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California
English Language
Development Standards
(Electronic Edition)
Kindergarten Through Grade 12
Adopted by the California
State Board of Education
November 2012
California
English Language
Development Standards
Kindergarten Through Grade 12
Adopted by the California State Board of Education
November 2012
Publishing Information
The California English Language Development Standards: Kindergarten Through
Grade 12 was developed by English Learner Support Division, California
Department of Education. This publication was edited by Faye Ong and John
McLean, working in cooperation with Gustavo Gonzalez, Education Programs
Consultant, English Learner Support Division. It was designed and prepared for
printing by the staff of CDE Press, with the cover and interior designed by uyet
Truong. It was published by the Department of Education, 1430 N Street,
Sacramento, CA 95814-5901. It was distributed under the provisions of the
Library Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096.
© 2014 by the California Department of Education
All rights reserved
ISBN 978-0-8011-1738-1
Reproduction of this document for resale, in whole or in part, is not authorized.
ii | Publishing Information
Ordering Information
Copies of this publication are available for purchase from the California
Department of Education. For prices and ordering information, please visit the
Department Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc or call the CDE Press
Sales Office at 1-800-995-4099.
Notice
The guidance in California English Language Development Standards:
Kindergarten Through Grade 12 is not binding on local educational agencies
or other entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court decisions that
are referenced herein, the document is exemplary, and compliance with it is not
mandatory. (See Education Code Section 33308.5.)
Contents
A Message from the State Board of Education and
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction .......................................... v
Acknowledgments .................................................................................... vi
Introduction ..............................................................................................1
Chapter 3. The Standards: Kindergarten Through Grade 12 .......................... 25
Kindergarten ................................................................................ 26
Grade 1........................................................................................ 36
Grade 2........................................................................................ 46
The English Language Development Proficiency Level Descriptors and
Standards .................................................................................................5
Grade 3........................................................................................ 56
Chapter 1. Purposes, Development, and Structure of the California English
Language Development Standards ................................................. 7
Grade 5........................................................................................ 76
Definition of the Standards ............................................................ 8
Purposes and Intended Users ........................................................ 8
California’s English Learner Students .............................................. 8
Goals of the California English Language Development
Standards ...................................................................................... 9
Unintended and Inappropriate Uses of the Standards .................. 10
Grade 4........................................................................................ 66
Grade 6........................................................................................ 86
Grade 7........................................................................................ 98
Grade 8...................................................................................... 110
Grades 9–10 .............................................................................. 122
Grades 11–12............................................................................. 134
Legislation and Process for Development and Validation .............. 12
Professional Learning for Successful Implementation of the California
English Language Development Standards .............................................145
Chapter 4. Theoretical Foundations and the Research Base of the California
English Language Development Standards................................. 147
Organization of the Standards ...................................................... 13
Interacting in Meaningful and Intellectually Challenging Ways ..... 148
References ................................................................................... 16
Scaffolding ................................................................................. 149
Chapter 2. Proficiency Level Descriptors for the California English Language
Development Standards ............................................................... 17
Developing Academic English ..................................................... 151
Organization of the Proficiency Level Descriptors .......................... 18
The Importance of Grammatical and Discourse-Level
Understandings .......................................................................... 151
Rationale for Three Proficiency Levels ........................................... 11
Proficiency Level Descriptors ........................................................ 20
The Importance of Vocabulary .................................................... 151
Contents | iii
Other Relevant Guidance Documents Consulted ......................... 153
Chapter 6. Foundational Literacy Skills for English Learners ....................... 177
Conclusion ................................................................................. 153
Research Summary and Implications for English Learners .......... 178
References ................................................................................. 153
Alignment Charts for Foundational Literacy Skills in English
Language Development and the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy ........ 179
Chapter 5. Learning About How English Works ............................................ 159
Elementary Level: Grades 1–5 .................................................... 181
Correspondence of the Language Demands in the CA CCSS for
ELA/Literacy to the CA ELD Standards ....................................... 161
Secondary Level: Grades 6–12 ................................................... 187
Supporting English Learners to Develop Academic English ......... 164
Organization of Part II................................................................. 172
Use of the CA ELD Standards ..................................................... 175
References ..................................................................................176
iv | Contents
References ................................................................................. 189
Glossary of Key Terms ................................................................................. 190
A Message from the State Board
of Education and the State
Superintendent of Public Instruction
In California, home to more than one million English learner students, English
language development has always been a top priority. Last year’s adoption of
the California English Language Development Standards (CA ELD Standards)
maintains California’s commitment to providing English learner students with a
high-quality program that will enable them to attain proficiency in English—
developing the skills and confidence in listening, speaking, reading, and writing
that are at the core of achievement inside and outside the classroom.
These CA ELD Standards are unique in that they correspond with the rigorous
California Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts and Literacy
in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. The CA ELD
Standards define the progression of language acquisition through three
stages of proficiency and recognize that the student’s native language plays
an important role in learning English. Teachers can use the CA ELD Standards
document as a tool to inform their practice, making clear relationships between
the English language and the student’s other language(s).
Now all of us—teachers, administrators, librarians, parents, students, educators, and other stakeholders—must implement these standards for English
learner students. We look forward to working together with you to ensure that
all our English learner students meet the goals embodied in these standards.
The potential is endless.
MICHAEL W. KIRST, President
California State Board of Education
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
This document was a collaborative effort between the California Department of
Education and the California Comprehensive Assistance Center at WestEd, with
counsel and input provided by experts, researchers, educators, and key stakeholder groups with expertise and a passion for educating English learners. We
appreciate their comprehensive and exhaustive work to provide our students
with the very best thinking and the most current practices.
A Message | v
Acknowledgments
Assembly Bill 124, signed into law on October 8, 2011, required the State
Superintendent of Public Instruction (SSPI), in consultation with the State
Board of Education (SBE), to update, revise, and align the state’s current
English language development (ELD) standards by grade level with the state’s
English language arts (ELA) standards by November 2012.
The development of the ELD standards was made possible under the leadership
and direction of Tom Torlakson, State Superintendent of Public Instruction;
Richard Zeiger, Chief Deputy Superintendent; and Lupita Cortez Alcalá, Deputy
Superintendent of the Instruction and Learning Support Branch at the California
Department of Education (CDE). Karen Cadiero-Kaplan, Director of the CDE’s
English Learner Support Division, led the internal efforts in collaboration with
leadership and staff across four CDE divisions and the State Board of Education.
The following CDE and SBE staff members provided leadership, administrative
support, input, and technical assistance during the development and publication process of the ELD standards:
Executive Office
Tom Torlakson, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Richard Zeiger, Chief Deputy Superintendent
Lupita Cortez Alcalá, Deputy Superintendent, Instruction and Learning Support
Branch
Michele Anberg-Espinosa, Education Programs Consultant
Deborah Busch, Education Programs Consultant
Lilia Sanchez, Bilingual/Migrant Education Consultant
James Shields, Education Programs Consultant
Sandra Covarrubias, Education Programs Consultant
Gustavo Gonzalez, Education Programs Consultant
Will Lee, Associate Governmental Program Analyst
Barbara Garcia, Office Technician
Juan Marmolejo, Office Assistant
Curriculum Frameworks and Instructional Resources Division
Thomas Adams, Director
Kristen Cruz Allen, Education Administrator
Lillian Perez, Education Programs Consultant
Assessment Development and Administration Division
Patrick Traynor, Director
Lily Roberts, Education Research and Evaluation Administrator
Gaye Lauritzen, Education Programs Consultant
English Learner Support Division—Language Policy and Leadership
Office
Professional Learning Support Division
Karen Cadiero-Kaplan, Director
Phil Lafontaine, (former) Director
Elena Fajardo, Education Administrator
Erin Koepke, Education Programs Consultant
Carlos Rivera, (Former) Education Administrator
Dianna Gutierrez, Education Programs Consultant
vi | Acknowledgments
Carrie Roberts, Director
State Board of Education
Aida Molina, Member
Ilene Straus, Member
ELD Standards. The CDE acknowledges the contributions this group made
to informing drafts of the standards and related documents, as well as their
model of collaboration.
Name
Affiliation
Cristina Alfaro
San Diego State University
Leticia Bhatia
Sonoma Valley Unified School District
Constance Cervera
Oxnard High School
Lizette Diaz
Ontario–Montclair School District
Silvia Dorta-Duque de Reyes
San Diego County Office of Education
Richard Duran
University of California, Santa Barbara
Ludmila Elliott
Yuba City Unified School District
Marta Escobar
Kern County Office of Education
Under the CDE’s direction, the following WestEd staff members led the critical
process of developing the new California ELD standards, including co-facilitating
weekly meetings with CDE staff, working in tandem with the English Learner
Support Division to draft the new CA ELD Standards, and writing the content of
the supporting chapters and glossary.
Elizabeth Fralicks
Fresno Unified School District
Ana García
San Francisco Unified School District
Laura Gonzalez
Tulare County Office of Education
Kenji Hakuta
Stanford University
Magaly Lavadenz
Loyola Marymount University
California Comprehensive Center at WestEd
Barbara Merino
University of California, Davis
Rachel Lagunoff
Gisela O’Brien
Los Angeles Unified School District
Pamela Spycher
Keila Rodriguez
Imperial County Office of Education
Robert Linquanti
Maritza Rodriguez
Riverside County Office of Education
Christopher Camacho
Magdalena Ruz Gonzalez
Los Angeles County Office of Education
Edynn Sato
Maria Santos
Oakland Unified School District
In addition, the following WestEd staff members contributed to drafting the new
standards: Karin Cordell, Kevin Jepson, John Thorpe, and Nicole Waltermire.
Socorro Shiels
Morgan Hill Unified School District
Emily Tsai
Monterey Peninsula Unified School District
Patricia de Cos, Deputy Executive Director
To accomplish this important work in the required time frame, the CDE
requested the assistance of the California Comprehensive Assistance Center at
WestEd. Specifically, WestEd’s California Comprehensive Center, in partnership
with the Assessment and Standards Development Services Program at WestEd,
worked in concert with the CDE to analyze current ELD standards relative to the
new California ELA standards; review information on other states’ and organizations’ ELD standards revision and alignment efforts; analyze statewide public
and expert input on revision parameters; draft the proposed ELD standards; and
revise the standards as needed, based on stakeholder review and feedback.
Assembly Bill 124 also directed the SSPI to convene a group of experts to
provide input and guidance in revising and aligning the updated California
1
Note: The names, titles, and affiliations of the persons listed in these acknowledgments were
current at the time this publication was developed.
Acknowledgments | vii
Page viii intentionally blank.
Introduction
Introduction
In 2010, the California State Board of Education (SBE) adopted the California
Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in
History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (CA CCSS for ELA/
Literacy), which describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities in reading, writing,
speaking and listening, conventions, knowledge of language, and vocabulary
that all students need for college and career readiness across key academic
content areas. Those standards, along with the Common Core State Standards
for Mathematics and the Next Generation Science Standards, were adopted by
California to ensure K–12 (kindergarten through grade 12) students gain the
necessary literacy/language arts, science, and mathematics understanding and
practices required for twenty-first-century higher-education and workplace
participation. The sponsors of the Common Core State Standards Initiative
specify that these new standards are intended to apply to all students,
including English learners (ELs):
The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and
the Council of Chief State School Officers strongly believe that all
students should be held to the same high expectations outlined in
the Common Core State Standards. This includes students who are
English language learners . . . However, these students may require
additional time, appropriate instructional support, and aligned
assessments as they acquire both English language proficiency
and content area knowledge.1
California’s ELs need instructional support in developing proficiency in English
language and literacy as they engage in learning academic content based on
these new, rigorous standards. ELs face an additional challenge in developing
literacy in English since they must develop oral proficiency in English—including
1. Common Core State Standards Initiative, “Application of Common Core State Standards for
English Language Learners.” http://www.corestandards.org/assets/application-for-englishlearners.pdf (accessed October 2, 2013).
2 | Introduction
depth and breadth of vocabulary—at the same time that they are learning to
read and write (see chapter 6 for more details). In recognition of the need for
new English language development standards to clarify what knowledge, skills,
and abilities are needed to help ELs engage with and master the state’s content
standards, including college- and career-readiness standards, Assembly Bill 124
was enacted on October 8, 2011. It required the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction, in consultation with the SBE, to update, revise, and align the current
California English Language Development Standards (CA ELD Standards), by
grade level, with the state’s English Language Arts (ELA) Standards.
In response to this legislation, the California Department of Education (CDE),
with the assistance of the California Comprehensive Assistance Center at
WestEd in partnership with WestEd’s Assessment and Standards Development
Services Program, conducted an extensive and robust process to develop and
validate new CA ELD Standards that correspond to the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and address English language and literacy skills that ELs need in key content
areas. This process was grounded in two core principles: (1) transparency
toward and input from the field and (2) development based on sound theory
and empirical research. The first principle included comprehensive guidance
and review provided by the CDE, statewide focus groups, and a state-appointed
panel of experts, as well as comments on a draft of the standards received
from the public through hearings and written feedback. Public commenters
included teachers, principals, staff in district and county offices of education,
advocacy groups, education scholars, and other educational community
members. For the second principle, three overlapping guidance areas were
analyzed: (1) theoretical foundations; (2) current empirical research and
research reviews; and (3) additional relevant guidance documents, such as
policy documents.
Organization of This Publication
This publication is intended to assist in building awareness and understanding
of how the CA ELD Standards correspond to the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy. The
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy served as the core foundation for developing the CA
ELD Standards, which are intended to guide teachers in supporting the English
language development of ELs who are learning rigorous academic content.
This section introduces the organization of the CA ELD Standards, which were
posted on the CDE Web site in November 2012, and provides a description of
each chapter.
After adoption in November 2012, the CA ELD Standards were posted on
the CDE Web page at http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/el/er/eldstandards.asp for
the public to consult as a resource. The CA ELD Standards, posted on the
CDE Web page, were organized as follows: ELD Overview and Proficiency Level
Descriptors; ELD standards for kindergarten through grade 12; appendixes A
through D; and the Glossary of Key Terms. In preparation for print publication,
the online materials were reorganized to be suitable for publication. An introduction was added, appendixes A through D became chapters, and the CA ELD
standards were placed within a single chapter. It is important to note that no
changes were made to the content of the CA ELD Standards for this print
publication. The following specifies the rearrangement undertaken for those
familiar with the original CDE Web page materials.
The Acknowledgments recognize the efforts of all the organizations and
individuals who contributed to the development of the CA ELD Standards and
the completion of the printed publication. The Acknowledgements were
originally a section of the ELD Overview and Proficiency Level Descriptors.
The Introduction provides the background of the standards and an explanation
of the organization of the printed publication with a description of each chapter.
The Introduction was originally the beginning section of the ELD Overview and
Proficiency Level Descriptors.
The publication is divided into two sections, each of which contains three
chapters. The first section, which consists of chapters 1–3, is titled “The English
Language Development Proficiency Level Descriptors and Standards.” It
provides an overview of the standards and describes the structure of the ELD
standards for kindergarten through grade 12. The second section, comprising
chapters 4−6, is titled “Professional Learning for Successful Implementation
of the English Language Development Standards.” It provides the theoretical
foundations and research base of the CA ELD standards, including the implications for understanding how English works and pedagogical considerations for
foundational literacy skills for ELs.
The English Language Development Proficiency Level Descriptors and
Standards
Chapter 1, “Purposes, Development, and Structure of the California English
Language Development Standards,” provides a definition of the CA ELD
Standards and the purposes for the design of the standards. It describes the
rationale for the three proficiency levels and the organization, including the
components of the standards. Chapter 1 was originally appendix D.
Chapter 2, “Proficiency Level Descriptors for the California English Language
Development Standards,” provides an overview of the stages of English
language development through which ELs are expected to progress. It depicts
the student knowledge, skills, and abilities as a continuum, identifying what ELs
know and can do at early stages and upon exit from each of three proficiency
levels: Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging. Chapter 2 was originally a section in
the ELD Overview and Proficiency Level Descriptors.
Chapter 3, “The Standards: Kindergarten Through Grade 12,” presents the CA
ELD Standards for each grade level in kindergarten through grade 8 and for
grades 9–10 and 11–12, as is done for the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy.
Professional Learning for Successful Implementation of the English
Language Development Standards
Chapter 4, “Theoretical Foundations and the Research Base of the California
English Language Development Standards,” discusses research evidence and
theory that informed the development of the CA ELD Standards. These theoretical foundations and the research ensured that the CA ELD Standards coherently conceptualized, presented, and explained the corresponding language
demands of the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy that are necessary for developing
Introduction | 3
academic uses of English and academic success across the disciplines.
Chapter 4 was originally appendix C.
Chapter 5, “Learning About How English Works,” offers teachers a new
perspective on how to support ELs in understanding academic English and
gaining proficiency in using it. The chapter aims to help teachers support ELs in
ways that are appropriate to each student’s grade level and English proficiency
level. Chapter 5 was originally appendix B.
Chapter 6, “Foundational Literacy Skills for English Learners,” provides a
research summary of key findings with implications for foundational literacy
skills instruction for ELs. This chapter also outlines general guidance on providing instruction for ELs on foundational literacy skills, which are now wholly contained in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy. Chapter 6 was originally appendix A.
The Glossary of Key Terms at the end of this publication, as in its original online
format, provides definitions and examples of key terms used in the CA ELD
Standards, the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy, and in related chapters.
4 | Introduction
The English Language Development
Proficiency Level Descriptors
and Standards
Page 6 intentionally blank.
Chapter 1
Purposes, Development, and Structure
of the California English Language
Development Standards
The California English Language Development Standards (CA ELD Standards)
reflect recent and emerging research and theory and are intended to support
language development as English learners (ELs) engage in rigorous academic
content. The CA ELD Standards provide a foundation for ELs in kindergarten
through grade 12 (K–12) in California schools so that each EL is able to gain
access to academic subjects, engage with them, and meet the state’s subjectmatter standards for college and career readiness.
Definition of the Standards
The CA ELD Standards describe the key knowledge, skills, and abilities that
students who are learning English as a new language need in order to access,
engage with, and achieve in grade-level academic content. The CA ELD
Standards, in particular, align with the key knowledge, skills, and abilities for
achieving college and career readiness described in the California Common
Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social
Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). However,
the CA ELD Standards do not repeat the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy, nor do they
represent ELA content at lower levels of achievement or rigor. Instead, the CA
ELD Standards are designed to provide challenging content in English language
development for ELs to gain proficiency in a range of rigorous academic English
language skills. The CA ELD Standards are not intended to replace the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy. Instead, they amplify the language knowledge, skills,
and abilities of these standards, which are essential for ELs to succeed in
school while they are developing their English.
Purposes and Intended Users
The CA ELD Standards are designed to meet the needs of a variety of intended
users for different purposes. The CA ELD Standards are designed to:
 reflect expectations of what ELs should know and be able to do with the
 set clear developmental benchmarks that reflect ELs’ English language
proficiency at various developmental stages in a variety of cognitive and
linguistic tasks;
 provide teachers with a foundation for delivering rich instruction for ELs so
that they can help their students develop English proficiency and prepare
ELs to meet grade-level academic achievement standards;
 provide parents, guardians, families, and other caretakers with a tool for
discussing learning progress so that they can continue to support their
children’s language and cognitive development at home;
 provide curriculum developers with guidance on creating rigorous, linguisti-
cally and academically rich curriculum and instructional materials for ELs;
 provide a framework to guide development of ELD assessment systems
that help California educators ensure that all ELs make progress in the
English language knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to become
college- and career-ready.
California’s English Learner Students
ELs come to California schools from all over the world, and from within California. They come with a range of cultural and linguistic backgrounds, experiences
with formal schooling, levels of native language and English literacy, immigrant
experiences, and socioeconomic levels, as well as other experiences in the
home, school, and community. How educators support ELs to achieve school
success through the CA ELD Standards and the academic content standards
depends on educators’ understanding of the following key factors:
 Stages of cognitive development. It is important to note the stages of ELs’
cognitive development. Students in the primary grades are “learning to
read” while also engaging in challenging content learning. In contrast, students in the intermediate and secondary grades are “reading to learn” in
English language in various contexts;
8 | Chapter 1
Purposes, Development, and Structure
various content areas. ELs entering kindergarten, for example, will benefit
from participation in the same instructional activities in literacy as their
non-EL peers, along with additional differentiated support based on student
need. EL students who enter California schools in the secondary grades
may need additional support (depending on the level and extent of previous schooling they have received) to master certain linguistic and cognitive
skills and thus fully engage in intellectually challenging academic tasks.

Native language literacy. Adolescent ELs who enter California schools
after the primary grades have different levels of native language foundations in literacy. All students can draw upon knowledge of oral vocabulary and structures (e.g., recognition of cognates) to inform their English
language learning to some extent, depending on their oral proficiency in the
native language and how closely their native language is related to English.
Students with established literacy in their native language and content
knowledge can transfer these skills and knowledge to English with appropriate instructional support. (See chapter 6, “Foundational Literacy Skills
for English Learners,” for additional information.) Nevertheless, even with
strong native language foundations, some adolescent ELs may still struggle
to master disciplinary literacy, given the accelerated time frame in which
they are expected to meet grade-level content-area expectations.

Long-term English learners. Many ELs may not have received the support they need to continually progress in English language development
and academic subjects (typically English language arts), giving rise to the
“long-term English learner” phenomenon. These long-term ELs have been
schooled in the United States for six or more years but have not made
sufficient linguistic and academic progress to meet redesignation criteria
and exit English learner status.1 Fluent in social/conversational English but
challenged by literacy tasks, particularly disciplinary literacy tasks, these
students find it difficult to engage meaningfully in increasingly rigorous
course work. Long-term ELs face considerable challenges succeeding in
1. For a discussion of the term “long-term English learners,” see Laurie Olsen, Reparable Harm:
Fulfilling the Unkept Promise of Educational Opportunity for California’s Long Term English
Learners (Long Beach, CA: Californians Together, 2010). The publication is available at
http://www.californianstogether.org/reports/ (accessed July 28, 2014).
Purposes, Development, and Structure
school as the amount and complexity of the academic texts they encounter
rapidly increase. Regardless of the challenges ELs face, they are expected
to achieve the same core academic standards as their non-EL peers.

Programs and services for English learners. California’s ELs are enrolled
in a variety of school and instructional settings that influence the application of the CA ELD Standards. An EL might be in a newcomer program, a
structured English immersion program, a mainstream program where ELs
receive specialized ELD instruction, a separate ELD class, or a bilingual/
dual-language program. The CA ELD Standards apply to all of these settings and are designed to be used by all teachers of academic content
and of ELD in all these settings, albeit in ways that are appropriate to
the setting and identified student needs. For example, they are the focal
standards in settings specifically designed for English language development—such as an ELD class where ELs are grouped by English language
proficiency level. Additionally, the CA ELD Standards are designed and
intended to be used in tandem with other academic content standards to
support ELs in mainstream academic content classrooms. These settings
could include, for example, a self-contained third-grade classroom during
ELA, social studies, math, and science instruction; a middle school math
class; or a high school science class.
Goals of the California English Language
Development Standards
ELs must have full access to high-quality English language arts, mathematics,
science, and social studies content, as well as other subjects, at the same
time that they are progressing through the ELD-level continuum. The CA ELD
Standards correspond with the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and are designed to
apply to English language and literacy skills across all academic content areas,
in addition to classes specifically designed for English language development.
The CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy raise expectations for all students in California.
Among other things, students are expected to participate in sustained dialogue
on a variety of topics and content areas; explain their thinking and build on
others’ ideas; construct arguments and justify their positions persuasively with
sound evidence; and effectively produce written and oral texts in a variety of
Chapter 1 | 9
informational and literary text types. ELs must successfully engage in these
challenging academic activities while simultaneously developing proficiency
in advanced English. The CA ELD Standards are intended to support this dual
endeavor by providing fewer, clearer, and higher standards:
 contribute actively to class and group discussions, asking questions,
responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback;
 demonstrate knowledge of content through oral and multimedia presenta-
tions, writing, and collaborative conversations;

Fewer: Those standards that are necessary and essential for development
and success
 develop proficiency in shifting register based on context.

Clearer: A coherent body of standards that have clear links to curriculum
and assessments
Unintended and Inappropriate Uses
of the Standards

Higher: Alignment with the elevated standards of the CA CCSS for
ELA/Literacy
Although the CA ELD Standards are a powerful tool for supporting ELs’ linguistic
and academic development, they are insufficient when used alone to achieve
the goals outlined in the previous section. Therefore, it is important to state
explicitly the following purposes for which the standards are not intended and
uses that would be inappropriate:
The CA ELD Standards achieve this goal of fewer, clearer, and higher standards
in two ways. First, the CA ELD Standards highlight and amplify those CA CCSS
for ELA/Literacy that promote ELs’ abilities to interact in meaningful ways
during rich instruction so that they develop both English and content knowledge. Second, the CA ELD Standards guide teachers to build ELs’ knowledge
about how the English language works in different contexts to achieve specific
communicative purposes. The CA ELD Standards emphasize specific linguistic
processes (e.g., structuring cohesive texts) and linguistic resources (e.g., expanding sentences) that ELs need to develop in the context of rigorous academic learning for successful academic achievement.
By focusing on these two areas, educators can more effectively support
all ELs to:

read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational
text types;

develop an understanding of how language is a complex, dynamic, and
social resource for making meaning and how content is organized in
different text types and disciplines using text structure, language features,
and vocabulary, depending on purpose and audience;

