English - SEBU8728
SEBU8728-02
March 2014
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1106A-70T, 1106A-70TA, 1106C-70TA
and 1106D-70TA Industrial Engines
PP (Engine)
PR (Engine)
PT (Engine)
PU (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8728
3
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 55
Foreword.............................. ............................. 4
Maintenance Interval Schedule ........... ........... 57
Safety Section
Warranty Section
Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5
Warranty Information ................... ................... 88
General Hazard Information ............... .............. 6
Reference Information Section
Burn Prevention........................ ........................ 8
Reference Materials ........................................ 89
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .... ... 8
Index Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . 10
Index................................ ............................... 90
Mounting and Dismounting............... .............. 10
Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 10
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 10
Engine Stopping ....................... .......................11
Electrical System ...................... .......................11
Engine Electronics..................... ..................... 12
Product Information Section
General Information.................... .................... 13
Product Identification Information.......... ......... 20
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 23
Features and Controls .................. .................. 25
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 30
Engine Operation...................... ...................... 33
Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 34
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 38
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 39
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SEBU8728
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This manual
should be stored in or near the engine area in a
literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins
authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a
major engine failure, there are also numerous after
failure overhaul options available. Consult with your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
5
SEBU8728
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i04148593
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the
words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not
visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the
warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other
harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can
provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
Illustration 1
g01154807
Typical example
The Universal Warning label (1) is located on both
sides of the valve mechanism cover base.
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SEBU8728
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Illustration 2
(1) Universal warning
g02342216
(2) Ether
(2) Ether
i02328435
General Hazard Information
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Illustration 4
Illustration 3
g01154809
Typical example
The ether warning label (2) is located on the cover of
the inlet manifold.
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you repair
the equipment.
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SEBU8728
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water
pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Illustration 5
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Illustration 6
Report all necessary repairs.
Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the OEM
information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Pressure Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
g00687600
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids are
contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
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SEBU8728
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
i02143195
Burn Prevention
i04149650
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Allow
the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure in the
air system, in the hydraulic system, in the lubrication
system, in the fuel system, or in the cooling system
before any lines, fittings or related items are
disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact the
skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended.
Illustration 7
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated, ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/
or your Perkins distributor for additional information
about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in the case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
SEBU8728
9
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires that
are loose or frayed before you operate the engine.
Clean all electrical connections and tighten all
electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses
must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must
have adequate support and secure clamps.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for more
information.
Illustration 9
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on
the instruction plate.
Illustration 8
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not
smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
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SEBU8728
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
• High-pressure line or lines are removed.
i04149669
Before Starting Engine
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. Shutting
down the engine may be accomplished by shutting off
the air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
If automatic shutdown does not occur, press the
emergency stop button in order to cut the fuel and/or
air to the engine.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i04148659
Engine Starting
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i04144070
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Mounting and Dismounting
Do not climb on the engine. The engine is not been
designed with mounting or dismounting locations.
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
SEBU8728
11
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
Start the engine from the compartment of the operator
or from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing that the correct procedure will help
to prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing that the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge and/or
the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the negative “−” terminal of
the starting motor. If the starting motor is not
equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect the
cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a ventilated area. If
the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake air
in order to improve starting.
i02678838
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished
by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or
shutting off the air supply to the engine.
i04144111
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is
operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
Illustration 10
Typical example
(1) Ground to the battery
(2) Primary position for grounding
(3) Ground to the starting motor
(4) Ground to the engine block
g02343616
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SEBU8728
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
i04149672
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
This engine has a comprehensive Engine Monitoring
System. An electronic control governor can be
installed onto the engine. The electronic control
governor can monitor certain engine operating
conditions. If certain engine parameters extend
outside an allowable range, the electronic control
governor will initiate an immediate action.
The following monitored engine operating conditions
have the ability to limit engine speed and/or the
engine power:
• Engine Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
Illustration 11
g02343617
Typical example
(5) Ground to the battery
(6) Ground to the engine block
(7) Primary position for grounding
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is
necessary for optimum engine performance and
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with a
wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
• Engine Speed
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and
display modules that are available for Perkins
Engines will work in unison with the Engine
Monitoring System. Together, the two controls will
provide the engine monitoring function for the specific
engine application.
SEBU8728
13
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations
Product Information
Section
General Information
i05748777
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features of
the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine may appear different from the illustrations.
Note: Only major components are identified on the
following illustrations.
14
SEBU8728
General Information
Model View Illustrations
1106A-70T Engine
Illustration 12
g03649451
Typical example
(1) Crankcase breather
(2) Secondary fuel filters
(3) Primary fuel filter
(4) Oil sampling valve
(5) Oil filter
(6) Fuel injection pump
(7) Oil gauge (dipstick)
SEBU8728
15
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 13
g03649452
Typical example
(8) Air intake
(9) Oil filler
(10) Front lifting eye
(11) Alternator
(12) Exhaust elbow
(13) Exhaust manifold
(14) Turbocharger
(15) Fuel priming pump
(16) Starting motor
(17) Oil pan
(18) Drain plug (oil)
(19) Drain plug (coolant)
(20) Rear lifting eye
16
SEBU8728
General Information
Model View Illustrations
1106A-70TA, 1106C-70TA, and 1106D-70TA Engines
Illustration 14
g02344959
Typical example
(1) Crankcase breather
(2) Secondary fuel filters
(3) Primary fuel filter
(4) Oil sampling valve
(5) Oil filter
(6) Fuel injection pump
(7) Oil gauge (dipstick)
(8) Water pump
(9) Fan pulley
(10) Damper
(11) Fan
SEBU8728
17
General Information
Product Description
Illustration 15
g02344960
Typical example
(12) Air intake
(13) Oil filler
(14) Front lifting eye
(15) Alternator
(16) Exhaust elbow
(17) Exhaust manifold
(18) Turbocharger
(19) Fuel priming pump
(20) Starting motor
(21) Oil pan
i05749111
Product Description
The Perkins 1106A-70T, 1106A-70TA, 1106C-70TA,
and 1106D-70TA Industrial Engines have the
following characteristics.
• In-line 6 cylinder
• Four stroke cycle
• Two valves in each cylinder
(22) Drain plug (oil)
(23) Drain plug (coolant)
(24) Rear lifting eye
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
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SEBU8728
General Information
Product Description
(Table 2, contd)
Bore
105 mm (4.13385 inch)
Stroke
135 mm (5.31495 inch)
Aspiration
Turbocharged
Turbocharged aftercooled
Compression Ratio for 1106A70TA engine
16:1
Compression Ratio for 1106C70TA engine
18.5:1
Displacement
7.01 L (427.78 cubic inch)
Firing Order
Illustration 16
g00939480
Cylinder and valve location
(A) Inlet valve
(B) Exhaust valve
Rotation (flywheel end)
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.45 mm (0.018 inch)
(1)
Table 1
1-5-3-6-2-4
The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the application, and the configuration of the throttle.
Engine Specifications for the 1106A-70T engine
Operating Range (rpm)
Number of Cylinders
1500 to 1575 (1)
1800 to 1890 (2)
Table 3
Engine Specifications for the 1106D-70TA engine
Operating Range (rpm)
6 In-Line
800 to 2400(1)
Bore
105 mm (4.13385 inch)
Number of Cylinders
Stroke
135 mm (5.31495 inch)
Bore
105 mm (4.13385 inch)
Stroke
135 mm (5.31495 inch)
Aspiration
Compression Ratio for 1106A70TA engine
Turbocharged
Aspiration
16:1
6 In-Line
Turbocharged aftercooled
Compression Ratio
Compression Ratio for 1106C70TA engine
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
18.2:1
Displacement
7.01 L (427.78 cubic inch)
1-5-3-6-2-4
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.45 mm (0.018 inch)
(1)
(2)
For fixed speed applications with a frequency of 50Hz, the operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, and the
application.
For fixed speed applications with a frequency of 60Hz, the operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, and the
application.
Engine Specifications for the 1106A-70TA and 1106C-70TA
engines
Number of Cylinders
7.01 L (427.78 cubic inch)
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
1-5-3-6-2-4
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.45 mm (0.018 inch)
(1)
The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the application, and the configuration of the throttle.
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
Table 2
Operating Range (rpm)
18.2:1
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
900 to 2800(1)
• Gear-driven rotor type oil pump
6 In-Line
• Oil cooler
(continued)
SEBU8728
19
General Information
Product Description
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a rotor type
oil pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the
engine lubricating oil is filtered. The bypass valve can
provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
engine if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
20
SEBU8728
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Product Identification
Information
i04149629
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Illustration 18
g02433756
Typical example
i05748971
Emissions Certification Film
Illustrations 20 and 20 show typical examples of the
emissions certification film. The emissions
certification film can be located on the top of the valve
mechanism cover.
