Societies Transition in Conference Programme

Societies Transition in Conference Programme

Conference Programme and Abstract Book

Societies

in

Transition

2015 ANNUAL

CONFERENCE

Glasgow Caledonian University

Wednesday 15

- Friday 17 April

BSAAU401 ConfCover A4 V2.indd 1 www.britsoc.co.uk

#britsoc15

09/03/2015 16:07

Societies in Transition:

Progression or Regression?

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

Wednesday 15 - Friday 17 April 2015

CONTENTS

Welcome ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

Delegate Information ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

Conference Programme at a Glance ................................................................................................................................ 9

Conference Programme Grid .......................................................................................................................................... 14

Plenary - Alice Goffman .................................................................................................................................................. 21

Plenary - Colin Samson .................................................................................................................................................. 22

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize ......................................................................................................................................... 23

Plenary - Guy Standing ................................................................................................................................................... 25

Stream Plenaries And Special Sessions ......................................................................................................................... 27

Annual Members’ Meeting .............................................................................................................................................. 42

BSA Group Meetings ...................................................................................................................................................... 44

Book Launch and P ublishers’ Reception ........................................................................................................................ 45

Poster Presentations ....................................................................................................................................................... 47

Wednesday Paper Sessions - Programme in Detail ....................................................................................................... 59

Thursday Paper Sessions - Programme in Detail ......................................................................................................... 143

Friday Paper Sessions - Programme in Detail .............................................................................................................. 225

Index By First Named Author ........................................................................................................................................ 311

Maps .............................................................................................................................................................................. 325

© 2015 BSA Publications Ltd.

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Association (BSA) or BSA Publications Ltd. While every care is taken to provide accurate information, neither the

BSA, the Trustees nor the contributors undertake any liability for any error or omission.

The abstracts in this volume are not for reproduction without the prior permission of the author. All rights reserved.

This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express permission of The British Sociological

Association.

ISBN: 9780904569445

The cover of this document has been printed onto Lumi silk which is accredited to the Forest Stewardship Scheme, manufactured to the international environmental standard from sustained forests. The inner pages are printed onto Explorer paper which is a natural and biodegradable product, produced from renewable resources.

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

2

WELCOME

Welcome to the British Sociological Association Annual Conference 2015 at Glasgow Caledonian University. The

theme of the 2015

conference is ‘Societies in Transition: Progression or Regression?’ It is a pleasure to announce that Alice Goffman, Colin Samson and Guy Standing will each address the conference in three thoughtprovoking plenaries on this main theme.

In addition to these plenaries, delegates have the opportunity to attend presentations on a wide range of topics. The conference is organised in streams designed to represent the major areas of research with which sociologists are engaged. These streams are open to any topic on which people are currently working, enabling delegates to meet with colleagues in their areas of interest and explore a variety of topics as well. Many of the streams also include a

Stream Plenary, which brings key speakers together to reflect on the conference theme from particular sociological perspectives.

There are also a number of open streams (Frontiers) providing a forum for new, innovative and multidisciplinary work. This year these streams include topics such as digital sociology, activism in sociology, disability studies and many more, further enriching the wealth of topics to be explored. This conference format results in a rich and challenging programme and it is hoped that this every delegate will find the same this year.

A conference of this magnitude and breadth is due to the efforts of many committed individuals. Great thanks are due to all those who have helped with the organisation of the conference, particularly the convenors of the conference streams:

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space (CIT)

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption (CUL)

Robin Smith, Cardiff University

Gaynor Bagnall, University of Salford

Garry Crawford, University of Salford

Environment and Society (ENV)

Families and Relationships (FAM)

Frontiers (FRO)

Lifecourse (LIF)

Medicine, Health and Illness (MED)

Tom Roberts, University of Surrey

Kathryn Almack, University of Nottingham

Jo Woodiwiss, University of Huddersfield

Rampaul Chamba, BSA Membership Services Director

Wendy Martin, Brunel University

Julia Twigg, University of Kent

Sally Brown, Durham University

Kate Weiner, University of Sheffield

Methodological Innovations (MET)

Race, Ethnicity and Migration (REM)

Rights, Violence and Crime (RIG)

Science and Technology Studies (STS)

Social Divisions/Social Identities (DIV)

Emma Uprichard, University of Warwick

Ipek Demir, University of Leicester

Aaron Winter, University of East London

Victoria Canning, The Open University

Giorgia Dona, University of East London

Hannah Miller, Kingston University

Angela Cassidy, King’s College London

Des Fitzgerald, King’s College London

Stevienna de Saille, University of Sheffield

Rachel Hale, Cardiff University / University of

Nottingham

Jamie Halsall, University of Huddersfield

Sociology of Education (EDU)

Sociology of Religion (REL)

Theory (THE)

Work, Employment and Economic Life (WOR)

Nicola Ingram, University of Bath

Michael Ward, The Open University

Tim Hutchings, Durham University

Tom Brock, Manchester Metropolitan University

Stephen Kemp, University of Edinburgh

Monika Krause, Goldsmiths, University of London

Maria Adamson, Middlesex University

Ben Fincham, University of Sussex

Lynne Pettinger, University of Warwick

We would also like to express our appreciation for the support of our sponsors and exhibitors for their support. The

Saltire Centre will include exhibitions from many organisations who offer services and information for conference delegates. Please take some time between sessions to visit these exhibitors.

3 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

Welcome

Main Conference Sponsor and Pecha Kucha Prize Sponsor

SAGE www.sagepub.co.uk

Exhibitors

Ashgate

Berghahn Books

British Sociological Association

Edwin Mellen Press

Gazelle Books

Manchester University Press

Oxford University Press

Palgrave Macmillan

Policy Press

ProQuest

Routledge, Taylor and Francis

Rowman & Littlefield International

SAGE

University of Manchester

Wiley Blackwell / Polity

Finally, thanks to everyone for travelling to Glasgow and contributing to a conference we all hope will be enjoyable and stimulating.

John Bone, Rampaul Chamba, Nicola Ingram, Pam Law

BSA Annual Conference Organising Committee

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

4

DELEGATE INFORMATION

The BSA Annual Conference 2015 is being hosted by Glasgow Caledonian University. Conference registration and exhibition space can be found in the Saltire Centre, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow,

G4 0BA. Sessions will take place on the Glasgow Caledonian University campus in the Hamish Wood, George Moore,

Govan Mbeki and Charles Oakley buildings.

R

EGISTRATION

/H

ELP

D

ESK

BSA staff will be available in the Saltire Centre to register delegates at the following times:

Wednesday 15 April 08:30 - 17:00

Thursday 16 April

Friday 17 April

08:30 - 17:00

08:30 - 17:00

At registration you will be given your conference pack, including the Conference Programme & Abstract Book and your conference badge.

If there is a balance outstanding on your conference booking, you will have to settle the account before your registration pack will be issued. There will be no exceptions.

During the conference your conference badge must be worn at all times for security reasons and meal

provision.

Staff will be available on the mezzanine in the Saltire Centre to answer any delegate queries. Further information points are located within the Hamish Wood, George Moore and Charles Oakley Buildings.

C

ONTACT AT THE

C

ONFERENCE

There will be a message board situated near the registration desk in the Saltire Centre where delegates can leave messages for each other.

Alternatively, urgent messages can be left by telephone to the BSA Events mobile phone: [+44] (0)7825 157 068.

These messages will be displayed on the conference message board.

L

OCAL

T

RAVEL

I

NFORMATION

On Foot

The university is situated within easy walking distance of both Glasgow Queens Street Station (0.5 miles) and

Glasgow Central Station (1 mile). Delegates should walk towards the Cowcaddens Road Entrance.

Buses

Strathclyde Partnership for Transport ( www.spt.co.uk

) run an extensive system throughout Glasgow and the area.

The university is only 200 yards from Buchanan Bus Station. Buchanan bus station is located in the centre of the city on Cowcaddens Road, opposite Glasgow Caledonian University and near Buchanan Galleries shopping centre.

Subway

The university is very close to the Buchanan Street and Cowcaddens underground railway stations - part of Glasgow's famous "Clockwork Orange" subway system - generally recognised as the third underground railway system to be built in the world, after London and Budapest. Operated by SPT, at peak times the service runs every 4 minutes and it takes just under 24 minutes to complete the circuit of 15 stations. www.spt.co.uk

Taxi

Delegates should request to be dropped off at the Cowcaddens Road entrance, Glasgow Caledonian University,

Glasgow, G4 0BA.

Glasgow Taxis Ltd: [+44] (0)141 429 7070 Hampden Taxis: [+44] (0)141 332 5050

By Car

The university is easily accessible from Junction 16 (Westbound) or Junctions 15 & 17 (Eastbound) of the M8 motorway.

Parking

Although no parking is available on campus, there is ample space available at the nearby Buchanan Galleries car park.

5 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

Delegate Information

A

CCOMMODATION

Accommodation is not included in your conference registration. Please consult with your accommodation provider for all information.

If you have not yet booked accommodation, you may wish to contact the Glasgow City Marketing Bureau (People

Make Glasgow) to see what options are available https://peoplemakeglasgow.com/ or telephone [+44] (0)141 566

0800.

M

EALS AND

R

EFRESHMENTS

Tea and Coffee

Refreshments will be served in the Saltire Centre. Please make full use of the various service points to avoid queues.

Wednesday 15 April 08:30 - 17:00

Thursday 16 April

Friday 17 April

08:30 - 17:00

08:30 - 17:00

Lunch

Your conference badge must be worn at all times for security reasons and for meal provision. All registered delegates can collect lunches from the food points in Saltire Centre. To avoid queues delegates are encouraged to make use of the full range of meal times:

Wednesday 15 April 12:30 - 14:00

Thursday 16 April

Friday 17 April

12:30 - 13:30

12:30 - 13:30

Welcome Drinks Reception hosted by the Provost of Glasgow

A welcome drinks reception hosted by the Provost of Glasgow will take place at 19:30 at the Glasgow City Chambers on Wednesday 15 April. The dress code is casual.

Special Dietary Requirements

Special dietary requirements, vegetarian and vegan meals have been pre-booked as on your booking form. If you have requested a special diet, please inform the catering staff when you collect your meals.

Other Meals

No evening meals will be provided at the conference. There are a variety of options for evening meals in Glasgow.

There are a number of bars and restaurants not far from the university.

L

UGGAGE

S

TORAGE

During the conference, free-of-charge luggage storage is provided in Room W119, Hamish Wood Building. The opening times are as follows:

Wednesday 15 April

Thursday 16 April

Friday 17 April

08:30 - 19:00

08:30 - 20:15

08:30 - 19:00

I

NTERNET

A

CCESS

Computers

A number of computers are available for use across the university campus, including in the Saltire Centre. There are a limited number of computers so during busy times, when other delegates are waiting to use the computers, please limit your use to five minutes. Please log in using the following details:

User ID: bsaconf1

Password: Zc100021

Wireless Internet Connection

Wireless internet is available across the university campus, enabling delegates to use their own laptops to connect to the internet. Please log in using the following details:

User ID: [email protected]

Password: Zc100021

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

6

Delegate Information

Please use your own laptop if you wish to use this facility as neither the venue nor the BSA will provide

laptops.

eduroam

The Glasgow Caledonian University is an eduroam-enabled institution. eduroam is the roaming infrastructure used by the international research and education community.

Being part of eduroam allows users to access a wireless network at a host institution who is also connected to

eduroam using the same credentials (i.e. username and password) the users would use if they were at their home institution. As an end-user, you will only be able to use eduroam if your institution provides an electronic identity (e.g. account for network access). If you have not been provided with this information, you will need to contact your home university administrator and ask for an account. You (or your network administrator) will have to configure your computer to enable eduroam access.

7 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

Conference Programme at a

Glance

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME AT A GLANCE

WEDNESDAY 15 APRIL 2015

08:30 onwards

09:00 - 10:30

10:30 - 11:00

11:00 - 12:30

12:30 - 14:00

12:45 - 13:45

14:00 - 15:30

15:30 - 16:00

16:00 - 17:30

17:45 - 18:45

19:00

Conference Registration

Paper Session 1

Break

Paper Session 2

Lunch

BSA Annual Members

’ Meeting

Welcome to the conference

Plenary: Alice Goffman

Presentation of the BSA

’s Distinguished

Service to British Sociology Award

Break

Paper Session 3

Stream Plenaries and Special Sessions

Wine Reception hosted by the Lord Provost of Glasgow

Saltire Centre Mezzanine

See Programme in Detail - Wednesday

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

See Programme in Detail - Wednesday

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

A005, Govan Mbeki Building

Carnegie Lecture Theatre, Charles

Oakley Building

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

See Programme in Detail - Wednesday

See Stream Plenaries and Special

Sessions

Glasgow City Chambers

11 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME AT A GLANCE

THURSDAY 16 APRIL 2015

08:30 onwards

09:30 - 10:30

10:30 - 11:00

11:00 - 12:30

12:30 - 13:30

13:30 - 15:00

Conference Registration

Stream Plenaries

Break

Paper Session 4

Lunch

BSA Specialist and Study Group Meetings

Paper Session 5

Saltire Centre Mezzanine

See Stream Plenaries and Special

Events

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

See Programme in Detail - Thursday

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

Conference Hall, Hamish Wood Building

See Programme in Detail - Thursday

15:00 - 15:30

15:30 - 17:00

17:15 - 18:45

18:45

– 19:00

19:00 - 20:00

Break

Poster Presentations

Paper Session 6 / Pecha Kucha

Presentations

Plenary: Colin Samson

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize

BSA Early Careers Forum Book Launch

Publishers

’ Reception

Poster Prize Presentation

Pecha Kucha Prize Presentation

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

See Programme in Detail - Thursday

Carnegie Lecture Theatre, Charles

Oakley Building

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

12

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME AT A GLANCE

FRIDAY 17 APRIL 2015

08.30 onwards

09:00 - 10:30

10:30 - 11:00

11:00 - 12:30

12:30 - 13:30

13:30 - 15:00

Conference Registration

Roundtable Sessions

Break

Paper Session 7

Lunch

Study Group Convenors Lunch

Plenary: Guy Standing

BBC Ethnography Prize

Break

Saltire Centre Mezzanine

Conference Hall, Hamish Wood Building

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

See Programme in Detail - Friday

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

Conference Hall, Hamish Wood Building

Carnegie Lecture Theatre, Charles

Oakley Building

15:00 - 15:15

15:15 - 16:45

17:00 - 18:00

18:00 - 19:00

19:00

Paper Session 8

Stream Plenaries

Glasgow Caledonian University 40 th

Anniversary sponsored reception

Conference Closes

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

See Programme in Detail

– Friday

See Stream Plenaries and Special

Events

Saltire Centre Ground Floor

13 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME GRID - WEDNESDAY

08:30

09:00-

10:30

Paper

Session

1

Saltire

Centre

Registrati on

Charles Oakley

Building

Carnegie C236

REM1

Meer, N.

McBride,

M.

McGhee,

D.

George Moore Building

M137

MED1 EDU1

Paton, A. Salvi, F.

Warmling,

D.

Mujica

Rodriguez

, A.M.

M225

FAM

Twamley,

K.

Peng, Y.

Berringto n, A.

M228 M532

Govan

Mbeki

Building

A005

DIV1 CIT1 WOR

Chen, G.

Zhao, Y.

Pieri, E. López-

Andreu, M.

Sheaff, M. Vieno, A.

Zhang, M. Revi, B. Potter, J.

Hamish Wood

Building

W110 W119

CUL RIG

Tulle, E.

Reid, F.

Manning,

P.

Redhead,

R.

Skillen, F. Miller, H.

Liinpää,

M.

REM1

Harries,

B.

Ashe, S.

Garratt, L.

Liu, J. Li, Y.

DIV1

Wozniak,

W.

Chalari,

A.

Whigham,

S.

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

2

12:30-

14:00

14:00-

15:30

15:30-

16:00

16:00-

17:30

Paper

Session

3

Refreshm ents

Lunch

Refreshm ents

17:45-

18:45

Stream

Plenarie s /

Special

Session s

19:00

Race,

Ethnicity and

Migration

Stream

Plenary

Drinks

Receptio n

Key

A

W

Govan Mbeki Building

Hamish Wood Building

REM1 MED1 EDU FAM DIV1

Elliott, H. Ambervad ikar, J.

CIT WOR CUL RIG

Virdee, S. Skyrme,

S.

Bhattacha ryya, G.

Solomos,

J.

Hollin, G.

Perrin, C.

Nylander,

E.

Wilson, A.

Truong,

F.

Winter, J.

Lounasm aa, A.

Esin, C.

Gorringe,

H.

Govinda,

R.

Jeffery, R.

Moore, N. Ashfold, T. Spracklen

, K.

Lewis, C. Khattab,

N.

Miles, A. Mehdizade h, N.

Muriel, D.

O’Brien,

D.

Stanczak,

D.

Canning,

V.

Lazar, F. Moore, N. Duell, A. Stranglem an, T.

Annual

Members

Meeting

Plenary:

Alice

Goffman

MED1

Swallow,

J.

Hillman,

A.

Wallace,

S.

Nazroo, J.

Olive, P.

Lifecours e Stream

Plenary

CIT Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

CUL Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

DIV Social Divisions / Social Identities

EDU Sociology of Education

ENV Environment and Society

FAM Families and Relationships

C

EDU1

Ingram,

N.

FAM

Pearson,

D.

Boliver, V. Nordqvist,

P.S.

Brooks,

R.

Wakeling,

P.

Sociolog y of

Educatio n Stream

Plenary

Dawson,

M.

Families and

Relations hips

Stream

Plenary

Rae, G.

Burski, J. Truong,

F.

STS

Stream

Plenary

Charles Oakley Building

FRO Frontiers

LIF Lifecourse

MED Medicine, Health and Illness

MET Methodological Innovations

REL Sociology of Religion

REM Race, Ethnicity and Migration

CIT

Miller, J.

WOR

Preminger,

J.

Horgan,

M.

Fox-

Hodess,

C.

Smith, R. Rose, E.

M

Jakopovic,

M.

Frontiers

Stream

Plenary

CUL

Mast, J.

RIG

Swain, S. Towers,

J.

Brickell,

K.

Finkel, R. Shah, S.

Law, Y.Y.

Culture,

Media,

Sport and

Consum ption

Stream

Plenary

George Moore Building

RIG Rights, Violence and Crime

STS Science and Technology Studies

THE Theory

WOR Work, Employment and Economic Life

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

14

08:30

09:00-

10:30

Paper

Session

1

Hamish Wood Building

17:45-

18:45

Stream

Plenarie s /

Special

Session s

19:00

Drinks

Recepti on

W308

FRO

Lapping,

C.

Bondi, L.

Webb, R.

W323

THE

Jonas, M.

THE

Rezaev,

A.

Jones, P.

Mulcahy,

N.

W324

MET

Mannay,

D.

Rozas, D. Taylor, Y. Miles, A.

Sereva, E. Lomax, H. Kennedy,

H.

Booker,

M.

Fraser

Berndtsso n, M.

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

2

Dobson,

R.

12:30-

14:00

14:00-

15:30

FRO1

Mladenov,

T.

THE

Lybeck, E.

MET

Finn, K.

Houston,

E.

Stanley, L. Mulhollan d, M.

Gulland, J. Lyon, E.S. Guest, C.

Fowler, B.

Masquelie r, C.

Wilde, A. Durkin K. Letherby,

G.

15:30-

16:00

16:00-

17:30

Paper

Session

3

FRO

Armstrong

, V.

Merchant,

W.

Woodin,

S.

MET

Thng, Y.R. Harding,

S.

De Lima,

P.

Lumsden,

K.

Crow, G.

W525

STS

STS

Wainright,

S.

Karaulova,

M.

W622

REL

Pogacnik,

A.

Smith, A.

Hjelm, T.

REL

Hemming,

P.

Haneman n, R.

Conroy, A. van Eck

STS

Pickergill,

M.

Duymaer van Twist,

A.

Huang, Y.

REL

Smith, A.

Tutton, R. Schnabel,

A.

Cassidy,

A.

Haran, J.

Patrikios,

S.

Motak, D.

Orchard,

M.

Sociology

Special

Issue

2014

Event

W702

DIV2

Gibson, L.

Ebrey, J.

Oman, S.

DIV2

Mustafa,

A.

W709

REM2

Tremlett,

A.

Sime, D.

Seredynsk a-Abou

Eid, R.

Dunne, M.

REM2

McGirr, G. Redclift,

V.

Twigt, M.

Gholami,

R.

Lucas, S.

W727

EDU2

Ye, R.

Burke, C.

Scandone,

B.

DIV2

Bradshaw,

L.

Alldred, P.

McQueen,

F.

REM2 FRO2

Dunne, M.

Journal

Durrant,

N.

Crossouar d, B.

Publishin g: Tips and

Pitfalls

Fincham,

K.

EDU2

Costa, C.

Murphy,

M.

Burke, C.

W823

MED2

McGrath,

L.

Andersson

, R.

Steggals,

P.

Howard,

K.

MED2

Beveridge,

E.

LIF

Fletcher, I. Simpson,

P.

Palmer, V.

Boden, Z. Bingley, A.

MED2

Dumbili,

E.

W828

LIF

Parry, J.

Cox, P.

Neale, B.

Hadley, R.

LIF

Simpson,

P.

Emslie, C. Morgan

Brett, B.

Wright, J. Lindsey,

R.

France, A. Scott, S. Ward, R.

15 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

08:30

09:30-

10:30

Stream

Plenarie s /

Special

Session s

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

4

12:30-

13:30

13:30-

15:00

Paper

Session

5

15:00-

15:30

15:30-

17:00

Paper

Session

6 /

Pecha

Kucha

Session s

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME GRID - THURSDAY

Saltire

Centre

Charles Oakley

Building

George Moore Building Govan

Mbeki

Building

A005

Hamish Wood

Building

Registratio n

Carnegie C236 M137 M225 M228 M532 W110 W119

Refreshm ents

Lunch

Refreshm ents

Poster

Presentat ions

Cities,

Mobilitie s, Place and

Space

Stream

Plenary

REM1

Emejulu,

A.

Sosenko,

F.

REM1

Garner,

S.

Narayan,

J.

Long, L.

D’Angelo,

A.

REM1

Miah, S.

Medicine,

Health and

Illness

Stream

Plenary

Environ ment and

Society

Stream

Plenary

MED1

Barbour,

R.

Yuill, C.

EDU1

Brooks,

R.

Pasztor,

A.

Neville, P. Hensby,

A.

Collins, C. Redd, R.

MED EDU

Cuthill, F. Downes,

G.

Green, T. Thatcher,

J.

Roy, M.

Tamari, T. Tarabini,

A.

Pensiero,

N.

MED

Barr, B.

Winter,

A.

Reeves,

A.

Saeed, T. Loopstra,

R.

O’Connell

, R.

Families and

Relations hips

Stream

Plenary

FAM1

Desougi,

M.

Tarrant,

A.

May, V.

FAM

Gray, H.

Katz, E.

Cappellini

, B.

Close, J.

Law,

Crime and

Rights

Stream

Plenary

DIV

Marron,

D.

CIT1

Grazioli,

M.

Terje, A.

WOR

Graham,

H.

Byrne, B.

Carroll, N. Beisswen ger, S.

Chin, T.

Dubois-

Shaik, F.

McKie, L.

Shannon,

M.

DIV

Nicholls,

E.

Hill, R.

Yeadon-

Lee, T.

CUL RIG

Mogaji, E. Crook, M.

Almila, A-

M.

Maclean,

C.

Bowness,

J.

D’Souza,

R.

Skillingto n, T.

Short, D.

CIT1

de Souza

Malanski,

D.

Whittaker,

T.

WOR1

Simpson,

P.

Yan, J.

CUL

Kennedy,

P.

Doidge,

M.

RIG

Korkmaz,

E.E.

Dores, A.

Pell, S. Bednarek-

Gilland, A.

Fuller, M. Cohen, R.

Horne, J. Ray, L.

Na, J.N.

EDU FAM DIV PK CIT1 PK WOR1 PK CUL PK RIG

Atfield, G. Earley, V. Tam, C.H. Zhou,

A.Q.

Lübke, C. Wagner,

B.

Trevino-

Rangel, J.

Bradley,

H.

Lyonette,

C.

Dumanga ne

Fletcher,

T.

Ranson,

G.

Osborn,

S.

Manning,

N.

Moran, M. Erdemli,

Tam, C.H.

Salminiitty

, R.

Ramos,

C.

O.

Au, L.

Garrett,

D.

Burgum,

S.

Egdell, V. Morris, M. Mueller-

Hirth, N.

Suttill, B. Fuller, M. Moon, C.

Zabel, C.

Wilde, R.

Schradie,

J.

Gstrein, M. McDonald

, K.

Millar, G.

Ahn, J-E. Brewer, J.

Nagle, J.

17:15-

18:45

Plenary:

Colin

Samson

18:45-

20:00

Key

A

W

Receptio n

Govan Mbeki Building

Hamish Wood Building

CIT Cities, Mobilities, Place and

Space

CUL Culture, Media, Sport and

Consumption

DIV Social Divisions / Social Identities

EDU Sociology of Education

ENV Environment and Society

C Charles Oakley Building

FAM Families and Relationships

FRO Frontiers

LIF Lifecourse

MED Medicine, Health and Illness

MET Methodological Innovations

REL Sociology of Religion

REM Race, Ethnicity and Migration

M

RIG Rights, Violence and Crime

STS Science and Technology Studies

THE Theory

WOR Work, Employment and Economic

Life

PK Pecha Kucha Session

George Moore Building

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

16

PK

15:00-

15:30

15:30-

17:00

Paper

Session

6 /

Pecha

Kucha

Session s

08:30

09:30-

10:30

Stream

Plenarie s /

Special

Session

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

4

W308

FRO

Big Data and

Digital

Futures:

Sociology

Prize

Winners

Event

THE

Mouzakitis

, A.

Jackson,

S.

Bone, J.

12:30-

13:30

13:30-

15:00

Paper

Session

5

FRO1

Research

Ethics in a Digital

Age

?

THE

Whither

History and

Comparis on in UK

Sociology

FRO1 PK

Mckenzie,

L.

Savage,

M.

Friedman,

S.

Miles, A.

W323

THE

Bouzanis,

C.

Randell,

R.

Latsis, J.

17:15-

18:45

18:45-

20:00

Laurison,

D.

W324

MET

Badescu,

C.

Gobo, G.

Chattoe-

Brown, E.

Haaker,

M.

MET

Jenkins,

N.

Ahearne,

G.

Hudson,

M.

Dean, J.

MET

Karahasa n, C.N.

Demirkrol,

E.

Uzar

Özdemir,

F.

Jones, A.

Brady, G.

W525

STS

MacKenzi e, D.

Land, C.

Jin, D.

STS

Ebeling,

M.

De Saille,

S.

Brownlie,

J.

Hamish Wood Building

W622

Sociology

Special

Issue

2015

Event

REL

Hussein,

N.

Thumala

Olave, M.

Read, M.

Hutchings,

T.

ENV

Paddock,

J.

Giraud, E. Zhu, D.

Demaldè,

C.

STS

Renwick,

C.

ENV

Ozaki, R.

Meloni, M. Roberts,

T.

Fitzgerald,

D.

Sharman,

A.

W702

Feeney,

M.

CIT2

Scott, D.

Heng, T.

CIT2

Hastings,

A.

Fuhr, C.

W709

REM2

Byrne, B.

Badenhoo p, E.

Karamani dou, L.

REM2 PK

Francesch elli, M.

Bogue, K. Kalia, M.

Schneider,

C.

Kwegan,

A.

Michael,

L.

Kulz, C.

W727

REM3

Piacentini,

T.

Smith, M.

Watson,

N.

REM3

Charsley,

K.

Wemyss,

G.

W823

WOR2

Raeside,

R.

Saka, B.

Russell, L. Hanlon,

M.

WOR2

W828

CIT2

Crossley,

S.

Alexander,

J.

Velho, R.

REM2 EDU2 MED2 FAM2

Adams, P.

Ezzati, R.

Abrahams

, J.

Morrin, K.

Harden, J. Davidson,

E.

Borgstrom

, E.

Speirs, J.

Ashe, S. Ingram, N. Grant, S. Kiely, E.

Mckenzie,

L.

Seymour,

T.

Kukhareva

, M.

FRO2

How to get your

Work

Read and

Cited

FRO2

Tonner, A.

Peer

Reviewin

Elder-

Vass, D.

Wilson, J.

g: Tips and

Pitfalls

17 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

08:30

09:00-

10:30

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

7

12:30-

13:30

13:30-

15:00

15:00-

15:15

15:15-

16:45

Paper

Session

8

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME GRID - FRIDAY

Saltire

Centre

Registrati on

Charles Oakley

Building

Carnegie C236

George Moore Building

M137 M225 M228 M532

Govan

Mbeki

Building

A005

Hamish Wood

Building

W110 W119

Conference Hall, Hamish Wood Building

Roundtable Sessions

Refreshm ents

REM1 MED1

Henry, F. Badger,

S.

James, C. Lee, N.

Smith, M. Helliwell,

R.

Ramos,

H.

Raman,

S.

EDU1

Hey, V.

Leaney,

S.

Pryor, J.

Danvers,

E.

FAM1

Van Hoof,

J.

DIV

Cuthbert,

K.

CIT WOR1

Paton, K. Surdez,

M.

Pande, R. Murphy,

C.

Batchelor,

S.

Kandlik-

Eltanani,

M.

Love, G. Neary, J. Roth, S. Thomas,

M.

Salvi, F. Maxwell,

T.

CUL1

De Vries,

R.

Matthews,

J.

McDonald

, K.

Reeves,

A.

RIG

Sigona,

N.

Solano,

P.

Grigolo,

M.

Soykan,

C.

Lunch

Plenary:

Guy

Standing

Refreshm ents

REM1 MED1

Pang, M. Flowers,

P.

EDU

Khattab,

N.

Young, I. Klein, M. Bynner,

C.

Piacentini

, T.

Boydell,

N.

Hegna, K.

FAM

Stella, F.

Stone, J.

Mehdizad eh, N.

DIV

McCorma ck, M.

Schmidt,

J.

Moretti-

Pires,

R.O.

CIT

O’Brien,

G.

Dicks,

B.C.

Hewlett,

D.

WOR1

Sharples,

L.

Bourkel,

T.

Haynes,

J.

CUL1

De Vries,

R.

RIG1

Serisier,

T.

Harrison,

K.

Venkatac halam, D.

Smith, D. Russell,

S.

17:00-

18:00

Stream

Plenarie s /

Special

Session s

18:00-

19:00

Glasgow

Caledoni an

Universit y sponsore d reception

Key

A

W

Govan Mbeki Building

Hamish Wood Building

CIT Cities, Mobilities, Place and

Space

CUL Culture, Media, Sport and

Consumption

DIV Social Divisions / Social Identities

EDU Sociology of Education

ENV Environment and Society

Lorimer,

K.

Lifecours e Stream

Plenary

Cornish,

C.

Sociolog y of

Religion

Stream

Plenary

C

Families and

Relations hips

Stream

Plenary

Charles Oakley Building

FAM Families and Relationships

FRO Frontiers

LIF Lifecourse

MED Medicine, Health and Illness

MET Methodological Innovations

REL Sociology of Religion

REM Race, Ethnicity and Migration

Bonito

Roque, I.

Work,

Employm ent and

Economi c Life

Stream

Plenary

M

Nichols,

K.

Theory

Stream

Plenary

Foster,

J.A.

George Moore Building

RIG Rights, Violence and Crime

STS Science and Technology Studies

THE Theory

WOR Work, Employment and Economic

Life

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

18

08:30

W308 W323 W324 W525

Hamish Wood Building

W622 W702 W709 W727 W823 W828

09:00-

10:30

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

7

Bisht, R.

12:30-

13:30

13:30-

15:00

15:00-

15:15

15:15-

16:45

Paper

Session

8

FRO1

Large, J.

Jones, A.

RIG2

Hallett, S. Gormley,

C.

MED2

Jeffery, B. Montgome ry, C.

Audu, A. McCourt,

C.

17:00-

18:00

Stream

Plenarie s

18:00-

19:00

FRO THE

Laurison,

D.

Schlemba ch, R.

Yeates, D. Gafijczuk,

D.

Kaur, H. Cruicksha nk, J.

Natanel,

K.

MED2

Kapilashra mi, A.

Sarojini,

N,

Murray, S.

Conference Hall, Hamish Wood Building

Roundtable Sessions

EDU2

Jeffery, R. Miles, P.

Lewis, L.

ENV

Shelly, S. Varriele,

S.

Helmrich,

R.

James, M. De Lima,

P.J.F.

Biese, I.

Moore, S. Juhnke, S. Dunne, N. Bell, V.

Swaffield,

J.

Kerr, E.

CUL2

Bhardwa,

B

Adamson,

M.

REM2

Leurs, K.

Rosbrook-

Thompson

, J.

FRO2

Hadley, R. Moran, L. Strandbu,

A.

Bednarek-

Gilland, A.

Samuel,

A.

Lim, H-J.

Wright, E. Gray, H.

Williams,

K.

ENV

Orr, P.

CUL2

Wain, M.

REM2

Ni

Mhurchu,

A.

Ismail, K. Laurison,

D.

President ial Event

REM3

Sahraoui,

N.

REM3

Allen, W.

Campion,

K.

Skinner,

D.

WOR2

Bernhard,

S.

Simpson,

A.

WOR2

Deeming,

C.

Kopf, E.

Beste, J.

Trifiletti, R.

FAM2

McCarthy,

J.

Borgstrom

, E.

McKie, L.

Rees, D.

19 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

PLENARY

A

LICE

G

OFFMAN

Wednesday 15 April, 14:00 - 15:30

C

ARNEGIE

L

ECTURE

T

HEATRE

, C

HARLES

O

AKLEY

B

UILDING

ON THE RUN

On the Run describes young men growing up as suspects and fugitives in the segregated Black neighbourhoods torn apart by the war on crime and unprecedented levels of targeted imprisonment. Alongside young men dipping and dodging the authorities, w e come to know girlfriends and mothers caught between the men they love and the police; the “clean” residents of the neighbourhood who struggle to go to school and work every day as the police chase their neighbours through the streets; and the young people eking out a living in the new fugitive economy: providing clean urine, fake documents, and off the books medical care to people living with warrants or under court supervision. This fugitive world is the hidden counterpoint to mass incarceration, the invisible cost of a massive and unprecedented social experiment on the residents of segregated Black neighbourhoods in US cities.

Alice Goffman is a sociologist who grew up in Philadelphia and attended graduate school at Princeton. She works in the urban ethnography tradition of Howard Becker,

Elijah Anderson, and Mitchell Duneier, sometimes called the Chicago School. The idea is sustained engagement in a community, obsessive note taking, and the close up observation of everyday life over time. Her book, On the Run, draws on six years of fieldwork and describes young men living as suspects and fugitives in an African

American neighbourhood torn apart by the war on drugs and unprecedented levels of targeted imprisonment.

Chair: Eileen Green, BSA Vice Chair (University of Teesside)

21 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

PLENARY

C

OLIN

S

AMSON

Thursday 16 April, 17:15 - 18:45

C

ARNEGIE

L

ECTURE

T

HEATRE

, C

HARLES

O

AKLEY

B

UILDING

THE IDEA OF PROGRESS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES: CONTEMPORARY LEGACIES OF AN ENDURING

EUROCENTRIC PROPHECY

The will to transform non-Europeans has a long lineage in Western thought. It was crucial to the Enlightenment metaphor of progress outlining a definable, singular and desirable unveiling of knowledge in one direction. By the 19th century influential philosophers, scientists and politicians began to extend the metaphor further by prophesizing that history also had a specific direction, one consistent with that of Western Europe. It was no accident that this imagery and the prophecy of a greater world destiny coincided with colonial expansion of Europe and the establishment of the

North American settler states. The widespread acceptance of the idea of progress informed policies implemented across the colonial world to induce change among indigenous peoples whose societies were thought to be infused with error and backwardness. In North America, the forced removals, assimilation campaigns, confinement to reservations, and induction into wage labour were the remedies.

Today indigenous groups who were spared these changes are now undergoing a parallel application of the idea of progress through the industrialization of their lands. Peoples outside the main corridors of European colonization are the focus of what Michael Klare calls, ‘the race for what’s left.’ I will illustrate this contemporary process, often termed

‘economic development,’ from my work with the Innu peoples of the Labrador-Quebec peninsula in Canada. There and in other places, supposedly positive changes to indigenous peoples’ wellbeing are being associated with acceptance of resource extraction capitalism. The imposition of this agenda is made to be inevitable, not necessarily by abstract principles, but by presenting it as a human rights measure and giving indigenous peoples no meaningful right of refusal. I will suggest that the situation of indigenous peoples in remote areas today starkly illustrates the disastrous consequences of a Eurocentric doctrine; the prophecy that human betterment can only be achieved through a singular path and that other ways of being and knowing are erroneous and backward.

I would like to make this presentation in memory of my teacher at the University of California, Berkeley, Kenneth Bock, who taught me to always be sceptical of ideas purporting to know human nature or be universal.

Colin Samson's research examines the relationships between indigenous peoples and the states and settler populations that have colonised them. This broad focus on the space between the colonized and the colonizer is based on 20 years

’ experience working with the Innu of the Labrador-Quebec peninsula since 1994. His associations with them led to co-authoring the widely-cited human rights report Canada's Tibet: the

killing of the Innu which won the Italian Pio Manzo peace prize in 2000. His book A Way

of Life that Does Not Exist: Canada and the Extinguishment of the Innu won the Pierre

Savard Award in 2006. His most recent book is A World You Do Not Know: Settler

Societies, Indigenous Peoples and the Attack on Cultural Diversity looks at the architecture of European thought, the disastrous implementation of it in North America, and indigenous peoples’ cultural persistence in response to it. Colin has also worked in creative partnerships with filmmaker Sarah Sandring (‘Nutshimit’, 2010, ‘Nutak’ 2013, both for Nirgun Films). In 2014, he was a guest of the American Indian Studies Center at the University of Wyoming, and a keynote speaker at the Atlantic Provinces Political

Science Association in Newfoundland.

Chair: Rampaul Chamba, BSA Membership Services Director

BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

22

British Sociological Association

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize

Nominees 2015

Ansgar Allen

Benign Violence: Education in and beyond the Age of

Reason

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137272850

Emma Bond

Childhood, Mobile

Technologies and Everyday

Experiences: Changing

Technologies = Changing

Childhoods?

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137292520

Edmund Coleman-Fountain

Understanding Narrative

Identity through Lesbian and

Gay Youth

Palgrave Macmillan

9780230361744

David Evans

Paul Gilfillan

A Sociological

Phenomenology of Christian

Redemption

Grosvenor House Publishing

9781781487372

Food Waste: Home

Consumption, Material

Culture and Everyday Life

Bloomsbury

9780857852335

Sam Friedman

Comedy and Distinction: The

Cultural Currency of a ‘Good’

Sense of Humour

Routledge

9780415855037

Monika Krause

The Good Project:

Humanitarian Relief NGOs and the Fragmentation of

Reason

University of Chicago Press

9780226131368

Carmen Lau-Clayton

British Chinese Families:

Parenting Approaches,

Household Relationships and

Childhood Experiences

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137026606

Jan Dobbernack

The Politics of Social

Cohesion in Germany,

France and the United

Kingdom

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137338839

Andrew Dunn

Rethinking Unemployment and the Work Ethic

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137032102

Laura Hyman

Alasdair Jones

On South Bank: The

Production of Public Space

Ashgate

9781409440031

Happiness: Understandings,

Narratives and Discourses

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137321527

Charles Masquelier

Critical Theory and

Libertarian Socialism:

Realizing The Political

Potential of Critical Social

Theory

Bloomsbury

9781441113399

Dominic Pasura

African Transnational

Diasporas: Fractured

Communities and Plural

Identities of Zimbabweans in

Britain

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137326560

Oliver Smith

Contemporary Adulthood and the Night-Time Leisure

Economy

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137344519

Francesca Stella

Lesbian Lives in Soviet and

Post-Soviet Russia:

Post/Socialism and Gendered

Sexualities

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137321237

Katherine Twamley

Love, Marriage and Intimacy among Gujarati Indians: A

Suitable Match

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137294296

Julie Walsh

Narcissism and Its Discontents

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137333438

Ruth Yeoman

Meaningful Work and

Workplace Democracy: A

Philosophy of Work and a

Politics of Meaningfulness

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137370570

Henry Yeomans

Alcohol and Moral Regulation:

Public attitudes, spirited measures and Victorian hangovers

Policy Press

9781447309932

Kieran Durkin

The Radical Humanism of

Erich Fromm

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137436399

David Kaposi

Violence and Understanding in Gaza: The British

Broadsheets' Coverage of the

War

Palgrave Macmillan

9781137439499

Helene Snee

A Cosmopolitan Journey?

Difference, Distinction and

Identity Work in Gap Year

Travel

Ashgate

9781409453031

British Sociological Association

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize

Shortlist 2015

Ansgar Allen

Benign Violence: Education in and beyond the Age of Reason

Palgrave Macmillan ~ 9781137272850

Kieran Durkin

The Radical Humanism of Erich Fromm

Palgrave Macmillan ~ 9781137436399

Sam Friedman

Comedy and Distinction: The Cultural Currency of a ‘Good’ Sense of

Humour

Routledge ~ 9780415855037

Monika Krause

The Good Project: Humanitarian Relief NGOs and the Fragmentation of Reason

University of Chicago Press ~ 9780226131368

Helene Snee

A Cosmopolitan Journey? Difference, Distinction and Identity Work in Gap

Year Travel

Ashgate ~ 9781409453031

Katherine Twamley

Love, Marriage and Intimacy among Gujarati Indians: A Suitable

Match

Palgrave Macmillan ~ 9781137294296

PLENARY

G

UY

S

TANDING

Friday 17 April 13:30 - 15:00

C

ARNEGIE

L

ECTURE

T

HEATRE

, C

HARLES

O

AKLEY

B

UILDING

THE PRECARIAT’S MAGNA CARTA: FROM DENIZENS TO CITIZENS

The Magna Carta was the first class-based set of demands made against the state for rights of citizenship. The original Charter of Liberties of 1215 only became the Magna Carta when the Charter of the Forest was accepted in

1217. Together they advanced the rights of the commons.

New classes have emerged at various times in history, and each new class has had to struggle to attain rights suited to its realities. Today’s rapidly growing mass class is the precariat, consisting of millions of people who are experiencing diverse forms of insecurity, without occupational identity and reduced to being little more than supplicants.

Sadly, neoliberal and utilitarian political interests have whittled away at the precariat’s civil, political, cultural, social and economic rights. It is the first time in history when a large mass of people have been, in effect, converted from citizens into denizens.

This lecture will define the precariat, show how all forms of rights have been taken away, draw out some historical comparisons and present the outlines of a Precariat Charter that would revive, restore and enhance rights of citizenship for w hat is today’s dangerous class. It draws on a book with the same name.

Guy Standing is Professor of Economics at SOAS, University of London, and was previously Professor of Economic Security at the University of Bath and Professor of

Labour Economics at Monash University, Melbourne. Before that, he was Director of the

ILO’s Socio-Economic Security Programme (1999-2005) and Director of the ILO’s Labour

Market Policies Branch.

An economist, with a PhD from Cambridge University, and a Master’s Degree in industrial relations from the University of Illinois, he is a founder and co-President of the Basic

Income Earth Network (BIEN), an NGO promoting basic income as a right, with members in over 50 countries. He has been consultant to many international agencies, including the

UNDP, UNICEF, World Bank, European Commission and DFID, as well as governments and trades unions. In 1995-

96, he was research director for President Mandela’s Labour

Market Policy Commission, co-authoring Restructuring the Labour Market: The South

African Challenge.

Recent books are A Precariat Charter: From Denizens to Citizens (Bloomsbury, 2014), The Precariat: The New

Dangerous Class (Bloomsbury, 2011), Social Income and Insecurity in Gujarat (Routledge, 2010), Work after

Globalization: Building Occupational Citizenship (Elgar, 2009). The Precariat has been translated into thirteen languages.

For the past four years he has also been working on pilot basic income schemes in India, working with SEWA, a union representing women ‘informal’ workers. This has resulted in S.Davala, R.Jhabvala, S.Mehta and G.Standing, Basic

Income: A Transformative Policy for India (New Delhi and London, Bloomsbury, 2015).

Chair: John Bone, BSA Membership Services Director (University of Aberdeen)

25 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

STREAM PLENARIES AND SPECIAL

SESSIONS

W

EDNESDAY

15 A

PRIL

2015 17:45 18:45

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

W110, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

SPORT AND NATIONAL IDENTITY IN A TRANSITIONING SCOTLAND

The theme of the 2015 conference presented an opportunity to take stock of two major events occurring in Scotland in

2014

– the hosting of the XX Commonwealth Games in Glasgow in July and August 2014, one of the largest sports mega-events for any city in the world to host, and the outcome of the referendum on Scottish independence held in

September, which is leading to changes in the relationship between Scotland and the rest of the UK despite the outcome. It is important to demonstrate and showcase the way that sociological insights can contribute to understanding the wider significance of sport and especially sports mega-events for society and the social and cultural processes within which they are embedded.

This stream plenary will focus on such concerns as national identity, media representation and urban branding in contemporary Scotland, as well as sport and the largest sports mega-event in the UK since London 2012.

Sport, Nationalism and Scotland after 2014

Bairner, A.

(Loughborough University)

Bairner, an expert on sport, globalisation and identity and sport and politics in divided nations, will reflect on the implications for sport, nationalism and Scottish identity after the two big events in 2014

Alan Bairner is Professor of Sport and Social Theory at Loughborough University. He has written extensively on the relationship between sport and national identity. He is co-author of Sport, Sectarianism and Society in a Divided

Ireland (1993) and author of Sport, Nationalism and Globalization: European and North American Perspectives

(2001). He also edited Sport and the Irish: Histories, Identities, Issues (2005) and co-edited Sport in Divided Societies

(1999), The Bountiful Game? Football Identities and Finances (2005) and The Politics of the Olympics: a survey

(2010). He serves on the editorial boards of the International Review for the Sociology of Sport, the International

Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, and Soccer and Society and is the founding editor of the Asia Pacific Journal of

Sport and Social Science.

Media Coverage of the 2014 Commonwealth Games and Glasgow as a Sports Host City

Boyle, R.

(University of Glasgow)

Boyle’s talk will draw on preliminary findings from research examining how Glasgow is represented in the Scottish, UK and international media through its hosting of sporting events such as the 2014 Commonwealth Games. What are the dominant discourses that are mobilized? Which particular events play differently in differing national and international media markets? What are the central narratives constructed about the city in various media markets? How do they connect with those being promoted by the organizing committee or those that the city are hoping and expecting to be realized?

Raymond Boyle is a Professor of Communications at the Centre for Cultural Policy Research at the University of

Glasgow. He has published widely on media, sport and identity and is author of Sports Journalism: Context and

Issues (2006: Sage) and co-author of Football in the New Media Age (2004) and Power Play: Sport the Media and

Popular Culture (2009:EUP). His most recent book The Television Entrepreneurs was published in 2012 and coauthored with Lisa Kelly. He also teaches on the UEFA Certificate in Football Management CFM programme in the area of communications, media and public relations. He sits on the editorial board of Media, Culture and Society.

Chair: John Horne (University of Central Lancashire and convenor of the BSA Sport Study Group)

27 BSA Annual Conference 2015

Glasgow Caledonian University

Stream Plenaries and Special Sessions

W

EDNESDAY

15 A

PRIL

2015 17:45-18:45

Families and Relationships

M225, GEORGE MOORE BUILDING

LIVING ARANGEMENTS, INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS AND PERSONAL LIVES

This stream plenary is designed to stimulate debate about the ways in which people organise their living arrangements and conduct their intimate relationships

– and how these have and do reflect both causes and consequences of social change over time.

The ways in which people organise their living arrangements and conduct their intimate relationships are both causes and consequences of social change. Recent decades have seen dramatic changes in patterns of living arrangements, with smaller households and rising proportions of people living alone, changes that reflect significant transformations in family formations. Evidence from various disciplines suggests that the social units people live in may not correspond fully to the family household unit defined in terms of shared residence, and contemporary changes such as ‘living-apart-together’ relationships and non-resident parenting mean provision of care and intimacy are increasingly provided beyond the household. Alongside this, the immediate post-recession period has been marked by increasing numbers of young adults remaining in or returning to the parental home.

There is considerable debate both as to processes underlying these trends, and their likely consequences. For some commentators decline in ‘traditional’ family arrangements is symptomatic of increasing individualisation and greater emphasis on personal autonomy. For others, destandardisation of family and household forms is underpinned by changing expectations of the roles of men and women and the pursuit of democratic and consensual relationships. This panel addresses the implications of transformations in household structures for intimate relationships and personal life, and considers the extent to which these trends signify threats for the future, while for others it is a harbinger of new freedoms and opportunities.

What Living Apart Together (LAT) Tells Us about Agency in Personal Life

Duncan, S.

(University of Bradford)

Shared Intimacies? The Relational Practices of Contemporary Shared Living

Heath, S.

(University of Manchester)

Solo Living and Intimate Relationships

Jamieson, L., Simpson, R.

(University of Edinburgh)

Frontiers

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DISABILITY

Disability is at the centre of contemporary social developments in relation to inequality, entitlement and eligibility.

However, it has only relatively recently been identified as a basis for social division and it is therefore under-theorised and researched within sociology. Following the emergence of the disabled people’s movement, recent decades have seen a marked progression in the status of disabled people, followed by ‘backlash’ or regression. Disability is therefore an example of an area of study in sociology that could again become ignored, together with other social divisions that are based on impairment, while remaining a key locus of societal discrimination.

Campbell, T.

(University of Leeds)

Tom Campbell is sociologist and is involved with the European Sociological Association Disability stream. His work is mainly in the areas of social theory and disability studies, influenced primarily by Michel Foucault, and in particular his writings of the early and mid nineteen seventies. His recent book Dyslexia: The Government of Reading, interrogated

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two key questions 1) the problematisation of a specific human difference - an accredited difficulty with reading and 2) the subsequent creation of an impairment category, analysed as technology of power. He argued that the clinical criteria that formed 'dyslexia' were then negotiated in relation to rationalities concerned with capitalising the population and resultant shifts in the government of literacy. Campbell's argument is that through understanding the genealogy of specific impairment categories we can map the interplay of different rationalities and the circulation of capital in the formation of' ableist' agendas and the constitution of a disabling society - throwing light upon values that regulate the lives of disabled people today. His talk will draw upon this work.

Lifecourse

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CIVIL SOCIETY AND THE AGE OF SILVER: PARADOXES AND AMBIGUITIES

Civil society remains a contested term. A number of scholars have suggested that civil society forms are based increasingly on ethical and rights based concerns. Moreover, the values of persuasion, influence and charity that may have previously dominated civil society organisations (CSOs) are being replaced by new social networks of trust, reflexivity and reciprocity. This is happening in the context of continued economic and political crises that are having profound and harmful effects on CSOs. Such issues throw up challenges for researchers interested in social participation and volunteering in later life. Research has focused on how engagement in retirement leads to mutually beneficial effects for the well-being of older people and their communities. Evidence suggests that older volunteers are likely to come from ‘younger’ and ‘healthier’ older groups, are better educated, religious, and have higher social status.

However, research does not appear to take account of the changes in civil society that are postulated by theoretical writings on the topic. It focuses instead on the relationship between participation and indicators of successful ageing. It is important to examine this critically because, as some writers suggest, the promotion of civic engagement and volunteering among older people should not be assumed to be benign; rather the rhetoric in this area implicitly lets governments off the hook in providing for health and social needs. This paper will draw links between theoretical literature on civil society forms and social participation in later life and highlight areas of contention and possible avenues for future research.

Rees Jones, I.

(Cardiff University)

Ian Rees Jones is Professor of Sociological Research at Cardiff University and Director of the Wales Institute of Social

& Economic Research, Data & Methods (WISERD) and is leading the ESRC WISERD Civil Society Centre

( http://www.wiserd.ac.uk/ ). He is also Co-Investigator on a large ESRC funded study of dementia and the Wales

Administrative Data Research Centre. He has published extensively on Inequalities in Health, Ageing and Later Life,

Lifestyles and Social Relations, Class, Community and Social Change and Transparency and Trust in Health and

Welfare. He is a Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales and of the UK Academy of Social Sciences. He is an editor of Sociology of Health and Illness Monograph Series editor for the journal.

Chair: Wendy Martin (Brunel University)

Race, Ethnicity and Migration

CARNEGIE LECTURE THEATRE, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

RACE, ETHNICITY AND RACISM IN SCOTLAND

How Irish Catholics Became Scottish

Virdee, S.

(University of Glasgow)

Sociologists and others have been engaged in a sustained and sometimes heated debate about the social position of, and inequalities faced, by those of Irish Catholic descent in contemporary Scotland. On the whole, this debate has been marked by an absence of any sustained analysis of the historical conditions and social forces that might help us to better understand this present, and particularly how we got here. In rejecting this obsession with the present - a failing that David Inglis has described as characteristic of British sociology more generally over the past two decades

I develop a historically-situated explanation that will identify the key social actors and institutions that helped facilitate, over the course of the twentieth century

, the relative ‘integration’ of a social group that had once been deemed

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incompatible with membership of the Scottish nation by virtue of their alleged race and religion.

Satnam Virdee is Professor of Sociology at the University of Glasgow and founding Director of the Centre for

Research on Racism, Ethnicity and Nationalism (CRREN). He is the author or co-author of six books including most recently Racism, Class and the Racialized Outsider (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014). As part of the programme of work funded by the ESRC and being carried out within the Centre for Dynamics on Ethnicity (CoDE) at the Universities of

Manchester and Glasgow, he is currently engaged (with Laurence Brown and Stephen Ashe) in a major archival and interview study seeking to recover t he ‘hidden history’ of Britain’s anti-racist civil rights movement.

Migration, Ethnicity and Poverty in Scotland: What Has Changed in 25 Years of Research?

Netto, G.

(Heriot Watt University)

Scotland has been shaped by migratory flows

– of both emigration and immigration, which are strongly associated with poverty and difficulties in seeking employment. Growing income and wealth inequalities and in-work poverty, the current climate of austerity, far-reaching cuts to public services and reported increases in the use of food banks in the

UK all present a compelling case for examining the relationship between migration, ethnicity and poverty. Drawing on experience of leading two audits of research into minority ethnic issues in Scotland in 2001 and 2011, this paper identifies some of the changing dynamics and persistent trends relating to new arrivals and established migrants in

Scotland from 1990 to the current time. The paper also explores the extent to which these trends are similar and distinctive from those identified in England and other Western European countries. Finally, the paper explores opportunities and challenges to advancing understanding of how to tackle poverty in ethnic minority communities, within the context of proposed increases in devolved powers in Scotland following the referendum on independence for Scotland.

Dr. Gina Netto is Associate Professor in Migration, Ethnicity and Place at the Institute of Social Policy, Housing,

Environment and Real Estate (I-SPHERE) at Heriot Watt University. Her long-standing research interests in the influence of ethnicity on people’s lived experiences spans across a number of policy areas, with most recent work focusing on poverty, employment and housing (exclusion). Her research has been funded by the European

Commission, the European Union, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the Scottish Government, local authorities and voluntary organisations. She is currently leading a JRF funded study on identifying international lessons on innovative approaches to tackling extreme housing exclusion within eleven countries.

Chair/Discussant: Dr Aaron Winter (University of East London)

Science and Technology Studies

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TECHNOSCIENCE TRANSITIONS: WHAT CAN SOCIOLOGY OF SOCIAL CHANGE LEARN FROM SCIENCE

AND TECHNOLOGY STUDIES

Images of transition, as well as the dynamics of progression and regression captured in those images, have long been central to sociological theory and research. Bu t if sociological attention to ‘the good society’ has been a powerful force for intervening in

– and creating new imaginaries for – social change, perspectives from Science and Technology

Studies (STS) may diffract this attention in two important ways. Fir st, to the extent that processes of ‘progression’ and

‘regression’ are located in social institutions, and in cultural phenomena, they are also powerfully co-produced by scientific and technological developments

– for example, in the financial, environmental, medical industrial or military spheres. STS thus directs attention to how technoscience might enable, constrain, and mediate societies in transition.

Second, discourses of advance or regress, as well as the temporal dynamics foreclosed by the very conj unction ‘or,’ are potentially thrown into question by an entanglement with science and technology: how, for example, do technological advances in the financial and military spheres disrupt the linear flow of social progress? STS thus asks us to attend care fully to the territories and temporalities of ‘transition’ that are mobilised on behalf of social change.

This stream plenary

Technoscience transitions: what can the sociology of social change learn from science and

technology studies

– foregrounds these issues, extending and advancing the critical themes at the heart of the conference. Bringing together leading scholars form sociology and STS, it asks: to what extent can societies in transition be thought of as technoscientific artefacts? How do science and technology trouble the normative binaries of past and present that so many notions of social change rest upon? Most importantly: how can a committed attention to, and entanglement with, the life sciences, the environment, new forms of industrial design, the algorithmic logic of

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advanced capitalism, heavily digitized forms of violence and war, and so on, open up new vistas for sociologists are to think about the kinds of societies, and the forms of transition, that they want to bring into being?

This plenary features leading speakers on these questions: Professor Lucy Suchman (Sociology, University of

Lancaster), Professor Emerita Hilary Rose (Social Policy, University of Bradford), Professor Steven Yearley

(Sociology, University of Edinburgh) and Professor Donald Mackenzie (both Sociology, Edinburgh).

Sociology of Education

M137, GEORGE MOORE BUILDING

James, D.

(Cardiff University)

WHEN STANDARDS TRUMP OPPORTUNITY: A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

This paper considers transitions in secondary educational provision in England and the impact on equality using a

Bourdieusian analytical framework.

The paper uses snippets of analysis from three different projects, all concerned with secondary schools in England, which collectively suggest that curricula and pedagogic innovation, however carefully done, is distorted or destroyed by the imperative to maximise GCSE passes at grade C and above.

This fits neatly with the theme of ‘Societies in Transition: Progression or Regression’ as the paper will consider the ways in which apparent progress within educational policy can be hampered or militated against by contradictory parallel polices. In this way progress can sometimes lead to regression.

Chair: Nicola Ingram (University of Bath)

Sociology Special Issue 2014 Event

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SOCIOLOGY AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

This plenary aims to introduce and elaborate on the articles, and the theoretical framing developed within the 2014 special issue of the journal Sociology. The special issue relates directly and indirectly to the theme of the 2015 BSA conference. It is focussed on challenging the coordinates of the debate on what constitutes a crisis and it therefore interrogates the contemporary sociological understandings of those categories linked to crises such as recoveries, transitions and social or cultural transformations. There is thus a clear connection between the central problem of

‘crisis’ and that of ‘transition’; defined in the Annual Conference brief as a sociologically informed, progressive response to the anxieties, divisions, injustices and deprivations of contemporary society. The themes of this plenary respond to the call for an ‘informed and critical’ response to the ‘powerful discourses that support the status quo.’ Specifically, the papers in the panel show how societies that are experiencing fundamental challenges to established norms, institutions and orders, require sociologists to provide a social critique, rather than purely a sociological perspective, on such transformations.

But, what would it mean to deconstruct and interrogate the ongoing global economic crisis as sociologists? In an important sense, as papers in the panel will illustrate, it is to move beyond criticism of how sociology has failed adequately to understand the crisis towards a critique of the very concept of crisis. This is based on the presupposition that the development of a sociological imagination that engages more incisively with economic phenomena, and thereby produces a ‘sociological perspective’ on the economy, would only go part of the way to interrogating the formulation of ‘global economic crisis’ as a particular kind of transition. Indeed, sociologists have already demonstrated how economic crises are precipitated through the social construction of markets, and the problem of socially produced nature of knowledge that performs ‘the economy’. We have seen criticisms of the institutional and cultural configurations of late capitalism, accounts of the embeddedness and political constitution of markets and the need to think of alternatives beyond the politics-economics matrix. A critical approach to the crisis is necessarily beyond empiricism and hermeneutics and methodologically beyond the confines of disciplinary insularity. It involves challenging the coordinates of the debate on what constitutes a crisis by offering a critique of the ‘metanarrative’ of crisis. Specifically, this metanarrative has externalised and objectified the economy as separate domain from society.

It has (re)produced a fundamental disjunction between economy and society as different domains of life.

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The plenary comprises of seven papers that will each address this challenge as part of a broader project of questioni ng the category of crisis itself and the ostensibly ‘economic’ nature of the crisis and its manifestations. By considering the apparent limitations of sociology, the contributors will explore how sociology, being neither above nor outside the crisis, artic ulates a mode of thinking the ‘economy’ that is itself an expression of the crisis. The session will thus consider the possibilities for a sociology of the crisis that internalises this contradiction and thereby produce knowledge that better appreciates its own limits and barriers by moving away from sociological criticism towards a critique of society and its fetishized separation from the economy.

Turn Sociology against Itself. Turn the University Upside Down.

Holloway, J.

(BUA Puebla, Mexico)

In this paper, John Holloway reflects on the present limitations of sociology. He argues that we should 'turn sociology against itself' and 'turn the university upside down'. Holloway argues that we must consider the possibility of transcending the barriers that separate ‘us’ – the social scientists from ‘them’ – the subjects of study. It is possible to

(re)constitute a ‘we’ by rethinking objectivity and subjectivity in such a way that creates a form of sociological critique that is integrated into global struggles for a dignified social existence and the possibility for a different world.

Towards an Alliance of Sociology, Political Economy and Heterodox Economics: Social Scientists of the

Word Unite!

Brown, A.

(University of Leeds)

Academic, student, public and media discontent with the mainstream economics profession has had little impact on the profession itself, some eight years after the onset of the crisis that it was widely criticised for failing to anticipate or explain. The economics profession continues to promulgate a version of economic theory that appears as an individualistic ideology incapable of proper recognition of social structure and social agency. Governments continue to heed the advice of this profession. Widespread austerity has benefited finance capital and the social elite whilst affecting those in society most in need of help. It is time for sociologists, political economists and heterodox economists to unite in order to build a strategic opposition, and an alternative, to the individualism of mainstream economics. Such an alliance can demonstrate and assert the power of the sociological imagination, in conjunction with other social sciences and heterodox economists, to explain the crisis, its aftermath and to offer an integrated vision of an alternative socioeconomic future.

A Dialogue of Critical Solidarity: Public Sociology and Social Movements’ Knowledge Production in Conversation

Cox, L.

(National University of Ireland, Maynooth)

Sociology, it might be thought, should have interrelationships between the different aspects of the current crisis

– economic, political, ecological, international, cultural

– and in analysing how social crises develop and their possible outcomes. Yet with few exceptions, the public intellectuals whose voices are heard outside of academia are not sociologists. This short talk suggests that this intellectual marginality stems partly from naivete about the sociology of our own knowledge and our interlocutors’ interests in particular. Historically, sociology has repeatedly reestablished its social relevance through dialogue with movements for social change; this talk calls for a dialogue of critical solidarity between public sociology and new forms of knowledge production in social movements. The article discusses these new forms in greater depth.

Anti-social Finance: Harnessing the Social

Harvie, D., Dowling, E.

(University of Leicester)

In a political-economic environment of intersecting crises

– financial, economic, fiscal, social reproduction, political legitimacy

– policy actors in the UK and globally are promoting so-called social finance as a solution to various social problems. Developing out of the ‘social investment’ perspective (associated with ‘third way’ thinkers such as

Anthony Giddens), new social finance champions social investment markets that promote the harnessing of private wealth to finance social services once provided by the state. Beyond financial innovation, such a model facilitates social innovation that encourages more ‘efficient’ social services via ‘competitive’ rates of return for social investors, whether ‘venture philanthropists’ or more conventional financial institutions, who would ‘do well by

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doing good’. The social impact of social finance will, we argue, be less benign than its champions assert—as private social wealth is harnessed to finance social projects, the (waged and unwise) labour performed in the social sphere will be harnessed in the pursuit of profit, making such activities not only ‘productive’ but subject to financial discipline. Since financial markets function as a set of mechanisms that forces different forms of labour to compete with one another, social finance and the social investment market will subsume a whole new swathe of activities within the logic of value commensuration and competition across society.

Material Returns: Cultures of Valuation, Biofinancialisation and the Autonomy of Politics

Lilley, S., Papadopoulos, D.

(University of Leicester)

Along with many o ther commentators, our focus is less on a specific ‘crisis’ that we might shorthand as the GFC; more with understanding the implications of the perpetual crisis in which we seem to have lived since the 1970s; an understanding in which the GFC appears as but one particularly frothy moment amongst many. Both cause and consequence of this perpetual crisis is an ever more ubiquitous culture of (financial) valuation that subjects all manner of things

– goods, ideas, activities, social productions and reproduction, feelings, spaces, times (including, particularly, futures)

– to techniques of valorisation that seek commensuration, and hence tradability, through a measure of money that lies at the core of an imperial process of ‘biofinancialisation’. With commons increasingly at the heart of that which is valorised and traded, the question arises as to where one might seek to stand against biofinancialisation and it is question which we struggle to answer with confidence. Instead we content ourselves for now with indexing and assaying some of the facts, factions and fictions that might give us some sort of handle on what now is to be done.’

Workers Self-management and the Sociology of Work

Ozarow, D., Croucher, R.

(Middlesex University)

Analysing the sustainability of Argentina’s worker recovered companies (WRCs) vis-à-vis their principles of equity and workers’ self-management from the inception of the movement of factory recoveries after the 2001-2 economic crisis, we posit these developments against four key sociological themes to assess the extent to which these developments challenge some tenets of sociology of work. The number of worker recovered companies has increased, they represent a viable production model, they have maintained their central principles and flourished

—all of this occurring despite the global economic crisis, legal and financial pressures to adopt capitalist practices and management structures, the risk of market absorption, and against state attempts of co-optation, demobilisation and depoliticisation of the movement. Such experiments, we argue, today function as a much-needed international beacon of an alternative vision for labour and that integration of their experience has potential to revitalise sociology.

Chairs: Ana Cecilia Dinerstein (University of Bath); Dr Gregory Schwartz (University of Bristol); Dr Graham Taylor

(University of the West of England)

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

CARNEGIE LECTURE THEATRE, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

KEEPING PEOPLE IN THEIR PLACE? FEAR, ANGER, AND ANTI-IMIGRATION CAMPAIGNS

In this talk we argue that exploring uncomfortable emotions and their circulation is essential for understanding social and spatial processes. We put forward an approach to emotion as deeply imbued with the circulation of power, refuting the notion that working with emotion is cosy work, or an internal process separate from social relations.

Drawing on a research project that traces the impacts of government anti-immigration campaigns in cities across the

UK, we explore 1. The spaces and places of government interventions. 2. The movement of emotion and resistance between places 3. How specific urban histories of migration and resistance are used to counter such campaigns (or not).

We argue that as border control in the UK is becoming increasingly domesticated

– through legislation requiring landlords, health workers, teachers, universities and employers to police immigration status

– it also relies increasingly on fear and anger. This includes fear and anger about the figure of the migrant ‘out of place’ as well as the fear of migrants, of those who might be suspected of being migrants, or those who might be caught up in managing immigration status. But we also show that such measure provoke anger which in some cases can be a productive force for liberating or reclaiming a place in the public sphere for those whom fear would otherwise exclude.

By working through this example we demonstrate that emotion, or indeed, ‘the personal' is never separate from the social and political and foreground the role of place in providing opportunities for resistance and hope, within and across the specific contexts of different cities.

Jackson, E.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

Jones, H.

(University of Warwick)

Environment and Society

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ENERGY SYSTEM TRANSITIONS: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE IN PROGRESSION AND REGRESSION

The session fits with the conference theme in three key ways: 1) it will raise questions about the role of sociology in the pursuit and constitution of socially progressive ideas as associated with post-carbon ways of life; 2) it will provide a forum for debates concerning the argument that energy transitions are in actuality societal transitions; that energy is society; and 3) it will connect with questions about the role of social science in challenging powerful discourses that support the status quo. We explore each contribution in further details below.

In detail:

Sociology and Post-carbonism

As a discipline, sociology has been gradually realising its potential to make an empirical and theoretical contribution to addressing environmental concerns, seeking to form a new development paradigm. Extensive works in environmental social science undertaken over the last three decades are testament to this (e.g. Redclift and Woodgate, 2010;

Szersynski and Urry, 2010; Pretty et al, 2007; Macnaghten, 1998). While noting the mounting interest from sociologists, Wainwright (2011) points to how sociology is ‘warming’ to the study of climate change.

Urry (2011) , in his most recent book, further makes a case for putting ‘society’ into climate change research. By turning the sociological imagination towards this topic, questions of social order, social change and cultural identities are making their way into debates surrounding issues of global environmental change ( Yearley, 2009 ) that have until now been largely

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dominated by the behavioural and natural sciences. Here, contributions argue that better use be made of social sciences’ intellectual resources. In particular,

Shove (2010) suggests that we move beyond the dominant paradigm of

‘ABC’ – ‘attitude, behaviour, choice’ that is underpinned by a simplistic and ultimately problematic conception of social action. The session will explore these debates around the role of sociological insights in transitions toward postcarbon societies.

Energy Transition as Social Transition

This plenary session will consider the key implications of global energy choices

– both for social science and for society. Energy can be over-used as a lens for viewing social processes. But it is nonetheless of profound importance.

Understanding possible ‘sustainable energy’ transformations requires attention to many tricky issues in social theory: around agency and structure and the interplay of power, contingency and practice. These factors are as much shaping of the knowledges and normativities supposedly driving transformation, as they are shaped by them. So, ideas and hopes about possible pathways for change

– as well as notions of ‘the transition’ itself – can be deeply constituted by incumbent interests. The session will aim to initiate discussion on challenges related to this for social science, focusing particularly on the difficulties associated with enabling more democratic exercise of social agency.

(Stirling 2014, Energy Research and Social Science, 1 pp. 83-95.)

Challenging Carbon ‘Lock-in’: A Sociological Evidence Base for Policy Geared towards Inculcating More

Sustainable Ways of Life

Central to debates concerned with societal transition toward low-carbon living is the imperative to encourage individual subjects to shift their behaviours to support more sustainable ways of life; choosing to eat less meat, consuming less energy and water, and wasting less of what we do consume. Armed with the most topical information, contemporary consumers might be considered somewhat short-sighted not to cease meat eating as a practice, driving to work and leaving on the lights when stepping out of a room. However, despite the availability of information concerning how much money we could save were we to consume and waste less, we continue performing practices that demands such consumption. Suggesting that the ways in which we consume are the result of interconnection between meanings, knowledges and materials, this plenary session explores the complexity of social, cultural and material factors contributing to the entrenchment of unsustainable ways of life. In this way, the session will unpack the nuances of a widely held perception of consumers as free agents of ‘choice’ and explore what a sociologically informed understanding of practice could mean for future strategies aimed at inculcating more sustainable ways of life in the face of global environmental changes. In addition, to this debates about lock-in and dominant discourses also highlight the role of incumbent actors and organisations (such as energy companies) and wider neo-liberal rationalities that underlay current market formations in limiting social progression or change. The session will further engage with these critical perspectives and reflect on the space that sociology as a discipline can open up for marginal voices.

Shove, E.

(Lancaster University)

Stirling, A.

(University of Sussex)

Burningham, K.

(University of Surrey)

Families and Relationships

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SOCIOLOGICAL AND POLICY PERSPECTIVES ON FAMILY AND RELATIONAL LIVES: LOOKING BACK AND

LOOKING FORWARD

This plenary will draw upon the substantial body of work undertaken by Rosalind Edwards, which will offer a stimulating overview of sociological perspectives on family lives and policies over time.

Rosalind has researched and published widely in the areas of family life and policies. Her work takes a critical sociological approach coupled with feminist relational perspectives to understand family life and in doing so she has engaged with some of the major ideas and assumptions underpinning the development of family policies over time.

She has developed a cumulative programme of work on 'mixing and mixedness', with a particular focus on parenting

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mixed race/ethnicity children, including considerations of whether and how things have changed over the past half a century and developing new agendas to take forward in thinking about mixedness and mixing. Another strand of her research has documented/tracked the meanings, experiences and flows of prescribed (sibling) and chosen

(friendship) relationships for children and young people, and how these relate to their sense of self as their individual and family biographies unfold. Rosalind is also currently developing an historical comparative analysis around family issues Drawing on this body of work, her plenary talk will address the overall conference theme of Societies in

Transition: Progression or Regression?

Law, Crime and Rights

A005, GOVAN MBEKI BUILDING

VIOLENCE AGAINST SOUTH ASIAN WOMEN

In this Stream Plenary President of the International Sociological Association (ISA), Professor Margaret Abraham, from New York, will speak on h er research centred on violence against South Asian women. Margaret’s work lends itself to the theme of ‘societies in transition: progression or regression’ since gender based violence is such an important part of debates about progress or regress. There are major debates as to whether violence against women is increasing as a result of either backlash or the crisis; or whether the evidence of a significant decline is robust.

Positioning this issue of gendered progress or regress in the context of transnational debates offers a major contribution to the conference.

Medicine, Health and Illness

C236, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

PUBLIC HEALTH, NEO-LIBERALISM AND HEALTH INEQUALITIES

In this talk, Paul Bissell reflects on the one of the ironies of contemporary public health policy and practice in its engagement with form of evidence around the social shaping of unequal health outcomes. Public health, with its epistemological roots in the discipline of social epidemiology, now increasingly privileges explanations for the social gradient in health with reference to evidence of the extent of social inequality, particularly income inequality. Whilst the mobilization of this evidence has been highly successful in terms of galvanising public debate about the deleterious health and social impacts of inequality, it comes at a time when there is relatively little engagement between social epidemiology and the discipline of medical sociology, which historically and currently has much to offer those interested in understanding how inequality shapes health. In particular, there is now growing interest and scholarship in medical sociology on how neo-liberal practices discourses and practices might differentially impact the body.

Paul Bissell summarises this literature and argues for greater rapprochement between epidemiology, public health and medical sociology. Drawing on some recent work exploring shame and dependency, he explores some of the avenues for critical dialogue

– and the tensions – that a focus on neo-liberal practices and discourses may bring to debates about the causes of health inequalities.

Sociology Special Issue 2015 Event

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SOCIOLOGIES OF EVERYDAY LIFE

Why Everyday Life Matters

Back, L.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

Migrant Urbanisms: Ordinary Cities and Everyday Resistance

Hall, S.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

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Everyday Experiences of Sexism in Male-dominated Professions: A Bourdieusian Perspective

Powell, A., Sang, K.

(University of New South Wales)

The Scriptural Economy, the Forbes Figuration and the Racial Order: Everyday Life in South Africa 1850

1930

Stanley, L.

(University of Edinburgh)

Chairs: Sarah Neal (University of Surrey) and Karim Murji (The Open University)

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Families and Relationships

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ANIMALS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF ENHANCEMENT: PROGRESSION OR REGRESSION?

The BSA Animal/Human Studies Group will invite papers that address the annual conference theme 'Societies in

Transition: Progression or Regression?' by considering the ways in which 'enhancement technologies' (e.g. genetic modification) have meant that humans can 'modify' nonhuman animal subjects for human use (for food, for medical experiments, etc) in more ways than ever. The main question would explore whether the use of such enhancement technologies for the manipulation of nonhuman animal subjects can be considered to be progression or regression.

Greening the Animal: The Case of the Enviropig

Miele, M., Rucinska, K.

(Cardiff University)

Enviropig™ is a trademark used to designate a genetically modified line of Yorkshire pigs that produces an enzyme called phytase in the salivary glands, and secretes the enzyme in the saliva. This enzyme enables the pig to digest the high concentration of phosphorous that is present in the animal feed, and it reduces the environmental pollution caused by the high concentration of phosphorous in the pig’s manure. The Enviropig research started in 1995 and was funded by various institutions, including the Canadian Farmer Organization called Ontario Pork. It was very successful and in 2006-7 obtained the Patents in USA and China.

However, in 2012, the University of Guelph, ended the Enviropig project because the Can adian ‘Ontario Pork’ suspended the funding as they feared a worldwide rejection of GM pork, that would affect the whole Canadian export sales. As part of this process the entire herd of Enviropigs was killed. (Clark, J., 2014).

Drawing on insights from STS this paper addresses an interest in knowledge controversies as generative of political events. Focusing on the uncertainties generated by the case of the Enviropig, it explores how such events give rise to new ways of practising relations between science and democracy (Callon et al, 2009).

This exploration starts to map the affordances of the newly created and short-lived enviropigs as they moved from being experimental animals, food animals, rescue animals and frozen semen with the aim of tracing the ‘partisanship’

(Whatmore, 2009) of scientific knowledge claims.

References

Callon, M., Lascoumes, P., & Barthe, Y. (2009) Acting in an uncertain world: an essay on technical democracy (inside

technology), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press.

Clark, J.

L. (2014) Living with transgenic animals’ Humanimalia: a journal of human/animal interface studies, 6 (1),

88-113.

Whatmore, S. (2009)‘Mapping knowledge controversies: science, democracy and the redistribution of expertise’,

Progress in Human Geography, 33 (5) 587-598.

Author Biographies

Mara Miele is Reader in Human Geography in the School of Planning and Geography at Cardiff University. Her research draws upon insights from STS and animal geography and it addresses ethical foods consumption and the role of animal welfare science and technology in challenging the role of farmed animals in current agricultural practices and policies. Recent publications include Latimer, J. and Miele, M. (2013) ‘Naturecultures? Science, Affect and the Nonhuman’, Theory, Culture & Society,. Miele, M. (2011) ‘The taste of happiness: free range chicken’,

Environment and Planning A.

Karolina Rucinska is a PhD student in the School of Planning and Geography at Cardiff University. Her research project is on the geographies of science, the case of transgenic animals.

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Cute Power: Anthropomorphic 'Enhancement' and Ethical Regression in Digital Representations of Other

Animals

Cole, M., Stewart, K.

(Open University)

In this paper we critically analyse digital media as a cultural space in which children interact with dominant representations of other animals. In these spaces, we argue that children are socialized into dominant practices (such as eating other animals’ flesh) and acceptance of the mediation of human-nonhuman animal relations through a capitalist lens of commodification. For instance, in social media games such as ‘Farmville’ or ‘Family Farm’, players adopt a ‘farmer’ role and control a farm or ranch populated with ‘cute’ representations of other animals. The deployment of ‘cute style’ legitimates and conceals the violence that underpins dominant practices in the non-digital realm. Furthermore, we argue that digital representations cultivate and channel childr en’s empathy in ways which tend to insulate those violent and exploitative practices from critical questioning, while simultaneously developing and enacting valued character traits of compassion, caring and responsibility. Children thereby tacitly learn to internalize and reproduce the skills of ‘correctly’ categorizing other animals, and therefore their ‘correct’ relationships with them

(to eat them, love them, spectate them and so on). We argue that caring relationships are therefore restricted to

‘types’ of animals that reproduce dominant human-nonhuman animal relationships and do not disturb exploitative capitalist practices, resulting in a profound impoverishment of children’s capacity for ethical critique of human violence towards other animals.

Author Biographies

Dr Matthew Cole is an Honorary Associate and Associate Lecturer with the Open University. Dr Kate Stewart is a

Lecturer in Social Aspects of Medicine and Health Care at the School of Medicine, University of Nottingham. Their first jointly authored book, a critical sociological analysis of the socialization of human-nonhuman animal relations in childhood, was published by Ashgate in Autumn 2014: Our Children and Other Animals: The Cultural Construction of

Human-Animal Relations in Childhood. Their research interests also include the genealogy and representation of veganism and the relationship between public health and plant-based diets.

Chair: Dr Rhoda Wilkie (University of Aberdeen)

Lifecourse

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YOUTH IN TRANSITION: PROGRESSION OR REGRESSION

The concept of ‘youth in transition’ can be understood in two interlinked ways. Firstly, in terms of youth transitions – from education to work, but also in relation to family, housing, leisure and political citizenship

– which remain a prominent but contested concern for the sociology of youth. Secondly, we can reflect on how the social changes of the late 20th and early 21st Centuries have impacted on young people’s lives; in other words, whether youth as a lifestage is itself in transition. The extension of this period of life and the complexity of youth transitions have led to debates concerning greater choice in young people’s paths alongside the ongoing influence of structural factors.

Rising living standards are no longer guaranteed, and both popular and academic anxieties surround the prospects for current and future generations.

Roberts, K.

(University of Liverpool)

This paper identifies successive periods since the mid-20th century between which there have been major changes in the youth life stage. These are the era of the baby-boomers, the knowledge economy, and the 21st century. It is argued that the current period is different from all predecessors in several important ways. The paper also assesses sociology’s progress in understanding youth. It is argued that progress has been uneven. Sociology has been better at describing outcomes than in explaining historical trends and changes. Also, progress has been much greater in the analysis of education-to-work, and family, household and housing life stage transitions than in grasping the significance of youth cultures or youth as political actors.

Ken Roberts is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the University of Liverpool. His books include Key Concepts in

Sociology (2009), Youth in Transition: Eastern Europe and the West (2009), Class in Contemporary Britain (2011), and Sociology: An Introduction (2012).

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Discussant: Gary Pollock (Manchester Metropolitan University)

Chair: Helene Snee (Manchester Metropolitan University)

Sociology of Religion

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RELIGION IN TRANSITION

In line with the conference theme ‘Societies in Transition: Progression or Regression?” we aim to emphasise the important contribution made by the sociology of religion to our understanding and evaluation of societal change. Our stream-plenary speaker is at the forefront of research on the changing role of religion in public and private life in twentieth- and twenty-first century Britain.

Bruce, S.

(University of Aberdeen)

Professor Steve Bruce has been Professor of Sociology at Aberdeen since 1991, and was elected a Fellow of the

British Academy in 2003. He has published widely on the relationship between religion and politics in Britain and is a leading theorist and historian of secularization. His recent books include Why are Women More Religious than Men?

(with Marta Trzebiatowska, OUP 2012), Politics and Religion in the United Kingdom (Routledge 2012) and

Secularization: In Defence of an Unfashionable Theory (OUP 2011).

Theory

W110, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

THE CHALLENGE OF THE RICH: THEORISING THE POWER AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ELITES AND

ELITE WEALTH

Sociologists have long been interested in theories of class. But have they paid sufficient attention to structural changes in political economy that have led to an increasing gap between economic elites and the rest? Evidence from the fields of geography, sociology and economics suggests that, in important ways, current inequality levels may be rendering social life more akin to the 19th century in terms of class divides, increasingly meagre state support for housing and subsistence needs, and growing ideological support for forced labour schemes. However, partly inspired by Bourdieu’s work, sociological investigations of class in recent years have typically placed more emphasis on the lived experience of class from a cultural perspective. This plenary is part of an attempt to rebalance debates by focusing on the economic elites

– the rich – and their role in promoting economic inequality. Our plenary speakers,

Professor Julie Froud and Professor Andrew Sayer, are thinkers who are working to rejuvenate the study of elites by exploring how they generate their wealth, and the consequences of the inequality that results. The plenary talks will explore issues such as how elite power involves a capture of the political agenda and how elite wealth is produced by the control of resources which generate unearned income.

Froud, J.

(University of Manchester)

Sayer, A.

(Lancaster University)

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Work, Employment and Economic Life

A005, GOVAN MBEKI BUILDING

FUN AT WORK

As several European economies emerge from recession this plenary will offer insights into conditions of work in relation to discourses of fun, happiness and transgression. The discussion will centre around how fun is deployed by employers as a stimulant to productivity and conversely how fun is used subversively in working environments by employees to relieve boredom, undermine colleagues or challenge corporate objectives, amongst many other things.

Presidential Event

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IS THERE A BRITISH SOCIETY?

Sociologists never accepted the view once expressed by Mrs Thatcher that there is no such thing as a society only individuals and their families but the conflation of society and nation-state has long been regarded as problematic.

The possibility of a ‘British society’ as combining structural arrangements and imagined community - whether of ‘one nation’ or ‘equal citizens’ - is complicated not only by the multi-national state with more or less devolved governance but also by other, sometimes widening socio-economic and socio-cultural divisions. This panel brings together experts on nationalism, ethnicity, biographical and social change and social theory to engage with the audience in a dialogue about whether sociologists have a critical use for the concept ‘British society’ now and in the future.

BSA president, Lynn Jamieson will chair a panel of Dr Michael Rosie, Sociology, University of Edinburgh, Dr Nasar

Meer, University of Strathclyde and Professor Ann Phoenix, IOE, University of London and make sure they give the audience time to join in.

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British Sociological Association

Annual Members’ Meeting

Wednesday 15 April 2015

12:45 - 13:45

A005, Govan Mbeki Building

Chair: Howard Wollman, Chair of the BSA Board of Trustees

The Annual Members

’ Meeting is the principal mechanism by which members can register their views on services and strategy within the British

Sociological Association (BSA). It is also an opportunity to discuss matters concerning the state of the discipline more widely.

