Part L - Conservation of Fuel and Energy

Part L - Conservation of Fuel and Energy
L
Conservation of Fuel
and Energy - Buildings
other than Dwellings
Building
Regulations
2008
Te c h n i c a l
Guidance
Document
Building Regulations 2008
Te c h n i c a l G u i d a n c e D o c u m e n t L
Conservation of Fuel and Energy - B u i l d i n g s
other than Dwellings
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Contents
Page
Introduction
5
Transitional Arrangements
The Guidance
Existing Buildings
Technical Specifications
Materials and Workmanship
Interpretation
5
5
5
5
6
6
Building Regulations - The Requirement
7
Section 0: General Guidance
0.1
Application of the Regulations
9
0.2
Technical Risks and Precautions
0.2.1
General
0.2.2
Fire Safety
0.2.3
Ventilation
11
11
11
11
0.3
Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Transmittance
11
0.4
Dimensions
12
0.5
Definitions
12
0.6
Application to Buildings of Architectural or Historical Interest
13
Section 1: Buildings other than Dwellings
Limitation of Primary Energy Use and C02 emissions for New Buildings other
than Dwellings
15
1.2
Heat Loss and Gain through the Building Fabric
1.2.1
Heat Loss - General
1.2.2
Overall Heat Loss Method
1.2.3
Elemental Heat Loss Method
1.2.4
Thermal Bridging
1.2.5
Air Infiltration
1.2.6
Avoiding Solar Overheating
16
16
16
17
18
21
21
1.3
Building Services
1.3.1
Heating Plant Efficiency
1.3.2
Controls for Space Heating and Hot Water Supply
Systems
1.3.3
Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation (ACMV)
1.3.4
Insulation of Storage Vessels, Pipes and Ducts
1.3.5
Artificial Lighting
23
23
1.1
23
23
24
24
1
Appendices
A
B
C
D
E
Calculation of U-values
Fabric Insulation: Additional Guidance (including Tables of U-Values)
for Common Constructions
Reference Values for Calculation of Maximum Permitted Energy
Performance Coefficient (MPEPC) and Maximum Permitted Carbon
Performance Coefficient (MPCPC)
Thermal Bridging
Avoidance of Solar Overheating
STAnDARDS AnD OThER REFEREnCES
42
27
35
57
60
62
65
Building Regulations 2008
Technical Guidance Document L
Conservation of Fuel and Energy Buildings other than Dwellings
Introduction
This document has been published by the Minister for the
Environment, Heritage and Local Government under
article 7 of the Building Regulations 1997.
It provides guidance in relation to Part L of the Second
Schedule to the Regulations as inserted by Building
Regulations (Part L Amendment) Regulations 2008 (S.I.
No. 259 of 2008). The guidance in this document applies
to buildings other than dwellings.
These Regulations (and this document) partly transpose
the EU Energy Performance of Buildings
Directive - EPBD (2002/91/EC of 16 December
2002).
The document should be read in conjunction with the
Building Regulations 1997-2005 and other documents
published under these Regulations.
In general, Building Regulations apply to the construction
of new buildings and to extensions and material
alterations to existing buildings. In addition, certain parts
of the Regulations apply to existing buildings where a
material change of use takes place. (Otherwise, Building
Regulations do not apply to buildings constructed prior to
1 June 1992).
Transitional Arrangements
In general, this document applies to works, or buildings in
which a material alteration or change of use takes place,
where the work, material alteration or the change of use
commences or takes place, as the case may be, on or
after 10 July 2008.
Technical Guidance Document L - Conservation of Fuel
and Energy (May 2006 edition) ceases to have effect from
9 July 2008.
However, this document may continue to be used in the
case of buildings:
-
where the work, material alteration or the change of
use commences or takes place, as the case may be, on
or before 30 June 2008, or
-
where planning approval or permission has been
applied for on or before 30 June 2008, and substantial
work has been completed by 30 June 2010.
“Substantial work has been completed” means that the
structure of the external walls has been erected.
The Guidance
The materials, methods of construction, standards and
other specifications (including technical specifications)
which are referred to in this document are those which
are likely to be suitable for the purposes of the Building
Regulations (as amended). Where works are carried out
in accordance with the guidance in this document, this
will, prima facie, indicate compliance with Part L of the
Second Schedule to the Building Regulations.
However, the adoption of an approach other than that
outlined in the guidance is not precluded provided that
the relevant requirements of the Regulations are complied
with. Those involved in the design and construction of a
building may be required by the relevant building control
authority to provide such evidence as is necessary to
establish that the requirements of the Regulations are
being complied with.
Existing Buildings
In the case of material alterations or change of use of
existing buildings, the adoption without modification of
the guidance in this document may not, in all
circumstances, be appropriate. In particular, the
adherence to guidance, including codes, standards or
technical specifications intended for application to new
work may be unduly restrictive or impracticable.
Buildings of architectural or historical interest are
especially likely to give rise to such circumstances. In
these situations, alternative approaches based on the
principles contained in the document may be more
relevant and should be considered.
Technical Specifications
Building Regulations are made for specific purposes, e.g.
to provide, in relation to buildings, for the health, safety
and welfare of persons, the conservation of energy, and
access for people with disabilities.
Technical specifications (including harmonised European
Standards, European Technical Approvals, National
Standards and Agrement Certificates) are relevant to the
extent that they relate to these considerations.
Any reference to a technical specification is a reference to
so much of the specification as is relevant in the context
in which it arises. Technical specification may also address
other aspects not covered by the Regulations.
A reference to a technical specification is to the latest
edition (including any amendments, supplements or
addenda) current at the date of publication of this
Technical Guidance Document. However, if this version
of the technical specification is subsequently revised or
updated by the issuing body, the new version may be used
as a source of guidance provided that it continues to
address the relevant requirements of the Regulations.
5
Materials and Workmanship
Under Part D of the Second Schedule to the Building
Regulations, building work to which the Regulations apply
must be carried out with proper materials and in a
workmanlike manner. Guidance in relation to compliance
with Part D is contained in Technical Guidance
Document D.
Interpretation
In this document, a reference to a section, paragraph,
appendix or diagram is, unless otherwise stated, a
reference to a section, paragraph, appendix or diagram, as
the case may be, of this document. A reference to
another Technical Guidance Document is a reference to
the latest edition of a document published by the
Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local
Government under article 7 of the Building Regulations
1997.
Diagrams are used in this document to illustrate particular
aspects of construction - they may not show all the details
of construction.
6
Conservation of Fuel and Energy
Building Regulations - The Requirement
The requirements regarding conservation of fuel and energy are laid out in Part L of the Second Schedule to the
Building Regulations 1997 (S.I. No. 497 of 1997) as amended by the Building Regulations (Part L Amendment)
Regulations 2008 (S.I. No. 259 of 2008).
The Second Schedule is amended to read, in relation to buildings other than dwellings, as follows:
Conservation of Fuel
and Energy
L1
A building shall be designed and constructed so as to ensure that the energy
performance of the building is such as to limit the amount of energy required
for the operation of the building and the amount of CO2 emissions associated
with this energy use insofar as is reasonably practicable.
Buildings other
than dwellings
L4
For buildings other than dwellings, the requirements of L1 shall be met by:
(a) providing that the energy performance of the new building is such as to
limit the calculated primary energy consumption and related CO 2
emissions insofar as is reasonably practicable, when both energy
consumption and CO2 emissions are calculated using the Non-domestic
Energy Assessment Procedure (NEAP) published by Sustainable Energy
Ireland;
(b) limiting the heat loss and, where appropriate, maximising the heat gains
through the fabric of the building;
(c) providing energy efficient space and water heating services including
adequate control of these services;
(d) ensuring that the building is appropriately designed to limit need for
cooling and, where air-conditioning or mechanical ventilation is installed,
that installed systems are energy efficient, appropriately sized and
adequately controlled;
(e) limiting the heat loss from pipes, ducts and vessels used for the transport
or storage of heated water or air;
(f) limiting the heat gains by chilled water and refrigerant vessels, and by
pipes and ducts that serve air conditioning systems;
(g) providing energy efficient artificial lighting systems (other than emergency
lighting, display lighting or specialist process lighting) and adequate control
of these systems.
7
Section 0:
General Guidance
8
0.1 APPLICATIOn
OF ThE
REGULATIOnS
0.1.1 The aim of Part L of the First Schedule to
the Building Regulations is to limit the use of fossil
fuel energy and related CO2 emissions arising from
the operation of buildings, while ensuring that
occupants can achieve adequate levels of lighting and
thermal comfort. Buildings should be designed and
constructed to achieve this aim as far as is
practicable.
0.1.2 For new buildings other than dwellings, the
key issues to be addressed in order to ensure
compliance are:
a.
to provide that the calculated primary energy
consumption associated with the operation of
the building and the related CO2 emissions as
described in Section 1.1 do not exceed a
target value specified in this document;
b.
to limit the heat loss and, where appropriate,
maximise the heat gains through the fabric of
the building;
c.
to provide energy efficient space and water
heating services including adequate control of
these services;
d.
to ensure that the building is appropriately
designed to limit the need for cooling and,
where air-conditioning or mechanical
ventilation is installed, that installed systems
are energy efficient, appropriately sized and
adequately controlled;
e.
to limit the heat loss from pipes, ducts and
vessels used for the transport or storage of
heated water or air;
f.
to limit the heat gains by chilled water and
refrigerant vessels, and by pipes and ducts that
serve air conditioning systems;
g.
to provide energy efficient artificial lighting
systems (other than emergency lighting, display
lighting or specialist process lighting) and
adequate control of these systems.
The principal aims of Part L of the Building
Regulations are to limit primary energy consumption
and associated CO 2 emissions. Meeting the
performance levels specified for items b to g will not
necessarily mean that the level specified for primary
energy consumption and related CO 2 emissions
(item a) will be met. It is likely that one or more of
the performance levels specified, for items b to g, will
need to be exceeded to achieve this.
0.1.3 Where a dwelling has an attached room or
space that is to be used for commercial purposes
(e.g. workshop, surgery, consulting room or office),
such room or space should be treated as part of the
dwelling if the commercial part could revert to
domestic use on a change of ownership, e.g. where
there is direct access between the commercial space
and the living accommodation, both are contained
within the same thermal envelope and the living
accommodation occupies a substantial proportion of
the total area of the building.
0.1.4 The guidance given in this Technical
Guidance Document is generally applicable. However,
where the works are limited in nature and not likely
to greatly affect overall energy consumption over the
building’s life, compliance may be achieved without
implementation of this guidance or equivalent
measures in detail. In particular,
-
For small extensions, not exceeding 6.5m2 in
floor area, reasonable provision can be
considered to have been made if the new
construction is similar to the existing
construction.
-
Unheated ancillary areas such as porches,
garages and the like do not require specific
provisions in order to satisfy this Part of the
Building Regulations.
-
Where the area treated by an Air
Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation
(ACMV) system is less than 200 m 2 , the
guidance in relation to ACMV systems need
not be applied.
-
Where the total design lighting load does not
exceed 1000 W, the guidance in relation to the
efficiency and control of artificial lighting need
not be applied.
9
0.1.5 The guidance given in this Technical
Guidance Document applies to buildings designed to
be heated to temperatures appropriate for human
occupancy. Less demanding standards could
represent reasonable provision in those buildings or
parts of buildings with a low level of heating or
where heating provision is not intended. Low level of
heating is considered to be where there is an
installed heating capacity of less than 10W/m2.
Where the occupancy level or level of heating
required when in use cannot be established at
construction stage, the building should be treated as
fully heated and the provisions of Part L applied
accordingly. It should be noted that the provisions of
Part L apply where a material change of use occurs
and such a change of use may require specific
construction measures to comply with Part L. These
measures may prove more costly than if carried out
at the time of initial construction.
0.1.6 An attached conservatory-style sunspace or
the like should generally be treated as an integral
part of the building to which it is attached. However,
where
-
thermally separated from the adjacent spaces
within the building by walls, doors and other
opaque elements which have U-values not
more than 10% greater than corresponding
exposed elements, and
-
unheated or, if providing with a heating facility,
having provision for automatic temperature
and on-off control independent of the heating
provision in the main building,
it may be excluded from the assessment of the
building for the purposes of asessing compliance with
the provisions of Part L. In this case, the building may
be assessed separately for compliance. The attached
sunspace should be treated as an unheated space for
the purposes of this assessment and should also be
assessed separately as if it were an extension to an
existing building (see Paragraph 1.2.3.3 below).
0.1.7 In large complex buildings it may be sensible
to consider the provisions for conservation of fuel
and energy separately for different parts of the
10
building in order to establish the measures
appropriate to each part.
0.1.8 The Regulations apply to all works to existing
buildings that are covered by the requirements of the
Building Regulations, including extensions, material
alterations, material changes of use and window and
door replacement. In carrying out this work, the aim
should be to limit energy requirements for the
operation of the building and associated CO 2
emissions as far as practicable as required by
Regulation L1.
The key issues to be addressed are:
(a)
limiting the heat loss and, where appropriate,
maximising the heat gains through the fabric of
the building;
(b)
providing energy efficient space and water
heating services including adequate control of
these services;
(c)
ensuring that the building is appropriately
designed to limit need for cooling and, where
air-conditioning or mechanical ventilation is
installed, that installed systems are energy
efficient, appropriately sized and adequately
controlled;
(d)
limiting the heat loss from pipes, ducts and
vessels used for the transport or storage of
heated water or air;
(e)
limiting the heat gains by chilled water and
refrigerant vessels, and by pipes and ducts that
serve air conditioning systems;
(f)
providing energy efficient artificial lighting
systems (other than emergency lighting, display
lighting or specialist process lighting) and
adequate control of these systems.
0.2 TEChnICAL RISkS AnD
PRECAUTIOnS
General
0.2.1 The incorporation of additional thickness of
thermal insulation and other energy conservation
measures can result in changes in traditional
construction practice. Care should be taken in design
and construction to ensure that these changes do
not increase the risk of certain types of problems,
such as rain penetration and condensation.
Some guidance on avoiding such increased risk is
given in Appendix B of this document. General
guidance on avoiding risks that may arise is also
contained in the publication “Thermal insulation:
avoiding risks; Building Research Establishment (Ref BR
262)”.
Guidance in relation to particular issues and
methods of construction will be found in relevant
standards.
Fire Safety
0.2.2 Part B of the Second Schedule to the Building
Regulations prescribes fire safety requirements. In
designing and constructing buildings to comply with
Part L, these requirements must be met and the
guidance in relation to fire safety in TGD B should be
fully taken into account. In particular, it is important
to ensure that windows, which provide secondary
means of escape in accordance with Section 1.5 of
TGD B, comply with the dimensional and other
guidance for such windows set out in paragraph 1.5.6
of TGD B.
Ventilation
0.2.3 Part F of the Second Schedule to the Building
Regulations prescribes ventilation requirements both
to meet the needs of the occupants of the building
and to prevent excessive condensation in roofs and
roofspaces. A key aim of the provisions in relation to
the ventilation of occupied spaces is to minimize the
risk of condensation, mould growth or other indoor
air quality problems. Technical Guidance Document F
provides guidance in relation to ventilation of
buildings.
Part J of the Second Schedule to the Building
Regulations prescribes requirements in relation to
the supply of air for combustion appliances, including
open-flued appliances which draw air from the room
or space in which they are situated. Technical
Guidance Document J provides guidance in this
regard.
0.3 ThERMAL COnDUCTIVITy AnD
ThERMAL TRAnSMITTAnCE
0.3.1 Thermal conductivity (λ-value) relates to a
material or substance, and is a measure of the rate at
which heat passes through a uniform slab of unit
thickness of that material or substance, when unit
temperature difference is maintained between its
faces. It is expressed in units of Watts per metre per
degree (W/mK).
0.3.2 For the purpose of showing compliance with
this Part of the Building Regulations, design λ-values
based on manufacturers declared values should be
used. For thermally homogeneous materials declared
and design values should be determined in
accordance with I.S. EN ISO 10456: 1997. Design
values for masonry materials should be determined
in accordance with I.S. EN 1745: 2002. For insulation
materials, values determined in accordance with the
appropriate harmonized European standard should
be used. Certified λ-values for foamed insulant
materials should take account of the blowing agent
actually used. The use of HCFC for this purpose is
no longer permitted.
For products or components for which no
appropriate standard exists, measured values,
certified by an approved body or certified laboratory
(see TGD D), should be used.
0.3.3 Table A1 and A2 of Appendix A contains λvalues for some common building materials and
insulation materials. These are primarily based on
data contained in I.S. EN 12524: 2000 or in CIBSE
Guide A, Section A3. The values provide a general
indication of the thermal conductivity that may be
expected for these materials. In the absence of
declared values, design values or certified measured
values as outlined in paragraph 0.3.2, values of
thermal conductivity given in Table A1 may be used.
However, values for specific products may differ from
these illustrative values. Indicative λ-values for
11
thermal insulation materials are given Table A2.
These may be used at early design stage for the
purpose of assessing likely compliance with this Part
of the Regulations. However, compliance should be
verified using thermal conductivity values for these
materials derived as outlined in Paragraph 0.3.2
above.
0.3.4 Thermal transmittance (U-value) relates to a
building component or structure, and is a measure of
the rate at which heat passes through that
component or structure when unit temperature
difference is maintained between the ambient air
temperatures on each side. It is expressed in units of
Watts per square metre per degree of air
temperature difference (W/m2K).
0.3.5 Thermal transmittance values (U-values)
relevant to this Part of the Regulations are those
relating to elements exposed directly or indirectly to
the outside air. This includes floors directly in contact
with the ground, suspended ground floors
incorporating ventilated or unventilated voids, and
elements exposed indirectly via unheated spaces. The
U-value takes account of the effect of the ground,
voids and unheated spaces on the rate of heat loss,
where appropriate. Heat loss through elements that
separate premises that can reasonably be assumed to
be heated, is considered to be negligible. Such
elements do not need to meet any particular U-value
nor should they be taken into account in calculation
of CO2 emissions or overall transmission heat loss.