Illustration 17
g02342316
A typical example of the location of the serial number
plate
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
An example of an engine number is P*****R000001V.
*****
The list number for the engine
P-
Type of engine
R
Built-in China
000001
V
Engine Serial Number
Year of Manufacture
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
Serial Number Plate (1)
The engine serial number plate is located on the left
side of the cylinder block to the rear of the front
engine mounting.
SEBU8728
21
Product Identification Information
Reference Information
Illustration 19
g02433816
Typical example
Illustration 20
g03649615
Typical example
i04149638
Reference Information
Record for Reference
Engine Model
Engine Serial number
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Engine Low Idle rpm
Engine Full Load rpm
Primary Fuel Filter
Water Separator Element
22
Product Identification Information
Reference Information
Secondary Fuel Filter Element
Lubrication Oil Filter Element
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element
Total Lubrication System Capacity
Total Cooling System Capacity
Air Cleaner Element
Fan Drive Belt
Alternator Belt
SEBU8728
SEBU8728
23
Operation Section
Product Lifting
Operation Section
i04151489
Product Storage
Lifting and Storage
i02677363
Product Lifting
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
Storage Period
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
Illustration 21
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for
proper engine lifting.
Storage Procedure
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the
fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
a. If the engine has been operated using
biodiesel, the system must be drained and
new filters installed. The fuel tank will require
flushing.
b. Fill the fuel system with an acceptable fuel. For
more information on acceptable fuels refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine
for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel
from the system.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in order
to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine can
be stored for up to 6 months. For the correct
specification of engine oil refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
4. Remove the drive belt from the engine.
24
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets “ASTM D6210”
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change the
spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for
damage or corrosion to the engine.
Ensure that the engine is covered completely before
storage. Log the procedure in the record for the
engine.
SEBU8728
SEBU8728
25
Features and Controls
Alarms and Shutoffs
Features and Controls
i04149634
Alarms and Shutoffs
Shutoffs
Shutoffs and alarms are electrically operated or
mechanically operated. The operation of all electric
shutoffs and alarms utilize components which actuate
switches in a sensing unit.
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items: operating temperature, operating pressure,
operating level and operating rpm. The particular
shutoff may need to be reset before the engine will
start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
A switch may be installed in the alarm while the
engine is stopped for repairs. Before the engine is
started, ensure that the switch is moved to the ON
position and that the warning lights are flashing. The
engine will not be protected if the switch is left in the
OFF position.
Testing the Shutoff and Alarm
System
Most control panels are equipped with a lamp test
switch. Turn the switch to the ON position in order to
check the indicator lights for proper operation.
Replace worn bulbs immediately.
NOTICE
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must
be simulated. Perform the tests correctly in order to
help prevent possible engine damage.
Refer to the Service Manual for more information on
testing procedures or consult your Perkins distributor.
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Alarms
Alarms consist of a switch and a contactor. The
switches are wired to the contactors. The contactors
activate alarm circuits in an annunciator panel. Your
engine may be equipped with the following switches:
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
switch indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure.
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
switch indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
temperature switch must be submerged in coolant in
order to operate.
Engines may be equipped with alarms in order to
alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures
must be taken before the situation becomes an emergency in order to avoid possible engine damage.
i02677374
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure
with SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at
rated rpm.
26
SEBU8728
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load is
stable and the gauge reading changes, perform the
following procedure:
i04149641
Monitoring System
1. Remove the load.
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C
(160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system
at 48 kPa (7 psi) is 110°C (230°F). Higher
temperatures may occur under certain
conditions. The water temperature reading may
vary according to load. The reading should never
exceed the boiling point for the pressurized
system that is being used.
If the engine is operating above the normal range and
steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown
may take as little as 20 seconds from the time the
warning indicator is activated. Depending on the
application, special precautions should be taken
to avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if necessary.
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
The following parameters are monitored:
3. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
• Coolant temperature
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed (rpm). When the throttle
control lever is moved to the full throttle
position without load, the engine is running at
high idle. The engine is running at the full load
rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full
throttle position with maximum rated load.
• Engine speed/timing
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. The engine can be operated at
high idle without damage, but should never be allowed to exceed high idle rpm.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “ 0”” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level
gauge operates when the “ START/
STOP”” switch is in the “ ON”” position.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge
indicates operating time of the engine.
• Oil pressure
For more information or assistance for repairs,
consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor.
i04149631
Overspeed
An electronic control governor can be installed to the
engine. An overspeed condition is detected by the
electronic control governor. Refer to Special
Instruction, KENR6206, “Perkins Logic Control
Governor One (LCG1) and Perkins Logic Control
Governor Two (LCG2)” for more information.
SEBU8728
27
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
i05741584
Sensors and Electrical
Components
Switch Locations
Illustration 22 shows the typical locations of the
switches for the 1106A-70T, 1106A-70TA, 1106C70TA and 1106D-70TA Industrial Engines. Specific
engines may appear different from the illustration due
to differences in applications.
Illustration 22
g02344977
Typical example
(1) Coolant temperature switch
(2) Electronic control governor (if equipped)
(3) Oil pressure switch
28
SEBU8728
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 23
g02345016
Typical example
(1) Coolant temperature switch
(2) Electronic control governor (if equipped)
The illustration 23 shows the switches in position on
the engine.
Failure of Switches
All Switches
A failure of any of the switches may be caused by one
of the following malfunctions:
• Switch output is open.
(3) Oil pressure switch
Failure of the Coolant Temperature
Switch
The diagnostic lamp will warn the operator about the
status of the coolant temperature sensor. A failure of
the coolant temperature sensor will not cause a
shutdown of the engine or any horsepower change.
Electronic Control Governor 2 (If
equipped)
• Measured reading of the switch is out of the
specification.
If equipped, the electronic control governor controls
the engine speed. Refer to Special Instruction,
KENR6206, “Perkins Logic Control Governor One
(LCG1) and Perkins Logic Control Governor Two
(LCG2)” for more information.
Coolant Temperature Switch 1
Engine Oil Pressure Switch 3
The coolant temperature switch monitors engine
coolant temperature. The output can indicate a high
coolant temperature through a relay or a lamp. The
coolant temperature sensor is used to determine
initiation of the Cold Start Condition.
The engine oil pressure switch detects engine oil
pressure for diagnostic purposes.
• Switch output is shorted to “- battery” or “+
battery” .
Low Oil Pressure Warning
The setpoint for the low-pressure warning is
dependent upon the engine speed. The fault will be
active and logged only if the engine has been running
for more than 8 seconds.
SEBU8728
29
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Very Low Oil Pressure Warning
The very low oil pressure setpoint is dependent upon
the engine speed.
Failure of the Engine Oil Pressure Switch
The diagnostic lamp warns the user about the status
of the engine oil pressure switch. The engine oil
pressure-related strategies will be disabled in the
event of a failure of the engine oil pressure switch. A
failure of the engine oil pressure switch will not cause
a shutdown of the engine or any horsepower change.
30
SEBU8728
Engine Starting
Before Starting Engine
Engine Starting
i02704617
Before Starting Engine
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• For the maximum service life of the engine, make
a thorough inspection before the engine is started.
Look for the following items: oil leaks, coolant
leaks, loose bolts and trash buildup. Remove trash
buildup and arrange for repairs, as needed.
• Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and
for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for
cracks, breaks, and other damage.
• Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for
worn wires or frayed wires.
• Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water
separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve
(if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may
have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters
have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped
in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
• All of the guards must be put in place. Check for
damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair any
damaged guards. Replace damaged guards and/
or missing guards.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the high current drain that is
created when the electric starting motor (if
equipped) is engaged. Check electrical cables and
check the battery for poor connections and for
corrosion.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if
equipped).
• Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the
oil level between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX”
mark on the oil level gauge.
• Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level
in the coolant recovery tank (if equipped). Maintain
the coolant level to the “FULL” mark on the
coolant recovery tank.
• If the engine is not equipped with a coolant
recovery tank maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe. If
the engine is equipped with a sight glass, maintain
the coolant level in the sight glass.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if
equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow
diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red
piston locks in the visible position.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
i02710719
Cold Weather Starting
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
SEBU8728
31
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater or
extra battery capacity.
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems and
fuel problems in cold weather: engine oil pan heaters,
jacket water heaters, fuel heaters and fuel line
insulation.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
1. If equipped, move the throttle lever to the full
throttle position before you start the engine.
2. If equipped, turn the engine start switch to the
HEAT position. Hold the engine start switch in the
HEAT position for 6 seconds until the glow plug
indicator light illuminates. This will activate the
glow plugs and aid in the starting of the engine.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds. Allow the electric starting motor to cool for two minutes
before cranking the engine again.