be aware that different languages and variations of English exist and
recognize their home languages and cultures as resources to value and
draw upon in building proficiency in English;
10 | Chapter 1
 The CA ELD Standards are not to be used in isolation from the CA CCSS
for ELA/Literacy and other content standards during academic content
instruction. Instead, they are designed, and should be used, as a complement to the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and other academic content standards. It is fully expected that all ELs will receive high-quality instruction
based on both the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards.
 The CA ELD Standards are not to be used piecemeal at a given
proficiency level. To be used appropriately and effectively, standards
articulated in both “Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways” and “Part II:
Learning About How English Works” should be used in tandem in strategic
and purposeful ways.
 The CA ELD Standards do not provide an exhaustive list of all the
linguistic processes and resources that ELs need to develop in order to
be successful in school. This is especially the case with regard to disciplinary literacy. The CA ELD Standards do, however, provide descriptions of
knowledge and skills that are essential and critical for development, which
teachers and curriculum developers can both unpack and expand upon in
order to provide a comprehensive instructional program for ELs.
Purposes, Development, and Structure
 The CA ELD Standards are not a curriculum or a curriculum framework.
The CA ELD Standards describe what ELs should be able to accomplish
if they receive high-quality instruction with appropriate scaffolding and
instructional materials. The standards do not name a teaching method or
the instructional materials to use.
Note: Examples provided in particular standards are shared only as
illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only
objectives of instruction or as the only types of language ELs might or
should be able to understand or produce.
Curriculum and assessment frameworks provide more specific
guidance for implementation of these standards via instructional
and assessment practices. The California ELA/ELD Framework
(forthcoming) is intended to incorporate and support the CA CCSS for
ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards. It reflects current research
on ELA instruction, and it also addresses appropriate and effective
ELD instruction. Curriculum frameworks provide guidance to teachers,
administrators, and parents on how a standards-based curriculum is
implemented in the classroom.
Rationale for Three Proficiency Levels
The CA ELD Standards adopted in 2012 define three proficiency levels: Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging. These levels are intended to serve instructional
purposes and do not necessarily represent the full range of performance levels
in English language proficiency that may be determined by a standardized ELD
assessment. A rigorous standard-setting process applied to actual assessment
results may identify a different number of performance levels at various cut
points along the proficiency level continuum; it is these performance levels that
will be used to support determinations of placement, progress, and redesignation of ELs for diagnostic and accountability purposes.
The decision to define three overarching proficiency levels for the CA ELD
Standards was based on available research and existing practice. Because
there is currently no empirical evidence to establish a particular number of
ELD proficiency levels as optimal, the proficiency level descriptors (PLDs),
Purposes, Development, and Structure
as well as the three proficiency levels described in the CA ELD Standards, were
determined in light of the following sources:
 Input from Statewide Focus Groups and a Panel of Experts
Recommendations from practitioners, administrators, and academic
researchers throughout the state confirmed that while ELs may
progress through multiple stages of ELD (which may vary in number
according to the skills being developed and the ways in which the skills
are defined or measured), students are typically grouped into three
separate levels for the purposes of instruction.
 Existing California English Language Development Test (CELDT)
Performance Levels and Descriptors for CA ELD Standards
Previous CA ELD standards drew distinctions between early inter-
mediate and intermediate levels, as well as between early advanced
and advanced levels. The CELDT performance levels were established
directly from these distinctions. The descriptors for the entry/early
and exit stages in the new ELD Proficiency Level Continuum are consistent with the previous five levels used in the state for instruction
and assessment of ELs, providing continuity with current expectations
of what ELs know and can do as their English skills progress. As
previously noted, a standard-setting process involving expert groups
of educators and based on results of an assessment aligned with
the new CA ELD Standards will determine which points along the
continuum represent meaningful distinctions among student performances. The process may yield more than three performance levels
to further delineate measurement of the three proficiency levels
described in the CA ELD Standards.
 Proficiency Level Descriptors from Other English Language
Development Standards
The number, range, and type of descriptors were informed by consulta-
tion and consideration of other widely used or respected national and
state ELD standards, such as those of the World-Class Instructional
Design and Assessment (WIDA) Standards (http://www.wida.us/
standards/eld.aspx) and the Kansas Curricular Standards for English
Chapter 1 | 11
for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL).2 Additional frameworks
(which delineate three proficiency levels) drawn upon include the
Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards
Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next
Generation Science Standards (Council of Chief State School Officers
2012); and the Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (Council of Europe, n.d.).
See chapter 4, “Theoretical Foundations and the Research Base of
the English Language Development Standards,” for a complete list of
sources consulted.
The CA ELD Standards describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities in English as
a new language that are expected upon exit from each proficiency level, with
the highest level, Bridging, being aligned with the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy.
These exit descriptors signal high expectations for ELs to progress through all
levels and to attain the academic English language they need to access and
engage with grade-level content in all content areas. As previously noted, the
PLDs include specifications at “early stages” and upon “exit” for each of the
three levels, providing valuable information that can be used in the standardsetting process for determining meaningful distinctions in performance levels.
Legislation and Process for Development
and Validation
Assembly Bill 124 (Fuentes, Chapter 605, Statutes of 2011), signed into law
on October 8, 2011, required the State Superintendent of Public Instruction
(SSPI), in consultation with the State Board of Education (SBE), to update,
revise, and align the state’s current ELD standards, by grade level, with the
state’s ELA standards, by November 2012. This legislation directed the
SSPI to complete revised CA ELD Standards for SBE review no later than
August 31, 2012.
To accomplish this work in the required time frame, the California Department
of Education (CDE) requested the assistance of the California Comprehensive
Assistance Center at WestEd. Specifically, WestEd’s California Comprehensive Center, in partnership with the Assessment and Standards Development
Services program at WestEd, worked at the request of the CDE to conduct an
independent analysis of the state’s current ELD standards relative to the new
CA ELA Standards. Under the CDE’s direction, WestEd reviewed information
from other states’ (e.g., Arizona, Kansas) and organizations’ (e.g., WIDA) ELD
standards revision and alignment efforts; analyzed statewide public and expert
input on revision parameters; drafted the proposed CA ELD Standards; and
revised them as needed based on stakeholder review and feedback.
To provide initial input on the CA ELD Standards, the SSPI convened five focus
groups in the winter/spring of 2012, which included 10 to 15 educators who
were selected to ensure a balanced representation of regions, types of schools,
and experience. Focus-group members were recruited from across California,
and focus groups were conducted at the following locations: California Department of Education, Sacramento; Ventura County Office of Education, Camarillo;
Alameda County Office of Education, Hayward; Los Angeles County Office of
Education, Downey; and San Diego County Office of Education, San Diego.
The SSPI also convened a panel consisting of experts in English language
instruction, curriculum, and assessment in order to provide ongoing input and
guidance on the CA ELD Standards, the PLDs, and accompanying chapters. The
panel included school site principals, school district or county office of education administrators overseeing programs and support for ELs, faculty of teacher
training programs and researchers with EL expertise at institutions of higher
education, and curriculum and instructional specialists with extensive EL experience. The panel of experts, composed of 21 individuals from across California,
met five times (two one-day meetings and three two-day meetings, all of which
were open to the public) between March and August of 2012, to review initial
and revised drafts of the CA ELD Standards and PLDs and to provide guidance
for ongoing development. These meetings were recorded, and transcripts were
made available, along with shared materials, on the California Comprehensive
Center and CDE Web sites.
2. The Kansas Curricular Standards for ESOL are posted at http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=4694 (accessed October 8, 2013).
12 | Chapter 1
Purposes, Development, and Structure
Before each meeting with the panel of experts, WestEd staff members met
with CDE staff members from the following divisions: English Learner Support;
Curriculum Frameworks and Instructional Resources; Professional Learning
Support; and Assessment Development and Administration. The collaborative
meetings resulted in further revisions and refinements to the drafts of the CA
ELD Standards, informed by the specific expertise of CDE staff members.
The CDE also held two public hearings and invited the public to provide written
feedback on the CA ELD Standards during a one-month public comment period
that ended on August 6, 2012. The extensive oral and written comments and
suggestions provided by multiple stakeholders—including teachers, principals,
district and county offices of education, advocacy groups, educational scholars,
and other educational community members—were thoroughly reviewed and
analyzed. A final revised draft was presented to the SBE in September 2012. At
the request of the SBE, the CDE, in conjunction with SBE staff, oversaw minor
technical revisions to the CA ELD Standards and PLDs, as well as refinements
to chapters 4, 5, and 6, and a glossary, created by WestEd.
Organization of the Standards
The CA ELD Standards have two main sections common to all grade levels.
Section 1: Overview
This section provides a foundation for and an orientation to the standards via
the following components:
 A Goal statement for all English learners in California
 Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic
Contexts
 An “at-a-glance” overview of parts I–III of the CA ELD Standards, with
corresponding grade-level CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy indicated
This section is generally consistent across all grades, with some terminology
variations in the grade spans for K–8, 9–10, and 11–12 indicating relevant
cognitive differences. Each component is explained below.
Purposes, Development, and Structure
Goal: An overarching goal statement crystallizes what all educators in California
want for English learners’ development of academic English proficiency: success with grade-level disciplinary content and broader awareness of language.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts. This component further details the goal statement by defining the critical
and meaningful experiences and knowledge that English learners need to reach
each goal. The Critical Principles also provide the foundation for most of the CA
ELD Standards document and introduce parts I–III, indicating the key principles
that will be detailed in the remainder of the document.
Parts I–III Overview (“At a Glance”). Because content and language are
inextricably linked, the three parts of the CA ELD Standards—“Interacting in
Meaningful Ways,” “Learning About How English Works,” and “Using Foundational Literacy Skills”—should be interpreted as complementary and interrelated
dimensions of what must be addressed in a robust instructional program for
English learners. Parts I and II are intentionally presented separately in order
to call attention to the need for both a focus on meaning and interaction and
a focus on building knowledge about the linguistic features and structure of
English. Part III outlines foundational literacy skills ELs may need, depending on
their previous literacy and educational experiences.
Just as teachers focus on meaningful and engaging activities designed to build
content knowledge before strategically delving into specifics about how language
is structured, the CA ELD Standards are organized with the focus on meaning
and interaction first and the focus on knowledge about the English language
and how it works afterward. Accordingly, the standards in Part II should not
be used in isolation; instead, they should be used in the context of fostering
intellectually and discourse-rich, meaningful interactions outlined in Part I.
Parts I and II in the CA ELD Standards are further delineated by headings,
represented by letters, which cluster standards together. Below each heading is
a set of ELD content strands, represented by a number. In Part 1, “Interacting
in Meaningful Ways,” the headings identify communicative modes: Collaborative, Interpretive, and Productive.
Chapter 1 | 13
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Part II: Learning About How English Works
A. Collaborative (engagement in dialogue with others)
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Exchanging information and ideas via oral communication and
conversations
1. Understanding text structure and organization based on purpose, text
type, and discipline
2. Interacting via written English (print and multimedia)
2. Understanding cohesion and how language resources across a text
contribute to the way a text unfolds and flows
3. Offering opinions and negotiating with or persuading others
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts
B. Interpretive (comprehension and analysis of written and spoken texts)
5. Listening actively and asking or answering questions about what was
heard
6. Reading closely and explaining interpretations and ideas from reading
7.
Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to present or
support ideas
8. Analyzing how writers use vocabulary and other language resources
C. Productive (creation of oral presentations and written texts)
9. Expressing information and ideas in oral presentations
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
3. Using verbs and verb phrases to create precision and clarity in
different text types
4. Using nouns and noun phrases to expand ideas and provide more
detail
5. Modifying to add details to provide more information and create
precision
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
6. Connecting ideas within sentences by combining clauses
7. Condensing ideas within sentences using a variety of language
resources
10. Writing literary and informational texts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
11. Supporting opinions or justifying arguments and evaluating others’
opinions or arguments
Considerations for instruction in foundational literacy at each grade level (K–5)
and the grade span 6–12 are outlined here.
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other
language resources
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy. The right-hand column of the
Overview of the CA ELD Standards shows the correspondence3 of the CA ELD
Standards to the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy. The CCSS are identified by strand,
grade, and number (or number and letter, where applicable), so that RI.4.3, for
example, stands for Reading, Informational Text, grade 4, standard 3, and
In Part II, “Learning About How English Works,” the headings identify key
language processes: “Structuring Cohesive Texts,” “Expanding and Enriching
Ideas,” and “Connecting and Condensing Ideas.”
3. As noted previously, because the CA ELD Standards are not intended to repeat content from
the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy, individual ELD and ELA standards correspond to each other in
terms of knowledge, skills, abilities, and rigor rather than match exactly.
14 | Chapter 1
Purposes, Development, and Structure
W.5.1a stands for Writing, grade 5, standard 1a. Strand designations from the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy are indicated in the CA ELD Standards as follows:
RL: Reading Standards for Literature (K–12)
RI: Reading Standards for Informational Text (K–12)
RF: Reading Standards for Foundational Literacy Skills (K–5)
RH: Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies (6–12)
RST: Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
(6–12)
SL: Speaking and Listening Standards (K–12)
L: Language Standards (K–12)
W: Writing Standards (K–12)
WHST: Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science,
and Technical Subjects (6–12)
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language
and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Texts and Discourse in Context. This column emphasizes language as a
complex and social meaning-making resource to be fostered via intellectually
challenging, interactive, and dialogue-rich contexts focused on content knowledge and linguistic development. Texts may be written, spoken, or multimodal
and in print or digital form. Discourse is, in broad terms, communication of
meaning in any modality (e.g., spoken, written, visual). The language choices
students make, including which grammatical and lexical resources to use, are
influenced by context, which includes the communicative purpose, audience,
text type, and discipline or content area. Students use their knowledge of the
English language in the context of intellectually engaging instruction in which
the primary focus is on comprehending and making meaning. This column
highlights some of the variables teachers need to consider when designing
and implementing instruction for English learners:
The corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy are provided first so that teachers
see the interconnected nature of the CA ELD Standards and the CA CCSS for
ELA/Literacy.
Purposes for Using Language. These are purposes for using language that
are featured prominently in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and, correspondingly, in the CA ELD Standards. Teachers support ELs to develop an
awareness of these purposes as students progress in language proficiency
and through the grades.
Text Types. Provided in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy, each text type has
particular language features, based on the discipline, content, purpose,
and audience. Teachers help ELs develop an awareness of text types and
language features as ELs progress through the grades. Informational text
types are presented first to emphasize their importance in college and
career readiness, as well as in developing content knowledge.
This section extends the Critical Principles and provides detailed, grade-level
CA ELD Standards, with corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy indicated, in
three parts:
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
The section unpacks the Critical Principles via a set of ELD standards for each
grade level (K–8) and for the grade spans 9–10 and 11–12. These standards
provide descriptions of expectations for English learners upon exit from each
of the three proficiency levels along the ELD continuum—Emerging, Expanding,
and Bridging—by each ELD standard strand. These expectations are appropriate if ELs are provided with an appropriate curriculum, effective instruction, and
strategic levels of scaffolding. The components are explained in the following
section.
Purposes, Development, and Structure
Audiences. As they use language, ELs need to consider the audience,
which might be a peer in a one-to-one conversation about a social topic; a
group of peers engaged in an academic conversation (one to a group); an
entire class, such as when a student makes an academic oral presentation
or completes a written task (one to many); and other types of audience.
Chapter 1 | 15
Teachers help ELs develop an awareness of audience as ELs progress
through the grades.
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum. This continuum, explained previously in the
“Rationale for Three Proficiency Levels,” distinguishes the three overall English
language development levels: Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging. Gradations
and spiraling of acquisition of knowledge and skills between levels, as well as
variation within levels, are expected.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways. Part I provides grade-level CA ELD
Standards that set expectations for English learners to participate in meaningful, relevant, and intellectually challenging ways in various contexts and
disciplines in three modes: collaborative, interpretive, and productive.
Part II: Learning About How English Works. Part II focuses on the ways in
which English learners develop awareness of language resources available
to them, how English is structured and organized, and how meaning is made
through language choices. Instruction about English is designed to improve
ELs’ ability to comprehend and produce academic texts in various content
areas. Part II is organized into the following ways of using language:
structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting
and condensing ideas.
References
Assessment and Accountability Comprehensive Center. 2009. Framework for
High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments.
San Francisco, CA: WestEd.
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2012. Framework for English
Language Proficiency Development Standards Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards.
Washington, DC: CCSSO. http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Publications/
The_Common_Core_and_English_Language_Learners.html (accessed
September 30, 2013).
Council of Europe, Language Policy Unit. N.d. Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
Gottlieb, M. 2006. Assessing English Language Learners: Bridges from
Language Proficiency to Academic Achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Corwin Press.
Olsen, L. 2010. Reparable Harm: Fulfilling the Unkept Promise of Educational
Opportunity for California’s Long Term English Learners. Long Beach, CA:
Californians Together. http://www.californianstogether.org/.
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills. Part III is presented separately
in order to highlight for teachers the potential need to provide ELs with specialized instruction to support the development of foundational literacy skills.
This specialized instruction is designed by adapting, in particular, the Reading
Standards in Foundational Literacy Skills (K–5) in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
based on the age, cognitive level, and previous literacy or educational experiences of ELs. Because the Reading Standards in Foundational Literacy Skills
are intended to guide instruction for students in kindergarten through grade 5,
these standards need to be adapted—using appropriate instructional strategies
and materials—to meet the particular pedagogical and literacy needs of ELs at
the secondary level, including the need to teach foundational literacy skills in
an accelerated time frame.
16 | Chapter 1
Purposes, Development, and Structure
Chapter 2
Proficiency Level Descriptors for
the California English Language
Development Standards
The Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs) provide an overview of the stages of
English language development through which English learners (ELs) are expected to progress as they gain increasing proficiency in English as a new language.
The PLDs depict student knowledge, skills, and abilities across a continuum,
identifying what ELs know and can do at early stages and upon exit from each
of three proficiency levels: Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging.1 These descriptors are intended to be used as a guide for teachers and curriculum developers
to provide ELs with targeted instruction in English language development as
well as differentiated instruction in academic content areas.
It is important to note that while the PLDs describe an aligned set of knowledge,
skills, and abilities at each proficiency level that reflect a linear progression
across the levels, this is done for purposes of presentation and understanding.
Actual second language acquisition does not necessarily occur in a linear fashion within or across proficiency levels. An EL, at any given point along his or her
trajectory of English learning, may exhibit some abilities (e.g., speaking skills)
at a higher proficiency level, while at the same time exhibiting other abilities
(e.g., writing skills) at a lower proficiency level.2 Additionally, a student may successfully perform a particular skill at a lower proficiency level (such as reading
and analyzing an informational text) and, at the next higher proficiency level,
1. As there is currently no available empirical evidence to support a particular number of ELD
proficiency levels as optimal, the development and design of the PLDs for the CA ELD Standards
was based on common practices in the state of grouping ELs into three levels for purposes of
instruction. These practices were confirmed by practitioners, administrators, and academic
researchers throughout the state as part of the ELD standards validation process, as well as
by guidance documents such as the Framework for English Language Proficiency Development
Standards Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards (Council of Chief State School Officers 2012).
2. See the discussion in Margo Gottlieb’s Assessing English Language Learners: Bridges from
Language Proficiency to Academic Achievement (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2006),
26–27.
18 | Chapter 2
need review in the same reading and analysis skills when presented with a new
or more complex type of informational text. Thus, while a student may be
identified—based on state assessment results and other state and local
criteria—as being eligible for English language services appropriate to a particular proficiency level, the student’s actual abilities may vary by language domain
(e.g., listening, speaking, reading, and writing). For the same reason, a proficiency level does not identify a student (e.g., “Emerging student”), but rather
identifies what a student knows and can do at a particular stage of English
language development—for example, “a student at the Emerging level” or “a
student whose listening comprehension ability is at the Emerging level.”
The California English Language Development Standards (CA ELD Standards)
describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities that students who are learning
English as a new language are expected to exhibit upon exit from each
proficiency level, with the highest level, Bridging, corresponding with the
California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and
Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (CA CCSS
for ELA/Literacy). These exit descriptors signal high expectations for ELs to
progress through all levels and to attain the academic English necessary to
access and engage with grade-level content in all subject areas. Note also that
the PLDs include specifications at “early stages” and upon “exit” for each of the
three levels, providing valuable information that can be used for determining
meaningful performance level distinctions based on assessment results.
Organization of the Proficiency Level Descriptors
The organization of the PLDs represents English language development as a
continuum of increasing proficiency in language learning and use, starting with
native language competencies that students possess when they enter school,
and concluding (though not ending) with lifelong language learning that all
Proficiency Level Descriptors
language users engage in.3 The three levels represent the stages of English
language development, describing expectations for how well students can
understand and use the English language at each level as they continue to
build on existing language skills and knowledge.
Emerging: Students at this level typically progress very quickly, learning to use
English for immediate needs as well as beginning to understand and use
academic vocabulary and other features of academic language.
Expanding: Students at this level are challenged to increase their English skills
in more contexts and learn a greater variety of vocabulary and linguistic
structures, applying their growing language skills in more sophisticated
ways that are appropriate to their age and grade level.
Bridging: Students at this level continue to learn and apply a range of highlevel English language skills in a wide variety of contexts, including comprehension and production of highly technical texts. The “bridge” alluded
to is the transition to full engagement in grade-level academic tasks and
activities in a variety of content areas without the need for specialized ELD
instruction. However, ELs at all levels of English language proficiency fully
participate in grade-level tasks in all content areas with varying degrees of
scaffolding in order to develop both content knowledge and English.
The PLDs emphasize that ELs at all proficiency levels are capable of high-level
thinking and can engage in complex, cognitively demanding social and academic activities requiring language, as long as they are provided appropriate
linguistic support. The extent of support needed varies depending on the familiarity and complexity of the task and topic, as well as on the student’s English
language proficiency level. Within the PLDs, three general levels of support are
identified: Substantial, Moderate, and Light. The descriptors for these general
levels of support are intended to signal the extent of linguistic scaffolding most
likely needed for appropriately implementing the CA ELD Standards at each
proficiency level; however, the descriptors are not intended to explain how to
provide support or differentiate instruction for ELs at each level.
Each PLD includes the following:
 Overall Proficiency: A general descriptor of ELs’ abilities at entry to,
progress through, and exit from the level
 Early Stages: Descriptors of abilities in English language that ELs have at
the early stages of the level
 Exit Stages: Descriptors of abilities in English language students have at
exit from the level
The descriptors for early and exit stages of each proficiency level are detailed
across three modes of communication:
A.Collaborative: Engagement in dialogue with others
B.Interpretive: Comprehension and analysis of written and spoken texts
C.Productive: Creation of oral presentations and written texts
Two dimensions of knowledge of language are described:
Metalinguistic Awareness: The extent of language awareness and
self-monitoring that students have at the level
Accuracy of Production: The extent of accuracy in production ELs can
be expected to exhibit at the level; ELs increase in accuracy of linguistic production as they develop proficiency in English. Accuracy may
vary within a level depending on context, such as extent of cognitive
demand or familiarity of a task.
3. Note that the concept of “lifelong language learning” for proficient users of English (as well
as other languages) is distinct from that of “long-term English learners” who have not been
supported to progress to full proficiency in English.
Proficiency Level Descriptors
Chapter 2 | 19
Proficiency Level Descriptors
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Student Capacities
Native Language
English learners come to
school possessing a wide
range of competencies in
their native language
appropriate to their age.
They may have varying
levels of literacy in their
native language, depending
on their prior experiences
in the home, community,
and school. As learners of
English as a new language,
they gain metacognitive
awareness of what language is and how it is used
and apply this awareness
in their language learning
strategies, including
drawing upon knowledge of
their native language.
High-Level Thinking with
Linguistic Support
English learners possess
cognitive abilities appropriate to their age and
experience. In order to
communicate about their
thinking as they learn
English, they may need
varying linguistic support,
depending on the linguistic and cognitive demand
of the task.
20 | Chapter 2
Emerging
English learners
enter the Emerging
level having limited
receptive and
productive English
skills.
As they progress
through the Emerging level, they start
to respond to more
varied communication tasks using
learned words and
phrases with increasing ease.
Upon exit from
the Emerging
level, students
have basic English
communication
skills in social
and academic
contexts.
Expanding
As English learners
progress through
the Expanding
level, they move
from being able to
refashion learned
phrases and
sentences in
English to meet
their immediate
communication
and learning needs
toward being able
to increasingly
engage in using the
English language
in more complex,
cognitively demanding situations.
Upon exit from the
Expanding level,
students can use
English to learn
and communicate
about a range
of topics and
academic content
areas.
Lifelong Language
Learning
Bridging
As English learners
progress through
the Bridging level,
they move from
being able to
communicate
in ways that are
appropriate to
different tasks,
purposes, and
audiences in a
variety of social
and academic
contexts toward
being able to refine
and enhance their
English language
competencies in a
broader range of
contexts.
Upon exit from
the Bridging
level, students
can communicate
effectively with
various audiences
on a wide range of
familiar and new
topics to meet
academic demands
in a variety of
disciplines.
Students who have
reached “proficiency”
in the English language
(as determined by state
and/or local criteria) continue to build increasing
breadth, depth, and complexity in comprehending
and communicating in
English in a wide variety
of contexts.
General Extent of Support
Substantial
Moderate
Light
Occasional
Students at the early stages of the
Emerging level can engage in complex,
cognitively demanding social and
academic activities requiring language
when provided substantial linguistic
support; as they develop more familiarity
and ease with understanding and using
English, support may be moderate or
light for familiar tasks or topics.
Students at the early stages of the
Expanding level can engage in complex,
cognitively demanding social and
academic activities requiring language
when provided moderate linguistic
support; as they develop increasing ease
with understanding and using English
in a variety of contexts, support may be
light for familiar tasks or topics.
Students at the early stages of the
Bridging level can engage in complex,
cognitively demanding social and
academic activities requiring language
when provided light linguistic support;
as they develop increasing ease with
understanding and using highly technical
English, support may not be necessary
for familiar tasks or topics using everyday
English.
Students who have exited
the Bridging level benefit
from occasional linguistic
support in their ongoing
learning of English.
Proficiency Level Descriptors
Proficiency Level Descriptors
Mode of
Communication
Collaborative
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Emerging
At the early stages of the Emerging
Upon exit from the Emerging level,
level, students are able to perform the students are able to perform the
following tasks:
following tasks:
Expanding
At the early stages of the Expanding
Upon exit from the Expanding level,
level, students are able to perform the students are able to perform the
following tasks:
following tasks:
 Express basic personal and safety
 Express basic personal and safety
 Express a variety of personal needs,
needs and ideas, and respond to
questions on social and academic
topics with gestures and words or
short phrases.
needs and ideas, and respond to
questions on social and academic
topics with phrases and short
sentences.
 Use basic social conventions to
participate in conversations.
 Comprehend frequently occurring
words and basic phrases in
immediate physical surroundings.
 Read very brief grade-appropriate
Interpretive
text with simple sentences and
familiar vocabulary, supported by
graphics or pictures.
 Comprehend familiar words,
phrases, and questions drawn from
content areas.
 Produce learned words and phrases
and use gestures to communicate
basic information.
 Express ideas using visuals such as
Productive
drawings, charts, or graphic
organizers.
 Write or use familiar words and
phrases related to everyday and
academic topics.
Proficiency Level Descriptors
ideas, and opinions and respond to
questions using short sentences.
 Initiate simple conversations on
social and academic topics.
 Participate in simple, face-to-face
conversations in all content areas
with moderate to light support as
appropriate.
 Comprehend a sequence of informa-  Comprehend information on familiar
 Read brief grade-appropriate text
with simple sentences and mostly
familiar vocabulary, supported by
graphics or pictures.
 Demonstrate understanding of
words and phrases from previously
learned content material.
 Produce basic statements and ask
questions in direct informational
exchanges on familiar and routine
subjects.
 Express ideas using information and
short responses within structured
contexts.
 Write or use learned vocabulary
drawn from academic content areas.
needs, ideas, and opinions using
extended oral and written production; respond to questions using
extended discourse.
 Participate actively in collaborative
conversations with peers and
others.
tion on familiar topics as presented
through stories and face-to-face
conversation.
 Express more complex feelings,
topics and on some unfamiliar
topics in contextualized settings.
 Read independently a variety of
grade-appropriate text with simple
sentences.
 Read more complex text supported
by graphics or pictures.
 Comprehend basic concepts in
content areas.
 Produce sustained informational
exchanges with others on an
expanding variety of topics.
 Express ideas in highly structured
and scaffolded academic
interactions.
 Write or use expanded vocabulary
to provide information and extended responses in contextualized
settings.
 Comprehend detailed information
with fewer contextual clues on
unfamiliar topics.
 Read increasingly complex
grade-level text while relying on
context and prior knowledge to
obtain meaning from print.
 Read technical text on familiar
topics supported by pictures or
graphics.
 Produce, initiate, and sustain
spontaneous interactions on a
variety of topics.
 Write and express ideas to meet
most social and academic needs
through the recombination of
learned vocabulary and structures
with support.
Chapter 2 | 21
Proficiency Level Descriptors (continued)
Mode of
Communication
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Bridging
At the early stages of the Bridging level, students
Upon exit from the Bridging level, students are
are able to perform the following tasks:
able to perform the following tasks:
 Express increasingly complex feelings, needs,
ideas, and opinions in a variety of settings;
respond to questions using extended and more
elaborate discourse.
Collaborative
 Initiate and sustain dialogue on a variety of
 Participate fully in all collaborative conversa-
tions in all content areas at grade level, with
occasional support as necessary.
 Participate fully in both academic and non-
academic settings requiring English.
grade-level academic and social topics.
 Comprehend concrete and many abstract topics
and begin to recognize language subtleties in a
variety of communication settings.
 Read increasingly complex text at grade level.
Interpretive
 Read technical text supported by pictures or
graphics.
 Produce, initiate, and sustain interactions with
increasing awareness of tailoring language to
specific purposes and audiences.
 Write and express ideas to meet increasingly
Productive
22 | Chapter 2
complex academic demands for specific
purposes and audiences.
 Comprehend concrete and abstract topics and
recognize language subtleties in a variety of
communication settings.
 Read, with limited comprehension difficulty, a
variety of grade-level and technical texts in all
content areas.
 Produce, initiate, and sustain extended
interactions tailored to specific purposes and
audiences.
 Write and express ideas to meet a variety of
social needs and academic demands for
specific purposes and audiences.
Proficiency Level Descriptors
Proficiency Level Descriptors
Knowledge of
Language
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Emerging
At the early stages of the Emerging
Upon exit from the Emerging level,
level, students are able to perform the students are able to perform the
following tasks:
following tasks:
Expanding
At the early stages of the Expanding
Upon exit from the Expanding level,
level, students are able to perform the
students are able to perform the
following tasks:
following tasks:
Apply to their learning of English an
emerging awareness of:
Apply to their learning of English an
awareness of:
Apply to their learning of English an
expanding awareness of:
Apply to their learning of English an
awareness of:
ldifferences and similarities between
ldifferences and similarities between
ldifferences and similarities between
ldifferences and similarities between
their native language and English;
their native language and English;
their native language and English;
their native language and English;
lways in which different kinds of
language are appropriate for different tasks, purposes, and audiences;
lhow to intentionally and purpose-
Metalinguistic
Awareness
fully use a limited range of everyday
vocabulary, phrases, and memorized
statements and questions in English.
lways in which different kinds of
language are appropriate for different tasks, purposes, and audiences;
lways in which language may be
different based on task, purpose, and
audience;
lhow to intentionally and purposefully
lhow to intentionally and purposefully
use mostly everyday and a limited
range of general academic vocabulary and domain-specific vocabulary,
phrases, and memorized statements
and questions in English related
mostly to familiar topics.
use mostly everyday vocabulary, and
an expanding range of general
academic and domain-specific
vocabulary in English related mostly
to familiar topics;
lhow to extend discourse in limited
ways in a range of conversations;
lBe comprehensible when using
Accuracy of
Production
lBe comprehensible when using
lways in which language may be
different based on task, purpose,
and audience;
lhow to intentionally and purposefully
use both everyday vocabulary and a
range of general academic and
domain-specific vocabulary in
English related to familiar and new
topics;
lhow to extend discourse in a variety
of ways in a range of conversations;
lhow to recognize language differences
lhow to recognize language differenc-
and engage in some self-monitoring.
es, engage in self-monitoring, and
adjust oral and written language.
lBe comprehensible when using simple
lBe comprehensible when using
memorized or copied words or
phrases.
simple or learned phrases and
sentences.
and some expanded sentences and
discourse or texts.
expanded sentences, discourse, or
texts.
lProduce English but may exhibit
lProduce English but may exhibit
lProduce English but may exhibit fairly
lProduce English but may exhibit fair-
frequent errors in pronunciation,
grammar, and writing conventions
that often impede meaning.
Proficiency Level Descriptors
frequent errors in pronunciation,
grammar, and writing conventions
that sometimes impede meaning.
frequent errors in pronunciation,
grammar, and writing conventions that
may sometimes impede meaning.
ly frequent errors in pronunciation,
grammar, and writing conventions
that usually do not impede meaning.
Chapter 2 | 23
Proficiency Level Descriptors (continued)
Knowledge of
Language
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Bridging
At the early stages of the Bridging level, students
Upon exit from the Bridging level, students are
are able to perform the following tasks:
able to perform the following tasks:
Apply to their learning of English a sophisticated
awareness of:
Apply to their learning of English a sophisticated
awareness of:
ldifferences and similarities between their native
ldifferences and similarities between their native
language and English;
lways in which language may be different based
on task, purpose, and audience;
lhow to intentionally and purposefully use a
Metalinguistic
Awareness
range of precise and varied grade-level general
academic and domain-specific vocabulary in
English related to new topics;
lhow to extend grade-level academic discourse
in a variety of ways in a range of conversations
and written texts of varying lengths and
complexities;
lhow to recognize language differences, engage
in self-monitoring, and adjust oral and written
language in a range of contexts.
lBe comprehensible when using a variety of
grade-level expanded discourse or texts.
lProduce English but may exhibit some errors in
Accuracy of
Production
24 | Chapter 2
language and English;
lways in which language may be different based
on task, purpose, and audience;
lhow to intentionally and purposefully use a
range of precise and varied grade-level general
academic and domain-specific vocabulary in
English related to new topics across the
disciplines;
lhow to extend grade-level academic discourse
in a variety of ways in a range of conversations
and written texts of varying lengths and
complexities across disciplines;
lhow to recognize language differences, engage
in self-monitoring, and adjust oral and written
language in a range of contexts across
disciplines.
lBe comprehensible when using a variety of
grade-level expanded discourse or texts on a
variety of topics.
pronunciation, grammar, and writing conventions lProduce English but may exhibit some minor
that usually do not impede meaning.
errors in pronunciation, grammar, and writing
conventions that do not impede meaning.
Proficiency Level Descriptors
Chapter 3
The Standards: Kindergarten
Through Grade 12
Kindergarten
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language features,
and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home languages
and cultures as resources to value in their own right and to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and group
discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing tasks,
collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative conversations on a range of
social and academic topics
l
SL.K.1, 6; L.K.1, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative
technology, and multimedia)
l
W.K.6; L.K.1, 6
3. Offering and supporting opinions and negotiating with others in communicative exchanges l
SL.K.1, 6; L.K.1, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)
l
Not applicable at kindergarten
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
26 | Chapter 3
Kindergarten
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts l
SL.K.1–3
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is conveyed
explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.K.1–7, 9, 10; RI.K.1–7, 9–10; SL.K.2–3;
L.K.4, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and opinions with details or reasons
depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.K.3–4, 6; RI.K.2, 6, 8; L.K.4–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.K.4–5; RI.K.4; L.K.4–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics l
SL.K.4–6; L.K.1, 6
10. Composing/writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information,
using appropriate technology
l
W.K.1-3, 5–8; L.K.1–2, 6
11. Supporting own opinions and evaluating others’ opinions in speaking and writing
l
W.K.1; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1–2, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and language structures to effectively convey ideas
l
W.K.5; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1, 5–6
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Understanding text structure
l
RL.K.5; RI.K.5; W.K.1–3, 5; SL.K.4
2. Understanding cohesion
l
RL.K.5; RI.K.5; W.K.1–3,5; SL.K.4; L.K.1
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.K.5; SL.K.6; L.K.1, 6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.K.5; SL.K.6; L.K.1, 6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.K.5; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1, 6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.K.1–3, 5; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1, 6
7. Condensing ideas
l
Not applicable at kindergarten
l
RF.K.1–4
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Kindergarten
Chapter 3 | 27
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.K.1, 6; L.K.1, 6
2. W.K.6; L.K.1, 6
3. SL.K.1, 6; L.K.1, 6
4. Not applicable at kindergarten
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Collaborative
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to conversations and express
ideas by asking and answering yes-no
and wh- questions and responding using
gestures, words, and simple phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by listening attentively, following
turn-taking rules, and asking and answering
questions.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by listening attentively,
following turn-taking rules, and asking
and answering questions.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with the teacher and peers
on joint composing projects of short
informational and literary texts that
include minimal writing (labeling with
a few words), using technology, where
appropriate, for publishing, graphics,
and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with the teacher and peers on
joint composing projects of informational
and literary texts that include some writing
(e.g., short sentences), using technology,
where appropriate, for publishing, graphics,
and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with the teacher and peers on
joint composing projects of informational
and literary texts that include a greater
amount of writing (e.g., a very short story),
using technology, where appropriate, for
publishing, graphics, and the like.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and ideas in conversations
using a small set of learned phrases
(e.g., I think X), as well as open
responses.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions in conversations using
an expanded set of learned phrases
(e.g., I think/don’t think X. I agree with X),
as well as open responses, in order to gain
and/or hold the floor.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions in conversations using
an expanded set of learned phrases
(e.g., I think/don’t think X. I agree with X,
but . . .), as well as open responses, in
order to gain and/or hold the floor or add
information to an idea.
4. Adapting language choices
No standard for kindergarten.
4. Adapting language choices
No standard for kindergarten.
4. Adapting language choices
No standard for kindergarten.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
28 | Chapter 3
Kindergarten
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.K.1–3
6. RL.K.1–7, 9–10; RI.K.1–7, 9–10;
SL.K.2–3; L.K.4, 6
7. RL.K.3–4, 6; RI.K.2, 6, 8; L.K.4–6
8. RL.K.4–5; RI.K.4; L.K.4–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
B. Interpretive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to readalouds and oral presentations by asking
and answering yes-no and wh- questions
with oral sentence frames and substantial prompting and support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering questions with oral sentence
frames and occasional prompting and
support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with minimal
prompting and light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., parts
of a plant), and text elements (e.g.,
characters) based on understanding
of a select set of grade-level texts and
viewing of multimedia, with substantial
support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., how
butterflies eat), and text elements (e.g.,
setting, characters) in greater detail based
on understanding of a variety of grade-level
texts and viewing of multimedia, with
moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., insect
metamorphosis), and text elements (e.g.,
major events, characters, setting) using key
details based on understanding of a variety
of grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia, with light support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language an author uses
to present an idea (e.g., the words and
phrases used when a character is introduced), with prompting and substantial
support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language an author uses to
present an idea (e.g., the adjectives used to
describe a character), with prompting and
moderate support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language an author uses to
present or support an idea (e.g., the vocabulary used to describe people and places),
with prompting and light support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how two different frequently
used words (e.g., describing an action
with the verb walk versus run) produce a
different effect.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how two different words with
similar meaning (e.g., describing an action
as walk versus march) produce shades of
meaning and a different effect.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how multiple different words
with similar meaning (e.g., walk, march,
strut, prance) produce shades of meaning
and a different effect.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Kindergarten
Chapter 3 | 29
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., show and tell, describing a
picture).
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.K.4–6; L.K.1, 6
10. W.K.1-3, 5–8; L.K.1–2, 6
11. W.K.1; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1–2, 6
12. W.K.5; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1, 5–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audience include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
30 | Chapter 3
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
on a variety of topics (e.g., show and tell,
author’s chair, recounting an experience,
describing an animal).
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics in a variety of content
areas (e.g., retelling a story, describing a
science experiment).
10. Composing/Writing
Draw, dictate, and write to compose
very short literary texts (e.g., story) and
informational texts (e.g., a description
of a dog), using familiar vocabulary collaboratively in shared language activities
with an adult (e.g., joint construction
of texts), with peers, and sometimes
independently.
10. Composing/Writing
Draw, dictate, and write to compose short
literary texts (e.g., story) and informational
texts (e.g., a description of dogs),
collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint
construction of texts), with peers, and with
increasing independence.
10. Composing/Writing
Draw, dictate, and write to compose longer
literary texts (e.g., story) and informational texts (e.g., an information report on
dogs), collaboratively with an adult (e.g.,
joint construction of texts), with peers,
and independently using appropriate text
organization.
11. Supporting opinions
Offer opinions and provide good reasons
(e.g., My favorite book is X because X.)
referring to the text or to relevant background knowledge.
11. Supporting opinions
Offer opinions and provide good reasons
and some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., paraphrased examples from text or knowledge of content).
11. Supporting opinions
Offer opinions and provide good reasons
with detailed textual evidence or relevant
background knowledge (e.g., specific examples from text or knowledge of content).
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences
using a select set of key words.
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences
using complete sentences and key words.
b. Use a select number of general
academic and domain-specific words to
add detail (e.g., adding the word spicy to
describe a favorite food, using the word
larva when explaining insect metamorphosis) while speaking and composing.
b. Use a growing number of general academic and domain-specific words in order
to add detail or to create shades of meaning
(e.g., using the word scurry versus run)
while speaking and composing.
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences
using increasingly detailed complete
sentences and key words.
b. Use a wide variety of general academic
and domain-specific words, synonyms, antonyms, and non-literal language to create
an effect (e.g., using the word suddenly
to signal a change) or to create shades of
meaning (e.g., The cat’s fur was as white as
snow) while speaking and composing.
Kindergarten
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.K.5; RI.K.5; W.K.1–3, 5; SL.K.4
2. RL.K.5; RI.K.5; W.K.1–3, 5; SL.K.4;
L.K.1
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how text types
are organized (e.g., how a story is
organized by a sequence of events) to
comprehending and composing texts
in shared language activities guided by
the teacher, with peers, and sometimes
independently.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized to express ideas (e.g.,
how a story is organized sequentially with
predictable stages versus how an informative text is organized by topic and details) to
comprehending texts and composing texts
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher, collaboratively with peers, and with
increasing independence.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized predictably (e.g., a narrative text versus an informative text versus
an opinion text) to comprehending texts
and composing texts in shared language
activities guided by the teacher, with peers,
and independently.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply basic understanding of how ideas,
events, or reasons are linked throughout
a text using more everyday connecting
words or phrases (e.g., one time, then)
to comprehending texts and composing
texts in shared language activities guided
by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply understanding of how ideas, events,
or reasons are linked throughout a text
using a growing number of connecting words
or phrases (e.g., next, after a long time) to
comprehending texts and composing texts
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher, collaboratively with peers, and with
increasing independence.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply understanding of how ideas, events,
or reasons are linked throughout a text
using a variety of connecting words or
phrases (e.g., first/second/third, once,
at the end) to comprehending texts and
composing texts in shared language
activities guided by the teacher, with peers,
and independently.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Kindergarten
Chapter 3 | 31
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use frequently used verbs (e.g., go,
eat, run) and verb types (e.g., doing,
saying, being/having, thinking/feeling)
in shared language activities guided
by the teacher and with increasing
independence.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
32 | Chapter 3
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.K.5; SL.K.6; L.K.1, 6
4. W.K.5; SL.K.6; L.K.1, 6
5. W.K.5; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1, 6
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use a growing number of verbs and verb
types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having,
thinking/feeling) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and
independently.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use a wide variety of verbs and verb
types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having,
thinking/feeling) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and
independently.
b. Use a growing number of verb tenses
appropriate for the text type and discipline
to convey time (e.g., simple past tense
for retelling, simple present for a science
description) in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and independently.
b. Use a wide variety of verb tenses
appropriate for the text type and discipline
to convey time (e.g., simple present for a
science description, simple future to predict) in shared language activities guided
by the teacher and independently.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in simple ways
(e.g., adding a familiar adjective to
describe a noun) in order to enrich the
meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and so on, in
shared language activities guided by the
teacher and sometimes independently.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding a newly learned
adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the
meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and so on, in
shared language activities guided by the
teacher and with increasing independence.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a wide variety of
ways (e.g., adding a variety of adjectives
to noun phrases) in order to enrich the
meaning of phrases/sentences and add
details about ideas, people, things, and so
on, in shared language activities guided by
the teacher and independently.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with frequently used
prepositional phrases (such as in the
house, on the boat) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about
a familiar activity or process in shared
language activities guided by the teacher
and sometimes independently.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with prepositional
phrases to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause) about a familiar or
new activity or process in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and with
increasing independence.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand simple and compound sentences
with prepositional phrases to provide
details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause)
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher and independently.
b. Use simple verb tenses appropriate
for the text type and discipline to convey
time (e.g., simple past for recounting an
experience) in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
Kindergarten
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.K.1–3, 5; SL.K.4, 6; L.K.1, 6
7. Not applicable at kindergarten
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
to make connections between and join
ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and
sometimes independently.
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways to make connections between and join
ideas, for example, to express cause/effect
(e.g., She jumped because the dog barked)
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher and with increasing independence.
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of
ways (e.g., rearranging complete simple
sentences to form compound sentences) to
make connections between and join ideas
(e.g., The boy was hungry. The boy ate a
sandwich. The boy was hungry so he ate
a sandwich) in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and independently.
7. Condensing ideas
No standard for kindergarten.
7. Condensing ideas
No standard for kindergarten.
7. Condensing ideas
No standard for kindergarten.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Kindergarten
Chapter 3 | 33
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
34 | Chapter 3
Kindergarten
Page 35 intentionally blank.
Grade 1
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language features,
and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home languages
and cultures as resources to value in their own right and to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and group
discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing tasks,
collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative conversations on a range of
social and academic topics
l
SL.1.1, 6; L.1.1, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative
technology, and multimedia)
l
W.1.6; L.1.1, 6
3. Offering and supporting opinions and negotiating with others in communicative exchanges l
SL.1.1, 6; L.1.1, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)
l
Not applicable at grade 1
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
36 | Chapter 3
Grade 1
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B. Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts

SL.1.1–3
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is conveyed
explicitly and implicitly through language

RL.1.1–7, 9, 10; RI.1.1–7, 9–10; SL.1.2–3;
L.1.4, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and opinions with details or reasons
depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area

RL.1.3–4, 6; RI.1.2, 6, 8; L.1.4–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area

RL.1.4–5; RI.1.4; L.1.4–6
C. Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics

SL.1.4–6; L.1.1, 6
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology

W.1.1–3, 5–8; L.1.1–2, 6
11. Supporting own opinions and evaluating others’ opinions in speaking and writing

W.1.1; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1–2, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and language structures to effectively convey ideas

W.1.5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 5–6
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Understanding text structure

RL.1.5; RI.1.5; W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4
2. Understanding cohesion

RL.1.5; RI.1.5; W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4; L.1.1
3. Using verbs and verb phrases

