groups for ease of monitoring and managing hosts.
o
Configure host reserves and self-service policies for host groups.
Virtual Machines view:
o
Create, deploy, migrate, operate, connect to, clone, repair, store, and remove
­virtual machines.
o
Create checkpoints so that you can restore virtual machines to a previous state.
Library view:
o
Add file-based resources to the Virtual Machine Manager library for use in
­creating virtual machines.
o
Add Library Servers and library shares.
o
Refresh a library share to immediately index its files in Virtual Machine Manager.
(By default, all library shares are refreshed every hour.)
o
Configure guest operating system profiles, hardware profiles, and virtual machine
templates for use in virtual machine creation.
Jobs view:
o
Monitor, cancel, restart, search, sort, filter, and group jobs.
o
View the changes that a job made to objects.
Administration view:
o
Overview—View graphical summary information of the environment (hosts,
­virtual machines, recent jobs, and library resources).
o
General—Configure global VMM settings, such as Remote Control and PRO.
o
Managed Computers—Manage Virtual Machine Manager agents on managed
hosts and Library Servers, update the agent, remove agent roles, and re-associate
agents with the current VMM Server.
o
Networking—View the MAC address range used by VMM across all managed
hosts.
o
User Roles—View all existing user roles grouped by profile type.
o
System Center—View reports generated by System Center Operations Manager.
o
Virtualization Managers—View all available virtualization managers, such as
Virtual Machine Manager and VMware VirtualCenter Server.
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n
Reporting view:
o
n
View and open reports. Reporting view is available only if you have configured
Operations Manager.
Diagram view:
o
Displays the health of the Virtual Machine Manager Server, database server,
Library Servers, hosts, virtual machines, and VMware VirtualCenter Server servers.
Diagram view is available only if you have configured Operations Manager.
Note In addition to the seven views just described, there is also a special Networking view that
can be used to display a graphical representation of the current network configuration. The
Networking view does not have a view button and is invoked differently than the other views.
See the section titled “Using Networking View” later in this chapter for more information.
Using Filters
The information displayed in each view can be filtered by using the Filters pane of the
Administrator Console. The type of filtering you can perform depends on which view is currently selected. For example, Figure 5-15 shows that the Virtual Machines view is selected
and the Filters pane of the console is being used to display only virtual machines whose
status is Stopped. The effect of applying this filter is that the results pane shows only virtual
machines that are stopped.
FIGURE 5-15 The filters available in the Virtual Machines view.
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Working with Managed Hosts
You can use the Administrator Console to manage virtual machine hosts across a
­virtualization infrastructure. For example, you can create host groups to organize your hosts,
add hosts to a host group, and configure and manage different kinds of hosts, including
Hyper-V, Virtual Server, and VMware ESX hosts. The following sections provide further details
­concerning some of the tasks you can perform for managing hosts.
Creating and Using Host Groups
A host group is a logical container for organizing managed hosts within the Administrator
Console. Creating host groups and adding hosts to them is a simple way of making it easier
for you to manage hosts across your virtualization infrastructure.
You create and work with host groups within the Hosts view of the Administrator Console.
By default, all managed hosts belong to the All Hosts group. When you create a new host
group, the new group is added beneath the All Hosts group. You can also nest host groups
to create three, four, or more levels of host groups if desired.
After you’ve created your hierarchical structure of host groups with the All Hosts group at the
top, you can then add managed hosts and host clusters to each group as desired.
Figure 5-16 shows an example of how to use host groups to organize managed hosts according to geographical location. In this figure, three host groups—New York, Hong Kong, and
Redmond—were created within the All Hosts group. The New York hosts group is currently
selected.
The Virtual Machine Manager section allows you to perform actions on the selected managed host in the top middle Results pane. In this figure, a managed host named HVR2.
contoso.com is currently selected in the Results pane, and the status and other information concerning this virtual machine is displayed on the Summary tab in the bottom middle
Details pane. The actions you can perform on this managed host include creating a new virtual machine, converting a physical server, converting a virtual machine, and other tasks. You
can perform these actions either by clicking the appropriate link in the Actions pane or by
right-clicking on a managed host in the Results pane and using the shortcut menu options.
The Hosts section of the Actions pane allows you to perform other actions on managed
hosts, including moving the selected host to a different host group, removing a host from
the console, displaying and configuring the properties of the host, and so on.
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FIGURE 5-16 Working with host groups.
The Actions pane on the right side in Figure 5-16 has three sections: Virtual Machine
Manager, Host, and Host Group.
The Host Group section of the Actions pane lets you create new host groups for organizing
your managed hosts for easier administration. You can also use this section of the Actions
pane to view and configure the properties of a host group. For example, you can configure
the properties of a host group to specify how much reserved computing resources (percentage of CPU usage, MBs of memory, MBs of disk space, and so on) you want to allocate to the
host. You would do this to ensure that the host does not become starved for resources by
running too many virtual machines on it.
Adding a Managed Host You add managed hosts to a host group by using the Add
Hosts wizard. (See Figure 5-17.) This wizard can be used to add hosts belonging to an
Active Directory domain or residing on a perimeter network. You can also add VMware ESX
Servers to host groups as managed hosts provided these servers are managed by VMware
VirtualCenter Server. When you add a host, you can select the host group you want to add
the host to.
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FIGURE 5-17 Adding a host in VMM using the Add Hosts wizard.
You can also add managed hosts that are part of a managed host cluster. If you try and add a
host that belongs to a cluster, all the nodes in the cluster are added as hosts.
Removing a Managed Host If you no longer want to manage a host with VMM, you can
remove the host using the Administrator Console. After you remove a host, it is no longer
managed by VMM and the VMM Agent is automatically removed from the host. When you
remove a host from VMM, the host and all of its associated virtual machines are removed
from the VMM database and from the Administrator Console views. However, both the host
and its virtual machines remain available and can be added as a host again to VMM if desired, or you can manage the host and its virtual machines outside of VMM using standard
Hyper-V, Virtual Server, or VMware administrative tools.
To remove a managed host when the VMM Server can no longer communicate with that
host or when you do not have the credentials for that host, use the Remove-VMHost
Windows PowerShell cmdlet together with the Force parameter. When you specify the Force
parameter, VMM does not prompt for or check credentials, and VMM does not attempt to
connect to the host and uninstall the VMM agent. Using the Force parameter is recommended only when you need to remove stale host records from the VMM database.
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Note If a single computer is serving as both a host and a library server and you remove the host
role from the computer, the VMM Agent remains on the computer until the Library Server role is
also removed.
Direct from the Source: Managed Host Agent Management
This sidebar deals with installing, reassociating, and updating managed host agents on
managed hosts.
Installing the Agent Automatically
When you add a virtual machine host or Library Server, VMM 2008 R2 remotely installs
a VMM Agent on the managed computer. The VMM Agent deployment process uses
both the Server Message Block (SMB) ports and the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) port
(TCP 135) and the DCOM port range. You can use either SMB packet signing or IPSec to
help secure the agent deployment process. You can also install VMM Agents locally on
hosts, discover them in the VMM Administrator Console, and then control the host using only the WinRM port (default port 80) and BITS port (default port 443).
Installing the Agent Manually
To install the VMM Agent manually, log on to the intended host computer and run
Setup.exe from your VMM 2008 R2 product media. When the Setup splash screen is
displayed, select Local Agent from under the Setup options.
Installing the Agent on Server Core
To manually install the VMM Agent on a Server Core installation of Windows Server
2008 R2, navigate to the ..\Prerequisites\VCRedist\amd64 directory on your VMM 2008
R2 product media and install the Visual C++ 2005 Redistributable Package by running
Vcredist_x64.exe. After this finishes, navigate to the ..\amd64\msi\Agent directory and
execute the following Msiexec.exe command line to install the VMM Agent:
msiexec /I vmmagent.msi
After the agent has been installed, the Add Host Wizard can be initiated on the VMM
Server to add the host to a host group or to the library.
Reassociating an Agent
Occasionally, you might want to move one or more hosts from one VMM Server to
another. For example, you might want to consolidate hosts that are being managed by
two or more VMM Servers onto a single VMM Server.
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Alternatively, you might want to move one or more hosts back to a VMM Server on
which they had been previously managed but from which they have not yet been
removed. In this situation, the hosts still appear in the Managed Computers pane of
Administration view on the original VMM Server. However, because the agents on the
hosts have been associated with a different VMM Server, the host status on the original
VMM Server is reported as Needs Attention in Hosts view and Access Denied in the
Managed Computers pane in Administration view. Before you can manage the hosts
again on the original VMM Server, you must reassociate the hosts with the original
VMM Server.
To associate a host with a VMM Server, select the Reassociate Host With This Virtual
Machine Manager Server check box in the Add Hosts Wizard or choose the host from
the Hosts view and select Reassociate from the Actions pane. Note that the Reassociate
command is enabled only when the status of an agent is reported as Access Denied
because it is no longer associated with the current VMM Server.
Updating an Agent
After upgrading VMM 2008 R2 from its previous version, you must update the agents
on all your managed hosts. For the agent update to work properly, the version of the
agents on managed computers must match the version of the VMM Server. To update
a VMM Agent on a managed host, select either the Hosts view or the Administration
view in Managed Computers, and select the managed hosts on which you want to update the agent. In the Actions pane, click Update Agent.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
Managing Hosts
When you select a managed host in the Administrator Console and click Properties in the
Actions pane, the properties dialog box for the managed host is displayed. You can use the
different tabs to configure various aspects of the host. The sections that follow describe the
different configuration options available for managed hosts.
Summary tab This tab provides descriptive information about the host, including some
limited system information such as CPUs, memory, storage capacity, operating system, and
other information. (See Figure 5-18.) The version of the installed VMM Agent is also displayed
on this tab.
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FIGURE 5-18 The Summary tab of the properties of a managed host.
Status tab This tab provides overall status information for the host, as well as specific
­information about certain configuration settings on the host. (See Figure 5-19.)
FIGURE 5-19 The Status tab of the properties of a managed host.
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The types of status information and their possible values that the Status tab can display
­include the following:
n
n
n
n
n
Overall status
o
OK—No issues exist with any host status.
o
OK (Limited)—The VMware ESX Server host requires credentials and other
­security configurations before it can be fully managed by VMM.
o
Needs Attention—A problem exists with the status of one or more hosts.
Connection status
o
Responding—The VMM Server is able to communicate with the agent on the
host.
o
Not Responding—The VMM Server is unable to communicate with the agent on
the host.
o
Access Denied—The VMM Agent is no longer associated with the VMM Server.
Agent version
o
Up-to-date—The version of the VMM Agent is up to date.
o
Upgrade Available—The version of the VMM Agent must be upgraded to match
the version of VMM Server.
o
Unsupported—The version of the VMM Agent is not supported for any VMM
functions.
Virtualization service status
o
Running—The virtualization service is started.
o
Stopped—The virtualization service is stopped.
Virtualization service version
o
Up-to-date—The version of the virtualization software is up to date.
o
Upgrade Available—The version of the virtualization software must be upgraded
to a version supported by VMM.
o
Unsupported—The version of the virtualization software is not supported for any
VMM functions.
Additional status information will be displayed if the host belongs to a cluster. The host status
values do not change in the Administrator Console until the VMM Server performs a host
refresh, which by default runs automatically every 30 minutes. You can also perform a refresh
on demand by right-clicking the host and clicking Refresh.
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VMs This tab provides basic information concerning the virtual machines that are hosted
on the selected managed host. In Figure 5-20, for example, there are four virtual machines
on the host, and the selected virtual machine displays its status, up time, and virtual hardware resources on the tab.
FIGURE 5-20 The VMs tab of the properties of a managed host.
There is also an additional setting on this tab, Register The Following Virtual Machines, that
enables you to register virtual machines that have files located on the host but have not been
added as a virtual machine. Registering a virtual machine is done automatically when you
create, deploy, or migrate a virtual machine to a host. However, you might have files for a virtual machine that have not been added on a host or in VMM as a managed virtual machine.
Registering these virtual machines adds them to the host and allows for management using
VMM.
Reserves This tab lets you to configure resource parameters (CPU percentage, memory,
disk space, maximum disk I/O, and network capacity) that will be used to determine whether
a virtual machine can be hosted on the host. (See Figure 5-21.). If the host does not meet all
these requirements, virtual machines cannot be placed on that host.
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FIGURE 5-21 The Reserves tab of the properties of a managed host.
Hardware This tab displays information concerning the hardware configuration of the host.
(See Figure 5-22.) You can use this tab to specify whether or not a specific volume is available
for placement, to override the discovered network location for a specific network adapter,
and for other purposes.
FIGURE 5-22 The Hardware tab of the properties of a managed host.
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Networking This tab displays information concerning the virtual networks that are configured on the host to support virtual machines running on the host. Virtual Networks can be
added, modified, or removed by using this tab. The type of virtual networks displayed here
depends on the type of virtualization running on the host. For example, Figure 5-23 shows
the virtual networks configured on a Hyper-V host.
FIGURE 5-23 The Networking tab of the properties of a managed host.
More Info For more information concerning virtual networks, see Chapter 2 in this book.
Placement This tab displays information concerning the default paths available on the host
for placement of virtual machines. (See Figure 5-24.) If a path was not specified when the
host was added to VMM, all known paths will be displayed.
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FIGURE 5-24 The Placement tab of the properties of a managed host.
Remote This tab displays the port used by VMRC for remote connection. (See Figure 5-25.)
The default port for VMRC in Hyper-V is port 2179. (In Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1, this was
port 5900.)
FIGURE 5-25 The Remote tab of the properties of a managed host.
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Custom This tab lets you add custom properties to the host for informational purposes.
(See Figure 5-26.) To add more columns, including custom properties, to the Results pane of
the Hosts view, select Columns from the toolbar to open the Select Columns dialog box. You
can also right-click on the column header to add or remove columns.
FIGURE 5-26 The Custom tab of the properties of a managed host.
Other settings for managed hosts In addition to the settings available on the Properties
page of a managed host, more information concerning the host is displayed in the Details
pane at the bottom middle of the Administrator Console. To view this information, choose
the Host view to display a list of hosts in the Results pane and then select one of these hosts.
The Details pane displays three tabs of information: Summary, Networking And Storage, and
Latest Job. (See Figure 5-27.) The Summary tab provides general information concerning
the host including which virtual machines are currently being hosted. The Networking And
Storage tab shows which networks are connected and what storage is available, plus some
usage statistics. The Latest Job tab displays information concerning the last job that was run
against the host.
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FIGURE 5-27 Additional information concerning managed hosts is displayed in the Details pane.
Using Networking View
There is also a Networking view that is available for managed hosts. The Networking view
shows what networks the host is connected to and what networks its hosted virtual machines
are connected to. Figure 5-28 shows how you can specify the scope of the Networking view
by selecting the hosts, host groups, or both that you want to display using this view.
FIGURE 5-28 Specifying the scope to be used for the Networking view.
After you’ve specified the scope you want to use, the Networking view is displayed as a
­separate window as shown in Figure 5-29.
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FIGURE 5-29 Displaying the Networking view window.
Managing Host Clusters
You can manage host clusters in a similar way to how you manage individual hosts as previously described. The main difference is that in a host cluster the hosts are grouped together.
Plus there is some additional management functionality available. A benefit of using host
clusters in VMM 2008 is that you can take advantage of the integration between VMM 2008
and OpsMgr 2007 using the Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO) feature introduced in VMM 2008. PRO provides workload-aware and application-aware resource optimization within host clusters and host groups. PRO is implemented through PRO tips, which can
recommend or automatically implement actions such as virtual machine migration or virtual
machine right-sizing based on policies implemented using OpsMgr 2007. For example, if you
configure a host cluster for automatic implementation of PRO tips, VMM 2008 can migrate
virtual machines automatically between nodes in a host cluster.
Direct from the Source: Managing a VMware Infrastructure 3
Environment
VMM 2008 manages VMware through the VMware Infrastructure API, so to start managing VMware, you must add a VMware VirtualCenter Server to VMM. When you add a
VMware VirtualCenter Server to Virtual Machine Manager, all existing ESX Server hosts
managed by the VirtualCenter Server are also added to VMM.
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Requirements for Managing VMware
Virtual Machine Manager supports the following VMware releases:
n
n
Virtualization managers:
o
VMware VirtualCenter 2.5
o
VMware VirtualCenter 2.0.1
Virtual machine hosts:
o
VMware ESX Server 3.5
o
VMware ESX Server 3.0.2
o
VMware ESX Server 3i
Adding ESX Server Hosts
Your first step in configuring VMM to manage a VI3 environment is to add the
VirtualCenter Server so that VMM can use the VMware Infrastructure API to manage
the ESX Server hosts and virtual machines. When you add the VirtualCenter Server, you
specify whether or not to communicate with the ESX Server hosts in Secure Mode. If
you choose Secure Mode, you must provide a certificate and a public key in addition to
credentials for each ESX Server host.
To Add a VMware VirtualCenter Server
1. In any view of the VMM Administrator Console, click Add VMware VirtualCenter
Server.
2. Supply the computer name, port (default of 443) and administrative credentials of
the VMware VirtualCenter Server to add.
3. Under Security, specify whether or not to communicate with the ESX Server hosts
in secure mode.
In secure mode, a certificate and public key are required for each ESX Server host.
Clear this option if you want to trust communications and require only credentials
for the hosts. (See Figure 5-30.)
4. If the VirtualCenter Server has a self-signed certificate, to verify the server’s
­identity, you must import the server’s security certificate to the local machine
­certificate store.
After the server is added to VMM, the ESX Server hosts are added to VMM
­in their own host group hierarchy. This operation might take several minutes
­although VMM adds the ESX Server hosts and then refreshes virtual machine data
on the new hosts.
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FIGURE 5-30 Adding a VMware VirtualCenter Server
Configuring Security for Individual VMware ESX Server Hosts
Newly discovered ESX Server hosts initially have OK (Limited) status in VMM. To fully
manage the virtual machines on the hosts, you must enter credentials in the host properties. If you are managing the VirtualCenter Server in Secure Mode, you also must
provide a certificate and public key. For information about the restrictions that apply to
virtual machines on a host that has OK (Limited) status, see Table 5-7.
TABLE 5-7 Supported
Virtual Machine Actions for VMware ESX Server Hosts by
Host Status
Virtual Machine Action
OK(Limited)
OK
Start
Yes
Yes
Stop
Yes
Yes
Pause
Yes
Yes
Modify properties
Yes
Yes
Create a new checkpoint
Yes
Yes
Manage checkpoints
Yes
Yes
Remove
Yes
Yes
Migrate with VMotion
Yes
Yes
Migrate across VirtualCenter Server
No
Yes
Save state
No
Yes
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Virtual Machine Action
OK(Limited)
OK
Discard a saved state
No
Yes
Store in the VMM library
No
Yes
Clone within the same VirtualCenter
No
Yes
Clone on the same ESX Server host
No
Yes
Perform V2V conversion
No
Yes
Create from a VMM template
No
Yes
Create from a blank disk
No
Yes
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To change the status of the ESX Server host to OK so that you can fully manage virtual
machines, you must provide credentials and, if security mode is enabled on the host,
upload a certificate and public key from the host to VMM.
Setting Credentials for Host Communication
To communicate with a virtual machine host that is on a perimeter network in a domain
that does not have a two-way trust with the VMM Server’s domain, VMM uses credentials for an account that has administrative privileges on the host. To communicate with
a VMware ESX Server host, VMM uses credentials for an account that has administrative
privileges on the host and, if the host is in secure mode, a certificate and public key.
To update the credentials for communicating with a host, follow these steps:
1. In the Hosts view, select the host on which you want to update the credentials.
2. In the Host area of the Actions pane, click Properties.
3. Click the Security tab and then do one of the following:
o
For a host on a perimeter network, type the credentials for the local agent
service account and then click OK.
o
For a host on a nontrusted domain, type the credentials for account on the
host that has administrative privileges and then click OK.
o
For a VMware ESX Server host, in the Credentials For This Host area, type the
user name and password for an account that has administrative privileges on
the host, and then type the password again to confirm it. If the host is in secure mode, in the Certificate And Public Key area, click Retrieve to upload the
certificate and public key from the host select the Accept Both The Certificate
And Public Key For This Host check box, and then click OK. Note that after
adding a VirtualCenter Server to VMM, you can use the Add Hosts Wizard to
manually add any new ESX Server hosts to VMM. VMM does not discover the
new hosts automatically. Note also that removing an ESX Server host removes
it immediately from VMM and also from the VirtualCenter Server.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
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Working with the Library
The VMM library is basically a catalog that provides access to file-based resources such as
ISO images, virtual hard disks, scripts, and other types of files that are stored on VMM Library
Servers. The library also provides access to virtual machine templates, guest operating system profiles, and hardware profiles you create and that reside in the VMM database. You can
also store virtual machines in the library when they are not in use.