3. While the glow plug indicator light is illuminated,
turn the engine start switch to the START position
and crank the engine.
i02710653
Starting the Engine
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Refer to the OMM for your type of controls. Use the
following procedure to start the engine.
1. If equipped, move the throttle lever to the full
throttle position before you start the engine.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds. Allow the electric starting motor to cool for two minutes
before cranking the engine again.
2. Turn the engine start switch to the START position.
Hold the engine start switch in the START position
and crank the engine.
3. When the engine starts, release the engine start
switch.
Note: If the glow plug indicator light illuminates
rapidly for 2 to 3 seconds, or if the glow plug indicator
light fails to illuminate, a malfunction exists in the cold
start system. Do not use ether or other starting fluids
to start the engine.
4. If equipped, slowly move the throttle lever to the
low idle position and allow the engine to idle. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “After
Starting Engine” topic.
4. When the engine starts, release the engine start
switch key.
5. If the engine does not start, release the engine
start switch and allow the electric starting motor to
cool. Then, repeat steps 2 through step 4.
5. If the engine does not start, release the engine
start switch and allow the starting motor to cool.
Then, repeat steps 2 through step 4.
6. Turn the engine start switch to the OFF position in
order to stop the engine.
6. If the engine is equipped with a throttle allow the
engine to idle for three to five minutes, or allow the
engine to idle until the water temperature indicator
begins to rise. The engine should run at low idle
smoothly until speed is gradually increased to high
idle. Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
8. Turn the engine start switch to the OFF position in
order to stop the engine.
i02678837
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
32
SEBU8728
Engine Starting
After Starting Engine
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Make any necessary repairs. If the
engine will not start only due to the condition of the
battery, either charge the battery, or start the engine
with jump start cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
i02710753
After Starting Engine
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
When using an external electrical source to start the
engine, turn the generator set control switch to the
“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF
before attaching the jump start cables.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn off
all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable to
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
4. Start the engine.
5. Immediately after the stalled engine is started,
disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
correct voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the
data should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8728
33
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator
frequently. Keep the air cleaner elements clean.
i02708025
Engine Operation
• Maintain the electrical systems.
One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the
engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine at
no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
i02330149
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all
applications. Follow the recommended procedures in
order to attain optimum performance for the life of the
engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.
The drive belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators. All of
these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
34
SEBU8728
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i04149833
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in cold
weather. During cold weather, the starting and the
operation of the diesel engine is dependent on the
following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 80° C (176° F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system for
the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period and the engine can still have the
ability to start readily.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)
weekly.
• Battery condition
This section will cover the following information:
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
• Potential problems that are caused by coldweather operation
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
minimize starting problems and operating
problems when the ambient air temperature is
between 0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is
because of the following conditions:
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, “Glow Plug - Test”.
• Weather conditions
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in this
section provides guidelines for cold-weather
operation.
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable
and toxic and if improperly stored could result in
injury or property damage.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
SEBU8728
35
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to crank
the engine. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for the
recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended coolant
mixture.
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
Engine Block Heaters
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine
jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This heat provides the following functions:
• Startability is improved.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once the
engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 VDC or
240 VDC. The output can be 750/1000 W. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
more information.
Idling the Engine
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This idling will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warn
-up should be performed before the engine is
returned to full operation. During operation in very
cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve
mechanisms can result from engine operation for
short intervals. This damage can happen if the engine
is started and the engine is stopped many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at normal
engine operating temperatures.
When starting and stopping an engine many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely, the carbon deposits become thicker. This
starting and stopping can cause the following
problems:
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
• Valves become stuck.
• Pushrods may become bent.
• Other damage to valve train components can
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started, the
engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
The engine must be thoroughly warmed in order to
keep other engine parts in better condition. The
service life of the engine will be generally extended.
Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid
and less sludge in the oil. This condition will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to10 minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the engine
cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the cylinder
block via an internal passage that bypasses the valve
of the coolant temperature regulator. This ensures
that coolant flows around the engine under cold
operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature, the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
36
SEBU8728
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather
Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of the air
flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins
discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices
such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow
can result in the following: high exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage and
reduction in fuel economy.
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the cab
should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss to the
outside air.
Recommendation for Crankcase Breather
Protection
Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity
of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in cold
ambient conditions and can plug or damage the
crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is
operated in temperatures below −25° C (−13° F),
measures must be taken to prevent freezing and
plugging of the breather system. Insulated hoses and
a heated canister assembly should be installed.
Consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributer for the recommended breather
components for operation from −25° to -40°C
(−13° to -72.°F).
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold-weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
i04149871
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
i04149851
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following components provide a means of
minimizing problems in cold weather:
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
Fuel Filters
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel tank
and the engine fuel inlet. After you change the fuel
filter, always prime the fuel system in order to remove
air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel will
thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant to
flow through fuel lines, fuel filters, and fuel pumps.
The location of a primary fuel filter is important in
cold-weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the
fuel supply line are the most common components
that are affected by cold fuel.
SEBU8728
37
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If so, the temperature of the fuel must not
exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
38
SEBU8728
Engine Stopping
Stopping the Engine
Engine Stopping
i02704619
i02334873
Stopping the Engine
After Stopping Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the
engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the oil level dipstick.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it
down.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
• Note the required service interval. Perform the
maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine to
idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. If
necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with an
emergency stop button. For more information about
the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended
in the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic
that is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Failure to do so can cause engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for the correct antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
SEBU8728
39
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
i04151509
Fluid Recommendations
(Coolant Information)
Refill Capacities
i04145950
General Coolant Information
Refill Capacities
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Section” for more information on Lubricant
Specifications.
Table 4
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
(1)
Minimum
Maximum
13.5 L
(14.2653 qt)
16.5 L
(17.4354 qt)
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the
auxiliary oil filter.
Cooling System
To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling
System capacity must be known. The approximate
capacity for the engine cooling system is listed below.
External System capacities will vary among
applications. Refer to the OEM specifications for the
External System capacity. This capacity information
will be needed in order to determine the amount of
coolant/antifreeze that is required for the Total
Cooling System.
Table 5
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Liters
9 L (9.5102 qt)
External System Per OEM(1)
(1)
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
40
SEBU8728
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table 6
.
Table 6
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
• Boiling
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 7 and refer to table 8 .
Table 7
Ethylene Glycol
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
• Independent laboratory
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
Table 8
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• ELC
Extended Life Coolant
• Formation of gel compounds
• SCA
Supplement Coolant Additive
• Reduction of heat transfer
• ASTM
Materials
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
American Society for Testing and
The following two coolants are used in Perkins
diesel engines:
SEBU8728
41
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Preferred – Perkins ELC
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D6210” specifications
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
NOTICE
The engines must be operated with a 1:1 mixture
of water and glycol. This concentration allows the
NOx reduction system to operate correctly at high
ambient temperatures.
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is
an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has
been formulated with the correct amount of these
additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive
applications.
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill
of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping up the cooling system.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable
but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling
and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins
recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration
of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred. Water which has the
recommended properties may be used
Table 9
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life (1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or Three
Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D6210”
3000 Service Hours or One Year
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets “ASTM
3000 Service Hours or Two Years
D6210”
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure
to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling
system components life unless appropriate corrective
action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between the
antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the
recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the
proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to
protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
Perkins POWERPART SCA
inhibitor
3000 Service Hours or Two Years
Commercial SCA inhibitor and
Water
3000 Service Hours or One Year
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also
be flushed out at this time.
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
(1)
ELC
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
42
SEBU8728
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at the
specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents
are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After the
cooling system is drained and the cooling system is
refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and until
the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the
coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Changing to Perkins ELC
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and repeat steps 7 until the system
is completely clean.
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system
component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a
suitable container according to local regulations.
Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.
This procedure should lower the contamination to
less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
SEBU8728
43
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to
ensure adequate protection against boiling or
freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A
hydrometer should not be used.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Refer to Table 10 for part numbers and for quantities
of SCA.
Table 12 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 11 .
Table 12
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 13 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if
necessary:
Table 13
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For
Maintenance
Table 10
V × 0.014 = X
Perkins Liquid SCA
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
Part Number
Quantity
21825735
10
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at
the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions
that are provided by the OEM of the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 11 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 11
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At
The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 14 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 13 .
Table 14
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed to
clean the cooling system of harmful scale and
corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners dissolve
mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination, and sludge.
44
SEBU8728
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
i04676652
Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Recommendations)
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
• ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRRHigh Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAMEFatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFRCo-ordinating Fuel Research
• LSD Low Sulfur Diesel
• ULSDUltra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RMERape Methyl Ester
• SMESoy Methyl Ester
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
Table 15 provides a known reliable baseline in order
to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel
fuels that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in
table 15 .