0.3.8 Appendix B contains tables of indicative Uvalues for certain common constructions. These are
derived using the calculation methods referred to in
Appendix A, and may be used in place of calculated
or measured values, where appropriate. These tables
provide a simple way to establish the U-value for a
given amount of insulation. Alternatively they may be
used to establish the amount of insulation needed to
achieve a given U-value. The values in the tables have
been derived taking account of typical repeated
thermal bridging where appropriate. Where an
element incorporates a non-repeating thermal
bridge, e.g. where the continuity of insulation is
broken or penetrated by material of reduced
insulating quality, the U-value derived from the table
should be adjusted to account for this thermal
bridge. Table B24 in Appendix B contains indicative
U-values for external doors, windows and rooflights
(roof windows).
0.4 DIMEnSIOnS
0.4.1 Except where otherwise indicated linear
measurements for the calculation of wall, roof and
floor areas and building volumes should be taken
between the finished internal faces of the
appropriate external building elements and, in the
case of roofs, in the plane of the insulation. Linear
measurements for the calculation of the areas of
external door, window and rooflight openings should
be taken between internal faces of appropriate cills,
lintels and reveals.
0.3.6 A range of methods exists for calculating Uvalues of building elements. Methods of calculation
are outlined in Appendix A, together with examples
of their use. Alternatively U-values may be based on
certified measured values. Measurements of thermal
transmission properties of building components
generally should be made in accordance with I.S. EN
ISO 8990: 1997, or, in the case of windows and
doors, I.S. EN ISO 12567-1: 2001.
0.4.2 “Volume" means the total volume enclosed
by all enclosing elements and includes the volume of
non-usable spaces such as ducts, stairwells and floor
voids in intermediate floors.
0.3.7 Any part of a roof that has a pitch of 700 or
more may be treated as a wall for the purpose of
assessing the appropriate level of thermal
transmission. Elements separating the building from
spaces that can reasonably be assumed to be heated
should not be included .
Energy Use (for a particular purpose e.g. space
heating, water heating, repeat cooling, ventilation,
lighting): Energy input to the relevant system to
satisfy the relevant purpose.
12
0.5 DEFInITIOnS
0.5.1 For the purposes of this Technical Guidance
Document the following definitions apply:
Delivered Energy: Energy supplied to the building and
its systems to satisfy the relevant energy uses e.g.
space heating, water heating, cooling, ventilation,
lighting. Delivered energy does not include renewable
energy produced on site.
Delivered energy differs from energy use by the
extent of on-site conversion and transformation
losses e.g. boiler efficiency losses.
Primary Energy: Energy that has not been subjected to
any conversion or transformation process. For a
building, it is the delivered energy plus the energy
used to produce the energy delivered to the building.
It is calculated from the delivered energy, with an
allowance for any energy exported from the site,
using conversion factors.
Renewable Energy: Energy from renewable non-fossil
energy sources e.g. solar energy (thermal and
photovoltaic), wind, hydropower, biomass,
geothermal, wave, tidal, landfill gas, sewage treatment
plant gas and biogases.
Biomass: Biodegradable fraction of products, waste
and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and
animal substances), forestry and related industries, as
well as biodegradable fraction of industrial and
municipal waste, used as a fuel or energy source.
Fuels derived from biomass may be in solid, liquid or
gas form. In this document, where the term
“biomass” is used on it’s own, it should be taken to
mean solid biomass (wood, wood chip, wood pellet,
etc).
Nevertheless, the application of this Part may pose
particular difficulties for buildings which, although not
protected structures or proposed protected
structures may be of architectural or historical
interest.
Works such as the replacement of doors, windows
and rooflights, the provision of insulated dry lining
and damp-proofing to walls and basements, insulation
to the underside of slating and provision of roof
vents and ducting of pipework could all affect the
character of the structure.
In general, the type of works described above should
be carefully assessed for their material and visual
impact on the structure.
Historic windows and doors should be repaired
rather than replaced, and drylining and dampproofing should not disrupt or damage historic
plasterwork or flagstones and should not introduce
further moisture into the structure.
Roof insulation should be achieved without damage
to slating (either during the works or from erosion
due to condensation) and obtrusive vents should not
affect the character of the roof.
In specific cases, relaxation of the values proposed
may be acceptable, to the local building control
authority, if it can be shown to be necessary in order
to preser ve the architectural integrity of the
particular building.
Biofuel: Liquid or gas fuel derived from biomass.
Note: Biomass (including biofuel) is generally included
in Delivered Energy and thus, together with the
energy used to produce and deliver it, included in
Primary Energy.
For more guidance on appropriate measures see
“Planning Guidelines No. 9: Architectural Heritage
Protection - Guidelines for Planning Authorities”
published by the Department of the Environment,
Heritage and Local Government.
0.6 APPLICATIOn TO BUILDInGS OF
ARChITECTURAL OR hISTORICAL
InTEREST
0.6.1 Part L does not apply to works (including
extensions) to an existing building which is a
“protected structure” or a ‘proposed protected
structure” within the meaning of the Planning and
Development Act 2000 (No 30 of 2000).
13
Section 1: Buildings other than
Dwellings
14
1.1: Limitation of Primary Energy Use and CO2
emissions for New Buildings other than Dwellings
1.1.1 This Section provides guidance on how to
show compliance with the requirements in relation
to primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions
specified in Regulation L4(a). The framework for
calculation to be used is specified in the Regulation
as the Non domestic Energy Assessment Procedure
(NEAP). This framework enables the use of either a
simplified building energy method or an approved
alternative method. This framework is published by
Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) and calculates the
energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated
with a standardised use of a building. The energy
consumption is expressed in terms of kilowatt hours
per square metre floor area per year (kWh/m2/yr)
and the CO 2 emissions expressed in terms of
kilograms of CO2 per square metre floor area per
year (kg CO2/m2/yr). Full details of the framework
are available on the SEI website at http://www.sei.ie.
1.1.2 The performance criteria are based on the
relative values of the calculated primary energy
consumption and CO2 emissions of a building being
assessed, and similar calculated values for a
Reference Building. Details of the Reference Building
are given in Appendix C. The criteria are determined
as follows:
-
Primar y energy consumption and CO 2
emissions for both the proposed building and
the reference building are calculated using
NEAP.
-
The calculated primary energy consumption of
the proposed building is divided by that of the
reference building, the result being the energy
performance coefficient (EPC) of the proposed
building. To demonstrate that an acceptable
Primary Energy consumption rate has been
achieved, the calculated EPC of the building
being assessed should be no greater than the
Maximum Permitted Energy Performance
Coefficient (MPEPC). The MPEPC is 1.0.
-
The calculated CO 2 emission rate of the
proposed building is divided by that of the
reference building, the result being the carbon
performance coefficient (CPC) of the
proposed building. To demonstrate that an
acceptable CO 2 emission rate has been
achieved, the calculated CPC of the building
being assessed should be no greater than the
Maximum Permitted Carbon Performance
Coefficient (MPCPC). The MPCPC is 1.0.
Each method within the NEAP framework will
calculate the EPC and CPC of the building being
assessed and clearly indicate whether compliance
with the requirements of Regulation L4(a) has been
achieved.
1.1.3 The requirements that the calculated EPC
and CPC do not exceed the MPEPC and MPCPC
respectively, applies to the constructed building.
Designers may wish to calculate the EPC and CPC at
early design stage in order to ensure that the
requirements can be achieved by the constructed
building. However, the use of constructions and
service systems which have been assessed at design
stage, or other model designs, does not preclude the
need to verify compliance by calculating the EPC and
CPC when all relevant details of the final
construction are known.
1.1.4 Primary energy does not include energy
derived from on-site renewable energy technologies.
In addition, as renewable energy technologies
generally are characterised by zero, or greatly
reduced, CO2 emissions, the calculated EPC and CPC
are reduced by the extent that they replace
traditional fossil fuels.
15
1.2: Heat Loss and Gain through the
Building Fabric
1.2.1
hEAT LOSS - GEnERAL
1.2.1.1 The following two methods may be used to
demonstrate that an acceptable level of transmission
heat loss through the elements bounding the heated
building volume is achieved(a)
(b)
The Overall Heat Loss method (paragraph
1.2.2). This method is applicable to new
buildings and extensions to existing buildings;
or
The Elemental Heat Loss method (paragraph
1.2.3). While this method may be used for any
building, it is primarily appropriate for small
buildings, e.g. less than 300 m2 floor area, small
sections of large complex buildings, common
areas of apartment blocks, material alterations
and material changes of use.
1.2.1.4 This Part of the Building Regulations applies
to the replacement of external doors, windows, or
rooflights in an existing building. The average Uvalue of replacement units should not exceed the
value of 2.2 W/m 2K. The limitations on opening
areas set out in Table 3 do not apply. In this context,
the repair or renewal of parts of individual elements,
e.g. window glass, window casement sash, door leaf
should be considered as repair and not replacement.
1.2.2 OVERALL
METhOD
hEAT
LOSS
1.2.2.1 This method sets a maximum acceptable
level of transmission heat loss through the fabric of a
building, in terms of the maximum average U-value
(Um) of all fabric elements contributing to heat loss.
The level depends on the ratio of the total area of
these elements (At) to the building volume (V), and is
specified in Table 1. The acceptable level of heat loss
is expressed graphically in Diagram 1.
For both methods, the guidance regarding the
limitation of thermal bridging and uncontrolled air
infiltration through the building fabric (paragraphs
1.2.4 and 1.2.5) and the control of overheating
(paragraph 1.2.6) should be followed.
1.2.2.2 In addition to not exceeding the maximum
average value set, average elemental U-values should
not exceed the following:
1.2.1.2 The derivation of U-values, including those
applicable where heat loss is to an unheated space, is
dealt with in Paragraphs 0.3.5 to 0.3.6 and Appendix
A.
•
•
•
•
Unheated areas which are wholly or largely within
the building structure and are not subject to
excessive air-infiltration or ventilation, e.g. stairwells,
corridors in buildings containing flats, may be
considered as within the insulated fabric. In that
case, if the external fabric of these areas is insulated
to the same level as that achieved by equivalent
adjacent elements, no particular requirement for
insulation between the heated and unheated areas
would arise.
1.2.1.3 The treatment of an attached conservatorystyle sunspace is dealt with in Paragraph 0.1.6.
Where an attached sunspace is treated as an
extension to the main building for the purposes of
assessment for compliance with the provisions of
Part L (as provided for in Paragraph 0.1.6), the
guidance in Paragraph 1.2.3.3 should be followed.
roofs
walls
exposed floors
ground floors
Table 1
0.25 W/m2K
0.37 W/m2K
0.37 W/m2K
0.37 W/m2K
Maximum average U-value (Um)
as a function of building volume
(V) and fabric heat-loss area (At)
Area of Heat Loss Elements/
Building Volume
(At/V) (m-1 )
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
Maximum Average
U-Value (Um)
(W/m2K)
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.43
0.45
0.48
0.51
0.56
0.62
0.72
0.87
NOTE 1: The expression Um = 0.24 + 0.19 V/At can be used to establish Um
for intermediate values of At/V and for values below 0.3 m-1.
16
Diagram 1
Para 1.2.2.1
Maximum average U-value (Um) in relation to building volume (V) and total area of
heat loss elements (At)
1.5
1.0
Um
(W/m2K)
0.5
Um = 0.24 + 0.19 V/At
(Subject to lower limit on
requirement of Um = 0.39 W/m2K)
0.39
0
0.8
1
2
3
4
V/At (m)
1.2.3 ELEMEnTAL hEAT LOSS
METhOD
1.2.3.1 To demonstrate acceptable transmission
heat loss by this method, maximum average U-values
for individual building elements should not exceed
those set out in Table 2.
1.2.3.2 The combined area of window, door and
rooflight openings should not exceed the values
given in Table 3 when the average U-value is 2.2
W/m2K. However, this area may be varied provided
the total heat loss through these elements is not
increased.
The area of openings provided should take account
of the level of daylight provision appropriate to the
building. BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Lighting Guide
(LG10), Daylight and window design, give advice on
adequate daylight provision. Care should be taken in
the selection and installation of glazed systems to
avoid the risk of condensation. Guidance can be
obtained from BRE Report No 262, Thermal
insulation: avoiding risks.
Table 2
ELEMEnTAL
hEAT
LOSS
METhOD:
Maximum average elemental Uvalue (W/m2k)
Fabric Elements
New Buildings &
Material
Extensions to Existing Alterations to, or
Buildings
Material Changes
of Use of, Existing
Buildings
Pitched roof, insulation
horizontal at
ceiling level
0.16
0.35
Pitched roof, insulation
on slope
0.20
0.35
Flat roof
0.22
0.35
Walls
0.27
0.60
Ground Floors
0.25
-
Other Exposed Floors
0.25
0.60
2.201
2.20
1.5
-
External personnel
doors, windows and
rooflights
Vehicle access and
similar large doors
NOTE 1: Permitted average U-value of external personnel doors,
windows and rooflights in buildings other than dwellings may vary as
described in Paragraph 1.2.3.2.
17
Table 3
Building type
Windows and doors
as % of the area of
exposed wall
Rooflights as %
of area of roof
Residential buildings
(where people
temporarily or
permanently reside)
30
20
Places of assembly,
offices and shops
40
20
Industrial and
storage buildings
15
20
NOTES:
1 For the purposes of this calculation, dormer windows in a roof
may be included in the rooflight area.
2 Opening area excludes area of openings for vehicle access doors
and display windows and similar glazing.
1.2.3.3 In applying Table 3 to an extension to an
existing building, the relevant wall and roof areas may
be taken to be:
(a)
(b)
the combined areas for the existing building
and extension; in this case the combined area
of external door and window openings refers
to the area of such openings in the extended
building, i.e. the opening area of retained
external doors, windows together with the
opening area of external doors, windows in
the extension; or
the floor area of the extension alone; in this
case the combined area of external doors,
window and rooflight openings refers to the
area of such openings in the extension alone.
In this case the maximum combined area of
external door, window and rooflight openings
derived using Table 3 can be increased by an
area equivalent to the area of external door,
window and rooflight openings of the existing
building which have been closed or covered
over by the extension.
For extensions which
•
are thermally separated from the adjacent
spaces within the building by walls, doors and
18
other opaque or glazed elements which have
U-values not more than 10% greater than
corresponding exposed areas of the main
building, and
ELEMEnTAL
hEAT
LOSS
METhOD
Maximum area of openings for
average U-value of 2. (W/m2k)
•
are unheated or, if provided with a heating
facility, have provision for automatic
temperature and on-off control independent
of the heating provision in the existing
building,
the limitation on the combined area of exposed
external door, window and rooflight openings does
not apply. In this case the average U-value of these
elements should not exceed the value of 2.2 W/m2K.
1.2.3.4 There is a wide range of possible designs for
external doors, windows and rooflights. Certified Uvalues should be used, where available. In the absence
of certified data, U-values should be calculated in
accordance with I.S. EN ISO 10077-1: 2000 or I.S. EN
ISO 10077-2: 2000, as appropriate (See Appendix A).
Alternatively, the indicative U-values for these
components given in Table B24 can be used (see
Appendix B).
1.2.3.5 Diagram 2 summarises the fabric insulation
standards and allowances applicable in the Elemental
Heat Loss method.
1.2.4 ThERMAL BRIDGInG
1.2.4.1To avoid excessive heat losses and local
condensation problems, provision should be made to
limit local thermal bridging, e.g. around windows,
doors and other wall openings, at junctions between
elements and at other locations. Any thermal bridge
should not pose a risk of surface or interstitial
condensation and any excessive increase in heat loss
associated with the thermal bridge should be taken
account of in the calculation of average U-value.
The additional heat loss associated with
thermal bridges should be limited to less than 16% of
the total calculated heat loss through the plane
building elements.
Paragraphs 1.2.4.2. and 1.2.4.3 give guidance on
the limitation of thermal bridging for typical locations
in conventional construction. Alternatively Appendix
D gives information on the calculation procedure
Diagram 2
Elemental heat Loss Method Summary of average elemental U-values
Para 1.2.3.5
0.272
0.162
0.20
Unheated
attic
0.22
Average
U-value
2.21
0.27
0.25
0.252
Unheated space
0.272
0.25
NOTES
1. Windows, doors and rooflights should have maximum U-value of 2.2 W/m2K and maximum opening area as set out in
Table 6. However areas and U-values may be varied provided the total heat loss through these elements is not increased.
2. The U-value includes the effect of unheated voids or other spaces.
which can be used for the calculation of linear
thermal transmittance of key junctions.
See Appendix D for further information in relation
to thermal bridging and its effect on building heat
loss.
1.2.4.2 Use of cill, jamb lintel and junction details
set out in(a)
“Right on the Site Issue No. 28”, published by
HomeBond;
(b)
“Limiting Thermal Bridging and Air Infiltration:
Acceptable Construction Details” available on
www.environ.ie
(c)
other published details which have been
assessed as satisfying the guidance in relation
to Temperature Factor and Linear Thermal
Transmittance set out in Appendix D, should
represent reasonable provision to limit thermal
bridging.
(d)
designs similar to those shown in Diagram 3.
At lintels, jambs and cills 15 mm thickness of
insulation material having λ-values of 0.04
W/mK (or equivalent) will generally be
adequate.
1.2.4.3 Care should be taken to control the risk of
thermal bridging at the edges of floors. All slabonground floors should be provided with edge
insulation to the vertical edge of the slab at all
external and internal walls. The insulation should
have minimum thermal resistance of 0.7 m2K/W (25
mm of insulation with thermal conductivity of 0.035
W/mK, or equivalent).
