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Red Hat Network
Satellite 5.4
Installation Guide
Red Hat Network Satellite
Installation Guide
Red Hat Network Satellite 5.4 Installation Guide
Red Hat Network Satellite
Edition 1
Copyright © 2010 Red Hat, Inc.
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Phone: 888 733 4281
Fax: +1 919 754 3701
Welcome to the RHN Satellite Installation Guide.
1. Introduction
1.1. Red Hat Network .........................................................................................................
1.2. RHN Satellite ...............................................................................................................
1.3. Terms to Understand ....................................................................................................
1.4. How it Works ...............................................................................................................
1.5. Summary of Steps .......................................................................................................
1.6. Upgrades .....................................................................................................................
1.6.1. Satellite Certificate .............................................................................................
1.6.2. Satellite Upgrade Documentation Package (rhn-upgrade) .................................
1.6.3. New Installation ISO ..........................................................................................
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2. Requirements
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2.1. Software Requirements ................................................................................................ 9
2.2. Hardware Requirements ............................................................................................. 10
2.2.1. x86 and x86_64 Hardware Requirements .......................................................... 10
2.2.2. s/390 Hardware Requirements ......................................................................... 11
2.2.3. Additional Requirements .................................................................................. 12
2.3. Database Requirements ............................................................................................. 12
2.4. Additional Requirements ............................................................................................. 14
3. Example Topologies
3.1. Single Satellite Topology ............................................................................................
3.2. Multiple Satellite Horizontally Tiered Topology ..............................................................
3.3. Satellite-Proxy Vertically Tiered Topology ....................................................................
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4. Installation
4.1. Base Install ................................................................................................................
4.2. RHN Satellite Installation Program ...........................................................................
4.2.1. Options to the Satellite Installation Program ......................................................
4.3. Automated RHN Satellite Server Installation .................................................................
4.4. Installing Satellite behind an HTTP Proxy ....................................................................
4.5. Sendmail Configuration ...............................................................................................
4.6. MySQL Installation .....................................................................................................
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5. Entitlements
5.1. Receiving the Certificate .............................................................................................
5.2. Uploading the RHN Entitlement Certificate ...................................................................
5.3. Managing the RHN Certificate with RHN Satellite Activate ..........................................
5.3.1. Command Line Entitlement Options ..................................................................
5.3.2. Activating the Satellite ......................................................................................
5.4. Satellite Entitlement Certificate Expiration ....................................................................
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6. Importing and Synchronizing
6.1. Exporting with RHN Satellite Exporter ........................................................................
6.1.1. rhn-satellite-exporter ...........................................................................
6.1.2. Exporting .........................................................................................................
6.2. Importing with RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool ....................................................
6.2.1. satellite-sync ...........................................................................................
6.2.2. Preparing for Import from Local Media ..............................................................
6.2.3. Running the Import ..........................................................................................
6.3. Synchronizing .............................................................................................................
6.3.1. Synchronizing Errata and Packages Directly via RHN ........................................
6.3.2. Synchronizing Errata and Packages via Local Media ..........................................
6.4. Inter-Satellite Sync .....................................................................................................
6.4.1. Recommended Models for Inter-Satellite Sync ...................................................
6.4.2. Configuring the Master RHN Satellite Server .....................................................
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Installation Guide
6.4.3. Configuring the Slave RHN Satellite Servers .....................................................
6.5. Using Inter-Satellite Sync ............................................................................................
6.5.1. Syncing between a Development Staging Server and a Production Satellite .........
6.5.2. Bi-directional sync ............................................................................................
6.6. Synchronizing by Organization ....................................................................................
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7. Troubleshooting
7.1. Gathering information with spacewalk-report ..........................................................
7.2. Log Files ....................................................................................................................
7.3. General Problems ......................................................................................................
7.4. Host Not Found/Could Not Determine FQDN ...............................................................
7.5. Connection Errors ......................................................................................................
7.6. SELinux Issues ..........................................................................................................
7.7. Updated Software Components ...................................................................................
7.8. Satellite Debugging by Red Hat ..................................................................................
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8. Maintenance
8.1. Managing the Satellite with rhn-satellite ..............................................................
8.2. Updating the Satellite .................................................................................................
8.3. Backing Up the Satellite .............................................................................................