When you install your VMM Server, a Library Server is automatically installed on
the server. The default location for the Library Server share on a VMM Server is
%SystemRoot%\ProgramData\Virtual Machine Manager Library Files, and the share name is
MSSCVMMLibrary. By default, when you install a Library Server, the only directory that is created is the one that holds two built-in .vhd files: Blank Disk Small and Blank Disk Large. You
can then expand the folder structure under the library share to include folders for storing
operating system installation images (ISO files), Windows PowerShell scripts, stored virtual
machines, and other kinds of resources.
Library Server Requirements
Library Servers must meet the following requirements:
n
Must be running either Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, or Windows
Server 2003 SP1 or later. For highly available file servers, Windows Server 2008 Failover
Clustering must be configured.
n
Must be in an Active Directory domain that has a two-way trust relationship with the
VMM Server’s domain.
Note VMM does not support file servers configured with the case-sensitive option for Windows
Services for UNIX. (The NFS Case Control is set to Ignore.)
Adding Library Servers
In a distributed environment with branch offices, it’s a good idea to have additional Library
Servers available to support remote locations, especially when users are using a Self-Service
Portal to create virtual machines for their own use. This is because having all the necessary
files available locally to support a virtualized environment can enhance performance and reduce network traffic. To accomplish this, you can add more Library Servers to VMM and then
arrange for the replication of the necessary files to these new servers.
To add a Library Server, open the Administrator Console and select any view. In the Actions
pane on the right side, select Add Library Server to launch the Add Library Server Wizard
and then follow the prompts. If you have multiple Library Servers, you can organize them
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into Library Server groups in a similar way to how managed hosts can be organized into host
groups. Figure 5-31 shows the Library view in the Administrator Console with a single Library
Server and its resources visible. After you’ve deployed a Library Server, you can create additional library shares on it and add files to your library.
FIGURE 5-31 Library view in the Administrator Console.
Adding Virtual Machine Templates
Virtual machine templates can be used to create new virtual machines repeatedly using standardized hardware and software settings. Self-service users must use assigned templates to
create their own virtual machines.
A virtual machine template is a library resource consisting of the following components:
n
Virtual hard disk You can use a generalized virtual hard disk from the library, or you
can create a virtual hard disk from an existing virtual machine. If the source virtual machine for your template has multiple virtual hard disks, select the disk that contains the
operating system. To simplify the generalization process, include Virtualization Guest
Services (such as Virtual Machine Additions or Integration Services) in your template.
n
Hardware profile To define a standard set of hardware settings, you can create a
hardware profile and associate it with a template. When you create a new template or
create a virtual machine from a template, you can specify the virtual hardware ­settings
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or reuse an existing hardware profile from the library. For more information about
hardware profiles, see the section titled “Adding Hardware Profiles” that follows.
n
Guest operating system profile To maintain guest operating system standardization in deployed VMs using templates, you can attach a guest operating system profile
from the library to the template. When you create a new template or create a virtual
machine from a template, you can specify the settings manually or use an operating
system profile associated with your answer files. For more information about guest
­operating system profiles, see the section “Adding Guest Operating System Profiles”
that follows.
Virtual machine templates can be created in the Library view in the Administrator Console. In
the Actions pane on the right side, select New Template to launch the New Template Wizard
and then follow the prompts.
Adding Hardware Profiles
Hardware profiles are library resources that contain hardware specifications that can be
­applied to a new virtual machine or to a virtual machine template. For example, hardware
profiles can contain specifications for CPU, memory, network adapters, a DVD drive, a floppy
drive, COM ports, and the priority given to a virtual machine when allocating resources on
the virtual machine’s host.
You can create hardware profiles that import a standard hardware configuration into a template or into a virtual machine. The options are the same whether you update the hardware
configuration of a virtual machine, hardware profile, or virtual machine template. After
specifying a hardware profile for a virtual machine, you can change the settings that were
imported. The changes do not affect the hardware profile. No association is maintained with
the hardware profile after the virtual machine is created.
Hardware profiles are managed in the Library view of the Administrator Console. To create a
hardware profile, click the New Hardware Profile action in the Library view. You can also save
a new hardware profile based on the hardware configuration of an existing virtual machine
or virtual machine template.
Adding Guest Operating System Profiles
A guest operating system is the operating system that runs on a virtual machine. By contrast,
a host operating system is the operating system that runs on the physical computer (the
virtual machine host) on which one or more virtual machines are deployed. In VMM 2008,
a guest operating system profile is a collection of operating system settings that can be imported into a virtual machine template to provide a consistent operating system configuration for virtual machines that are created from that template.
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You create guest operating system profiles to provide standard settings for the operating
systems on your virtual machines. Guest operating system profiles are database objects that
do not have any physical files associated with them. Guest operating system profiles are configured in the Library view, where they are displayed in a special VMs And Templates folder
as shown in Figure 5-32.
FIGURE 5-32 The VMs And Templates folder, which contains guest operating system profiles.
To create a guest operating system, use the New Guest OS Wizard in the Library view.
Alternatively, you can save a guest operating system based on your current settings while
you are creating a template. After the template is created, no association is maintained
between the template and the guest operating system profile that was used with it. Any
changes that are made to a guest operating system profile affect only new templates that are
created after the changes are made.
Removing Library Resources
Library resources can be removed as well as added. In addition, specific files stored in the
library can be disabled, library shares can be removed, and Library Servers can be removed
from VMM.
When you no longer need a file in the VMM library, you can remove the file using the
Administrator Console. If you remove the file from a library share outside of VMM, any template, guest operating system profile, hardware profile, or virtual machine that uses the file
must be repaired to remove the reference to the deleted file. If you use the Remove action in
the Library view to remove the file, VMM lists any virtual machines, templates, or guest operating system profiles that reference the file, and, if you choose to proceed, VMM removes
references to the deleted file from the dependent resources.
Table 5-8 summarizes the resource dependencies that exist for different resource types.
These dependencies involve only physical files. When a guest operating system profile, hardware profile, or template is used to create a virtual machine or a template, the settings are
imported without maintaining any link to the source configuration.
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TABLE 5-8 Resource
Dependencies for Different Resource Types
Resource Type
Dependent Resources
Templates
ISO images, scripts, answer files, virtual hard disks, and virtual
floppy disks.
Guest Operating System Profiles
Scripts and answer files.
Hardware Profiles
ISO images, virtual floppy disks.
Virtual Machines
The virtual hard disks and virtual floppy disks attached to a
virtual machine are indexed in Virtual Machine Manager, but
they are not displayed in the library because the files are not
available for use with other resources.
Direct from the Source: Backing Up and Restoring the VMM
2008 R2 Database
The VMM 2008 R2 library comprises both flat files in the library share and the VMM
database. The VMM database is a Microsoft SQL Server database that contains not
only Library information but all VMM configuration information, including managed
hosts, host configuration settings, VM settings, and other information. It is therefore
important to back up the VMM database regularly as part of a comprehensive backup
plan for protecting all VMM data, including data on hosts, virtual machines, and Library
Servers. In addition to using the tools provided in VMM, you can also use SQL Server
Management Studio to back up and restore the VMM database.
To Back Up the VMM Database
1. In the Administration view, click General, and in the Actions pane, click Back Up
Virtual Machine Manager.
2. In the Virtual Machine Manager Backup dialog box, type the path for a
­destination folder for the backup file.
Note The folder must not be a root directory and must be accessible to the SQL Server.
To Restore the VMM Database on the Same Computer
1. To restore the VMM database, run the Scvmmrecover.exe tool from the command
line. The Scvmmrecover.exe tool is located on the product CD at the following
path: %cddrive%\i386\bin for a 32-bit computer, or %cddrive%\amd64\bin for a
64-bit computer.
2. On the VMM database computer, open a command-prompt window with elevated privileges, and then run the Scvmmrecover.exe tool using the following syntax:
SCVMMRecover [-Path <location>] [-Confirm]
where <location> is the Location of the Virtual Machine Manager database
backup.
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3. If any hosts has been added or removed since the database backup and the
physical computer that you are restoring the VMM database on has the same
System Identification (SID) number as the computer it was on before, then in the
VMM Administrator Console, in the Hosts view, you must remove any hosts that
might have been removed from VMM since the last backup was created. If a host
has been removed from VMM after the last backup was created, it will have a status of Needs Attention in the Hosts view, and any virtual machines on that host
will have a status of Host Not Responding in the Virtual Machines view. Then you
must add any hosts that might have been added since the last backup.
To Restore the VMM Database on a Different Computer
1. To restore the VMM database, run the Scvmmrecover.exe tool from the command
line. The Scvmmrecover.exe tool is located in %ProgramFiles%\Microsoft System
Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008\bin.
2. On the VMM database computer, open a command-prompt window with elevated privileges, and then run the Scvmmrecover.exe tool using the following syntax:
SCVMMRecover [-Path <location>] [-Confirm]
where <location> is the location of the Virtual Machine Manager database
backup.
3. Because the VMM Server is a different computer and the existing hosts are now
not associated with this new VMM Server computer, you must perform the following steps to reassociate the hosts with the VMM Server:
a. In the VMM Administrator Console, in the Administration view, click
Managed Computers, and in the Results pane, identify any managed computers with a status of Access Denied. Then click a managed computer with
a status of Access Denied, and in the Actions pane, click Reassociate.
b. If any hosts have been added or removed since the database backup, in
the VMM Administrator Console, in the Hosts view, remove any hosts that
might have been removed from VMM since the last backup was created. If
a host has been removed from VMM after the last backup was created, it
will have a status of Needs Attention in the Hosts view and any virtual machines on that host will have a status of Host Not Responding in the Virtual
Machines view. Then add any hosts that might have been added since the
last backup.
c. If any VMs have been removed since the database backup, in the VMM
Administrator Console, in the Virtual Machines view, remove any of those
virtual machines. If a host is present but has a virtual machine that was
removed since the last backup, the virtual machine will have a status of
Missing in the Virtual Machines view.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
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Working with Virtual Machines
You can use VMM 2008 R2 to create and manage virtual machines hosted on Hyper-V,
Virtual Server, or VMware ESX Server managed hosts. You can also use VMM to perform P2V
and V2V conversions and perform other tasks relating to virtual machines.
Creating New Virtual Machines
You can use VMM 2008 to create a new virtual machine from a template, from an existing
virtual machine, or using a blank virtual hard disk. You can also use VMM to clone a virtual
machine. The following walkthrough illustrates how to create a new virtual machine from a
template.
Figure 5-33 shows a host named HVR2 running Windows Server 2008 R2 with Hyper-V. The
Results pane shows that the cluster currently has four virtual machines on it: NYC-SRV-001,
NYC-SRV-005, NYC-SRV-008, and NYC-CLI-233.
FIGURE 5-33 A managed host running three virtual machines.
Let’s create a new virtual machine and place it on the host. To do this, click New Virtual
Machine in the Actions pane. This launches the New Virtual Machine Wizard. (See
Figure 5-34.)
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FIGURE 5-34 New Virtual Machine Wizard.
The New Virtual Machine Wizard gives you two options:
n
You can create a new virtual machine from a template, an existing virtual machine, or
an existing virtual hard disk.
n
You can create a new virtual machine using a blank virtual hard disk. When you install
your VMM Server, two blank virtual hard disks are added by default to the Library
Server. These blank VHDs are named Blank Disk – Small and Blank Disk – Large. Both
of these disks are dynamically expanding virtual hard disks (VHDs) that differ only in
how large they can expand to. Specifically, the small VHD can expand to a size of 16 GB
while the large VHD can expand to 60 GB.
To create a new virtual machine from a template, select the first option and click Browse. This
opens the Select Virtual Machine Source dialog box, which displays a list of virtual machine
templates and available virtual hard disks to choose from. We’ll select the template named
NYC-SRV-W2K8R2ENT, which is configured to use Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise Edition
as the guest operating system for the new virtual machine. (See Figure 5-35.)
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FIGURE 5-35 Selecting a virtual machine template.
Selecting the desired template and clicking OK returns you to the New Virtual Machine
Wizard. (See Figure 5-36.)
FIGURE 5-36 Creating a new virtual machine from a template.
Continuing through the wizard, the next thing you must do is give your new virtual machine
a name. (See Figure 5-37.)
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FIGURE 5-37 Naming the new virtual machine.
On the next page of the wizard, you configure the virtual hardware settings for your new
virtual machine. Virtual hardware settings include BIOS, processor, memory, IDE controllers,
network adapters, and other virtual devices that collectively represent the hardware profile
of the virtual machine. Figure 5-38 shows the virtual machine being configured to use two
logical processors.
FIGURE 5-38 Configuring virtual hardware settings for the virtual machine.
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On the next wizard page, you specify a password for the local Administrator account of the
guest operating system for the virtual machine. (See Figure 5-39.)
FIGURE 5-39 Specifying a password for the Administrator account.
The next page lets you choose whether to place your new virtual machine on a host or store
it in the library. (See Figure 5-40.)
FIGURE 5-40 Choosing whether to deploy or store the virtual machine.
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Selecting the option to deploy the virtual machine on a host brings up a list of possible hosts
you can deploy the machine on. Figure 5-41 shows that we have chosen to deploy the new
virtual machine onto HVR2, which is the only available host in the New York hosts group.
The Details portion of this wizard page shows that this cluster node currently has four other
­virtual machines on it.
FIGURE 5-41 Choosing to place the new virtual machine on a node in a host cluster.
The next wizard page lets us specify the path on the host to where you will save the file associated with the virtual machine. (See Figure 5-42.)
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FIGURE 5-42 Specifying the path for storing the virtual machine files.
In the next page of the wizard, you select the virtual network that the new virtual machine
will use. (See Figure 5-43.)
FIGURE 5-43 Selecting a virtual network for the new virtual machine.
The Additional Properties page of the wizard lets you specify what action should be
­performed on the virtual machine when the physical server stops or starts. (See Figure 5-44.)
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FIGURE 5-44 Specifying what happens to the virtual machine when the host stops or starts.
The final page of the wizard lets you review the settings you have chosen for your new virtual
machine. (See Figure 5-45.) After you complete the wizard, the new virtual machine is ­created
and deployed to the host cluster you specified.
FIGURE 5-45 Summary page of New Virtual Machine Wizard.
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Clicking Create now creates the new virtual machine using the template you specified. The
Jobs window opens to display the progress of this task. (See Figure 5-46.)
FIGURE 5-46 The progress of virtual machine creation is displayed in the Jobs window.
Managing Virtual Machines
You can use the Administrator Console to manage virtual machines. (See Figure 5-47.) The
following are some of the management actions that can be performed on virtual machines:
n
Start Starts a virtual machine that is stopped, paused, or in a saved state.
n
Stop Stops a virtual machine and does not save any state information. This action has
the same effect on the virtual machine as does pulling the plug on a physical computer.
n
Pause Suspends execution of a virtual machine, and keeps all virtual machine state in
memory.
n
Save State Suspends execution of a virtual machine, and saves the current virtual
machine state to disk to release memory and CPU resources for other virtual machines.
When the virtual machine is restored from the saved state, it returns to the condition
that it was in when its state was saved.
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n
Discard Saved State Discards the state that was saved for a virtual machine that is in a
saved state, and turns off the virtual machine.
n
Shut Down Shuts down the guest operating system on the virtual machine.
n
Connect To Virtual Machine Connects to a virtual machine by using Remote Desktop
Protocol (RDP). VMM attempts to connect to a running virtual machine that you select
in the Results pane and adds a thumbnail of the connection—the desktop of the virtual
machine—to the virtual machine details. To open a larger connection window so that
you can log on to the virtual machine, you can either double-click the thumbnail or
click Connect To Virtual Machine in the Actions pane.
n
Repair Repairs a failed virtual machine by retrying the action that caused the failure,
restoring the virtual machine to its state before the action caused it to fail, or refreshing
the data for the virtual machine in VMM after mitigating the issue outside VMM.
n
Install Virtual Guest Services Installs Virtual Guest Services, such as Integration
Services (Hyper-V) or Virtual Machine Additions (Virtual Server) on the virtual machine.
n
Disable Disables a virtual machine that is stored in the library to temporarily prevent
use of the virtual machine. A disabled virtual machine remains in the library but cannot
be deployed or repaired. (This option is available in Library view only.)
n
Properties Modifies the properties of a virtual machine.
FIGURE 5-47 Managing virtual machines using the Administrator Console.
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You can also use the Administrator Console to view and configure the settings for virtual
­machines. The settings for a virtual machine can be accessed either in the Virtual Machines
view or the Library view, depending on whether or not the virtual machine is deployed to a
host or is stored in the library. The settings that can be modified also depend on the current
state of the virtual machine.
Configuring Virtual Machine Settings Virtual machine settings can be accessed by
­right-clicking on the virtual machine and selecting Properties or by clicking Properties in
the Actions pane when in the Virtual Machine view. As shown in Figure 5-48, the properties
dialog box for a virtual machine has six tabs with configurable settings as follows:
n
General This tab is used to view general information concerning the virtual machine.
The only setting that is not available for modification if the virtual machine is running,
saved, or paused is the name of the virtual machine. Significant entries here are Owner
and Tag. For example, if the virtual machine will be used as part of the Self-Service
Portal, the Self-Service Portal user or users should be designated as the owner or owners of the virtual machine or they will be denied access. Additionally, tag entries can be
used as part of the deployment or placement process, where virtual machines can be
deployed only to managed hosts that meet specific requirements based on tags that
are set on templates in the library that Self-Service Portal users have access to.
n
Hardware Configuration This tab documents the hardware configuration of the
­virtual machine. The settings here can be changed only if the virtual machine is not
running and its status shows as Stopped.
n
Checkpoints This tab shows the checkpoints (snapshots in Hyper-V terminology) that
have been taken for the virtual machine. You can also create a new checkpoint, remove
a checkpoint, or restore a configuration to a virtual machine.
n
Custom Properties This tab allows for configuration of up to 10 custom fields for the
virtual machine. You can use custom fields to identify, track, and sort virtual machines
by any property, including department, geographic area, or function.
n
Settings This tab allows for the configuration of Self-Service Quota Points and
Physical Resource Optimization (PRO) settings. By default, all virtual machines are
­allocated 1 quota point.
n
Actions This contains settings that determine what happens when the physical host
server starts and stops.
The settings available for when the physical server starts are
o
Never Automatically Turn On The Virtual Machine
o
Always Automatically Turn On The Virtual Machine
o
Automatically Turn On The Virtual Machine If It Was Running When Virtual Server
Stopped
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The settings available for when the physical server stops are
o
Save State
o
Turn Off Virtual Machine
o
Shut Down Virtual Machine
FIGURE 5-48 Configuring the properties of a virtual machine.
Connecting to a Virtual Machine To connect to a running virtual machine that is visible in
the Administrator Console, do one of the following:
n
Select the virtual machine in the Results pane, and click Connect To Virtual Machine in
the Actions pane.
n
Right-click on the virtual machine in the results pane, and select Connect To Virtual
Machine.
n
Double-click on the thumbnail image of the virtual machine in the Details pane.
When you perform one of these actions, the VMM Virtual Machine Viewer
(VirtualMachineViewer.exe) opens a separate window that allows you to interact with the
running virtual machine by using the keyboard and mouse. (See Figure 5-49.)
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FIGURE 5-49 Interacting with a running virtual machine using the Virtual Machine Viewer.
Direct from the Source: Connecting to Virtual Machines
Remote connections to virtual machines running on managed hosts can be made in
the VMM Administrator Console. VMM uses Virtual Machine Remote Control (VMRC),
which is a feature of Virtual Server 2005 that lets you enable, disable, and configure
virtual machines from within Virtual Machine Manager. Remote control options and the
connection ports for virtual machines on virtual machine hosts vary depending on the
virtualization software running on the host and the operating system running on the
computer on which the VMM Administrator Console is installed. The settings for the
VMRC are configured under the General settings in the Administration view.
To connect to a virtual machine, the following requirements must be met:
n
Credentials must be provided to log on to the virtual machine. Local administrator credentials can be configured during virtual machine creation (if using a
template).
n
For Microsoft Virtual Server, you must have specified the port on the VMM
Server to use for remote control. RDP must be enabled on the virtual machine
host.
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You can also use remote control to access the guest operating system of a virtual
­machine much like you can access Windows by using Remote Desktop. However, unlike Remote Desktop, which allows you to connect only if the operating system is running, remote control in VMM allows you to access a virtual machine prior to the guest
­operating system startup.
Controlling Hyper-V Hosts
To control virtual machines on a Hyper-V host by remote control, VMM uses either
VMConnect or RDP, depending on the operating system that is running on the computer that the VMM Administrator Console is installed on.
For all supported versions of Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows
7, and Windows Vista with SP1 or later, VMM uses VMConnect with the default port of
2179. You can change the default port that is used for connecting to virtual machines
on new Hyper-V hosts. For all other supported operating systems, VMM uses RDP with
the default port of 3389.
Controlling Virtual Server Hosts
To control virtual machines on a Virtual Server host by remote control, VMM uses
VMRC.
The VMRC client connects to an instance of Virtual Server on a host and allows you
to access its virtual machines. Through VMRC, you can use a virtual machine as if you
were using it through the Virtual Server Administration Web site. However, VMRC does
not provide the administrative capabilities available in the Administration Web site,
such as creating a new virtual machine or changing a virtual machine configuration.