Some large floors may have an acceptable average U
value without the need for added insulation.
However, perimeter insulation should always be
provided. Perimeter insulation should extend at least
0.5 m vertically or 1 m horizontally. Where the
perimeter insulation is placed horizontally, insulation
to the vertical edge of the slab should also be
provided as indicated above.
1.2.4.4 For new buildings the Heat Loss associated
with thermal bridges is taken into account in
calculating energy use and CO 2 emissions in the
NEAP framework.
Where the details used are as described in 1.2.4.2
(a), (c) or (d) and 1.2.4.3 the psi values given in Table
D1, Appendix D may be used for the NEAP
calculation. Where the details used are those in
1.2.4.2 (b) the psi values given in Table D2 in
Appendix D may be used.
19
Diagram 3
Lintel, jamb and sill designs
LINTELS
Para 1.2.4.2
JAMBS
CILLS
HEAT LOSS PATHS
without insulation
INTERNAL INSULATION
PARTIAL CAVITY FILL
FULL CAVITY FILL
NOTE
1.
20
The internal faces of metal lintels should be covered with at least 15 mm of lightweight plaster; alternatively
they can be dry-lined.
1.2.5 AIR InFILTRATIOn
BR 448 Tightness in Commercial and Public
Buildings.
1.2.5.1 Infiltration of cold outside air should be
limited by reducing unintentional air paths as far as is
practicable. A reasonably continuous air barrier
should be provided over the whole thermal
envelope, including elements separating the building
from adjoining heated or unheated areas.
1.2.5.5 Care should be taken to ensure that
measures to limit air infiltration do not negatively
affect compliance with the ventilation requirements
of Part F and Part J.
1.2.5.2 For conventional construction measures
taken to ensure this should include:
1.2.6 AVOIDInG SOLAR
OVERhEATInG
(a)
1.2.6.1 Buildings should be designed and
constructed so that:
sealing the void between dr y-lining and
masonry walls at the edges of openings such as
windows and doors, and at the junctions with
walls, floors and ceilings (e.g. by continuous
bands of bonding plaster or battens),
(b)
sealing vapour control membranes in timberframe constructions,
(c)
fitting draught-stripping in the frames of
openable elements of windows, doors and
rooflights,
(d)
sealing around access or service hatches which
provide access to unheated voids (loft spaces)
from the conditioned space,
(e)
ensuring ducting for concealed services is
sealed at floor and ceiling levels and sealing
piped ser vices where they penetrate or
project into hollow constructions or voids.
Diagram 4 illustrates some of these measures.
1.2.5.3 Additional guidance on appropriate
measures to limit air infiltration in larger office and
commercial buildings is given in BRE Report BR 448,
Air tightness in commercial and public buildings.
Guidance on methods to limit air infiltration through
twin skin metal cladding and roofing systems is
contained in Steel Construction Institute (SCI)
Technical Information Sheet No. 311, The design of
twin-skin metal cladding.
1.2.5.4 Air permeability can be measured by means
of pressure testing of a building prior to completion.
The procedure for testing is specified in IS EN
13829: 2000 “Thermal performance of buildings:
determination of air permeability of buildings: fan
pressurisation method”. Additional guidance on testing
procedure is given in CIBSE Technical Manual TM 23
“Testing Buildings for Air leakage” and BRE document
(a)
those occupied spaces that rely on natural
ventilation do not risk unacceptable levels of
thermal discomfort due to overheating caused
by solar gain, and
(b)
those spaces that incorporate mechanical
ventilation or cooling do not require excessive
plant capacity to maintain the desired space
conditions.
Where extensive use of glazing is proposed in the
building design, particular care should be exercised to
ensure compliance with this aspect of the
Regulations.
1.2.6.2
Alternative approaches to showing
compliance include:
(a)
showing that the average daily solar heat load
per unit floor area during the period of
occupancy would not be greater than
25 W/m 2, when the average solar load for
glazing of different orientations is taken to be
as specified in Table 4. The calculation
procedure given in Appendix E can be used to
do this. Local weather data averaged over a
Table 4
Orientation
N
NE/NW
E/W
SE/SW
S
Horizontal
Average solar load between 7.30
and 17.30 for different glazing
orientations
Average solar load (W/m2)
125
160
205
198
156
327
NOTE 1: This solar load is not likely to be exceeded on more than
2.5% of days in July. Source: CIBSE Guide A, Section 5.
21
Diagram 4
Air infiltration measures
Para 1.2.5.2
Seal at perimeter
Continuous seals
(bonding plaster,
battens or similar)
Draught seal
1.
POSITION OF CONTINUOUS SEALING BANDS FOR
DRY-LININGS FIXED TO MASONRY WALLS
2.
SEALING AT WINDOWS AND DOORS
Seals
Bolt or catch to compress
draught seal
3.
Draught seal
SEALING ACCESS HATCH
4.
period of 15 years, at least, can be used instead
of the data given in Table 4, where available.
(b)
22
Ceiling
Close fitting
hole in
plasterboard
showing by detailed calculation procedures
such as those described in chapter 5 of CIBSE
Guide A, that in the absence of mechanical
cooling or mechanical ventilation, the space
temperature will not exceed 28 0 C for an
unacceptable proportion of the period of
occupation. The period for which this
temperature can be exceeded depends on the
nature of occupancy and the activities within
the space. For offices and similarly occupied
buildings, a guide figure is 20 hours per annum
during the period of occupancy. A range of
computer simulation programs exists that
facilitate this calculation.
SEALING AROUND SERVICE PIPES
1.2.6.3 Measures that can be effective in reducing
the risk of solar overheating include:
(a) using glazing designed to reduce solar gains
while not unduly limiting natural light
transmittance,
(b)
the incorporation of passive measures such as
shading (detailed guidance in this regard is
given in BRE Report No 364, Solar shading of
buildings), and
(c)
the use of exposed thermal capacity combined
with night ventilation (detailed guidance in this
regard is given in Action Energy General
Information Report 31 (GIR031) Avoiding or
minimizing the use of air-conditioning).
1.3:
Building Services
1.3.1 hEATInG PLAnT EFFICIEnCy
Heating plant should be designed and installed so
that it operates efficiently over the range of loading
likely to be encountered. Oil and gas fired boilers
should satisfy the efficiency requirements specified in
S.I. No. 260 of 1994: European Communities (Efficiency
requirements for new hot water boilers fired with liquid or
gaseous fuels) Regulations, 1994.
1.3.2 COnTROLS
FOR
SPACE
hEATInG AnD hOT WATER SUPPLy
SySTEMS
1.3.2.1 Space and water heating systems should be
effectively controlled so as to limit energy use by
these systems to that required to satisfy user
requirements and, where appropriate, to protect the
building and it’s contents from damage due to low
temperatures. This section is not intended to apply
to control systems for commercial and industrial
processes.
1.3.2.2 Buildings should be provided with zone,
timing and temperature controls such that, for space
heating, each functional area is maintained at the
required temperature only during the period when it
is occupied. Additional space heating controls may be
provided to allow heating during extended unusual
occupation hours and to provide for sufficient
background heating to prevent condensation or frost
damage when the heating system would otherwise
be switched off.
1.3.2.3 Hot water systems should be designed and
provided with appropriate controls so that they can
be operated efficiently. For efficient operation, hot
water systems should not be over-sized and should
be designed to avoid low-load operation of heating
plant. The layout should minimize the length of
circulation loops and minimize the length and
diameter of dead legs. Designers should have
particular regard to the need to limit the risk of
promoting the growth of legionella bacteria. Local
instantaneous heaters should be used, where
appropriate. Consideration should be given to the
use of renewable energy, e.g. solar water heating, and
to heat recovery from other processes, where
applicable. Electric water heating should be avoided
except where demand is low.
1.3.2.4 Effective control of space and water heating
can be achieved as follows:
(a)
in buildings with a heating system of maximum
output not exceeding 100 kW, by following the
guidance in Action Energy Good Practice
Guide 132 (GPG132) Heating Controls in small
commercial and multi-residential buildings
published by BRECSU;
(b)
in larger or more complex buildings, by
following the guidance contained in CIBSE
Guide H: Building Control Systems published by
CIBSE.
1.3.3 AIR COnDITIOnInG AnD
MEChAnICAL
VEnTILATIOn
(ACMV)
1.3.3.1 Buildings that use ACMV systems to treat in
excess of 200 m2 floor area should be designed and
constructed such that:
(a)
the form and fabric of the building do not
result in a requirement for excessive installed
capacity of ACMV equipment. In particular, the
suitable specification of glazing ratios and solar
shading are an important way to limit cooling
requirements (see Section 1.2.6 above).
(b)
components such as fans, pumps and
refrigeration equipment are reasonably
efficient and appropriately sized so as to have
no more capacity for demand and standby
than is necessary for the task.
(c)
suitable facilities are provided to manage,
control and monitor the operation of the
equipment and the systems.
1.3.3.2 ACMV systems can be considered to be
adequately sized if the specific fan power (SFP) is less
than the values given in the following sub-paragraphs.
The SFP is the sum of the design total circuit-Watts
of all fans that supply air and exhaust it back to
outdoors (i.e., the sum of supply and extract fans),
including all losses through switchgear and controls
such as inverters, divided by the design ventilation
rate through the building.
23
(a)
For ACMV systems in new buildings, the SFP
should be no greater than 2.0 W/litre/second.
(b)
For new ACMV systems in refurbished
buildings, or where an existing ACMV system
in an existing building is being substantially
altered, the SFP should be no greater than 3.0
W/litre/second.
1.3.3.3 These SFP values are appropriate for typical
ventilated spaces intended for human occupancy.
Where specialist processes are involved or external
pollution levels exceed those normally encountered
and, as a result, greater levels of filtration or air
cleaning are required, higher SFPs may be
appropriate. In the context of this section “specialist
processes” can be taken to include any activity which
is not typical of the particular building use, which
affects a significant area within the building, and
where the resulting need for heating, ventilation or
air conditioning is significantly different to that typical
for the building. When assessing the performance of
ACMV systems, areas where the existence or sizing
of these systems is determined by process
requirements should be excluded from the
considered area, together with the plant capacity, or
proportion of the plant capacity, that is provided to
service those areas. Activities and areas in office
buildings considered to represent process
requirements would include:
-
Staff restaurants and kitchens;
Large dedicated conference rooms;
Sports facilities;
Dedicated computer or communications
rooms.
1.3.3.4 Mechanical ventilation systems should be
reasonably efficient at part load. This can be
achieved by providing efficient variable flow control
systems incorporating, for instance, variable speed
drives or variable pitch axial fans. More detailed
guidance is given in Action Energy General
Information, Report 41 (GIR041) Variable flow control,
General Information, published by BRECSU.
1.3.4 InSULATIOn OF STORAGE
VESSELS, PIPES AnD DUCTS
1.3.4.1 This section only applies to pipes, ducts and
vessels for the provision of space heating, space
24
cooling (including chilled water and refrigerant pipe
work) and hot water supply for normal occupation. It
does not apply to pipes, ducts and vessels associated
with commercial or industrial processes.
1.3.4.2 Hot water storage vessels, pipes and ducts
associated with the provision of heating and hot
water in a building should be insulated to limit heat
loss, except where the heat flow through the wall of
the pipe, duct or vessel is always useful in
conditioning the surrounding space. Storage vessels
for chilled water and refrigerant, and pipes and ducts
that serve air-conditioning systems should be
insulated to limit heat gain from the surrounding
environment.
1.3.4.3 Provision of insulation to pipes, ducts and
storage vessels, in accordance with the standards
specified in BS 5422: 2001, should adequately limit
heat loss or heat gain, as appropriate. The
appropriate insulation level for storage vessels should
be taken as that given in BS 5422: 2001 for flat
surfaces.
1.3.4.4 It should be noted that water pipes and
storage vessels in unheated areas will generally need
to be insulated for the purpose of protection against
freezing. Guidance on suitable protection measures is
given in BRE Report 262, Thermal insulation: avoiding
risks.
1.3.5 ARTIFICIAL LIGhTInG
1.3.5.1 The guidance given in Paragraphs 1.3.5.2 and
1.3.5.3 below need not be applied when the total
installed lighting capacity is less than 1000 W. In this
section the term “efficacy” is used to describe the
energy efficiency of a lamp. It is described by the
amount of light it produces in lumens with respect to
the power it consumes in Watts.
1.3.5.2 General purpose artificial lighting systems
shall be designed and controlled so as to ensure the
efficient use of energy for this purpose. The
efficiency of a general lighting system may be
considered acceptable if it complies with one of the
following:
(a)
95 % of the artificial lighting capacity in circuit
Watts is provided by lighting fittings which use
lamps with luminous efficacies not less than
those of the types listed in Table 5;
(b)
the installed lighting capacity comprises lighting
fittings with lamps having an average initial (100
hour) efficacy of not less than 65 lumens per
circuit Watt; or
(c)
the lighting design is in accordance with the
guidance in the “Code for Lighting” published
by CIBSE, in particular the guidance on energy
efficiency in Section 2.4 of that document.
1.3.5.3 The aim of lighting controls should be to
encourage the maximum use of daylight and to avoid
unnecessary artificial lighting, particularly when
spaces are unoccupied, having regard to the need to
ensure that the operation of automatically switched
lighting systems does not endanger occupants in a
building. In this section reference to switches
includes dimmer switches and switching includes
dimming.
Adequate control depends on the nature and use
pattern of the building. This may be achieved by one,
or more, of the following means, used alone or in
combination, as appropriate:
(a)
local manually operated switches in easily
accessible positions within each working area
or at boundaries between working areas and
general circulation routes. The distance on
plan from any local switch to the luminaries it
controls should generally be not more than
eight metres, or three times the height of the
light fitting above the floor if this is greater;
(b)
daylight-linked photo-electric switching or
dimming for lighting adjacent to windows or
other sources of natural light;
(c)
remote controlled switches operated by infra
red transmitter, sonic, ultrasonic or telephone
handset controls;
(d)
automatic switching systems which switch the
lighting off when they sense the absence of
occupants;
(e)
time-controlled switches.
For offices and storage buildings, local switching,
either manual or remote controlled, is desirable. For
some other building uses, e.g. where continuous
lighting is required during hours of operation, time
switching or daylight-linked photo-electric switching
may be more appropriate.
Table 5
Light sources
general lighting
suita ble
for
Light source
Types and rating
High pressure Sodium
All types and ratings
Metal halide
All types and ratings
Induction lighting
All types and ratings
Tubular fluorescent
26 mm diameter (T8) lamps,
and 16 mm diameter (T5)
lamps rated above 11W,
provided with high efficiency
control gear. 38 mm diameter
(T12) linear fluorescent lamps
2400 mm in length
Compact fluorescent
All ratings above 11W
Other
Any type and rating with an
efficacy greater than 50
lumens per circuit Watt.
25
APPENDICES
26
Appendix A:
Calculation of U-Values
GEnERAL
A1.1 General Guidance on the Calculation of Uvalues is contained in Report BR 443 “Conventions
for U-value Calculations” 2006. For building elements
and components generally, the method of calculating
U-values is specified in I.S. EN ISO 6946: 1997. Uvalues of components involving heat transfer to the
ground, e.g. ground floors with or without floor
voids, basement walls, are calculated by the method
specified in I.S. EN ISO 13370: 1999. A soil thermal
conductivity of 2.0 W/mK should be used, unless
otherwise verified. U-values for windows, doors and
shutters may be calculated using I.S. EN ISO 10077-1:
2000 or I.S. EN ISO 10077-2: 2000. Information on
U-values and guidance on calculation procedures
contained in the 1999 edition of CIBSE Guide A3:
Thermal Properties of Building Structures are based
on these standards and may be used to show
compliance with this Part.
A method for assessing U-values of light steelframed
constructions is given in Digest 465 “U-values for light
steel frame construction”, published by BRE. Guidance
in relation to the calculation of U-values for various
forms of metal clad construction can be found in
Technical Paper No. 14 “Guidance for the design of
metal roofing and cladding to comply with Approved
Document L2: 2001” published by MCRMA, Technical
Information Sheet No. 312, “Metal cladding: U-value
calculation assessing thermal performance of built-up
metal roof and wall cladding systems using rail and
bracket spacers” published by SCI and IP 10/02 “Metal
cladding: assessing thermal performance of built-up
systems which use ‘Z’ spacers” published by BRE.
A1.2 U-values derived by calculation should be
rounded to two significant figures and relevant
information on input data should be provided. When
calculating U-values the effects of timber joists,
structural and other framing, mortar bedding,
window frames and other small areas where thermal
bridging occurs must be taken into account. Similarly,
account must be taken of the effect of small areas
where the insulation level is reduced significantly
relative to the general level for the component or
structure element under consideration. Thermal
bridging may be disregarded, however, where the
general thermal resistance does not exceed that in
the bridged area by more than 0.1 m 2 K/W. For
example, normal mortar joints need not be taken
into account in calculations for brickwork or
concrete blockwork where the density of the brick
or block material is in excess of 1500 kg/m 3. A
ventilation opening in a wall or roof (other than a
window, rooflight or door opening), may be
considered as having the same U-value as the
element in which it occurs.
A1.3 Examples of the application of the calculation
method specified in I.S. EN 6946: 1977 are given
below. An example of the calculation of ground floor
U-values using I.S. EN ISO 13370: 1999 is also given.
A1.4 Thermal conductivities of common building
materials are given in Table A1 and for common
insulating materials in Table A2. For the most part,
these are taken from I.S. EN 12524: 2000 or CIBSE
Guide A3. See Paragraph 0.3.3 regarding application
of these Tables.