8.4. Using RHN DB Control ..............................................................................................
8.4.1. DB Control Options ..........................................................................................
8.4.2. Backing up the Database .................................................................................
8.4.3. Verifying the Backup ........................................................................................
8.4.4. Restoring the Database ...................................................................................
8.5. Cloning the Satellite with Embedded DB ......................................................................
8.6. Establishing Redundant Satellites with Stand-Alone DB ................................................
8.7. Changing the Satellite Hostname ................................................................................
8.8. Conducting Satellite-Specific Tasks .............................................................................
8.8.1. Using the Tools menu .....................................................................................
8.8.2. Deleting Users .................................................................................................
8.8.3. Configuring Satellite Search .............................................................................
8.9. Automating Synchronization ........................................................................................
8.10. Implementing PAM Authentication .............................................................................
8.11. Enabling Push to Clients ...........................................................................................
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A. Sample RHN Satellite Configuration File
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B. Revision History
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Index
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Chapter 1.
Introduction
RHN Satellite provides a solution to organizations requiring absolute control over and privacy of the
maintenance and package deployment of their servers. It allows Red Hat Network customers the
greatest flexibility and power in keeping servers secure and updated.
Two types of RHN Satellite are available: One with a stand-alone database on a separate machine
and one with an embedded database installed on the same machine as the Satellite. This guide
describes the installation of both types of Satellite.
Although the two types of RHN Satellite are functionally similar, some differences do exist. These
variations are primarily isolated to hardware requirements, installation steps, and maintenance
activities. They may also appear during troubleshooting. This guide identifies distinctions between
the Satellite types by marking the differing instructions as either Stand-Alone Database or Embedded
Database.
1.1. Red Hat Network
Red Hat Network (RHN) is the environment for system-level support and management of Red
Hat systems and networks of systems. Red Hat Network brings together the tools, services, and
information repositories needed to maximize the reliability, security, and performance of their systems.
To use RHN, system administrators register the software and hardware profiles, known as System
Profiles, of their client systems with Red Hat Network. When a client system requests package
updates, only the applicable packages for the client are returned (based upon the software profile
stored on the RHN Servers).
Advantages of using Red Hat Network include:
• Scalability — with Red Hat Network, a single system administrator can set up and maintain
hundreds or thousands of Red Hat systems more easily, accurately, and quickly than they could
maintain a single system without Red Hat Network.
• Standard Protocols — standard protocols are used to maintain security and increase capability. For
example, XML-RPC gives Red Hat Network the ability to do much more than merely download files.
• Security — all communication between registered systems and Red Hat Network takes place over
secure Internet connections.
• View Errata Alerts — easily view Errata Alerts for all your client systems through one website.
• Scheduled Actions — use the website to schedule actions, including Errata Updates, package
installs, and software profile updates.
• Simplification — maintaining Red Hat systems becomes a simple, automated process.
1.2. RHN Satellite
RHN Satellite allows organizations to utilize the benefits of Red Hat Network without having to provide
public Internet access to their servers or other client systems. System Profiles are stored locally on the
customer's RHN Satellite. The Red Hat Network website is served from a local Web server and is not
accessible from the Internet. All package management tasks, including Errata Updates, are performed
through the local area network.
Advantages of using RHN Satellite include:
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Chapter 1. Introduction
• Security — an end-to-end secure connection is maintained from the client systems to the RHN
Satellite without connecting to the public Internet.
• Efficiency — packages are delivered significantly faster over a local area network.
• Control — clients' System Profiles are stored on the local RHN Satellite, not on the central Red Hat
Network Servers.
• Customized updates — create a truly automated package delivery system for custom software
packages required by client systems, as well as Red Hat packages. Custom channels allow finegrained control of the delivery of custom packages.
• Access control — system administrators can be restricted to access only those systems within their
maintenance responsibilities.
• Bandwidth management — the bandwidth used for transactions between the clients and the RHN
Satellite is controlled by the organization on the local area network; RHN Satellite clients do not
have to compete with other clients accessing the central Red Hat Network file servers.
• Scalability — RHN Satellite may oversee an entire organization's servers in combination with RHN
Proxy Server.