Members of the BSA Board of Trustees will speak to the Annual Review, explaining the current strategy and will invite members

’ comments on the ways in which the Association is achieving its objectives.

All members are welcome

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BSA GROUP MEETINGS

A number of BSA Study Groups and various other groups will be holding events outside of paper sessions, during break times. All of these are listed below and all delegates are welcome to attend.

Alcohol Study Group

Study Group Meeting

Animal Human Study Group

Study Group Meeting

Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Friday 17 April, 15:00 - 15:15

Bourdieu Study Group

Study Group Meeting Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Diaspora, Migration and Transnationalism Study Group

Study Group Meeting Friday 17 April, 10:30 - 11:00

Roundtable 9, Conference Hall

M225, George Moore Building

Roundtable 1, Conference Hall

Roundtable 14, Conference Hall

Families and Relationships Study Group

Study Group Meeting Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Race and Ethnicity Study Group

Study Group Meeting

Scottish Studies Group

Study Group Meeting

Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Sociologists Outside Academia Group

Group Meeting Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Sociology, Psychoanalysis and the Psychosocial Study Group

Study Group Meeting Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Sociology of Rights Study Group

Study Group Meeting

Sport Study Group

Study Group Meeting

Theory Study Group

Study Group Meeting

Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Thursday 16 April, 12:30 - 13:30

Roundtable 2, Conference Hall

Carnegie Lecture Theatre

Roundtable 7, Conference Hall

Roundtable 3, Conference Hall

Roundtable 8, Conference Hall

Roundtable 5, Conference Hall

Roundtable 4, Conference Hall

Roundtable 6, Conference Hall

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BOOK LAUNCH AND RECEPTION:

SOCIOLOGISTS' TALES

Thursday 16 April 2015, 18:45 - 19:00

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The BSA and Policy Press are very pleased to announce the launch of

Sociologists’ Tales, edited by the Early

Career Forum Convenors. This book collects the thoughts and experiences of the UK's top sociologists from multiple generations. Inspired by their own experiences and feedback from other early career researchers, Dr Katherine

Twamley (Institute of Education), Dr Mark Doidge (University of Brighton) and Dr Andrea Scott (University of

Chichester) gathered sociologists' thoughts on why they chose their career paths, how they stayed on those paths and the advice they would offer the next generation of sociological minds. The book aims to provide an understanding of the discipline as a challenging yet intensely rewarding one and to demonstrate its importance for the future.

The Editors and some of the contributors will be present at the launch and the books will be available for sale at a discount for all conference delegates. Please join us for a glass of wine and celebrate what it means to be a sociologist!

PUBLISHERS’ RECEPTION

Thursday 16 April 2015, 19:00 - 20:00

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Wine and non-alcoholic drinks will be available to delegates while you browse the exhibitions.

Everyone welcome.

Throughout the conference, exhibitions will be located in Saltire Centre. Stand staff will be available to speak to delegates for the duration of the conference as well as during the Publishers’ Reception.

Ashgate Policy Press

Berghahn Books

British Sociological Association

ProQuest

Routledge, Taylor and Francis

Edwin Mellen Press

Gazelle Books

Manchester University Press

Oxford University Press

Palgrave Macmillan

Rowman & Littlefield International

SAGE (Main Conference Sponsor)

University of Manchester

Wiley Blackwell / Polity

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POSTER PRESENTATIONS

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Posters will be displayed in the Saltire Centre for the duration of the conference. Presenters will be available during the scheduled timeslot on Thursday 16 April 2015, 15:00-15:30 to discuss their work. Additional times may be indicated on individual posters.

POSTER PRESENTATION PRIZE

A prize will be awarded for the poster which best communicates its aims, methods, findings and conclusions. All delegates are encouraged to cast a vote during the Thursday poster session. Voting slips can be found with the delegate name badges. The winners will be announced on Thursday eveni ng at the publishers’ reception.

POSTER 1

Life Course: Generation, Life Path and Sociability

Bassit, A.Z.

(University of São Paulo)

This paper deals with concepts of generation, path and sociability under the perspective of the life course paradigm.

Discusses the importance of these concepts for understanding of human experience, and presented suggestions for possible methodological articulations to studies on the lives of people in contemporary, especially for those dealing with issues about aging, sexuality, among others dealing the relationship between body and culture. The life course paradigm is presented and analysed from their scope and limits like a methodological tool. Proposed an inclusion of the concepts of sociability and life trajectories, complementing the concepts of generation, generational cohorts and life stories.

POSTER 2

A Suitable Match: A Study of Class in Same-gender Relationships

Beecham, N.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

There has been increasing sociological interest in the relevance of class in how we make, enact and sustain intimate relationships. Looking in particular at how relationships tend to be rationally founded in shared values, lifestyles and tastes, which are themselves rooted in classed practices. However, existing research has exclusively focused on how class provides a framework for choice within the heterosexual relationship. Using in-depth interview data this research investigates how class was managed within the site of the same-gender relationship. An estimated 5-7% of people in the UK identify Lesbian, Gay and Bi, this research paper looks at how a reduced number of potential partners enables more cross-class meetings and subsequently the potential for more cross-class relationships to form. Utilising the work of Pierre Bourdieu this research explores how partners were met, chosen and how, where difference existed, this was navigated. Whilst there was a significant number of cross-class relationships found within this research these tended to be between older same-gender couples, and there was evidence to suggest that with great social acceptance and legitimation of same-gender relationships more class based methods of distinction were being deployed by younger participants when selecting a potential partner.

POSTER 3

Graduate Trajectories in the Labour Market

Bentley, L.

(University of the West of England)

This poster is based on my current PhD research which, through conducting in-depth qualitative interviews with recent graduates from the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, explores graduate transitions into the labour market in a time of austerity. Working as part of the Paired Peers Research Project my research draws on data from graduates from two Higher Education institutions within the same city, one a Russell Group University and the other a post-1992 University. In light of the recent Milburn Report (2014) I seek to identify whether social class has

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an impact on graduate occupational outcomes and future trajectories. Drawing on social theorists such as Bourdieu, I enquire whether the graduates use economic, social and/or cultural capital in order to achieve their aspirations.

Alongside class this study draws on the work of Bradley, Connell and Butler to consider whether gender has an impact on participants' current employment choices and attainment. Through observing graduate occupational outcomes I am looking at the perceived effects of the institution in which they obtained their degree to see whether this had any effect on their occupational opportunities. I anticipate that elements of the graduates' gender, social class and University status through which they obtained their degree may intersect and affect the trajectories of these graduates.

POSTER 4

Enablers and Barriers to R esearching ‘Dying Alone’

Caswell, G.

(University of Nottingham)

There is a perception amongst policy makers that people prefer to die at home surrounded by family and friends. This view appears to be supported by evidence from surveys, but there is also evidence to suggest that individuals' views may change as they grow older or closer to the end of their lives. Increasing numbers of people in the UK now live alone, and this is particularly the case for older people who often have no surviving family or friends nearby. Living in a single person household may present challenges at times of serious illness, with individuals endeavouring to balance decisions about accepting the support they may need and their desire to maintain their independence. The challenges may become especially acute as the individual approaches the end of their life. This paper reports on a pilot study which was designed to explore perspectives on dying alone, particularly amongst those who live alone. Documentary analysis of news stories and coroner records has been carried out and a number of interviews conducted with individuals who live alone. The focus here is on the use of the interview to elicit participants' views about living alone and the possibility of dying alone at home. In addition to describing some key findings the paper addresses some of the methodological and ethical issues which arose during the course of the pilot, including participants' opinions on the recruitment process and the acceptability of exploring such a sensitive topic with them.

POSTER 5

Handcuffs of Social Norms: Senses Social (Re)built between Heterosexuals and LGBTs on a Brazilian Public

University

De Campos, D., Warmiling, D., Vieira, M., Rodriguez, A.M.M., Moretti-Pires, R.O.

(Federal University of Santa Catarina)

The opening to the debate on the Society organization based on heteronormativity gained strength in Brazil. The university has proven to be one of the spaces in which this discussion is more present. The importance of this theme in the higher education is a clear understanding of the academia. Using Giddens' Structuration Theory, we investigated the narratives repertoires about standards that build expressions of sexual orientation in heterosexual college students and LGBT students. Workshops were held for heterosexuals and for LGBT workshops. The group members expressed their perceptions based on examples from personal life. The group of heterosexual dichotomized each image between the correct in heteronormative standard and the uncorrect . In the speeches of the LGBT group was mentioned that there are perpetuation of an 'internal standard' in which groups such as transsexuals are outside this norm. Lesbians are excluded and less covered in the struggles and achievements. Thus, the social movement themselves builds while a predominantly Gay group. The group felt that this events occurs by machist view that is originated in heteronormativity. Expressions of normativities in the groups builds discriminatory discourses such as handcuffs that prevent other buildings from the perspective of sexual diversity.

POSTER 6

Precarious Employment and Bargaining Power: Results from a Factorial Survey Analysis

Gundert, S., Auspurg, K.

(Institute for Employment Research (IAB))

This study deals with the role of bargaining power in shaping workers' acceptance of fixed-term contracts (FTCs).

According to German Microcensus data nearly all workers prefer per-manent contracts. The willingness to accept

FTCs can be regarded as an indicator of the ex-tent to which individuals' relative bargaining power is shaped by social factors, as predicted by modern class and bargaining theories. So far, data restrictions made it impossible to determine to what extent the distribution of FTCs is mainly caused by employers' motives leading to selective job offers or also by variations in workers' capacities to avoid unfavourable work-ing conditions.

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We address these issues with an experimental study, where respondents were asked to evalu-ate their willingness to accept hypothetical job offers described in short text vignettes with an experimental variation of job characteristics, including contract type. We examine how the acceptance of FTCs is related to personal and context factors.

Preliminary results from a double hurdle model reveal a preference for permanent over fixed-term contracts when respondents are confronted with jobs of otherwise comparable quality. The acceptance of FTCs is shaped by factors defining workers' bargaining position vis-à-vis employers. While higher skills, a higher social class position and a better financial standing decrease the acceptance of FTCs, unemployment fosters it. A 'willingness-to-pay' analysis shows that low-qualified and unemployed persons require lower levels of financial compensa-tion for FTCs. This suggests path-dependencies: individuals in disadvantaged labour market positions have a high risk of further weakening their bargaining position by accepting precari-ous employment.

POSTER 7

Coordinating Death: Exploring Healthcare Professional Interactions in the Hospital Admissions of Patients

Close to the End of Life

Hoare, S., Barclay, S., Kelly, M.P.

(University of Cambridge)

The provision of end-of-life care in England typically necessitates the collaboration of a large variety of healthcare professionals. As patients are dying, coordinated practice is required quickly and tends to include much emotion work.

The various healthcare backgrounds of those involved are reflected in differences in perceptions of how to provide best practice in end-of-life care.

In this paper I will explore these differences and their implications on where dying patients are cared for. To do so I will draw upon my current PhD research of case study interviews of healthcare professionals from both hospital and community settings who were involved in the care of a patient who was admitted to hospital shortly before their death.

Hospitals are where most patients in the UK die, yet as a place of death are derided in healthcare policy as expensive and against patient choice. I will argue that one reason that dying patients are cared for there is due to the diversity of healthcare professionals. Hospital becomes a default choice for professionals because it is the only placed accepted by all. For all participants hospital was a place recognised as somewhere patients would receive adequate care; accessible to every patient regardless of condition or resources and, critically, requiring fewer complicated interprofession negotiations than other care settings. My research is ongoing, but suggests that if hospital admissions are to be reduced for patients at the end of life more emphasis should be placed on understanding the dynamics between the different healthcare professionals involved.

POSTER 8

Beyond Methodological Separatism: The Everyday Construction of National Identifications amongst Migrants to and from Finland

Holley, P.

(University of Helsinki)

In the social sciences there has been a tendency to treat concepts such as ethnicity, nation and 'race' as analytically distinct categories. However, feminist accounts, for example, have shown that these classifications are not mutually exclusive, but rather embedded within one another. In relation the study of racism, Cousin and Fine (2012) argue that the distinction between racism and anti-Semitism

– two beliefs that often lead to discriminatory practices affecting the members of specific groups

– is the result of a methodological separatism that narrows our analytic lens. Likewise, methodological separatism causes researchers to overlook the interconnectedness of ethnic, racial and national categories as ordinary people use them to construct their collective identifications. Drawing upon ongoing ethnographic research amongst migrants to and from Finland, this paper analyses the ways in which everyday understandings of ethnicity and 'race' are embedded in talk of nationhood and national belonging. It highlights the dynamic ways in which migrants employ ethnic and racial categories when positioning themselves and others as members (or non-members) of different national groups. This analysis is based upon a substantial body of data collected in a multicultural immigrant group in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and amongst emigrant Finns residing across the UK. The data analysed includes fieldnotes, biographic narrative interviews in which individual migrants convey their 'migration stories', and thematic group discussions.

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POSTER 9

‘Contested Terrains’: Uncovering the Socio-technical Dynamics of Call Centre Labour

Johnstone, J.

(Abertay University)

The goal of this paper is to support previous claims toward the deskilling of workforces within call centres through reassigning human behaviours to technological systems (Ellis & Taylor 2006). By synthesizing sociological and managerial perspectives, this paper will show that the use of socio-technical systems has negatively transformed the nature of work within call centres, by conducting focus groups and depth-interviews with call centre employees; extracting subjective accounts surrounding the usage of socio-technical systems (automatic dialling, scripted dialogue, remote monitoring etc.). Additionally the design of buildings and physical layouts of workplaces were examined. It was evidenced that although the use of socio-technical systems may marginally enhance worker discretion, giving rise to higher levels of job satisfaction, this is not widespread. Those interviewed predominantly viewed the use of sociotechnical systems as regressions rather than progressions; generating minimal skill requirement, diminished levels of autonomy, and maximization of call-handling times; fostering emotional withdrawal, mental and physical fatigue

– thus producing what the author calls contested terrains. Furthermore, building design was described unfavourably, conditions fluctuating from excessively hot to extremely cold, along with overly strict demarcations of space lacking any sense of privacy or comfort. In conclusion, the present study contributes toward current discourse surrounding deskilling by providing key insight into worker experiences.

References

Ellis, V. & Taylor, P. 2006. 'You don't know what you've got till it's gone': re- contextualising the origins, development and impact of the call centre. New Technology, Work and Employment. 21 (2): pp.107-122.

POSTER 10

Faith Community and Social Action: A Case of Nizari Ismaili Muslims

Khimani, Z.

(University of Cambridge)

In conventional social thought, religious groups and communities are often seen as privileging the world hereafter at the cost of the material world. This leads to the general view that such groups are fatalists in their worldview. The ethereal otherworldly concerns with God, soul and salvation dominate the concerns about making the most in this world.

In this respect, my research on Nizari Ismaili Muslims will provide an alternative conception, which will empirically challenge such conventional understanding of faith communities. The case of Nizari Ismaili Muslims illustrates as to how the community with its ethos of creating a balance between the worldly and spiritual aspects of lives provides meaning and impetus for positive social action to improve material and environmental conditions, both of the community members and society at large, which nurture contexts for one' spiritual growth.

The analysis is based on set of data collected as part of my professional work with Aga Khan Development Network and doctoral studies at the University of Cambridge. The qualitative research was carried out through observations, and semi-structured interviews with Ismaili community members living in UK and abroad. The findings suggest that for

Nizari Ismailis, material world is not an affliction, which needs to be cured but is a sign of God's infinite blessings.

Thus, for Nizari Ismailis task of faith communities is to cultivate moral beings that could maintain a balance between faith (Din) and the material world (Dunya) because spiritual quest can only be enabled through human welfare and development.

POSTER 11

The Role of Social Ties in Careers of Skilled Migrants in the North-east England

Kozhevnikov, A.

(Newcastle University)

Highly skilled migrants represent an increasingly significant component of the total migration stocks in developed countries. Despite this fact, our understandings of skilled migrants' experiences remain limited, particularly within the context of the United Kingdom. Therefore, career pathways of foreign workers remain under-theorized and overwhelmingly underrepresented in academic literature, without theoretical framework developed at an appropriate level.

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This study argues that the cohorts of skilled migrants are heterogeneous and their pathways are significantly diverse.

Adequate insights regarding migrants' experiences on the UK labour market and beyond it are crucial for further theorization of skilled migrants' careers.

This study employs semi-structured interviews with foreign professionals as the main source of data and examines factors shaping international skilled careers at micro, meso and macro levels, including a variety of social, cultural, political and economic influences in order to explore various interactions between agency and structures that affect the career outcomes of skilled migrants. Critical realism has been adopted to identify powers shaping careers of migrants and examine the role of context in shaping the execution of these powers.

The project is aimed to answer the following questions:

1). How are highly skilled migrants differentially engaged with their own social networks, and how does the nature of this engagement affect career pathways through employment?

2). To what extent are social networks, as mechanisms that affect career trajectories, differentially embedded within and affected by broader social structures (such as firms, industries, labour market and communities)?

POSTER 12

Exploring Older People’s Social Care Choices: Disentangling Notions of Choice and Care

Locke, P.

(Aston University)

Social care personal budgets aim to give older people control over the nature of their social care provision; however changes to the criteria for eligibility now require many people to self-fund their care. A dialogical narrative analysis of interviews with self-funders and their families explores their experience of making choices regarding personal care.

This paper considers the involvement of family members in such arrangements, whether that be in assisting to arrange care or undertaking the care directly. There is a focus on the decisions made during the transition from independence to dependence, the move from the 'third age' to the 'fourth age'. Rather than being a linear transition, this is a period of fluctuating needs, so for example decisions may be made based on needs during an illness only to be changed once the older person makes a recovery. Further, my research suggests that whilst care can be something that is carefully planned, or 'chosen', equally it can also be something that just 'happens'. Moreover, an older individual's loss of independence becomes a public issue when formal carers are introduced into the home.

Older people may resist such arrangements, seeking to keep their needs as private as possible. This resistance and my research findings more broadly, highlight the fact that care is not always a matter of 'choice' in any straightforward sense. Rather, in certain situations, particularly within families, care is something that is always present but is subject to temporal and contextual fluctuations as the needs of individuals change.

POSTER 13

The Use of Visual Diaries to Elicit Insights into Everyday Life

Martin, W., Pilcher, K.

(Brunel University London)

Aspects of our everyday lives are habitual, taken for granted, and not often opened up for critical reflection. Habitual practices of daily living do not require deliberation when experienced as 'natural' aspects of our localised social worlds. This presents key methodological and theoretical complexities when researching daily lives. This paper draws on the empirical study Photographing Everyday Life: Ageing, Bodies, Time and Space, funded by the ESRC, that developed a participatory visual method to explore the daily lives of people as they grow older. The research involved a diverse sample of 62 women and men aged 50 years and over who took photographs of their different daily routines to create a weekly visual diary. This diary was then explored through in-depth photo-elicitation interviews to make visible the rhythms, patterns and meanings that underlie habitual and routinised everyday worlds. This paper will critically reflect on: (1) the limitations and possibilities for participants to capture their daily lives in visual diaries: presence, absence, deletions; (2) representation, reflexivity and the portrayal of daily life: what can we 'know' from an image?; and (3) the effective management and analysis of a large dataset (4471 photographs and 62 textual transcripts): the use of ATLAS.ti tools to integrate visual and textual data and to combine different analytic approaches to provide a holistic interpretation of the data. We conclude by reflecting on the extent to which the use of visual diaries has been an effective method to elicit insights into daily lives.

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POSTER 14

Photographing Everyday Life: Ageing, Lived Experiences, Time and Space

Martin, W., Pilcher, K.

(Brunel University London)

This poster presents the key findings from the empirical study Photographing Everyday Life: Ageing, Lived

Experiences, Time and Space, funded by the ESRC. The focus of this project was to explore the significance of the ordinary and day-to-day and focus on the everyday meanings, lived experiences, practical activities, and social contexts in which people in mid to later life live their daily lives. In particular, the project focused upon the very ordinariness, the habitual, the mundanity of daily living. The research involved a diverse sample of 62 women and men aged 50 years and over who took photographs of their different daily routines to create a weekly visual diary. This diary was then explored through in-depth photo-elicitation interviews to make visible the rhythms, patterns and meanings that underlie habitual and routinised everyday worlds. The data was analysed using the software Atlas Ti.

The poster illustrates the five interconnected but distinct themes that emerged: (1) Time and Routines; (2) Public and

Private Space; (3) Health, Risk and the Body; (4) Connectivities and Relationships; and (5) Work, Volunteering and

Leisure. The research elicited insights into the daily lives of people from their own perspectives and allowed the participants to reflect on their own routines, use of space, interactions with family and friends, and meanings associated with their daily activities. Moreover, the focus on daily life allowed us to show how the participants negotiate with, and at times resist, dominant ideas and discourses surrounding ageing, gender, and the body.

POSTER 15

Sexual Relationships of Women with Learning Disabilities: An Exploration of Views and Experiences

Ndadzungira, C.

(Open University)

Women with learning disabilities are women too, just like other women without disabilities. They desire to love, to be loved and to express their sexuality. Yet during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, their sexuality was perceived negatively which resulted in segregated living in institutions to stop them from having sex with men. This denied women with learning disabilities of the right to reproduce. Most were and are still perceived as 'unfit' mothers or they are caught up in a myth that assumes that they risk giving birth to children with disabilities. There have been some positive changes in attitudes towards the sexuality of women with learning disabilities in the last twenty years.

Yet despite this, some women with learning disabilities still face conflicting stereotypes which either portrays them as asexual or oversexed. As a result, most women with learning disabilities are involuntarily sterilised or put on contraception without their consent. There are a few studies that seek the views of women with learning disabilities on their sexual relationships. My research is a qualitative study which will seek the views and experiences of 10 women with mild or moderate learning disabilities on sexual relationships through semi-structured one to one interviews.

Participants are women 18 years and over who are current or previous members of a dating agency of people with learning disabilities. Data will also be collected through participant observations during chaperoned dates or social activities. All the interviews will be audio- recorded with participants' consent.

POSTER 16

Storytelling as a Trigger for Sharing Conversations

Parfitt, E.

(University of Warwick)

I define sharing conversations as something personal that to qualify must incorporate the following four elements: personal (situating the speaker in the narration), private life (something not necessarily shared out with the group), relationships (any relationship from close family connections to strangers), and emotions. I propose that oral storytelling within a school context may have triggered emotional sharing in groups of young people from 12-14 years.

My poster utilises pictures from Alice and Wonderland, like the Mouse's Tale, to guide the reader through the storytelling research method. The poster outlines the research in an easy to read way, outlining the method (The

Storytelling Space), defining a sharing conversation -- a tightened definition from my previously published paper

'Storytelling as a Trigger for Sharing Conversations', and outlining new NVivo results in a simple graph which compares sharing conversations between three different schools in Warwickshire.

(Publication: http://exchanges.warwick.ac.uk/exchanges/index.php/exchanges/article/view/25).

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POSTER 17

Green Jobs for a New Economy in Scotland

Parnell, M.

(Schumacher College)

This is an optimistic title, since it is still unlikely that most politicians are thinking about a 'new' economic system. Even when it has become well documented that neoclassical economics has created an increasingly unequal society, and an increasingly damaged environment, the strength of the familiar system makes it difficult for any politicians to dare to step outside the mainstream. There is a pervasive and sclerotic disconnect between economics and environment in most people's minds which prevents innovative thinking. But with the evidence that we do have about the effects of continuing industrial pollution on climate change and biodiversity which will make parts of the earth uninhabitable, it is urgent that we develop a new approach. This is not in fact in any sense in opposition to the economic health of our society, but doing nothing will lead inexorably to impossible conditions. Changing our focus about the nature of work, the purpose and rewards of employment, towards an integration with the health of the planet gives enormous opportunities for the development of large numbers of far more satisfying and worthwhile jobs than exist at present for many people. In a small country like Scotland there is probably far more scope for the development of a variety of experiments along these lines. It is to be accepted that some will work and some won't, naturally, but this should not be a reason not to make the attempt.

POSTER 18

Labour Market Experiences of White British and Pakistani Women in Leeds and Kirklees: Exploring Gender,

Ethnicity and Location

Payne, D.

(University of Leeds)

With the current government offering bleak prospects for those not in employment (and indeed for those in employment), labour market participation continues to be an important policy issue. Specifically, it remains crucial to consider the obstacles that may arise for those who would like to work, but are not able to because their choices are limited.

Gender, ethnicity, and location have all been cited as having an impact on labour market participation. The overall aim of this thesis is to consider how these categories intersect with one-another in this context, and how those at the intersections are affected. Although there is extensive research on labour market participation, particularly in terms of gender and ethnicity, the role of location is often over-looked. However, location is likely to affect the availability of work, while gender and ethnicity may affect location, and it is important to consider this relationship. Using Leeds and

Kirklees as case-study areas, and focusing specifically on Pakistani women, this research aims to investigate how gender, ethnicity, and location affect labour market participation.

This poster will present findings from an initial exploratory analysis of data from the 2001 and 2011 Census. It will draw on previous findings on labour market participation, in order to explore specific barriers, and how they vary according to gender, ethnicity, and location.

POSTER 19

An Impact of Transnational Labor Migrants on the Structure and Dynamics of Everyday Life Practices in the

Cities of Russian Federation

Rezaev, A., Lisitsyn, P., Tregubova, N., Zhikharevich, D.

(St. Petersburg State University)

The paper is based on the materials and provides preliminary outcomes of the Project on Transnational Migration in the Cities of North-Western Russia conducted in 2008-2013. The Project seeks to promote theoretically grounded empirical research in transnational migration and everyday life in the city. Comparative strategies in social analytics, mixed methods of social research, and Computational Social Sciences Methods are the basic methods of the Project.

The paper is an attempt to explore into specifics of everyday life practices in contemporary Russia. It is oriented toward a comparative social analysis of the transnational labor migrants' impact on the structure and dynamics of everyday life in the cities. It will study how alternate everyday life practices of transnational migrants corresponded with socio-economic and cultural reality of the accepted communities.

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There will be two distinct parts in the paper. The first will be rather theoretical and methodological in scope that will discuss issues of 'transnationalism', 'migration', 'everyday life'; the second part is the commentary and discussion of the research materials and results of the field research.

POSTER 20

Significant and Meaningful Grandparenting Practices in Scotland

Ribe, E.

(University of Edinburgh)

This PhD research uses a mixed method approach to explore what and how family and intimacy practices and life events favour a sense of closeness between grandparent and grandchildren in lone-parent families over the life course and whether these are different from intact couple families. It seeks to explain why there are differences between grandparents in their relationship with their grandchildren and how and why these change over time, particularly exploring the involvement of paternal grandparents within the life of the study child. The study is embedded within a theoretical and conceptual discussion of what constitutes 'family' and 'practices of intimacy' and adds to contemporary debate about family change. Over the last half of the 20th Century significant demographic and social changes have transformed population structures and family relationships. Three and even four generations live at the same time while childcare is increasingly demanded by parents to reconcile work and family life. In this context grandparents have become more involved in family life by looking after their grandchildren or supporting their adult child. However, there is little knowledge of how grandparents create, enable and maintain significant and meaningful relationships with their grandchildren. The study employs the Growing up in Scotland (GUS) survey, a large-scale longitudinal data set following children from the early years. It also collects parents' and grandparents' narratives about their relationship with the child through in-depth interviews.

POSTER 21

The Gender-Specific Impact on the Part Time Pay Penalty

Saile, A-T.

(Institute for Employment Research)

The determinants on the gender wage gap are very well reviewed. One of the primary findings is that the lower pay for part time work, which is more common among women, is a convincing explanation for the gap. But is this really true?

When estimating the part time pay penalty one has to account for the different underlying structures of the mechanism that build earnings for men and for women.

To examine the gender-specific impacts of part time on wages I utilise longitudinal analysis. Using Data from German

Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP) I estimate fixed-effects and hybrid regressions on a 21 year panel. Besides the usual influencing factors, like education, job experience and firm specific topics, a focus is set on the household situation, which affects men's and women's work participation in different ways. Furthermore, I distinguish between regular part time and marginal part time, which is very important when regarding the German labour market.

As a result there is no evidence for a part time pay penalty among women who work in regular part time employment and only little evidence for a gap among regular part time men but a considerable gap for marginal workers, both men and women. Beside this there are conspicuous hints on differences in underlying mechanisms in wage generating processes between men and women. This means, by considering the determinants of the gender wage gap, it is necessary to take these different mechanisms into account.

POSTER 22

Class Transition and Racialized Cultures Impact on Indigenous Identities, the Case of Mapuche People (Chile)

Social Trajectories Experiences

Sepulveda, D.,

(University of Manchester)

Mapuche population is characterized as a disadvantaged group, because since the period of the conquest indigenous groups in Chile have faced different (economic, social, territorial, cultural) inequalities, positioning unequal to the rest of the population. However a small group of Mapuche population could have social mobility, thanks to integration policies strategies for indigenous population from the 1990s until now, experience due to this. Even so, there are a smaller Mapuche group who cross inequalities barrier and challenge the common stereotype that have Chilean people about Mapuche, but according to literature review they could have to deal with class tensions, ethnic boundaries and

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racism. Because, indigenous people in Chile are undermined by the constant discrimination against people who have indigenous profile, that means the use of language and accent, vestment and looks as an indigenous people.

Therefore, this research focus on how class transition impact on indigenous identities on Mapuche social trajectories experiences. In this manner, it is interesting to examine how class practices, ethnic elements and social mobility influences are related to constructions of identities of an emergent group. Moreover, it is important how Mapuche people are influenced by multiples identities from their background, from their ethnic heritage, from their new social environment. For that reason, the aims of this research are to connect these two fields of study to examine the configuration and production of class relations and ethnic identity.

POSTER 23

Personal Recovery in Personality Disorder: Seeking to Understand Service User Experiences in Community and Forensic Settings

Shepherd, A., Sanders, C., Shaw, J.

(Greater Manchester West Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust)

The support of personal recovery represents a stated goal for modern mental health services and has been a focus for sociological analysis on the experience and management of mental health problems and other long-term conditions.

The concept of recovery is potentially problematic in relation to those who receive a diagnosis of personality disorder and receive care in either community or forensic settings. Uncertainties relating to the nature of the personality disorder diagnosis and the nature of the forensic environment complicate understanding and support of recovery.

In order to better explore these issues a systematic review was conducted to identify qualitative studies addressing personal recovery in personality disorder, or in relation to mental disorder in forensic settings. Meta-synthesis allowed overarching themes to be identified and described.

Eight studies were identified (five relating to forensic settings, three in relation to personality disorder). Key overarching themes included: Identity work as a process of change in personal recovery; the importance of social networks and supporting personal autonomy; the need for a sense of safety and security.

This study highlights the importance of the individual's social environment in personal recovery and particularly the necessity for a safe base from which to consider identity work. Further research is necessary in order to better understand the concept of personal recovery in relation to personality disorder in community and forensic settings.

Greater understanding of the experiences of those receiving a personality disorder diagnosis will allow the development of services that better support the needs of this client group.

POSTER 24

Conceptualising Sex Worker Violence: An Examination of Responses to Violence Against Sex Workers in

Scotland

Smith, E.

(University of Stirling)

Violence encompasses a variety of definitions, experiences and meanings, for different individuals. This diversity of meaning and experience is particularly pronounced in relation to sex work, where debate is largely divided according to a view of sex work as violence against women, or as a legitimate occupational choice. Yet despite the centrality of violence and exploitation to some analyses of sex work, there is comparatively limited research exploring how violence is actually perceived, experienced and responded to, by both sex workers, and the various agencies that are involved in the provision of support for sex workers. This may crucially dismiss or undermine opposing perspectives that do not equate sex work with violence, particularly amongst sex workers.

My research aims to fill this gap in understanding by exploring responses to sex worker violence throughout Scotland, amongst sex workers and agencies, and the many perceptions, experiences, challenges and misconceptions that may underpin and shape these responses. This paper will report on the findings from my fieldwork and comment on the wider implications of the study, particularly the potential for the study to enact positive social change for sex workers.

POSTER 25

Women’s Football: Informal Spaces and Autobiographical Recollections in the Development of a Narrative

Themen, C., Themen, K.

(University of Liverpool)

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This paper draws on the autobiographical reflections of women's formative experiences of playing football in order to evaluate the relationship between biography and narrative construction. I draw on five unstructured interviews to examine the experiences of female football players and draw on Bhabha's third-space to conceptualize spatial metaphors that emerged in interview transcripts. Although transcripts were dealt with initially on an individual basis and emergent themes identified, the organization of this paper uses the second stage of analysis and explores thematic similarities across case in order to articulate the narrative. The narrative emerges in two key ways. Firstly, there are informal spaces as a location for contest. Because of the informality of early experiences of playing football are largely unregulated, so they become avenues for unfettered and importantly non-gendered expressions of identity.

These narratives are considered as non-stratified safe spaces. Secondly, by extending the premise that women's formative experiences of playing football are unregulated places of contest, the narrative challenges conventions that

'define' football as a natural domain for asserting masculinities. I then contrast this with the gendered spaces that emerge in the narrative as girls go on to play football in more formalized settings, specifically in education.

POSTER 26

The Poppy and the Cornflower: National Identity and the First World War Centenary in Britain and France

Tinsley, M.

(Boston University)

August 2014 marked the centenary of the First World War's onset. In both Britain and France, this occasion to remember the past came at a time of widespread uncertainty about the future: Euroscepticism, the rise of the far right, and concerns about the integration of marginalised minorities all have contributed to the larger question of what it means to be British or French in the twenty-first century. Yet in August 2014, the two countries drew from strikingly different traditions of collective memory to commemorate the past, situate the present, and draw lessons for the future.

This paper considers the relationship between collective memory and contemporary national identity by analysing official British and French First World War centennial commemorations. Data is drawn from interviews with framers of the commemorations and from mainstream visual and print media, with the goal of identifying both the substance of official commemorations and the dominant discourse surrounding them. A content analysis of the data explains how each nation's official memory of the War reveals its dominant national identity. The conclusion holds implications for the ability of both Britain and France to either incorporate or exclude marginalised groups from the nation.

POSTER 27

The Societal Status of Finnish Forensic Psychiatric Patients

Törölä, M.

(University of Eastern Finland)

Forensic psychiatric patients are a group of people who have committed a crime and been through a mental state examination which has led them to involuntary psychiatric care. The research result of the mental state examination may be viewed as a need for psychiatric treatment, as lack of volition and self-control at the moment of the criminal act or even as an explanation for the crime committed, depending of the viewpoint. However, the treatment and the point of view of the research literature about this group are for the most part medical.

My research questions are:

1) How do the forensic psychiatric patients differ from other offenders (in the terms of social background)?

2) In what kind of social position have the patients been before committing a crime?

The data (n = 218) consists of the reports of the mental state examination, the records of the previous psychiatric hospital treatment, extracts from the criminal records, and the records of the previous terms of punishment. Statistical methods of analysis are applied in this research. Preliminary findings indicate clear evidence that, prior to the criminal act, the majority of the subjects have been underprivileged with long-term substance abuse and serious mental health problems. The most of the patients have been out of workforce for several years. Only for about half of the subjects this was the first criminal committed. As my dissertation is uncompleted, any further conclusions or recommendations cannot be made as yet.

POSTER 28

Sociogenesis of the Artistic Vocation: The Study of Art between Family Ethos and Cultural Arbitrary of School

Uboldi, A.

(PhD student)

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This research explores the relationship among the dynamics of the process of family and educational socialization and the development of aesthetic dispositions by means of a qualitative perspective with in-depth interviews and focus groups and takes place within the schools of Milan.

The choice of the young pupils of study the art, related only to the domain of the plastic arts, represents the primary interest in this research. What are the meanings of this scholastic choice? What are the scholastic and family dynamics that emerge in this process? How does act the representations, logics and attitudes about art and school of the students and their parents and teachers?

These are the main questions which this project attempts to answer through the conceptual tool of cultural capital and looking at the studies about the sociology of education and cultural practices.

This perspective leads to consider the process of the sense of the artistic game development questioned in the complexity of his own making. The artistic vocation is thus deeply rooted in a system of relations among different actors, practices and representations. As a consequence, the uncertain and not granted artistic vocation is considered as a result of the complex encounter between school and family. In this interpretative frame, the main object of study is related to the theme of the reproduction of social inequality through the educational processes and the plastic art world is the field chosen for its investigation.

POSTER 29

Adolescent Sexuality and Unmet Need for Contraception in Northern Cross River State, Nigeria

Ugal, D., Obi, P., Ugor, P.

(FCE, OBUDU CRS, NIGERIA)

Family planning programmes have faced the challenges of finding better ways to deliver services to millions of people who would use family planning if they could. One indicator of the size of this challenge is unmet need for family planning. The study was a descriptive cross sectional study of Northern Cross River State of Nigeria. The area is made up of five Local Government Areas. The study used both male and female adolescents who are in and out of school including those learning a trade, house helps, dropouts, nursing adolescents. Instruments included quantitative

– A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Data generated were coded into the Statistical

Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and analysed. This study determined the prevalence & Pattern of sexual activity, the ages at which adolescents enter into sexual activity/sexual debut. Results showed that a majority of the respondents are single. These persons are still in school and at different locations of rural and urban areas.

Adolescent sexual initiation is young. Non-frequent use of contraception exposes them to a lot of risks including unintended pregnancy, contracting STDs and infecting others. There is need for greater attention to the unmet need of adolescents because the pervading factor that affects both wanted and unintended pregnancies of adolescents in most societies is the basic question of young people's sexual rights. This might be surprising because when we think of unmet need the first thing that comes to mind is supply of contraceptives and availability of services.

POSTER 30

A Qualitative Assessment of Environmental Factors in Maternal Health in Rural Cross River State, Nigeria

Ugal, D., Ashipu Cssp, B.

(FCE, OBUDU CRS, NIGERIA)

In spite of many approaches towards improving maternal health, there is still a slow decline in maternal mortality and morbidity in less developed areas. There are at least 529,000 maternal deaths in the world annually. These deaths are almost equally divided between Africa and Asia This situation is still prevalent despite several programmes introduced as interventions to check this trend. One of such programmes is the "safe motherhood initiative", which was introduced to suggest strategic interventions to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. These interventionist programmes have either not been effective or are misdirected in addressing the issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. These deaths, as well as disabilities therefore, suggests that maternal health is not a simple consequence of reproductive risks alone, but an outcome of a host of maternal health conditions including environmental factors. The study explored women assessment of those environmental factors affecting their health. A sample of 823 respondents was drawn from a total population of 842,561. Multi-staged sampling techniques (cluster, systematic and simple) were used to select participants. Research questions were used to assess relationships among variables. Women maintained that the environmental factors exposing them to maternal risk included among others household condition, socio cultural factors and practices. It is instructive that the needless exposure of women to harm can be avoided through the improvement of maternal environment where they live and operate.

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POSTER 31

Trying to Beat Time: Decisions a bout ‘Future’ Families

Walker, J.

(University of Bradford and University of Leeds)

Recent news features that Apple and Facebook will pay to freeze female employees' eggs as an incentive to delay childbearing and prioritise their work commitments. Public opinion is divided over whether this crosses the line between the professional and the private domain; whilst others applaud progressive employers for acknowledging this contemporary issue. However assisted reproductive technology (ART), in its establishment, was never intended to increase older motherhood and distort perceptions of infertility (Franklin, 2013); yet maybe has created a hiatus of unintentional involuntary childlessness by extending fertility windows and possibilities (Davis & Bewley, 2013).

This paper explores how adults make decisions about 'future' families sought through ART by drawing on new data from a qualitative longitudinal study. I will discuss my findings about the changing nature of the experience of involuntary childlessness and how time influences the experience, over different time frames; whilst identifying the decisions involuntary childless adults make and the implications for practice and policy.

Sociology has an important role to play in furthering our understanding of how time is experienced and negotiated within decision making about 'future families' especially with a surge of investment in banking frozen eggs to effectively 'stop the clock' on the 'age of women's eggs' and their shelf life. Time in this way can be seen to be managed as a type of regulation, obligatory and self

–conformed. This paper will also draw on Norbert Elias' (1992) thoughts of 'time' as regulation advancing the 'civilising process' within society discussing my qualitative findings.

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Wednesday 15 April 2015 at 09:00 - 10:30

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Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Families and Relationships

Frontiers

Lifecourse

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2

Sociology of Education 1

Sociology of Education 2

Sociology of Religion

Theory

Work, Employment and Economic Life

Room

M532

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M225

W308

W828

C236

W823

W324

Carnegie Lecture Theatre

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W119

W525

M228

W702

M137

W727

W622

W323

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

M532, GEORGE MOORE BUILDING

Securitisation and Cosmopolitanism: A Tale of Two Cities?

Pieri, E.

(University of Manchester)

This paper investigates how the process of securitisation and the mobilisation of aspirations towards cosmopolitanism interact to reconfigure urban space.

Scholarship focusing on Western cities increasingly contends that they have become militarised and describes their role in building resilience. The fortification of the built environment, in particular that of affluent neighbourhoods, has been traced in studies which lament the spread of privatised space and gated residential solutions, and which criticise the politics of marginality that they reinforce. Nonetheless, a much debated characteristic of the urban remains its diversity, with the unpredictability and heterogeneity of encounters it allows. While debates over multiculturalism, intercultural relations, migration, cohesion and diversity are always high on the political agenda, there has been a resurgence of interest in cosmopolitanism both within academic debates and in policy discourse.

Taking Manchester city centre as a case study, this paper questions the relationship between cosmopolitanism and securitisation and their role in place making. It investigates the understandings of cosmopolitanism operationalised in

Manchester by various stakeholders

– recovered through interviews, focus groups, ethnography and documentary analysis - and contrasts them with those circulating in contemporary scholarly debates. Exploring whether securitisation and cosmopolitanism are best thought as conflicting or mutually validating trends, this paper considers the type of spaces and practices they produce.

Power, Knowledge and Freedom of Information

Sheaff, M.

(Plymouth University)

The paternalism of the post-war Welfare State, with limited citizen and user involvement, has met challenges from different directions, including democratic and market-oriented alternatives. Although the latter appear to have gained greater ascendancy, a significant achievement of the former was the Freedom of Information Act 2000.

In his foreword to the preceding White Paper, 'Your Right to Know' (1997), the Prime Minister foresaw, 'a fundamental and vital change in the relationship between government and governed'. He added: 'The traditional culture of secrecy will only be broken down by giving people in the United Kingdom the right to know.'

Writing in his autobiography, in 2010, Tony Blair's views had changed: 'Freedom of Information. . . . I look at those words as I write them, and feel like shaking my head till it drops off my shoulders. You idiot. You naive, foolish, irresponsible nincompoop. . . . Where was Sir Humphrey when I needed him?'

The theme of transition

– from State paternalism to the rhetoric of democratic participation – and subsequent retreat towards a 'confidentiality' and 'privacy' is explored in this paper. Empirical material for the paper is drawn from a study in which the Freedom of Information Act was used to explore decision-making within the National Health Service. The apparent contrast that emerged, between public accounts, and information disclosed through FOI requests, is used to consider wider issues of knowledge, control, power and accountabilities.

Governing the Identity of Asylum Seekers in Australia

Revi, B.

(University of Chester)

Despite Australia's history as a migrant nation, the arrival by boat of foreigners to seek asylum has attracted public controversy and harsh policy responses. Boat arrivals have been linked to broader economic and cultural issues, reflecting the impact of neoliberal reforms undertaken in Australia since the 1980s.

This paper adopts a discourse approach to investigate the impact of neoliberal reforms on Australian identity, and a governmentality approach to investigate how the neoliberal actors have constructed harsh asylum policy as insurance against risks to population growth, infrastructure, jobs, and services.

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The logic of neoliberal citizenship holds every activity to be, first, an economic activity. The movement of displaced persons is seen not as an act of desperation made necessary by collective repression, but an economic choice made by individuals. The act of arriving in Australia to seek asylum has been constructed as invalid, and asylum seekers constructed as unfit for integration in Australian society. Even those legally found to be refugees in need of protection are considered a risk to existing residents, in terms of population growth, services, jobs, culture and identity.

Advocates for a more open approach to refugee processing must find ways to overcome this restrictive discourse, to redefine what it is to be, and to deserve to be, Australian.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

W110, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

A YEAR OF MEGA SPORTING EVENTS IN SCOTLAND: REFLECTIONS AND LESSONS FROM SOCIOLOGY

2014 was an important year for sport in Scotland, as it hosted the Commonwealth Games and Ryder Cup, both of which attracted much media coverage. They have also been an opportunity for Scotland to enhance its reputation as a sporting destination. In this panel session we would like to showcase how sociologists at GCU have engaged with these events, in the run up to them, whilst they were taking place and in the aftermath, demonstrating the relevance of sociological insights in the conduct of public life as it actually happens, with a particular focus on identity, lifecourse involvement and the role large sporting events as vectors of social change. We will showcase three presentations.

Fiona Skillen will address the ways in which the two previous ‘Scottish’ Commonwealth Games shaped experiences in

2014 and, in particular, how her body of historical research was used to engage the public and media in the build up to and during the Summer of 2014. Fiona Reid will focus on the volunteers required to make an event such as the Ryder

Cup possible. She will explore the experiences of these volunteers in the context of volunteering practices at other events such as Glasgow 2014 and The Open 2013. Emmanuelle Tulle will focus on the legacy of these large sporting events, drawing particular attention to the distance travelled between the intentions as stated in public pronouncements and the impact on grassroots sport and physical activity participation

The Glasgow 2014 Legacy: Can Elite Spectacle be a Vector for Social Change?

Tulle, E.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

The Glasgow 2014 legacy document published by Glasgow city Council has as one of its anticipated legacies the achievement of an Active Glasgow which will 'celebrate sport and personal achievement, and encourage a cultural change in citizens’ motivation to participate in sport and physical activity.' The presentation will focus on the findings of a critical analysis of the document and website (currently being undertaken) to identify the principles underpinning the design of the legacy and its implementation. Focusing on physical activity participation, it will address the following questions: How has the tension between allocating funding to elite sport development and grassroots, everyday sport and physical activity participation been managed and negotiated? How are local communities co-opted in the decision-making process? What groups have been targeted and how is this translated in the range of activities and resources available? The overarching concern is to discern the extent that the legacy provides the structural and discursive framework for a critique of the neoliberal model of health promotion.

Was it Worth £75?: Volunteer Experiences at the Ryder Cup, Gleneagles, 2014

Reid, F.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

Recent mega sports events have focussed attention on the volunteers required to make the event possible.

Research at London 2012 found that the uniqueness of the event, the desire to make the event a success and to give back to the community were the principal motivators for volunteers (Dickson, Benson & Terwiel, 2014). Other

Gamesmakers felt that they had developed skills which would be a valuable legacy for future volunteering (Dickson &

Benson 2014). Reid (2014) found that expert volunteers at a major golf event were motivated both by the monetary value of the access to the event and by the opportunity to be “inside the ropes”, but not by any sense of altruism.

This paper utilises in-depth interviews with a small sample of individuals to give a deeper understanding of the volunteer experience at the Ryder Cup. In contrast to many event volunteering opportunities, volunteers at the Ryder

Cup were required to pay a registration fee of £75. Through their own words and experiences, individual volunteers explain how they were motivated, felt rewarded and whether “it was worth £75”. For many volunteers the Ryder Cup is just one chapter of a life-long involvement in volunteering and this provides some context for the narratives.

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Scotland’s Commonwealth Games

Skillen, F., McDowell, M.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

2014 was an important year for sport in Scotland, as it hosted the Commonwealth Games and Ryder Cup. Scotland has hosted the Commonwealth Games on two previous occasions, 1970 and 1986 and yet little research has examined this important area of Scottish sports history. This paper will look at the ways in which these two previous

‘Scottish’ Commonwealth Games directly and indirectly shaped experiences in 2014. It will look at the ways in which key aspects of these events continued or changed over time, in particular the recurrence of certain tropes of national identity within the ceremonies and discourses of the Games. Finally this paper will touch on some of the different ways in which this body of historical research was used to engage the public and media in the build up to and during the

Summer of 2014.

'Team GB', 'Team England' or 'Team Scotland'? Media Representations of 'Britishness', 'Englishness' and

'Scottishness' in London 2012 and Glasgow 2014

Whigham, S., Black, J.

(St Mary's University, Twickenham and Loughborough University)

Given the timing of the Scottish independence referendum in September 2014, the hosting of both the London 2012

Olympic Games and the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games coincided with a period of considerable political turmoil and reflection within the United Kingdom, particularly regarding issues related to British, English and Scottish identity. Indeed, the extensive levels of public, political and media scrutiny of both of these major sporting events can therefore be framed within a wider consideration of the contemporary dynamics of the political union between the constituent nations of the UK. Consequently, drawing upon completed and ongoing doctoral theses, this paper will critically reflect upon the English and Scottish national newspapers framing and representation of 'Britain' as well as the construction and (re)construction of British, English and Scottish identity during both events. In fact, despite the growing influence of social media forms within contemporary society, politics and sport within the UK, the 'traditional' print media retain a central (although arguably diminishing) role in the dissemination of information relating to major societal, political and sporting issues to the British public. More importantly, however, when considered alongside discourses from outside the domain of the 'traditional' print media, these sources can prove useful in exploring the future ramifications of a increasingly fragmented British union and a more residual sense of British attachment.

Families and Relationships

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What’s Love Got to Do With It?: Exploring the Narratives of Couples Who Share Leave in the First Year after the Birth of a Child

Twamley, K.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

This paper explores the intersections of intimacy, gender equality and parenting ideology through research with couples in the UK where fathers take additional paternity leave (APL). APL was introduced in the UK in 2011 to offer more flexibility to parents in how they arrange their family and paid work responsibilities. While before, fathers or partners were only entitled to two weeks leave, the introduction of APL means that mothers can transfer their maternity leave to their partners from five months after the birth or adoption of a child, allowing the transfer of up to six months leave. However, parenting ideals in the UK stress an intensive and embodied relationship between mother and child, and few fathers to date have taken this extra leave. Using in-depth ethnographic methods with heterosexual first-time parents who have used APL, I examine how couples who share leave reconcile gendered parenting norms with a more equitable share of leave, along with how sharing leave impacts on couple and parent-child relationships, and the division of domestic and childcare work. In particular, I explore how understandings of love and intimacy overlap and at times clash with notions of gender equality, and the strategies that couples use in forming families which meet ideals of love and equality.

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Translocal-parenting: Migrant Parents and Their Left-behind Children in South China

Peng, Y.

(Hong Kong Baptist University)

Mass internal migration in China since the late 1970s has given rise to the issue of left-behind children, who have become a serious social problem in mainland China and attracted both public and academic attention. Previous studies on this topic have mostly focused on the behavioral and psychological problems of left-behind children caused by their physical separation from their parents. The agency of migrant parents and their parental practices in childrearing have not been discussed, although transnational parenting has become a fast-growing topic in the studies of international migration. Existing literature on transnational parenting focuses on maternal practices, the role of migrant fathers and their collaboration with migrant/left-behind wives in childrearing are understudied. To fill these gaps, my research adopts a multi-sited and multi-voiced design to investigate the interaction and collaboration of migrant parents in performing their parental duties. Drawing on qualitative data from over 70 migrant parents in South

China, my research indicates that, rather than following the traditional labor division and gender scripts of parenting in

Chinese cultural, the trans-local parenting of migrant parents is a diversified practice, which is not only contingent on the social, cultural and economic contexts, but continually negotiated and reformulated through the interactions between husbands and wives in migrant families.

'Did I Forget to Have Children?': Understanding the Postponement of Childbearing and Childlessness from a

Life Course Perspective

Berrington, A.

(University of Southampton)

Levels of childlessness in Britain are high in comparison with many other European countries, with just under one in five women currently reaching age 45 with no biological children of their own. This paper provides new insights in two ways: First we combine childbearing data from repeated rounds of the General Household Survey / General Lifestyle

Survey and Understanding Society to identify how childlessness has increased at a similar rate among all educational groups, but that levels remain far higher among women with degree-level education. Secondly, the paper examines childlessness from a life course perspective among men and women born in 1970 who have been followed up within the British Cohort Study. Focusing on cohort members who were childless at age 30, we examine the relationship between fertility intentions expressed at age 30 and achieved childbearing by age 42. At age 42, those men and women who remained childless were invited to give their reasons for remaining childless. Some report that they did not have children 'due to health reasons', many more responded that they 'did not ever want children', whilst others said that they had 'not met the right partner to have children with'. Only a few suggested that they 'had been focused on their career'. We examine these responses in the context of the individual's changing life course circumstances and thus contribute to the debate as to whether the 'perpetual postponement' of childbearing to later ages is acting to increase the proportion who ultimately remain childless.

Changing Family Relations in Rural China: Gender, Migration and Familial Support

Liu, J.

(School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London)

Accelerated by economic reforms, a large scale migration of younger workers from rural to urban China has taken place since the 1990s. This has separated many adult children from their ageing parents and imposed significant challenges on traditional patterns of familial support for rural older people. These challenges are augmented by the fact that in rural China the elderly have been deprived a state pension and other welfare provisions available to urban residents.

Drawing upon ethnographic data from an UK Economic and Social Research Council funded project on ageing in rural

China, this paper examines the extent to which rural-urban migration has reshaped experiences of familial support in old age and whether and how intergenerational/gender relations have been transformed by migration. It shows that older parents and women, in particular, carry greater responsibilities for care and agriculture often into their late 70s.

Ongoing patriarchal and patrilocal culture limits the opportunities available to women compared with men. However, over time this may be restructured as younger generations of women migrate to work in the city and as greater educational opportunities are shared by both genders. The paper proposes a gendered and intergenerational approach to fully uncover the changing family relations in the context of migration.

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Frontiers

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Fragile Identifications in a Fantasmatic Present: the Social and Psychical Function of Temporality in the

Practice of Academic Research

Lapping, C.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

This performative paper explores some of the spatialities embedded in the thinking and practice of psychoanalyticallyinformed clinical work. I reflect on the subjective use I make of journeys to and from the settings in which I practice, as well as the micro-geographies that take place within these settings. In so doing I seek to communicate something of the sense of interior worlds created by and necessary for therapeutic work. My account gestures towards the spatial ideas that permeate psychoanalytic, which I and suggest sometimes operate as a common language shared across different theoretical positions.

A Personal Geography of Psychodynamic Practice

Bondi, L.

(University of Edinburgh)

This performative paper explores some of the spatialities embedded in the thinking and practice of psychoanalyticallyinformed clinical work. I reflect on the subjective use I make of journeys to and from the settings in which I practice, as well as the micro-geographies that take place within these settings. In so doing I seek to communicate something of the sense of interior worlds created by and necessary for therapeutic work. My account gestures towards the spatial ideas that permeate psychoanalytic, which I and suggest sometimes operate as a common language shared across different theoretical positions.

The Psycho-social Orders of Supervision : Ignorance and Ignominy

Webb, R., Hey, V.

(University of Sussex)

If learning is about the acquisition of new knowledge, it implicates the state of a 'before of ignorance' and an 'after of enlightenment'. How do differently positioned academic subjects negotiate the affective dimensions at play in such transactions?

In this paper Rebecca Webb and her 'ex' supervisor, Valerie Hey, draw on their empirical accounts of supervision, sharing some of the writing they have generated as part of their supervisory sessions together. They do this in order to think through the affects of shame in the shaping and honing of different kinds of subjecthood, rendered im/possible in their encounters. Indeed, they explore shame as something which is inherently unstable and yet potentially productive and affirming, born out of the opacity and tantalizing quality of writing itself.

What is at stake in shame in the encounter, especially as it frames the mimetic quality of engaging with writing in a supervisor/supervisee relationship? Is shame that which must be 'avoided' at all costs, something damaging and eroding of any worthwhile sense of self? Does this mean that it must be named (and shamed) at the outset and swept away with a deft swish of a supervisory broom? Or, rather, is it that which must be countenanced and acknowledged in the processes of subjectification (Butler, 1995) and is that particular affect constitutive of an emergence of a

'getting to know' in any supervisory relationship worth its salt?

Shame and Welfare Practice: A Relational Analysis

Dobson, R.

(Kingston University)

This presentation draws on psycho-social, critical race and feminist informed theorisations of shame, and empirical data from social housing and homelessness workers, to contribute to a lineage of research on 'front-line' welfare practitioners and welfare practices in social policy and welfare. Within sociological and policy debates, and in contexts of 'austerity', welfare practitioners are typically positioned in binary terms: constructed as good, benevolent and heroic resisters to, or as exercising bad, malevolent and inadequate complicities with, punitive policy, political and popular climates. Critical psycho-social works have engaged with those debates through the analysis of relationships between

'dilemmatic' experience, human subjectivity and institutional space (Hoggett 2001, 2006). This presentation builds on those vital intellectual interventions by drawing on relational and performative informed conceptualisations of shame

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as it relates to social identity, developed in critical race and feminist works (Hunter 2010, Tate 2013). Bringing these sets of debates together unpicks the enactment and effects of shame in modern welfare practice.

Hoggett, P. (2001) Agency, Rationality and Social Policy, Journal of Social Policy, 30: 37-56

Hoggett, P. (2006) Conflict, ambivalence and the contested purpose of public organisations, Human Relations, 59 (2). pp. 175-194

Hunter S. (2010) 'What a White Shame: White women's love and white men's anguish in welfare work', Social Politics:

Studies in Gender, State and Society.

Tate S. A (2013) 'The Performativity of Black Beauty Shame in Jamaica and its diaspora: Problematising and transforming beauty iconicities', Beauty, Race and Feminist Theory. 14.2

Lifecourse

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Patterns of Lifecourse Participation: Insights from the National Child Development Study Cohort

Parry, J., Brookfield, K., Bolton, V.

(University of Southampton)

Data from a mixed methods study of the 1958 NCDS cohort is used to explore distinctive long term patterns of participation and volunteering (consistent participators, non-participants, and high-intensity participants). We explore how the changes in questioning on social participation within the NCDS complicate the task of mapping long term patterns of participation, and use the recent qualitative Social and Participation Survey with the Cohort to make sense of these tensions. Our mixed methods are employed to provide insight into why and how individuals participate in very different ways in the light of unexpected similar demographic characteristics for the sample groups, as well as how this participation fluctuates over the lifecourse. So the process and expectations involved in taking part in the NCDS has changed over the 50 years in which the Cohort have been members, as the same time as their relationship to it has evolved in ways that reflect their participation credentials. We reflect on the concurrent dynamics of being a participator (or not) while also being a member of a prominent research cohort.

After Care: Child Saving and Its Lifecourse Impacts in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century England

Cox, P., Godfrey, B., Shore, H., Alker, Z.

(University of Essex)

The After Care project (funded by Leverhulme) is analysing the lifecourse outcomes of 600+ children admitted to five child-saving institutions in the northwest of England from the 1870s to the 1910s. The institutions include industrial and reformatory schools (Bradwall Reformatory, Stockport Industrial School and a notorious naval training ship, the

Akbar) admitting statutory referrals via the courts, and two ordinary children's homes that received voluntary referrals directly from families and charities. The children themselves, almost all of whom were multiply deprived, arrived at these various institutions from local but also much more distant family homes. The paper will present findings based on a mixed methods analysis (from biographical to multivariate analysis) of 600+ individual 'life grids' derived from archival and digitised data. The life grids allow us to build up, for the first time, a detailed picture of many of these children's lives 'after care', following them through neighbourhoods, jobs, relationships and sometimes re-offending, and across their adolescence, adulthood and old age.

The project contributes to lifecourse research in sociology and criminology by adding a valuable historical dimension.

Its methods are modelled on those developed by Godfrey, Cox and Farrall (2007 and 2010) and, like that earlier work, it offers an important opportunity to create exciting interdisciplinary approaches to the lifecourse.

Time and the Life Course: Perspectives from Qualitative Longitudinal Research

Neale, B.

(University of Leeds)

This paper explores ways to conceptualise and study the lifecourse, drawing on perspectives from Qualitative

Longitudinal (QL) Research. Contrasting approaches to lifecourse research are outlined, and ways of linking lived experiences with broader structural processes are explored, in a context where much life course research is currently under theorised. The paper considers how temporality can be conceptualised and investigated, moving beyond clock and calendar time to reveal the fluid, multidimensional and recursive aspects of time. Varied ways of 'slicing' time are

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suggested, drawing on time as a theoretical construct, a methodological strategy and a substantive topic in its own right. The overall aim is to enrich lifecourse research by bringing time and lived experiences more centrally into the picture.

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

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A Socio-bioethical Exploration of British Adult Female Cancer Patients Making Oncofertility Decisions

Paton, A.

(Newcastle University)

This paper examines from a socio-bioethical perspective British premenopausal cancer patients' experiences with making oncofertility decisions. It presents original empirical research into the experiences of a small group of patients to address social, clinical and ethical concerns about how patients make decisions in the British medical context. The paper also examines whether social and bioethical theories of autonomy and agency adequately capture how decisions are made in practice, using empirical data to interrogate existing theory. To address these questions, semistructured interviews were conducted with premenopausal cancer patients. Data from the interviews were analysed using sociological and bioethical theories in order to improve understandings of how this patient group makes decisions, and how they feel this experience could be improved. This research therefore contributes to the growing body of literature seeking to identify how patients make decisions within the medical context and what types of support are necessary to address the needs identified by patients. Furthermore, the paper seeks to demonstrate how

Sociology as a discipline can be seen as a constitutive part of bioethics, with this project serving as an example of one way that bioethical research can be conducted through a sociological lens.

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

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Seeking Solidity and Fluidity: Movement, Agency and Safety in Service U sers’ Use of Space During Mental

Health Crisis

McGrath , L.

(University of East London)

Since the closure of the UK asylums, service users no longer negotiate experiences of distress and madness primarily in the context of institutional spaces. Service users even tend to negotiate at least some of the most extreme and intense periods of mental health crisis in the same places where they also live and work, the collection of disparate and complex spaces which make up 'the community'. This paper will explore the role of these myriad spaces in mental health crisis, looking at the way in which service users move through and within space, to establish agency and dis/order. Empirical material from visual interviews with service users, as well as published autobiographical material, will be explored, in an analysis informed by theories of embodiment and relational space. Two key patterns of movement will be focussed on in the discussion. Fluidity and possibility were central to some of the psychotic experiences described, where participants described moving outside, seeking, and utilising, greater possibilities for agentic action and relational contact. Solidity and security, conversely, were central to some accounts of anxiety and depression, which tended to describe using the private space of the home to establish order and restore agency and strength, as an escape from overwhelming experiences in public space. It is noted that these features of the spaces sought out voluntarily by service users in times of crisis, bear little relation to the current spaces provided in mental health crisis services.

Whose Responsibility Are Mental Health Problems?

Andersson, R.

(Thematic-Studies)

Mental health problems are a growing global concern. In Sweden, the welfare states' spending on mental health has been particularly high since the 1990s. Dealing with mental health issues has therefore received political attention, not least in relation to work-related problems. Terms like 'burnout' and 'chronic fatigue syndrome' have been widely used and created the need of finding new strategies to handle this large and growing group.

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The aim of the following presentation is to draw attention to the complex and intertwined relation between the framing of mental health problems at the workplace and the organization of care. More specifically, I will address how the question of causation in mental health problems is related to responsibility.

The presentation is based on recent ethnographic fieldwork and 30 interviews within Swedish primary health care and occupational health care. The interviews were conducted with care professionals which are involved in diagnosing and/or treating work-related mental ill health. The research project is an ongoing four year project, of which two years have been completed so far.

Tentative results show that care professionals link mental health problems at the workplace to multiple frames.

Whether these framings emphasise social, organizational or individual causation has a direct consequence on responsibility issues. However, according to the care professionals, societal and organizational causes of mental health problems are generally difficult to address. Consequently, the causes for mental health problems are sought to be dealt with on an individual level.

‘Making Sense’ and the Uses of Cultural Sociology to Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology: The Case of

Nonsuicidal Self-injury

Steggals, P.

(Newcastle University)

Nonsuicidal self-injury, or what is more commonly called 'self-harm,' is a well-established and somewhat haunting presence within late-modern western culture. A recent WHO study (2014) reports that the number of English teenagers self-harming has tripled to around 20% over the last decade. Indeed self-harm has unquestionably become a deeply significant and highly recognisable form of life; a potent idiom of personal distress and emotional dysphoria which clearly resonates with the symbolic life of contemporary society and the experiences of psyche and selfhood typical of this society. In this paper I draw on research I have conducted on self-harm to argue that a sociological approach, and specifically a cultural sociological approach, is absolutely necessary to understanding this practice. In recent years cultural sociology has made a significant impression in establishing the role of 'meaning' as one of the core structuring forces of social life, taking its place alongside more traditional categories of social stratification and organization. However little has been said about the uses of the cultural approach to the sociological study of mental disorder and even less about what contributions such an approach might be able to make to psychiatric and clinical psychological practice. Here I argue that cultural sociology not only provides the dimension of 'meaning' often overlooked in much sociology of mental disorder, but that it also has an important contribution to make to clinical practice and the practical business of understanding patients who are experiencing this and other idioms of mental disorder.

An Exploration of Facebook and Mental Health

Howard, K.

(Buckinghamshire New University)

This paper reports on the findings of a study exploring the relationship between use of the social network site

Facebook and mental health. Drawing on qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups with people in the

UK diagnosed with a variety of mental health conditions, including those understood as 'severe and enduring,' the paper explores the positive and negative aspects of using Facebook on individuals' mental health. Benefits of

Facebook use included amelioration of loneliness and isolation, gaining implicit social support and capital, reconstruction of the self after a crisis and the option of a 'middle realm' of low intensity communication. Facebook could be a negative environment for people experiencing psychosis, exacerbating paranoia. People who experienced mania regretted their posts while manic. All participants found strategic ways of managing Facebook whilst unwell.

Themes from this partially grounded and participatory study exploring peoples' accounts of their lived experiences will be detailed alongside key themes raised that draw on the social media literature. For example, the study explores the usefulness of core concepts to explain people who experience mental health issues' encounters with Facebook, such as the ways in which people have negotiated the blurring of public and private; experience social capital through

'networked publics' and engage in identity management on the social networking site.

As well as asking about the impact of Facebook on mental health, the research explores the strategies people use to enhance their well-being and manage their mental health on the social networking site.

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Methodological Innovations

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SCISSORS, SAND AND THE CUTTING ROOM FLOOR: EMPLOYING VISUAL AND CREATIVE METHODS

ETHICALLY WITH MARGINALISED COMMUNITIES

In our visually saturated culture there is a growing recognition that visual images have the potential to evoke emphatic understanding of the ways in which other people experience their worlds. There has been an increasing shift towards employing techniques of visual data production with participants, which is often seen as a panacea for the problems of power hierarchies, representation and voice in sociological research. However, the easy marriage between the visual and the participatory needs to be questioned when we are working with marginalised groups and communities.

This panel session introduces three presentations that explore both the opportunities, and the ethical and practical difficulties, raised by visual research approaches. Drawing on studies that employed the techniques of sandboxing, collaging and film making, the panel considers the visual as a vehicle for participatory research whilst acknowledging the power relations inherent in the processes of design, production and dissemination. Each presentation focuses on one of these three aspects of the research process.

Dawn Mannay discusses design by reflecting on the sandboxing approach, ‘the world technique’; and responds to the argument that therapeutic methods should not be taken out of the consulting room. Janet Fink presents insights into data production drawing on community based inquiry and the process of creating collages. Helen Lomax considers the challenges of employing a participatory approach to the editing and dissemination of filmed data, images and text.

Together the three papers respond to current debates around visual methodologies, participatory research and situated ethics in work with marginalised communities.

Sandboxes, Psychoanalysis and Participatory Practice: Refiguring Therapeutic Techniques as Ethical Visual

Research Methods

Mannay, D., Edwards, V

(Cardiff University)

Visual images within social science research have become ubiquitous as the field has witnessed an increasing move towards visual and creative methods of data production; employing photographs, collages, film and walking narratives.

However, some techniques of visual data production remain pariah sites because of their association with psychoanalysis and therapeutic work. There is a reluctance to engage with psychoanalytically informed approaches outside of therapy based settings and criticisms that doing so raises a number of ethical issues around the welfare of participants.

This paper draws on ‘the world technique’ in which participants create three-dimensional scenes, pictures or abstract designs in a tray filled with sand employing a wide range of miniature, realistic and fantasy, figures and small everyday objects. The paper presents data from a study exploring the journeys of marginalised, non-traditional, mature students in higher education, in Wales UK, to illustrate the potential of the sandbox for engaging with participants’ subjective worlds and gaining a more nuanced understanding of the student experience.

The paper discusses the usefulness of the ‘world technique’ as a tool of qualitative research as well as reflecting on the associated difficulties with the method; arguing that a reluctance to engage with psychoanalytically informed approaches outside of therapy based settings could preclude a more nuanced understanding of participants subjective lived experience. The paper argues that the ‘the world technique’ can be both a valuable and an ethical tool of qualitative inquiry that allows participants an opportunity to share their subjective understandings through the medium of metaphors.

Seen and Heard? Ethics and Voice in Participatory Visual Research With Children and Young People

Lomax, H.

(University of Northampton)

The last decade or so have seen a rapid rise in the use of participatory visual methods for working with so called marginalised groups and an increasing array of techniques for doing so. Methods include digital story telling; filmmaking and photography. Such methods, it is argued, enable researchers to work alongside participants, offering rich understandings of the lives of those who may not otherwise engage with traditional social science methods and supporting them to have a voice in matters that affect them.

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However, alongside these technologies and the possibilities they represent for social research has arisen challenges.

These include the ways in which the visual, by its very nature, renders participants visible in the films, photographs and visual material produced, making ethical norms of anonymity and confidentiality almost impossible to guarantee.

Drawing on my participatory visual research with children, young people and families living in low-income neighborhoods in the UK, the paper considers the ethical implications generated by working co-productively with these groups.

This includes the specific challenges emerging from visually portraying children’s lives in ways which support them to represent their experiences and our ethical and moral responsibilities to them and to the wider communities in which the research is situated. In focusing on the editorial decisions made both with (and independently of) the children as co-researchers, the paper elaborates the social and moral complexities of undertaking visual research with children and families and the possibilities and limitations of visual data as a means of representing and disseminating experience.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

CARNEGIE LECTURE THEATRE, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

RACE, ETHNICITY AND MIGRATION STREAM: SCOTLAND

Race, Nation and Ethnic Minorities in the 'Scotland Question'

Meer, N.

(University of Strathclyde)

At a time when all the political parties of Scottish politics are trying to establish a persuasive vision of the nation, inquiry into where ethnic and racial minorities fit into these debates remains a peripheral activity. Focusing especially on the lesser known question of how elite political actors are positioning minorities within projects of nation building, this paper draws upon original empirical data in which three predominant clusters emerge. The first centres on an aspirational pluralism, in so far political elites are less inclined

– in contrast to counterparts in some other minority nations - to place ethnically determined barriers on membership of Scottish nationhood. The second concerns the competing ways in which the legacy of Scotland's place in the British Empire is appropriated by actors of different political hues, and so assumes a multiform role. The third cluster points to potential limitations in minority claimsmaking and recognition, especially in terms of formal multi-lingualism and corporate multi-faithism, something that may partly be explained by the tension between multinationalism and multiculturalism. Taken together the article illustrates how elite political actors can play a vital role in ensuring that appeals to nationhood in Scotland can be meaningfully calibrated to include minorities too.

Anti-Irish Racism in Scotland

McBride, M.

(University of Glasgow)

This paper will explore the legacy of anti-Irish racism in Scotland, attempting to determine: (1) the extent to which the

Irish were racialised historically and (2) the effects of this discrimination on the Irish community today. Despite historically representing Britain's biggest immigrant group, the Irish diaspora has largely been absent in most theorists' accounts of race/ethnicity, remaining an 'invisible (white) ethnic minority' (Mac an Ghaill 2001). In Scotland, a major centre for Irish immigration but less ethnically diverse than England in terms of non-whites, the popular notion that there is no comparable (historical or contemporary) problem with racism (Finn 1999) could be challenged via a thorough examination of the Irish experience. Race and ethnicity have been neglected in most literature on the Irish , which tends to be more historical than sociological. Those sociologists who do write on the topic predominately historicise discrimination against Irish Catholics, using quantitative studies as evidence that such prejudice

– widely known as sectarianism

– is a problem of the past. Yet some recent well-documented instances of (apparent) anti-Irish racism in Scotland have brought the issue back into the public debate, and my initial PhD fieldwork suggests that, for some people, openly expressing Irish heritage is considered problematic and discouraged. Through in-depth interviews with participants from Irish Catholic backgrounds, and online and real-life ethnography to observe how particular Irish identities are played out and received publicly, I aim to contribute to an important gap in the existing literature.

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Poles and the Scottish Independence Referendum: D enizens’ Perspectives

McGhee, D., Pietka-Nykaza, E.

(University of Southampton)

In terms of the main traditions of citizenship scholarship there are three main aspects: (i) the rights and entitlements of citizenship; (ii) the processes of participation involved in citizenship; and (iii) the democratic context of citizenship. In this paper we touch on all three aspects by looking at the processes and implications of Polish migrants' participation in the historic event of the Scottish Independence Referendum in September 2014. By so doing, in this article we explore the implications, reflections and ambivalence associated with the referendum and it's potential outcomes for

Scotland's largest minority group (55,231 in 2011) namely, Polish denizens living in Scotland.

The central contribution of this study is to explore the ambivalence and salience of Polish denizenship in the context of the Scottish Independence Referendum 2014 when (a) Polish migrants were provided with the opportunity to participate in this historic event, unlike other foreigners such as non-EU third country nationals, however, (b) their denizenship could be potentially disrupted as a consequence of the outcomes of the referendum. This paper also animates the often formal debates on migrants' electoral eligibility in the EU with the perceptions, experiences and emotional responses of EU migrants, or what we prefer to call EU denizens in Scotland in the context of the

Independence referendum in 2014.

Scottish Nationalism as ‘Civic’: Critiquing the Complacency

Liinpää, M.

(University of Glasgow)

Binary distinctions have long been a prominent feature of nationalism studies, aiming at separating 'good' forms of nationalism from the 'bad' ones

– be it political/cultural nationalism (Kohn 1965) or eastern/western nationalism (Kohn

1965; Plamenatz 1976), for example. However, one of the most debated dichotomies within nationalism studies has been that of civic versus ethnic nationalism (e.g. Brubaker 1992; Ignatieff 1994). Furthermore, this dichotomy has featured heavily in the ways in which Scottish nationalism is understood and theorised (e.g. Kiely et al, 2005).

Using data from qualitative interviews conducted with 'experts' and individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds regarding Scottish nationalism and its relationship with ethnic minorities, as well as data gathered from analysing the content of SNP's publications and its prominent figures' speeches, this paper will critically discuss the usefulness of binary categorisations. While this paper will mainly focus on the independence referendum, because 2014 is also the year of Homecoming Scotland, it will offer a critique regarding the ways in which Scottish 'civic' nationalist ideas have long disregarded certain groups that could (should?) be seen as belonging to the Scottish 'diaspora' (an idea which itself challenges the 'civicness' of Scottishness!). Here, this paper will especially focus on the Caribbean countries that have close historical links to Scotland. The argument will be that while the civic/ethnic divide needs to be taken into account with regard to the ways in which people make sense of and interpret Scottish nationalist rhetoric and ideas, as an analytical tool it has limited use.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

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DIASPORA, MIGRATION AND TRANSNATIONALISM SUB-STREAM: EASTERN EUROPE AND MIGRATION

The Problems with Direct Questions on Ethnic Conflict in Empirical Research: The Case of Roma Minorities in

Hungary

Tremlett, A.

(University of Portsmouth)

With vitriolic media stories, draconian government measures and discriminatory attacks by far right groups, the problem of discrimination against Roma minorities

– or 'Romaphobia' - is said to the last acceptable form of racism in

Europe today. This paper examines how discriminatory attitudes can be researched empirically, examining the challenges of direct questioning about ethnic conflict. The research draws on qualitative research, including observation, fieldnotes, visual images and interviews ('photo elicitation') carried out with young Roma and non-Roma people in Hungary during 2013, funded by the British Academy Small Grant. Taking up criticisms of sociological research as over-focusing on the interview, this paper considers what can be learned from looking beyond the interview in qualitative research and the implications for the study of ethnicity or 'race', particularly in conflict situations.

The findings show that post-socialist discourses on Roma minorities do not always conform to notions of an 'ethnic

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other' and the paper calls for a broader inter-disciplinary discussion of prejudicial language and notions of 'belonging' and 'inclusion' with regards to marginalised groups such as Roma minorities. The paper draws on examples from research that show how understandings of ethnic and racial categorisations shift when research approaches transcend 'the interview'.

‘They Have Brilliant Castles Here, We’ve Never Seen That in Poland’: Changes to Family Leisure Postmigration Among Eastern European Migrants

Sime, D.

(University of Strathclyde)

The importance of family leisure for family bonding and strengthening of relationships has been emphasised by previous research (Schänzel et al., 2012). However, there is little evidence on what happens to families' leisure behaviours when they migrate to another country. In this paper, we are interested in how children's leisure spaces and types of leisure activities are affected by migration, and how they adapt to the need to reconfigure their leisure activities and leisure-enabling networks post-migration. Migration engages children in a variety of social, cultural and emotional settings. As the significance of social networks has been extensively discussed in research with migrants

(Ryan, 2011; McGhee et al., 2013), we examine how leisure activities post-migration are reconfigured by the sudden absence of leisure-enabling ties with grandparents and friends, for example, and identify new spaces for family leisure.

The paper reviews first the theoretical and research underpinnings of social network analysis to the study of children's relationships and argues for a more nuanced examination of children's multiple networks. We present evidence from research with over 100 Eastern European migrant children, which examined children's experiences post migration and changes to their leisure activities. Findings outline the significant role of increased family income in encouraging family tourism in the new country and transnationally, while also identifying significant barriers to family leisure, such as children's limited language skills and knowledge of available services, lack of established peer networks, parents' extended working hours, and increased control of children's independent movements due to perceived safety risks.

'Poles Have Adapted Here, but the English Haven't'

Seredynska-Abou Eid, R.

(University of Nottingham)

The 2004 enlargement of the European Union resulted in a massive migration from Poland to the United Kingdom

(UK). More than a decade later, issues such as adaptation, lifestyle and cultural translation are very much blurred by political populism. In the times of economic crises, a potential terror threat and political instability to the east of EU borders, multiculturalism has become a favourite cliché in political campaigns in the United Kingdom; however, the politicization of the term resulted in observable dichotomy between the social and cultural perspectives of migration and political jabbering.

This paper focuses on the initial analysis of the results of a doctoral project Translating Cultures

– Adapting Lives among Polish post-2004 first-generation migrants in the East Midlands. Cultural elements of adaptation and interpretation of cultures, comprehension of the environment and expectations versus reality have been researched in the light of challenges of social integration from the point of view of migrants. The social cohesion issue was broadly commented on and recapitulated in the claim that 'Poles have adapted here [in the UK], but the English haven't.'

Moreover, a need of more efficient communication with Polish communities was recorded at the institutional level as well. Therefore, this paper attempts to propose a set of recommendations how to overcome cultural hurdles in order to improve mutual understanding and built more integrated communities. Such guidance could be interest to local policy makers, those involved in everyday contact with Polish migrants and immigrants themselves.

Rights, Violence and Crime

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The Politics of Anti-denial L egislation: Cambodia’s ‘Law on the Non-Recognition of Khmer Rouge Crimes’

Manning, P.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

Anti-denial laws are a contentious way of managing public accounts of genocide and mass killing. As a socio-political technique, anti-denial laws specifically criminalise the propagation of versions of the past that transgress moral

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boundaries as laid out by the state. Anti-denial laws therefore invite one of the classic dilemmas for liberal human rights approaches: on the one hand, denial of genocide can be thought to constitute further injuries of acknowledgement for victims and, akin to hate speech legislation, be symptomatic of thought precipitant to violence.

On the other, liberal human rights approaches tend to privilege freedoms of expression; the regulation of basic civil liberties is thought to be ripe for abuse and run counter to the pluralist aspirations of post-atrocity societies. Anti-denial laws are thought to be either 'good' or bad' in the extent to which they (fail to) balance this opposition. A sociological analysis of anti-denial laws might begin elsewhere: Who defines what constitutes denial? And who arbitrates what is a legitimate anti-denial law? This paper considers the recent criminalisation of denial in Cambodia

– widely condemned by human rights organisations on perceived risks to freedom of expression

– to rethink the politics of anti-denial laws. I argue that the Cambodian case is as instructive of the difficulties human rights groups face in negotiating hierarchies of victims and clearly identifiable 'villains', as it is of the risks of politicising the regulation of civil liberties.

Practicing Human Rights: How Human Rights Practitioners Shape the Field

Redhead, R.

(Leeds Beckett University)

This working paper summarises my initial findings of a study into the politics of human rights practice looking specifically at how practitioners shape the human rights field. Through a series of interviews with lawyers, politicians, bureaucrats and activists I have mapped the 'work' that takes place within the field of human rights and analysed how this 'work' shapes what Nash (2009) refers to as the cultural politics of human rights. Within the national and international arenas, human rights practices are cultural capital that practitioners trade for political gains. In order to assure the future of the human rights movement we need to understand how people become involved and what motivations sustain their participation. As such I have asked interviewees to comment on how they see the field of human rights, how their 'work' fits within the field and their own career trajectories.

The study is an investigation into the field of human rights as a social field in the UK. Using field theory, I show how through the conscious and unconscious aspects of their practice, practitioners exercise considerable agency in adapting human rights discourse to their own concerns while also being critical of it. The professionalization of 'work' undertaken in the human rights field and the discomfort expressed by some practitioners about having made a career from their human rights activism, raises ethical and moral implications for practitioners whose original passions and motivations may get lost within the contours of building a viable career.

'Disobedience' for Transition?: Researching Strategies for Social Change

Miller, H.

(Kingston University)

The act of so-called 'disobedience' provides an integral part of numerous forms of social mobilizations and political struggles. It enables 'ordinary people' to exert agency and 'counterpower', with the aim of seeking social change.

Strategies for social change - including direct action, speaking out and solidarity - commonly utilise various objects to enable, establish and further acts of disobedience. Such objects accordingly make possible a variety of techniques, whilst also providing a point of reference for culture to flow across social movements.

Drawing on empirical data from a current sociological study, this paper provides a comparative and qualitative analysis of the use of activist-art and activist-craft in forms of social disobedience and rights struggles. It examines multiple voices from a range of 'artivists' and

'craftivists', and in so doing, establishes a critical analysis of varying forms, frames and techniques of contemporary practice. Key issues are interrogated, inclusive of the challenge of political efficacy. The paper concludes by highlighting some opportunities sociological research has to offer the re-theorization of existing human rights practice.

Science and Technology Studies

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DIGITAL

Contribution Beyond Source Code in Free/Libre Open Source Software: The Role of Affective Labour in the

Drupal Community

Rozas, D., Gilbert, N., Hodkinson, P.

(University of Surrey)

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Contribution is a key element of Commons-Based Peer Production (CBPP) communities. This element becomes of even more relevance for those communities focused on the production of digital commons, which typically possess the characteristics of an economy of contribution, rather than an economy of gift (Wittel, 2013), as in the case of the

Free/Libre Open Source (FLOSS) communities. Nevertheless, most of the literature on FLOSS has focused its attention on the most visible outcome of the contribution: the collaboratively built shared objects: source code, documentation, translations, user support, etc. However, less attention has been paid to those collaborative activities which Hardt (1999) defines as affective labour, referring to the immaterial labour present in human interaction which produces or modifies emotional experiences, including intangible assets, such as excitement, passion or the sense of community which have been identified as contribution motivators in FLOSS communities.

The goal of this study is to understand what kind of activities are perceived as contributions in the Drupal community, by carrying out qualitative research that could help to shed light on those other activities that have not been widely studied due to their lack of visibility. This aspect is specially critical in a community that has been characterised as

'code-centric' (Zilouchian, 2011; Sims, 2013). We aim to analyse how the whole set of identified contribution activities are perceived and evaluated by the members of the community, as well as their representation or lack of it in the community's digital collaboration platform.

Seeing Data: How Do People Interact with Data Visualisations?

Kennedy, H., Allen, W., Hill,R.L., Kirk, A.

(University of Sheffield)

Data are increasingly ubiquitous and are assumed to have the power to explain our social world. The main way that people get access to data is through visualisations, which, like the data on which they are based, are widely circulated, online, in the mainstream media, and elsewhere. Yet despite our increasing exposure to visualisations and dependence on them as conduits of information, little is known about how they get received and what skills and literacies are needed in order to make sense of them and so engage with data that is increasingly used to represent and shape society. This paper reports on research exploring the reception of data visualisations, called Seeing Data: are good big data visualisations possible?, which used social semiotic analysis, diary-keeping and focus group methods to investigate engagement with data visualisations, particularly around the contentious social issue of migration. In the paper, we move beyond a simplistic understanding of 'ease of use' (Sack 2011) as the central characteristic in determining the 'effective' reception of visualisations. Although a number of semiotic resources are mobilised by designers to create what appear to be trustworthy and legible data visualisations, other factors play a part in determining their reception. We argue that the reception of visualisations is visceral, affective, multi-sensory and content- and context-dependent. The subject matter, media location and design all play a significant role, as do the beliefs and opinions of the reader, the time they have to engage with visualisations, and their sense of their own data literacy.