You can perform those functions in VMM.
You can enable and configure VMRC settings when you add a host or after you have
added the host.
You can set up VMRC access accounts to give administrators access to all virtual machines on all managed hosts. To gain access to a virtual machine through VMRC, an
administrator must be logged on under an account that has administrative credentials
on the local host computer.
By default, when you add a host to VMM, VMRC is enabled and uses the following
settings:
n
The connection port is set to the global default port setting for Virtual Server
hosts as specified in General settings in the Administration view.
n
No connection time-out is enabled.
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n
Only one user at a time is allowed to connect to a virtual machine.
n
The VMRC connection is not encrypted. (You can modify this setting only
­after a host has been added.)
Note It is recommended that you implement Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) security for
VMRC connections, particularly if you use Basic authentication, which transmits passwords
in plain text.
If you change the VMRC port, the port setting you assign for the hosts must identically
match the port settings that are assigned in Virtual Server.
You can allow multiple users to connect to the same virtual machine. However, each
user can access the guest operating system without the knowledge of the other users.
This is by design for training and lab scenarios, where one user wants to demonstrate
a task to other users and have them connect to and view the same remote session.
Because VMRC connections do not use sessions, allowing more than one user to connect can result in collisions.
You can use SSL to encrypt communications over the VMRC connection by uploading a
certificate from an appropriate internal or third-party certification authority.
Controlling ESX Server Hosts
To control virtual machines on VMware ESX Server hosts by remote control, VMM uses
the VMware mouse keyboard and screen (MKS) Client with default port 902. You cannot change the remote control settings or default post for an ESX Server host in VMM.
Before connecting to a VM on an ESX Host, you must install the VMware ActiveX control. To install the ActiveX control, in the Virtual Machines view, from the Results pane,
select an ESX host. In the Summary tab of the details pane, the expected thumbnail
view of the VM will have the following message: “VMware ActiveX control not installed.
To view a thumbnail for this virtual machine, you must install the VMware ActiveX component.” Select Install ActiveX Control, and follow the instructions. Note that thumbnails are not visible for 64-bit VMware clients.
Connecting to a Virtual Machine
To connect to a virtual machine, locate the host it is running on and either double-click
the thumbnail view in the middle pane or select the Connect To Virtual Machine action.
This will open the Virtual Machine Viewer (Hyper-V), the VMRC Viewer (Virtual Server
2005), or the VMware Viewer (VMware ESX), accordingly.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) team
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Deploying Virtual Machines
You can use VMM 2008 R2 to deploy virtual machines stored in the library to managed
hosts. Deploying a virtual machine stored in the library removes the virtual machine from the
library and places it on the target host. Alternatively, you can use the New Virtual Machine
Wizard by selecting to use an existing virtual machine or VHD in the library if you want to
keep the original virtual machine in the library as a source for additional future deployments.
To deploy a virtual machine, select the virtual machine from the appropriate Library Server
and click Deploy. This launches the Deploy Virtual Machine Wizard. Then you follow the
prompts.
Migrating Virtual Machines
You can use VMM 2008 R2 to migrate virtual machines between hosts that are running the
same virtualization platform (Hyper-V, Virtual Server, or VMware ESX Server). You can also
migrate virtual machines from Virtual Server to Hyper-V.
The following methods are available to migrate a deployed virtual machine to a different
host when in the Virtual Machines view:
n
Click the Migrate action to launch the Migrate Virtual Machine Wizard, which enables
you to select a suitable host, specify the path that will store the virtual machine, and
select the type of transfer to be performed.
n
Drag and drop the virtual machine onto a host.
n
Drag and drop the virtual machine onto a host group. Through automatic placement,
the virtual machine is placed on the most suitable host that is available in the host
group based on the virtual machine's requirements and the group or individual host
rating metrics.
The transfer methods available to migrate Hyper-V and Virtual Server virtual machine include
SAN transfers (when a properly configured SAN is available) and Network (LAN) transfers.
Note that if you migrate a virtual machine that is connected to SAN storage, the virtual machine will not be able to reconnect to the SAN unless the destination host also has access
to that SAN. VMM is not able to detect whether a virtual machine is connected to a SAN or
whether the destination host is connected to the same SAN, and therefore it cannot provide
a warning. You must ensure that the new host is configured to allow the virtual machine to
reconnect to the SAN before you migrate the virtual machine.
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Cloning Virtual Machines
You can use VMM 2008 R2 to “clone” (make an exact copy) of a virtual machine. The virtual
machine you want to clone can be one that already exists in the library or one that is already
deployed to a host (in which case, it must be turned off). The cloning process can also be
used to back up virtual machines.
Note A cloned virtual machine has the same security identifier (SID) as the original, so they
­cannot be running simultaneously on the same network.
When you clone a virtual machine, you cannot make changes to the operating system
­settings, but you can make changes to the hardware profile.
To begin the cloning process, first make sure that the virtual machine is shut down on the
host. Then select the virtual machine in the Administrator Console, click the Clone action to
launch the New Virtual Machine Wizard, and then follow the prompts.
Performing P2V Conversions
You can use VMM 2008 R2 to convert a physical computer to a virtual machine. The process
of doing this is known as Physical-to-Virtual (P2V) conversion. You might typically use the
P2V conversion process as part of a server consolidation project where underutilized physical
servers are converted into virtual machines so that these physical servers can be repurposed
or decommissioned.
Tip You can use System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 to generate a Virtualization
Candidates report that can help identify underutilized physical servers that could be good
­candidates for the P2V conversion process.
When identifying your best candidates for P2V conversion, consider converting the following
types of servers, which are listed in order of preference:
n
Non-business-critical underutilized servers. By starting with the least utilized servers
that are not business critical, you can learn how the P2V process works with relatively
low risk. Web servers can often make good candidates here.
n
Servers with low utilization that are hosting less critical in-house applications.
n
Servers with higher utilization that are hosting less critical applications.
n
Other underutilized servers.
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The requirements for a physical source computer depend on whether you are going to
­perform an online or offline P2V conversion:
n
Online P2V conversion In this scenario, VMM uses BITS to copy data while the source
computer continues to service user requests. The source computer is not restarted during the conversion, and the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) is used to ensure data
consistency. To perform an online P2V conversion, the source computer must have at
least 512 MB of RAM.
n
Offline P2V conversion In this scenario, the physical source computer restarts into
the Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE) before VMM converts the
physical disks to VHDs. The Windows PE environment is used by the conversion process
to capture the disk and therefore requires network and storage controller drivers for
Windows PE. By default, VMM scans for these devices during the P2V conversion process and injects the required drivers into the Windows PE environment automatically.
If third-party network interface card (NIC) or storage controller drivers are needed,
­however, these drivers must be provided by the administrator.
In either case, VMM temporarily installs the VMM Agent on the physical source computer
that you want to convert.
The following operating systems are supported for P2V conversions:
n
Windows Server 2008 R2
n
Windows Server 2008 (32-bit)
n
Windows Server 2008 (64-bit)
n
Windows Server 2003 (32-bit)
n
Windows Server 2003 (64-bit)
n
Windows 2000 Server SP4 or later (Offline P2V only)
n
Windows 2000 Advanced Server SP4 or later (Offline P2V only)
n
Windows XP Professional (32-bit) SP2 or later
n
Windows XP Professional (64-bit) SP2 or later
n
Windows Vista SP 1 (32-bit)
n
Windows Vista SP1 or later (64-bit)
n
Windows 7 (32-bit)
n
Windows 7 (64-bit)
Although P2V conversion of source computers running Windows NT Server 4.0 is not supported by VMM 2008 R2, you can use the Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 Migration Toolkit
(VSMT) or third-party solutions for converting computers running Windows NT Server 4.0
into virtual machines.
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Note When performing a P2V conversion of Windows 2000 Server or Advanced Server, the
­following components must be installed on the source computer:
n
Service Pack 4
n
Windows Installer 3.1 Redistributable (v2)
n
Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Redistributable Package
n.NET
n
Framework 2.0
BITS 2.0 Update KB842773
Let’s walk through an example of performing a P2V conversion to illustrate how it works.
Figure 5-50 is a screen shot taken on a physical server named NYC-SRV-B in the contoso.
com domain showing the File Services role installed. Our goal here is to use VMM 2008 R2 to
­perform an online conversion of this physical server into a virtual machine.
FIGURE 5-50 Screen shot of the physical server that will be converted to a virtual machine.
To start the conversion process, click Convert Physical Server in the Actions pane of VMM to
launch the Convert Physical Server (P2V) Wizard. On the Select Source page of this wizard,
type or browse to specify the name or IP address of the physical server you want to convert
to a virtual machine and specify credentials that have local administrator privileges on the
physical server. (See Figure 5-51.)
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FIGURE 5-51 Specify the name of the physical sever and local administrator credentials on the server.
The next wizard page tells us that the virtual machine you are going to create will have the
same name as your physical server. (See Figure 5-52.) You can change this identity if desired,
but let’s leave it configured as it is.
FIGURE 5-52 Specify the name of the virtual machine to be created.
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On the next wizard page, click Scan System to install a VMM agent on the physical server to
gather information about its hardware. (See Figure 5-53.)
FIGURE 5-53 Click Scan System to install a VMM agent on the physical server and scan its hardware.
When the scan is complete, the results are displayed as shown in Figure 5-54.
FIGURE 5-54 Results of hardware scan of the physical server.
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The next wizard page displays the disk volumes on the physical server that you will be duplicating on the virtual machine. The default VHD type for these volumes is dynamic, but you
can change this to fixed if desired. Clicking Conversion Options displays options for choosing
between an online or offline conversion. For this walkthrough, select the Online Conversion
option. (See Figure 5-55.)
FIGURE 5-55 Specifying disk options and conversion method.
The next wizard page lets you specify the number of processors and amount of RAM to be
assigned to the virtual machine being created. By default, the values displayed here are those
of the physical server’s hardware. (See Figure 5-56.)
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FIGURE 5-56 Specify the number of processors and amount or RAM to be used by the virtual machine.
On the next wizard page, you select a host for the virtual machine you are going to create. In
Figure 5-57, you first select the New York hosts group, which displays HVR2 as the only available host in this host group.
FIGURE 5-57 Choose a host to place the new virtual machine on.
The next figure lets you select a storage location on the host for the virtual machine files that
will be created. (See Figure 5-58.)
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FIGURE 5-58 Specify a location for storing the virtual machine files.
On the next wizard page, you can select a virtual network for the new virtual machine. (See
Figure 5-59.)
FIGURE 5-59 Specify a virtual network for the virtual machine.
The next wizard page lets you configure the automatic start actions for the virtual machine
when the physical server starts or stops. (See Figure 5-60.)
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FIGURE 5-60 Configuring automatic start options.
The next-to-last wizard page does a final check to determine whether there are any issues
that might block the conversion process from happening or cause the process to fail. (See
Figure 5-61.) If any issues are detected at this point, you can try resolving them on the physical server and then click Check Again to verify.
FIGURE 5-61 Verifying that there will be no issues with the planned conversion.
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The final screen of the wizard displays summary information of how you have configured the
conversion process. (See Figure 5-62.)
FIGURE 5-62 Summary page of the Convert Physical Machine (P2V) Wizard.
Now click Create to begin the P2V conversion process. The Jobs window opens at this point
and displays the progress of the conversion. (See Figure 5-63.)
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FIGURE 5-63 P2V conversion is underway.
The conversion process might take some time to complete. After it is finished, the virtual
­machine will be displayed in the Administrator Console and you can start it up to get it
­running. (See Figure 5-64.)
FIGURE 5-64 The new virtual machine in the VMM Administrator Console.
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Double-clicking on the thumbnail image of the virtual machine opens it in the Virtual
Machine Viewer. As you can see by comparing Figure 5-65 with the earlier screen shot captured on the physical server (shown in Figure 5-50 earlier), the P2V conversion process has
indeed worked as expected.
FIGURE 5-65 The new virtual machine in the Virtual Machine Viewer.
Performing V2V Conversions
You can use VMM 2008 R2 to convert a VMware ESX Server–based virtual machine to a
Hyper-V or Virtual Server–based virtual machine. This process is called virtual-to-virtual
(V2V) conversion and is different from migration, which is the process of moving a virtual machine from one host to another and was discussed earlier in this chapter. Table 5-9
­summarizes the difference between virtual machine migration and V2V conversion.
TABLE 5-9 Options
for Virtual Machine Migration and V2V Conversion
From
To
Method
Hyper-V
Hyper-V
Migration
Virtual Server
Virtual Server
Migration
Virtual Server
Hyper-V
Migration
VMWare ESX Server
VMWare ESX Server
Migration
VMWare ESX Server
Hyper-V
V2V
VMWare ESX Server
Virtual Server
V2V
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The following guest operating systems are supported for virtual-to-virtual (V2V) conversion:
n
Windows Server 2008 R2
n
Windows Server 2008 (32-bit)
n
Windows Server 2008 (64-bit)
n
Windows Server 2003 (32-bit)
n
Windows Server 2003 (64-bit)
n
Windows 2000 Server SP4 or later (Offline P2V only)
n
Windows 2000 Advanced Server SP4 or later (Offline P2V only)
n
Windows XP Professional (32-bit) SP2 or later
n
Windows XP Professional (64-bit) SP2 or later
n
Windows Vista SP 1 (32-bit)
n
Windows Vista SP1 or later (64-bit)
n
Windows 7 (32-bit)
n
Windows 7 (64-bit)
V2V conversion can be performed by using the Convert Virtual Machine Wizard, which converts the .vmdk files to .vhd files and makes the guest operating system on the virtual machine compatible with Microsoft virtualization technologies. The virtual machine created by
the wizard matches the VMware virtual machine properties, including its name, description,
memory, disk-to-bus assignment, CD and DVD settings, network adapter settings, and other
parameters.
Direct from the Source: Using P2V to Convert a Running VM
from Another Hypervisor
One task that administrators ask for is the ability to do a Virtual-to-Virtual (V2V) conversion of a running VMware virtual machine to a Hyper-V server. The current V2V
process in VMM is an offline process, but you can do an easy online conversion of a
VMware VM. We have to remember that virtual machines are machines first and virtual
second, and that VMs present themselves to users and administrators just like physical
machines. Thus, administrators can do a Physical-to-Virtual conversion of the VMware
VM. Even though it is a virtual machine, the VM can look like a physical machine to
VMM, and if the operating system is a supported P2V operating system, VMM can do a
live migration of that VMware VM to a Hyper-V VM.
—Edwin Yuen, Senior Product Manager, Integrated Virtualization Strategy
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Configuring User Roles
VMM 2008 R2 employs user roles to determine the level of access users and groups can
have to different kinds of resources. You can create three types of user roles using the
Administrator Console:
n
Administrator role Able to perform all actions using the Administrator Console,
­including creating new Delegated Administrator and Self-Service User roles and adding members to these roles. The default membership in the Administrator role includes
members of the local Administrator group on the VMM Server, the domain account of
the user who installed the VMM Server, and the computer account of the VMM Server.
n
Delegated Administrator role Able to perform most actions using the Administrator
Console as restricted by the scope defined for the role. The scope defines which host
groups and Library Servers the Delegated Administrator is permitted to manage.
Members of this role can also create new Delegated Administrator and Self-Service
User roles and add members to these roles.
n
Self-Service User role Able to use the Self-Service Portal to perform tasks on virtual
machines as defined by the scope and permissions for the role. Members of this role
cannot create any new user roles.
You can create user roles by using the New User Role Wizard as demonstrated in the
­following sections.
Creating a Delegated Administrator Role
If you belong to either the Administrator or Delegated Administrator role, you can use the
Create User Role Wizard to create a new Delegated Administrator role. To do this, begin by
selecting User Roles under Administration in the Administration pane. (See Figure 5-66.)
Now click New User Role under User Role in the Actions pane. This launches the Create User
Role Wizard. Type a name for the new role you will create and an optional description. Then
select Delegated Administrator as the kind of role you will create. (See Figure 5-67.)
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FIGURE 5-66 Managing user roles.
FIGURE 5-67 Creating a new Delegated Administrator role.
On the next page of the wizard, browse Active Directory to select the user accounts you want
to add as members of your new role. (See Figure 5-68.)
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FIGURE 5-68 Adding members to the role.
On the next wizard page, specify the scope of your new role. (See Figure 5-69.)
FIGURE 5-69 Specify the scope for the Delegated Administrator role.
The final page of the wizard presents a summary of the selections you have made on the
previous pages. After you’re satisfied you are configuring the new role appropriately, click
Create to create the new Delegated Administrator role. See Figure 5-70 shows the result of
creating the new Delegated Administrator role.
Tip You can click View Script on the final wizard page to view the Windows PowerShell script
that will be used to perform the actions you specified in the wizard. This can be useful for automation purposes. For example, you could copy the script from this role and modify it to create
multiple roles in one batch operation.
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FIGURE 5-70 Summary page of Create User Role Wizard.
Creating a Self-Service User Role
If you belong to either the Administrator or Delegated Administrator role, you can also
use the Create User Role Wizard to create a new Self-Service User role. To do this, begin
again by selecting User Roles under Administration in the Administration pane as shown in
Figure 5-70. Click New User Role under User Role in the Actions pane to launch the Create
User Role Wizard. Type a name for the new role you will create and an optional description.
Now select Self-Service User as the kind of role you will create. (See Figure 5-71.)
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FIGURE 5-71 Creating a new Self-Service User role.
Browse Active Directory to select the user accounts you want to add as members of your new
role, and then add these accounts to the role. Figure 5-72 shows user Jacky Chen assigned to
the Self-Service User role.
FIGURE 5-72 Adding members to the role.
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Next, specify the scope of your new role. (See Figure 5-73.)
FIGURE 5-73 Specify the scope for the Self-Service User role.
Next you specify the permissions that members of this role will have for managing virtual
machines running on hosts that belong to host groups that are within the scope of the role.
You can either specify that role members can perform any action on the virtual machines, or
you can select specific actions to allow them to perform. (See Figure 5-74.)
FIGURE 5-74 Specify the virtual machine permissions for the Self-Service User role.
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On the next page of the wizard, you specify whether members of this role are allowed to create new virtual machines on hosts that belong to host groups that are within the scope of the
role. You can also specify which virtual machine templates the role members can use when
creating their new virtual machines. (See Figure 5-75.)
FIGURE 5-75 Specify the templates that role members can use for creating new virtual machines.
On this wizard page, you can also set a quota for deployed virtual machines for members of
the Self-Service User role. A virtual machine quota in a Self-Service User role is a limit to the
number of virtual machines that members of the role can deploy. Quota points are assigned
to the templates that self-service users use to create their virtual machines, and they apply
only to virtual machines on a virtual machine host. If a self-service user is allowed to store
virtual machines, the quota does not apply to virtual machines stored in the library. When
the self-service user’s quota is reached, the user cannot create any new virtual machines until
an existing virtual machine is removed or stored in the library.
On the next page of the wizard, you can specify whether the user is allowed to store her
­virtual machines in the library. (See Figure 5-76.)
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FIGURE 5-76 Specify whether role members can store their virtual machines in the library.
The final page of the Create User Role Wizard displays a summary of the selections you have
made. Figure 5-77 shows the result of creating the new Self-Service User role.
FIGURE 5-77 Summary page of the Create User Role Wizard.
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Using the Self-Service Portal
The VMM Self-Service Portal provides Web-based functionality that allows users to create,
manage, and operate their own virtual machines independently within a controlled environment. Setting up the Self-Service Portal involves the following steps:
1. Installing the VMM Self-Service Portal on a Web server running IIS. You can configure the Self-Service Portal on your VMM Server or on a dedicated Web server in your
domain.
2. Creating a host group to use for virtual machine self-service, and moving hosts into the
host group. This configuration is useful for limiting self-service users to a specific group
of managed hosts.
3. Creating virtual machine templates that your self-service users can use to create their
own virtual machines.
4. Creating Self-Service User roles to grant users permissions to administer their virtual
machines and to allow them to create their virtual machines from templates.
5. Specifying the e-mail address of the administrator who will support the self-service
users.
Tip If self-service users will use virtual machines that you have created, create the virtual
­ achines, configure them for virtual machine self-service, and deploy the virtual machines on a
m
host in the host group that you use for self-service.
After the Self-Service Portal has been configured, users who are members of a Self-Service
User role can use a Web browser such as Internet Explorer to open the home page of the
portal and log on using their domain credentials. (See Figure 5-78.)
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FIGURE 5-78 Logging on to the Self-Service Portal.
After members of the Self-Service User role log on, they can manage their virtual machines
using the portal by clicking the Computers tab on the Portal.aspx page. By clicking List View,
you can view the name, status, owner, assigned memory, disk space used, date deployed, and
quota points for each virtual machine you have access to. (See Figure 5-79.) And by selecting
a virtual machine, you can perform the actions you have permissions to perform as determined by the Self-Service Portal role to which you belong.