1.3. Terms to Understand
Before understanding RHN Satellite, it is important to become familiar with the following Red Hat
Network terms:
• Channel — A Channel is a list of software packages. There are two types of channels: base
channels and child channels. A base channel consists of a list of packages based on a specific
architecture and Red Hat release. A child channel is a channel associated with a base channel that
contains extra packages.
• Organization Administrator — An Organization Administrator is a user role with the highest level
of control over an organization's Red Hat Network account. Members of this role can add other
users, systems, and system groups to the organization as well as remove them. A Red Hat Network
organization must have at least one Organization Administrator.
• Channel Administrator — A Channel Administrator is a user role with full access to channel
management capabilities. Users with this role are capable of creating channels, assigning packages
to channels, cloning channels, and deleting channels. This role can be assigned by an Organization
Administrator through the Users tab of the RHN website.
• Certificate Authority — A Certificate Authority distributes digital signatures to users as part of public
key infrastructure for encrypted authentication and communication.
• Red Hat Update Agent — The Red Hat Update Agent is the Red Hat Network client application
that allows users to retrieve and install new or updated packages for the client system on which
the application is run. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 users, use the yum command; for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4 and lower, use the up2date command.
•
Traceback — A Traceback is a detailed description of "what went wrong" that is useful for
troubleshooting the RHN Satellite. Tracebacks are automatically generated when a critical error
occurs and are mailed to the individual(s) designated in the RHN Satellite's configuration file.
For more detailed explanations of these terms and others, refer to the Red Hat Network Reference
Guide.
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How it Works
1.4. How it Works
RHN Satellite consists of the following components:
• Database — for the Stand-Alone Database, this may be the organization's existing database or,
preferably, a separate machine. RHN Satellite supports Oracle Database 10g Release 2, Standard
or Enterprise Edition. For the Embedded Database, the database comes bundled with RHN Satellite
and is installed on the same machine as the Satellite during the installation process.
•
RHN Satellite — core "business logic" and entry point for Red Hat Update Agent running on client
systems. The RHN Satellite also includes an Apache HTTP Server (serving XML-RPC requests).
• RHN Satellite Web interface — advanced system, system group, user, and channel management
interface.
• RPM Repository — package repository for Red Hat RPM packages and custom RPM packages
identified by the organization.
• Management Tools:
• Database and file system synchronization tools
• RPM importing tools
• Channel maintenance tools (Web-based)
• Errata management tools (Web-based)
• User management tools (Web-based)
• Client system and system grouping tools (Web-based)
• Red Hat Update Agent on the client systems
The Red Hat Update Agent on the client systems must be reconfigured to retrieve updates from the
organization's internal RHN Satellite instead of the central Red Hat Network Servers. After this onetime reconfiguration, client systems may retrieve updates locally using the Red Hat Update Agent, or
system administrators may schedule actions through the RHN Satellite website.
Important
Red Hat strongly recommends that clients connected to RHN Satellite be running the latest
update of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to ensure proper connectivity.
When a client requests updates, the organization's internal RHN Satellite queries its database,
authenticates the client system, identifies the updated packages available for the client system, and
sends the requested RPMs back to the client system. Depending upon the client's preferences, the
package may also be installed. If the packages are installed, the client system sends an updated
package profile to the database on the RHN Satellite; those packages are removed from the list of
outdated packages for the client.
The organization can configure the website for the RHN Satellite to be accessible from the local area
network only or from both the local area network and the Internet. The Satellite's version of the RHN
website allows full control over client systems, system groups, and users.
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Chapter 1. Introduction
The RHN Satellite management tools are used to synchronize the RHN Satellite database and
package repository with Red Hat Network. The RHN Satellite import tool allows the system
administrator to include custom RPM packages in the package repository.
RHN Satellite can be used in conjunction with RHN Proxy Server to deliver a distributed, selfcontained Red Hat Network deployment for the organization. For example, an organization can
maintain one RHN Satellite in a secure location. Red Hat systems with local network access to the
RHN Satellite can connect to it. Other remote offices can maintain RHN Proxy Server installations that
connect to the RHN Satellite. The different locations inside the organization must be networked, but
this can be a private network; an Internet connection is not required for any of the systems. Refer to
the RHN Proxy Server Installation Guide for more information.
Figure 1.1. Using RHN Satellite and RHN Proxy Server Together
1.5. Summary of Steps
Implementing a fully functional RHN Satellite requires more than installing software and a database.