More than 'Quantified Self': Commercial Activity Monitors and Users' Lived Meanings

Fraser Berndtsson, M.

(Lund University)

New wearable, electronic self-tracking devices for lifestyle change (such as the Fitbit and BodyMedia armbands) increasingly appear on the consumer market. Such systems collect data entered by users through apps and directly from users' bodies. They to produce systematized images of users' activity, eating and sleeping habits, and suggest changes or 'healthier choices'.

Developers and manufacturers, promoters of eHealth, mHealth and public health, and popular media accounts depict lifestyle self-trackers as useful tools for achieving health and fitness. Sociologists investigating the Quantified Self

(QS) have been less positive. They see electronic lifestyle-trackers as technological materializations of a main tenet of the QS movement

—'self knowledge through numbers'—and warn of instrumentalized data fetishism and the promotion of harmful neo-liberal, individualized approaches to health, wellness, and medical care. Current empirical research often investigates discourse or what might be termed more 'intensive users' such as QS movement members, or those using devices under medical or other professional supervision.

This paper offers a different view based on everyday experiences and practices of users who adopt Fitbit, BodyMedia, and other commercially available systems on a less formalized or intensive basis. It presents a postphenomenological and symbolic interactionist analysis of material collected through participant observation, in-person and online interviews of other users, and users' web-based discussions. The paper shows how users adopt and abandon different functions over their trajectories of tracker use, as well as different ways they make personalized

'data' meaningful in their everyday logics of practice and in interactions with self and others.

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Social Divisions/Social Identities 1

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SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND INEQUALITIES: COMPARISON BETWEEN CHINA AND THE UK

Unprecedented changes are taking places in contemporary societies such as China, Britain and many other countries.

Along with the rapid socio-economic development, new forms of social inequalities are emerging but the long-standing sociological issue of social advantages and disadvantages remains. In the case of China, social inequalities and social segregations, in particular between urban and rural regions and between different socio-economic groups, have become more significant and even begun to hinder the country from sustainable development. This session is devoted to exploring the nature, manifestation and extent of such emergent inequalities in the most rapidly developing (China) and in the well-developed (European) countries. Topics range from the social mobility processes of ethnic minority groups across four generations in the UK, the pattern of social mobility over three generations in the UK, the socioeconomic underpinning of people’s subjective wellbeing in China, and mechanisms of social inequalities and sociopolitical attitudes in China. This session provides a good opportunity to understand and rethink the tremendous social changes in transitional societies like China and also to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of social stratification with a comparative and generational perspective. This session is linked with another session on new consumption phenomenon in China.

The Social Inequalities in the Process of Urbanization in China: The Reality and Institutions

Chen, G.

(Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

In the process of urbanization in contemporary China, the social inequalities exist in almost all aspects of the social life. This paper will firstly make a comprehensive analysis on the reality of social inequalities in China; and then it will attempt to analyse systematically the institutional factors which make contributions to these inequalities; thirdly, it will discuss the impacts of the institutional inequalities and inequalities invoked by institutional arrangements on the urbanization itself; finally, it will attempt to discuss the directions of and roads to institutional changes in order to reduce social inequalities and make the process of urbanization more desirable for Chinese people. The excessive social inequalities, substantially speaking, are deeply rooted in the system of economic, social and political institutions and policies of contemporary China. In the final analysis, two sets of fundamental institutions decide that the whole system of institutions cannot effectively play the role to reduce the social inequalities or even sometimes exacerbate the situation of social inequalities: the first set consist of so-called dual social institutions based on the distinction between the rural and urban areas; the second set includes the distinctive market institutions and related policies which are, at some extent, more favorable for the capital than for the labor.

The Relationship between Economic Status and Subjective Well-being: An Investigation of the Chinese

Happiness Paradox

Zhao, Y.

(University of Manchester)

Subjective wellbeing (SWB) is a complex psychological phenomenon and is affected by multiple factors, among which economic conditions are argued to be one of the most crucial determinants. Existing studies have shown that in developing countries that have relative low living standards, economic growth will facilitate a significant improvement in people's SWB. However, the massive growth in material living standards during China's market transition process has had little effect on Chinese SWB, a phenomenon that has been called the 'Chinese happiness paradox'. Many previous studies have explored the role of economic factors in accounting for this paradox, but they have mainly focused on the sole indicator of income or relative income and generally failed to consider how the relationship might be influenced by changes in the socioeconomic environment in which people live in.

This research uses multiple indicators to formulate a better measurement of economic status, and employs a multilevel modelling framework to examine the effect of socioeconomic environment. Based on the data of Chinese

General Social Survey 2003, the analysis shows an individual's economic status has a significant positive impact on

SWB, though different indicators of economic status are shown to vary in their strength and pattern of influence.

Furthermore, the results imply that the market transition process in China has had a negative impact on people's

SWB, but individuals' economic status does not show a stronger relationship with SWB level under conditions of increasing marketization. There is an inverted U-shape relationship between economic status and happiness.

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Social Mobility over Three Generations in Britain

Zhang, M.

(University of Manchester)

The most of social mobility studies have adopted a two-generation (parent-to-child) model of intergenerational inequality and disregarded the role of grandparents as an extra resource in affecting individuals' social mobility. A combination of increased longevity, the higher rates of divorce and single-parenthood and declined fertility rate has increased the duration of grandparent-grandchild relationships and as a result grandparental involvements in their grandchildren's life have become prevalent and complex. Against this background, the traditional two-generation paradigm may not be able to fully capture the picture of social mobility and may risk an underestimation of the effect of family origins. Few studies have paid attention to the grandparental effect in grandchildren's social mobility, but their results are mixed.

Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008 and Understanding Society from 2009 to

2012, I attempt to investigate the pattern of social mobility over three generations from a longitudinal perspective.

While considering the three-generational lineage (grandparent-parent-grandchild) as the agent of redistribution with an appreciation of demographic changes, I suggest that social positions of grandparents in the maternal line have significant influences on the differentiation of individuals' social achievements, after controlling for effects of parents.

Going beyond the previous preoccupation with the two generation framework and taking a holistic view of multigenerational inequalities are expected to contribute valuable discoveries on how social inequalities persist over generations.

Social Mobility and Ethnicity in Britain

Li, Y., Heath, A.

(University of Manchester)

Much research on social mobility has been carried out in Britain with heated debates as to whether social inequality is declining, rising or staying constant. Most of the studies are, however, conducted at the general population level without considering the ethnic effects, and most of them only look at the origin-destination associations without exploring the mobility processes. In this paper we address the two neglected issues by examining the mobility processes associated with ethnicity in the last five decades. We look at the classical OED (origin, education and destination) relations among whites and first- and second- generation ethnic minorities, which is further complemented by two moderated effects drawing on insights from Hout (1988) and Goldthorpe (2008): the OD variation with E, and the ED variation with O (sorry cannot show the diagram here).

Using data from the General Household Survey, British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society (1972-

2012) with harmonised variables on ethnicity and generation, and with father's and respondent's class coded into

International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI), we assess the relations employing the SEM techniques. We find little change in the OE and ED associations but declining OD effects. The OD association with higher education has been strengthening whilst that for low education has been weakening. The ED association with different origins has shown little change. The patterns for immigrants are inconsistent but those for the second generation largely mirror whites' profile. There are signs of progress even though marked inequalities exist.

Social Divisions/Social Identities 2

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MARKING OUT BOUNDARIES, MAKING UP PLACES: EVERYDAY PARTICIPATION AND CONSTRUCTIONS

OF CULTURAL VALUE

The papers in this panel are rooted in research being undertaken for the ‘Understanding Everyday Participation –

Articul ating Cultural Values’ project (www.everydayparticipation.org); an interdisciplinary project funded for 5 years from 2012 by the AHRC as part of the ‘Connected Communities’ programme. In a challenge to the deficit model of participation that has helped to inform the canonisation and funding of particular cultural forms and activities by the state, this project is undertaking a re-evaluation of the relationship between participation and cultural value: firstly, by examining the meanings and stakes people att ach to ‘everyday’ practices, such as hobbies, pastimes and informal social involvements; and secondly, by exploring the interplay between participation, time and place. In this way, the research seeks, amongst other things, to extend recent attempts to apply a Bourdieusian frame to understandings of cultural consumption and social stratification in the UK, which have arguably neglected the ‘ordinary’ domains and spatial dimensions of cultural engagement. To this end, the project is working in six contrasti ng ‘cultural ecosystems’

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across England and Scotland, using a mixed-methods frame comprising focus groups, interviews, ethnography, mapping and social network analysis to explore the situated nature, dynamics and meaning-making of everyday participation practices. Drawing on early findings from work in the first three cases studies

– in Manchester/Salford,

Aberdeen and Gateshead

– along with that from a linked PhD project, the four papers in this session reflects more specifically on the process of boundary making through participation and how this is rendered empirically through the deployment of different methodologies.

Participation Narratives

Miles, A.

(University of Manchester)

Alongside Put nam’s (1995) work on social capital, consideration of the ‘stakes’ attached to participation is most clearly associated with the debate around Bourdieu’s (1986) concept of cultural capital and the role this plays, alongside the possession or otherwise of other assets and resources, in processes of domination and social closure. Here the cultural omnivore thesis (Peterson and Kern 1996) vies with the concept of ‘emerging’ cultural capital (Prieur and

Savage 2013). Yet the preferred method of understanding variation in practices in the cultural field - the analysis of cross-sectional survey data on tastes and activities - reveals nothing of the value or dynamics of participation in different activities at the individual level, nor for groups. In this paper I explore the potential of ‘participation narratives’ and life histories from longitudinal in-depth interviews for understanding the formation, negotiation, presentation and relationality of cultural tastes and identities. These interviews are taken from the first three case studies (in

Manchester/Salford, Aberdeen and Gateshead) of the ‘Understanding Everyday Participation’ project. As well as offering different perspectives on the salience of time to participation, including the ways in which habitus is configured, testimonies from these contrasting locations reveal how participation is understood and valued spatially through the interplay of mobility and belonging. Within this frame, the paper goes onto discuss two emerging themes in particular: the ‘timing’ of participation, in relation to work time and family time (Elder 1994); and, drawing on Willis’s

(1998) concept of grounded aesthetics, the significance of vernacular cultural capital.

Habitus and Value: The ‘Situatedness’ of Participation and Value

Gibson, L., Taylor, M.

(University of Leicester and University of Sheffield)

This paper argues that place plays a fundamental role in informing everyday participation in leisure and cultural practices of all kinds. Many studies focus on understanding attendance and participation in their various forms through individual- and household-level demographic and socio-economic characteristics. However, such an exclusive focus loses sight of th e mundane effects of supply and, perhaps more controversially, the ‘cultural signature’ of participation and the ways in which the value ascribed to participation in different activities varies by place. We are exploring the ways in which the ‘situatedness’ of participation is important, with an intensive focus on six locations (or ‘ecosystems’) in England and Scotland. In each one, we focus on the specific geography of physical cultural and community assets, socio-demographic characteristics, and a radically expanded range of participation data. Through this we are seeking to answer two questions. First, what is the situated character of participation in different places? Second, how do socio-demographic factors interact with the geography of assets to frame participation? Following debates in the sociology of culture about the generalizability of the cultural capital ascribed to participating in different activities: can we understand the specificity of participation in a particular location as constituting a specific habitus; if so, how does such a situated habitus interact with other dispositions related to class, gender, age and ethnicity? This paper will explore these proposals through the discussion of findings from studies of Aberdeen, Gateshead and Greater

Manchester.

Standing Close to the Action: Ethnography and the Times and Spaces of Everyday Participation

Ebrey, J., Edwards, D

(University of Manchester)

As members of the UE

P research team currently engaged in ethnographic work in two of the project cultural ‘ecosystems’ in England and Scotland, we have explored people’s everyday participation in a number of different settings.

We concur with Willis and Trondman (2000) and c onsider ethnography to be ‘a family of methods involving direct and sustained social contact with agents and of richly writing up the encounter, respecting, recording, representing at least partly in its own terms, the irreducibility of human experience’. There are also varying accounts across disciplines of what constitutes a ‘real’ ethnography, all grounded in particular ethnographic time frames spent ‘in the field’. Couldry

(2014), in his exploration of ethnography and civic engagement, proposes three questions, which seem particularly useful to ask in the context of time, participation and ethnography, for both ethnographer and agent. Firstly, how might

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time mediate engagement for both participants? Secondly, what might being connected represent and thirdly, what does ethnography mean for participation, since it is in itself a participative practice? Using examples from our work in

Aberdeen and Gateshead, we will discuss the process of ethnographic work in relation to these questions and will conclude by suggesting that our ‘short and dirty’ method, in its combination with interviews, mapping, historical analysis and quantitative analysis, has been innovative in its exploration of everyday participation.

Considering Participation in the Measuring National Well-being

Debate: 'What Matters’ as an Evidence Base for the ‘Good Society’?

Oman, S.

(University of Manchester)

The UK’s Office for National Statistics is one of many national government agencies appealing to languages of crisis by seeking to decipher and track national wellbeing as an alternative measure of ‘progress’. Its 2010 Measuring

National Well-being: What Matters to You? debate involved 34,000 citizens in an exercise of political participation which was alleged would inform the (then) forthcoming well-being measures. This paper outlines how the ONS neglected to listen to all who participated, disqualifying the project as a democratic exercise and thus as an accurate representation of ‘what matters’. While there were no boundaries set by the ONS with regards to who might participate in the debate, there were methodological boundaries to the inclusion of data forms in establishing this evidence base for policy-making.

I will look at the de bate’s online survey as a method of participation with two response registers: tick-boxes, which one participant called ‘forced choices’, or the free-text fields which the ONS labelled ‘Other’. The two response methods present radical differences in the order of importance placed on wellbeing concepts in or outside the ONS’ multidimensional index. The most commonly mentioned dimension in the free-text fields, and not reflected in debate outputs, was what might be described as ‘everyday participation’ as a contributor to overall quality of life. I will conclude that the well-being agenda, with its current evidence base and methods, cannot sufficiently understand inequalities in the ‘good life’ in order to effect positive socio-political change as advancement towards the ‘Good

Society’ the debate promised.

Sociology of Education 1

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In-school Pregnancy in Mozambique: Drop-out or Throw-out?

Salvi, F.

(University of Sussex)

Both academic research and global and national social policy construct teenage pregnancy as problematic.

Associated with biomedical risks, and connected with individual psychological and moral shortcomings, teenage pregnancy is often positioned within debates around social exclusion, in that it is seen to trigger vicious cycles of poverty and deprivation. These are often seen to stem from the cessation of formal education in-school pregnancy causes, where educational deprivation further contributes to negative life trajectories. Conversely, formal education and training are represented as means to personal development and success, through the acquisition of skills leading to formal employment. In-school pregnancy thus works against individual and social progress and is synonymous with backwardness and tradition within a modernising and globalised world.

With this paper, I wish to 'turn the tables' and encourage a critical consideration of the ways in which educational policies and practices in Mozambique may have perverse effects and ultimately push pregnant girls to drop out. The analysis stems from a discussion of Decree 39/GM/2003, which indicates that pregnant girls should be transferred from day to night courses. The national policy marks some improvement from previous customary habits of expelling pregnant girls from the school grounds, while tackling one of main causes of girls dropout: pregnancy. At the same time, transferring pregnant girls to night courses contributes to their discrimination, ultimately doing little to bridge the gender gap in both primary and secondary education.

Corporality from the Standard on Bodies Produced and on Speeches of Heterosexuals and LGBTs in a

Brazilian University

Warmling, D., Campos, D.A., Vieira, M., Rodriguez, A.M.M., Moretti-Pires, R.O.

(Federal University of Santa Catarina)

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The body is an expression of individual and the society in which it appears. The LGBT themes in its bodily expressions have one of the largest emblems of the struggle for the right to be in Society. The right to change sexes is guaranteed by the Brazilian public service. Workshops with university (heterosexual and LGBT) were performed based on Structuration Theory. Everyday images of transsexuals, shemales and homosexuals bodies were presented.

Discourse of the heterosexual group about LGBT's bodies was build with elements of man and woman. To the corporeality of each individual were attributed features such as beautiful, when it suited the hegemonic aesthetic standards; and when these were divergent, it was thought as ugly. Were described stories of empowerment and overcoming cases of transsexuals with beautiful bodies that appeared to be men or women cis-sexuals. The narrative is permeated by a dichotomous sexual standard, which should materialize in the body. Were problematized to hegemonic need to identify the bodies as male or female, in the discourse of LGBT group. It's evident the challenge of overcoming the normativity also among LGBTs, which leads to discriminatory actions among the different groups.

The Transphobia in

University Life: Heterosexuals’ and LGBT Students’ Narratives and Senses from a

Brazilian Public University

Mujica Rodriguez, A.M., Campos, D.A., Vieira, M., Warmling, D., Moretti-Pires, R.O.

(Federal University of Santa Catarina)

This study aimed to investigate the narrative repertoires of heterosexuals and LGBT students on the phenomenon of transphobia, based on Giddens's concept about actor and agency . Workshops for heterosexuals and LGBT workshops were held. Thirteen images of transsexuals and homosexuals, solo and in couples were presented. Were asked to group members express their perceptions based on examples from personal life. In some of the narratives of the group there is a constrution of the discourse of the binary system and the mimicry between sex/gender. There was a naturalization of sex and seeing gender as a reflection of this, hindering the use of pronouns. On the other hand, some of the narratives showed an interest in the subject and expressed concerns about Trans how people that suffer to escape from the norm. Photos with transmans caused estrangement within these narratives ('Transman pretends to be a man'). In narratives of people attending was discussed as cis-hetero-normativity is present in constructions of identity and corporeality of Trans people. A stereotyped and inflexible view exists in discourses linked to socially accepted norms about what is being a transman and/or a transwoman.

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Transnational Institutional Matching: Singaporean Elite Students and Their Pathways through Oxbridge

Ye, R., Nylander, E.

(Stockholm University)

This paper is concerned with the transnational character of elite higher education in general, and the process of institutional matching from Singaporean elite schools to Oxbridge in particular. We draw from Turner's concept of

'sponsored mobility' and the methodology employed by Bourdieu in The State Nobility in order to uncover the mechanisms that enable these transnational student flows. As our analysis reveals, an important device that facilitates the transnational process from Singapore to elite schools elsewhere is the award of Singaporean government scholarships. Empirically, we utilise a dataset compiled of 580 government scholars rewarded this status between the years of 2002 and 2011, where more than a fifth were funded for studies at Oxbridge. We complement this with interviews conducted with Singaporean undergraduates studying at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The results of our analysis emphasize how students are being matched from two Singaporean elite junior colleges to

Oxbridge and back to the higher strata of the Singaporean Public Service. We argue that the educational trajectories of the government scholars need to be related both to the preparatory function of specific elite schools as well as the governing roles these individuals are meant to obtain within the state upon graduation. The study is an attempt to contribute to ongoing discussions of how the preparation of local elites can involve a transnational rite of passage that serves to consecrate and prepare these individuals for their eventual return and service to the state.

‘Don't Forget Your Crayons’: Revisiting Binary Assumptions of Higher Education and the Buying Power of

Institutional Capital

Burke, C.

(Ulster University)

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The rapid expansion of Higher Education, through the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act, re-established a twotier, or binary, system between elite or "pre-1992" universities and the newly established or "post-1992" universities.

Pre-1992 universities are understood to be much more prestigious institutions offering an academically rigorous education. These institutions are built on, and operate via, norms and values that represent an, institutional, dominant class habitus. This is in contrast to post-1992 universities, understood to be more vocationally focused and built on, and operating through, norms and values more in line with an, institutional, dominated class habitus. These institutions' positions, within social space, are demonstrated through both the classed nature of their student cohorts and the life chances for their respective graduates.

This paper intends to question the binary relationship within higher education. Based on an empirical study, which traced the graduate trajectories of a cohort of graduates from one pre-1992 and one post-1992 university, it will demonstrate that the pre-1992 university graduates did not enjoy greater success in the graduate labour market than their post-1992 counterparts. It will highlight the dominant role of a priori capital over institutional capital for middle class respondents' graduate employment trajectories. It will then discuss the contrasting graduate trajectories experienced by working class respondents, demonstrating that the post-1992 working class graduates experienced greater graduate employment success than their pre-1992 counterparts. The paper will consider the directive role that habitus, both individual and institutional, has on the employment trajectories of working class graduates.

Not the Standard Bengali: British-born Bangladeshi Women in Higher Education

Scandone, B.

(University of Bath)

This paper explores how issues of class and ethnicity intersect in the lives and identities of British-born Bangladeshi women in higher education. While predominantly from working-class backgrounds, women of Bangladeshi origins are considerably increasing their presence in UK universities. Drawing on 50 in-depth interviews carried out with 25 young women in different London universities, I hope to show how classed and ethnic identities contribute to shape, and are in turn shaped by, 'choice' and experience of higher education. Findings confirm the importance attributed by ethnic minorities to higher education independently of class origins, and its perceived value as key to upward social mobility.

They also show, however, the persistence of barriers to ethnic minority students' mobility prospects related for eg. to choice of institution. Participants' narratives highlight moreover how the ethnic dimension adds an additional layer of complexity to discourses on class and mobility. In the process of upward mobility achieved through the acquisition of educational capital, these women problematize and reinterpret their attachments and belongings of class and ethnicity, with gender, religion and locality also emerging as important dimensions. This is displayed for example in different degrees of (re)conciliation with and adoption of White British middle class culture and values, and in the assertion of alternative identities which refuse to be assimilated within dominant conceptions of class. Finally, this study intends to challenge stereotypical perceptions of submissive Muslim women, underscoring instead how interviewees are often capable of renegotiating their gender and religious identities in their relations with significant others.

Sociology of Religion

W622, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Sounding Religious, Sounding Queer

Taylor, Y., Falconer, E.

(London South Bank University)

Based on ESRC funded research Making Space for Queer Identifying Religious Youth, this paper explores the role music plays in participants' worship, including attitudes to 'progressive' and 'traditional' musical sounds and styles. It looks at approaches taken by inclusive non-denominational churches (such as the Metropolitan Community Church,

MCC), to recognise, reconcile and respond to different, and at times conflicting, identities of its members. Focusing on

'spaces of reconciliation' the paper brings together the embodied experience of Christian congregational music with the 'age appropriate' temporality of modern music, to examine the complex relationships between age, music, faith and sexuality. Young queers did not always feel ill at ease with 'tradition' and in fact many felt pulled towards traditional choral songs and hymns. Embodied and affective responses to congregational music emerged in complex and multiple ways: faith infused creativity, such as singing practice, enables queer youth to do religion and Christianity and be a part of 'sounding religious, sounding queer'.

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The Changing Marital and Familial Lives of Leicester Jain Women

Pogacnik, A.

(University of Edinburgh)

Although Jain diaspora forms an important part of the religious landscape of contemporary UK, it has managed to avoid the limelight of academic investigation, while a particularly hidden part of the Jain population are women. This paper aims to shed light on the experience of Jain women living in Leicester (England) and highlight some aspects of their changing marital and familial lives.

During a five-week long fieldwork project I interviewed seven Leicester Jain women in order to explore the generational and diasporic changes in their marital habits and familial lives. Contrary to well-documented Indian norms on premarital behaviour, marriage arrangements and familial patrilocality, Jain women living in Leicester are

(somewhat reluctantly) allowed to engage in premarital inter-gender interactions and dating, primarily search for their own spouses themselves (and rarely have their marriages arranged), and are predominantly neolocal after marriage.

Relationships within families are also changing with women gaining more power within the spousal couple and affinial joint families due to their engagement in paid employment and consequential financial independence of women.

I argue that these changes can be interpreted as a consequence of the diminished power and reach of informal social control the community is able to exhibit over its members due to its relative smallness. Certain norms and traditions otherwise guiding Jain women's lives are therefore loosening and opening up to individual interpretations and English cultural influences, and consequentially changing the lives of Leicester Jain women.

Identity Spaces: Creation and Maintenance of Identity in Young Catholics in Northern Ireland

Smith, A.

(University of Aberdeen)

Northern Ireland is emerging from a three decade long conflict that came to a peaceful resolution in the late 1990's.

Since then, we have seen a continuation of low level violence and divided social system. This is particularly found in residential space and education which are divided for the most part along religious and national lines. Young people are particularly influenced by these social processes. We find that presence in segregated or non-segregated (shared spaces) has an impact on the creation, and subsequent performance of identity.

In single-identity areas, young Catholics tend towards an 'exclusive' sense of identity, one that is based on belonging to the group and in opposition to non-Catholics. For those young people in shared spaces (for example, integrated

[mixed] schools) potentially exclusive identities are downplayed in favour of 'inclusivity' based upon a shared situation rather than a shared national/ethnic identity. Nevertheless, the inclusive identities formed in these spaces are fragile and reliant on a consensus of the group. Given the deeply segregated nature of social life in Northern Ireland, there is a tendency for the young people in these shared spaces to revert to an exclusive identity within mostly single-identity home areas. This paper highlights the malleable nature of identity creation, and the potential for shared, inclusive identities to be created and performed given the right circumstances and support.

Towards a Discursive Sociology of Religion and the State

Hjelm, T.

(University College London)

The relationship between religion and the state has been an object of a wide variety of disciplinary approaches. This paper asks what a distinctively sociological perspective on religion-state relations is, and what it could be. Focusing on the intersection between the different degrees of political secularisation (the separation of religion and state) and social secularisation (the transformation of ‘lived’ religion) the paper argues for a ‘discursive sociology’ approach. This means broadening the field of inquiry beyond policy outcomes (e.g. constitutional arrangements, freedom of religion and conscience laws) towards the (legislative) processes where religion/state

–relations are discussed and debated.

The discursive sociology approach foregrounds processes of legitimation, that is, how on the one hand political discourse legitimates particular religion/state

–relations and, on the other hand, how religious discourse in the legislative arena legitimates particular political issues, and by doing so potentially reproduces a role for religion in the political arena. Critical by definition, a discursive approach analyses how power relations shape discourse and how power manifests in discourse itself. The paper argues that a discursive sociology of religion and the state provides an improved lens through which to analyse the intersections of religion, politics and society.

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Theory

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Change, Transition or Transformation of Societal Practices and Orders?

Jonas, M.

(Institute for Advanced Studies)

In the social sciences debates about the question whether societal practices and orders have to be changed or transformed in order to avoid or, if this would not be possible, to damp negative effects of the current financial, economic, ecological and political crises gain more and more attention. Against the background of this observation, my contribution is following the aims to give an overview about this debate, to clarify the concepts of societal change, transition and transformation and

– with reference to selected social phenomena like unsustainable production and consumption processes

– to discuss as well as to tare how and under which conditions these concepts might be used as core concepts in a political analysis oriented praxeological research.

Operationalising the Figuration: Methodological U se of Elias’s Concept in Studies of British Funeral Directors

Sereva, E.

(University of Edinburgh)

Norbert Elias's concept of figuration pertains to (un)planned sets of interdependent people linked through some form of commonality. But, how can researchers put the concept of figuration into practice? To date, very little has been written about the practicalities of operationalising Eliasian concepts in social research. This paper introduces two key issues that may arise whilst using figurational analysis 'in the field'. First, in attempting to explore the elusive and unfolding qualities, the researcher is instead often presented with information pertaining to contemporary networks operating within figurations. Figurational relationships are characterised by qualities which unfold gradually and are not coterminous with interpersonal links. In a sense, interviews tend to create external situations which stop time and involve the explaining of 'who knows whom now' matters. Second, in explaining 'important' relationships and events, interviewees' day-to-day 'second-nature' relationships and activities fall by the wayside.

This paper pertains to an on-going project which utilises figurational analysis to explore the development of relational interplays in British funeral directing firms. In addressing these key issues, this paper proposes that using long-term network analysis as a jumping-off point in in-depth unstructured interviews allows for glimpses into the funeral firm's figuration. The conversations which arise in discussion of the network maps go beyond 'who's who' and touch on these elusive and unfolding qualities. Elias, perhaps deliberately, never gave specific prescriptive advice regarding how to use figuration in research contexts, and thus the task is to specifically tailor approaches to mesh with the topics and questions of interest.

Modern State Formation and Corruption Discourse: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Booker, M.

(University of Edinburgh)

This presentation reverses the question and asks not for the causes of corruption but why there is not more corruption. It draws on research currently undertaken on the connections between modern state formation and political corruption discourse in Britain in the 19th and in Germany in the late 19th to mid- 20th centuries. Two findings in particular are highlighted: First of all, it can be shown that corruption discourses come in different types and develop through different phases: in the example of the United Kingdom, an initial definitional phase can be demarcated from a mobilisation and later a consolidation phase. These different phases move through different aspects of corruption that are identified as needing to be tackled. Secondly, the importance of the concept of corruption in the development of the public good norm merits attention. Drawing again on examples from the United Kingdom, in particular the 1832 and 1867 Electoral Reform Acts as well as the consolidation of the state bureaucracy in the second half of the 19th century, the paper illustrates how corruption is not just a 'pathology' of the democratic, inclusive, universalist state, but is in fact essential to the idea of said state, the 'other' against which it defines itself.

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Work, Employment and Economic Life

A005, GOVAN MBEKI BUILDING

The Effects of the Economic Crisis and Austerity in Individu als’ Life Course: Results from Narrative

Biographies in Spain and the UK

Lopez-Andreu, M.

(University of Manchester)

The paper presents results of a research that has the aim to analyse how individuals cope with the employment changes that recession has provoked in the UK and Spain. The recession and its aftermath (austerity policies) imply the reinforcement of previous existing trends towards more instability and insecurity in the labour market. This increase of insecure employment and employment transitions interact with changes in social and employment policies that deepen trends already existing since the 1980s towards a greater fragmentation of society. The research is focused in the effects of the crisis as a turning point; that is it is interested in individuals who experienced a downward move in their employment situation. The research uses narrative biographies to investigate how these individuals cope with these employment changes in terms of the supports and resources they use and have access to reach their employment, personal and social objectives. The research question that emerges is how individuals with different social profiles and resources cope with these changes? And how are the changes affecting their living and working conditions? Such a perspective requires an interaction between labour market trajectories and life course as options, choices and projects in the labour market are closely linked to household and family situation, the institutional context, community networks and personal and social orientations. We will present main findings of the biographies and we will discuss the role of institutional changes in shaping life course and in eroding the material basis of citizenship (capacity of being and doing).

Histories of Belonging, Relational Agency and Moving on after Job Displacement

Vieno, A.

(University of Helsinki)

Workers in Western Europe and North America embedded in the stable industrial structures created after World War II are now confronting the displacing effects of automation, outsourcing and new management practices: what Richard

Sennett calls 'the specter of uselessness'. Aging workers in particular are disadvantaged by their long careers linked to one industry and by modest, specialised or outdated educational credentials.

In my paper, I examine the trajectories of workers displaced from aviation ground services in Finland, an industry of perpetual crisis in the past decade. Drawing upon interviews with workers and secondary data from corporate, union and news sources, I first investigate how employment practices in earlier decades fostered workers' spatial, temporal, social and affective embeddedness in the industry. Workers displaced by new practices of outsourcing face the dilemma of holding on to disintegrating bonds of belonging to the industry, or looking for new employment in different fields, which entails not only economic sacrifice but also re-evaluating what makes life worth living. Workers responded in different ways to this dilemma, acting relationally in structures of constraint and opportunity formed by intersections of age, gender, interpersonal bonds, different histories of embeddedness in the industry and by the structure of the displacement process itself. In order to grasp the dynamics of displacement and its impact on lives and livelihoods, I am working towards a perspective sensitive not only to workers' different positions, but to particular historical formations of belonging in different industries and how agency is relationally constructed in displacement processes.

Changing Careers?: Stories and Experiences of Significant Work-life Change

Potter, J.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

This paper explores the personal experience of changing 'career'. It does so through a narrative lens; through the accounts of men and women who have undergone dramatic career change. The literature on the changing structure of career

– including that on 'boundarylessness' and 'portfolio' work – tends to pay less attention to the way that people deal with these changes. With this in mind my analysis is twofold: examining, on the one hand, the well referenced notion that careers are less linear and predicable than previously theorized; while on the other, the way that career change is enacted by individuals

– how it is negotiated and experienced. Based on material from a forthcoming

Palgrave monograph, and drawing on empirical research involving 30 narrative interviews with individuals who have undergone significant work-life transitions, the paper examines the more subjective, intimate, and interpersonal aspects of careers that are unstable, or in transition. These more 'personal' insights highlight how focusing on the

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structure or trajectory of careers can mask how 'non-traditional' careers are actually experienced. Moreover, emphasis on the changing career form overshadows the discursive predominance of more traditional or linear notions; that the expectation of progress, promotion, and linearity

– often associated with career – remains hegemonic. Therefore, the challenge of changing careers has as much to do with the persistence of (normative) ambitions, pressures, and expectations

– that career's 'should' be stable, linear, and 'progressive' – as it does with the volatility of career structures, or the fragmentation of career trajectories.

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Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

Room

M532

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Families and Relationships

Frontiers 1

Frontiers 2

Lifecourse

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2

Sociology of Education

Sociology of Religion

Theory

Work, Employment and Economic Life

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Carnegie Lecture Theatre

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

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THE TIME OF MOBILE METHODS

In response to anthropogenic climate change and potential global resource shortages there is a widespread policyoriented concern with how individuals and communities can reconfigure their everyday lives and adopt more

‘sustainable lifestyles’. According to this narrative, transport and mobility are central sites of necessary transformation and within the transport and planning fields there is a widespread acceptance of the need to enable more sustainable transport and travel systems and behaviour. What seems less clear is how this sustainable transport future can be realised. Transport modelling and planning often seem to rely on assumptions about the pre-determined nature and fixity of individual practices, which are often modelled as either the outcomes of rational choice or as individualised

‘habits’. Thus, there appears to be little understanding of either the contexts for ‘change’ or of its temporal dynamics.

Nor is it clear that the more sociological literature on mobilities, where the predominant tendency is to focus on issues of spatiality, sufficiently addresses matters of temporality. In this panel we focus on the turn to mobile methods as one way of addressing the dilemmas of researching travel and transport. In particular we question the extent to which mobile methods adequately address the temporal dimensions of travel and transport, which might be central to understanding change and the possibilities for change. The panel will present material from a qualitative longitudinal panel study that has collected life and mobility history narratives from 245 participants in Leeds and Manchester in northern England. Part of the larger multidisciplinary Step-Change project (http://www.changing-mobilities.org.uk), this panel study explores, amongst other things, changing travel and transport practices in the everyday and over personal and historical time.

The Time of Mobile Methods

Lewis, C.

(University of Manchester)

The study of mobilities has led to a call for appropriate mobile methods. Explicit in this is the assumption that existing methods are not sufficient for the task of studying mobilities. Interviews, focus groups and ethnography are regarded as static, immobile and fixed in place. But despite the obvious reference to time, the new mobilities paradigm (NMP), is a field often more explicitly concerned with spatial than temporal movement. In this paper, we extend emerging critiques of mobile methods (eg Merriman 2014), by suggesting that mobile methods are limited as they rely on an over simplified theorisation of time and temporality. As noted by Cresswell (2010), particular conceptions of time are at work in the NMP with, for instance, Urry arguing that the present state of mobility offers a radical break from the past.

However, such depictions of rupture or epochal change are often vague about ‘duration’ and about when ‘the present’ begins

Our paper suggests that unexamined assumptions about time which are implicated in the turn to and demand for new mobile methods are not especially helpful in addressing the complexities of specific, locally grounded, changes and continuities in travel and transport behaviour which have emerged in our qualitative longitudinal panel study.

The Times of Our Lives

Miles, A.

(University of Manchester)

This paper will introduce the methodological approach to the first and second wave of data collection in the innovative qualitative longitudinal panel study, which forms the empirical focus of the multidisciplinary Step-Change project

(http://www.changing-mobilities.org.uk). The first wave involved eliciting life history narratives from interviews, alongside timelines and life diagrams, with 245 participants across the major urban conurbations of Leeds and

Manchester. The second wave asked participants about perceptions of change, in relation to their everyday lives and also more broadly, in regards to societal change. Interviewees were also asked to drawa map to represent places which are important to them. Our paper discusses how we are using these interviews, life diagrams, timelines and maps to develop the concept of ‘mobility biographies’ (Frändberg 2008; Lanzendorf 2003; Scheiner 2008) emerging in transport studies; a model that appears to offer a number of possibilities for developing a broader understanding of the dynamics of travel behaviour. Specifically here we explore the potentials of bringing a more interpretive and narrative approach to the concept of mobility biographies, which thus far has relied on linear notions of time, on fixed transitions

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in the life course and a segmented approach to life stages. We also explore what mapping adds to conventional intervie wing (Emmel 2008) and reflect on Vertesi’s (2010) argument which states that asking people to draw produces remarkable objects and rich stories about place and movement. We focus on the ways in which life trajectories and personal histories of mobility, travel and transport impact future behaviours through engaging both theoretically and empirically with the panel study data to examine how people’s decisions are embedded in shifting networks of relationships over time and in different dimensions of the life course.

The Time of Trauma

Moore, N.

(University of Edinburgh)

In this paper we restate a central assumption of much qualitative research, that interviews can clearly be understood as involving m ovement through time. Specifically we draw on trauma narratives to highlight the movements in people’s lives. In the Step Change project we have been struck by the number of trauma narratives, many of which revolve around serious illness, which have emerged in our interviews about travel and transport and everyday lives and life histories. While the new mobilities paradigm appears to struggle with time, transport studies exhibits different dilemmas, an obsession with time, though usually time that is reducible to cost. More recently transport modelling has begun to take on board the notion that ‘active travel’ may contribute to well-being, that travelling time may also be conducive to health. However it is nonetheless the case that transport planning has historically not taken into account that people may get ill, and that this might have a bearing on the temporalities of transport. We understanding trauma as a response to overwhelming events, which is about time (eg repetition, amnesia, forgetting, return, rupture, turning points) and movement (freeze, flight, fight), all of which can disrupt efforts to produce progress narratives of coherent selves. We turn to the trauma narratives which have emerged in our interviews as exemplary sites through which to raise questions about academic amnesia, which forgets that interviews are sites of movement, as well as to think through the relationship between time, space and movement in mobility studies.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

W110, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

'The Trouble with Quotes You See on the Internet is That You Never Know if They are Genuine.' (William

Shakespeare): Regressions to Hegemonic Power and Instrumentality in Digital Leisure Spaces

Spracklen, K.

(Leeds Beckett University)

This paper will explore the emergence and importance of on-line social media and networks in everyday leisure time and leisure practices, based on original virtual ethnography. I will look at the ways in which social networks are used to build a sense of community and belonging, and the ways in which social networks serves as Goffmanesque public spaces in which people perform acceptable social identities. I will trace how the Net has become a social network and communicative leisure space in more general terms away from the branded and commodified sites such a Facebook. I will show that fans of sports, music and other forms of popular culture can use the Net to discuss their private obsessions with other fans. But I will show that the Net can also be a place where social activism can be supported, where politics can move from the on-line to the off-line to build effective protests and campaigns. While this development is a boon to radical activists on the left, it is also something that can be and is utilized by activists on the far-right. Hence the communicative freedom of the Net, as I will show, is prone to producing climate-change deniers as much as anti-fascists.

Video Game Cultures and the Construction of Identities in Contemporary Society

Muriel, D.

(University of Salford and University of the Basque Country)

In the last three decades key social theorists have discussed the crisis of modernity and the decline of many of its institutions (Bauman, 2000; Giddens, 1991), and the suggestion that we are witnessing the emergence of new kinds of identities (Hall, 1996; Bauman, 2004). Based on an ongoing research, this paper considers the processes through which contemporary identities are produced; focusing on the identity of video gamers and the social worlds of meaning where they dwell.

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The paper explores the phenomenon of a growing video game culture (Crawford, 2012; Newman, 2013), which encompasses a wide range of different social transformations: the increasing number of people who play video games regardless of their age, gender or social status; a flourishing video game industry that is becoming hegemonic; an incipient presence of video games in the fields of education; the multiplication of the presence of video games in the media; the penetration of video games in popular culture.

The paper sets out the methodology used in my research, which draws principally on the Actor-Network Theory

(Latour, 2007; Law, 2004), focusing on the innovative aspects of digital ethnography (Hine, 2000) and how it intertwines with more traditional methods.

Then, the paper illustrates some of the main themes I have found in the research so far with a series of examples, which includes, how developers seek to affect and influence video gamers, how people define themselves in relation to the activity of playing video games, and how they depict the community of gamers.

Talent or Connections? A Social Network Analysis of Early Career Artists in London

O’Brien, D.

(Keele University)

Inequality and culture is a key issue for both political parties and for a range of arts and cultural organisations. There is already an extensive sociological contribution to the question of how cultural audiences and participants are stratified, whether around age, gender, education or social class. Recently questions as to the sociology of cultural production have emerged as similarly important. Although debates over cultural production go back to classics in the field, such as Becker's Art Worlds, it has only been in recent years, in keeping with concerns about the representativeness of other elite positions, that the question of who is successful and the basis of this success have become part of mainstream public, media and policy discourses. This paper addresses these concerns in two ways: in the first instance by applying the methodology of social network analysis to understand how artists develop their careers.

Second by showing how existing social inequalities are replicated in fine art graduates' experiences, irrespective of questions of talent or skill. The paper's focus on fine art contributes to existing applications of social network analysis in music, to provide further evidence of the link between the exclusion of individuals from the system of cultural production as a result of social stratification.

The Militarization of First Person Shooter Video Games

Duell, A.

(Keele University)

Since the inception of E-sports we have seen casual video game players develop into professionals who push the boundaries of game mastery to new heights via coordinated team play. This short paper explores how a group of video game players adopt military-style communication methods and strategies to coordinate their actions in the popular tactical First Person Shooter (FPS) video game DayZ (Bohemia Interactive, 2014). Utilising the key components of team interaction in the context of distributed and ad-hoc military teams (Pascual et al., 1997), it is shown how a group of players evolved their interactions from team play to squad play. It is argued that squad play is an advancement of the strategic and tactical thinking embodied in team play through the adoption of real-world military interaction and communication strategies.

Families and Relationships

M225, GEORGE MOORE BUILDING

NARRATIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF INTIMACY IN TRANSITION

This panel addresses transition and related questions of progression and regression in connection with narrative technologies of intimacy - interpersonal stories about previously ‘private’ issues, and various forms of online,

‘personal’ narratives – that are now being deployed to negotiate the fields of gender, sexuality, and parenting. We thus focus on how technologies of personal lives, in reinventing themselves, both reproduce and depart from earlier modes of governing subjects. These processes have regressive as well as progressive aspects; they position personal lives and the technologies that perform them as socially transitional, often precarious. In this panel, we turn to narratives, technologies that perform intimacy at a number of levels, to understand better the technologies of intimacy in transition. Papers address stories about the previously privatised field of sexuality among Turkish women, and the stories’ relation to ‘modernity’; Moroccan women’s groups’ use of the internet as a technology of modernity,

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a nd how such online presence supports narrative identities; women’s deployment of the ‘anecdote’, both personal and highly worked, within blogs on mothering and feeding families, to explore problematic aspects of family lives; and mothers’ negotiation of parenting through the contested, co-constructed narratives of the Mumsnet web forum. The panel examines how these new narrative intimacy technologies produce, in the contemporary socioeconomic context,

‘transitional’ spaces, less of regression or progress, more of uncertainty and collectivity.

This panel is linked with another which addresses new diagnostic, pharmaceutical and digital technologies now being deployed to control the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Looking into the Moments of Resistance in Sexual Narratives

Esin, C.

(University of East London)

For many women in various cultural contexts, telling sexual stories is a way in which they form as subjects through their negotiations with patriarchal power regimes, which shape women's sexuality. This paper is based on my research in which I listened to sexual narratives of educated young women in Turkey. Having drawn on Foucault’s conceptualisation of bio-power and disciplinary practices, my analysis in this research focuses on the complexity of power relations surrounding women’s sexuality in modern Turkey. The analysis explores the multiple interconnections between micro stories of sexuality and macro narratives of Turkish modernisation on gender and sexuality, following a

Foucaldian approach to narratives as an analytical path.

The analysis draws on in-depth interviews which I conducted with 18 young women with university education in

Ankara, Turkey. The participants were aged between 18 and 25, with varying middle class background. Having adopted a narrative-feminist approach to interviewing, I asked participants to tell me about their conversations with friends and families about sexuality, about their relationships with partners/spouses, following an introduction of themselves.

In the interviews, the young women position themselves as subjects simultaneously escaping from and trapped within the regulations surrounding their sexuality while constructing their individual stories. In this paper, I will discuss narrative moments, which constitute a discursive space for the research participants-storytellers to negotiate contradictory and precarious ethical positions regarding their sexuality. By telling their sexual stories, the research participants constitute their technologies of resistance, and craft new forms of subjectivity.

Negotiating Parenting Identities through the Practice of Using a Popular Online Parenting Forum

Winter, J.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

Online social networks and mobile technologies continue to proliferate and embed themselves in the everyday practices of families. Among these, parenting websites are an increasingly popular resource. My PhD project examines how canonical narratives of ‘parenting’ operate at a macro, societal level through these parent websites and how they are taken up (or rejected) and expressed at the micro level - in particular the ways in which popular online spaces for parents mediate personal narratives of mothering. I have analysed narratives collected via a number of methods and from a variety of perspectives: Multimodal discourse analysis of popular parenting website homepages; online ethnography; interviews with website managers; online and face-to-face interviews with forum users.

In this paper I will explore the ways in which users of the popular online parenting website Mumsnet take up and / or reject identities in narratives constructed through asynchronous email interviews and synchronous face-to-face interviews. The main question the paper addresses concerns the ways in which women’s narratives of becoming mothers and their identities as mothers are negotiated through the practice of using the Mumsnet online forum.

Whose Narrative is it Anyway? Online Activism and Sexual Politics in Morocco

Lounasmaa, A.

(University of East London)

Moroccan women’s NGOs are spreading their campaigns on sexual politics online. Using new media helps reach younger constituencies. It also allows groups to circumvent the bureaucratic processes required for NGO set-up. More than a tool in activism, new media is an important demarcation of the type of modernity groups represent.

This pape r discusses online materials of two Moroccan women’s groups. The first one, Association Démocratique des

Femmes du Maroc, is an NGO that uses the internet to publicise its activities and construct an identity as a modernist, democratic and accessible organisation. The second one, Women Shoufouch, was started as a Facebook group by

Casablanca-based students in 2011 and only exists as an online forum. The narrative identities of these groups rely

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differently on their online presence, but for both new media is part of the modernity they inhabit. New media also presents a challenge, as narratives are altered when online audiences read, scrutinise and comment upon them.

This paper uses critical narrative analysis to piece together possible narratives of the two groups’ online activities. It examines, whether it is possible to speak of narrative identity in this context, or whether the interventions are too diffuse to construct a narrative. The data consists of a selection of textual materials the groups have posted online as well as Facebook discussions where others contribute and thus alter the direction and tone of the discourse.

Intersectionality provides a frame to help understand complex and conflicting stories as part of one identity.

Recipes for Mothering?: Intimacy, Anecdotes and Publics in M others’ Blogs about Feeding Families

Elliott, H., O'Connell, R., Squire, C.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

This paper presents a narrative analysis of blogs about feeding families written by mothers in the context of constrained resources - economic, emotional and timerelated. ‘Mummyblogging’ has emerged in the past decade as a means of documenting and sharing mothering practices, and of developing communities of interest and sites of activism as well as commercial opportunities. Anecdotes are staples of this influential, widespread, potentially lucrative phenomenon. In this paper, the narrative analysis of two indicative blogs, selected from a wider corpus as part of a broader study of mothers’ food blogs, are related to how women story mothering for themselves and others in their everyday lives and also public, semifictionalised anecdotal forms such as ‘mumoirs’ and newspaper columns.

Anecdotes, which are reworked and honed in the retelling but associated with the authenticity and immediacy of lived experience, are at the borders between the public and private, the real and the unreal. This paper will draw out the implications of taking maternal anecdotes out of the private spaces where we imagine mothering belongs, into the public intimacy of digital worlds. Stories about maternal practices and subjectivities often involve children and other family members: indeed part of impetus for writing may be fulfilling the traditional maternal task of memorialising family life. The paper will conclude by considering the ethics of such public representation of others. This includes representations in research which draws on publically available digital material, which cannot be made anonymous and ‘private’ through the strategies social scientists have traditionally employed.

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Postsocialist Disability Matrix

Mladenov, T.

(

King’s College London)

In this paper, I propose a framework for critical sociological analysis of disability in the context of postsocialist transition which I call 'Postsocialist disability matrix'. The treatment of disabled people in the Eastern Bloc countries was one of segregation and stigmatisation. The state socialist system in Central and Eastern Europe disintegrated at the end of the 1980s, but disabled people in the region continued to be treated negatively, experiencing social and economic exclusion, cultural devaluation and political disempowerment. I argue that there are two major factors that have contributed to this continuation of injustice: (a) socialist legacies, and (b) postsocialist neoliberalisation.

The 'Postsocialist disability matrix' invites a three-dimensional analysis of the interplay of socialist legacies and postsocialist neoliberalisation in (re)producing injustices for disabled people. Following Nancy Fraser, I define justice as 'parity of participation' or possibility to participate on equal terms with others in social life. Whatever impairs parity of participation, then, is socially unjust. In the economic dimension, parity of participation is impaired by deficient redistribution or 'maldistribution', which enhances economic inequality; in the cultural dimension, it is impaired by deficient recognition or 'misrecognition' which intensifies cultural devaluation; and in the political dimension, it is impaired by deficient representation or 'misrepresentation' which silences political voice.

The 'Postsocialist disability matrix' exposes the negative effects on disabled people produced by the interplay of socialist legacies and postsocialist neoliberalisation in each of the three dimensions of redistribution, recognition and representation. I apply the matrix by looking at disability in postsocialist Bulgaria.

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‘Mabel is Unstable’: A Feminist Disability Studies Perspective on Early-Twentieth-Century Representations of

‘Madwomen’ in Advertisements.

Houston, E.

(Lancaster University)

The representation of women with mental health issues in early-twentieth-century advertisements concords with the stereotypical image of the 'madwoman' as 'unstable', 'unworthy' and inherently 'lacking'. This paper finds that women with mental health issues are overwhelmingly placed as lone figures that are deserving of close scrutiny and objectification by patriarchal society. A cultural model of disability is outlined as a key perspective that can be used to provide a foundation for feminist disability studies inquiry that seeks to empower women, in some small way. The medical 'gaze' dominates the representations of 'madwomen' through the persistent discourse of pharmaceutical intervention and the omnipresent message that cognitive enhancement is a necessary and 'effective' way of securing women in the home.The methodological approach of textual analysis, specifically critical discourse analysis and a study of semiotics uncovers both the covert and overt ways that the cultural texts oppress disabled women.

‘Overcoming Disability’: The Construction of Incapacity for Work and the Social Model of Disability across the Twentieth Century UK Benefits System

Gulland, J.

(University of Edinburgh)

'It is the duty of a person to do what is reasonably necessary to regain his position as a wage earner and so overcome the effects of any physical disability which he may be under.'

This quotation comes from the National Health Insurance Committee in 1917, commenting on the recent introduction of the UK's first national insurance sickness benefit. It illustrates a perspective on disability, work and benefits which has depended on a socially constructed category of 'incapacity for work', which is firmly located within a medical model of disability, with the emphasis on individual responsibility to 'overcome' any barriers to work.

In this paper I consider the development of UK disability benefits across the twentieth century from 1911 to the present, using a social model of disability to consider the extent, if any, to which assessments for disability for benefits purposes have recognised the social barriers which deny disabled people access to the labour market. The paper uses legislative and archive materials on appeals against refusal of benefits to consider the question across the twentieth century. While other writers have considered the political development of social security benefits, this paper takes a socio-legal approach, looking instead at the social and legal construction of the concept. While there have been significant changes to the legal definition of incapacity for work, the paper argues that there has been a continuing thread of distrust of claimants and reliance on medical models of disability which continues today.

Re-constructions of Madness, Disability, and Prison Systems in 'Orange is the New Black'

Wilde, A.

(Leeds Beckett University)

Whilst depictions of race and ethnicity have dominated commentaries on Orange is the New Black in the media, it is clear that the theme of mental health has a central role to play in this and other programmes in the 'women in prison' genre. Whilst Suzanne Warren 'Crazy Eyes' is the most prominent woman cast in the role of 'mad woman', portrayals of mental distress seem to be distributed evenly across ages, ethnicities and sexualities including Jimmy, Norma,

Lorna, and Pennsatucky; even, perhaps, Piper and a male prison officer, Mendez . Mental health stories are ubiquitous, reflecting, perhaps, the prevalence of mental health problems within US prisons.

This paper will use a Critical Disability Studies/Mad Studies framework to investigate the ways in which the programme deals with mental health issues and institutionalisation. Firstly, it will look at the ways that stereotypes are distributed amongst the characters, paying close attention to class and race/ethnicity, and stereotypes of violence.

Secondly, this analysis will be used to inform consideration of whether the programme has moved beyond the conventional limits of the 'women's prison genre' to present a more nuanced and critical perspective of the way that the prison system disables women, making brief comparisons between depictions of mental distress and other impairments. In so doing I will draw on critiques of mental health within prisons and compare with other women's prison genre programmes, new (such as Wentworth prison) and old (such as Prisoner Cell Block H).

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Journal Publishing: Tips and Pitfalls

Join, David Inglis, one of the editors of Cultural Sociology for a workshop on journal publishing. It is becoming increasingly difficult to get published in top-rated journals. In this session we will talk about how the journal process works and some of the things you can do - and the mistakes you should avoid - when writing, submitting and revising your article. This is an invaluable opportunity to hear about journal publishing from those in the know.

Cultural Sociology is the newest of the BSA suite of journals and is growing rapidly. Having achieved an Impact

Factor of 1.000, the journal is becoming a key place to publish work on cultural sociology and the sociology of culture. The journal publishes peer-reviewed, empirically oriented, theoretically sophisticated, methodologically rigorous papers, which explore from a broad set of sociological perspectives a diverse range of socio-cultural forces, phenomena, institutions and contexts.

David Inglis (University of Exeter) has been Editor of this journal from its beginning and is well placed to help scholars understand the publishing process and tips to maximise their chances of a constructive engagement with top peer reviewed journals.

Lifecourse

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The Resources of Ageing: Middle-a ged Men’s Accounts of Manchester's Gay Voluntary Organizations (GVOs)

Simpson, P.

(University of Manchester and Edge Hill University)

Middle-aged men's experiences of gay voluntary organizations (GVOs) are neglected in UK research, having been overshadowed by studies of 'chosen families' (Weeks et al 2001) the commercialized gay scenes of bars (Simpson

2014) and the mediatised, commodified online gay scene of social networking/fast sex websites (Mowlabocus 2010).

To address this knowledge gap, this paper extends Bourdieusian theorizing beyond that deployed by Hakim (2010) and Green (2008) concerning 'erotic capital' to demonstrate how norms in GVOs) offering social and support services/opportunities) can facilitate or frustrate mobilization of 'ageing capital' by middle-aged gay men living in the urban context of Manchester. (This has implications for comparable cities beyond a UK context). Based on interviews with 22 men aged 39-55, this paper demonstrates how 'ageing capital' can facilitate challenge to gay ageism but also how the latter can overwhelm men's capacities to deploy this set of resources in generic GVOs thus reinforcing intergenerational conflict and animating expression of ageism towards younger gay men. As such, this article contributes to knowledge about the reproduction of the relations of ageism in a particular field of gay existence.

Neoliberalism in Action? Capturing the Complexities of Sport and Physical Activity Careers

Palmer, V., Tulle, E., Bowness, J.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

Sport and physical activity (PA) have become synonymous with the promotion of health. In the context of health promotion a strong emphasis is placed on individual motivation as the driver for participating in sport or PA.

However, locating the responsibility to be active with the individual ignores social and cultural barriers and overlooks deeply rooted phenomenological processes (such as feelings of not belonging, not being 'sporty' or not recognising oneself as physically adept). Expanding on the interactionist concept of career (Becker, 1963) and the current body of work that examines (professional) sporting careers, we will present a synthesis of how sport and PA careers emerge and can be understood throughout the lifecourse. Informed by phenomenology, Bourdieusian concepts and an alternative understanding of time (as not strictly objective), our presentation will map out a sociology of sport and PA careers which captures the seriousness and earnestness of engaging in non-professional sport and PA. Drawing on empirical insights from multiple projects, we suggest that sport and PA careers are brought into existence in more complex ways than interactionist theorising of careers allow for. They are not linear but are fragile and messy, shaped by local cultures such as the family or sub-cultures. Crucially, our work affirms the centrality of the body in the development of sport and PA careers. Ultimately this synthesis has the potential to capture sport and PA careers more comprehensively and to contribute to critiques of neoliberal governmentality.

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Still Learning Beyond Retirement: The Experiences of Older Volunteers in Woodland Conservation

Bingley, A., Collins, A., Varey, S., Oaks, R.

(Lancaster University)

As the UK government seeks to increase the contribution volunteers make to communities through the 'Big Society' agenda, there is increasing State reliance on conservation volunteers to actively manage and conserve sustainable woodland. Conservation work attracts an intergenerational volunteer workforce, including older retired people, who benefit both physically and mentally from challenges of potentially strenuous work in an environment which is inherently restorative.

In this paper we report on British Academy funded qualitative research exploring the motivations of older woodland volunteers and intergenerational skill sharing between older (> 50 years) and younger (18

– 50) volunteers. Our findings highlight the benefits and importance of intergenerational skill sharing, which draws upon volunteers' experience gained from a variety of backgrounds and encouraging an environment that promotes informal learning.

Notably, older conservation volunteers are found to engage with physically challenging voluntary work on their own terms. The work has to be personally satisfying, offer something back to their local communities, not require them to provide a service upon which others are reliant, be optional and fit in with their lifestyle and interests.

As life expectancy increases and the 'baby boomer' generation enters post-retirement increasingly later in life, our research suggests these changes may have unforeseen consequences on recruiting an older conservation volunteer workforce; impacting both the motivation and physical capacity of much older people to manage challenging conservation tasks. This may potentially diminish opportunities for older people to benefit from outdoor activities and intergenerational skill sharing that contribute to social and personal wellbeing.

The Social Networks of Involuntarily Childless Older Men

Hadley, R.

(Keele University)

Research in the field of older men who are involuntarily childless is important, not only because of actual and projected demographic change (Office for National Statistics, 2009), but also because of the scarcity of material relating to the effects of involuntary childlessness on men as they age (Dykstra and Keizer, 2009).

Involuntary childlessness can result in multiple losses (Adler, 1991) whilst distress levels in both men and women in this population have been found to be as high those with grave medical conditions (Domar et al. 1992; Domar et al.

1993; Fisher et al. 2010).

Against the background of an increasing ageing population, and a decline of family support in later life, this study aimed to address the gap in evidence by interviewing 14 men, aged between 49 and 82, about their experience of involuntary childlessness, its effects on their day-to-day lives, and their plans for the future. This paper focuses on the close, inner, and wider circle of relationships and describes the factors that impact on the participant's personal networks across the life course.

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Living with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Relational autonomy, Independence and Agency

Skyrme, S.

(Newcastle University)

For my Economic and Social Research Council funded PhD I interviewed 9 boys and young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a severe, degenerative condition affecting males, and one young woman with a less severe, degenerative muscular dystrophy. My research sought to understand, from a sociological perspective, how the participants thought they might make a decision to take part in medical research and how their sociocultural and healthcare experiences influence decisions. Imaginary scenarios were devised to contextualise medical research decision-making, this facilitated discussions, revealing the key role parents have in the participants' lives. Parents act as primary carers and advisors, and this extends to how their advice is a trusted resource when decisions are being made.

It was also apparent, however, that the participants valued their independence, regarding themselves as significant actors when decision-making. Coping well with a degenerative condition can benefit from supportive relationships that

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provide care and also encourage self-direction. My research has detailed the complex but effective ways in which relational autonomy upholds individual agency and supports decision-making through collaboration. Quoting from the participants' comments and explicating aspects of my findings contributes to understandings of how independence and agency can be experienced, despite a life-limiting condition. This understanding demonstrates how disabled children, who may be considered 'vulnerable' and who can be marginalised both in research and society are able to live well, with collaborative partnerships and approaches being vital to achieving this.

Aleatory not Illusory: Heterogeneity and the Elusive Search for A utism’s Essence

Hollin, G.

(University of Nottingham)

In this paper I argue that a defining feature of contemporary conceptualisations of autism is the condition's heterogeneity: Autism has come to be a diagnosis determined by its indeterminacy. Researchers generally understand this 'autistic heterogeneity' to be a unitary concept. Interviews with leading psychologists and neuroscientists, however, seem to show heterogeneity to be comprised of numerous, separate elements. Firstly, there is an epistemic claim which suggests that heterogeneity emerges following an inability to make the results of various scientific methodologies cohere with one another. Secondly, there is an ontological claim of inter-personal heterogeneity which suggests that no one thing unites all individuals with autism. Thirdly, there is an ontological claim of intra-personal heterogeneity; this suggests that there is no single cause of autism within a particular individual and that no one scientific theory is able to explain all the features associated with condition. Following this analysis, I suggest that heterogeneity has become a facilitatory concept, allowing for a stabilisation and extension to the classification of autism in the face of highly uncertain medical and scientific practice. I also argue that heterogeneity is politically troubling and makes it difficult, or potentially impossible, for individuals to 'escape' a diagnosis because agency, difference, and resistance are re-imagined not as properties of individuals but illustrative of the heterogeneous properties of autism itself. Thus, I conclude that an understanding of autistic heterogeneity is important to both understandings of clinical practice and the politics of autism/neurotypicality.

How to Help a Patient to be 'Physically Active': Analysis of the Range of Physical Activity-related Services

Offered by French Diabetes Networks

Perrin, C.

(University of Lyon)

The preventive and curative benefits of a regular physical activity on type 2 diabetes have been scientifically recognised. However, health professionals' recommendations receive a limited response in terms of patient behaviour.

New services have appeared to help type 2 diabetics to become physically active. This qualitative study investigates the conceptions behind how services related to physical activity are organised in French diabetes networks. A significant difference in conceptions is highlighted with regard to the approach to 'physical activity' and the encouragement of changes in behaviour. It is structured around two points of tension: the first one sets the prescription model against the accompaniment of individual projects and the second opposes a vision of physical activity limited to exercise against a cultural approach to appropriate physical sporting activities which emphasises the social significance of the practices. Finally, the autonomy objective which is common to all the approaches fluctuates between two extremes: a definition in terms of self control and a multi-dimensional approach which also incorporates self-determination, independence and expressiveness. The proposals for an assumption in physical activity aim at the demedication and ask the question of the personal tastes, pleasure and relationships toward peer groups. From the desire to change the patients behaviour so that they become more observing, the objective of autonomy moves towards a desire to support them in their self-determination, expressivity and independence. It is no longer simply a matter of creating the conditions for self-incitement to take exercise to make up for a limited range of services.

The Changing Face of HIV Stigma in Romania

Lazar, F.

(University of Bucharest)

As a result of treatment advances, HIV is a chronic condition in Romania, but stigma is still a challenge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). More than half of all registered PLHIV were nosocomially-infected between 1988-1990, followed by adults sexually infected, but in the last three years HIV infection exploded among injecting drug users

(IDU). The objective of the present study was to explain the variations of HIV stigma in these three different social groups.

Thematic analysis was performed based on twenty in-depth interviews with PLHIV from three groups: (G1) those from the generation '88-'90, (G2) PLHIV infected as adults and (G3) the new group of HIV+IDU.

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At different levels, stigma is present among all groups. In G1, stigma was experienced more severely in the early years of the infection, more by the family and less sensed by themselves. In G2 on one hand there are people with a longer history of the infection who experienced stigma, being blamed for their behavior and on the other hand there are those who stay in secrecy, trying to continue their life as if HIV is not present. For G3 beside HIV stigma appears one associated with drug use or other addictive behaviors (e.g. alcoholism), sometimes even from other PLHIV (e.g. from G1 and G2) or from healthcare staff.

The face of HIV stigma changed, from a 'charitable stigma' (for those in G1), to blaming behaviours (G2 and G3). Now stigma appears even within the group of PLHIV (G1 and G2 vs. G3).

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Partners, Stakeholders or Pariahs? Preferred Models of Governance in the Food, Alcohol and Tobacco

Industries

Fletcher, I., Collin, J., Hill, S.E., Plotnikova, E.

(University of Edinburgh)

Objectives

The escalating global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is best understood as an 'industrial epidemic' directly linked to the commercial activities of food, alcohol and tobacco industries. However, models of governance for each of these three industries are significantly different: partnership and stakeholder models are advocated for the food and alcohol industries, whereas Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control excludes the tobacco industry from the making of public health policy. To assess the feasibility of implementing new and more coherent models of governance, we compare how alcohol, food and tobacco companies depict their role in the development and implementation of public health policy.

Design

Using NVivo we thematically analysed and coded twenty submissions to Australia's Preventive Health Taskforce, from alcohol, food and tobacco companies and related industry groups.

Main results

Like tobacco companies, alcohol and food companies argue that commercial actors are legitimate stakeholders who have useful expertise to contribute to the development of public health policy, and advocate partnerships with government to tackle health issues resulting from 'problematic' consumption. These framings are used to argue against more effective and evidence-based approaches, and to portray corporations as socially responsible. Across all three industries, preferred responses include self-regulation of marketing and advertising and targeted education campaigns, rather than more stringent regulation.

Conclusion

Strategic similarities between theses three industries, and the vehemence with which the alcohol and food industries reject comparisons with tobacco, demonstrate the promise of extending the exclusionary approach of Article 5.3 to these industries.

The Moral Regulation of Alcohol in Scotland

Beveridge, E.

(University of Strathclyde)

This research employs content analysis on Holyrood alcohol debates from 2002-2012 for evidence of moral panic in creating the Licensing (Scotland) Act 2005 and its subsequent amendments. A new approach utilising demand, supply, and harm reduction strategies has been deployed to minimise health and social problems whilst demanding responsibility from retailers and manufacturers, and requesting it of consumers. The 2012 amendment, the much publicised minimum unit price (once described as disproportionate to the problem by the EC), is currently being contested in European courts after the Scottish Whiskey Association highlighted its violation of EU trade laws. The

SNP insist a special dispensation will be given in lieu of the seriousness of Scotland's alcohol problem.

The conceptual framework seeks evidence of moral panic delegitimising retailers, manufacturers, and consumers, by misrepresenting the extent of damage caused by identified deviant groups under the rubric of improving public health, protecting individuals from violence, and preventing harm to children. The outcomes of this research are threefold: a

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contribution to the moral regulation literature; building towards a methodological approach addressing the disproportion critique; and, establishing a positive correlation between moral panic and alcohol licensing.

The Loss of Trust in Suicides and Suicide Attempts

Boden, Z.

(London South Bank University)

Experiences of distrust are known to be embedded in static or exclusionary social dynamics, such as social inequality, social disorganisation and social isolation (Rogers & Pilgrim, 2003; Wilkinson & Pickett, 2009). Hence, trust can be understood as a relational dynamic, that acts as a commitment towards a positive future (Sztompka, 1999). This paper explores how trust in the world, self and others catastrophically deteriorates in the weeks before a suicide attempt or suicide. Data will be drawn from a large collaborative, grounded theory study, which focused on the relational aspects of suicidality. We used narrative interviews to collect the stories of those bereaved by suicide, those who have attempted suicide and their significant others. I will draw on these accounts to explore trust, mistrust and untrustworthiness, with reference to participants' narratives of paranoia, self-doubt, overwhelming uncertainty and perceived inauthenticity, as they are embedded in their life histories and social contexts. The role of 'trust substitutes', coping mechanisms required for social engagement, will be explored with consideration of the impact these have on interpersonal and community relationships, and the resultant increase in isolation and alienation. Our relational approach builds on classic and contemporary sociological (e.g. Durkheim, 1897) and psychological research (e.g.

Joiner, 2005) which emphasises the importance of belongingess in understanding suicidality. This paper aims to integrate the interpersonal and the social, to map the collapse of trust across these domains. In light of this, implications for support and recovery will be also be discussed.

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Researching Young Women’s Transitions Using a Qualitative Longitudinal Methodology: The Uncomfortable

Spaces of Progression and Regression

Finn, K.

(Edge Hill University)

Researching young people's transitions into higher education, employment and 'adulthood' requires innovative methods to capture the dynamic processes of choice, change and reflexivity. Qualitative longitudinal methods are understood as an important tool for knowing young lives in transition because of the way they facilitate a longer view of change, providing a movie rather than a snapshot (Neal and Flowerdew 2003). Notwithstanding these benefits, repeat interviews can have the normative effect of producing narratives of progress and development (Thomson and

Holland 2003) and whilst this may be a comforting process for young people whose lives remain 'on track' for others,

'facing up' to the discrepancies of past narratives (and indeed past selves) has the potential to unsettle. This paper considers some of the opportunities and challenges of conducting qualitative longitudinal research with young women as they make the transition into higher education and, following this, graduate employment. The discussion focuses specifically upon the notion of revisiting past selves and past ambitions and considers the ways in which the interrelationship between past memories, the unfolding present and imagined futures provide resources for narratives of identity and belonging.

The Construction of Difference in Feminist Sociological Methodology and the P roblem of ‘Add-on and Stir’

Approaches

Mulholland, M.

(Flinders University of South Australia)

In a 2013 paper titled Rethinking Difference and Sex Education: From Cultural Diversity to Normative Difference, Jane

Haggis and I explored the complex problematic of research on young people and sexuality, problematizing what is meant by 'difference'. Here we argued that when research on young people and sexualities is undertaken, the tendency is to 'add on' categories of religious difference, cultural diversity and sexual plurality. By reflecting on our own field work into young people's negotiations of pornified cultures, we remarked on the upshot of this 'add on' tactic: however well intentioned, such tactics recentre the heteronormative, unraced subject. In this paper however we focus on how difference has been treated more specifically in feminist sociological methodology. This paper extends our earlier work to raise exploratory questions about HOW research into difference can be undertaken in ways that

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dismantle the normative. Do qualitative feminist sociological methodologies need to develop new approaches, perhaps drawing on indigenous research methods for example, or can existing approaches be adapted?

Visual Reflections

Guest, C.

(Birkbeck, University of London)

This paper draws on narrative interviews exploring women's accounts of 'becoming feminist'. Interviewees were asked to present and discuss images that held significance to their feminism. The use of visual methods provides exciting and interesting data, however this paper will focus on how it is also an effective, yet challenging reflexive social research tool. Taking specific examples from the interviews it will discuss three aspects of visual methods as a reflexive, ethical and political research tool.

Firstly, it will discuss issues of mis-identification and appropriation

– what does it reveal about the researcher and her relationship to the data when images are viewed as her own? Can these moments of viewing act as prompts to reflect on the pre-conceptions and investments that the researcher brings to the research process?

Secondly, it asks how the use of the visual in an interview can produce non-linguistic narratives that often complicate or contradict spoken narratives. In doing so it can highlight what is difficult to articulate verbally and bring to the fore the affective dimension of the interview.

Finally, it explores the significance and complexities of giving consent for the use of visual images in research. It asks what might be revealed in the images interviewees choose to display or hide. It reflects on an instance where an interviewee consented to the reproduction of an that produced unease and discomfort in the researcher. This final section explores the ways in which ethical research practice unfolds and develops across the research process.

‘Dear Researcher’ Revisited: Methodological Reflections on Data Collection Via E(mail)

Letherby, G., Parsons, J.

(Plymouth University)

Here we reflect on our individual and joint experience of data collection via (e)mail. When Gayle began fieldwork for her doctorate (on the experience of 'infertility' and 'involuntary childlessness' (in single quotation marks to highlight problems of definition)) in the early 1990s she expected data to be collected only through face-to-face interviews. The

100+ letters she received from more than 50 women and eight men and the significance of these both methodologically and substantively were a surprise. Julie on the other hand embarked on her doctoral data collection in 2010, for her auto/biographical study of relationships with food, intending to correspond (via email) with respondents through a series of asynchronous on-line interviews. She collected narratives from 75 individuals, some of whom drew on epistolary traditions associated with letter writing whilst others engaged in emerging forms of expression, emoticons etc. Recently, working together, we have continued this approach for a project concerned with weight loss management, including weight loss surgery, again collecting data via asynchronous online interviews with 62 respondents. Here, with specific reference to our separate and collaborative work, we reflect on the use and meanings of 'research by correspondence'. We revisit the arguments put forward by Gayle and a colleague (Letherby and

Zdodrowski 1995) arguing for the academic and political value of such an approach and reflect on the benefits and costs of e(mail) data collection.

Letherby. G. and Zdrokowski, D. (1995) 'Dear Researcher: the use of correspondence as a method within feminist qualitative research' Gender and Society 9:5

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

CARNEGIE LECTURE THEATRE, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

RACISM, CLASS AND THE RACIALIZED OUTSIDER: A ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION WITH PROFESSORS

SATNAM VIRDEE, GARGI BHATTACHARYA, JOHN SOLOMOS AND TIM STRANGLEMAN

Racism, Class and the Racialized Outsider offers a critical analysis of working class efforts to secure economic and social justice and democratize British (Scottish and English) society over the longue duree (covering a two hundred year period between 1780 and 1990). Unlike most studies of the British working class however, it investigates these social and political struggles through ‘the prism of race’. As a result, it offers an original perspective on the significance of both racism and anti-racism in the making of the working class. While racism became a powerful structuring force

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within this social class from as early as the mid-Victorian period, this book also traces the episodic emergence of currents of working class anti-racism. Through an insistence that race is central to the way class works, this text goes beyond the race-blind scholarship of EP Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm and many sociologists of class and demonstrates not only that the British working class was a multi-ethnic formation from the moment of its inception but that racialized outsiders

– Irish Catholics, Jews, Asians and the African diaspora – often played a catalytic role in the collective action that helped fashion a more inclusive and democratic society.

Three discussants have agreed to participate in this roundtable discussion including Professors Gargi Bhattacharya

(UEL), John Solomos (Warwick) and Tim Strangleman (Kent). It is proposed that Satnam Virdee will introduce the principal themes and arguments (20 minutes), which will be followed by 15-minute contributions from each of the three discussants, leaving 25 minutes for wider discussion.

Racism and Political Mobilisation: Charting the Connections

Bhattacharyya, G.

(University of East London)

I am a participant in a roundtable discussing Professor Virdee’s book, Racism, Class and the Racialized Outsider. My presentation will focus on issues relating to political mobilisation and chart connections between these themes and the forthcoming E

SRC seminar series ‘Racism and political mobilisation’, co-organised with Satnam Virdee and Aaron

Winter. In particular, I will discuss how the insights of Professor Virdee’s work can allow us to reframe our understandings of British labour history in a manner that makes the work of racism visible.

Racism and Class: Some Comments on Conceptual Issues

Solomos, J.

(University of Warwick)

I will be part of a roundtable to discuss the book by Satnam Virdee on Racism, Class and the Racialized Outsider. My contribution will address some of the core conceptual arguments advanced by the author and provide a critical response to key themes in the book. Since this is a roundtable I will also respond to the presentations made by the author and other participants in the roundtable.

Racism and Working Class Studies

Strangleman, T.

(University of Kent)

My contribution to this roundtable is very much as an outsider to questions of race but whose work is centrally about working class life, culture and experience. I want to read Virdee’s book through first and foremost a class lens and in the process create a dialogue with the field of working class studies where questions of whiteness have been important.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

W709, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

TROUBLING YOUTH IDENTITIES: NATION, RELIGION AND GENDER IN LEBANON, NIGERIA, PAKISTAN AND

SENEGAL

This symposium draws upon recently conducted studies that have explored how youth construct their identities in four contrasting non-Western, predominantly Muslim contexts. Each of these studies focussed on youth identity formations and different ‘becomings’ within contrasting configurations of state, nation, religion and gender. In a global context of heightened concern about youth, the youth bulge and religion, these studies provide analyses of the heterogeneous ways that national and local cultures, societies and their education systems represent and produce forms of local and global citizenship. Our interest here is in the ways that youth appropriate different discourses in the construction of their own identities and those of ‘others’, within and beyond their national boundaries.

There are five papers in this symposium. The first paper outlines the theoretical premises that were used to frame the four country studies as well as the common research design, methods and analytical approaches. This introductory paper is followed in turn by the country studies starting with Pakistan as Muslim state; Senegal as a secular state with a majority Muslim population; Lebanon as a multisectarian state that includes Christians alongside Shi’a and Sunni

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Muslims and finally Nigeria with it geo-political division between Northern Sunni Muslims and Southern Christians. The final short panel discussion provides the space for engagements with the comparative dimensions of the symposium.

Troubling Youth Identities: Nation, Religion and Gender in Pakistan, Senegal, Lebanon and Nigeria

Dunne, M., Crossouard, B., Durrani, N., Fincham, K.

(University of Sussex)

This paper introduces the symposium that brings together recently conducted studies that explored how youth construct their identities in four contrasting non-Western, predominantly Muslim contexts. Each of these studies focussed on youth identity formations within contrasting configurations of state, nation, religion and gender. In a global context of heightened concern about youth, the youth bulge and religion, these studies provide analyses of the heterogeneous ways that national and local cultures, societies and their education systems represent and produce forms of local and global youth citizenship. Our interest here is in the ways that youth appropriate different discourses in the construction of their own identities and those of ‘others’.

This introductory paper sets out a common research design, methods and fieldwork itinerary developed to provide space for discussion with young people about their sense of identity and belonging within each national context.

Following this it presents the overarching framework for the analysis of the empirical work with young people in the four distinct socio-political contexts of Lebanon, Nigeria, Pakistan and Senegal. These country studies are at the core of the symposium and trace selected configurations of the intersections of national, religious and gender ideologies in young peoples’ accounts of themselves and their local social environments. Each paper thus will refer to how different forms of social and educational ex/inclusion are produced in each context and the implications for a sense of belonging, identity formation, social relations and social cohesion in sub-national, national and supra-national levels.

Youth Narratives of ‘Us’ and ‘Them’ in Pakistan: The Intersection of Gender, Religion and Ethnicity

Durrani, N.

(University of Sussex)

This paper draws on an empirical study carried out in the north-western province of Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It focuses on the ways Pakistani youth construct their identities through drawing on the multiple discourses of nation, religion, gender and ethnicity. The narratives of young people aged 18-29 are accessed via single-sex focus group discussions. The research participants vary in terms of education background, but are predominantly in higher education. In terms of faith and ethnicity, the research sample predominantly identify with Sunni Islam and the

Pakhtun ethnic group.

The study offers understandings of how young Pakistanis appropriate, perform and/or resist dominant discourses of nation, religion and gender and the intersections in their constructions of ‘us’ and ‘others’ in contemporary Pakistan which has been a site of ongoing religious and gendered conflict since the “War on Terror”.

Gender, Nation and Religion in Senegal: The Silences of Republican Secularism?

Crossouard, B.

(University of Sussex)

The emergence of Senegal as a nation state in 1960 saw its adoption of a republican, secular constitution, in which all political parties were debarred from associations based in ethnicity, region or religion. At the same time, the different peoples of Senegal are predominantly Muslim, and indeed particular Islamic brotherhoods were integral to the country’s governance during French colonial rule. Even if seen as a beacon of democracy in Africa, recent

Senegalese elections saw considerable unrest, including violent street demonstrations in which youth were highly active. The acrimonious pre-election climate also saw the politicisation of some Islamic brotherhoods by the previous president, in contravention of the secular principles of the constitution.

This country case will explore youth’s identity constructions in a context in which the formal constitution has constructed religious, ethnic and regional identifications as irrelevant to politics. This may have been intended to construct a national consensus around what it is to be Senegalese, but could foreclose the possibilities of more particularistic identity constructions, while also producing silences around ethnic/gender/religious differences and inequalities, potentially leaving the norms of dominant and historically privileged groups implicit and unchallenged.

Drawing upon post-structural theories of identity and discourse, this country case will therefore explore male and female youth’s identity constructions in different metropolitan and peri-urban communities in Senegal, in particular the axes of differentiation that matter to them with respect to gender, nation and religion.

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The Muslim I nternal ‘Other’: Negotiating Identities Among Shi’a Youth in South Lebanon

Fincham, K.

(University of Sussex)

This paper reports on empirical work conducted with youth in predominantly Shi’a communities in south Lebanon.

Unique in the Middle East, Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy with 18 officially recognized religious sects and no dominant religious group. At the end of the Lebanese Civil War, the 1989 Ta’if Agreement established a system of governance known as ‘confessionalism’ which attempted to fairly represent the 18 recognized religious sects in government. According to the Lebanese Constitution, the President must be Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister

Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of the Parliament Shi’a Muslim. This makes Lebanon’s system of power-sharing extremely complex. Although the confessional arrangement was originally intended to deter further sectarian conflict, significant demographic changes have taken place within the country since the last official population census in 1932.

This has called into question the legitimacy of the current power-sharing arrangement within the country, led to ongoing feelings of mistrust between religious communities and challenged constructed notions of what it means to be

Lebanese.

The paper focuses on the ways that Shi’a youth in south Lebanon construct and negotiate their identities of gender, nation and religion within the local context of Lebanon’s complex sectarian balance and within the broader context of contemporary regional conflict between Shi’a and Sunni communities. In particular, the paper will explore how male and female Shi’a youth live their lives both as members of the Muslim majority in Lebanon/ the region as well as

Muslim minority ‘others’ in relation to the dominant Sunni Islam.

Youth Negotiating National and Religious Identity in Northern Nigeria

Dunne, M.

(University of Sussex)

Nigeria is a secular federal state with distinct northern and southern geo-political regions that have a heritage that reaches back to pre-colonial times. It is the most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa with over 300 ethnicities,

400 linguistic groups and a very high proportion of young people. The north of Nigeria is associated with Islam and the south with Christianity, although significant levels of internal migration and settlement mean that there is usually a mix of religious, linguistic and ethnic groups in each state. In recent years, however, political discontent and inter

–religious tensions have been heightened by high profile Islamic insurgency in the Northern states.

It is in the context of the historic and current social divisions between North and South, Muslim and Christian, Female and Male in Nigeria that the research reported in this paper explores how young people in the North expressed and navigated the intersection of their national and religious identities. The main focus is upon Northern Muslim Youth and the ways that their discursive constructions of identity are based in a strong nationalist discourse that is consistently gender inflected. The analysis also traces the ways that the young Northern Muslims’ discourses of belonging construct both sociocultural allies and ‘others’ within and beyond the regional and national boundaries.

Rights, Violence and Crime

W119, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

State-corporate Crime and Resistance: Crime-control from Below

Stanczak, D.

(Ulster University)

Increasingly, sociologists and criminologists recognise the social property of the crimes of powerful. An alternative stream of knowledge informed by the concept of resistance frames state and corporate criminality as a form of social stigma attached through a process of struggle from below to socially injurious state-corporate actions. This research adopts a criminological torrent pioneered by Penny Green and Tony Ward (2000, 2004) and Kristian Lasslett (2010,

2012, 2014) who hold that state and/or corporate act acquires the social property of being criminal when an active moment of popular condemnation is present. This moment, they argue, is organised by resistance movements made up of civil society. However, in order to excavate the causes behind state-corporate activities that sometimes deviate from social norms and result in social harms the research explores complex social dynamics and processes characteristic of the capitalist mode of production at a particular time of its development. To this end, the research is guided by a theoretical juncture between classical Marxism and Foucault's discourse on modalities of power. With the use of case study method, the research then investigates what motivates labour organised movements to engage in

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acts of resistance. In so doing the investigation analyses how and why they stigmatise some state-corporate practices as criminal.

Asylum, Harm and Structural Violence: Women's Experiences of Seeking Sanctuary

Canning, V.

(Liverpool John Moores University)

As research and reports by Women for Refugee Women (2012; 2014), Freedom from Torture (2009), Southall Black

Sisters (2011) and Asylum Aid (2011) have substantively documented, asylum is not gender neutral. Women commonly flee sexual or gendered violences, are primarily responsible for child dependents, and face barriers to domestic or sexual abuse support services which can impact on an individual's claim as part of a Particular Social

Group (Canning, 2011; 2014a). Simultaneously, legislations (for example the Convention on Torture) often overlook the trajectories of violence women may be subjected to, and gender guidelines routinely fail to respond to women's asylum claims appropriately.