SIMPLE STRUCTURE WIThOUT
ThERMAL BRIDGInG
A2.1 To calculate the U-value of a building
element (wall or roof) using I.S. EN ISO 6946: 1997,
the thermal resistance of each component is
calculated, and these thermal resistances, together
with surface resistances as appropriate, are then
combined to yield the total thermal resistance and
U-value. The result is corrected to account for
mechanical fixings (e.g. wall ties) or air gaps if
required. For an element consisting of homogenous
layers with no thermal bridging, the total resistance is
simply the sum of individual thermal resistances and
surface resistances.
I.S. EN 6946: 1997 provides for corrections to the
calculated U-value. In the case of example A1 (see
Diagram A1), corrections for air gaps in the insulated
layer and for mechanical fasteners may apply.
However, if the total correction is less than 3% of the
calculated value, the correction may be ignored.
In this case no correction for air gaps applies as it is
assumed that the insulation boards meet the
dimensional standards set out in I.S. EN ISO 6946:
1997 and that they are installed without gaps greater
than 5 mm. The construction involves the use of wall
ties that penetrate fully through the insulation layer.
27
Table A1
Thermal conductivity of some common building materials
Density
(kg/m3)
Material
Thermal
Conductivity
(W/mK)
General Building Materials
Clay Brickwork (outer leaf)
Clay Brickwork (inner leaf)
Concrete block (heavyweight)
Concrete block (medium weight)
Concrete block (autoclaved aerated)
Concrete block (autoclaved aerated)
1,700
1,700
2,000
1,400
600
350
0.77
0.56
1.33
0.57
0.18
0.08
Cast concrete, high density
Cast concrete, medium density
Aerated concrete slab
Concrete screed
Reinforced concrete (1% steel)
Reinforced concrete (2% steel)
Wall ties, stainless steel
Wall ties, galvanised steel
Mortar (protected)
Mortar (exposed)
External rendering (cement sand)
Plaster (gypsum lightweight)
Plaster (gypsum)
Plasterboard
2,400
1,800
500
1,200
2,300
2,400
7,900
7,800
1,750
1,750
1,300
600
1,200
900
2.00
1.15
0.16
0.41
2.30
2.50
17.00
50.00
0.88
0.94
0.57
0.18
0.43
0.25
Natural Slate
Concrete tiles
Clay tiles
Fibre cement slates
Ceramic tiles
Plastic tiles
Asphalt
Felt bitumen layers
2,500
2,100
2,000
1,800
2,300
1,000
2,100
1,100
2.20
1.50
1.00
0.45
1.30
0.20
0.70
0.23
500
700
500
500
0.13
0.18
0.10
0.13
Timber, softwood
Timber, hardwood
Wood wool slab
Wood-based panels (plywood, chipboard, etc.)
NOTE: The values in this table are indicative only. Certified values, should be used in preference, if available.
Table A2
Thermal conductivity of some common insulation materials
Material
Insulation
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) slab (HD)
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) slab (SD)
Extruded polystyrene
Glass fibre / wool quilt
Glass fibre / wool batt
Phenolic foam
Polyurethane board
Density
(kg/m3)
25
15
30
12
25
30
30
Thermal
Conductivity
(W/mK)
0.035
0.037
0.025
0.040
0.035
0.025
0.025
NOTE: The values in this table are indicative only. These may be used for early design purposes. Certified values, taking ageing into
account, where appropriate, should be used in final calculations (see para. 0.3.2.)
28
Example A1: Masonry cavity wall
Diagram A1
Masonry Cavity wall
(a)
The upper thermal resistance is based on the
assumption that heat flows through the
component in straight lines perpendicular to
the element's surfaces. To calculate it, all
possible heat flow paths are identified, for each
path the resistance of all layers are combined
in series to give the total resistance for the
path, and the resistances of all paths are then
combined in parallel to give the upper
resistance of the element.
(b)
The lower thermal resistance is based on the
assumption that all planes parallel to the
surfaces of the component are isothermal
surfaces. To calculate it, the resistances of all
components of each thermally bridged layer
are combined in parallel to give the effective
resistance for the layer, and the resistances of
all layers are then combined in series to give
the lower resistance of the element.
(c)
The total thermal resistance is the mean of the
upper and lower resistances.
Para. A.2.1
19 mm external render
100 mm dense concrete block
outer leaf
Cavity (min 40 mm residual cavity)
80 mm thermal insulation (thermal
conductivity 0.025 W/mK)
90 mm dense concrete block inner
leaf
13 mm lightweight plaster
HEAT FLOW
Layer/Surface
External surface
External render
Concrete Block
Air cavity
Insulation
Concrete Block
Plaster (lightweight)
Internal surface
Total Resistance
Thickness Conductivity Resistance
(m)
(W/mk) (m2k/W)
----0.019
0.100
----0.080
0.100
0.013
-----
----0.57
1.33
----0.025
1.33
0.18
-----
0.040
0.033
0.075
0.180
3.200
0.075
0.072
0.130
-----
-----
3.805
Example A2: Timber-frame wall (with
one insulating layer bridged)
Diagram A2
Timber-frame wall
Para. A.2.2
102 mm brick outer leaf
Cavity (minimum 50 mm)
U-value of construction = 1/3.805 = 0.26
W/m2k
Sheathing ply
A potential correction factor applies which, assuming
the use of 4 mm diameter stainless steel ties at 5 ties
per m2, is calculated as 0.006 W/m2K. This is less
than 3% of the calculated U-value and may be
ignored. It should be noted that, if galvanised steel
wall ties were used, a correction of 0.02 W/m2K
would apply, and the corrected U-value for this
construction would be 0.28 W/m2K.
150 mm insulating material
between studs (thermal
conductivity 0.04 W/mK)
Vapour control layer
13 mm plasterboard
HEAT FLOW
STRUCTURE WITh BRIDGED
LAyER(S)
A2.2 For an element in which one or more layers
are thermally bridged, the total thermal resistance is
calculated in three steps as follows.
29
The thermal resistance of each component is
calculated (or, in the case of surface resistances,
entered) as follows:
Layer/Surface
Thickness Conductivity
(m)
(W/mk)
External surface
Brick outer leaf
Air cavity
Sheathing ply
Mineral wool insulation
Timber studs
Plasterboard
Internal surface
--0.102
--0.012
0.150
0.150
0.013
---
Resistance
(m2 k / W)
--0.77
--0.13
0.04
0.13
0.25
---
0.040
0.132
0.180
0.092
3.750
1.154
0.052
0.130
Upper resistance
Assuming that heat flows in straight lines
perpendicular to the wall surfaces, there are two
heat flow paths - through the insulation and through
the studs. The resistance of each of these paths is
calculated as follows.
Resistance through section containing insulation [m2
K / W]:
External surface resistance
Brick outer leaf
Air cavity
Sheathing ply
Mineral wool insulation
Plasterboard
Internal surface resistance
0.040
0.132
0.180
0.092
3.750
0.052
0.130
Total
4.376
Resistance through section containing timber stud
[m2 K / W]
External surface resistance
Brick outer leaf
Air cavity
Sheathing ply
Timber studs
Plasterboard
Internal surface resistance
0.040
0.132
0.180
0.092
1.154
0.052
0.130
Total
1.780
The upper thermal resistance Ru is obtained from:
Ru = 1 / (F1 / R1 + F2 / R2)
where F1 and F2 are the fractional areas of heat flow
paths 1 and 2, and R1 and R2 are the resistances of
these paths.
Upper resistance Ru = 1 / (0.85 / 4.377 + 0.15 /
1.781) = 3.592 m2 K / W
Lower resistance
Assuming an isothermal plane on each face of the
layer of insulation which is bridged by timber studs,
the thermal resistance of this bridged layer, Rb, is
calculated from
Rb = 1 / (Fins / Rins + Ft / Rt)
where Fins and Ft are the fractional areas of insulation
and timber, and Rins and Rt are their resistances.
Rb = 1 / (0.85 / 3.750 + 0.15 / 1.154) = 2.804
m2 K / W
The resistances of all layers are then combined in
series to give the lower resistance [m2 K / W]
External surface resistance
Brick outer leaf
Air cavity
Bracing board
Bridged insulation layer
Plasterboard
Internal surface resistance
0.040
0.132
0.180
0.092
2.804
0.052
0.130
Lower resistance (Rl)
3.430
Total resistance
The total resistance Rt is given by:
Rt = (Ru + R1) / 2 = (3.59 + 3.431) / 2 = 3.511
m2 K / W
The U-value is the reciprocal of the total resistance:
U-value = 1 / 3.511 = 0.28 W/m2K (to 2 decimal
places).
There is a potential correction for air gaps in the
insulation layer. I.S. EN ISO 6946: 1997 gives a Uvalue correction of 0.0065 W/m 2 K for this
construction. This is less than 3% of the calculated
U-value and can be ignored.
30
Example A3: Pitched roof with
insulation at ceiling level (between and
over joists).
Upper resistance (Ru)
Resistance through section containing both layers of
insulation [m2K/W]
A pitched roof has 100 mm of mineral wool tightly
fitted between 44 mm by 100 mm timber joists
spaced 600 mm apart (centres to centres) and 150
mm of mineral wool over the joists. The roof is
slated or tiled with sarking felt under the slates or
tiles. The ceiling consists of 13 mm of plasterboard.
The fractional area of timber at ceiling level is taken
as 8%.
External surface resistance
Resistance of roof space
Resistance of mineral wool over joists
Resistance of mineral wool
between joists
Resistance of plasterboard
Inside surface resistance
2.500
0.052
0.100
Total
6.642
Diagram A3
Pitched roof
Para. A.2.2
Resistance through section containing timber joists
External surface resistance
Resistance of roof space
Resistance of mineral wool over joists
Resistance of timber joists
Resistance of plasterboard
Inside surface resistance
tiles or slates
35 mm timber battens
2 mm sarking felt
Rafters
Ventilated roof space
250 mm thermal insulation
(thermal conductivity 0.04
W/mK) with 100 mm laid
between timber ceiling joists
and 150 mm over joists with
vapour control layer, where
appropriate.
13 mm plasterboard ceiling
HEAT FLOW
Layer/Surface
0.040
0.200
3.750
Total
0.040
0.200
3.750
0.769
0.052
0.100
4.911
The upper thermal resistance [Ru ] is obtained from:
Ru = 1 / (F1 / R1 + F2 / R2)
where F1 and F2 are the fractional areas of heat flow
paths 1 and 2, and R1 and R2 are the resistances of
these paths.
Upper resistance Ru = 1 / (0.92 / 6.642 + 0.08 /
4.911) = 6.460 m2 K/W
Thickness Conductivity Resistance
(m)
(W/mk) (m2k/W)
External surface
Roof space (including sloping
construction and roof cavity)
Mineral wool (continuous layer)
Mineral wool (between joists)
Timber joists
Plasterboard
Internal surface
-
-
0.040
0.150
0.100
0.100
0.013
-
0.04
0.04
0.13
0.25
-
0.200
3.750
2.500
1.154
0.052
0.100
Lower resistance (Rl)
Assuming an isothermal plane on each face of the
layer of insulation which is bridged by timber studs,
the thermal resistance of this bridged layer, Rb, is
calculated from
Rb = 1 / (Fins / Rins + Ft / Rt)
where Fins and Ft are the fractional areas of insulation
and timber, and Rins and Rt are their resistances.
Rb = 1 / (0.92 / 2.500 + 0.08 / 0.769) = 2.119 m2K/W
31
The resistances of all layers are then combined in
series to give the lower resistance [m2K/W]
Example A4: Slab-on-ground floor –
full floor insulation.
External surface resistance
Resistance of roof space
Resistance of mineral wool over joists
Resistance of bridged layer
Resistance of plasterboard
Inside surface resistance
0.040
0.200
3.750
2.119
0.052
0.100
Lower resistance (Rl)
6.261
The slab-on-ground floor consists of a 150 mm
dense concrete ground floor slab on 100 mm
insulation. The insulation has a thermal conductivity
of 0.035 W/mK. The floor dimensions are 8750 mm
by 7250 mm with three sides exposed. One 8750
mm side abuts the floor of an adjoining semidetached house.
Total resistance
The total resistance Rt is given by:
Rt = (Ru + Rl) / 2 = (6.460 + 6.261) / 2 = 6.361
m2K/W
Diagram A4
Para. A.3.1
Concrete slab-on-ground floor
The U-value is the reciprocal of the total resistance:
U-value = 1 / 6.361 = 0.16 W/m 2 k (to 2
decimal places).
Edge insulation (min themal
resistance of 0.7m2K/W)
150 mm dense concrete
I.S. EN ISO 6946: 1997 does not specify any potential
correction for this construction.
GROUnD FLOORS AnD BASEMEnTS
A3.1 The U-value of an uninsulated ground floor
depends on a number of factors including floor shape
and area and the nature of the soil beneath the floor.
I.S. EN ISO 13370: 1999 deals with the calculation of
U-values of ground floors. Methods are specified for
floors directly on the ground and for floors with
vented and unvented sub-floor spaces. I.S. EN ISO
13370: 1999 also covers heat loss from basement
floors and walls.
A3.2 In the case of semi-detached or terraced
premises, blocks of flats and similar buildings, the
floor dimensions can be taken as either those of the
individual premises or those of the whole building.
Unheated spaces outside the insulated fabric, such as
attached porches or garages, should be excluded
when deriving floor dimensions but the length of the
floor perimeter between the heated building and the
unheated space should be included when
determining the length of exposed perimeter.
Where such ancillary areas have the potential to
become part of the occupied area of the building
floors should be insulated to the same level as the
building floors unless it is envisaged that a new
insulated floor will be provided when converted.
32
Damp proof membrane. Where radon
barrier required, ensure correct
detailing to prevent passage of radon
gas into dwelling - see TGD C.
100mm thermal insulation
(thermal conductivity 0.035
W/mK)
In accordance with I.S. EN ISO 13370: 1999, the
following expression gives the U-value for wellinsulated floors:
U
=
λ
λ/(0.457B’ + dt), where
=
thermal conductivity of
unfrozen ground (W/mK)
=
2A/P (m)
=
w + λ(Rsi + Rf + Rse) (m)
=
floor area (m2)
=
heat loss perimeter (m)
=
wall thickness (m)
B’
dt
A
P
w
Rsi, Rf and Rse are internal surface resistance, floor
construction (including insulation) resistance and
external surface resistance respectively. Standard
values of R si and R se for floors are given as 0.17
m2K/W and 0.04 m2K/W respectively. The standard
also states that the thermal resistance of dense
concrete slabs and thin floor coverings may be
ignored in the calculation and that the thermal
conductivity of the ground should be taken as 2.0
W/mK unless otherwise known or specified.
Ignoring the thermal resistance of the dense
concrete slab, the thermal resistance of the floor
construction (Rf) is equal to the thermal resistance
of the insulation alone, i.e. 0.1/0.035 or 2.857 m2K/W.
Taking the wall thickness as 300 mm, this gives
dt
=
Also
B’
=
2(8.75 x 7.25) / (8.75 +
7.25 + 7.25) = 5.457 m
Therefore
U
=
2.0 / ((0.457 x 5.457) +
6.434) = 0.22 W/m2K.
0.30 + 2.0(0.17 + 2.857 +
0.04) = 6.434 m.
The edge insulation to the slab is provided to
prevent thermal bridging at the edge of the slab. I.S.
EN ISO 13370: 1999 does not consider this edge
insulation as contributing to the overall floor
insulation and thus reducing the floor U-value.
However, edge insulation, which extends below the
external ground level, is considered to contribute to
a reduction in floor U-value and a method of taking
this into account is included in the standard.
Foundation walls of insulating lightweight concrete
may be taken as edge insulation for this purpose.
ELEMEnTS ADjACEnT TO
UnhEATED SPACES
A4.1 As indicated in Paragraph 0.3.5, the
procedure for the calculation of U-values of
elements adjacent to unheated spaces (previously
referred to as semi-exposed elements) is given in I.S.
EN ISO 6946: 1997 and I.S. EN ISO 13789: 2000.
The following formulae may be used to derive
elemental U-values (taking the unheated space into
account) for typical housing situations irrespective of
the precise dimensions of the unheated space.
Uo = 1 /(1/U-Ru)
or U = 1 /(1/Uo+Ru)
Where: U – U-value of element adjacent to
unheated space (W/m2K), taking the
effect of the unheated space into
account.
Uo –
U-value of the element between
heated and unheated spaces
(W/m2K) calculated as if there was
no unheated space adjacent to the
element.
Ru – effective thermal resistance of
unheated space inclusive of all
external elements (m2 K / W).
This procedure can be used when the precise details
on the structure providing an unheated space are not
available, or not crucial.
Ru for typical unheated structures (including garages,
access corridors to flats and unheated
conservatories) are given in Tables A3, A4 and A5.
Table A5 applies only where a conservatory - style
sunroom is not treated as an integral part of the
dwelling i.e. is treated as an extension.
In the case of room-in-roof construction, the U-value
of the walls of the room-in-roof construction and of
the ceiling of the room below the space adjacent to
these walls can be calculated using this procedure.
See Diagram A5.
33
Table A3 Typical resista nce
unheated space.
(a)
(R u )
for
Integral and adjacent
single garages or other
similar unheated space.