Client systems must be configured to use the Satellite. Custom packages and channels should be
created for optimal use. Since these tasks extend beyond the basic installation, they are covered in
detail in other guides, as well as this RHN Satellite Installation Guide. For a full list of the necessary
technical documents, refer to Chapter 2, Requirements.
For this reason, this section seeks to provide a definitive list of all required and recommended steps,
from evaluation through custom package deployment. They should take place in roughly this order:
1. After an evaluation, you contact your Red Hat sales representative to purchase RHN Satellite.
2. Your Red Hat contact sends you an RHN Entitlement Certificate via email.
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Upgrades
3. Your Red Hat contact creates a Satellite-entitled account on the RHN website and sends you the
login information.
4. Log into the RHN website (rhn.redhat.com) and download the distribution ISOs for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux AS 4 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and RHN Satellite. These can be found within
the Downloads tab of the respective Channel Details pages. Refer to the RHN Reference Guide
for instructions.
5. While still logged into the RHN website, download the Channel Content ISOs to be served by your
Satellite, also available through the Downloads tab of your Satellite's Channel Details page.
These Channel Content ISOs differ from the distribution ISOs previously mentioned in that they
contain metadata necessary for parsing and serving packages by Satellite.
6. If installing a Stand-Alone Database, prepare your database instance using the formula provided
in Chapter 2, Requirements.
7. Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux and then RHN Satellite on the Satellite machine.
8. Create the first user account on the Satellite by opening the Satellite's hostname in a Web browser
and clicking Create Account. This will be the Satellite Administrator's (also referred to as the
Organization Administrator) account.
9. Use the RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool to import the channels and associated packages
into the Satellite.
10. Register a representative machine for each distribution type, or channel (such as Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4 or 5), to the Satellite.
11. Copy (using SCP) the rhn_register and up2date configuration files from the /etc/
sysconfig/rhn/ directory of each machine individually to the /pub/ directory on the Satellite.
The rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert-*.noarch.rpm will already be there.
12. Download and install from the Satellite the configuration files and rhn-org-trusted-sslcert-*.noarch.rpm on the remaining client systems of the same distribution type. Repeat this
and the previous step until all distribution types are complete.
13. Through the Satellite's website, create an Activation Key for each distribution aligned to
the appropriate base channel. At this point, system groups and child channels may also be
predefined.
14. Run the Activation Key from the command line (rhnreg_ks) of each client system. Note that this
step can be scripted to batch register and reconfigure all remaining client systems in a distribution.
15. Record all relevant usernames, passwords and other login information and store in multiple secure
places.
16. Now that the Satellite is populated with standard Red Hat channels and packages and all clients
are connected to it, you may begin creating and serving custom channels and packages. Once
the custom RPMs are developed, you can import them into the Satellite using RHN Push and add
custom channels in which to store them through the Satellite's website. Refer to the RHN Channel
Management Guide for details.
1.6. Upgrades
To upgrade a Satellite from one version to another, the following items are required:
• Satellite Certificate
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Chapter 1. Introduction
• Satellite Upgrade Documentation Package (rhn-upgrade)
• New Installation ISO
1.6.1. Satellite Certificate
To obtain a Satellite certificate, visit Red Hat support at http://support.redhat.com.
1.6.2. Satellite Upgrade Documentation Package (rhn-upgrade)
To install the rhn-upgrade package, ensure the satellite is registered to RHN and to the Red
Hat Network Satellite Channel, then using the package updating tool for your version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux to install the rhn-upgrade package with the following commmand (on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 and above):
yum install rhn-upgrade
For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 users, run the following command:
up2date rh-upgrade
You may also download the package directly from Red Hat Network by performing the following steps:
1. Log into the RHN Hosted web interface at https://rhn.redhat.com/.
2. Click the Channels tab.
3. Under Filter by Product Channel select Red Hat Network Products, then your current version
of RHN Satellite, and finally your Satellite server's architecture from the drop-down menus.
4. Press the Filter button.
5. Click to expand the Red Hat Enterprise Linux tree for your version of the base operating system.
6. Click the link in the Architecture column corresponding to Red Hat Network Satellite.
7. Click on the Packages subtab.
8. In the Filter by Package text box, type rhn-upgrade and press Go.
9. Click on the latest rhn-upgrade package release for the version of Satellite to which you are
upgrading.