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
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Table 15
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM”Test
“ISO”Test
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO”3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO”6245
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO”4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
“ISO”5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must not ex- D2500
ceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
“ISO”3015
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO”2160
Density at 15 °C (59 °F)(3) Kg / M 3
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675” “ISO 12185”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO”3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO”2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80% reflectance D6468
after aging for 180 minutes
at 150 °C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum be- D97
low ambient temperature
“ISO”3016
1% maximum
“ISO 20846” “ISO 20884”
Sulfur (1) (4)
Kinematic Viscosity
%mass
(5)
2
D5453/D26222
“MM” “/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the fuel that D445
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum/4.5
maximum”
“ISO”3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
“ISO”3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D6304
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO”3735
Gums and Resins(6)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL maximum D381
“ISO”6246
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (7)
mm
0.46 maximum
“ISO”12156-1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
D6079
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
“ASTM D5453”, “ASTM D2622”, or “ISO 20846, ISO 20884” test methods. This specification includes the requirements for Low Sulfur Diesel
(LSD). LSD fuel will have ≤500 ppm (0.05%) sulfur. Refer to following:“ASTM 5453, ASTM D2622”, “ISO 20846” and “ISO 20884 test
methods”.
A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the maximum
density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
Regional regulations, national regulations, or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulfur fuels.
Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels
above 0.5% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to this manual, “Fluid recommendations (General
lubricant Information)”.
(continued)
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(Table 15, contd)
(5) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity
requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test method or the
“ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater viscosity at the
fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
(6) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(7) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1 or ASTM
D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel
supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in
the fuel system.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel
injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber and reduced service life of the engine.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with
the fuel that is prescribed by the European Certification and other regulatory agencies. Perkins does not
certify diesel engines on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
other appropriate regulatory agencies.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Perkins Recommendations
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. This will produce a better ignition
quality. Cetane numbers are derived for fuels against
proportions of cetane and heptamethylnonane in the
standard CFR engine. Refer to “ISO 5165” for the
test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A higher cetane value may be required for
operations at high altitudes or in cold-weather
operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during cold start.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
This is the quotient of the dynamic viscosity that is
divided by the density. The determination of kinematic
viscosity is normally by readings from gravity flow
viscometers at standard temperatures. Refer to “ISO
3104” for the test method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both cold temperatures
and hot temperatures. If the kinematic viscosity of the
fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump
damage to the fuel injection pump can occur. This
damage can be excessive scuffing and seizure. Low
viscosity may lead to difficult hot restarting, stalling,
and loss of performance. High viscosity may result in
seizure of the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 cSt that is delivered to the fuel injection pump. If a
fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel
may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower
the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This determines the heat
output from a given injected volume of fuel. This is
quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C (59 °F).
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m3
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.
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Sulfur
Distillation
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with a
specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel and
the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
This is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
In some parts of the world and for some applications,
high sulfur fuels above 0.5% by mass might only be
available. Fuel with a high sulfur content can cause
engine wear. High sulfur fuel will have a negative
impact on emissions of particulates. High sulfur fuel
can be used if the local emissions legislation will
allow the use. High sulfur fuel can be used in
countries that do not regulate emissions.
Diesel engines have the ability to burn wide variety of
fuels. Below is a list of typically encountered fuel
specifications that have been assessed as to their
acceptability and are divided into following
categories:
When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will be
necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is used in
the engine or that the lubricating oil change interval is
reduced. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations (Lubricant
Information)” for information on sulfur in fuel.
Lubricity
This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump wear.
The lubricity of the fluid describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the lubricity of the fuel was believed
to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having
lubricity up to 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) wear scar diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
In case of the fuels which do not meet specified
lubricity requirement appropriate lubricity additive can
be used to enhance the lubricity of the fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use and
for the proper level of treatment.
Classification of the Fuels
Group 1: Preferred Fuels
The following fuel specifications are considered
acceptable.
Fuels meeting the requirements that are listed in the
table 15 .
“EN590 - Grades A to F and class 0 to 4”
“ASTM D975 Grade No. 1-D and 2-D”
“JIS K2204 Grades 1, 2 & 3 & Special Grade 3”
acceptable provided lubricity ware scar diameter
does not exceed of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1” .
“BS2869 - Class A2 Off Highway Gas Oil, Red
Diesel”
Note: The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed
wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1” . Refer to “Lubricity”.
Group 2: Aviation Kerosene Fuels
Following kerosene and jet fuel specifications are
acceptable alternative fuels and may be used on a
contingency bases for emergency or continuous use,
where standard diesel fuel is not available and where
legislation allows their use:
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F34 (JP-8)”
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F35”
“MIL-DTL-5624 NATO F44 (JP-5)”
“MIL-DTL-38219 (USAF) (JP7)”
“NATO XF63”
“ASTM D1655 JET A”
“ASTM D1655 JET A1”
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NOTICE
These fuels are only acceptable when used with appropriate lubricity additive and must meet minimum
requirements that are listed in table 15 . The lubricity
of these fuels must not exceed wear scar diameter of
0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO 12156-1” . Refer
to “Lubricity”.
Note: Minimum cetane number of 40 is
recommended otherwise cold starting problems or
light load misfire might occur. Since jet fuel
specifications do not mention cetane requirements,
Perkins recommends that a fuel sample is taken to
determine the cetane number.
Note: Fuels must have minimum viscosity of 1.4 cSt
delivered to the fuel injection pump. Cooling of the
fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Perkins
recommends that the actual viscosity of the fuel be
measured in order to determine if a fuel cooler is
needed. Refer to “Viscosity”.
Note: Rated power loss of up to 10 percent is
possible due to lower density and lower viscosity of
jet fuels compared to diesel fuels.
Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil.
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils gel in the
crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not be
compatible with many of the elastomers that are used
in engines that are manufactured today. In original
forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a fuel in
compression engines. Alternate base stocks for
biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste cooking
oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to use any
of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil must be
esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based. The
U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM D97509a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification
“EN590:2010” includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to “EN14214” or
“ASTM D6751” (in the USA) and can only be blended
in mixture of up to 20 percent by volume in
acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting requirements
that are listed in table 15 or the latest edition of
“EN590” and “ASTM D 975” commercial standards.
This blend is commonly known as B20.
Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with “XX”
representing the content of neat biodiesel contained
in the blend with mineral diesel fuel (for example B5,
B10, B20).
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must
be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements with B20
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel
lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can
prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommends that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
SEBU8728
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When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using
biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the
typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder
emissions control strategies utilized in many of the
industrial latest engine designs may lead to a
higher level of biodiesel concentration in the
engine oil pan. The long-term effect of biodiesel
concentration in crankcase oil is currently
unknown.
• Perkins recommends the use of oil analysis in
order to check the quality of the engine oil if
biodiesel fuel is used. Ensure that the level of
biodiesel in the fuel is noted when the oil sample is
taken.
Performance Related Issues with B20
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2
to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may
deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause an
increase in fuel system deposits, most significant of
which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation of
deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps to
limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. Refer to “Perkins
Diesel Fuel System Cleaner” for more information.
Perkins strongly recommends that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate antimicrobial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate fuels,
water is naturally more likely to exist in the biodiesel.
It is therefore essential to check frequently and if
necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, led, tin, and
zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the biodiesel
fuel. The oxidation process can cause deposits
formation therefore these materials must not be used
for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” that is used in the
United States of America may be used in cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the
aviation kerosene fuels that are specified in
“Classification of the Fuels”. These fuels are intended
to be used in temperatures that can be as low as
−54 °C (−65.2 °F). Refer to “Classification of the
Fuels” for detail and conditions of use of the aviation
kerosene fuels.
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can
produce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase or the fuel tank. Alcohol or gasoline must
not be used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure
to follow this instruction may result in death or
personal injury.
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There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not review
all the requirements that are addressed in table 15 .
To ensure optimum engine performance, a complete
fuel analysis should be obtained before engine
operation. The fuel analysis should include all of the
properties that are stated in the table 15 .
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
Detailed instructions on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
i04151535
NOTICE
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives) which are made by other manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the Perkins
warranty is not affected simply because of such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices, accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins defects.
Therefore, the defects are NOT covered under the
Perkins warranty.
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not
recommended. This is due to potential damage to the
fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier or the
fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate
supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances. Fuel
additives need to be used with caution. Contact your
fuel supplier for those circumstances when fuel
additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 15 .
Fluid Recommendations
(Lubricant Information)
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the
lubricant recommendations must be followed.
Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)
Oils
The “Engine Manufacturers Association
Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is
recognized by Perkins. For detailed information about
this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
publication, “EMA DHD -1”.
API Oils
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. For
more information on the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends refer to “Biodiesel Fuel”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Illustration 24
Typical API symbol
g00546535
SEBU8728
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have not
been API authorized classifications since January 1,
1996. Table 16 summarizes the status of the
classifications.
Table 16
API Classifications
(1)
Current
Obsolete
CH-4, , CI-4
CE, CC, CD
-
CD-2 (1)
The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Perkins does not
sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be
found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/
Engine Oil”.
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
The performance of commercial diesel engine oils is
based on American Petroleum Institute (API)
classifications. These API classifications are
developed in order to provide commercial lubricants
for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at
various conditions.
Only use commercial oils that meet the following
classifications:
• APICH-4CI-4
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
EMA DHD-1 – The Engine Manufacturers
Association (EMA) has developed lubricant
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke
cycle, heavy-duty and light duty. DHD-1 oils may be
used in Perkins engines when the following oils are
recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4 and API CF-4.
DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior
performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API CF4.
DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API CH-4
classification. Therefore, these oils will also meet the
requirements for diesel engines that require low
emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior piston deposit
control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons
or aluminum pistons.
All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program with
the base stock and with the viscosity grade of the
finished commercial oil. The use of “API Base Oil
Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for DHD1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
performance that can occur when base stocks are
changed in commercial oil formulations.
DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change interval programs that optimize the life of the
oil. These oil change interval programs are based on
oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to meet the
requirements of the low emissions diesel engines.
API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use in older
diesel engines and in diesel engines that use high
sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be used in
Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API CF-4
oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control and
corrosion.
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control of
oil consumption. A second test is conducted with
moderate oil soot. The second test measures the
following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
cylinder liners and resistance to corrosion. A third
new test measures the following characteristics with
high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter and
control of sludge.
In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas
with high sulfur diesel fuel.
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Fluid Recommendations
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4 oil to
achieve optimum oil change intervals. API CH-4 oils
are recommended for use in extended oil change
intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
Some commercial oils that meet the API
classifications may require reduced oil change
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear
metal analysis.
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can
cause shortened engine service life due to deposits
and/or excessive wear.
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel
Engines
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on
the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that
use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil
must be ten times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is
defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the
oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 25
demonstrates the TBN.
• Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one
of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH4.
• Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the
oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a
wear metal analysis.
Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil
with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss of
control of the oil consumption and to the polishing of
the cylinder bore.
NOTICE
Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel
sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened
oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate wear protection.
Table 17
Percentage of Sulfur in the fuel Oil change interval
Lower than 0.5
Normal
0.5 to 1.0
0.75 of normal
Greater than 1.0
0.50 of normal
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 18 (minimum temperature) in order to
determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
engine.
Refer to Table 18 (maximum temperature) in order to
select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Illustration 25
g00799818
(Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”
(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of the
original TBN.
Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that
exceed 1.5 percent:
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Table 18
Engine Oil Viscosity
Ambient Temperature
EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
Viscosity Grade
Minimum
Maximum
SAE 0W20
−40 °C (−40 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
SAE 0W30
−40 °C (−40 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W40
−40 °C (−40 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
(continued)
SEBU8728
53
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
(Table 18, contd)
SAE 5W30
−30 °C (−22 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 5W40
−30 °C (−22 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 10W30
−20 °C (−4 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 15W40
−10 °C (14 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
Synthetic Base Stock Oils
Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in these
engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:
• Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low
temperatures especially in arctic conditions.
• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
Some synthetic base oils have performance
characteristics that enhance the service life of the oil.
Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.
Re-refined Base Stock Oils
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for use in
Perkins engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified by Perkins. Rerefined base stock oils can be used exclusively in
finished oil or in a combination with new base stock
oils. The US military specifications and the
specifications of other heavy equipment
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria.
The process that is used to make re-refined base
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals
that are in the used oil and all the additives that are in
the used oil. The process that is used to make rerefined base stock oil generally involves the process
of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the used oil.
Filtering is adequate for the production of high quality,
re-refined base stock oil.
Lubricants for Cold Weather
When an engine is started and an engine is operated
in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use
multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
temperatures.
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE 0W
or SAE 5W.
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic
base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).
The number of acceptable lubricants is limited in coldweather conditions. Perkins recommends the
following lubricants for use in cold-weather
conditions:
First Choice – Use oil with an EMA DHD-1
Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has an
API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20, SAE
0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40
lubricant viscosity grade.
Second Choice – Use an oil that has a CH-4 additive
package. Although the oil has not been tested for the
requirements of the API license, the oil must be either
SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or
SAE 5W40.
NOTICE
Shortened engine service life could result if second
choice oils are used.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engine's maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the
performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not
be compatible with the finished oil's additive package,
which could lower the performance of the finished oil.
The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the
finished oil. This could produce sludge in the
crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
54
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that
meets the “EMA Recommended Guideline on
Diesel Engine Oil” or the recommended API
classification.
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using the oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engine's metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil
is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oil's lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
SEBU8728
55
SEBU8728
Maintenance Recommendations
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls
Maintenance
Recommendations
i04150369
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to
avoid damage to the electrical switches and associated components. When possible, remove the component from the unit and then weld the component. If
removal of the component is not possible, the following procedure must be followed when you weld with a
unit that is equipped with a Perkins engine. The following procedure is considered to be the safest procedure to weld a component. This procedure should
provide a minimum risk of damage to electronic
components.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
3. Disconnect the electrical connections for any
switches or electronic governors that may be
installed.
Illustration 26
g00765012
Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
cause damage to any associated components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding rod
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Maximum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to bearings,
hydraulic components, electrical components, and
ground straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as
a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and
spatter.
6. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
56
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application
SEBU8728
i04150276
Severe Service Application
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the
following engine parameters:
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
• Extended operation at low idle
• Fuel quality
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operational Altitude
• Operating at excessive loads
• Maintenance intervals
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Operating outside the intended application
• Coolant type and maintenance
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Environmental qualities
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Installation
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in cold environments
or hot environments. Valve components can be
damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently
started and stopped in cold temperatures. Hot intake
air reduces engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be difficult. The buildup can contain
corrosive chemicals.
57
SEBU8728
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i05738076
Maintenance Interval Schedule
When Required
“Battery - Replace”...................................................59
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ...........................................67
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ...........................................70
“Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace” .................71
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”..............................73
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”...................60
“Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace”..................................................78
“Engine - Clean”.......................................................67
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ..............81
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ...........................................67
“Radiator - Clean” ....................................................84
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ...........................................70
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”...................................72
“Fuel System - Prime”..............................................76
Every 1000 Service Hours
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ...................................74
“Water Pump - Inspect”............................................86
Every 2000 Service Hours
Daily
“Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test” ...................58
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace” ..............................60
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................59
“Coolant Level - Check”...........................................65
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .......................................71
“Driven Equipment - Check” ....................................67
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” .....70
“Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean” ...................71
“Starting Motor - Inspect” .........................................84
“Turbocharger - Inspect” ..........................................85
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.......................................72
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2
Years
“Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain” .......................................................................80
“Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change” .......61
“Walk-Around Inspection”........................................85
Every 4000 Service Hours
Every Week
“Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test”................................57
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”...................83
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .................82
Initial 500 Service Hours
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ...................................74
Every 500 Service Hours
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................75
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”........................................63
Commissioning
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................75
i04243771
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................59
“Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add”.....................................................66
1. Remove the core. Refer to the OEM information for
the correct procedure.
2. Turn the aftercooler core upside-down in order to
remove debris.
58
Maintenance Recommendations
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
3. Pressurized air is the preferred method for
removing loose debris. Direct the air in the
opposite direction of the air flow of the fan. Hold
the nozzle approximately 6 mm (0.236 inch) away
from the fins. Slowly move the air nozzle in a
direction that is parallel with the tubes. The
pressurized air will remove debris that is between
the tubes.
4. Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning
purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use
pressurized water in order to soften mud. Clean
the core from both sides.
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic
cleaner can attack the internal metals of the core and
cause leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of cleaner.
SEBU8728
9. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.
Pressure test the core. If necessary, repair the
core.
10. Install the core. Refer to the OEM information for
the correct procedure.
11. After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order to
inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the
cleaning, if necessary.
i04243792
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/
Clean/Test
(Aftercooler Core - Inspect)
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
5. Back flush the core with a suitable cleaner.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
6. Clean the core with steam in order to remove any
residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.