W.1.5; SL.1.6; L.1.1, 6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases

W.1.5; SL.1.6; L.1.1, 6
5. Modifying to add details

W.1.5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 6
6. Connecting ideas

W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 6
7. Condensing ideas

W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 6

RF.K-1.1–4 (as appropriate)
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 1
Chapter 3 | 37
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.1.1, 6; L.1.1, 6
2. W.1.6; L.1.1, 6
3. SL.1.1, 6; L.1.1, 6
4. Not applicable at grade 1
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Collaborative
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to conversations and express
ideas by asking and answering yes-no
and wh- questions and responding using
gestures, words, and simple phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions by listening attentively, following
turn-taking rules, and asking and answering
questions.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by listening attentively, following turn-taking rules, and asking and
answering questions.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with teacher and peers on
joint writing projects of short informational and literary texts, using technology
where appropriate for publishing,
graphics, and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of longer informational and literary
texts, using technology where appropriate
for publishing, graphics, and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of longer informational and literary
texts, using technology where appropriate
for publishing, graphics, and the like.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and ideas in conversations
using a small set of learned phrases
(e.g., I think X), as well as open responses in order to gain and/or hold the floor.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using an expanded set of
learned phrases (e.g., I think/don’t think X. I
agree with X), as well as open responses in
order to gain and/or hold the floor, elaborate on an idea, and so on.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using an expanded set of
learned phrases (e.g., I think/don’t think X.
I agree with X), and open responses in
order to gain and/or hold the floor,
elaborate on an idea, provide different
opinions, and so on.
4. Adapting language choices
No standard for grade 1.
4. Adapting language choices
No standard for grade 1.
4. Adapting language choices
No standard for grade 1.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
38 | Chapter 3
Grade 1
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.1.1–3
6. RL.1.1–7, 9, 10; RI.1.1–7, 9–10;
SL.1.2–3; L.1.4, 6
7. RL.1.3–4, 6; RI.1.2, 6, 8; L.1.4–6
8. RL.1.4–5; RI.1.4; L.1.4–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater); poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
B. Interpretive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to readalouds and oral presentations by asking
and answering yes-no and wh- questions
with oral sentence frames and substantial prompting and support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering questions, with oral sentence
frames and occasional prompting and
support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with minimal
prompting and light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., plant
life cycle), and text elements (e.g.,
characters) based on understanding
of a select set of grade-level texts and
viewing of multimedia, with substantial
support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., how
earthworms eat), and text elements
(e.g., setting, main idea) in greater detail
based on understanding of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia,
with moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., erosion),
and text elements (e.g., central message,
character traits) using key details based on
understanding of a variety of grade-level
texts and viewing of multimedia, with light
support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language writers or
speakers use to present an idea
(e.g., the words and phrases used to
describe a character), with prompting
and substantial support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language writers or speakers
use to present or support an idea (e.g.,
the adjectives used to describe people
and places), with prompting and moderate
support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language writers or speakers
use to present or support an idea (e.g., the
author’s choice of vocabulary to portray
characters, places, or real people) with
prompting and light support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how two different frequently
used words (e.g., large versus small) produce a different effect on the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how two different words with
similar meaning (e.g., large versus enormous) produce shades of meaning and
a different effect on the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how multiple different words
with similar meaning (e.g., big, large, huge,
enormous, gigantic) produce shades of
meaning and a different effect on the
audience.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 1
Chapter 3 | 39
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., show and tell, describing a
picture).
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.1.4–6; L.1.1, 6
10. W.1.1–3, 5-8; L.1.1–2, 6
11. W.1.1; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1–2, 6
12. W.1.5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 5–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
40 | Chapter 3
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
on a variety of topics (e.g., show and tell,
author’s chair, recounting an experience,
describing an animal, and the like).
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics in a variety of content
areas (e.g., retelling a story, describing a
science experiment).
10. Writing
Write very short literary texts (e.g., story)
and informational texts (e.g., a description of an insect) using familiar vocabulary collaboratively with an adult
(e.g., joint construction of texts), with
peers, and sometimes independently.
10. Writing
Write short literary texts (e.g., a story) and
informational texts (e.g., an informative text
on the life cycle of an insect) collaboratively
with an adult (e.g., joint construction of
texts), with peers, and with increasing
independence.
10. Writing
Write longer literary texts (e.g., a story) and
informational texts (e.g., an informative text
on the life cycle of insects) collaboratively
with an adult (e.g., joint construction), with
peers, and independently.
11. Supporting opinions
Offer opinions and provide good reasons
(e.g., My favorite book is X because X)
referring to the text or to relevant background knowledge.
11. Supporting opinions
Offer opinions and provide good reasons
and some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., paraphrased examples from text or knowledge of content).
11. Supporting opinions
Offer opinions and provide good reasons
with detailed textual evidence or relevant
background knowledge (e.g., specific examples from text or knowledge of content).
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences,
using key words.
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences,
using complete sentences and key words.
b. Use a select number of general
academic and domain-specific words
to add detail (e.g., adding the word
scrumptious to describe a favorite food,
using the word thorax to refer to insect
anatomy) while speaking and writing.
b. Use a growing number of general
academic and domain-specific words in
order to add detail, create an effect
(e.g., using the word suddenly to signal a
change), or create shades of meaning
(e.g., prance versus walk) while speaking
and writing.
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences,
using increasingly detailed complete
sentences and key words.
b. Use a wide variety of general academic
and domain-specific words, synonyms,
antonyms, and non-literal language (e.g.,
The dog was as big as a house) to create
an effect, precision, and shades of
meaning while speaking and writing.
Grade 1
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.1.5; RI.1.5; W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4
2. RL.1.5; RI.1.5; W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4; L.1.1
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how text types
are organized (e.g., how a story is organized by a sequence of events) to comprehending texts and composing basic
texts with substantial support (e.g., using
drawings, through joint construction with
a peer or teacher) to comprehending
texts and writing texts in shared language
activities guided by the teacher, with
peers, and sometimes independently.
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized to express ideas (e.g.,
how a story is organized sequentially with
predictable stages versus how an informative text is organized by topic and details)
to comprehending texts and writing texts
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher and with increasing independence.
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized predictably to express
ideas (e.g., how a story is organized versus
an informative/ explanatory text versus an
opinion text) to comprehending texts and
writing texts in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and independently.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply basic understanding of how ideas,
events, or reasons are linked throughout
a text using more everyday connecting
words or phrases (e.g., one day, after,
then) to comprehending texts and writing
texts in shared language activities guided
by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply understanding of how ideas, events,
or reasons are linked throughout a text
using a growing number of connecting words
or phrases (e.g., a long time ago, suddenly)
to comprehending texts and writing texts
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher and with increasing independence.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply understanding of how ideas, events,
or reasons are linked throughout a text
using a variety of connecting words or
phrases (e.g., for example, after that, first/
second/third) to comprehending texts and
writing texts in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and independently.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 1
Chapter 3 | 41
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
42 | Chapter 3
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.1.5; SL.1.6; L.1.1, 6
4. W.1.5; SL.1.6; L.1.1, 6
5. W.1.5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use frequently used verbs (e.g., go,
eat, run) and verb types (e.g., doing,
saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in
shared language activities guided by the
teacher and sometimes independently.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use a growing number of verbs and
verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and with
increasing independence.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use a wide variety of verbs and verb
types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having,
thinking/feeling) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and
independently.
b. Use simple verb tenses appropriate
for the text type and discipline to convey
time (e.g., simple past for recounting an
experience) in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and sometimes
independently.
b. Use a growing number of verb tenses
appropriate for the text type and discipline
to convey time (e.g., simple past tense
for retelling, simple present for a science
description) in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and with increasing
independence.
b. Use a wide variety of verb tenses
appropriate for the text type and discipline
to convey time (e.g., simple present for a
science description, simple future to predict) in shared language activities guided
by the teacher and independently.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in simple ways
(e.g., adding a familiar adjective to
describe a noun) in order to enrich the
meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and the like,
in shared language activities guided
by the teacher and sometimes independently.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding a newly learned
adjective to a noun) to enrich the meaning
of sentences and add details about ideas,
people, things, and the like, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and
with increasing independence.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a wide variety of
ways (e.g., adding a variety of adjectives
to noun phrases) in order to enrich the
meaning of phrases/ sentences and add
details about ideas, people, things, and the
like, in shared language activities guided by
the teacher and independently.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with frequently used
prepositional phrases (such as in the
house, on the boat) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about
a familiar activity or process in shared
language activities guided by the teacher
and sometimes independently.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with prepositional
phrases to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause) about a familiar or
new activity or process in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and with
increasing independence.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand simple and compound sentences
with prepositional phrases to provide
details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause)
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher and independently.
Grade 1
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 6
7. W.1.1–3, 5; SL.1.4, 6; L.1.1, 6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways to
make connections between and to join
ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences
using and, but, so) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and
sometimes independently.
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways to make connections between and to
join ideas, for example, to express cause/
effect (e.g., She jumped because the dog
barked), in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and with increasing
independence.
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., rearranging complete, simple-to-form
compound sentences) to make connections
between and to join ideas (e.g., The boy
was hungry. The boy ate a sandwich.
The boy was hungry so he ate a sandwich)
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher and independently.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g.,
changing: I like blue. I like red. I like
purple I like blue, red, and purple)
to create precise and detailed sentences
in shared language activities guided
by the teacher and sometimes
independently.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a growing number of
ways (e.g., through embedded clauses as
in, She’s a doctor. She saved the animals.
She’s the doctor who saved the animals)
to create precise and detailed sentences
in shared language activities guided by the
teacher and with increasing independence.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g.,
through embedded clauses and other condensing, for example, through embedded
clauses as in She’s a doctor. She’s amazing. She saved the animals. She’s the
amazing doctor who saved the animals) to
create precise and detailed sentences in
shared language activities guided by the
teacher and independently.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 1
Chapter 3 | 43
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
44 | Chapter 3
Grade 1
Page 45 intentionally blank.
Grade 2
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language features,
and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home languages
and cultures as resources to value in their own right and to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and group
discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing tasks,
collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative conversations on a range of
social and academic topics
l
SL.2.1, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative
technology, and multimedia)
l
W.2.6; L.2.1, 3, 6
3. Offering and supporting opinions and negotiating with others in communicative exchanges l
SL.2.1, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)
l
W.2.4–5; SL.2.1, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
46 | Chapter 3
Grade 2
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
l
SL.2.1–3; L.2.3
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is conveyed
explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.2.1–7, 9–10; RI.2.1–7, 9–10; SL.2.2–3;
L.2.3, 4, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and opinions with details or reasons
depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.2.3–4, 6; RI.2.2, 6, 8; SL.2.3; L.2.3–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.2.4–5; RI.2.4–5; SL.2.3; L.2.3–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
l
SL.2.4–6; L.2.1, 3, 6
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
l
W.2.1–8, 10; L.2.1–3, 6
11. Supporting own opinions and evaluating others’ opinions in speaking and writing
l
W.2.1, 4, 10; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1–3, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and language structures to effectively convey ideas
l
W.2.4–5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 5–6
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Understanding text structure
l
RL.2.5; RI.2.5; W.2.1–5; SL.2.4
2. Understanding cohesion
l
RL.2.5; RI.2.5; W.2.1–4; SL.2.4; L.2.1, 3
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.2.5; SL.2.6; L.2.1, 3, 6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.2.5; SL.2.6; L.2.1, 3, 6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.2.5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.2.1–3, 5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
7. Condensing ideas
l
W.2.1–3, 5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
l
RF.K–1.1–4; RF.2.3–4 (as appropriate)
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 2
Chapter 3 | 47
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.2.1, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
2. W.2.6; L.2.1, 3, 6
3. SL.2.1, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
4. W.2.4–5; SL.2.1, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
48 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to conversations and express
ideas by asking and answering yes-no
and wh- questions and responding using
gestures, words, and learned phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions, including sustained dialogue,
by listening attentively, following turn-taking
rules, asking relevant questions, affirming
others, and adding relevant information.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions, including sustained dialogue,
by listening attentively, following turn-taking
rules, asking relevant questions, affirming
others, adding pertinent information,
building on responses, and providing useful
feedback.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of short informational and
literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of longer informational and literary
texts, using technology where appropriate
for publishing, graphics, and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of a variety of longer informational
and literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using learned phrases
(e.g., I think X.), as well as open responses, in order to gain and/or hold the floor.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using an expanded set of
learned phrases (e.g., I agree with X, but X.),
as well as open responses, in order to gain
and/or hold the floor, provide counterarguments, and the like.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using a variety of learned
phrases (e.g., That’s a good idea, but X),
as well as open responses, in order to gain
and/or hold the floor, provide counterarguments, elaborate on an idea, and the like.
4. Adapting language choices
Recognize that language choices (e.g.,
vocabulary) vary according to social setting (e.g., playground versus classroom),
with substantial support from peers or
adults.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices (e.g., vocabulary,
use of dialogue, and so on) according to
purpose (e.g., persuading, entertaining),
task, and audience (e.g., peers versus
adults), with moderate support from peers
or adults.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to purpose (e.g., persuading, entertaining), task,
and audience (e.g., peer-to-peer versus
peer-to-teacher), with light support from
peers or adults.
Grade 2
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.2.1–3; L.2.3
6. RL.2.1–7, 9–10; RI.2.1–7, 9–10;
SL.2.2–3; L.2.3, 4, 6
7. RL.2.3–4, 6; RI.2.2, 6, 8; SL.2.3;
L.2.3–6
8. RL.2.4–5; RI.2.4–5; SL.2.3; L.2.3–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater); poetry;
retelling a story, and so on.
B. Interpretive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to readalouds and oral presentations by asking
and answering basic questions, with oral
sentence frames and substantial prompting and support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with oral
sentence frames and occasional prompting
and support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with minimal
prompting and light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., plant
life cycle), and text elements (e.g., main
idea, characters, events) based on
understanding of a select set of
grade-level texts and viewing of
multimedia, with substantial support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., how
earthworms eat), and text elements (e.g.,
setting, events) in greater detail based on
understanding of a variety of grade-level
texts and viewing of multimedia, with
moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., erosion),
and text elements (e.g., central message,
character traits) using key details based on
understanding of a variety of grade-level
texts and viewing of multimedia, with light
support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language writers or
speakers use to present an idea (e.g.,
the words and phrases used to describe
a character), with prompting and
substantial support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language writers or speakers
use to present or support an idea (e.g., the
author’s choice of vocabulary or phrasing to
portray characters, places, or real people),
with prompting and moderate support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe how well writers or speakers use
specific language resources to support an
opinion or present an idea (e.g., whether
the vocabulary used to present evidence is
strong enough), with light support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how two different frequently
used words (e.g., describing a character
as happy versus angry) produce a
different effect on the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how two different words with
similar meaning (e.g., describing a character
as happy versus ecstatic) produce shades
of meaning and different effects on the
audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how multiple different words
with similar meaning (e.g., pleased versus
happy versus ecstatic, heard or knew versus believed) produce shades of meaning
and different effects on the audience.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 2
Chapter 3| 49
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.2.4–6; L.2.1, 3, 6
10. W.2.1-8, 10; L.2.1–3, 6
11. W.2.1, 4, 10; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1–3, 6
12. W.2.4–5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 5–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
50 | Chapter 3
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., recounting an experience,
retelling a story, describing a picture).
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on
a variety of topics (e.g., retelling a story,
describing an animal).
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas
(e.g., retelling a story, recounting a science
experiment, describing how to solve a
mathematics problem).
10. Writing
Write very short literary texts (e.g., story)
and informational texts (e.g., a description of a volcano) using familiar vocabulary collaboratively with an adult
(e.g., joint construction of texts), with
peers, and sometimes independently.
10. Writing
Write short literary texts (e.g., a story) and
informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text
explaining how a volcano erupts) collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction
of texts), with peers, and with increasing
independence.
10. Writing
Write longer literary texts (e.g., a story)
and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text explaining how a volcano erupts)
collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction), with peers and independently.
11. Supporting opinions
Support opinions by providing good
reasons and some textual evidence or
relevant background knowledge (e.g.,
referring to textual evidence or knowledge of content).
11. Supporting opinions
Support opinions by providing good reasons
and increasingly detailed textual evidence
(e.g., providing examples from the text) or
relevant background knowledge about the
content.
11. Supporting opinions
Support opinions or persuade others
by providing good reasons and detailed
textual evidence (e.g., specific events or
graphics from text) or relevant background
knowledge about the content.
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences
by using key words.
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences
using complete sentences and key words.
b. Use a select number of general
academic and domain-specific words to
add detail (e.g., adding the word generous to describe a character, using the
word lava to explain volcanic eruptions)
while speaking and writing.
b. Use a growing number of general
academic and domain-specific words in
order to add detail, create an effect
(e.g., using the word suddenly to signal a
change), or create shades of meaning (e.g.,
scurry versus dash) while speaking and
writing.
12. Selecting language resources
a. Retell texts and recount experiences
using increasingly detailed complete
sentences and key words.
b. Use a wide variety of general academic
and domain-specific words, synonyms,
antonyms, and non-literal language (e.g.,
He was as quick as a cricket) to create an
effect, precision, and shades of meaning
while speaking and writing.
Grade 2
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.2.5; RI.2.5; W.2.1–5; SL.2.4
2. RL.2.5; RI.2.5; W.2.1–4; SL.2.4;
L.2.1, 3
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different
text types are organized to express ideas
(e.g., how a story is organized sequentially) to comprehending and composing
texts in shared language activities guided
by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized to express ideas (e.g.,
how a story is organized sequentially with
predictable stages versus how an information report is organized by topic and details)
to comprehending texts and composing
texts with increasing independence
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized predictably to express
ideas (e.g., a narrative versus an
informative/explanatory text versus an
opinion text) to comprehending and writing
texts independently.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply basic understanding of how ideas,
events, or reasons are linked throughout
a text using more everyday connecting
words or phrases (e.g., today, then) to
comprehending and composing texts
in shared language activities guided by
the teacher, with peers, and sometimes
independently.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply understanding of how ideas, events,
or reasons are linked throughout a text
using a growing number of connecting words
or phrases (e.g., after a long time, first/
next) to comprehending texts and writing
texts with increasing independence.
2. Understanding cohesion
Apply understanding of how ideas, events,
or reasons are linked throughout a text
using a variety of connecting words or
phrases (e.g., for example, after that,
suddenly) to comprehending and writing
texts independently.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 2
Chapter 3 | 51
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use frequently used verbs (e.g., walk,
run) and verb types (e.g., doing, saying,
being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared
language activities guided by the teacher
and sometimes independently.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedures (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater); poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
52 | Chapter 3
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.2.5; SL.2.6; L.2.1, 3, 6
4. W.2.5; SL.2.6; L.2.1, 3, 6
5. W.2.5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use a growing number of verb types (e.g.,
doing, saying, being/having, thinking/
feeling) with increasing independence.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
a. Use a variety of verb types (e.g., doing,
saying, being/having, thinking/feeling)
independently.
b. Use a growing number of verb tenses
appropriate to the text type and discipline
to convey time (e.g., simple past tense for
retelling, simple present for a science
description) with increasing independence.
b. Use a wide variety of verb tenses
appropriate to the text type and discipline
to convey time (e.g., simple present tense
for a science description, simple future to
predict) independently.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in simple ways
(e.g., adding a familiar adjective to
describe a noun) in order to enrich the
meaning of sentences and to add details
about ideas, people, things, and the like,
in shared language activities guided
by the teacher and sometimes
independently.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number
of ways (e.g., adding a newly learned
adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the
meaning of sentences and to add details
about ideas, people, things, and the like,
with increasing independence.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
(e.g., adding comparative/superlative
adjectives to nouns) in order to enrich the
meaning of phrases/sentences and to add
details about ideas, people, things, and the
like, independently.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with frequently used
adverbials (e.g., prepositional phrases,
such as at school, with my friend) to
provide details (e.g., time, manner,
place, cause) about a familiar activity
or process in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and sometimes
independently.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a growing number
of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, prepositional
phrases) to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause) about a familiar
or new activity or process with increasing
independence.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g.,
time, manner, place, cause) independently.
b. Use simple verb tenses appropriate
to the text type and discipline to convey
time (e.g., simple past tense for recounting an experience) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and
sometimes independently.
Grade 2
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater); poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.2.1–3, 5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
7. W.2.1–3, 5; SL.2.4, 6; L.2.1, 3, 6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways to
make connections between and to join
ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so) in shared language
activities guided by the teacher and
sometimes independently.
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways to make connections between and to
join ideas, for example, to express cause/
effect (e.g., She jumped because the dog
barked) with increasing independence.
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., rearranging complete simple to form
compound sentences) to make connections
between and to join ideas (e.g., The boy
was hungry. The boy ate a sandwich.
The boy was hungry so he ate a sandwich)
independently.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g.,
changing: It’s green. It’s red. It’s green
and red) to create precise and detailed
sentences in shared language activities
guided by the teacher and sometimes
independently.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a growing number of
ways (e.g., through embedded clauses as in,
It’s a plant. It’s found in the rain forest.
It’s a green and red plant that’s found in the
rain forest) to create precise and detailed
sentences with increasing independence.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a variety of ways
(e.g., through embedded clauses and other
condensing as in, It’s a plant. It’s green and
red. It’s found in the tropical rain forest.
It’s a green and red plant that’s found in
the tropical rain forest) to create precise
and detailed sentences independently.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 2
Chapter 3 | 53
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
54 | Chapter 3
Grade 2
Page 55 intentionally blank.
Grade 3
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language
features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home
languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class
and group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations,
writing tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics

SL.3.1, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative technology, and multimedia)

W.3.6; L.3.1, 3, 6
3. Offering and supporting opinions and negotiating with others in communicative exchanges

SL.3.1, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)

W.3.4–5; SL.3.1, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
56 | Chapter 3
Grade 3
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
l
SL.3.1–3; L.3.3
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is conveyed
explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.3.1–7,9–10; RI.3.1–7,9-10; SL.3.2–3;
L.3.3, 4, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and opinions with details or reasons
depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.3.3–4, 6; RI.3.2, 6, 8; SL.3.3; L.3.3–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.3.4–5; RI.3.4–5; SL.3.3; L.3.3–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
l
SL.3.4–6; L.3.1, 3, 6
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
l
W.3.1–8, 10; L.3.1–3, 6
11. Supporting own opinions and evaluating others’ opinions in speaking and writing
l
W.3.1, 4, 10; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1–3, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and language structures to effectively convey ideas
l
W.3.4–5; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1, 3, 5–6
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Understanding text structure
l
RL.3.5; RI.3.5; W.3.1–5; SL.3.4
2. Understanding cohesion
l
RL.3.5; RI.3.5; W.3.1–4; SL.3.4; L.3.1, 3
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.3.5; SL.3.6; L.3.1, 3, 6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.3.5; SL.3.6; L.3.1, 3, 6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.3.5; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.3.1-3, 5; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
7. Condensing ideas
l
W.3.1-3, 5; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
l
RF.K–3.1–4 (as appropriate)
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 3
Chapter 3 | 57
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.3.1,6; L.3.1, 3, 6
2. W.3.6; L.3.1, 3, 6
3. SL.3.1,6; L.3.1, 3, 6
4. W.3.4–5; SL.3.1, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
58 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to conversations and express
ideas by asking and answering yes-no
and wh- questions and responding using
short phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by
following turn-taking rules, asking relevant
questions, affirming others, and adding
relevant information.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information and ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by
following turn-taking rules, asking relevant
questions, affirming others, adding relevant
information, building on responses, and
providing useful feedback.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of short informational and
literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of longer informational and literary
texts, using technology where appropriate
for publishing, graphics, and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of a variety of longer informational
and literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using basic learned
phrases (e.g., I think . . .), as well as
open responses in order to gain and/or
hold the floor.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using an expanded set
of learned phrases (e.g., I agree with X, and
. . .), as well as open responses in order to
gain and/or hold the floor, provide counterarguments, and the like.
3. Offering opinions
Offer opinions and negotiate with others
in conversations using a variety of learned
phrases (e.g., That’s a good idea, but . . .),
as well as open responses in order to gain
and/or hold the floor, provide counterarguments, elaborate on an idea, and the like.
4. Adapting language choices
Recognize that language choices (e.g.,
vocabulary) vary according to social setting (e.g., playground versus classroom),
with substantial support from peers or
adults.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices (e.g., vocabulary,
use of dialogue, and the like) according to
purpose (e.g., persuading, entertaining),
social setting, and audience (e.g., peers
versus adults), with moderate support from
peers or adults.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to purpose (e.g., persuading, entertaining), task,
and audience (e.g., peer-to-peer versus
peer-to-teacher), with light support from
peers or adults.
Grade 3
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy:
5. SL.3.1-3; L.3.3
6. RL.3.1–7, 9–10; RI.3.1–7, 9–10;
SL.3.2–3; L.3.3, 4, 6
7. RL.3.3–4, 6; RI.3.2, 6, 8; SL.3.3;
L.3.3–6
8. RL.3.4–5; RI.3.4–5; SL.3.3; L.3.3–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report)
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
B. Interpretive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to readalouds and oral presentations by asking
and answering basic questions, with
prompting and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with occasional prompting and moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening to read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with minimal
prompting and light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., insect
metamorphosis), and text elements (e.g.,
main idea, characters, setting) based
on understanding of a select set of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia, with substantial support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., how cows
digest food), and text elements (e.g., main
idea, characters, events) in greater detail
based on understanding of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia,
with moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., volcanic
eruptions), and text elements (e.g., central
message, character traits, major events)
using key details based on understanding
of a variety of grade-level texts and viewing
of multimedia, with light support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the language writers or
speakers use to support an opinion or
present an idea (e.g., by identifying the
phrases or words in the text that provide
evidence), with prompting and
substantial support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the specific language writers or
speakers use to present or support an idea
(e.g., the specific vocabulary or phrasing
used to provide evidence), with prompting
and moderate support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe how well writers or speakers use
specific language resources to support an
opinion or present an idea (e.g., whether
the vocabulary or phrasing used to provide
evidence is strong enough), with light
support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words produce
different effects on the audience
(e.g., describing a character as happy
versus sad).
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words with similar
meanings (e.g., describing a character as
happy versus ecstatic) produce shades
of meaning and different effects on the
audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how multiple different words
with similar meanings (e.g., pleased versus
happy versus ecstatic, heard versus knew
versus believed) produce shades of meaning and different effects on the audience.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 3
Chapter 3 | 59
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., retelling a story, describing an
animal, and the like).
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy:
9. SL.3.4–6; L.3.1, 3, 6
10. W.3.1–8, 10; L.3.1–3,
11. W.3.1, 4, 10; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1–3, 6
12. W.3.4–5; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1, 3, 5–6
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational
texts (e.g., a description of a flashlight)
collaboratively (e.g., joint construction
of texts with an adult or with peers) and
sometimes independently.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
60 | Chapter 3
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
b. Paraphrase texts and recount
experiences using key words from notes
or graphic organizers.
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas
(e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science
process, and the like).
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas
(e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science
process or historical event, and the like).
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how
flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint
construction of texts with an adult or with
peers) and with increasing independence
using appropriate text organization.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with
an adult or with peers) and independently
using appropriate text organization and
growing understanding of register.
b. Paraphrase texts and recount experiences
b. Paraphrase texts and recount experiusing complete sentences and key words
ences using increasingly detailed complete
from notes or graphic organizers.
sentences and key words from notes or
graphic organizers.
11. Supporting opinions
Support opinions by providing good
reasons and some textual evidence or
relevant background knowledge
(e.g., referring to textual evidence or
knowledge of content).
11. Supporting opinions
Support opinions by providing good reasons
and increasingly detailed textual evidence
(e.g., providing examples from the text) or
relevant background knowledge about the
content.
11. Supporting opinions
Support opinions or persuade others
by providing good reasons and detailed
textual evidence (e.g., specific events or
graphics from text) or relevant background
knowledge about the content.
12. Selecting language resources
Use a select number of general academic
and domain-specific words to add detail
(e.g., adding the word dangerous to
describe a place, using the word habitat
when describing animal behavior) while
speaking and writing.
12. Selecting language resources
Use a growing number of general academic
and domain-specific words in order to add
detail, create an effect (e.g., using the word
suddenly to signal a change), or create
shades of meaning (e.g., scurry versus
dash) while speaking and writing.
12. Selecting language resources
Use a wide variety of general academic
and domain-specific words, synonyms,
antonyms, and non-literal language to
create an effect, precision, and shades of
meaning while speaking and writing.
Grade 3
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater); poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.3.5; RI.3.5; W.3.1–5; SL.3.4
2. RL.3.5; RI.3.5; W.3.1–4; SL.3.4;
L.3.1, 3
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different
text types are organized to express ideas
(e.g., how a story is organized sequentially) to comprehending texts and writing
basic texts.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized to express ideas (e.g.,
how a story is organized sequentially with
predictable stages) to comprehending texts
and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized to express ideas (e.g.,
how a story is organized sequentially with
predictable stages versus how opinion/
arguments are structured logically, grouping related ideas) to comprehending texts
and writing cohesive texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply basic understanding of language
resources that refer the reader back or
forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer
back to nouns in text) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply growing understanding of language
resources that refer the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer back
to nouns in text) to comprehending texts
and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply increasing understanding of
language resources that refer the reader
back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns
or synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to
comprehending and writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply basic understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using everyday
connecting words or phrases (e.g., then,
next) to comprehending texts and writing
basic texts.
b. Apply growing understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., at the beginning/
end, first/next) to comprehending texts and
writing texts with increasing cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of
how ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using an increasing
variety of connecting and transitional words
or phrases (e.g., for example, afterward,
first/next/last) to comprehending texts and
writing cohesive texts.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 3
Chapter 3 | 61
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.3.5; SL.3.6; L.3.1, 3, 6
4. W.3.5; SL.3.6; L.3.1, 3, 6
5. W.3.5; SL.3.4, 6; L.3.1, 3, 6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use frequently used verbs, different verb
types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having,
thinking/feeling), and verb tenses
appropriate to the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past for
recounting an experience).
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a growing number of verb types
(e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/
feeling) and verb tenses appropriate to the
text type and discipline to convey time
(e.g., simple past for retelling, simple
present for a science description).
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verb types (e.g., doing,
saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and
verb tenses appropriate to the text type
and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple
present for a science description, simple
future to predict).
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in simple ways
(e.g., adding an adjective to a noun) in
order to enrich the meaning of sentences
and add details about ideas, people,
things, and the like.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number
of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative adjectives to nouns) in order to enrich
the meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and the like.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
(e.g., adding comparative/ superlative
adjectives to noun phrases, simple clause
embedding) in order to enrich the meaning
of sentences and add details about ideas,
people, things, and the like.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with adverbials
(e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the
like) about a familiar activity or process
(e.g., They walked to the soccer field).
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g.,
adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional
phrases) to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause, and the like) about a
familiar or new activity or process (e.g., They
worked quietly; they ran across the soccer
field).
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g.,
adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional
phrases) to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause, and the like) about
a range of familiar and new activities or
processes (e.g., They worked quietly all
night in their room).
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
62 | Chapter 3
Grade 3
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.3.1-3,5; SL.3.4,6; L.3.1, 3, 6
7. W.3.1-3,5; SL.3.4,6; L.3.1, 3, 6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
to make connections between and join
ideas (e.g., creating compound
sentences using and, but, so).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express
cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because
the mountain lion came) or to make a
concession (e.g., She studied all night even
though she wasn’t feeling well).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express
cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because
the mountain lion approached them), to
make a concession (e.g., She studied all
night even though she wasn’t feeling well),
or to link two ideas that happen at the
same time (e.g., The cubs played while
their mother hunted).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g.,
changing: It’s green. It’s red. It’s green
and red) to create precise and detailed
sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a growing number of
ways (e.g., through embedded clauses as
in, It’s a plant. It’s found in the rain forest.
It’s a green and red plant that’s found
in the tropical rain forest) to create precise
and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a variety of ways
(e.g., through embedded clauses and other
condensing as in, It’s a plant. It’s green and
red. It’s found in the tropical rain forest.
It’s a green and red plant that’s found in
the tropical rain forest) to create precise
and detailed sentences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 3
Chapter 3 | 63
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
64 | Chapter 3
Grade 3
Page 65 intentionally blank.
Grade 4
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language
features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home
languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class
and group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations,
writing tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics

SL.4.1, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative
technology, and multimedia)

W.4.6; L.4.1, 3, 6
3. Offering and supporting opinions and negotiating with others in communicative exchanges

SL.4.1, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)

W.4.4–5; SL.4.1, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
66 | Chapter 3
Grade 4
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
l
SL.4.1–3; L.4.3
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is conveyed
explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.4.1–7, 9–10; RI.4.1–7, 9–10; SL.4.2–3;
L.4.3, 4, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and opinions with details or reasons
depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.4.3–4, 6; RI.4.2, 6, 8; SL.4.3; L.4.3–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.4.4–5; RI.4.4–5; SL.4.3; L.4.3–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
l
SL.4.4–6; L.4.1, 3, 6
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
l
W.4.1–10; L.4.1–3, 6
11. Supporting own opinions and evaluating others’ opinions in speaking and writing
l
W.4.1, 4, 9–10; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1–3, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other language resources to effectively convey ideas
l
W.4.4–5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 5–6
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Understanding text structure
l
RL.4.5; RI.4.5; W.4.1–5; SL.4.4
2. Understanding cohesion
l
RL.4.5; RI.4.5; W.4.1–4; SL.4.4; L.4.1, 3
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.4.5; SL.4.6; L.4.1, 3, 6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.4.5; SL.4.6; L.4.1, 3, 6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.4.5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.4.1–3, 5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
7. Condensing ideas
l
W.4.1–3, 5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
l
RF.K–1.1–4; RF.2–4.3–4 (as appropriate)
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 4
Chapter 3 | 67
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.4.1, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
2. W.4.6; L.4.1, 3, 6
3. SL.4.1, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
4. W.4.4–5; SL.4.1, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened); exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
68 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to conversations and express
ideas by asking and answering yes-no
and wh- questions and responding using
short phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by
following turn-taking rules, asking relevant
questions, affirming others, and adding
relevant information.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by
following turn-taking rules, asking relevant
questions, affirming others, adding relevant
information, building on responses, and
providing useful feedback.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of short informational and
literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of longer informational and literary
texts, using technology where appropriate
for publishing, graphics, and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of a variety of longer informational
and literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
3. Offering opinions
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using basic learned
phrases (e.g., I think . . .), as well as
open responses, in order to gain and/or
hold the floor.
3. Offering opinions
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using an expanded set
of learned phrases (e.g., I agree with X,
but . . .), as well as open responses, in
order to gain and/or hold the floor, provide
counterarguments, and so on.
3. Offering opinions
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using a variety of learned
phrases (e.g., That’s a good idea. However . . .), as well as open responses, in
order to gain and/or hold the floor, provide
counterarguments, elaborate on an idea,
and so on.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
social setting (e.g., playground, classroom) and audience (e.g., peers,
teacher), with substantial support.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
purpose (e.g., persuading, entertaining),
task (e.g., telling a story versus explaining
a science experiment), and audience, with
moderate support.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
purpose, task (e.g., facilitating a science
experiment), and audience, with light
support.
Grade 4
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy:
5. SL.4.1–3; L.4.3
6. RL.4.1–7, 9–10; RI.4.1–7, 9–10;
SL.4.2–3; L.4.3, 4, 6
7. RL.4.3–4, 6; RI.4.2, 6, 8; SL.4.3;
L.4.3–6
8. RL.4.4–5; RI.4.4–5; SL.4.3; L.4.3–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedures (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 4
B. Interpretive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening of readalouds and oral presentations by asking
and answering basic questions, with
prompting and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening of read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with occasional prompting and moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening of read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with minimal
prompting and light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g.,
volcanic eruptions), and text elements
(main idea, characters, events, and the
like) based on close reading of a select
set of grade-level texts, with substantial
support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g., animal
migration), and text elements (main idea,
central message, and the like) in greater
detail based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts, with moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Describe ideas, phenomena (e.g.,
pollination), and text elements (main idea,
character traits, event sequence, and the
like) in detail based on close reading of
a variety of grade-level texts, with light
support.
b. Use knowledge of frequently used
affixes (e.g., un-, mis-) and linguistic
context, reference materials, and visual
cues to determine the meaning of
unknown words on familiar topics.
b. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), linguistic
context, and reference materials to determine the meaning of unknown words on
familiar topics.
b. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words) and linguistic context to determine the meaning of
unknown and multiple-meaning words on
familiar and new topics.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the specific language writers
or speakers use to present or support
an idea (e.g., the specific vocabulary or
phrasing used to provide evidence), with
prompting and substantial support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe how well writers or speakers use
specific language resources to support an
opinion or present an idea (e.g., whether
the vocabulary or phrasing used to provide
evidence is strong enough), with prompting
and moderate support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe how well writers and speakers use
specific language resources to support an
opinion or present an idea (e.g., the clarity
or appealing nature of language used to
present evidence), with prompting and light
support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words with similar meanings produce different effects on
the audience (e.g., describing a character’s actions as whined versus said).
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words with similar
meanings (e.g., describing a character
as smart versus an expert) and figurative
language (e.g., as big as a whale) produce
shades of meaning and different effects on
the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words with related
meanings (e.g., fun versus entertaining
versus thrilling, possibly versus certainly)
and figurative language produce shades
of meaning and different effects on the
audience.
Chapter 3 | 69
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas
(e.g., retelling a story, explaining a
science process, reporting on a current
event, recounting a memorable experience, and so on), with substantial
support.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.4.4–6; L.4.1, 3, 6
10. W.4.1–10; L.4.1–3, 6
11. W.4.1,4, 9–10; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1–3, 6
12. W.4.4–5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 5–6
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
70 | Chapter 3
C. Productive
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational
texts (e.g., a description of a flashlight)
collaboratively (e.g., joint construction
of texts with an adult or with peers) and
sometimes independently.
b. Write brief summaries of texts and
experiences using complete sentences
and key words (e.g., from notes or
graphic organizers).
11. Supporting opinions
a. Support opinions by expressing
appropriate/accurate reasons using
textual evidence (e.g., referring to text)
or relevant background knowledge about
content, with substantial support.
b. Express ideas and opinions or temper
statements using basic modal expressions (e.g., can, will, maybe).
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas
(e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science
process, reporting on a current event,
recounting a memorable experience, and
so on), with moderate support.
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver oral presentations on a
variety of topics in a variety of content
areas (e.g., retelling a story, explaining a
science process, reporting on a current
event, recounting a memorable experience,
and so on), with light support.
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how
flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint
construction of texts with an adult or with
peers) and with increasing independence
using appropriate text organization.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with
an adult or with peers) and independently
using appropriate text organization and
growing understanding of register.
b. Write increasingly concise summaries
of texts and experiences using complete
sentences and key words (e.g., from notes
or graphic organizers).
b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
texts and experiences using complete and
concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
from notes or graphic organizers).
11. Supporting opinions
a Support opinions or persuade others by
expressing appropriate/accurate reasons
using some textual evidence (e.g., paraphrasing facts) or relevant background
knowledge about content, with moderate
support.
11. Supporting opinions
a. Support opinions or persuade others by
expressing appropriate/accurate reasons
using detailed textual evidence (e.g.,
quotations or specific events from text)
or relevant background knowledge about
content, with light support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with familiar modal expressions
(e.g., maybe/probably, can/must).
b. Express attitude and opinions or
temper statements with nuanced modal
expressions (e.g., probably/certainly,
should/would) and phrasing (e.g., In my
opinion . . .).
Grade 4
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a select number of general
academic and domain-specific words
to create precision while speaking and
writing.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.4.4–6; L.4.1, 3, 6
10. W.4.1–10; L.4.1–3, 6
11. W.4.1,4, 9–10; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1–3, 6
12. W.4.4–5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 5–6
b. Select a few frequently used affixes for
accuracy and precision (e.g., She walks, b. Select a growing number of frequently
I’m unhappy).
used affixes for accuracy and precision
(e.g., She walked. He likes . . . , I’m
unhappy).
Bridging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a wide variety of general academic
and domain-specific words, synonyms,
antonyms, and figurative language to create
precision and shades of meaning while
speaking and writing.
b. Select a variety of appropriate affixes for
accuracy and precision (e.g., She’s walking.
I’m uncomfortable. They left reluctantly).
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Expanding
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a growing number of general
academic and domain-specific words,
synonyms, and antonyms to create
precision and shades of meaning while
speaking and writing.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 4
Chapter 3 | 71
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report);
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.4.5; RI.4.5; W.4.1–5; SL.4.4
2. RL.4.5; RI.4.5; W.4.1–4; SL.4.4;
L.4.1, 3
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different
text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized
sequentially) to comprehending texts and
writing basic texts.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply increasing understanding of how
different text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized
sequentially with predictable stages versus
how an explanation is organized around
ideas) to comprehending texts and writing
texts with increasing cohesion.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different text
types are organized to express ideas (e.g.,
how a narrative is organized sequentially
with predictable stages versus how opinions/arguments are structured logically,
grouping related ideas) to comprehending
texts and writing cohesive texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply basic understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back or
forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer
back to nouns in text) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply growing understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back
or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or
synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to
comprehending texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply increasing understanding of
language resources for referring the reader
back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns,
synonyms, or nominalizations refer back to
nouns in text) to comprehending texts and
writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply growing understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., since, next,
for example) to comprehending texts and
writing texts with increasing cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of
how ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using an increasing
variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., for instance,
in addition, at the end) to comprehending
texts and writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply basic understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using everyday
connecting words or phrases (e.g., first,
yesterday) to comprehending texts and
writing basic texts.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
72 | Chapter 3
Grade 4
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.4.5; SL.4.6; L.4.1, 3, 6
4. W.4.5; SL.4.6; L.4.1, 3, 6
5. W.4.5; SL.4.4,6; L.4.1, 3, 6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use various verbs/verb types (e.g.,
doing, saying, being/having, thinking/
feeling) and tenses appropriate to the
text type and discipline (e.g., simple past
for recounting an experience) for familiar
topics.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use various verbs/verb types (e.g., doing,
saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and
tenses appropriate to the task, text type,
and discipline (e.g., simple past for retelling,
timeless present for science explanation)
for an increasing variety of familiar and new
topics.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use various verbs/verb types (e.g., doing,
saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and
tenses appropriate to the task and text
type (e.g., timeless present for science
explanation, mixture of past and present for
historical information report) for a variety of
familiar and new topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in simple ways
(e.g., adding an adjective) in order to
enrich the meaning of sentences and add
details about ideas, people, things, and
so on.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
(e.g., adding adjectives to noun phrases or
simple clause embedding) in order to enrich
the meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and so on.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., adding general academic
adjectives and adverbs to noun phrases or
more complex clause embedding) in order
to enrich the meaning of sentences and
add details about ideas, people, things,
and so on.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with familiar adverbials
(e.g., basic prepositional phrases) to
provide details (e.g., time, manner,
place, cause, and so on) about a familiar
activity or process (e.g., They walked to
the soccer field).
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a growing variety
of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, prepositional
phrases) to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause, and so on) about a
familiar or new activity or process (e.g., They
worked quietly. They ran across the soccer
field).
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a variety of
adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and so
on) about a variety of familiar and new
activities and processes (e.g., They worked
quietly all night in their room).
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 4
Chapter 3 | 73
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.4.1-3, 5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
7. W.4.1-3, 5; SL.4.4, 6; L.4.1, 3, 6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
to make connections between and
join ideas in sentences (e.g., creating
compound sentences using coordinate
conjunctions, such as and, but, so).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety
of ways (e.g., creating complex sentences
using familiar subordinate conjunctions) to
make connections between and join ideas in
sentences, for example, to express cause/
effect (e.g., The deer ran because the
mountain lion came) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though
she wasn’t feeling well).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., creating complex sentences using
a variety of subordinate conjunctions) to
make connections between and join ideas,
for example, to express cause/effect (e.g.,
Since the lion was at the waterhole, the
deer ran away), to make a concession, or
to link two ideas that happen at the same
time (e.g., The cubs played while their
mother hunted).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in simple ways
(e.g., through simple embedded clauses,
as in, The woman is a doctor. She helps
children. The woman is a doctor who
helps children) to create precise and
detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in an increasing variety
of ways (e.g., through a growing number of
embedded clauses and other condensing,
as in, The dog ate quickly. The dog choked.
The dog ate so quickly that it choked) to
create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g.,
through various types of embedded clauses
and other ways of condensing as in, There
was a Gold Rush. It began in the 1850s. It
brought a lot of people to California. The
Gold Rush that began in the 1850s brought
a lot of people to California) to create
precise and detailed sentences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
74 | Chapter 3
Grade 4
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
Grade 4
Chapter 3 | 75
Grade 5
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language
features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home
languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class
and group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations,
writing tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics

SL.5.1, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative
technology, and multimedia)

W.5.6; L.5.1, 3, 6
3. Offering and supporting opinions and negotiating with others in communicative exchanges

SL.5.1, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)

W.5.4–5; SL.5.1, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
76 | Chapter 3
Grade 5
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
l
SL.5.1–3; L.5.3
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is conveyed
explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.5.1–7, 9–10; RI.5.1–7, 9–10; SL.5.2–3;
L.5.3, 4, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and opinions with details or reasons
depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.5.3–4, 6; RI.5.2, 6, 8; SL.5.3; L.5.3–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.5.4—5; RI.5.4–5; SL.5.3; L.5.3–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
l
SL.5.4–6; L.5.1, 3, 6
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
l
W.5.1–10; L.5.1–3, 6
11. Supporting own opinions and evaluating others’ opinions in speaking and writing
l
W.5.1, 4, 9–10; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1–3, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and language structures to effectively convey ideas
l
W.5.4–5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 5–6
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Understanding text structure
l
RL.5.5; RI.5.5; W.5.1–5; SL.5.4
2. Understanding cohesion
l
RL.5.5; RI.5.5; W.5.1–4; SL.5.4; L.5.1, 3
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.5.5; SL.5.6; L.5.1, 3, 6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.5.5; SL.5.6; L.5.1, 3, 6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.5.5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.5.1–3, 5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
7. Condensing ideas
l
W.5.1–3, 5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
l
RF.K–1.1–4; RF.2–5.3–4 (as appropriate)
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 5
Chapter 3 | 77
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.5.1, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
2. W.5.6; L.5.1, 3, 6
3. SL.5.1, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
4. W.5.4–5; SL.5.1, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
78 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to conversations and express
ideas by asking and answering yes-no
and wh- questions and responding using
short phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by
following turn-taking rules, asking relevant
questions, affirming others, and adding
relevant information.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by
following turn-taking rules, asking relevant
questions, affirming others, adding relevant
information, building on responses, and
providing useful feedback.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of short informational and
literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of longer informational and literary
texts, using technology where appropriate
for publishing, graphics, and the like.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers on joint writing
projects of a variety of longer informational
and literary texts, using technology where
appropriate for publishing, graphics, and
the like.
3. Offering opinions
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using basic learned
phrases (e.g., I think . . .), as well as
open responses, in order to gain and/or
hold the floor.
3. Offering opinions
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using an expanded set
of learned phrases (e.g., I agree with X,
but . . .), as well as open responses, in
order to gain and/or hold the floor, provide
counterarguments, and so on.
3. Offering opinions
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using a variety of learned
phrases (e.g., That’s an interesting idea.
However, . . .), as well as open responses,
in order to gain and/or hold the floor,
provide counterarguments, elaborate on an
idea, and so on.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
social setting (e.g., playground, classroom) and audience (e.g., peers,
teacher), with substantial support.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
purpose (e.g., persuading, entertaining),
task (e.g., telling a story versus explaining
a science experiment), and audience, with
moderate support.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
purpose, task (e.g., facilitating a science
experiment), and audience, with light
support.
Grade 5
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.5.1–3; L.5.3
6. RL.5.1–7, 9–10; RI.5.1–7, 9–10;
SL.5.2–3; L.5.3, 4, 6
7. RL.5.3–4, 6; RI.5.2, 6, 8; SL.5.3;
L.5.3–6
8. RL.5.4–5; RI.5.4–5; SL.5.3; L.5.3–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis); and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 5
B. Interpretive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening of readalouds and oral presentations by asking
and answering basic questions, with
prompting and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening of read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with occasional prompting and moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening of read-alouds
and oral presentations by asking and
answering detailed questions, with minimal
prompting and light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia, with substantial support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia,
with moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia, with light support.
b. Use knowledge of frequently-used
affixes (e.g., un-, mis-), linguistic context,
reference materials, and visual cues
to determine the meaning of unknown
words on familiar topics.
b. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), linguistic
context, and reference materials to determine the meaning of unknown words on
familiar and new topics.
b. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), linguistic
context, and reference materials to determine the meaning of unknown words on
familiar and new topics.
7. Evaluating language choices
Describe the specific language writers
or speakers use to present or support
an idea (e.g., the specific vocabulary or
phrasing used to provide evidence), with
prompting and substantial support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers use
language resources to support an opinion or
present an idea (e.g., whether the vocabulary used to provide evidence is strong
enough, or if the phrasing used to signal a
shift in meaning does this well), with
moderate support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers use
specific language resources to support an
opinion or present an idea (e.g., the clarity
or appealing nature of language used to
provide evidence or describe characters, or
if the phrasing used to introduce a topic is
appropriate), with light support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words with
similar meanings produce different
effects on the audience (e.g., describing
a character as angry versus furious).
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words with similar
meanings (e.g., describing an event as sad
versus tragic) and figurative language (e.g.,
she ran like a cheetah) produce shades
of meaning and different effects on the
audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Distinguish how different words with related
meanings (e.g., fun versus thrilling, possibly
versus certainly) and figurative language
(e.g., the stream slithered through the
parched land) produce shades of meaning
and different effects on the audience.
Chapter 3 | 79
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas
(e.g., providing a report on a current
event, reciting a poem, recounting an
experience, explaining a science process), with moderate support, such as
graphic organizers.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.5.4–6; L.5.1, 3, 6
10. W.5.1–10; L.5.1–3, 6
11. W.5.1, 4, 9–10; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1–3, 6
12. W.5.4–5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 5–6
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
80 | Chapter 3
C. Productive
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational
texts (e.g., a description of a camel)
collaboratively (e.g., joint construction
of texts with an adult or with peers) and
sometimes independently.
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas
(e.g., providing an opinion speech on a current event, reciting a poem, recounting an
experience, explaining a science process),
with moderate support.
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver oral presentations on a
variety of topics in a variety of content
areas (e.g., providing an opinion speech on
a current event, reciting a poem, recounting an experience, explaining a science
process), with light support.
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an informative report on different
kinds of camels) collaboratively (e.g., joint
construction of texts with an adult or with
peers) and with increasing independence by
using appropriate text organization.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an explanation of how camels survive without water
for a long time) collaboratively (e.g., joint
construction of texts with an adult or
with peers) and independently by using
appropriate text organization and growing
understanding of register.
b. Write brief summaries of texts and
experiences using complete sentences
b. Write increasingly concise summaries
and key words (e.g., from notes or graph- of texts and experiences using complete
ic organizers).
sentences and key words (e.g., from notes
or graphic organizers).
11. Supporting opinions
a. Support opinions by expressing
appropriate/accurate reasons using
textual evidence (e.g., referring to text)
or relevant background knowledge about
content, with substantial support.
b. Express ideas and opinions or temper
statements using basic modal expressions (e.g., can, has to, maybe).
b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
texts and experiences using complete and
concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
from notes or graphic organizers).
11. Supporting opinions
a. Support opinions or persuade others by
expressing appropriate/accurate reasons
using some textual evidence (e.g., paraphrasing facts from a text) or relevant
background knowledge about content, with
moderate support.
11. Supporting opinions
a. Support opinions or persuade others by
expressing appropriate/accurate reasons
using detailed textual evidence (e.g., quoting the text directly or specific events from
text) or relevant background knowledge
about content, with mild support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with familiar modal expressions
(e.g., maybe/probably, can/must).
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with nuanced modal
expressions (e.g., probably/certainly,
should/would) and phrasing (e.g., In my
opinion . . .).
Grade 5
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a select number of general
academic and domain-specific words
to create precision while speaking and
writing.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.5.4–6; L.5.1, 3, 6
10. W.5.1–10; L.5.1–3, 6
11. W.5.1, 4, 9–10; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1–3, 6
12. W.5.4–5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 5–6
b. Select a few frequently used affixes for
accuracy and precision (e.g., She walks, b. Select a growing number of frequently
I’m unhappy).
used affixes for accuracy and precision
(e.g., She walked. He likes . . . , I’m
unhappy).
Bridging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a wide variety of general academic
and domain-specific words, synonyms,
antonyms, and figurative language to create
precision and shades of meaning while
speaking and writing.
b. Select a variety of appropriate affixes for
accuracy and precision (e.g., She’s walking.
I’m uncomfortable. They left reluctantly).
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Expanding
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a growing number of general
academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, and antonyms to create precision
and shades of meaning while speaking and
writing.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 5
Chapter 3 | 81
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.5.5; RI.5.5; W.5.1–5; SL.5.4
2. RL.5.5; RI.5.5; W.5.1–4; SL.5.4;
L.5.1, 3
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply basic understanding of how different text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized
sequentially with predictable stages
versus how opinions/arguments are organized around ideas) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply growing understanding of how
different text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized
sequentially with predictable stages versus
how opinions/arguments are structured
logically around reasons and evidence) to
comprehending texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply increasing understanding of how
different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a historical account
is organized chronologically versus how
opinions/arguments are structured logically
around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply basic understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back or
forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer
back to nouns in text) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply growing understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back
or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or
synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to
comprehending texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply increasing understanding of
language resources for referring the reader
back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns,
synonyms, or nominalizations refer back to
nouns in text) to comprehending texts and
writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply growing understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, in
the first place, as a result) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing
cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of
how ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using an increasing
variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., consequently,
specifically, however) to comprehending
texts and writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply basic understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a select set of
everyday connecting words or phrases
(e.g., first/next, at the beginning) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
82 | Chapter 3
Grade 5
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.5.5; SL.5.6; L.5.1, 3, 6
4. W.5.5; SL.5.6; L.5.1, 3, 6
5. W.5.5; SL.5.4,6; L.5.1, 3, 6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use frequently used verbs (e.g., take,
like, eat) and various verb types (e.g.,
doing, saying, being/having, thinking/
feeling) and tenses appropriate to the
text type and discipline (e.g., simple past
for recounting an experience) on familiar
topics.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying,
being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses
appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., simple past for recounting an
experience, timeless present for a science
description) on an increasing variety of
topics.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying,
being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses
appropriate to the task and text type (e.g.,
timeless present for science description,
mixture of past and present for narrative or
history explanation) on a variety of topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in simple ways
(e.g., adding an adjective to a noun) in
order to enrich the meaning of sentences
and add details about ideas, people,
things, and the like.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
(e.g., adding comparative/ superlative
adjectives to noun phrases or simple clause
embedding) in order to enrich the meaning
of sentences and add details about ideas,
people, things, and the like.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in an increasing
variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/
superlative and general academic adjectives to noun phrases or more complex
clause embedding) in order to enrich the
meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and the like.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand and enrich sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the
like) about a familiar activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand and enrich sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause, and the like) about a
familiar or new activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand and enrich sentences with
adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the
like) about a variety of familiar and new
activities and processes.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 5
Chapter 3 | 83
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.5.1–3, 5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
7. W.5.1–3, 5; SL.5.4, 6; L.5.1, 3, 6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
to make connections between and join
ideas (e.g., You must X because X) or
to provide evidence to support ideas
or opinions (e.g., creating compound
sentences using and, but, so).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express
cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because
the mountain lion came), to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though
she wasn’t feeling well), or to provide
reasons to support ideas (e.g., X is an
extremely good book because
).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express
cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because
the mountain lion approached them), to
make a concession (e.g., She studied all
night even though she wasn’t feeling well),
to link two ideas that happen at the same
time (e.g., The cubs played while their
mother hunted), or to provide reasons to
support ideas (e.g., The author persuades
the reader by
).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g.,
through simple embedded clauses as
in, The book is on the desk. The book is
mine. The book that is on the desk
is mine) to create precise and detailed
sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in an increasing variety
of ways (e.g., through a growing number of
types of embedded clauses and other condensing as in, The book is mine. The book is
about science. The book is on the desk.
The science book that’s on the desk is mine)
to create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g.,
through various types of embedded clauses
and some nominalizations as in, They were
a very strong army. They had a lot of enemies. They crushed their enemies because
they were strong. Their strength helped
them crush their numerous enemies) to
create precise and detailed sentences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
84 | Chapter 3
Grade 5
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
Grade 5
Chapter 3 | 85
Grade 6
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language
features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home
languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class
and group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations,
writing tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics

SL.6.1, 6; L.6.3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative
technology, and multimedia)

W.6.6; WHST.6.6; SL.6.2; L.6.3, 6
3. Offering and justifying opinions, negotiating with and persuading others in communicative exchanges

W.6.1; WHST.6.1; SL.6.1, 4, 6; L.6.3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)

W.6.4–5; WHST.6.4–5; SL.6.6; L.6.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
86 | Chapter 3
Grade 6
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
l
SL.6.1, 3, 6; L.6.1, 3, 6
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is
conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.6.1–7, 9–10; RI.6.1–10; RH.6.1–10;
RST.6.1–10; SL.6.2; L.6.1, 3, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and arguments with details or
evidence depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.6.4–5; RI.6.4, 6, 8; RH.6.4–6, 8;
RST.6.4–6, 8; SL.6.3; L.6.3, 5–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.6.4–5; RI.6.4–5; RH.6.4–5; RST.6.4–5;
SL.6.3; L.6.3, 5–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
l
SL.6.4–6; L.6.1, 3
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
l
W.6.1–10; WHST.6.1–2, 4–10; L.6.1–6
11. Justifying own arguments and evaluating others’ arguments in writing
l
W.6.1, 8–9; WHST.6.1, 8–9; L.6.13, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and language structures to effectively convey ideas
l
W.6.4–5; WHST.6.4–5; SL.6.4, 6; L.6.1, 3, 5–6
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
l
RL.6.5; RI.6.5; RH.6.5; RST.6.5; W.6.1–5, 10;
WHST.6.1–2, 4–5, 10; SL.6.4
l
RI.6.5; RH.6.5; RST.6.5; W.6.1–5, 10;
WHST.6.1–2, 4–5, 10; L.6.1, 3–6
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.6.5; WHST.6.5; SL.6.6; L.6.1, 3–6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.6.5; WHST.6.5; SL.6.6; L.6.1, 3–6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.6.4–5; WHST.6.4–5; SL.6.6; L.6.1, 3–6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.6.1–5; WHST.6.1–2, 4–5; SL.6.4, 6; L.6.1, 3–6
7. Condensing ideas
l
W.6.1–5; WHST.6.1–2, 4-5; SL.6.4, 6; L.6.1, 3–6
l
RF.K–1.1–4; RF.2–5.3–4 (as appropriate)
1. Understanding text structure
2. Understanding cohesion
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 6
Chapter 3 | 87
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Engage in conversational exchanges and
express ideas on familiar topics by asking
and answering yes-no and wh- questions
and responding using simple phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by following turn-taking rules,
asking relevant questions, affirming others,
adding relevant information, and
paraphrasing key ideas.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by following turn-taking rules,
asking relevant questions, affirming others,
adding relevant information and evidence,
paraphrasing key ideas, building on
responses, and providing useful feedback.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in short written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on simple written
texts on familiar topics, using technology
when appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in longer written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on more detailed
written texts on a variety of topics, using
technology when appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in extended written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on complex written
texts on a variety of topics, using technology when appropriate.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations (e.g., to gain and hold the
floor or ask for clarification) using basic
learned phrases (e.g., I think . . . , Would
you please repeat that?), as well as open
responses.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in conversations (e.g., to provide counterarguments)
using an expanded set of learned phrases
(I agree with X, but . . . ), as well as open
responses.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using appropriate register
(e.g., to reflect on multiple perspectives)
using a variety of learned phrases, indirect
reported speech (e.g., I heard you say X,
and Gabriel just pointed out Y), as well as
open responses.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
social setting (e.g., classroom, break
time) and audience (e.g., peers,
teacher).
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according
to purpose (e.g., explaining, persuading,
entertaining), task, and audience.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to task
(e.g., facilitating a science experiment,
providing peer feedback on a writing
assignment), purpose, task, and audience.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
88 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.6.1,6; L.6.3, 6
2. W.6.6; WHST.6.6; SL.6.2; L.6.3, 6
3. W.6.1; WHST.6.1; SL.6.1, 4, 6; L.6.3, 6
4. W.6.4–5; WHST.6.4–5; SL.6.6;
L.6.1, 3, 6
Grade 6
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 6
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8 corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.6.1, 3, 6; L.6.1, 3, 6
6. RL.6.1–7, 9–10; RI.6.1–10; RH.6.1–10;
RST.6.1–10; SL.6.2; L.6.1, 3, 6
7. RL.6.4–5; RI.6.4, 6, 8; RH.6.4–6, 8;
RST.6.4–6, 8; SL.6.3; L.6.3, 5–6
8. RL.6.4–5; RI.6.4–5; RH.6.4–5;
RST.6.4–5; SL.6.3; L.6.3, 5–6
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral
presentation activities by asking and
answering basic questions, with prompting and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral presentation activities by asking and answering detailed questions, with occasional prompting
and moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral presentation activities by asking and answering
detailed questions, with minimal prompting
and support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of
multimedia, with substantial support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia,
with moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia,
with light support.
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia using some frequently used verbs
(e.g., shows that, based on).
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of grade-level
texts and viewing of multimedia using a variety of verbs (e.g., suggests that, leads to).
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of gradelevel texts and viewing of multimedia using
a variety of precise academic verbs
(e.g., indicates that, influences).
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues
to determine the meaning of unknown
and multiple-meaning words on familiar
topics.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers
use language to support ideas and
arguments with detailed evidence (e.g.,
identifying the precise vocabulary used
to present evidence, or the phrasing
used to signal a shift in meaning) with
substantial support.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on familiar and
new topics.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers
use specific language to present ideas or
support arguments and provide detailed
evidence (e.g., showing the clarity of the
phrasing used to present an argument) with
moderate support.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meaning, including figurative
and connotative meanings, of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on a variety of new
topics.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers use
specific language resources to present
ideas or support arguments and provide
detailed evidence (e.g., identifying the
specific language used to present ideas
and claims that are well supported and
distinguishing them from those that are
not) with light support.
Chapter 3 | 89
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing or different
common words with similar meaning
(e.g., choosing to use the word cheap
versus the phrase a good saver) produce
different effects on the audience.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Bridging
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing, different words with
similar meaning (e.g., stingy, economical,
frugal, thrifty), or figurative language
(e.g., The room was depressed and gloomy.
The room was like a dank cave, littered
with food wrappers, soda cans, and piles
of laundry) produce shades of meaning,
nuances, and different effects on the
audience.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8 corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.6.1, 3, 6; L.6.1, 3, 6
6. RL.6.1–7, 9–10; RI.6.1–10; RH.6.1–10;
RST.6.1–10; SL.6.2; L.6.1, 3, 6
7. RL.6.4–5; RI.6.4, 6, 8; RH.6.4–6, 8;
RST.6.4–6, 8; SL.6.3; L.6.3, 5–6
8. RL.6.4–5; RI.6.4–5; RH.6.4–5;
RST.6.4–5; SL.6.3; L.6.3, 5–6
Expanding
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing, different words with
similar meaning (e.g., describing a character
as stingy versus economical), or figurative
language (e.g., The room was like a dank
cave, littered with food wrappers, soda
cans, and piles of laundry) produce shades
of meaning and different effects on the
audience.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
90 | Chapter 3
Grade 6
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.6.4–6; L.6.1, 3, 5, 6
10. W.6.1–10; WHST.6.1–10; L.6.1–3, 6
11. W.6.1, 4, 8–10; WHST.6.1, 4, 8–10;
SL.6.3, 6; L.6.1–3, 6
12. RL.6.1–4; RI.6.1, 2, 4; W.6.1–10;
WHST.6.1–10; SL.6.1, 2, 4, 6; L.6.3–6
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument for protecting
the rain forests) collaboratively (e.g., with
peers) and independently.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 6
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
b. Write brief summaries of texts and
experiences using complete sentences
and key words (e.g., from notes or
graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions by providing some
textual evidence (e.g., quoting from the
text) or relevant background knowledge,
with substantial support.
b Express attitude and opinions or
temper statements with some basic
modal expressions (e.g., can, has to).
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas,
using details and evidence to support ideas.
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics and content areas,
using reasoning and evidence to support
ideas, as well as growing understanding of
register.
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument for protecting
the rain forests) collaboratively (e.g., with
peers) and independently using appropriate
text organization.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an argument
for protecting the rain forests) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently
using appropriate text organization and
growing understanding of register.
b. Write increasingly concise summaries
of texts and experiences using complete
sentences and key words (e.g., from notes
or graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others by
providing relevant textual evidence (e.g.,
quoting from the text or referring to what
the text says) or relevant background
knowledge, with moderate support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with a variety of familiar modal
expressions (e.g., maybe/probably, can/
could, must).
b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
texts and experiences using complete and
concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
from notes or graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others by
providing detailed and relevant textual
evidence (e.g., quoting from the text
directly or referring to specific textual
evidence) or relevant background knowledge, with light support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., probably/certainly/definitely,
should/would, might) and phrasing (e.g., In
my opinion . . .).
Chapter 3 | 91
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a select number of general
academic words (e.g., author, chart) and
domain-specific words (e.g., scene, cell,
fraction) to create some precision while
speaking and writing.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.6.4–6; L.6.1, 3, 5, 6
10. W.6.1–10; WHST.6.1–10; L.6.1–3, 6
11. W.6.1, 4, 8–10; WHST.6.1, 4, 8–10;
SL.6.3, 6; L.6.1–3, 6
12. RL.6.1–4; RI.6.1, 2, 4; W.6.1–10;
WHST.6.1–10; SL.6.1, 2, 4, 6; L.6.3–6
b. Use knowledge of morphology to
appropriately select affixes in basic ways
(e.g., She likes X).
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a growing set of academic words
(e.g., author, chart, global, affect), domainspecific words (e.g., scene, setting, plot,
point of view, fraction, cell membrane,
democracy), synonyms, and antonyms to
create precision and shades of meaning
while speaking and writing.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number
of ways to manipulate language (e.g., She
likes X. That’s impossible).
Bridging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use an expanded set of general
academic words (e.g., affect, evidence,
demonstrate, reluctantly), domain-specific
words (e.g., scene, setting, plot, point of
view, fraction, cell membrane, democracy),
synonyms, antonyms, and figurative
language to create precision and shades of
meaning while speaking and writing.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to
appropriately select affixes in a variety
of ways to manipulate language (e.g.,
changing observe observation, reluctant
reluctantly, produce production, and
so on).
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
92 | Chapter 3
Grade 6
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.6.5; RI.6.5; RH.6.5; RST.6.5;
W.6.1–5, 10; WHST.6.1–2, 4–5,10;
SL.6.4
2. RI.6.5; RH.6.5; RST.6.5; W.6.1–5, 10;
WHST.6.1–2, 4-5, 10; L.6.1, 3–6
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply basic understanding of how
different text types are organized to
express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is
organized sequentially with predictable
stages versus how arguments are organized around ideas) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply growing understanding of how different text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized
sequentially with predictable stages versus
how arguments are structured logically
around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply increasing understanding of how
different text types are organized to
express ideas (e.g., how a historical
account is organized chronologically versus
how arguments are structured logically
around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply basic understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back or
forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer
back to nouns in text) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply growing understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back
or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or
synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to
comprehending texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply increasing understanding of
language resources for referring the reader
back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns,
synonyms, or nominalizations refer back to
nouns in text) to comprehending texts and
writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply growing understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting
words or phrases (e.g., for example, in the
first place, as a result, on the other hand) to
comprehending texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of
how ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using an increasing
variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., consequently,
specifically, however, moreover) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply basic understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a select set of
everyday connecting words or phrases
(e.g., first/next, at the beginning) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 6
Chapter 3 | 93
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.6.5; WHST.6.5; SL.6.6; L.6.1, 3–6
4. W.6.5; WHST.6.5; SL.6.6; L.6.1, 3–6
5. W.6.4–5; WHST.6.4–5; SL.6.6;
L.6.1, 3–6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verb types (e.g., doing,
saying, being/having, thinking/feeling),
tenses (e.g., present, past, future,
simple, progressive) appropriate to the
text type and discipline (e.g., simple past
and past progressive for recounting an
experience) on familiar topics.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying,
being/having, thinking/feeling, reporting),
tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple,
progressive, perfect) appropriate to the
task, text type, and discipline (e.g., simple
present for literary analysis) on an increasing variety of topics.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying,
being/having, thinking/feeling, reporting),
tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple,
progressive, perfect) appropriate to the
task, text type, and discipline (e.g., the
present perfect to describe previously
made claims or conclusions) on a variety
of topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in simple ways
(e.g., adding a sensory adjective to a
noun) in order to enrich the meaning of
sentences and add details about ideas,
people, things, and the like.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
(e.g., adding comparative/ superlative
adjectives to noun phrases or simple clause
embedding) in order to enrich the meaning
of sentences and add details about ideas,
people, things, and the like.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in an increasing
variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/
superlative and general academic adjectives to noun phrases or more complex
clause embedding) in order to enrich the
meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and the like.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with simple adverbials
(e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g.,
time, manner, place, cause) about a
familiar activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with an increasing variety
of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a
familiar or new activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a variety of
adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases
and clauses, prepositional phrases) to
provide details (e.g., time, manner, place,
cause) about a variety of familiar and new
activities and processes.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
94 | Chapter 3
Grade 6
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying,
evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.6.1–5; WHST.6.1–2, 4-5; SL.6.4, 6;
L.6.1, 3–6
7. W.6.1–5; WHST.6.1–2, 4–5; SL.6.4, 6;
L.6.1, 3–6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
to make connections between and join
ideas (e.g., creating compound
sentences using and, but, so).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express a
reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday
to study for Monday’s exam) or to make a
concession (e.g., She studied all night even
though she wasn’t feeling well).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express a
reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday
because he had an exam on Monday), to
make a concession (e.g., She studied all
night even though she wasn’t feeling well),
or to link two ideas that happen at the
same time (e.g., The students worked in
groups while their teacher walked around
the room).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in simple ways (e.g., by
compounding verbs, adding prepositional
phrases, or through simple embedded
clauses or other ways of condensing as
in, This is a story about a girl. The girl
changed the world. This is a story
about a girl who changed the world) to
create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and other ways of condensing,
as in, Organic vegetables are food. They’re
made without chemical fertilizers. They’re
made without chemical insecticides)
Organic vegetables are foods that are made
without chemical fertilizers or insecticides)
to create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a variety of ways
(e.g., through various types of embedded
clauses, ways of condensing, and nominalization as in, They destroyed the rain forest.
Lots of animals died The destruction
of the rain forest led to the death of many
animals) to create precise and detailed
sentences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 6
Chapter 3 | 95
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both languages).
lDifferences between native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
96 | Chapter 3
Grade 6
Page 97 intentionally blank.
Grade 7
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language
features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home
languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class
and group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations,
writing tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics

SL.7.1, 6; L.7.3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative technology
and multimedia)

W.7.6; WHST.7.6; SL.7.2; L.7.3, 6
3. Offering and justifying opinions, negotiating with and persuading others in communicative exchanges

W.7.1; WHST.7.1; SL.7.1, 4, 6; L.7.3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)

W.7.4–5; WHST.7.4–5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
98 | Chapter 3
Grade 7
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
l
SL.7.1, 3, 6; L.7.1, 3, 6
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is
conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.7.1–7, 9–10; RI.7.1–10; RH.7.1–10;
RST.7.1–10; SL.7.2; L.7.1, 3, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and arguments with details or
evidence depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.7.4–5; RI.7.4, 6, 8; RH.7.4–6, 8; RST.7.4–6,
8; SL.7.3; L.7.3, 5–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to
explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.7.4–5; RI.7.4–5; RH.7.4–5; RST.7.4–5;
SL.7.3; L.7.3, 5–6
l
SL.7.4–6; L.7.1, 3
l
W.7.1–10; WHST.7.1–2,4–10; L.7.1–6
11. Justifying own arguments and evaluating others’ arguments in writing
l
W.7.1, 8–9; WHST.7.1 ,8–9; L.7.1–3, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other language resources to effectively convey
ideas
l
W.7.4–5; WHST.7.4–5; SL.7.4, 6; L.7.1,3, 5–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
l
RL.7.5; RI.7.5; RH.7.5; RST.7.5; W.7.1–5, 10;
WHST.7.1-2, 4–5,10; SL.7.4
l
RI.7.5; RH.7.5; RST.7.5; W.7.1–5,10;
WHST.7.1–2, 4–5, 10; L.7.1, 3–6
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.7.5; WHST.7.5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3–6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.7.5; WHST.7.5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3–6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.7.4–5; WHST.7.4–5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3–6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.7.1–5; WHST.7.1–2, 4-5; SL.7.4, 6; L.7.1, 3–6
7. Condensing ideas
l
W.7.1–5; WHST.7.1–2, 4–5; SL.7.4, 6; L.7.1, 3–6
l
RF.K–1.1–4; RF.2–5.3–4 (as appropriate)
1. Understanding text structure
2. Understanding cohesion
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 7
Chapter 3 | 99
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Engage in conversational exchanges and
express ideas on familiar topics by asking
and answering yes-no and wh- questions
and responding using simple phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by following turn-taking rules,
asking relevant questions, affirming others,
adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by following turn-taking rules,
asking relevant questions, affirming others,
adding relevant information and evidence,
paraphrasing key ideas, building on
responses, and providing useful feedback.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in short written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on simple written
texts on familiar topics, using technology
when appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in longer written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on more detailed
written texts on a variety of topics, using
technology when appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in extended written exchanges
with peers and collaborate on complex
written texts on a variety of topics, using
technology when appropriate.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations (e.g., to gain and hold
the floor or ask for clarification) using
learned phrases (e.g., I think . . . , Would
you please repeat that?) and open
responses.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in conversations (e.g., to provide counterarguments)
using learned phrases (I agree with X,
but . . .), and open responses.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using appropriate register
(e.g., to acknowledge new information)
using a variety of learned phrases, indirect
reported speech (e.g., I heard you say X,
and I haven’t thought about that before),
and open responses.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
social setting (e.g., classroom, break
time) and audience (e.g., peers,
teacher).
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
purpose (e.g., explaining, persuading,
entertaining), task, and audience.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to task
(e.g., facilitating a science experiment,
providing peer feedback on a writing
assignment), purpose, task, and audience.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
100 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.7.1,6; L.7.3, 6
2. W.7.6; WHST.7.6; SL.7.2; L.7.3, 6
3. W.7.1; WHST.7.1; SL.7.1,4, 6; L.7.3, 6
4. W.7.4–5; WHST.7.4-5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3, 6
Grade 7
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 7
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.7.1,3, 6; L.7.1, 3, 6
6. RL.7.1–7, 9–10; RI.7.1–10; RH.7.1–10;
RST.7.1–10; SL.7.2; L.7.1, 3, 6
7. RL.7.4–5; RI.7.4, 6, 8; RH.7.4–6, 8;
RST.7.4–6, 8; SL.7.3; L.7.3, 5–6
8. RL.7.4–5; RI.7.4–5; RH.7.4–5;
RST.7.4–5; SL.7.3; L.7.3, 5–6
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral
presentation activities by asking and answering basic questions, with prompting
and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral presentation activities by asking and answering detailed questions, with occasional prompting
and moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral presentation activities by asking and answering
detailed questions, with minimal prompting
and support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution) based on close reading of a variety
of grade-appropriate texts and viewing of
multimedia, with substantial support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia,
with moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia, with light support.
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of
grade-appropriate texts and viewing of
multimedia using some frequently used
verbs (e.g., shows that, based on).
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of gradeappropriate texts and viewing of multimedia
using a variety of verbs (e.g., suggests that,
leads to).
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of gradelevel texts and viewing of multimedia using
a variety of precise academic verbs (e.g.,
indicates that, influences).
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues
to determine the meaning of unknown
and multiple-meaning words on familiar
topics.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on familiar and new
topics.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meaning, including figurative
and connotative meanings, of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on a variety of new
topics.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers
use language to support ideas and
arguments with detailed evidence (e.g.,
identifying the precise vocabulary used
to present evidence, or the phrasing
used to signal a shift in meaning) when
provided with substantial support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers
use specific language to present ideas of
support arguments and provide detailed
evidence (e.g., showing the clarity of the
phrasing used to present an argument)
when provided with moderate support.
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers use
specific language resources to present
ideas or support arguments and provide
detailed evidence (e.g., identifying the
specific language used to present ideas
and claims that are well supported and
distinguishing them from those that are
not) when provided with light support.
Chapter 3 | 101
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing or different common words with similar meaning (e.g.,
choosing to use the word polite versus
good) produce different effects on the
audience.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Bridging
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing, different words with
similar meaning (e.g., refined-respectfulpolite-diplomatic), or figurative language
(e.g., The wind whispered through the
night) produce shades of meaning,
nuances, and different effects on the
audience.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.7.1,3, 6; L.7.1, 3, 6
6. RL.7.1–7, 9–10; RI.7.1–10; RH.7.1–10;
RST.7.1–10; SL.7.2; L.7.1, 3, 6
7. RL.7.4–5; RI.7.4, 6, 8; RH.7.4–6, 8;
RST.7.4–6, 8; SL.7.3; L.7.3, 5–6
8. RL.7.4–5; RI.7.4–5; RH.7.4–5;
RST.7.4–5; SL.7.3; L.7.3, 5–6
Expanding
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing, different words with
similar meaning (e.g., describing a character
as diplomatic versus respectful) or figurative language (e.g., The wind blew through
the valley like a furnace) produce shades
of meaning and different effects on the
audience.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
102 | Chapter 3
Grade 7
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief informative oral
presentations on familiar topics.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.7.4–6; L.7.1, 3
10. W.7.1–10; WHST.7.1–2, 4–10; L.7.1–6
11. W.7.1, 8–9; WHST.7.1, 8–9; L.7.1–3, 6
12. W.7.4–5; WHST.7.4–5; SL.7.4, 6;
L.7.1, 3, 5–6
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument for wearing
school uniforms) collaboratively
(e.g., with peers) and independently.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate), responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 7
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
b. Write brief summaries of texts and
experiences using complete sentences
and key words (e.g., from notes or
graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions by providing some
textual evidence or relevant background
knowledge, with substantial support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or
temper statements with familiar modal
expressions (e.g., can, may).
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics, using details and
evidence to support ideas.
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics in a variety of disciplines, using reasoning and evidence to
support ideas, as well as growing understanding of register.
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument for wearing school
uniforms) collaboratively (e.g., with peers)
and independently using appropriate text
organization.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an argument
for wearing school uniforms) collaboratively
(e.g., with peers) and independently using
appropriate text organization and growing
understanding of register.
b. Write increasingly concise summaries
of texts and experiences using complete
sentences and key words (e.g., from notes
or graphic organizers).
b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
texts and experiences using complete and
concise sentences and key words
(e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others by
providing relevant textual evidence or
relevant background knowledge, with
moderate support.
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others
by providing detailed and relevant textual
evidence or relevant background knowledge, with light support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with a variety of familiar modal
expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/
would/should).
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., possibly/potentially/absolutely,
should/might).
Chapter 3 | 103
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a select number of general
academic words (e.g., cycle, alternative)
and domain-specific words (e.g., scene,
chapter, paragraph, cell) to create some
precision while speaking and writing.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.7.4–6; L.7.1, 3
10. W.7.1–10; WHST.7.1–2, 4–10; L.7.1–6
11. W.7.1, 8–9; WHST.7.1, 8–9; L.7.1–3, 6
12. W.7.4–5; WHST.7.4–5; SL.7.4, 6;
L.7.1, 3, 5–6
b. Use knowledge of morphology to
appropriately select affixes in basic ways
(e.g., She likes X. He walked to school).
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number
of ways to manipulate language (e.g., She
likes walking to school. That’s impossible).
Bridging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use an expanded set of general
academic words (e.g., cycle, alternative,
indicate, process, emphasize, illustrate),
domain-specific words (e.g., scene, soliloquy, sonnet, friction, monarchy, fraction),
synonyms, antonyms, and figurative
language to create precision and shades of
meaning while speaking and writing.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways
to manipulate language (e.g., changing
destroy destruction, probably probability, reluctant reluctantly).
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a growing set of academic words
(e.g., cycle, alternative, indicate, process),
domain-specific words (e.g., scene, soliloquy, sonnet, friction, monarchy, fraction),
synonyms, and antonyms to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking
and writing.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
104 | Chapter 3
Grade 7
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2 corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.7.5; RI.7.5; RH.7.5; RST.7.5; W.7.1–5,
10; WHST.7.1–2, 4–5, 10; SL.7.4
2. RI.7.5; RH.7.5; RST.7.5; W.7.1–5, 10;
WHST.7.1–2, 4–5, 10; L.7.1, 3–6
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different
text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how narratives are organized
sequentially) to comprehending texts and
to writing brief arguments, informative/
explanatory texts and narratives.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of the organizational
features of different text types (e.g., how
narratives are organized by an event
sequence that unfolds naturally versus how
arguments are organized around reasons
and evidence) to comprehending texts and
to writing increasingly clear and coherent
arguments, informative/explanatory texts
and narratives.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of the organizational
structure of different text types (e.g.,
how narratives are organized by an event
sequence that unfolds naturally versus how
arguments are organized around reasons
and evidence) to comprehending texts and
to writing clear and cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts
more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer
back to nouns in text) to comprehending
texts and writing brief texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts more
cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer back to
nouns in text, how using synonyms helps
avoid repetition) to comprehending texts
and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts more
cohesive (e.g., how pronouns, synonyms, or
nominalizations are used to refer backward
in a text) to comprehending texts and
writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply growing understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, as
a result, on the other hand) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing
cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of
how ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional
words or phrases (e.g., for instance, in
addition, consequently) to comprehending
texts and writing texts with increasing
cohesion.
b. Apply basic understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., at the
end, next) to comprehending texts and
writing brief texts.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 7
Chapter 3 | 105
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate), responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.7.5; WHST.7.5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3–6
4. W.7.5; WHST.7.5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3–6
5. W.7.4–5; WHST.7.4-5; SL.7.6; L.7.1, 3–6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., present, past, future, simple,
progressive) appropriate to the text type
and discipline (e.g., simple past and past
progressive for recounting an experience)
on familiar topics.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task, text
type, and discipline (e.g., simple present for
literary analysis) on an increasing variety of
topics.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task,
text type, and discipline (e.g., the present
perfect to describe previously made claims
or conclusions) on a variety of topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in basic ways
(e.g., adding a sensory adjective to a
noun) in order to enrich the meaning of
sentences and add details about ideas,
people, and things.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number
of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns or
simple clause embedding) in order to enrich
the meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, and things.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in an increasing
variety of ways (e.g., more complex clause
embedding) in order to enrich the meaning
of sentences and add details about ideas,
people, and things.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with simple adverbials
(e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g.,
time, manner, place, cause) about a
familiar activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g.,
adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional
phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar or new
activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a variety of
adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases
and clauses, prepositional phrases) to
provide details (e.g., time, manner, place,
cause) about a variety of familiar and new
activities and processes.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
106 | Chapter 3
Grade 7
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.7.1–5; WHST.7.1–2, 4–5; SL.7.4, 6;
L.7.1, 3–6
7. W.7.1–5; WHST.7.1–2, 4–5; SL.7.4, 6;
L.7.1, 3–6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
to make connections between and
join ideas (e.g., creating compound
sentences using and, but, so; creating
complex sentences using because).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express a
reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday
in order to study for Monday’s exam) or to
make a concession (e.g., She studied all
night even though she wasn’t feeling well).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., creating compound, complex, and
compound–complex sentences) to make
connections between and join ideas, for
example, to show the relationship between
multiple events or ideas (e.g., After eating
lunch, the students worked in groups while
their teacher walked around the room) or
to evaluate an argument (e.g., The author
claims X, although there is a lack of
evidence to support this claim).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in simple ways (e.g., by
compounding verbs, adding prepositional
phrases, or through simple embedded
clauses or other ways of condensing as
in, This is a story about a girl. The girl
changed the world This is a story
about a girl who changed the world) to
create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and other ways of condensing,
as in, Organic vegetables are food. They’re
made without chemical fertilizers. They’re
made without chemical insecticides.
Organic vegetables are foods that are made
without chemical fertilizers or insecticides)
to create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a variety of ways
(e.g., through various types of embedded
clauses, ways of condensing, and nominalization as in, They destroyed the rain forest.
Lots of animals died The destruction
of the rainforest led to the death of many
animals) to create precise and detailed
sentences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 7
Chapter 3 | 107
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
Native language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
108 | Chapter 3
Grade 7
Page 109 intentionally blank.
Grade 8
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and
group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing
tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics

SL.8.1, 6; L.8.3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative technology
and multimedia)

W.8.6; WHST.8.6; SL.8.2; L.8.3, 6
3. Offering and justifying opinions, negotiating with and persuading others in communicative exchanges

W.8.1; WHST.8.1; SL.8.1, 4, 6; L.8.3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)

W.8.4–5; WHST.8.4–5; SL.8.6; L.8.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
110 | Chapter 3
Grade 8
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
l
SL.8.1, 3, 6; L.8.1, 3, 6
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is
conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language
l
RL.8.1–7,9–10; RI.8.1–10; RH.8.1–10;
RST.8.1–10; SL.8.2; L.8.1, 3, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and arguments with details or
evidence depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.8.4–5; RI.8.4, 6, 8; RH.8.4–6, 8;
RST.8.4–6, 8; SL.8.3; L.8.3, 5–6
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
l
RL.8.4–5; RI.8.4–5; RH.8.4–5; RST.8.4–5;
SL.8.3; L.8.3, 5–6
l
SL.8.4–6; L.8.1, 3
l
W.8.1–10; WHST.8.1–2, 4–10; L.8.1–6
11. Justifying own arguments and evaluating others’ arguments in writing
l
W.8.1, 8–9; WHST.8.1, 8–9; L.8.1–3, 6
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other language resources to effectively convey
ideas
l
W.8.4–5; WHST.8.4–5; SL.8.4, 6; L.8.1, 3, 5–6
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
l
RL.8.5; RI.8.5; RH.8.5; RST.8.5; W.8.1–5, 10;
WHST.8.1–2, 4–5, 10; SL.8.4
l
RI.8.5; RH.8.5; RST.8.5; W.8.1–5, 10;
WHST.8.1–2, 4–5,10; L.8.1, 3–6
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
l
W.8.5; WHST.8.5; SL.8.6; L.8.1, 3–6
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
l
W.8.5; WHST.8.5; SL.8.6; L.8.1, 3–6
5. Modifying to add details
l
W.8.4–5; WHST.8.4–5; SL.8.6; L.8.1, 3–6
6. Connecting ideas
l
W.8.1–5; WHST.8.1–2, 4–5; SL.8. 4, 6; L.8.1, 3–6
7. Condensing ideas
l
W.8.1–5; WHST.8.1–2, 4–5; SL.8.4, 6; L.8.1, 3–6
l
RF.K–1.1–4; RF.2–5.3–4 (as appropriate)
1. Understanding text structure
2. Understanding cohesion
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grade 8
Chapter 3 | 111
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Engage in conversational exchanges and
express ideas on familiar topics by asking
and answering yes-no and wh- questions
and responding using simple phrases.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by following turn-taking rules,
asking relevant questions, affirming others,
adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions by following turn-taking rules,
asking relevant questions, affirming others,
adding relevant information and evidence,
paraphrasing key ideas, building on
responses, and providing useful feedback.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in short written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on simple written
texts on familiar topics, using technology
when appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in longer written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on more detailed
written texts on a variety of topics, using
technology when appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Engage in extended written exchanges with
peers and collaborate on complex written
texts on a variety of topics, using technology when appropriate.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual, expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations (e.g., to gain and hold
the floor or to ask for clarification) using
learned phrases (e.g., I think . . . Would
you please repeat that?) and open
responses.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in conversations (e.g., to provide counter-arguments)
using learned phrases (I agree with X,
but . . .) and open responses.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations using an appropriate register
(e.g., to acknowledge new information and
justify views) using a variety of learned
phrases, indirect reported speech (e.g.,
I heard you say X, and that’s a good point.
I still think Y, though, because . . .) and
open responses.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
social setting (e.g., classroom, break
time) and audience (e.g., peers,
teacher).
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to
purpose (e.g., explaining, persuading,
entertaining), task, and audience.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to task
(e.g., facilitating a science experiment,
providing peer feedback on a writing
assignment), purpose, and audience.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
112 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy:
1. SL.8.1, 6; L.8.3, 6
2. W.8.6; WHST.8.6; SL.8.2; L.8.3, 6
3. W.8.1; WHST.8.1; SL.8.1, 4, 6; L.8.3, 6
4. W.8.4–5; WHST.8.4–5; SL.8.6;
L.8.1, 3, 6
Grade 8
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy:
5. SL.8.1, 3, 6; L.8.1, 3, 6
6. RL.8.1–7,9–10; RI.8.1–10; RH.8.1–10;
RST.8.1–10; SL.8.2; L.8.1, 3, 6
7. RL.8.4–5; RI.8.4, 6, 8; RH.8.4–6, 8;
RST.8.4–6, 8; SL.8.3; L.8.3, 5–6
8. RL.8.4–5; RI.8.4–5; RH.8.4–5;
RST.8.4–5; SL.8.3; L.8.3, 5–6
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral
presentation activities by asking and answering basic questions, with prompting
and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral presentation activities by asking and answering
detailed questions, with occasional prompting and moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate active listening in oral presentation activities by asking and answering
detailed questions, with minimal prompting
and support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution) based on close reading of a variety
of grade-appropriate texts and viewing of
multimedia, with substantial support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-appropriate texts and viewing of
multimedia, with moderate support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution)
based on close reading of a variety of
grade-level texts and viewing of multimedia, with light support.
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of
grade-appropriate texts and viewing of
multimedia using some frequently used
verbs (e.g., shows that, based on).
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading gradeappropriate texts and viewing of multimedia
using a variety of verbs (e.g., suggests that,
leads to).
b. Express inferences and conclusions
drawn based on close reading of gradelevel texts and viewing of multimedia using
a variety of precise academic verbs (e.g.,
indicates that, influences).
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meanings of unknown
and multiple-meaning words on familiar
topics.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meanings of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on familiar and new
topics.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, roots, and base words), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meanings, including figurative and connotative meanings, of unknown
and multiple-meaning words on a variety of
new topics.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 8
Chapter 3 | 113
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.8.1, 3, 6; L.8.1, 3, 6
6. RL.8.1–7,9–10; RI.8.1–10; RH.8.1–10;
RST.8.1–10; SL.8.2; L.8.1, 3, 6
7. RL.8.4–5; RI.8.4, 6, 8; RH.8.4–6, 8;
RST.8.4–6, 8; SL.8.3; L.8.3, 5–6
8. RL.8.4–5; RI.8.4–5; RH.8.4–5;
RST.8.4–5; SL.8.3; L.8.3, 5–6
Emerging
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers
use language to support ideas and
arguments with detailed evidence (e.g.,
identifying the precise vocabulary used
to present evidence, or the phrasing
used to signal a shift in meaning) when
provided with substantial support.
Expanding
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers
use specific language to present ideas or
support arguments and provide detailed
evidence (e.g., showing the clarity of the
phrasing used to present an argument)
when provided with moderate support.
Bridging
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how well writers and speakers use
specific language resources to present
ideas or support arguments and provide
detailed evidence (e.g., identifying the
specific language used to present ideas
and claims that are well supported and
distinguishing them from those that are
not) when provided with light support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing or different
common words with similar meanings
(e.g., choosing to use the word persistent
versus the term hard worker) produce
different effects on the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing or different words with
similar meanings (e.g., describing a character as stubborn versus persistent) or figurative language (e.g., Let me throw some light
onto the topic) produce shades of meaning
and different effects on the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how phrasing or different words
with similar meanings (e.g., cunning versus
smart, stammer versus say) or figurative
language (e.g., Let me throw some light
onto the topic) produce shades of meaning, nuances, and different effects on the
audience.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
114 | Chapter 3
Grade 8
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief informative oral
presentations on concrete topics.
Part I, strands 9–12 corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.8.4–6; L.8.1, 3
10. W.8.1–10; WHST.8.1–2,4–10; L.8.1–6
11. W.8.1, 8–9; WHST.8.1, 8–9; L.8.1–3, 6
12. W.8.4–5; WHST.8.4–5; SL.8.4, 6;
L.8.1,3, 5–6
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument about whether
the government should fund research
using stem cells) collaboratively (e.g.,
with peers) and independently.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
b. Write brief summaries of texts and
experiences using complete sentences
and key words (e.g., from notes or
graphic organizers).
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 8
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions by providing some
textual evidence or relevant background
knowledge, with substantial support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or
temper statements with familiar modal
expressions (e.g., can, may).
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of topics using details and
evidence to support ideas.
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver longer oral presentations
on a variety of concrete and abstract topics
using reasoning and evidence to support
ideas and using a growing understanding
of register.
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument about whether the
government should fund research using
stem cells) collaboratively (e.g., with peers)
and independently using appropriate text
organization.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an argument
about whether the government should fund
research using stem cells) collaboratively
(e.g., with peers) and independently using
appropriate text organization and growing
understanding of register.
b. Write increasingly concise summaries
of texts and experiences using complete
sentences and key words (e.g., from notes
or graphic organizers).
b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
texts and experiences using complete and
concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
from notes or graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others by
providing relevant textual evidence or relevant background knowledge, with moderate
support.
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others by
providing detailed and relevant textual
evidence or relevant background knowledge, with light support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with a variety of familiar modal
expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/
would).
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., potentially/certainly/absolutely,
should/might).
Chapter 3 | 115
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a select number of general
academic words (e.g., specific, contrast)
and domain-specific words (e.g., scene,
cell, fraction) to create some precision
while speaking and writing.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.8.4–6; L.8.1, 3
10. W.8.1–10; WHST.8.1-2, 4–10; L.8.1–6
11. W.8.1, 8–9; WHST.8.1, 8-9; L.8.1–3, 6
12. W.8.4–5; WHST.8.4-5; SL.8.4, 6;
L.8.1, 3, 5–6
b. Use knowledge of morphology to
appropriately select affixes in basic ways
(e.g., She likes X. He walked to school).
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number
of ways to manipulate language (e.g., She
likes walking to school. That’s impossible).
Bridging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use an expanded set of general
academic words (e.g., specific, contrast,
significant, function, adequate, analysis),
domain-specific words (e.g., scene, irony,
suspense, analogy, cell membrane, fraction), synonyms, antonyms, and figurative
language to create precision and shades of
meaning while speaking and writing.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways
to manipulate language (e.g., changing
destroy destruction, probably probability, reluctant reluctantly).
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a growing set of academic words
(e.g., specific, contrast, significant, function), domain-specific words (e.g., scene,
irony, suspense, analogy, cell membrane,
fraction), synonyms, and antonyms to
create precision and shades of meaning
while speaking and writing.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
116 | Chapter 3
Grade 8
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.8.5; RI.8.5; RH.8.5; RST.8.5;
W.8.1–5, 10; WHST.8.1–2, 4–5, 10;
SL.8.4
2. RI.8.5; RH.8.5; RST.8.5; W.8.1–5, 10;
WHST.8.1–2, 4–5, 10; L.8.1, 3–6
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of how different
text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how narratives are organized
sequentially) to comprehending texts and
to writing brief arguments, informative/
explanatory texts and narratives.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of the organizational
features of different text types (e.g., how
narratives are organized by an event
sequence that unfolds naturally versus how
arguments are organized around reasons
and evidence) to comprehending texts and
to writing increasingly clear and coherent
arguments, informative/explanatory texts
and narratives.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply understanding of the organizational
structure of different text types (e.g.,
how narratives are organized by an event
sequence that unfolds naturally versus how
arguments are organized around reasons
and evidence) to comprehending texts and
to writing clear and cohesive arguments,
informative/explanatory texts and
narratives.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts
more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer
back to nouns in text) to comprehending
and writing brief texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts more
cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer back to
nouns in text, how using synonyms helps
avoid repetition) to comprehending and
writing texts with increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts more
cohesive (e.g., how pronouns, synonyms, or
nominalizations are used to refer backward
in a text) to comprehending texts and
writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply growing understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, as a
result, on the other hand) to comprehending
and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of
how ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional
words or phrases (e.g., for instance, in
addition, consequently) to comprehending
and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
b. Apply basic understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., at the
end, next) to comprehending and writing
brief texts.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 8
Chapter 3 | 117
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.8.5; WHST.8.5; SL.8.6; L.8.1, 3–6
4. W.8.5; WHST.8.5; SL.8.6; L.8.1, 3–6
5. W.8.4–5; WHST.8.4–5; SL.8.6;
L.8.1, 3–6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple,
progressive) appropriate to the text type
and discipline (e.g., simple past and past
progressive for recounting an experience)
on familiar topics.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task,
text type, and discipline (e.g., the present
perfect to describe previously made claims
or conclusions) on an increasing variety of
topics.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect), voices (active and passive),
and moods (e.g., declarative, interrogative,
subjunctive) appropriate to the task, text
type, and discipline (e.g., the passive voice
in simple past to describe the methods of a
scientific experiment) on a variety of topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in basic ways
(e.g., adding a sensory adjective to a
noun) in order to enrich the meaning of
sentences and add details about ideas,
people, things, and so on.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number
of ways (e.g., adding prepositional or adjective phrases) in order to enrich the meaning
of sentences and add details about ideas,
people, things, and so on.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in an increasing
variety of ways (e.g., embedding relative
or complement clauses) in order to enrich
the meaning of sentences and add details
about ideas, people, things, and so on.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with simple adverbials
(e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about
a familiar activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g.,
adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional
phrases) to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause) about a familiar or
new activity or process.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with increasingly
complex adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb
phrases and clauses, prepositional
phrases) to provide details (e.g., time,
manner, place, cause) about a variety of
familiar and new activities and processes.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
118 | Chapter 3
Grade 8
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal,
factual), expositions (e.g., speeches,
opinion pieces, argument, debate), responses (e.g., literary analysis),
and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.8.1–5; WHST.8.1–2, 4–5; SL.8.4, 6;
L.8.1, 3–6
7. W.8.1–5; WHST.8.1–2, 4–5; SL.8.4, 6;
L.8.1, 3–6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
to make connections between and join
ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so; creating complex
sentences using because).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., creating compound and complex
sentences) to make connections between
and join ideas, for example, to express a
reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday
to study for Monday’s exam) or to make a
concession (e.g., She studied all night even
though she wasn’t feeling well).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways
(e.g., creating compound and complex sentences, and compound-complex sentences)
to make connections between and join
ideas, for example, to show the relationship
between multiple events or ideas (e.g.,
After eating lunch, the students worked in
groups while their teacher walked around
the room) or to evaluate an argument (e.g.,
The author claims X, although there is a
lack of evidence to support this claim).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in simple ways (e.g., by
compounding verbs, adding prepositional
phrases, or through simple embedded
clauses or other ways of condensing as
in, This is a story about a girl. The girl
changed the world. This is a story
about a girl who changed the world) to
create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in an increasing variety of
ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and other ways of condensing,
as in, Organic vegetables are food. They’re
made without chemical fertilizers. They’re
made without chemical insecticides.
Organic vegetables are foods that are made
without chemical fertilizers or insecticides)
to create precise and detailed sentences.
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a variety of ways
(e.g., through various types of embedded
clauses, ways of condensing, and nominalization as in, They destroyed the rain forest.
Lots of animals died. The destruction
of the rain forest led to the death of many
animals) to create precise and detailed
sentences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grade 8
Chapter 3 | 119
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
120 | Chapter 3
Grade 8
Page 121 intentionally blank.
Grades 9–10
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and
group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing
tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics

SL.9–10.1, 6; L.9–10.3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative technology
and multimedia)

W.9–10.6; WHST.9–10.6; SL.9–10.2; L.9–10.3, 6

W.9–10.1; WHST.9–10.1; SL.9–10.1, 4, 6;
L.9–10.3, 6

W.9–10.4-5; WHST. 9–10.4–5; SL.9–10.6;
L.9–10.1, 3, 6
3. Offering and justifying opinions, negotiating with and persuading others in communicative exchanges
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
122 | Chapter 3
Grades 9—10
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is
conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and arguments with details or
evidence depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes
(to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and
content area
SL.9–10.1, 3, 6; L.9–10.1, 3, 6
l RL.9–10.1–7, 9–10; RI.9–10.1–10; RH.9–10.1–10;
RST.9–10.1–10; SL.9–10.2; L.9–10.1, 3, 6
l RL.9–10.4–5; RI.9–10.4, 6, 8; RH.9–10.4–6, 8;
RST.9–10.4–6, 8; SL.9–10.3; L.9–10.3, 5–6
l RL.9–10.4–5; RI.9–10.4–5; RH.9–10.4–5;
RST.9–10.4–5; SL.9–10.3; L.9–10.3, 5–6
l
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
11. Justifying own arguments and evaluating others’ arguments in writing
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other language resources to effectively convey
ideas
SL.9–10.4–6; L.9–10.1, 3
l W.9–10.1–10; WHST.9–10.1–2, 4–10; L.9–10.1–6
l W.9–10.1, 8–9; WHST.9–10.1, 8–9; L.9–10.1–3, 6
l W.9–10.4–5; WHST.9–10.4–5; SL.9–10.4, 6;
L.9–10.1, 3, 5–6
l
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
l
1. Understanding text structure
2. Understanding cohesion
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
5. Modifying to add details
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
6. Connecting ideas
7. Condensing ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
RL.9–10.5; RI.9–10.5; RH.9–10.5; RST.9–10.5;
W.9–10.1–5, 10; WHST.9–10.1-2, 4–5, 10;
SL.9–10.4
l RI.9–10.5; RH.9–10.5; RST.9–10.5; W.9–10.1–5,
10; WHST.9–10.1–2, 4–5, 10; L.9–10.1, 3–6
l W.9–10.5; WHST.9–10.5; SL.9–10.6; L.9–10.1, 3–6
l W.9–10.5; WHST.9–10.5; SL.9–10.6; L.9–10.1, 3–6
l W.9–10.4–5; WHST.9–10.4–5; SL.9–10.6;
L.9–10.1, 3–6
W.9–10.1-5; WHST.9–10.1–2, 4–5; SL.9–10.4, 6;
L.9–10.1, 3–6
l W.9–10.1–5; WHST.9–10.1–2, 4–5; SL.9–10.4, 6;
L.9–10.1, 3–6
l
l
RF.K–1.1–4; RF.2–5.3–4 (as appropriate)
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grades 9—10
Chapter 3 | 123
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
124 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.9–10.1,6; L.9–10.3, 6
2. W.9–10.6; WHST.9–10.6; SL.9–10.2;
L.9–10.3, 6
3. W.9–10.1; WHST.9–10.1; SL.9–10.1, 4,
6; L.9–10.3, 6
4. W.9–10.4-5; WHST.9–10.4–5;
SL.9–10.6; L.9–10.1, 3, 6
Emerging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Engage in conversational exchanges
and express ideas on familiar current
events and academic topics by asking
and answering yes-no questions and whquestions and responding using phrases
and short sentences.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions, sustaining conversations on
a variety of age and grade-appropriate
academic topics by following turn-taking
rules, asking and answering relevant,
on-topic questions, affirming others,
providing additional, relevant information,
and paraphrasing key ideas.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions, sustaining conversations on a
variety of age and grade-appropriate academic topics by following turn-taking rules,
asking and answering relevant, on-topic
questions, affirming others, and providing
coherent and well-articulated comments
and additional information.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers to engage in
short, grade-appropriate written exchanges and writing projects, using technology
as appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers to engage in increasingly complex grade-appropriate written
exchanges and writing projects, using
technology as appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers to engage in a
variety of extended written exchanges and
complex grade-appropriate writing projects,
using technology as appropriate.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in conversations using learned phrases (e.g.,
Would you say that again? I think . . .), as
well as open responses to express and
defend opinions.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations (e.g., to provide counterarguments) using a growing number of
learned phrases (I see your point, but . . .)
and open responses to express and defend
nuanced opinions.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in conversations in appropriate registers (e.g., to
acknowledge new information in an
academic conversation but then politely
offer a counterpoint) using a variety of
learned phrases, indirect reported speech
(e.g., I heard you say X, and I haven’t
thought about that before. However . . .),
and open responses to express and defend
nuanced opinions.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to the
context (e.g., classroom, community) and
audience (e.g., peers, teachers).
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to the
context (e.g., classroom, community),
purpose (e.g., to persuade, to provide
arguments or counterarguments), task,
and audience (e.g., peers, teachers, guest
lecturer).
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to the
task (e.g., group presentation of research
project), context (e.g., classroom, community), purpose (e.g., to persuade, to provide
arguments or counterarguments), and
audience (e.g., peers, teachers, college
recruiter).
Grades 9—10
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.9–10.1, 3, 6; L.9–10.1, 3, 6
6. RL.9–10.1–7,9–10; RI.9–10.1–10;
RH.9–10.1–10; RST.9–10.1–10;
SL.9–10.2; L.9–10.1, 3, 6
7. RL.9–10.4–5; RI.9–10.4, 6, 8;
RH.9–10.4–6, 8; RST.9–10.4–6, 8;
SL.9–10.3; L.9–10.3, 5–6
8. RL.9–10.4–5; RI.9–10.4-5;
RH.9–10.4–5; RST.9–10.4–5;
SL.9–10.3; L.9–10.3, 5–6
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate comprehension of oral presentations and discussions on familiar
social and academic topics by asking
and answering questions, with prompting
and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate comprehension of oral presentations and discussions on a variety of
social and academic topics by asking and
answering questions that show thoughtful
consideration of the ideas or arguments,
with moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate comprehension of oral presentations and discussions on a variety of
social and academic topics by asking and
answering detailed and complex questions
that show thoughtful consideration of the
ideas or arguments, with light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, evidence-based
argument) based on close reading of
a variety of grade-appropriate texts,
presented in various print and multimedia formats, using short sentences
and a select set of general academic and
domain-specific words.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and relationships within and across texts
(e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
themes, evidence-based argument) based
on close reading of a variety of gradeappropriate texts, presented in various print
and multimedia formats, using increasingly
detailed sentences, and an increasing
variety of general academic and domainspecific words.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and relationships within and across texts
(e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
themes, evidence-based argument) based
on close reading of a variety of grade-level
texts, presented in various print and multimedia formats, using a variety of detailed
sentences and a range of general academic
and domain-specific words.
b. Explain inferences and conclusions
drawn from close reading of gradeappropriate texts and viewing of multimedia using familiar verbs (e.g., seems
that).
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
common prefixes and suffixes), context,
reference materials, and visual cues
to determine the meaning of unknown
and multiple-meaning words on familiar
topics.
b. Explain inferences and conclusions drawn
from close reading of grade-appropriate
texts and viewing of multimedia using an
increasing variety of verbs and adverbials
(e.g., indicates that, suggests, as a result).
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on familiar and new
topics.
b. Explain inferences and conclusions
drawn from close reading of grade-level
texts and viewing of multimedia using a
variety of verbs and adverbials (e.g.,
creates the impression that, consequently).
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
derivational suffixes), context, reference
materials, and visual cues to determine
the meaning, including figurative and
connotative meanings, of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on a variety of new
topics.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 9—10
Chapter 3 | 125
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but are not
limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting,
analyzing, recounting, explaining, persuading,
negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are not
limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts (e.g.,
biography, memoir), information reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g.,
speeches, opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.9–10.1, 3, 6; L.9–10.1, 3, 6
6. RL.9–10.1–7,9–10; RI.9–10.1–10;
RH.9–10.1–10; RST.9–10.1–10; SL.9–10.2;
L.9–10.1, 3, 6
7. RL.9–10.4–5; RI.9–10.4, 6, 8;
RH.9–10.4–6, 8; RST.9–10.4–6, 8; SL.9–10.3;
L.9–10.3, 5–6
8. RL.9–10.4–5; RI.9–10.4-5;
RH.9–10.4–5; RST.9–10.4–5;
SL.9–10.3; L.9–10.3, 5–6
Emerging
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how successfully writers and
speakers structure texts and use
language (e.g., specific word or
phrasing choices) to persuade the
reader (e.g., by providing evidence to
support claims or connecting points
in an argument) or create other specific effects, with substantial support.
Expanding
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how successfully writers and
speakers structure texts and use
language (e.g., specific word or phrasing
choices) to persuade the reader (e.g.,
by providing well-worded evidence to
support claims or connecting points in an
argument in specific ways) or create other
specific effects, with moderate support.
Bridging
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how successfully writers and
speakers structure texts and use language (e.g., specific word or phrasing
choices) to persuade the reader (e.g.,
by providing well-worded evidence to
support claims or connecting points in an
argument in specific ways) or create other
specific effects, with light support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how a writer’s or speaker’s
choice of phrasing or specific words
(e.g., describing a character or action
as aggressive versus bold) produces
nuances and different effects on the
audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how a writer’s or speaker’s choice
of phrasing or specific words (e.g., using
figurative language or words with multiple
meanings to describe an event or character) produces nuances and different
effects on the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how a writer’s or speaker’s choice
of a variety of different types of phrasing
or words (e.g., hyperbole, varying connotations, the cumulative impact of word
choices) produces nuances and different
effects on the audience.
Literary text types include but are not limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, graphic
novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
126 | Chapter 3
Grades 9—10
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
and reports on grade-appropriate topics
that present evidence and facts to support ideas.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.9–10.4–6; L.9–10.1, 3
10. W.9–10.1–10; WHST.9–10.–1–2, 4–10;
L.9–10.1–6
11. W.9–10.1, 8–9; WHST.9–10.1, 8–9;
L.9–10.1–3, 6
12. W.9–10.4–5; WHST.9–10.4–5;
SL.9–10.4, 6; L.9–10.1, 3, 5–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 9—10
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument about water
rights) collaboratively (e.g., with peers)
and independently.
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
Bridging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate
topics that present evidence and facts to
support ideas by using growing understanding of register.
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate
topics that express complex and abstract
ideas well supported by evidence and
sound reasoning, and are delivered using
an appropriate level of formality and understanding of register.
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument about water rights)
collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and
independently by using appropriate text
organization and growing understanding of
register.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an argument
about water rights) collaboratively (e.g.,
with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization and register.
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions and positions or persuade others by making connections between ideas and articulating relevant textual
evidence or background knowledge.
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others
by making connections and distinctions
between ideas and texts and articulating
sufficient, detailed, and relevant textual
evidence or background knowledge, using
appropriate register.
b. Write brief summaries of texts and
experiences by using complete sentences
and key words (e.g., from notes or graph- b. Write increasingly concise summaries of
ic organizers).
texts and experiences by using complete
sentences and key words (e.g., from notes
or graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions by articulating some
relevant textual evidence or background
knowledge, with visual support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or
temper statements with familiar modal
expressions (e.g., can, may).
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with a variety of familiar modal
expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/
would).
b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
texts and experiences by using complete
and concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
from notes or graphic organizers).
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., possibly/ potentially/ certainly/
absolutely, should/might).
Chapter 3 | 127
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use familiar general academic (e.g.,
temperature, document) and domainspecific (e.g., characterization, photosynthesis, society, quadratic functions)
words to create clear spoken and written
texts.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.9–10.4-6; L.9–10.1, 3
10. W.9–10.1-10; WHST.9–10.1–2, 4–10;
L.9–10.1–6
11. W.9–10.1, 8–9; WHST.9–10.1, 8–9;
L.9–10.1–3, 6
12. W.9–10.4–5; WHST.9–10.4–5;
SL.9–10.4, 6; L.9–10.1, 3, 5–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Bridging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a variety of grade-appropriate
general (e.g., anticipate, transaction) and
domain-specific (e.g., characterization,
photosynthesis, society, quadratic
functions) academic words and phrases,
including persuasive language, accurately
and appropriately when producing complex
written and spoken texts.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number
of ways to manipulate language (e.g., diplomatic, stems are branched or unbranched).
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways
to manipulate language (e.g., changing
humiliate to humiliation or incredible to
incredibly).
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select basic affixes (e.g., The
skull protects the brain).
Expanding
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use an increasing variety of gradeappropriate general academic (e.g., dominate, environment) and domain-specific
(e.g., characterization, photosynthesis,
society, quadratic functions) academic
words accurately and appropriately when
producing increasingly complex written and
spoken texts.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
128 | Chapter 3
Grades 9—10
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.9–10.5; RI.9–10.5; RH.9–10.5;
RST.9–10.5; W.9–10.1–5, 10; WHST.9–
10.1–2, 4–5, 10; SL.9–10.4
2. RI.9–10.5; RH.9–10.5; RST.9–10.5;
W.9–10.1–5,10; WHST.9–10.1–2, 4–5,
10; L.9–10.1, 3–6
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply analysis of the organizational
structure of different text types (e.g., how
arguments are organized by establishing
clear relationships among claims,
counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to
comprehending texts and to writing brief
arguments, informative/explanatory texts
and narratives.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear
relationships among claims, counterclaims,
reasons, and evidence) to comprehending
texts and to writing increasingly clear and
cohesive arguments, informative/
explanatory texts and narratives.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear
relationships among claims, counterclaims,
reasons, and evidence) to comprehending
texts and to writing clear and cohesive
arguments, informative/explanatory texts
and narratives.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts
more cohesive (e.g., using pronouns to
refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of a growing number of
language resources for referring to make
texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominalizations to refer back to an action or activity
described earlier) to comprehending texts
and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for
specific purposes and audiences.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of a variety of language
resources for referring to make texts more
cohesive (e.g., using nominalization,
paraphrasing, or summaries to reference or
recap an idea or explanation provided
earlier) to comprehending grade-level
texts and to writing clear and cohesive
grade-level texts for specific purposes and
audiences.
b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for linking ideas, events, or
reasons throughout a text (e.g., using
connecting/transition words and
phrases, such as first, second, third) to
comprehending and writing brief texts.
b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for linking ideas, events, or
reasons throughout a text (e.g., using
connecting/transition words and phrases,
such as meanwhile, however, on the other
hand) to comprehending texts and to writing
increasingly cohesive texts for specific
purposes and audiences.
b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for linking ideas, events, or
reasons throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/transition words and phrases, such
as on the contrary, in addition, moreover)
to comprehending grade-level texts and to
writing cohesive texts for specific purposes
and audiences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 9—10
Chapter 3 | 129
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.9–10.5; WHST.9–10.5; SL.9–10.6;
L.9–10.1, 3–6
4. W.9–10.5; WHST.9–10.5; SL.9–10.6;
L.9–10.1, 3–6
5. W.9–10.4–5; WHST.9–10.4–5;
SL.9–10.6; L.9–10.1, 3–6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive) appropriate to the text type and
discipline to create short texts on familiar
academic topics.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the text type
and discipline to create a variety of texts
that explain, describe, and summarize concrete and abstract thoughts and ideas.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect), and mood (e.g., subjunctive)
appropriate to the text type and discipline
to create a variety of texts that describe
concrete and abstract ideas, explain procedures and sequences,
summarize texts and ideas, and present
and critique points of view.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases to create increasingly detailed sentences (e.g., adding
adjectives for precision) about personal
and familiar academic topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number
of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns;
simple clause embedding) to create detailed sentences that accurately describe,
explain, and summarize information and
ideas on a variety of personal and academic
topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
(e.g., more complex clause embedding)
to create detailed sentences that accurately describe concrete and abstract
ideas, explain procedures and sequences,
summarize texts and ideas, and present
and critique points of view on a variety of
academic topics.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with simple adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about
familiar activities or processes.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a growing variety of
adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about
familiar or new activities or processes.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and
clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide
details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause)
about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
130 | Chapter 3
Grades 9—10
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.9–10.1–5; WHST.9–10.1–2, 4–5;
SL.9–10.4,6; L.9–10.1,3–6
7. W.9–10.1-5; WHST.9–10.1-2, 4–5;
SL.9–10.4, 6; L.9–10.1, 3–6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
(e.g., creating compound sentences
using and, but, so; creating complex
sentences using because) to make
connections between and to join ideas
(e.g., I want to read this book because it
describes the solar system).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a growing number of
ways to create compound and complex
sentences that make connections between
and link concrete and abstract ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed
at home on Sunday in order to study for
Monday’s exam) or to make a concession
(e.g., She studied all night even though she
wasn’t feeling well).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a variety of ways to
create compound and complex sentences
that make connections between and link
concrete and abstract ideas, for example,
to make a concession (e.g., While both
characters strive for success, they each
take different approaches through which
to reach their goals.), or to establish cause
(e.g., Women’s lives were changed forever
after World War II as a result of joining the
workforce).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a few basic ways (e.g.,
by compounding verb or prepositional
phrases) to create precise and detailed
simple, compound, and complex sentences (e.g., The students asked survey
questions and recorded the responses).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a growing number of
ways (e.g., through embedded clauses or by
compounding verbs or prepositional phrases) to create more precise and detailed
simple, compound, and complex sentences
(e.g., Species that could not adapt to the
changing climate eventually disappeared).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g.,
through a variety of embedded clauses,
or by compounding verbs or prepositional
phrases, nominalization) to create precise
simple, compound, and complex sentences that condense concrete and abstract
ideas (e.g., Another issue that people
may be concerned with is the amount of
money that it will cost to construct the new
building).
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 9—10
Chapter 3 | 131
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
132 | Chapter 3
Grades 9—10
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Grades 11–12
Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language features, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home languages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and
group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing
tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropriate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*
A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social
and academic topics
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative technology
and multimedia)
3. Offering and justifying opinions, negotiating with and persuading others in communicative exchanges
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type)