10. Click the Download Package link.
11. Copy the package to the Satellite server.
12. On the Satellite server run the following command:
rpm -Uvh rhn-upgrade-version.rpm
1.6.3. New Installation ISO
This ISO can be downloaded by performing the following steps:
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New Installation ISO
1. Log into RHN
2. Click on Software Downloads on the left-hand side of the screen
3. Navigate to the version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are currently using
4. Click on the latest version of RHN Satellite
5. Then choose if you want the embedded Oracle Database ISO or the non-embedded version
Once you have followed all steps, refer to the instructions for a Satellite upgrade within the /etc/
sysconfig/rhn/satellite-upgrade/README file in the rhn-upgrade package.
Important
If you perform an upgrade from RHN Satellite 5.2 or previous to RHN Satellite 5.3 or newer,
be aware that kickstart files created in previous versions need to be updated to work on your
upgraded Satellite.
For example, if your RHN Satellite 5.2 kickstart file pointed to the following URL:
http://satellite.example.com/kickstart/dist/ks-rhel-i386-server-5
You must change the URL to the following once you have upgraded to RHN Satellite 5.3 or
newer:
http://satellite.example.com/ks/dist/ks-rhel-i386-server-5
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Chapter 2.
Requirements
These requirements must be met before installation.
2.1. Software Requirements
To perform an installation, the following software components must be available:
• Base operating system — RHN Satellite is supported with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. The
operating system can be installed from disc, local ISO image, kickstart, or any of the methods
supported by Red Hat. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations must provide the @Base package
group with no other package-set modifications, and without third-party configurations or software
that is not directly necessary for the direct operation of the server. This restriction includes
hardening or other non-Red Hat security software. If such software is required in your infrastructure,
you must first install and verify a complete working Satellite first, and then make a backup of the
system before adding any non-Red Hat software.
When installing a new RHN Satellite, it is recommended that the latest supported update to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is installed.
Satellite can be installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 in any virtualized environment supported by
Red Hat, including Xen, KVM, and VMware.
Note that for production deployments, we recommend that you deploy RHN Satellite as the sole
application running on the underlying physical hardware to avoid contention issues. Also, be aware
that functional support for virtualized environments does not always equal the performance of
running on physical hardware, so you may need to carefully consider your virtualized environment of
choice and any tuning guide lines recommended.
Note
Each purchased RHN Satellite product includes one supported instance of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Server. RHN Satellite must be installed on a fresh installation of Enterprise Linux
where RHN Satellite is the only application and service provided by the OS. Using the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux OS included with RHN Satellite to run other daemons, applications, or
services within your environment is not supported.
• RHN Satellite supports SELinux targeted policy in enforcing or permissive mode on Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 5. SELinux is a set of secure software policies that implement mandatory
access control to Red Hat Enterprise Linux and other operating systems. Users can have SELinux
in enforcing or permissive mode with the targeted policy set during installation of Proxy or
Satellite.
• Satellite installation disc or ISO — this contains the RHN Satellite Installation Program. All
packages required in order to suport the Program are installed automatically, and require no
intervention from the user.
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Chapter 2. Requirements
Note
Additional packages beyond @Base are required to install Red Hat Network Satellite. The
Satellite installer will prompt you to either install the listed packages or ask if you want it to
download the files from RHN. If your system is not registered to RHN, you should have the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation media available during the Satellite installation process to install
these additional packages as needed.
The files necessary for Satellite installation are listed in the rhelrpms file located in the
updates directory on the Satellite installation ISO image.
• Channel content — All software packages and data exported for all entitled Red Hat channels.
This content may be loaded directly on the Satellite after installation using the RHN Satellite
Synchronization Tool or obtained from your Red Hat representative if synchronization is not
possible, such as in a disconnected environment.
When installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 or later from CD or ISO image, there is no need to select
any package groups, only the base install is required. When installing either operating system via
kickstart, select the @ Base package group.