Remove any other trapped debris.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
7. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the
core thoroughly with clean water.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
8. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
the reverse direction of the normal flow.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine. Use
a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect the
core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps and
seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
SEBU8728
59
Maintenance Recommendations
Alternator - Inspect
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the engine
is not run for long periods of time or if the engine is
run for short periods, the batteries may not fully
charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze more
easily than a battery with a full charge.
i02322315
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
Battery - Replace
i02747977
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible
gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all
electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should be
very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
on or near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
60
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
SEBU8728
4. Keep the batteries clean.
i04150073
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
Inspection
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that are
worn or damaged.
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only one
belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to carry
more load because the older belt is stretched. The
additional load on the new belt could cause the new
belt to break.
If the belts are too loose, vibration causes
unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loose
belts may slip enough to cause overheating.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
To accurately check the belt tension, a suitable gauge
should be used.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to not fit correctly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent
accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive
connection before the negative connector.
Illustration 27
g01003936
Typical example
(1) Burroughs Gauge
Install the gauge (1) at the center of the longest free
length and check the tension. The correct tension is
535 N (120 lb). If the tension of the belt is below
250 N (56 lb) adjust the belt to 535 N (120 lb).
If twin belts are installed, check and adjust the
tension on both belts.
SEBU8728
61
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
Adjustment
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
Illustration 28
g02343596
Drain
Typical example
1. Loosen the alternator pivot bolt (2) and the link bolt
(3).
2. Move the alternator in order to increase or
decrease the belt tension. Tighten the alternator
pivot bolt and the link bolt to 22 N·m (16 lb ft).(1).
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Replacement
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the
installation procedure and the removal procedure for
the belt.
i04150232
Coolant (Commercial HeavyDuty) - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
62
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
SEBU8728
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 29
g01144180
Typical example
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial HeavyDuty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant Additive
to the coolant. For the correct amount, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high idle
for 1 minute in order to purge the air from the
cavities of the engine block. Decrease the engine
speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
SEBU8728
63
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Illustration 30
g00103639
Filler cap
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i04150169
Coolant (ELC) - Change
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator, and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
Illustration 31
Typical example
g01144180
64
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
SEBU8728
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for more
information on cooling system specifications. Do
not install the cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high idle
for 1 minute in order to purge the air from the
cavities of the engine block. Decrease the engine
speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 32
g00103639
Filler cap
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
SEBU8728
65
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Level - Check
i04150132
Coolant Level - Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows is for
typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM information
for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. As the engine
is on level ground, this will allow you to check the
coolant level accurately. This will also help in avoiding
the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant
system.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
Illustration 33
g00103639
4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the
filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” for information on the
correct mixture and type of coolant. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities” for the cooling system capacity. Do not
fill the coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL”
mark.
Illustration 34
g00285520
Cooling system filler cap
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
66
Maintenance Recommendations
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
SEBU8728
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
i03644948
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/
Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact
with the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling
system coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in order
to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to local
regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
SEBU8728
67
Maintenance Recommendations
Driven Equipment - Check
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
i00174798
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
i02683047
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage.
create
paths
of
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned. When a
pressure washer or steam cleaner is used to clean
the engine, a minimum distance of 300 mm (12 inch)
must be maintained between the components of the
engine and the jet nozzle of the pressure washer or
steam cleaner. Pressure washers and steam cleaners
should not be directed at any electrical connectors or
the junction of cables into the rear of the connectors.
Avoid electrical components such as the alternator
and the starter. Protect the fuel injection pump from
fluids in order to wash the engine.
i04150582
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
Moisture can
conductivity.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
electrical
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “ DO
NOT OPERATE”” .
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine.
NOTICE
Failure to protect some engine components from
washing may make your engine warranty invalid. Allow the engine to cool for one hour before washing
the engine.
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/
Replace
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins . The procedure that follows is
for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine
wear. Refer to the OEM information for the correct air
cleaner elements for your application.
68
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
SEBU8728
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at
least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings.
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep out
dirt.
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears and/
or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket or the
seal of the air cleaner element for damage. Maintain a
supply of suitable air cleaner elements for
replacement purposes.
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tape from the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary air
cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner
element.
The primary air cleaner element can be used up to six
times if the element is properly cleaned and properly
inspected. The primary air cleaner element should be
replaced at least one time per year. This replacement
should be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require
more frequent replacement.
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary filter element
can be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner
element is cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter
material. The primary air cleaner element should be
replaced at least one time per year. This replacement
should be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings.
NOTICE
Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.
Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.
Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pressurized air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary
air cleaner element.
Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air
cleaner elements.
Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged
pleats, gaskets, or seals.
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary air cleaner
element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary air
filter element more than three times. The primary air
cleaner element must be replaced at least one time
per year.
Illustration 35
g00736431
(1) Cover
(2) Primary air cleaner element
(3) Secondary air cleaner element
(4) Air inlet
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air cleaner
element.
Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
of the air filter element.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element
before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for
damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets, and the
outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner
element.
SEBU8728
69
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
Two methods may be used in order to clean the
primary air cleaner element:
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner
elements which require daily cleaning because of a
dry, dusty environment.
• pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the dirty
side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
Illustration 37
Illustration 36
g00281692
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside) in
order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim the
air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60 W blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears and/
or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element for
light that may show through the filter material. If it is
necessary in order to confirm the result, compare the
primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has any
tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not use a
primary air cleaner element with damaged pleats,
gaskets, or seals. Discard damaged primary air
cleaner elements.
70
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
SEBU8728
i04150591
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Single Element) - Inspect/
Clean/Replace
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
Illustration 38
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use
with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the
correct procedure to replace the air cleaner.
i02335405
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
SEBU8728
71
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
i02343354
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/
Clean
Illustration 40
g01350307
Typical example
1. Place a container under the canister (1).
Illustration 39
g00287039
2. Clean the outside of the canister. Use a suitable
tool in order to remove the canister.
3. Lubricate the O ring seal (2) on the new canister
with clean engine lubricating oil. Install the new
canister. Tighten the canister to 12 N·m (8 lb ft).
Do not overtighten the canister.
Typical example
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
4. Remove the container. Dispose of the old canister
and any split oil in a safe place.
5. Inspect the breather tube for damage. Ensure that
the outlet is clean and free from any obstructions.
Ice can cause obstructions in adverse weather
conditions.
i02323089
i04150031
Engine Crankcase Breather Replace
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Note: The breather assembly is not installed on all
engines.
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
72
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil Level - Check
SEBU8728
i02335785
i01907674
Engine Oil Level - Check
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Illustration 41
g01165836
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
• The date of the sample
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that the
engine is in the normal operating position in order to
obtain a true level indication.
• Engine model
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for ten minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
• Service hours on the engine
1. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD” mark (Y)
and the “FULL” mark (X) on the engine oil
dipstick. Do not fill the crankcase above the
“FULL” mark (X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
• Engine number
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
SEBU8728
73
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in the
oil and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
i04150473
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of the
oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Illustration 42
g02343856
Typical example
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn
the drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to
drain the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the
drain valve knob clockwise in order to close the
drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the
oil to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
oil pan, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from
both ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should be
cleaned and installed. If necessary, replace the O ring
seal. Tighten the drain plug to 34 N·m (25 lb ft).
Replace the Oil Filter
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the engine bearings, or crankshaft, as a result of the larger
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended
by Perkins.
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine oil pan:
Note: The following actions can be carried out as part
of the preventive maintenance program.
74
SEBU8728
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Valve Lash - Check
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in the
oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts, or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
following items: main bearings, rod bearings and
turbocharger bearings.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter.
Fill the Oil Pan
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct amount
of new engine lubricating oil. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manufacture's recommendations. Under filling or over filling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW IDLE”
for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in order to
ensure that the lubrication system has oil and that
the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil
leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Illustration 43
g02343857
Typical example
Illustration 44
g01165836
3. Clean sealing surface of the oil filter base (2).
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.
4. Apply clean engine oil to O ring seal (3) for the new
oil filter.
4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to
check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
the “MIN” and “MAX” marks on the engine oil
level gauge.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components.
5. Install the new oil filter. Spin on the oil filter until the
O ring contacts the sealing surface (2). Then rotate
the oil filter ¾ of a full turn.
i04243870
Engine Valve Lash - Check
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
75
SEBU8728
Maintenance Recommendations
Fan Clearance - Check
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor
for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve
lash can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce
engine component life.
Ensure that the engine cannot be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. The engine valve lash can be
inspected and adjusted when the temperature of the
engine is hot or cold.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for more
information.
i04145852
Fan Clearance - Check
There are different types of cooling systems. Refer to
the OEM for information on clearance for the fan.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
cooling system is full. The clearance between the
cover (1) and the fan (2) will require checking. The
gap (A) between the edge of the cover and the tip of
the fan blade must be checked in four equally spaced
positions.