Garage or other
similar unheated space
(c)
Element between garage
and dwelling
Ru
Single fully integral
Side wall, end wall
and floor
0.33
Single fully integral
One wall and floor
0.25
Single, partially integral
displaced forward
Side wall, end wall
and floor
0.26
Single, adjacent
One wall
0.09
number of walls between building
and conservatory/sunroom
0.06
Two (conservatory in angle of building)
0.14
Three (conservatory in recess)
0.25
U-value calculated
as per normal roof
Table A4 Typical resista nce
unheated space
Treat as unheated
space
Ru = 0.5 m2K/W
(b) Unheated stairwells and
access corridors in flats
Flat
Exposed facing wall
Walls adjacent
to unheated
space
Unheated Stairwell or
Corridor
Flat
Unexposed facing
wall
Corridor above or below
Unheated space
Stairwells:
Facing wall exposed
Facing wall not exposed
Access corridors:
Facing wall exposed, corridor
above or below
Facing wall exposed, corridors
above and below
Facing wall not exposed,
corridor above and below
Facing wall not exposed,
corridor above or below
34
Ru
0.82
0.90
0.31
0.28
0.40
0.43
Ru
One
The table gives Ru for single garages; use (0.5 x Ru) for double garages
when extra garage is not fully integral, and (0.85 x Ru) for fully integral
double garages. Single garage means a garage for one car; double garage
means a garage for two cars.
for
for
Conservatory-type
sunroom
Diagram A5
Room in roof
(R u )
(R u )
Table A5 Typical resista nce
unheated space
Para. A.4.1
Room in roof
Treat as in
unheated space
Ru = 0.5 m2K/W
Elements adjacent
to an unheated
space
Appendix B:
Fabric Insulation: Additional Guidance (including
Tables of U-values) for Common Constructions
GEnERAL
B.1
This Appendix provides some basic guidance
in relation to typical roof, wall and floor
constructions. Guidance is not exhaustive and
designers and contractors should also have regard to
other sources of relevant guidance e.g. BR.262,
Thermal Insulation; avoiding risks, relevant standards
and good building practice.
Example B1: Partially filled cavity
What is the U-value of the construction shown in
Diagram B1.
Diagram B1
Partially filled cavity
Para. B.2
102 mm brick outer leaf
In particular, diagrams in this Appendix are intended
to be illustrative of the construction to which they
refer. They do not purport to provide detailed
guidance on the avoidance of thermal bridging. See
section 1.2.4 for guidance on reasonable provision in
this regard.
B.2
For many typical roof, wall and floor
constructions, the thickness of insulation required to
achieve a particular U-value can be calculated
approximately by the use of the appropriate table
from this Appendix. The tables can also be used to
estimate the U-value achieved by a particular
thickness of insulating material. Higher performing
insulating materials, i.e. those with lower thermal
conductivities, can achieve any given U-value with a
lower thickness of insulating material.
B.3
These tables have been derived using the
methods described in Appendix A, taking into
account the effects of repeated thermal bridging
where appropriate. Figures derived from the tables
should be corrected to allow for any discrete nonrepeating thermal bridging which may exist in the
construction. A range of factors are relevant to the
determination of U-values and the values given in
these tables relate to typical constructions of the
type to which the tables refer. The methods
described in Appendix A can be used to calculate a
more accurate U-value for a particular construction
or the amount of insulation required to achieve a
particular U-value.
Cavity (min. 40 mm residual
cavity)
100 mm thermal insulation
(thermal conductivity 0.032
W/mK)
100 mm dense concrete block
inner leaf
13 mm lightweight plaster
HEAT FLOW
Table B9 gives U-values of 0.29 W/m2K and 0.25
W/m 2 K for 100 mm insulation of thermal
conductivity of 0.035 W/mK and 0.030 W/mK
respectively. By linear interpolation, the U-value of
this construction, with 100 mm of insulation of
thermal conductivity of 0.032 W/mK, is 0.27 W/m2K.
B.4
Intermediate U-values and values of required
thickness of insulation can be obtained from the
tables by linear interpolation.
35
Example B2: Timber frame wall
Diagram B2
Timber frame wall
Para. B.2
102 mm brick outer
leaf
Cavity
Sheathing ply
150 mm insulating
material between
studs
(thermal conductivity
0.04 W/mK)
Vapour control layer
What is the U-value of this construction?
Table B1 gives the U-value for 250 mm of insulation
of thermal conductivity of 0.04 W/mK as
0.16 W/m2 K.
ROOF COnSTRUCTIOnS
B.5.1 Construction R1: Tiled or slated
pitched roof, ventilated roof space,
insulation at ceiling level.
B.5.1.1 R1(a) Insulation between and
over joists
Diagram B4
Para. B.5.1.1
Insulation between and over joists
13 mm plasterboard
HEAT FLOW
Tiled or slated roof
35 mm timber battens
2 mm sarking felt
What is the U-value of this construction?
Table B14 gives the U-value for 150 mm of insulation
of thermal conductivity of 0.035 W/mK as 0.27
W/m2K.
Rafters
Ventilated roof space
Example B3: Pitched roof
Diagram B3
Pitched roof
Para. B.2
Tiles or slates
35 mm timber battens
2 mm sarking felt
Rafters
Ventilated roof space
250 mm thermal
insulation (thermal
conductivity 0.04
W/mK) with 100 mm
laid between timber
ceiling joists and 150
mm over joists with
vapour control layer,
where appropriate
13 mm plasterboard
ceiling
HEAT FLOW
36
Insulation between and over
joists
Vapour control layer
(where appropriate)
13mm plasterboard
Table B1 U-values for tiled or slated
pitched roof, ventilated roof
space, insulation placed between
and over joists at ceiling level
Total
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
Thickness of
insulation
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025
0.020
(mm)
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.24
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.21
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.16
0.13
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07
This table is derived for roofs with:
Tiles or slates, felt, ventilated roof space, timber joists (λ =
0.13) with the spaces between fully filled with insulation and
the balance of insulation above and covering joists. (see
Diagram B4). Calculations assume a fractional area of timber
thermal bridging of 9%. (includes allowance for loft hatch
framing)
Installation guidelines and precautions
Care is required in design and construction,
particularly in regard to the following:
Provision of adequate roofspace ventilation
Adequate ventilation is particularly important to
ensure the prevention of excessive condensation in
cold attic areas. See relevant guidance in TGD F.
Minimising transfer of water vapour from
occupied building area to cold attic space
In addition to ensuring adequate ventilation,
measures should be taken to limit transfer of water
vapour to the cold attic. Care should be taken to seal
around all penetrations of pipes, ducts, wiring, etc.
through the ceiling, including provision of an effective
seal to the attic access hatch. Use of a vapour control
layer at ceiling level, on the warm side of the
insulation, will assist in limiting vapour transfer, but
cannot be relied on as an alternative to ventilation. In
particular, a vapour control layer should be used
where the roof pitch is less than 150, or where the
shape of the roof is such that there is difficulty in
ensuring adequate ventilation, e.g. room-in-the-roof
construction.
Minimising the extent of cold bridging.
Particular areas of potential cold bridging include
junctions with external walls at eaves and gables, and
junctions with solid party walls. Gaps in the insulation
should be avoided and the insulation should fit tightly
against joists, noggings, bracing etc. Insulation joints
should be closely butted and joints in upper and
lower layers of insulation should be staggered.
Protecting water tanks and pipework against
the risk of freezing.
All pipework on the cold side of the insulation
should be adequately insulated. Where the cold
water cistern is located in the attic, as is normally the
case, the top and sides of the cistern should be
insulated. The area underneath the cistern should be
left uninsulated and continuity of tank and ceiling
insulation should be ensured e.g. by overlapping the
tank and ceiling insulation. Provision should be made
to ensure ventilation of the tank.
Ensuring that there is no danger from
overheating of electric cables or fittings.
Cables should be installed above the insulation.
Cables which pass through or are enclosed in
insulation should be adequately rated to ensure that
they do not overheat. Recessed fittings should have
adequate ventilation or other means to prevent
overheating.
Providing for access to tanks, services and
fittings in the roofspace.
Because the depth of insulation will obscure the
location of ceiling joists, provision should be made
for access from the access hatch to the cold water
tank and to other fittings to which access for
occasional maintenance and ser vicing may be
required. This can be done by provision of walkways
without compressing the installed insulation.
B.5.1.2 R1(b) Insulation between and
below joists.
Insulation is laid in one layer between the joists,
protruding above them where its depth is greater,
and leaving air gaps above the joists. A composite
board of plasterboard with insulation backing is used
for the ceiling.
37
Installation guidelines and precautions.
Similar guidelines and precautions apply as for R1(a)
above.
Diagram B5
Para. B.5.1.2
Insulation between and below joists
150 mm insulation
between ceiling
joists
Additional insulation
below joists
Vapour control
layer
13 mm plasterboard
ceiling
Table B2 U-values for tiled or slated
pitched roof, ventilated roof
space, insulation placed between
and below joists at ceiling level
Thickness of
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
insulation
below joists 0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025
0.020
(mm)
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
0.27
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.27
0.24
0.22
0.21
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.26
0.24
0.21
0.20
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.13
0.12
0.26
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.10
This table is derived for roofs as in Table B1 but with 150
mm of insulation (λ = 0.04) between ceiling joists, and the
remainder below the joists. Insulation of thickness and
thermal conductivity as shown in the table is below joists.
(See Diagram B5).
(The insulation thickness shown does not include the
thickness of plasterboard in composite boards).
38
B.5.2 Construction R2: Tiled or slated
pitched roof, occupied or unventilated
roof space, insulation on roof slope.
B.5.2.1 R2(a) Insulation between and
below rafters, 50 mm ventilated cavity
between insulation and sarking felt.
Diagram B6
Para. B.5.2.1
Insulation between and below rafters
Tiles or slates on
battens, sarking felt and
rafters
50 mm ventilated air
space
Insulation between and
below rafters
Vapour control layer
13 mm plasterboard
ceiling
Occupied / unventilated roof space
Table B3 U-values for tiled or slated
pitched roof, occupied or
unventilated roof space,
insulation placed between and
below rafters
Total thickness
of insulation
below joists
(mm)
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
0.040
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.31
0.26
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.17
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.24
0.20
0.17
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.20
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
Table B3 assumes that the thermal conductivity of
insulation between and below the rafters is the same.
If different insulation materials are used, the material
on the warm side (i.e. below rafters) should have a
vapour resistance no lower than that on the cold
side (i.e. between rafters).
B.5.2.2 R2(b): Insulation above and
between rafters, slate or tile underlay
of breather membrane type.
Diagram B7
Para.5.2.2
Insulation above and between rafters
Tiles or slates on battens
Vapour permeable
membrane (underlay)
Counter battens
Insulation over and
between rafters
Vapour control layer
13 mm plasterboard
This table is derived for roofs with:
Tiles or slates, felt, rafters of depth 150 mm (λ = 0.13), 50 mm
ventilated air space above insulation, 100 mm insulation
between rafters, balance of insulation below and across rafters.
(See Diagram B6).
A fractional area of timber of 8% is assumed. Battens may be
fixed to the underside of the rafters to increase rafter depth if
necessary.
Installation guidelines and precautions.
The insulation is installed in two layers, one between
the rafters (and battens) and the second below and
across them. To limit water vapour transfer and
minimise condensation risks, a vapour control layer is
required on the warm side of the insulation. No
material of high vapour resistance, e.g. facing layer
attached to insulation to facilitate fixing, should be
included within the overall thickness of insulation.
Care must be taken to prevent roof timbers and
access problems interfering with the continuity of
insulation and vapour control layer.
Provision should be made for ventilation top and
bottom of the 50 mm ventilation gap on the cold
side of the insulation.
An alternative construction using a breathable
membrane may be used. In this case the membrane
should be certified in accordance with Part D of the
Building Regulations and installed in accordance with
the guidance on the certificate.
Care should be taken to avoid thermal bridging at
roof-wall junctions at eaves, gable walls and party
walls.
Table B4 U-values for tiled or slated
pitched roof, occupied or
unventilated roof space, insulation
placed between and above rafters.
Total
Thickness of
insulation
(mm)
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025
U-Value of construction
0.33
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.33
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.27
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.020
(W/m2K)
0.23
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.20
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
This table is derived for roofs with:
Tiles or slates, tiling battens, vapour permeable membrane (as
underlay), counter battens, insulation layer over rafters, rafters
with insulation fitted between. (See Diagram B7).
Insulation between and over rafters has the same thermal
conductivity. A fractional area of timber of 8% is assumed.
39
Installation guidelines and precautions
The effective performance of this system is critically
dependent on the prevention of air and water
vapour movement between the warm and cold sides
of the insulation. Only systems which are certified or
shown by test and calculation as appropriate for this
function, (see TGD D, Paragraph 1.1 (a) and (b))
should be used. The precise details of construction
are dependent on the insulation and roof underlay
materials to be used. Installation should be carried
out precisely in accordance with the procedures
described in the relevant certificate.
Table B5 U-values for timber flat roof,
insulation between joists, 50 mm
ventilated a ir g a p between
insulation and roof decking.
Total
Thickness of
insulation
(mm)
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
0.040
0.035
0.030
U-Value of construction
0.29
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.26
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.24
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.025
0.020
(W/m2K)
0.21
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
In general, the insulation material must be of low
vapour permeability, there should be a tight fit
between adjacent insulation boards, and between
insulation boards and rafters. All gaps in the
insulation (e.g. at eaves, ridge, gable ends, around
rooflights and chimneys, etc.) should be sealed with
flexible sealant or expanding foam.
This table is derived for roofs with:
Care should be taken to avoid thermal bridging at
roof-wall junctions at eaves, gable walls and party
walls.
The calculations assume a fractional area of timber of 8%.
B.5.3 Construction R3: Flat roof,
timber joists, insulation below deck
B.5.3.1 R3(a) Insulation between
joists, 50 mm a ir g a p between
insulation and roof decking
The insulation is laid between the joists. The depth of
the joists is increased by means of battens if
required.
Diagram B8
Para. B.5.3.1
Timber flat roof, insulation
between joists
Waterproof
decking
50 mm
ventilated air
space
Insulation
between joists
Vapour
control layer
13 mm
plasterboard
40
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
Weatherproof deck, ventilated air space, insulation as given
above between timber joists (λ = 0.13), 13 mm plasterboard
(λ = 0.25). (See Diagram B8).
Installation guidelines and precautions
A vapour control layer sealed at all joints, edges and
penetrations, is required on the warm side of the
insulation, and a ventilated air space as specified in
TGD F provided above the insulation. Cross
ventilation should be provided to each and every
void. When installing the insulation, care is needed to
ensure that it does not block the ventilation flow
paths.
The integrity of the vapour control layer should be
ensured by effective sealing of all ser vice
penetrations, e.g. electric wiring, or by provision of a
services zone immediately above the ceiling, but
below the vapour control layer.
The roof insulation should connect with the wall
insulation so as to avoid a cold bridge at this point.
B.5.3.2 R3(b) Insulation between and
below joists, 50 mm air gap between
insulation and roof decking
The insulation may be installed in two layers, one
between the joists as described above, and the
second below the joists. This lower layer may be in
the form of composite boards of plasterboard
backed with insulation, with integral vapour barrier,
fixed to the joists. The edges of boards should be
sealed with vapour-resistant tape.
B.5.4 Construction R4: Sa ndwich
warm deck flat roof
The insulation is installed above the roof deck but
below the weatherproof membrane. The structural
deck may be of timber, concrete or metal.
Diagram B9
Para. B.5.4
Sandwich warm deck flat
roof above a concrete structure
Waterproof
membrane
Table B6: U-values for timber flat roof,
insulation between and below
joists, 50 mm ventilated air gap
between insulation a nd roof
decking.
Insulation
High performance
vapour barrier
Concrete screed
Thickness of
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
insulation
below joists 0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025
0.020
(mm)
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.33
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.32
0.27
0.22
0.20
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.31
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.15
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.29
0.22
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10
This table is derived for roofs as in Table B5 above, except
with 100 mm of insulation (λ = 0.04) between 150 mm joists,
and composite board below joists consisting of 10 mm
plasterboard (λ= 0.25) backed with insulation as specified in
this table.
Dense concrete
roofslab
Table B7: U-values for sandwich warm
deck flat roof.
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
0.040
0.34
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.30
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.26
0.22
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.11
0.22
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
This table is derived for roofs with:
12 mm felt bitumen layers (λ = 0.23), over insulation as given in
the table, over 50 mm screed (λ = 0.41), over 150 mm concrete
slab (λ = 2.30), over 13 mm plasterboard (λ = 0.25). (See
Diagram B9).
41
Installation guidelines and precautions
The insulation boards are laid over and normally fully
bonded to a high performance vapour barrier
complying with BS 747: 2000 which is bonded to the
roof deck. The insulation is overlaid with a
waterproof membrane, which may consist of a single
layer membrane, a fully-bonded built-up bitumen
roofing system, or mastic asphalt on an isolating layer.
At the perimeter, the vapour barrier is turned up and
back over the insulation and bonded to it and the
weatherproof membrane. Extreme care is required
to ensure that moisture can not penetrate the
vapour barrier.
Diagram B10
Inverted warm deck roof with
concrete structure
Paving slab or ballast
Filtration layer
Insulation (low water
absorptivity, frost
resistance)
Asphalt or
waterproof
membrane
Concrete screed
Concrete roofslab
The insulation should not be allowed to get wet
during installation.
There should be no insulation below the deck. This
could give rise to a risk of condensation on the
underside of the vapour barrier.
Thermal bridging at a roof / wall junction should be
avoided.
B.5.5 Construction R5: Inverted warm
deck flat roof: insulation to falls above
both roof deck a nd weatherproof
membrane
Insulation materials should have low water
absorption, be frost resistant and should maintain
performance in damp conditions over the long term.
To balance loss of performance due to the damp
conditions and the intermittent cooling effect of
water passing through and draining off from the
warm side of the insulation, the insulation thickness
calculated as necessary for dry conditions should be
increased by 20%.
42
Para. B.5.5
Table B8: U-values for sandwich warm
deck flat roof.
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
0.040
0.42
0.37
0.33
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.39
0.34
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.35
0.31
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.21
0.21
0.20
0.32
0.28
0.25
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.28
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.18
0.17
This table is derived for roofs with: 50 mm gravel ballast
(λ= 2.0) over 40 mm screed (λ= 0.50) over 40 mm screed
(λ= 0.41) over 150 mm concrete (λ= 2.30) over 13 mm
plasterboard (λ = 0.25). Insulation thickness derived using
correction factor for rain water flow given in I.S. EN 6946.
(See Diagram B10).