2.2. Hardware Requirements
RHN Satellite supports several hardware architectures. The following table illustrates the architecture
support for RHN Satellite on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
Table 2.1. RHN Satellite on Red Hat Enterprise Linux Architecture Support
RHEL Version
x86
x86_64
s390
s390x
RHEL 5
yes
yes
no
yes
2.2.1. x86 and x86_64 Hardware Requirements
The following table shows the required and recommended hardware configurations on the x86 and
x86_64 platform for the two types of RHN Satellite:
Table 2.2. Stand-Alone Database and Embedded Database Satellite Hardware Requirements
Stand-Alone Database
Embedded Database
Required - Intel Core processor, 2.4GHz, 512K
cache or equivalent
Required - Intel Core processor, 2.4GHz, 512K
cache or equivalent
Recommended - Intel multi-core processor,
2.4GHz dual processor, 512K cache or
equivalent
Recommended - Intel multi-core processor,
2.4GHz dual processor, 512K cache or
equivalent
Required - 2 GB of memory
Required - 2 GB of memory
Recommended - 8 GB of memory
Strongly recommended - 8 GB of memory
5 GB storage for base install of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux
5 GB storage for base install of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux
At least 30 GB storage per software channel
(including Base and child channels), in /var/
satellite/, configurable at install
At least 30 GB storage per software channel
(including Base and child channels), in /var/
satellite/, configurable at install
Recommended - an external SAN for more
reliable backups
Recommended - an external SAN for more
reliable backups
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s/390 Hardware Requirements
Stand-Alone Database
Embedded Database
12 GB storage for the database repository, in the
/rhnsat partition (local storage only)
Strongly recommended - a SCSI drive connected
to a level 5 RAID
Separate partition (or better, a separate set of
physical disks) for storing backups. This can be
any directory specifiable at backup time.
Beyond the space needed for Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and /var/satellite/, you
also need space for cache files generated when using Satellite, which get regenerated, as needed,
if deleted. These cache files are stored within /var/cache/rhn, and the storage needs of this
directory will vary greatly depending on the following factors:
• how many channels you sync or import from RHN or Channel dumps
• how many custom packages and channels you have
• Whether or not you are using Inter-Satellite Sync
As a guide, provide at least 10 GB of space for /var/cache/rhn/ on a Satellite server. For very
large Satellite deployments with numerous channels, packages, and using Inter Satellite Sync, your
usage could grow to as much as 100 GB of space for cache files in /var/cache/rhn.
The following hardware configuration is required for the Stand-Alone Database:
• Two processors
• 2 GB of memory
See Section 2.3, “Database Requirements” for instructions on estimating the tablespace of the
database and setting its environment variables.
Keep in mind, the frequency with which client systems connect to the Satellite is directly related to
load on the Apache Web server and the database. Reducing the default interval of four hours (or
240 minutes) as set in the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhnsd configuration file of the client systems
significantly increases the load on those components.
2.2.2. s/390 Hardware Requirements
For the s/390 mainframe platform, the following table shows the requirements and recommended
configurations for both standalone and embedded databases.
Table 2.3. Stand-Alone Database and Embedded Database Satellite Hardware Requirements for
s/390 Platform
Stand-Alone Database
Embedded Database
Required - 1 IFL, either in LPAR configuration or
shared through z/VM
Required - 1 IFL, either in LPAR configuration or
shared through z/VM
Recommended - 2+ IFLs on z9 or earlier, 1+ IFL
on z10
Recommended - 2+ IFLs on z9 or earlier, 1+ IFL
on z10
Required - 2 GB of storage (memory)
Required - 2 GB of storage (memory)
Recommended - 8 GB of memory
Recommended - 8 GB of memory
Required - 1 GB swap on ECKD DASD
Required - 1 GB swap on ECKD DASD
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Chapter 2. Requirements
Stand-Alone Database
Embedded Database
Recommended - 512 MB swap on VDISK + 1 GB Recommended - 512 MB swap on VDISK + 1 GB
swap on ECKD DASD
swap on ECKD DASD
Required - 1xMod3 ECKD DASD or ≥ 2 GB FCP
SCSI LUN for OS install
Required - 1xMod3 ECKD DASD or ≥ 2 GB FCP
SCSI LUN for OS install
Recommended - 1xMod9 ECKD DASD or ≥ 2
GB multipathed FCP SCSI LUN for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation
Recommended - 1xMod9 ECKD DASD or ≥ 2
GB multipathed FCP SCSI LUN for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation
Estimated 12 GB disk space for embedded
database
At least 30 GB storage per software channel
(including Base and child channels), in /var/
satellite/, configurable at install
Recommended - z/VM 5.3 or later
1
Recommended - VSWITCH or Hipersocket LAN
for high speed connections to guests
1
At least 30 GB storage per software channel
(including Base and child channels), in /var/
satellite/, configurable at install
Recommended - z/VM 5.3 or later
Recommended - VSWITCH or Hipersocket LAN
for high speed connections to guests
z/VM required for kickstart/provisioning of guests.