If you select a running virtual machine in List View and click Connect To VM in the Actions
pane on the right, a separate Internet Explorer window opens displaying a remote control session to the virtual machine. (See Figure 5-80.) When you do this for the first time
on the Self-Service Portal, you are prompted to install the ActiveX control that makes this
­connection possible.
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FIGURE 5-79 Viewing a list of the user’s virtual machines.
FIGURE 5-80 Connecting to a running virtual machine using a remote control session.
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If you return to the Self-Service Portal page and click Thumbnail View, you can view a thumbnail image of your running virtual machines. (See Figure 5-81.) And by selecting one of the
thumbnails, you can perform the actions you have permissions to perform as determined by
the role. If for some reason a thumbnail image isn’t displayed for a particular running virtual
machine, click the green circular arrow icon to reconnect to the virtual machine.
FIGURE 5-81 Viewing thumbnails of the user’s virtual machines.
Finally, by clicking New Computer in the Create pane on the right side of the portal page,
you can create a new virtual machine from a template based on the way the Self-Service User
role was configured. (See Figure 5-82.)
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FIGURE 5-82 Creating a new virtual machine.
Microsoft System Center Solutions
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2, which we’ve dived into in this chapter, is
only one part of the Microsoft System Center family of products. System Center solutions can
help you manage an organization’s physical and virtual infrastructure from the desktop to
the datacenter. System Center solutions play a central role in Microsoft’s vision for enabling
IT organizations to benefit from self-managing, dynamic systems.
For the dynamic datacenter, System Center solutions enable
n
Configuration management
n
Server compliance
n
End-to-end monitoring
n
Data protection and recovery
For the dynamic desktop, System Center solutions facilitate
n
Adaptive application delivery
n
Simplified Windows 7 deployment
n
Endpoint security management
n
Configuration compliance
n
Client infrastructure monitoring
n
Remote PC diagnostics and repair
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Dynamic IT, developed according to Microsoft’s strategy for providing critical technologies
that enable IT to become more strategic, represents Microsoft’s vision of what an agile business looks like—where IT works closely with a business to meet the demands of a rapidly
changing and adaptable environment.
System Center Server Management Suite Enterprise
System Center Server Management Suite Enterprise encompasses four core System Center
products to provide a complete set of server management capabilities for managing applications and platforms that span both physical and virtual environments. System Center
Server Management Suite Enterprise also provides the right to manage an unlimited number
of ­operating system environments on a single virtual machine host. The four core System
Center products within this suite include
n
System Center Configuration Manager 2007 R2 A solution that comprehensively
assesses, deploys, and updates servers, client computers, and devices across physical,
virtual, distributed, and mobile environments. System Center Configuration Manager is
optimized for Windows and is extensible so that it can control virtually any IT system.
n
System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 An end-to-end service-management
product that works seamlessly with Microsoft software and applications, helping organizations increase efficiency while enabling greater control of their physical and virtual
infrastructure.
n
System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 SP1 A solution for Windows backup
and recovery that delivers continuous data protection for Microsoft application and file
servers using seamlessly integrated disk and tape media.
n
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2 A product that allows unified
management of physical and virtual machines, consolidation of underused physical
servers, and rapid provisioning of new virtual machines.
System Center Essentials
System Center Essentials 2007 SP1 is specifically designed for midsize businesses with up to
500 client computers and 30 servers. It provides a unified management solution that enables
midsize organizations to proactively manage their IT environment with increased efficiency.
System Center Essentials provides monitoring and alert resolution for servers, clients, applications, hardware, and network devices; software distribution; update management; and software and hardware inventory.
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Other System Center Products
Other System Center products include the following:
n
System Center Capacity Planner 2007 A predeployment capacity-planning and
postdeployment change-analysis solution for Microsoft server applications, such as
Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, Windows SharePoint Services 3.0, and Microsoft Office
SharePoint Server 2007. System Center Capacity Planner provides tools and guidance to
deploy these servers efficiently, while also helping you plan for the future by enabling
“what-if” analyses.
n
System Center Mobile Device Manager 2008 SP1 An end-to-end product for singlepoint access of line-of-business (LOB) applications and corporate data on devices
running Windows Mobile 6.1. System Center Mobile Device Manager provides secure
access to sensitive corporate data on such devices in a seamless manner.
n
System Center Service Manager A new Microsoft System Center product designed
to meet the needs of the modern IT help desk by providing capabilities for incident,
­problem, asset, and change management.
For more information about System Center solutions, their benefits, how to purchase or try
them out, and for partner and technical information, see the Microsoft System Center portal
at http://www.microsoft.com/systemcenter/en/us/default.aspx.
Benefits of System Center for Virtualization
Implementing System Center solutions can have numerous direct benefits for your
­organization’s virtualization infrastructure. For example,
n
System Center Configuration Manager 2007 R2 facilitates operating-system and
­application configuration management, patch management and deployment, and software upgrades for physical and virtual machines from the datacenter to the desktop.
n
System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 provides end-to-end service management, server and application health monitoring and management, and performance
reporting and analysis for physical and virtual machines.
n
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2 allows for management of virtual
machines, server consolidation and resource utilization optimization, and Physical-toVirtual (P2V) and Virtual-to-Virtual (V2V) conversions for managing your virtualized
infrastructure and making more efficient use of your physical hardware resources.
n
System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 SP1 provides live, host-level virtual
­machine backup, in-guest consistency, and rapid recovery for Hyper-V hosts to
­eliminate downtime for both your physical infrastructure and virtual infrastructure.
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Direct from the Source: Choosing a DPM 2007 SP1 Backup
Solution
With Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) 2007 SP1, you can use
disk-based storage, tape-based storage, or both.
Tape-Based Backup and Archive
Traditional data archiving methods have relied on backing up data to tape media. This
method is referred to as disk-to-tape (D2T). Tape is a popular medium for offsite storage, because magnetic tape and similar storage media offer an inexpensive and portable form of data protection that is particularly useful for long-term storage. A thorough
disaster recovery plan based on tape media includes offsite storage of critical information to allow data recovery in situations where a facility is damaged or destroyed.
Using DPM, you can back up data from a server directly to tape. Data can be backed
up to tape as frequently as daily for short-term protection, and it can be maintained as
long as 99 years for long-term protection.
For long-term, tape-based protection, DPM backs up data from the replica in the storage pool to tape so that there is no impact on the protected server. If a file was open
when the replica was synchronized last, the backup of that file from the replica will be
in a crash-consistent state. A crash-consistent state of the file will contain all file data
that was preserved to disk at the time of last synchronization. This applies only to file
system backups. Application backups will always be consistent with the application
state.
Disk-Based Protection and Recovery
With the advent of large and relatively inexpensive disk subsystems, organizations have
begun to implement disk-based backup solutions, referred to as disk-to-disk (D2D). This
method of backup is used to store data from one computer on the hard disk of another
computer. One advantage of disk-based data protection is the potential to save time.
Disk-based data protection eliminates the need to locate a specific tape required for a
recovery job, load the tape, and position the tape to the correct starting point. The potential time savings and ease of use inherent in disk backup solutions encourages sending incremental data more frequently, which reduces the impact to the server being
protected and on network resources. Additional benefits of this approach include
n Increased reliability The reliability of data recovery with disk-based
data protection is also better than that of tape-based systems. Disk drives
­t ypically have much greater mean time between failure (MTBF) ratings than
tape systems.
n Faster recovery Recovery of data from disk is quicker and easier than
r­ ecovery from tape. Recovering data from disk is a simple matter of browsing through previous versions of the data on the DPM server and copying
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selected versions directly to the protected file server. In comparison, a typical file recovery from tape takes hours, which can be costly, and administrators in a medium-size datacenter can usually expect to perform 10 to 20 or
more of these recoveries each month.
Using DPM and disk-based data protection, data can be synchronized as frequently as
every 15 minutes and maintained as long as 64 days with 1 recovery point per day.
Combining Disk and Tape Backup Methods
You can also back up data from a disk-based replica. Often referred to as D2D2T or
“disk-to-disk-to-tape,” this method combines the ease of use inherent to disk-based
backup with the long-term and offsite storage capabilities of tape media by replicating
data to disk for subsequent backup to tape. The primary advantage to this method is
that the tape backup operation can occur at any time with no impact on the server that
is being protected.
DPM allows administrators to schedule disk-based replication and backup to tape,
providing the flexibility to create focused, detailed backup strategies that result in efficient and economic data protection. When you need to restore a single file or an entire
server, recovery is typically fast and simple, because once you identify the data to be
restored, DPM locates the data and retrieves it from the disk-based replica. Should a
disk replica fail, tape backups can be used to restore the replica and resume protection.
Determining Which Storage Method to Use
To determine which storage method to use, you must consider the relative importance
of your organization’s protection requirements.
n How much data your organization can afford to lose Realistically, not all
data is equally valuable. Organizations must weigh the impact of loss against
the costs of protection.
n How quickly recovered data must be made available Recovery of data
that is critical to ongoing operations will typically be more urgent than routine data. On the other hand, organizations should identify servers providing
essential services during working hours that must not be disrupted by recovery operations.
n How long your organization must maintain data Long-term storage
might be necessary for business operations, depending on the type and
contents of the data. An organization might also be subject to legal requirements for data retention.
n How much your organization can spend on data protection When con-
sidering how much to invest in data protection, organizations must include
not only the cost of hardware and media, but also the personnel costs for
administration, management, and support.
—CSS Global Technical Readiness Team (GTR)
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Additional Resources
The resources listed in this section were either referred to in the chapter or provide
­additional information concerning concepts and products discussed in this chapter.
General
The main SCVMM portal on microsoft.com can be found at http://www.microsoft.com/­
systemcenter/virtualmachinemanager/en/us/default.aspx. You should begin there if you are
looking for general information about VMM 2008 R2.
Administering VMM
For detailed and authoritative technical guidance about how to deploy, configure, use,
­maintain, and troubleshoot VMM 2008 R2, see the SCVMM TechCenter on Microsoft TechNet
at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/scvmm/default.aspx.
To dive in quickly into the product, check out the following two sections of the TechNet
Library:
n
“System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 and Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2”
found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc917964.aspx.
n
“Online Help for Virtual Machine Manager” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/­
en-ca/library/bb740738.aspx.
System Center Blog
Be sure to subscribe to the RSS feed of the System Center Virtual Machine Manager Team
Blog at http://blogs.technet.com/scvmm/default.aspx if you want to keep up with all the latest
news, tips and best practices concerning VMM.
VMM Forums on TechNet
To obtain help with your questions and problems concerning VMM, and to help others, use
the VMM forums on Microsoft TechNet at http://social.technet.microsoft.com/forums/en-US/
category/virtualmachinemanager.
Chapter 6
Cloud Computing
The previous chapters of this book have dealt with specific virtualization products and
­technologies that are already available from Microsoft. This final chapter looks to the future
and describes how these various products and technologies make possible a new type of
virtualization called cloud computing. This chapter examines the benefits of cloud computing, possible usage scenarios, the availability of Microsoft’s offerings in this area, and how the
Microsoft cloud-computing platform works. Because Microsoft’s cloud-computing platform
is still in early beta at the time of this writing, the technical details described in this chapter
are subject to change.
What Is Cloud Computing?
Cloud computing is an emerging solution whereby virtualized computing resources ­running
“in the cloud” can be provisioned and delivered as services to those who need them, an
­approach often called IT as a service. These computing resources can include servers, storage, and networking resources running in virtualized environments using Microsoft Hyper-V,
and the virtualized environment itself resides in a datacenter that can be either privately or
publicly owned.
A cloud-computing solution basically includes the following elements:
n
A datacenter of Hyper-V servers and storage resources that forms the underlying
­infrastructure of the cloud
n
A scalable pool of virtual servers, storage, and networking resources hosted or running
in the cloud
n
Tools for managing the datacenter servers and storage resources as a single fabric
n
Software for packaging and delivering virtualized computing resources as services
n
Automation software for authorizing the provisioning of resources to users upon their
request
n
A reliable, high-bandwidth network for delivering these resources to users
In a cloud-computing scenario, the user isn’t concerned about where the virtual servers,
­storage, or networking resource are actually located; all he cares about is that he can quickly
access a resource when he needs it. For example, when he needs a new virtual server for his
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department, he doesn’t care whether the virtual server is running on a Hyper-V server down
the hall, in a nearby building, or in a datacenter halfway across the continent. He also doesn’t
care whether the Hyper-V server is owned and maintained by the company he works for,
a partner organization, or a public hosting provider. All he wants is to be able to submit a
­request for a new virtual server and then gain access to this server as quickly as possible.
Private vs. Public Cloud
Microsoft’s vision for cloud computing centers around two types of solutions:
n
Private cloud This approach uses your organization’s existing virtualization
­infrastructure, and it provides your organization with complete control over what
­virtualized computing resources can be made available to your users and how these
resources can be provisioned and delivered. In a private-cloud scenario, you use software and tools provided by Microsoft to pool the resources of your existing virtualized
infrastructure by wrapping up these resources and offering them as a service to your
users. A private cloud is therefore not a separate product offering from Microsoft, but
rather it’s a computing infrastructure deployment option that involves virtualized infrastructure with fabric-integrated automated management that results in an internal,
service-oriented environment for an enterprise.
n
Public cloud This approach uses a hosting provider’s infrastructure to provide
­virtualized computing resources on demand to organizations that need them. The
hosting provider in this case is located outside your corporate firewall and can either
be Microsoft itself (at a Microsoft datacenter) or a third-party hosting provider using
software and tools available from Microsoft. A public cloud is therefore not a separate
product offering from Microsoft, but rather it’s a deployment option for enterprises
whereby virtualized infrastructure services are provided by a hosting partner.
Large organizations with an existing virtualization infrastructure might choose to implement
a private-cloud solution because it provides them with complete control over the solution,
making it more secure because the solution is completely implemented behind the organization’s corporate firewall. Small and mid-sized organizations without the infrastructure or
in-house expertise to deploy their own private-cloud solution can use the public-cloud approach through a pay-as-you-go arrangement with a hosting provider that offers the cloud
computing services they require. Some organizations might even choose to follow a hybrid
cloud approach whereby they combine their own in-house, private-cloud solution with
the offerings of a public-cloud service provider. The ability for organizations to blend together custom solutions based on a combination of private and public cloud offerings from
Microsoft is called the cloud continuum.
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Examining the Benefits of Cloud Computing
The fundamental benefit of the cloud-computing approach is business agility. In fact, cloud
computing is the natural and next evolutionary stage of Microsoft’s Dynamic IT initiative, in
which the datacenter becomes capable of dynamically responding to the changing needs
of businesses. Cloud computing provides this benefit by making your IT infrastructure more
able to quickly respond to rapid changes in your business environment. For example, in
a traditional enterprise computing environment, a department that needs a new server
might need to wait weeks or even months for the provisioning process to work its way from
­approval to supplier to delivery and deployment. Even in a virtualized IT infrastructure, it
might still take several days or even weeks from requesting a new virtual server to having
this ­server configured, tested, and provisioned. With a private-cloud infrastructure, however,
the approval and provisioning of virtual servers can be predefined using policies so that
the entire process from submitting a request to gaining access to the virtual server can be
almost immediate. And with a public-cloud solution, the provisioning process can be just as
rapid, and it can happen without any changes being made to your organization’s existing
infrastructure.
Benefits of Using a Private Cloud vs. a Public Cloud
Specific benefits of Microsoft’s private-cloud offering include the ability to
n
Quickly and cost-effectively scale up as needed
n
Deliver scalable applications and workloads to users who need them
n
Manage the datacenter fabric as a single pool of virtual computing resources
n
Focus on the management of the datacenter service and its dependencies
n
Enable federated services across the full cloud continuum
n
Eliminate unnecessary hardware purchases by ensuring that existing hardware
­resources are used more effectively
n
Ensure trustworthiness by providing you with complete control of your cloud
The benefits of Microsoft’s public-cloud solution includes the ability to
n
Lower business costs by renting virtualized computing resources “in the cloud” on a
pay-as-you-go basis
n
Lower IT support costs by always having the latest versions of software available
­without the need for internal IT support
n
Mitigate risk by transferring responsibility for data security to the hosting company
n
Increase business efficiency by delivering computing resources over the Internet to
anywhere a user might need it
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Increasing Use of IT Resources
The bottom line is that cloud computing increases the agility of your business, reduces your
IT operational costs, and ensures that your IT infrastructure is being efficiently used. This last
point concerning efficient use of IT resources is worth a closer look. (See Figure 6-1.)
Traditional
Datacenter
Virtualized
Datacenter
· Well-known,
stable, and secure
· Utilization increases
to more than 50%
· Utilization less
than 15%
· Management costs
decrease
Private Cloud
Public Cloud
· Management
costs decrease
significantly
· Capacity on
demand
· Global reach
· IT as a service
FIGURE 6-1 How the evolution of computing infrastructure leads to greater efficiency through virtualization.
The traditional (nonvirtualized) IT infrastructure is usually well-known, stable, and secure.
However, servers in such a traditional environment are typically underused and, on average,
might be running at a utilization of under 15 percent. This means that although your organization might benefit from having a secure and stable traditional IT infrastructure, you are not
using your IT resources efficiently.
Adding virtualization to the traditional IT infrastructure using Hyper-V maintains the existing
benefits of stability and security while also increasing the average utilization of your servers
to 50 percent or more. In addition, management tools such as Microsoft System Center can
further reduce costs by making it easier to deploy and maintain virtual servers than physical
ones.
Implementing Microsoft’s private-cloud solution on top of your existing virtualized
­infrastructure allows you to provision IT resources to departments and users as a service. Although this doesn’t necessarily increase average server utilization, it does decrease
­management costs significantly, making your IT infrastructure more efficient.
Finally, using the public-cloud approach adds further efficiencies to your business by allowing
you to quickly and cost-effectively increase the capacity of your IT infrastructure on demand,
anywhere in the world it might be needed.
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Examining Cloud-Computing Usage Scenarios
Cloud computing offers capacity on demand so that consumers of this capacity can scale
up or down as needed. Some examples of scenarios where this can be useful include the
following:
n
Susan is a developer who needs several virtual servers in order to emulate the
­production environment to which she will later be deploying the application she is
­developing. Susan uses her organization’s private cloud to procure the servers she
needs within hours of her request instead of having to wait weeks for new hardware to
arrive.
n
Bob is a branch office administrator who needs a new server and additional storage to
meet the needs of the new employees who have just arrived at his remote site. He uses
the public-cloud services provided by his organization’s hosting provider to deploy
these servers by the end of the day, ensuring that the new employees can begin their
work immediately instead of having to wait around for resources to become available
for them.
n
George works for a system integrator as a developer of Web-based applications for a
vertical industry segment. Instead of developing a custom solution for each customer,
he uses the Microsoft Windows Azure services platform to develop and host these applications on datacenters owned and operated by Microsoft. For more information
about this service, see the section titled “Windows Azure” later in this chapter. This
speeds development time and allows customers to access these applications over the
Internet from anywhere in the world.
Understanding Microsoft’s Cloud-Computing Platform
To understand how Microsoft’s cloud-computing platform works, you first need to understand its various components and how these components can be tied together and used to
deliver virtualized computing resources to those who need them. There are several ways of
looking at this matter, and these are explored in the following sections.
Understanding Different Cloud Services
To begin with, the concept of “IT as a service” can be understood in several ways, ­depending
on which types of cloud services are being provided. Specifically, cloud computing can
deliver
n
Software as a Service SaaS refers to business applications being hosted in and
­delivered from a private or public-cloud infrastructure. Users might use installed
­desktop applications or Web browsers for interacting with these hosted a
­ pplications.
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SaaS providers can even offer headless (without a UI) Web services that enable
­enterprises to integrate data and business processes with SaaS applications.
n
Platform as a Service PaaS refers to providing operating system and application
services to users from a cloud in order to build applications that are hosted in and run
in the cloud. To enable this, PaaS provides system resource management functions
for allocating memory space, scheduling processing time, and ensuring system and
­application integrity within a multi-user environment.
n
Infrastructure as a Service IaaS refers to a providing processing and storage
­resources to users as dynamically scalable, virtualized services. IaaS reduces an
­organization’s need to invest in low-level hardware such as servers and storage devices.
In Microsoft’s cloud-computing approach, each of these different types of cloud services
relies on one or more Microsoft products, technologies, or platforms for hosting them.
Table 6-1 lists some of the different products and platforms Microsoft offers that enable the
private and public-cloud versions of SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS.
TABLE 6-1 How
Microsoft Products and Platforms Enable SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS for
Private and Public Cloud Solutions
Type of Cloud Service
Software as a Service
(SaaS)
Platform as a Service
(PaaS)
Microsoft Products and Platforms that Enable These Services
to Be Delivered
Through a private cloud
Through a public cloud
Microsoft SharePoint Services
Microsoft SharePoint Services
Microsoft Exchange
Microsoft Online Services
Microsoft Dynamics
Microsoft Office Live
Microsoft SQL Services
SQL Services
Microsoft .NET
Microsoft .NET Services
Live Services
Windows Azure
Infrastructure as a Service
(IaaS)
Windows Server with Active
Directory, Hyper-V, and Failover
Clustering
Windows Server with Active
Directory, Hyper-V, and Failover
Clustering
Microsoft System Center
Microsoft System Center
Microsoft Dynamic Data Center
Toolkit for Enterprises
Microsoft Dynamic Data Center
Toolkit for Hosters
Some of these platforms, such as Windows Server with Hyper-V and Microsoft System Center,
have been discussed in detail in earlier chapters of this book. Other products should be generally familiar to IT professionals who work with Microsoft products and solutions. A new and
key component of any Microsoft cloud-computing solution, however, is the last item in each
column—namely, the Microsoft Dynamic Data Center Toolkit, which will be described shortly.