SL.11–12.1, 6; L.11–12.3, 6

W.11-12.6; WHST.11–12.6; SL.11–12.2;
L.11–12.3, 6

W.11–12.1; WHST.11–12.1; SL.11–12.1, 4, 6;
L.11–12.3, 6

W.11–12.4–5; WHST.11–12.4–5; SL.11–12.6;
L.11–12.1, 3, 6
1
*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.
134 | Chapter 3
Grades 11—12
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B.Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is
conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and arguments with details
or evidence depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic,
and content area
SL.11–12.1, 3, 6; L.11–12.1, 3, 6
l RL.11–12.1–7, 9–10; RI.11–12.110;– RH.11–12.1–10;
RST.11–12.1–10; SL.11–12.2; L.11–12.1, 3, 6
l RL.11–12.4–5; RI.11–12.4, 6, 8; RH.11-12.4–6, 8;
RST.11–12.4–6, 8; SL.11–12.3; L.11–12.3, 5–6
l RL.11–12.4–5; RI.11–12.4–5; RH.11–12.4–5; RST.11–
12.4–5; SL.11–12.3; L.11–12.3, 5–6
l
C.Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using
appropriate technology
11. Justifying own arguments and evaluating others’ arguments in writing
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other language resources to effectively
convey ideas
SL.11–12.4–6; L.11–12.1, 3
l W.11–12.1–10; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–10; L.11–12.1–6
l W.11–12.1, 8–9; WHST.11–12.1, 8–9;L.11–12.1–3, 6
l W.11–12.4–5; WHST.11–12.4–5; SL.11–12.4, 6;
L.11–12.1, 3, 5–6
l
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
l
1. Understanding text structure
2. Understanding cohesion
RL.11–12.5; RI.11–12.5; RH.11–12.5; RST.11–12.5;
W.11–12.1–5, 10; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–5, 10;SL.11–12.4
l RI.11–12.5; RH.11–12.5; RST.11–12.5; W.11–12.1–5,
10; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–5, 10; L.11–12.1, 3–6
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
5. Modifying to add details
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
6. Connecting ideas
7. Condensing ideas
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
W.11–12.5; WHST.11–12.5; SL.11–12.6; L.11–12.1, 3–6
l W.11–12.5; WHST.11–12.5; SL.11–12.6; L.11–12.1, 3–6
l W.11–12.4–5; WHST.11–12.4–5; SL.11–12.6;
L.11–12.1, 3–6
l W.11–12.1–5; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–5; SL.11–12.4, 6;
L.11–12.1, 3–6
l W.11–12.1–5; WHST.11–12.1-2, 4–5; SL.11–12.4, 6;
L.11–12.1, 3–6
l
l
RF.K–1.1-4; RF.2–5.3–4 (as appropriate)
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grades 11—12
Chapter 3 | 135
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
136 | Chapter 3
A. Collaborative
Part I, strands 1–4, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. SL.11–12.1,6; L.11–12.3, 6
2. W.11-12.6; WHST.11–12.6; SL.11–12.2;
L.11–12.3, 6
3. W.11–12.1; WHST.11–12.1; SL.11–12.1,
4, 6; L.11-12.3, 6
4. W.11–12.4–5; WHST.4–5; SL.11–12.6;
L.11–12.1, 3, 6
Emerging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Engage in conversational exchanges
and express ideas on familiar current
events and academic topics by asking
and answering yes-no questions and
wh- questions and responding using
phrases and short sentences.
Expanding
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner
discussions, sustaining conversations on
a variety of age and grade-appropriate
academic topics by following turn-taking
rules, asking and answering relevant,
on-topic questions, affirming others,
providing additional, relevant information,
and paraphrasing key ideas.
Bridging
1. Exchanging information/ideas
Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, sustaining conversations on a variety of age and grade-appropriate academic
topics by following turn-taking rules, asking
and answering relevant, on-topic questions,
affirming others, and providing coherent and
well-articulated comments and additional
information.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers to engage
in short, grade-appropriate written
exchanges and writing projects, using
technology as appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers to engage in increasingly complex grade-appropriate written
exchanges and writing projects, using
technology as appropriate.
2. Interacting via written English
Collaborate with peers to engage in a variety
of extended written exchanges and complex
grade-appropriate writing projects, using
technology as appropriate.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations (e.g., ask for clarification
or repetition) using learned phrases
(e.g., Could you repeat that please?
I believe . . .) and open responses to
express and defend opinions.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with and persuade others (e.g.,
by presenting counter-arguments) in discussions and conversations using learned
phrases (e.g., You make a valid point, but
my view is . . .) and open responses to
express and defend nuanced opinions.
3. Supporting opinions and persuading
others
Negotiate with or persuade others in discussions and conversations in appropriate
registers (e.g., to acknowledge new information and politely offer a counterpoint)
using a variety of learned phrases (e.g., You
postulate that X. However, I’ve reached a
different conclusion on this issue) and open
responses to express and defend nuanced
opinions.
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according
to the context (e.g., classroom, community) and audience (e.g., peers,
teachers).
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to the
context (e.g., classroom, community),
purpose (e.g., to persuade, to provide
arguments or counterarguments), task,
and audience (e.g., peers, teachers, guest
lecturer).
4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to the
task (e.g., group presentation of research
project), context (e.g., classroom, community), purpose (e.g., to persuade, to
provide arguments or counterarguments),
and audience (e.g., peers, teachers, college
recruiter).
Grades 11—12
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.11–12.1, 3, 6; L.11–12.1, 3, 6
6. RL.11–12.1–7, 9–10; RI.11–12.1–10;
RH.11–12.1–10; RST.11–12.1–10;
SL.11–12.2; L.11–12.1, 3, 6
7. RL.11–12.4–5; RI.11–12.4, 6, 8;
RH.11–12.4–6, 8; RST.11–12.4–6, 8;
SL.11–12.3; L.11–12.3, 5–6
8. RL.11–12.4–5; RI.11–12.4–5; RH.11–
12.4–5; RST.11–12.4–5; SL.11–12.3;
L.11–12.3, 5–6
Emerging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate comprehension of oral presentations and discussions on familiar
social and academic topics by asking
and answering questions with prompting
and substantial support.
Expanding
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate comprehension of oral presentations and discussions on a variety of
social and academic topics by asking and
answering questions that show thoughtful
consideration of the ideas or arguments
with moderate support.
Bridging
5. Listening actively
Demonstrate comprehension of oral presentations and discussions on a variety of
social and academic topics by asking and
answering detailed and complex questions
that show thoughtful consideration of the
ideas or arguments with light support.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and text relationships (e.g., compare/
contrast, cause/effect, evidence-based
argument) based on close reading of a
variety of grade-appropriate texts, presented in various print and multimedia
formats, using phrases, short sentences,
and a select set of general academic and
domain-specific words.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and relationships within and across texts
(e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
themes, evidence-based argument) based
on close reading of a variety of gradeappropriate texts, presented in various print
and multimedia formats, using increasingly
detailed sentences, and a range of general
academic and domain-specific words.
6. Reading/viewing closely
a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
and relationships within and across texts
(e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
themes, evidence-based argument) based
on close reading of a variety of grade-level
texts, presented in various print and multimedia formats, using a variety of detailed
sentences and precise general academic
and domain-specific words.
b. Explain inferences and conclusions
drawn from close reading of gradeappropriate texts and viewing of multimedia, using familiar verbs (e.g., seems
that).
b. Explain inferences and conclusions drawn
from close reading of grade-appropriate
texts and viewing of multimedia using a variety of verbs and adverbials (e.g., indicates
that, suggests, as a result).
b. Explain inferences and conclusions
drawn from close reading of grade-level
texts and viewing of multimedia using a variety of verbs and adverbials (e.g., creates
the impression that, consequently).
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
common prefixes and suffixes), context,
reference materials, and visual cues
to determine the meaning of unknown
and multiple-meaning words on familiar
topics.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context,
reference materials, and visual cues to
determine the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on familiar and new
topics.
c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
derivational suffixes), context, reference
materials, and visual cues to determine
the meaning, including figurative and
connotative meanings, of unknown and
multiple-meaning words on a variety of new
topics.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 11—12
Chapter 3 | 137
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but are
not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting,
analyzing, recounting, explaining, persuading,
negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are not
limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts (e.g.,
biography, memoir), information reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g.,
speeches, opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
B. Interpretive
Part I, strands 5–8, corresponding to the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy
5. SL.11–12.1, 3, 6; L.11–12.1, 3, 6
6. RL.11–12.1–7,9–10; RI.11–12.1–10;
RH.11–12.1 –10; RST.11–12.1–10;
L.11–12.2; L.11–12.1, 3, 6
7. RL.11–12.4–5; RI.11–12.4, 6, 8; RH.11–
12.4–6, 8; RST.11–12.4–6, 8; SL.11–12.3;
L.11–12.3, 5–6
8. RL.11–12.4–5; RI.11–12.4–5; RH.11–12.4–5;
RST.11–12.4–5; SL.11–12.3; L.11–12.3, 5–6
Emerging
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how successfully writers
and speakers structure texts and
use language (e.g., specific word or
phrasing choices) to persuade the
reader (e.g., by providing evidence to
support claims or connecting points in
an argument) or create other specific
effects.
Expanding
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how successfully writers and
speakers structure texts and use language
(e.g., specific word or phrasing choices)
to persuade the reader (e.g., by providing
well-worded evidence to support claims or
connecting points in an argument in specific
ways) or create other specific effects, with
moderate support.
Bridging
7. Evaluating language choices
Explain how successfully writers and
speakers structure texts and use
language (e.g., specific word or phrasing
choices) to persuade the reader (e.g.,
by providing well-worded evidence to
support claims or connecting points in
an argument in specific ways) or create
other specific effects, with light support.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how a writer’s or speaker’s
choice of phrasing or specific words
(e.g., describing a character or action
as aggressive versus bold) produces
nuances or different effects on the
audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how a writer’s or speaker’s choice
of phrasing or specific words (e.g., using
figurative language or words with multiple
meanings to describe an event or character)
produces nuances and different effects on
the audience.
8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how a writer’s or speaker’s
choice of a variety of different types of
phrasing or words (e.g., hyperbole, varying connotations, the cumulative impact
of word choices) produces nuances and
different effects on the audience.
Literary text types include but are not limited
to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, graphic
novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
138 | Chapter 3
Grades 11—12
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver brief oral presentations
and reports on grade-appropriate topics
that present evidence and facts to support ideas.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.11–12.4–6; L.11–12.1, 3
10. W.11–12.1–10; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–10;
L.11–12.1–6
11. W.11–12.1, 8–9; WHST.11–12.1, 8–9;
L.11–12.1–3, 6
12. W.11–12.4–5; WHST.11–12.4–5;
SL.11–12.4, 6; L.11–12.1, 3, 5–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 11—12
10. Writing
a. Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about free
speech) collaboratively (e.g., with peers)
and independently.
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Expanding
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate
topics that present evidence and facts to
support ideas by using growing understanding of register.
9. Presenting
Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate
topics that express complex and abstract
ideas, well supported by evidence and
reasoning, and are delivered by using an
appropriate level of formality and understanding of register.
10. Writing
a. Write longer literary and informational
texts (e.g., an argument about free speech)
collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and
independently by using appropriate text
organization and growing understanding of
register.
10. Writing
a. Write longer and more detailed literary
and informational texts (e.g., an argument
about free speech) collaboratively (e.g.,
with peers) and independently by using
appropriate text organization and register.
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions and positions or persuade others by making connections between ideas and articulating relevant textual
evidence or background knowledge.
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions or persuade others
by making connections and distinctions
between ideas and texts and articulating
sufficient, detailed, and relevant textual
evidence or background knowledge by
using appropriate register.
b. Write brief summaries of texts and
experiences by using complete sentences
and key words (e.g., from notes or graph- b. Write increasingly concise summaries of
ic organizers).
texts and experiences by using complete
sentences and key words (e.g., from notes
or graphic organizers).
11. Justifying/arguing
a. Justify opinions by articulating some
textual evidence or background knowledge with visual support.
b. Express attitude and opinions or
temper statements with familiar modal
expressions (e.g., can, may).
Bridging
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with a variety of familiar modal
expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/
would).
b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
texts and experiences by using complete
and concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
from notes or graphic organizers).
b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., possibly/potentially/certainly/
absolutely, should/might).
Chapter 3 | 139
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Emerging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use familiar general academic (e.g.,
temperature, document) and domainspecific (e.g., cell, the Depression) words
to create clear spoken and written texts.
Part I, strands 9–12, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
9. SL.11–12.4–6; L.11–12.1, 3
10. W.11–12.1–10; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–10;
L.11–12.1–6
11. W.11–12.1, 8–9; WHST.11–12.1, 8–9;
L.11–12.1–3, 6
12. W.11–12.4–5; WHST.11–12.4–5;
SL.11–12.4, 6; L.11–12.1, 3, 5–6
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Bridging
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use a variety of grade-appropriate
general (e.g., alleviate, salutary) and
domain-specific (e.g., soliloquy, microorganism) academic words and phrases,
including persuasive language, accurately
and appropriately when producing complex
written and spoken texts.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number
of ways to manipulate language (e.g., The
cardiac muscle works continuously.).
b. Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways
to manipulate language (e.g., changing
inaugurate to inauguration).
C. Productive
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
b. Use knowledge of morphology to
appropriately select basic affixes
(e.g., The news media relies on official
sources).
Expanding
12. Selecting language resources
a. Use an increasing variety of gradeappropriate general academic (e.g., fallacy,
dissuade) and domain-specific (e.g.,
chromosome, federalism) academic words
accurately and appropriately when producing increasingly complex written and spoken
texts.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
140 | Chapter 3
Grades 11—12
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.11–12.5; RI.11–12.5; RH.11–12.5;
RST.11–12.5; W.11–12.1–5, 10;
WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–5, 10; SL.11–12.4
2. RI.11–12.5; RH.11–12.5; RST.11–12.5;
W.11–12.1–5, 10; WHST.11–12.1–2,
4–5, 10; L.11–12.1, 3–6
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply analysis of the organizational
structure of different text types (e.g.,
how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims,
counterclaims, reasons, and evidence)
to comprehending texts and to writing
brief arguments, informative/explanatory texts, and narratives.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear
relationships among claims, counterclaims,
reasons, and evidence) to comprehending
texts and to writing increasingly clear and
cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts, and narratives.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear
relationships among claims, counterclaims,
reasons, and evidence) to comprehending
texts and to writing clear and cohesive
arguments, informative/explanatory texts,
and narratives.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for referring to make texts
more cohesive (e.g., using pronouns or
synonyms to refer back to characters or
concepts introduced earlier) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of a growing number of
language resources for referring to make
texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominalizations to refer back to an action or activity
described earlier) to comprehending texts
and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for
specific purposes and audiences.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of a variety of resources
for referring to make texts more cohesive
(e.g., using nominalization, paraphrases,
or summaries to reference or recap an
idea or explanation provided earlier) to
comprehending grade-level texts and to
writing clear and cohesive texts for specific
purposes and audiences.
b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
resources for linking ideas, events,
or reasons throughout a text (e.g.,
using connecting/transition words and
phrases, such as first, second, finally) to
comprehending and writing brief texts.
b. Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons
throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/
transition words and phrases, such as
meanwhile, however, on the other hand) to
comprehending texts and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for specific purposes
and audiences.
b. Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons
throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/
transition words and phrases, such as on
the contrary, in addition, moreover) to
comprehending grade-level texts and writing
cohesive texts for specific purposes and
audiences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 11—12
Chapter 3 | 141
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
Part II, strands 3–5, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
3. W.11–12.5; WHST.11–12.5; SL.11–12.6;
L.11–12.1, 3–6
4. W.11–12.5; WHST.11–12.5; SL.11–12.6;
L.11–12.1, 3–6
5. W.11-12.4–5; WHST.11–12.4–5;
SL.11–12.6; L.11–12.1, 3–6
Emerging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive) appropriate to the text type and
discipline to create short texts on familiar
academic topics.
Expanding
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the text type
and discipline to create a variety of texts
that explain, describe, and summarize concrete and abstract thoughts and ideas.
Bridging
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
(e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect), and mood (e.g., subjunctive)
appropriate to the text type and discipline
to create a variety of texts that describe
concrete and abstract ideas, explain procedures and sequences, summarize texts
and ideas, and present and critique points
of view.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases to create increasingly detailed sentences (e.g., adding
adjectives for precision) about personal
and familiar academic topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a growing number
of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns,
simple clause embedding) to create detailed sentences that accurately describe,
explain, and summarize information and
ideas on a variety of personal and academic
topics.
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
(e.g., complex clause embedding) to create
detailed sentences that accurately describe
concrete and abstract ideas, explain procedures and sequences, summarize texts and
ideas, and present and critique points of
view on a variety of academic topics.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with simple adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about
familiar activities or processes.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a growing variety of
adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases,
prepositional phrases) to provide details
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about
familiar or new activities or processes.
5. Modifying to add details
Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and
clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide
details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause)
about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
142 | Chapter 3
Grades 11—12
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
Part II, strands 6–7, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
6. W.11–12.1–5; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–5;
SL.11–12.4, 6; L.11–12.1, 3–6
7. W.11–12.1–5; WHST.11–12.1–2, 4–5;
SL.11–12.4, 6; L.11–12.1, 3–6
Emerging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a few basic ways
(e.g., creating compound sentences
using and, but, so; creating complex
sentences using because) to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., I
want to read this book because it tells
the history of Pi).
Expanding
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a growing number of
ways to create compound and complex
sentences that make connections between
and link concrete and abstract ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed
at home on Sunday in order to study for
Monday’s exam) or to make a concession
(e.g., She studied all night even though she
wasn’t feeling well).
Bridging
6. Connecting ideas
Combine clauses in a variety of ways to
create compound and complex sentences
that make connections between and link
concrete and abstract ideas, for example,
to make a concession (e.g., While both
characters strive for success, they each
take different approaches to reach their
goals), or to establish cause (e.g., Women’s
lives were changed forever after World War
II as a result of joining the workforce).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a few basic ways (e.g.,
by compounding verb or prepositional
phrases) to create precise and detailed
simple, compound, and complex sentences (e.g., The students asked survey
questions and recorded the responses).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a growing number of
ways (e.g., through embedded clauses or by
compounding verb or prepositional phrases)
to create more precise and detailed simple,
compound, and complex sentences (e.g.,
Species that could not adapt to the changing climate eventually disappeared).
7. Condensing ideas
Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g.,
through a variety of embedded clauses,
or by compounding verb or prepositional
phrases, nominalization) to create precise
simple, compound, and complex sentences that condense concrete and abstract
ideas (e.g., The epidemic, which ultimately
affected hundreds of thousands of people,
did not subside for another year).
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
Grades 11—12
Chapter 3 | 143
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alphabetic writing system
l Print concepts
l Phonological awareness
l Phonics and word recognition
l Fluency
See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
lNative language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
transference to English language and literacy.
lSimilarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
languages).
lDifferences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the student’s
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).
144 | Chapter 3
Grades 11—12
Professional Learning for Successful
Implementation of the California English
Language Development Standards
Page 146 intentionally blank.
Chapter 4
Theoretical Foundations and the
Research Base of the California English
Language Development Standards
California’s 2012 English Language Development Standards (the CA ELD
Standards) reflect an extensive review of established and emerging theories,
research, and other relevant resources pertaining to the education of K–12
English learners (ELs). This wide body of scholarship and guidance was used
to inform the development of the CA ELD Standards. The research base was
relied upon to ensure that the CA ELD Standards highlight and amplify the
language demands in the California Common Core State Standards for English
Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical
Subjects (CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy) that are necessary for the development of
advanced English and academic success across disciplines. The CA CCSS for
ELA/Literacy served as the core foundation for developing the CA ELD Standards, which aim to guide teachers in supporting ELs’ English language development while students learn rigorous academic content.
The development of the CA ELD Standards was informed by multiple theories
and a large body of research pertaining to the linguistic and academic
education of ELs. Sociolinguistic, sociocultural, and sociocognitive theories
emphasize how learning is a social activity and how language is both a form
of social action and a resource for accomplishing things in the world. Among
other things, these theories highlight the importance of recognizing and
leveraging students’ prior knowledge in order to make connections to and
foster new learning, helping them to build conceptual networks, and suppoting
them to think about their thinking (metacognitive knowledge) and language
use (metalinguistic knowledge). Teachers making use of the theories and
research studies can help students to consciously apply particular cognitive
strategies (e.g., inferring what the text means by examining textual evidence)
and linguistic practices (e.g., intentionally selecting specific words or phrases
to persuade others). These metacognitive and metalinguistic abilities support
students’ self-regulation, self-monitoring, intentional learning, and strategic use
of language (Christie 2012; Duke et al. 2011; Halliday 1993; Hess et al. 2009;
148 | Chapter 4
Palinscar and Brown 1984; Pearson 2011; Schleppegrell 2004). From this perspective, language and interaction play a central role in mediating both linguistic and cognitive development, and learning occurs through social interaction
that is carefully structured to intellectually and linguistically challenge learners
while also providing appropriate levels of support (Bruner 1983; Cazden 1986;
Vygotsky 1978; Walquí and van Lier 2010).
Reviews of the research, individual studies, and teacher practice guides synthesizing the research for classroom application demonstrate the effectiveness of
enacting the theories outlined above for teaching ELs (see, for example, Anstrom et al. 2010; August and Shanahan 2006; Francis et al. 2006; Genesee
et al. 2006; Short and Fitzsimmons 2007). One of the key findings from the
research is that effective instructional experiences for ELs have the following
features:
 They are interactive and engaging, meaningful and relevant, and intellectu-
ally rich and challenging.
 They are appropriately scaffolded in order to provide strategic support that
moves learners toward independence.
 They value and build on home language and culture and other forms of
prior knowledge.
 They build both academic English and content knowledge.
Interacting in Meaningful and Intellectually
Challenging Ways
The importance of providing opportunities for English learners to interact in
meaningful ways around intellectually challenging content has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Meaningful interaction in K–12 settings includes,
among other tasks, engaging in collaborative oral discussions with a peer or
Theoretical Foundations and Research Base
a small group of peers about texts or content topics. Not all students come
to school knowing how to engage in these interactive processes with other
students. However, research in classrooms with ELs has demonstrated that
teachers can successfully “apprentice” their students into engaging in more
academic ways of interacting with one another, using the language of the
specific content in question, acquiring the language of academic discourse, and
developing content knowledge (Gibbons 2009; Walquí and van Lier 2010).
Teachers can carefully structure collaborative learning practices that promote
small-group discussion among students about, for example, the science and
history texts they read. Structured collaborative learning practices foster
comprehension of the texts, the acquisition of vocabulary and grammatical
structures associated with the texts, and more academic ways of engaging in
conversations about the texts (Heller and Greenleaf 2007; Klingner et al. 2004;
Kosanovich, Reed, and Miller 2010; Short, Echevarría, and Richards-Tutor 2011;
Vaughn et al. 2011).
Teachers can provide structured and strategically supportive opportunities for
students to develop more ways of interacting meaningfully. For example, the
kinds of discourse skills expected in academic conversations can be fostered
when teachers:

establish routines and expectations for equitable and accountable conversations (e.g., specific roles in a conversation, such as “facilitator”);

carefully construct questions that promote extended discussions about
academic content (e.g., questions that require students to infer or explain
something for which they have sufficient background knowledge);

provide appropriate linguistic support (e.g., a sentence stem, such as “I
agree with
that
. However,
.”).
Scaffolding
Teachers play a central role in providing temporary supportive frameworks, adjusted to students’ particular developmental needs, in order to improve access
to meaning and ongoing linguistic and cognitive development. The metaphorical
term scaffolding (Bruner 1983; Cazden 1986; Celce-Murcia 2001; Mariani
1997) refers to ways in which these temporary supportive frameworks can be
applied. The term draws from Vygotsky’s (1978) notion of the “zone of proximal development (ZPD)”: the instructional space that exists between what the
learner can do independently and that which is too difficult for the learner to
do without strategic support, or scaffolding. Scaffolding is temporary help that
is future-oriented. In other words, scaffolding supports students in how to do
something today that they will be able to do independently in the future.
As Hammond (2006, 271) has emphasized, scaffolding “does not just spontaneously occur” but is, rather, intentionally designed for a learner’s particular needs and then systematically and strategically carried out. The level of
scaffolding that a student needs depends on a variety of factors, including the
nature of the task and the learner’s background knowledge of relevant content,
as well as the learner’s proficiency with the language required to engage in and
complete the task. Scaffolding does not change the intellectual challenge of
the task, but merely allows learners to build the knowledge and skills for independent performance of the task at some future point.
Scaffolding practices are selected in accordance with the standards-based
goals of the lesson, the identified needs of the learner, and the anticipated
challenge of the task. Gibbons (2009) has offered a way of conceptualizing the
dual goal of engaging ELs in intellectually challenging instructional activities
while also providing them with the appropriate level of support:
With strategic scaffolding, students can learn to adopt particular ways of
organizing their discourse during group work and “practicing” aspects of
academic English that approach the more “literate” ways of communicating
that are highly valued in school (Dutro and Kinsella 2010; Gibbons 2009;
Merino and Scarcella 2005; Schleppegrell 2010).
Theoretical Foundations and Research Base
Chapter 4 | 149
Figure 4.1 Optimizing Scaffolding for English Learners Engaged in Academic
Tasks (Gibbons 2009, adapted from Mariani 1997)
Low
Support
Learning/Engagement
Zone (ZPD)
Boredom Zone
 Taking into account what students already know, including their primary
language and culture, and relating it to what they are to learn
High Challenge
Frustration/Anxiety Zone
content and linguistic development include, but are not limited to, the following:
Comfort Zone
 Selecting and sequencing tasks, such as modeling and explaining, and
High
Support
Low Challenge
providing guided practice, in a logical order
 Frequently checking for understanding during instruction, as well as
gauging progress at appropriate intervals throughout the year
 Choosing texts carefully for specific purposes (e.g., motivational, linguistic,
content)
 Providing a variety of collaborative groups
The CA ELD Standards establish three overall levels of scaffolding that teachers
can provide to ELs during instruction: substantial, moderate, and light. ELs at
the emerging level of English language proficiency will generally require more
substantial support to develop capacity for many academic tasks than will students at the bridging level. This does not mean that these students will always
require substantial, moderate, or light scaffolding for every task. EL students
at every level of English proficiency will engage in some academic tasks that
require light or no scaffolding because they have already mastered the requisite skills for the given tasks, and students will engage in some academic
tasks that require moderate or substantial scaffolding because they have not
yet acquired the cognitive or linguistic skills required by the task. For example,
when a challenging academic task requires students to extend their thinking
and stretch their language, students at expanding and bridging levels of English
proficiency may also require substantial support. Teachers need to provide the
level of scaffolding appropriate to specific tasks and learners’ cognitive and
linguistic needs, and students will need more or less support depending on
these and other variables.
Examples of planned scaffolding1 that teachers prepare in advance, during
lesson and curriculum planning, in order to support ELs’ access to academic
1. There are many ways to categorize scaffolding. The terms used here are adapted from
Hammond and Gibbons (2005), who refer to “designed-in” and “interactional” scaffolding.
Designed-in (or planned) scaffolding refers to the support teachers consciously plan in
advance. Interactional scaffolding refers to the indirect support teachers provide spontaneously
through dialogue during instruction or other interaction.
150 | Chapter 4
 Constructing good questions that promote critical thinking and extended
discourse
 Using a range of information systems, such as graphic organizers, diagrams,
photographs, videos, or other multimedia, to enhance access to content
 Providing students with language models, such as sentence frames/starters,
academic vocabulary walls, language frame charts, exemplary writing
samples, or teacher language modeling (e.g., using academic vocabulary or
phrasing)
This planned scaffolding allows teachers to provide just-in-time scaffolding
during instruction, which flexibly attends to ELs’ needs as they interact with
content and language. Examples of this type of scaffolding include:
 prompting a student to elaborate on a response to extend his or her
language use and thinking;
 paraphrasing a student’s response and including target academic language
as a model and, at the same time, accepting the student’s response using
everyday or “flawed” language;
 adjusting instruction on the spot based on frequent checking for under-
standing;
 linking what a student is saying to prior knowledge or to learning that will
come (previewing).
For ELs, instruction and/or strategic support in the student’s primary language
can also serve as a powerful scaffold to English literacy (August and Shanahan
Theoretical Foundations and Research Base
2006; CDE 2010; Genesee et al. 2006; Goldenberg 2008). The research
evidence indicates that EL students in programs where biliteracy is the goal and
bilingual instruction is used demonstrate stronger literacy performance in English, with the added metalinguistic and metacognitive benefits of bilingualism.
Developing Academic English
For K–12 settings, academic English broadly refers to the language used in
school to help students develop content knowledge and the language students
are expected to use to convey their understanding of this knowledge.
Interpreting, discussing, analyzing, evaluating, and writing academic texts are
complex literacy processes that involve the integration of multiple linguistic and
cognitive skills, including word-level processing, such as decoding and spelling.
Furthermore, these advanced English literacy tasks especially involve higherorder cognitive and linguistic processes, including applying prior knowledge,
making inferences, recognizing the grammatical structures and linguistic
features of texts, resolving ambiguities (e.g., semantic or syntactic), and
selecting appropriate language resources for specific purposes, not to mention
stamina and motivation.
The CA ELD Standards position English as a meaning-making resource with
different language choices available based on discipline, topic, audience, task,
and purpose. This notion of English as a meaning-making resource expands the
notion of academic language from simplistic definitions (e.g., academic vocabulary or syntax) to a broader concept that encompasses discourse practices,
text structures, grammatical structures, and vocabulary, and views them as
inseparable from meaning (Bailey and Huang 2011; Wong Fillmore and Fillmore
2012; Snow and Uccelli 2009). Academic English shares characteristics across
disciplines—it is densely packed with meaning, authoritatively presented, and
highly structured—but is also highly dependent upon disciplinary content
(Christie and Derewianka 2008; Moje 2010; Quinn, Lee, and Valdes 2012;
Schleppegrell 2004). The CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy emphasize the need for all
students to be able to comprehend and produce complex texts in a variety of
disciplines so that they are college- and career-ready. Research suggests that
teachers can foster, and even accelerate, the development of academic English
for EL students through multilayered and multicomponent approaches that
focus on the way English works in different contexts.
Theoretical Foundations and Research Base
The Importance of Vocabulary
Over the past several decades, research has repeatedly identified vocabulary
knowledge as a critical and powerful factor underlying language and literacy
proficiency, including disciplinary literacy (e.g., Graves 1986; Chall, Jacobs, and
Baldwin 1990; Beck and McKeown 1991; Hart and Risley 1995; Blachowicz
and Fisher 2004; Baumann, Kame’enui, and Ash 2003; Bowers and Kirby
2010; Carlisle 2010; McCutchen and Logan 2011). Comprehensive and multifaceted approaches to vocabulary instruction include a combination of several
critical components: rich and varied language experiences (e.g., wide reading,
teacher read-alouds), teaching individual academic words (both general
academic and domain-specific), teaching word-learning strategies (including
cognate awareness and morphology), and fostering word consciousness and
language play (Graves 2000, 2006, 2009). The CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
draw particular attention to domain-specific and general academic vocabulary
knowledge and usage due to the prevalence of these types of vocabulary in
academic contexts. Research conducted over the past decade, in particular,
has demonstrated the positive effects of focusing on domain-specific and
general academic vocabulary with K–12 EL students (August et al. 2005;
Calderón et al. 2005; Carlo et al. 2004; Collins 2005; Kieffer and Lesaux
2008, 2010; Silverman 2007; Snow, Lawrence, and White, 2009; Spycher
2009; Townsend and Collins 2009).
The Importance of Grammatical and DiscourseLevel Understandings
Although academic vocabulary is a critical aspect of academic English, it is
only one part. The CA ELD Standards were further informed by genre- and
meaning-based theories of language, which view language as a social process
and a meaning-making system and seek to understand how language choices
construe meaning in oral and written texts. These theories have identified how
networks of interrelated language resources—including grammatical, lexical,
and discourse features—interact to form registers that vary depending upon
context and situation (Halliday and Matthiessen 2004). Advanced English proficiency hinges on the mastery of a set of academic registers used in academic
settings and texts that “construe multiple and complex meanings at all levels
and in all subjects of schooling” (Schleppegrell 2009, 1).
Chapter 4 | 151
Register refers to the ways in which grammatical and lexical resources are
combined to meet the expectations of the context (i.e., the content area, topic,
audience, and mode in which the message is conveyed). In this sense, “register
variation” (Schleppegrell 2012) depends on what is happening (the content),
who the communicators are and their relationship to one another (e.g., peer-topeer, expert-to-peer), and how the message is conveyed (e.g., written, spoken,
multimodal texts). Informal (“spoken-like”) registers might include chatting with
a friend about a movie or texting a relative. Formal (“written-like”) registers
might include writing an essay for history class, participating in a debate about
a scientific topic, or making a formal presentation about a work of literature.
The characteristics of these academic registers, which are critical for school
success, include specialized and technical vocabulary, sentences and clauses
that are densely packed with meaning and combined in purposeful ways, and
whole texts that are highly structured and cohesive in ways that depend upon
the disciplinary area and social purpose (Christie and Derewianka 2008;
Halliday and Matthiessen 2004; O’Dowd 2010; Schleppegrell 2004).
Language is the medium through which teaching and learning take place in
schools, the medium through which we transform and develop our thinking
about concepts; and in this way, language and content are inextricably linked
(Halliday 1993). For this and other reasons, language has been referred to as
the “hidden curriculum” of schooling and accounts for why school success can
be seen as largely a language matter (Christie 1999). EL students often find
it challenging to move from everyday or informal registers of English to formal
academic registers. Understanding and gaining proficiency with academic
registers and the language resources that build them opens up possibilities for
expressing ideas and understanding the world. From this perspective, teachers
who understand the lexical, grammatical, and discourse features of academic
English and how to make these features explicit to their students in purposeful
ways that build both linguistic and content knowledge are in a better position to
help their students fulfill their linguistic and academic potential.
Teaching about the grammatical patterns found in particular disciplines has
been shown to help ELs’ reading comprehension and writing proficiency. The
main pedagogical aims of this research are to help students become more
conscious of how language is used to construct meaning in different contexts
152 | Chapter 4
and to provide students with a wider range of linguistic resources. Knowing how
to make appropriate language choices will enable students to comprehend and
construct meaning in oral and written texts. Accordingly, the instructional
interventions studied in the applied research in this area have focused on
identifying the language features of the academic texts that students read and
are expected to write in school (e.g., narratives, explanations, arguments) and
on developing students’ awareness of and proficiency in using the language
features of these academic registers (e.g., how ideas are condensed in science
texts through nominalization, how arguments are constructed by connecting
clauses in particular ways, or how agency is hidden in history texts by using the
passive voice) so that they can better comprehend and create academic texts
(Brisk 2012; Gebhard et al. 2010; Fang and Schleppegrell 2010; Gibbons 2008;
Hammond 2006; Rose and Acevedo 2006; Schleppegrell and de Oliveira 2006).
Research on genre- and meaning-based approaches to literacy education with
EL students in the United States and other countries has demonstrated the
effectiveness of teaching EL students about how language works to achieve
different purposes in a variety of contexts and disciplines (Achugar, Schleppegrell, and Oteíza 2007; Aguirre-Muñoz et al. 2008; Gebhard and Martin
2010; Schleppegrell, Achugar, and Oteíza 2004; Spycher 2007). This research
has stressed the importance of positioning ELs as competent and capable of
achieving academic literacies, providing them with an intellectually challenging
curriculum with appropriate levels of support, apprenticing them into successful use of academic language, and making the features of academic language
transparent in order to build proficiency with and critical awareness of the features of academic language (Christie 2012; Derewianka 2011; Gibbons 2009;
Halliday 1993; Hyland 2004; Schleppegrell 2004).
The extensive body of theories and research drawn upon to inform and guide
the development of the CA ELD Standards demonstrates that effective instruction for ELs focuses on critical principles for developing language and cognition
in academic contexts. These principles emphasize meaningful interaction; the
development of metalinguistic awareness in contexts that are intellectually rich
and challenging, focused on content, strategically scaffolded, and respectful of
the cultural and linguistic knowledge students bring to school; and the use of
such knowledge as a resource.
Theoretical Foundations and Research Base
Other Relevant Guidance Documents Consulted
References
Additional state, national, and international documents designed to inform
and guide policy and practice for the education of ELs were consulted. These
documents include the following:
Acevedo, C., and D. Rose. 2007. “Reading (and Writing) to Learn in the Middle
Years of Schooling.” Primary English Teaching Association 157:1–8.
 Understanding Language: Language, Literacy, and Learning in the Content
Areas—Commissioned Papers on Language and Literacy Issues in the
Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards
(Stanford University)
 The Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards
Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards (Council of Chief State School Officers 2012)
 Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches
(CDE 2010)
 The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning,
Teaching, Assessment (Council of Europe, Language Policy Unit, n.d.)
 Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National
Standards in Foreign Language Education Project 2006)
The Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards
and Assessments (Assessment and Accountability Comprehensive Center
2009)
 ELD/English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards from multiple states
 The Australian National Curriculum
Conclusion
The theoretical bases and body of research and resources that were consulted
for the development of the California ELD Standards were complemented by the
writing team’s knowledge working in schools across California with both EL students (as teachers) and teachers of EL students (as professional developers,
research partners, and consultants in various capacities). At every stage of the
development and review process, this practical knowledge about what goes on
in classrooms, paired with extensive knowledge of the theories and research
pertaining to the education of EL students contributed to the development of a
rigorous and balanced set of ELD standards.
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Theoretical Foundations and Research Base
Chapter 5
Learning About
How English Works
Many California teachers have observed that their students who are English
learners (ELs) develop everyday English quite rapidly and can communicate
effectively in informal social situations, but these students sometimes struggle
with tasks involving academic English, such as writing a logical argument, comprehending their science and history textbooks, or participating in an academic
debate (Cummins 2008, 71–83). For K–12 settings, academic English broadly
refers to the language used in school to help students develop content knowledge, skills, and abilities; it is the language students are expected to use to
convey their understanding and mastery of such knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Academic English is different from everyday, or informal, English. Some features
of academic English span the disciplines, such as general academic vocabulary
(e.g., evaluate, infer, imply), but there is also variation depending upon the discipline—in domain-specific vocabulary, for example. However, academic English
encompasses much more than vocabulary. It also includes ways of structuring
clauses, sentences, and entire texts that convey precision, show relationships
between ideas, and present thinking in coherent and cohesive ways in order
to achieve specific purposes (e.g., persuading, explaining, entertaining, and
describing) with different audiences in discipline-specific ways. Research has
shown that not all children come to school equally prepared to engage with
academic English.1 However, research has also demonstrated that ELs can
learn academic English, use it to achieve success in academic tasks across the
disciplines, and build upon it to prepare for college and careers.
Part II, “Learning About How English Works,” offers K–12 teachers a new perspective on how to help EL students develop understanding of and proficiency
in using academic English. The goal of Part II is to guide teachers to support EL
students in ways that are appropriate to grade level and English language proficiency level so that ELs can (a) unpack meaning in texts they encounter across
the disciplines to better comprehend them; and (b) make informed choices
about how to use language appropriately—based on discipline, topic, purpose,
audience, and task—when producing written texts and oral presentations.
Part II offers something that has been largely absent in prior ELD standards:
attention to how the English language resources available to students are, and
can be, used to make meaning and achieve particular communicative purposes.
Such visibility is intended to support teachers’ efforts to make transparent for
their students the linguistic features of English in ways that support disciplinary
literacy. This new perspective emphasizes the interrelated roles of content
knowledge, communicative purposes for using English (e.g., recounting a family
event, explaining a scientific phenomenon, describing a historical event, arguing
for a position), and the linguistic resources writers or speakers can choose
depending upon the content, purpose, and audience. Part II focuses on the
social actions that accompany deep knowledge about language:

Representing our experiences and expressing our ideas effectively

Interacting with a variety of audiences

Structuring our messages in intentional and purposeful ways
1. The CA ELD Standards were designed with the view that the languages students bring to
school—both the native language and different varieties of English—are considered resources.
The English that students use with peers or families is not “improper English”; it is appropriate
for particular contexts. Being sensitive to the language resources students bring to school and
discussing different ways of using English that are suited to different contexts can help build students’ awareness of language while validating and leveraging their knowledge and experiences.
160 | Chapter 5
How English Works
Although the development of everyday English is important for comprehensive
English language development, Part II focuses primarily on academic registers2
of English because of their prominence in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and
their importance for college and career readiness.
It is critical to understand that, although Part II is presented separately in order
to draw educators’ attention to it, the focus in Part II on understanding how
English works is integral to and inseparable from EL students’ development of
meaning-making and purposeful interaction as delineated in Part I, “Interacting in Meaningful Ways.” This approach parallels that of the CA CCSS for ELA/
Literacy themselves, which identify a strand for language standards. However,
as Appendix A3 of the version of the Common Core State Standards for English
Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical
Subjects produced by the National Governors Association (NGA) Center for
Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) (hereafter referred to as Appendix A) notes, “The inclusion of Language standards
in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related
to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to
reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from
such contexts” (NGA Center for Best Practices and CCSSO 2010, 28).
The following sections identify and discuss some of the language demands
from the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy; present key differences between everyday
and academic English registers, along with an explanation of how teaching
students about language can support their development of academic English;
and explain how Part II is organized, how it corresponds to the CA CCSS for
ELA/Literacy, and how it works in tandem with Part I in the CA ELD Standards.
Correspondence of the Language Demands in the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy to the CA ELD Standards
The CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy set high expectations for all students to participate in academic discourse across the disciplines. Among other things,
students are called on to sustain dialogue on a range of topics and in a variety
of content areas, interpret the meaning of informational and literary texts,
explain their thinking and build on others’ ideas, construct arguments and
justify their positions persuasively with sound evidence, and effectively produce
written and oral texts in a variety of disciplines for a variety of audiences and
purposes. The CA ELD Standards respond to these demands by conceptualizing
language as a complex, dynamic, and social meaning-making resource. Part I
in the CA ELD Standards focuses primarily on how EL students interact in
meaningful ways to develop academic registers of English while engaged in
intellectually challenging, interactive, and dialogue-rich contexts.
In addition, the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy set expectations for all students to
develop an understanding of how the English language works and apply this
understanding to reading, listening, viewing and writing, speaking, and creating
oral and written texts. Reading complex texts is one area in which developing
an understanding of how English works can help students. Appendix A
emphasizes the importance of text complexity in reading achievement. Complex
informational texts, in particular, are characterized by discipline-specific
content knowledge and the related language used to convey this content
meaning, including ambiguous or abstract meanings, potentially unfamiliar
grammatical structures (e.g., complex sentences with long noun phrases), and
general academic and domain-specific vocabulary.4
2. Registers refer to the ways in which grammatical and lexical resources are combined to meet
the expectations of the context (e.g., the content area, topic, audience, and mode in which the
message is conveyed). Informal registers include chatting with a friend or texting a message to
a family member about a familiar topic. Formal registers include participating in a structured
debate on climate change, writing an essay about a novel, or engaging in a collaborative
discussion about solving a math problem using mathematical terms.
3. See http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf (accessed July 23, 2014).
How English Works
4. Note that complex narrative texts (e.g., those that present complex ideas with relatively
familiar words and simple sentences) may still present challenges for readers.
Chapter 5 | 161
Appendix A also emphasizes the importance of grammar and vocabulary
instruction to reading comprehension, writing, and speaking and listening.
General academic and domain-specific vocabulary play a key role in both the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards since research has
repeatedly identified vocabulary knowledge as essential for language and
literacy proficiency, particularly disciplinary literacy, for EL students (Carlo et al.
2004; Lesaux et al. 2010; Nagy and Townsend 2012; Silverman and Crandell
2010; Spycher 2009).
Regarding grammar, Appendix A noted that grammar and usage development
rarely follows a linear path and that former errors may reappear as students
synthesize new grammatical and usage knowledge with their current knowledge.
As with the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy, the CA ELD Standards acknowledge the
recursive nature of grammatical knowledge development, through a spiraling
of specific knowledge about English language resources that should be taught
with increasing levels of sophistication through the grades and across English
proficiency levels. This knowledge includes developing an awareness of differences between everyday and disciplinary English and between different varieties of English, including the grammatical structures and usage; understanding
the purposes for using certain grammatical features in particular disciplines
and text types; and knowing how to use knowledge of grammar to comprehend
complex academic texts.
Part II in the CA ELD Standards draws from current research demonstrating that
teaching about the grammatical patterns of academic English in intellectually
engaging ways that are contextualized in disciplinary knowledge promotes EL
students’ reading comprehension and writing development (Achugar, Schleppegrell, and Oteíza 2007; Aguirre-Muñoz et al. 2008; Gebhard and Martin 2010;
de Oliveira and Dodds 2010).
Because of the importance of vocabulary and grammar in the development
of academic English, and especially the way they interact with discourse and
meaning-making in the disciplines, they are prominently featured in both the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards. Appendix A underscored this
prominence in referring to how students should be taught about language:
162 | Chapter 5
[I]f they are taught simply to vary their grammar and language to
keep their writing “interesting,” they may actually become more
confused about how to make effective language choices . . . As
students learn more about the patterns of English grammar in
different communicative contexts throughout their K–12 academic
careers, they can develop more complex understandings of English
grammar and usage. Students can use this understanding to make
more purposeful and effective choices in their writing and speaking
and more accurate and rich interpretations in their reading and
listening. (NGA Center for Best Practices and CCSSO 2010, 29)
The following examples are a small sample of where specific language demands
related to text complexity and grammatical and vocabulary knowledge appear
in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy at various grade levels and across domains:
Reading
RL.1.5: Explain major differences between books that tell stories
and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a
range of text types.5
RI.3.8: Describe the logical connection between particular
sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/
effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
The first example (RL.1.5) sets expectations for first-graders to distinguish
text types and explain the differences between them. This necessitates, at
a minimum, an understanding of how informational texts, such as science
explanations, are structured differently from narrative texts, such as stories.
The second example (RI.3.8) sets expectations for third-graders to develop
5. The order of the coding system of the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy is domain, grade level,
number of the standard. For example, RL.1.5 is Reading Standards for Literature, grade 1,
standard number 5.
How English Works
an understanding of how language is used throughout a text to create
cohesion.6 The following example sets expectations for fourth-graders to
understand how to shift between informal and formal registers to meet
the expectations of particular contexts:7
Speaking & Listening
SL.4.6: Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English
(e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse
is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English
when appropriate to task and situation.
This shift between registers requires, among other things, an understanding of
which vocabulary and grammatical structures to use to convey comprehension
of the subject matter and topic in question, how to interact with the audience,
how to organize the information, and what kind of communicative method to
use (e.g., text message, formal presentation, a side conversation). From this
perspective, grammatical and lexical choices can be said to be highly dependent upon context.
As students progress through the grades and into secondary schooling, they
are expected to draw upon their knowledge of how to use particular linguistic
resources (e.g., vocabulary, clause combinations, expanded noun phrases) in
increasingly sophisticated ways to achieve specific academic purposes (e.g.,
arguing for a position), as the following examples demonstrate:
6. Cohesion refers to how information unfolds, or flows, in a text. A cohesive text is created
through a variety of cohesive devices, such as referring to people, ideas, or things with
pronouns or synonyms throughout a text so as to avoid repetition (e.g., replace “the first
settlers” with “they”) or linking clauses, sentences, and larger chunks of text with conjunctions,
such as transition words (e.g., in contrast, consequently, next).
7. Context refers to the environment in which language is used, including disciplinary area,
topic, audience, text type, and mode of communication. Context determines language choices,
and the language choices used by writers and speakers help to establish context.
How English Works
Writing
W.8.1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and
relevant evidence.
a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s)
from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons
and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant
evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and
clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims,
reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from
and supports the argument presented.
Language
L.11–12.3: Apply knowledge of language to understand how
language functions in different contexts, to make effective
choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when
reading or listening.
a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s
Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an
understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts
when reading.
As these examples illustrate, the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy set high expectations for students to use English in advanced ways across disciplines. These
expectations represent significant shifts from previous standards, and they
necessitate key shifts in the CA ELD Standards. Some of these shifts are shown
in table 5.1.
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Table 5.1 Comparison of the 1999 CA ELD Standards and the 2012 CA ELD Standards
1999 CA ELD Standards
Prior focus on:
English as a set of rules
Grammar as syntax, separate from meaning,
with discrete skills at the center
Language acquisition as a linear, individual process
New emphasis on understanding:
English as a meaning-making resource with different language choices
based on discipline, topic, audience, task, and purpose
An expanded notion of grammar as encompassing discourse, text structure, syntax,
and vocabulary and as inseparable from meaning
Language acquisition as a nonlinear, spiraling, dynamic, and complex social process in
which meaningful interaction with others is essential
Language development focused on accuracy
and grammatical correctness
Language development focused on interaction, collaboration, comprehension, and
communication, with strategic scaffolding to guide appropriate linguistic choices
Simplified texts and activities, often separate from content knowledge,
as necessary for learning English
Complex texts and intellectually challenging activities focused on building content
knowledge as essential to learning academic English
A key goal of the CA ELD Standards is to support EL students to develop
advanced proficiency with academic English as they also develop content
knowledge across the disciplines. The following section discusses some of
the ways teachers can support their EL students in developing proficiency.
Supporting English Learners to Develop
Academic English
Part II in the CA ELD Standards is necessarily contextualized in the type of
instruction called for in Part I, which focuses on content knowledge and purposeful language development and use. As ELs progress through the grades,
they will be expected to move increasingly from everyday English to academic
English. This shift from more everyday to more academic registers requires an
164 | Chapter 5
2012 CA ELD Standards
understanding of how English works on a variety of levels, including the text,
sentence, clause, phrase, and word levels.
Understanding at the Text Level
As early as kindergarten, ELs can begin to understand the structures of different text types. For example, a story is typically structured in three main stages:
orientation, complication, and resolution. In the orientation stage, the author
orients the reader to the story by providing information on the characters and
setting and also by setting up the plot. In the complication stage, the author
introduces some kind of plot twist that complicates the situation and that must
be resolved in some way. In the resolution stage, the author ties up everything
neatly by resolving the complication and sometimes by offering a moral to the
How English Works
story or a lesson to be learned. This is not the only way a story can be structured, but this organization illustrates the basic features of many stories students encounter in school, especially in the elementary grades. When students
are aware of the text structure of stories, they are in a better position to (a)
comprehend stories that are read to them or that they read independently; they
can also (b) write their own stories, meeting the expectations of story structure.
As students progress through the grades and into secondary schooling, the
academic texts they are expected to comprehend and produce become more
varied and complex. The academic texts students encounter in middle and high
school are dense with meaning, authoritatively presented, and highly structured
(Schleppegrell 2004). These characteristics are part of what distinguishes
academic English from more informal, everyday ways of using English. One
academic text type that is prominently featured in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and in the CA ELD Standards is argument.81Arguments are written to persuade others to think or act in a certain way, to discuss different viewpoints on
an issue, or to assess or evaluate ideas, texts, events, and so forth. Particularly
in secondary settings, ELs need to understand how various types of successful
arguments are structured so that they can better understand the arguments
they read and produce arguments that meet the expectations of the CA CCSS
for ELA/Literacy, the CA ELD Standards, and other content standards.
Working with students to understand argument text structure is necessarily
contextualized in intellectually challenging content. In order to take a stand and
argue for or against something, students must build knowledge of the content
and topic, have opportunities to talk about their ideas, and develop the
linguistic resources they will need to convey their thinking.
Some ways to foster these practices are illustrated in a unit that a middle
school English teacher taught on the benefits and costs of conventional and
organic farming, which culminated with students writing arguments. Over the
course of the unit, the class read multiple primary sources and viewed several
documentaries on the history of farming and recent developments in sustainable and organic agriculture. The students engaged in collaborative discussions
where they debated the content in the texts, analyzed and evaluated the meaning and validity of written arguments on the topic, learned domain-specific and
general academic vocabulary they would need to present their ideas, as well as
other ways of using language to present their ideas persuasively, and delivered
oral presentations on particular aspects of the topic, such as the use of
pesticides in farming.
Another important activity was one in which the teacher repeatedly guided
students to analyze the text structure of arguments, including the stages that
are typically found in written arguments (e.g., provide a position statement,
state the issue, make several points supported by evidence, reiterate the
position). The teacher also highlighted the particular language features that
made the text more cohesive or made it “hang together” (e.g., connecting or
transition words). As the unit progressed, students built up the points and
evidence supporting their arguments, and the culminating activity was for each
student to take a position and pull their arguments together in the form of an
editorial for the school newspaper. Figure 5.2 shows an example of the type of
argument a teacher might guide students to analyze in order to make explicit
the text structure of arguments while also maintaining a clear focus on content
knowledge and meaning.
8. In the K–5 CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards, “argument” is referred to as
“opinion.”
How English Works
Chapter 5 | 165
Table 5.2 Example of Argument Text Structure—Middle School
Argument Text Structure
Stages
Position Statement
Issue Appeal
Arguments
Point A Elaboration
Middle school newspaper editorial : Our School Should Serve Organic Foods
All students who come to Rosa Parks Middle School deserve to be served safe, healthy, and delicious food. Organic foods are more nutritious and safer to
eat than non-organic foods, which are treated with pesticides. Our school should serve only organic foods because it’s our basic right to know that we’re
being taken care of by the adults in our school. Organic foods might be more expensive than non-organic foods, but I think we can all work together to make
sure we eat only the healthiest foods, and that means organic.
Eating organic foods is safer for you because the crops aren’t treated with chemical pesticides like non-organic crops are. According to a recent study by
Stanford University, 38 percent of non-organic produce had pesticides on them, compared with only 7 percent of organic produce. Some scientists say that
exposure to pesticides in food is related to neurobehavioral problems in children, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Other studies
show that even low levels of pesticide exposure can hurt us. I definitely don’t want to take the risk of poisoning myself every time I eat lunch.
Point B Elaboration
Organic food is more nutritious and healthier for your body. The Stanford University study also reported that organic milk and chicken contain more omega-3
fatty acids than non-organic milk and chicken. Omega-3 fatty acids are important for brain health and also might help reduce heart disease, so we should be
eating foods that contain them. According to Michael Pollan and other experts, fruits and vegetables grown in organic soils have more nutrients in them. They
also say that eating the fruits and vegetables close to the time they were picked preserves more nutrients. This is a good reason to get our school’s food
from local organic farms. Eating local organic foods helps keep us healthier, and it also supports the local economy. We might even be able to get organic
crops more cheaply if we work with more local farms.
Point C Elaboration
Organic foods are better for the environment and for the people who grow the food. Farmers who grow organic produce don’t use chemicals to fertilize the
soil or pesticides to keep away insects or weeds. Instead, they use other methods like beneficial insects and crop rotation. This means that chemicals won’t
run off the farm and into streams and our water supply. This helps to protect the environment and our health. In addition, on organic farms, the farmworkers
who pick the food aren’t exposed to dangerous chemicals that could damage their health. This isn’t just good for our school; it’s something good we should
do for ourselves, other human beings, and the planet.
Reiteration of Appeal
To put it simply, organic foods are more nutritious, safer for our bodies, and better for the environment. But there’s another reason we should switch to organic food: It tastes better. Non-organic food can sometimes taste like cardboard, but organic food is always delicious. When I bite into an apple or a strawberry, I want it to taste good, and I don’t want a mouthful of pesticides. Some people might say that organic is too expensive. I say that we can’t afford to risk
the health of students at this school by not serving organic foods. Therefore, we must find a way to make organic foods part of our school lunches.
Note: Figure used with permission from WestEd’s English Language and Literacy Acceleration (ELLA) project.
166 | Chapter 5
How English Works
Clearly, this type of writing requires time for students to develop. Students need
time to learn and interpret the content, time to analyze and evaluate the content of arguments, time to discuss and debate their ideas, and time to build the
language resources necessary to write arguments. By the same token, students
who understand how an argument is structured—through classroom activities
such as analyzing and evaluating models of arguments, jointly constructing
arguments as a class or with peers, and producing multiple drafts of arguments
with opportunities to revise and edit based on useful feedback—are in a better
position to comprehend the arguments they read in school and to produce
arguments that meet their teachers’ expectations.
Students also need to understand how writers and speakers make their texts
cohesive. Cohesion refers to how information unfolds, or flows, throughout a
text and how the text “hangs together.” A cohesive text is created through the
selection of a variety of language resources, such as referring back or forward
in the text to people, ideas, or things using pronouns or synonyms (e.g.,
replacing farmers with the pronoun they or people with human beings) or
linking chunks of text with text connectives (e.g., instead, in addition, to put it
simply) in order to signal shifts in meaning in the text, among other language
resources supporting cohesion.
One focus that teachers need to consistently maintain when teaching students
to better understand text structure and cohesion is meaning. The central
purpose of writing an argument is to persuade others to think or do something,
and a successful argument involves more than structure. It also involves a
range of language resources that are useful for conveying meaning. In the case
of argument, language resources that are especially effective are those that
are associated with persuasion, including an appeal to people’s humanity (our
basic right to be taken care of; that farmworkers are not exposed to dangerous
chemicals), building a sense of community (our school; the use of the pronoun
we), and the use of modality to establish authority and temper statements (we
should do this, organic food might be more expensive, we must, definitely).
Teachers who are aware of text structure, cohesive language resources, and
How English Works
language that makes arguments more persuasive are in a better position to
support their students to write convincing arguments that are well supported by
good reasons and evidence.
Understanding at the Sentence Level and Clause Level
In addition to understanding text structure and cohesion, students need to
learn how sentences are constructed in particular ways to convey meaning
effectively in different contexts. For example, a student might tell her friend,
“Polluting the air is wrong, and I think people should really stop polluting,”
which is a perfectly appropriate way to express this idea to a peer in an
informal interaction. However, this idea will likely be presented in a different
way in a textbook or journal article and may be articulated as “Although many
countries are addressing pollution, environmental degradation continues to
create devastating human health problems each year.” This shift from more
“spoken” or commonsense ways of expressing ideas or phenomena to more
“written” or specialized ways requires students to develop content knowledge
(in this case, knowledge about the consequences of various types of pollution
and which countries around the world allow pollution) along with the language
needed for humans to express (or comprehend) this understanding. This is
one reason developing full proficiency in English cannot occur in isolation from
content learning.
Academic English includes a variety of linguistic resources that are different
from those used in informal, everyday interactions in English. The particular
linguistic resources used in academic texts in the different disciplines vary,
but in general, academic texts tend to include a higher proportion of general
academic and domain-specific vocabulary, complex sentences that connect
ideas with subordinating conjunctions (e.g., although, rather than, in order
to), expanded noun phrases, and longer stretches of discourse that are tightly
organized depending upon the text type and academic discipline area. Teachers
can draw students’ attention to these linguistic resources in order to make the
resources more transparent and understandable. Table 5.3 illustrates some
of the ways in which everyday English registers differ from academic English
registers.
Chapter 5 | 167
Although both sentences are grammatically correct and could be used as
the thesis statement in an argument, the sentence in the “Academic English
Registers” column better meets the expectations established in the CA CCSS
for ELA/Literacy for writing an argument in secondary settings. In addition, this
example illustrates how academic English is not just everyday English translated into an academic register. Rather, it requires both content and linguistic
knowledge, which is one reason it has been widely argued that content and
language are inextricably linked. Content knowledge is embedded in language,
and language conveys content in particular ways. Correspondingly, Part II of
the CA ELD Standards should not be applied—whether in instruction or in
assessment—in ways that isolate language use from the purposeful
meaning-making and interaction presented in Part I.
The CA ELD Standards allow teachers to focus on critical linguistic features
of academic English so that teachers can make those features transparent to
students. The following example illustrates how one of these linguistic features
of academic English (connecting ideas in logical ways to show relationships
through clause combining) appears in the CA ELD Standards:
ELD Standard, Grade 7, Part II, C.6 (Bridging)
Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., creating
compound, complex, and compound–complex sentences) to make
connections between and join ideas, for example, to show the relationship between multiple events or ideas (e.g., After eating lunch,
the students worked in groups while their teacher walked around
the room) or to evaluate an argument (e.g., The author claims X,
although there is a lack of evidence to support this claim).
The examples in this standard illustrate a specific way of using language
(combining clauses) in purposeful ways (e.g., to make connections between
and join ideas) in order to convey understanding of content meaning. This
understanding of how language works is particularly important as students
move into secondary schooling and encounter the densely packed language
of science and history. In order to support their students’ ability to combine
clauses in a variety of ways (in writing and/or speaking), teachers might first
168 | Chapter 5
show them how to be more analytical as they read by deconstructing complex
sentences. Deconstructing sentences serves dual purposes: analyzing the
structure (linguistic features) and deriving meaning (comprehension). Teachers
may also work with students to help them revise their writing and adopt some
of these same ways of making connections between ideas through clause combining. For example, using the sentence in the “Academic English Registers”
column of table 5.3, which is part of a longer selection that students have
previously read, a teacher might guide students to deconstruct, or unpack, the
sentence, first by focusing on what it means (in order to support comprehension) and then by focusing on the structure (in order to support both comprehension and subsequent writing by students).
Table 5.3 Differences Between Everyday and
Academic English Registers
Everyday English Registers
Academic English Registers
“Polluting the air is wrong, and I think
people should really stop polluting.”
“Although many countries are addressing
pollution, environmental degradation
continues to create devastating human
health problems each year.”
Register: More typical of spoken
(informal) English
Register: More typical of written (formal)
English
Background knowledge: More typical
of everyday interactions about commonsense things in the world
Background knowledge: Specialized or
content-rich knowledge about topics,
particularly developed through school
experiences and wide reading
Vocabulary: Fewer general academic
and domain-specific words (pollute,
pollution)
Vocabulary: More general academic
words (address, although, devastating)
and domain-specific words/phrases
(environmental degradation, pollution)
Sentence structure: Compound
sentence
Sentence structure: Complex sentence
Clauses: Two independent clauses
connected with a coordinating
conjunction (and)
Clauses: One independent clause and
one dependent clause connected with a
subordinating conjunction (although)
to show concession
How English Works
To focus on meaning, the teacher might lead a discussion with students on
unpacking the meaning in the densely packed text, resulting in the following
summary:
Sentence to Unpack
“Although many countries are addressing pollution, environmental
degradation continues to create devastating human health problems
each year.”
Meaning
 Pollution is a big problem around the world.
 A lot of countries are doing something about pollution.
 Pollution destroys the environment.
 The ruined environment leads to health problems in people.
 The health problems are still happening every year.
 The health problems are really, really bad.
Table 5.4 Sentence Deconstruction Focusing
on Structure and Meaning
Structure:
Type of Clause and
How to Know
Dependent
It starts with although,
so it can’t stand on its
own.
Text:
Broken into Clauses
Although many
countries are
addressing pollution,
It can stand on its own,
even if the other clause
is removed.
The clause gives credit to
a lot of countries for doing
something about pollution.
Use of the word although
tells me that the rest of
the sentence will show the
efforts are not enough.
It “depends” on the
other clause.
Independent
Meaning:
What It Means
environmental
degradation continues
to create devastating
human health
problems each year.
This type of clause has the
most important information.
Pollution keeps hurting a lot
of people every year all over
the world.
 Even though the countries are doing something about pollution, there
are still problems.
This focus on meaning is essential because the goal of close reading is to
derive meaning. However, a strategic instructional focus on sentence and
clause structures from time to time serves to help students read more closely
and analytically in order to derive meaning from densely packed texts. Table
5.4 shows one way a teacher might begin to show students how to deconstruct
the sentence, with a focus on both structure and meaning.
How English Works
These examples show that by helping their EL students to become more
analytical about how sentences and clauses are constructed, teachers can
support their EL students to better understand the densely packed texts they
encounter in school. The techniques can be used in a variety of flexible ways.
For example, in high school, ELD teachers and teachers of academic subjects
may work together to collaboratively identify densely packed sentences in
academic subject-matter texts—sentences that could make it difficult for
students to understand the knowledge being presented. During ELD instruction,
the ELD teacher may support EL students to manage these language challenges
and better comprehend texts by guiding the students to unpack these densely
packed sentences, focusing on both structure and meaning. When appropriate,
content teachers in secondary settings may also show their students strategies
to unpack sentences in the texts being used. Elementary teachers, who
typically teach both core content and ELD, can choose when it would be most
appropriate to teach their EL students how to unpack sentences—during
Chapter 5 | 169
designated ELD instruction, during content instruction, or both. In each of
these scenarios, when students are provided with opportunities to learn about
and discuss how sentences and clauses are structured to make meaning, they
develop a more analytical stance when reading their academic texts. These
practices allow teachers to have engaging conversations with their students
about both the meaning and the form of language, in ways that move beyond
simply identifying parts of speech or types of sentences.
Understanding at the Phrase Level
Similarly, teachers can show students how to unpack expanded noun phrases,
which consist of a head noun with pre- and post-modifiers (words that come
before and after the head noun). In the following example, the head noun is
in boldface, and the modifiers are added incrementally to expand the noun
phrase:
frog That frog That green frog That fat green frog
very fat green frog That very fat green frog on the rock
very fat green frog on the rock with a fly in its mouth . . .
That
That
Teachers often ask their students to “add more detail” or to make their writing
more interesting. Expanding noun phrases is one way to add detail and also to
create precision in writing. Long noun phrases are common in academic texts,
particularly in science texts, where a great deal of content is densely packed
into the noun phrase. In the following example, the expanded noun phrases are
in boldface, and the head nouns are italicized:
Non-native plants are species introduced to California after
European contact and as a direct or indirect result of human
activity (NGA and CCSSO 2010).
It can be challenging for students to unpack the meaning of these types of long
noun phrases while reading. Teachers of all disciplines can help their students
by showing them how to deconstruct the noun phrases to derive meaning. In
secondary settings, ELD teachers may work closely with content teachers to
170 | Chapter 5
identify long noun phrases that are critical for comprehension but that may
pose challenges for EL students. During ELD instruction, the ELD teachers may
show students how to identify the head noun (“plants” in the first noun phrase
shown earlier and “species” in the second), then the pre-modifiers (e.g.,
articles, adjectives) and, finally, the post-modifiers, which are often in the form
of prepositional phrases or embedded clauses. The following example shows
how a teacher might represent this deconstruction (adapted from Fang 2010):
Pre-modifiers
Non-native
Head noun
Post-modifiers
plants
species
introduced to California after European
contact . . .
Students will notice that the first expanded noun phrase (“non-native plants”)
is relatively easy to identify and replicate. However, the second noun phrase is
quite a bit longer and more challenging to unpack. This is the challenge EL
students face in comprehending text; showing them how to unpack the meaning
through a focus on the structure of the noun phrase can aid comprehension.
This type of deconstructive activity can be extended by identifying types of
pre- and post-modifiers (e.g., adjectives, embedded clauses, prepositional
phrases). Teachers may also create activities for students to expand noun
phrases in meaningful ways and discuss how the use of certain modifiers
creates different meanings. These practices of deconstructing and then
constructing long noun phrases in purposeful ways, all the while keeping a
sharp focus on meaning, can be implemented in strategic ways by both content
and ELD teachers in secondary settings and by elementary teachers who teach
both core content and ELD in self-contained classroom settings; at the
elementary school setting, grade-level teams could work collaboratively
to address content and ELD.
How English Works
Understanding at the Word Level
In addition to learning the meanings of and using general academic and
domain-specific vocabulary91in context, students will encounter a special kind
of language resource called nominalization as they progress into secondary
schooling. One of the prominent features of academic texts is that they are
densely packed with meaning. Nominalization is one linguistic resource that
helps to achieve this density and makes texts more cohesive. A simple type of
nominalization that is relatively straightforward is when a verb is transformed
into a noun or noun phrase (e.g., They destroyed the rain forest The destruction of the rain forest
). Sometimes, adjectives are nominalized as
well (e.g., strong strength; different difference). Additional examples of
how verbs may be transformed into nouns are as follows:
Verb
Noun
develop
development
grow
growth
interact
interaction
Sometimes nominalization collapses an entire clause or even multiple clauses
into nouns or noun phrases. For example, in conversational language, a student
might say, “The ranchers came to the rain forest, and they cut down a lot of
trees. The next year, the river flooded everything.” Nominalization allows writers
or speakers to densely pack these three clauses into one, achieving a more
academic register: “The destruction of the rain forest led to widespread flooding.” Also note how the nominalized subject of the example sentence (“destruction”) hides the agents involved in the act, which is characteristic of history
texts and a common reason for using nominalization in history texts.
At the text level, this collapsing of entire clauses through nominalization
helps to create cohesion in texts and also contributes to the lexical density
(i.e., percentage of content words to total words) of academic texts by
condensing larger chunks of information into single words or phrases, often
through summarizing nouns (e.g., this event, the problem). By turning actions
into things, nominalization allows writers or speakers to create abstractions,
condensing entire events, theories, and concepts into nouns and noun
phrases (e.g., democracy, photosynthesis, the symbolic presence of children
in the scene, the disappearance of native languages). This allows writers and
speakers to create relationships between the abstractions, develop arguments
with them, and evaluate them.
Secondary ELD teachers can support content teachers in raising students’
awareness of how nominalization works in academic texts to achieve particular
purposes. They can develop opportunities during ELD instruction for students
to identify nominalization in the texts they read in their content classes, discuss
how nominalization conveys meaning (and how it is different from everyday
language), and practice using their growing understanding of nominalization
when writing texts such as arguments or explanations for their content classes.
In this way, students can learn to be more analytical when reading and also
develop new ways of conveying ideas and structuring texts in more academic
ways. Secondary content teachers and elementary teachers who teach the
intermediate grades can also use their understanding of nominalization to build
their EL students’ awareness of and proficiency in using nominalization.
Part II in the CA ELD Standards provides a framework for teachers to design
these types of activities and talk with their students about how English works.
Part II supports teachers’ efforts to ensure that all EL students can:
a. comprehend the disciplinary texts they read, view, or listen to by thinking
about how the language in the texts is used to convey meaning;
b. meet academic discourse demands within disciplines when writing,
speaking, and creating texts by making conscious and informed choices
about the linguistic resources they use.
9. Domain-specific vocabulary and general academic vocabulary are explicitly addressed in
Parts I and II of the CA ELD Standards.
How English Works
Chapter 5 | 171
Organization of Part II
Part II in the CA ELD Standards, “Learning About How English Works,” identifies
key language demands in the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy, as well as those in
academic English texts, that may present particular challenges to EL students
as they develop academic English across the disciplines. Research has demonstrated that identifying these linguistic challenges and attending to them in
meaningful ways through instruction can help ELs develop proficiency with
academic English (NGA and CCSSO 2010).
Part II in the CA ELD Standards provides guidance to teachers on intentionally, strategically, and judiciously addressing the language demands in the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy and in the texts used in instruction. Table 5.5 provides
an example of how multiple CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy across the domains
correspond with the CA ELD Standards in Part II, “Learning About How English
Works.” California additions to the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy appear in boldface and are designated with “CA.”
The language demands that are featured prominently and repeatedly in the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy are grouped together and represented by key language
processes: structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and
connecting and condensing ideas. These language processes are further
unpacked into numbered strands as follows:
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
1. Understanding text structure
2. Understanding cohesion
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
3. Using verbs and verb phrases
4. Using nouns and noun phrases
5. Modifying to add details
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas
6. Connecting ideas
7. Condensing ideas
172 | Chapter 5
How English Works
Table 5.5 Correspondence of Grade 5 CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and CA ELD Standards
Grade 5
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Grade 5 CA ELD Standards
Part II: Learning About How English Works
Structuring Cohesive Texts, Strands 1 and 2
Emerging
RL.5.5 Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide 1. Understanding text
structure
the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
Apply basic understanding of
RI.5.5 Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison,
cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two how different text types are
organized to express ideas
or more texts.
(e.g., how a story is organized
W.5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with
sequentially with predictable
reasons and information.
stages versus how opinions/
a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational
arguments are organized
structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
around ideas) to comprehendb. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
ing texts and writing basic
c. Link opinion and reasons using words,phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, texts.
specifically).
2. Understanding cohesion
d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
a. Apply basic understanding of
(See similar cohesion expectations in W.5.2 and W.5.3.)
language resources for referring
W.5.4 Produce clear and coherent writing (including multiple-paragraph texts)
the reader to the text (e.g., how
in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and
pronouns refer to nouns in text)
audience. CA
to comprehend texts and write
basic texts.
W.5.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen
writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new apb. Apply basic understanding of
proach.
how ideas, events, or reasons
SL.5.4 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically
are linked throughout a text
and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas using a select set of everyday
or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
connecting words or phrases
a.Plan and deliver an opinion speech that: states an opinion, logically sequences (e.g., first/next, at the beginevidence to support the speaker’s position, uses transition words to effectively ning) to comprehending texts
and writing basic texts.
link opinions and evidence (e.g., consequently and therefore), and provides a
concluding statement related to the speaker’s position. CA
L.5.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
L.5.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking,
reading, or listening.
How English Works
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply growing understanding
of how different text types are
organized to express ideas
(e.g., how a story is organized
sequentially with predictable
stages versus how opinions/
arguments are structured
logically around reasons and
evidence) to comprehending
texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
Bridging
1. Understanding text
structure
Apply increasing understanding
of how different text types are
organized to express ideas
(e.g., how a historical account
is organized chronologically
versus how opinions/arguments
are structured logically around
reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing
cohesive texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply growing understanding
of language resources that refer
the reader to text (e.g., how
pronouns or synonyms refer
to nouns in text) to comprehend texts and write texts with
increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply increasing understanding of language resources that
refer the reader to text (e.g.,
how pronouns, synonyms, or
nominalizations refer to nouns
in text) to comprehend texts
and write cohesive texts.
b. Apply growing understanding
of how ideas, events, or reasons
are linked throughout a text
using a variety of connecting
words or phrases (e.g., for
example, in the first place, as a
result) to comprehending texts
and writing texts with increasing
cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or
reasons are linked throughout a
text using an increasing variety
of academic connecting and
transitional words or phrases
(e.g., consequently, specifically,
however) to comprehending
texts and writing cohesive texts.
Chapter 5 | 173
By design, multiple CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy across several domains correlate with a single CA ELD Standard strand, and multiple CA ELD Standard strands correspond
to the same CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy. This “many-to-many” correspondence is explicitly shown on each page of a grade level’s CA ELD Standards, as seen in the following
example from grade 5.
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works
ELD Proficiency Level Continuum
Texts and Discourse
in Context
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are
not limited to:
Description (e.g., science log entry), procedure (e.g., how to solve a mathematics
problem), recount (e.g., autobiography,
science experiment results), information
report (e.g., science or history report),
explanation (e.g., how or why something
happened), exposition (e.g., opinion), response (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., fantasy, legends, fables),
drama (e.g., readers’ theater), poetry,
retelling a story, and so on.
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts
Part II, strands 1–2, corresponding to the
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
1. RL.5.5; RI.5.5; W.5.1–5; SL.5.4
2. RL.5.5; RI.5.5; W.5.1–4; SL.5.4;
L.5.1, 3
Emerging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply basic understanding of how different text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized
sequentially with predictable stages
versus how opinions/arguments are organized around ideas) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
Expanding
1. Understanding text structure
Apply growing understanding of how different text types are organized to express
ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized
sequentially with predictable stages versus
how opinions/arguments are structured
logically around reasons and evidence) to
comprehending texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
Bridging
1. Understanding text structure
Apply increasing understanding of how
different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a historical account
is organized chronologically versus how
opinions/arguments are structured logically
around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply basic understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back or
forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer
back to nouns in text) to comprehending
texts and writing basic texts.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply growing understanding of language
resources for referring the reader back
or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or
synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to
comprehending texts and writing texts with
increasing cohesion.
2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply increasing understanding of
language resources for referring the reader
back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns,
synonyms, or nominalizations refer back to
nouns in text) to comprehending texts and
writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply growing understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, in
the first place, as a result) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing
cohesion.
b. Apply increasing understanding of
how ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using an increasing
variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., consequently,
specifically, however) to comprehending
texts and writing cohesive texts.
b. Apply basic understanding of how
ideas, events, or reasons are linked
throughout a text using a select set of
everyday connecting words or phrases
(e.g., first/next, at the beginning) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)
174 | Chapter 5
How English Works
Use of the CA ELD Standards
As emphasized previously, the CA ELD Standards are not intended to be used
as a stand-alone document. Rather, they are designed to be used with the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy, as well as other California content standards, to provide
a robust and comprehensive instructional program for ELs. The examples
provided in previous sections illustrate how designated ELD instruction in
elementary and secondary settings can support the language practices found
in core content curriculum. ELD instruction should not be provided in a manner
that is disconnected or isolated from core content instruction. The focus of
instruction determines the standards’ role. For example, the CA ELD Standards
serve as the focal standards in settings specifically designed for English language development—such as designated ELD instruction in secondary school or
designated block of time for ELD in elementary school where ELs are grouped
by English proficiency level. Additionally, the CA ELD Standards are designed
and intended to be used in tandem with other academic content standards
to support ELs in mainstream academic content classrooms. Parts I, II, and
III of the CA ELD Standards should be consulted and used strategically during
content instruction (e.g., English language arts, science, history, mathematics)
that is focused on the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and other content standards
that have been approved by the California State Board of Education. Applied
in this way, the CA ELD Standards foster more comprehensive instruction for
ELs by helping content-area teachers recognize the opportunities for language
development in content instruction and foster the language needed to engage
in discipline-specific practices and to express content knowledge.
When used as part of a coordinated application of standards, the CA ELD
Standards will help California educators to support ELs to:
 read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational
text types;
 develop an understanding of how content is organized in different text
types across disciplines using text structure, language features, and
vocabulary, depending upon purpose and audience;
 become aware that different languages and varieties of English exist;
 recognize their home languages and cultures as resources to value and
draw upon in building English proficiency;
 contribute actively to class and group discussions by asking questions,
responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback;
 demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing,
collaborative conversations, and multimedia;
 develop proficiency in shifting registers based on context.
This complex undertaking requires deep commitment, collaboration among
groups of educators, support for teachers to develop and refine instructional
practices, and, most importantly, a sustained focus on the strengths and needs
of individual ELs and a persistent belief that all ELs can achieve the highest
levels of academic and linguistic excellence. Fostering the academic and
linguistic development of ELs is best done in professional communities of
practice, in which teams of teachers work together to recognize and identify
language challenges in core content, develop strategies to address these challenges, regularly discuss student work, and reflect on the effectiveness of their
instruction for student learning. This collaborative approach among teachers
requires districts to adopt an appropriate paradigm of support—one in which
teachers have adequate time to collaborate to develop lessons; participate in
relevant, sustained professional learning and refine their practice; and are held
accountable for implementing the practices (Elmore 2002). In such a collaborative and supportive environment, teachers are better prepared to meet the
needs of their EL students, and EL students have ongoing opportunities to meet
the expectations of the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards.
 develop an understanding of how language is a complex, dynamic, and
social resource for making meaning;
How English Works
Chapter 5 | 175
References
Achugar, M., M. Schleppegrell, and T. Oteíza. 2007. “Engaging Teachers in Language Analysis: A Functional Linguistics Approach to Reflective Literacy.”
English Teaching: Practice and Critique 6 (2): 8–24.
Aguirre-Munoz, Z., J. Park, A. Amabisca, and C. Boscardin. 2008. “Developing
Teacher Capacity for Serving ELLs’ Writing Instructional Needs: A Case
for Systemic Functional Linguistics.” Bilingual Research Journal 31 (1/2):
295–323.
Carlo, M. S., D. August, B. McLaughlin, C. E. Snow, C. E. Dressler, D. N. Lippman, T. J. Lively, and C. E. White. 2004. “Closing the Gap: Addressing
the Vocabulary Needs of English-Language Learners in Bilingual and
Mainstream Classrooms.” Reading Research Quarterly 39:188–215.
Cummins, J. 2008. “BICS and CALP: Empirical and Theoretical Status of the
Distinction.” In Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd ed., vol. 2
(Literacy). New York: Springer Science and Business Media LLC.
de Oliveira, L. C., and K. N. Dodds. 2010. “Beyond General Strategies for
English Language Learners: Language Dissection in Science.” Electronic
Journal of Literacy Through Science 9 (1):1−14.
Elmore, R. F. 2002. Bridging the Gap Between Standards and Achievement:
The Imperative for Professional Development in Education. Washington,
DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Fang, Z. 2010. Language and Literacy in Inquiry-Based Science. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Corwin Press and National Science Teachers Association.
Nagy, W., and D. Townsend. 2012. “Words as Tools: Learning Academic Vocabulary as Language Acquisition.” Reading Research Quarterly 47 (1): 91–108.
National Governors Association (NGA) Center for Best Practices and Council of
Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2010. “Appendix A: Research Supporting Key Elements of the Standards.” In Common Core State Standards
for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science,
and Technical Subjects. Washington, DC: NGA Center for Best Practices
and CCSSO.
Schleppegrell, M. J. 2004. The Language of Schooling: A Functional Linguistics
Perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schleppegrell, M., M. Achugar, and T. Oteíza. 2004. “The Grammar of History:
Enhancing Content-Based Instruction Through a Functional Focus on
Language.” TESOL Quarterly 38 (1): 67–93.
Schleppegrell, M., and L. de Oliveira. 2006. “An Integrated Language and
Content Approach for History Teachers.” Journal of English for Academic
Purposes 5 (4): 254–68.
Silverman, R., and J. D. Crandell. 2010. “Vocabulary Practices in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Classrooms.” Reading Research Quarterly 45 (3):
318–40.
Spycher, P. 2009. “Learning Academic Language Through Science in Two
Linguistically Diverse Kindergarten Classes.” Elementary School Journal
109 (4): 359–79.
Gebhard, M., and J. Martin. 2010. “Grammar and Literacy Learning.” In
Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts, edited by
D. Fisher and D. Lapp. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum/Taylor & Francis.
Lesaux, N. K., M. J. Kieffer, S. E. Faller, and J. G. Kelley. 2010. “The Effectiveness and Ease of Implementation of an Academic Vocabulary Intervention
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176 | Chapter 5
How English Works
Chapter 6
Foundational Literacy Skills
for English Learners
Foundational literacy skills—which primarily address print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency, as described in
the Reading Standards for Foundational Skills K–5 (RF Standards) section of
the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and
Literacy (CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy)—are critical for English learners (ELs) at
all ages who need to learn basic literacy (August and Shanahan 2006; Riches
and Genesee 2006). ELs face an additional challenge in developing literacy
in English since they must develop oral proficiency in English—including depth
and breadth of vocabulary—at the same time that they are learning to read and
write (Roessingh and Elgie 2009; Short and Fitzsimmons 2007; Torgesen et
al. 2007). While more research on English learner literacy is needed (IRA and
NICHD 2007), the research results available so far show that ELs can transfer
native language literacy skills to English literacy learning (August and Shanahan
2006; Riches and Genesee 2006); thus, literacy instruction for ELs will need to
be adapted based on each student’s previous literacy experiences in his or her
native language, as well as on his or her age and level of schooling. Adapted
instruction for ELs needs to consider additional individual student characteristics—the student’s level of oral proficiency in the native language and in
English, how closely the student’s native language is related to English,1 and,
for students with native language literacy, the type of writing system used.2
Research Summary and Implications for English
Learners
Below is a summary of key findings from the research cited above, with implications for foundational literacy skills instruction for ELs.
 English learners benefit from Reading Foundational Skills instruction.
Research Findings: Instruction in the components of reading foundational skills—such as phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension (NICHD 2000)—benefits ELs.
Implications: Instruction in foundational literacy skills is essential for
ELs. However, the instruction should be adjusted based on students’
spoken English proficiency (they may or may not be familiar with the
English sound system) and native language or English literacy proficiency (they may or may not be familiar with any type of writing system
or with the Latin alphabet writing system in particular). Note that some
ELs at any age may not be literate in any language when they arrive in
the U.S. school system; their native language may not have a written
form, or they may not have had opportunities to develop literacy in
their native language or in a local language of wider communication.3
 Oral English language proficiency is crucial for English literacy learning.
1. For information on which languages are related to each other, visit http://www.ethnologue.
com/ (accessed October 30, 2013).
2. For information on writing systems for the world’s languages, visit http://www.omniglot.com/
(accessed October 30, 2013).
178 | Chapter 6
Research Findings: Oral proficiency in English (including oral vocabulary, grammar, and listening comprehension) is critical for ELs
to develop proficiency in text-level English reading comprehension.
Word-identification skills are necessary, but not sufficient.
3. Students who have learning disabilities (as diagnosed separately from their EL designation)—
or whose literacy skills in either their native language or English remain below grade level after
intensive and extensive instruction—may need specialized literacy intervention services.
Foundational Literacy
chapter is on foundational literacy skills, instruction in these skills should be
integrated with instruction in reading comprehension and in content across
all disciplines, as emphasized in the CA ELD Standards. The organization and
content of the charts is described below.
First Column: Student Language and Literacy Characteristics
 This column outlines some general characteristics of ELs’ previous
experience with language and literacy—in both their native language
and in English—that need to be considered when teachers determine
which foundational literacy skills a student may need to develop. These
characteristics are:
Oral Skills: Spoken English proficiency
Print Skills: Native language literacy; reading and writing skills in a
language with a non-alphabetic, non-Latin alphabetic, or Latin alphabetic writing system
Second Column: Considerations for Foundational Literacy Skills
Instruction
 This column describes considerations for foundational literacy skills
Alignment Charts for Foundational Literacy Skills
in English Language Development and the CA
CCSS for ELA/Literacy — the Reading Standards
for Foundational Skills
The charts presented in this chapter outline general guidance for providing
instruction to ELs on foundational literacy skills that are aligned with the RF
Standards. This guidance is intended to provide a general overview; it does not
address the full set of potential individual characteristics of ELs that need to be
taken into consideration in foundational literacy skills instruction (e.g., students
who have changed schools or programs frequently, or who have interrupted
schooling in either their native language or English). While the focus of this
Foundational Literacy
instruction when the characteristics in the first column are known. Considerations include the foundational literacy skills that a student with particular language or literacy characteristics may need to learn, and the native
language literacy skills the student may be able to transfer to facilitate
developing English literacy.
Third Column: California Common Core State Standards for
ELA/Literacy, the Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
 This column shows the set of RF Standards for each elementary-grade
level and all secondary-grade levels that a student requiring instruction in
English foundational literacy skills will need to achieve in order to reach
proficiency in English literacy, along with intensive and extensive oral
English vocabulary learning.
Chapter 6 | 179
 Since the RF Standards address expectations for students in kindergarten
through grade 5 who start at kindergarten and continue to develop these
skills as they progress through the grade levels, it will be necessary to
adapt the RF Standards for ELs who need foundational English literacy
skills after kindergarten, based on the students’ age, cognitive abilities,
and life and school experiences, including their level of oral language and
literacy proficiency in their native language.
Table 6.1 Kindergarten
Student Language and
Literacy Characteristics
Oral Skills
No or little spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in recognizing and distinguishing the
sounds of English as compared or contrasted with sounds in their
native language (e.g., vowels, consonants, consonant blends,
syllable structures).
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
Phonological Awareness
2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables,
and sounds (phonemes).
 RF.K.2
Spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge of the
English sound system to foundational literacy learning.
No or little native language literacy
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic
Students will be familiar with print concepts and will need instruction
features of print.
in learning the Latin alphabet for English, as compared or contrasted
 RF.K.1
with their native language writing system (e.g., direction of print,
symbols representing whole words, syllables or phonemes).
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge of print
skills in decoding words both in isolation and in text. CA
concepts, phonics, and word recognition to the English writing
system, as compared or contrasted with their native language
 RF.K.3
alphabet (e.g., letters that are the same or different, or represent
Fluency
the same or different sounds) and native language vocabulary
4. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and
(e.g., cognates) and sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb-object
understanding.
versus subject-object-verb word order).
 RF.K.4
Some foundational literacy proficiency in
a language not using the Latin alphabet
(e.g., Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Russian)
Print Skills
Considerations for Foundational
Literacy Skills Instruction
Some foundational literacy proficiency in
a language using the Latin alphabet (e.g.,
Spanish)
180 | Chapter 6
Students will need instruction in print concepts.
Foundational Literacy
Elementary Level: Grades 1–5
As noted at the beginning of this chapter, foundational literacy skills are the
same for all students who need to learn basic literacy skills, including students
who begin learning literacy skills after kindergarten. However, the way the skills
are taught and how quickly the students can be expected to acquire the basic
skills and move on to higher-level reading and writing depend on their age,
cognitive level, and previous oral and written literacy experiences in their native
language and in English. Since the RF Standards are intended to guide instruction for students in kindergarten through grade 5, these standards need to be
adapted—using appropriate instructional strategies and materials—to meet the
particular pedagogical and literacy needs of ELs who begin learning literacy
skills after kindergarten and addressing the need to teach foundational literacy
skills in an accelerated time frame.41In particular, the curriculum will need to be
flexible so that it can address the different profiles of upper-elementary
students needing foundational literacy skills instruction. Considerations
contributing to the variety of student profiles include:
 Native language writing system (for students with written literacy knowl-
edge in their native language). The more closely the student’s native
language writing system and English are related, the more students can
apply knowledge of similarities of print or alphabetic features in the two
languages to learning to read and write with the English alphabet, such as
sound–letter correspondences or direction of print.
 Previous experiences with school or school programs. Students’ previous
schooling experiences in both the native language and English may affect
their proficiency and progress related to all of the above. The extent of
time and consistency of school attendance, as well as of instructional
setting and services (e.g., structured English immersion with or without
native language support; 90/10 or 50/50 dual language immersion; earlyor late-exit transitional bilingual instruction; ELD pull-out) may affect a
student’s experiences with literacy learning and their needs for particular
literacy instruction.
 Oral proficiency (e.g., extent of vocabulary and knowledge of varied
grammatical structures) in English. Oral proficiency is the basis for written
literacy proficiency; literacy learning for students with higher levels of oral
language proficiency can be accelerated.
 Native language literacy, both oral and written: When effectively lever-
aged, oral and written literacy knowledge and abilities can transfer to the
acquisition of English literacy, accelerating the learning time.
 Similarity of native language to English. The more closely the student’s
native language and English are related, the more students can apply
knowledge of similarities in vocabulary and grammar in the two languages
to learning foundational literacy skills in English, such as spelling of familiar
words or determination of where a sentence starts and ends.
4. The forthcoming California ELA/ELD Framework will address in more detail the development
and application of a foundational literacy skills curriculum for elementary-level ELs who begin
literacy instruction after kindergarten.
Foundational Literacy
Chapter 6 | 181
Grade 1
Note: The Reading Standards for Foundational Skills from kindergarten need to be adapted to the student’s age, cognitive level, and educational experience.
Student Language and
Literacy Characteristics
Print Skills
Oral Skills
No or little spoken English proficiency
Considerations for Foundational
Literacy Skills Instruction
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
Students will need instruction in recognizing and distinguishing the sounds of English as compared or contrasted
with sounds in their native language (e.g., vowels,
consonants, consonant blends, syllable structures).
Phonological Awareness
2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds
(phonemes).
 RF.K.2
 RF.1.2
Spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge
of the English sound system to foundational literacy
learning.
No or little native language literacy
Students will need instruction in print concepts.
Some foundational literacy proficiency in
a language not using the Latin alphabet
(e.g., Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Russian)
Students will be familiar with print concepts and will need
instruction in learning the Latin alphabet for English, as
 RF.K.1
compared or contrasted with their native language writing
 RF.1.1
system (e.g., direction of print, symbols representing whole
words, syllables or phonemes).
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in
decoding words both in isolation and in text. CA
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge
of print concepts, phonics, and word recognition to the
 RF.K.3
English writing system, as compared or contrasted with
 RF.1.3
their native language alphabet (e.g., letters that are the
Fluency
same or different, or represent the same or different
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
sounds) and native language vocabulary (e.g., cognates)
and sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb-object versus
 RF.1.4
subject-object-verb word order).
Some foundational literacy proficiency in
a language using the Latin alphabet
(e.g., Spanish)
182 | Chapter 6
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of
print.
Foundational Literacy
Grade 2
Note: The Reading Standards for Foundational Skills from kindergarten and grade 1 need to be adapted to the student’s age, cognitive level, and educational experience.
Considerations for Foundational
Literacy Skills Instruction
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
No or little spoken English
proficiency
Students will need instruction in recognizing and distinPhonological Awareness
guishing the sounds of English as compared or contrasted 2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds
with sounds in their native language (e.g., vowels,
(phonemes).
consonants, consonant blends, syllable structures).
 RF.K.2
 RF.1.2
Spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge
of the English sound system to foundational literacy
learning.
Review of Phonological Awareness skills as needed.
No or little native language literacy
Students will need instruction in print concepts.
Foundational literacy proficiency
in a language not using the Latin
alphabet (e.g., Arabic, Chinese,
Korean, Russian)
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
Students will be familiar with print concepts and will need
 RF.K.1
instruction in learning the Latin alphabet for English, as
 RF.1.1
compared or contrasted with their native language writing
system (e.g., direction of print, symbols representing
Phonics and Word Recognition
whole words, syllables or phonemes) and native language 3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in
vocabulary (e.g., cognates) and sentence structure (e.g.,
decoding words both in isolation and in text. CA
subject-verb-object versus subject-object-verb word order).
 RF.K.3
 RF.1.3
 RF.2.3
Print Skills
Oral Skills
Student Language and
Literacy Characteristics
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.2.4
Foundational literacy proficiency
in a language using the Latin
alphabet (e.g., Spanish)
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge
of print concepts and phonics and word recognition to
the English writing system, as compared or contrasted
with their native language alphabet (e.g., letters that are
the same or different or represent the same or different
sounds) and native language vocabulary (e.g., cognates)
and sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb-object versus
subject-object-verb word order).
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in
decoding words both in isolation and in text. CA
 RF.K.3
 RF.1.3
 RF.2.3
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.2.4
Foundational Literacy
Chapter 6 | 183
Grade 3
Note: The Reading Standards for Foundational Skills from kindergarten through grade 2 need to be adapted to the student’s age, cognitive level, and educational experience.
Considerations for Foundational
Literacy Skills Instruction
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
No or little spoken English
proficiency
Students will need instruction in recognizing and distinPhonological Awareness
guishing the sounds of English as compared or contrasted 2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds
with sounds in their native language (e.g., vowels,
(phonemes).
consonants, consonant blends, syllable structures).
 RF.K.2
 RF.1.2
Spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge
of the English sound system to foundational literacy
learning.
Review of Phonological Awareness skills as needed.
No or little native language literacy
Students will need instruction in print concepts.
Foundational literacy proficiency
in a language not using the Latin
alphabet (e.g., Arabic, Chinese,
Korean, Russian)
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
Students will be familiar with print concepts and will need
 RF.K.1
instruction in learning the Latin alphabet for English, as
 RF.1.1
compared or contrasted with their native language writing
system (e.g., direction of print, symbols representing
Phonics and Word Recognition
whole words, syllables or phonemes) and native language 3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding
vocabulary (e.g., cognates) and sentence structure (e.g.,
words both in isolation and in text. CA
subject-verb-object versus subject-object-verb word order).
 RF.K.3
 RF.1.3
 RF.2.3
 RF.3.3
Print Skills
Oral Skills
Student Language and
Literacy Characteristics
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.3.4
Foundational literacy proficiency in
a language using the Latin alphabet
(e.g., Spanish)
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge
of print concepts, phonics and word recognition to the
English writing system, as compared or contrasted with
their native language alphabet (e.g., letters that are the
same or different or represent the same or different
sounds) and native language vocabulary (e.g., cognates)
and sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb-object versus
subject-object-verb word order).
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding
words both in isolation and in text. CA