This paper reflects on feminist activist research with women seeking asylum in Merseyside, as well as interviews in

Copenhagen and the North West of England with psychologists, psychotraumatologists, case workers and rape support counsellors. In doing so, it addresses key impacts of sexual violence and torture on women fleeing persecution. It sets these considerations as a background for understanding ways in which the impacts of violence can be compounded by the process of seeking asylum, and the inequalities faced by refugees if granted sanctuary.

Focussing specifically on women, this paper adopts three key approaches: social harm, structural violence and feminist criminology, to problematise the treatment of women fleeing sexual violence, torture and persecution and seeking asylum in these two regions.

Science and Technology Studies

W525, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

BOUNDARIES, BORDERS & VIOLENCE

Culture Meets Technology: Biography, Boundaries and Distinction in the Shifting Social Worlds of Perfume

(Progression or Regression?)

Wainwright, S.

(Brunel University London)

This paper answers recent calls for the cross-fertilisation of STS and Cultural Sociology by using concepts from these fields to explore the shifting cultural and technological worlds of a neglected yet salient major global industry: perfume.

I draw on standard fragrance chemistry textbooks (Curtis & Williams, 2001; Sell, 2006), historians' examinations of the cultures of commercial scents (Jones, 2010; Reinarz, 2014), and particularly superstar perfumer's insider accounts of the modern fragrance industry (Malle, 2011; Elena, 2012) to outline the transformations of the ubiquitous modern perfume market into celebrity, mass, and niche sectors. I employ three interrelated perspectives to understand these changes: boundary-work (STS), distinction (Cultural Sociology) and biography (Sociologies of Technology and of

Culture). I also draw upon perfume websites, such as Fragrantica (400,000+ members), to discuss three case studies

- and here I use the markers of brand, price, distribution, bottle, advertising, and perfumer to examine boundaries, distinction and biography in action. My three examples are: Celebrity: Purr

– Katy Perry, £20, Argos, purple cat bottle,

Katy in a cat-suit, unknown perfumer. Mass: Uomo

– Valentino, £58, John Lewis, ornate bottle, suave man in Venice,

Oliver Polge. And Niche: French Lover

– Frédéric Malle, £155, Liberty London, plain bottle, no adverts, Pierre

Bourdon. Participants in the seminar will be encouraged to smell all three perfumes

– for a life-changing existential experience? To conclude, I claim the social worlds of perfume enables researchers to transpose culture, technology, art and science into a new 'sensuous and sensual' sociological key.

The Choice Not to Engage: The Formation of the Post-Soviet Scientific Diaspora

Karaulova, M.

(University of Manchester)

International scientific mobility is a highly evident global phenomenon. Greater shares of faculty in the UK now have experience of international migration. One of the forms in which 'migrant capital' is utilised in scientific practice is the formation of diaspora networks. This research investigates explicit and implicit diaspora formation and utilisation

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strategies of Russian-speaking scientists by using data collected from 61 semi-structured interviews conducted throughout 2013-14 in the USA, UK, Germany, France and Switzerland. The study triangulates the expressed opinions towards diasporic networks by collecting the publication data of participating scientists and analysing it quantitatively.

The study builds on the ongoing discussion on transnational spaces and cultural capital in science, and investigates three strategies of diasporic behaviour of scientists: (1) alienation when all links with the home country are severed as a rational act, (2a) 'transnationalisation' of academic practice and utilisation diaspora contacts towards creation of clusters of Russian-speaking scientists in the host organisation, and (2b) engagement with loose informal networks of other scientists abroad. There is half-and-half split between the two strategies, the first more often found in the USA.

Scientists express a great degree of ambivalence and radicalism towards engagement with the home country.

The study stresses an ambiguous result of recent major policy initiatives by the Russian Federal Government to engage the diaspora abroad: the costly 'mega-grant' programme only managed to attract researchers who had already had dense collaborations with the home country, failing to achieve the goal of attracting the 'alienated' scientists whom it initially targeted.

Border Security Technologies and Violence

Conroy, A.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

This paper argues for increased attention to the relationship scientists and innovators have with the border security technologies they develop. To date, scholars interested in border security have considered the deployment and adoption of such technologies and in doing so have mapped the use of military technologies in border surveillance and control, and identified the human rights abuses and violence that occur with their use. Little attention, however, has been paid to the conditions of their development. There is an extensive body of ethnographic literature on science and scientists; this includes ethnographic work that considers the relationship weapons scientists and innovators have with the weapons they create. Hugh Guterson's ethnography of a nuclear weapons lab illustrates the complex and myriad ethical relationships nuclear scientists develop with the weapons they work on. Carol Cohn charts the imbrication of the sexualized language defense intellectuals use to describe nuclear weapons with their gender identity and the way they narrativize the need for such weapons. These works offer a rich picture of the ethical maneuvers, organizational dynamics and interplay between identity and styles of reasoning in sites of weapons research and development. While border control and surveillance technologies have been described as violent or weapon-like, the relationship between border technologies and violence is more tenuous than that of weaponry specifically designed to do harm and, thus, begs the following questions: Why do border technology scientists and innovators do what they do? What do they think about what they produce?

Social Divisions/Social Identities 1

M228, GEORGE MOORE BUILDING

CAST(E)ING ABOUT FOR A NEW SOCIETY: SOCIAL TRANSITIONS IN INDIA

In the advent of Indian independence it was widely assumed that caste would fade away and diminish in significance as democracy took root. Instead, caste has been harnessed by political entrepreneurs and parties in multiple ways.

On the one hand the electoral mobilisation of lower castes has be en hailed as a ‘silent revolution’ that has democratised Indian politics and social relations; on the other, the rise of caste based political parties has led to expressions of caste pride and honour that have fuelled inter-caste animosity and violence. This session will bring together a range of papers that will reflect on the contested processes of caste change, and ask whether things have improved for those at the foot of the caste hierarchy or not.

Different Dalit Women Speak Differently: Unravelling, through an Intersectional Lens, Narratives of Agency and Activism from Everyday Life in Rural North India

Govinda, R.

(University of Edinburgh)

The notion of 'difference' has come to occupy centre stage in feminist politics the world over. In the context of contemporary Indian feminism, the notion of difference has been oft-invoked in relation to ex-untouchable women.

Indeed, efforts have been made to emphasise ex-untouchable women's 'difference' vis-à-vis non-ex-untouchable

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women and ex-untouchable men, especially those non-ex-untouchable women at the forefront of the feminist movement and similarly ex-untouchable men at the helm of the Dalit movement. Scholars and scholar activists have asserted that 'Dalit woman' is to be recognised as a political category in its own right, highlighting how women from ex-untouchable communities are 'thrice alienated and oppressed' because of caste, class and patriarchy (Manorama

1994), and therefore how they need to 'talk differently' (Guru 1995). In this paper, I critically examine the assumed homogeneity of the political category of 'Dalit woman', and explore whether this category itself might now be passé to characterise these women. I do so by using intersectionality as a heuristic device, and delving into the narratives of agency and activism from the everyday life of ex-untouchable women in rural parts of the northern Indian state of Uttar

Pradesh.

Institutionalising the Marginalised? Dalit Electoral Politics in India

Jeffery, R.

(University of Edinburgh)

The roles played by Dalit-led parties in elections in India since 2000 have been very varied. At one extreme, in 2007 the BSP under Mayavati was able to win an outright majority of seats in UP (albeit on a turnout of 46% and a vote share of 30%). At the other extreme, States with as many or more population classified as SC

– such as Punjab,

Haryana or Tamil Nadu

– have yet to see a substantial Dalit political presence in their Assembly elections. But voting patterns

– for all sections of the electorate – seem to be increasingly unstable. In this paper we use data from the sample surveys, pre-election and post-election, carried out by Lokniti at CSDS, to investigate how Dalits and others have voted in UP and TN Lok Sabha and Assembly elections since 2001. We address the question: how has Dalit voter behaviour varied

– across elections and across State – and what accounts for these patterns? What is the relationship between elections

– as illustrated by these data – and the institutionalisation of marginalised groups, in this case, Dalits? The paper contributes to debates about institutionalisation and the deepening of democracy through the inclusion of previously marginalised groups.

The Materiality of Symbolic Politics: Understanding Dalit Assertion in South India

Gorringe, H.

(University of Edinburgh)

The term Dalit refers to those who used to be considered untouchable and occupy the lowest rungs of the caste hierarchy. Since the 1970s at least, lower caste groups across India have called themselves Dalit and mobilised against entrenched hierarchies and forms of caste discrimination. Dalits have engaged in a politics of recognition, demanding entry to institutions of political representation and to spaces and places to which they have traditionally been denied entry. As the initial impetus for change has stalled, however, Dalit politics has reach ed an ‘impasse’

(Shah 2004). Dalit leaders are repeatedly criticised for engaging in identity politics and symbolic assertion rather than focusing on the material needs of impoverished and excluded Dalits. In this paper I engage with the debates around symbolic and identity politics and argue that they need to be understood within their specific contexts. The significance of the banners, flags, statues and memorials erected by Dalit movements is seen in the response of more dominant castes who resent the intrusion of such symbols into public space. Whilst some critics bemoan the fact that Dalit politicians have been side-tracked into a politics of identity that fails to advance the lot of their followers, therefore, I draw on social movement theory in pointing to more subtle ways in which such symbols serve to alter the meanings of social space and contribute to processes of caste change.

Understanding Transition of Indian Society: A Study from Post-Modernist Perspective

Ambewadikar, J.

(Central University of Gujarat)

All societies in the world are stratified and Indian society is no exception to this. Like all societies, even Indian society has its own divisions with their lowly. This is evident through the unique institution of caste system prevalent in this part of the world through untraceable divinity since the early ages, apparent from the socio-historical accounts of

Hindu social order endorsed contextually in time and space. The institution of caste is the repository of people of different groups. It became endowed with significant attribute of untouchability against not an individual member of a group, but whole group of the people making them victims of social condemnation and rejection forever. So here it becomes important to understand the substantial logic of origin, growth and mechanism of caste system in India with the help of multidisciplinary approach concretely based on the post-modernist perspective who tried to understand the social construction of the society which is based on graded inequality, marginalisation and social exclusion and then try to deconstruct the existing social structure through the deconstruction of the Hindu religious texts. Dr Ambedkar, social scientist, social reformer and constitution maker along with other social scientists tried to reconstruct the

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society by setting up the new social order that is based on liberty, equality, justice, fraternity and dignity with the principle of democracy. Present paper is an outreach towards understanding construction of good Indian society.

Social Divisions/Social Identities 2

W702, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

New Lad or Just Like Dad? Working-class Masculinities in Young Adulthood

Bradshaw, L.

(University of Hull )

The rebirth of a misogynistic and homophobic laddish culture has reportedly gained momentum. Recently both national press coverage and academic research, for example, have highlighted its pervasiveness on UK university campuses (Phipps, 2013). This so-called Loaded and Nuts script of masculinity has tended to be appropriated by the middle-classes. A qualitative mixed-methods analysis was deployed to generate data from 114 participants for exploring laddish performativities of working-class men. Emerging themes of the research suggest that there are multiple ways for participants to perform masculinity. Nevertheless, in a context of high homohysteria an entrenched dichotomy between 'real' versus gay men served as an overarching surveillance or policing regime in the repudiation of or flight from the feminine. Socially constructed performativities were consequently stereotypic in their 'macho' inclinations. Masculine credit was gained through a number of established conduits. Paramount was construction apprenticeships, but these were becoming increasingly elusive both through deindustrialisation and the current economic downturn. As alternatives, engaging in 'macho' sports, excessive alcohol consumption, drug-taking and hyper-masculine honour-based violence were commonalities. Moreover, the 'coinage of women' (i.e. their sexual objectification) functioned to validate sexual prowess. Simultaneously, bragging about sexual conquests provided

'degrading' entertainment- an intrinsic part of male camaraderie and banter. Although sharing similarities with the laddish culture highlighted above, these men were actually performing an intergenerationally transmitted conformist type of masculinity. In other words, they were following their father's (and grandfather's footsteps) in electing both similar occupational choices and leisure pursuits. For these generations of men, 'laddism' never went away.

The Sexuality-assemblages of Young Men: A New Materialist Analysis

Alldred, P., Fox, N.J.

(Brunel University London)

While post-structuralism demonstrated how sexuality, sexual subjectivity and sexual orientation are shaped by socially-contingent systems of thought, this move does not in itself challenge 'anthropocentric' conceptions of the human body or human 'individual' as the locus where sexuality 'resides'. Questions over the prioritised status of the human body and subject in the social sciences have fuelled interest in 'new' materialist approaches, which cut across agency/structure and animate/inanimate dualisms. This materialist turn supplies ontological status not to a body or conscious subject, but to assemblages of 'pre-human or even non-human elements that compose the web of forces, intensities and encounters' (Braidotti, 2006: 41) that produce bodies, subjectivities, body capacities, and by extension, sexualities. This paper presents a new materialist ontology of young men and sexuality that shifts the locus of sexuality away from bodies and individuals, toward the affective flow within assemblages of bodies, things, ideas and social institutions, and the sexual capacities this flow produces. Using two empirical datasets, we explore the sexuality assemblages of teen boys and young men, and the micropolitics of these assemblages. We find that the sexuality produced in the bodies of young men is highly territorialised by various materialities. However, we also reveal possibilities for resisting conventional hetero-masculinity, and reflect upon theory and policy implications.

Emotion and Masculinity: Awkward Bedfellows?

McQueen, F.

(University of Edinburgh)

There is a growing discourse around the 'emotionalisation of men', with little empirical research directly examining whether a process of social change is taking place or not. Within the context of asking sixteen men about their couple relationships this paper will consider the complex picture of how men experience and express their emotions and feelings. It will be argued that the pressure on men to be more emotionally fluent is real, and often conflicts with experiences of and performances of masculinity. the voices of the men interviewed will be used to highlight the multitude of ways these men embody their emotions and how these experiences impact on their emotional

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participation in their couple relationships. Leading to a consideration of how the process of 'emotionalising men' can be seen as a site of both the reproduction of, and resistance to, gendered power.

Sociology of Education

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Playing with Capital: Inherited and Acquired Capital in a Jazz School Audition

Nylander, E., Melldahl, A.

(Linköping University)

A common dream among the youth is to become a successful musician. By surveying young aspiring musicians trying to enter a particularly prestigious jazz audition, this paper examines assets and dispositions involved in the very formation of a music field. In the study we build on Bourdieusian sociological theory and method in order to map out a space of jazz contesters and characterize the group(s) seeking to enter. Our findings, based on a specific multiple correspondence analysis performed on 211 applicants, suggest that the space of jazz contesters is structured by three important factors: (i) the total volume of music capital, (ii) commitment to the (professional) field of practice and (iii) the familiarity acquired through previous music socialization and training.

Using clustering techniques, we further distinguish four groups among the applicants - the Insiders, Outsiders,

Inheritors and Underdogs - and reveal the success rate of the groups. We find that the acquisition and enactment of field-specific symbolic assets is of particular importance for elite music admissions, while at the same time the sizeable number of musically affluent candidates competing for a small number of places turns the audition into an event underscored with considerable uncertainty.

'When Things Go Wrong I Go Straight Back to What I Know Best….the Blue Gang': The Role of Localised

Capital in Social Mobility

Wilson, A., Abrahams, J.

(Cardiff University)

This paper draws upon the narratives of a group of young people with varying educational backgrounds and trajectories. The cohort ranged from those who had left school at 16 with no GCSE's to those who had graduated from university. What they all have in common is their identification with one of two rival area based gangs. Through this we explore their motivations for identifying with these gangs and how this may serve to protect their sense of self and belonging during a process of social mobility. The gangs imitate the well-known Los Angeles 'Bloods and Crips' who are recognisable through their choice of clothing colour (either red or blue). Whilst identification with these gangs often results in young people being denigrated and labelled as anti-social members of the 'underclass', we argue that their identifications were in fact attempts to generate symbolic value and worth. Using a Bourdieusian framework the young people's stories are located contextually within their dominated position in social space. We argue that by identifying with this group they generated a form of localised capital, which, whilst not exchangeable within the wider field of power served to protect their habitus as they embarked on a journey of social mobility. The fact that their identity and stylistic displays were symbolically legitimated, in at least one field, provided them with a buffer if things went wrong during their transition from the local field of the ghetto to the wider social space where they were they faced symbolic violence.

High Social Theory Meets Lowly Social Reality: Teaching Bourdieu in the Parisian Banlieue

Truong, F.

(Université Paris 8 and Goldsmiths, University of London)

This paper addresses the confrontation between Bourdieu's high social theory and a public disarmed to appropriate his views about symbolic domination and social inequality: the lower-class, immigrant pupils of high schools located in the declining urban periphery of Greater Paris, known as the banlieues. Through an intensive 6 years fieldwork in participant observation, I propose an empirical account of the social reception and effects of Bourdieu's work as it questions the risk of meaningless behaviour for both pupils and teachers and explores the subjective meaning of the domination theory for dominated individuals, between acceptance and denial. Bourdieu's theory can function as an habitus in itself, generating new practical conducts and symbolic representations, as well as a precarious and ambivalent feeling of self-empowerment. This fieldwork has been combined with a 5 years longitudinal study after the pupils left highschool. Questioning how social science knowledge has been 'digested', reinterpreted and internalized

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through the years, enables us to confront Bourdieu perspective with its very own premises. It tackles the issue of

'theory effects' through the lenses of time, in relation to social trajectories. It also questions sociological knowledge and its possible practical use within the social world. This latest issue cannot be addressed without epistemological and pedagogical concerns regarding how and why a society should/could integrate social science knowledge within its educational system.

Sociology of Religion

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Faith-based Schooling in Rural Communities

Hemming, P.

(Cardiff University)

Over the last decade or so, the issue of faith-based schooling has featured prominently in media and policy forums, particularly in relation to concerns about national values, urban social cohesion and community relations. Yet much of the faith-based education sector in England and Wales actually consists of small, rural Anglican schools, which are largely ignored in these debates. Similarly, research on rural primary schools in general has been rather limited to date, and religious character very rarely features in discussions about the relationship between village schools and their wider community. This paper seeks to begin to address this conspicuous gap in the literature by exploring the distinctive role that church primary schools play in two contrasting rural contexts in England and Wales. In doing so, it considers the significance of this role for debates on faith schooling and rural education, as well as wider theories about the role of religion in 'post-secular' public space.

'British Values': Religion, Education and the Media

Hanemann, R.

(University of Kent at Canterbury)

In March 2014, a story broke about a leaked letter that seemed to reveal a plot by hard-line Islamists to take over several Birmingham schools. Media coverage about this plot, dubbed 'Operation Trojan Horse,' sparked debate amongst UK media and politicians about the role of religion in English schools, as well as about 'British values.' This incident revealed the need for a framework to help academics, journalists and policy-makers understand how religious communities exist in and contribute to a society that prioritizes liberalism and pluralism.

My PhD thesis employed ethnographic research to explore the ways in which a Catholic secondary school navigated tensions between the perceived illiberal nature of Catholicism and their citizenship in a society they experienced as liberal. Using my PhD research and Operation Trojan Horse as examples, I now propose to expand that research to establish a framework for understanding what ideas must be negotiated and how tensions can be managed so that schools of religious character

– and other religious communities involved in education – can maintain a cohesive religious identity while participating in a wider education system that is understood as liberal and broadly secular.

This framework has implications for education policy, as it would create a language and a space for understanding the tensions experienced by religious communities in England, as well as for understanding the concerns expressed by politicians and in the media.

From Dartington Hall to Osho Ko Hsuan: The Desire for Alternative Schooling Continues

van Eck Duymaer van Twist, A.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

The wish to raise the next generation within the beliefs and values of the parents' religion persists. Conventional schools are often found lacking, and alternatives with Krishna-ised, Islamicised, Christianised, Scientology or

Anthroposophical curriculums are occasionally preferred. In allowing such pedagogical liberties, are we as a society regressing from what we know to be scientific fact (the whole unadulterated scientific curriculum rather than for example a Krishna-ised version), or are we progressing toward acceptance and mutual respect? For some education is about more than teaching facts and curriculum; rather an approach and overarching norms and values. One might argue that one person's idea of progression is another's idea of regression. There is a diversity of alternative forms of schooling, and recent government policy has affected the provision of alternatives. This talk will present a range of alternative schooling approaches, an analysis of the varieties of arguments for and against such schooling, methods

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or styles that have been found to be problematic, as well as some that have employed innovative methods of teaching.

Religion as Social Capital in Britain: Its Sociodemographic Characteristics and Implications to Integration

Huang, Y., Li, Y.

(The University of Manchester)

As a powerful mechanism that generates social network, altruism, and shared norms, religious participation appears to be an incubator for social capital. In multicultural societies, involvement in Sunday services and para-church activities may also generate 'identity-bridging' religious social capital which spans culturally defined differences and bring the minorities closer to the society (Wuthnow 2002). In Britain, although much evidence has shown a numerical decline of believers in the past decade, whether there is a spontaneous change in the social consequences of religious participation to be explored. This research examines the long-neglected role of religious social capital in

British society.

Using pooled 2007-11 Citizenship Surveys, this paper firstly attempts to measure and identify different types of religious involvement. It then analyses the sociodemographic characteristics of each type and assess how they can be translated into social capital on the individual level. In the final section, we catty out multivariate analysis to examine whether religious social capital can serve as a rubric for a mechanism that shapes cultural distinctiveness between individuals and ameliorate their relationship with other people. Preliminary findings suggest that patterns of religious involvement vary sharply across different social groups, especially between white British and British ethnic minorities.

More importantly, it appears plausible that religious social capital plays an important role bridging different cultures in

Britain.

Theory

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SOCIOLOGICAL AMNESIA

Sociological Amnesia: Cross-currents in Disciplinary History

Lybeck, E., Law, A.

(University of Cambridge)

The history of sociology overwhelmingly focuses on 'the winners'. Sociologists from the past most routinely recognised today belong to the Trinitarian 'canon' of classical sociologists, Marx, Durkheim, and Weber, sometimes supported by other bit players like Comte or Simmel. More contemporary additions to the canon emerge typically out of a dialogue with 'the classics', either to synthesise, revise or even abandon that legacy. This process of successively restricting sociology to the winners impoverishes sociology's claim to be a form of historically reflexive knowledge. In this sense sociology can be considered 'amnesia' insofar as the discipline's self-knowledge avoids reconstruction of its own history and modes of thought past and present. The overall field of the history of sociology results in an eternal dialogue with these most famous precursors, these heroes. In so doing, the processes and struggles of sociology's own making as a form of disciplinary knowledge is obscured and largely forgotten.

This presentation introduces the findings in our edited book, 'Sociological Amnesia: Cross-currents in Disciplinary

History', which pushes in the opposite direction. Its unique focus is on sociologists who are largely forgotten today, alongside the revival of formerly obscure sociologists. By looking at obscure figures who were often significant in their own time and previously obscure but now revived figures, new insights are opened up into not only individual sociologists themselves, but also our understanding of the discipline of sociology itself

– its trajectories, forgotten promises and dead ends.

Olive Schreiner, Sociology and the Company She Kept

Stanley, L.

(University of Edinburgh)

The feminist writer and social theorist Olive Schreiner (1855-1920) became one of the world's most famous people

(www.oliveschreiner.org). Living in Britain and Europe as well as South Africa, a succession of best-selling publications including novels, political essays, a major work of feminist theory and a volume of essays analysing the racial dynamics of South Africa's polity and economy put her firmly on the intellectual map. Following her death,

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Schreiner's reputation seemed assured; and as late as the 1970s, her Women and Labour appeared on some

Sociology reading lists. However, few sociologists subsequently would have placed Schreiner's work within the discipline's canon, ironically displaced by contemporary feminist writings. But more recently, canon revision has recognised a broader range of ideas and positions, with Schreiner's work benefitting from this. Her intellectual and interpersonal relationships with Herbert Spencer, John Hobson, Leonard Hobhouse and W.E.B. Du Bois are outlined, and these network links distinguished from her associational and figurational connections, closely bound into her absolute pacifism, with Hobson, Isabella Ford, Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, Bertrand Russell, Norman Angell and

Jane Adams. Schreiner did not aspire to be 'a sociologist', with her priorities political ones concerning 'race' and racism and war and peace; but the boundaries were fluid; and the power and reach of her analysis, its international significance and close connections with key sociological concerns, ensures her work remains of great relevance.

From Literature to Sociology: The Shock of Celine's Literary Style and Viola Klein's Attempt to Understand It

Lyon, E.S.

(London South Bank University)

This presents a discussion of the first doctoral thesis written by Viola Klein whilst in Prague and before her escape to

Britain in 1938. Her second thesis, published as The Feminine Character: History of an Ideology (1946), written under the supervision of Karl Mannheim at the LSE, is known in the history of sociology as a contribution to critiques of patriarchal constructions of knowledge. But her first thesis, on the literary style of the French novelist Louis-Ferdinand

Celine, is in many ways equally interesting. It throws light both on why she later approached Mannheim to become supervisor of her second thesis, and on her own intellectual journey from literature to sociology during the conflict ridden 1930s, a decade which towards the end of it saw Celine turn to virulent anti-Semitism. Lepenies, in his work on the history of sociology Between Literature and Science: The Rise of Sociology (1988), points to the lack of attention to the role of fiction as a source of influence in the development of sociology and sociologists. Through a discussion of Klein's thesis arguments about society, literary culture and language, this paper aims to fill a gap in the history of

Viola Klein, Karl Mannheim, and the turbulent political context of sociology during the first half of the 20th century.

(Relevant publication: Lyon (2007) 'Viola Klein: Forgotten Emigre Intellectual, Public Sociologist and Advocate of

Women', Sociology 41(5): 829-842.)

Re-evaluating Lucien Goldmann: Sociologist of Cultural Production and Marxist Theorist

Fowler, B.

(University of Glasgow)

This paper will explore the genetic structuralism of the Rumanian-French thinker, Goldmann (1913-1970), who is in danger of being dropped from our collective memory. It focuses particularly on two areas of his thought - first, his conception of a "tragic vision" in the work of Kant, Pascal and Racine and secondly, his considerations of late capitalism. His Immanuel Kant (1971[1945] and The Hidden God (1964 [1956] are argued to offer enduringly illuminating analyses, and ones which are supported by other sociological studies of absolutism (eg Elias's The Court

Society (2006 [1939], Bourdieu's Sur L'Etat (2012) ). In this light that it will be noted that Bourdieu himself had a paradoxical relation to Goldmann: openly rejecting him but returning recurrently to his themes.

The paper concludes by addressing Goldmann's wider conception of the Pascalian gamble (cf MacIntyre (1971),

Davidson (2014)). Goldmann's own wager is on the practical feasibility of a future that combines the human rights of the Enlightenment tradition and the egalitarian solidarity of the socialist tradition. Yet, even while reaffirming this wager, Goldmann considered post-WWII capitalism to have become tragically re-stabilised, so as to have lost its inner tendencies to crisis and the emergence of oppositional antagonists. This view is questioned, especially in the light of successive post-1970 recessions and the shift to the "spectacular" (Piketty 2014) deepening of inequality.

G.D.H. Cole: Sociology, Politics, Empowerment and 'How to be Socially Good'

Masquelier, C., Dawson, M.

(University of Surrey)

This paper considers the sociology of the early 20th Century British theorist G.D.H. Cole (1889-1959). Although primarily thought of now

– when thought of at all – as a political theorist, Cole's work contained a clear sociological perspective. This was expressed most clearly in his texts on social theory, the class structure and various obstinately political writings. Emerging from a distinctively sociological reading of Rousseau's general will and a qualified critique of scientific Marxism, Cole's main focus was on the forms of association social beings engage in, the loyalties these engendered, and the forms of emancipatory practices they can be expected to yield. Keen to circumvent the aporias of mere negation and unwilling to find comfort in the belief in capitalism's self-destruction, he opposed the perversion of an innate impulse towards sociality with an alternative set of socio-political institutions thought to remedy the social

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ills engendered by capitalism. As such, within the field of early 20th Century British sociology what made Cole unique was an attempt to bridge the gap between sociology and politics by uniting his sociological observations with a normative political project: libertarian socialism. While this utopian vision alienated Cole from the sociological canon in the discipline's early quest for scientific status it is, we argue, one of the key reasons why a return to his associational sociology is such a rewarding experience.

Erich Fromm: Studies in Social Character

Durkin, K.

(University of Glasgow)

An early member of the Frankfurt Institut für Sozialforschung who went on to enjoy a career as a leading intellectual figure in the mid-part of the last century, Erich Fromm is today largely forgotten. His theory of social character and applied social-characterological case studies, which were groundbreaking contributions to twentieth century social thought, have achieved an at best tentative assimilation into the sociological canon. In this paper, I will look at

Fromm's psychoanalytic social psychology and studies of social character within the context of the rise and consolidation of sociology as a discipline. As part of this, I will discuss Fromm's largely under-acknowledged role in the early phase of the Institut für Sozialforschung, in which he and Max Horkheimer were the main drivers of an interdisciplinary programme which sought to unite the social sciences with philosophy in a long-lasting collaboration aimed at lessening the arbitrary injustice of social life. In addition to this, I will discuss Fromm's relationship to

American sociology, and, in particular, to the 'culture and personality' tradition which flourished there during the 1930-

50s, as well as his break from the Institut and career as a 'public intellectual' following the publication of Escape from

Freedom. Finally, I will look respectively at Fromm's more or less forgotten empirical social-characterological case studies of manual and white collar workers in Weimar Germany and of the inhabitants of a peasant village in Mexico.

Work, Employment and Economic Life

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Work, Time and Rhythms: A Comparative Study of Employees in the UK City of Oxford

Ashfold, T.

(University of Oxford)

My PhD research focuses on how and why experiences of working time and work-life balance vary amongst individuals, with a particular focus on the UK city of Oxford. Here, 'working time' refers not only to the duration (i.e. number of hours) of work, but also its timing (i.e. when it is conducted within the day) and tempo (i.e. speed or intensity).

More specifically, the research involves a comparative study of University of Oxford employees working in two settings: firstly within sections of the University's Information Technology department and secondly within various constituent Colleges of the University. In terms of methodology it consists of 50 in-depth interviews, each of which is structured around the co-production of a timeline of the participant's most recent working day.

I am now nearing the end of this data collection stage and will shortly begin the analysis phase of my research. Here, intra- and inter-organisational comparisons will be made and intersections between class, gender and place explored.

I also intend to explore the analytic potential of Henri Lefebvre's 'rhythmanalysis', in which he conceives of the individual as a 'bundle of rhythms'. Following a brief overview of the above, my oral paper will focus on some of my initial findings and reflections in relation to these themes.

Explaining the Labour Market Disadvantage of Women in Britain?

Khattab, N.

(University of Bristol)

The literature suggests three possible explanations for the disadvantage of Muslim women in the labour market. 1.

The human capital approach posits low rate of labour market participation and greater risks of unemployment as a result of low educational level and limited language skills, especially for the first generation. 2. Cultural explanations focus on cultural values, norms and practices associated with religion or local and ethnic tradition (such as Izzat honour, family structure and power relations) that discourage women from participating in the public sphere. 3.

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Structural explanations that emphasise the role of discrimination against Muslim women and Muslims in Britain more generally.

In this paper I use two different datasets in order to explain the disadvantage of Muslim women in the British labour market: The Longitudinal Study of Young People in England and the Labour Force Survey 2002-2013. The first dataset will allow me to assess whether Muslim girls and boys have different future educational and occupational aspirations and whether the expectations of parents varies by the child gender. The Labour Force Survey will allow me to assess the actual labour market participation of Muslim women across a period of twelve years. By analysing the role of education among first and second generation women I will be able to examine human capital explanations.

Comparing Muslim women (first and second generation separately) with Majority White women will enable me to appreciate the extent and dynamic of the penalty facing Muslim women.

Family Policies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region: Women, Work and Care

Mehdizadeh, N.

(University of Glasgow)

Policies to support work-family balance exist in all the developed countries, and in many developing and transition countries. Among these are policies to support work-family balance, such as care-related leave, childcare support and policies to enhance the availability or quality of flexible working practices. However, although tensions between work and family are also increasing growing in developing countries, the issue of work-family balance in these countries has not yet been expressed to the same extent as it has been in the developed countries. In the MENA, the number of women participating in the labour market is low, considerably lower than the education levels of women might imply.

However, it is all too simple to regard this as a situation arising solely from culture rather than one which may be attributed to a dearth of policies that promote a satisfactory work-family balance: the vocabulary of work-family balance and family-friendly policies is all but absent in the MENA.

Nevertheless, increased participation for women in economic and political life does not mean that family life or traditional values need be abandoned. Rather, attaining a balance between work and family life is likely to assure the well-being of future generations.

This paper seeks to provide an overview of some of these policies, to discuss work and family balance in various types of welfare development, in four MENA countries (Iran, Qatar, Tunisia and Turkey) and to draw out implications for policy designs that appear likely to optimise women's labour force participation.

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Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

Room

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Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Families and Relationships

Frontiers

Lifecourse

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2

Sociology of Education 1

Sociology of Education 2

Sociology of Religion

Theory

Work, Employment and Economic Life

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W308

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C236

W823

W324

Carnegie Lecture Theatre

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

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Urban Warriors: The Role of the Street in Gang Regeneration in Glasgow

Miller, J.

(University of the West of Scotland)

By utilising the street as a lens in which gang life is lived out we have a greater depth of knowledge on the processes that allow gangs in Glasgow to regenerate. This paper presents findings from a three year grounded theory study of gangs in Glasgow. What emerged from the research was a representation of street and gang life and an insight into the members that operate within it. In utilising the street as the stage in which these realities were played out this paper will outline the processes that were involved in moving in and out of street and gang life. By drawing upon theories such as Vigil's multiple marginalities and street realities a picture emerges that allows the complex hues and depth of gang life to emerge within multiple social realities. Focus has been too situated upon the gang and gang culture and this is limiting our understanding of gangs within the UK. This research seeks to redress this by putting forward a representation of gang life in Glasgow where the street is the central stage in which the participant's gang lives are played out. This allows a greater range of social realities to be teased out as the gang is not saturated by itself but is part of a much larger, more complex street society and to begin to understand it we must first begin to understand the street culture it is situated within.

Moral Pollution in the Public Realm: Strangers and Incivilities in Everyday Urban Life

Horgan, M.

(University of Guelph)

Civility has long been of interest to sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and historians, and, more recently, legislators and policy makers. Despite the range of disciplines and political actors that swarm around this nebulous concept, there is little consensus on what it is, who has it, how to cultivate it, and what happens without it. If civility raises all of these questions, incivility raises many more. Rather than treating uncivil acts as symptoms of social fragmentation

—the interactional equivalent of 'broken windows'—I follow recent research into incivilities that treat rude encounters as part of everyday life. Extending this research I look at various ways that people living in cities interpret rude encounters with strangers in their everyday lives. This paper draws on data from a growing bank of interviews and focus groups where participants provide narrative accounts of rude encounters with strangers in public space collected as part of the Researching Incivilities in Everyday Life (RIEL) Project. Participants' accounts of specific encounters are ostensibly concerned with particular infractions, but I show how these narratives draw upon broader cultural structures, by wedging open moral claims around the character of the perpetrator, the nature of social order, and unleashing talk of moral degeneration and the decline of civil society and the public realm.

Everyday Territories: Outreach Work, Homelessness and the Rhythms of City Space

Smith, R., Hall, T.

(Cardiff University)

This paper is about everyday relations of territory, need and care in central city space. Here we aim to describe some of the challenges posed by the rhythms and materiality of the city to two groups of people for whom territory, need and care intersect in significant ways: firstly, the homeless, some of whom, lacking a place of their own, rely on central city space and streets as a last resort in which to make any sort of life; secondly, those whose job or inclination it is to seek out and care for these often difficult and vulnerable individuals. Developing some of the insights of Erving

Goffman we consider the centrality of territories (and claims) to social relations and point to the ways in which (some) city space (some of the time) is amenable or resistant to encounters and claims and need and care. In examining the relations between and challenges faced by these two groups, in a single case study, we offer a counter to the idea of the revanchist and exclusionary city and static, 'once and for all' accounts of urban territories.

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Borders and Boundaries: Social and Symbolic Division of Space in the Parisian Metropolis by Teenagers from the Banlieues

Truong, F.

(Université Paris 8 and Goldsmiths, University of London)

Through an intensive 6 years ethnographic fieldwork in participant observation, this paper illustrates how teenagers from the Parisian northern banlieue navigate the Parisian Metropolis. It shows how the use of space - as a territory and as a symbol - is socially constructed and questions the cliché of secluded banlieue teenagers who would never leave their relegated housing projects, as well as the depiction of an 'unintegrated youth'. Observing how and where these teenagers go

– and do not go - in Paris allows us to understand their ambivalent position in French society.

Questioning how they relate to where they live also highlights the weight of a potent collective territorial stigma and contributes to the 'ghetto or no ghetto' sociological controversy by showing that the word 'ghetto' is rejected and bears a highly negative connotation, being used to disqualify the territory of 'the others'. Building the mental and symbolic map of Paris for these teenagers shows the relevance of three distinctive idealtypical zones: the daily Paris, the dirty

Paris and the White Paris. It highlights the power of social, cultural and racial legitimization and domination processes as well as the daily and routinized connections between Paris and the banlieues - in which processes of social integration and desire for social mobility are crucial. Completed by a 5 years longitudinal study, I also show how this map evolves with time when social trajectories of individuals are considered and analysed, challenging the very notion of 'mobility', 'progression' and 'transition'

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

W110, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Khat Chewing and Leisure in the Somali Community

Swain, S.

(Leeds Beckett University)

My research focuses on how young Somali men develop their identity through the cultural activity known as khat chewing, by explaining how the leisure activity provides a sense of Somali identity for males within the diaspora. The paper aims to highlight the social stigma directed towards the Somali community from wider society, which is used to critique Anthony Giddens concept of 'life politics' by using Zygmunt Bauman's theoretical concept of the 'new poor' to narrate the experiences of those within society who are excluded from the consumer market due to lack of economic funds, thus restricting their ability to reflexively build their own biographies (Beck, 1992). Consequently, many Somalis have become seen as 'flawed consumers' and 'dangerous Others'. A situation that is further worsened by the recent

Government ban on khat, which has led to users of the stimulant expressing their fear of a 'conform or die' (Hall, 2011) mentality being espoused by the 'Neo-Conservative New Right' under the tag-line 'muscular liberalism'. As a result, many Somalis find themselves 'caught between cultures' as a connection with Somaliland is lost, whilst their presence in British society is forever being contested.

The Ick Factor: The Resignfication and Deployment of Disgust

Mast, J.

(University of Warwick)

In this paper I examine two social, symbolic processes: how disgust may be destabilized or resignified, and how disgust may be deployed. I use signs associated with disgust because they feel precognitive in the phenomenological sense. In the structuralist sense, they are organizing nodes that anchor other, less structuring signs and sign chains; they have high performative capacity, and the capacity to overwhelm and drive narratives over time. By signdestabilization I mean efforts to un-disgustify disgusting signs, or to denude them of their disgusting potencies. Here I examine efforts to purify to some degree a powerfully polluted and polluting object. The second process is semiotic deployment, or efforts to take powerfully polluted symbols and to attach them to outside symbols or categories in attempt to pollute the latter. My case studies are associated with food, ingestion, the mouth, and orality: ie, wellestablished loci of the disgust response. Case studies on destabilization: I examine efforts to introduce new protein sources into consumer markets during circumstances of economic and social crisis, namely, efforts to redefine insects and worms as food to be incorporated into American and Western European diets. These efforts stem from preoccupations with issues such as ecological, environmental, human justice, and security or risk concerns. Case study on deployment: I examine the UK horsemeat scandal of early 2013, as a case in efforts to shift the disgust signnexus of tainted meat to an anticipated influx of immigrant workers. I conclude addressing power and agency.

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Cultural Artefacts, Gender Performance, and Celebrity Chefs: Case Study of Nigella Lawson

Finkel, R., Sang, K.

(Queen Margaret University)

The outputs of celebrity chefs, in particular, cookbooks, are considered works of social history (Neuhaus, 1999) and have been examined as forms of cultural artefacts to explore the role food and its representation in everyday life

(McDonagh and Prothero, 2005). Brownlie et al (2005) argue that cookbooks contain cultural narratives, which are not reflective of the culture they claim to portray but productive of it. Through the visual analysis of culinary cultural artefacts (namely, cookbooks, chef's websites and relevant traditional and social media), this paper explores relationships between food, feminism and gender. We focus on Nigella Lawson given her cultural prominence and attention within the academic literature. This research also explores if these images and cooking performances are mainly vehicles for displaying hegemonically accepted behaviour and reinforcing dominant attitudes through the medium of food, or if they are in some way culturally subversive and challenging societally-constructed boundaries.

This is framed within Bourdieu's (1989) theories of taste cultures as status markers: 'Taste classifies, and it classifies the classifier' (p. 6). Visual methodologies have been employed, and it was found that Nigella Lawson both resists and conforms to gender norms through the production and consumption of food. Although relying on traditional notions of gender practices (i.e, cooking, planning of meals, catering to friends and family), simultaneously, she renegotiates culturally constructed gendered relationships with food. The paper demonstrates the value of analysis of cultural artefacts to reveal complex interactions of gender conformity and resistance.

‘I Ate Nothing But Shit Over the Weekend’: The Consumption of Food at Video Game Events

Law, Y-Y.

(University of Salford)

The diet of the stereotypical gamer has often been viewed rather negatively (e.g. unhealthy and overweight). But, few, if any have ever sought to investigate these stereotypes, and ask what do they really eat? And how does this differ when they go to videogame events?

Using Benedict Anderson's (1982) concept of 'Imagined Communities', this paper explores the cultural aspect of the consumption of food at videogame events through the self-conscious selection of 'junk food' in relation to the selfidentification as a 'gamer'. Hauck-Lawson (2004) suggests that food choices can communicate aspects of a person's identity or emotion in ways that words cannot do alone. The paper therefore seeks to address questions, such as are gamers embracing an identity that they feel they have been given through these imagined communities, or is their diet at videogames events based more on convenience, or practical energy expenditure?

Videogame events are social gatherings where gamers, who are usually separated by distance, come together

(sometimes over several days) to share their interest in videogames (Taylor and Witkowski 2010). But what do they do about food?

The findings suggest that videogame events often provide food facilities, from microwaves, fridges and on-site foodstalls with 'healthy options'. However, within a videogame event packed with various activities, the decision of what to eat can sometimes be puzzling, to the extent where a 'balanced diet' can be significantly reduced in order to 'grab something quick'. Therefore, many video gamers will simply consume nothing but 'junk food', energy drinks and alcohol.

Families and Relationships

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‘In Theory It Should Make Your Next One Better…’ Young Same-sex Couples’ Talk on Past Conflicts and

Present Relationships

Pearson, D.

(Open University)

This paper will explore the experiences of young (20-35) same-sex couples in long-term relationships, focusing on the ways in which couples talked about their past relationships. I will examine how 'biographical anchors' (Heaphy et al

2013) and past experiences impacted on transitions into, and experiences within, present day relationships. The study utilised an in-depth qualitative multiple methods approach consisting of visual scrapbook/diaries, emotion maps, individual interviews and couple photo collage interviews with 14 young same-sex couples. In particular, I will interrogate the ways couples used understandings of past conflicts from their current relationships, previous

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relationships and their upbringings to inform and delineate relationship dynamics, boundaries and rules. Key themes explored comprise the impact and presence of ex-partners on current relationships including their emotional and/or physical position, and how ex-partner and parental relationship scripts affect couple perceptions on conflict management, resolution and rules around preferred ways of relating. I thus present an analysis informed by the ways time and temporality operate in participants' reflexive awareness of relationship contexts.

'I’ve Redeemed Myself by Being a 1950s 'Housewife'': Parent-grandparent Relationships in the Context of

Lesbian Childbirth

Nordqvist, P.S.

(University of Manchester)

This talk considers social progression and regression in the context of family cultures by investigating how 'new' lesbian families formed through donor conception are received into the family fold by older generations. I look at the relationship between grandparents and lesbian daughters in the context of childbirth, and more specifically I explore the role that pregnancy plays in shaping kinship affinities in this context. Gender, sex and heterosexuality are fundamental to Euro-American kinship discourse and practice; lesbian couples' parenthood through donor conception represents a significant departure from prevailing tropes of kinship. Thus, questions arise about how lesbians experience becoming and being parents, and how their own parents may respond to becoming a grandparent through their daughter or her female partner. This paper draws on original data from the ESRC funded 'Relative Strangers' project (with Carol Smart) and considers interviews with lesbians who became parents by donor conception, and grandparents with lesbian daughters in those situations where the older generation was not originally supportive of their daughters. It explores how old and new tropes of kinship are recycled in family life by looking the negotiated kinship meaning of pregnancy, and how relationships with grandparents may be shaped by whether or not it is the daughter of the family who gave birth.

Intimacy and Identity in Asexual Lives

Dawson, M., Scott, S.

(University of Glasgow)

This paper discusses results from the project A Qualitative Exploration of Asexual Identity and Practices of Intimacy.

Based upon interviews and diaries we explored the process of coming to, and developing, an asexual identity as well as the practices of intimacy this engendered from a Symbolic Interactionist perspective. In this paper we will discuss how our findings suggested a close connection between intimacy and identity for our participants with negotiations regarding intimate practices framed within conceptions of identity. This was especially so given the diverse forms of asexual identity adopted by our participants. However, we shall also highlight how the practices themselves, and the negotiations concerning them, reflect negotiations found in relationships between non-asexuals. Therefore, we shall suggest how our findings suggestion both freedom and foreclosure of intimate practices and being for our participants.

Frontiers

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Attributing 'Self-Stigma': Professional Support and Social Models

Armstrong, V.

(Durham University)

Support for people who have experienced, or experience, mental distress is commonly provided by third sector organisations. These organisations are a major part of contemporary community care provision in England. Previous research suggests, and current policy implies, that the attitudes of support workers towards people experiencing mental distress can often be as stigmatising as public attitudes. Using empirical material gathered through ethnographic research in two third sector organisations supporting people with experience of mental distress, thirty interviews with staff and members, six focus groups, and six months' worth of fieldnotes, this paper explores, sociologically, stigma and professional support from a Mad Studies and critical disability studies perspective. Findings indicate that whilst staff may not demonstrate obvious stigmatising attitudes or behaviour generally associated with stigma or discrimination, staff do attribute 'self-stigma' to certain attitudes and behaviours of members. I suggest that this attribution may be a result of staff misrecognising members' reactions to experiences of stigma and discrimination and not, as staff suggest, members simply making excuses or avoiding people and/or situations. I argue that attributing 'blame' to members for their predicament rather than looking to disabling attitudes, experiences, and

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structures informing members' worlds demonstrates how models of contemporary support can prove incompatible with social models of distress or disability. Finally, whilst self-stigma is not attributed to members maliciously, this phenomenon could be explained in a number of ways, such as the limitations of the support environment, frustrations of staff and as symptoms of neoliberalism.

Caring for Children with Special Needs on a Hospital Ward

: Mothers’ and Nurses’ Experiences

Merchant, W., Fletcher, M., Beringer, A., Kent, J.

(University of the West of England)

Aims

An increasing number of children with special needs within the UK has been attributed to improvements in the survival rates of premature babies and improvements in technology. Children with special needs tend to be admitted more frequently to hospital. Mothers remain largely, but not exclusively, main carers of children with special needs.

Background

No research seeks the views of mothers and nurses about the care provided to children with special needs as inpatients.

Introduction

My focus is upon the personal experiences of mothers of children with special needs and nurses working on the wards of a hospital.

Sample

A purposive sample of eleven mothers, twenty seven nurses and eight nurse managers from a large tertiary hospital in

England was recruited.

Methodology

A feminist ethnography from an auto/biographical stance.

Data collection

Two periods of observation each lasting three months at a time, was completed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six mothers, thirteen nurses and eight nurse managers.

Data analysis

I used critical reflexivity and thematic analysis to keep grounded within the daily lived experiences of the participants.

Results

Mothers are experts in their child and have had experiences which unleash their “inner tiger”. Nurses struggle to accommodate this expertise into their role.

Conclusion

Nurses lack the skills and knowledge to care for children with special needs and rely upon mothers expertise. Mothers needs are not acknowledged at an institutional level.

Disabled Women’s Access to Gender-based Violence Services: An International Comparison

Woodin, S.

(University of Leeds)

This paper will present the findings from a four country study on violence against disabled women (Austria, Germany,

Iceland and UK), that took place between 2013 and 2015. It will discuss the degree to which disabled women were able to access generic, specialised support services for all women experiencing violence, in comparison with nondisabled women. Access was poor for all disabled women but some, notably D/deaf women and women with sensory impairments, were particularly poorly served, with few improvements planned for the future.

Service providers largely agreed that disabled women were excluded, but there were differences in the reasons given for this and in the degree to which they considered this to be justified. Some countries were more pessimistic than others about the possibility of integration and survey and interview data reflect this. Views correlate with differences in the continued existence of separate institutions for disabled people, including women. By contrast and to varying degrees, service providers in other countries were less forthright, placing greater responsibility for lack of access on women themselves and on service systems. As both agency and structure impact on women's access, these differences may reflect the social context in terms if what are seen as acceptable justifications for access, exclusion and the allocation of scarce resources.

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Lifecourse

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‘We’ve Had Our Sex Life Way Back’: Old(er) Care Home Residents and Sexual/Intimate Citizenship

Simpson, P., Horne, M., Brown Wilson, C., Dickinson, T., Br, L.

(University of Manchester)

This think-piece addresses the neglected if not taboo topic of older care home residents and sexual/intimate citizenship. It examines three related bodies of work. First, the focus in the general literature on care homes for older people on prolonging physical and/or psychological autonomy has overshadowed concerns with sexuality/intimacy

(Bauer 1999). There is also a tension in this work between views of care homes as sites of control (Wiersma and

Dupuis 2010) and as empowering spaces (Knight et al 2010). The relations of care are more ambivalent than this binary formulation allows (Twigg 2000). Second, the literature on sexuality and ageing/care homes addresses sexuality in limited, often sexological ways, though some work highlights the problem of ageism intersecting with differences of gender, sexuality, class and race (Richardson and Lazur 1995). Third, work concerned with the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGB&T) residents has highlighted the problem of heteronormativity/homophobia and how individuals become 'twice hidden' because of ageism combined with the heterosexual assumption (Willis et al

2013). All three bodies of work lack fuller engagement with needs relating to sexuality/intimacy. We conclude by outlining an agenda for research based on more critical, sociologically-informed work (Hafford-Letchfield 2008) that recognizes residents' exclusion from sexuality/intimacy and identifies practical solutions to such problems.

The Impossible Choice? Making Decisions of Care for Older Parents

Morgan Brett, B.

(University of East London)

Witnessing one parent's ageing process and the associated dilemmas of placing a parent in care often cause 'midlife children' enormous emotional turmoil. Drawing upon data collected across four different qualitative and literature based research projects which I have worked on in recent years, the aim of this paper is to highlight the psychosocial dilemmas faced by midlife children of older parents, with the aim to improving inter-generational relationships. It will consider what practical, emotional and psychical effects does witnessing the increasing agedness and death of parents have on those in midlife? How are the relationships between the (midlife) child and their parents negotiated during this phase of the life course on a practical, emotional and psychical level? And how can care provision for older people be improved in order to support not only those in the older generations but also those in the midlife generation who are caring for them?

Changing Perceptions of Identity Over the Lifecourse of Mass Observation Project Writers (1981-2014)

Lindsey, R.

(University of Southampton)

The Mass Observation Project (MOP) is a volunteer writing project in which more than 3,500 self-selected individuals have written in response to themed questions -directives - sent out by the Mass Observation Archive (MOA) three times a year since 1981. Directives are wide-ranging, asking writers to write contemporary and retrospective accounts of their views on current events, descriptions of their lives and experiences, and descriptions of themselves.

Cumulatively these responses provide rich insights into changes and continuities in writers' lives, and offer a strong sense of individual voice across the 1981-2014 timeframe. Whilst there has been very little analysis of MOP writers' characteristics, some social scientists have argued that the MOP is unreliable because certain sections of British society are underrepresented within this data-source.

This paper draws on the findings from two longitudinal research projects to discuss who the MOP writers are. The first study followed 38 individual writers across time looking at their volunteering attitudes and behaviours. The second study, which is ongoing, uses mixed-methods to investigate the socio-economic characteristics of all the MOP's volunteer writers, the extent and nature of their engagement with the archive, and how the characteristics of respondents may have changed over time. This paper discusses preliminary qualitative analysis of MOP writing on identities, exploring continuity and change in individual writers' identities in relation to life-events, class and place over their life-courses. It examines the disconnection between shifting individual perceptions of class and quantitative longitudinal analyses of class that use occupation as a measure.

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Treasured Islands: The Role of the Hair Salon in Dementia Care

Ward, R., Campbell, S.

(University of Stirling)

This paper will report on a 28-month, ESRC funded study of the management of appearance in dementia care. As the name implies, the Hair and Care project paid particular attention to hair care and stylization and the relationships in which it is embedded. Using a qualitatively-led mix of methods a particular focus of our attention were the often temporarily designated 'salon' spaces in settings such as care homes, hospitals and day centres. Carved out against the backdrop of healthcare service delivery, the salon offers participants a 'knowable' and culturally meaningful setting that resonates with long-standing biographical hairdressing practices and salon attendance.

Our focus for this paper is upon the salon as a social and material space and the role it plays within dementia care and in the lives of the people who visit regularly to participate in it. In light of the often temporary nature of the hair salon within care settings, an over-arching question that we pursued throughout the study was: 'what makes a salon, a salon?' Our discussion of findings will address this question and outline our efforts to find an answer that draws upon notions of 'place-making' and recent thinking on space and place that recognises the closely intertwined and mutually constitutive relationship between the social and the material captured by notions of the 'place-event'.

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

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Navigating Uncertainty in Practice: The Role of Instruments for Screening Cognitive Function and Diagnosing

Alzheimer’s Disease

Swallow, J.

(University of Leeds)

The 'ageing population' in the UK has firmly established the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a site for concern in social policy and medical research and practice (DoH 2012; MRC NMHB, 2014). Despite the plethora of technological, innovative techniques in research such as biomarker technologies (Zetterberg, 2010), there is continued reliance in healthcare policy (Dementia Commissioning for Quality and Innovation Framework) and clinical practice on the use of relatively simple cognitive screening tools. Diagnosing AD however, is uncertain; a definitive diagnosis can only be made at post-mortem examination and its nosological framework is contested (Hardy, 2006).

This paper explores the role of cognitive screening tools in this arena of uncertainty.

The presented ethnographic data, including observations of consultations and team meetings and interviews across clinical and policy practice investigates how clinicians and policymakers utilise cognitive screening tools towards navigating a diagnosis of AD in clinical practice. Concurrently, exploring how healthcare practice(s) are mobilised towards formally classifying and diagnosing AD. Preliminary analysis has highlighted key themes 1) Diagnostic classification as negotiation of formal and informal classification systems with diagnosis rarely 'disposed' 2) Patients as active participants in their diagnosis; legitimising memory loss through formal classification and the use of screening tools 3) Reluctance by clinicians to quantify cognitive decline through the outcome of tools in practice and policy; privileging clinical judgement.

Overall, the theoretical framework of 'technology-in-practice' (Mol, 2002; Latimer, 2013) is being utilised to expand on the complexity faced by clinicians of diagnosing and constituting AD.

Diagnosing Dementia with Care: Memory Clinics and the Accomplishment of Interactional Ethics

Hillman, A.

(Cardiff University)

Traditional bioethics and its key principles remain the dominant ethical discourse of medical professionals and health services. Within this discourse individuals are constituted as 'free', rational and asocial. This paper presents interactional encounters that occur between clinicians, patients and families in memory clinics to show how such encounters produce ethics that are profoundly interactional. Interactions that occur in the building of a dementia diagnosis and in the communication of it, reveal a complex set of relations between patients, families and clinicians that produce ethics that are situated and emergent rather than abstract and fixed. Patients and families are never passive recipients of information, instead decisions about the causes of a patient's memory problems are collectively made. As a result, patients and families inform clinician's decision making regarding what kind of information is shared, when that information is shared and in what form. These negotiations open up space for a logic of care (Mol

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2008) to emerge, in which the person with dementia becomes embodied, social and relational. This article suggests that it is precisely the messy uncertainty of dementia diagnosis that allows for this kind of interactional ethics, as diagnostic labels become flexible and pragmatic tools in the practice of caring for those with dementia.

Diagnostic (Trans)Formations: ‘Intimate Partner Violence’ and Health Systems

Olive, P.

(University of Cumbria)

This paper contributes to the arena of sociology of diagnosis through the presentation of research that aimed for greater approximation of knowledge of the experiences and practices of diagnosing 'intimate partner violence' in emergency department (ED) consultations. Positioned at the boundary of critical realist and postmodern complexity theory, through which patterns of behaviour of phenomena (Byrne 1998) and heterogeneous relational properties of systems (Cilliers 1998) could be explicated, this research employed a multi-method design that involved interviews with practitioners and service users, and data from electronic and hand-written patient records. Data analysis was informed by Brown's (1995) sociology of diagnosis and 'diagnosis in action' (an extension to Latour's [1983] sociology of science). This research identified six locations in emergency department consultations across which eight different classifications for intimate partner violence had been applied. An overall classificatory transformation from 'assault' to

'injury' through which intimate partner violence was systematically erased was found. However, this transformation was not straightforward and findings illustrate complex sets of mobilising relations of knowledge, experience and power involved in the diagnostic formations and transformations of intimate partner violence in emergency department consultations. Multiple classifications held in tension at each location signpost competing interests involved in the classification of intimate partner violence at different locations in health consultations and health systems. These findings will be discussed in relation to the work of Mol (2002) and Goffman (1959/1990) and which reveal additional layers of complex diagnostic conformity and resistance found in sociomaterial practices effecting intimate partner violence diagnosis.

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

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‘Alcohol Puts Me in the Mood, It Makes Me Feel Horny’: Sex Under the Influence of Alcohol among

Undergraduate Students

Dumbili, E.

(Brunel University London)

Alcohol misuse among young people is a global phenomenon. In many Western countries, studies have shown that youths are experiencing hazardous alcohol consumption and increasing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the geographical area presently known as Nigeria, locally-made alcoholic beverages performed complex roles in the traditional era but were mainly consumed by adult males for pleasure. Adult females and young people were culturally constrained from drinking in most communities. In contemporary Nigeria, a few available quantitative studies reveal that young people are not just drinking, the majority are using alcohol as an aphrodisiac. Drawing on interviews with

31 undergraduate students of an eastern Nigerian university, this on-going study explores the changing roles of alcohol in their everyday life and delineates three major areas that mediate their sexual uses of alcohol: the motivations to use alcohol for sex, how it is used and where these alcohol consumption practices are learned. Data were analysed to generate themes with the aid of Nvivo 10 software. Findings show that males drink to last longer during sex, to increase sexual satisfaction, to become more aggressive and to satisfy their girlfriends who also drink.

This study reveals that females also drink to delay orgasm or to increase satisfaction. Relatedly, findings show that not every brand of alcohol can be used for sexual purposes. For example, while males use beer or a mixture of locallyproduced gin and marijuana, females use champagne and other sweetened alcoholic beverages. The paper discusses the implications of these and other related findings.

Exploring Perceptions of the 'Mature Drinker' among Men from Deprived Areas: A Focus Group Study

Emslie, C., Williams, B., Falconer D., Coyle, J., Irvine, L., Crombie, I.K.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

Young and middle-aged men from socially disadvantaged backgrounds are at particularly high risk of developing alcohol

–related diseases. However, changing health behaviours among disadvantaged groups is challenging. This qualitative study aimed to explore the social context of drinking among men aged 25 to 44 years from disadvantaged

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areas in order to inform a health promotion intervention. We conducted five focus groups in Scotland with 28 men recruited from amateur football clubs, unemployment training centres, and criminal justice services. Men reported a change in their drinking practices compared to their youth. Alcohol was now used as reward, relaxation and release from life pressure, although constrained by the adoption of new social duties and roles at this stage of the lifecourse.

However, there was often a disjuncture between respondents' drinking practices (getting drunk) and their intended aims of drinking (relaxation and reward) . The 'mature drinker' was viewed as someone who can drink without becoming drunk, has self-discipline, resists social pressures to drink and meets their obligations as an employee, partner and parent. Our qualitative study indicates that an effective intervention would highlight the discrepancy between the intended aims of drinking and actual drinking practices, promote success in achieving aspects of the

'mature drinker' role and advance the idea that men have a choice about the different social networks they can access, and that this choice will affect the amount of alcohol they consume.

Understanding Undergraduate Drinking Culture in a Modern University

Wright, J., Griffiths, L., Shaw, D.

(Buckinghamshire New University)

The drinking behaviour of young people continues to be of topical interest with ongoing references to a 'binge drinking culture' consistent in the British media. Drinking behaviours in universities has been seen to be particularly problematic with reports of students being hospitalised after extreme drinking sessions. A number of studies explore this behaviour in large scale descriptive studies showing trends in morbidity and mortality in university and colleges.

However, qualitative studies, informed by sociological theory which explores the interpretations of drinking in the social context of a university setting are limited.

This study explores the drinking culture in a modern, English university using a case study methodology and an ethnographic framework. This longitudinal study follows a cohort of students through their time at university with multiple data collection points across the three years. Purposive sampling ensured that a cross-section of courses and other variables was represented in the study.

In depth individual interviews with a variety of stakeholders, student focus groups and other methods were triangulated to explore the pattern of drinking behaviours that occurs over time. Data collection is in the final stages and this paper reports on the emergent themes. These include socialisation into university life, the role of drinking in group membership, games, societies and initiations. In order to illustrate the emergent themes individual stories will be used as part of the presentation. Apart from sociologists, the results of this study will be of interest to universities, the Student Union and to public health professionals.

‘I Wouldn’t Dare Touch That, We Wouldn’t Drink That: An Exploration of Young People’s Drinking Practices in North-east England

Scott, S., Shucksmith, J., Baker, R., Kaner, E.

(Newcastle University)

There is a growing recognition that an intersection of individual, social, and physical environmental factors may collectively influence adolescent drinking practices. This paper applies Bourdieu's theoretical concepts of habitus, field, capital and practice to explore the cultural context of young people's alcohol use and the meanings and values they attached to drinking practices. As part of a larger mixed-method study, interviews were conducted with 31 adolescents aged 13-18 in North East England. For all young people interviewed, drinking practices were an important source of social capital. Consumption was used to construct identity, cement their place within their peer group and as a means of marking out the practices of others as 'different'. Whilst all young people reproduced dominant adult drinking practices in relation to social drinking, two habitus associated with alcohol emerged. The first centred on drinking to demonstrate maturity whilst the second rested on drinking to lose control. For young people in each habitus, practice served to generate distinction, prestige and bolster social status. Marketing activity represented an important, embedded aspect of young people's drinking environments in our study, and appeared to operate by harnessing reproducing cultural norms and practices as an embodied and naturalised part of society for young people.

Interventions are needed which not only seek to reduce excessive drinking, but which recognise the complexity and multiplicity in young people's attitudes and practices, in order to acknowledge young people's social and emotional need for identity, social status and distinction amongst their peer groups and wider social networks.

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Methodological Innovations

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The Value of Using Bourdieu and Social Field Analysis in Gang Research

Harding, S.

(Middlesex University)

Over the years Gang Research has become skewed into two methodological camps

– large, positivist, administrative and quantified studies in the US or small scale, limited qualitative studies here in the UK. Moreover, gang research, notably here in the UK, has often been dogged by unresolved issues of definition, over-reliance on labelling theory and moral panic theory and overlong disputes about the existence or otherwise of violent street gangs. Both nationally and internationally theoretical perspectives on gang involvement have seldom moved on beyond those of the Chicago School. Multiple issues, such as internal gang dynamics, internal power and economic relations, structure and social order in gangs, have remained largely unexplored.

In the UK, gang researchers are frequently divided into those who follow Simon Hallsworth's views that gangs are a socially constructed moral panic or John Pitt's view that gangs are real and potentially dangerous.

Recent gang research by Harding, published in Harding, S. (2014) The Street Casino: survival in violent street gangs, has shown that using concepts of habitus and social field from Pierre Bourdieu opens up a whole new research perspective for gang research, leading in turn to new theoretical paradigms. This new approach offers a radical new lens through which the tricky issue of gangs and group offending can be theorised. In this session Harding will review key concepts from Bourdieu and illustrate how they fit as an interpretative frame for gang research and analysis.

In the Field: The 'Messiness' of Reconciling Research Expectations across Cultures

De Lima, P., Hutchison, C., H.M., Valero, D.

(University of the Highlands & Islands)

The idea that qualitative research methods and their accompanying methodological rules are shaped and are contingent on particular historical and cultural contexts is not new. There is widespread recognition that realities are dynamic and heterogeneous and the methods/ practices required to understand these complex realities are diverse

(Darling 2014; Billson 2006; Marshall 2004) However, particular accounts or versions of methods continue to exert a hegemonic hold, such that research methods as taught and practiced still aims to describe different realities in a consistent and neutral-fashion (Law 2003), and are implicated in not only describing realities, but also in producing the realities they seek to understand ( Law 2004 p16). This paper will draw on three qualitative research projects conducted in culturally and geographically distinct settings: indigenous peoples and public health practitioners in

Argentina; poverty and social exclusion policy makers/practitioners in rural Spain; and barrio residents and environmental relationships in Venezuela. The paper will aim to : (i) explore the ways in which methods are involved simultaneously in knowing and producing research outcomes enacted in different ways depending on the cultural and geographical context, as well as the biographies of the researchers; and (ii) to provide insights into the messiness of fieldwork experiences in a way that suggests the need to challenge the limits placed by hegemonic research methods discourses and discusses the implications for undertaking social science research and methods/ practices.

The Police Officer as Reflective Practitioner?

Lumsden, K., Goode, J.

(Loughborough University)

Why are 'partnerships' between the police and the academy suddenly springing up all over the UK? What forms do they take and what expectations surround them? The literature on police-academic partnerships, such as it is, talks about the 'two worlds' of 'research' and 'practice'; the obstacles inherent in bringing these worlds together; and offers case studies of how they might be overcome. What it also does is leave some fundamental questions unanswered, by using 'monolithic' concepts such as 'research' and 'practice' without deconstructing what kind of research is under discussion (as though there weren't epistemological, disciplinary and methodological variations in how research is

'done'); and what kind of practice (as though there weren't variations in roles, responsibilities and practices according to practitioners' positioning within complex organisations, the 'problems' they are facing, the kinds of 'knowledge' they might find useful in addressing them and the kinds of practices they may engage in when capitalising upon such knowledge in their everyday occupational worlds. In the context of wider moves towards 'evidence-based' practice and the 'professionalization of policing', this paper uses an emerging collaboration to examine why the police are looking

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increasingly to research to inform their practice; how academics are responding to this; and what conceptualisations of knowledge and of police officer are being constituted through the discourses framing such collaborations.

Not Only Different but Better? Does Collaborative Research Represent Methodological Progress?

Crow, G.

(University of Edinburgh)

In the history of social science, many claims to methodological progress have been made. This paper considers claims that the development of collaborative research represents methodological progress over what went before, and superiority to alternative approaches currently available. It does so by considering in turn the key set of issues on which this evaluation can be made. These issues relate not only to standard criteria of the representativeness, reliability and validity of the data generated but further issues of ethics, ownership, cost, practicability, and sustainability. The argument will proceed by posing potentially awkward questions for the collaborative approach

(such as 'Is collaborative research vulnerable to capture by particular groups of collaborators and therefore open to criticism on the grounds of unrepresentativeness of samples?') and then considering possible responses from the collaborative research position. The coverage will necessarily be selective, given the wide range of types of collaborative research (broadly understood) that have developed. Some concluding reflections about the relevance of this topic to the 'impact' agenda and to the notion of the democratization of research will be offered.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

CARNEGIE LECTURE THEATRE, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

RESEARCHING RACISM IN THE UK AND IRELAND

This panel draws on work from CoDE at the Universities of Manchester and Glasgow which aims to draw together the wealth of existing data collected in the last 50 years and generate new data which can shed light on ethnic inequalities in the UK. CoDE is an interdisciplinary centre which is exploring the historical contexts behind the changing dynamics of ethnic inequalities. This panel brings together five papers which consider racism and discrimination in a range of contexts and which also reflect on the categories and framing which scholars use to understand racialized inequalities, hostility and violence.

Everyday Racism: A Useful Concept?

Harries, B.

(University of Manchester)

This paper considers the implications and usefulness of 'the everyday' in understandings of racism. It comes from a concern that by distinguishing some forms of racism as 'everyday' we risk reinforcing a separation between racism that people routinely face from racism which is described as 'extreme' or out of the ordinary without first thinking through the consequences of such a move. The paper highlights how distinctions between different understandings of racism are somewhat blurred and can create confusions and contradictions in the ways in which people deal with race. It questions whether the distinction made between different types of racism is less useful than thinking of the multiple and messy ways in which race and racism structure our relations. The intention is not to dismiss the notion of studying the everyday, but rather to reflect on what we are doing when we say we are researching race and everyday life.

‘What is Racism?’, ‘We’re Not Racist’

Ashe, S.

(University of Manchester)

As racism continues to evolve and in the process become more complex, this paper aims to draw on two separate research projects to highlight ongoing challenges for anti-racism, as well as, the police and local authorities who have a duty to protect public safety and prevent disorder and crime. The paper will do so by drawing on research conducted with colleagues in the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research into the impact of loyalist and Irish Republican marches and parades in Scotland. In doing so, this paper will outline how the police, local authority representatives on public procession planning committees and loyalist procession organisers claim not to understand sectarianism and in particular anti-Irish racism. The discussion will then move on to examine the ways in which the United Kingdom

Independence Party attempt to deflect accusations of racism by making reference to ethnic minority party members

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and voters. Here the discussion will show that such discursive and performative repertoires are not new but in fact strategies that have been employed by both the British National Party and the English Defence League in recent years. In conclusion, it will be argued that it is vital that we understand these issues and complexities, particularly in relation to cultural racisms and the contradictory nature of racism more generally, if we are to be able to make antiracist interventions in the public sphere.

We're Just Ourselves, They're Not Themselves: Authenticity, Racism and Symbolic Violence

Garratt, L.

(University of Manchester)

The aim of this paper is to examine the role of authenticity as a moral orientation and social evaluation of migrant groups. I will argue that misrecognising behaviour as 'inauthentic' disguises and legitimises racism within micro encounters. Using evidence from a qualitative study of migrant origin children in Dublin Ireland, I will contend that being recognised as 'authentic' is bound within racist and gendered conceptions of whom can be said to legitimately embody nationally and locally authorised dispositions and identity markers. This paper will close by examining the belief that one can have a 'true self' which one is aware of, can enact or cynically disguise. I will propose that in this study at least, authenticity is better understood as a form of doxa which symbolically dominates minority groups and silences discussions on racism.

Experienced Racism and Discrimination: Quantifying Its Contribution to Health Inequalities, and to the

Burden on Health of Ethnic Minorities

Wallace, S., Becares, L., Nazroo, J.

(University of Manchester)

Longstanding evidence documents ethnic inequalities in health, which have been partly attributed to lower socioeconomic resources and experienced racial discrimination. Studies show that racial discrimination impacts on health both indirectly, through patterning social inequalities, and directly, by leading to increased stress, hypertension, and psychological distress. However, most studies are cross-sectional, and we cannot ascertain how racial discrimination leads to ethnic inequalities in health across time, or what the burden of experiences of racism and discrimination is on the health of ethnic minorities over time.

This study uses longitudinal data from Understanding Society to examine the longitudinal association between experienced racism at Wave 1, and mental health at Wave 2. Analyses examine the impact that several measures of racial discrimination, including feeling unsafe, avoiding a place, having been insulted, having been harassed, and having experienced employment discrimination in the past year due to one's ethnicity, nationality or religion, have on the mental health of ethnic minorities over time. We also examine the contribution of these measures of experienced racism and discrimination on changes in mental health across ethnic minority groups, as compared to the White

British group.

Results show a clear, strong longitudinal association between having experienced racial insults or harassment and deterioration in mental health among ethnic minorities. We find some evidence for the direct contribution of experienced racism and discrimination on ethnic health inequalities across time, although results show that the contribution of racism on ethnic health inequalities operates mainly via structuring longstanding socioeconomic inequalities across ethnic groups.

Prevalence of Racist Violence, Fear of Violence, and Discrimination: How Have Things Changed?

Nazroo, J., Becares, L., Wallace, S.

(University of Manchester)

Experiences of racism and discrimination, and concern about the possibility of such events occurring, are a defining characteristic of the lives of ethnic minority people in the UK (and elsewhere). Although we have seen shifts in legislation and in expressed attitudes, and some evidence suggesting a growth in opportunities and spaces for more convivial encounters across ethnic groupings, ongoing deeply rooted economic inequalities suggest that racialized ethnic identities continue to carry significance in everyday life. Nevertheless, it is likely that changing patterns of racialization

– in part as a product of broad social and political change and in part as a result of anti-racist activity – will be reflected in changes in the patterning of experiences of racism and discrimination within and across ethnic minority groups.

To explore these issues we use data on reported experiences of racist violence, fear of violence and experiences and expectations of discrimination that have been collected in a number of surveys since 1994, using similar methods and questionnaire designs. This gives us 20 years of data to examine how such experiences have changed over time and

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across generations and to relate these findings both to key events over this time frame and to changes in reports of racial/ethnic prejudice among the general population. The data sets we will use for this are the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, EMPIRIC, the Citizenship Survey and Understanding Society. We will also make reference to findings from the 1982 Third PSI survey.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

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DIASPORA, MIGRATION AND TRANSNATIONALISM SUB-STREAM: CONFLICT, DISPLACEMENT AND

DIASPORA

Histories of Conflict and Stories Of Settlement: Progressive Or Regressive Diasporic Identities

Redclift, V.

(University of Surrey)

Is 'diaspora' a progressive or regressive concept? This paper uses the case of the 'Urdu-speaking Bihari diaspora' to interrogate its relevance to 21st century society. As Muslims of North Indian origin, the 'Bihari diaspora' were displaced by the Partition of the Indian Subcontinent in 1947 and approximately 700,000 settled in East Pakistan. The

British Academy-funded research (April 2013-April 2015) on which this paper is based has used twenty semistructured interviews and five oral histories to examine the trajectories of those members of the diaspora who fled

East Pakistan as a result of the Liberation War in 1971, establishing themselves in the UK and the US. Accused of collaborating with the Pakistani forces during the War, those who remained in Bangladesh have been labelled

'Stranded Pakistanis' and 'Biharis'. However, among those who fled the country, links with the Indian, Pakistani or

Bengali communities has been little known. Tensions between Pakistan and Bangladesh persist, and the paper considers how different spaces of settlement have informed the degree to which a 'Bihari' identity is salient in the present day. The very different UK and US stories reveal the complex ways in which relations with majority culture and politics assist or undermine interaction between minority groups and suggest that new attachments to place challenge simplistic accounts of diasporic cultures. In the process, their story expands interest in 'hidden minorities', as well as relations between and within minorities, bringing history and space to bear on our understanding of diasporic identification.

Polymedia, Insecurity and Everyday Life: An Ethnographic Case-study of the Mediation of the Everyday among Iraqi Refugee Households in Jordan

Twigt, M.

(University of Leicester)

This paper explores how media are embedded within refugees' everyday life and are actively deployed to negotiate a state of insecurity among Iraqi refugees in Jordan. The general consensus in academic literature on post-2003 Iraqi displacement is that those Iraqis who continue to reside in Jordan's capital Amman are 'stuck' in legal limbo.

Protection is temporary and does not include the right to work or the option to obtain Jordanian citizenship.

Research within the field of refugee studies often focuses on 'solving' this protraction on a policy level, but leaves out the voices and experiences of refugees themselves. Research on media and migration however shows that experiences of migration are heavily influenced by media-use and by transnational connections. Yet research on the mediated experience of forced migrants remains largely unexplored.

This paper therefore aims to further explore the struggles of forced migrants within liminal everyday lives and on the role of media in that process. The analysis is based upon recent ethnographic fieldwork on media-use within a variety of Iraqi refugee households in Jordan. Using the concept of polymedia by Madianou and Miller (2012) it discusses how households strategically use different media to negotiate everyday life and insecurity. The findings suggest, in line with Das (2010), that everyday refugee life is an 'achievement' through which media forms and technologies offer differing senses of ontological security in coping with 'now' at the same time as offering ways of anticipating the

'future'.

Non-Islamiosity within the Iranian diaspora: Research Implications and Possibilities

Gholami, R.

(Middlesex University)

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Based on ethnographic research carried out mainly among the British Iranian diaspora, and drawing on my forthcoming book 'Secularism and Identity: Non-Islamiosity in the Iranian Diaspora' (Ashgate, 2015), my paper introduces the concept of non-Islamiosity

– a diasporic mode of secularism through which diasporic Iranians antagonize, marginalize and/or totally eradicate (only) 'Islam' from 'Iranian/Persian identity'. The paper has two aims.

On the one hand, non-Islamiosity is discussed as an analytical tool

– i.e. a mechanism which enables subjects to overcome social and personal barriers (e.g. 'residual' religious fears) in their ongoing attempts to fashion particular, diasporic and 'free' selves. On the other hand, non-Islamiosity is explored as a methodological tool in as much as it allows/compels the researcher to pay attention to nuances of diasporic religious and secular experience which are currently largely ignored. The main argument, too, is two-pronged: 1) the productive power of non-Islamiosity gives rise to and authorises new discourses, knowledges and forms of pleasure which have wide-reaching socio-cultural implications, including/especially for everyday religious practice and experience; 2) as such, we cannot claim to have a proper understanding of Islam (or indeed secularism) in Britain unless we also give due analytical attention to intradiasporic modes of the secular.

Linguistic Membership: 'Because You Speak The Same Language, They Say; Oh He is One of Our Own, He

Understands Us!'

Lucas, S.

(University of Stirling)

Little is known about interpreter-mediated encounters in social work practice, despite concerns about the accessibility and quality of interpreting provision. This research set out to ascertain perspectives of social workers who use spoken language interpreting provision. Interviews were completed with nine social workers in England. The social workers perceived communication as a crucial dimension of their involvement with service users; however they emphasised the challenges of interaction within service users and interpreters, with reports about mistrust in interpreter-mediated encounters. A shared minority language between social worker and service user, whilst important, was noted to have negative implications. For example, expectations that social workers would be willing to interpret or offer 'cultural' insight for colleagues, and linguistic matching, in which social workers' were selected to work with service users on the basis of their capacity to speak a minoirty language. Social workers' perspectives emphasised the need for all social workers, regardless of their linguistic capacity to engage with service users and interpreters. The paper draws out tentative recommendations for practitioners who employ bilingual colleagues and work with interpreters to support linguistic minority families.

Rights, Violence and Crime

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Is the Rate of Domestic Violence Decreasing or Increasing? Implications of Different Concepts and Methods when Investigating Trajectories of Violence in England and Wales

Towers, J., Walby, S., Francis, B.

(Lancaster University)

Domestic violence is an exception to the general fall in the rate of violent crime. The Crime Survey for England and

Wales (CSEW) has recorded a declining rate in domestic violence for more than a decade (1995-2009), but data recorded after 2009 suggests this decline has ceased. Is it now increasing?

Establishing whether the rate of domestic violence is decreasing, flat or increasing is a complex conceptual, empirical and methodological endeavour. It is sensitive to issues of definition, in particular whether domestic violence is limited to 'violence against the person', as in government published data, or whether a broader definition that includes other forms of abuse is used. It is sensitive to issues of method, in particular, whether data about people who suffer more than five events is excluded (current government practice) or included (as we suggest). The consequent empirical differences have implications for theories of violence and power, including Kelly's 'continuum of violence' and Stark's

'coercive control', as well as non-gendered theories of violence.

Using 17 years of data from the CSEW, we investigate the implications of different concepts and methods for changes in the rate of domestic violence. We compare changes in domestic and non-domestic violence in order to investigate the specificity of domestic forms of violence and their implications for gender relations. We conclude by analysing the implications of these trends for the question of whether there is progress or regress in the level of violence in society and the significance of gender relations for this.

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Towards Intimate Justice? Everyday Politics of Domestic Violence Law and Legal Pluralism in Cambodia

Brickell, K.

(Royal Holloway, University of London)

In September 2005 the Cambodian National Assembly ratified the 'Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of the Victims'. Based on two years of fieldwork (2012-2014) funded by the ESRC/Department for

International Development (DFID), I explore the hiatus that has emerged between promises enshrined in legal reform and progress realised on the ground. To do so, I trace the everyday politics of domestic violence law from the perspective of victims, legal professionals, NGO workers, police officers and other authority leaders who operate under a pluri-legal system of state-sanctioned and customary law. Insights are provided on how domestic violence law has been variously embraced and rejected in the homes, commune councils, and government offices that contribute to its success or failure to meet its objective, to: 'prevent domestic violence, protect the victims and strengthen the culture of non-violence and harmony within the households in society in the Kingdom of Cambodia'. In turn, the paper deals with the tricky question of what 'intimate justice' equates to, and how it is (im-) mobilised, by different lay and institutional stakeholders central to domestic violence alleviation efforts.

Hidden Voices:

Disabled Women’s Experiences of Violence and Support over the Lifecourse

Shah, S.

(University of Glasgow)

Violence against women is a worldwide social and human rights problem that cuts across cultural, geographical, religious, social and economic boundaries. It affects women in countries around the world, regardless of class, religion, disability, age or sexual identity. International evidence shows that approximately every 3 to 5 women experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner. However, across the globe, women and girls with impairments or life-limiting illnesses are more susceptible to different forms of violence across a range of environments and by different perpetrators including professionals and family members as well as partners. However they are likely to be seriously disadvantaged in gaining information and support to escape the abusive relationships.

This paper stems from the United Kingdom part of an comparative study with three other countries (Austria,

Germany and Iceland) funded by the European Commission (2013-15). It presents preliminary findings, generated from life history interviews, about disabled women's experiences of violence and access to support (both formal and informal) over their lifecourse, and their aspirations for the prevention of violence in the future. The paper includes examples of impairment-specific violence that non-disabled women do not experience. By bringing the voices of disabled women into the public domain, the paper will facilitate a historically marginalised group to contribute to the debate about disability, violence and support.

Science and Technology Studies

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EXPECTATIONS

Epigenetics, Neuroscience and Novelty: Exploring the ‘Seductive Allure’ of the Social Biologies in Policy,

Academia and Everyday Life

Pickersgill, M.

(University of Edinburgh)

In 2010, a news piece in the journal Science appeared entitled 'The seductive allure of epigenetics'. Its subtitle asked the following questions: 'Could chemical changes to DNA underlie some of society's more vexing problems? Or is this hot new field getting ahead of itself?' Such framings resonate with writings on neuroscience, which likewise is 'hot'

– and with heat emanating not just from the academy but also 'the policy room' and a wide range of public forums.

Central to the production of heat (and, perhaps, light) is the figuration of epigenetics and neuroscience (which, following philosopher Maurizio Meloni, we might call 'social biologies') as in some way 'novel'. In this presentation, I draw on data from on-going research funded by the Leverhulme and Wellcome Trusts to consider how some of the discourse surrounding epigenetics and neuroscience within social policy, academia and beyond frames these endeavours as 'novel' (and to what ends). Relevant data includes interviews with scientists and policymakers, as well as the commentaries of social scientists themselves - within which the supposed novelty of neuroscience and epigenetics is often a precondition for markedly 'progressive' or 'regressive' readings of bioscience. In sum, through this talk I will consider the construction and framing of novelty, including how the ascribed novelty of the social

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biologies can be resisted even by its practitioners. I conclude with a call to consider the 'seductive allure' of epigenetics and neuroscience as an object of analysis itself, rather than solely a stimulus for it.

Extraterrestrial Promises and Social Futures

Tutton, R.

(Lancaster University)

Since the late nineteenth century, the prospect of human societies being made anew on other planets has been a powerful, recurring theme in the popular imagination of western societies. In particular, Mars has come to occupy the promissory interplanetary horizon for extraterrestrial human settlement. The settlement of Mars has often featured as a kind of utopian project, where the troubles and failings of Earth societies will be left behind as its new inhabitants fashion the good life. However, from today's perspective, we might regard human colonization of space as a future that is well and truly over: it can be relegated to the past, to the 1960s and the heyday of the US Space Programme.

However, as anthropologist David Valentine (2012) documents, a new promissory economy of venture-capital funded space firms is emerging, and these firms are giving a renewed urgency to the prospects of space settlement.

Ambitious and controversial plans are being made to send human beings to settle Mars, and to lay the foundation for a permanent human settlement on the planet. The Mars One initiative is a case in point. Informed by work in the cultural studies of science and technology, in this paper I interrogate how advocates of and prospective participants in such a venture see the transition of human society from Earth to another planet as an opportunity to re-imagine both individual futures and make new social futures.