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437
Implementing Cloud Services
The categories of SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS are really just ways of thinking about the different
components that make up a Microsoft cloud solution. Implementing a real-world cloud
­solution involves using at least one product or platform from each of these three categories
of cloud services and layering them together to make your cloud-computing infrastructure.
For example, Figure 6-2 shows what a full private-cloud infrastructure might look like when
layered upon your organization’s existing virtualization-capable IT infrastructure.
Microsoft SharePoint Server
Microsoft Exchange
Microsoft Dynamics
SaaS
Microsoft SQL Server
Microsoft .NET
PaaS
Microsoft System Center
Windows Server
Microsoft Dynamic Data Center
Tookit for Enterprises
IaaS
Existing Virtualization-Capable
IT Infrastructure
FIGURE 6-2 Example of a private-cloud infrastructure
Layered on top of your server and storage hardware is the IaaS layer, which includes
Microsoft System Center, Windows Server with Hyper-V, and Microsoft’s Dynamic Data
Center Toolkit for Enterprises. These components are essential to the functioning of any
Microsoft private-cloud solution because they provide the necessary “plumbing” for making the provisioning of virtualized computing resources work, a platform for hosting these
resources, and tools for managing the virtualized infrastructure and resources. Every
­private-cloud infrastructure must include these three components.
On top of IaaS comes the PaaS layer, which includes server applications (SQL Server) and
technologies (the .NET Framework) for building custom solutions that support the provisioning and delivery of IT services. Finally, on top of PaaS comes the SaaS layer, which lets you
provision workspaces, business applications, and collaboration services to users who need
them.
Because the IaaS layer is the key to making the cloud-computing infrastructure possible, it’s
worth examining this layer in more detail. (See Figure 6-3.)
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Dynamic Data Center Tookit for Enterprises
System Center
Operations Manager
System Center
Virtual Machine Manager
Delivering the service
Managing the fabric
Windows Server 2008 R2
FIGURE 6-3 Examining the IaaS layer of the private-cloud infrastructure.
The IaaS layer of the cloud-computing infrastructure is based on three Microsoft platforms:
n
Windows Server 2008 R2 IaaS relies on a number of key Windows Server roles and
features:
o
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) and Domain Name System (DNS) for
enabling provisioning of virtualized computing resources to users who need them
o
Hyper-V for hosting virtual servers and managing virtual networks and storage
o
Failover Clustering with Live Migration for ensuring that virtual servers are highly
available
n
System Center IaaS relies on System Center Virtual Machine Manager for managing
the fabric of your virtualized infrastructure, and on System Center Operations Manager
for delivering cloud-computing services to users
n
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises Enables you to deliver virtualized
­computing resources to users on demand as consumable services
Understanding the Dynamic Data Center Toolkit
While most of the components of Microsoft’s cloud computing platform are existing
­products or services offered by Microsoft, the glue that ties them all together and makes
cloud computing a reality is the Dynamic Data Center Toolkit. This toolkit is a collection of
documentation, tools and code you can use to rapidly build and launch a scalable virtualized
infrastructure that can deliver managed IT services.
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The Dynamic Data Center Toolkit comes in two different forms:
n
n
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Hosters This version can be used by hosting service
providers to enable them to build a public cloud they can use to provide virtualized
IT infrastructure and managed services to their customers. The Dynamic Data Center
Toolkit for Hosters includes
o
Step-by-step instructions
o
Best practices
o
Sample code
o
Demos you can view
o
Marketing collateral
o
White papers and other documentation
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises This version can be used by businesses
to build a private cloud in their datacenters that they can use to dynamically pool, allocate, and manage virtualized computing resources within their organization. The
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises includes
o
Architectural roadmap
o
Deployment guidance
o
Best practices
o
Familiar tools
o
Lightweight provisioning engine
o
Prebuilt user and admin portals
o
White papers and other documentation
The basic structure of these toolkits aligns closely with the Infrastructure Planning and Design
(IPD) series of guides that provide architectural guidance for planning and implementing
Microsoft infrastructure products. These IPD guides provide concise planning guidance that
helps clarify and streamline the design process for deploying Microsoft infrastructure technologies and walks you through the critical decisions you will need to address concerning
each available options. The guides also help you validate your design decisions to ensure that
the solution meets the requirements of your business and infrastructure stakeholders. Each
IPD guide in the series addresses a particular infrastructure technology or scenario. For more
information on available IPD guides and to download them, go to http://technet.microsoft.
com/en-us/solutionaccelerators/ee382254.aspx.
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Comparing the Toolkits
The Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Hosters is not an out-of-the-box solution you can just
install and use within your environment. This is because hosting service providers typically
have complex, heterogeneous environments that often include provisioning, control, and
management tools developed in-house by the hoster for its specific needs. However, the
Toolkit for Hosters does include a sample portal that can be used to provide the hoster’s
­customers with an integrated control and view of the services provided by the hoster.
By contrast, the Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises is closer to the ideal of a turnkey
cloud-computing solution because it assumes an existing Microsoft-centric datacenter infrastructure based on Hyper-V. The Toolkit for Enterprises includes a lightweight provisioning
engine with two prebuilt portals (shown in Figure 6-4), including
n
An admin portal for allocating virtualized computing resources to users who request
them. Using this portal, a datacenter administrator can provision infrastructure once in
response to a user’s request and then delegate the further operation of the infrastructure to the user.
n
A self-service portal for users that provides them with a list of actions they are
­authorized to perform, such as creating new virtual servers. The user is typically
the IT person or team of a smaller business unit within the organization, such as a
­departmental administrator.
Admin
Portal
User
Self-Provision
Portal
FIGURE 6-4 Microsoft’s private-cloud solution includes two prebuilt portals.
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The following is an example of how these two portals can be used:
1. Al, the datacenter administrator, has implemented a private-cloud solution for his
­organization using the Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises. He has done this
by “laying down the plumbing” of implementing the toolkit on top of the existing
virtualization-capable infrastructure in the datacenter. This enables Al to use the admin
portal to manage the procurement of virtualized computing resources and for managing and monitoring the physical and logical fabric of the datacenter.
2. Bob, a departmental administrator, needs a focused, service-level agreement (SLA)driven solution for meeting a business need for his department. He determines that this
solution will require additional servers, so he contacts Al, who tells Bob to sign up using
the self-service portal for the private-cloud infrastructure.
3. Bob signs up using self-service portal by providing his organizational details, and he
outlines the justification for requesting these new servers. Bob’s request includes specific details about the computing, networking, and storage requirements for the servers
he is requesting. For example, Bob might request an infrastructure that includes 20 virtual CPUs, 500 GB of storage, and two network subnets.
4. Al uses the admin portal to validate the availability of the resources Bob has requested,
configures these resources, and allocates them to Bob. At this point, Al’s work is finished—he has provisioned the infrastructure for Bob and delegated to Bob the ability
to implement it.
5. Bob now uses the self-service portal to create and use as many virtual servers as he
needs within the “sandbox infrastructure” that Al created for him. For example, Bob
could create five new dual-CPU virtual servers having 50 GB of storage each. If he later
finds that he needs additional capacity to scale up his solution, he can add up to five
more dual-CPU virtual servers based on the infrastructure Al has provisioned to him.
Bob can thus add or reduce capacity as needed to tailor his solution to his needs and
available budget, without the need of asking Al to intervene in any way.
6. For monitoring purposes, Al can access reports that let him monitor how Bob has been
using the infrastructure that he provisioned to him.
Understanding the Private-Cloud Architecture
Figure 6-5 illustrates the logical architecture of the private-cloud solution based on layering
the Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises on top of a virtualization-capable infrastructure that uses Microsoft products and technologies. (This diagram is based on prerelease
information and is subject to change.)
Portal
Dynamic Data Center Tool Kit
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
Self Service
Admin (On Boarding)
WCF Services
Provisioning
Engine
(Batch creation,
queuing,
execute action
PS scripts)
Queue
Processing Logic
WF
Store (Database)
Windows PowerShell 2.0
Actions/Tasks
Definition
XML
Eventing
Infrastucture
PowerShell
442
Microsoft System Center
Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2
Microsoft System Center
Operations Manager 2007 R2
SCCM/WSUS
Patch Mgmt.
Windows Server 2008 R2
Microsoft Hyper-V Server
Solution
Accelerators
AD
Servers
Storage
Network
Load Balancing
FIGURE 6-5 Architecture of Microsoft’s private-cloud solution.
As the diagram indicates, the toolkit is built upon a foundation of Windows PowerShell,
which is a Microsoft .NET Framework-connected environment designed for administrative automation and is integrated into the Microsoft System Center family of infrastructure
management products. On top of Windows PowerShell resides code that uses the Windows
Workflow Foundation (WF), which provides a programming model, in-process workflow
engine, and rehostable designer to implement long-running processes as workflows within
.NET applications. On top of this sits processing logic and a queuing agent. The admin and
self-service portals are then implemented as Web services using Windows Communication
Foundation (WCF), Microsoft’s unified programming model for building service-oriented
applications.
The Store (shown in the top right of Figure 6-5) uses a SQL Server database to keep track
of interactions between the toolkit and its users through the two portals. The Action/Tasks
Definition XML is a key component that defines what actions can be performed using the
toolkit’s portals. For example, the action “Create a VM” is mapped by the XML to a collection of Windows PowerShell scripts that perform a series of actions to create a new virtual
­machine for the user.
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Implementing a Private-Cloud Solution
The Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises enables businesses to implement a privatecloud infrastructure on top of their existing virtualization-capable datacenter. Accomplishing
this will typically involve performing a series of steps to plan, design, deploy, and configure
various Microsoft products, technologies, and services together with infrastructure hardware
(servers, routers, switches, SANs, and so on) that support the IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS components of Microsoft’s private-cloud computing platform.
As an example of how this will work, the high-level steps for implementing the IaaS portion
of a private-cloud infrastructure for an enterprise can be summarized as follows (this guidance is based on prerelease information and is subject to change):
1. Determine the scope of your private cloud. This step involves determining the proposed
workloads that the private cloud will host and the technical requirements for sustaining
the workloads.
2. Design your physical fabric infrastructure. This step involves determining the physical
fabric resources required to support the planned workloads, including
o
Types of virtualization hosts used
o
Host storage requirements and fabric
o
Cloud storage requirements and fabric
o
Physical network and topology requirements
o
Load balancer requirements
o
Types of firewalls needed and their topology
3. Design your core infrastructure. This step involves determining how you will use
Hyper-V virtualization to provide hardware abstraction for the workloads and provide
additional services needed, such as
o
Infrastructure services using AD DS and DNS
o
High availability and Live Migration using Failover Clustering
o
Business continuity using System Center Data Protection Manager
o
Hosting virtual desktops if needed using Remote Desktop Services
4. Design your management infrastructure. This step involves determining what services
will be needed to facilitate deploying workloads, patching and monitoring hosts, and
managing the life cycle of physical fabric components and workloads. Tasks for this
step include designing the following:
o
Hypervisor and workload management solution using System Center Virtual
Machine Manager, System Center Configuration Manager, and System Center
Operations Manager
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Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions, From the Desktop to the Data Center, 2nd Edition
o
Hardware management solution
o
Physical server and life-cycle management solution
o
On-board and provisioning engine solution
The Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises will also provide step-by-step guidance for
planning, designing, deploying, and configuring the hardware and software that is needed to
support the PaaS and SaaS components of Microsoft’s private cloud-computing platform.
Windows Azure
Complementing Microsoft’s public-cloud offering is Windows Azure, a highly scalable service
platform that provides users with on-demand computing and storage resources that can be
used to create cloud applications and services that can be hosted in Microsoft’s own datacenters. At the present time, Microsoft’s offerings in this area provide two complementary
types of services:
n
Windows Azure You can think of this as the “operating system in the cloud.”
n
Microsoft SQL Azure You can think of this as a “fully relational database in the cloud.”
Windows Azure runs your organization’s Web applications without the need of hosting them
yourself. Windows Azure, therefore, complements hosting service providers that have implemented Microsoft’s public-cloud solution. (See Figure 6-6.)
Azure
Hosters
FIGURE 6-6 Windows Azure and Microsoft’s public-cloud solution complement each other.
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Windows Azure provides a reliable, scalable, and fault-tolerant cloud platform suitable for
running mission-critical, line-of-business (LoB) enterprise applications. By hosting your organization’s Web applications using Windows Azure, you no longer need to worry about the
following:
n
Procuring and setting up hardware
n
Installing and configuring operating systems
n
Maintaining operating systems by patching them
n
Configuring and managing network devices and settings
n
Troubleshooting hardware issues, and resolving hardware failures
n
Adding more memory or storage to your hardware
n
Upgrading and patching applications without downtime
Instead of having you be concerned with all of these issues, Windows Azure requires only
that you deploy your code plus some additional metadata onto the Windows Azure fabric,
which is hosted and maintained by Microsoft at its datacenters. This metadata is called “the
Service Model,” and it specifies how many instances you require to run your applications
and what roles these instances will play in your deployment. Examples of such roles might
be Web Role, Worker Role, and so on. The Windows Azure fabric then automatically provisions these roles onto the instances, spins up the necessary network infrastructure to support
those roles, and begins monitoring these roles to maintain their health. If you require more
instances in order to scale up, the built-in elasticity of the Windows Azure fabric makes this
as easy to do as turning a dial. Later, if you no longer need the added capacity, you can easily
scale the number of running instances down with the same degree of ease to reduce costs.
The Windows Azure fabric does everything else that is needed to ensure that these instances
are ready and handling your application.
Windows Azure leverages the same familiar tools and technologies used for developing
­applications you host on your own Windows servers. Although some architectural changes
are needed to take full advantage of hosting your applications in the cloud using Windows
Azure, these changes can be implemented easily because Windows Azure also provides you
with a local development fabric that emulates the same services provided by the cloud. After
you’ve tested your application using the local fabric, you can push it out to the cloud so that
it can be accessed from anywhere using the Internet. For more information about Windows
Azure, see http://www.microsoft.com/windowsazure.
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The Dynamic Data Center Alliance
The Dynamic Data Center Alliance is a program designed to create an ecosystem of partners
that will work with Microsoft to offer customers cloud-computing solutions and support. The
Alliance consists of a number of types of groups, including
n
Hosting service providers
n
System integrators
n
Hardware manufacturers
n
Software vendors
At the time of this writing, the following nine hosting service providers have already joined
the Alliance and are now delivering managed hosting, cloud services, and on-demand
­virtualized computing resources:
n
Applied Innovations (http://www.appliedi.net)
n
Cloudmore (http://www.cloudmore.com)
n
HostBasket (http://www.hostbasket.com)
n
Hostway (http://www.hostway.com)
n
MaximumASP (http://www.maximumasp.com)
n
Peak 10 (http://www.peak10.com)
n
PoundHost (http://www.poundhost.com)
n
StarUK (http://www.star.co.uk)
n
Reliance Data Center (http://www.relianceidc.com)
Availability of Microsoft’s Cloud-Computing Platform
Microsoft’s Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Hosters is already available for free today and is
updated as Microsoft’s public cloud-computing platform continues to evolve.
Microsoft’s Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprises will be available for free, and its
­release date is currently scheduled for the first half of 2010.
At the time of this writing, Windows Azure is currently in Community Technology Preview
(CTP) and the services are scheduled to remain free for evaluation purposes until February 1,
2010, after which time Microsoft will begin charging customers for use.
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Additional Resources
The resources listed in this section were either referred to in the chapter or provide
­additional information about concepts and products discussed in this chapter.
Additional Resources for Microsoft’s Cloud-Computing
Initiative
For general information about Microsoft’s public and private cloud offerings, including links
to white papers, presentations, videos, and other material, see http://www.microsoft.com/
privatecloud.
Information about Microsoft’s Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Hosters can be found at
http://www.microsoft.com/dynamicdatacenter.
For the latest news about Microsoft’s public-cloud offering, see the Dynamic Data Center
Alliance Blog at http://blogs.technet.com/ddcalliance/default.aspx.
Additional Resources for Windows Azure
For general information about Windows Azure, including links to white papers, ­presentations,
videos, and other material, see http://www.microsoft.com/windowsazure.
For the latest news about the Windows Azure platform, see the Windows Azure Team Blog at
http://blogs.msdn.com/windowsazure.
Index
A
access
anytime, anywhere, any device, 10
to RD Session Host servers, 236
Action menu (Virtual Machine
Connection tool), 71
Active Directory Domain Services.
See AD DS (Active Directory
Domain Services)
Active Directory Service Interfaces
(ADSI), App-V use, 183
Active Directory Users and
Computers console, RD Session
Host management, 244
Active Upgrade feature (App-V), 167
Add Hardware settings (Hyper-V
Manager Action pane), 67, 68
Add Hosts Wizard, 363
address translation, 38
Add Roles Wizard (Server Manager),
54, 232, 233–236
Configure Client Experience page,
231
licensing options, 281
AD DS (Active Directory Domain
Services), 149, 155
in cloud-computing solutions, 438
for management of resources, 3
requirements for, 152
VMM and, 348
Add Storage dialog box, 90
Administration view (VMM
Administrator Console), 359
Administrator roles (VMM), 341,
350, 413
agent versions, managed host, 367
agility
achieving, 7
cloud computing and, 433, 434
improving, 7, 8
Allow Management Operating
System To Share This Network
setting (Virtual Network
Manager), 62
AllowUnencryptedTransfers
parameter, 334
AMD processors, processor
compatibility mode and, 95
antimalware software, for Windows
XP Mode virtual machines, 122
antivirus software
on servers, 56
for Windows XP Mode virtual
machines, 122
anytime, anywhere, any device
access, 10
optimizing, 14
application compatibility issues, 112.
See also virtual applications
Med-V and, 111
resolving, 6, 8, 11, 113
Windows Virtual PC and Windows
XP Mode and, 110, 113
application deployment
accelerating, 226
optimizing, 10
risks of, 226
application failover, 48
application life-cycle management,
7
application packages. See virtual
application packages
applications. See virtual applications
Application Source Root (ASR), 164
application virtualization, 109,
162. See also App-V; virtual
application packages; virtual
applications
Application Virtualization.