76
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8728
Illustration 45
g01348394
Typical example
Adjustment of the cover will change the clearance
(gap) between the edge of the cover and the tip of the
fan blade. Ensure that the cover is centralized to the
fan.
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
The maximum clearance is 15 mm (0.591 inch). The
minimum clearance is 10 mm (0.394 inch).
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• The fuel filter is replaced.
i05752227
Fuel System - Prime
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
Type 1 Fuel Filters
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
77
SEBU8728
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
8. Cycle the throttle lever from the low idle position to
the high idle position three times. The cycle time
for the throttle lever is one second to 6 seconds for
one complete cycle.
Note: To purge air from the fuel injection pump on
engines with a fixed throttle, the engine should be run
at full load for 30 seconds. The load should then be
decreased until the engine is at high idle. This should
be repeated three times. This will assist in removing
trapped air from the fuel injection pump.
9. Check for leaks in the fuel system.
Type 2 Fuel Filters
Illustration 46
g02791865
Typical example
1. Loosen the vent screw (1) on the secondary fuel
filter base.
2. Operate the priming lever of the fuel priming pump
to eliminate any air between the fuel priming pump
and the fuel filters.
Note: The fuel priming pump is mechanically
operated by the camshaft. If the lobe of the camshaft
is acting upon the arm of the fuel priming pump, the
ability to hand prime the fuel system will be reduced.
If the resistance on the priming lever is low, rotate the
crankshaft in order to move the camshaft lobe off the
fuel priming pump arm.
3. Operate priming lever of the fuel priming pump by
hand. Check that there is correct resistance on the
fuel priming pump. Operate the fuel priming pump
until fuel, free of air, comes from the vent screw.
Illustration 47
4. Tighten the vent screw (1) to a torque of 20 N·m
(15 lb ft)
5. Energize the stop solenoid on the fuel injection
pump. Operate the priming lever of the fuel priming
pump several times.
6. Crank the engine with the throttle lever in the
CLOSED position until the engine starts.
7. Start the engine and run the engine at idle for 1
minute.
g03651564
Typical example
1. Loosen the vent plug (1) on the primary fuel filter
base.
2. Operate the priming lever of the fuel priming pump
to eliminate any air between the fuel priming pump
and the fuel filters.
Note: The fuel priming pump is mechanically
operated by the camshaft. If the lobe of the camshaft
is acting upon the arm of the fuel priming pump, the
ability to hand prime the fuel system will be reduced.
If the resistance on the priming lever is low, rotate the
crankshaft in order to move the camshaft lobe off the
fuel priming pump arm.
78
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
3. Operate priming lever of the fuel priming pump by
hand. Check that there is correct resistance on the
fuel priming pump. Operate the fuel priming pump
until fuel, free of air, comes from the vent screw.
4. Tighten the vent plug (1).
5. Energize the stop solenoid on the fuel injection
pump. Operate the priming lever of the fuel priming
pump several times.
6. Crank the engine with the throttle lever in the
CLOSED position until the engine starts.
7. Start the engine and run the engine at idle for 1
minute.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
SEBU8728
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Type 1 Fuel Filter
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Drain the water separator. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain” for the correct procedure.
8. Cycle the throttle lever from the low idle position to
the high idle position three times. The cycle time
for the throttle lever is one second to 6 seconds for
one complete cycle.
Note: To purge air from the fuel injection pump on
engines with a fixed throttle, the engine should be run
at full load for 30 seconds. The load should then be
decreased until the engine is at high idle. This should
be repeated three times. This will assist in removing
trapped air from the fuel injection pump.
9. Check for leaks in the fuel system.
i05752339
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Illustration 48
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
g02351587
Typical example
3. Hold bowl (5) and remove screw (1). Remove bowl
(5) from canister. Remove O-ring (4). Discard Oring (4).
4. Use a suitable tool in order to remove canister (3).
Remove O-ring (2). Discard canister (3) in a safe
place. Discard O-ring (2).
5. Clean bowl (5).
SEBU8728
79
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
6. Lubricate the O ring (2) with clean engine oil on the
new canister (3).
7. Install the new canister (3). Spin on the canister
until the O ring (2) contacts the filter base. The
canister will require a ¾ of a full turn or one full turn
in order to tighten the canister correctly.
8. Install new O ring (4) into the bowl.
9. Align the bowl (5) to the canister (3). Install
setscrew (1). Tighten the setscrew to a torque of
5 N·m (44 lb in).
10. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in a
safe place.
11. The secondary filter must be replaced at the same
time as the primary filter. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
Secondary Filter - Replace”.
Type 2 Fuel Filter
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Drain the water separator. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain” for the correct procedure.
Note: If the fuel filter does not have a drain device
installed, release the cap (1) on top of the fuel filter
base. Remove the nylon insert to lower the level of
the fuel in the filter canister. This will prevent fuel spill
when the clamp ring (2) is released.
Illustration 49
g03651641
Typical example
3. Support filter canister (3). Rotate the clamp ring (2)
to the left. Remove the clamp ring (2).
4. Remove the canister (3) from the fuel filter base by
a direct pull downwards. Discard canister (3) in a
safe place.
5. If a sediment bowl (4) is installed, remove the bowl.
Remove O-rings. Discard O-rings.
6. Clean bowl (4).
7. Install new O-rings to the bowl (4).
8. Install bowl (4) to new canister (3). Tighten bowl by
hand pressure only
9. Ensure that the fuel filter base is clean. Install the
new canister (3) to the fuel filter base.
10. Support the canister (3), install the clamp ring (2).
Rotate the clamp ring (2) to the right to fasten the
canister to the fuel filter base.
11. If the nylon insert was removed to lower the fuel
level in the fuel filter, ensure that it is installed
correctly and install the cap (1).
80
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SEBU8728
12. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in a
safe place.
13. The secondary filter must be replaced at the
same time as the primary filter. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
Secondary Filter - Replace”.
i05752285
Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
Type 1 Fuel Filter
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel.
Illustration 50
g02351572
Typical example
2. Install a suitable tube onto drain (1). Open drain
(1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
3. Tighten drain (1) by hand pressure only. Remove
the tube and dispose of the drained fluid in a safe
place.
Type 2 Fuel Filter
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel.
SEBU8728
81
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Type 1 Fuel Filter
1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the OFF position. Place a suitable container under
the fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel.
Illustration 51
g03651584
Typical example
2. Install a suitable tube onto drain (1). Open drain
(1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
3. Tighten drain (1) by hand pressure only. Remove
the tube and dispose of the drained fluid in a safe
place.
i05752342
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Illustration 52
g02351596
Typical example
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use a suitable
tool in order to remove canister (2) from the engine
and dispose of the canister in a safe place.
3. Lubricate O ring (1) with clean engine oil. Do not fill
the new canister with fuel before the canister is
installed.
4. Do not use a tool in order to install the canister.
Tighten the canister by hand.
82
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
SEBU8728
5. Install the new canister. Spin on the canister until
the O ring seal contacts the filter base. The
canister will require ¾ of a full turn or one full turn
in order to tighten the canister correctly.
6. Remove the container and dispose of the fluid in a
safe place. If equipped, open the fuel supply valve.
7. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
3. Remove the canister (3) from the fuel filter base by
a direct pull downwards. Discard canister (3) in a
safe place.
4. Ensure that the fuel filter base is clean. Install the
new canister (3) to the fuel filter base.
5. Support the canister (3), install the clamp ring (2).
Rotate the clamp ring (2) to the right to fasten the
canister to the fuel filter base.
Type 2 Fuel Filter
6. If the nylon insert was removed to lower the fuel
level in the fuel filter, ensure that it is installed
correctly and install the cap (1).
1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the OFF position. Place a suitable container under
the fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel.
7. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in a
safe place.
Note: If the fuel filter does not have a drain device
installed, release the cap (1) on top of the fuel filter
base. Remove the nylon insert to lower the level of
the fuel in the filter canister. This will prevent fuel spill
when the clamp ring (2) is released.
8. The secondary filter must be replaced at the same
time as the primary filter. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
Secondary Filter - Replace”.
i02348492
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Illustration 53
g03651726
Typical example
2. Support filter canister (3). Rotate the clamp ring (2)
to the left. Remove the clamp ring (2).
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
SEBU8728
83
Maintenance Recommendations
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the
drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel
tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
Fuel Storage Tanks
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of
any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
• Weekly
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
i02349879
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
Replace
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.