RF.K.3
RF.1.3
RF.2.3
RF.3.3
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.3.4
184 | Chapter 6
Foundational Literacy
Grade 4
Note: The Reading Standards for Foundational Skills from kindergarten through grade 3 need to be adapted to the student’s age, cognitive level, and educational experience.
Considerations for Foundational
Literacy Skills Instruction
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
No or little spoken English
proficiency
Students will need instruction in recognizing and distin- Phonological Awareness
guishing the sounds of English as compared or contrast- 2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
ed with sounds in their native language (e.g., vowels,
 RF.K.2
consonants, consonant blends, syllable structures).
 RF.1.2
Spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in applying their
knowledge of the English sound system to literacy
foundational learning.
Review of Phonological Awareness skills as needed.
No or little native language
literacy
Students will need instruction in print concepts.
Foundational literacy proficiency
in a language not using the Latin
alphabet (e.g., Arabic, Chinese,
Korean, Russian)
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
 RF.K.1
 RF.1.1
Students will be familiar with print concepts and will
need instruction in learning the Latin alphabet for
English, as compared or contrasted with their native
Phonics and Word Recognition
language writing system (e.g., direction of print, symbols 3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
representing whole words, syllables or phonemes)
both in isolation and in text. CA
and native language vocabulary (e.g., cognates) and
 RF.K.3
sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb-object versus
 RF.1.3
subject-object-verb word order).
 RF.2.3
 RF.3.3
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
 RF.4.3
Print Skills
Oral Skills
Student Language and
Literacy Characteristics
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.4.4
Foundational literacy proficiency
in a language using the Latin
alphabet (e.g., Spanish)
Students will need instruction in applying their knowlPhonics and Word Recognition
edge of print concepts, phonics, and word recognition to 3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
the English writing system, as compared or contrasted
both in isolation and in text. CA
with their native language alphabet (e.g., letters that are
 RF.K.3
the same or different or represent the same or different
 RF.1.3
sounds) and native language vocabulary (e.g., cognates)
 RF.2.3
and sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb-object versus
 RF.3.3
subject-object-verb word order).
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
 RF.4.3
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.4.4
Foundational Literacy
Chapter 6 | 185
Grade 5
Note: The Reading Standards for Foundational Skills from kindergarten through grade 4 need to be adapted to the student’s age, cognitive level, and educational experience.
Considerations for Foundational
Literacy Skills Instruction
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
No or little spoken English
proficiency
Students will need instruction in recognizing and distinguishing the sounds of English as compared or contrasted
with sounds in their native language (e.g., vowels, consonants, consonant blends, syllable structures).
Phonological Awareness
2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
 RF.K.2
 RF.1.2
Spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge of
the English sound system to literacy foundational learning.
Review of Phonological Awareness skills as needed.
No or little native language
literacy
Students will need instruction in print concepts.
Foundational literacy proficiency in a language not
using the Latin alphabet (e.g.,
Arabic, Chinese, Korean,
Russian)
Students will be familiar with print concepts and will need
instruction in learning the Latin alphabet for English, as
compared or contrasted with their native language writing system (e.g., direction of print, symbols representing
whole words, syllables or phonemes) and native language
vocabulary (e.g., cognates) and sentence structure (e.g.,
subject-verb-object versus subject-object-verb word order).
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
 RF.K.1
 RF.1.1
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
both in isolation and in text. CA
 RF.K.3
 RF.1.3
 RF.2.3
 RF.3.3
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
 RF.4.3
 RF.5.3
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.5.4
Print Skills
Oral Skills
Student Language and
Literacy Characteristics
Foundational literacy profiStudents will need instruction in applying their knowledge
ciency in a language using the of print concepts, phonics, and word recognition to the EnLatin alphabet (e.g., Spanish) glish writing system, as compared or contrasted with their
native language alphabet (e.g., letters that are the same
or different or represent the same or different sounds) and
native language vocabulary (e.g., cognates) and sentence
structure (e.g., subject-verb-object versus subject-object-verb word order).
186 | Chapter 6
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
both in isolation and in text. CA
 RF.K.3
 RF.1.3
 RF.2.3
 RF.3.3
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
 RF.4.3
 RF.5.3
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.5.4
Foundational Literacy
Secondary Level: Grades 6–12
As noted in the beginning of this chapter, foundational literacy skills are the
same for all students who need to learn basic literacy skills, including secondary students. However, the way the skills are taught and how quickly the
students can be expected to acquire the basic skills and move on to higherlevel reading and writing depend on their age, cognitive level, and previous oral
and written literacy experiences in their native language and in English. Since
the RF Standards are intended to guide instruction for students in kindergarten
through grade 5, these standards need to be adapted—using appropriate
instructional strategies and materials—to meet the particular pedagogical and
literacy needs of ELs at the secondary level and in an accelerated time frame.51
In particular, the curriculum will need to be flexible so that it can address the
different profiles of secondary students needing foundational literacy skills
instruction. Considerations contributing to the variety of student profiles
include:
 Native language writing system (for students with written literacy
knowledge in their native language). The more closely the student’s native
language writing system and English are related, the more students can
apply knowledge of similarities of print or alphabetic features in the two
languages to learning to read and write with the English alphabet, such as
sound–letter correspondences or direction of print.
 Previous experiences with school or school programs. Students’ previ-
ous schooling experiences in both the native language and English may
affect their proficiency and progress related to all of the above. The extent
of time and consistency of school attendance, as well as of instructional
setting and services (e.g., structured English immersion with or without
native language support; 90/10 or 50/50 dual language immersion; earlyor late-exit transitional bilingual instruction ELD pull-out) may affect a
student’s experiences with literacy learning and their needs for particular
literacy instruction.
 Oral proficiency (e.g., extent of vocabulary and knowledge of varied
grammatical structures) in English. Oral proficiency is the basis for written
literacy proficiency; literacy learning for students with higher levels of oral
language proficiency can be accelerated.
 Native language literacy, both oral and written. When effectively lever-
aged, oral and written literacy knowledge and abilities can transfer to the
acquisition of English literacy, accelerating the learning time.
 Similarity of native language to English. The more closely the student’s
native language and English are related, the more students can apply
knowledge of similarities in vocabulary and grammar in the two languages
to learning foundational literacy skills in English, such as spelling of familiar
words or determination of where a sentence starts and ends.
5. The forthcoming California ELA/ELD Framework will address in more detail the development
and application of a foundational literacy skills curriculum for secondary-level ELs.
Foundational Literacy
Chapter 6 | 187
Grades 6–12
Note: The Reading Standards for Foundational Skills from kindergarten through grade 5 need to be adapted to the student’s age, cognitive level, and educational experience.
Considerations for Foundational
Literacy Skills Instruction
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
Reading Standards for Foundational Skills
Phonological Awareness
2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
 RF.K.2
 RF.1.2
No or little spoken English
proficiency
Students will need instruction in recognizing and distinguishing the sounds of English as compared or contrasted
with sounds in their native language (e.g., vowels,
consonants, consonant blends, syllable structures).
Spoken English proficiency
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge of Review of Phonological Awareness skills as needed.
the English sound system to literacy foundational learning.
No or little native language
literacy
Students will need instruction in print concepts.
Foundational literacy
proficiency in a language
not using the Latin alphabet
(e.g., Arabic, Chinese, Korean,
Russian)
Students will be familiar with print concepts and will need
instruction in learning the Latin alphabet for English, as
compared or contrasted with their native language writing
system (e.g., direction of print, symbols representing
whole words, syllables or phonemes) and native language
vocabulary (e.g., cognates) and sentence structure (e.g.,
subject-verb-object versus subject-object-verb word order).
Print Skills
Oral Skills
Student Language and
Literacy Characteristics
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
 RF.K.1
 RF.1.1
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
both in isolation and in text. CA
 RF.K.3
 RF.1.3
 RF.2.3
 RF.3.3
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
 RF.4.3
 RF.5.3
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
 RF.5.4 (at the 6–12 grade level)
Foundational literacy
proficiency in a language
using the Latin alphabet
(e.g., Spanish)
188 | Chapter 6
Students will need instruction in applying their knowledge
of print concepts, phonics, and word recognition to the
English writing system, as compared or contrasted with
their native language alphabet (e.g., letters that are the
same or different or represent the same or different
sounds) and native language vocabulary (e.g., cognates)
and sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb-object versus
subject-object-verb word order).
Review of Phonics and Word Recognition skills as needed.
Foundational Literacy
References
August, D., and T. Shanahan. 2006. Developing Literacy in Second-Language
Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority
Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
International Reading Association (IRA) and National Institute of Child Health
and Human Development (NICHD). 2007. Key Issues and Questions in
English Language Learners Literacy Research. http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/
files/rcd/BE023800/Key_Issues_and_Questions.pdf (accessed October
30, 2013).
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). 2000.
Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific
Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction (Report of the National Reading Panel, NIH Publication No. 00-4769).
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Foundational Literacy
Riches, C., and F. Genesee. 2006. “Literacy: Crosslinguistic and Crossmodal
Issues.” In Educating English Language Learners: A Synthesis of Research
Evidence, edited by F. Genesee, K. Lindholm Leary, W. Saunders, and D.
Christian, 64–108. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Roessingh, H., and S. Elgie. 2009. “Early Language and Literacy Development
Among Young English Language Learners: Preliminary Insights from a Longitudinal Study.” TESL Canada Journal 26 (2): 24–45.
Short, D., and S. Fitzsimmons. 2007. Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English
Language Learners. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Torgesen, J. K., D. D. Houston, L. M. Rissman, S. M. Decker, G. Roberts, S.
Vaughn, J. Wexler, D. J. Francis, M. O. Rivera, and N. Lesaux. 2007. Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance Document from the
Center on Instruction. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center
on Instruction.
Chapter 6 | 189
Glossary of Key Terms
This glossary provides definitions of key terms used in the California English
Language Development Standards (CA ELD Standards) and in related chapters.
Many of these terms derive from traditional grammar and from linguistics, and
some have evolved in their meaning or have different meanings that vary by
linguistic tradition. The definitions provided here are intended to be teacherfriendly and are specific to use within the CA ELD Standards and related
chapters.
adjectives and adjective phrases. Adjectives provide details about (or modify)
nouns or pronouns. For example, adjectives such as appalling, obnoxious,
desperate, alluring, and pleasant allow speakers and writers to add nuance and
precision to a description of a person or thing. An adjective can be made even
more precise by adding pre- or post-modifiers, as shown in the following table:1
Adjective phrase
Pre-modifier
She was
Head adjective
Post-modifier
quite
distraught.
even more
distraught
than yesterday.
so
distraught
that she couldn’t eat.
adverbs. Adverbs add detail to (or modify) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
about when, where, why, or the conditions under which something happens or
happened. Examples are shown below (the adverb is in boldface, and the word
that it modifies is italicized).
Sentence with adverb
Word modified
He ate his dinner slowly.
Verb
It was a very graceful gesture.
Adjective
She moved extremely quickly across the room.
Adverb
clause. A clause is a unit of meaning that expresses a message. A clause
always contains a verb (e.g., go) and is usually accompanied by a subject noun
or noun phrase (e.g., She went). A clause may be independent or dependent.

independent clause (also known as the main clause). A clause that contains a complete idea and can stand alone (independently) as a complete
sentence. For example:
The bees swarmed in the attic.
I couldn’t hear anything.
Note: In addition to the terminology found in the glossary, the terms listed below were referenced where relevant in the CA ELD Standards, but are not summarized here. Appendix A (NGA
Center for Best Practices and CCSSO 2010, referenced in chapter 5) provides extensive and
detailed explanations and elaboration of these terms: text complexity, Reading Foundational
Skills, text types: argument (informational/explanatory writing and narrative writing), oral
language development, conventions and knowledge of language, and acquiring vocabulary.
190 | Glossary
Two independent clauses can be combined to form a compound sentence
by using a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet). For
example:
The bees swarmed in the attic, but I couldn’t hear anything.

dependent clause (also known as a subordinate clause). A clause
that is dependent on the independent (or main) clause for its meaning
and therefore cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. Dependent
clauses are formed in several different ways. Two examples are
provided below.
Use of a subordinating conjunction. A subordinating conjunction
(e.g., because, although, if) introduces a dependent (or subordinate)
clause. Different kinds of subordinating conjunctions create different
types of relationships between the clauses. In the first example below,
the relationship is one of cause. In the second example, the relationship is one of concession. The dependent clauses are italicized, and
the subordinating conjunctions are in boldface.
Because they were hungry, the horses ate all the hay.
Although she loves to swim, she decided not to go to the pool
today.
connecting words and phrases. Connecting words and phrases signal how
different parts of a text are linked. In narratives and other text types organized
by time or sequences of events, temporal connectives (e.g., first, next, after
awhile, the next day) are often used. In text types organized around ideas,
such as arguments and explanations, connectives may be used in various ways
to show relationships between ideas (e.g., on the contrary, for example); to
organize events or sequence ideas (e.g., previously, until that time, first of all,
to conclude); or to add information (e.g., in addition, furthermore).
context. Context refers to the environment in which language is used, including
content area, topic, audience, text type, and mode of communication.
modality. Modality refers to the degree of ability, necessity, obligation, prohibition, certainty, or possibility of an action or situation. Understanding of modality
allows speakers and writers to temper statements, give information about the
degree of obligation or certainty of a situation or idea, or express the degree to
which we are willing to entertain other possibilities may be considered.
Use of a relative pronoun. A relative pronoun (e.g., that, who, whom,
which, whose) introduces a relative clause (a type of embedded
clause also called an adjective clause). Sometimes, the relative
pronoun is omitted. In the following examples, the dependent clause is
italicized, and the relative pronoun is in boldface. Words that can be
omitted are in brackets.
Butterflies are winged insects that undergo complete metamorphosis.
He’s the teacher who changed my life.
Serotonin is a natural neurotransmitter [that is] produced in
the human body.
cohesion. Cohesion refers to how information is connected and flows in a text.
A cohesive text is created through a variety of cohesive devices that facilitate
understanding across the text or discourse. One device is to refer back to
people, ideas, or things with pronouns or synonyms throughout a text so as not
to be repetitive (e.g., replacing the first settlers with they). Another is to link
clauses, sentences, and larger chunks of text with conjunctions, such as transition words (e.g., in contrast, consequently, next).
modal adverb. High-modality adverbs include definitely, absolutely, and
certainly. Medium-modality adverbs include probably and apparently.
Low-modality adverbs include possibly, perhaps, and maybe.
modal auxiliary. High-modality auxiliaries include must and will. Mediummodality auxiliaries include should and need to. Low-modality auxiliaries
include could and might.
mood. There are a variety of ways to structure messages into statements,
questions, commands, and so on, depending on the relationship between the
speakers and listeners or the writers and readers. Examples of some of the
main sentence types identified by mood follow.

Declarative (statements):
Bats are mammals.
Once upon a time, there was a little girl who loved books.
You’re impossible to live with.
Glossary | 191

Interrogative (questions):
prepositions and prepositional phrases. A preposition (e.g., to, of, with, at, in,
over, through) combines with a noun or noun phrase to form a prepositional
phrase. Prepositional phrases provide more information or specific details
about people, things, ideas, activities, or events in a sentence. Specifically,
they enable a writer or speaker to add detail about where things are, why things
occur, or how things are in comparison to other things. Prepositional phrases
can be used to locate something in space or time (e.g., under the table, on the
moon); to show reason (e.g., due to the rain), purpose (e.g., for tomorrow), or
comparison (e.g., like a dog); or to specify which thing is referenced (e.g., the
lady with the blue hat).
How do you solve this problem?
What’s your name?
Why are you here?

Imperative (commands):
Don’t you ever do that again!
Put that over there, please.

Subjunctive (expressing wishes, desires, or suggestions):
I wish I were younger.
If I were you, I wouldn’t boast so loudly.
It is necessary that I be allowed to participate in this event.
nominalization. Nominalization is the process of creating a noun or noun
phrase from another part of speech or condensing large amounts of information
(e.g., an event or concept) into a noun or noun phrase. Often, a verb or verb
phrase is nominalized (e.g., They destroyed the rain forest. The destruction
of the rain forest), though adjectives are nominalized as well (e.g., strong
strength; different difference). Nominalization can also collapse a clause or
even multiple clauses at once. For example, in conversational language, a student might say, “The ranchers came to the rain forest, and they cut down all the
trees. The next year, the rain flooded many areas of the rain forest.” With nominalization, these three clauses can be collapsed into one clause: “The arrival of
the ranchers and the clearing of the rainforest led to widespread flooding.”
nouns and noun phrases. Nouns and noun phrases represent people, places,
things, or ideas. A noun phrase includes a noun (e.g., ball) plus its modifiers,
including articles (e.g., the ball) and adjectives (e.g., the blue ball).
expanding noun phrases. More detail can be added to nouns by expanding the noun phrase with pre- and post-modifiers (words that come before
and after the head noun). In the following example, the head noun is in
boldface, and modifiers are added incrementally:
frog That frog That green frog That fat green frog
green frog That very fat green frog on the rock
192 | Glossary
That very fat
register. Register refers to variation in the vocabulary, grammar, and discourse
of a language to meet the expectations of a particular context. A context can
be defined by numerous elements, such as audience, task, purpose, setting,
social relationship, and mode of communication (written versus spoken).
Specific examples of contextual variables are the nature of the communicative
activity (e.g., talking with someone about a movie, persuading someone in a
debate, or writing a science report); the nature of the relationship between the
language users in the activity (e.g., friend-to-friend, expert-to-learner); the subject matter and topic (e.g., photosynthesis in science, the Civil War in history);
and the medium through which a message is conveyed (e.g., a text message
versus an essay).
scaffolding.*2 Scaffolding is temporary guidance or assistance provided to
a student by a teacher, another adult, or a more capable peer, enabling
the student to perform a task he or she otherwise would not be able to do
alone, with the goal of fostering the student’s capacity to perform the task on
his or her own later on. (Though Vygotsky himself does not use the term
scaffolding, the educational meaning of the term relates closely to his
concept of the zone of proximal development. See L. S. Vygotsky [1978].
Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.)
*This definition, including the parenthetical note, is drawn directly from page 43 of Appendix A
(NGA Center for Best Practices and CCSSO [2010], referenced in chapter 5); see http://www.
corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf (accessed October 23, 2013).
See chapter 4, “Theoretical Foundations and the Research Base of the English
Language Development Standards,” for further explanation of scaffolding for
English learners.
sentences. There are four types of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and
compound–complex.
Simple sentences consist of a single independent clause. See the example
below (the independent clause is italicized, and the verb is in boldface):
Earthworms are invertebrates.
One interesting thing about earthworms is their regeneration
ability.
Compound sentences consist of two or more independent clauses connected with coordinating conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so). An example
is shown below (the independent clauses are in italics, and the verbs are in
boldface):
Earthworms have no legs, but they do have five hearts.
Complex sentences consist of one independent clause and one or more
dependent clauses connected with a subordinating conjunction (e.g.,
because, when, although). An example is shown below (the independent
clause is in boldface, and the dependent clauses are italicized):
If you want to graduate, you need to pass your classes.
Her first film was a huge success, although she’d never made
a movie before.
Compound–complex sentences consist of at least two independent
clauses and one or more dependent clauses. An example is shown below
(the independent clauses are in boldface, and the dependent clause is
italicized):
Although I’d love to go to the soccer game, I haven’t finished
my homework yet, and I also need to wash the dishes.
shades of meaning. Shades of meaning can be created by using various
language resources—including vocabulary, figurative language, phrasing, using
dependent clauses to begin sentences in order to emphasize something,
and so forth. For example, vocabulary can be used to evaluate (e.g., Misty
was a stubborn horse) or express degree or intensity (e.g., It’s very likely that
; It was an extremely gloomy room). In addition, phrases and clauses
can be used to create nuances or precision and to shape how the message will
be interpreted by readers or listeners. This often occurs at the beginning of
; Bizarrely, she interrupted
).
sentences (e.g., In my opinion,
As English learners progress through the grades, they learn to create shades of
meaning in increasingly sophisticated and subtle ways in order to cause a certain reaction in the reader (e.g., to build suspense or characterize a historical
figure) or to persuade readers to believe something or to take action.
verbs and verb phrases. Verbs are used to express happenings, doings, and
states of being. A verb phrase may consist of a single verb (e.g., She ran) or a
number of words (auxiliary verbs and other infinitive or participle constructions)
around the verb (e.g., She might have been running).
verb types. There are different types of verbs that create precision in texts.
The CA ELD Standards refer to four types of verbs:

Doing/action verbs (e.g., go, take, gather, abandon)

Saying verbs (e.g., ask, say, suggest, explain, promise)

Being/having verbs (e.g., am/is/are, seem, appear, symbolize, have,
include)

Thinking/feeling verbs (e.g., know, decide, dislike, smell)
verb tenses. Verb tenses (present, past, future, simple, progressive, and
perfect) help to convey time relationships, status of completion, or habitualness of an activity, or state denoted by the verb (e.g., she ran yesterday;
she runs every day; she will run tomorrow; she has been running since
she was in college).
Glossary | 193
vocabulary. The CA ELD Standards and the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy define
three categories of vocabulary.
1. Domain-specific vocabulary. Vocabulary that is specific to a particular
discipline (field of study, or domain). Domain-specific words and phrases
carry content meaning (e.g., lava, hypotenuse, chromosome, democratic,
stanza).
2. General academic vocabulary. Vocabulary that is found across text types,
particularly in written texts, that provides more nuanced or sophisticated
ways of expressing meaning than everyday language (e.g., devastation,
reluctance, significantly, misfortune, specificity).
3. Conversational vocabulary. The vocabulary of everyday interaction
(e.g., run, table, friend). This is also referred to as frequently occurring
vocabulary or everyday vocabulary.
194 | Glossary
voice (active and passive). In addition to verb types and tenses, sentences
can be structured in the active voice (He told the children to do their best) or
the passive voice (The children were told to do their best).
There are a number of reasons to choose the passive voice over the active
voice. One reason often seen in academic texts is to suppress the human
agents in an event, discovery, and so on, either because the event or discovery
is important or because the speaker or writer does not wish to reveal who is
responsible for certain acts. For example:
The discovery that “junk DNA” actually plays critical roles in controlling cell, tissue, and organ behavior was first made last year.
(Here, the scientists who made the discovery are not as important as
the discovery.)
Mistakes were made.
(A conscious effort was made to conceal the identities of the people
who made the mistakes.)
12-010 PR13-0018 11-14 5,000
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