See App-V (Application
Virtualization)
Application Virtualization 4.5 for
Remote Desktop Services
Service Pack 1, 228
Application Virtualization for
Terminal Services (App-V
for TS), 164, 168, 223. See
also App-V for RDS
Applied Innovations, 446
Apply option (Snapshots pane), 83
App-V, 8, 11
for mobile worker scenario
optimization, 12
App-V (Application Virtualization),
8, 11, 109, 115, 162–219
administrators, 201
applications, managing, 172–176
applications, publishing, 171
applications, sequencing, 170–171
architecture of, 182–184
availability of, 115
benefits of, 111–112, 112
branch office deployment, 190
client stream policy, 163
communication ports, 184
components of, 176–182
deployment scenarios, 185–192
Dynamic Suite Composition, 163
ESD system deployment, 190–191
for mobile worker scenario
optimization, 12
for office worker scenario
optimization, 13
globalization features, 164–165
implementation benefits, 12–13
management of, 164
packages, streaming, 171–172
reports on, 199–200
resources on, 221–222
scalability features, 163, 186–188
security features, 165
single-site deployment, 189–190
standalone deployment, 192
Terminal Services deployment,
192
terminology, 167–169
troubleshooting, 217–219
usuage scenarios, 113–114
version 4.5 SP1, 166, 301
version 4.6, 166–167
virtual environments, 169–170,
174
App-V Client console, 182, 214
Applications node, 214–215
File Type Associations node, 215
Publishing Servers node, 215–216
App-V Clients, 181–182, 214–216
managing from command line,
216
Standalone mode, 114
App-V Data Store, 178
App-V Desktop Client, 181, 301
App-V for RDS, 223, 301–302
availability of, 227–228
benefits of, 224
resources on, 310–311
usage scenarios, 226
App-V Management Console, 168,
177, 179–180, 192–201
Administrators node, 201
Application Licenses node,
198–199
Applications node, 192–197
File Type Associations node, 200
Packages node, 197
Provider Policies node, 201
Reports node, 199–200
Server Groups node, 199
App-V Management Server, 113,
168, 177
for application deployment, 185
App-V Management Web Service,
178
App-V Sequencer, 168, 174,
180–181, 201–213. See
also Sequencing Wizard
449
450
App-V Sequencer (continued)
App-V Sequencer (continued)
automated installation feature,
192
.msi file creation, 114
App-V Sequencer Console, 201, 207
Change History tab, 208–209
Deployment tab, 208
Files tab, 208, 209
OSD tab, 210
Properties tab, 207
Virtual File System tab, 209
Virtual Registry tab, 208, 209
Virtual Services tab, 209, 210
App-V servers, managing, 199
App-V Streaming Server, 178
App-V Terminal Services Client, 181
archives, tape-based, 428
Armstrong, Ben, 108
Assign Personal Virtual Desktop
Wizard, 295
Attach A Virtual Hard Disk Later
option (New Virtual Machine
Wizard), 78
audio integration component
(virtual machines), 136
authentication
forms-based, 256
NLA, 236
Automatic Start Action setting
(Hyper-V Manager console),
68, 91
Automatic Stop Action setting
(Hyper-V Manager console), 69
auto publish settings (virtual
machines), 120, 138
availability
of App-V, 115
increasing, 7
of MED-V, 114–115
of Windows Virtual PC, 114
of Windows XP Mode, 114
.avhd (differencing disk) files, 83
B
background jobs, Windows
PowerShell support for, 99
backup and recovery, simplifying, 6
Backup service, 68
Ballmer, Steve, 16, 18
Basic IT infrastructures, 3
description of, 3
moving to Standardized, 5–6
.bin (memory contents) files, 83
BIOS setting (Hyper-V Manager
Action pane), 67
BitLocker Drive Encryption, 12
BlockLMIfHostBusy parameter, 335
blogs on Hyper-V, 107–108
branch office scenarios
cloud computing solutions for,
435
Remote Desktop Services for,
224–225
Bring This Service Or Application
Online option (Hyper-V
Manager Actions pane), 91
Brown, Taylor, 108
business agility. See agility
business continuity
enhancing, 6, 8
Hyper-V features for, 43
Med-V capabilities for, 111
business continuity planning with
VMM, 341–342
businesses
concerns of, 1
environmental friendliness of, 1
spending decisions, drivers of, 1
survival of, 1
business partners, Remote Desktop
Services and, 225
business value, creating, 1
C
capacity on demand, 8, 11. See
also cloud virtualization
capital expenditures, controlling, 1
centralized execution, 11
central processing unit identification
(CPUID) values, 86
certificates for RD Session Host
authentication, 238
child partitions, 33–37. See
also parent partitions; partitions
communication with parent, 33
creating and managing, 28
device configuration and control
for, 31–32
running non-Hyper-V-aware
operating systems, 35
running non-Windows operating
systems, 34–35
running Windows operating
systems, 34
types of, 28, 33
Citrix XenApp servers, 173
Citrix XenServer, 24
client computing scenarios,
optimizing with virtualization,
12–14
client virtualization, 8
benefits of, 10–19
clipboard, configuring behavior, 156
Clipboard integration component
(virtual machines), 136
Clipboard menu (Virtual Machine
Connection tool), 72
cli.psc1 console file, 321
cloning virtual machines, 400
close settings (virtual machines), 138
cloud computing, 8
benefits of, 433
core infrastructure, 443
description of, 431–432
Dynamic Data Center Alliance
and, 446
elements of, 431
implementing solutions, 437–439
management infrastructure,
443–444
physical fabric infrastructure, 443
private-cloud solutions, 432. See
also private-cloud solutions
public-cloud solutions, 432. See
also public-cloud solutions
resources on, 447
usage scenarios, 435
Windows Azure and, 444–445
Cloudmore, 446
cloud virtualization, 1, 8. See
also cloud computing
benefits of, 11
clustered virtual machines
creating, 90
high availability of, 88, 91
cluster networks, Live Migration
configuration, 91
Cluster service, VM state
management, 91
Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV)
feature, 37, 88
enabling, 90
storage, adding, 90
VMM support for, 333
cmdlets for Managing Hyper-V,
101–103
CodePlex Open Source repository,
103
CodePlex Project, 100, 106
collaboration between users, 4
COM 1\2 setting (Hyper-V Manager
Action pane), 67
command line, App-V Client
management from, 216
command-line tools, RD Session
Host management, 245
Common Criteria certification, 107
communication ports for VMM,
318–319
compatibility issues, resolving, 6,
8, 11
compliance
meeting, 1
self-provisioning software and
quarantine systems for, 4
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Hosters
COM port redirector (Virtual PC
Host), 117
COM port settings (virtual
machines), 132–133
computing resources, optimizing
use of, 42
configuration files (virtual machines)
best practices for, 84–85
default location, 84
relocating, 78–79
Configure A Service Or Application
setting (Hyper-V Manager
Actions pane), 91
Configure Virtual Desktops Wizard,
292–295
Confix.xml file, 80
Connect action (Hyper-V Manager
console), 66
Connection Authorization Policy
(CAP) policies, 277
connection status, managed hosts,
367
Connect To Server dialog box (VMM
Administrator Console), 356
Content directory (App-V), 167
contract/offshore worker scenarios,
14
Control Panel, installing RD Session
Host from, 241
conversions, machine
vs. migration, 411
P2V, 400–411
V2V, 411–412
with VMM, 338
Convert Physical Server (P2V)
Wizard, 402–409
Convert Virtual Machine Wizard,
412
core parking, 40
Core VDevs, 31–32
corporate mergers, Remote Desktop
Services and, 225
corporate networks, external user
access, 276
cost efficiency of virutalization, 1
costs of Microsoft virtualization
solutions, 16
CPU resource allocation, 85, 86
Create A Virtual Hard Disk option
(New Virtual Machine Wizard),
77
Create User Role Wizard, 416–420
credentials
for connecting to virtual
machines, 60
deleting, 60
Custom tab (managed host
properties), 372
D
datacenters, 9. See also server
consolidation
datacenter virtualization, 8
benefits of, 9–19
data, centralized management of,
14
Data Exchange service, 68
Data Execution Prevention (DEP), 49
data sections, Windows PowerShell
support for, 100
data transfer control, 148
with MED-V, 149
debugger cmdlets (Windows
PowerShell), 100
deep C state, 40
Default Server Group (App-V), 199
Default Web Site (IIS), deleting,
344–345, 356
defense in depth
microkernel hypervisors and, 27
monolithic hypervisors and, 25
delegated administration, 332–333
Delegated Administrator roles
(VMM), 341, 413
creating, 413–415
delegated management, 339
Delete Snapshot option (Snapshots
pane), 83
Delete Snapshot Tree option
(Snapshots pane), 83
Deploy Virtual Machine Wizard, 399
desktop applications, virtualizing, 8
desktop clients, 167
migrating to Windows 7, 110
virtualized environments on, 109
desktop life-cycle management,
simplifying, 7
desktop management, centralizing,
111
desktop operating systems,
virtualizing, 8, 11
Desktop Optimization Pack 2009
R2, 17
desktop services
management, manual, 3
management, optimized, 4
partially automated, 3
standards and policies for, 3
desktop virtualization, 1, 12–19
definition of, 109
local, 109
remote, 109
Details pane (VMM Administrator
Console), 372
development
Hyper-V and, 43
snapshots and, 81
device drivers
hypervisor-aware, 25
security considerations, 26
device redirection, 277
devices, adding and removing, 30
Devices component (Virtual PC
Host), 117
Diagram view (VMM Administrator
Console), 360
differencing disks, 130
differential SFTs, 164
disaster recovery, 6, 43
disk-based storage, 428–429
disk controllers, managing with
Windows PowerShell, 102
disk drives, managing with Windows
PowerShell, 102
Diskette Drive setting (Hyper-V
Manager Action pane), 67
disk images, managing with
Windows PowerShell, 102
disruption to services, minimizing, 8
Distributed Component Object
Model (DCOM), 318
domain controllers, 87
Donahue, Sean, 176, 188, 213
Do Not Use Remote Desktop
Session Host Server IP Address
When Virtual IP Address Is Not
Available policy setting, 246
drives integration component
(virtual machines), 136
DSI (Dynamic Systems Initiative). See
also Dynamic IT
dual virtual processors, 38
DVD drives, adding to VMs, 67
DVD drive settings (virtual
machines), 131, 142
Dynamic Data Center Alliance, 446
Dynamic Data Center Alliance Blog,
447
dynamic datacenters, 43
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit, 436,
438–439
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for
Enterprises, 439
availability of, 446
in cloud-computing solutions,
437, 438
vs. Dynamic Data Center Toolkit
for Hosters, 440
private-cloud infrastructure
implementation, 443
Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for
Hosters, 439
availability of, 446
vs. Dynamic Data Center for
Enterprises, 440–441
resources on, 447
451
452
Dynamic IT
Dynamic IT, 2–7
pillars of, 9
strategic vision for, 18
Dynamic IT infrastructures, 2–3
description of, 4
dynamic storage provisioning, 6
Dynamic Suite Composition (DSC),
163, 167
Dynamic Systems Initiative (DSI), 7
E
Edit Virtual Hard Disk Wizard, 64
efficiency gains from virutalization,
1
electronic software distribution
(ESD) systems, 112
for application deployment, 185,
190
publishing virtual applications
with, 171
emulated devices, 31
for non-Hyper-V-aware operating
systems, 35
emulation, 33, 119
Enable Cluster Shared Volumes
option (Failover Cluster
Manager), 90
encryption, 238–239
endpoint computers, 151
end-user experience, 148
enlightenments, 34
Enterprise Desktop Virtualization,
8, 11
environmentally friendly businesses,
1
ESX Server hosts
configuring, 376
controlling, 398
credentials for communication,
377–378
managing, 374
ESX Servers, 411–412
execution environments, isolating,
23
execution policy, changing and
viewing, 322
.exp (export) files, 81
exporting virtual machines, 79–81
Export option (Hyper-V Manager
console), 80
Export Virtual Machine dialog box,
80
Extended Page Tables (EPT), 39
external users, internal network
access, 276
F
failover clustering
in cloud-computing solutions, 438
VMM support for, 331, 333
Failover Clustering feature, 88
installing, 89
leveraging, 43
Microsoft Hyper-V Server and, 46
VMs per cluster, 38
Failover Cluster Manager, 90
failover clusters
Cluster Shared Volumes feature,
88
two-node, 88–89
witness disk, 89
File menu (Virtual Machine
Connection tool), 71
file shares for VM configuration
files, 87
file transfer tool (MED-V), 155
file type associations, 200, 215
filters (VMM Administrator Console),
360
firewalls, 4
floppy disks, connecting to, 67
Folder Redirection, 155
for mobile worker scenario
optimization, 12–19
for sharing user data, 13
for user state virtualization, 110
forms-based authentication, 256
full application virtualization
infrastructure, 113
functionality, locking down, 13
G
globalization, 164–165
globally unique identifier (GUID), 7
graphical user interface in Hyper-V,
48
Green businesses, 1
green IT objectives, 40
Greschler, David, 17
Group Policy
RD Gateway configuration with,
280
for RD Session Host management,
246–250
RD Session Host authentication
and encryption settings, 239,
240
Group Policy Software Installation,
158
guest operating system profiles, 313
in virtual machine templates, 380
VMM library, adding to, 380–381
guest operating systems, 21, 151
applications on, 144
desktop display, 139
hardware resources, access to, 23
hibernating, 139
Hyper-V support for, 50–52
installing, 76–77
installing applications on, 121
Integration Services functionality,
52–53
integration with host, 134–136
interaction with hardware, direct,
25
resolution of desktop, 135
restarting, 139
separation from hardware, 24, 26
sleep mode, 139
32-bit and 64-bit, 52
for Windows Virtual PC, 123
guest virtualization rights, 48
GUID (globally unique identifier), 31
H
hard disk settings (virtual machines),
130
hard drives
adding to VMs, 67
managing with Windows
PowerShell, 102
hardware-assisted virtualization, 36
support for, 48
technologies for, 36
hardware failure events, 29
hardware, inventorying, 4
hardware profiles, 314
in virtual machine templates, 379
VMM library, adding to, 380
hardware resources
adding to virtual machines, 67
allocating, 28
failover clustering support, 89
guest operating system access
to, 23
managing and assigning, 28
sharing, 29, 36
virtual machine control of, 22
Hardware tab (managed host
properties), 369
hardware utilization, increasing, 7
heartbeat monitoring, 135
heartbeats, 35
Heartbeat service, 68
Help files in Windows PowerShell,
100
high availability of clustered virtual
machines, 88, 91
High Availability Wizard, 91
home office settings, 278
host agents, 329
Infrastructure Optimization Model
HostBasket, 446
host clustering, 48, 374
hosted virtualization, 24
host groups, 361–365
hosting service providers, 446
host operating systems, integration
with guests, 134–136
host processor pools, 40
hosts, 151. See also managed hosts
clustered pools of, 9, 10
communication ports, 319
definition of, 314
Intelligent Placement process
and, 339
local desktop virtualization on,
109
maintenance on, 335
managing with VMM
Administrator Console, 361
moving virutal servers between,
10
virtualized environments on, 109
Hosts view (VMM Administrator
Console), 358
Hostway, 446
Howard, John, 107
HTTP, and App-V, 183
HTTPS, 318
App-V use, 183
hypercalls
definition of, 28
resources on, 107
Hyper-V, 8, 9, 21
antivirus software and, 56
architecture, 27–35
benefits of, 41–42
child partition support, 33
in cloud-computing solutions, 438
Cluster Shared Volumes feature,
37, 88
Common Criteria certification, 107
deployment planning, 53–54
deployment resources, 105–106
domain controller support, 87
extensibility, 36
features, 36–37
Full or Server Core installations,
28
hardware-assisted virtualization,
36
hardware-sharing architecture, 36
hot adding and removal of
storage, 37
Hyper-V Manager snap-in, 57–70
installing, 54–55
Integration Services, 52–53. See
also Integration Services
key features, 36–41
Linux Integration Components For
Hyper-V, 35
Live Migration feature, 10, 37. See
also Live Migration
management and maintenance
resources, 106
managing with RemoteApp, 98
managing with Remote Desktop
Connection, 97
managing with Windows
PowerShell, 99–103, 103–104
managing with WMI, 98–99
microkernelized architecture,
27, 36
versus Microsoft Hyper-V Server,
46
network adapters in, 70–71
networking model, 64
new R2 features, 37–40
operating system consolidation,
41
operating system support, 36
parent partition components, 29
performance features, 38–40
planning resources, 105
processor compatibility mode, 37
RD Virtualization Host role and,
285
for resource optimization, 42
resources on, 104
scalability, 36, 40
Server settings, 59
SMP support, 36
system consolidation, 41
system requirements, 48–50
troubleshooting startup
problems, 54
type 1 hypervisors, 24
usage sceanrios, 42–45
User settings, 60–61
versus Virtual Server, 40–42
VMM management of, 331, 338
Windows PowerShell cmdlets,
101–103
vs. Windows Virtual PC, 119–120
WMI APIs, 30
working with, 46–104
workloads, consolidating, 41
Hyper-V Administrators role, 73
Hyper-V forum on Microsoft
TechNet, 108
Hyper-V hosts, 397
Hyper-V I/O architecture, 67
hypervisors, 23–28
microkernel, 26–27
monolithic designs, 25
overhead of, 26
security of, 25, 26–29
Type 1, 23–24
Type 2, 24
Hyper-V Manager console, 57–70
Actions pane, 65–67
Allow Management Operating
System To Share This Network
option, 62
Edit Disk option, 64–65
exporting and importing virtual
machines, 79–81
Hyper-V Settings option, 59
Import Virtual Machine option, 59
Keyboard settings, 74
MAC Address Range option, 62
New | Floppy Disk option, 59
New | Hard Disk option, 59
New | Virtual Machine option, 58
for remote server management,
57–58
server settings, configuring, 58–59
snapshots actions, 82–83
virtual machine hardware settings,
65–70
virtual machine management
settings, 68–69, 79–87
Virtual Network Manager option,
61
“Hyper-V Planning and Deployment
Guide”, 55
Hyper-V Security Guide Solution
Accelerator, 107
Hyper-V Server
versus Hyper-V server role, 47–48
migrating to Windows Server
2008, 47
Hyper-V servers
moving virtual machines, 59
remote desktop virtualization
on, 109
Hyper-V WMI provider, 98, 99
I
IBM, 23
IBM virtual machines, 18
.ico files, 170
IDE controllers, 78
IDE Controller setting (Hyper-V
Manager Action pane), 67
importing virtual machines, 79–81
compatibility issues, 80
Import Virtual Machine dialog box,
81
Import Virtual Machine option
(Hyper-V Manager console), 81
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS),
436–438
implementing, 443–444
Infrastructure Optimization blog, 18
Infrastructure Optimization Model,
2–4
moving between stages, 5–7
virtualization and, 4–7
453
454
Infrastructure Optimization TechCenter
Infrastructure Optimization
TechCenter, 18
Infrastructure Planning and Design
(IPD) guides, 439
Infrastructure Planning and Design
(IPD) Guides for Virtualization,
53
Install Application On Remote
Desktop Server option (Control
Panel), 241
installation directory (App-V), 167
Install Program From Floppy Disk Or
CD-ROM Wizard, 241
integrated Microsoft virtualization
solutions, 15–17
benefits of, 16
Integrated Scripting Environment
(ISE), 100
Integration Components (ICs)
(Virtual PC), 117, 118
basic integration mode, 135–136
enhanced integration mode,
136–137
integration features (virtual
machines), 133–136
disabling, 142
Integration Services, 34
displaying, 68
functionality provided by, 52–53
installing, 77, 85
network adapters and, 70
for unenlightened guests, 77
for Windows guest operating
systems, 35
Integration Services setting
(Hyper-V Manager console), 68
Intelligent Placement process, 339
Intel processors, processor
compatibility mode and, 95
Intel Virtualization Technology For
Connectivity, 39
internal networks, external user
access, 276
IP addresses, assigning to Remote
Desktop connections, 232
iSCSI SANs, 333
IT as a service, 431, 435
IT costs, 4
IT infrastructures
efficient use of, 434
flexibility of, improving, 42–43
management complexity of, 11
responsiveness of, improving,
42–43
strategic value of, 4
types of, 3
virtualized, 11
IT processes, fully automated, 4
IT resources, efficient use of, 434
J
Jobs view (VMM Administrator
Console), 359
jumbo frames, 39
logical IT infrastructures, 7
logical processors, 40
logical unit numbers (LUNs), 88
logon credentials settings (virtual
machines), 138
K
M
keyboard accelerators
Remote Desktop sessions and, 97
for use with virtual machines, 74
keyboard settings, 60, 137
keyboard shortcuts in Virtual PC,
137
key/value pairs, exchange of, 35
Kidaro, 147
MAC address conflicts, 62
MAC Address Range option (Virtual
Network Manager), 62–63
machine conversions.
See conversions, machine
maintenance
costs, 7
optimizing, 10
malware filtering, 4
managed host agents
installing, 364
reassociating, 364
managed hosts
adding, 362
definition of, 314
managing, 365–373
Networking view, 373–374
removing, 363
status of, 367–368
working with, 361–377
management interfaces for server
virtualization, 22
management operating systems
isolating, 62
remote connection to, 62
management platforms, unified, 9
management settings for virtual
machines, 68–69
Manage RDS CALs Wizard, 283
MaximumASP, 446
Media menu (Virtual Machine
Connection tool), 72
MED-V, 8, 11, 109, 147–162
availability of, 114–115
benefits of, 111–112
centralized management
capabilities, 148–149
centralized monitoring
capabilities, 148–149
data transfer control, 149
description of, 150
desktop modes, 159–162
end-user experience, 149–150
file transfer tool, 155
full-desktop mode, 159
Management console, 157, 161,
162
package deployment, 153
resources on, 220
single-desktop mode, 159, 160
supported applications, 153
L
large memory support, 48
legacy applications, running in
virtual machines, 110, 111
legacy network adapters, 70–71
library servers. See also VMM
library; VMM Library Servers
definition of, 314
Library view (VMM Administrator
Console), 359
licensing
costs, 7
managing, 4
VDI, 304, 306
for virtual applications, 198
Windows VECD for SA version,
305
Windows VECD version, 305
light-touch technologies, 4
lightweight application
virtualization infrastructure, 114
LimitCPUForMigration parameter,
335
Linux, as guest operating system, 51
Linux Integration Components For
Hyper-V, 35
Live Migrate Virtual Machine To
Another Node (Failover Cluster
Manager), 92
Live Migration, 10, 37, 88–96
in cloud-computing solutions, 438
Hyper-V support for, 48
Microsoft Hyper-V Server and, 46
setting up for, 89–92
live migrations, 92–94
time to perform, 93
Windows PowerShell for, 94
load balancing terminal servers, 272
local desktop virtualization, 11, 109
localization, 164–165
network adapters
MED-V (Continued)
system requirements, 151–152
technologies provided by,
147–148
terminology, 151
usage policies, configuring,
156–157
usage policies, enforcing, 149
usage scenarios, 113
virtual image management, 148,
157–159
workspace, initializing, 154–155
workspace, using, 155–156
MED-V clients, 151
deploying, 158
system requirements for, 151
MED-V image repository, 151
MED-V management servers, 151
user authentication, 159
MED-V packages, 151. See
also virtual application
packages
MED-V Server, 151
system requirements for, 152
memory management for server
virtualization, 22
Memory setting (Hyper-V Manager
Action pane), 67
memory settings (virtual machines),
130
mergers, Remote Desktop Services
and, 225
microkernel hypervisors, 26–27, 36
Microsoft
virtualization, commitment to,
16–17
virtualization products and
technologies resource, 19
Microsoft Advanced Group Policy
Management, 115
Microsoft Application Virtualization
(App-V). See App-V
(Application Virtualization)
Microsoft Application Virtualization
for Remote Desktop Services.