Installation guidelines and precautions
The insulation is laid on the waterproof membrane.
A filtration layer is used to keep out grit, which could
eventually damage the weatherproof membrane. The
insulation must be restrained to prevent wind uplift
and protected against ultraviolet degradation. This is
usually achieved by use of gravel ballast, paving stones
or equivalent restraint and protection. The insulation
should have sufficient compressive strength to
withstand the weight of the ballast and any other
loads.
Rainwater will penetrate the insulation as far as the
waterproof membrane. Drainage should be provided
to remove this rainwater. To minimise the effect of
rain on performance, insulation boards should be
tightly jointed (rebated or tongued-and-grooved
edges are preferred), and trimmed to give a close fit
around upstands and service penetrations.
To avoid condensation problems, the thermal
resistance of the construction between the
weatherproof membrane and the heated space is at
least 0.15 m2K/W. However, this thermal resistance
should not exceed 25% of the thermal resistance of
the whole construction.
Thermal bridging at roof / wall junctions should be
avoided.
WALL COnSTRUCTIOnS
B.6.1. W1: Cavity walls, insulation in
cavity, cavity retained (partial fill)
B.6.1.1 W1(a) Brick or rendered dense
concrete block external leaf, partial fill
insulation, dense concrete block inner
leaf, plaster or plasterboard internal
finish.
Diagram B11
Para. B.6.1.1
Cavity wall with partial-fill insulation
External leaf
(brick or dense concrete block with
external render)
Air space (min. 40 mm)
Insulation
Inner leaf (concrete block, plaster or
plasterboard)
The following tables deal with walls with maximum
overall cavity width of 150 mm, which is the greatest
cavity width for which details of construction are
given in I.S. 325 Part 1: 1986, Code of Practice for the
structural use of concrete; Structural use of unreinforced
concrete. Where it is proposed to use wider cavity
widths, full structural and thermal design will be
necessary.
Table B9: U-values for brick (or rendered
dense concrete block) external
leaf, partial fill insulation, dense
concrete block inner leaf, plaster
(or plasterboard) internal finish.
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
60
80
100
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m2K)
0.040
0.48
0.39
0.32
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.43
0.35
0.29
0.39
0.31
0.25
0.33
0.26
0.22
0.28
0.22
0.18
This table is derived for walls with:
102 mm clay brickwork outer leaf (λ= 0.77), 50 mm air
space, insulation as specified in table, 100 mm concrete
block inner leaf (density = 1800 kg/m3, λ = 1.13), 13 mm
dense plaster (λ = 0.57). (See Diagram B11). The effects of
wall ties are assumed to be negligible.
43
The insulation thickness required to achieve a given
U-value may be reduced by using lightweight
concrete insulating blocks for the inner leaf, as
shown in the table below.
Table B10: U-values for construction as
Table B9 except for lightweight
concrete block inner leaf.
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
60
80
100
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m2K)
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.40
0.34
0.29
0.37
0.31
0.26
0.34
0.27
0.23
0.30
0.24
0.20
0.25
0.20
0.17
This table is derived for walls as in Table B9, except
heavyweight concrete block inner leaf replaced with 100 mm
insulating block (λ = 0.18).
Calculations assume a 7% fractional area of mortar (λ =
0.88) bridging the inner leaf.
Note that the sound attenuation performance of
lightweight blocks is not as good as that of heavier
blocks. This may limit their suitability for use in the
inner leafs of attached buildings.
Installation guidelines and precautions
Insulation should be tight against the inner leaf. Any
excess mortar should be cleaned off before fixing
insulation. The insulation layer should be continuous
and without gaps. Insulation batts should butt tightly
against each other. Mortar droppings on batts should
be avoided. Batts should be cut and trimmed to fit
tightly around openings, cavity trays, lintels, sleeved
vents and other components bridging the cavity, and
should be adequately supported in position.
Critical locations where care should be taken to limit
thermal bridging include lintels, jambs, cills, roof-wall
junctions and wall-floor junctions. The method of
cavity closure used should not cause thermal bridge
at the roof-wall junction.
B.6.1.2 W1(b): As W1(a) except with
insulation partly in cavity and partly as
internal lining.
If composite boards of plasterboard backed with
insulation (of similar conductivity to that used in the
cavity) are used internally. Table B9 and B10 can be
taken as applying to the total insulation thickness
(cavity plus internal). If internal insulation is placed
between timber studs, total insulation thickness will
be slightly higher due to the bridging effect of the
studs. Table B11 applies in this case.
Table B11: U-values for brick (or rendered
dense concrete block) external
leaf, 60mm partial fill insulation
( λ = 0.035), dense concrete block
inner leaf, plasterboard fixed to
timber studs, insulation between
studs.
Total thickness
of insulation
between studs
(mm)
40
60
80
100
120
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
0.040
0.31
0.28
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.31
0.27
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.29
0.26
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.19
0.17
0.26
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.15
This table is derived for walls as in Table B9 above, except with
60 mm of insulation of λ = 0.035 in cavity, and insulation as
specified in the table applied to the internal surface of the wall
between timber studs (λ = 0.13) of fractional area 12%, with a
wall finish of 13 mm plasterboard (λ = 0.25).
Lower U-values, or reduced insulation thickness, can
be achieved by using insulating concrete blockwork
(rather than dense concrete) between the cavity and
internal insulation.
Insulation partly in cavity and partly as internal lining
helps minimise thermal bridging. Internal insulation
limits thermal bridging at floor and roof junctions,
whereas cavity insulation minimises thermal bridging
at separating walls and internal fixtures.
Installation guidelines and precautions
Installation of insulation in the cavity should follow
the guidelines given above for construction W1(a)
(partial-fill cavity insulation), and installation of the
44
internal lining should follow the guidelines given
below for construction W4 (hollow-block).
B.6.2. Construction W2: Cavity walls,
insulation in cavity, no residual cavity
(full-fill)
The insulation fully fills the cavity. Insulation may be in
the form of semi-rigid batts installed as wall
construction proceeds, or loose-fill material blown
into the cavity after the wall is constructed; the
former is considered here. Insulation material
suitable for cavity fill should not absorb water by
capillary action and should not transmit water from
outer to inner leaf. Such insulation may extend below
dpc level.
Diagram B12
Para. B.6.2
Cavity wall with full-fill insulation
External leaf
(rendered dense concrete
block)
Insulation
Inner leaf (concrete block,
plaster or plasterboard)
Table B12:
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
60
80
100
120
140
160
U-values for rendered dense
concrete block external leaf,
f ull-fill insulation dense
concrete block inner lea f,
plaster (or plasterboa rd)
internal finish.
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
0.51
0.41
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.22
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.46
0.37
0.30
0.26
0.22
0.20
0.41
0.32
0.26
0.22
0.20
0.17
0.35
0.27
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.29
0.22
0.18
0.16
0.13
0.12
This table is derived for walls with:
20 mm external rendering (λ = 0.57), 102 mm clay brickwork
outer leaf (λ = 0.77), insulation as specified in table, 100 mm
concrete block inner leaf (medium density - 1800 kg/m3, λ =
1.13), 13 mm dense plaster (λ= 0.57). The effects of wall ties
are assumed to be negligible. (See Diagram B12).
The insulation thickness required to achieve a given
U-value may be reduced by using insulating concrete
blocks for the inner leaf, as shown in the table below.
Table B13: U-values for rendered dense
concrete block external leaf,
full-fill insulation, lightweight
concrete block inner leaf, plaster
(or plasterboard) internal finish.
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
60
80
100
120
140
160
0.43
0.35
0.30
0.26
0.23
0.21
0.39
0.32
0.27
0.23
0.21
0.18
0.35
0.29
0.24
0.21
0.18
0.16
0.31
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.26
0.21
0.17
0.15
0.13
0.11
This table is derived for walls as above, except heavyweight
concrete block inner leaf replaced with 100 mm insulating
block (λ = 0.18).
Calculations assume a 7% fractional area of mortar (λ= 0.88)
bridging the inner leaf.
45
Installation guidelines and precautions
Only certified insulation products should be used,
and the installation and other requirements specified
in such certificates should be fully complied with. In
particular, regard should be had to the exposure
conditions under which use is certified and any
limitations on external finish associated therewith.
Guidance on minimising air gaps and infiltration in
partial-fill cavity insulation applies also to full-fill
insulation.
Similar issues regarding avoidance of thermal bridging
as for construction apply.
B.6.3 Construction W3: Timber
frame wall, brick or rendered concrete
block external leaf
B.6.3.1 W3(a) Insulation between
studs
The insulation is installed between studs, whose
depth equals or exceeds the thickness of insulation
specified.
In calculating U-values, the fractional area of timber
bridging the insulation should be checked. Account
should be taken of all timber elements which fully
bridge the insulation, including studs, top and bottom
rails, noggings, timbers around window and door
openings and at junctions with internal partitions,
party walls and internal floors. In the table a
fractional area of 15% is assumed.
Table B14: U-values for brick (or rendered
dense concrete block) external
leaf, timber frame inner leaf,
insulation between timber
studs, plasterboard internal
finish.
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
100
125
150
175
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
0.39
0.33
0.29
0.25
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.36
0.31
0.27
0.23
0.34
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.31
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.28
0.23
0.20
0.18
This table is derived for walls with:
102 mm clay brickwork outer leaf (λ = 0.77), 50 mm air
cavity, breather membrane, 12 mm sheathing board (λ =
0.14), insulation between timber studs (λ= 0.13), vapour
control layer, 13 mm plasterboard (λ= 0.25). (See Diagram
B13).
The calculations assume a fractional area of timber thermal
bridging of 15%.
Installation guidelines and precautions
Air gaps in the insulation layer, and between it and
the vapour barrier, should be avoided. Insulation batts
should be friction fitted between studs to minimise
gaps between insulation and joists. Adjacent
insulation pieces should butt tightly together.
Particular care is needed to fill gaps between closelyspaced studs at wall/wall and wall/floor junctions, and
at corners of external walls.
Diagram B13
Para. B.6.3.1
Timber frame wall, insulation
between framing timbers
A vapour control layer should be installed on the
warm side of the installation. There should be no
layers of high vapour resistance on the cold side of
the insulation.
External leaf
(brick or rendered dense
concrete block)
Care is required to minimise thermal bridging of the
insulation by timber noggings and other inserts.
50 mm air cavity
Breather membrane
Sheathing board
Insulation
Vapour control layer
Plasterboard
46
B.6.3.2 W3(b): Insulation between and
across studs
Where the chosen stud depth is not sufficient to
accommodate the required thickness of insulation,
insulation can be installed to the full depth between
the studs with additional insulation being provided as
an internal lining. This additional insulation may be
either in the form of plasterboard/insulation
composite board or insulation between timber
battens, to which the plasterboard is fixed.
Table B15: U-values for brick (or rendered
dense concrete block) external
leaf, timber frame inner leaf,
insulation between 100 mm
timber
studs,
additional
insulation, plasterboard internal
finish.
Total thickness
of insulation
across studs
(mm)
20
40
60
80
100
B.6.4 Construction W4: hollow
concrete block wall, rendered
externally, internal insulation lining
with plasterboard finish.
Diagram B14
hollow-block wall, internal
insulation lining
Para. B.6.4
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/m K)
0.040
Rendered hollow concrete
block
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.32
0.28
0.24
0.22
0.19
0.32
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.31
0.25
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.29
0.24
0.20
0.17
0.15
Insulation
0.28
0.22
0.18
0.15
0.13
Vapour control layer
Plasterboard
This table is derived for walls as in W3(a) above, except with
100 mm of insulation of λ = 0.04 between 100 mm studs,
and an additional layer of insulation as specified in the table
across the studs.
The vapour control layer should be on the warm
side of the insulation. If different types of insulation
are used between and inside the studs, the vapour
resistance of the material between the studs should
not exceed that of the material across them.
The insulation is installed on the inner face of the
masonr y walls. It may be installed between
preservative-treated timber studs fixed to the wall,
or in the form of composite boards of plaster backed
with insulation, or as a combination of these.
Installation guidelines and precautions
Air Movement
Air gaps in the insulation layer should be kept to a
minimum. If using insulation between timber studs,
there should be no gaps between insulation and
studs, between insulation and the vapour control
layer, between butt joints in the insulation, around
service penetrations, etc. If using composite boards,
they should be tightly butted at edges, and should
provide complete and continuous coverage of the
external wall.
When mounting composite boards on plaster dabs
or timber battens, there is a danger that air will be
able to circulate behind the insulation, reducing its
effectiveness. To minimise such air movement, the air
gap behind the boards should be sealed along top
and bottom, at corners and around window and
door openings e.g. with continuous ribbon of plaster
or timber studs.
47
Table B16: U-values for hollow-block wall,
rendered externally,
plasterboard fixed to timber
studs internally, insulation
between studs.
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
Table B17:
Total thickness
of insulation
(mm)
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.67
0.50
0.40
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.22
0.63
0.47
0.37
0.31
0.26
0.23
0.21
0.58
0.43
0.34
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.19
0.53
0.39
0.31
0.25
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.47
0.34
0.27
0.23
0.19
0.17
0.15
U-values of hollow-block wall,
rendered externally,
composite insulation/
plasterboard internally, fixed
to timber battens [or plaster
dabs]
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
U-Value of construction (W/m2K)
0.63
0.55
0.48
0.43
0.39
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.23
0.58
0.50
0.44
0.39
0.35
0.32
0.29
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.52
0.45
0.39
0.34
0.31
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.46
0.39
0.34
0.30
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.39
0.32
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
These tables are derived for walls with:
19 mm external rendering (λ = 1.00), 215 mm hollow concrete
block (thermal resistance = 0.21 m2K/W), insulation fixed as
stated, vapour control layer, 13 mm plasterboard (λ = 0.25).
(See Diagram B14).
The calculations assume a fractional area of timber thermal
bridging of 12% or plaster dab thermal bridging of 20%. as
appropriate of 8%.
Condensation
A vapour control layer (e.g. 500 gauge polythene)
should be installed on the warm side of the
insulation to minimise the risk of interstitial
48
condensation on the cold masonry behind the
insulation. Care should be taken to avoid gaps in the
vapour control layer at all joints, edges and service
penetrations. The location of service runs in the air
gap on the cold side of the insulation should be
avoided.
Thermal Bridging
Care should be taken to minimise the impact of
thermal bridging. Critical locations have been
identified for construction W1. These also apply to
this construction.
Other areas where there is a risk of significant
thermal bridging include:
Junctions with solid par ty walls and
partitions
Internal partition or party walls of solid dense
concrete blockwork can create significant thermal
bridge effects at junctions with single leaf masonry
external walls.
Junctions with intermediate floors
The external walls in the floor space of intermediate
floors should be insulated and protected against
vapour movement. Along the wall running parallel to
the joists, insulation can be placed between the last
joist and the wall. Where the joists are perpendicular
to the wall, the insulation and vapour control layer
should be continuous through the intermediate floor
space and should be carefully cut to fit around the
joist ends.
Stair s, cupboards and other fittings
supported on or abutting the external wall
Insulation should be carried through behind such
fittings.
Ducts, e.g. Soil and vent pipe ducts, against
external walls
Insulation should be continuous at all such ducts, i.e.
the insulation should be carried through on either
the external or internal side of such ducts. Where
the insulation is on the external side, particular care
should be taken to prevent ingress of cold external
air where ducts etc. penetrate the insulation.
FLOOR COnSTRUCTIOnS
B.7.1 Construction F1: Ground floor:
concrete slab-on-ground. Insulation
under slab or under screed
For continuous and uniform insulation under the full
ground floor area, the insulation thickness required
to achieve prescribed U-values for slab-on-ground
floors are given below. These tables apply whether
the insulation is located under the slab or under the
screed.
Diagram B15
Para. B.7.1
Concrete slab-on-ground floor, insulation
under slab
Concrete screed
(optional)
Concrete floor slab
Insulation
Damp proof membrane. Where radon
barrier required, ensure correct detailing
to prevent passage of radon gas into
dwelling - See TGD C.
Table B18 allows estimation of the U-value of an
insulated floor from the ratio of the length of
exposed perimeter to floor area and the thermal
resistance of the applied insulation. Table B19 gives
the thickness of insulation required to achieve a
given U-value when the ratio of exposed perimeter
to floor area and the thermal conductivity of the
material is known. Both tables are derived for
uniform full-floor insulation, ground conductivity of
2.0 W/m2K and full thickness of walls taken to be
0.3 m.
Installation guidelines and precautions
The insulation may be placed above or below the
dpm/radon barrier. The insulation should not absorb
moisture and, where placed below the dpm/radon
barrier, should perform well under prolonged damp
conditions and should not be degraded by any
waterborne contaminants in the soil or fill.
The insulation should have sufficient load-bearing
capacity to support the floor and its loading.
The insulation is laid horizontally over the whole
area of the floor. Insulation boards should be tightly
butted, and cut to fit tightly at edges and around
service penetrations.
Diagram B16
Para. B.7.1
Concrete slab-on-ground floor, insulation
under screed
Screed
Insulation
Damp proof
membrane
Concrete floor slab
Where radon barrier required, ensure
correct detailing to prevent passage of
radon gas into dwelling - See TGD C.
49
Table B18: U-value of insulated ground floor as a function of floor area, exposed
perimeter and thermal resistance of added insulation (Uins).
Exposed Perimeter/Area
(P/A)
(m-1)
Thermal Resistance of Added Insulation
[Rins] (m2K/W)
0.75
1.0
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.0
2.25
2.5
2.75
3.0
3.5
4.0
1.00
0.66
0.57
0.50
0.44
0.40
0.36
0.33
0.31
0.28
0.27
0.23
0.21
0.90
0.64
0.55
0.48
0.43
0.39
0.36
0.33
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.23
0.21
0.80
0.62
0.54
0.47
0.42
0.38
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.23
0.21
0.70
0.59
0.52
0.46
0.41
0.37
0.34
0.31
0.29
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.20
0.60
0.57
0.50
0.44
0.40
0.36
0.33
0.31
0.28
0.27
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.50
0.53
0.47
0.42
0.38
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.27
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.19
0.40
0.48
0.43
0.39
0.36
0.33
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.30
0.43
0.39
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.20
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.18
0.16
Table B19: Concrete slab-on-ground floors:
Insulation thickness required for
U-value of 0.25 W/m2k.