‘Big Science’ in the Field: Experiments, Expectations, Expertise and Policy on Badgers and Bovine TB

Cassidy, A.

(King's College London)

While scientific and veterinary knowledge have often played important roles in shaping animal health policy, the case of bovine TB control in the UK is one in which knowledge of and experimentation in the field has been of particular importance. Since badgers were first linked with bTB in cattle during the early 1970s, the question of whether to cull them to control the disease has formed the core of a longstanding and increasingly polarised public controversy.

Following the recommendation of Prof. John Krebs that a 'scientifically based experimental trial' be carried out to test the effectiveness of badger culling, the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) was commissioned in 1998 by the incoming Labour government. Probably the largest field experiment ever conducted in the UK, the RBCT sought to recreate the conditions of a randomised controlled trial across approximately 100km2 of the South West of England.

Despite widespread expectations that science would provide the necessary evidence to resolve the controversy, the findings of the RBCT have instead been contested and reinterpreted, while policy problems remain unsolved.

This paper explores the particular difficulties of establishing reliable experimental knowledge about this complex and uncertain issue. While the RBCT employed an explicitly multidisciplinary research design, it did so in part by excluding particular forms of knowledge and expertise. This design, alongside cross-disciplinary conflict, the unexpected contributions of people, animals and microrganisms to the experiment, and the continuing rhetorical appeal of 'sound science' have all contributed to the increasing public polarisation of the debate.

Imagining Future Cities and Activist Infrastructure Building

Haran, J.

(Cardiff University)

This paper draws from an ethnographic project in progress which is attempting to track the mutual influences of cultural production and social activism. Starhawk's 1993 novel, The Fifth Sacred Thing, is set in San Francisco, one city which has achieved environmental balance and social harmony in an imagined future of fragmented nation-states suffering the effects of rapid climate change and extreme polarisation of access to resources. A proposed feature film adaptation of the novel has been in development since 2011. According to its producers: 'The Fifth Sacred Thing shows us a vision of a positive, resilient future, where at least one city has achieved environmental balance and social harmony. Applying the ethics and principles of permaculture to the production of The Fifth Sacred Thing will embody the message of the film and generate ecological, social and financial returns.'

A detailed accounting of the social and material technologies which would facilitate this resilient future was given in the novel. However, technoscientific developments and related demographic shifts in the quarter of a century since its publication mean that the screenplay must take account of technoscientific futures that did not come to pass as well as those which did. In this paper I discuss how the film's producers attempt to incorporate the technologies envisioned in the imagined future in their daily lives; plan to bring skills and resources to the inner city of SF through networking

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with community organizations with whom they have longstanding relationships; hope to inspire audiences to implement sustainable technologies.

Social Divisions/Social Identities 1

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Social Inequalities and Redistribution in Political Debate before and during the Economic Crisis: Longitudinal

Analysis of Political Discourse in Poland

Wozniak, W.

(University of Lodz)

Inequalities came back on a political agenda in course of economic downturn. They are seen as one of triggers for the crisis, as well as one of the main consequences of its severity. In some countries however, particularly in Central and

Eastern Europe, politicians are reluctant to formulate claims about inequalities, rightly afraid of being labelled as populists by a mainstream media. Growing polarization of Polish society since 1989, was rarely challenged neither in political debate in a pre-crisis period. The analytical frame for the paper is provided by the concept of welfare culture as described by Pfau-Effinger. Opinions and values shared by political elite are among most important factors relating to welfare arrangements in a given society. Politicians possessing substantial impact on the social reality via their party-affiliated actions, could increase, reproduce of petrify social divisions, as well as the influence opinions of general public. The paper is based on the content analysis of political manifestos of main parties and presidential candidates from elections held in Poland between 2001 and 2011 (47 documents). This kind of longitudinal data allows catching the differences concerning the way inequality and redistribution was approached in party politics before and throughout the economic crisis. The hypothesis is that due to some specific circumstances, even under the conditions of economic downturn, the issue of inequalities was not back onto political agenda. Although current form of capitalism proved its defects, it is the neoclassical economics and neoliberal creed that still dominates the political discourse in Poland.

The Subjective Experiences of Three Generations during the Greek Economic Crisis

Chalari, A.

(University Of Worcester and London School Of Economics and Political Sciences)

The aim of this study is to investigate how Greeks as individuals experience the ways society is changing and to understand the lived experiences of the Greek economic crisis, as an example of the global economic crisis. This study focuses on the ways three different generations experience the Greek crisis: the younger (20-30), the middle

(30-40) and the older (40-55) by examining the different ways that lived experiences are revealed. It has been confirmed that the impact of the dramatic economic, political, historical and social transformations in Greece is twofold: there has been an undeniably negative and harmful effect on Greeks' everyday lives as well as a reprioritisation of ways of thinking, acting and behaving. The Greek case serves as an example of a society that is currently undergoing significant social, political and economic alterations reflected in the dramatic change in everyday living, thinking and acting. This study may provide an initial overview of the possible effect of social changes that individuals have to confront in their everyday lives due to the consequences of the economic depression

The Dominance of Neo-Liberal Ideas among Young People in Poland

Rae, G.

(Kozminski University)

Research has shown that Polish society is one of the most pro-etatist in Europe. On questions such as state ownership, government intervention, support for state industries and social welfare; large majorities of Polish society are supportive of 'pro-state policies'.

Research carried out by Kozminski University, in cooperation with the main public research agency in Poland, discovered that there is a strong correlation between agreement with pro-state policies and age, income and education. Therefore, those who are elderly, with a lower income and education are more likely to support policies that can be considered as pro-etatist

This research also found that young people are most supportive of neo-liberal economic policies. This paper looks at these trends and offers explanations, based upon the experience of the post-communist transition and the inadequacy of Poland's welfare state. The young and educated have most consistently adopted the ideology of neo-liberalism, which has guided the transition, and they are very poorly protected by the state.

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The paper also analyses voting trends and considers how the recent rise of a party with extreme neo-liberal policies

(such as privatising the health service) wins disproportionately high support amongst young voters.

Different Dimensions of Polish Transition: Biographical Perspective

Burski, J.

(University of Lodz)

Transformation which have started in 1989 is still ongoing process and has got enormous impact on everyday life of

Polish society. Social scientists are researching its aspects on many levels and fields. For years consequences of the transformation were main research field- mainly for quantitative studies. After 25 years it is good time to apply other ways of sociological research.

In the presentation I would like to focus on specific ethodological and theoretical perspective which can be used to research mentioned topic. I would like to present research report from a study which has been conducted from March

2014 and will be continued till 2017. The project is based on biographical perspective, especially on works of Fritz

Schütze. It is directly focused on exploring ways of Polish transformation. Research team is going to interview respondents who were born in following decades: 60', 70' and 80'

– to collect narrations from individuals from three different generations. Our concern is not restricted only to the time after 1989

– it is our main goal to work on broader perspective which will based on understanding of social change as process.

Finally, results of the research will be taken into consideration. Till April 2015 half of 96 interviews should be already collected and it will be possible to discuss first outcomes from empirical material. In this regard I would like to focus on different dimensions of social change. Especially, I am keen on exploring problem of winners and losers of social change.

Social Divisions/Social Identities 2

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Minority Language Policies in Wales and the Republic of Ireland: Empowerment or Co-optation?

McGirr, G.

(Ulster University)

The research addresses the role of civil society through community organizations in securing the future of minority languages in the context of public policy, and adopts a comparative case study design to look at two minority language communities in Ireland and Wales, where it is government policy to support the Irish and Welsh languages using community organisations. This 'bottom-up' approach is expected to direct and inform policy and, perhaps more critically, resources and expenditure.

The strength of Welsh and Irish as community languages in these heartland communities is coming under serious pressure, with declines evidenced in these areas in recent census returns. Language policy experts and community activists have pointed repeatedly to the importance of improving socio-economic infrastructure for these communities, in addition to improvements to status needed for the two languages. Recent government strategies in policy to stabilize the languages in these heartland areas include the incorporation of 'capacity-building' strategies, in the hope that by increasing the organisational and institutional capacities of these communities, they can 'empower' these heartland communities. It is unclear exactly what is meant or understood by empowerment in these new policy documents-there is the possibility that the different stakeholders have different understandings of empowerment also.

The research is qualitative, using triangulated data, in three languages, collected from two rural case study areas

– in

Wales and Ireland. It is intended that the research will assist in the evaluation and formulation of language policy, and will contribute to an emerging Welsh/ Irish language comparative debate.

Defending Difference: Power and Resistance in the Cultural Politics of Young Adult Muslims in Britain

Mustafa, A.

(University of Nottingham)

In this paper I present findings from my doctoral research on the cultural politics of young adult Muslims engaged in political and civic activism within British civil society. Based on ethnographic research in the Midlands area, it offers an empirically informed understanding of how these forms of activism relate to themes of political participation, democracy and citizenship in Britain today. This paper argues that the cultural politics of young adult Muslims is a

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relatively unfamiliar area deserving of a deeper exploration in the post 9/11 context due to the increasingly 'precarious' status of Muslim citizenship in the wake of the 'War on Terror', which has rendered participation in mainstream politics more challenging. My thesis argues that these cultural politics constitute a British Muslim social movement engaged in defending stigmatised identities and promoting the politics of difference by resisting two dominant forms of power in contemporary society. Firstly these politics address the multiple technologies of power articulated by Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', which are hard to determine and fix due to their imperceptible and socially dispersed nature. Secondly, cultural politics is necessitated by direct threats of force that Foucault described as a 'state of violence' and which are discernible in the rise of the securitisation of Islam and citizenship in general in the wake of

9/11. The nature of resistance from Muslim activists suggests that their cultural politics are not only a strategic but also a less risky political response to both these dominant modes of power.

Constructing an Analytical Framework for the Sociological Study of Respect: Some Lessons from the Chilean

Case

Orchard, M.

(University of Nottingham)

This paper proposes an analytical framework for the sociological study of respect. Its starting point is that respect is a crucial issue in contemporary society which has still not received enough systematic attention in sociological research.

The paper identifies several gaps in the current literature on respect, regarding the conceptualization of the phenomenon, and also regarding its relationship to inequality. The paper argues that these gaps are based on some confusion between the theoretical, normative and empirical dimensions of the topic. However, there are some theoretical tools already available in the sociological literature which are useful to clarify these gaps, such as the concept of relative deprivation, and the reflection on value and self-worth which has been developed in the cultural analysis of class identity. Thus, the paper puts forward an analytical framework for the study on respect drawing on those concepts. Also, in order to show the performance of this approach, the paper presents an analysis of data from the 'Missing Dimensions of Poverty Survey in Chile' (2009), carried out under the assumptions of the proposed analytical framework.

Sociology of Education 1

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INEQUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS, THE STUDENT EXPERIENCE, AND

GRADUATE TRANSITIONS

Drawing on a number of contemporary research projects this symposium considers a range of aspects of inequality in the UK’s Higher Education system. Our research encompasses the student life-cycle, from issues of unfair access to issues of unequal student experience, and from inequalities in postgraduate study to disparate graduate employment outcomes. We highlight continued forms of injustice in terms of class, gender, ‘race’, ethnicity, and parenting, and demonstrate the need to redouble efforts in widening participation and student outcomes at the level of both institutional practice and national policy.

• Making the Right Choice: the impact of A-level subject choices on the chances of getting into a Russell Group university

• Negotiating higher education as a ‘student-parent’: the impact of state policy and gender norms

• Is postgraduate study the ‘new frontier of social mobility’? Evidence from a multi-institutional study of taught postgraduates

• “It just reeked of masculinity in there”: Shaping Elite Men through University Experiences and Employment

Transitions

Shaping Elite Men through University Experiences and Employment Transitions

Ingram, N., Waller, R.

(University of Bath)

This paper considers the educational trajectories and employment strategies of a cohort of working-class and middleclass male graduates attempting to make their way in elite financial and law sectors in the city of London. It traces their pathways through the three years of their undergraduate degrees and their experiences of transition in the first

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eighteen months post graduation. We consider issues of gender and social class, and the development of identities in an employment sector which one participant described as ‘reeking of masculinity’. We explore the development of

‘elite’ masculinities through upward social mobility for our working-class young men and through social reproduction/embedding for their middle-class counterparts, drawing upon aspects of lived experiences, tastes and practices. We aim to contribute to an understanding of how elite men are shaped within contemporary society, through university experiences and employment transitions. We highlight ongoing classed and gendered inequalities within an overall neo-liberal system which supports the development of elitist sensibilities and aspirations for competitive work in industries of questionable ethics and dubious practices. We argue that highly aspirational young men are particularly drawn to these industries as they valorize a hegemonic form of masculinity equating manhood with aggressively achieved financial success. This work draws on a small subset of participants within the Paired Peers project, a longitudinal qualitative study tracking 80 young people from different class backgrounds through and out of two different types of university in one English city.

Making the Right Choice: The Impact of A-level Subject Choices on the Chances of Getting into a Russell

Group University

Boliver, V., Dilnot, C

(Durham University)

Recent research has shown that Russell Group university applicants from state schools and ethnic minority backgrounds are less likely to be offered places than privately educated and white applicants with the same A-level grades. Th is paper evaluates the Russell Group’s claim that this is due to the lesser tendency of state school and ethnic minority applicants to have studied the right subjects at A-level. An analysis of empirical data shows that this claim is only partially supported. Russell Group applicants from these backgrounds are indeed less likely to have studied the subjects that Russell Group universities value most

– they have studied fewer ‘facilitating’ subjects on average, and have more subjects considered to be ‘useful but not facilitating’, ‘less effective preparation‘, and

‘noncounting’. However, applicants from state schools and ethnic minority backgrounds remain less likely to be offered places at Russell Group universities even when they have the same A-level subject and grade profiles as their privately educated and white peers.

Negotiating Higher E ducation as a ‘Student-parent’: The Impact of State Policy and Gender Norms

Brooks, R.

(University of Surrey)

Historicall y, university cultures have been described as masculine in orientation, and the ‘ideal learner’ as male, white, middle class and unencumbered by domestic responsibility. Nevertheless, more recent work has highlighted certain spaces within the higher education sector which, it is argued, are more welcoming of female students and those with family commitments. While there may now be more institutional spaces open to student-parents and others with caring responsibilities, we know little about whether similar change has been wrought in the domestic sphere. Drawing on interviews with 68 student-parents, this paper explores the various strategies UK students with dependent children used to find time and space, within the home, to pursue their studies. By comparing these to the strategies used by student-parents at Danish universities, the paper considers the extent to which differences in gender norms and state policy with respect to both higher education and childcare affect day-to-day familial practices.

Is Pos tgraduate Study the ‘New Frontier of Social Mobility’? Evidence from a Multi-institutional Study of

Taught Postgraduates

Wakeling, P., Hampden-Thompson, G., Hancock, S.

(University of York)

The one-year postgraduate taught masters degree has grown in size and significance in the UK in the past quartercentury. Holders of such degrees are known to have advantages in income and work conditions (Lindley and Machin,

2011). There is evidence of inequalities in entry on the grounds of social class, gender and race/ethnicity (Lindley and

Machin, 2011; Wakeling and Hampden-Thompson, 2013) and strongly expressed concerns about access to taught masters becoming a “new frontier” for social mobility and widening participation, particularly following changes to student funding and a recent dip in enrolment rates for UK students (Higher Education Commission, 2012; Social

Mobility and Child Poverty Commission, 2013). To investigate in detail who enters masters degree study, how and why we conducted a comprehensive PSS-funded study at six research-intensive English universities. This included surveys of undergraduate alumni graduating in 2009 and 2012 (n = 3,135), surveys of new masters students in 2013 and 2014 and analysis of postgraduate application data. Using data from this study, we examine the background characteristics (social class, gender, ethnicity and others) of those entering masters degrees and compare these with

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non-participants. We look at motivations for and barriers to masters study, taking into account field of study differences, early labour market experiences and funding. We examine how well the observed patterns match patterns at undergraduate level and how well they are explained by sociological theories about the reproduction of advantage through education.

Sociology of Education 2

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The Application of Habitus in the Social Sciences

Costa, C., Burke, C., France, A., Murph, M.

(University of Strathclyde)

This symposium aims to discuss the application of Pierre Bourdieu’s key concept of habitus from a methodological perspective whilst drawing attention to different, eminent phenomena typical of a society in transition.

Since gaining currency in the Anglophone world and further afield, Bourdieu’s concepts have been applied to a wide range of disciplines, influencing a variety of knowledge areas. The conceptualisation of habitus is a reflection of

Bourdie u’s attempt to overcome the dichotomy between structure and agency whilst acknowledging the external and historical factors that condition, restrict and/or promote change.

The growing popularity of the application of habitus has not come without criticism. The academic community has often debated the properties of habitus as either deterministic or dynamic/adaptable, creating a division of opinion between proponents of either conceptualisation. Research on habitus embeds itself in a wide variety of contexts. The purpose of this symposium is to flesh out how habitus can be used in different areas of knowledge as both theory and method. In other words, through which mechanisms can research ‘capture’, operationalise and theorise habitus?

The symposium will draw its attention to both theoretical discussions and the application of the Bourdieuian habitus. In doing so, we aim to move forward our understanding of theory as method from a Bourdieuian perspective. The symposium will consists of one paper providing an overview of the topic and two case studies.

Habitus Applied: Bourdieu and the Social Sciences

Murphy, M., Costa, C.

(University of Glasgow)

Through his sociology, Bourdieu aimed to create bridges between theory and practice to break down the binary opposition of objectivism and subjectivism. In his quest to surpass this dichotomy, Bourdieu created a set of thinking tools that allowed him to explore different sociological phenomena: capital, field, habitus, doxa, and symbolic violence are some of the most known constructs developed by the French sociologist. Habitus

– the concept on which this symposium focuses - has a special place in Bourdieu’s set of research tools, because it allows researchers to explain how and why social agents conceive and (re)construct the social world in which they are inserted. With habitus,

Bourdieu tried to access internalised behaviours, perceptions, and beliefs that individuals carry with them and which, in part, are translated into the practices they transfer to and from the social spaces in which they interact. Habitus is thus more than accumulated experience; it is a complex social process in which individual and collective everstructuring dispositions develop in practice to justify individuals’ perspectives, values, actions and social positions. It could be argued that habitus can be seen as much as an agent of continuity and tradition, as it can be regarded as a force of change. This paper investigates both sides of habitus, from a number of perspectives and sources of analysis.

Habitus and Graduate Employment: A Re/structured Structure and the Role of Biographical Research

Burke, C.

(Ulster University)

The concept o f habitus has played a central role in Bourdieu’s theoretical project – the attempted bridging of phenomenology and structuralism creating his own theory of practice. Whilst this concept has been used to great effect by Bourdieu and many scholars since, it has come under intense and continuous criticism, often charged with structural determinism.

Framed through the empirical processes and findings of a study examining the role of class habitus on graduate employment trajectories, this paper will:

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Discus s the methodological issues concerning operationalizing and “capturing” the habitus.

Present findings that demonstrate greater flexibility afforded by the habitus to trajectories, in contrast to the charges of structural determinism.

Through a brief d iscussion of Bourdieu’s own epistemological position and the challenges he set for future researchers, I will demonstrate the effectiveness of biographical research in locating the habitus. Stemming from research findings, the paper will move on to discuss the friction between the theoretical habitus and empirical findings, reflecting on the need to demarcate the habitus “on paper” and the empirical habitus. In an attempt to advance the application of habitus the paper will focus on a specific conceptual group, from within the larger sample, of working class graduates who have become socially mobile. Rather than trajectories occurring in spite of habitus their social mobility was generated via the habitus. This paper will illustrate how significant environmental change can restructure the class habitus whilst still operating as the habitus, or in Bourdieuian language, still remaining the “unchosen principle of choice”.

Theorising and Researching the Youth Crime Nexus: Habitus, Reflexivity and the Political Ecology of Social

Practice

France, A.

(University of Auckland)

Throughout history the ‘youth crime problem’ has attracted substantial attention from within the social sciences. Much work within criminology has been dominated by the search for understanding the motivations that underpinned the actions of the ‘juvenile delinquent’. As a result contemporary theories and research methodologies that explore the youth crime nexus are strongly shaped and influenc ed by criminological assumptions about ‘cause and effect’. This presentation will offer a critique of this approach and explore the value of drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu and habitus in explaining young people’s relationship with crime.

The argument in this presentation will draw on research data and experience from the ESRC funded athways into and out of crime programme. This research explored young people’s relationship with crime in highly disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the UK. The analysis will outline the way that the concept of habitus helps make a bridge between the empirical data and theory providing analytical insights into how history, values and local knowledge shape young people’s perspective of the ‘rules of the game’ and how they feel they have to behave in certain contexts. The discussion will show how this analysis overcame weaknesses of other approaches and also helped explain and theorise both the power relationships embedded in the social practices of the young and the construction of choices that seemed to be available to them. I conclude by arguing for an analysis that recognises the importance of a ‘nested’ ecological context of young people’s everyday relationship with crime.

Sociology of Religion

W622, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Disciplines of Engagement: The Strength of Moderate Churches

Smith, A.

(University of Warwick)

This paper builds on arguments made by Alexander Smith and John Holmwood in their recent edited collection

Sociologies of Moderation: problems of democracy, expertise and the media (2013, Wiley Blackwell). It takes up their proposition that moderation, understood as a challenge to growing inequalities and forms of political and religious extremism, is best understood as describing disciplines of engagement with diverse, divided and sometimes divisive publics. In particular, the paper appraises the role played by so-called 'moderate' churches in the culture wars that have consumed the USA in recent decades, in the seemingly socially conservative heartland of the American Midwest especially. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork carried out since 2008 in northeast Kansas, it explores the role played by Plymouth Congregational Church, a liberal-to-moderate congregation of some 1100 members in a Red State led by one of America's most right-wing governors, Sam Brownback. Having played a formative role in the state's founding, opposing slavery on the eve of the American Civil War, it has in recent years provided state-wide leadership on campaigns for gay rights, the minimum wage and affordable health care. It has also opposed state government cuts to welfare spending. The paper considers the cultural, political and social factors that contribute to Plymouth Church's success before arguing for a reformulation of sociological approaches to appraising the role and strength of religious moderation in political contexts characterised by electoral polarisation and right-wing extremism.

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Religion and Weltanschauung: The Politics of Religion and the Religiosity of the Political

Schnabel, A., Beyer, H.

(Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal)

During last years, the politization of religion became more widespread: the recent emergence of the Islamic State (IS) is the most palpable manifestation of this trend, the take-over of social care by faith based communities, Churches and charities a more common one. Instead of a 'banalization of religiosity' we observe that religion regains importance as an ideology ('weltanschauung') showing political consequences.

The presentation investigates this peculiar elective affinity of religion and politics theoretically and empirically.

We want to contribute to a better understanding of how and why political agendas seem so compatible with religious ones and vice versa. First, we provide an analytical distinction between the concepts of 'weltanschauung' and

'religion', defining the former as constituted by beliefs about the social and the latter by beliefs about the transcendental. Subsequently we investigate mutual structural elements, as Manichean categorizations of good/evil, utopian ideas of salvation, and the ontological construction of meaning.

The empirical part of our presentation presents evidence for these considerations. Using European Value Survey Data

(EVS), we show correlations between different manifestations of weltanschauung and religious beliefs. We also tackle their embeddedness in social practices and memberships. Although the specific behavioral manifestations of religion and weltanschauung show differences they share a reinforcing function of the underlying belief system.

The presentation contributes to understanding of how religion becomes politicized and politics get religiously loaded and the mechanisms behind.

An Organisational Analysis of Religious Leadership Change

Patrikios, S.

(University of Strathclyde)

Who gets the top spot is a complex political decision for any large organisation, whether religious or secular.

Management succession in the corporate sector indicates that the profile of new CEO appointments reflects a combination of factors that include the following: environmental contingencies, such as falling profits and external competition; internal competition among personnel subunits with different functions for control over organisational resources; and normative conceptions of authority.

Leadership transitions in religious organisations generate rather different questions, which revolve around the disposition of the new leader: for instance, does s/he represent the liberal or the conservative wing of the church? This question reflects a common view of churches as intrinsically different from for-profit bureaucracies, even though churches experience much the same problems of administration and exposure to competition as those faced by firms.

Extending the work of Mark Chaves, this study aims to ask similar questions about religious leadership succession as those asked in the study of business corporations. For example, are top posts being filled, increasingly, by individuals with greater administrative experience ('religious managers'), and under what circumstances are these individuals more likely to be appointed?

The analysis is based on the collection of publicly available information on the biographical backgrounds of religious leaders in selected European countries. The focus is on organised religions at the national level and examines change over time by looking at leadership successions since the 19th century. The results have implications for organisation studies and secularisation theory.

Connecting Religion and the Social: Georg Simmel's Theory of Religion

Motak, D.

(Jagiellonian University)

It would be difficult to find another classical sociologist whose understanding of society would be so inextricably interwoven with their theory of religion as it is the case in Simmel. Nevertheless, his writings on religion continue to be neglected by general sociology (especially by comparison with works of Durkheim and Weber). I will try to demonstrate that this still not properly appreciated part of Simmel's legacy is most intimately connected with his widely acknowledged contribution to the theory of society.

Simmel attempted to reveal the common root of both social as well as religious phenomena: a drive for unity which is the most powerful integrating factor. This cohesive force expresses itself in very strong, elementary emotions

– 'social feelings', which play the crucial role in creation of social institutions and provide conditions for emerging of a special

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social institution: the objective religion. The objective religion is a result of reciprocal actions and it is structured around the idea of God, which

– in Simmel's opinion - constitutes a conceptual equivalent of society. The main common features of these two notions are found in the phenomenon of faith and in the idea of unity.

A rough sketch of Simmel's concept of religion sheds new light on his theory of society and allows to question the prevailing view that the Simmelian 'impressionist' sociology stands in sharp contrast to the classical French 'positivist' tradition of sociological inquiry, as epitomised by Émile Durkheim.

Theory

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Temporalised Embeddedness in Economic Sociology

Thng, Y R.

(University of Cambridge)

Polyani's embeddedness advocates for methodological holism within economic sociology. Yet research programmes such as those of Granovetter or Beckert, building upon this ostensibly intuitive principle, encounter multiple problems.

Firstly, the risk of extrema theorizing exists, where economic subdomains are subordinated to social subdomains and vice versa. Additionally, conflationary theorizing potentially reifies the economic and social spheres as discrete ontic entities, neglecting analytical differences a la Lockwood between social and system interactions.

My approach to embeddedness, building upon the above critiques, involves an additional line of inquiry from temporalized sociology. Specifically, I invoke Rosa's 'accelerationism', and examine the effects of time on economic systems and agents. Time is not an unproblematic shared horizon; rather it is a historical, gradational variable that possesses variegated momentums for both social and system interactions.

To illustrate, I adduce the nexus of economic systems and proposals for reforms based on preferential justices. I argue that difficulties for change and action are located within the momentum of present time. In individual biographical construction, accelerated time implies that fashions, whether clothes or conscience, waxes and wanes at unprecedented rates so as to dislocate individual action for economic transformation or reforms as effervescent.

Similarly, decisions by political institutions or regulatory agencies, for example in austerity measures, are challenged by exogenous circumstances that vacillate at hitherto speeds, but whose consequences compound and interact in orthogonal manners. I conclude by way of demonstrating that economic sociology's normative concern with problem of order is necessarily a sociological one.

An Inquiry into Comparative Sociology as a Science and Teaching Discipline

Rezaev, A.

(St. Petersburg State University)

What does it mean to be a comparative sociologist today, that is the question.

The paper examines the reality of comparative sociology (CS) in the classroom as a teaching discipline and its specifics as a scholarly enterprise.

Hypotheses:

1. CS is acknowledged by sociologists and social scientists in general but the reality of teaching sociology does not follow this acknowledgment.

2. Presence / absence and the character of the gap between CS as an inquiry and teaching discipline depend on the national specifics of institutional framework in education and research.

3. This gap is universal for current sociology and transcends national features of institutionalization of sociology.

Six cases will be analyzed to check the hypotheses: the evolvement of comparative sociology in the USA, Britain,

France, China, Germany, and Russia

The paper argues that a broad discourse on the role of comparative sociology for the intellectual life has not yet occurred in academia, despite many valiant efforts to help it take place.

The paper has two foci: the first tries to depict general theoretical frames, methodological orientations for the current debates on "comparative analysis/method/sociology" issues in nowadays sociology.

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The second aims to observe comparative studies' production through the lenses of historical sociology. The comparative-historical, historical-comparative dilemma/problem/quasi-problem will be discussed.

Anti-Political Economies: Supermarkets and Contemporary State Form

Jones, P., Mair, M.

(University of Liverpool)

The reconfiguration of state-society-market relations has been characterised by a distinctly political redrawing of lines of demarcation and accountability. Supermarkets are enmeshed in contemporary governmental arrangements in ways that we argue have wider significance for sociological analyses of such politics and governance arrangements. This paper explores the ways in which relationships between state and capital are locked in to supermarket-state hybrids; here we position supermarkets in the UK as distinctly political forms, whose spatial and labour market formation reveals their deep entanglement with state policies.

In particular we position supermarkets as a particularly virulent form of 'anti-politics machine' (Ferguson), whose workings are antithetical to transparent/accountable decision-making, but nonetheless that achieve some particular ends (and not just for the supermarkets themselves). Making a case for the necessity of theoretically-sophisticated, empirically-grounded approaches to the distribution of governance through the private sector, this paper contends that sociological analysis of the state is required if we are to understand the significant position of supermarkets in political and urban landscapes alike.

Realism and the Emerging Subjects of Financialisation

Mulcahy, N.

(University of Cambridge)

Viewed through the lens of 'daily life', transformations in global finance represent shifts in the way people save and borrow in order to provide for themselves or their households and reproduce their ways of life. As commentators from many disciplines have noted, financial restructuring (for example, stagnating real wages and the subsequent

'democratisation of credit' to high-risk households, private pensions and everyday investment) has forged a link between finance markets and daily routine that engenders an entrepreneurial, neo-liberal subjectivity. While much work has focused on the emergence of new market structures, less has been said of the changing nature of subjectivity itself, apart from emphasising the individualising nature of neoliberalism: concerns are often raised about individuals and their consumerist greed, workers disadvantaged by the decline of welfare systems, citizens conceived as customers within the state, and private investors responsible for mitigating economic risks through their own informed choices. However, a financial subjectivity that is not defined in relation to the categories of industrial capitalism is lacking. I argue that realist work which focuses on finance markets as the context through which neoliberal subjects are created will benefit from theoretical engagement with the daily life of individuals and groups as a means of explaining causally the reproduction or disruption of financial social relations and their emergent properties, which differ from those of industrial capitalism. This can be accomplished within the realist framework of morphogenesis and morphostasis.

Work, Employment and Economic Life

A005, GOVAN MBEKI BUILDING

Labour’s Rearguard Battle against Capital and the Doubtful Hopes of a Corporatist Revival

Preminger, J.

(Ben-Gurion University of the Negev)

The recent resurgence of unionising has reawakened academic interest in union attempts to regain or retain their power, addressed by the revitalisation literature. A crucial question underlying this literature is whether organised labour still has a political role to play in western democracies despite some thirty years in which efforts have been made to weaken it and rearrange the labour market. Some researchers assert we are witnessing a corporatist revival, noting the renewed use of neocorporatist structures and collective frameworks, but even more moderate scholars suggest that the neoliberal locomotive may have been slowed. This paper proposes a different perspective: what recent worker struggles reflect is the power of employers and their determination to attain complete freedom of operation in the labour market.

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As a starting point for discussion, this paper investigates the organising drive at the Pelephone telecommunications company in Israel in 2012. This drive was considered exceptional due to the employer's intensive efforts to prevent the organising and the National Labour Court ruling which determined what an employer is permitted to do during a unionisation attempt. Using this as a case study, the paper then explores the varieties of discourses and strategies used to delegitimise organised labour, and concludes that what initially appears to be a corporatist revival may in fact reflects capital's efforts to do away with the last vestiges of the corporatist regime.

Multiscalar Political Alignment, Tactics and Strategy in International Solidarity Campaigns: An Analysis of

European Dockworker Struggles during the Economic Crisis

Fox-Hodess, C.R.

(University of California, Berkeley)

Labor scholars and activists have called for greater international coordination among labor unions to respond to the assault on organized labor by global neoliberal capitalism. However, as my research this year with European dockworkers shows, even in sectors and regions where labor is well-organized internationally, solidarity does not always deliver a victory. Through European solidarity in the past year, English dockworkers achieved a partial victory;

Portuguese dockworkers achieved a full victory; and Greek dockworkers have thus far not succeeded in achieving their goals, though it now appears the tide may be turning toward a partial victory. How do we account for this variation despite strong international participation by the same actors in all three cases during the same period (2009-

2014)? I argue that the provision of international solidarity and the successful resolution of dock labor disputes through international solidarity in Europe is contingent upon an alignment of dock union politics and interests at the local, national and European levels. Struggles for hegemony among different political factions within dock labor unions at the local level, as well as struggles to democratize bureaucratic national unions, then, can be critical preconditions for effective international solidarity. Additionally, local unions can face trade-offs for a viable organizing strategy at the local and national level and a viable organizing strategy at the international level because strategies and tactics that may appeal to local union members and citizens may not be appealing to international activists and vice versa.

Workplace Power and Resistance in a Time of Individual Employment Rights

Rose, E., Busby, N.

(University of Strathclyde)

With the dramatic decline of trade unions, most British workers rely on individual employment rights to protect basic standards in the employment relationship. These rights prescribe a range of employee entitlements and employer obligations. In this way, they can be viewed as offering protections for employees in the inherently unequal employment relationship. But what happens when conflict occurs and employees try to enforce these individual employment rights?

This presentation examines notions of power and resistance amongst employees as they seek to exert the legal protections offered by employment law. It will demonstrate how, despite these protections, a range of structural inequalities persist in the employer / employee relationship in times of conflict. Discussion focuses on employees' access to knowledge of their legal rights and their engagement with the employment tribunal system.

Empirical data from a study of more than 120 clients of Citizens Advice Bureaux across England, Scotland and

Northern Ireland is presented. The study is longitudinal in that it charts the experiences of workers who face problems in their job roles from their earliest efforts to seek guidance and support through to the resolution or their taking no further action in relation to the dispute. A range of qualitative data collection techniques are utilised.

The Birth of a Trans-European Labour Movement

Jakopovic, M.

(University of Cambridge)

The initial part of my paper establishes the rationale for a trans-European labour movement, based on the conditions brought about by global changes in the dominant mode of production, exchange, distribution and social reproduction, and the main specific socio-economic circumstances in the European Union.

In the second section, the main theories on the phenomenon of social solidarity are briefly discussed, as they pertain to the European labour movement. I shall focus on identifying the obstacles and opportunities for the development of solidaristic consciousness through unified action, as well as through the development of a moral community.

The third section provides a critical account of the development of cross-border trade union activities and the main existing cross-border union strategies. This shall include a critique of the distance between trade union internationals

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and ETUC in relation to the national unions and the rank-and-file. I shall examine how, apart from this 'bureauratic internationalism', the early evolution of cross-border trade union activism has also entailed a 'nationalist internationalism' (the use of international networks and inter- and trans-national arenas in the course of national struggles).

The fourth section examines how EU-level cross-border collective bargaining (including multi-employer and sectoral pattern bargaining) and alternative benchmark setting, as well as transnational social movement unionism, are increasingly developing as autonomous forms of labour resistance to neoliberalism. My account will also examine the limitations and strategic dilemmas of these strategies.

The final section shall summarise the main findings.

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Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Room

M532

W702

W110

Families and Relationships 1

Families and Relationships 2

Frontiers

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities

Sociology of Education 1

Sociology of Education 2

Sociology of Religion

Theory

Work, Employment and Economic Life

M225

W828

W308

C236

W823

W324

Carnegie Lecture Theatre

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W119

W525

M228

M137

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

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‘Well It’s Not Like London Here’: The Role of Comparison in Narrations of Place

Byrne, B.

(University of Manchester)

Drawing on fieldwork in Glasgow, Manchester, Cardiff and London, with a range of different actors, including local policy makers, workers and activists in local NGOS, this paper will consider the ways in which geographies of place are mobilised through both comparison and differentiation. The research focuses on what can be seen as 'gateway' areas for migration, with histories of both the long-term settlement of ethnic minorities and but transition and changing populations. The paper will explore how areas are understood through particular representations of history and the temporal dynamics of the different ethnic groups who have settled there. In addition it will trace the role of comparison in narrating place

– as the local is contrasted to other locals – both near and far. Thus, areas can be the 'same' as everywhere else

– unique either in its position as the best or worst exemplar of a characteristic (such as poverty, ethnic tension, sense of community, diversity etc.). The paper will explore how places can become defined through the assumed characteristics of the largest (or largest minority) ethnic group. Finally, the paper will explore the implications of critiques of methodological nationalism for explorations of ethnicity which take areas and localities as their focus.

Impacts of Fleeting Encounters in Mixed Urban Neighbourhoods

Beisswenger, S., Hanhoerster, H., Weck, S.

(ILS - Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development)

Problems of social inequality are often addressed on the level of urban neighbourhoods by fostering residential mixture. This is based on the assumption that spatial proximity encourages social mixing and helpful exchange between residents of different capital endowment. Recent studies, however, have questioned these effects of residential mixture and rather point to bordering and (s)elective belonging strategies of the capital-strong middleclasses (Atkinson & Kintrea 2000, Blokland 2002, Butler & Robson 2003, Watt 2009, Wittebrood und Permentier

2011). Most of these recent studies focus on exchange within networks, exchanges that take place in mere encounter settings are widely rated as of insignificant impact

– 'ties without significance' (Granovetter 1973) – or discussed from perspectives that do not focus on resource exchange (Valentine 2008, Vertovec 2007). This paper discusses if, under which conditions and in which ways helpful exchanges between different social groups take place in mixed urban neighbourhoods. This is done on basis of a questionnaire and interview survey conducted on inner city playgrounds

– representing foci of low social thresholds

– and with families living in the neighbourhood. Results point not only to the importance of single foci for the enhancement or hindrance of capital exchange but to a net of foci that evolves in spatial and temporal perspective.

Migrants' Right to The City in a Marginalised Neighbourhood of Rome

Grazioli, M.

(University of Leicester)

Migrants' role in demanding change and social justice inside metropolises has always been controversial in relation to their status as non-native, then supposedly subordinate beneficiaries of social citizenship's provisions. Nonetheless, the progressive dismantlement of welfare has spotlighted its loss of centrality as an equalizer of the inequalities innate to capitalist European societies. This has determined a shift from the ideal expansive drive of welfare to a rhetoric of scarcity and sacrifice that is determining deep changes also in everyday urban government and management.

In the prolonged aftermath of the economic crisis, the notion of right to the city is thus becoming shaded with a multifaceted array of quotidian, grassroots organisational forms, enacted by native and migrant dwellers together.

Indeed, they are experimenting a growing proximity in social marginality and labour precariousness, along with a deep disillusionment in the effectiveness of existing institutions and political representativeness.

Therefore, this paper aims to rethink the abstract notion of right to the city from the perspective of the materiality of migrants' autonomous organisational practices. In particular, it challenges static understandings of political subjectivation by observing, first of all, migrants' mobile commons for fostering both mobility and settlement in the city; secondly, by analysing the triggers for creating alliances with other political subjects. These elements will be

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addressed through an ethnographic fieldwork in a neighbourhood of Rome, traditionally marginalised because of its socio-economical and planning characteristics.

Creating Swedish Spaces in Finland: Social Practices of Swedish-speaking Finns in Two Cities

Terje, A.

(University of Glasgow)

This paper examines unilingually Swedish spaces that the Swedish-speaking minority in two cities in Finland creates and makes use of. While there has been a large amount of research on the minority, it has mostly been based on quantitative data. My doctoral research addresses questions of social location and belonging by drawing on qualitative research, providing a more multi-faceted and in-depth view of the lived experience of the Swedish-speaking minority in

Finland.

In this paper I will draw on ethnographic research undertaken in two cities in Finland over a period of six months. I will examine how Swedish-speakers create unilingually Swedish spaces for themselves amidst a daily life that is otherwise often experienced through the use of Finnish, the first language of the majority of the population. This will be done using data from participant observation undertaken in different free-time clubs and societies, as well as in-depth individual interviews conducted with Swedish-speakers. I will discuss the meanings unilingually Swedish spaces take on for participants, how these spaces are experienced by them, as well as reflect on how this affects the social position of Swedish-speakers in Finnish cities.

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

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'Looking at the Family from the Inside Out': Social Space and Symbolic Power in the Troubled Families

Programme

Crossley, S.

(Durham University)

The Troubled Families Programme aims to 'turn round' the lives of some of the most troubled and troublesome families in England using a 'Family Intervention' model which seeks to work with the family 'from inside out, rather than outside in'. Family intervention workers are expected to ''grip' the family' and 'roll up their sleeves and get stuck in', with encounters between worker and family often taking place in family homes.

Drawing on Bourdieu's work on the 'space of relations', this paper explores the 'strategies of condescension' that exist in the 'troubled families' narrative and how this influences the practice of frontline workers. The official naming and classification of families as 'troubled' can be understood as an act of symbolic violence, imposing an official point of view and creating a legitimate social problem. The paper highlights how, within the official narrative, the doxic primacy afforded to the intimacy of the micro-encounter between family worker and family members in their own home leaves little room for discussion and consideration of structural and environmental influences. The practical, hands-on support and the interpersonal skills required of workers serves to symbolically close the social distance between the state and marginalised families. These encounters thus potentially become 'one of those cases in which the visible, that which is immediately given, conceals the invisible which determines it'. The paper will also draw on the early findings of fieldwork with family workers to explore the extent to which they negotiate, resist or enact the official narrative.

Do Local Authority Commissioning Requirements Hinder the Development of Resident, Relational Based

Lasting Solutions to Social Problems?

Alexander, J.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

Deprived areas of the UK are so often the focus of much of local authority commissioned services. Despite considerable efforts many commissioned services fail to engage effectively with local residents or bring about a lasting change. This paper considers whether the commissioning criteria set by local authorities and funders actually hinders rather than helps the development of local empowerment lasting support for those who need it.

Commissioned local authority services are often measured through financial efficiencies and quality assurance measures which are designed to ensure established best practice and value for money. However many of these indicators preclude groups of organically formed residents wanting to change their neighbourhood and leaves only

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larger well established organisations able to apply. As a result, transactional relationships have become embedded as the norm in. Paid for professionally managed services dominate the solutions within the statutory commissioning.

This paper uses data from an ethnographic study of a housing estate in south London to consider whether current commissioning models are limiting the development of relational obligations, which if nurtured, could be used as the basis for more sustained and impactful support structure. The paper observes how local commissioners, instead of adapting their requirements, encourage local groups to change their operating procedures; and studies the impact this has on how these groups operate.

User-friendly Accessibility: Investigating Different Narratives of Accessibility and Transport

Velho, R.

(University College London)

Transport for London (TfL) is responsible for one of the world's largest and most intricate transport systems in the world. The bus network alone has over 19500 bus stops, with a fleet of 8600 buses on over 700 routes. TfL estimates that around 90% of London's population lives within 400m of a bus stop, and that over 2 billion bus journeys are made in London in a year, effectively making it host to almost half of all bus journeys taken in the UK. On paper, these numbers reflect the sheer volume of the bus system. However, they erase further information on how the buses are used, and by whom. They also do not show how such a large infrastructure is assembled, stabilised, and maintained over the years. This doctoral thesis therefore aims to grasp the experience of a particular demographic of users of the

London bus infrastructure, namely users of self-propelled, manually operated wheelchairs.

By drawing on oral histories and ethnographies of wheelchair users and of engineers and expert consultants and policy-makers, this research investigates how sociotechnical systems are built, how standards may or may not impact the lives of particular demographics, and how these demographics might find mechanisms to cope with barriers. It also aims to explore the similarities and differences in the narratives of terms such as 'accessibility' and 'transport' as used by these different groups (users themselves, designers, policy-makers).

The Third Place and the Social Prescription: Exploring the Tensions

Feeney, M.

(University of the West of Scotland)

Tea in the Pot is a volunteer-run group that provides women from Govan and the surrounding area with a friendly and safe environment to meet and constitutes a positive and accessible 'third place'. Those who attend report that engagement with the group helps to alleviate feelings of isolation and loneliness, builds confidence and creates a sense of belonging in its members. These are positive outcomes. However, the volunteers who run the group increasingly feel that they are being used to 'plug gaps' in public sector provision, particularly in relation to mental health care. The group is often used to provide a 'social prescription', with women experiencing mental health problems referred to the group by general practitioners. Although welcoming those referred, who report positive outcomes, the pressure resulting from acting as a 'fall-back' service has created tensions and demands that the volunteers are struggling to deal with. The pressure placed on the volunteers has resulted in a confusion regarding the role of the group. It has also led to deep anxiety and a growing sense of fatalism in the volunteers, who are committed to supporting disadvantaged and disenfranchised women but struggling to address the complex needs of those referred. Through the eyes of the volunteers, this paper examines the growing tensions created by health care professionals' use of the group as an additional resource in addressing mental health issues in the community. It will consider the role of third place volunteers as unpaid providers of health care.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

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Portraying the Female Gender in Sports: Progression or Regression?

Mogaji, E.

(University of Bedfordshire)

Since the media enjoys a symbiotic relationship with society, providing messages about culture and gender ideology, the representation of women and the hegemonic masculinity associated with sports in the media is a major concern.

This inappropriate representation of women in sports has been acknowledged by feminists as one of the last bastions of male domination.

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Previous research has indicated that women's sports are generally framed differently from men's sports, reinforcing the notion that sports are a masculine world. This investigation, however, focuses on the representation of women in sports magazines to study if society is undergoing a progressive transition by duly representing the female gender within the media.

Content analysis was employed to examine the textual and photographic representation of women in 2012 and 2014 in Sports - the most-read sports magazine in the UK that is published and freely distributed weekly. Front-cover images, advertisement, articles and accompanied photographs were analysed to explore the extent to which the female gender was represented.

Our results revealed that the female gender is still under-represented in media coverage of sports; almost 90% of front-cover images portrayed men. Our findings also suggest that sportswomen are significantly under-represented in quantity and misrepresented in the quality of sports coverage.

It is expected that the sports media will use its power to raise awareness of women in sports; however, the manner in which women are portrayed is also important since appropriate representation will lead to a better perception of the female gender and women in sports.

Space, Sport and Resistance: Negotiating Agency and Respectability in Muslim

Women’s Sport Practices in

Finland

Almila, A-M.

(University of the Arts London)

From burkini swimwear in public beaches to sport-scarves in competitive sport, female Islamic veiling in sport raises issues of equality and multicultural accommodation. While other kinds of 'headscarf' disputes have been widely analysed by social scientists, those to do with sport and common space remain under-researched. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork in Helsinki, I discuss two Finnish cases about veiling, sport, female agency and spatial conflict.

Using Lefebvre's ideas about hegemonic spaces and resistance, I argue that while veiling Muslim women participating in sport in common space disrupt dominant ideas about how common space is to be used, veiling also provides these women with tools to challenge majority and minority group understandings of appropriate behaviour and 'normality'.

The first case concerns disputes over women-only swimming hours in public swimming halls. Gender-specific swimming hours are allocated for the benefit of Muslim women who, due to their religious convictions, cannot swim in mixed-gender spaces. These have triggered public debates, which reveal two viewpoints: while the State considers positive discrimination as an obligation, its critics argue that all discrimination creates inequality, ignoring the existing inequalities that positive discrimination targets.

The second case reveals how Muslim women use various sports to claim spatial liberty vis-a-vis their ethno-religious community, and the status of 'normality' in respect to mainstream Finnish society. In such strategies, being

'appropriately' dressed guarantees their respectability, despite the suspicions often expressed against their sporting activities per se. Encompassing the State, ethnic groups and individuals, negotiations of sport reveal deep-rooted assumptions about common spaces.

Friendships Worth Fighting for: Emotional Bonds between Women and Men Karate Athletes as Sites for

Deconstructing Gender Inequality

Maclean, C.

(University of Edinburgh)

Sport is argued to be one of the few remaining 'male domains' and as such a key arena for constructing masculine identity and reproducing ideas of men's (heirarchical) distinction from women (Connell,1990;2011). It is also recognised and enjoyed as a field founded on generating, encouraging, and amplifying emotions (Elias and

Dunning,1986). As a shared emotional (yet 'masculine') experience, sport lays the grounds for building close, intimate, friendships which, in men's single-sex sport, are suggested to be underpinned by sharing sexist ideology (Curry,1991;

Anderson,2008). Karate is a sport utilising kicks, punches and throws, with intensified emotional excitement due to its close-spaced, fast paced, sweaty body-to-body practice. Within this arena men and women train together, spar together, hurt together, laugh together, contend directly with one-another for sporting capital, and build close emotional friendships. How do such friendships impact upon ideas of difference between women and men, and the

(sexualised) subordination of women?

Drawing on the sociology of intimacy literature, this paper argues that sex-integrated sport not only challenges the expectations/interpretations of women's bodies (Anderson,2008; Channon and Jennings,2013; Guerandel and

Mennesson,2007), but can also situate women and men within supportive, mutually respectful,cherished relationships

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which put into question the expected sexualised - and thus unequal - relations between women and men in society

(Jamieson,1997).

Pioneering Women: Gendered Experiences of the Masters Highland Games

Bowness, J.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

Previous sociological research into ageing athletes has yielded a richness of insights using concepts such as performance discourses, age habitus, narratives of ageing and counter discourses of ageing to capture the experiences of Master athletes. These contributions act as a challenge to the physiological gaze. The Masters

Highland Games in particular presents a challenge to the discourse of decline prevalent in sport science. A sub-field of sport created soon after 2000, the Masters Highland Games has seen the growth of female competitors thanks in large part to population ageing and the creation of new age group categories. Whilst it has been slow, this increase in female participation now plays a significant part in the development of the Games. With improving technical competency these women experience increased physical capital. Nevertheless, a specific concern with the politics of gender in this new field has largely been neglected in favour of an understanding of the sociology of the genderless ageing body. To properly understand the experiences of these pioneering women in a largely male preserve, it is critical to examine the intersection of the ageing body, gendered experience and social structures latent in event organisation. Drawing on participant observation and interview data obtained from men and women, competitors and organisers, this research will shed new critical perspectives on various aspects of the experiences of women as well as men's attitudes towards women's participation in the Masters Highland Games.

Families and Relationships 1

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Research Methods for Researching Families with Nonhuman Members

Desougi, M.

(Independent Scholar)

There is a plethora of sociological writing on researching with humans, either focusing on different methodological orientations or particular areas, such as sensitive research topics or vulnerable groups. However, a search of the

Web of Knowledge database for keywords including research, canines, dogs, methods and methodology, found no methodological works within the discipline which look at researching with canines. Having conducted eight research projects, all but one of which studied families with nonhuman members, I would suggest that there are some differences of method which are particular to researching with canines, and in some aspects particular to researching with nonhumans more generally. This paper addresses implications for method and approach of researching families with nonhuman members. Specifically looking at consent in the absence of shared spoken language, the use of the body in research practice and the significance of scent.

Exploring Continuity and Change i n Men’s Care: Reflections on Qualitative Secondary Analysis (QSA),

Knowledge Exchange and Data Sharing

Tarrant, A.

(University of Leeds)

This presentation describes a methodological strategy devised to steer the first methodological phase of an ambitious mixed method qualitative research programme that explores continuity and change in men's care practices in a lowincome locality in a northern city in England. This first phase entails qualitative secondary analysis of two distinct but comparable studies ('Intergenerational Exchange' and 'Following Young Fathers') that have been identified from the

Timescapes archive for their potential for providing valuable insights into this substantive area of interest. The re-use and analysis of data from two or more distinct yet linked projects is a complex process requiring effective working across projects (Irwin and Winterton, 2011), as well as a detailed understanding of the original research aims and design. The framework consists of three distinct phases; a synthesis and review of outputs from the archived studies;

Data sharing and knowledge exchange and the conduct of qualitative secondary analysis. With reference to debates about the ethics of conducting QSA (Neale and Bishop, 2012) and 'epistemological distance' (Mauhtner et al 1998;

Mason, 2007), I consider a) the methodological challenges and affordances of working collaboratively with researchers who share their datasets and b) the conceptual insights and theoretical possibilities that are opened up through these processes when researching men's relationships and care practices.

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Belonging as a Temporal Experience

May, V.

(University of Manchester)

This paper, exploring belonging as a temporal experience in Mass Observation Project (MOP) accounts, is concerned with fundamental aspects of the self: narrative, belonging and time. We make sense of who we are by telling stories about with whom and where we have belonged. In doing so, we also make sense of the passage of time and 'tame' or humanize the eternity of cosmic time. While theories of time and self (most notably by Bergson and Ricoeur) tend to posit a universal self that experiences time uniformly, the analysis of the MOP accounts reveals different 'phases' in how people make sense of time across the life course which are integral to understanding how belonging is experienced and narrated. The aspects of belonging as a temporal experience that the MOP writers reflect upon vary depending on where they find themselves along the continuum between birth and (expected) death. Younger writers transitioning to adulthood are concerned with the changes that their sense of belonging is undergoing, while those in middle age ponder the difference between enduring versus temporary belonging. In turn, the older writers contrast here/there and now/then, often evoking a kind of nostalgic 'belonging from afar'. The MOP accounts thus illustrate not only how the present acts as a pivot between the past and the present, but also how, depending on a person's position on their (expected) lifecourse, their gaze is pivoted towards the future or the past, or different combinations of these, which in turn influences how they experience belonging.

Families and Relationships 2

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How are You? Young People's Narratives on Support in Their Everyday Lives

Davidson, E., Whittaker, L.

(University of Edinburgh)

This paper will explore the diverse ways 'disadvantaged' young people deal with social challenges in their everyday lives and, in particular, the role that support has within this. It draws on the findings of a collaborative project between the University of Edinburgh and award winning charity, Columba 1400. The project, 'Young People and their Future

Selves' combined biographical interviews with 'video diary' footage filmed by young people who participated in

Columba 1400's residential and community support programme, the 'Leadership Academy'. Interviewed as young adults, the research asked participants to reflect on the various forms of support they received growing up, and how (if at all) this shaped their pathways into adulthood - their 'future self'.

The paper shows that young people's experiences of support were inherently embedded within a wider social, cultural and normative context. Support, in other words, did not occur in a vacuum but was one of the many interacting components shaping young people's choices, chances and opportunities. The effectiveness of formal support provision was, therefore, not only dependent on its form, but also on when, how and where it was provided. The research also found that the characteristics participants associated with 'good' support

– such as intimacy, emotion and genuine concern - were relational. These were frequently absent from young adult's narratives about their own experiences of support; an absence which impacted negatively on young people's future direction and sense of identity as they moved into adulthood.

What Can We Learn from Queer Youth about Kinship, Resilience and Wellbeing?

Speirs, J.

(University of Glasgow)

Persistent discrimination and everyday homophobia has many negative impacts on the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning and asexual (LGBTQQA) youth. In this context, how do these young people get by and manage to create positive, resilient, lives for themselves and each other?

This paper challenges vulnerability discourses that dominate the field. It presents findings from an ethnographic study of 20 LGBTQQA youth that used an innovative methodology to engage with the intertwined nature of online and offline and capture diverse fragments of young people's experiences. The study's methodology combined participants' blogs and diaries with interviews and online participant observation. Young people in Scotland were recruited in person, whilst international participants took part online. The analysis sought to go beyond what can be spoken to represent narratives of the everyday.

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This paper illuminates participants' own narratives of identity and wellbeing. Entwined online and offline relations offer new forms of visibility and affirmation. This paper draws attention to the affective dimensions of online spaces for queer youth. Alternative aesthetics and everyday intimacies are shared, and these contribute to the construction and experience of community. The paper concludes by seeking to use these findings to suggest new directions for further research and policy.

Real Life Parenting as it Relates to the Commercialisation and Sexualisation of Children: Lessons for Public

Policy

Kiely , E., Ging, D., Kitching, K. Leane, M.

(UCC)

In recent years the commercialisation and sexualisation of children have become a focus of public policy in a number of different contexts (Rush and La Nauze 2006; APA, 2007; Buckingham, et. al., 2009, 2010; Papadopoulos, 2010;

Bailey, 2011). In 2012 the Irish Government Department of Children and Youth Affairs, commissioned a research project, which was predominantly concerned with accessing parents' views on issues pertaining to the commercialisation and sexualisation of children. Seventy eight self-selecting parents of children in Ireland, who participated in interviews and focus groups, discussed issues pertaining to support, intervention and regulation with respect to childrearing, children's wellbeing and children's rights in a contemporary Irish societal and cultural context.

In this paper we explore the various positions taken up by parents on questions of social, corporate, institutional and individual responsibility as they relate to sexualisation and commercialisation. We use this data to argue that public policy and educational initiatives designed to respond to the implications for children of commercialisation practices and the sexualisation of culture would have to acknowledge and accommodate considerable diversity and complexity in parental values, positions and practices, constitutive of real life parenting in relational contexts.

Supportive Networks as a Resilience Building Factor: Birth, Foster and Non-kinship Families in the Lives of

Looked After Young People

Kukhareva, M.

(University of Bedfordshire)

The paper is based on the findings from a qualitative doctoral study, which explores experiences of young people placed in care or in alternative education.

While the young people are navigating complex transitions through the care, education and welfare system, as well as adolescence, their lives are are 'embroidered' with a web of multi-layered complexities. The latter can present cumulative stress factors, which may negatively impact on the young people's current experiences and future development. At the same time, presence of protective factors can counteract cumulative risks and promote resilient patterns in these young people.

Supportive networks and environments can act as a strong protective factors. This includes birth and foster family, as well as non-kinship family connections. At the same time, it may be difficult to develop, and maintain these networks for the young people who have to move between foster and school placements. The paper draws attention to the scarcity of these connections for the young people in question, and, at the same time, the dramatic difference these relationships can play in fostering a child's resilience.

The paper carries messages and implications for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers.

Frontiers

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BIG DATA AND DIGITAL FUTURES: SOCIOLOGY PRIZE WINNER’S EVENT

This event will celebrate the success and impact of research published in Sociology the flagship journal of the BSA.

Building on successful events in 2013 and 2014, the main focus will be the 2014 prize-winning paper by Susan

Halford, Catherine Pope and Mark Weal (University of Southampton), which examines the potential impact of the development of the Semantic Web on sociological research. We have also invited the lead author of another closely related paper discussing the use of Big Data in sociology to join Professor Halford. Both authors will present the substantive content of their papers, as well as reflecting upon how they believe the discipline of sociology will develop methodologically in the next few years. The authors will also discuss their experiences of the need for interdisciplinary collaboration posed by these developments in ICTs. The presentations will be followed by a Q&A session.

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The event will also give delegates an opportunity to meet with Sociology authors, members of the Editorial Board and some of the Editorial Team within a semi-formal setting, and to hear the announcement of the 2015 SAGE prize for

Sociology.

Digital Futures? Sociological Challenges and Opportunities in the Emergent Semantic Web

Halford, S., Pope, C., Weal, M.

(University of Southampton)

In the context of recent debates about the ‘data deluge’ and the future of empirical sociology, this article turns attention to current activities aimed at achieving far-reaching transformations to the World Wide Web. The emergent

‘Semantic Web’ has received little attention in sociology, despite its potentially profound consequences for data. In response to more general recent calls for a critical politics of data we focus our enquiry as follows: first, we explore how sociological analysis of the artefacts and tools that are currently being developed to build a Semantic Web helps us to uncover the potential effects of this ‘next generation’ web on knowledge, data and expertise; and second we consider what a Semantic Web might offer to sociological research. We conclude by considering some implications of multidisciplinary engagement with the Web for the future of sociology.

Big Data: Methodological Challenges and Approaches for Sociological Analysis

Tinati, R., Halford, S., Carr, L., Pope, C.

(University of Southampton)

The emergence of Big Data is both promising and challenging for social research. This article suggests that realising this promise has been restricted by the methods applied in social science research, which undermine our potential to apprehend the qualities that make Big Data so appealing, not least in relation to the sociology of networks and flows.

With specific reference to the micro-blogging website Twitter, the article outlines a set of methodological principles for approaching these data that stand in contrast to previous research; and introduces a new tool for harvesting and analysing Twitter built on these principles. We work our argument through an analysis of Twitter data linked to political protest over UK university fees. Our approach transcends earlier methodological limitations to offer original insights into the flow of information and the actors and networks that emerge in this flow.

Chair: Nasar Meer (University of Strathclyde)

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

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Theorising Cancer Fundraising: Progression or Regression?

Barbour, R.

(Open University)

Cancer fundraising and associated appeals for sponsorship

– whether this involves marathons, fun runs, or even the growing of a moustache - are ubiquitous, but this phenomenon has largely escaped sociological scrutiny. The view of such activities as the 'commodification of compassion', fails to account for the scale of public engagement. This paper brings a range of theoretical perspectives to bear in seeking to provide a more nuanced understanding of what may be at stake besides the raising of money. This paper reviews the usefulness of theories relating to the genesis and development of 'embodied health movements' (EHMs) and ideas about 'intimate citizenship'. EHMs are characterised by the central role accorded the body

– both as a site subjected to conceived threats and as a vector for fundraising, drawing on and reproducing relationships of reciprocity. Taking part in fundraising events, involving celebration of survival, enactment of memorialisation and transformation of fear and shame into empowerment could be viewed as progressive in terms of helping individuals and groups to address health concerns and vulnerabilities. However, it is argued that this may involve regression (at least in terms of revisiting relevant theoretical constructs. In some respects, these activities may allow participants to articulate and engage the 'collective conscience' conceived of by

Durkheim. This raises interesting questions about the relationship between the personal and the political; personal and collective achievement; 'intimate citizenship'; and the potential tensions between achieving catharsis at an individual level and enacting resistance at a group level.

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Alienation and Wellbeing in the Workplace

Yuill, C.

(Robert Gordon University)

Drawing on interviews with social workers this research seeks to (1) explore how Marxian alienation theory can explain and explore the dynamics of health and wellbeing in the workplace and (2) how regressive changes in publicsector work have impacted on the wellbeing of workers.

As a theoretical resource alienation theory has been underutilised within medical sociology. In some respects this situation is surprising given alienation theory's potential to articulate the relations between subjective experiences and objective circumstances, and to draw attention to how personal distress emerges out of relations with underlying social structures that can ultimately impact on the embodied self of workers resulting in poor wellbeing. The presentation therefore opens with an explication and defence of alienation theory and its use in the context of health and wellbeing.

The presentation then moves to presenting the headline findings from the research to add empirical examples to both illustrate how the theory can be applied in a research context and to highlight some of the main findings, such as how contemporary neoliberal capitalism has introduced a variety of changes to the public sector which have led to a deprofessionalization of social work resulting in a negative impact on the health and wellbeing of social workers in a number of ways.

‘The Dentist Will See You Now’: Dental Health and the Politics of Abjection in ‘The Dentists’ (ITV 2014)

Neville, P.

(University of Bristol)

On the 16 June 2014 ITV broadcasted a one hour documentary programme entitled 'The Dentists'. This TV documentary, filmed over a number of weeks in University Dental Hospital Manchester, was lauded as the first of its kind in UK health

–related reality TV to address the issue of dental health. As Dr Mike Pemberton, Clinical Head of

Division at University Dental Hospital Manchester outlined, the documentary aimed to 'highlight the varied nature of dentistry we undertake and [this] will help the public to understand our work better'. However, despite these lofty aims,

TV reviewers were quick to point out the gruesomeness of the documentary with its graphic images of tooth extractions and distressed children. The spectacular way in which the filmmakers addressed the issue of dental decay raises doubt over the social or educational value of the documentary. This paper would like to explore further the representation of dental health as presented in 'The Dentists'. It questions the graphic images of dental surgeries and its selection and representation of its TV subjects. Such an analysis will reveal the existence of a larger agenda of the filmmakers to promote notions of dental decay and neglect as a class issue. Overall, this paper will contend that 'The

Dentists' is a further indication of how health-related reality TV documentaries spectacularise health and shame the

'unhealthy' working

–class citizen.

Glasgow’s ‘Excess Mortality’: A Cautionary Tale of a ‘Society in Transition’ in the Era of ‘Progress’

Collins, C., Levitt, I.

(University of the West of Scotland)

This paper reports on work undertaken to account for the troubling divergence in mortality between the cities of

Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester since the early 1970s. It provides a 'cautionary tale' of a 'society in transition' in an era of what might now be seen as 'optimism' and 'progress'. Drawing on new archival research, it is argued that the far-reaching plans to 'modernise' the Scottish economy which emerged from the mid-late 1950s, and which were crystallized in the 1963 White Paper, Central Scotland: A Programme for Development and Growth, had profoundly deleterious effects on the City of Glasgow

– effects which were appreciated by policy makers from the mid-1960s, and were understood by the early 1970s to be on a dramatic scale with potentially calamitous consequences for decades to come. Nonetheless, there was no proportionate adjustment to the policy which was creating these outcomes, arguably for 50 years. It will be argued, furthermore, that this policy framework generated a heightened vulnerability to the damaging effects of wider political and economic developments after 1979, and that all of this is consonant with the broad trends in mortality from that time, and also with the specific developments in terms of the causes of

Glasgow's 'excess mortality'. A substantial part of this mortality, it is suggested, is likely to be traceable to the misplaced assumption of a 'normative' view of 'modernisation' in the era of 'progress', and one which policy makers failed to revise in face of mounting, and ultimately overwhelming, contradictory evidence.

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Medicine, Health and Illness 2

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Body Work in Early Medical Abortion

Harden, J., Purcell, C., Lawton, L., Cameron, S., Glasier, A.

(University of Edinburgh)

Abortion provision has seen significant shifts in the last 25 years in the UK and worldwide. Developments in medical methods of abortion have enabled a higher proportion to take place earlier (with the percentage in the NHS Health

Board area of the present study having risen from 55% to 74% since 2009). They have also created the possibility of women returning home to pass the pregnancy. These changes raise questions of how the work of medical abortion is conceptualised by those who do it and it is the impact of these changes on staff working in abortion provision which this paper explores. To do this it applies the conceptual lens of 'body work' to healthcare workers' accounts of 'early medical abortion' (EMA) work, in order to draw out the peculiarities, constraints and challenges associated with EMA work. We draw on data from in-depth interviews with 37 nurses, clinical support workers, sonographers and doctors working in one area of urban Scotland, conducted between October 2013 and April 2014. Thematic analysis highlighted three key issues in the body work of EMA relating to: temporal dimensions of the work; the

'dematerialisation' brought about by the option of women returning home to pass the pregnancy; and that which replaces hands-on abortion work, which we suggest can be conceptualised as 'body work-by-proxy'. This paper contributes to understandings of contemporary abortion provision and to debates regarding the utility of the concept of body work.

Choice as Part of Care: Nurses Navigating Patient Preferences towards the End of Life

Borgstrom, E.

(University of Cambridge)

Choice

– in the form of advance care planning – is a key element of English end-of-life care since 2008. It postulates that knowing patient preferences about death and dying, such as preferred place of death, enables better co-ordinated and personalised health care. It is assumed that this will ultimately ensure a good death through awareness and preparedness. Tools like the Preferred Priorities for Care (PPC) document have been created to facilitate the process of discussing and capturing patient choice. The underlying theory is that choice is empowering to all involved

– the patient, their family and carers, and the healthcare professionals. Mol has suggested that the logic of choice cannot align with a logic of care. Using ethnographic examples from long-term fieldwork, I will demonstrate how ascertaining patient choice has become part of nurses' work. In doing so, nurses risk treating choice as a task to be completed rather than as a relational aspect of care. Consequently, staff navigate how and when they 'do choice' with patients in order to maintain what they view as a caring disposition. In this context, choice and care are simultaneously conceived of as objects and practices. I will argue that whilst choice and care may have different underlying logics in terms of the amount and kind of relationality, using patient choice as a driver for end-of-life care blurs this theoretical distinction and challenges us to rethink what these terms can mean in everyday practice.

The Role of Ethnography in the Sociology of Healthcare Quality and Safety: The Case of High-volume, Safetycritical Routines in UK General Practice

Grant, S.

(University of Dundee)

Within the sociology of healthcare quality and safety, ethnographic methods have been increasingly employed to examine the nature of risk and safety across a range of healthcare organisational settings (e.g. Dixon-Woods et al.

2009; Mesman 2008; Swinglehurst et al. 2011). Drawing on ethnography's ability to provide rich, holistic insights of everyday practices, these studies have highlighted the complexity of socio-technical systems and the importance of socio-cultural and infrastructural contexts on how safety is understood and performed in everyday practice (Allen

2013; Iedema 2009; Rowley & Waring 2011). The aim of this paper is to reflect on the role of ethnography within the sociology of healthcare quality and safety by examining its application to high-volume, safety-critical routines within

UK general practice. It then goes on to explore ways in which ethnography can be further developed as a safety improvement methodology within healthcare organisations. This paper will reflect on ethnographic fieldwork conducted across eight UK general practices from 2010-2014 involving 1,787 hours of observation of high-volume, safety-critical routines (e.g. repeat prescribing, test results handling, medicines reconciliation), 62 interviews with clinical, administrative and managerial staff, and documentary analysis of key practice documents. Reflecting on the data collection and analysis processes for this research, this paper seeks to contribute to current methodological

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understandings of the role of ethnography within the sociology of healthcare quality and safety, and to explore ways in which ethnography can be further developed as a safety improvement methodology through the application of Video-

Reflexive Ethnography (Iedema et al. 2013).

Professional Partnership around Genetic Conditions in Scotland: Theorising an Integrated Approach to

Service Delivery

Seymour, T.

(University of Edinburgh)

Several decades of sociological work on the 'new genetics' has highlighted the importance of particular genes when it comes to issues such as geneticized personal and collective identities, ethical dilemmas related to genetic patterns of inheritance, and hopes for new treatments from genetic science. On the other hand, across literature on illness experiences, chronicity, health inequalities, and disability rights, the emphasis largely falls on non-genetics aspects of a health condition. Here the embodied aspects of living with a condition are highlighted, as well as the way that illness is socially experienced via processes of social and financial exclusion, barriers to accessing services, and stigma from society.

This paper will discuss findings from research on processes of partnership between different professional groups within the Scottish healthcare arena. In particular, the focus is on the interactions between third sector and public sector services that support individuals with complex genetic conditions such as Huntington's disease. People living with Huntington's disease bring to the clinic the challenges they face concerning their physical and mental health.

However, these are also experiences mediated by their relationships within their kinship network and by the reactions from the society around them. Successful professional partnerships take into account the complexity of this picture, and acknowledge that multiple types of expertise are necessary to deliver effective services. Such findings also highlight the need for integrated sociological theorisation on the genetic and social aspects of illness experience and how related services should be structured.

Methodological Innovations

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Dechipering the Global Welfare Regimes.: From 'Scalar Analytics' to Cluster Analysis of Welfare State

Variations

Badescu, C.

(Institute For Quality Of Life)

The modern era induced a lateral transformation to the western European civilization so that its shape ended by being totally different when compared with its medieval shape. Since Quattrocento on, the Western Europe changed so deeply its shape that for a Christian of the Middle Ages it will be unrecognizable. The welfare regimes follow this pattern of lateral transformation. Any transformational process, globalization itself being included, assumes both specific and global features, national and lateral vectors. The specific (locally embedded) features of globalization are so effective that we may speak along with S Sassen of the 'particular scaling of global'. Globalization, therefore, bears upon itself a dualism, a tension induced by these contradictory processes. Our hypothesis is that the modern world system induces contradictory scalings so that the global scaling is opposed to and spread through the filter of the civilizational, national and sub-national scaling. We need to reconsider the relation between 'scalar analytics', as in

Sassen's approach, and cluster analysis applied to the variation of European welfare regimes. A critical examination of theoretical and methodological aspects is requested in order to go farther toward such a complex, multidimensional analysis. Our research project is focused on such a theoretical and methodological task.

The ‘Inter-vey’: A New Technique towards the Conversational Survey

Gobo, G.

(University of Milan)

For decades, the dilemma between open-ended and closed-ended response alternatives occupied the methodological debate. Over the years, dominant approaches in survey have reacted to this dilemma by opting for fixed response alternatives and the standardization of interviewer's behavior. If this methodological decision has been the survey's fortune, making it the methodology most widely used in the social sciences, however it produces a large amount of biases well known in the literature: misunderstanding of the response alternatives by the interviewees, the multiple word meanings of response alternatives due the communicative functions of quantifiers, the invented opinions (or lies)

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phenomenon, the influence of the response alternatives on formation of the judgment, social desirability effects, the yea-saying and response set phenomena, etc..

In order to remedy these biases an alternative proposal can be designed by re-discovering and adapting two 'old' proposals: Likert's technique called 'fixed question/free answers' (1940s), and Galtung's (1967) procedure named

'open question/closed answer'. Both procedures are guided by the same discursive principles: make the interview into a conversation, let the interviewee answer freely in his/her own words, and thus release him/her from the researcher's schemes, making an 'interviewee-centered' survey.

These principles have been recently blended in an innovative technique for collecting survey data, which has been named 'inter-vey' (Gobo and Mauceri 2014), blending in-depth and survey interview. 'Inter-vey' is based on the idea of the 'conversationalzing survey' (Schober and Conrad 1997; Maynard and Schaffer 2002, Gobo 2011).

An experimentation (and a procedural example) of this technique will be presented.

Making Interdisciplinarity Work: A Case Study of Agent-based Modelling and Attitude Dynamics

Chattoe-Brown, E.

(University of Leicester)

Interdisciplinarity has become a catch phrase across the social sciences Unfortunately the term regularly generates more light than heat and faces considerable practical and political barriers to its realisation. This paper considers why sociology really needs interdisciplinary, focusing on the example of dynamic attitude change. While some aspects of research in this area (both in terms of data and methods) are a core part of sociology, others can barely be found there but are much better developed in psychology or media studies. To integrate these different aspects of research, however, we need a new and distinctive theory-building tool and the paper also demonstrates how Agent-Based

Modelling (ABM) serves this role. As well as providing a practical method by which research in different disciplines may be integrated, the methodology of ABM provides a conceptual framework for more effective use of existing data.

By focusing on 'process specifications' of social systems it also avoids one of the political barriers to interdisciplinarity, the unwillingness or inability of different disciplines (or even areas within sociology) to see social behavior except through the lenses of particular ontologies, theories or methods.

A Deeper Understanding of the Past: Observations from Archiving and Re-using Qualitative Data

Haaker, M.

(UK Data Service)

In the arguments in favour of re-using data, the 'gleaning of new perspectives and understandings' of datasets is often described as secondary analysis's major contribution to sociological research. This paper explores this oft-cited advantage of re-use and aims to provide a more nuanced explanation of how new perspectives of archived datasets provide richer understandings of society. Taken from the perspective of someone who works day-to-day in a data archive, this paper describes how the reflexive accounts and methodological choices of classic datasets, such as

Mothers Alone (Marsden 1969), Affluent Worker (Goldthorpe and Lockwood 1969), and the School Leavers Study

(Pahl 1978), reveals the ways in which sociology has taken a lead role in creating narratives of the past. This paper will go on to support why the re-interpretation, re-analysis and re-telling of sociological research provides a way for sociologists to continue providing meaningful evaluations of past, present and future societies.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

CARNEGIE LECTURE THEATRE, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

ACTIVISM AND AUSTERITY AT THE INTERSECTIONS: MINORITY GROUPS IN CRISIS

Building on the crossnational research project ‘Minority Women’s Activism in Tough Times’, which explores minority women’s activism in the context of austerity in Scotland, England and France, this special event session brings together a range of scholars to consider the asymmetrical effects of the 2008 economic crisis and subsequent austerity measures on minority groups in Europe and beyond by analysing competing representations of minority groups’ precarity and exploring the diverse models of grassroots activism for social and economic justice in these uncertain times.

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Austerity Activism: Minority Women and Intersectional Justice Claims

Emejulu, A., Bassel, L.

(University of Edinburgh)

In this paper we draw on our ongoing work exploring the challenges and opportunities of migrant and minority women’s grassroots activism in times of austerity in the UK and France. We build on our conceptual work which finds similar processes at work in ostensibly opposite contexts. In both ‘difference-blind’ France and the ‘multicultural’

United Kingdom, we found that minority women’s social justice claims are (mis)recognised by institutional and social actors (2010). Working with non-governmental organisation networks in the England, Scotland and France, we explore how these organisations mobilise against the challenges facing minority women as well as how these women are organising within NGOs in the context of the economic crisis. Understanding the influence of austerity measures on activism for gender and racial justice generates valuable insights into the ‘views from below’ in relation to austerity and fills an important knowledge gap in terms of understanding the political behaviour of minority women in public spaces in what are considered to be ‘opposite’ contexts in their treatment of diversity.

A Perfect Storm? British Ethnic Minorities in Times of Recession and Austerity: Complementing Statistical

Evidence with Voices from the Ground

Sosenko, F.

(Heriot-Watt University)

This paper brings together available quantitative evidence on the impact of post-2008 economic recession and post-

2010 austerity programme on ethnic minorities in the UK with qualitative evidence collected for an exploratory study in

Glasgow in 2013. By using recent analyses of the cumulative impacts of austerity measures across protected characteristics, the paper engages with the concept of intersectionality and questions the usefulness of single-aspect

Equality Impact Assessments carried out by public authorities. It also reflects on whether evidence from the past few years calls for further refining of long-standing theories of economic functioning of minority ethnic individuals and groups.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

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RACE AND ETHNICITY SUB-STREAM: RACISM, XENOPHOBIA AND NATIONALISM

What Impact Has UKIP Had on the Immigration Debate in the UK?

Adams, P.

(University of Greenwich)

In recent years the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) has attracted considerable media attention, has disrupted Britain's major parties and enjoyed electoral success. By linking it's core issue of withdrawal from the

European Union to immigration UKIP has widened it's focus from what many see as a peripheral issue to an issue which is consistently ranked at or near the top of voter's concerns. This has enabled UKIP to present to the public a populist and nationalist agenda which constructs immigration as a threat to the economic interests and cultural identity of the UK. This limited and narrow, but also clear and coherent, agenda has been effective in a context of widespread economic hardship and public antipathy to the major political parties. In the process UKIP has become the major vehicle in Britain for anti-immigration attitudes. This paper will contribute to debates on race and nation via an analysis of UKIP's impact and its relationship to the immigration debate in the UK. UKIP's impact will be gauged via an analysis of media reportage and political discourse. The paper will argue that UKIP has contributed to the mainstreaming of a discourse which constructs immigration as damaging and threatening.

Defining and C ontesting ‘the Collective We’: Insights from Post-terror Norway

Ezzati , R., Erdal, M.B.

(Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)d)

In this paper we discuss how influential actors in society and in public debates perceive the definition and contestation of unity in the aftermath of a 'critical event'. We ask how the 22 July 2011 attacks in Norway have affected collective identities; who has the power to define the collective 'we' in Norway; and how are these definitions contested? Our data consists of 20 semi-structured interviews with individuals in influential roles in government institutions and in the

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public sphere. While in the first few weeks after the attacks there were repeated calls for covert and overt antiimmigration attitudes to become untenable in Norway, such fundamental changes did not occur in the long-run.

However, some of our informants saw negotiations of societal collectivity to be more present in the public sphere since the attacks. Others maintained that Norwegian public discourse still is marked by political correctness, giving little room for anti-immigration viewpoints. Exploring different understandings of the political and social reasons for and consequences of July 22nd as they emerge in our data, we find that the struggle over the power to define 'the collective we' is contested by actors with different political outlooks. There is much emphasis on the freedom of speech, but less on the implications of implicitly racialised notions of the national in the Norwegian context, which affects the nature of negotiations about 'the collective we'.

The Electoral Rise and Fall Of the British National Party: A Sociological Critique of 'External Supply-side

Theories'

Ashe, S.

(University of Manchester)

In 2006, when the British National Party (BNP) won 12 local council seats in the outer-East London Borough of

Barking and Dagenham, they became the official opposition to the Labour Party. Four years later the BNP lost all 12 of their seats. This paper offers a Gramscian analysis of the extent to which the local political-cultural context may have facilitated the BNP's electoral rise and fall in outer-East London. It will be argued that the emphasis Antonio

Gramsci's prison notebooks place on the relationship between 'political society' and 'civil society' and the concept of

'hegemonic apparatus' can enhance 'external supply-side' perspectives of extreme right-wing electoral performance.

In doing so, the discussion here also draws attention to recent developments in sociological Marxism and highlights limitations and key silences in the way in which Erik Olin Wright and Michael Burawoy have interpreted Gramsci's analysis of the relationship between the state and civil society. It is argued that the concept of 'hegemonic apparatus' offers us the means to understand more fully how hegemonic apparatuses politicise the cultural and how political dominance in the local realm is rooted in the contours of local civic society. It will be demonstrated that the BNP's electoral breakthrough in Barking and Dagenham was not just a warning signal about the 'advanced decay of local political parties', it was also an indication of the weakening of Labour's local 'hegemonic apparatus' and how the rebuilding of Labour's hegemonic apparatus contributed to the BNP's electoral demise.

Rights, Violence and Crime

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The Mitigation of Climate Change as Genocide

Crook, M.

(School of Advanced Study, University of London)

With the hunan rights implications of climate change well established in the literature, it is morbidly ironic that the political-economic tools used to mitigate anthropogenic climate, are violating the human rights of indigenous people and in some cases causing genocide. This paper will argue that market mechanisms institutionalised by the Kyoto protocol since 1997, such as carbon markets are failing to 'decarbonize' the global economy and transform the capitalist mode of organization into a 'greener' more sustainable capitalism. Further, drawing on the sociology of genocide originated and inspired by Raphael Lemkin and the 'value analysis' found in Marxist political economy, the institutionalisation of carbon markets will be shown to exacerbate uneven development, regional and global inequalities and hurt the most vulnerable and poorest communities in the developing world, in some cases menacing the group life of social collectives. Carbon markets will be shown as part of a long history of capitalist devlopment and merely new modes of capital accumulation which extend the commodification of nature and reconstitute the nature

– society relation in a desperate bid to solve an accumulation crisis. The paper concludes by showing that this new

'ecological regime' is unlikely to alter the nature and operation of capitalism and propel it towards a greener future and will continue to violate the rights of indigenous people all over the world, in some cases leading to group death, as understood by a Lemkinian genoicde lens.

The Third World and the International Rights Regime

D'Souza, R.

(University of Westminster)

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Two opposite and contradictory forces have pushed for embedding a regime of rights in the international domain. The first impetus for the international rights regime comes from the struggle for democracy and freedom in the Third World.

The second impetus is democracy promotion as a foreign policy tool of powerful G7 states often with economic conditions attached as in the Good Governance policies of International Financial Organisations. This paper examines five strands of developments in the international legal and institutional order that followed the democracy promotion policies first initiated by the US in the 1980s. The five strands examined here are the development of rules and mechanisms for: i) international election monitoring, ii) arrest, detention, trial and punishment of Third World political leaders including heads of states, iii) rights talk, civil wars and regime changes, iv) incorporating international economic organisations as rights promoters in global governance and v) incorporating non-governmental, political and voluntary organisations in the institutionalisation of rights in global governance apparatuses. These developments challenge continued assumptions about the classical premises for liberal democracies in particular sovereignty, popular will, and self-governance. The rights that G7 states and the International Organisations promote today are not the same as the rights that their ancestors installed in Europe and America three hundred or so years ago. The transformations in the social and political context for rights invite us to reconsider the normative claims that the rights discourse makes and the ramifications of institutionalisation and juridification for people in the Third World.

What is Co mmon about ‘Our Common Future’? Maintaining the Human Rights Status of Water

Skillington, T.

(University College Cork)

A fairer allocation of rights to dwindling yields of common resources is defined by the UN as the most important equity issue of the day (Back to Our Common Future p.20), and as one that cannot be resolved strictly by having recourse to purely economic or strongly national models of resource justice. That said, notable differences are apparent in the conceptualization of 'common rights' to natural resources across different institutional actors today. Those advocating a common ownership model promote a minimal understanding of justice as requiring the satisfaction of all peoples' basic human resource needs. Those supporting a more market reasoning, on the other hand, argue that under conditions of scarcity, the private appropriation of an essential resource to production like a fresh water reserve is justified. Indeed, many go so far as to claim that the right to such a resource as water is not a universally justified or inherent right enjoyed by all but rather, is an 'added-on' right (e.g., global corporate giants like Nestle). This paper assesses some of the implications arising from these efforts to prioritize the economic valuing of water over its human rights status, the response of actors like the UN, the World Bank or the EU, as well as the efforts of NGOs to challenge it.

'Fracking' Development: A Rights Based Social Impact Appraisal

Short, D.

(School of Advanced Study, University of London)

Fossil fuels are the world's main source of energy, accounting for 81.6 per cent of global primary energy use in 2011.