84
Maintenance Recommendations
Radiator - Clean
SEBU8728
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level
that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction to
the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly move
the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the
radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris that is
between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The
maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must
be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water
in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both
sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow the
engine to operate at low idle speed for three to five
minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This will
help in the removal of debris and the drying of the
core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle and
then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind the core
in order to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat
the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02335774
i02177969
Radiator - Clean
Starting Motor - Inspect
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
SEBU8728
85
Maintenance Recommendations
Turbocharger - Inspect
i04149590
Turbocharger - Inspect
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. If the turbocharger fails during engine
operation, damage to the turbocharger compressor
wheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not
occured.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
2. Check for obvious heat discoloration of the
turbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or any
missing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supply
line and the oil drain line. Check for cracks in the
housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that the
compressor wheel can rotate freely.
3. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
4. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine outlet
for corrosion.
5. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that all
clamps are installed correctly and that all clamps
are tightened securely.
i02678854
Walk-Around Inspection
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, and
replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly, “Turbocharger - Remove and
Turbocharger - Install” and Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, “Turbocharger - Inspect” for
further information.
Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for inspection
or removed for the cleaning of the compressor.
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes in
order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak
is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
proved to be unwarranted.
86
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump seal. For the removal of the
water pump and the installation of water pump and/or
seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more
information or consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor.
SEBU8728
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection
and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i02794207
Water Pump - Inspect
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
Illustration 54
(1) Weep hole
g01249453
SEBU8728
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks.
Note: If engine coolant enters the engine lubricating
system the lubricating oil and the engine oil filter must
be replaced. This will remove any contamination that
is caused by the coolant and this will prevent any
irregular oil samples.
The water pump is not a serviceable item. In order to
install a new water pump, refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and
Install”.
87
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
88
SEBU8728
Warranty Section
Emissions Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
SEBU8728
89
Reference Information Section
Engine Protection Plans
Reference Information
Section
www.perkins.com
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
Reference Materials
i04149570
Engine Protection Plans
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life by covering the cost of getting your engine up and
running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mind from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams a
reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of
protection for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be
extended to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/
40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
90
SEBU8728
Index Section
Index
A
After Starting Engine........................................ 32
After Stopping Engine...................................... 38
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test .......................... 57
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test
(Aftercooler Core - Inspect)............................ 58
Alarms and Shutoffs ........................................ 25
Alarms.......................................................... 25
Shutoffs........................................................ 25
Testing the Shutoff and Alarm System......... 25
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 59
B
Battery - Replace............................................. 59
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 59
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ............. 60
Before Starting Engine ...............................10, 30
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace......................... 60
Adjustment................................................... 61
Inspection..................................................... 60
Replacement................................................ 61
Burn Prevention................................................. 8
Batteries......................................................... 8
Coolant........................................................... 8
Oils................................................................. 8
C
Cold Weather Operation.................................. 34
Hints for Cold Weather Operation................ 34
Idling the Engine .......................................... 35
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .... 35
Recommendations for the Coolant .............. 35
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil......... 35
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 30
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change .. 61
Drain ............................................................ 61
Fill................................................................. 62
Flush ............................................................ 62
Coolant (ELC) - Change .................................. 63
Drain ............................................................ 63
Fill................................................................. 64
Flush ............................................................ 64
Coolant Level - Check ..................................... 65
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank....... 65
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank . 65
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add............................................ 66
Add the SCA, If Necessary .......................... 66
Test for SCA Concentration ......................... 66
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .. 10
D
Driven Equipment - Check............................... 67
E
Electrical System ..............................................11
Grounding Practices .....................................11
Emergency Stopping ....................................... 38
Emissions Certification Film ............................ 20
Emissions Warranty Information...................... 88
Engine - Clean ................................................. 67
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element)
- Inspect/Clean/Replace ................................ 67
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements
................................................................... 68
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ............. 67
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single
Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace................. 70
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator Inspect ........................................................... 70
Test the Service Indicator............................. 70
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.............. 71
Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace ............ 71
Engine Electronics........................................... 12
Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................. 71
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................ 73
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil .................. 73
Fill the Oil Pan.............................................. 74
Replace the Oil Filter.................................... 73
Engine Oil Level - Check ................................. 72
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ............................. 72
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis............ 72
Engine Operation............................................. 33
Engine Protection Plans (Extended Service
Contract) ........................................................ 89
Engine Starting ...........................................10, 30
Engine Stopping .........................................11, 38
Engine Valve Lash - Check.............................. 74
SEBU8728
91
Index Section
F
Fan Clearance - Check.................................... 75
Features and Controls ..................................... 25
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ........ 8
Fire Extinguisher............................................ 9
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ............................... 9
Fluid Recommendations (Coolant
Information).................................................... 39
ELC Cooling System Maintenance.............. 41
General Coolant Information........................ 39
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel
Recommendations) ....................................... 44
Diesel Fuel Characteristics .......................... 46
Diesel Fuel Requirements............................ 44
General Information ..................................... 44
Fluid Recommendations (Lubricant
Information).................................................... 50
Engine Oil .................................................... 51
General Lubricant Information ..................... 50
Foreword............................................................ 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4
Literature Information..................................... 4
Maintenance .................................................. 4
Maintenance Intervals.................................... 4
Operation ....................................................... 4
Overhaul ........................................................ 4
Safety............................................................. 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather............ 36
Fuel Conservation Practices............................ 33
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .... 36
Fuel Filters ................................................... 36
Fuel Heaters ................................................ 37
Fuel Tanks.................................................... 36
Fuel System - Prime ........................................ 76
Type 1 Fuel Filters........................................ 76
Type 2 Fuel Filters........................................ 77
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water
Separator) Element - Replace ....................... 78
Type 1 Fuel Filter ......................................... 78
Type 2 Fuel Filter ......................................... 79
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator
- Drain ............................................................ 80
Type 1 Fuel Filter ......................................... 80
Type 2 Fuel Filter ......................................... 80
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ......... 81
Type 1 Fuel Filter ......................................... 81
Type 2 Fuel Filter ......................................... 82
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain............ 82
Drain the Water and the Sediment............... 83
Fuel Storage Tanks ...................................... 83
Fuel Tank ..................................................... 82
G
Gauges and Indicators .................................... 25
General Hazard Information .............................. 6
Containing Fluid Spillage ............................... 7
Fluid Penetration............................................ 7
Pressure Air and Water.................................. 7
General Information......................................... 13
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ............. 83
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ............ 83
I
Important Safety Information ............................. 2
L
Lifting and Storage........................................... 23
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ....................... 57
Commissioning ............................................ 57
Daily ............................................................. 57
Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 57
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 57
Every 2000 Service Hours ........................... 57
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years .......... 57
Every 4000 Service Hours ........................... 57
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly .............. 57
Every 500 Service Hours ............................. 57
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 57
Every Week.................................................. 57
Initial 500 Service Hours .............................. 57
When Required............................................ 57
Maintenance Recommendations..................... 55
Maintenance Section....................................... 39
Model View Illustrations................................... 13
1106A-70T Engine ...................................... 14
1106A-70TA, 1106C-70TA, and 1106D-70TA
Engines ...................................................... 16
Monitoring System........................................... 26
Mounting and Dismounting.............................. 10
92
SEBU8728
Index Section
O
T
Operation Section............................................ 23
Overspeed....................................................... 26
Table of Contents............................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .................................... 85
Inspecting..................................................... 85
Removal and Installation.............................. 85
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations................. 20
Serial Number Plate (1)................................ 20
Product Description ......................................... 17
Engine Cooling and Lubrication................... 18
Engine Specifications .................................. 17
Product Identification Information.................... 20
Product Information Section ............................ 13
Product Lifting.................................................. 23
Product Storage............................................... 23
Condition for Storage ................................... 23
R
Radiator - Clean............................................... 84
Reference Information..................................... 21
Record for Reference................................... 21
Reference Information Section ........................ 89
Reference Materials ........................................ 89
Refill Capacities............................................... 39
Cooling System............................................ 39
Lubrication System ...................................... 39
S
Safety Messages............................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .................................... 5
(2) Ether ......................................................... 6
Safety Section ................................................... 5
Sensors and Electrical Components ............... 27
Coolant Temperature Switch 1..................... 28
Electronic Control Governor 2 (If equipped)
................................................................... 28
Engine Oil Pressure Switch 3 ...................... 28
Failure of Switches....................................... 28
Switch Locations.......................................... 27
Severe Service Application.............................. 56
Environmental Factors................................. 56
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures.............. 56
Incorrect Operating Procedures................... 56
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................... 84
Starting the Engine .......................................... 31
Starting with Jump Start Cables ...................... 31
Stopping the Engine ........................................ 38
W
Walk-Around Inspection .................................. 85
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ............................................... 85
Warranty Information ....................................... 88
Warranty Section ............................................. 88
Water Pump - Inspect ...................................... 86
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls .. 55
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For
product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification
Information” in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission
Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment
Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer
Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone
Number
Hours
©2014 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
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