See App-V for RDS
Microsoft Assessment and Planning
(MAP) Toolkit, 105
Microsoft Asset Inventory Service,
115
Microsoft Background Intelligent
Transfer Service (BITS) version
2, 157
Microsoft Baseline Configuration
Analyzer (MBCA), 349
Microsoft cloud-computing
platform, 435–446. See
also cloud computing
availability of, 446
Microsoft Desktop Optimization
Pack (MDOP) 2009 R2, 17
Microsoft Desktop Optimization
Pack (MDOP) for Software
Assurance, 181
App-V availability in, 115
Med-V availability in, 114
Microsoft Diagnostics and Recovery
Toolset, 115
Microsoft Dynamic Data Center
Toolkit. See Dynamic Data
Center Toolkit
Microsoft Dynamic IT initiative
cloud computing and, 433
Microsoft Enterprise Desktop
Virtualization (MED-V).
See MED-V
Microsoft Enterprise Support
Windows Server Core Team,
108
Microsoft Exchange Server,
virtualizing, 45
Microsoft Hardware-Assisted
Virtualization Detection Tool,
124
Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2,
8, 9, 17, 21
versus Hyper-V server role, 46–48
management of, 47
Microsoft Installer (MSI), 164
Microsoft Management Console
(MMC) snap-ins, 243
Microsoft partners, 16
Microsoft Silverlight, 230
Microsoft SQL Azure, 444–445
Microsoft System Center, 9
Microsoft System Center Desktop
Error Monitoring, 115
Microsoft System Center Virtual
Machine Manager. See VMM
(Virtual Machine Manager)
Microsoft Update, App-V support
for, 164
Microsoft Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure. See VDI (Virtual
Desktop Infrastructure)
Microsoft Virtualization, 44–46
Microsoft Virtualization Team Blog,
107
Microsoft Virtual PC. See Virtual PC
Microsoft Virtual Server
versus Hyper-V, 40–42
online resources for, 41
Type 2 hypervisors, 24
VMM support for, 338
Microsoft Virtual Server 2005
exporting virtual machines from,
80
R2 SP1, 21
Microsoft Volume License Services
(MVLS) Web site, 227
Microsoft Windows Azure.
See Windows Azure
Microsoft Windows Virtualization
Product Group Team Blog, 19
middleware applications, one-tomany arrangement, 163
midsized businesses
business survival, 2
Infrastructure Optimization Model
for, 2
Migrate To A Physical Computer
With A Different Processor
Version setting (Processor
configuration), 86, 96
migration, 36
vs. conversion, 411
Quick Storage Migration, 337
with VMM, 399
migration to Windows 7
legacy applications and, 110, 111
testing plans on virtual machines,
111
mobile workers
access levels, 4
optimizing scenarios, 12–13
profile cache management, 232
Remote Desktop Services and,
225
VDI and, 227
monolithic hypervisors, 25
motherboard settings, 101
Mount-VHD cmdlet (Windows
PowerShell), 102
mouse movement, 135
Remote Desktop sessions and, 97
mouse release key, 60
MoveWithinCluster parameter, 335
.msi files, standalone delivery of,
185
MSTSCAX.dll, 119
Muglia, Bob, 18
N
named pipes, 132
Name setting (Hyper-V Manager
console), 68
name settings (virtual machines),
130
NAT component (Virtual PC Host),
117
Nested Page Tables (NPT), 39
.NET Remoting, 183
Network Access Protection (NAP),
277
network adapters
adding, 67
455
456
network adapters (continued)
network adapters (continued)
configuring, 67
in Hyper-V, 70
physical, 63
synthetic, 77
Network Adapter setting (Hyper-V
Manager Action pane), 67
network infrastructure for failover
clusters, 89
networking
Hyper-V model, 64–65
resources for server virtualization,
22
networking settings (virtual
machines), 132
Networking tab (managed host
properties), 370
Networking view (VMM
Administrator Console), 360,
373–374
network interface cards
manipulating with Windows
PowerShell, 102
multiple, 55
Network Level Authentication
(NLA), 236
network load balancing, 36
network resources, centralized
management of, 3
Network Service built-in identity, 31
New Application Wizard (App-V),
194–197
New Guest OS Wizard, 381
New User Role Wizard, 413–420
New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard, 59
New Virtual Machine Wizard, 58, 76,
77, 384–391
O
Ocsetup.exe utility, 54
office worker scenarios, optimizing,
13
Offline Files
for mobile worker scenario
optimization, 12–19
for user state virtualization, 110
Offline Virtual Machine Servicing
Tool 2.1, 107
OLE DB, App-V use, 183
O’Neill, James, 104, 108
Oobe.exe, 232
Open Database Connectivity
(ODBC), App-V use, 183
operating systems
consolidating, 41
enlightened, 34
Hyper-V support for, 36
incompatibilities, 113
multiple, 21
P2V conversion support, 401
for V2V conversions, 412
for VMM, 346–348
Operating System Shutdown
service, 68
operational expenditures,
predictability of, 1
“Optimize and Secure Your Core
Infrastructure” white paper, 18
.osd files, 164, 170
outsourcing firms, 225
overall status, managed hosts, 367
P
P2V agents, 329
P2V (physical-to-virtual)
conversions, 314, 338, 400–411
requirements for, 401
VMware to Hyper-V, 412
paging tables, 38
parent partitions, 28–33
communication with children, 33
components of, 29
definition of, 28
microkernel hypervisors and, 26
overhead of, 27–28
purposes of, 28
virtualization stack, 29
VM communication with, 67
partitions, 19
definition of, 28
parent partitions, 26, 28–33
types of, 28
passthrough disks
configuration files location, 78
considerations for use, 87
performance and, 87
virtual machines, creating with,
77–78
patch management
manual, 3
partially automated, 3
Peak 10, 446
performance
Hyper-V features for, 38–40
monitoring, 56
passthrough disks and, 87
of Type 2 hypervisors, 24
Performance and Resource
Optimization. See PRO
(Performance and Resource
Optimization)
“Performance Tuning Guidelines for
Windows Server 2008” white
paper, 55
personal virtual desktops, 285–286
connecting to, 297–298
provisioning, 288–299
physical desktop computers,
virtualized, 109
physical devices. See also hardware
resources
accessing, 22
Physical Hard Disk option (Hyper-V
Manager snap-in), 78
physical network adapters, 63
physical serial ports, 132
physical servers. See also hardware
resources; servers
hosting Hyper-V role, 55–57
physical-to-virtual conversions.
See P2V (physical-to-virtual)
conversions
Placement tab (managed host
properties), 370
Platform as a Service (PaaS), 436,
437
plug and play operations, 29
plug-in VDevs, 32
port groups, 337
PoundHost, 446
power management, 29
power requirements, reducing, 5, 7
printer integration component
(virtual machines), 136
privacy, 1
private-cloud solutions, 11, 432
architecture of, 441–442
benefits of, 433
implementing, 443–444
infrastructure of, 437
Microsoft products for, 436
portals, 440–441
processor compatibility mode, 37
disabling, 86
enabling, 86, 96
Processor Compatibility Mode
feature, 88, 95–97
Processor configuration settings
(virtual machines), 86
Processor setting (Hyper-V Manager
Actions pane), 67
processors, multiple, 48
processor virtualization extensions,
50
profile cache management, 232
profile management, 226
PRO (Performance and Resource
Optimization), 314, 326–327,
338, 341–342, 374
capabilities of, 332
Windows PowerShell cmdlets, 327
public-cloud solutions, 11, 432
benefits of, 433
Microsoft products for, 436
publishing servers, 215, 216
publishing virtual applications, 168
Remote Desktops console
Q
Q: drive, 168
installing applications on, 211–213
quad virtual processors, 38
quarantine-like systems, 4
Quick Migration process, 79–81
Quick Storage Migration, 337
R
RAM
for Hyper-V server role, 49
for virtual images, 153
for virtual machines, 67
RapidProvisionVM.ps1 script, 336
RapidProvisionVMwithAnswerFile.
ps1 script, 336
Rationalized IT infrastructures, 3
description of, 4
moving to Dynamic, 7
RD Connection Broker, 272–276
functionality, 273
installing, 273
Load Balancing feature, 273, 276
RD Connection Broker servers, 287
configuring, 274–276
function of, 289
as RemoteApp program source,
260
security groups, configuring,
275–276
RD Connection clients, 230–231
enhancements to, 230–231
features of, 231–232
RD Connection (RDC), 97–98, 229
RD connections
encryption of, 238–239
IP addresses, assigning to, 232
RD Gateway, 14, 276–281
authentication and authorization
plug-ins, 277
configuring, 280–281
functionality, 278
home office usage scenario, 278
installing, 279
new features, 277
security and, 276–277
RD Gateway Manager console, 281
RD Gateway servers, 277
RD Licensing, 281–284
installing, 282
new features, 282–283
RDP Encoder Technology (Virtual
PC Host), 117
RDP encryption, 237
RDP Server service, 118
RDPShell.exe, 118, 119
RDP-Tcp Properties dialog box
(Remote Desktop Session Host
Configuration console), 239
RDS CALs
managing, 281, 283
single versus packs, 283
RD Session Host, 231–256
access, configuring, 236–237
applications, installing on,
240–242
authentication settings, 236–237
client experience, 235
Group Policy settings, 246,
248–250
installing, 232–235
managing, 242–250
new features, 231–232
RD-Execute mode, 241
RD Install mode, 241
security, configuring, 235–240
SSL and, 237–240
RD Session Host servers
redirection for virtual desktops,
288–289
as RemoteApp program source,
260
RD Session Host sessions, 232
RD Session Hosts/Terminal Servers,
301, 302
RD Virtualization Host, 284–299
functionality, 285–287
installing, 285
personal virtual desktops,
provisioning, 288–299
RD Web Access, 256–262
functionality, 257–258
installing, 258
new features, 256
public and private modes, 256
using, 260–262
Web Part, 257
RD Web Access servers
configuring, 258–260
function of, 289
RD Web Access Web site
accessing, 258–259
Configuration tab, 259, 261
logon page, 259
My Desktop item, 298
RemoteApp Programs tab, 260
Real-Time Streaming Protocol
(RTSP), 183
Real-Time Streaming Protocol
Secure (RTSPS), 184
recovery, 6
regression testing
reducing need for, 112
virtual applications, 175
regulatory compliance, 225
Relative Weight setting (Processor
configuration), 86
Reliance Data Center, 446
RemoteApp, 121, 250–256
functionality, 251
managing Hyper-V with, 98
support for, 120
RemoteApp and Desktop
Connections, 262–272
benefits of, 263
client configuration, 267
configuring, 264–273
functionality, 264
Start menu program group, 268
Taskbar icon, 268–269
Web feed, 269–272, 274–275
Remote Applications Installed
Locally (RAIL), 121
RemoteApp Manager console, 244,
253
RemoteApp programs, 231
adding, 252, 253
configuring, 254–255
displaying, 257
filtering per user, 231, 256
launching, 251, 260
look and feel, 250
packaging, 254
Start menu access, 263
terminating, 252
user access, 255
Web browser access, configuring,
264–273
RemoteApp Wizard, 98
remote control, managing, 244
Remote Desktop Connection
Authorization Policy (RD CAP),
279
Remote Desktop Connection Broker,
272–275
Remote Desktop Connection
Manager console
RD Connection Broker settings,
274
virtual desktop assignment, 296
Remote Desktop Connection (RDC),
6, 97–98, 229
Remote Desktop Gateway. See RD
Gateway
Remote Desktop Licensing. See RD
Licensing
Remote Desktop Resource
Authorization Policy (RD RAP),
279
remote desktops. See also virtual
desktops
accessing, 257
Remote Desktops console, 244
457
458
Remote Desktop Services
Remote Desktop Services, 8, 10, 11,
109, 121, 223, 228–229
availability of, 227
benefits of, 224
centralized management, 14
command-line tools, 245–246
deploying, 299–300
for office worker scenario
optimization, 13
for task worker scenario
optimization, 13
functionality, 228
interactions between role
services, 300
licensing, 281, 284
RD Connection Broker, 272–276
RD Gateway, 276–281
RD Licensing, 281–284
RD Session Host, 231–256
RD Virtualization Host, 284–299
RD Web Access, 256–262
RemoteApps, 13
resources on, 309–310
security, 14
usage scenarios, 224–226
WMI provider for, 291
Remote Desktop Services
Configuration console, 245
Remote Desktop Services Manager
console, 243
Remote Desktop Services user
profile, 244
Remote Desktop Session Host.
See RD Session Host
Remote Desktop Session Host
Configuration console, 239, 243
Licensing tab, 283
Remote Desktop sessions,
encrypting, 238–239
Remote Desktop Users group, 98
remote desktop virtualization, 11,
109, 223. See also Remote
Desktop Services
availability of, 227–228
benefits of, 224
usage scenarios, 224–227
Remote Desktop Virtualization Host.
See RD Virtualization Host
Remote Desktop Web Access.
See RD Web Access
Remote Desktop Web Access
Computers group, 98
Remote Desktop Web Connection,
261, 262
Remote Server Administration Tools
for Windows 7, 106
remote sessions
authentication and authorization
in background, 277
system messages, 278
Remote tab (managed host
properties), 371
remote users, internal network
access, 280
remoting, 99
RemoveLibraryStoreSharePath
parameter, 335
Rename option (Hyper-V Manager
console), 69
Rename option (Snapshots pane), 83
Reporting view (VMM
Administrator Console), 360
reports on App-V environment,
199–200
Reserves tab (managed host
properties), 368
RetainDeletedObjects parameter,
335
RetainObjectCache parameter, 335
return on investment. See ROI
(return on investment)
ring architecture, 49–50
roaming desktop technologies,
12–13
roaming users, 12–19, 110, 232
ROI (return on investment)
of Microsoft’s virtualization
solution, 16
on virtualization, 6
Run An Older Operating System,
Such As Windows NT setting
(Processor configuration), 86
S
Sanbolic Clustered File System, 334
schedulers for server virtualization,
22
SCONFIG tool, 57
ScriptCmdlets, 99
script internationalization, 100
SCSI controllers
adding to VMs, 67
using, 85
SCSI Controller setting (Hyper-V
Manager Action pane), 67
second-level address translation
(SLAT), 7
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), 237–240
security
App-V features, 165
BitLocker Drive Encryption, 12
Data Execution Prevention, 49
device driver considerations, 26
ensuring, 1
of Hyper-V server, 107
isolation of virtual machines, 132
microkernel hypervisors and, 27
monolithic hypervisors and, 25
proactive approach, 4
RD Gateway and, 276–277
for RD Session Host, 235–240
virtual image expiration, 157
VM worker processes and, 31
security groups, 275–276
Seldam, Matthijs ten, 108
Select The Network Adapter To Be
Used For Remote Desktop IP
Virtualization policy setting,
247
self-managing dynamic systems, 7
self-provisioning software, 4
Self-Service Portal. See VMM SelfService Portal
Self-Service User roles (VMM), 341,
413
creating, 416–430
sequenced application packages,
168, 170–171. See also virtual
application packages
sequenced applications, 168. See
also virtual applications
Sequencer. See App-V Sequencer
sequencing computers, 168
Sequencing Wizard, 202–203. See
also App-V Sequencer
Add Files To Virtual File System
page, 204
Advanced Options page, 202
Configure Applications page,
205–206
Launch Applications page,
206–207
Monitor Installation page, 203
Sequence Package page, 206
server availability, 8
Server Configuration Utility
(SConfig), 47
server consolidation, 7, 9, 21
accelerating, 6
Hyper-V for, 43
VMM and, 338, 340
Server Core installations, 103
Hyper-V role management and,
57
ServerManagerCmd.exe commandline tool, 54
ServerManager.msc, 232
Server Message Block (SMB), 184
server provisioning, 6
server roles, adding, 48
servers
antivirus software on, 56
consolidating with App-V for RDS,
226
CPU resource allocation, 85
terminal servers, load balancing
servers (continued)
hosting Hyper-V role, 55–57. See
also Hyper-V servers
overloading, avoiding, 55
remote desktop virtualization
on, 109
Server Core Hyper-V servers, 103
utilization rates of, 434
Server settings (Hyper-V Manager),
59
server virtualization, 44–46
benefits of, 44–45
design of, 53
management interfaces for, 22
memory management for, 22
networking resources for, 22
requirements of, 22
scheduler for, 22
state machine for, 22
storage for, 22
understanding, 21–27
virtual device drivers for, 22
virtualized devices for, 22
service levels, 8
Service Model (Windows Azure),
445
services, faster and cheaper, 1
Settings action (Hyper-V Manager
console), 66
.sft files, 169, 170, 203
streaming, 171
SFTMIME command, 216
Shah, Vipul, 45
shared ISO image files, 337
shared storage, 334
shared volumes, 89
shutdown, host-initiated, 135
Shut Down option (Hyper-V
Manager console), 79
shutdown requests, 35
single sign-on, 256
single virtual processors, 38
SLAT (second-level address
translation), 38
smart cards integration component
(virtual machines), 136
SMP (symmetric multiprocessor), 36
Snapshot File Location setting
(Hyper-V Manager console), 68
Snapshot Name dialog box, 83
Snapshot option (Hyper-V Manager
console), 82
snapshots, 81–84
applying state from, 83
configuration options, 84
creating, 30
deleting, 83
Hyper-V support for, 36
location of, 68
managing with Windows
PowerShell, 101
naming conventions, 82–83
in production environments, 82
renaming, 83
reverting to previous, 84
snapshot trees, 81, 83, 84
taking, 69, 84
of virutal machines, 6
Snapshot setting (virtual machines),
69
Snapshots folder, 80, 83
Snapshots pane, 82
SoftGrid Application Virtualization,
162
software
inventorying, 4
self-provisioning, 4
Software as a Service (SaaS), 435
software audits (App-V), 200
software deployment
controlling, 3
flexibility in, 8
manual, 3
partially automated, 3
reducing time for, 8
zero-touch, 4
space requirements, 5, 7
spending decisions, 1
.sprj files, 171
SQL Server
in cloud-computing solutions, 437
communication ports, 319
as MED-V report database, 152
virtualizing, 45
with VMM, 328, 345
VMM database, 351
SSL certificates, 279
SSL for Remote Desktop Services
connections, 237–240
Standalone virtualization mode, 114
Standardized IT infrastructures, 3
description of, 3
moving to Rationalized, 6
StarUK, 446
state machines for server
virtualization, 22
Status tab (managed host
properties), 366, 367
storage
disk-based, 428–429
high-speed access to, 55
hot adding and removal, 37
for server virtualization, 22
of system files, 56
storage area networks (SANs), 333
storage arrays, 89
stored virtual machines, 314
streaming servers, 169
Summary tab (managed host
properties), 365
symmetric multiprocessors (SMPs),
36
synthetic devices, 32–33
synthetic network adapters, 77
system/boot volumes, 77
System Center Capacity Planner, 427
System Center Configuration
Manager, 171, 426, 427
System Center Data Protection
Manager, 426–429
System Center Essentials, 426
System Center Mobile Device
Manager, 427
System Center Operations Manager,
426, 427
Virtualization Candidates report,
400
VMM and, 325–327
System Center Server Management
Suite Enterprise, 426
System Center Service Manager, 427
System Center solutions, 9, 425–429
benefits of, 427
in cloud-computing solutions, 438
System Center Virtual Machine
Manager, 9, 47, 85, 426, 427
System Center Virtual Machine
Manager Team Blog, 430
system error reports (App-V), 200
SystemGuard environment, 174, 175
system utilization reports (App-V),
200
T
tape-based backup, 428
task worker scenarios
optimizing, 13–14
Remote Desktop Services and,
225–226
TCO (total cost of ownership)
of Microsoft’s virtualization
solution, 16
reducing, 5–7
of servers, 43
TCP Chimney Offload, 39
TCP ports
for SQL Server communications,
328
for VMM communication,
318–319
templates, 314
Terminal Server Session Directory
service, 272
terminal servers, load balancing,
272
459
460
Terminal Services
Terminal Services, 112, 229, 250. See
also Remote Desktop Services
App-V client for, 181
App-V support for, 164
Terminal Services Client, 169
Terminal Services Gateway, 276
Terminal Services Licensing, 281
Terminal Services RemoteApp, 251.