The depletion of conventional oil and gas reserves, however, is leading to increasing pressure to exploit more

'unconventional' sources. Michael Klare coined the term 'extreme energy' to describe a range of new higher-risk

'unconventional' resource extraction processes, such as oil/tar sands production, mountain top-removal, deep waterdrilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' that are increasingly being used as the more easily accessible supplies dwindle. Such 'extreme energy' developments are in need of social scientific inquiry and assessment since extraction effort is strongly correlated with damage to both society and the environment. Indeed, in countries where hydraulic fracturing for gas and oil has occurred it has been a controversial and divisive development. Its supporters claim it has stimulated economic growth, provided energy security and lowered carbon emissions, while its detractors point to significant environmental and social problems, ranging from water pollution to 'boomtown syndrome'. This paper will analyse the latest social impact data from the United States and Australia, two countries with a mature 'fracking' industry, in order to identify key impact indicators which should inform policy discussions in countries seeking to expand existing development, or begin exploration like the UK. This overseas evidence-based perspective will inform a discussion of the preliminary findings from the author's research on the social and political impacts of proposed fracking development in the UK.

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Science and Technology Studies

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ECONOMY

A Material Sociology of High-frequency Trading

MacKenzie, D.

(University of Edinburgh)

Over the last 20 years, the arrangements for trading many financial assets have become large technical systems, and need analysed as such. This paper will examine some salient aspects of this process of transformation:

The sociality of finance, e.g. the boundary between gambling and legitimate trading; the micropolitics of

Chicago's trading pits; contested constructions of markets and of their legitimacy.

The physicality of finance, e.g. the electromagnetic spectrum, Lake Michigan, etc.

Social/physical path-dependencies in finance's large technical systems.

The paper will be based on a historical-sociological study of the shaping of the markets in which HFT takes place.

(HFT, or high-frequency trading, is the ultrafast, entirely automated trading of large numbers of shares or other financial assets.) The study involves interviews with 43 founders, employees or ex-employees of HFT firms; 44 trading-venue staff; etc.

The paper will emphasise the materiality of HFT (e.g. the fibre-optic cables and microwave links on which it depends), the salience of geography (e.g. the closeness of those cables and links to the relevant geodesics) and the sociocultural processes that are crystalised in the configurations of finance's large technical systems.

Parasitic Accumulation in the Collaborative Economy: How Diverse Orders of Worth are Capitalized through

Rent. Part of the 'New forms of Organization in the Collaborative Economy' Proposal (Arvidsson and Gandini)

Land, C.

(University of Leicester)

For some the collaborative economy presents an opportunity to address economic and social crisis simultaneously,

'unlocking the value of idle assets while also rebuilding social capital' (NESTA, 2014). It promises to address the environmental crisis by combining more effective utilization of resources (Botsman and Rogers, 2010) and by decentralizing energy production and consumption (Rifkin, 2011). For others it represents a new frontier of capitalist exploitation, turning ever new spheres of life into spaces of work (Horning, 2014). From this perspective the collaborative economy represents a new round of enclosure of the commons, extending crisis prone capitalism, and its contradictions (Harvey, 2014), into new spheres of social life.

This paper will examine the political economy of the collaborative economy, arguing that its emancipatory promise neglects a fundamental shift in capitalism. Following Picketty's (2014) observations that returns to wages are diminishing in comparison to rents, I argue that the collaborative economy does not exploit labour directly by commensurating diverse forms of work into the wage labour nexus. In this it differs from the orthodox Marxist model of exploitation grounded in the labour theory of value (Vidal, 2014). Rather, it capitalises on such labour indirectly by positioning itself as an intermediary between peers or between producers and consumers. In this model the direct control of collaborative labour is relinquished, so that profits are based on the extraction of rents secured by appropriating and controlling the commons through a distinctive regime of property rights and protological control

(Galloway, 2004).

How Generalised Exchange Makes a Society : The Case of Korean On-line Social Giving-away (Muryo Nanum)

Jin, D.

(Seoul National University)

Recently found type of on-line based Gift exchange community (Free Giveaway, MuryoNanum) enlarges our understanding on how generalised exchange makes a economic society. Over the spatial limit and off-line society, this new interaction offers repeatable game to everyone, to give gift within some regulations. Being allocating human, economic agents indirectly exchange what they have and what they want with or without money, which all can be analysed by the frame of generalised exchange. To find out what kind of shared value were required for each giveaway, about 257 food, and 1972 stuff gift posts for 1 week was collected in two boards for Muryonanum (Free

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giveaway) of a NAVER community ‘Joonggonara.’ motivation and reason of give-aways were collected to determine the exchanged shared value for a gift. In result, there were 2 big major values requested for give-away, economical and social. Each value required showed different effect including social network of agents, click rates and number of replies. With this case of generalised exchange enabled by internet - open to everyone, watched by everyone, but not knowing the others - we can examine how the generalised exchange itself can make and maintain a economic society by controlling shared value.

Social Divisions/Social Identities

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Social Identity Construction among Benefit Recipients in Scotland

Graham, H., Egdell, V, McQuaid, R.

(Edinburgh Napier University)

Over the last four years, the UK Coalition government has been engaged in a project of welfare reform, which aims to reduce expenditure and achieve greater 'fairness'. In this endeavour, the UK Government discourse has often focused on the need to reduce expenditure on those who receive government support but do not 'deserve' it, and this is accompanied by the implication that there are a large number of people who fall into this category. At the same time, there has been a trend of hardening public attitudes and increasing stigma towards welfare recipients, informed in part by negative media reporting that portrays extreme cases as typical.

This paper explores social identity construction among benefit recipients, in a context of changes to the welfare regime, and the government, media and public discourses around these changes. Drawing upon data collected during a qualitative longitudinal research project on the impacts of welfare reform on working-age adults in Scotland, it explores the construction of individual and collective identities in relation to the respondents' status as benefit recipients. It examines respondents' perceptions of deservingness, and the way in which they identify, and distinguish themselves from, those whom they designate as 'undeserving'. It is suggested that recipients may create these distinctions as a coping mechanism against a discourse that they find hurtful and stigmatising, and to resolve the internal conflict created by their membership of a group they feel antipathy towards.

Single Mothers and Stereotyped Others in 21st Century Britain

Carroll, N.

(University of Huddersfield)

One in four children in the UK are now brought up in single parent households and 92% of single parents are female.

Yet, despite the increasing diversity of family forms and prevalence of lone motherhood, evidence shows the heterosexual two parent model remains privileged economically and socially.

Tracing the relationship between normative family and citizenship models, state policies and attitudes to lone mothers from the Poor Laws, through 'underclass' debates and New Labour's 'workfare' agenda, this paper will unpick the dynamics of current public discourse and private experience. It is based on qualitative research exploring lone mothers' experiences against the backdrop of fiscal austerity, benefit conditionality and reality television programming, which includes 'single mothers' among those vilified for benefit dependency.

Theoretically, the doctoral research draws upon critical realist philosophy, feminist principles and Bourdieu's concepts of 'symbolic violence' and 'symbolic capital' to consider the interplay between structural and agential factors.

While previous research has tended to focus on mothers in deprived areas, this study aims to reflect wider diversity by also involving women in more affluent areas. The comparative approach features in-depth interviews in two neighbouring locations with contrasting socio-economic profiles.

Women in both locations reported incidences of stigma and anger that negative stereotypes do not reflect the reality of their struggles to balance breadwinner and carer roles. Examples of 'othering' emerged frequently as a response to stereotyping. This paper suggests that classed and gendered neo-liberal policy and discourse is having a retrograde effect on lone mothers harking back centuries.

Living in Wongaland: The Moralization of Payday Lending

Marron, D.

(Abertay University)

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This paper sets out to develop an exploratory sociological analysis of the phenomenon of payday lending. Exemplified today by online providers like Wonga.com and QuickQuid.com, payday lenders are private lenders who market small, short-term personal loans to consumers. As the industry has developed, it has attracted significant opprobrium from politicians, commentators and state authorities and regulators due to the relatively high interest rates incurred with these loans and the fact that it is relatively disadvantaged consumers

– who often have little borrowing alternative – who are targeted. However, rather than being something new, it will be demonstrated how credit aimed at the poor has been longstanding object of liberal concern. The paper goes on to outline the ways in which the payday industry has been stigmatized through a process of 'othering' whereby its clients are ostensibly ensnared, coerced and denied the capacity for self-determination. It is suggested this authoritative reaction is symptomatic of a wider de-politicization of poverty and structural inequality.

‘Troubled Families’: Policy Continuity and Discontinuity?

Shannon, M.

(University of Salford)

The discourse around families perceived to have complex needs has developed at a policy level, very much reinforced by media representations. The notion of the troubled family has recently been generated as a result of Coalition

Government policy-this controversial construction of particular families has been explicitly linked with the involvement of the welfare state. Within this context, the Governments Troubled Families tsar, Louise Casey has published an extensive outline of the policy, including the stories of a number of such families derived from interviews. The participants accounts present a picture of some of the complex and long standing issues they face.

As a part of PhD research, literature was accessed exploring the notion of troubled and complex families. Exploring these ideas in previous decades shows a continuity in the construction of this idea. This paper seeks to show the continuity in the ideas about such families who present with complex problems, whilst highlighting the new, more controversial version of these ideas. The stories of families who are the subject of intensive family intervention in

Casey's report are thus set in the context of this more individualised construction of family behaviour and will arguably be perceived and interpreted in this new context. This discourse reflects the rebalancing of the family/state relationship.

Sociology of Education 1

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Diversity and Difference within the Leadership of UK Students’ Unions

Brooks, R., Byford, K., Sela, K.

(University of Surrey)

The social composition of higher education institutions has long been a focus of scholarly enquiry. While this body of work has typically concentrated on the social characteristics of university leaders, as well as students and academic staff more generally, we know little about the social characteristics of student leaders. This is perhaps surprising given the increasingly important role such leaders have taken on within the contemporary higher education landscape, particularly through the work of students' unions. To further our understanding in this area, this paper explores the social diversity of students' unions and student leaders. It argues that, although there is some variation by social characteristic, significant inequalities are evident across the sector as a whole. These can be explained with reference to the wider social context within which students' unions are located; the social composition of higher education institutions; and the functioning of social networks within individual institutions.

A Rich Man's Game? Finance and Access to the Doctorate

Pasztor, A., Wakeling, P.

(Newcastle University)

UK postgraduate student numbers have grown spectacularly recently: there are now over five times more postgraduates than in 1990. Despite this expansion, the number of UK students pursuing doctoral research degrees has remained stubbornly stable. Overall, little is currently understood about access to doctoral study, prompting calls for further research (McCulloch and Thomas, 2013). A substantial body of research on initial entry to HE identifies cultural factors as barriers to participation, including higher education is seen as unsuitable for 'someone like me'.

However, financial support is not available for all doctoral students, which may be a disincentive to students from financially disadvantaged backgrounds, especially given recent changes to undergraduate student finance. Such

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students might be expected to show 'relative risk aversion' based on the cost of doctoral study and its uncertain outcomes. Drawing on interviews with over fifty graduates and PhD students from different types of English university, this British Academy funded study provides a detailed investigation of the role of finance in the decision to pursue doctoral study. The results suggest that access to funding is necessary, but not sufficient for doctoral participation and tends to become a barrier at the point a graduate had opted to pursue doctoral study. Perhaps surprisingly, debt was almost absent from our respondents' accounts and did not feature as a deterrent. However financial considerations disproportionately drove decision-making for poorer students who were forced to 'follow the money'. Considering doctoral study in the first place appears more closely related to cultural factors and gender.

OK Commuter: Comparing Academic Attainment and Cultural Capital among Resident and Commuting

Students at an English University

Hensby, A., Mitton, L., Almeida, M.

(University of Kent)

Recent studies have shown that a growing number of English students are commuting to university from their family home, sometimes travelling a considerable distance. Whilst for many students this represents a financial decision following increases in tuition fees and campus accommodation costs, it can also reflect students' emotional ties and obligations to family and friends, and their need for paid work. Yet research indicates that limited access to the campus can impact negatively on students' learning outside the classroom, their academic engagement, and attainment (Buote, 2007). Moreover, the commuting population comprises a higher proportion of those students targeted for widening participation

– including BME, mature, and working-class students. This raises important questions about the consequences of commuting on students' sense of belonging at university, particularly in the context of dominant discourses of the student learner as 'white, middle-class and male' (Read et al, 2003).

Drawing on original survey data of undergraduates at an English university, this paper juxtaposes the socio-economic backgrounds, learning expectations and cultural capital on campus of commuting and resident students. Contrasts are drawn both between students' study routines and their participation in co-curricular opportunities on campus. Our emerging findings indicate significant variations in the experiences of learning for commuting and resident students.

Without consideration of the diverse educational and social support needs of commuting students in HE, the aim of closing the attainment gap between traditional and widening participation students is unlikely to be realised.

Peer Influence and Gender Inequality in Undergraduate Academic Major Choice: A Field Theoretic Approach

Redd, R.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

Undergraduates' field of study is intricately linked to inequality in the US, where women continue to be less likely than men to complete STEM degrees. This gendered variation in major selection has substantial implications for stratification: undergraduate major choice is closely related to labor market outcomes and advancement to future degrees. Building on recent theoretical developments from John Levi Martin's social aesthetics and field theory, this paper argues that academic interests are developed in concert with encounters in the environment, and that position in academic fields at the start of university, gendered distributions of interest patterns, and peer influence play a critical role in gender differentiation in undergraduate major choice. Using unique administrative data from an

American university, I deploy multiple correspondence analysis to show that students' interests are organized in academic fields characterized by oppositions between sciences and social sciences, economics and humanities, and life and hard sciences. Movement between disciplines that are close together in students' interest spaces is common.

Because students' interests are organized in academic fields, peer influence on academic major choice is better understood as a field effect. Utilizing random roommate assignment at this university, the paper shows that choosing a major is associated with roommate's interests coming into college, and this association depends on students' own initial position in the academic discipline space when applying to university. Finally, because women are less likely to have roommates who are in sciences and engineering, gender segregation of roommates contributes to gender difference in STEM outcomes.

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Sociology of Education 2

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ASPIRATION, ASPIRATION, ASPIRATION

Whilst new labour made education, education, education their three main priorities, it was mainly cultural based initiatives which were proffered; progression was to be founded on ‘raising aspirations’. Since the coalition government came into power we have only seen this focus become more pronounced. Diane Reay refers to the discourse of

'raising aspirations' as an 'ideological whip used to beat the working classes'. This symposium draws together four complementary papers attempting to problematise this 'poverty of aspiration' discourse. Each paper engages with empirical data from fieldwork with young people both within and outside of schools. We consider the way in which policy is being interpreted and translated in institutions and how young people are experiencing and responding to this. This symposium also problematises the focus on education as the only legitimate aspiration and engages with the ambitions of young people who are aspiring to other things, considering how we as sociologists can account for this without falling into the trap of re-enforcing the deficit model of the working-class.

'I'm Definitely Going to University, but Probably Not Oxford/Cambridge as They Cost a Lot.'

Abrahams, J.

(Cardiff University)

Despite the prevailing evidence of the inequality in access to higher education (HE), in 2012 the government increased the cap on tuition fees such that universities can charge up to £9,000 per year. The effect of this policy on young people's decision making regarding HE is still unknown. Whilst sociological literature seems to suggest that the prospect of such debt is a deterrent- particularly for those from disadvantaged backgrounds, UCAS report no detrimental effect on their entry rates. This paper presents some preliminary findings from my PhD data emerging from within three different fieldwork sites (a private school, a state school in a wealthy area and one in a disadvantaged area). Using a Bourdieusian framework of analysis I consider the extent to which young people from different backgrounds perceive of the tuition fees and student debt and how this might be feeding into their 'horizonsfor-action'. Through this I will provide a critique of the simplistic and problematic discourse of 'raising aspirations' highlighting the deep ways in which structural disadvantage restricts 'choice' which is further compounded by the extra cost of HE.

'I'm a

Working Class Snob…but I Just Want to Get Out There'

Morrin, K.

(University of Manchester)

In recent years we have increasingly seen the promotion of enterprise culture within educational policy and reform, where it seems to have become 'common sense'-or 'doxic' to incorporate private sector principles to establish 'a culture of ambition to replace the poverty of aspiration' in schools. Although not a new phenomenon, discourses of

'entrepreneurship' have arguably intensified attention on the importance of aspiration, with 'enterprising' initiatives presented as 'progressive' and where 'solutions' to 'low aspirations' are to be founded. This paper draws on ethnographic research within (and outside) a secondary academy championing such an 'entrepreneurial ethos' based in North West England. Focusing on how entrepreneurial initiatives are practiced within the academy, I will offer examples of the ways in which students interact with discourses of entrepreneurship. In particular, I will consider how such 'enterprise culture' and wider debates on 'class' and 'respectability' collide in the context of the school and in the narratives of some working class students. When talking about 'being aspirational' some working class pupils considered their current position as untenable with a 'better' future self, leading them to talk about their imagined future trajectory through 'abjecting' their 'home' values, rather than in respect of them. Finally there will be a theoretical discussion about the notion of 'social abjection' itself, questioning the temporality of this concept and possibility of

'reflexivity' in these processes.

‘I Want to Get a Scholarship to Study Architecture in Texas and Design an Alice-In-Wonderland Housing

Estate

Ingram, N., Bathmaker, A.M.

(University of Bath)

This paper focuses on the aspirations of young people in two University Technical Colleges (UTCs) in England. Policy rhetoric promises highly skilled and highly paid work through vocational education routes and the attendant political

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discourse dictates that a lack of aspirations is a key ingredient in the failure of a significant number of young people to make successful employment transitions. UTCs are proffered as one of a number of alternative vocational educational providers that aim to address this perceived societal problem, and young people attending such institutions are led to believe that if they have aspirations and gain qualifications then opportunities will open up. However, it is questionable that this hope and aspiration will translate into opportunity. Arguably young people are being mis-sold a dream of opportunity by buying into the promises of a broken education system in an increasing unequal society. Under such structural conditions the education system cannot deliver its promises. Despite a lack of secure employment (and an increase in surplus labour) we found young people far from suffering from a lack of aspiration to have developed illusory aspirations beyond the track of their educational program. But who will be blamed when the promised goals are not achieved? We argue that the focus on aspiration and the development of a belief in false educational promises is likely to obfuscate the source of the failure in the material conditions of the economic system itself and lead young people to locate failure within themselves.

“Money Makes the World Go Round ….Youtube Inspires Me I Want to Watch Coke King Godmother”

Mckenzie, L.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

This paper raises the issues of how we challenge the now all too familiar narrative of deficit that working class people are burdened with through mainstream political rhetoric which accuses them of ‘not being aspirational’ or ‘socially excluding themselves’ or ‘being broken’. Asking whether the recent phenomena of Poverty Porn: pseudo-documentary style programmes ‘Benefits Street’, and ‘Skint’ which claims to show life ‘on benefits as it really is’ helped or hindered us as serious academic researchers? Being a sociologist and ethnographer can be difficult in countering these simplistic claims of the non-aspirational working class whose culture is often blamed for their unsuccessful lives. This becomes increasingly difficult when your research, the data you collect may feed in to the already negative stereotypes that are peddled through our politics and media about working class people. This paper examines some of the interviews, meetings, and observations I have undertaken in my research with working class people over the last 8 years and collected through in-depth ethnographies. Asking what happens when statements are made by those you interview appearing to confirm the common view of the un-aspirational teenager, or the lazy and feckless single mother. I argue that context is needed, and that we recognise people’s aspirations cannot be understood in a vacuum of what they say, even when they tell us something which may appear to confirm those negative stereotypes.

Sociology of Religion

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Representation of Muslim Women in Bollywood: Contexts of Change Sites of Continuity

Hussein, N., Hussain, S.

(University of Warwick)

The current paper investigates the Indian film industry's role as a crucial producer and distributer of popular culture and ideologies by exploring the kinds of identities that Bollywood's recent Muslim heroines represent in relation to gender, religion and nationalism in India. While the older narratives of Muslims in Bollywood can be categorized in binary identities such as good vs. bad Muslim, affiliation to nation vs. religious affiliation and the hyper-sexualized

Tawaif (courtesan) vs. the subservient veiled women, the recent narratives show some signs of change. We find that recent narratives about Muslim women in Bollywood and their identities are borne out of their choice of life partners, political participation, education, careers and varied embodied practices which empower these characters to a great extent. However we argue that in comparison to the signs of change the sites of continuity are much more strongly embedded in the religious-nationalistic meta-narrative that drives the paradigms of Indian femininity/women-hood.

Following Das (2006) we conclude that this continuity of stereotypical representation of Muslim women in Bollywood helps to maintain a Hindu patriarchal social structure at three inter-connected levels: among the genders (ordering women by men); among communities (bordering between Hindu and Muslim communal identities) and, inter-state othering between Indian and Pakistani identities' (373). The paper also highlights the impact of these stereotypes in rationalizing and normalizing violence against the Muslim community in the deeply fragmented political space of India.

With or without Bourdieu? The Uses of His Approach for the Study of Religious and Cultural Change

Thumala Olave, M.A., Donnelly, S.

(University of Edinburgh)

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The strong influence of Bourdieu's work on sociology generally and on the sociology of religion, in particular, is evident in the relative absence of critical engagements with his conceptual apparatus. Apart from the notable exceptions in the work of Jeffrey Alexander and Michelle Lamont in cultural sociology and some criticisms in the sociology of religion

(e.g. Thumala 2012) the pertinence and fruitfulness of applying Bourdieu's approach to the investigation of religious practice and belief remain mostly unchallenged. While there may be good theoretical and empirical reasons for this, these reasons need to be examined and made explicit. In this paper we seek to critically consider the uses of

Bourdieu in researching cultural and religious change. In particular, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of

Bourdieu's concepts of field and habitus for understanding religious change. Among other studies, this is analysed, within the context of the emergence of clerical child sexual abuse in Ireland; where, until the 1990s clerical child sexual abuse remained hidden from the public space and abusers protected by the 'scared ring of steel' of Church and elite collegiality. (Donnelly and Inglis, 2009). The purpose of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for future empirical research.

There's No Such Thing as (Secular) Society: Re-imagining God in the Contemporary Workplace

Read, M.

(University of Birmingham)

This paper draws upon my qualitative PhD research into the contemporary workplace as seen through twenty Quaker eyes. It argues that workplaces today should not be understood in merely secular terms. Rather, models of work need to accommodate the subjective identities of their members if they are to be better understood.

In the paper, I extrapolate ideas from my thesis to suggest that Quaker visions of the 'good' are negotiated at work in the everyday as religious ideals. A point of practical accommodation with the work organisation is reached by these religious affiliates. This pragmatic acceptance of managerial hegemony in the everyday should not be taken for outright agreement, however. Whilst Quakers' religiosity informs their workaday engagement, its utopian visions are felt but not observed when viewed through a managerialist lens.

Drawing on Martin Parker's (2002) view of work organisations as a negotiated and shifting utopic enterprise, the paper concludes that the workplace should be re-framed as the 'Workfluss'. Less a place than a confluence of continually negotiated individual visions of the 'good', work should only be seen as truly secular when religious perspectives are shown to be no longer present within this shifting collective form.

The Bible in (Virtual) Community: Accountability in Digital Religion

Hutchings, T.

(Durham University)

Research in the field of digital religion from the 1990s to the present day has focused extensively on the nature of authority and community online (for an overview, see Digital Religion, ed. Heidi Campbell, Routledge, 2013). In religion, as in politics, education and other arenas, debates continue over the degree to which shifts in authority and community represent social progress or regression.

The concept of accountability is integral to religious authority and community, but has so far received insufficient research attention. For Evangelical Christians in particular, the life of faith pursues and is guaranteed by visibility.

Practitioners bear witness to non-believing audiences by demonstrating their faith, and must in turn be witnessed, watched carefully by fellow believers for signs of moral failure. In this discourse, community is a space in which the participant is encouraged to grow in character and commitment by performing their identity

– including their submission to authority

– in a context of mutual surveillance.

This presentation will explore the significance of accountability in Christian media design, using the internationally popular Bible app YouVersion as a case study. YouVersion encourages users to circulate Bible verses through social media, to sign up to reading plans that monitor their progress, and to invite a small group of their closest friends to comment on their reading activity. This interview-based paper will explore how users and commentators are responding to this emphasis on accountability, drawing conclusions about the role of visibility in emerging patterns of networked religion.

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Theory

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Modernity and the Idea of Progress

Mouzakitis, A.

(University of Crete)

This paper aims to show the centrality the concept of progress occupies (explicitly and/or implicitly) in social theory, in relation to the theorization and understanding of modernity; it also raises the question whether in times where

Eurocentrism, logocentrism and indeed almost every claim of supremacy are rightly viewed with suspicion, it is possible to think of modernity without relying on some interpretation of the notion of progress . Arguably, the theme of progress, together with the complementary notion of decline, can be considered a key-component of discourses concerning modernity and has played a major role in the shaping of discourses about modernity and in the emergence of sociology. Comte and Durkheim relied in different ways in the idea of progress and the same holds for Marxist accounts of social change. Even later sociological theories address modernity from the perspective of progress, Elias' theory of the civilizing process and Parsons' structural functionalism (and his theory concerning system-differentiation) being exemplary in this respect. Moreover, theoretical discourses adopting a critical or even hostile attitude against the modern project often question the idea of progress and are woven around the representation of modernity in terms of decline and regression into unreason (e.g. the Dialectic of Enightment). Finally, the question regarding the possibility of disentangling the theorization of modernity from the idea of progress, is pursued via a critical assessment of Eisenstadt's multiple modernities and Wagner's recent theorization of modernity in terms of responses given to basic problematiques.

Modernity/Modernities and Personal Life: Reflections on East Asian Interventions

Jackson, S.

(University of York)

This paper addresses some issues raised by thinking about social change, personal life and gender relations in both

European and East Asian contexts. Much of the agenda of western research and theory on modernity and intimacy has been shaped by critical engagement with the work of Beck and Beck Gernsheim and Giddens (e.g. Smart 2007;

Heaphy 2007) Productive as these critiques have been, they have, with some exceptions, remained Eurocentric.

There are, however, other bodies of work on modernity tackling Eurocentrism, including that of East Asian scholars.

Not all such work attends to gender relations or personal life, but some does (e.g. Chang 2010; Chang and Song

2010; Tanabe and Tokita Tanabe 2004). In this paper I will consider how such East Asian scholars have engaged with, challenged and reshaped Eurocentric theorizations of modernity and the place of gender and familial/intimate relations in these interventions. In the process I will suggest that we should not only challenge the Eurocentrism of western scholarship but to think critically about the way that western theory travels: what travels and what does not, how it is engaged with and modified and whether it is possible to do theory differently. If we take seriously calls to provincialize not only 'the West' but the European tradition of social theory and work towards the kind of 'connected sociologies' called for by Bhambra (2010) how would this impact on the ways in which we think about the gendered consequences of social change?

The Nature of Structure: Towards a Neurostructural Model of Well Being?

Bone, J.

(University of Aberdeen)

This paper builds upon previous work exploring fundamental social processes from a neurosociological perspective. In this instance an evolving theoretical model, the Social Map, is presented in revised and updated form (taking account of advances in understanding the 'social brain') and applied to offer an alternative understanding of the processes underlying some of the observable regularities of social life. While conceding that, for numerous reasons, this is a controversial endeavour, it is approached from a standpoint that recognises the indeterminate and diverse nature of social contents, but nonetheless proposes that there exists a degree of consistency with respect to wider social forms and organisation within and across a variety of social settings both geographically and historically. Overall, it is argued here that social life can be understood as a dynamic interactive process, somewhat in the Simmelian or

Eliasian sense, but one that operates as a structured homeostatic system, where its regularities can be regarded as emergent phenomena but whose form is mediated by the constraints imposed by key elements of our neurological architecture and its functioning. Further, it is argued that the model can be applied to offer deeper understanding of

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some of the key factors that support well-functioning societies and, in turn, the well-being of individuals and communities.

Work, Employment and Economic Life 1

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Staying in the Pipeline: Negotiating Gender in the Male-dominated Workplace in Taiwan

Chin, T-F.

(University of York)

The lively women's movement and gender equality activism has brought Taiwan a long way toward gender equality.

However, it is too soon to say that we have reached our goal. One obvious fact is gender segregation among industries. Science, technology and medicine, which have been perceived as 'men's professions', are still very much male-dominated. While research has been done to address the 'leaky pipeline' issue, I would like to focus on the experience of women who have been 'staying in the pipeline.' Adopting qualitative case studies as research method, the aim of this research is to look at women's experience of gender in the male-dominated industries, such as IT and engineering. By analysing semi-structured interview data, I will discuss the difficulties facing by women who cross the barrier of gender segregation and the strategies they have practiced to negotiate male dominated work environments.

I will argue that while women who choose the so-called 'male professions' do make a difference, the dominant heterosexual masculine culture in a work organization cannot be simply shifted by the presence of women employees.

Moreover, women might be 'reshaped', socialized or disciplined by the masculine work environment.

Researching Discursive Resources in Gendered Research Institutions: New Approaches to Studying the

Leaky Pipeline

Dubois-Shaik, F., Fusulier, B.

(Université Catholique de Louvain)

Current research shifts classic perspectives of why women are prone to encounter significant hurdles in the advancement of their scientific/academic careers, and why 'leaky pipelines' exist in many scientific fields (SSH/STEM).

Instead of presuming that professional trajectories are shaped by 'subjective factors' that lead to a kind of autoelimination (Beaufays and Krais, 2005:52/53), attention has been drawn to looking at research institutions as gendered organisations (Acker, 1990), translating the social division of work between the sexes in the practice of scientific work. We argue that norms of scientific work are shaped by discourses (Fairclough, 2009). These are constructing (and constructed by) a process of sense making (Weick, 1995) amidst an array of discursive ressources

(Kuhn, 2006); out-dated symbolic and pratical persistence of 'bread-winner' and 'carer' models; a precarity of jobs; a high demand for a competitive game; an accent upon hyper-productivity (Fusulier & Rio del Carral, 2012); voluntary enrolment in 'greedy institutions' (Coser, 1974), such as research/academia but also family (Grant et al., 2000) etc.

This paper proposes a conceptual approach testing these hypotheses in a Belgian french-speaking institutional context by examining

(a) what kind of discursive resources researchers, in the early stages of their careers use to articulate their professional (and private) lives;

(b) how these actors (women and men) hierarchically negotiate an array of discursive ressources;

(c) if and what kind of gendered logics and dynamics exist in this identity work and finally

(d) how this articulation contributes in shaping today's practice of scientific/academic work.

Focus Groups as a Research Method with Women in Senior Roles

McKie, L., Jyrkinen, M.

(Durham University)

Sociological work on experiences of employment and gender continues to be dominated by qualitative methods, generally one to one semi structured or biographical interviews. Rarely are focus groups a chosen method. The reasons for this range from sensitivities that might potentially emerge in any focus group discussions on business health, future plans, competition between sections within organisations as well as between businesses, and

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interpretations of leadership as illuminating strength. In summary, researchers have shied away from focus groups fearing that seniority and leadership will inhibit discussions between participants.

In this paper we critically examine and reflect upon the use of focus groups with women in mid to late career at senior management level. We explore contrasts in group memberships and contexts through two focus groups run in Finland and two in Scotland. Two groups drew together women in non-traditional areas of female employment, namely engineering and IT, and two brought together women in service and retail, and the public and charitable sectors.

Across the groups sensitive issues on gender, organisations, role and work place relationships were explored. We contend this richness in data emerges from the main research question, namely gender and mid career. Women were drawn to discussions on common experiences, also exploring how these differ and change over time. Through sharing career experiences women illuminated their intersecting contexts. In conclusion, focus groups enhanced an exploration of their embodied experiences of career and gender.

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Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

Room

M532

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Environment and Society

Families and Relationships

Frontiers 1

Frontiers 2

Medicine, Health and Illness

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities

Sociology of Education

Theory

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Work, Employment and Economic Life 2

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C236

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Carnegie Lecture Theatre

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

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Brazil or Brazils? The FIFA World Cups of 1950 and 2014 as Reaffirmations of the Brazilian Modern

(Federative) State

De Souza Malanski, D.

(University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle and Autonomous University of Barcelona)

The representation of a hosting country or region in a world mega-event - through opening ceremonies, posters and other media - is intended to convey an (often) idealised image of the self to local and foreign audiences alike. The periodicity of such events may therefore work as a practical method to understand the progression, regression or transition of a nation towards different political agendas. In the case of Brazil, which held the FIFA World Cups of 1950 and 2014, the analysis of the promotional material as well as the opening cerimonies of the aforementioned events brings us dichotomies that have been central to the construction of Brazilian identity throughout the country's history.

One of these dichotomies is present in the duality between modernity/coloniality, as Brazil has used the participation and the hosting of mega-events as means to reclaim her status as a modern and developed nation. A further duality lays on the tension between the national and the local - such polarity is not solely due to Brazil's continental size, but also to the fact that the architects of the republic proclamation in 1889 (i.e. the Brazilian army and local elites) have had different plans to the country and her states for most of the country history as a (federative) republic. This paper will thus make a comparison of how Brazil showed herself in regard to the forenamed topics in 1950 and 2014.

Bourdieu and the City: Tower Hamlets through the Context of City Habitus

Whittaker, T.

(City University)

The paper examines the London borough of Tower Hamlets as the site of unique and adapting cultural and social

(pre)dispositions. In doing so, it considers Martyn Lee's concept of 'City Habitus' - an adaptation of Pierre Bourdieu's habitus, which recognises that the objective conditions of existence, or the social and material facts which confront a city through time, give rise to the formation of a particular habitus. This then manifests itself through distinct, durable and adaptive dispositions which in turn generate the place-specific practices of the city.

Pointing to the distinctive socio-economic character of Tower Hamlets, the paper highlights the means by which such factors have come to inform the habitus of its residents. Further, it illustrates how external circumstances

– including the regeneration of Docklands, an ongoing rotation of diverse migratory communities, the London 2012 Olympics, and the advancement of 'Tech City'- can over time adjust the original objective conditions of existence, thereby leading to a modification of the original habitus.

The paper recognises Doreen Massey's 'progressive sense of place' and challenges the claim that social fluidity and mobilisation eradicate the importance of territoriality. Instead, as Osborne and Rose observe, it argues that fixed location can be seen as the 'sediment product of intensive flows'.

Gentrification Archives: Activism at the Intersection of the Politics of Archives and of Cities

Pell, S.

(Richmond, The American International University in London)

Archiving is increasingly part of activist practice. More than just repositories of activist materials and knowledge, these archives are used directly in social struggles as groups challenge and seek to transform hegemonic power. The emergence of autonomous gentrification archives is particularly interesting for illuminating the form that struggles are taking in an age of contested information. These archives are used to track complicated redevelopment processes, mobilize collective memory in contemporary campaigns, and critically intervene in public discourses about

'regeneration'. Understanding the growing use of archives by anti-gentrification groups can thus provide insights into the role of documentation practices in urban protests, and might offer ways to expand social justice in our cities.

In this presentation, I draw upon ethnographic fieldwork at the 56a Gentrification Archive, located in south London,

UK. The archive has been central to the anti-gentrification activists' strategies of mobilizing local knowledge and documenting the details of redevelopment projects in order to contest gentrification within governmental and public

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spaces. I suggest these strategies, which involve issues of belonging, representation, and authority, can be best understood by bringing together the politics of the city and the politics of the archive in a conversation about place, knowledge, and power. The city and the archive have both been much criticized and contested for practices of exclusion and displacement; however, learning from struggles at their intersection can perhaps point to both as potential sites of empowerment and self-determination.

Housing as Activity: Towards a Sociology of Dwelling

Fuller, M.

(Technische Universität Berlin)

From council estates to artist lofts, slums to villas, the spaces we inhabit are intricately bound with the ways we order our lives, make sense of identity and develop social bonds. Forms of inhabitable space are bound with normative judgments about 'good living' and the ways categories of class and identity are developed. Despite the centrality of spaces of inhabitation, the sociological study of dwelling remains under-developed in many ways. While there are numerous accounts in recent and canonical literature that deal with dwelling, yet its centrality to our everyday lives is often assumed, rather than analysed. Drawing in part on architect John F C Turner's claim that 'housing is a verb', in this paper I argue for a sociology of dwelling developed on the thesis: housing is an activity. In both leisure and labor our modes of habitation involve often-unacknowledged activities that are necessary to uphold the physical housing in which we dwell, the objects and beings that populate inhabited space, the relationships developed in inhabited space and the meanings attached to our forms of dwelling. Drawing on theories of everyday life and spatial sociology, I will present this theoretical position within preliminary results from research into housing in Berlin.

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

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The Death of Reconciliation, the Rise of Relationship: The Emerging Church Movement and Social

Transformation in South Africa

Scott, D.

(Queen's University Belfast)

This paper examines the current role of religious organisations, primarily Christian ones, in South Africa's long and ongoing transition from apartheid to a just and equal society. During the anti-apartheid struggle, religious leaders agitated for political reform, mediated between political actors and, under the chairmanship of Archbishop Tutu, influenced the character of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. However, the church has in recent years been censured within and outside of the religious sector for abandoning its critical stance towards government. Moreover, high poverty levels and persistent inequality have led scholars to propose that the country's post-apartheid focus on racial reconciliation, a project closely linked to the mainstream church and the TRC, is partly to blame for the stillracialised economic structures. Taking these critiques into account, this paper analyses how a handful of Christian organisations which show characteristics of the Emerging Church Movement

– with its emphasis on individualized,

'authentic', lifestyle-based social and religious commitments

– are working at the intersection of race, religion, and social and economic inequality in Cape Town. The organisations' shared discourse of intentional relationship-building across the city's economic and geographical divisions aligns with their attempts to form multiracial, ecumenical groups of people who try to effect 'inward-outward' social change based primarily on solidarity with others rather than forgiveness for past wrongs. This research critiques and adds to what to date has been a US-dominated literature on how integrated religious groups can resolve racial tensions, but which tends not to comment on how this affects social stratification.

Milk Bottles, Pacifiers and Gods of Wealth: Urban Taoism in Transition

Heng, T.

(Singapore Institute of Technology)

Singapore is a global city in a state of constant spatial and cultural liminality, and this is powerfully exemplified in the way folk-religion is consumed, performed, documented and visualised in everyday life. In this presentation I will consider the role of cosplay in suburban Taoist spaces in Singapore, and what it means to the people who experience it and the places and spaces in which it is performed.

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Far from being a hobby restricted to special conventions for enthusiasts, cosplay in Singapore permeates the religious and ethnic lives of individuals in diverse and often contradictory ways. Cosplay appears to be used to concretise spiritual concepts in a visually arresting manner in the form of exaggerated appropriations of divine beings. LED lights and cartoon-ish props are used to construct the comportment of Taoist spirit mediums (tang-ki) channelling deities, who then go on to dwell in both intimate and public spaces. I will argue that the presentation of such beings is a way to rewrite state concepts of economic and cultural progress by re-imagining the city as both a physical as well as spiritual space.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

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The Enigma of the Modern Soccer Ball

Kennedy, P.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

In the popular imaginary, the phrase, 'the people's game' is indicative of plurality, and is frequently fastened to the dominant image of English football; this mythic quality has proved a highly durable trope, which seductively points to an inclusive football culture. Whilst there has been much sociological scholarship highlighting the gendered and racialised nature of football: from its structures of governance and managerialism, through to its players and fans, there exists a lacuna of knowledge examining how disablement operates within these leisure spaces and little attention is paid to the social benefits, or experiences, of being a fan. This presentation will focus on the theoretical underpinnings of my continuing PhD research project. Firstly I provide a brief overview of how the unitary categories of

'race', gender and disability are constructed within the neoliberal political economy of football. Next, I elucidate on the propositions of Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Disability Studies (DS) perspectives in providing a bespoke analytical framework to better understand the entangled imbrications of disability, 'race' and gender, helping tease out the similarities, differences, complexities and nuances of intersecting social locations within football fandom. I conclude by arguing that the commitment to social justice embedded within the coherence of a CRT-DS model, not only allows us to challenge the egalitarian assumptions and practices of football governance, but additionally gives us a critical tool to research disability and its intersections more fully.

Mentalità Utras, the Ultras Mentality: Protest and Fandom in Italian Ultras Culture

Doidge, M.

(University of Brighton)

Since their emergence in the 1960s, the ultras have become the dominant form of football fandom in Italian football.

Their visual style has been adopted across Europe, particularly in Southern and Eastern Europe and North Africa.

More importantly, the ultras have become the dominant form of political protest in Italian football. Fundamentally, these protests are tied to the rapid globalisation of football that took place through out the 1990s. Increasing commercialism tested the ultras' notion of football fandom. Protests have also been levelled at the increasingly draconian approach from the Italian government that attempts to control the excesses of the ultras. Yet these changes are not simply targeted at the ultras. Football reflects society and many of the expressions of political protest are explicitly tied to wider changes in Italian society. The ultras themselves grew out of the political protests of the 1970s.

By the 1980s, many groups had become apolitical, with many focussing on violence. Others, however, were reflecting the extreme localism and xenophobia manifesting itself in Italian political discourse. Despite this fragmentation, many groups have began to co-operate and join under an umbrella 'mentalità ultras'. They utilise the various aspects of ultras culture to perform their protests. Although these protests help to galvanise the identity of the groups, and unite them across Italy and Europe, it has not affected significant change; ultimately the position of the state and the ultras has become entrenched.

Rethinking the Political Economy of Sports Mega-Events

Horne, J., Gruneau, R.

(University of Central Lancashire)

Over the past 30 years social scientists have paid increasing attention to large scale sporting events, such as the

Olympics and the World Cup. Maurice Roche's book Mega-Events and Modernity, published in 2000, has long been seen as a pioneering work in this research tradition. Notably, Roche provided a working definition of mega-events, consolidated existing writing in the area and provided a framework for analyzing such events from the standpoint of

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social theory. There have also been other important theoretical contributions to the study of such events from a variety of disciplines, including urban geography, political science and policy studies, in addition to sociology. However, in our view, the mega-events literature tends to be insufficiently theorized, especially in respect to the role played by megaevents in broader processes of accumulation and legitimation in capitalist modernity. In this presentation, we make a case for a renewed critical political economy of mega-events in an age of global networks of accumulation, blurred lines in global social media, new ways of valorizing immaterial labour and new forms of international struggle.

Environment and Society

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LIFESTYLE AND CONSUMPTION

'Sitting on Agricultural Development': Growing Food Insecurity on the Turks and Caicos Islands

Paddock, J., Smith, A.

(University of Manchester)

Turks and Caicos, a small island archipelago in the British West Indies, has historically imported significant volumes of food to compliment marine based food stocks. Concurrently, records of endogenous agriculture have been poor; with landscape characteristics, weather systems and price shocks usually frustrating investment. Declining fish stocks coupled with a refocus of the economy towards servicing the tourism industry compounds local people's loss of access to fish as a healthy source of protein. TCI is thus increasingly dependent on food imports, while historical and contemporary records and sources point to the impossibility of endogenous food production. Indeed, knowledge of physical geography is overlaid with the cultural perception that agriculture is too closely remembered and associated with its colonial past. However, oral history interviews with senior citizens reveal that not only was food production possible in the recent past, but was fundamental to island life. The paper explores contrasting discourses regarding how food security needs can be met in the future. We then explore the impact of popular discursive formations on the subject of food production upon fundamental issues of identity, legitimacy and authority. In this way, we are reminded of what is possible, and increasingly necessary for the secure supply of not only safe and nutritious food, but culturally appropriate foods that uphold valued diets and ways of life as part of wider sustainable place-making in the face of global environmental challenges posed by climate change and biodiversity loss.

Macro Mechanisms and Social Policies for Sustainable Consumption: A Comparative Perspective, China and the UK

Zhu, D.

(Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

The challenges of 'sustainability' faced by China and the UK differ in nature and extent. As a newly emerging discourse, 'sustainable consumption' requires comprehensive understanding by both developing and developed countries in order to enhance international dialogue and cooperation with respect to 'sustainable' and 'green' consumption. This research aims to review comparative approaches to consumption, with a focus on macro-level institutional factors which shape and influence the sustainability of consumer behavior and orientations, including globalization, social systems, regimes of consumption and production, and social policies. Comparing the processes and mechanisms capable of fostering a transition to sustainable consumption will provide a basis for subsequent targeted research on sustainable development. The method is a meta-analysis of the research literature on sustainable consumption and policy analysis, with a preliminary analysis of survey data on the Chinese middle class collected in 2014 in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. A systematic survey of the literature relevant to sustainable consumption in China and the UK will be conducted, with special reference to popular consumption patterns, innovation, public policies and food. Relationships between key stakeholders

– consumers, manufacturers and business, government and NGOs

– will be examined. The focus will be on a comparison of the means proposed for changing consumer behavior and advancing innovative production, given the different experiences of developing and developed countries.

Sustainable Lifestyles in Everyday Consumption Behaviour: Drivers and Barriers of Sustainable Food

Purchase in an Urban System

Demaldè, C.

(University Milano-Bicocca)

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An interdisciplinary approach is proposed to combine the multiple dimensions of sustainability and to discuss the emergency of dealing with issues related to food and nutrition with regard to the urban context. As food is a basic and everyday need, it surely affects our lives and the places we live. Therefore, nutritional patterns cause changes both on the food system and on the environment. Hence the need to investigate in depth motivations and difficulties that determine food consumption practices of citizen.

According to the literature, the diffusion of sustainable consumption behaviour is linked both to the development of

'green' lifestyles and particular values and to the contextual conditions that drive people to implement alternative methods of purchase. It will be analysed the degree of impact of these elements and how they form in the city.

Are presented the results of a survey designed to identify the factors that affect the sustainable food consumption in the city of Milan. The study examines the impact of both contextual and personal factors: socio-economic factors and spatial accessibility, the importance of knowledges and information, values and cultural habits. Quantitative and qualitative instruments are both used to show the reasons why citizens search for and create new ways of food consumption and the barriers that they can find.

This study can provide useful indications to social researchers to adopt a more complete view on the sustainability issue and to manage the different kinds of factors that determine the transition to sustainable consumption practices.

Families and Relationships

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Domestic A buse in the ‘Progressing’ British Military Community: Structure, Discourse, and Help-seeking

Gray, H.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

This paper employs a feminist analysis to explore domestic abuse in the British military context. I conceptualise domestic abuse not primarily as a crime of assault but as a gendered pattern of power and control in which a perpetrator entraps his/her partner through micro-regulation of everyday life. In addition, the military is understood as a social institution constructed through gendered structures and discourses. This construction is at present in a state of flux

– defined variously as progression or regression depending on one's viewpoint - as ongoing redundancies, rebasing, and changing gender roles break down the traditional structures of camp life. I argue that the progressing/regressing structures and discourses which shape the militarisation of gender to some extent reshape the opportunities for the perpetration of and the resistance to abusive control and, therefore, victim-survivors' help-seeking needs.

Drawing on interviews with civilian women who have experienced abuse in marriages to British servicemen, I tease out the ways in which a range of factors including militarised constructions of the public and private spheres, wives' evolving position on the borders of the military community, and discourses around heroism, duty, protection, and precarity produce particular vulnerabilities to abuse, and barriers to, as well as opportunities for, help-seeking. In concluding, I explore the contributions of this work for the provision of services to this particular group of women as well as its wider implications for sociological understandings of domestic abuse.

Bringing

‘Social Work’ Families into Sociology: Exploring Practices of Support, Agency and Intimacy between

Mothers and Children Who Have Escaped from Domestic Violence

Katz, E.

(Liverpool Hope University)

This paper shows how the 'non-normal' families usually addressed by social work and clinical psychology (Wilson et al

2012) can be incorporated into sociological research on children's agency within the family. This approach carries forward, to a new level, Gabb, Morrow, Smart and Williams' ground-breaking work on children's lived experiences and sense-making within 'normal' families. The paper is based on Ph.D. research completed in 2014 that used the

Framework approach to analyse semi-structured interviews conducted with 30 UK mothers and children (aged 10-20) who had been separated from perpetrators of domestic violence for an average of five years. These recovery-stage families tended to have relationships remarkably similar to those discovered by Williams and others, with helpful mutual supports taking place

– children desiring to support their mothers as well as be supported by them. This research therefore suggests the utility of adding such adversity-affected families to sociology's exploration of support, agency and intimacy within family settings.

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Austerity, Mothering and Food: Feeding the Family on Less

Cappellini , B., Harman, V., Parsons, E.

(Royal Holloway, University of London)

This paper seeks to understand how 12 British mothers on low incomes feed their family in recessionary times, by interviewing and observing these women during their everyday food shopping. It explores participants' everyday coping strategies in the supermarket and the home and how these relate to the individual identity of doing motherhood.

We apply the Foucauldian concept of surveillance to understand the everyday mothering work of feeding the family.

Following Foucault (1975), contemporary power relations are characterised by a constant surveillance directed at producing docile bodies and minds, as individuals are aware of their 'conscious and permanent visibility' (Foucault

1977:201). More recently Douglas and Micheals (2004: 6) speak of intensive mothering as constant state of mind characterised by self-sacrifice and 'psychological police state' wherein mothers are constantly 'surveil' and judge themselves.

We argue that the current financial crisis has deepened the everyday intensive mothering and mothers' selfsurveillance. In fact, the reduced family income has intensified practices of self-abnegation and self-sacrifice as coping strategies of redirecting family resources to children and partners. These strategies are framed as a matter of 'doing good mothering', by enacting practices of self-control and disciplining the self. When deviations from such as a selfsacrifice regime occur, these are framed as a way of 'putting the children first' (Chaudry 2004) and doing family. As such we observe that recessionary times stimulate a reinstatement of more traditional gender inequalities in the home and an intensification of mothering as a matter of self-policing.

How to be Good: Making Modern Mothers

Close, J.

(Newcastle University)

As a form of culture encapsulating the ideals of neoliberalism, 'parenting' has come to assume a pivotal role across the political spectrum. Coming into general use as a verb since the late twentieth-century, 'parenting' is expert guided, knowledge based and instrumentalised (Hoffman, 2013; Gillies 2014). Seemingly gender-neutral, (although in practice, primarily mothers) 'parenting' is a set of skills that can, theoretically, be generally agreed upon, and generally learned. Underlying parenting is a moral narrative of risk and blame; everyday interactions are frequently expressed in terms of development, and the prospect that not completing these tasks well, will obstruct the child's natural progress.

At a wider level, it is bound up with health, education, and societal well-being. The solution to delinquent, unqualified, unhealthy and inactive future citizens has, in public rhetoric, been placed squarely on the shoulders of mothers. Their deficits are thus understood as the root, rather than the effect, of social and economic inequalities.

My research explores the making of maternal identity, built upon not only normative ideals of 'good' mothers but also, the expectation that they will produce 'good' children. By talking with mothers, it has been possible to capture some of the sense of responsibility, anxiety and practices invested in and by mothers to produce themselves and their children as ideal citizens. In particular, how this is produced in, and productive of, a social context that stresses individuality, self-regulation and activity what this means for those mothers who 'fail' to meet expectations.

Frontiers 1

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RESEARCH ETHICS IN A DIGITAL AGE: UPDATING THE BSA ETHICS GUIDELINES

The BSA has long had a well-regarded (and frequently cited) Statement of Ethical Practice, yet, since the original publication of this statement, the online environment, in particular has had a significant effect on aspects of society and research and has implications for sociological research in its many guises. As a consequence, the guide is being updated to take account of these changes and key ethical considerations for sociological research. This session will give conference delegates and opportunity to discuss the existing BSA Ethics Guidelines, and current challenges for sociology in the digital age, and will allow for feedback with regard for current work on updating the guidelines, as well as discussion of future plans and the ways in which our efforts relate to those being carried out in neighbouring disciplines (such as psychology).

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Rose Barbour, Susan Halford and Wendy Martin will form the panel for the day, providing background to their considerations and inviting delegate feedback. The full working party includes Huw Davies, Robert Dingwall, Christina

Hotz, Gabriel Newfield and Daniel Conway.

Frontiers 2

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HOW TO GET YOUR WORK READ AND CITED

This session will be hosted by Wiley and is open to all delegates.

Medicine, Health and Illness

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Changing the Label: Re-Configuring Identity as a Path to Resilience for Destitute Asylum Seekers in the UK

Cuthill, F.

(University of Edinburgh)

In recent years, an asset based approach to public health has gained traction and while not a new approach, it has turned the attention of both policy makers and researchers away from a focus on health deficits, towards identifying capabilities for health. Resilience is increasingly seen as an asset for health and this is especially so for people living in marginalised spaces, where ill health is often associated with structural oppression. While it is widely recognised that people seeking asylum in high-income countries occupy a vulnerable structural position, it is rare for research to explore the concept of resilience with this group. More often, the focus for research has been on physical and mental ill-health. Nonetheless, to study the notion of resilience in groups who live stigmatised lives beyond the margins of citizenship and lawful employment, offers the potential to find new understandings of the ways that resilience is developed.

In this paper, the findings of a peer participatory research study with people who find themselves destitute following the asylum process in the UK is presented. The findings explore new contours of resilience and contribute to expanding our understandings of the ways that resilience is shaped within positions of extreme structural oppression.

'Because We're Responsible Citizens!': Constructions of the 'Good Patient' in GPs' and Lay People's

Narratives of the Presentation of Cancer Symptoms in Primary Care

Green, T., Seymour; J., Macleod, U.

(University of Hull)

This paper draws on data from a qualitative study undertaken in the UK that explored General Practitioners' (GPs) use of Clinical Decision Support (CDS) tools for cancer in primary care. Twenty-eight GPs were interviewed over the telephone about their experiences of using the tools in practice and to complement these data, focus groups were conducted with six patient representative groups to explore their perceptions of GPs' use of such tools during

GP/patient consultations. Fieldwork was carried out during 2012

– 2013, a time which heralded a period of flux within primary care and a raised public awareness via the media of limited resources within the National Health Service

(NHS), alongside ongoing public health campaigns to raise awareness of cancer symptoms. The paper will use the data to show GPs' and lay people's narrative constructions of the 'good patient' to reveal how maintenance of this identity was underscored by notions of the patient as worthy and deserving of GP time. We draw on Dixon-Woods concept of 'candidacy' to interrogate how lay constructions of the self as 'good patient' can act as a facilitator and/or a barrier to the receipt of timely healthcare. Applying a Bourdieuan analysis, our discussion is grounded in the conceptual framework of 'cultural health capital' (Shim, 2010) in order to broaden understandings of healthcare inequalities and cultural health practices in a contemporary UK context and in relation to the earlier diagnosis of cancer.

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Conceptualising Social Enterprise as a Health and Well-being 'Intervention'

Roy, M.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

The persistent and well-documented problem of health inequalities has challenged public health researchers since the relationship between income and health was first established (Marmot et al. 2008). In the context of austerity measures leading to public-sector funding cuts, and faced with continuing, even growing, inequalities, more innovative, community-based solutions have gained prominence. With this in mind, social enterprises, businesses which, rather than distributing profits to shareholders, re-invest their profits in fulfilment of a social mission, could prove to be a potentially innovative and inclusive response. However there is a significant gap in knowledge of how, and to what extent, social enterprise impacts upon health and well-being.

This research examines whether social enterprise can be thought of as having a role in acting upon 'upstream' social determinants of health (Roy et al. 2013; Roy et al, 2014). In seeking to fulfil a social mission, usually aimed at attempting to address one or more aspects of social vulnerability at the local level, it could be claimed that almost all social enterprises act upon social factors which comprise broader determinants of health, and may be able to do this in ways that traditional public or private services are often unable to do.

By utilising methods influenced by a critical realist philosophical position, this research presents some potential

'pathways to impact' of social enterprise-led activity upon health and well-being, one of the first steps towards a large scale programme of work in this area.

Probiotics, Functional Drinks and Immunity Narratives

Tamari, T.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

In recent years, Yakult has been become a successful global brand through its claim to provide 'good bacteria' to support the digestive and immune systems. In biomedical discourse, immunity has long been seen as a 'self-defence' system, a metaphor taken from juridico-political and military contexts: good bacteria 'fight' foreign bacterial invaders.

Although the early discourse about the immune system was basically constructed around the fundamental idea of 'the self-nonself model', this paradigm (search and destroy 'nonself') has yet to solve some of the key contemporary medical problems, such as transplantation, autoimmune diseases and chimerism. Focusing on the Japanese brand

Yakult as a case study, this paper attempts to explore how the biomedical discourse of 'defence' is linked to probiotics via marketing strategies that echo dominant themes in neoliberalism (e.g. individualizing health 'protection' in a competitive society). It also engages with the new paradigm of immunology, which refuses to focus solely on the 'selfnonself' distinction and explains that encountering the 'Other' may bring risks, but could productively further biological binding with the self. Hence it emphasizes the importance of the incorporation of the 'Other' and this could be understood as a potential model for a symbiotic society. This paper proposes that the new discourse of immunity could offer an important critical counter-claim to the competitive self-centered individualism of neoliberal society.

Methodological Innovations

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Creating Vignettes of Early Onset Dementia: An Exercise in Public Sociology

Jenkins, N., Keyes, S., Strange, L.

(University of the West of Scotland)

This paper discusses the creation of four, filmed, theatrical vignettes about living with early onset dementia (symptoms of major neurocognitive impairment pre-65). The vignettes were developed through an Image Theatre workshop, involving families living with early onset and designed to capture key themes, issues and experiences emerging from the group's collective experience. Whilst the content of the vignettes speaks to a range of sociological debates

(especially in relation to the lived experience of time, risk, social exclusion and stigma in dementia) the process of creating and using the vignettes represents the first empirical application of our (public) sociological approach to

'personalisation' in dementia.

Poetry in Prisons: Sex Worker Narratives through Reading Aloud

Ahearne, G.

(Leeds Beckett University)

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This paper will discuss my Ph.D research into women in prison who have a history of engaging in sex work. Through the method of reading aloud, a space opens up whereby participants can explore their own life worlds and those of their peers. This method allows participants to navigate and set the agenda. As a feminist researcher I am interested in the power imbalances of research, and this paper seeks to explore the relationship between methods, data and power.

Navigation and Methodology in Online Digital Collections and Social Machines

Hudson, M.

(Newcastle University)

As part of an AHRC funded knowledge exchange programme sociologists, educational ethnographers and social computing designers worked with schools and communities to develop new digital platforms which aggregated vast collections of data, images, text, and sound for heritage and museum collections. This paper looks at 'Co-Curation' and the question of randomised 'journeys through data' that schools and communities took, describes their complex and multiple interactions with data, and explores methodologies for understanding Self-Organised Learning

Experiences (SOLEs) in the classroom and community settings. The paper argues for new methodologies that take ethnographic description into new areas that can somehow 'plenary' the navigation and search experience, particularly when the digital platform makes possible random and serendipitous journeys in order to answer 'big questions' or to an understanding of something far removes from the original intent of the initial search. It concludes by thinking about the very idea of the 'social' in the social machine and the future of collections, electronic social editions, and ubiquitous but fragile digital information and the methods we need to understand that.

Desert Island Data: An Experiment in Researcher Positionality and Interpretivism

Dean, J.

(Sheffield Hallam University)

This presentation will report on a methodological experiment conducted among six researchers from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, who had different research interests and personal experiences and subjectivities. Taking three interviews from the popular BBC Radio 4 show Desert Island Discs, each with a working-class male comedian, each researcher analysed the audio and transcript data separately. The team then came together to present their findings and research themes, and discuss their response to the interviews, and to reflect on their participation in the task. While some researchers focused on the role of media interview as performance and the celebrity hierarchy that

Desert Island Discs may seek to perpetuate, others focused on the role of social class habitus and hysteresis in how interviewees understand the lived experience of their own success. Different methodological and theoretical frameworks were used, and different reactions to the data emerged. This experiment sought to provide evidence of the importance of researcher positionality and the nature of interpretivism within (qualitative) research. Despite awareness in social science research that two researchers may interpret the same data in very different ways, the issue has remained underexplored and relatively untested. This paper will situate the findings of this project in the history of such debates alongside examining the role restudies play in sociological research. It is also posited that such an experiment may form a useful teaching and training tool for social researchers.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

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RACE AND ETHNICITY SUB-STREAM: HISTORICAL LEGACIES AND ACTIVISM

Contemporary White Discourses on Reparations and the Legacies of Transatlantic Colonial Slavery

Garner, S., Jones, C.

(Open University)

The topic of transatlantic slavery and its legacies occasionally resurfaces in public discourse, most recently in response to the 2014 campaign for reparations led by Caribbean Heads of Government. The competing strands of discourse that emerge do so in patterns, as an analysis of media and political sources reveal. These discourses arguably perform particular ideological labour, presenting the subject in a number of overlapping ways, as outlined in our paper. Slavery is finished business, consigned to some historical dustbin, and the nature of any putative legacies, and the extent of contemporary white responsibility for correcting the wrongs of the past, contested. In fact, the dismissal of claims for reparations invariably upholds a narrative of African culpability. Reparations are thus

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unjustifiable, unreasonable and unfeasible. Moreover, other modern forms of slavery are posited as more pertinent and deserving of our efforts for social justice. Yet just as the legacy of the past is discounted in one movement, it is restored and exploited in another, to justify contemporary global economic and social hierarchies, and to underscore the value of abolition within the ongoing discussion of Britishness. We argue that these erasures and this selective remembering produce a frame in which white people are both innocents and the saviours of black people. These erasures and selections are not random, but representative of an element of whiteness that constitutes one of the ways in which talk about 'race' is constructed.

Malcolm X Fifty Years On: Black Power and Coloured Cosmopolitanism

Narayan, J., Andrews, K.

(University of Warwick)

2015 will mark the fiftieth anniversary of both Malcolm X's visit to Britain and his untimely assassination. This occasion marks an important juncture to reassess Malcolm X's legacy and the potential lessons such a legacy holds for the twenty first century. Popular narrations of Malcolm X's life and its conception of 'Black Power' have routinely conceptualised his philosophy and politics as the violent and regressive counterpart to the non-violent and progressive

American Civil Rights Movement. This paper seeks to address the legacy of Malcolm X through challenging this reductive idea of his thought and praxis. This will be achieved through examining how Malcolm X's brand of Black

Nationalism offered an under-appreciated critique of racism and democracy at home and helped lay the foundations of

Coloured Cosmopolitanism abroad. This duality of purpose at the heart of X's thought and politics not only presents a rebuttal of reductive narrations of his life but also offers a radical alternative to the idea of The Good Society and embedded liberalism of the post-war era. The paper will conclude by examining how the legacy of Malcolm X offers us in the present vital lessons about how we conceive anti-racist politics and global democracy in the twenty first century.

Still 'Policing the Crisis'? Black and Mixed 'Race' Peoples Experiences of Policing

Long, L.

(University of Leeds)

This paper presents findings of PhD research grounded in a Critical Race Theoretical framework. The research findings are based on thirty qualitative, semi-structured interviews with men and women who identified as black or mixed 'race' with experience of police contact.

Black people in Britain have historically been over policed and under protected. Legislative and policy intervention in the past three decades has not brought about any significant change and, as evidenced by the post-August 2011 riots research, black people still have low levels of confidence in the police.

This research seeks to understand the role of 'race' in experiences of police/citizen contact. It explores 1) police initiated and 2) citizen initiated contact and analyses race at its intersection with class, gender, age and mixed 'race' identity. The paper suggests that the whiteness of the police institution and processes of institutional racialisation, evident within contemporary neo- colonial practices, can be used to understand the experiences of black and mixed

'race' people with the police.

This paper responds to the limited body of contemporary literature which focuses exclusively on the black and black mixed 'race' experiences of policing, and challenges the racialised police/community relation. Foregrounding 'race' in the analysis will support new understandings of the police/community relationship which has been hitherto analysed through the lens of class.

Disorganising Diversity? The Rise and Fall of the Minority Ethnic Sector

D'Angelo, A.

(Middlesex University)

The migrant and BME community sector in the UK has a long and relatively successful history, especially if compared to other European countries. These organisations - including community centres, service providers and advocacy groups - have often been interpreted as an expression of collective identities and an 'embodiment' of local and transnational ethnic networks. Their social effects, however, have been the object of divergent interpretations and their popularity among policy makers has been extremely fluctuant. The shift from multiculturalism to the social cohesion agenda has marked the progressive reduction of institutional and financial support. More recently, the economic crisis, together with policy changes in a number of areas

– including the progressive 'marketisation' of the community sector

- have been jeopardising the very existence of Black and Minority Ethnic organisations, at least in their traditional form.

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Building on a number of research projects undertaken by the author over the last ten years, this paper presents an overview of the factors which have shaped the development of BME organisations. It is argued that the equality impact of the trends currently affecting the sector is much deeper than it might appear - and deliberately so. What is at stake is not just the survival of certain types of organisations, but the whole idea of how diversity is 'organised' within

British society and how the needs of minority groups are catered for. The paper concludes by discussing what scenarios may lay ahead and identifying possible ways forward as emerging from the field.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

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DIASPORA, MIGRATION AND TRANSNATIONALISM SUB-STREAM: IMMIGRATION AND CITIZENSHIP

‘Say It Like You Mean It’: Rituals of Citizenship and Narratives of Nation

Byrne, B.

(University of Manchester)

Citizenship ceremonies have been practiced for at least a century in the United States and Canada, and for 50 years in Australia, with more recent introductions in Europe in the last decade or so as part of a series of changes to countries' citizenship regimes. This paper will explore what citizenship ceremonies

– the rituals created to 'make' new citizens - can tell us about understandings of citizenship and the nation. Coming from an empirical study of three countries in Europe and the US, Canada and Australia, the paper asks who is being held up as the welcomed citizen and who is excluded in these public events. What does it mean to 'welcome' a new citizen and how are migration and national history imagined in these events? These questions become increasingly urgent in the context of securitisation and given current debates about the withdrawal of citizenship from suspected 'extremists'.

Citizenship Admission Procedures as New Forms of Racialized Subject Formation: The Construction of

‘Super Citizens’ in the UK and Germany

Badenhoop, E.

(University of Glasgow)

Although experiences of racism and migration have always been interlinked, academic research treated them separately until recently (Schuster 2010). This paper aims to demonstrate that 'naturalisation', i.e. citizenship admission processes for people classified as 'aliens', serve as a useful starting point for examining the intersection of racism, nationalism and migration.

Since 2000, several European supposedly liberal democratic states introduced ceremonies, classes and tests as part of their current citizenship regimes. Yet, comparative empirical evidence presented in this paper indicates that these new regimes have regressive and segregating, rather than integrating, effects.

Drawing on ethnographic data comprising observations, documents, and interviews collected between 2012 and 2013 in Germany and the UK, this paper conceptualizes current citizenship requirements as techniques of subject formation. While in the past, citizenship applications

– unlike procedures for the recognition of asylum – were largely dealt with via mail, the new requirements necessitate the direct interaction of migrants with agents of the state.

As the analysis of citizenship ceremonies illustrates, these processes produce new forms of racialized subjectivation.

Through their speeches, state representatives invoke a role model of the ideal citizen, or 'super citizen', which is also being re-produced and performed by citizenship applicants in interview situations. This ideal of the 'super citizen' is constructed through processes of racialized othering, resulting in new hierarchies between 'naturalized' and 'native' citizens, which are structured along axes of ascribed merit and usefulness for the nation-state (cf. Baumann 1991,

Miles 1993, Sayad 1999).

One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: Immigration and Citizenship in Greece

Karamanidou, L.

(City University London)

The Greek citizenship regime has often been seen an example of the ethnic model, a legacy of the country's past of ethnic homogeneity and constructions of national identity based on ideas of common descent, religion and culture.

The transformation of Greece into a country of immigration since the 1990s and the impact of processes of

Europeanisation have opened up, at least partially, regimes and discourses of citizenship and national belonging

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towards a 'civic' model. However, the dichotomy of ethic and civic models obscures the complexity of framings of citizenship among political parties in the Greek 'crisis' landscape. Drawing on the discourse analysis of parliamentary debates and party documents on the introduction and subsequent modifications of the controversial Law 3838/2010, the paper argues, first, that while parties of the left tend to favour migrant rights and political participation and parties of the right prioritise the preservation of the imagined national community, discursive constructions combine elements of not only ethnic and civic, but also civic integrationist and participatory models of citizenship. Secondly, efforts to create a more inclusive citizenship regime have been impeded by the resurgence of exclusionary discourses of identity and citizenship among parties of the political right in the context of deep social crisis. Subsequent reforms of the citizenship law illustrate how the Greek citizenship regime is still exclusionary, and leaves unresolved issues around the inclusion of second generation immigrants.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

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RACE AND ETHNICITY SUB-STREAM: RACE, ETHNICITY AND HEALTH

Missing Voices? Migrant and Refugee Community Organizations and Anti-poverty Action in Glasgow

Piacentini, T.

(University of Glasgow)

This article discusses the largely under-researched anti-poverty work of Migrant and Refugee Community

Organizations (MRCOs) in Glasgow. The role of MRCOs as a source of social capital and critical coping and survival mechanism in exile has received notable attention since the introduction of dispersal policy in 1999. The practices outlined in this article contribute to this growing body of research by presenting examples of collective action developed from within migrant community organizations. The discussion is contextualized by broader ideological and political debates on entitlement and deservedness as they relate to migrants generally and asylum seekers specifically. Whilst offering tangible acts of financial support, MRCO strategies are also driven by social, cultural and political objectives which challenge structural constraints on self-determination. Varied in terms of risk and formality, their collective action is woven through with discourses of solidarity, belonging, resistance and empowerment. The informal nature of much of this work means that it is often missing from the broader picture of anti-poverty action and scholarship. The article concludes with a number of recommendations that suggest ways forward for bringing this action to the attention of academic researchers, practitioners and policy makers with an aim for developing better community-focused research.

Problems with Targeted Interventions for African Migrants around HIV: Lessons Learned from a Qualitative

Study on Healthcare Engagement

Smith, M., McDaid, L., Wight, D.

(MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit)

This PhD research seeks to understsand what constitutes effective forms of engagement of African migrants in

Scotland with HIV interventions. Qualitative research was conducted involving participant observation at two sites (an

African religious group and an asylum seeker/refugee drop-in centre) and interviews with African migrants attending these and three additional sites (two advocacy charities and a student association). We interviewed 27 Africans, including economic migrants (n=8), students (n=9) and asylum seeker/refugees (n=10). We also interviewed 14 representatives from a wide range of advocacy and community organisations with high levels of African attendees.

Data were analysed thematically.

Participants' perceptions of potential future HIV related health interventions targeting the African migrant diaspora in

Scotland were largely negative. Their concerns included: that African targeted research could really be intended to isolate the diaspora; that targeting would perpetuate the myth that HIV is solely an African issue; and misgivings about the potential effectiveness of targeted interventions. Research participants suggested what would make an intervention potentially successful: community based leads; intervention contexts that already have value for the diaspora; framing that does not focus on Africans as vulnerable or at risk and other aspects.

Interventions targeted at minority groups, particularly those that perceive themselves to be a visible minority or in a hostile environment, potentially have numerous barriers to engagement. Future intervention design should be informed by engagement and partnership with the African diaspora in Scotland to have the greatest chance of success, and take into account the high levels of diversity within this group.

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Competence, Cultural Competence and Ethnicity in Scottish Health and Social Care

Russell, L.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

This paper seeks to explore how discourses of safety, competence and in particular 'cultural competence' might be associated with ethnic boundary making in a Scottish health and social care context. Ensuring safety and avoiding medical accidents and mistakes is an increasing preoccupation within health and social care, associated with efforts to enhance interprofessionality in the context of pressure to cut costs. Greater attention to staff mistakes and poor teamwork accompanies a well-established focus on codifying competencies for the purposes of training and an evidence-based approach to improvement. In a racialised health and social care workforce, with BME staff overrepresented in particular occupational groupings, it seems plausible that BME staff may be disproportionately amongst those subject to this growing 'safety surveillance'. Yet the idea of competence as social capital that can be defined, measured and delivered is also manifest in diversity management approaches to racial equality which attempt to instil

'cultural competence' as a means of ensuring equal treatment and challenging institutional racism. Like 'merit', competence is not a universal but racially inscripted. 'Cultural competence' seems to be promoting a different kind of playing field but has been criticised for being essentialising. This paper seeks to identify how the concept of 'cultural competence' has been discussed and operationalised in Scottish health and social care and attempts to relate competence discourses to whiteness and the culturalisation of politics.

Older Af rican Caribbean Seniors’ Views and Understandings of Cultural Sensitivity and Cultural Competence in Health Care Practice

Watson, N.

(Open University)

It is now acknowledged that large numbers of senior older people from the Black African Caribbean Community are approaching retirement, following years of service to the NHS and other British Public sector Services. They are now becoming increasingly dependent on access to the NHS for health care in their later years. There is evidence in the literature that the needs of people from BME communities are not being appropriately met by health service providers. However, there are gaps in the research evidence base from Black African Caribbean perspectives, and their voices have not always been clearly heard in relation to their own culture specific needs and understanding of culturally sensitive and competent care.

This paper will review understandings and relevance of cultural competence and sensitivity of health care practice for

Black African Caribbean seniors through a systematic literature review. It aims to identify the present state knowledge in order to locate their own voices in the research base. There are implications for nursing and health care practice in a diverse UK setting, where policy emphasises the need for health services to be responsive to the needs of service users. The emphasis is considered within the context of the post Windrush contribution of Black African Caribbean people, specifically women, to the NHS in particular. Their dependence on the NHS as senior retired citizens, for health care highlights issues relating to whether their culture specific care needs are understood, and the extent to which these are being met from their own perspectives.

Rights, Violence and Crime

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Saving the Gezi Park: 2014 June Resistance in Turkey

Korkmaz, E.E.

(Istanbul Kemerburgaz University)

The Gezi Park Resistance was an unexpected explosion of the already accumulated reaction and anger of millions of

Turkish citizens that opened a new chapter in Turkish political history by actualizing the most massive, determinant and militant mobilization against the oppressive measures of the government.

The aim of AKP Government, which is becoming increasingly authoritarian, to change the basics of the system and the weakness of the formal opposition create suitable conditions for the uprising. This was a resistance against the

Power, but not aiming to overthrow it. The Gezi Park Resistance still affects the social and political situation in Turkey yet and should be analysed well by social scientists aiming to read the future of the Turkish politics.

In this presentation, I will discuss the main reasons of the Resistance that mobilized millions of people for almost all

June that has become the biggest challenge to the Islamist government.

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Discrimination Imbedded in Social Theory

Dores, A.

(Instituto Universitário de Lisboa)

The hyper specialization of the social sciences over the last decades was accompanied by a lack of interest in violence by social theory.

In publishing his book on violence, Wieviorka manifested his belief in the necessity of coming out of social theory to understand the different meanings of violence. Collins presented a strict definition of violence and analyzed it at the level of micro-sociology, leaving the macro-sociological study for a later work.

Neither of the authors explains why violence is relegated to the fringes of social theory. Nor do they explain how the study of violence may come to occupy a focal place adequate to its central importance for life in society.

Sociology's reaction to the civilizational crisis should not be limited to a specialized look at forgotten themes turned taboo. Sociology should prepare its own transformation, in pace with the times. The sociology should recognize violence as a manifestation of the tendencies which transformed matter into life, and society as a common form of the organization of that matter.

Reemtsma's definition, violence is the 'reduction to the body', not only produces a better analytical outcome of empirical cases, and a clearer separation from moralism, but also permits us to see how social theory has been complacent toward the social discriminations implicit in the common sense. The separation of people from the natural world has a parallel in social exclusion: the construction of human beings separated from their humanity.

Explaining Violence: Sociology, Embodiment and the Challenges of the New Scientism

Ray, L.

(University of Kent)

Sociology has been slow, compared with disciplines like social anthropology and psychology, to directly address violence in society. Classical theory imagined pacified societies where violence occurred at the margins or externally in wars and collective conflicts. Sociologists have begun to give violence more attention raising some critical questions. McSore ly notes Clausewitz’s famous comment that war is a continuation of political commerce – ‘a carrying out of the same by other means’, but violence has no ‘other means’ – it is always bodily injuring. Bodily experience is central to the phenomenology of violence yet despite the focus on embodiment and affect in sociology over the past

20 years or so, the body as agent and victim of violence has rarely received central attention. Simon Williams asked

‘where is the body in medical sociology?’ and this question can be asked of the sociology of violence too. At the same time, the social sciences face a renewed challenge from another ‘embodied’ perspective– from disciplines like neuroscience, medical genetics and neurocriminology, which aim displace the ‘standard social science’ model of human behaviour especially in relation to violence. In some ways this challenge is not difficult to counter along the lines of well-known critiques of scientism and reductionism. However, the challenge also poses questions about the intersection of materiality, social action and humanness that sociology needs to engage with critically but also creatively.

Mapping Sexually Exploited Children in Dundee, Scotland

Na, J. N.

(Women's Rape and Sexual Abuse Centre)

This Comic-Relief funded research project aims to understand the nature and prevalence of child sexual exploitation by looking into social service provisions for sexually exploited young people in a local setting, Dundee, Scotland. This project is believed to be the first piece of research being conducted on child sexual exploitation in a local setting in

Scotland. The chief objective is to assess the gaps in service provision and to further enhance service to young people who are sexually exploited and are at risk of sexual exploitation in Dundee. This research gathers from existing data from the police, public sector and third sector, and conducts interviews and focus groups with service providers as well as young people who are affected by sexual exploitation. Drawing up on qualitative as well as quantitative data, it hopes to produce the knowledge and information on the current situation of child sexual exploitation in

Dundee, as well as to propose a toolkit on an operational level.

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Science and Technology Studies

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CARE / AFFECT

Phantom Data: Coercive Consent, Patient Privacy and Big Data

Ebeling, M.

(Drexel University)

Phantom Data examines the trend of heath marketing's wholesale collection of patients' health data and the selling of patient information within the American healthcare industry. Ostensibly protected as private data under the U.S.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), Protected Health Information (PHI), a class of patient data given extra privacy protection, become a commodity bought and sold by data brokers and database marketers.

This data is often shared and mined without patients' or even doctors' knowledge or consent, with data brokers and marketers.

This paper considers what patient privacy and informed consent means in the Big Data Age, by tracing the often entangled and fraught social practices of patient consent in regards to private data within clinical settings.

Consideration to what kinds of "data-images," "data-objects" and "data-marketing-diagnoses" are being constructed about patients out of this protected class of data is made in this paper.

The paper considers the institutional violence inherent in the asymmetry of power between patients (and even health care providers) and big data, and suggests that consent is impossible in the big data era (Graeber 2012). The paper will discuss coercive consent and privacy, how diagnoses are constructed out of marketing data, and how, in the age of "big data," this protected class of personal health information leaks out and takes on a life of its own as a discreet commodity, that is bought and sold for health and medical marketing. Following Marx and Benjamin, the phantom commodity is reconsidered in the Big Data Age.

Care as Control: Instrumental Love and Laboratory Beagles

Giraud, E., Hollin, G.

(Keele University)

Recent research has argued that emotion does (e.g. Pickersgill, 2012) and should (e.g. Silverman, 2012) play a central role within scientific knowledge production. Within animal research, emotional relationships between individual researchers and nonhuman research subjects, for example, have been cited as a means of countering asymmetrical power relations in laboratory contexts, providing the foundation for crafting complex, co-shaped ethical relations

(Haraway, 2008; Despret, 2004, 2013). These approaches foreground somatic relationships between the actors involved in research and challenge instrumental approaches to knowledge-production, in order to expose tensions within the formal ethical frameworks that legitimise these approaches (Greenhough and Roe, 2011).

This paper problematizes such valorizations of 'love' through analysing work taking place at the first large-scale experimental beagle colony at University of California, Davis (1951-1986). This case-study illustrates how beagles came to be positioned at the centre of the animal research laboratory, in part, because their 'merry disposition' made them amenable to forming relations with researchers. It also demonstrates how caring relations between beagles and researchers gave the animals a degree of agency in shaping their research environment to better suit their needs.

Ultimately, however, caring practices were designed to further the ends of the experiments and make the animals easier to control. The case-study thus complicates existing claims about the ethical and epistemic importance of care, by foregrounding its potential to enable

– rather than oppose – instrumentalization.

I, Carebot: RRI and Robotic Companions for the Elderly

de Saille, S.

(University of Sheffield)

The EU has offered seven Societal Challenges in its programme for Horizon 2020, one of which is 'Health,

Demographic Change, and Wellbeing' interpreting longer life as a largely economic problem -- to the extent that it has sometimes been called the 'grand challenge of sustainable welfare' (RCC Manifesto, http://www.robotcompanions.eu/). One answer to the question of care and companionship for the projected 1.5 billion elderly by 2050 has been the development of machines to provide some, or perhaps even all, of the functions presently supplied by non-family carers.

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This paper draws on research carried out as part of the Leverhulme Trust programme 'Making Science Public', in conjuction with the Department of Computing Science at the University of Sheffield. It examines how a framework of

'Responsible Research and Innovation', particularly its requirements for inclusive upstream engagement, may be incorporated into the development of robots for elder care, and how this is co-evolving with other policies promoting innovation in health and social care. Through empirical research carried out amongst stakeholders, scientists and members of the public, I will explore different understandings of 'robot' and 'robotics' in this context, as well as interpretations of 'responsibility' and 'care'. The intention is to contribute to the broad fields of science and technology studies, STI policy, bioethics, and robotics, as well as to furthering RRI scholarship through clarifying the way(s) in which it is being interpreted and employed by real world actors in emerging scientific fields.

Dear Jo: Researching Trust and Empathy Online

Brownlie, J., Shaw, F.

(University of Edinburgh)

This paper draws on a study which is part of the transdisciplinary project, A Space for Sharing and a Shared Space, funded by the ESRC through EMoTICON - a programme set up to explore trust and empathy online. Specifically, it focuses on the way in which emotional distress is discussed and engaged with through email support provided by

Samaritans. In doing so the paper engages with the challenges of transdisciplinary working, the ethics of researching emotional lives online and the conceptual and methodological reading for emotions. Samaritans presents an interesting case study because, although best known for its telephone helplines, since 1994, the organisation has also been providing support via email and now answers some 20,000 messages per month. As volunteers are anonymous, users are encouraged to email 'Jo' at Samaritans. While existing research suggests users are more critical of this service than Samaritans telephone service, demand for the email service continues to grow (Samaritans, 2013). Most recent research on emotional distress and suicidal expression online has been concerned with twitter and online support forums (Horne and Wiggins, 2009); this study offers a different lens - the closed virtual space of email interaction - through which to reflect on these other platforms and the digital expression of trust and empathy.

Social Divisions/Social Identities

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‘She Gets Herself around a Bit, Doesn’t She?’’ : Hyperfemininity, Excess and Promiscuity on the Girls’ Night

Out

Nicholls, E.

(Newcastle University)

Within a so-called 'post-feminist' society, many current conceptualisations of femininity position women as able to adopt the pleasure-seeking, assertive definitions of sexuality traditionally reserved for males. The re-appropriation of the word 'slut' - for example through the Slutwalks - may represent a move away from traditional conceptualisations of

'respectable' femininity and sexuality as controlled and restrained. However, this paper will consider the ways in which these traditional conceptualisations still limit the abilities of young women to redefine femininities on a girls' night out in

Northeast England. Drawing on 26 in-depth interviews undertaken for my ESRC-funded PhD research, I will examine the ways in which processes of othering allow some young women to lay claim to respectable femininity through positioning others as 'slutty' in terms of dress and/or behaviour. Whilst many of the young women are beginning to question the meaning of the word 'slut' and to trouble or challenge the assumptions that associate hyperfeminine or

'excessive' ways of dressing with slutty behaviour, the pervasive power of the term continues to enable and constrain particular behaviours and identities as women seek to distance themselves from deviant, hypersexualised identities within the spaces of the Night Time Economy. Women frequently negotiate complex and shifting territory in spaces where a degree of sexualised dress and behaviour is now expected and normalised as a dimension of contemporary femininity, but it is all too easy to cross the unstable boundary and be labelled as 'slutty', 'too feminine' or 'too much of a girl'.

Is Metal Less Sexist than the Mainstream?: Interpreting British Women Hard Rock and Metal Fans' Talk about

Sexism

Hill, R.

(University of Leeds)

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This paper discusses how British women hard rock and metal fans experience sexism at metal and non-metal events.

Recent work has shown that members of particular metal scenes do engage in sexist behaviours (Overell 2009;

Vasan 2011), and in the media portrayal, women fans are frequently represented as groupies (Hill 2010). However, hard rock and metal have many female fans, which calls into question simplistic readings of the genre as 'sexist'.