Exposed
Perimeter/
Area
P/A (m-1)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025
0.020
Total thickness of insulation (mm)
10
64
88
100
110
116
120
123
126
128
8
56
77
88
96
101
105
108
110
112
7
48
66
75
82
87
90
93
94
96
6
40
55
63
69
72
75
77
79
80
5
32
44
50
55
56
60
62
63
64
Care should be taken to prevent damage or
dislodgement of insulation during floor laying. If the
dpm is placed below the insulation, the joints
between insulation boards should be taped to
prevent wet screed from entering when being
poured. If the slab/screed is power-floated, the
exposed edges of perimeter insulation should be
50
protected during power-floating, e.g. by boards, or
the areas close to the edge of the floor should be
hand trowelled.
Thermal bridging at floor-wall junctions should be
minimised.
With cavity walls, thermal bridging via the inner leaf
is difficult to avoid, but adequate provision to limit it
should be made.
B.7.2 Construction F2: Ground floor:
suspended timber floor, insulation
between joists.
Diagram B17
Para. B.7.2
Suspended timber floor with quilt
insulation
Timber flooring
Insulation
between joists
Ventilated
subfloor
Note: Where radon barrier required,
ensure correct detailing to prevent passage
of radon gas into the building - See TGD C.
Diagram B18
Para. B.7.2
Suspended timber floor with rigid or
semi-rigid board insulation
Timber flooring
Insulation
between joists
Ventilated
subfloor
Note: Where radon barrier required,
ensure correct detailing to prevent passage
of radon gas into the building - See TGD C.
Table B20: Suspended timber ground floors:
Insulation thickness required for
U-value of 0.25 W/m2k.
Exposed
Perimeter
Area
P/A (m-1)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
Total thickness of insulation (mm)
39
96
117
128
135
139
143
146
148
150
35
87
106
116
122
126
129
132
134
135
31
77
94
103
109
113
116
118
120
121
27
68
83
91
96
99
102
104
105
107
23
58
71
78
82
86
88
89
91
92
This table is derived for:
Suspended floor consisting of 20 mm timber
flooring (λ = 0.13) on timber joists (λ = 0.13), with
insulation between the joists. Ventilated sub-floor
space underneath. (See Diagrams B17 and B18).
A fractional area of timber thermal bridging of 11%
is assumed.
Installation guidelines and precautions
Where mineral wool quilt insulation is used, the
insulation is supported on polypropylene netting or a
breather membrane draped over the joists and held
against their sides with staples or battens. The full
thickness of insulation should extend for the full
width between joists. Insulation should not be
draped over joists, but cut to fit tightly between
them.
Alternatively, rigid or semi-rigid insulation boards,
supported on battens nailed to the sides of the
joists, may be used.
Thermal bridging, and air circulation around the
insulation from the cold vented air space below,
should be minimised. The insulation should fit tightly
against the joists and the flooring above. Careful
placement of supporting battens (or staples) is
required to achieve this. At floor-wall junctions the
insulation should extend to the walls. The space
between the last joist and the wall should be packed
with mineral wool to the full depth of the joist.
Where internal wall insulation is used, the floor and
51
wall insulation should meet. Where cavity insulation
is used, the floor insulation should be turned down
on the internal face and overlap the cavity insulation,
or insulating blocks used in the wall at this level.
Cross-ventilation should be provided to the subfloor space to remove moisture.
Water pipes in the sub-floor space should be
insulated to prevent freezing.
B.7.3 Construction F3: Ground floor:
suspended concrete floor
Diagram B19
Para. B.7.3
Suspended reinforced concrete floor,
internally insulated walls
Table B21: Suspended concrete g round
floors: Insulation thickness
required for U-value of 0.25
W/m2k.
Exposed
Perimeter/
Area
(P/A) (m-1)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
19
69
87
96
102
106
109
112
114
115
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
Total thickness of insulation (mm)
17
60
76
84
89
93
96
98
99
101
14
52
65
72
77
80
82
84
85
86
12
43
54
60
64
67
69
70
71
72
10
35
44
48
51
53
55
56
57
58
This table is derived for floors with:
65 mm screed (λ = 0.41) on insulation on 150 mm cast
concrete (λ= 2.20). Full thickness of walls = 0.3 m, U-value
of sub-floor walls: 2 W/m2K. Height of floor surface above
ground level: 0.3 m. (See Diagrams B19 and B20).
Unventilated sub-floor crawl space underneath.
Floor screed
Insulation
Suspended
concrete floor
slab
Diagram B20
Para. B.7.3
Suspended beam and block floor
Floor screed
Insulation
Beam and
block floor
52
Installation guidance and precautions
If the walls are internally insulated, it is
recommended that the floor insulation be placed
above the floor structure, since it can then connect
with the wall insulation. Thermal bridging at the
floor-wall junction is difficult to avoid when insulation
is placed below the floor structure.
If the walls are cavity insulated, floor insulation can
not connect with wall insulation, so some thermal
bridging is inevitable. It can be minimised by using
insulating blocks for the inner leaf between
overlapping floor and wall insulation. Insulation and
insulating blocks may be either above or below the
floor structure, but above is recommended. This will
allow the use of less dense blocks (of lower thermal
conductivity), since they will not have to support the
weight of the floor. Also, above the structure they
will be above the dpc, where their lower moisture
content will give a lower thermal conductivity than
below the dpc. Heat loss from the floor can be
further reduced by extending the cavity insulation
down to, or below, the lower edge of the suspended
floor.
B.7.4 Construction F4: Exposed floor:
timber joists, insulation between joists
Diagram B21
Para. B.7.4
Exposed timber floor, insulation between
joists
Installation guidance and precautions
The flooring on the warm side of the insulation
should have a higher vapour resistance than the
outer board on the cold side. If necessary, a vapour
check should be laid across the warm side of the
insulation. Methods of avoiding thermal bridging at
junctions with internally insulated and cavity insulated
walls are similar to those described for suspended
timber ground floors above.
Timber flooring
Insulation
between joists
Plasterboard
or similar
Table B22: U-values for exposed timber
floors, insulation between
timber joists, plasterboa rd
finish.
Exposed
Perimeter/Area
(P/A)(m-)
100
120
140
160
180
200
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
Total Thickness of insulation (mm)
0.41
0.35
0.31
0.27
0.25
0.22
0.37
0.32
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.23
0.20
0.19
0.31
0.26
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.17
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.15
This table is derived for floors with:
20 mm timber flooring (λ = 0.13), insulation as specified in
table between timber joists (λ = 0.13) of equal depth, 13 mm
plasterboard (λ = 0.25). The calculations assume a fractional
area of timber thermal bridging of 11%. (See Diagram B21)
53
B.7.5 Construction F5: Exposed floor:
solid concrete, insulation external
Diagram B22
Para. B.7.5
Exposed concrete floor, external insulation
Floor screed
Concrete floor
Insulation
continued around
edge beam
Table B23: U-values for exposed concrete
floors, external insulation,
external render
Exposed
Perimeter/Area
(P/A)(m-)
60
80
100
120
140
160
Thermal conductivity of insulation (W/mK)
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025 0.020
Total Thickness of insulation (mm)
0.54
0.42
0.35
0.30
0.26
0.23
0.48
0.38
0.31
0.26
0.23
0.20
0.42
0.33
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.36
0.28
0.23
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.30
0.23
0.19
0.16
0.14
0.12
This table is derived for floors with:
150 mm cast concrete (λ = 1.35), insulation, 20 mm external
render. (See Diagram B22).
Installation guidance and precautions
If the walls are internally insulated, this floor
construction is not recommended. Floor insulation
should instead be located internally in order to
connect with the wall insulation.
54
With cavity wall insulation, thermal bridging may be
minimised by supporting the external leaf
independently, and continuing the external floor
insulation around the edge beam to connect with the
cavity insulation as shown in Diagram B22.
Table B24: Indicative U-values (W/m2k)
for windows, doors and roof windows
The values apply to the entire area of the window
opening, including both frame and glass, and take
account of the proportion of the area occupied by
the frame and the heat conducted through it. If the
U-value of the components of the window (glazed
unit and frame) are known, window U-values may
alternatively be taken from the tables in Annex F of
I.S. EN ISO 10077-1, using the tables for 20% frame
for metal-framed windows and those for 30% frame
for wood or PVC-U framed windows.
When available, the manufacturer's certified U-values
for windows or doors should be used in preference
to the data in this table. Adjustments for roof indows
should be applied to manufacturer's window Uvalues unless the manufacturer provides a U-value
specifically for a roof window.
Table B24 Indicative U-values (W/m2k) for windows, doors and rooflights
Type of frame
Window with wood or PVC-U
frame (use adjustment in Note 1)
6 mm 12 mm
gap
gap
double-glazed, air filled
double-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.2, hard coat)
double-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.15, hard coat)
double-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.1, soft coat)
double-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.05, soft coat)
double-glazed, argon filled
double-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.2, hard coat)
double-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.15, hard coat)
double-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.1, soft coat)
double-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.05, soft coat)
triple glazed, air filled
triple-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.2, hard coat)
triple-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.15, hard coat)
triple-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.1, soft coat)
triple-glazed, air filled (low-E, Ân = 0.05, soft coat)
triple-glazed, argon filled
triple-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.2, hard coat)
triple-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.15, hard coat)
triple-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.1, soft coat)
triple-glazed, argon filled (low-E, Ân = 0.05, soft coat)
Windows and doors, single glazed
Solid wooden door
3.1
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.9
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.9
2.2
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.7
2.8
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.7
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
2.1
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.5
2.0
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.4
4.8
3.0
16 or
more
mm gap
2.7
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
2.6
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
2.0
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.9
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.3
Window with metal
frame with 4mm
thermal break
(use adjustments in
Note 2)
6 mm 12 mm 16 or
gap
gap
more
mm gap
3.7
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.5
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.9
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.8
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
3.4
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
3.3
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.2
2.6
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.9
2.5
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
5.7
3.3
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
3.2
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.5
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
2.4
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.7
55
notes:
(1) For roof windows with wooden or PVC-U frames apply the following adjustments to U-values:
____________________________________________________________________________________
Wood or PVC-U frame
U-value adjustment for roof window, W/m2k
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Single glazed
+0.3
Double glazed
+0.2
Triple glazed
+0.2
____________________________________________________________________________________
(2) For windows or roof windows with metal frames apply the following adjustments to U-values:
____________________________________________________________________________________
Metal frames
Adjustment to U-value, W/m2k
Window
Roof window
____________________________________________________________________________________
Metal, no thermal break
Metal, thermal break 4 mm
Metal, thermal break 8 mm
Metal, thermal break 12 mm
Metal, thermal break 20 mm
Metal, thermal break 32 mm
(3)
+0.7
+0.3
+0.2
+0.1
0
-0.1
For doors which are half-glazed (approximately) the U-value of the door is the average of the appropriate
window U-value and that of the non-glazed part of the door (e.g. solid wooden door [Uvalue of 3.0
W/m2K] half-glazed with double glazing [low-E, hard coat, argon filled, 6 mm gap, Uvalue of 2.5 W/m2K] has
a resultant U-value of 0.5(3.0+2.5) = 2.75 W/m2K).
Source: DEAP Manual Version 2.1 January 2007
56
+0.3
0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
Appendix C:
Reference values for calculation of Maximum
Permitted Energy Performance Coefficient
(MPEPC) and Maximum Permitted Carbon
Performance Coefficient (MPCPC)
C.1 This Appendix provides a set of reference
values for the parameters of an NEAP calculation,
which are used to establish a Maximum Permitted
Energy Performance Coefficient (MPEPC) and
Maximum Permitted Carbon Performance
Coefficient (MPCPC) for the purposes of
demonstrating compliance with Regulation L4(a) for
buildings other than dwellings.
C2. Table C1 defines a notional Reference Building
used to establish the MPEPC and MPCPC for the
actual building being assessed for compliance in
accordance with Section 1.1 of this document.
Table C1: Reference values for calculation of Maximum Permitted Primary Energy
Performa nce Coef ficient (MPPEPC) a nd Maximum Permitted Ca rbon
Performance Coefficient (MPCPC) for buildings (other than a dwelling).
Element or system
Reference Values/ Specifications
Total floor area and building volume
Same as actual building
Opening areas (windows and doors)
All external walls shall be taken to have
windows and doors and all roofs shall
be taken to have roof lights.
Residential buildings where people temporarily or permanently
reside. Windows and pedestrian doors are 30% of the total area of
exposed walls
Roof lights are 20% of roof area
The reference building shall be taken to
have the same areas of pedestrian doors,
vehicle access doors and display window
as the actual building. If the total area
of these elements is less than the
allowances listed in the right hand column
the balance shall be made up of windows
and roof lights. If the total area exceeds
the allowances no windows or roof lights
will be added.
Places of assembly, offices and shops
Windows and pedestrian doors are 40% of the total area of as the
exposed walls
Roof lights are 20% of roof area
Industrial and storage buildings
Windows and pedestrian doors are 15% of the total area of
exposed walls. Roof lights are 20% of roof area
Vehicle access doors
Same area as actual building
Pedestrian doors
Same area as actual building
Display windows
Same area as actual building
High usage entrance doors
Not included in reference building
Walls
U = 0.27 W/m2K
Roof
U = 0.16 W/m2K
Windows, roof lights and glazed doors
U = 2.2 W/m2K
Solar energy transmittance = 0.72
Light transmittance = 0.76
Display windows
U = 6.0 W/m2K
Solar energy transmittance = 0.72
Light transmittance = 0.00
External personnel doors
U = 2.2 W/m2K
Vehicle access and similar large doors
U = 1.5 W/m2K
Ground and other exposed floors
U = 0.25 W/m2K
Area: same as actual building
57
Table C1: Reference values for calculation of Maximum Permitted Primary Energy
Contd... Performa nce Coef ficient (MPPEPC) a nd Maximum Permitted Ca rbon
Performance Coefficient (MPCPC) for buildings (other than a dwelling).
Element or system
Reference Values/ Specifications
Effective Thermal Capacity
External wall = 11.7 kJ/m2K
Roof = 12.0 kJ/m2K
Ground floor = 36.0 kJ/m2K
Internal wall = 11.9 kJ/m2K
Internal floor = 8.6 kJ/m2K
Internal ceiling = 8.6 kJ/m2K
Allowance for thermal bridging
Add 16% to calculated heat loss through building elements
Shading and orientation
Same as actual building
Air permeability
Infiltration due to structure = 10m3/h/m2 at 50 Pa
Fuel
Auxiliary energy = grid electricity
Cooling = grid electricity
Domestic hot water (DHW) = as actual building1
Space heating = as actual building1
Note 1: use of renewable energy is not assumed for the reference
building; Where a combination of renewable and non-renewable
energies used in actual building, full provision is assumed to be by
the non-renewable source in the reference building; where full
provision is by renewable source in actual building, natural gas is
assumed in reference building.
Cooling Seasonal Energy Efficiency
Ratio (SEER)
Air conditioned building
SEER = 1.67
Heating System Coefficient of
Performance (SCoP)
Heating only SCoP = 0.73
Mechanical ventilation (no cooling)
SCoP = 0.78
Air conditioned SCoP = 0.83
Auxiliary Energy
No mechanical services = 0 kWh/m2
Heating only = 1.8 kWh/m2
Mechanical ventilation (no cooling) = Multiply the specific fan power
by the minimum ventilation requirement and occupation period
appropriate to the activity in the space
Air conditioned = maximum of:
(a) Fresh air rate multiplied by the annual hours of operation for full
occupancy by a specific fan power of 2.0 W/(litre/s). If the
activity in the space requires the use of HEPA filters, a specific
fan power of 3.0 W/(litre/s) is used
(b) 8.5 W/m2 multiplied by the annual hours of operation
58
Table C1: Reference values for calculation of Maximum Permitted Primary Energy
Contd... Performa nce Coef ficient (MPPEPC) a nd Maximum Permitted Ca rbon
Performance Coefficient (MPCPC) for buildings (other than a dwelling).
Element or system
Reference Values/ Specifications
Lighting – installed power density
Office, storage and industrial spaces = divide the illuminance
appropriate to the activity area by 100, then multiply by 3.75 W/m2
per 100 lux
For other spaces = divide the illuminance appropriate to the activity
area by 100, then multiply by 5.2 W/m2 per 100 lux
Lighting controls
Activity
The following parameters are fixed for
each activity and building type:
a) Heating and cooling temperature
and humidity set points
b) Lighting standards
c) Ventilation standards
d) Occupation densities and associated
internal gains
e) Gains from equipment
f) Internal moisture gains for kitchens
and swimming pools
g) Duration when these set points,
standards, occupation standards,
occupation densities and gains to be
maintained
h) Set back conditions when the
conditions listed in (g) are not
maintained
i) Hot water demand
Local manual switching only in all spaces.
Same as actual building
59
Appendix D:
Thermal Bridging
GEnERAL
CALCULATIOn PROCEDURES
D.1 This Appendix deals with the assessment of
discreet thermal bridging, e.g. at junctions and around
openings such as doors and windows. It gives
guidance on
D.4 Details can be assessed and the calculated value
used in the calculation of overall heat loss due to
thermal bridging.
•
avoidance of mould growth and surface
condensation, and
•
limiting factors governing additional heat losses.