See also RemoteApp
Terminal Services Session Broker,
272
Terminal Services Web Access, 256
test hardware, 43
testing
Hyper-V and, 43
snapshots and, 81
time synchronization, 35, 87, 135
Time Synchronization service, 68
total cost of ownership. See TCO
(total cost of ownership)
training costs, 7
Transport Layer Security (TLS),
237–238
troubleshooting
App-V, 217–219
COM port output, 132
Hyper-V startup problems, 54
license compliance, 173
virtual applications, 149
virtual machine desktops, 150
Turn Off Windows Installer RDS
Compatibility policy setting,
247
Turn On Remote Desktop IP
Virtualization policy setting,
247
Type 1 hypervisors, 23–24
Hyper-V, 28. See also Hyper-V
Type 2 hypervisors, 24
performance of, 24
U
undo disks settings (virtual
machines), 131
usage policies
configuring, 156–157
enforcement of, 148, 149, 153
usage scenarios
for App-V, 113–114
for MED-V, 113
for Windows Virtual PC, 113
for Windows XP Mode, 113
USB Connector (vpcusb.sys) (Virtual
PC Host), 118
USB devices
configuring, 141
redirecting, 139, 140
sharing, 142
USB Stub Driver (vpcuxd.sys) (Virtual
PC Host), 118
UseCluster parameter, 335
UseLocalVirtualHardDisks
parameter, 335, 336
Use On The Virtual Machine option
(Hyper-V Manager console), 74
user data and settings
migrating from previous versions,
13
virtualizing, 110
user role processing, 337–338
user roles, configuring with VMM,
413–420
users
collaboration between, 4
moving, 13
User settings (Hyper-V Manager
console), 60–61
resetting to defaults, 61
User State Migration Tool (USMT),
13
user state virtualization, 110
V
V2V (virtual-to-virtual) conversions,
315, 411–412
operating systems supported for,
412
Validate A Configuration Wizard, 89
vDevs (Virtual Devices), 29, 31–32
VDI (Virtual Desktop Infrastructure),
8, 10, 223, 304–307
architecture of, 304
availability of, 228
benefits of, 224
deploying, 306–307
deployment scenarios, 303, 307
desktop infrastructure,
centralizing with, 303
functionality of, 307–309
licensing, 306
Premium suite, 306
RD Virtualization Host
component, 285
resources on, 311
Standard suite, 305
usage scenarios, 227
Veritas Storage Foundation for
Windows, 334
.vfd (virtual floppy disk) files, 67
creating new, 59
.vhd (virtual hard disk) files
default location, 59
managing with Windows
PowerShell, 102
video resize, guest, 135
Vid.sys component, 32
View menu (Virtual Machine
Connection tool), 72
Virtmgmt.msc. See Hyper-V
Manager console
virtual adapters, 85–86
virtual application packages
configuring, 207–211
creating, 201
delivery methods, 186
deploying, 186–188
managing, 197
publishing, 176
saving, 210
sequenced, 168, 170–171
streaming, 171–172, 178
virtual applications, 119–120
access permissions, 196
access to, 193
adding, 193
application data, streaming, 177
block size, 203
centralized management of, 14
closing, 146
compatibility of, 173
default save locations, 146, 155
definition of, 169
delivery, 112, 185–186
deploying, 111, 173, 301
development, 111
file type associations, 195, 200,
215
importing, 192, 193
installing, 121, 142–147, 203–204
installing on RD Session Host
server, 240–242
installing per user, 232
launching, 120, 143, 144
license management, 198–199
life cycle management, 111
look and feel of, 109
managing, 172–176, 192–197,
214–215
offline availability, 163
packaging, 170–171
provider policies, 201
publishing, 121, 168, 171
Q: drive, installing on, 211–213
regression testing, 175
sequenced applications, 168
shortcuts, 195
supporting, 120–121, 173, 175
terminating, 173, 176
updating, 173, 175
usage data, 164
utilization reports, 200
versioning, 111
virtual environments for, 174
virtualizing, 8, 11
virtual COM, 169
virtual machines
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure.
See VDI (Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure)
virtual desktops
accessing, 308
centralizing execution of, 11
connecting to, 297–298
personal, 285, 286
pools of, 285–286
provisioning, 227, 288–299
redirection for, 288–289
sharing, 227
virtual device drivers, 22
Virtual Devices. See VDevs (Virtual
Devices)
virtual directories, 169
virtual environments, 169–170, 174
virtual files, 170
virtual file systems, 170, 204
virtual hard disks
on cluster shared volumes, 88
compacting, 64, 85
configuring, 130
converting, 64
creating new, 59
default location of, 84
editing, 64–65
expanding, 64
fixed size, 85
inspecting, 64
undo disks, 131
in virtual machine templates, 379
VM_name.vhd, 122
Windows XP Mode, 121. See
also See also Windows XP Mode
Windows XP Mode base.vhd, 122
Virtual Hard Disks folder, 80
virtual images, 151
centralized management of, 147
creating, 158
delivering, 147, 148, 158
expiration of, 157
maintaining, 157, 159
managing, 157–159
RAM for, 153
repository for, 147, 148
retrieving, 157
updating, 158
virtualization. See also Hyper-V
barriers to, 17
benefits of, 5, 7, 427–428
developments in, 19
efficiency of, 434
hardware-assisted, 36, 49
Infrastructure Optimization Model
and, 4–7
integated Microsoft solution,
15–17
need for, 1
technical details resource, 19
Virtualization Candidates report,
400
Virtualization Infrastructure Driver
(Vid.sys), 29, 32
virtualization infrastructures
full, 113
lightweight, 114
Standalone mode, 114
Virtualization Server Provider (VSP)
(Virtual PC Host), 117
Virtualization Service Clients (VSCs),
34, 118
Virtualization Service Providers
(VSPs), 29, 32
virtualization service status,
managed hosts, 367
virtualization service version,
managed hosts, 367
virtualization stack, 29
Virtualization TechCenter, 104
virtualization technologies, 16
virtualized computing resources,
431. See also cloud computing
virtualized devices, 22
virtualized environments, visible
and invisible, 109
virtualized resources
managing with VMM
Administrator Console, 356
provisioning with VMM, 340–341
virtualized storage resources, 6
Virtual Machine Additions, 34
Virtual Machine Bus (VMBus), 29,
32–33
Virtual Machine Connection tool,
66, 70–74
authentication issues, 73
connecting to virtual machines,
73
installing, 72–73
keyboard accelerators, 74
launching, 73
menu options, 71–72
remote use, 73
snapshot options, 83
title bar, 72
toolbar, 72
Virtual Machine Device Queues
(VMDq), 39
virtual machine hosts, 315
Virtual Machine Limit setting
(Processor configuration), 86
Virtual Machine Management
Service. See VMMS (Virtual
Machine Management Service)
Virtual Machine Manager. See VMM
(Virtual Machine Manager)
Virtual Machine Manager
Configuration Analyzer
(VMMCA), 348–349
Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ), 39
Virtual Machine Reserve setting
(Processor configuration), 86
virtual machines
adding and removing, 101
auto publish settings, 120, 138
cloning with VMM, 400
close settings, 138
clustering, 88. See also clustered
virtual machines
components library, 339
COM port settings, 132
concurrently running, 38
configuration best practices,
84–85
configuration files, 77–79
configuring, 128–138
configuring with VMM
Administrator Console, 394
connecting to, 66–67, 73, 101,
395–398
connecting to running machines,
422–423
connection credentials, 60
console windows
converting physical computers to,
338, 400–411
CPU resource allocation for, 85
creating, 58, 76–79, 128, 384–392,
424
delegated management of, 339
deploying with VMM, 399
display interface settings, 85
domain controllers, 87
dual virtual processor, 38
DVD drive settings, 131
exporting, 79–81
fast provisioning, 339
finding, 101
full-screen mode, 109
guest operating systems on,
50–52. See also guest operating
systems
GUIDs of, 31
hard disk settings, 130
hardware, adding, 67
hardware settings, 67–68
hibernation, 144
hot adding and removal of
storage, 37
importing, 59, 79–81
integration features, 133–134
Integration Services use, 56
Intelligent Placement process, 339
isolated execution environments
for, 23
461
462
virtual machines (continued)
virtual machines (continued)
jumbo frames support, 39
keyboard accelerators for, 74
keyboard settings, 137–138
legacy applications, running in,
110, 111
local management of, 110
logon credentials, 138
management settings, 68–69
managing, 31, 65, 148–149,
384–400
memory settings, 130
migrating between host
machines, 37
migrating with VMM, 337, 399
mouse control in, 97
naming, 68, 130
network adapter configuration, 70
networking settings, 132
output settings, 132
ownership of, 93
passthrough disks for, 87. See
also passthrough disks
performance, 85
processor compatibility mode
and, 95–97
Processor configuration settings,
86
properties dialog box, 394
provisioning, 336
quad virtual processor, 38
remote management of, 103
renaming, 69
security resources, 107
shared ISO image files, 337
shutting down, 79
single virtual processor, 38
snapshot management, 101
snapshots of, 6, 81–84. See
also snapshots
start actions, 68
stop actions, 69
system/boot files for, 77
templates, creating from, 385–392
understanding, 21–23
undo disk settings, 131
USB devices, connecting, 139–141
USB devices, sharing, 142
V2V conversions, 411–412
viewing, 128, 129
virtual networking settings, 61
Windows XP Mode, 121
Virtual Machines folder, 80
virtual machine states, 22
applying, 83
discovering and manipulating,
cmdlet for, 101
managing, 30
Virtual Machines view (VMM
Administrator Console), 359
virtual machine templates
adding, 379–380
virtual machines, creating from,
385–392
Virtual Machine User Services
(VMUSrvc.exe), 118
Virtual Machine Viewer, 396
Virtualmachineviewer.exe, 323, 395
command-line options, 324–325
Virtual Machine worker processes,
29, 31
online operations management,
30
spawning, 30
virtual mages, 158
Virtual Motherboard (VMB), 31
virtual network adapters, 132, 133
Virtual Network Manager, 61
virtual networks
connectivity allowed by, 63
types of, 61
Virtual PC
exporting virtual machines from,
80
Type 2 hypervisor, 24
Virtual PC images. See virtual
images
Virtual PC Integration Components
Services Application service
(VMSrvc.exe), 118
virtual processors
allocating to VMs, 67
types of, 38
virtual registries, 170
Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 platform,
313
Virtual Server hosts, 397
virtual servers
availability of, 10
moving between hosts, 10
provisioning, 433
utilization rates of, 434
virtual services, 170
virtual switches, 337
Virtual Switch Protocol, 56
virtual-to-virtual conversions.
See V2V (virtual-to-virtual)
conversions
VM Additions, 85
VMB (Virtual Motherboard), 31
.vmc (virtual machine configuration)
files, 59
VM Chimney, 39
VMConnect. See Virtual Machine
Connection tool
.vmcx files, 128
Vmmadmin.exe, 323
VMM Administrator Console, 316,
322–324
Actions pane, 362
configuring virtual machines, 394
connecting to virtual machines,
395–398
Connect To Server dialog box, 356
filters, 360–361
host management, 361–377
Hosts section, 361
installing, 354
Library view, 379
managing virtual machines with,
392–394
supported operating systems,
347–348
updates to, 337
user interface, 357–358
using, 356–360
views, 358–360
Virtual Machine Manager section,
361
Virtual Machines view, 360
VMM Agents, 316, 329
installing, 364–365
VMM database, 345, 352
backing up and restoring,
382–383
VMM library, 329, 330, 352, 378–383
connecting to virtual machines,
396–398
deploying virtual machines from,
399
guest operating system profiles,
adding, 380–381
hardware profiles, adding, 380
resource dependencies, 381
resources, removing, 381
virtual machine templates,
adding, 379–380
VMM Library Servers, 315, 330, 378
adding, 378–379
communication ports, 319
installing, 352
requirements for, 378–379
VMM Self-Service Portal, 316, 325,
339, 341, 421–425
installing, 355–356
logging on, 422
setting up, 421
supported operating systems,
347–348
Thumbnail View, 424
VMM Server, 315
communication ports, 319
connecting to, 357
domain account for, 354
installing, 350–354
port assignments, 353, 354
Windows Optimized Desktop Scenarios
VMM Server (continued)
Self-Service Portal installation,
355
VMM Administrator Console
installation, 355
VMM Server Library, 347–348
VMMS.exe, 30
VMMS (Virtual Machine
Management Service), 29, 30,
328
RPC dependencies, 30
user mode and kernel mode, 30
WMI dependencies, 30
VMM.sys (Virtual PC Host), 117
VMM (Virtual Machine Manager),
10, 313
architecture, 316–330
benefits of, 338–339
Client Layer, 320–321
cloning virtual machines, 400
communication ports, 318–319,
353
components of, 315–316
creating new virtual machines,
384–392
delegated administration support,
332–333
Engine Layer, 317, 320, 328–329
failover cluster support, 331
guest operating system control,
49–50
hardware requirements, 343–344
host clusters, 374
Hyper-V management, 331
infrastructure requirements, 348
installing components, 348–356
Intelligent Placement process, 339
interlayer communications,
317–318
latest improvements, 330–333
library, 339
maintenance mode feature, 335
Managed Computer Layer,
329–330
migrating virtual machines, 399
new features, 333–337
P2V conversions, 400–411
Performance and Resource
Optimization, 326–327
planning for deployment,
342–343
PRO capabilities, 332, 338, 341–
342, 374
resources on, 430
SAN transfers, 333
Self-Service Portal. See VMM SelfService Portal
for server consolidation, 338, 340
shared storage, 334
software requirements, 344–348
SQL Server database for, 351
System Center Operations
Manager and, 325–327
system requirements, 343–348
terminology, 313–315
usage scenarios, 340–341
user role configuration, 413–420
user role processing, 337–338
V2V conversions, 411–412
virtual machine management
capabilities, 384–400
VMware ESX Server host
management, 331
VMware Infrastructure 3
environment management,
374–377
Windows PowerShell and, 320–
322, 334–336, 339
VM_name.vhd, 122
VMNetworkOptimizationEnabled
parameter, 335
Vmrcactivexclient.dll, 323
Vmrc.exe, 324
VMSAL.exe, 117, 119
VMSrvc.exe service, 118
VMs tab (managed host properties),
368
VMUSrvc.exe service, 118
VMware ESX hosts, 319
VMware ESX Server
monolithic hypervisor, 25
type 1 hypervisors, 24
VMM support for, 338
VMware Infrastructure 3
environment, 374–377
VMWarePortGroup parameter, 335
VMware port groups, 337
VMware Server, 24
VMware VI3 environment, 313
VMM host management, 331
Vmwareviewer.exe, 325
VMware Virtual Center servers
adding, 375
communication ports, 319
VMWindow.exe, 116
vmwp.exe, 31
viewing instances of, 31
VMX/SVM Root Kernel, 118
Voellm, Tony, 108
Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS),
35
App-V support for, 164
VPCBus.sys, 117
VPC.exe, 117
VPC Settings dialog box (Virtual PC
Host), 116
VPC Wizard (Virtual PC Host), 116
.vsv (saved state) files, 83
W
Watson, 164
Watson, Clive, 108
.wcx (Workspace Configuration)
file, 274
Wilson, Mark, 108
Windows 7
as guest operating system, 51
host operating system for
Windows Virtual PC, 123
migrating to, 110
P2V conversion support, 401
RemoteApp support, 120
V2V conversions support, 412
VDI and, 305
VMM support, 348
Windows Virtual PC availability,
114
Windows XP Mode and, 114, 125
Windows 2000, as guest operating
system, 51
Windows 2000 Server, 402
Windows Aero, 230
Windows Azure, 435, 444–445
availability of, 446
resources on, 447
Windows Communication
Foundation (WCF), 317
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy
PCs, 14
Windows Hardware Developer
Central Web site, 19
Windows Hypervisor Interface
Library (WinHv.sys), 29, 32
Windows Installer, 232
Windows keyboard accelerators, 74
Windows Management
Instrumentation (WMI)
managing Hyper-V with, 98–99
RD Session Host management
with, 249
Windows Network Load Balancing
(NLB) service, 36
Windows operating systems
early versions, 98
RemoteApp support, 120
running with Med-V, 112
Windows Optimized Desktop
Scenarios, 12–14
anywhere-access scenario
optimization, 14
contract/offshore worker scenario
optimization, 14
mobile worker scenario, 12–13
office worker scenario
optimization, 13
resources on, 19
task worker scenario optimization,
13–14
463
464
Windows PowerShell
Windows PowerShell
in cloud-computing solutions, 442
cmdlets for managing Hyper-V,
101–103
features and enhancements, 99
for live migrations, 94
management library for Hyper-V,
100
managing Hyper-V with, 99–104
new parameters for cmdlets,
334–335
PRO cmdlets, 327
RD Session Host management
with, 249–250
security contexts, 322–323
VMM cmdlets, 334, 336
VMM command-line interface,
321–322
VMM, integration with, 320–322,
334–335, 339
Windows PowerShell Virtual
Machine Manager console, 355
Windows Remote Management, 317
Windows roaming, 12–13
Windows Server 2003
as guest operating system, 35,
50, 52
with Hyper-V, 57
legacy network adapter driver, 77
VMM support, 347, 348
Windows Server 2008
in cloud-computing solutions, 438
Group Policy settings, 246–247
P2V conversion support, 401
RD Session Host role service,
231–256
Remote Desktop Services role
services, 229
Terminal Services, 229, 250
V2V conversion support, 412
VMM support, 346, 347
Windows Server 2008 R2, 16
as guest operating system, 34,
35, 50
Datacenter x64 with Hyper-V, 55
Failover Clustering feature, 37, 43
Hyper-V role, 8, 9, 21, 27, 28, 44,
47–48
Itanium versions, 49
parent partition for, 28
release of, 16
Remote Desktop Services, 8
Server Core installation option,
103
Windows Server Update Services
(WSUS), 158
Windows Server Virtualization
Guide, 53, 54, 105
Windows Speech Recognition, 230
Windows VECD for SA licensing, 305
Windows VECD licensing, 305
Windows VECD (Virtual Enterprise
Centralized Desktop), 14,
304–305
Windows Virtual PC, 8, 11, 17, 109,
115–147
Actions menu, 139
architecture of, 115–116
availability of, 114
benefits of, 110
console window, 139–140
CPU requirements, 124
guest operating systems, 123
guest-side components, 118
host operating system, 123
host-side components, 116–118
vs. Hyper-V, 119–120
installing, 124
keyboard shortcuts, 137
localized versions, 126
memory requirements, 124
requirements for, 123–124
resources on, 219–220
Settings dialog box, 142
Tools menu, 142
usage scenarios, 113
USB menu, 139
virtual application feature, 124
virtual machines, configuring,
129–138
Windows Security dialog box, 142
Windows Virtual PC Host
kernel-mode engine components,
117
UI components, 116
user-mode engine components,
117
Windows Vista
enlightenment of, 34
as guest operating system, 35,
51, 53
P2V conversion support, 401
TCP Chimney Offload support, 39
V2V conversion support, 412
VMM support, 348
Windows6.0-KB961741-x86.msu
update, 120
Windows XP, 121
as guest operating system, 35,
51–53
KB961742-v3.exe update, 120
legacy network adapter driver, 77
managing Hyper-V servers from,
98
P2V conversion support, 401
V2V conversion support, 412
VMM support, 348
Windows XP Mode, 8, 11, 17, 109,
115–147
availability of, 114
benefits of, 110
vs. custom Windows XP virtual
machines, 122
disk space requirements, 125
host operating system, 125–126
installing, 126–129
localized versions, 126
logon credentials, 138
requirements for, 125
resources on, 219–220
usage scenarios, 113
using, 138–147
virtual application support, 120
working with, 138–142
Windows XP Mode base.vhd, 122
WinFLP (Windows Fundamentals for
Legacy PCs), 14
witness disks, 89
WMI cmdlets, 100
WMI providers, 30
in parent partition, 28
for Remote Desktop Services, 291
workloads
consolidating, 41
32- bit and 64-bit, consolidating,
43
workspaces (MED-V), 151
defining, 158
initializing, 154–155
using, 155–156
X
.xml (configuration) files, 83
Y
Yuen, Edwin, 412
About the Author
Mitch Tulloch, lead author for the Windows 7 Resource Kit,
is a widely recognized expert on Windows administration,
networking, and security and has been repeatedly awarded
Most Valuable Professional (MVP) status by Microsoft for his
outstanding contributions in supporting users who deploy
Microsoft platforms, products, and solutions. Mitch has
­written or contributed to two dozen books including the
Windows Vista Resource Kit, Second Edition and
Understanding Microsoft Virtualization Solutions: from
the Desktop to the Datacenter, both published by
Microsoft Press.
Mitch has published hundreds of articles on sites such as
WindowsNetworking.com and in leading industry magazines such as BizTech Magazine and
FedTech Magazine. He has also developed e-learning courses on Windows 7 for Microsoft
Learning and graduate-level courses on Information Security Management (ISM) for the
Masters of Business Administration (MBA) program of Jones International University.
Mitch resides in Winnipeg, Canada, where he runs an IT content development business with
his wife Ingrid. Prior to starting his business in 1998, Mitch worked as a Microsoft Certified
Trainer (MCT) for Productivity Point International. For more information about Mitch, see
http://www.mtit.com.
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