During my doctoral research I conducted semi-structured interviews with women hard rock and metal fans in Britain, aged 16 - 69. Their answers to questions about their experiences of sexism at metal events confound ideas about the genre as hostile to women: most declared the genre free of sexism, especially in comparison to their experiences at events that played more 'mainstream' music. Nevertheless, a number of women did encounter sexist occurrences, but it was not always acknowledged as gender-bias. In the main they interpreted the imaginary metal community as less misogynistic than the broader society. This raises questions of how such assertions should be interpreted and in this paper I explore the potential of a number of theories: is sexism so normal that it is unacknowledged? Are the women suffering from 'false consciousness'? Did loyalty to their own group prevent them from voicing their concerns? Or does participation in hard rock and metal provide women fans a space that feels free from sexist behaviour? Ultimately the women's words must be taken seriously and as exemplary of their differing experiences.

Nonbinary Gender Identities: Undoing/Redoing Gender

Yeadon-Lee, T.

(University of Huddersfield)

Contemporary studies of the lives and experiences of transgender people now generally acknowledge that within trans communities there are diverse and complex forms of gendered self-identifications. This is reflected in the term 'trans*', now used as an umbrella term to refer to transsexual, transgendered and intersex people and those who, in various ways, do not conform to dominant expectations of gender, such as cross-dressers, drag kings/queens, genderfluid, non-gendered, bigender and genderqueer people. Despite the recognition of trans* diversity, however, few studies explicitly explore the lives, experiences and self-representations of those who identify, in various ways, as either both genders or neither. For the most part, and mirroring a tendency within mainstream media, the dominant focus is upon the lives of transsexual and transgender people and, specifically, their transformation into trans men and women. This paper departs from this dominant focus and reports on current work in progress concerning nonbinary gender identities. It presents some initial findings from a qualitative analysis of the personal narratives of nonbinary people, together with other discursive self-representations, that can be found on Internet blogs, forums, and web-based magazines. The paper outlines the variety of ways in which nonbinary gender is understood, experienced, negotiated and presented, and explores the extent to which nonbinary identities may be seen to undo and/or re-do conventional understandings of gender.

Sociology of Education 1

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Class, Values and Exclusion: A Case Study of an English Free School

Downes, G., Brown, S.

(Bath Spa University)

Meet Debbie: a single mother living in social housing. She is active within her local community but her engagement with her children's schools is limited. Meet Sarah: author, activist and mother. Both live within the same area and their children would attend the same state secondary school. One of them was instrumental in the successful creation of a new free school, which her child now attends. The other will send her child to the preexisting school.

Despite the intention to give communities more control over schools within their local area (DfE, 2010), our research suggests that the free schools policy relies on an over simplistic account of community (Norman, 2010). Predicated on antipathy towards the state, government texts reveal a conceptualisation of community as anything other than the state. This in turn obfuscates inclusion and exclusion within existing social spaces. Our case study focused on actors connected with a new free school. It revealed many tensions, with class as a significant organising factor. Drawing upon the work of Sayer (2005) we posit that the school's organisation is predicated on values that differentiate between those who are able to participate and those who are not.

We propose that Sarah and Debbie's experiences need to be recognised in governance arrangements if issues relating to underachievement and social exclusion are to be effectively addressed. We assert that more discussion is required around what communities actually are and the way in which class and spatial arrangements operate within educational contexts.

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‘Faith of Our Fathers’: A Case Study of Polish Migrants’ Secondary School Choice in London and Nottingham

Thatcher, J.

(University of East London)

Since the early nineteenth century, the church has been involved in education provision in the UK. Following mass

Irish migration in the mid-nineteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church built a network of Catholic schools providing education to Catholic children. The Roman Catholic Church has the largest proportion of faith secondary schools in

England. Research has found that faith schools are often chosen for quality, not religion, and debate has centred on the socio-economic status of Catholic schools' admissions. The 'abuse' of faith schools admission policies has been cited as increasing segregation with middle-class parents accused of 'playing the system'. It also has been suggested that the points-based admissions system benefits white middle-class areas and is an obstacle to immigrant children in those communities. But is this still the case given the inflow and settlement of Polish Catholic migrants since EU accession in 2004? Drawing on in-depth interviews with Polish parents choosing secondary schools for their children in London and Nottingham, this paper examines whether Polish migrants' education choices are shaped by their devotion to Catholicism, seeing Catholic schools as fundamental in supporting their cultural identity and values. It also explores Polish parents interaction with two localised education markets by opening up questions on what happens when these parents are faced with a situation in choosing between a higher-ranking state/selective school and a

Catholic secondary school? This comes at a time when increasing strain on places at 'good' schools intensify the debate over whether faith schools should be state-funded.

Out-of-school-time Programmes: An Evaluation of Their Effectiveness Using the Longitudinal Study of Young

People in England (LSYPE)

Pensiero, N., Green, F.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

The proposed paper aims at estimating the effect of out-of-school-time (OST) programmes on GCSE performance in

England. OST programmes refer to any form of activity in which the children are involved under the supervision of adults outside the normal school timetable. The focus on programmes that are linked to the academic curriculum as previous research has suggested these are the most beneficial for academic achievement. Since the beginning of

2000s the implementation of some forms of OST programmes has become almost universal among secondary schools, but there has not yet been a large scale investigation of the effectiveness of these programmes. This project makes use of the longitudinal study of young people in England (LSYPE, 1990 cohort) to estimate the effectiveness of

OST programmes in England. It aims at linking the change in academic performance between age 14 (KS3) and 16

(GCSE) to participation in OST programmes in LSYPE members, taking into account individual, social background and school characteristics and using appropriate techniques to deal with the issue of selection into the programme and school unmeasured effects. It shows that OST programmes are effective in enhancing the GCSE achievement and that they can function as a means of social mobility as they are especially beneficial for the children from parents who are unemployed or work in a routine occupation.

Opening the Black Box of Educational Choices: What iIs the Role of Teachers and Secondary Schools on

Students’ Educational Decisions?

Tarabini, A., Curran, M.

(Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)

The aim of the communication is to analyse young's people educational expectations, strategies and choices at the end of secondary compulsory schooling. Specifically the object of study is based on students that, according to their educational trajectory, are at risk of dropping out school. The focus of the analysis is to observe how these educational experiences and decisions are mediated by the institutional habitus (Reay, et al 2001), the management of students' heterogeneity (Dupriez, et al 2008) and the teacher expectations (Van Houtte, 2011). In order to conduct the analysis we developed a qualitative research in four public secondary schools (in Barcelona-Spain), selected according to their diversity in terms of their social composition and their logics of managing pupils' heterogeneity. In each school we developed interviews with teachers, principals, academic coordinators and other relevant professionals and with students from the two last years of compulsory secondary schooling. We also conducted focus group with teachers and students, class observations and participation in teachers' meetings. The expected results are oriented to open the 'black box' of students' choices, aiming at identifying what is behind their decisions and how different institutional settings and school actors may influence them.

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Theory

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WHITHER HISTORY AND COMPARISON IN UK SOCIOLOGY?

To know where we are going, we must first understand where we have been. As the conference this year seeks to grasp ‘Societies in Transition’, the need for historical and comparative methods and theories is more pressing than ever. Yet, these approaches are relatively underrepresented in UK sociology, compared to the USA or relative to other disciplines such as International Studies. This special event aims to foster a revived discussion of the importance of history in sociology. Organised as an open roundtable discussion, a small group recruited by the BSA Historical and

Comparative Sociology group will initiate an open conversation about the state of historical and comparative approaches in UK sociology, future prospects for their reinvigoration, current trends in historical and comparative research, and the value of encouraging historical consciousness throughout the discipline. Our aim is to provide a context for those interested in these approaches, especially students, to learn more and raise new questions, agendas and concerns.

Work, Employment and Economic Life 1

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A ‘Hochschild’ for the Guys? Men’s Emotional Repertoires in Interactive Services

Simpson, P.

(University of Manchester)

Men remain poorly understood as emotional beings. This think-piece examines theorizing about men as emotional actors both in personal life though mostly in interactive service work. I contest opposing accounts based on assumptions of men as emotionally alienated (Seidler 2005) and as unproblematically emotionally reflexive (Anderson

2009). To advance a research agenda emphasizing masculine emotional repertoires, I go beyond theories of emotional alienation as indicated in Hochschild's (1983) seminal study of women's emotional labour in service work. I recognize ambivalence in men's emotional self-expression at work (Fineman and Sturdy 2001) and opportunities for agency (Bolton and Boyd 2003) and limited resistance to corporate/company ideology and rules (Wray-Bliss 2001).

Whether they refer to alienation, ambivalence or agency, male employees' accounts are not necessarily reducible to false consciousness and challenge the distinction between authentic and alienated emotional labour presumed in the work of Seidler (2005) and the work that has followed from Hochschild's original study.

Contested Meritocracy: The Discourse of Merit in Contemporary Chinese Organisations

Yan, J.

(University of Bielefeld)

Although scholars suggest a broader societal rise of meritocracy for determining socioeconomic rewards in China, the meritocratic principle has not led to greater social equality. Rather, social inequality is on the rise. Has China become a society of achievement or is meritocracy only a myth? Beyond this question, this paper asks how the role of meritocracy is being articulated in contemporary Chinese organisational lives. This paper focuses on two generations of Chinese professionals working in Western multinational corporations. They are the first professional group who has grown up in a system largely disconnected from the socialist egalitarianism, nepotism, and political virtuocracy and their social advancement has been pushed on by the expansion of white-collar jobs and trainings in Western multinational corporations. Based on the discursive analysis of 31 career narratives, this paper provides insights into the contradictions between their cultural belief in meritocracy and their experienced reality. Focusing on the discourse of merit we have a rather much better understanding of the changing access to material benefits, social resources, and privileges in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, it reveals that these professionals´comparisons of themselves with other Chinese privileged groups and Western expatriates gives them an increasing feeling of deprivation and identity threat. What follows is the expression of two very different emtions; envy and resentment, which have become characteristic of Chinese professionals working in Western multinational corporations.

191 BSA Annual Conference 2015

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Thursday 16 April 2014 13:30 - 15:00

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‘Are You Feeling Me?’ Understanding Long-Term Unemployment Better

Bednarek-Gilland, A.

(Social Sciences Institute of the Evangelical Church in Germany)

Long-term unemployment poses a difficult problem to policy makers because they are ideologically hindered in terms of how they understand unemployment. This leads to viewing those affected by long-term unemployment as irrational.

In this paper I want to focus on how we can better understand long-term unemployed persons. I want to argue, firstly, that we need to consider long- unemployed persons as structurally placed in precarious circumstances

– Castel's 'the zone of precariousness'

– which hold crises in store at all times. I am going to refer to health statistics and present material to illustrate this claim from an on-going qualitative study on the everyday lives of long-term unemployed persons in Germany. Secondly, I am going to argue that in order to fully appreciate unemployed persons' ways of dealing with these repeated crisis situations we need to attend to the emotional dimension of their everyday lives.

Here, I am going to apply a sociology of emotions lens on unemployment. I will focus on experiences of shame and disrespect in particular, arguing, inspired mainly by Andrew Sayer's work on the topic, that the diverse rationalities of long-term unemployed persons are shaped by emotional experiences which lastingly affect their well-being both positively and negatively. Albeit organisation scholars have long appreciated the important connection between emotions and work experience, the same has not been done with unemployment. The main aim of my paper is to show that his new focus would contribute richly to our understanding of unemployment.

Emotional, Aesthetic, Body, and Sex Work: A Critical Analysis of Conceptual and Empirical Intersection

Cohen, R.

(City University London)

With growth in the interactive service sector has come expansion in the conceptual categories used to depict such work, for example: emotional labour, aesthetic labour, sex work, body work, intimate labour. This paper suggests that while addressing related phenomenon there are differences in the logics underpinning these conceptualisations, and, even, different authors' use of the same concept. A key point difference is the referent of the conceptualisation, with conceptual categories variously focusing on:

• workers' attributes and behaviours: how workers feel, how they transform their appearance, their varying sexual capital;

• the commodity produced: a customer's emotional response, a patient's bodily transformation, client's sexual stimulation;

• the interaction itself: the embodied, intimate or caring worker-client relationship.

Since these different focuses are rarely explicit, conceptual conflation between product, producer and interaction is common. Consequently, discussion of bodies, emotions, aesthetics and sexuality too often presumes a correlation between workers' behaviours and customers' experiences. For instance, that emotional responses are produced by emotional inputs.

Conversely, analytically separating product, producer and interaction enables better exploration of the relationship between these

– when they are and when they are not associated. Additionally, different facets of interactive labour

(emotional, aesthetic, bodily and sexual) and their inter-relationship can be specified. For example to explore work that requires both emotional and body labour, or that involves aesthetic, but little emotional labour. The paper concludes by exploring several of these particular intersections. It proposes that this provides a useful approach, for instance to understanding the gendering of occupational niches.

Work, Employment and Economic Life 2

W823, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Exploitation or Empowerment: The case of Bangladeshi Garment Workers

Raeside, R., Gayen, K., Choudhury, Z.

(Edinburgh Napier University)

Following the collapse of the garment factory Rana Plazza in Bangladesh one of the world's worst industrial disasters much attention has been directed to the working conditions and well-being of women in the Bangladesh Ready Made

Garments (RMG) Sector. Explored in this paper is the debate over exploitation or empowerment with respect to the position of women in developing countries. This paper reports on an investigation of the well-being of female workers

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in the RMG sector of Bangladesh. A mixed methods approach was used to interview factory owners and opinion leaders and 1014 female garment workers in the City of Dhaka were surveyed using face-to

–face interviews. The data collected gave understanding of the women's vulnerabilities, capabilities, power relations and attitudes to their working life. From analysis of the quantitative data collected it appears that for most, there is a positive view of their work and conditions and there is a feeling that life has improved from employment in the garments sector, although there is evidence of alienation from workplace authority. A small group exists whose working life is poor and who suffer physical, including sexual abuse and are tormented verbally and emotionally. For most women although they consider life to be improving, they are in poverty manifested by very low wage rates, multiple house occupancy and very impoverished environments. Qualitative evidence exists to show that this leads to mental illness and emotional distress. Recommendations are made on ways to improve the well-being of those working in the RMG sector.

At the Margins of 'Public-Private Debate': Rethinking Shop Floor With The Experiences Of Women Textile

Workers in Turkey

Saka, B.

(Middle East Technical University)

In this paper, I intend to explore the gendered manifestations of industrial relations in the lives of working women at the turn of the second half of the 20th century in Turkey. Specifically, I will focus on textile sector in Turkey, which stands as the leading sector witnessing the emergence of the initial entrance of women into the paid labor force. I will argue that a case study of factory may illustrate the gendered history of working class in the non-Western context.

While an affluent literature on the working class history is flourished since the time of the British historian E. P.

Thompson, the scholarly debate on restoring the once-lacking gender perspective has been recently revived. The latter has exclusive claims on the American and European experiences of the working women, however. In this paper,

I aim to discuss both conceptual and empirical relations between 'gender' and 'class' in a gendered perspective of class which, I assume, might be held through problematization of two dualities: politics-economy the former and private and the public sphere the latter. Resting on the ongoing filedwork being conducted with women textile workers,

I will argue that mentioned dualities,-culminated in 19th century liberal thought- while operating as ideological constructs has analytical power to explain condition of women workers at the workplace. In brief it will be argued that, workplace - the temple of production- can not be seen public apriori but its boundaries are continously defined and redefined through women textile workers struggle.

Fashioning Power: Stakeholder Strategies In Fashion Activist Networks Post-Rana Plaza

Hanlon, M.

(University of Edinburgh)

In the global fashion and apparel industry, transnational labour rights (TLRs) organisations have turned away from seeking support from state mechanisms and institutions, calling instead on corporations to improve labour conditions for garment workers in fashion and apparel commodity value chains through corporate social responsibility (CSR).

These stakeholders, TLRs organisations and corporations alike, are engaged in a global movement for so-called responsible fashion. In the wake of the Rana Plaza building collapse in Bangladesh, a new group of activists has emerged to campaign for garment worker labour rights in Bangladesh: an organized, transnational collective of

Western responsible fashion activist-entrepreneurs. This network campaigns online and offline to connect the actions of Western consumers to the work and life experiences of Bangladeshi garment workers. Through such campaigns, consumers in support of responsible fashion, determined through consumption practices, are positioned as caring, while consumers supporting 'fast fashion' and/or conventional fashion companies and products are viewed as uncaring, seen as hindering opportunities for enhancing garment worker life. Such campaigns present polarized, ahistorical narratives that seemingly ignore not only international and domestic policies impacting the sectors' development, but also issues of worker agency, culture, and gender, among others. Discussing preliminary research findings gathered through online data collection and in-depth qualitative interviews with responsible fashion industry stakeholders, this paper questions the interests and motivations behind these online and offline campaign strategies, mapping potential points of cooperation and contestation amongst Western stakeholders working to secure the labour rights of garment workers in Bangladesh.

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Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

– PK

Room

M532

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2 W702

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

– PK

W110

Environment and Society

Families and Relationships

W622

M225

Frontiers 1 - PK

Frontiers 2

Medicine, Health and Illness

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2 - PK

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Rights, Violence and Crime

W308

W828

C236

W324

Carnegie Lecture Theatre

W709

W727

W119

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities

– PK

Sociology of Education

W525

M228

M137

Theory W323

Work, Employment and Economic Life 1

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Work, Employment and Economic Life 2 W823

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1 – Pecha Kucha

M532, GEORGE MOORE BUILDING

The Relationship between Housing and Social Status from the Perspective of Media Images

Zhou, A.Q.

(Waseda University)

Since the late 1990s, social stratification in China has rapidly spread. Meanwhile, the 1998 housing system reform led to the housing boom. Experts propose that the excessive housing boom has caused the stratification of Chinese society. The relevant research is limited and mostly tends to consider housing as an objective indicator of a particular social status. However, previous research also suggests that the media construct social status imagery that influences individuals' class consciousness. Therefore, this study considers the relationship between housing and social status from the perspective of media images. The data used in the analysis consisted of all of the real estate advertisements in the 'Beijing Evening News' between April

1 and May 9 2014. The results found that Chinese real estate ads described residents' status by using the words: 'the higher levels of society,' 'the elite,' 'leaders,' and 'the nobility.' The results further found that five aspects of housing were used in the ads to depict residents' social status images: 1)exclusive use of a house larger than 80 square meters; 2) building images that blended Chinese and Western styles or that blended traditional and modern styles; 3) locations near transportation corridors, safe management services, institutions of higher education, and medical treatment facilities; 4) natural environments that offered high quality air, light, water, forests, and green space; and 5) area residents' lifestyles that included efficiency, quality, and luxury consumption. These images would generate increased awareness of existing class differences and create new perceptions of the boundaries that separate classes.

Enlightenments on (Other) Motives that Command Social (In)visibilities (than Urban Space (In)equalities)

Ramos, C.

(University Institute of Lisbon)

In the context of a Ph.D. thesis, the communication I propose discusses the causality of social invisibilities, as almost unknown groups of individuals (and their contours) who are dissociated from the public domains, and social visibilities of Lisbon's old. Methodological substantiations are intensive research (fieldworks, 25 life stories, 25 semi-structured interviews) and statistical exploration of Censos 2011.

The luxuriousness of Avenida da Liberdade, contrasting with some poverty of its environs (São José), occult social networks components of São José old population

– like important traces of community (Tönnies, 1957) and countryside (Simmel, 1971); many strength of strong ties (Granovetter, 1973)

– in conjunction with social vulnerabilities of this population

– as lack of economic, cultural and social capitals (Bourdieu, 1994), the latter being very important do not accomplish all this old population needs, consequent lack of agential actions (with the exception of professional work made in the past); some or notorious circumscription to the space of the house.

A democratic and egalitarian disposition of Benfica's urban space (Lisbon periphery) and way old individuals people it, despite buildings and old inhabitants heterogeneity, bring to light heterogeneous social networks components, together with social vulnerabilities and advantages.

Nevertheless, there are other causes to these (in)visibilities, like history (Mouzelis, 1991) of Portugal, namely concerning the dictatorship, phases (Archer, 1995) of family (from their lives with the ancestors to their independent lives) or, in other words, changes on the life course (Elder & Hitlin, 2007), elderly ages and capitals.

Experiencing Class Stigma in Gentrified Urban Spaces

Erdemli, O.

(Lancaster University)

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The emergence of neoliberalism as the new economic orthodoxy in the world has led not only to the domination of market rationality and substantial increase in the social inequalities but also the transformation of the individuals, who were once members of a common society with responsibility for the others, into self-seeking consumers. The same process has turned urban space, which were once designed based on the use value, into a commodity. It has been redeveloped through large scale urban transformation projects implemented ambitiously by both the public and private actors whose target is to share the rent instead of redistributing it to the society. Within this context, the squatter areas have become particularly attractive due to their legally ambiguous property regime, and the socio-economically vulnerable groups living in those areas have been facing displacement. What is more alarming is the way that social consent for this destructive program is produced through stigmatisation of not only the disadvantaged groups but also the spaces they live, and the zero tolerance policies of the state to save the city from these tumours of crime and decay in a dedicated manner. In this presentation, I will try to reveal the extent of the stigmatisation with the aim of analysing its impacts on both the self-evaluation of the squatter people and the treatment of others in the light of the findings of an ethnographic study of the everyday experiences of stigma to be conducted in the Dikmen Valley Urban

Transformation Project Area in Ankara, Turkey.

Making and Mobilising t he Networked Diaspora: Responses of Hong Kong’s Overseas Students to Crises

Au, L.

(University of Oxford)

In the past year, we have witnessed three major episodes of social mobilizations in Hong Kong. First was in October

2013, when over 100,000 demonstrators surrounded the Central Government Complex in protest of a decision not to issue a broadcasting license to HKTV. Second was in response to the attack on journalist Kevin Lau in February 2014.

And third was in reaction to the so-called Umbrella Movement that began at the end of September 2014. While these events occurred thousands of miles away, overseas Hong Kong students have mirrored actions by their counterparts in Hong Kong to stand in solidarity with those back home. The last overseas campaign witnessed rallies in over 65 cities, with 3000 gathering in London, and a petition on WhiteHouse.gov that received an official response.

A striking feature of these overseas mobilizations was the way they unfolded through the real and virtual networks of the overseas students whereby previously apathetic students found themselves suddenly embroiled in what Manuel

Castell (2012) would term 'networks of outrage and hope'. This also borrows from Martin Sökefield (2006) where he argues that migrants 'do not necessarily form a diaspora but they may become a diaspora by developing a new imagination of community'.

Through digital archives on social media sites and in depth interviews with core organizers worldwide, I document the ways the students consciously articulated connectivity and belonging to home, and how they disseminated the petition through various networks to sign and to reach audiences back in Hong Kong.

The Visual Claims and Visuality of the Umbrella Movement/Revolution: Hong Kong Stands Up to the Death of the City

Garrett, D.

(City University of Hong Kong)

Emerging from the City of Protests and the shadow of a rapidly rising China, the 2014 Umbrella Movement/Revolution in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) dramatically demolished all prior claims and notions of the

City as an apathetic, apolitical, and servile economic entity inevitably transitioning into the socialist superstructure of the People's Republic of China. Since Hong Kong's retrocession from colonial rule, Umbrella represents the most overt real, symbolic and visual act of transgressive resistance

– albeit peaceful – towards the competitive authoritarian political system and symbolic moral universal installed in Hong Kong by the Chinese Communist Party. Indeed, its emergence intensely contests hegemonic transformation of the free capitalist enclave into 'just another Chinese city' as envisioned by Chinese leaders and the local patriotic coterie of 'Red Tycoons' and 'Redder than Mao' latecommunists. The multiple occupations of key cultural, economic, and political centers of the territory visually staked a counter-visuality of the HKSAR envisioned by its postmodern younger generations who increasingly feel

– under the oppressive cultural, economic and political weight of Beijing's 'One Country' domination of the SAR

– the urgency to fight for their City, to protect its Hongkonger way of life, and to prevent the 'Death of the City.' Visual methods are used to examine this unprecedented gambit of Hong Kong's New Social Movement to resist social change and stake its own identity and claims which diverge significantly from the older generations of Hongkongers conditioned under

British and Chinese rule to accede to undemocratic hegemonic rule.

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Occupy in Space: Making Nonsense Appear

Burgum, S.

(University of Warwick)

In what ways have post-crash resistances to neoliberal capitalism been limited through a foreclosure of possibilities and did Occupy (in) London manage to challenge that foreclosure through their novel approach to resistance?

As the name of the movement suggests, the eponymous tactic of Occupy was the semi-permanent occupation of space, which in practice involved the setting up of various camps, squats and meeting places in urban centres. In

London, this took the form of the infamous camp outside St Paul's cathedral, a camp at Finsbury Square in Islington, and a 'nomad' group (who, in 2012, were camping at Mile End in Tower Hamlets), as well as a number of squatted buildings.

Using the ideas of Jacques Ranciere, I argue that this semi-permanent occupation of public offline space ultimately allowed Occupy to enforce the appearance of a 'nonsensical' position (that there could be an alternative to reestablishing neoliberalism after the crash). Notwithstanding other problems with the movement, therefore, I suggest that the occupation of space in-itself has the potential to be an effective tactic in challenging the hegemonic

'distribution of the sensible', allowing for the material appearance of (politically proper) dissensus. In other words, precisely by occupying spaces where they are 'not supposed' to appear, occupy-type movements are able to challenge the prevailing designation of their resistance as 'non-sense'.

This paper is based upon three years of research with Occupy (in) London, including interviews and ethnographic data

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

W702, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

The Residualisation of UK Local Government? The Impact of Austerity in Local Government on Deprived

People and Places

Hastings, A., Bailey, N., Bramley, G., Gannon, M.

(University of Glasgow)

Local government is one of the foremost casualties of the fiscal austerity which has characterised UK public policy since 2010. There is particular concern that the cuts impact disproportionately on the most deprived cities and authorities. However, much of the early research on the impact of fiscal austerity suggested that local councils had largely been able to absorb budgetary pressures through service redesign, job losses and other 'efficiency' savings, and that the impact on services and service users has been more limited than might have been expected.

This paper brings together a range of quantitative and qualitative evidence from the final stage of a major project for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation designed to explore whether and how councils would be able to meet the needs of more disadvantaged people and places in the face of unprecedented austerity. The paper triangulates detailed analysis of the high level decisions made by four case study councils to balance budgets with the rich evidence documenting the experiences of 'front line' council staff and service users of the impact of these decisions. The findings challenge the conventional wisdom that austerity has not impacted significantly on the quantity and quality of council services. It identifies a range of mechanisms which

– despite intentions of strategic decision makers to the contrary

– visit some of the severest impacts of budget cuts on the poorest and most vulnerable service users. It argues that this is an inevitable consequence of the residualisation of local government brought about by austerity.

'Commitment to Place, Precarity and the Threat to Social Housing Security Posed by the 'Bedroom Tax': A

Case Study of a Midlands Estate'

Bogue, K.

(University of Manchester)

The Welfare Reform Act 2012 introduced the 'removal of the spare room subsidy' from April 2013 commonly referred to as the 'bedroom tax'. My qualitative doctoral research by a resident researcher sought to understand the full effects of this policy on vulnerable residents on one predominantly white working class housing estate, adopting a holistic approach that utilises biographical and ethnographic methods.

Emerging findings indicate that social housing tenants face stark and extremely stressful choices about leaving their homes to avoid paying the increased rent, such 'choices' often limited due to the unavailability of smaller properties

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and widespread rent arrears. Where tenants did downsize they rationalised the move as 'making a fresh start' which at the same time left them 'grieving for a lost home', to use Fried's (1963) expression.

Most of the tenants interviewed were long term residents, and while they considered the possibility of downsizing many were absolutely unwilling to move outside of the estate, showing a strong attachment to place. This presentation considers the complex reasons for such attachment and extends Standing's concept of 'precarity' to social housing, showing that the 'bedroom tax' alongside other housing, welfare and labour market changes is undermining and eroding security of tenure for vulnerable social housing tenants, threatening their established way of life and generating considerable material and ontological insecurity.

The Perpetuation of Poverty in the UK during the Age of Austerity: The Charity Sector Examined

Fuhr, C., Cohen, S.

(University of Cambridge & Woolf Institute)

The 2007-08 financial crisis has produced a recession in Europe not seen since the Great Depression. It has provoked governments to implement drastic public sector cuts, building on anti-welfare measures initiated in the late

1990s. The subsequent rise in poverty has corresponded with the expansion of social initiatives in the United

Kingdom. Using the method of ethnography paper explores how staff and volunteers in foodbanks, soup kitchens and homeless shelters, as well as in referral agencies such as the Citizens Advice Bureau define basic needs and how they help their users to meet those needs. This analysis will illustrate that while community-oriented charities widely define basic needs, their responses to fulfilling users' basic needs remains narrowly defined. Interviewees from both types of initiatives highlight the problem of charities in providing emergency relief rather than holistic long-term support in alleviating the socio-economic situation of vulnerable citizens. In addition, members of referral agencies recognise the difficulty in providing immediate and sustaining support for their clients because of the compartmentalisation of the charity sector. While the government addresses food poverty in its policy discussions, it fails to recognise that food poverty is part of general poverty overall. Accordingly, the paper suggests that the compartmentalisation of poverty by charities and the ignorance of its complexity by the government and policy-makers perpetuate socio-economic deprivation in British society.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption – Pecha Kucha

W110, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Media Representation of Social Class in Contemporary Britain: Content and Control

Wagner, B.

(Manchester Metropolitan University)

Social class is very much an issue in contemporary British factual entertainment television. However, class and closely related issues like inequality and social justice rarely enter the discourse in an explicit way. Perceptions of social class and class conflict inform media representations, but tend to be repeated and reinforced rather than scrutinised and challenged. In my PhD research, I analyse the docusoap "People Like Us" (BBC) that was aired in early 2013. My analysis focuses on the question as to what degree those representations have a classed character and if so, what the implications of this class-bias are.

Using a Bourdieusian framework, I relate my empirical findings to questions of access, power and control. I will argue that the Bourdieusian concept of doxa, is well suited to analyse how social inequalities are played out in media discourses. Doxic or shared, unscrutinised and partly unconscious assumptions powerfully structure attitudes. Media representation are, I will argue, dialectically linked to those beliefs.

The empirical part of my study looks at the content of classed media production as well as at their perception.

Questions of access, influence and control are discussed to gain an understanding if or how reality TV programmes like "People Like Us" contribute to the reproduction of social inequalities.

Charlie is So Cool Like: Inclusive Masculinity and Popularity on YouTube

Morris, M., Anderson, E.

(Durham University)

On the world's most utilised video-sharing social networking site, YouTube, Charlie McDonnell (Charlieissocoollike),

Dan Howell (Danisnotonfire), and Jack and Finn Harries (JacksGap) are Britain's most popular video-bloggers

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(vloggers). With more than two million regular subscribers to each of their YouTube channels, along with millions of casual viewers, they represent a new form of authentic online celebrity. These young men, whose YouTube careers began as teenagers, do not espouse a traditional form of masculinity; they are not sporty, macho, or even expressly concerned with being perceived as heterosexual. Instead, they present a softer masculinity, eschewing the homophobia, misogyny, and aggression attributed to boys of previous generations. These behaviours are theorised using Eric Anderson's inclusive masculinity theory. Drawing on analysis of 115 video-blogs (vlogs), along with an indepth interview with Charlie McDonnell, this presentation examines how these young men display inclusive attitudes and behaviours, including performing in ways traditionally coded as feminine or gay.

Value and Visibility: Constructing a Career as a Contemporary Visual Artist

Fuller, M.

(Technische Universität Berlin)

The process of building a career as a contemporary visual artist is often shrouded in mystery. Part of the reason for this is that many accounts by journalists as well as social scientists select those artists who have exceptional careers, rather than understanding the processes by which artists begin to establish their careers. In order to make sense of the complex modes of career making in contemporary art, I propose that we think about art careers as processes in which value is attributed to artists and artworks, but that all artists must first attain a level of visibility. Rather than beginning our analysis with exceptional artists or artists excluded from the realm of galleries, art fairs, biennials and art criticism, this framework enables us to understand the cultural logic of contemporary art. The everyday activities of artists in New York and Berlin provide the empirical context for arguing that value and visibility are not universally shared in the so-called global art world, but are often bound to place.

The Other Side of Black Twitter: Race and Class in Social Media Activism

Schradie, J.

(Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse)

How do we explain the high rate of social media use among some African-Americans and the low rate among others?

Scholars have begun to debate the meaning of Black Twitter in the United States, particularly for politics. Indeed,

African-Americans who are online are more likely to use social media than their white counterparts. At the same time, though, many African-Americans are not online at all. What has not been thoroughly examined and theorized, however, is this relationship between race and class in online spaces. This paper explores the mechanism of this social media gap and the forces of intersectionality among African-Americans' use of both Twitter and Facebook.

Using a case of political activism, this study uses both in-depth interviews and online content analysis from over 5000 online posts. Findings show that differential, racialized, and classed social networks, power dynamics and political opportunities shape the extent and type of social media use among African-Americans. This study challenges previous scholarship that celebrates African-American social media use without examining those who are marginalized from online spaces. This research also finds the reproduction of inequalities in online spaces, rather than amelioration of class and race differences.

Why Did They Light a Candle?

: A Case Study of ‘Candlelight Vigil Against US Beef Import’ in 2008 in Korea

Ahn, J-E.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

This paper attempts to explore the dynamics of collective action frames in a new wave of protests through the case of

'Candlelight Vigil against US Beef Import (hereinafter referred to as '2008 candlelight vigil')' in 2008 in Korea.

Interestingly, candlelight vigil, of which an official name is 'Candlelight Cultural Festival' in Korea, was a strategic product under the structural restriction of 'the Law on Assembly and Demonstration' stating a prohibition of assembly and demonstration after sunset. In other words, a night assembly could be allowed only by combining two repertoires of 'candlelight vigil', a symbol of nonviolence and peace, and 'cultural festival' permitted even after sunset. Despite its origin stemming from the structural constraints, 2008 candlelight vigil showed significant shifts in terms of its mobilization, organization, framing process and repertoires. In particular, the participants rejecting to be controlled by one centric organization sought to conduct the meaning of their actions spontaneously, such as 'Food Crisis Frame',

'Democracy Crisis Frame', and 'Publicness Crisis Frame' which critically challenged the status quo. Therefore, this paper notably addresses following three questions: (1) which frames were shared?, (2) how were these frames formed, diffused and changed?, and (3) what does it imply particularly in Korea in 2008? I would conclude that 2008

Candlelight Vigil was the condensation of conflicts among various social groups, and furthermore, the active movement for creating political spaces.

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British Fighters in Syria: Social Media, the Visual and Scapes of Affect

McDonald, K.

(Middlesex University)

Understanding online jihadism demands that we engage not only with changing practices of violence typical of 'new wars', but also with the reshaping of public and private, affect and subjectivity at stake in new forms of social media.

Such transformations are central to emerging social media collaborations, from protest and activism to contemporary extremist networks. This paper explores the structures and scapes of affect being generated through the social media use of a small number of British fighters in Syria, with a particular focus on images and videos being communicated through these practices. Drawing on contemporary analyses of visual communication and experience, this paper highlights the importance of social media as a medium to constitute intimate co-presence, and examines the extent to which these fighters are involved in communicating 'sensation' rather than 'meaning'. The paper considers the implications of this form of communication, both in terms of the types of social scapes constituted, and in terms of implications for paths into and out of action shaped by an imaginary of violence and the extreme. In the Syrian case this analysis offers insight into the attraction of deterritorialized violence associated with groups such as ISIS when compared to the imaginaries of violence associated with nationalist actors in the Syria conflict.

Environment and Society

W622, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

POLICY AND PRACTICE

Enacting Accountability: Sustainable Housing Development and Environmental Policy

Ozaki, R., Shaw, I.

(Imperial College London)

Building 'sustainable' homes is integral to UK government initiatives to reduce energy consumption, fuel poverty and carbon emissions, and to generate renewable energy. Complying with policy requires of practitioners that their actions are held to account; and this applies to the context of sustainable development of the social housing sector and its use of renewable technologies. In this paper, we examine how 'accountability' is promoted by both the UK government's environmental policy and local councils in their planning criteria. We investigate how accountability is enacted in, and generative of, the practices of sustainable housing development by housing professionals. We identify a key process of accountability: a politics of making environmental sustainability visible through demonstrating the utilisation of renewable technologies. For housing developers, the choice to install such visible renewable technologies is part of their practices to strategically and creatively meet the policy criteria and the local council's target for planning permission. These practices reveal much about the politics that underpin how local planning authorities and housing professionals together shape environmental accountability in a bid to comply, win building contracts, and demonstrate their sustainability credentials. We demonstrate how these practices have implications for potential energy provision and consumption.

Improving the Relevance of Practice Theory for Energy Policy: The Problem of Data and Methodology

Roberts, T.

(University of Surrey)

A growing proportion of research into energy consumption is being conducted from a social practice perspective, focusing on patterns of consumption and mundane aspects of everyday life. In particular, the work of Elizabeth Shove has been fundamental in driving this body of work forward, encouraging both scholars and policy makers to question dominant rational choice paradigms traditionally favoured by behavioural psychologists and economists. However, as

Shove herself concedes, little of this research has found its way into climate change policy (Shove, 2012).

Consequently a key question for scholars of practice theory is, why? One possible explanation is the different type's of methodologies and data sets which are favoured by the two approaches. Scholars working from the rational choice perspective, tend to favour quantitative data collected through large scale surveys. Such data is also appealing to policy makers as it provides headline statistics and enables them to set targets which can be easily measured. In contrast, research undertaken from a practice theory perspective tends to utilise small samples and produce largely qualitative data focussing on understanding the complex nature of everyday routines and how these result in people living high energy consuming lifestyles. This paper seeks explore how research from a practice theory perspective can be made more amenable to policy makers. Key questions will include, should practice theory scholars try to

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include more quantitative data in their research? And can qualitative data be presented in different ways to make it more amenable to policy makers?

Building Bridges between Climate Scientists and Sceptical Voices: Implications for Public Perceptions of

Climate Change

Sharman, A., Howarth, C.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

Representations of the climate debate, particularly those in the public sphere, tend to focus on a dualistic and polarised disagreement about the scientific reality of anthropogenic climate change. These depictions fail to capture the associated, and often more nuanced, political dimensions of the debate, resulting in a lack of understanding of what constitutes a normal sceptical scientific process and how this relates to the process of developing political solutions. Moreover, this emphasis on polarised disagreement obscures important areas of uncertainty that do require further scientific investigation and policy development, as well as the motivations that underpin the different arguments expressed. If the public perceive that an active debate about climate change focuses only on science, it is likely to subsequently influence perceived need for and appropriate type of climate change policy response. This paper presents results from 22 interviews with climate scientists and sceptical voices on their experience within the climate change debate, focusing in particular on perceptions of themselves and those expressing arguments that differ from their own, as well as how the debate is framed. It provides a critical analysis of the motivations behind the different actors' experiences of the climate debate and suggests areas where self-reflexivity, as well as identifying common motivations may be used as a means for useful dialogue across areas of both scientific and political debate. It also assesses the extent to which perception of the existence of a polarised debate impacts public perception of the issue itself.

Families and Relationships

M225, GEORGE MOORE BUILDING

'I Suppose It's Always Developing Really, It's Constantly Changing I Think': The Fluid and Relational Nature of

Fathering in 'Normative' Context

Earley, V.

(University of Sheffield)

Theorising about fathering has been shaped by a multitude of academic disciplines, cultural institutions and, perhaps most vociferously, by parents themselves. However, there is a predilection for conceptualising parenting, in general, as outcome driven, done to children as passive recipients of the process. While the discipline of Childhood Studies has allowed for the reconceptualisation of children as autonomous social actors within the constraints of the social structures in which they live their everyday lives, explorations of parenting have remained stoically resistant hearing children's voices in 'normative' circumstances. Fathering, specifically, has also primarily been explored in problematised contexts and little is known about the 'normative' experience against which the outcome discourse of paternal involvement in children's lives is measured.

My ongoing PhD case study research with families suggests that children, fathers and mothers understand fathering in diverse, relational and adaptive ways and that notions of fathering are individually located in time and space, arising from the experiences and understandings of family life and family roles. I argue that an idealised understanding of what fathering should be as a fixed and unmalleable notion is pervasive within cultural and structural representations of fathering and fatherhood and that this construction may be challenged through in depth exploration of fathering with families in what I describe as 'normative context'.

This paper will discuss some of the key themes emerging from the interviews undertaken with families, with particular focus given to the fluidity of fathering as a process that is negotiated and embedded over time.

Fathering and Sport: Families, Men and Masculinity

Fletcher, T.

(Leeds Beckett University)

The concept of fathering and the role(s) of fathers are changing. With the shifting status of women, particularly in employment, increasing breakdown and reconstitution of families, traditional views of men as occupying instrumental roles of breadwinner and disciplinarian are evolving. However, as the very essence of fathering is being challenged,

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there is a growing social expectation that fathers should (want to) be more actively engaged with their children when compared to previous generations. Men are now expected to be 'involved' and 'domesticated' fathers. These new expectations towards fathering have, for some at least, signalled a contemporary redefinition of masculinity. Many men continue to turn to sport to socialise with their children as sport provides a setting where they feel comfortable and competent as both parent and man (Kay, 2009). This study examines the tensions (and ambivalences) men encounter as they endeavour to meet these new expectations of fatherhood, fulfill their own expectations of what it means to be a 'good father', and the potential role that sport plays in this.

The (Global) Sharing of Fathering Experiences: Fathers as Writers of Memoirs and Blogs

Ranson, G.

(University of Calgary)

This paper draws on research from a larger project which investigates fathers' caregiving of very young children from a phenomenological perspective, both as (observed) practice and as lived experience. Most analyses of 'lived experience' depend on fathers' accounts of their experiences, which are conventionally explored through interviewing

– a method I utilized in the first phase of the project, involving a sample of Canadian fathers during and after they had spent time at home with their babies while on parental leave. Here I review two alternative forms of fathers' accounts: fathers' published memoirs of their fathering experiences, and fathers' online blogs. Both these sources are distinctive in that they constitute information volunteered by a particular segment of fathers wanting (for whatever reason) to make their experiences public. Because these genres are relatively new arrivals, they have attracted almost no scholarly attention

– and yet their growing collective presence has the potential to challenge many conventional understandings of fathers and fathering practices. In this paper I present an overview of both genres, drawing on sources from Canada, the U.K. and the U.S. I then provide an analysis of the material selected writer fathers (10 memoir writers and 12 bloggers) choose to present, about themselves as fathers, and about the hands-on caregiving work they are undertaking with their children.

Between Legacies: Fathers

’ Construction of the Relation of Their Past to Their Child’s Future in the Present of

Parenting

Osborn, S.

(University of Edinburgh)

It has been noted that contemporary fathers often position their practice in contrast to the fatherhood of previous generations on the basis of understandings of contemporary fatherhood as more intimate and involved than the stereotype of traditional fatherhood (Henwood and Procter, 2003). Nevertheless, my PhD research with fathers suggests that the concept of 'passing on' of legacies across generations remains important to fathers, whether these are personal, familial or cultural.

When men become fathers they come to occupy a dual position in the parent-child relation, as child of their parents and parent to their child. Their sense of responsibility to their child(ren)'s future prompted participants to reflect on their childhood experience of being parented and their parenting heritage. I consider the place of both personal biography and of generational norms in fathers' construction of the relation between the reconstructed past of their childhood and an envisaged future for their children in their parenting in the present.

While some fathers wished to replicate the positive experience of their childhood, others were seeking some form of reparation through the parent-child relationship for what was in lacking in their childhood. Some of those with the greatest deficit used a discourse of transformation, of transforming their own negative experience into a positive experience for their children. My research with a diverse sample of fathers living in Edinburgh suggests that both the processes of engaging with their parenting heritage described by fathers and the legacy they seek to create for children were marked by class.

Frontiers 1 – Pecha Kucha

W308, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

ACTIVISM IN SOCIOLOGY PRESENTS. PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY: SPEAKING TO THE GREAT BRITISH PUBLIC

ABOUT SOCIAL CLASS

This session speaks to sociologists about the accessibility of our work within wider publics outside of academia. The session brings together the authors of a soon to be published Penguin Book aimed at speaking to this wider audience

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through the findings of the collaboration of sociologists and the BBC in the Great British Class Survey. The 6 speakers are authors of the edited book and will use the presentation format of the Pecha Kucha in order to talk about social class and social inequality in Britain today.

Mckenzie, L., Savage, M., Friedman, S., Miles, A., Laurison, D.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

Frontiers 2

W828, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

PEER REVIEWING: TIPS AND PITFALLS

The peer review process lies at the heart of academic activity

– playing a key role in the evaluation and communication of research findings. Learning how to review effectively is therefore an important element of being an academic. Sarah Neal (University of Surrey) and Karim Murji (The Open University), Editors of Sociology will lead this session exploring the process of peer reviewing articles submitted for publication in journals.

Sociology is the flagship journal of the BSA, publishing outstanding and original articles which advance our understanding of the widest possible range of sociological topics. Publishing high quality research depends on an equally high quality peer review process and peer reviewers are an essential part of the journal ecology and the advancement of research. As Editors of Sociology, Sarah and Karim have a wealth of knowledge about what makes a good review, how it is used to develop research publications and how to get involved in reviewing with

Sociology. Scholars of all ages and stages can make great reviewers so we encourage all delegates to attend and find out more about contributing to the discipline through peer review.

Medicine, Health and Illness

C236, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

IS AUSTERITY HARMING SOCIETAL WELL-BEING? EVIDENCE FROM THE UK

At a state banquet for the new Lord Mayor, David Cameron spoke of a new economic reality that necessitated

'permanent austerity'. Much of the public debate surrounding the introduction of policies intended to reduce the UK's public debt has focused on whether they will achieve this economic aim. Yet, cuts to public services and the welfare state are not merely matters of balancing the books. The human dimension of austerity continues to be an understudied area and, more importantly, it remains largely absent from the public conversation. While economic data is published quarterly, social scientists are only now beginning to be able to document the social and health-related consequences of austerity. In this panel we bring together an interdisciplinary group of researchers from sociology, public health, and social policy whose work addresses these human dimensions of austerity politics. Each of the speakers will evaluate the effects of specific aspects of austerity measures enacted in the UK on different health and well-being outcomes, including, 1) the consequences of increasing the minimum wage for health behaviours and mental health; 2) the impact of decentralization of the social fund for food insecurity; 3) the impact of sanctions for

Jobseekers on poverty and employment outcomes; and 4) the effects of Working Capability Assessments on mental health. Collectively, this panel documents regressive trends in societal well-being associated with austerity, findings that are particularly troubling in light of the UK outlook of ‘permanent austerity’.

The Mental Health Impact of the Work Capability Assessment in England: A Longitudinal Cross-Local

Authority Study

Barr, B., Taylor-Robinson D. Stuckler D, Loopstra, R., Reeves, A., Whitehead, M.

(University of Liverpool)

There are several indications that the deterioration in mental health that followed the recent economic crisis has continued into the period of economic recovery . This has led some to hypothesize that welfare reforms and cuts in public expenditure are sustaining or exacerbating the decline. One aspect of welfare reform has been the implementation of more stringent medical assessment for individuals receiving Incapacity Benefit, i.e., Work Capability

Assessment (WCA), which result in fewer people being eligible for this support. Using quarterly data between October

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2010 and June 2013 for 150 local authorities in England, we examine the association between the proportion of IB claimants in each local authority that had received a WCA in each quarter and quarterly anti-depressant prescription data, a potentially sensitive indicator of the effect of this policy on mental health. The proportion of claimants receiving

WCAs varied across the country from Waltham Forest (57%) to Wakefield (86%). We find that for each 1% of IB claimants that underwent reassessment with the WCA, the antidepressant prescribing rate increased by 35 items per

100,000 of the population. These estimates indicate that the reassessment process between October 2010 and May

2013 accounted for the prescription of an additional 1.4 million items of antidepressants. The programme of reassessing people on IB using the work capability assessment was associated with an increase in rates of antidepressant prescribing. These findings suggest that WCAs have led to poorer mental health among those already experiencing chronic illness.

Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-wage Workers: A Natural

Experiment in the UK

Reeves, A., McKee, M., Mackenbach, J., Whitehead, M., Stuckler, D.

(University of Oxford)

It is not well established whether increasing income leads to health improvements in low-income groups. In 1999 the

UK government implemented National Minimum Wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to £3•60. This natural policy experiment creates as-if random intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing income on health. Longitudinal data on 7,681 individuals were taken from the British Household Panel

Survey. We compared the health effects of income gains on persons whose incomes rose to the National Minimum

Wage (intervention group, n= 63) with otherwise similar persons who were unaffected because either i) their incomes were between 100% and 110% of the eligibility threshold (control group 1, n=107) or ii) their firms were non-compliant even though they paid wages below the threshold (control group 2, n =109). We assessed the probability of psychological disorder using the twelve-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We also assessed changes in risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (a control condition). The intervention group receiving wage increases from the National Minimum Wage experienced significantly lesser probability of psychological disorder compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. The intervention group also experienced lower probabilities of self-reporting anxiety or depression, but no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health (‘psychiatric caseness’) by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers.

Does Welfare Sanctioning Push People into Employment or Precariousness in the UK?

Loopstra, R.

(University of Oxford)

Since 2011, the number of Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) claimants being sanctioned, whereby their benefit payments are temporarily stopped, has risen dramatically. This has coincided with the implementation of work programme schemes for JSA claimants (introduced throughout 2011) and a new sanctioning regime involving extended and more rapidly applied sanctions. Concurrently, the number of individuals claiming JSA has been steadily decreasing across local authorities. While the decline in the number of claimants has been celebrated as a sign of job recovery, it has also been suggested that punitive sanctioning is impoverishing people by pushing them off JSA. Using monthly data across 375 local authorities from 2006 to 2013, we examined how rates of JSA sanctioning within local authorities related to JSA claimant rates and unemployment, and whether relationships changed in the new regime period. We found that increasing rates of sanctioning were associated with increasing rates of individuals leaving JSA for reasons other than work, but only in the new regime period. Next, we examined how sanctioning rates related to food bank use across local authorities and found that, controlling for other population socioeconomic characteristics, the highest rates of food bank use were in areas with the highest rates of sanctioning. This evidence suggests that sanctioning is pushing people off state support into the precariate, which includes having to rely on charitable food provision. This has implications for the health and well-being of these groups, not least because charitable food provisioning is rarely able t o ensure individuals’ food needs are met.

Families and Food in Hard Times: Household Food Insecurity in Three European Countries in an Age of

Austerity

O'Connell, R.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

Food poverty in the global North is emerging as an urgent social and moral concern, increasingly recognized as a central issue in the field of health inequalities in industrialized countries. With widening income disparity in Austerity

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Europe and ‘the end of cheap food’, these effects are being exacerbated. However, not enough is known about how food practices are negotiated in lowincome families, children’s and young people’s perspectives of food poverty and how it affects their lives, or how food poverty manifests and is addressed in different places.

This talk describes the methodology and some early insights from a cross-national, mixed-methods research project which sets out to answer such questions. The study adopts an embedded case stud y design. Providing for ‘a contrast of contexts’ in relation to conditions of austerity, it focuses on Portugal, where poor families with children have been most affected by economic retrenchment, the UK, which is experiencing substantial cuts in benefits to poor families, and Norway which, in comparison with most societies, is highly egalitarian and has not been subject to austerity measures.

Some early findings from the policy and literature review are given, providing an indication of the ways in which household food insecurity is discursively framed, measured and addressed in each country. The presentation of early findings from the quantitative research includes discussion of the opportunities and limitations of conducting secondary analysis on the topic using existing national and European data.

Methodological Innovations

W324, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

ETHNOGRAPHIC ENCOUNTERS IN TRANSITION: STUDYING SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN TURKEY

This panel offers a discussion on the methodological experiences and theoretical insights of studying social institutions ethnographically at a time of flux in Turkey, under the single party government of the “neo-Islamist” Justice and Development Party. The transformation in Turkey and the consequent social polarizations trigger the sociological imagination and pose diverse methodological challenges for the ethnographer. Against this background, it would be timely to start a discussion on common issues, such as negotiating the shifting positionality of the researcher, or gaining and maintaining trust and access to the field site. We address three overlapping themes: power relationships in the field, the role of the researcher and informants, and ethical dilemmas arising in particular settings. How do power relationships operate at all levels of the ethnographic research? How are concepts of class, gender, and identity negotiated by both the researcher and informants? How do these methodological challenges play out in different social institutions within the context of transformation in Turkey? We bring together five examples of ethnographic research-- studying women’s religious practices, changing gender roles in the family, journalistic cultures, legal struggles of minorities, and competing state museums in Turkey. Particular ethnographic encounters will be discussed through the prism of theoretical debates on power, agency, and transformation, with the aim of contributing to common methodological debates on ethnographies of societies in transition.

Ethnography of the State: Researching State Museums in Turkey

Karahasan, C.N.

(University of Edinburgh)

This paper discusses power-knowledge relationships in studying state institutions ethnographically in Turkey at a time of un rest, when the Kemalist/secularist state power has been reversed by the single party government of the “neo-

Islamist” Justice and Development Party in the last twelve years. The paper is based on my ethnographic fieldwork

(August 2012- June 2013) in two state museums affiliated with competing state institutions in Turkey; one linked to the

Turkish Armed Forces the “guardian” of secularism, and the other to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism -an arm of the government. Although both are state museums, they require diverse strategies for conducting ethnographic research due to the growing political polarization and reversal of power relationships between Kemalists and Islamists within the state. I focus on how the changing power dynamics in the state relates to ethnographic encounters in different state museums that are endowed with contending sources of power. These encounters, common to all ethnographic studies (negotiating/maintaining access, conducting interviews, observation, and access to qualitative data sources), are based on the relationship between changing legal structures (e.g. bureaucracy, regulations, inter/intra-institutional hierarchies), shifting positionality of the researcher (e.g. the insider-outsider role of the researcher), and ethical dilemmas (e.g. ensuring anonymity of identifiable informants/civil servants) in the particular state institutions. The paper argues that informants in both museums maintain their knowledge-power over the researcher through bureaucracy for withholding/yielding knowledge, while the researcher strives to negotiate her insider-outsider role beyond the fissure between Islamism and Kemalism in distinct ways.

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A Researcher's Return to Her Family and Home as a Field Site

Demirkol, E.

(University of Sussex)

Based on my research among women whose husbands have migrated to Japan from Turkey, this paper will discuss the methodological issues of conducting an ethnographic fieldwork in researcher's own home town in Turkey. I will specifically focus on how changing family relations at the researcher's own 'home' influences her fieldwork experience.

Studying family as an institution is a challenging experience for the researcher in Turkey because it is regarded as a sensitive and private structure for individuals; for example, in terms of the emotional or financial relations between wife and husband, or the hierarchy between wife/husband/children. Although family in Turkey faces changes in itself, I argue that specifically in small towns of Turkey, the institution of family is stuck between the past and the present. In addition, conducting ethnographic fieldwork in the private sphere of family relations leads to a reconstruction of the relations between the researcher and participants. While being a woman from that town makes me an insider, as a single female university student I was in an outsider position. I argue that carrying out an ethnographic fieldwork in a small town of Turkey, where patriarchal rules in family relations are still dominant, complicates the position of the researcher, especially when the researcher is from the same town. Therefore, this paper will focus on the challenges of ethnography at home and the way sensitive family issues affect the positioning of the researcher.

Participant Observation of Islamic Rituals: Negotiating

‘Worship and Business’

Uzar Özdemir, F.

(Bülent Ecevit University and Middle East Technical University)

This paper examines how insider/outsider roles are negotiated by the participant observer in religious settings in

Ankara, Turkey. Under the rapid socio-cultural transformation of Turkey with the government of the Justice and

Development Party, religion is significantly affected as a social institution by the conservative policies. Within this framework, conducting ethnography of women’s public religious practices as a woman researcher has its advantages and disadvantages. In order to study the religious rituals of Sunni Muslim women in different regions of Ankara, I carried out participant observation for two years (2011-2013). As a participating observer, I prayed with the pious women at mosques. When I informed women about my research, their first reaction was a Turkish saying

: “you are engaging in both worship and business”. Although business in sacred space is not welcome in Turkish Islam, the women did not condemn me of a profane act in the sacred space. This signals that the pious women accepted me as a researcher because I am an insider, since I “practice” Islam with them. I am also an outsider since I do not identify myself primarily and solely as a pious Muslim. This positive attitude towards research in an Islamic setting is a reflection of the comfort pious groups feel for being more visible in public spaces under the political power of an

Islamist party. This power relationship influences every step of the research, from gaining entry and trust, to negotiating the relations between the researcher and the researched.

Social Networks, Social Anthropology and the LSE: Exploring Possibilities for Gathering Network Data

Ethnographically

Jones, A.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

There is a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in mixed-methods studies (Crossley 2010; Edwards

2010) and in particular in the combined use of qualitative methods and social network analysis (esp. Bellotti 2014).

Likewise a growing number of researchers are using qualitative data collection techniques to generate data amenable to social network analysis (e.g. Crossley and Ibrahim 2012; Fletcher and Bonnell 2013; Small 2009; Wells 2011). This emerging sub-field resonates with the work of a comparatively under-explored (when compared to the Manchester

School) group of social anthropologists working at the LSE in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper I seek to revisit the scholarship of the three most prominent members of this group

– Elizabeth Bott, John Barnes and Siegfried Nadel

– to consider the implications of their work for how we might incorporate network analysis into qualitative, in particular ethnographic, research designs. Notably, it has been argued that the impact of the LSE school of social anthropology died out after the 1960s because of its members reluctance to couch their work in an over-arching theoretical framework; to 'expand social networks beyond that of an 'analytical concept' applicable to rural and urban settings'

(Prell 2012: 35; also Scott 2000). As qualitative, even qualitative, methods are increasingly incorporated into studies evaluating the impact of social interventions in defined settings of this kind, this paper seeks to explore the possibilities for networked measures of social impact via recourse to the work of these three mid-twentieth century scholars.

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A Holistic Evaluation o f Delivering The Community Based ‘Master Gardener Programme’ in a Prison Setting with Substance Misusing Offenders

Brady, G., Brown, G. Bos, E. Kneafsey, M. Glynn, M.

(Coventry University)

In 2013 our team was commissioned to evaluate the Master Gardener programme, a gardening intervention with substance misuse offenders at a local prison. The Master Gardener programme is led by Garden Organic, 'the UK's leading organic charity'. The core Master Gardener programme launched as a pilot programme in 2010 and was based on Garden Organic's successful 'Master Composter' programme. The extension of the programme - from a community to a prison setting - is in recognition of research evidence both national and international that shows a range of positive outcomes in terms of the role of horticulture in supporting physical, emotional, behavioural and social well-being.

Our approach to evaluation utilises a framework which allows the research team to capture data about the long term outcomes associated with a range of health, wellbeing and social benefits. We adopt an interpretive framework in order to qualitatively capture the experiences of those managing, delivering and participating in the programme. The approach includes participant's reflective diaries, plotted circles of change and monthly observations of the changes to the physical environment of the garden. We also explore views on the extent to which engaging in the Master

Gardener programme may facilitate consideration of 'desistance' from future offending. This paper presents the preliminary evaluation findings and explores some of the challenges of using creative and participatory approaches within a prison setting.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

CARNEGIE LECTURE THEATRE, CHARLES OAKLEY BUILDING

RACE AND ETHNICITY SUB-STREAM: ISLAMOPHOBIA, GENDER AND THE STATE

Trojan Horse and the Racial State: Race, Religion and Securitisation

Miah, S.

(University of Huddersfield)

The Trojan Horse saga which gripped public discourse early this year was a milestone moment in the sociology of race and public policy. For some, the 'Trojan Horse' saga associated with the Birmingham schools represents a worrying trend of creeping 'Islamification' of publicly funded schools. For others, the story signifies the on-going racial patholigisation of Britain's Muslim communities. One thing is for certain, the current debate marks a significant moment in the nature and function of the neo-liberal state as it re-frames race relation policy in Britain in light of the securitization agenda. This paper aims to critically assess the Trojan Hose controversy in light of the Ofsted inspection reports and also the independent reviews published by Birmingham city council (Kershaw 2014) and the DoE (Clarke

2014). This paper intends to argue that this controversy marks a significant milestone in the embedding of the securitization agenda in Britain's inner city schools through the medium of the PREVENT agenda. It further argues that one of the best ways of understanding the Trojan Horse saga is by locating it within a broader sociological and historical context of the functioning of the racial state (CCCS 1982; Golberg 2002).

Breaking Taboos or Strengthening the Status Quo: Islamophobia in the Name of Liberalism in France and

America

Winter, A., Mondon, A.

(University of East London)

Historically, ultra-conservatives and the far-right have been associated with exclusivist identities and ideologies in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality and religion. However, a change of discourse has recently taken place, redirecting traditional racist attacks towards Muslims, using a pseudo-progressive narrative in the defence of liberalism, equality and rights (e.g. gender and sexuality), the enlightenment and the 'West'. This paper will examine the various reactionary discourses basing their appeal in the redefinition of liberal and human rights values in France and America, as well as Britain. In France, we will study the resurgence of racism within mainstream discourse which has taken place through the redefinition of key republican

– even left-wing – ideals such as laïcité.This shift in hegemonic discourse has taken many shapes, from the old school nouveaux philosophes, to media-savvy 'taboo breakers', and the so-called rebranding of the Front National. In the US, we will examine the secular, socially liberal neo-conservative discourse which has concentrated their attacks of Islamist extremism (and in some cases Islam) on

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women's and wider democratic rights, and juxtapose this with the more socially conservative 'Tea Party-wing' of the

Republican Party which, while celebrating American rights and freedoms, reject a gender and sexuality rights based approach. We will argue that such 'analyses' of and attacks on Muslim extremism are based on chauvinistic culturalist prejudice and in some cases racism or the post-race displacement of it onto a 'religion', as well as political scapegoating and the legitimization of military action.

Islamophobia: Experiential Accounts of Pakistani and British Pakistani Muslim Women in England

Saeed, T.

(University of Oxford)

Experiential narratives of Islamophobia reveal a complex intersection between race, ethnicity and religion. While debates continue amongst academic, policy and media actors about the meaning and scope of Islamophobia,

Muslims who suffer discrimination as a consequence of their religious, racial and ethnic identities are seldom provided an opportunity to share their experiences, and shape the wider discussion. Furthermore, the intersection of different identities in experiences of Islamophobia are overlooked, simplifying the problematic mix of other 'securitized' categories such as ethnicity with religion in the overarching narrative of terrorism and Islam in Britain. This paper examines accounts of Islamophobia amongst a group of Overseas Muslim Pakistanis and British Pakistani females studying in universities in England. In particular, the paper reveals a vulnerability of identity attributed to both being

Muslim and being Pakistani. In understanding this phenomenon, both experiences of Islamophobia and a form of

'Pako-phobia' are explored, as well as opinions and perceptions of participants concerning their religious, ethnic, and national identities, in the context of a socio-political security agenda that continues to render them suspect.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2 – Pecha Kucha

W709, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

EDUCATION

‘Race, Class… They Can All be a Barrier if You Choose’: Exploring Intergenerational Differences in the

Educational Journeys and Aspirations of Black African and Black Caribbean Families

Franceschelli, M., Evans; K., Schoon, I.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

The article seeks to explore how Black African and Black Caribbean British parents and their children negotiate their educational journeys and aspirations with elements of the social structure particularly class, race and gender. In so doing, it addresses the question of how the socio-economic and institutional context influences individual educational journeys and what are the turning points of these journeys according to respondents' accounts. While focusing on education, the article also explores the intergenerational dynamics behind the transmission of aspirations.

With references to the work of the American sociologist Annette Laureu, the article is set in the wider debate about intersectionality of class, race, gender and its influences on the intergenerational transmission of aspirations.

Drawing from narrative interviews with Black African and Black Caribbean parents and young people (aged 13-19 years old), this article provides unique primary data and intergenerational perspectives. The analysis suggests intergenerational and gendered differences in the conceptualization of life opportunities and highlights a contradictory mixture of hopes for a better future and concerns about barriers. Respondents challenged a sense of fatalism and predetermination, associated with the paradigm of social reproduction, by relying more strongly on their own sense of individual agency. However, the interview accounts also suggested awareness that the unequal structure of opportunities persists. In the negotiation of these contrasting trends, respondents highlighted the complexity of reconciling hopes for future progressions with the fears of possible regressions in a society in transition.

The Moral Economy of Temporary Migrants: International Student Mobilities as a Case of Temporary

Migrations

Kalia, M.

(University of Virginia)

The case of temporary migrations has gained some currency within different circles (World Bank, Political Scientists and Sociologists). However, how to study and understand temporary migrations remains elusive. Using interview data

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from an ongoing study on how Indian international students manage legal precarity in the U.S. and the U.K. I suggest an alternative way to unpack the unique nature of temporary migrations.

In particular, this paper moves the migration debates from more formal and structural causal accounts (resource availability, structural transformations, network theory) to the realm of changing values and norms that often implicates discursive frames and feeling structures seeped in moral judgments around money, time and self-worth. For middle class Indian international students and their families who are in the midst of the neoliberal tempest an expensive and branded foreign degree is becoming a moral imperative involving choosing precarity 'now' with the hope of a future, which is not promised. By doing so, international students and their families are re-configuring values and conducts around sources of migrant money (pension, mortgages, loans, interest, windfall money) and migrant time (visa time, degree time, part-time jobs, family time, youth time, lucky time).

I conclude by suggesting that immigration and migration studies need to address different types of sociality (money and time in this case) and associated moral imperatives ascribed to these new sociality which may be also shaping other migrant practices like remittances, information sharing, choice of destination, to name a few.

Communication and Communities: European Migrant Populations, EAL and Shifting Institutional Practices in

English Schools

Schneider, C., Arnot, M.

(Anglia Ruskin University)

The paper researches the largely unexplored interface between migration and modes and levels of communication associated with it. The focus is on the institutional shifts in professional communication structures and interactions in schools which occur (or do not occur) in relation to students who have English as an additional language (EAL).

Organisational communication theory is applied to analyse the quality, directions and blockages regarding schools’ communication relating to EAL and three dimensions are explored more specifically: external factors influencing schools’ communication systems, communication models reflected in the communication structures (linear, interactional and transactional) and interactions and communication content (in particular, information and assumptions). The value of communication theory for migration studies is illustrated by reporting the findings of a one year case study of a primary and a secondary school in the East of England which has seen significant demographic change since European enlargement in 2004. Schools’ communication processes were revealed through 45 semistructured interviews and surveys with school management, teachers, EAL students and specialists. The findings show that the primary school had elaborate communication structures which generally reflected a transactional model of communication whilst the secondary school used more frequently a linear approach. However, communication processes in both schools were characterised by a lack of information about EAL communities leading to assumptions and generalisations which hindered effective communication between the different stakeholders.

The Role of Third Sector Organisations in Supporting the Cultural Identity of Black British Young People in

Order to Raise Educational Attainment

Kwegan, A.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

This paper will focus on highlighting the links between educational attainment, cultural identity, racial socialisation and community involvement in education, in the form of extra-curricular activities. UK examination results show that fewer young people from, Black Caribbean and Black African backgrounds, achieve a level of education that allows a fair chance at entering the world of work or continuing their education.

In the UK there is a dearth of research that attempts to isolate the impact of cultural identity on the attainment of Black

British students. Developing a positive a cultural identity leads to positive educational outcomes. Studies have found that African American adolescents, who had parents that actively instilled racial pride and knowledge, referred to as

'racial socialization', were able to overcome both teacher and peer discrimination and achieved higher grade point averages.

Methodology

Research Questions

1. What is the relationship between cultural identity, learning and educational attainment?

2. How can third sector organisations (voluntary groups, charities and social enterprises) offering young people extra-curricular activities become involved in cultivating racial socialisation amongst Black British children/young people and raising their levels of attainment?

Method

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The paper is based on a literature review conducted to examine theories and programs that have examined or tackled culture, learning and the attainment of the African American students. The literature review was conducted to inform a study on how these theories and programs can be applied within the UK context in order to raise the attainment of

Black British students.

The Visibility and Aesthetics of 'Race' amongst University Students

Michael, L.

(Ulster University)

This paper considers the 'passing' strategies of minority ethnic students in UK Higher Education institutions in the context of their racialised experiences on and near the campus. These are contrasted with the hypervisibility of 'race' in campus spaces and activities associated with student life, exemplified by the 'diversity' images employed in university marketing and at the other end of the spectrum, by the high profile student events which 'make fun' of and commemorate racial conflict. Elements of the social are not simply reflected in spatial arrangements, but are constituted and reinforced by them (Delaney, 2002). Drawing on Morrison's concept of the 'wholly racialised world', this paper employs an examination of the whitened academic identity to explore racialised experiences of boundarymaking and privilege in spaces constructed by and for university students.

Democratic Deficits: Permanent Exclusion, Racialization and the Business of Education

Kulz, C.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

Drawing on research with the parents of permanently excluded children, head teachers and local authority staff, this paper examines how English schools are acting as securitized zones by adopting increasingly punitive law and order approaches. Ethnic minorities, working class students and boys are disproportionately likely to be permanently excluded from school. While exclusion's devastating consequences on young people's futures has been well documented (Searle, 2001; Parsons, 2009; Carlile 2013), this paper explores how the growing democratic deficit at the heart of England's centralised, de-regulated, results-driven education system is pushing already potentially disadvantaged students further to the margins. Punitive approaches drawing on raced, classed and gendered visions

(re)produce black boys as possessing inherently dangerous, hyper-sexual, criminal masculinities (Carby 1982; Mac an Ghaill 1988; Arnett Ferguson 2001; Sewell 1997.) Through the narratives of parents who have gone through the appeals process, the paper will also examine how the recent changes to the exclusion appeals system have handed more power to head teachers and made it more difficult for parents to seek redress. The Office of the Children's

Commissioner has described these changes as in breach of human rights law, and the paper argues that power differentials make it extremely difficult for parents to defend their children (OCC 2012). Permanent exclusion is an extreme example, yet illustrative of a much more widespread, systemic shift in the educational landscape and its approach to young people. Fostering democratic culture is subsumed beneath the authoritarian securitisation of schools, as raced, classed and gendered inequalities are reproduced.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

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DIASPORA, MIGRATION AND TRANSNATIONALISM SUB-STREAM: MIGRATION AND THE FAMILY

British Asian Transnational Marriages and Integration

Charsley, K., Bolognani, M., Spencer, S., Jayaweera, H., Ersanilli, E.

(University of Bristol)

With government aims to reduce net immigration, spouses (one of the largest categories of settlement migration) have been the target of increasing immigration restrictions. The tightening of entry and settlement requirements is increasingly justified with reference to problems of integration. Although these new regulations apply to all British citizens applying for a spouse to join them in the UK, not all transnational marriages are viewed as equally problematic: the discourse centres on intra-ethnic marriages between British ethnic minorities and partners from their parents' or grandparents' countries of origin. Such groups are also likely to be among those most affected by new language and income requirements. Empirical evidence to support the suggestion that transnational marriage inhibits integration is, however, surprisingly limited. Integration, moreover, is a complex, politicised and contested concept.

'Marriage Migration and Integration' is a new ESRC-funded research project aiming to provide new evidence on the

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relationships between marriage migration and integration (conceptualised both as a multi-directional and multi-faceted process, and as a normative discourse) by contrasting transnational marriages with those contracted within the UK ethnic group. Drawing on both existing quantitative survey data and new qualitative interviews, the project includes not only British Pakistani Muslims (most often problematized in integration discourses) but also British Indian Sikhs, who also have significant rates of transnational marriage, but who are less frequently presented as problematic in terms of integration. These new findings will cast fresh light on both academic and political debates.

'Beauty and the Beast': Everyday Bordering and 'Sham Marriage' Discourse

Wemyss, G., Yuval-Davis, N., Cassidy, K.

(University of East London)

Historically a partnership has existed between state 'Border Enforcement' and civil registry offices in the UK. For several decades couples from Britain and the ex-Empire seeking fiancée visas have been cross examined about the intimacies of their relationships by immigration officers in British High Commissions across South Asia and Africa and also faced questions of marriage registrars in the UK. More recently as borders have been opened up for Europeans whilst being tightened against those from ex-colonies and elsewhere, marriages between women from Eastern

Europe and men from South Asia and Africa have been targeted as potential 'sham marriages' aimed at achieving

'immigration advantage' by the Home Office.

The 2014 Immigration Act introduced further requirements for registry staff to work more closely with 'Border

Enforcement' to manage the border. Official discourses of 'partnership', 'relationships' and 'engagement' are used to describe the shared work of border enforcement by civil registrars and uniformed enforcers. As well as negotiating the border during the process of marriage and civil partnerships, the official and media 'sham marriage' discourses impact on the bordering experienced by couples in their subsequent everyday lives.

In this paper, the life and border narratives of targeted couples are explored in order to develop a situated, intersectional and postcolonial analysis of the everyday bordering experiences of partnerships that embody the interface of Europe and its ex-colonies in London.

Rights, Violence and Crime

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POST-CONFLICT AND POST-VIOLENT SOCIETIES AS SOCIETIES IN TRANSITION

The 2015 conference theme on societies in transition, which is designed to address whether transition results in progression or regression, is thrown into high relief by a focus on the specific type of societal transition that follows from the ending of communal conflict and violence. It isolates particular kinds of issue involved in this form of societal transition, such as the protection of human rights, the appropriate balance to be struck between human and group rights, the management of risk, particularly over the outbreak of renewed conflict and violence, the transformation of gender roles, particularly the mainstreaming of women’s rights and the deconstruction of violent forms of masculinity, the need to deal with a raft of legacy issues deriving from the conflict, and the political, sociological and sociopsychological dynamics involved in these kinds of society becoming reconciled to the past. This type of societal transition isolates the importance of certain moral categories

– victim, perpetrator, by-stander – as well as throws up important issues and processes around truth recovery, memory, reparations, forgiveness, and, in particular, the nature of justice and its connection to socio-economic redistribution. This kind of transition al society highlights the many forms of justice

– retributive, restorative, social – and illustrates the inter-connections between them and their importance to victims’ sense of having got justice after conflict. A focus on victims, by-standers and perpetrators enables us to expand and elaborate the meaning of human rights in post-conflict societies and to explore the complexity of what progress or regression means to them.

Transitional (In)justice and Mexico’s Violent Post-authoritarian Regime

Trevino-Rangel, J.

(Center of Research and Teaching on Economics)

Vicente

Fox’s victory in the 2000 presidential elections ended 71 years of authoritarian rule. Mexico’s authoritarian regime lasted for 7 decades, in part, because it exterminated its enemies. The use of torture, ‘disappearances’, and assassinations to attack the regime’s opposition was not an isolated practice. After the election Fox designed a series

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of governmental programmes to democratise Mexico. Within the list of changes the new administration sought to carry out, Fox included transitional justice as a prio rity. In 2001, Fox established a Special Prosecutor’s Office (SPO) to investigate and prosecute past state crimes. However, the SPO’s work depended on the existing structures of power: institutions administered by members of the previous regime. So, Fox opted to face past human rights abuses but left the task in the hands of the institutions whose members had carried out the crimes. The SPO ceased to exist when

President Fox ended his term in office in 2006. During its five years of existence, the SPO did not obtain a single criminal conviction. Mexico’s transitional justice did not deliver justice, nor truth, but impunity. How did this peculiar transitional justice process affect Mexico’s transition to ‘democracy’ and the country’s current ‘war on drugs’? Is there a link between the absence of truth and justice about past human rights abuses and Mexico’s current situation of unprecedented violence? These are the questions this paper seeks to answer.

Transitions and ‘Temporalities of Victimhood’: A Time-sensitive Approach to the Study of Post-conflict

Societies

Mueller-Hirth, N.

(Robert Gordon University)

One of the challenges for postconflict societies lies in establishing fast-paced economic regimes that at the same must time gradually deal with long-term issues such as redistribution and reconciliation. Drawing on qualitative research with victims/survivors of gross human rights violations, this paper examines what I call ‘temporalities of victimhood’ in

South Africa. Two decades after the transition, there is a prevalent understanding among political and social elites that it is finally time for victims to ‘move on’. By contrast, the consequences of apartheid violence continued to impact on interviewee s’ lives and were exacerbated by contemporary experiences of victimisation, contributing to their senses of continuity between past and present. The paper identifies three dimensions of temporal conflict: victimhood as temporary/ as continuous; the pace of national reconciliation/ of individual healing; and the speed of a neoliberal economy/ of social transformation. It contributes a time-sensitive perspective to existing scholarship on victimhood in transitional societies. Adopting such a time-sensitive approach and engaging insights from the study of time allows us to examine more closely the temporal disjunctures that characterise post-conflict societies.

The Politics of the Grave: Forensic Humanitarianism in Political Transition

Moon, C.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

This paper charts the emergence of what I call 'forensic humanitarianism'. The phenomenon is a feature of transitional politics, to which the adjudication and settlement of past atrocity (primarily state crimes) is central. Forensic humanitarianism subordinates the epistemologies and practices of scientific enquiry to the moral and legal framework of human rights in order to address questions central to the adjudication of mass atrocities, namely: who are the dead? How were they killed? These questions have come to be addressed in diverse contexts, from attempts to establish the identities of the disappeared in Argentina in the mid-

1980s; the trial for genocide of Guatemala’s former

President, Rios Montt; the efforts to return human remains to families of the dead in the former-Yugoslavia; and to the exhumation of clandestine civil war graves in Spain. In such contexts forensic expertise has advanced a set of scientifically-based arguments that claim to settle questions of historical and political contention. However, by investigating the emergence of the field of forensic humanitarianism and its concomitant claims conceptually, historically and theoretically, I show that they are the accretions of multiple and complex histories, ideas and practices within which human remains cross the domains and mediate the diverse demands of humanitarianism, law, politics and science, and bear witness to a ‘politics of the grave’. My contribution to this panel connects up forensic humanitarianism with the histories, ideals and politics of its practice and indicates the ways in which it intersects with the emotional economies of grief and mourning, kinship and family relations, as well as with the moral injunctions of truth and justice, the political imperatives of legitimacy, the principles of human rights, and, significantly, raising questions about the human rights of the dead. It presents forensic humanitarianism as a rich site of analysis that taps into the complex relationships between these varied spheres of idea, practice and lived experience.

Peace through Economic Justice?: The Case of Transitional Sierra Leone

Millar, G.

(University of Aberdeen)

The literature on post-conflict transition regularly highlights the importance of economic restitution and reparations for the victims and survivors of wartime violence. Such economic contributions are considered central to providing both a sense of dignity and of justice, and, in the long-term, to avoiding a return to violence as a result of wartime grievances.

However, scholars also acknowledge that many contemporary transitional societies cannot provide such economic

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contributions. Not only are many war-torn states poor to begin with, but war itself often degrades their economic capacity. In response past scholars have turned their attention to “symbolic” reparations (a clearly inferior substitute), but more recently both scholars and practitioners have promoted processes of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and

Public Private Partnerships (PPP) as key mechanisms to provide socio-economic restitution to aggrieved communities in ‘under-developed’ states. This paper explores one such project to investigate whether such processes can address local needs for dignity and justice during difficult post-conflict transitions. The paper presents findings from 6 months of fieldwork evaluating the local experiences of a large bio-energy project in rural Sierra Leone and focuses on how locals in twelve villages experience the project and whether economic opportunities made available by this project can provide the reparative effects the government has failed to provide since the end of the war. The paper asks; when all the usual mechanisms of socio-economic justice fail to result in what local people consider just, can the provision of opportunity and a chance at recovery fill that need?

Victimisation and Attitudes Towards Amnesties: Northern Ireland as a Case Study

Brewer, J., Hayes, B.

(Queen's University Belfast)

At the heart of efforts to bring about reconciliation in transitional post-conflict societies is the question of how to deal with the needs and rights of ex-combatants as well as address the suffering that they have inflicted on others in the past. The resolution of this issue is often considered the litmus test of a successful peace endeavour. It is now recognised that restorative forms of justice, such as granting of amnesty to ex-combatants, are a crucial component for the successful transition to a peaceful society. In fact, the granting of amnesties has now moved centre stage as the most frequently used transitional justice mechanism for societies emerging from conflict. Yet, to date, the views of victims concerning such arrangements remains largely explored. It is with this omission in mind and using Northern

Ireland as a case study, that this paper investigates the relationship between victimisation and attitudes towards amnesties.

Between Entrenchment, Reform and Transition: Ethnicity and Lebanon’s Consociational Democracy

Nagle, J.

(University of Aberdeen)

Consociationalism has become a major mechanism for managing conflict after civil war. Proponents argue that a period of consociational influence will contribute to the erosion of ethnic cleavages and even a society where ethnicity is depoliticized. Critics, however, are sceptical of this claim and argue that consociationalism institutionalizes ethnic identities and stymies the transition to a healthy democracy. In response, proponents outline a liberal model of consociationalism which limits the predetermination of ethnicity in social and political structures. Yet, problematically, consociations in postwar societies often provide guarantees of ethnic representation in order to entice belligerents to abandon violence for democracy. This issue of transitioning from a corporate consociation to a more liberal form is largely underexplored. This paper examines this conundrum by examining contemporary Lebanese consociationalism.

Although Lebanon’s consociationalism was meant to be a temporary arrangement until political sectarianism was abolished, consociationalism is deeply embedded and has left state institutions fragile. The paper explores various debates to entrench, reform or transform Lebanese consociationalism. Through qualitative interviews with political elites and civil society activists, the paper analyses how these subjects conceptualize ethnicity in contrasting ways which generate different approaches to consociationalism but which ultimately frustrate meaningful reform.

Science and Technology Studies

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SOCIOLOGY AND BIOLOGY IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

After decades of “mutual antagonism” (Benton 1991), there have been signs since the dawn of the twenty first century that we are moving towards new terrain in the relationship between the social and life sciences. Whilst many sociologists had traditionally dismissed bio-social science as both reductionist and a conservative project at odds with their progressive values, influential life scientists had despaired at what they saw as a wilful ignorance of biology in social science. In recent years, however, both sides have been questioning their earlier assumptions. After the false dawn of the Human Genome Project and the failure of some efforts to encourage sociologists to take up Darwinian explanatory tools, fields like neuroscience, epigenetics, and synthetic biology have attracted significant attention not only for what they might bring to social science but also the idea that biology might be becoming more social. This

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special event engages with these issues through contributors to the forthcoming Sociological Review monograph,

Biosocial Matters (2015). Utilising historical, sociological, and theoretical approaches, speakers and commentators will consider the current bio-social moment, asking whether we really are entering new terrain and, if so, what it means when looking both forwards and back. In so doing, contributors will invite the audience to think about what these developments mean for the spirit and practice of critical and progressive enquiry that sociologists have always identified with and sociology’s relationship with its various publics.

New Bottles for New Wine? Julian Huxley, Biology and Sociology in Britain

Renwick, C.

(University of York)

The question of how sociologists should respond to biology, especially in light of new breakthroughs, has been debated frequently in Britain since sociology emerged as a subject of mainstream interest during the late nineteenth century. Each time, proponents of closer relations between biology and sociology have argued we are living in a new era that necessitates greater cooperation. Indeed, the biological turn that has allegedly been taking place in sociology for the past ten years has been inspired by just that argument. This paper explores these issues by mining British sociology's past, specifically the mid-twentieth-century work of Julian Huxley (1887-1975)

– the biologist and first director of UNESCO who was also a leading member of the UK’s economic and social planning movements. Paying particular attention to Huxley's ideas about the relationship between genes and environments, as well as the doctrine he called 'evolutionary humanism,' the paper explores a previous era's response to questions about the relationship between biologists and sociologists and considers Huxley's argument that there is a biosocial agenda distinct from the priorities of both biology and sociology. In so doing, the paper address a question that has always overshadowed these discussions: can biosocial science feature in the progressive social and scientific agenda sociologists have traditionally seen themselves as contributing to?

From Boundary-work to Boundary Object: How Biology Left and Re-entered the Social Sciences

Meloni, M.

(Institute for Advanced Studies)

In an archaeological and genealogical spirit this paper comes back to a founding event in the construction of the twentieth-century episteme, the moment at which the life-sciences and the social sciences parted ways and intense boundary-work on the biology/society border was carried out, with immense benefits for both sides and important implications for the wider society at large. This founding moment is delimited by the two figures of Francis Galton and

Alfred Kroeber, and I argue for an implicit convergence of their views and shared aim of separating the social from the biological.

After this historical excavation, I look at recent developments in the life-sciences, w hich I have named the ‘social turn’ in biology (Meloni, 2014), and in particular at the burgeoning discipline of epigenetics with its promises to destabilize the social/biological border. I claim here that, as a consequence of the rise of a new social and epigenetic view of biology, today a completely different account of 'the biological' to that established during the Galton-Kroeber period is being given. Rather than being used to support a form of boundary-work between social and non-social disciplines, biology has become a boundary object that crosses previously erected barriers, allowing different researchcommunities to draw from it.

Five Neuropolitan Scenes:Living at the Margins of Sociology, Psychiatry and Neuroscience

Fitzgerald, D.