The guidance is based on IP 1/06 “Assessing the effects
of thermal bridging at junctions and around openings”
published by BRE and can be used to demonstrate
adequate provision to limit thermal bridging when
the guidance in relation to appropriate detailing of
cills, jambs, lintels, junctions between elements and
other potential thermal bridges contained in
Paragraphs 1.2.4.2 and 1.2.4.3, and associated
reference documents, is not followed.
MOULD GROWTh AnD SURFACE
COnDEnSATIOn
D.2 Details should be assessed in accordance with
the methods described in I.S. EN ISO 10211-1: and
I.S. EN ISO 10211-2. This assessment should establish
the temperature factor (f Rsi ) and linear thermal
transmittance (ψ).
The temperature factor (fRsi) is defined as follows:
fRsi = (Tsi – Te) / (Ti – Te)
where:
Tsi = minimum internal surface
temperature,
Te = external temperature, and
Ti = internal temperature.
The linear thermal transmittance (ψ) describes the
heat loss associated with a thermal bridge. This is a
property of a thermal bridge and is the rate of heat
flow per degree per unit length of bridge that is not
accounted for in the U-values of the plane building
elements containing the thermal bridge.
D.3 The value of fRsi should be greater than or equal
to 0.75, so as to avoid the risk of mould growth and
surface condensation. For three-dimensional corners
of ground floors this value may be reduced to 0.70,
for all points within 10 mm of the point of lowest fRsi.
60
Details should be assessed in accordance with the
methods described in IS EN ISO 10211 Parts 1 and
2. These calculations of two dimensional or three
dimensional heat flow require the use of numerical
modeling software. To be acceptable, numerical
modeling software should model the validation
examples in IS EN ISO 10211 with results that agree
with the stated values of temperature and heat flow
within the tolerance indicated in the standard for
these examples. Several packages are available that
meet this requirement.
Detailed guidance on decisions regarding specific
input to the modeling software and the
determination of certain quantities from the output
of the software is contained in BRE Report BR 497
Conventions for calculating linear thermal
transmittance and temperature factors. This guidance
should be followed in carrying out modeling work so
that different users of the same software package
and users of different software packages can obtain
correct and consistent results.
Table D1:
Maximum values of linear
thermal transmittance (ψ)
for selected locations
Detail in external
element/junction with
external element
Windows/doors
Steel lintel with perforated
steel baseplate
Other lintel (including other
steel lintel)
Cills/jambs
junctions with external
element
Ground floor,
intermediate floor , Party wall
Eaves (ceiling level)
Gable (ceiling level)
Maximum value
of ψ (W/mk)
0.50
0.30
0.06
0.16
0.06
0.24
Note: For party walls and intermediate floors between
buildings, half of the ψ-value should be applied to each building
when assessing the additional heat loss associated with bridging.
Table D2: Linear Thermal Transmittance
Values for Acceptable
Construction Details for use in
nEAP
Type of junction
Roof-Wall
Wall-Ground floor
Wall-Wall (corner)
Wall-Floor (not ground floor)
Lintel above window or door
Sill below window
Jamb at window or door
ψ (W/mk)
0.12
0.16
0.09
0.07
0.3
0.04
0.05
61
Appendix E:
Avoidance of Solar Overheating
This Appendix provides the detail for the
E1
procedure referred to in paragraph 1.2.6.2 (a).
E2
When estimating the solar load, the space
being considered should be split into perimeter and
interior zones. “Perimeter zones” are those defined
by a boundary drawn a maximum of 6 m away from
the window wall(s). Interior zones are defined by the
space between this perimeter boundary and the nonwindow walls or the perimeter boundary of another
perimeter zone.
When calculating the average solar cooling load, the
contribution from all windows within that zone
should be included, plus the contribution from any
rooflight (or part rooflight) that is within the zone
boundary.
For interior zones, the contribution from all
rooflights (or part rooflights) that is within its zone
boundary should be included.
For each zone within the space, the total average
solar cooling load per unit floor area should be no
greater than 25 W/m2.
The total average solar cooling load per unit floor
area (W/m2) is calculated as follows:
The average solar cooling load
associated with each glazed area is calculated
by multiplying the area of glazing by the solar
load for the appropriate orientation (see Table
7) and by a correction factor applicable to the
relevant glazing/blind combination (see
Paragraph E3 and Table E1);
-
-
The average solar cooling loads thus calculated
are added together and the sum divided by the
zone floor area to give a total average solar
cooling load per unit floor area (W/m2).
Where the actual glazed area is not known, it can be
assumed to equate to the opening area reduced by
an allowance for framing. The default reduction
should be taken as 10% for windows and 30% for
rooflights.
E3
Standard correction factors for intermittent
shading using various glass/blind combinations are
given in Table E1.
62
Table E1: Correction f actors for
intermittent shading using va rious
glass/blind combinations
Glazing/blind combination
(described from inside
to outside)
Blind/clear/clear
Blind/clear/reflecting
Blind/clear/absorbing
Blind/low-e/clear
Blind/low-e/reflecting
Blind/low-e/absorbing
Clear/blind/clear
Clear/blind/reflecting
Clear/blind/absorbing
Clear/clear/blind/clear
Clear/clear/blind/reflecting
Clear/clear/blind/absorbing
Clear/clear/blind
Clear/clear/clear/blind
Correction
factor (fc)
0.95
0.62
0.66
0.92
0.60
0.62
0.69
0.47
0.50
0.56
0.37
0.39
0.57
0.47
Where available shading coefficient data for a
particular device should be used to calculate the
correction factor, in preference to using the figures
given in Table E1. The correction factor is calculated
as follows:
(a)
For fixed shading (including units with
absorbing or reflecting glass), the correction
factor (fc) is given by
fc = Sc/0.7
(b)
For moveable shading, the correction factor is
given by
fc = 0.5(1 + (Sc/0.7))
where Sc is the shading coefficient for the
glazing/shading device combination, i.e. the ratio of
the instantaneous heat gain at normal incidence by
the glazing/shading combination relative to the
instantaneous heat gain by a sheet of 4 mm clear
glass.
(c)
Where there is a combination of fixed and
moveable shading, the correction factor is
given by
fc = (Scf + Sctot)/1.4
(c)
where Scf is the shading coefficient of the fixed
shading (with glazing) and Sctot is the shading
coefficient of the combination of glazing and fixed
and moveable shading.
Example E2
Example E1
E4
A school classroom is 9 m long by 6 m deep,
with a floor to ceiling height of 2.9 m. There is
glazing on one wall, with rooflights along the internal
wall opposite the window wall. The windows are
1200 mm wide by 1000 mm high, and there are six
such windows in the external wall, which faces SE.
The windows are clear double glazed, with mid-pane
blinds, of wooden frames with a framing percentage
of 25%. There are three 0.9 m2 horizontal rooflights,
with an internal blind and low-e glass on the inner
pane of the double pane unit. Is there likely to be a
solar overheating problem?
(a)
(b)
As the room is not more than 6 m deep, it
should be considered as a single “perimeter
zone” – there is no “interior zone”
The calculation of the average solar cooling
load (W) is set out in the following Table
Element/ Orientation
Windows (SE)
E5
An office building has a floor to ceiling height
of 2.8 m and curtain walling construction with a
glazing ratio of 0.6. The long side of the office faces
south and the short side faces west. On each floor,
the main office area is open plan, but there is a 5 m
by 3 m corner office, with the 5 m side facing South.
It is proposed to use double glazing with the internal
pane low-e glazing and the external pane absorbing
glass, and with an internal blind.
For the open plan areas, the perimeter zone is
defined by the 6 m depth rule, but for the corner
office, it is defined by the partitions. The glazed area
is taken as the nominal area less 10% for framing.
Three different situations must be considered
-
the south facing open plan area;
the west facing open plan area; and
the corner office.
Open plan area
Rooflight
Opening Area (m2)
7.2
2.7
Frame correction
0.75
0.7
Glazing/blind correction
(Table E1)
0.69
0.92
Average solar load per
unit glazed area
(W/m2) (Table 7)
198
327
Average solar load (W)
738
569
Total Average Load (W)
the total average solar cooling load per unit
floor area (W/m2) is derived by dividing the
total average solar load by the zone floor area.
In this case the floor area is 54 m2 and the
total average solar cooling load per unit floor
area is 24.20 (W/m2). As this is less than 25
W/m2, there is not likely to be an overheating
problem.
From Table 7, it can be seen that the solar loading for
a West orientation (205 W/m2) exceeds that for a
South orientation (156 W/m2). Thus, on the
assumption that the same construction would be
used on West and South facades, it is sufficient to
check the West orientation for the open plan offices.
For a typical 5 m length of West facing office, the
floor area of the perimeter zone is 30 m2, and the
area of glazing is 7.56 m2, i.e. width (5 m) x height
(2.8 m) x glazing ratio (0.6) x framing correction
(0.9). The glazing/blind correction factor is 0.62 and
the solar loading is 205 W/m2. Thus the total average
solar cooling load per unit floor area (W/m2) is
(7.56 x .62 x 205)/30 = 32W/m2.
1307
63
As this is greater than the threshold of 25 W/m2, it is
necessary to decrease the glazing ratio or provide
alternative or additional shading devices, e.g. a
reduction in glazing ratio to 0.47 or provision of
fixed shading devices which would provide a shading
coefficient of 0.34 (giving a correction factor of 0.43),
or a combination of these measures would reduce
the risk of solar overheating to acceptable levels.
Corner Office
For the purpose of this example, it is assumed that it
has been decided to reduce the glazing ratio of the
building to 0.47. On this basis the average solar load
for this office can be calculated as set out in the
following table.
Element/ Orientation
South
Facade
West
Facade
Nominal Glazed Area
(m2)
6.8
3.95
Frame correction
0.9
0.9
Glazing/blind correction
(Table E1)
0.62
0.62
Average solar load per
unit glazed area
(W/m2) (Table 7)
156
205
Average solar load (W)
573
452
Total Average Solar
Load (W)
1025
The office floor area is 15 m2 and the total average
solar cooling load per unit floor area (W/m2) is 68
W/m2.
To achieve a total average solar cooling load per unit
floor area (W/m2) of 25 W/m2 would require a
reduction in the total average solar load to 375 W.
This can be achieved by a further reduction of glazing
area, e.g. through the use of opaque panels so as to
reduce the glazing ratio for the corner office to 17%.
An alternative would be to use external shading
devices to give a correction factor of 0.22. This
implies fixed shading with a shading coefficient of
0.16. Such a shading coefficient is quite demanding to
achieve in practice. Alternatively a more detailed
calculation could be undertaken.
64
If the corner office was not partitioned from a
general open floor area, it’s solar load could be
considered as part of the load of one of the facades
it shares.
Standards and Other References
Standards referred to:
I.S. 161: 1975 Copper direct cylinders for domestic
purposes.
I.S. 325-1: 1986 Code of Practice for use of masonry
- part 1: Structural use of unreinforced masonry.
I.S. EN 1745: 2002 Masonry And Masonry Products Methods for determining Design Thermal Values.
I.S. EN ISO 6946: 1997 Building components and
building elements –Thermal resistance and thermal
transmittance – Calculation method Amd 1 2003.
I.S. EN ISO 8990: 1997 Thermal insulation –
Determination of steady-state thermal transmission
properties – Calibrated and guarded hot box.
I.S. EN ISO 10077-1: 2001 Thermal performance of
windows, doors and shutters – Calculation of
thermal transmittance – Part 1: simplified method.
I.S. EN 10077-2: 2000 Thermal performance of
windows, doors and shutters – Calculation of
thermal transmittance – Part 2: Numerical methods
for frames.
I.S. EN ISO 10211-1: 1996 Thermal bridges in
building construction – heat flows and surface
temperatures. Part 1 general calculation methods.
I.S. EN ISO 10211-2: 2001 Thermal bridges in
building construction – heat flows and surface
temperatures. Part 2 linear thermal bridges.
I.S. EN ISO 10456: 2000 Building materials and
products - procedures for determining declared and
design thermal values.
I.S. EN 12524: 2000 Building materials and products –
Hygrothermal properties – Tabulated design values.
I.S. EN ISO 12567-1: 2001 Thermal performance of
windows and doors – Determination of thermal
transmittance by hot box method – Part 1: Complete
windows and doors.
I.S. EN ISO 13370: 1999 Thermal performance of
buildings – Heat transfer via the ground – Calculation
methods.
I.S. EN ISO 13789: 2000 Thermal Performance of
Buildings – Transmission Heat Loss Coefficient –
Calculation Method.
I.S. EN 13829: 2000 Thermal Performance of
Buildings: Determination of air permeability of
buildings: fan pressurisation method.
BS 747: 2000 Reinforced bitumen sheets for roofing
– Specification.
BS 1566 Part 1: 2002 Copper indirect cylinders for
domestic purposes, open vented copper cylinders.
Requirements and test methods.
BS 5422 : 2001 Method for specifying thermal
insulating materials for pipes, tanks, vessels, ductwork
and equipment (operating within the temperature
range - 400C to + 7000C).
BS 8206 Part 2: 1992 Lighting for buildings. Code of
practice for daylighting.
Other Publications referred to:
BRE Digest 465, U-values for light steel frame
construction, BRE, 2002.
BRE Information Paper 1/06 Assessing the effects of
thermal bridging at junctions and around openings,
BRE, 2001.
BRE Information Paper 10/02, Metal cladding:
assessing the thermal performance of built-up
systems using ‘Z’ spacers, BRE, 2002
BRE Information Paper 1/06 Assessing the affects of
thermal bridging at junctions and around openings,
BRE 2006
BRE Report BR 262, Thermal Insulation: avoiding
risks, BRE, 2001
BRE Report BR 364, Solar shading of buildings, BRE,
1999
BRE Report BR 443, Conventions for U-value
Calculations, BRE, 2002.
BRE Report BR 497, Conventions for calculating
linear thermal transmittance and temperature
factors, BRE, 2007
CIBSE Guide A: Environmental Design - Section 3:
Thermal Properties of Buildings and Components,
CIBSE, 1999
CIBSE TM 23: Testing Buildings for Air Leakage,
CIBSE, 2000
Chris Knights and Nigel Potter, Airtightness Testing
for New Dwellings, A BSRIA Guide ,BSRIA, 2006
DEHLG, Limiting Thermal Bridging and Air
Infiltration - Acceptable Construction Details
availabe on www.environ.ie
Domestic Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP) SEI
2006 (www.sei.ie)
Good Practice Guide 268, Energy efficient ventilation
in dwellings – a guide for specifiers, 2006
Home-heating Appliance Register of Performance
(HARP) database, SEI (www.sei.ie/harp).
Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems for
dwellings – Achieving compliance with Part L.
MCRMA Technical Paper No. 14, Guidance for the
design of metal roofing and cladding to comply with
Approved Document L2:2001, The Metal Cladding
and Roofing Manufacturers Association, 2002
SCI Technical Information Sheet 312, Metal cladding:
U-value calculation - assessing thermal performance
of built-up metal roof and wall cladding systems using
65
rail and bracket spacers, The Steel Construction
Institute, 2002
SI. No. 260 of 1994, European Communities
(Efficiency requirements for hot water boilers fired
with liquid or gaseous fuels) Regulations, 1994, The
Department of Transport, Energy and
Communications, 1994
Other Useful Standards and Publications
IS EN 14785: 2006 Residential space heating
appliances fired by wood pellets - requirements and
test methods
I.S. EN 303-5: 1999 Heating boilers - heating boilers
for solid fuels, hand and automatically stoked,
nominal heat output of up to 300 kw - terminology
requirements, testing and marking
Pr EN 15270: Pellet burners for small heating boilers
- Definitions, requirements, testing, marking
(Expected to be adopted as IS EN 15270 in 2008)
IS EN 12975-1: 2006 Thermal solar systems and
components - solar collectors - part 1: general
requirements
IS EN 12975-2: 2006 Thermal solar systems and
components - solar collectors - part 2: test methods
IS EN 12976-1: 2006 Thermal solar systems and
components - factory made systems - part 1: general
requirements
IS EN 12976-2 : 2006 Thermal solar systems and
components - factory made systems - part 2: test
methods
IS ENV 12977-1: 2001 Thermal solar systems and
components - custom built systems - part 1: general
requirements
IS ENV 12977-2 : 2001 Thermal solar systems and
components - custom built systems - part 2: test
methods
ISO 9806-1: 1994 Test methods for solar collectors - part 1: thermal performance of glazed liquid heating
collectors including pressure drop
ISO 9806-2: 1995 Test methods for solar collectors - part 2: qualification test procedures
ISO 9806-3: 1995 Test methods for solar collectors - part 3: thermal performance of unglazed liquid
heating collectors (sensible heat transfer only)
including pressure drop
IS EN 14511-1: 2004 Air conditioners, liquid chilling
packages and heat pumps with electrically driven
compressors for space heating and cooling - part 1:
terms and definitions
66
IS EN 14511-2 :2004 Air conditioners, liquid chilling
packages and heat pumps with electrically driven
compressors for space heating and cooling - part 2:
test conditions
IS EN 14511-3: 2004 Air conditioners, liquid chilling
packages and heat pumps with electrically driven
compressors for space heating and cooling - part 3:
test methods
IS EN 14511-4: 2004 Air conditioners, liquid chilling
packages and heat pumps with electrically driven
compressors for space heating and cooling - part 4:
requirements
I.S. EN 12664: 2001 Thermal performance of building
materials and products – Determination of thermal
resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat
flow meters method – Dry and moist products of
low and medium thermal resistance.
I.S. EN 12667: 2001 Thermal performance of building
materials and products – Determination of thermal
resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat
flow meters method – Products of high and medium
thermal resistance.
I.S. EN 12828: 2003 Heating systems in buildings design for water-based heating systems.
I.S. EN 12939: 2001 Thermal performance of building
materials and products – Determination of thermal
resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat
flow meters method – Thick products of high and
medium thermal resistance.
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