(King's College London)

The city has always been a potent crossing-point for social and biological life. In urban sociology particularly, and at least since the work of Georg Simmel, there has long been a subterranean tradition of thinking the social life of the city through particular forms of neurological and psychological life. That tradition is no longer very prominent in sociology.

But it might yet be revitalized by a contemporary neuroscience of 'urbanicity'

– a new area of research that entangles neurological development, categories of mental disorder, and the socio-political life of urban citizens, while making specific, sociopolitical claims about urban design, planning, and even 'regeneration.’

In this paper, I focus on the emergence of this ‘Neuropolis,’ in order to re-think the contemporary relationship between society and biology. I ask: what does it mean to live well in the Neuropolis? How can an attention to neurological life torque our attention to the politics of urban space? What’s at stake for sociology, in locating itself in such a space?

And how might the Neuropolis help us to think ‘novel’ exchanges between biological and social life more widely? I address these questions via a short cartography of this space, describing five Neuropolitan scenes: moving from

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nineteenth century anxiety about 'needy towndwellers,' to the contemporary politics of 'urban stress,’ I work through the political and epistemological stakes of thinking social and biological life through one another

– and I reflect on the lessons of this spaces, for how we are to understand the ‘bio-social’ present more generally.

Social Divisions/Social Identities – Pecha Kucha

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The Paradox of Success: Economic Restructuring, Downward Social Mobility and the Perception of Social

Equity in a Developmental State

Tam, C.H.

(SIM University)

Global economic restructuring has produced winners and losers transnationally and domestically. As a key player in the global economy, the Singaporean developmental state reorganized its economy to stay globally competitive. The tertiarization of its economy and the withdrawal of certain social buffers have led to greater emphasis on individual responsibility and private solutions. An ethnographic study of 30 families who used to be middle class but now had to sell off their housing assets and live in public rental housing in Singapore was conducted from 2011 to 2012. Subjects were asked how they made sense of their downward social mobility and how they situated themselves in the social hierarchy. They were also asked to assess what their chances at upward social mobility were, given their fall, and in the light of global economic restructuring. The subjects then reflected on the salience of being middle class in

Singapore, a nation which prides itself on lifting its people up socially. Interestingly, despite having skidded socially, these families continue to see themselves as middle class even as they become materially worse-off. Moreover, these families strongly believe that they will rise to their former class positions even when their employment prospects appear weak. The myth of being middle class is vital for these families not only in sustaining their social status and identity but also for them to continue participating and have stakes in the global capitalistic system even as they actually lose out from it.

Electoral (Dis)engagement and Feelings of Political Dissatisfaction over Time (1983-2010)

Manning, N.

(University of York)

Overall patterns of recent electoral disengagement/dissatisfaction in Britain have been mapped by survey research.

However, these studies tell us little about why citizens have chosen to disengage from electoral politics, the nature of their dissatisfaction or, alternatively, what they get out of participation and how this may be changing. These questions demand in-depth research on citizens' (dis)engagement with electoral politics, and how this changes over time.

Drawing upon the Mass Observation Archive, this research explores data which covers the six elections between

1983 and 2010 to provide a rare longitudinal, qualitative investigation of political (dis)engagement. The findings provide an opportunity to apply survey-based explanations for electoral disengagement, e.g. convergence of the major parties (Curtice et al 2007), whilst adding depth and nuance to a field dominated by quantitative approaches. This paper will argue that political engagement needs to be understood not in terms of simple decline but in terms of changing social factors which, rather than making people apathetic, engender various forms of critical disengagement

(Manning and Holmes 2013).

Identity and Capitalism

Moran, M.

(University College Dublin)

'Identity', particularly as it is elaborated in the associated categories of 'personal' and 'social' identity, is a relatively new concept in western thought, politics and culture. The word itself emerged in popular, political and scientific discourse only in the second half of the twentieth century, and was not discussed at all in these contexts prior to this.

Carrying out a Keywords analysis, I claim that the explosion of interest in the notion of identity across popular, political and academic domains of practice since the 1960s does not represent the simple popularisation of an older term, as is widely assumed, but rather, the invention of an idea.

Building on this initial argument, I explore the emergence and evolution of the idea of identity in the cultural, political and social contexts of contemporary capitalist societies. Against the common supposition that identity always mattered, I show that what we now think of routinely as 'personal identity' actually only emerged with the explosion of consumption in the late-twentieth century. I also make the case that what we now think of as different social and

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political 'identities' only came to be framed as such with the emergence of identity politics and new social movements in the political landscapes of capitalist societies in the 60s and 70s. Ultimately, this paper offers a new exploration of the articulation of the idea of identity to the social logic of capitalism, from the 'organised capitalism' of the midtwentieth century, up to and including the neoliberal capitalism that prevails today.

From Residual Welfare to Inclusive Growth: Social Policy Adaptations in a Globalized Neo-Liberal

Developmental State

Tam, C.H.

(SIM University)

Global neo-liberal economic restructuring has produced widening income inequalities. Global capital movements have compelled countries to move up the value-chain, causing structural unemployment. As societies age, transnational labour mobility is promoted as a solution to the problem of old-age dependency even as it causes antiimmigration backlash. The Singaporean developmental state, a key player in the global economy, and whose neoliberal policies have made Singapore one of the most globally competitive economies, similarly has to deal with these global challenges. Hence, from years of maintaining a residual welfare system where the Singapore state provides high-quality public education, health and housing for individuals to enable themselves rather than to rely on direct social transfers, the state now pushes for 'inclusive growth' where it enlarges the social safety net. This paper examines these new systemic changes and evaluates how these social policy adaptations address the competing social needs and ideological contestation in a globalized neo-liberal developmental state. The paper also looks historically, as Singapore celebrates its 50th Anniversary of Independence next year, if and how 'inclusive growth' harks back to the socialist-democratic consensus of the 1960s' nation-building years.

What Democracy Means to City Councilors? City Councilors´ Conceptions of Democracy in Turku

Salminiitty, R.

(University of Turku)

In recent years, local democracy has been challenged by the major changes in municipal operating environments such as market-demanding provision of services, new management styles and, especially in the Finnish context, the consolidation of municipalities. Central to these trends is citizen participation, which has also been a recurrent theme in surveys on citizen attitudes.

However, far too little attention has focused on the attitudes of decision-makers. It seems that the rich research of civil society and the trust in its ability to strengthen democracy has blurred the profound impact of decision-makers´ opinions in developing local democracy and citizen participation. In addition, prior research has noted the distinction between citizen´s and decision-makers´ opinions on citizen participation and on other municipal issues.

My research focuses on the decision-makers´ opinions and their conception of democracy. It is based on two surveys, which were conducted in Finland (City of Turku) in 2005 and 2013. In these surveys I approached the conception of democracy from two angles, namely attitudes of councilors and values of councilors. The results indicate that attitudes and values seem to be two different aspects of the concept of democracy. With this finding it was possible to build a typology, which serves both understanding todays democracy attitudes and conceptualization of democracy. In addition, the results indicate quite clear polarization in councilors´ attitudes towards citizen participation. In my presentation I also introduce preliminary findings of city councilors´ interviews, which will be conducted in autumn 2014.

Sociology of Education

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DIFFERENT DEGREES OF INEQUALITY?

The last 20 years has seen a mass expansion of the higher education sector with more students from non-traditional backgrounds applying and being accepted to university. However the picture is far from rosy as noted by Phil Brown, this expansion has resulted in a congested graduate labour market, with an oversupply of skilled workers. In such a competitive climate issues of class and gender inequality become increasingly prominent as some are more able to capitalise on additional resources above and beyond ‘the degree’ to ensure success. This symposium draws together two complimentary research projects: The Paired Peers Project and The Futuretrack Project to shed some light on these issues of inequality in graduate outcomes.

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Paired Peers is a 6 year Leverhulme trust funded qualitative project, tracking the transitions of a cohort of 80 undergraduates to, through and from university. The students, half from University of Bristol and half from UWE

Bristol, were paired by class background and subject to enable meaningful comparisons of their experiences. (For more details see www.bristol.ac.uk/pairedpeers).

The HECSU-funded Futuretrack study followed a large sample of students who embarked on full-time undergraduate degrees at the full range of UK universities and colleges, through four stages: as HE applicants in 2005/6, after they had completed their first year, as they approached graduation, and between 18-30 months after graduation. Follow-up studies of sub-samples are currently being undertaken. The dataset includes details of educational and socioeconomic background, as well as early career experience (see www.warwick.ac.uk/futuretrack).

Discussant: Professor David James

Higher Education as a Vehicle for Social Mobility? The Relationship between Social Class, Student

Experiences and Graduate Outcomes

Atfield, G., Purcell, K., Elias, P., Behle, H., Ellison, R.

(University of Warwick)

This paper will present primarily quantitative data from the Futuretrack project to assess the relationship between social class, the types of university students attend, their experiences while in higher education and their subsequent graduate outcomes. Much is known about the impact of social class on entry to HE, but there has been much less work on how students from different social backgrounds experience higher education and the impact this has on graduate outcomes. By examining the participation of students from different social classes in both the academic and non-academic life of the university, this paper will explore the mechanisms through which higher education can increase social mobility, but also the mechanisms through which disadvantage may be further perpetuated and entrenched. The role of four particular aspects of student experience will be assessed: the type of university attended; attitudes towards academic study and extracurricular experience; the role of higher education in developing selfconfidence; and geographical mobility. The paper will then go on to investigate the relationship between these different student experiences and transitions into the labour market. Why do graduates from different socio-economic backgrounds seem to benefit differently from higher education and possession of a degree? Who gets the ‘top jobs’, and why?

Narratives of Class, Gender and Institutional Inequalities in Graduate Destinations

Bradley, H., Abrahams, J. Ingram, N.

(University of the West of England)

This paper will share some stories from a cohort of recent university graduates from the Paired Peers project as they attempt to make the transition into the labour market. The students (of mixed gender and class background) graduated from two different types of institutions - a Russell group and a post 92. We draw upon their narratives in pairs to highlight in depth the specific processes of inequality prevalent throughout their university and graduate transitional experiences. This is illustrated through case studies of 3 pairs of young people each representing a story of class, gender or institutional inequality. Their narratives demonstrate that some young people find the transition smoother than others. For many this is a story of unexpected struggle; with some able to capitalise on additional resources to enable them to bounce back, whilst others endure a more prolonged and disconnected pathway.

Through this we will consider the extent to which university itself is a force for social mobility and whether gender, background and/or specific university attended are restricting or furthering opportunities on the labour market.

How Do Gender, Social Class and Motherhood Affect the Labour Market Outcomes of Student Mothers?

Lyonette, C., Atfield, G., Behle, H., Gambin, L.

(University of Warwick)

Using quantitative data from the Futuretrack project, as well as new semi-structured interviews, we assess the experiences of student mothers aged 21 or over, examining their applications to HE, their experiences within HE and their early labour market outcomes. In particular, we examine choice of courses and places of study; aspirations on entry into HE and whether these change over time; why some student mothers drop out of HE; and the key factors which help or hinder the overall HE experience, all of which are compared with other students from the same cohort.

Crucially, the analysis also examines whether HE increases social mobility for student mothers and their families.

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Black Male Students’ Accounts of Their Management of Class(ism) and Race(ism) in Elite UK Universities

Dumangane, C.

(Cardiff University)

There is a plethora of research that examines British African Caribbean (BAC) men's experiences attending post-

1992 universities. It is argued that a lacuna of research exists that has explores BAC men's experiences on elite university campuses. This presentation provides an overview of some of the findings from in-depth qualitative interviews with sixteen students who attended ten Oxbridge and Russell Group universities concerning their experiences with discrimination. Strategies such as meritocracy (Warikoo & Fuhr, 2013), moderating blackness

(Wilkins, 2012), dis-indentification (Skeggs, 1997) and silencing of racism (Harries, 2014) are explored in relation to participants' accounts of their responses and management of discriminatory occurrences.

Theory

W323, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

For and against Emergence: A Critique of Critical Realism

Bouzanis, C.

(University of Edinburgh)

In their effort to account for the commonly accepted tenet of social theory that society is something more than the sum total of social monads, many theorists have invoked naturalist imageries which should be conceived as useful assumptions in the explanation of natural phenomena. In this sense, emergence, as a heuristic theoretical tool of natural sciences, designates the idea arguing, in general terms, that the properties of any physical entity cannot be theoretically reduced to the properties and powers of the lower-level individual components of the entity in question; and this frequently implies a stratified, multi-leveled image of the natural world.

Three 'paradigmatic' naturalist imageries have been adopted by sociologists who share a common belief that naturalist nomologies and methodologies can also be useful in the explanation of social life: a) the molecule imagery, b) the complex/chaotic system imagery and, c) the organism imagery. In this paper, I intend to argue that 1) critical realists, who frequently assume these imageries in various modification and combinations, fail to avoid circular causation which here takes the form of the deterministic idea of 'downward causation', 2) that this idea of 'downward causation' is inconsistent with the idea that social structures are existentially dependent on agents' inter-action and conceptualisations of them and, 3) that this idea of culture/concept/activity-dependence of social structures renders the shared cultural background of beliefs the ultimate ontological concept of the constitution of societies: natural necessity gives its place to intersubjectivity.

What’s Wrong with Critical Realism: Phenomenology, Deconstruction and Pragmatism

Randell, R.

(Webster University)

In the critical realism literature the claim is frequently made that critics of realism have confused positivist realism and critical realism. Acknowledging the validity of the critique of positivist realism, critical realists maintain that those criticisms do not apply to realism writ large. There is some (empirical) truth to this claim but the most significant critiques of realism go beyond those points regarding positivism that critical realists largely concede. This paper begins with a comparison of critical realist and phenomenological accounts of 'reality.' I argue that what is at issue is not alternative ontologies, but what 'ontology' might be. I then outline the deconstructive critique

—or, more accurately, deconstruction

—of phenomenology. That deconstruction does not, however, I argue, vindicate the metaphysics of realism but opens up a further set of criticisms of realism that have subsequently been most forcefully articulated within contemporary American Pragmatism. In the conclusion I consider the relevance of these debates for sociology, both for empirical research and our dominant theoretical narratives.

Death Contested. Morphonechrosis and Conflicts of Interpretation

Latsis, J., Al Amoudi, I.

(University of Reading)

This paper lays the groundwork for a realist analysis of the disappearance or 'death' of social forms, which is particularly relevant in societies experiencing intensified social transformation. Whilst the notion of morphogenesis can account both for the acceleration of change and for the multiplication of coexisting social forms, it does not allow us,

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on its own, to theorise their disappearance. Addressing this gap in the theory of morphogenesis opens interesting avenues for the philosophical study of society.

Our contribution is organised around three related questions. Firstly, how should we conceptualise the disappearance of social forms and how can this conceptualisation draw from the biological conception of death? Secondly, how do concept-dependence and reflexivity differentiate social death from biological death? Thirdly, how can we observe and interpret the agonies that accompany the death of social forms?

We conclude by providing an illustration of how the theory might be applied to a case with significant current socioeconomic ramifications: the disappearance of lifelong employment in developed capitalist economies.

Work, Employment and Economic Life 1 – Pecha Kucha

A005, GOVAN MBEKI BUILDING

Intergenerational Transmission of Job Insecurity: Linking

Parents’ Job Experience and Children’s Work

Preferences And Expectations

Lübke, C.

(University of Duisburg-Essen)

As the labour market becomes increasingly flexible, a growing part of workers has to cope with precarious work arrangements and the experience of job insecurity. Aside from the causes of this trend, questions concerning the societal and individual consequences of self-perceived job insecurity have attracted great attention. It is therefore wellknown that besides others job insecurity affects the ability to make long-lasting decisions. Thereby, it should be noted that these consequences may not be limited to workers who are exposed to insecure working conditions. Rather, it can be assumed that the experience of job insecurity will be passed on children and will therefore also influence the life of the next generation. However, the intergenerational transmission of job insecurity has rarely been addressed so far.

To fill in this gap, this paper explores the relationship between parent's self-perceived job insecurity on the one hand and occupational preferences and expectations of their adolescent children on the other. How does the perception of job insecurity affect adolescent preferences for stable jobs? How do children who see their parents suffering from insecure working conditions rate their own employment opportunities? The descriptive and multivariate analyses are based on household panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP, 2000-2013) which provide information on parents and their adolescent children. The findings will encourage a debate of how self-perceived job insecurity contributes to reproduce social inequality as they clearly show that expectations concerning labour market participation are transmitted from parents to children.

A Capability Approach to Young People’s Participation and Agency in Youth Activation Policies

Egdell, V., Graham, H.

(Edinburgh Napier University)

Youth unemployment is a major government concern in the UK, with the youth (16-24 years) unemployment rate greater than that for 25-64 year olds. This paper takes a Capability Approach to investigate young people's participation and agency in the development and implementation of youth activation policies. The Capability Approach, developed by Amartya Sen, is centred on the freedom and opportunity individuals have to make choices that they value. A Capability Approach to employment activation promotes the freedom of an individual to choose the work that is of value to them. It proposes that individuals should have a voice and agency in the development and implementation of the employment activation programmes to which they are subject. Drawing on in-depth qualitative research undertaken in Scotland, the paper explores unemployed young people's capability for voice by analysing how far, and in what ways, their ideas, experiences and voices are included in policymaking and implementation. In this paper, questions are asked about: how different voices are included in policy processes; what is meaningful engagement and participation; and what enables voice taking and voice making. Conclusions are made regarding the importance of developing the voice and agency of unemployed youth, as well as the implications of taking a Capability

Approach to the development and implementation of youth employment activation policies. To date there has been little sociological engagement with the Capability Approach and the paper demonstrates the relevance of the approach for understanding inequalities.

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'That Girl's Only 18 and Has No Job': Aged, Gendered and Classed Identities of Young People on a Course for

Those Who Are Not in Education, Employment or Training

Suttill, B.

(University Of Leicester)

There are increased opportunities for choice in areas such as education and work, however not all people are able to exercise choice in the same way. Only a relatively small number of young people can take part in the flexibility of 'risk society' and youth transitions continue to be marked by class, gender and ethnicity. Social inequalities still exert a powerful hold on the lives of young people, with enduring structured patterns in society shaping their identities and life chances. This presentation looks at the experiences of sixteen young people on a course for 16-24 year olds not in education, employment or training run by a charity in the East Midlands. It focuses on an initial phase of data collection where the views of these young people were captured through a mixture of participant observation, informal conversations, and an exploratory method using visual research. The findings highlight how gender and class do have an influence upon the identities and experiences of these young people, yet age also plays a role in how these young people view themselves and was identified by the group as a barrier to finding employment.

Influence o f Parents’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes on Their Children’s Education and

Employment Outcomes

Zabel, C., Kopf, E.

(Institute for Employment Research (IAB))

We study the influence of parents' participation in activation programmes on their children's successful entry into vocational training and employment at a later point in time. In this way, we can gain an understanding of whether parents' programme participation has the potential to contribute to avoiding an intergenerational transmission of welfare dependency.

We expect parents' employment chances and economic situation to improve as a consequence of their participation in activation programmes. Parents would thus better be able to afford investments in their children's education in the long run. Parents' participation particularly in longer-term programs that involve a regular daily schedule should have a positive impact on their children's subsequent employment opportunities. If the parents have a regular daily schedule, then this can convey values which may be beneficial for the children's success in school and in entering vocational training and employment. Parents' work can also have a positive effect on children's self-esteem and can improve their scholastic achievements in this manner as well.

We use administrative data and study effects of activation programmes in which parents participated in 2006 on their children's education and employment outcomes in subsequent years. Our study focuses on teenagers who were 14-

17 years old when their parents participated in the program. In order to determine the effects of the parents' program participation, we draw comparable families from participant and non-participant groups using matching methods.

Getting in and Getting on in the Youth Labour Market: Progression or Regression?

Wilde, R, Leonard, P.

(Institute of Education, University of London)

A key consequence of the recent economic recession in the UK has been the tightened squeeze across all levels of the youth labour market, from school leavers to graduates. With economic and social changes of the past twenty years already deleteriously impacting on youth employment, the financial crisis has further exacerbated experiences of joblessness, precarious work and protracted transitions to secure employment. In response, new policy initiatives are being constantly developed across all sectors of the labour market to support not only young people's chances of

'getting in' to work, but also sustaining their positions in order to 'get on' and develop good careers.

This paper uses qualitative data from an ongoing research project exploring how young people access the labour market via a range of entry route practices in different regions of the UK. We focus on case studies across the qualification spectrum; from internship programmes for high-achieving graduates, to enterprise programmes open to all and volunteer centre courses combining volunteer work experience with basic employability skills for those with few or no formal educational qualifications. Reflecting on how the global financial crisis is being dealt with at a local level, we explore how different policy responses, regional labour markets and forms of provision make a difference to how young people cope with economic problems and instability. The paper will set the political discourse against the voices of young people and their experiences on programmes developed to support them to ask: do these initiatives represent progression or regression?

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Effect of Youth Unemployment on Job Search and Quality of Life : Do Location and/or Duration Matter?

Gstrein, M.

(Institute for Advanced Studies)

In recent years, youth unemployment has become a very visible and often considered threatening phenomenon in many European countries. While various theories explain what long term effects on youth to expect and there exists an extensive literature on youth unemployment in general, no one has yet fully investigated the effect of duration of unemployment on the youths' quality of life and future employment prospects..

This is what this paper will do. It will look into the notable increases of long term youth unemployment and investigate the different impact that short term or long term unemployment may have on personal well-being, health, the feeling of social inclusion, financial deprivation, societal participation and the quality of society in general. Based on the third

European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS, 2011/12) and grouping countries into five geographical clusters, the aim of the paper is to empirically test the effect of unemployment for youths under the age of 30.

Work, Employment and Economic Life 2

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The Farmer Gets a Wife: Hidden Labour in Farming Households

Tonner, A., Wilson, J.

(University of Strathclyde)

Farming is a critical sector within rural economies (Phelan and Sharpley, 2012) but is uncertain and risky for those reliant upon it (Turner et al, 2003). The majority of UK farms are small family farms (Morell and Brandth, 2007) where a considerable share of household income is derived from farming, labour is provided by the family and the family lives on the farm (Calus and Van Huylenbroeck, 2010) compounding the impact of economic uncertainty. Previous research has focused on the Farmer as the 'person responsible for the administration of the business' (Clark,

2009:219) when seeking to understanding work undertaken in these enterprises and the skills necessary for success.

This paper seeks to broaden our understanding of farm work by investigating the hidden enabling work undertaken by the wider farming household. Using case-study methodology (Yin, 2009) analysis is based on observations and interviews with members of 8 households within the Scottish farming community. Extending extant work exploring the gendered nature of farming (Riley, 2009) it finds that farmers' spouses and children play important roles in the diversified businesses that characterise contemporary farming. The unmeasured and unpaid nature of the farming household's work allows farms to retain financial viability which external paid labour would destroy. It finds farmers' spouses providing labour of high economic value and displaying skills such as entrepreneurial drive, opportunity identification and business management which are instrumental to successful business outcomes in contemporary family farm businesses.

Beyond Prosumption

Elder-Vass, D.

(Loughborough University)

The term prosumption links the concepts of production and consumption to describe cases in which consumers do unpaid productive work on behalf of commercial businesses. The term was originally coined for cases like self-service in shops and petrol stations, but it is used increasingly to refer to the creation of user-generated content on commercial web sites: work that is done by site users but produces commercial benefits for the site owners.

The concept of prosumption, however, rests on the conflation of two terms that are themselves problematic. This paper will argue that the distinction between production activities and consumption activities is not inherent, but an artefact of economistic discourses of the market. The concept of prosumption, when applied to most user-generated content creation, mislabels the social relations in which these labour processes are embedded. The paper argues that we can describe these processes more accurately, and more revealingly, as a distinctive non-market appropriative practice, than in terms that are deeply imbued with the discourse of the market.

Nor is it any more satisfactory to represent user-generated content creation as an analogue of wage labour. These cases confirm that profit is sometimes made by other means than the employment of wage labour. We need to see capitalism as a range of appropriative practices, sometimes articulated with non-capitalist practices. These arguments have important implications, not only for explanatory analyses of the digital economy, but also for normative evaluations of the practices that have sprung up within it.

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‘I Know It's Not Exactly Life Changing but It's, You Know...’: Questioning the Effects of New Economic

Organisation though a Case Study of a Time Bank

Wilson, J.

(University of Salford)

In the current economic climate there is evidence of a shift in economic organisation represented by the third sector and so-called 'sharing economy.' Whilst commentators are heralding these developments as a radical shift and progression from the former economic organisation, this paper uses empirical data collected within a new economic organisation, a time bank, to argue that existing social divisions may be in fact maintained and reinforced by the new forms of economic organisation. Time banks are community groups which seek to address social problems and economic deficits by engaging communities in service exchange through the currency of time. Time banks currently receive political support in terms realising the aims of Big Society and/or Localism policies. Further, much of the current research in time banks seeks to evidence the extent to which they alleviate social exclusion. However, deeper sociological questions of how and why time banks might address social exclusion are neglected. This paper, based upon an in-depth long-term qualitative study of a time bank, uses a Bourdieusian analysis to demonstrate the ways in which time banks purport to address social exclusion, yet in practice seem to merely maintain current levels of inequality by providing a field in which habitus and capital can be played out and maintained

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Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

ROUNDTABLE 1, CONFERENCE HALL, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Cultural Movement of 2010s in Korea and the Possibility of Cultural Sub-politics

Park, J.

(Seoul National University)

Rising participation of artists in movements and rallies in the 2010s Korea makes us focus on the possibility of cultural movement. I would like to analyze Korean cultural movement by concentrating on indie bands' activities at the site of

Duriban, a noodle restaurant located in Hongdae, at which a great number of artists have made their effort to renegotiate against forced removal and their trajectory after the accident.

First, I would describe cultural movement of 2010s in Korea by comparing that of 1980s and 90s, mainly on music. I argue that cultural movement once dominated by socio-economic movement, now has its own autonomy and takes its form of play. The cultural movement is no longer conceived as 'resistance against negativity' but as 'act of pursuing an alternative'.

Second, I would take advantage of the concept of 'sub-politics' in late modern society to analyze artists' activities related to cultural movement. I aim to show how 'indie as an attitude' develops into cultural movement, rather than into social participation as artists.

Last, I would like to show how cultural sub-politics could be realized in connection to local area, concentrating on local indie music scene of Hongdae and non-Hongdae area. I will analyze the way how cultural movement asserts its influence on local area in relation to socio-economic power under the logic of development and reconstruction.

Between Moralization and Colonialisation: The Spaces of Fair Trade

Jonas, M.

(Institute for Advanced Studies)

Since the current discussion about the extent and manifestation of an environmental crisis, norms and values as integral part of economic markets gain public attention. According to contemporary findings within economic and consumer research, a range of market spaces are currently undergoing a fundamental transformation where moral values and commitments are considered as constitutive of economic operations. But whether this culturalisation of the economy must be understood as based on a moralisation of markets (Stehr) or rather is the result of an economic colonialisation of morals (Habermas) is neither theoretically nor empiri¬cally verified. My contribution is based on these considerations: on the basis of a praxeologic research approach I ask how and in relation to which practices are the so-called 'fairtrade' market spaces enacted and, in doing so, moves in a tension between a moralisation of markets and the economic colonialisation of morals. I consider these questions with reference to empirical research; starting in fairtrade districts in Vienna, the capital of Austria, I focus primarily on the constitutive and various practices and sociospatial settings in which the fairtrade market is enacted and discuss the questions if, why and to which degree the fairtrade market (in Vienna) can be judged as fair.

Creative Disruptions: Artistic Contributions to Understandings of Urban Sustainabilities

Connelly, A., Guy, S.

(Lancaster University)

Sustainability in the urban realm prompts conflicting and contradictory understandings. This poses problems when addressing, in a collaborative way, the global challenge of environmental and social change. This paper analyses the case of a temporary, site-specific artwork in NewcastleGateshead, which was created by Wolfgang Weileder as part of the AHRC-funded Jetty-Project with the assistance of construction skills students. The paper addresses the extent to which public art can help to explore practical and theoretical understandings of the complex and contested notion of urban sustainability. Led by the fine-arts team in collaboration with social scientists, the experimental and interdisciplinary project highlighted the promises of, and limits to, knowledge co-

The site-specific artwork was used to catalyse interdisciplinary research and debate into local and professional interpretations and understandings of sustainability. In this paper, we analyse the results of stakeholder interviews,

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visual data (in the form of photographs and videos) and non-participant observation into the formulation, construction and deconstruction of the temporary artwork.

Drawing on Isabelle Stengers notion of a 'cosmopolitical proposal' (Stengers 2005), the paper illustrates the tensions between certain aspects of sustainability and how these are prioritised by different actors in the urban realm. The paper shows how these tensions were enacted through the art work. By highlighting the different disciplinary and place-based interpretations of urban sustainability that the artwork brought out, the paper will comment on the challenges and opportunities of co-production and suggest ways that experimental, interdisciplinary research projects of this kind may be developed in the future.

Cultural Capital and Music in the UK and Sweden: Exploring Class and Gender Inequalities

De Boise, S.

(Örebro University)

As Prieur and Savage (2011) observe, Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital does not entail a timeless, fixed set of social relations. For example, some have pointed out that there are strong gender, rather than class, divides in

'highbrow' taste in Sweden (Bihagen and Katz-Gerro 2000) whereas in the UK, participation rather than consumption may often be a better indicator of social inequality (Bennett et al. 2008). How certain types of participation accrue symbolic value cross-culturally and temporally can therefore help illuminate differing forms of structural inequalities.

Music has often been one of the most distinguishing measures in terms of class (Bennett et al. 2008: 46).

Nevertheless a Bourdieusian approach to music tends to reduce its role entirely to its social function (Frith 2002: 251); neglects questions of aesthetics (Born 2010; Prior 2011), affect (Hennion 2007) and listening; and often fails to explore how inequalities can be subverted. Focusing on reproduction is important however we need to outline how groups renegotiate and contest symbolic violence also. This paper foregrounds the first stages of postdoctoral research project looking at inequalities in music practices in the UK and Sweden. Using a 3 stage mixed-methods research design, it aims to outline different types of 'public' and 'private' participation and provide a detailed picture of how music attachments (Hennion 2010) and practices relate to gender and class. Through highlighting the similarities as well as the differences between the two countries, this will help to expand on and extend the insights of cultural capital theory.

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

ROUNDTABLE 2, CONFERENCE HALL, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Location-based Play: An Examination of the Effect Foursquare Has on Physical, Spatial and Social Practices

Saker, M.

(Southampton Solent University)

Smartphones and location-based social networks (LBSN) are altering how people engage with space, place and each other. Foursquare is a LBSN that moves beyond earlier text message-based mobile social networks like Dodgeball; combining playful elements with features traditionally associated with social-networking sites. Reporting on original qualitative research encompassing a number of interviews with foursquare users, I argue that foursquare can modify how people experience their environments, just as it can impact how they engage with one another. Drawing on de

Souza e Silva & Hjorth's (2009: 606) discussion of flânerie as a 'method for conceptualizing the role of play in contemporary urbanity', alongside Luke's (2006) reworking of the flâneur as 'phoneur', I introduce the 'playeur' as being a more suitable way of approaching how foursquare is presently disrupting day-to-day life. Ordinary space, when considered through the lens of foursquare, is simultaneously a space of play, replete with symbolic possibility.

This challenges traditional understandings of play and its suggested separation from ordinary life (Caillois, 1958/2001;

Huizinga, 1938/1992). Consequently users find themselves moving through their surroundings following different routes, going to spaces and places they otherwise wouldn't, while becoming more aware of the environments they most often frequent and what these connections mean to them. At the same time, users also find their social networks are correspondingly developed through the banter and bragging play can produce. In sum then, it is my proposal that foursquare, and in a broader sense pervasive play, can significantly deepen and strengthen both spatial and social relationships.

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Embodied Memorialising Practices at New York’s 9/11 Memorial

Karels, M.

(University of Edinburgh)

The terror attacks of 11 September 2001 have had a decisive impact for many, and memorials commemorating the event have been erected across the United States. Most prominent is the National 9/11 Memorial and Museum in New

York built atop and underneath 'ground zero'. Since its opening the site has become New York's most popular tourist attraction, its location visibly marked by America's tallest building: 1 World Trade Centre. Conveying the illusion of permanence the space is actually mutable, because it is still under construction, and through performed memorial practices shifting complex boundaries.

Using Connerton's (1989) notion of embodied memory I investigate the performed interactions and embodied memorialising practices at the site. Drawing on ethnographic data, interviews and a visual analysis of the space conducted over nine months in 2013-14 in New York City, I will discuss the practises of bringing, leaving and taking commemorative objects to and from the site, the inscribing of the body with signifying attire and accessories, and the performing of memorial walks and runs to argue that the memorial is not fixed and contained by the architectural environment of the memorial plaza and its surroundings, but is fluid, expanding its physical, temporal and affective parameters due to the embodied practices of local visitors and tourists visiting the site.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 1

ROUNDTABLE 3, CONFERENCE HALL, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

‘Friends as Enemies’: A Sociological Analysis of the Relationship between Touring Professional Golfers

Fry, J., Bloyce, D.

(Myerscough College)

This paper examines the relationship between professional golfers on tour from a figurational sociological standpoint.

Based on 20 interviews, results indicate a workplace culture whereby players begin to adopt the attitudes and behaviours which encourages the development of networks of temporary alliances, referred to as 'we-groups'. Golfers are constrained to behave in a manner expected of them rather than in a way which reflects their actual emotions, such as maintaining a positive attitude during difficult times away on tour. In these somewhat superficial relationships players are viewed both as 'friends', characterized by togetherness and comradery, while, at the same, showing evidence of tensions and conflict as they are ultimately in direct competition with each other for a share of the overall prize money.

China’s Skateboarding Youth Culture as an Emerging Culture Industry

Li, C.

(Loughborough University)

My research focuses on the skateboarding industry in China as both a youth subculture and a cultural industry. I am investigating the transition between the two and examining how the emerging skateboarding industry operates through detailed analysis of the feelings, motivations and meanings attributed to it by its participants and the emerging strata of cultural workers.

Although skateboarding has long been seen as a subculture in the United States and in Europe, the landscape of the industry has been expanding rapidly in China. However, to date there have been very few empirical studies compared to other music and street subcultures such as the Punk subculture and Graffiti subculture. There have always been tensions between the skateboarding culture and the capitalist implementation in the US. However, there seems to be another side of the tension in China that stood out among other factors

– the influence and administration of the central and local governments

– the political implementation of skateboarding culture as a 'lifestyle sport'.

To address the current gaps in academic knowledge the research consists of an insider ethnography of the industry.

My decision of employing ethnographic approach is based on my specific commitment to avoid traditions or stereotypes from the existing literatures. Hence I discovered that the objective and emphasis of ethnographic studies have been about the need to access and understand the insider perspective of the culture, which would better serve the purposes of my research.

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Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 2

ROUNDTABLE 4, CONFERENCE HALL, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

'Atmosphere' in Pubs

Ruane, B., Bune, M.

(London South Bank University)

Our presentation will attempt to dissect the elusive qualities which contribute to a sense of atmosphere in public houses and to examine why it appears to be present in certain pubs and yet curiously absent in others. We are interested in extending Walter Benjamin's (1936) distinction between manual and technological reproduction in his ascription of an 'aura' which pertains to an original art-work as distinct from a reproduction of it. Likewise, we maintain that a similar distinction exists between pubs which exude originality, quirkiness and other similar qualities which tend to be present in atmospheric pubs and which are less likely to be sensed in more homogenous, corporate environments.

In order to investigate this phenomenon we conducted a number of semi-structured interviews with several pub-goers.

Most of our research was conducted at the Great British Beer Festival (Earls' Court, 2014) but some of it occurred in the environs of selected pubs.

Our respondents appeared to concur to a great extent on their criteria for the perfect pub and this tallied with our own initial thesis that 'aura' / atmosphere is related in a strong sense to the singularity of a place, to something unique or special about it.

We believe our research could have valuable implications to support a turn away from corporate blandness and towards a more human and genuine approach towards hospitality.

Framing the Real: Consumer Protest, Anti-McDonaldization and Its Legacies

Thurnell-Read, T.

(Coventry University)

While contemporary consumer movements such as Slow Food and Fairtrade have been subject to significant recent academic attention, the British consumer group the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) remains under-researched and under-theorized. Founded in 1971, CAMRA represents an early example of concerted consumer resistance against the processes of rationalisation and standardisation associated with globalisation, the shift to neoliberal market economics and, as defined by Ritzer (1993), the McDonaldization of Society. Throughout its existence, CAMRA has provided a means for participants to voice fears and dissatisfaction with corporate globalisation and to imagine alternative consumption practices informed by ideas of tradition, locality and community. Drawing on qualitative research, including participant-observation, interviews with campaign members and organisation staff and archival research, the paper analyses how the framing of CAMRA rhetoric, policy and activism have relied on at times antagonistic understandings of consumption, consumer practice and identity. The paper suggests that the legacies of

CAMRA's formation and early protest activities give rise to three continued tensions within the campaign: first, an ideological tension between an anti-corporate and pro-corporate ethos; second, a temporal tension between nostalgic tradition and progressive innovation; and third, an institutional tension between being a marginal 'outsider' activist group and, following a period of expansion and professionalisation, an institutionalised 'insider' campaign lobby.

Narratives of Identity and Reflections of the Past in Mass Obs ervers’ Gambling Practice

Casey, E.

(Kingston University)

This paper draws on the findings of a recent research project into Gambling and Households funded by the ESRC.

The aim of the research was to utilise Mass Observation Archive date to garner narratives of the everyday, intimate and domestic routines of gambling. The paper has two key intentions. The first is to examine the unique benefits of

Mass Observation in producing complex narratives of self that are connected to stories and discourses of the past.

This connects with other work which has demonstrated the importance of personal histories in developing 'shifting senses of ourselves' (Segal, 2013: 28). As Squire (2013) argues, narratives are stories of experience rather than the experience itself. This is especially true for Mass Observation and I will show that persistent referrals and regular retellings of the past is a particularly potent feature of Mass Observation, making it ideally situated to revealing complex and multiple narratives of self. The second key aim of the paper is to explore the gambling narratives contained in the recent Gambling and Households Directive. Drawing on Riesman's (2007) contention that narratives arise from the contradictions inherent in social life, the paper looks at how gambling narratives connect with intimate

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memories of the past. It looks at how melancholic recollections and narratives of the past resurface in Mass

Observers' accounts as a way of explaining and making sense of contemporary gambling routines and practices.

Environment and Society

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A Very Antidemocratic ‘Climate Change’

Fox, E.

(National University of Ireland, Galway)

Through Bourdieu's prism of symbolic violence and drawing on the ideas of deliberative democracy, this presentation identifies a very anti-democratic 'climate change'. Through an analysis of Irish society, along with group-specific focus group and interview data, I aim to illustrate how the symbolic ordering of climate change within a society, combined with the unequal distribution of cultural, social, economic and symbolic capital, limits access to the ongoing debate and decarbonisation efforts. Policy-makers, climate scientists and mainstream social scientists all play a part in the symbolic ordering processes and in reproducing structures of exclusion and symbolic violence. They serve to reduce

'climate change' to narrow and alienating discourses and pigeonhole the role of the public, thereby diminishing the public's own sense of issue ownership. Also in ignoring the social origins behind human practices and values, mainstream social scientists paint a picture of an immutable public in need of having their perceptions adjusted in order to appeal to their values and motivations as they currently are. The effect is to conceal possible alternatives.

However alternatives do exist, which is why the presentation ends with some recommendations for democratising

'climate change'. This incorporates combining the 'politics of fields' and 'habitus' with ideas from deliberative democracy.

Governing Sustainable Transitions: The 'Problem' of Politicians

Willis, R.

(Lancaster University)

Sustainable transitions need willing politicians, to champion the cause, build public support, stand strong in the face of opposition from vested interests, and steer policies through the legislative process. Yet it is hard to find a political system that is seriously debating the need for a transition, let alone how to bring one about. While a handful of individual politicians champion the cause, most of their political colleagues remain unmoved. Transition is not the stuff of mainstream political speeches or manifestos.

Very little research to date has examined why this is so. The lack of attention to power and politics in the literature on sustainable transitions has been noted, but not yet addressed. (Geels 2014) In particular, little is known about how politicians conceptualise these issues, due in part to the difficulties of researching elites (Rickards and Wiseman

2013).

This paper presents initial findings from a collaborative research project, involving Lancaster University and the think tank Green Alliance, which examines the role of politicians in sustainable transitions. It draws upon Green Alliance's

Climate Leadership Programme, which since 2009 has worked with UK politicians to introduce them to the science, policy and politics of climate change. A striking finding from this work is that, even when the politicians understand the significance of the science, they struggle to fit this knowledge into their political outlook (Willis 2013). The project, and this paper, investigates both why this is the case, and how we can develop a 'politics of transition'.

Transitioning Societies: The Role of Crisis in Social Change

Butler, C.

(University of Exeter)

Climate change brings imperatives to transition societies in ways that are both consistent with mitigation targets and responsive to the socio-environmental impacts associated with variations in global temperature. Governmental policy and other forms of socio-political action are likely to play a major part in achieving the necessary transitions across broad spectrums of social life. In this context, there arise an important set of questions around how policy change occurs and what its role might be in processes of transition that require sometimes radical departures from what has gone before. Previous theory and research (e.g. see Kingdon, 1995; Johnson et al. 2004) has pointed to the importance of socio-environmental crises in creating windows of opportunity for change. Taking the UK's 2013/14

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winter floods as a case study, this paper will examine how governmental policy and collective responses involving multiple actors are unfolding in the immediate aftermath of the floods and the implications this has for longer-term climate adaptation. The paper uses insights derived from interviews with members of the public affected by the floods and stakeholders with professional roles related to flooding, to re-examine existing political and social theory on policy change. Initial insights into the processes of policy and wider socio-political change following these major floods are presented and the implications for lives and livelihoods in a climate changed world are discussed. The paper aligns closely with the wider conference theme in exploring the role of crisis in the progression or regression of societies.

Governing Sustainability Transitions: Inclusion, Representation and Participation in Community-Based

Initiatives

Dinnie, E.

(James Hutton Institute)

Tackling climate change is one of the most pressing challenges facing modern societies. The repeated failure of international attempts to reach meaningful agreement on reducing global emissions has turned attention to local and grassroots initiatives and a focus on changing social practices and behaviours. Community-led actions to reduce carbon advocate a shift in lifestyles and energy requirements that are more local and smaller in scale than those currently dominant in modern, capitalist societies. Government policy is increasingly supporting local actions which tackle climate change at the same time as they renew local social relations. While localism can be empowering for individuals, and can lead to more resilient communities, there is also concern that it can open up new forms of exclusion and inequality, raising questions over who gets represented and can participate in decision-making. This paper uses qualitative data collected as part of the European project 'Towards European Societal Sustainability '

(TESS) to explore ways in which local sustainability transitions manage the challenges of inclusion, representation of the 'community' (bearing in mind communities can be based on interest, ethnicity or lifestyle as well as place) and participation in decision-making to see if new forms of participatory governance to tackle climate change also lead to social relations that are fairer and more equitable.

Families and Relationships 1

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The Wedding Paradox: Individualised Conformity

Carter, J., Duncan, S.

(Canterbury Christ Church University)

Marriage rates are historically low, almost half of marriages end in divorce, and it has never been easier to live in other relationship forms like cohabitation and LAT (living apart together). Nevertheless marriage maintains continued social appeal and significance as an ideal and as a life goal. Weddings stand at the heart of this paradox: while what we understand as the 'traditional white wedding' is not (and has never been) necessary for marriage, increasingly ornate and expensive -but traditional- weddings appear to be growing in size, cost and exposure, and support both a thriving consumer industry and a pervasive celebrity and reality culture. We address this wedding paradox in our pilot interview study. Why do couples have a wedding, how is this related to marriage, and how do individuals construct their wedding day? Participants had recently experienced or were soon to have their own wedding, and came from a range of economic backgrounds and ages. We found a number of discourses in their narratives that individuals relied upon when talking about why they had a wedding; these included: 'project of the couple', relationality, retraditionalisation, and romanticised consumption. These discourses led the participants to create particular types of wedding that reflected either conformist, reproducing, reluctant or alternative positions. Overall, while some resistance to tradition was expressed, and some interviewees more actively created modernised tradition, the overwhelming picture was of individuality operating within conformity.

Social Assets, Low Income and Child Social and Emotional and Behavioural Wellbeing

Treanor, M.

(University of Edinburgh)

This paper examines the association between mothers' social assets (kith and kin relationships) and child social, emotional and behavioural (SEB) wellbeing for children living in persistently low income. SEB wellbeing is measured using the Stress and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 4/5 years. Social assets is measured using factor analysis of variables measuring the closeness and supportiveness of relationships with family and friends. Persistently low

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income is measured using five-year averaged income divided into quintiles (the lowest income quintile is conceptualised as 'persistently low income' and 100% of families with income below 60% median equivalised income fall into this category) and control variables generated from the literature review. The results show that persistently low income is associated with lower social assets and lower SEB wellbeing in children; however, mothers living in persistently low income but who have high social assets, ie are close to and supported by their relationships with family and friends, are significantly associated with higher levels of SEB wellbeing in their children, an interaction that is not significant for any other income quintile. Additionally, many of the socio-demographic variables assumed to be important for child SEB wellbeing in the literature, such as family composition and young motherhood, reduce in significance once income and mothers' social assets are taken into account in the model.

Families on the Move, Changing Lives, Changing Contexts: The Transnational Family Practices of Polish

Work Migrants in Norway

Bjornholt, M.

(Policy and Social Research AS)

Over the last decade there has been a large Polish immigration to Norway, with the Polish immigrant population having become the largest immigrant group in Norway. The paper draws on interviews with Polish parents of young children who have paid employment in Norway. The study is part of an ongoing Polish-Norwegian research project, the Effect study, funded by Norway Grants. The paper will discuss different transformations and changes of which this group of transnational working parents are part and which they are contributing to: Through their use of and interpretations of the benefits and entitlements available to them as working parents in Norway they renegotiate gendered patterns in their own families as well as providing a new perspective on Norwegian policies as well as on the

'family' that is target of policies. Their uses and (re)interpretations also make visible some of the hidden assumptions and may contribute to challenging what is taken for granted by the majority population, and possibly to changing the normative Norwegian work-family interface. Their transnational family practices similarly contribute to changes in their country of emigration. Although settled in Norway, the majority still retain many ties with their homeland, and may command a transnational pool of resources, such as counting on grandmothers living in Poland coming to help, enjoying services and entitlements from the Norwegian state as well as returning to Poland for private health care services as health tourists, thereby contributing to the growing private health sector in Poland.

Families and Relationships 2

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Internet Dating and Heterosexual Pleasure

Holmes, M., Beasley, C.

(University of Edinburgh)

Internet dating as a way of meeting people and potential sexual or long-term partners is a relatively new phenomenon, with 'the net' becoming established in the 1990s and commercial dating sites soon following. These varied sites make use of new technology but follow similar principles to previous newspaper 'personal ads' and other existing forms of matchmaking. This paper charts some of that history, placing internet dating within the context of social changes around relationships, gender and sexuality, and technological changes in forms of communication. This work is a collaboration with Chris Beasley, in which we argue that there are a variety of reasons for the rise of internet dating , but that these should be understood using the strong theoretical position that the authors have developed challenging conventional approaches to heterosexuality that present it as nasty, boring and normative. This approach acknowledges the darker aspects of heterosexual intimacy, but does not regard queer or other alternative forms of sexuality as the only ones that can offer pleasure. This means charting to what extent internet dating might be part of a shift towards 'pure' relationships as Giddens has proposed, or of a commercialisation of intimacy emphasised by

Hochschild, whether internet dating is about consuming relationships as Bauman might see it, or whether it can sometimes be a search for more mutual and egalitarian and pleasurable connections. This largely theoretical account will be illustrated by reference to some of the early findings of our empirical project on internet dating.

Defining the Self: Identities, Interconnections, Kinship and Belonging in Lesbian Led Families

Quaid, S.

(University of Sunderland)

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Cultural discourses surrounding genetic heritage have shifted in favour of known fathers and donors. This paper is based on research which explored constructions of motherhood that lesbian couples achieved as a result of their negotiations. The project was a qualitative exploration of nine lesbian couples in the UK who chose to become parents together. Analysis of their narratives revealed aspects of negotiated parenthood which included; The 'absent presence' of the father/donor; their negotiations around constructions of 'mother' and 'parent' , their desire for motherhood/ parenthood; the parenting contract and routines of parenting; and experiential constructions of identity.

Their constructed maternal and parental identities interconnected with other aspects of identity such as culture, disability, ethnicity, class, gender and religious background. The respondents' journeys into motherhood involved transgression and re definition of themselves, their couple status, and of family identities, including the family identities of their children. Reflections on identity became crucial for the study and insights were generated regarding theories of reflexive modernity (Giddens, 1992). The intersection of free choice and these other definers of identity produced dilemmas for the respondents' as they embarked on their plans for their future and their children's future. Their own family histories, kinship and other definers of identity created both constraint and possibility. The dilemmas discussed in this paper raise questions and critiques about ideas of individualisation, cultural power and other definers of self.

Metropolitan Bisexual Men’s Relationships: Changing Beliefs and Practices and Evidence of a Cohort Effect

McCormack, M., Anderson, E., Scoats, R.

(Durham University)

Drawing on 90 interviews with bisexual men from three metropolitan cities and using innovative participant recruitment procedures, this research explores openly bisexual men's experiences of bisexuality in relation to their relationships and partners. We find that experiences of discrimination and stereotyping were less pronounced than traditionally described in the literature, and we attribute this to recruiting men outside of bisexual communities. Furthermore, by using an cohort design, we demonstrate the presence of a generational effect, with the youngest cohort finding partners granting the greatest legitimacy to their bisexual identities. With residual elements of bisexual burden existing in participants' narratives, we also show that the older cohort adopted more heteronormative attitudes than men in the younger cohort, particularly concerning marriage and children. Finally, we find that while bisexual men were accepting of open nonmonogamy for others, they were not practicing it themselves. Thus, our research offers a counternarrative to much of the research on bisexual men's relationships, highlighting the importance of sampling procedures in research on bisexuality.

Frontiers

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Aggressive Speech Acts Online: Sociological, Philosophical and Psychodynamic Perspectives

Krueger, S., Auestad, L.

(University of Oslo)

This 2paper panel comprised of Lene Auestad and Steffen Krüger’s presentations will concern itself with hate speech as transmission of structural relations of domination, in

Auestad’s case from a phenomenological perspective

(supported with examples from the fields of racism and sexism), in Krüger’s case with a medium-specific focus on hate speech online, particularly internet discussion forums. As Fuller et al. have recently noted in their edition of the venerable Fibreculture journal: “Online abuse has become one of the things around which anxieties about the Internet are arrayed” (2013, 05). The aim of this panel is to open up the view on such acts of abuse by applying a psychoanalytically informed, psychosocial perspective and in this way dispel the media-deterministic reflex

– “It Was the Internet!” – in which these anxieties often result.

The two papers will build on one another. While Auestad will offer suggestions on how to explain and interpret the exchange of affective charge in hate speech from the points of view of psychoanalytic theory and social philosophy,

Krüger will take a mediumreflective view on Auestad’s presentation, offering concrete examples of affective speech acts taken from his research project “Online Interaction Forms”, in which he analyses online symbolic interaction from a depth hermeneutic perspective.

Interrogating the Social Unconscious

Redman, P.

(Open University)

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The idea of a social unconscious (or, perhaps, many social unconsciouses) is surely one of the most beguiling for psychoanalytic sociology. It is also probably the one that, potentially at least, offers most to the wider discipline. But what is the social unconscious exactly? This paper offers a preliminary interrogation of the concept. It starts from

Lynne Layton's notion of normative unconscious processes

– the ways in which social inequalities, anxieties and distinctions get written into individual unconscious configurations

– and, drawing partly on the systemic and processbased ideas of S.H. Foulkes, Earl Hopper and others, moves on to ask if we can think of these apparently patterned unconscious configurations as themselves dimensions of the social phenomena to which they seemingly respond. If it is possible to think of individual unconscious configurations in these terms we may have an opportunity to shift from a social psychological to a psychosocial analysis proper, in the processes opening up important sociological questions: for example, about the relationship between unconscious fantasy and ideology or social 'imaginaries'; and between unconscious group processes on one hand and social structure and system, on the other

Evaluating the Tottenham Thinking Space Project

Price, H., Sampson, A.

(University of East London)

This presentation draws on research data obtained during an evaluation of the Tottenham Community Therapy

Project, funded after the 2011 riots by Haringey Directorate of Public Health and the Tavistock and Portman NHS

Trust. Community therapy has been used to address social ills and personal dis-ease in favelas in the state of Ceara in Brazil, using Adalberto Barreto's (2010) critical pedagogical approach, which re-values local knowledges and increases local participation so as to '...move mental health out of a private space into a public citizen's space'. It has also been used in the U.S., as in the psychoanalytically-informed Avalon Gardens project in South Central Los

Angeles, post the 1992 riots, with the explicit aim of providing an individual experience of empowering change '...from the inside out' (Borg, 2004).

Interview data, monitoring and questionnaire data, and ethnographic process-recorded notes of meetings are discussed to explore the experiences and responses of participants from diverse backgrounds and living in 'stressed and fragmented neighbourhoods' (Price, Li and Sampson, 2013).

Lifecourse

ROUNDTABLE 9, CONFERENCE HALL, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

The Established and the Newcomers

Carlin, E.

(Birkbeck College, University of London)

Drawing on my PHD fieldwork, including 26 semi-structured interviews with 26 young people in Pilton, a disadvantaged neighbourhood of Edinburgh in 2012 and 2013, I will compare and contrast the attitudes and behaviours towards newcomers in contemporary Edinburgh with those in Elias & Scotsman's classic text, 'The

Established and the Outsiders'(1994), which analysed the experiences of a working class community in 'Winston

Parva', Leicestershire at the end of the 1950s, including exploring how they stigmatised new arrivals in their community. There are significant differences between Pilton and Winston Parva. I will argue that these relate to the different levels of cohesion in the established communities, influenced in large part by the vastly changed labour market context. In Winston Parva, there was full employment and prejudice against newcomers focussed on the latters' perceived moral failings. For young people in Pilton, the impact of globalisation on the local labour market and structural changes in the education system, combined with poverty and a stigmatised identity, combine to make the move into adulthood, signified by a move into financial independence through getting a job, very difficult. They describe diverse but challenging experiences in the labour market but rarely blame structural disadvantages for the challenges they face, more often blaming other stigmatised minorities, most notably immigrants from Poland, as well as their own perceived individual shortcomings.

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Medicine, Health and Illness 1

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Social Class Differences in Negative Emotions: Evidence from a National Sample

Jakoby, N.

(University of Zurich)

Sociology is interested in the social incidence of and the factors that account for negative emotions, such as anxiety or sadness, as a part of a society's culture of emotions. At the same time, it opens a range of opportunities for the study of social inequality in experiencing emotions. In particular, a sociological perspective focuses on the prevalence of

'everyday' emotions rather than pathological states such as mental disorders (Thoits 1989). Key approaches to the sociology of emotions provide the theoretical background to this study: the structural theory of emotions and the status-power model (Kemper 1981), the interactionist concept of feeling norms (Hochschild 1979), as well as the more current account of Illouz (2007) who highlights the unequal social distribution of therapeutic knowledge

– which is important for coping with stress or harmful experiences. On the basis of Swiss Household Panel (SHP) data (waves

2005-2011, random effects regression), the study assesses relationships between the intensity of negative emotions

(desperation, anxiety, and depression) and the parameters of one's position in the social structure. The results reveal that negative emotions are experienced differently along social predictors like education, income, employment status, or gender. In sum, the presentation will sharpen awareness of emotional diversity and shed light on the close connection between social structure and individual feelings. Emotions are not distributed randomly; rather they show social regularities and inequalities.

Conceptualizing the Happy Lesbian: A Critical Examination of Self-help Texts

Fredericks, E.

(St. Thomas University)

Self-help literature is consumed by individuals seeking personal fulfillment. In these texts, happiness is achieved by an autonomous, hyper-responsible self free from social relations. Under a veil of individualism and authenticity, self-help literature reinforces gendered, classed, heterosexist, and racialized norms about who is in need of self-help and what they should imagine themselves to be. The effects of oppression on individual potential for happiness are made invisible through the conceptualization of happiness as an individual responsibility that can (and should) be achieved through work on the self. While personal responsibility for happiness may seem freeing, self-help culture further embeds readers in neoliberal governing practices that fracture community in favour of individualism. Scholars have suggested that LGBTQ people must find alternative ways of conceptualizing happiness in heteronormative and capitalist societies, but no previous studies of LGBTQ self-help literature have been conducted. I draw on the results of a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 10 lesbian self-help texts about happiness in order to identify and critique the enabling and constraining effects of self-help discourse. Self-help texts written for lesbians engage more openly with the effects of social relations in the context of homophobia, but many still advance the possibility of a freer, more autonomous self. These guides to being a happy lesbian make possible a subject position that readers may experience as individually empowering, but this empowerment comes at a cost to the individual and her community.

Storytelling in Organisational Life: Tales from a Hospice for Children and Young Adults

Rayment, J., Davies, K., Ebeling, S., Lay, A.

(City University London)

Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in the role of stories within organisations: organisational stories can tell us much about the function of an organisation, as well as the experiences of people working there.

Stories are the currency through which we exchange ideas, beliefs, values and thoughts about our daily lives.

With this in mind, we carried out two staff development workshops with palliative care nurses from a hospice for children and young people, in which we used both traditional and 'real life' stories to help staff to think reflectively about their work. Using the Grimm story of 'The Brave Little Tailor', the workshops explored the staff's thoughts about their relationships with each other, the families they worked with and the concept of 'resilience', asking questions such as: What is our role within stories (creator, narrator or hero?) and what does that mean for team dynamics? What is our responsibility towards other people's stories? What happens when stories are misremembered or silenced? What would be the hospice's story and is it different to ours?

The workshops offered an example of how stories might be useful to healthcare professionals and to researchers seeking to understand organisational dynamics. When working within emotionally complex organisations such as

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hospices or hospitals, traditional storytelling can offer a 'way in' to researching the impact of emotions at work, by providing some distance from 'real life' and also a structure with which to then address very personal 'real life' tales.

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

ROUNDTABLE 11, CONFERENCE HALL, HAMISH WOOD BUILDING

Information as a Regulatory Device: The Politics of Data in the Post-Reform NHS

Speed, E., Pettinger, L., Goffey, A.

(University of Essex)

The 2012 Health and Social Care Act demanded fundamental changes to the organisation of the NHS. The reforms lauded an 'information revolution', where the use and utility of information, including 'big data' will enable better local and national provision/commissioning, and more effective levels of health observation and surveillance, using population metrics. The ubiquity of rhetoric of the positive power of information in the post-reform NHS sits uncomfortably alongside a clear political and organizational failure to elaborate how these processes are actually going to work.

In this paper we consider the onerous and complex demands for information recording, analysis and reporting, focusing on two features of these expectations. First, how can the demands for routine information recording be put into place in a setting where - because of the 'any qualified provider' regulations of the HSCA, care providers are simultaneously collaborators and competitors. Second, what effects do these information-reporting requirements have on professional practice, standing and experiences of work. We contend that the apparent neutrality of information as a regulatory device is politically important to securing radical institutional change to such a sacred institution as the

NHS, but assigns significant power to private sector service providers and healthcare software companies in so doing.

‘What was Your Blood Sugar Reading This Morning?’: Diabetes Self-management and Biological Citizenship on Facebook

Hunt, D., Koteyko, N.

(Queen Mary University of London)

Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a salient venue for the consumption and production of neoliberal health discourse by individuals and organisations. These platforms offer both opportunities for individuals to accrue networked coping resources and a means for organisations to promote their agendas within a growing 'digital patient experience economy' (Lupton, 2014).

Focusing specifically on diabetes and drawing on methods of critical and multisemiotic discourse analysis, this paper examines the interactional styles and multimodal representation of diabetes on three organisational pages on

Facebook and the digital affordances these organisations employ as they publish content online. Popular diabetes pages utilise the opportunities for social interaction afforded by Facebook's architecture and combine risk management information with promotional content designed to foster communication between organisations and their audiences. By foregrounding online participation and reflexive management of health risks, these pages open a new frontier of 'biological citizenship' (Rose and Novas, 2004) in which users interweave personal interactions on SNSs with responsible self-care, consumption of health information and health activism. By contrasting content from commercial, non-profit and government health organisations, we note the role of Facebook in allowing organisations to derive value from biological citizenship and facilitating wider policy changes to the nature of healthcare delivery.

Lupton, D. 2014. The commodification of patient opinion: the digital patient experience economy in the age of big data.

Sociology of Health & Illness. doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.12109.

Rose, N. and Novas, C. 2004. Biological Citizenship. In: Ong A and Collier SJ (eds) Global Assemblages. Oxford:

Blackwell Publishing, pp. 439-463.

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Methodological Innovations

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Velho’s Observation of the Familiar Put into Practice: A Discussion of Its Methodological and Empirical

Implications

Ramos, C.

(University Institute of Lisbon)

In the context of a Ph.D. thesis, we make a comparative analysis between old individuals inhabiting Benfica (Lisbon periphery with middle and lower classes population) and São José (the environment of Avenida da Liberdade with lower classes population), by means of different kinds of observation: the observation of the familiar (Velho, 1986) and the semi-familiar at Benfica and the observation of the exotic (Costa, 1986) at São José; each giving prominence to participant observation. Furthermore, we made (25) life stories developed and detailed through semi-structured interviews.

The communication I am proposing to the congress analyses the changes on sociological research parameters and the principal methodological and empirical implications of the observation of the familiar, when compared to the observation of the semi-familiar and the exotic (components, distinctions, affinities, outcomes).

For a long time the sociological field refused an open and impossible to tell apart relation between researcher and researched (Burgess, 1984). The arrival of Velho's work (1986) came to show the interesting discoveries that may come from the observation of the familiar, as an observation methodologically dependable on a tenuous separation between private and public spheres. Something almost achieved on the observation of the exotic after three years of fieldwork. This research benefits in detail from the familiarity at Benfica concerning important levels, like enlarged consequences and thoughts about economic crisis, everyday activities in various social settings, characteristics of family and neighbourhood ties, social exchanges and networks (re)configurations (during the last two decades).

Reflexivity and ‘Public Sociology’: Knowledge Construction, Transfer and Dissemination in the Impact Driven

Era

Lumsden, K.

(Loughborough University)

This paper considers the role of reflexivity in the dissemination of research findings and in the context of the pressure to evidence the (immediate) impact of social scientific research (whether economic, social, cultural or political). The importance and value of reflexivity is now largely accepted in social research (see Alvesson and Sköldberg, 2011;

Brewer, 2000; Lumsden 2009, 2013; Lumsden and Winter, 2014; May and Perry, 2011). As Finlay (2002) has pointed out: the question is no longer whether to 'be' reflexive, but how do we go about 'doing' or practicing reflexivity?

The discussion is situated within the wider academic and disciplinary debates on 'public sociology' (Burawoy, 2005) and the need for research findings to reach into multiple publics, beyond the traditional academic and user outputs. It argues that reflexivity and its practice must extend beyond the analysis and writing-up stage, in order to ensure that our engagement and activities with various societal groups in the name of 'impact' are conducted in a critical, reflexive and tempered manner. The paper also demonstrates how reflexive moments during dissemination can provide insights into how we related to research participants, how we constructed and represented their stories and social worlds, and the consequences of making our work public. The use of online and social media (such as blogs, Twitter and Facebook) Is one further avenue for engaging with wider publics, and hence the discussion also considers the related creation of 'celebrity academics' and how sociologists' identities are being (re)shaped in this highly mediatized environment.

Purposive Mixed Methods Sampling: Using Administrative Data for Qualitative Studies

Grüttner, M., Bernhard, S.

(Institute for Employment Research)

In mixed methods literature integration of quantitative and qualitative methods at the stages of data collection, analyses and reporting is widely discussed. Nonetheless two research lacunae can be identified: First, insufficient reflection of mixed methods integration at the stage of sampling and, second, poor use of administrative data generated in social administration processes such as welfare or unemployment benefit allocation. In our presentation we address these weaknesses and present a way to overcome them. To begin with, we give a brief overview of existing types of mixed methods sampling strategies, which are positioned on a common probability-mixed-purposive continuum, where quantity is associated with probability and quality with purpose. Subsequently, we introduce our

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concept of a multi-step purposive mixed methods sampling (PMMS) based on a combination of process produced administrative records and qualitative interview data. We apply this approach to a labour market policy implementation study. We demonstrate the added value of PMMS by showing how we chose 8 out of 156 employment agencies in

Germany for further in-depth interviewing. In a final step, sharpen our argument by contrasting it to theoretical sampling strategies known from grounded theory research.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

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DIASPORA, MIGRATION AND TRANSNATIONALISM SUB-STREAM: IMMIGRATION, INTEGRATION AND

EXCLUSION ROUNDTABLE

Reading the Race in Belgium: The Congolese (RDC) Diaspora in the Former Colonial Metropole

Demart, S.

(CEDEM)

The integration of immigrants and their offspring is one of the major challenges facing Belgian society. Like other societies in the northern hemisphere, Belgian society is now characterised by 'super-diversity' (Vertovec 2007). In comparison with other OECD countries, Belgium seems to face particular difficulties with regards to the integration of its immigrants and their offspring in the fields of access to employment, private housing and education. Stemed from discriminatory practices (Economic and Social Council 2006) these problems constitute however the blind spot of the academy.

In this paper, I would like to consider the racial issues with regards to the Congolese community in Belgium, the former colonial metropole. Nowadays, three generations of Congolese Belgians make up a community that shows a paradoxical socioeconomic integration pattern, combining on average the highest level of education with the highest level of unemployment in Belgian society (Schoonvaere, 2010). Despite an intense involvment of Congolese Belgians in the academic, associative, political or artistic spheres, several variables point towards a particular postcolonial racialization process. The absence of a public debate on the colonial history of Belgium suggests a link between the marginalization of this group and the colonial legacy of the society that will be developped from a comprehensive sociology and ten years of immersion within the Congolese circles.

Immigrant Integration in the British Press: A Corpus Approach

Lessard-Phillips, L.

(University of Manchester)

Immigration is a politically and socially relevant topic that is being increasingly debated in public arenas in the UK. Yet, public opinion about immigrant integration in the UK is not as extensively explored. Recent research using experiments to gauge public opinion on integration dimensions (Sobolewska et al, 2014) has shown that structural, social, and cultural concerns seem to drive opinion on what constitutes a well-integrated immigrant. What remains to be explored is where such opinions might have taken form. Given that the media is seen as an outlet for influencing public opinion (McCombs and Shaw, 1972), a question following from this is whether the types of integration discourses in the print media match that of the public's perceptions.

Using a Corpus Linguistics-based approach, this paper explores the language around issues of immigration in British broadsheet newspapers over the last 15 years. In the first instance it seeks to explore the type of terminology that has been used to inform the public about such issues, and its evolution. In the second instance, it will explore the dimensions of integration that are most commonly found in such newspaper articles, in order to see whether discourses of integration are linked to specific issues. Results from these analyses will be compared to previous work on the dimensionality found in outcomes and public opinion research, as well as on the portrayal on immigrants in the

British press.

Dynamism, Co-option and Retrenchment: The Varying Experiences of French Voluntary Associations in

Implementing Multicultural Policies

Downing, J.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

The very notion of contemporary societal transition is intimately linked to questions of migration, and religious and ethnic difference. In this regard, few national contexts present a more difficult transition than France, beset with urban

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disturbances and enduring social and economic cleavages. Within this, a key arena in which questions of transition play out has been the local level. This paper seeks to develop our understanding of transition by examining the role played by voluntary sector associations in Paris, Lyon and Marseille in challenging negative notions and structures of transition. Drawing on interview and archival data collected over 3 years of fieldwork, this paper demonstrates that the management of transition at the local level in France remains contested, yet not without significant progress in tackling social ills. In particular, examining such organisations in France gives important insights into how transition can be approached and managed by local communities from the 'bottom up'.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

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RACE, ETHNICITY AND MIGRATION STREAM: MEDITERRANEAN ROUNDTABLE

Turkish Case Concerning Hate Speech

Binbuga, B.N.

(METU)

I attempt to examine the situation in Turkey concerning legal regulations, decisions and public responses towards hate speech. First, I want to discuss the position of Turkey with respect to two models; is Turkey closer to Continental model which restrict freedom of speech in the case of hate speech or USA's model of 'free speech culture' which prioritizes freedom of speech over other rights? Moreover, I aim to focus on the legal bases for preventing hate speech in Turkish case; are there any laws/ regulations which punish expressions based on hate? If exist, how are these laws enforced and are they adequate to restrain hate speech? After elaborating these issues, concentrating on the case of Hrant Dink, Armenian journalist killed because of his ethnic identity, will guide us towards certain reflections on hate speech in Turkish polity with its own peculiar and adverse aspects.

I argue that Turkish case is in line with neither the restrictive mentality of Continental model, nor with the lenient outlook of US model. This is because Turkish juridical system adopts a nationalist view which means that a nationalist bias is at work in interpreting, penalizing or allowing hate speech. Peculiarity of Turkish case stems from a prejudice that hate speech might be conducted only against nation, unity of state or the principles of regime, rather than against vulnerable groups or identities. Despite the fact that there occurred certain minor positive developments in last couple of years, peculiarity of Turkish case seems to be persistent.

Transnational Families: An Intergenerational Perspective on Issues of Culture and Identity among Greek-

Cypriot Migrant Communities in England

Kallis, G.

(University of Plymouth)

This research aims to take an intergenerational perspective to explore whether cultures of home and family influence the identities of individuals within Greek-Cypriot migrant families in the UK. This aim is particularly necessary at a time when levels of migration have increased resulting in a number of complex issues that migrants face in their everyday lives. There is growing acknowledgment across a number of disciplines of the need to explore the everyday lives of migrants and processes of transnationalism across all generations. Despite this acknowledgment, research on second and third generation migrants and issues of their identity and belonging remain limited. In-depth interviews will be held with three generations of Greek-Cypriot migrants living in two locations in the UK as well as focus groups with the second and third generation. As well as exploring the ways in which intergenerational relations are formed within the families and the impacts these have on the formation of individuals' identities, intergenerational and gender differences will be investigated in relation to personal values and expectations for the future. This research is particularly timely as there is growing consensus within the social sciences that 'life course' matters, yet researchers often focus on the margins: namely the very old or the young. To overcome this tendency, a more relational perspective is needed and an exploration of how individuals organise themselves in relation to others; intergenerationality is a key aspect of this perspective.

Forms of Belonging and Discrimination: The Narratives of Armenians in Turkey

Bezirgan, B.

(London School of Economics and Political Science)

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The status of the Armenian community in Turkey has been continuously situated at the problematical intersection point between the minority rights and the state-subsidized discriminatory policies. Although the debates at both national and international levels are mostly dominated by the theme of the politics of genocide recognition it is crucial to turn a critical gaze towards the media representations of Armenians in Turkey as well as their perceptions and experiences as the Turkish citizens. This paper is only a part of my PhD research exploring the ways in which a thorny issue of Armenians in Turkey becomes a site of contestation and negotiation of the discursive and quotidian

(re)production of nationalism(s). Drawing on data from both of critical discourse analysis of the particular cases in three Turkish national newspapers and forty-five semi-structured interviews with Armenians living in Istanbul this qualitative study aims to present insights for the ongoing discussion on the 'Armenian question'. In this paper I address how the tension between the sense of belonging and the confrontation with discrimination are experienced by

Armenians in Turkey as their attachment to the homeland and relationship with the state are dissimilar from the members of the Armenian Diaspora. Based on the semi-structured interviews I aim to present only a part of my findings that address the conflicting interpretations of the Armenian interviewees with regard to the notions of national belonging and domestic enemy. This analysis also reveals both the shifting and continuing tendencies across the generations of the Armenian interviewees.

The

‘Other’ in the Society in Transition

Sojka, B.

(Swansea University)

This paper is based on recent qualitative research undertaken for the PhD project on racialisation of immigrants in the

Republic of Cyprus. It explores the experiences of immigrants living in Nicosia and reports on findings drawn from sixty tree semi-structured interviews and two focus groups, which took place at the end of 2012 and beginning of

2013. This paper discusses the racism towards immigrants in Cyprus as a result of matrix of historical and present social relations there. It analyses the racialisation of immigrants as an important part of Greek-Cypriot identity construction. It demonstrates how the physical border divides not only the territory but also distinguishes people into

'us' - Greek-Cypriots and 'them' - the Turkish-Cypriots. It shows how the immigrants are othered even more then the clearly defined 'primary Others'-Turkish. This paper shows how the immigrants are the 'Other than the primary Other' and in consequence occupies the most disadvantaged position in the Greek Cypriot society. The findings add to the literature on racism towards immigrants and shows how the Greek Cypriots by clearly defining who is and who is not one of them, constructs and reinforce the Greek national identity in which the cultural, Hellenic values are extremely important. In conclusion, this paper, by closely examining immigrants' experiences of racism, sheds new light on the little recognized subject of immigrants' discrimination within already ethnically and physically divided societies.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

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CITIZENSHIP, MIGRATION AND HIERARCHIES OF PLACE AND STATUS

This panel creates an intriguing juxtaposition between transnational and internal migration through contrasting papers on transnational migration from Iran to the UK (Mastoureh Fathi) and from the Philippines to various locations (Anju

Mary Paul) and on internal migration in China (Fang Xu, Sophia Woodman). Drawing on the concept of ‘regimes of mobility’ proposed by Nina Glick-Schiller and Noel Salazar, the panel highlights the power dynamics of both mobility and stasis, while incorporating perspectives on how these dynamics reflect sets of practices shaped by, on the one hand, state institutions and regulatory frameworks, and on the other hand, migrant trajectories and imaginaries. In examining such practices, the papers explore hierarchies of place, transnationally and within countries, and hierarchies of status that operate in explicit and implicit ways in state frameworks, citizenship regimes, place-based identities and migrant aspirations. Papers also interrogate ways in which ethnicity and citizenship are mobilized in contestations over place and status. The panel and aspects of the papers also challenge the methodological nationalism of much migration research, by calling into question the conceptual divide between transnational and internal migration. Through addressing these points, the panel will generate empirical insights and theoretical perspectives on broader debates around mobility and translocality within and across state borders. The discussant,

Kristoffer Halvorsrud, will focus on drawing out the theoretical and comparative implications of the four papers, providing a starting point for a lively discussion on the themes of the panel.

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Climbing the Mobility Ladder: Hierarchies of Place and Practices of Mobile Citizenship in China Today

Woodman, S.

(University of Edinburgh)

More than 200 million people in China today have moved away from their place of household registration (hukou) in search of a ‘better life’. The current system fixes citizens’ entitlements in the place of their hukou registration, creating a regime of ‘local citizenship’ from which non-locals are excluded. Vast differences among localities in the provision of public services and benefits are justif ied through a ranking of places on a spectrum from ‘backward’ to ‘advanced’.

Previous research has concentrated on the exclusion of rural-to-urban migrants and restrictions on migration. This paper proposes a more comprehensive picture of interactions between migrant mobility and state frameworks. It includes data on less-studied inter-urban and inter-rural migrants and looks at ways the state facilitates and promotes mobility, as well as constraining it. This occurs in particular through frameworks analogous to points-based immigration regimes in the rich world that draw ‘talents’ to China’s major cities by facilitating their hukou transfer. It will show how the hierarchy of places in administrative frameworks and the popular imagination shape both migrant mobility strategies and institutions. The paper asks: What characteristics of migrants contribute to the differences in their migration strategies and experiences? What factors enable and constrain mobility and settlement in a new place?

How do strategies and experiences differ depending on the status of the migrants and the ranking of places? The paper draws on ethnographic observation and qualitative interviews with migrants and local officials.

Classed Places: An Analysis of Iranian Skilled Migrants’ Taste of Localities in Britain

Fathi, M.

(University of East London)

This paper draws on two studies with Iranian women doctors, dentists and academics in Britain. For both of these studies, 22 semi-structured interviews with first generation migrant women, narrative analysis and intersectionality framework were used to collect and analyse data. The paper analyses Iranian migrants’ processes of making a ‘home’ in Britain through their choices of places to live, work and leisure. Classed places here refer to chosen spaces and settings that are characterised as ‘English’ and the choice is made intentionally in order to attach meanings to spaces that indicate a ‘superior’ taste in relation to those migrants whose taste is identified with the working class white populations and the majority of Iranian migrants in Britain. Two different spatial levels through which classed identities are shaped are recognised. A) ‘National’ understanding of places: that is the middle class neighbourhoods where the participants feel they ‘fit in’ with the British middle class. These places are strictly not where the majority of the Iranian communities live. B) ‘Transnational’ experiences of living in a specific place and the ties to pre-migration life in Iran.

The construction of ‘classed places’ is discussed in relation to its intersectional aspect of such experiences, particularly concerning other residents in that locality, in relation to discourses around assimilation and integration and who is understood as ‘deserving’ to be a ‘British citizen’.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 4

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RACE AND ETHNICITY SUB-STREAM: EVERYDAY AND STRUCTURAL RACISM ROUNDTABLE

Racism, Community, Context and Rurality: Influences of Informal Social Controls on Racist Behaviour in a

Small Rural Town

Kerrigan, N.

(Coventry University)

This paper aims to explore the rural context of racism, an aspect largely disregarded by academics who have sought predominantly to develop an understanding of racism in urban areas. Those who have focused on racism and 'rurality'

(e.g. Chakraborti and Garland 2004) may have conceptualised racism as multifaceted and unfixed, but have still nevertheless taken too narrow an approach

– that of 'racial dualism' – expressed in terms of discriminatory forms of antagonism towards minority ethnic groups for being 'different'. By using structuration theory as a theoretical framework the paper focuses on rural racism as a process of exclusion expressed through the socio-spatial organisation of 'rurality'; for example, the relationship between rural identity as structure ('Englishness' embedded in the rural identity) and agency (how identity is produced at the local level and also has influence on the local level). I argue in this context that racism is part of a wider set of informal social controls that operate through the everyday processes of residents that consciously or unconsciously protect the 'traditional' social identity based on an idealised

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perception of what rural life represents in order to protect against creeping urbanisation and wider threats of social change that bring increased geographical mobility and the social and spatial implications inherent in them.

Structural Racism and Sectarianism in Northern Ireland

Gilligan, C.

(University of the West of Scotland)

The academic and policy literature and practice regarding racism and sectarianism in Northern Ireland focuses on

'street level' racism and sectarianism. Psychological and cultural factors are most commonly cited in explanations for racism and sectarianism in Northern Ireland (e.g. a culture of intolerance which has build up over years to produce a criminally hating society). This paper critiques these psychological and cultural explanations and outlines structural factors (such as the consociational nature of Government; continuing segregation, and; immigration controls) which help to explain racism and sectarianism in contemporary Northern Ireland.

Eritrean Community Organising in Milan: Strengths and Weaknesses of an Oral History Methodology in

Researching Migrants’ Communities

Martignoni, M.

(University of Leicester)

Oral history has been deployed to investigate communities and their histories. As a methodology that seeks to research the aspects of subjectivity and of the histories in contraposition or complementarily to History, the use of oral sources suits perfectly the research of those social experiences that don't have an archive where it is possible to trace their histories. This is the case of local communities and in particular of migrants' communities. If we think to the precarious and the always on the move status of many migrants' groups today in Europe, it is evident that an archive of migrants' histories is still to be created. Many experiments are trying to gather in different forms migrant's testimonies, but they focus much on contingent situations.

My research, focusing on the history (from late 1960s to nowadays) of the Eritreans living in Milan, wants to trace the forms of organising of those migrants, looking particularly at forms of self-organising in everyday life, but also to their own institutions. To do so I deployed oral history as my main research methodology. If this methodology seemed to me the more appropriated to research the history of a migrant community, I have experienced challenges that I would like to discuss in my presentation. In particular the following two questions arise: how can we give an account of forms of organization through oral narratives? Is oral history compatible with social sciences practices of understanding and writing research?

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'Sometimes Intimidating, Sometimes Offensive': Integration, Asociality and the Moral 'Othering' of Roma

Communities in Britain

Clark , C.

(University of the West of Scotland)

In November 2013, diverse Eastern European Roma communities living in Britain faced an unwelcome spotlight.

Issues of 'problematic' integration and alleged 'asociality' followed on from cases in Greece and Ireland where Roma families were accused of child abduction. Although false, the 'threat' lingered and later David Blunkett and Nick Clegg, via radio broadcasts, entered a heavily charged debate that implied Slovak and Romanian Roma communities in

Britain were acting and behaving in ways that challenged static, normative assumptions regarding the 'proper behaviour and culture' of people in Britain. The accusations were direct and forceful; improper rubbish disposal,

'loitering' on street corners, criminal activity, issues of sanitation etc. Following these interventions, print and broadcast media ran investigative features on Roma communities in Sheffield and Glasgow that labelled the Roma as being the anti-social 'neighbours from hell' no one wanted to live beside. Sociologically, these views are contradicted by the voices/experiences of Roma themselves. Based on fieldwork in Glasgow, this paper argues that what is constructed as anti-social for non-Roma is actually seen as being hospitable/inclusionary by Roma themselves (e.g. 'loitering' is socialising with friends and 'improper' rubbish disposal is recycling/income generation). Drawing on material from the media and fieldwork data, the paper argues that Beckeresque 'moral entrepreneurship' is at play when it comes to

Roma communities in Britain. Further, issues of class, gender as well as ethnicity are crucial to consider, vis-à-vis

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historical precedents with how other migrant communities have been received (and how future migrant communities might be 'welcomed').

Everyday Racism: The Racialisation o f Perceived ‘Others’ in Social Space

Naughton, A.

(National University of Ireland, Galway)

The Republic of Ireland is notable among European countries by the current, and historical absence of far-right political parties. It could be argued that this absence of far-right political parties in Irish politics points to a less racist and more tolerant society, however Garner (2004) argues that the absence of far-right political parties, among other issues, demonstrates how racism in Ireland has been influenced by specific socio-historical contexts. This paper argues that a focus on racialisation in everyday social interaction is useful in analysing racism in the Republic of

Ireland. Using a continuum of racisms (Garner, 2010 and Jiwani and Richardson, 2011), different types of racism(s) can be positioned, ranging from racist verbal abuse and racist violence to banal, everyday racism. This use of a continuum positions the everyday as important in the overall analysis of racism.

This paper presents a theoretical framework of the everyday which has been utilised to investigate everyday racism in the West of Ireland. Essed's concept of everyday racism (1991) is developed using Bourdieu's concepts of social space, field and habitus to describe experiences of everyday racism in the lives of people perceived as racialised

'others' in Irish society. The data presented is part of a qualitative PhD research project to investigate everyday racism in the West of Ireland. The experiences of research participants demonstrate how exclusion is a part of everyday life in social space for those perceived as 'other'.

Sociability and Isolation among European Migrants

Bartram, D.

(University of Leicester)

Consensus in extant research on migrants' experiences is that migrants experience a higher degree of social isolation after migration, at least temporarily. Difficulties of language and cultural difference impede the formation of social ties; at a minimum, making new friends in a new location takes time. This picture, however, emerges primarily from qualitative research projects investigating a limited range of specific migration streams. This paper develops a broader analysis of sociability among migrants moving within Europe, using data from the European Social Survey enabling comparison of migrants to stayers in the countries the migrants left. While migrants in some streams do experience lower levels of sociability and higher rates of isolation (compared to rates among stayers in the corresponding origin countries), migrants in other streams experience significantly higher sociability and lower rates of isolation. Migration leads to greater isolation for some migrants, but for others their degree of social connectedness is evidently higher; the consequences of migration for sociability are by no means as uniform as previous research might be read to suggest.

Rights, Violence and Crime 1

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Cybergang: The Role of Social Media in Urban Street Gangs

Harding, S.

(Middlesex University)

Cybergang: young people, social media and the street gang

This session will consider the role and impact of social media on young people within the social field of the violent urban street gang. In recent years aspects of new social media have quickly utilised by young people affiliated to violent street gangs. Aspects of social media are now used to groom, recruit, stalk, harass, pressurise and provoke other young people both intergang and intra-gang. Social media is used for brand building and brand marketing, reputational marketing and building group narrative and mythology. This process can increase levels of violence and expand the reach of the gang social field. This then effectively operates as a new gang space. It has its own vocabulary and grammar, its own rules and ways of working.

This new gang space also poses considerable challenges for police and practitioners seeking to work with gangs or to investigate them.

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‘Peaks And Troughs’ of Societal Violence: Revisiting the Actions of the Turkish and Kurdish

Shopkeepers during the 2011 London Riots

Dona, G., Taylor, H.

(University of East London)

This article problematises the focus on the centres of violent episodes, b