2.2.3. Additional Requirements
Additional hardware requirements include:
• The Stand-Alone Database must not run on the same server as the RHN Satellite.
• The package repository may be any large storage device easily and securely accessed by the
other components. The space requirements depend on the number of packages that will be stored.
Default Red Hat channels contain approximately 3 GB of packages each, and that size grows with
each synchronization; customers must also account for the space requirements of packages in their
own private channels. Whatever storage solution the customer chooses, its mount point may be
defined during the installation process.
If you are installing RHN Satellite with Embedded Database, skip to Section 2.4, “Additional
Requirements”.
2.3. Database Requirements
This section applies only to RHN Satellite with Stand-Alone Database as the requirements for
the Embedded Database are included in the Satellite machine's hardware requirements. Red Hat
supports RHN Satellite installations in conjunction with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 Standard and
Enterprise Edition or Oracle 11g. The Stand-Alone Database must not run on the same server as the
RHN Satellite.
A single 6 GB tablespace is recommended as more than sufficient for most installations. It is
possible for many customers to function with a smaller tablespace. An experienced Oracle database
administrator (DBA) will be necessary to assess sizing issues. The following formula should be used to
determine the required size of your database:
• 192 KB per client system
• 64 MB per channel
12
Database Requirements
For instance, an RHN Satellite containing 10 channels serving 10,000 systems would require 1.92 GB
for its clients and 640 MB for its channels. If custom channels are to be established for testing and
staging of packages, they must be included in this formula.
Keep in mind, the database storage needs may grow rapidly, depending upon the variance of the
following factors:
• The number of public Red Hat packages imported (typical: 5000)
• The number of private packages to be managed (typical: 500)
• The number of systems to be managed (typical: 1000)
• The number of packages installed on the average system (typical: 500)
Although you should be generous in your database sizing estimates, you must consider that size
affects the time to conduct backups and adds load to other system resources. If the database is
shared, its hardware and spacing are entirely dependent on what else is using it.
Additionally, block sizes must be a minimum of 8 KB for RHN Satellite to install properly.
The Oracle database should have a user assigned to RHN Satellite with full DDL and DML access to
that user's default tablespace. The user needs standard connection information for the database at the
time of installation.
The precise access levels required by the Oracle user are as follows:
• ALTER SESSION
• CREATE SEQUENCE
• CREATE SYNONYM
• CREATE TABLE
• CREATE VIEW
• CREATE PROCEDURE
• CREATE TRIGGER
• CREATE TYPE
• CREATE SESSION
Additional database requirements include:
• Security Identifier (SID)
• Listener Port
• Username
• UTF-8 character set
Two additional suggested recommendation for user's default tablespace include:
• Uniform Extent Size
• Auto Segment Space Management
13
Chapter 2. Requirements
Note
Ensure that the NLS/charset setting is set to "UTF8"' when using an external database, not
'AL32UTF8' or other charsets. Using other charsets may lead to problems later.
The disk layout on the database machine is independent of the RHN Satellite and entirely up to the
customer.
2.4. Additional Requirements
The following additional requirements must be met before the RHN Satellite installation:
• Full Access
Client systems need full network access to the RHN Satellite solution's services and ports.
•
Firewall Rules
RHN strongly recommends firewalling the RHN Satellite solution from the Internet. However, various
TCP ports must be opened on the Satellite, depending on your implementation of RHN Satellite:
Table 2.4. Ports to open on the Satellite
1
Port
Direction
Reason
67
Inbound
Open this port to configure the Satellite
system as a DHCP server for systems
requesting IP addresses.
69
Inbound
Open this port to configure Satellite as a
PXE server and allow installation and reinstallation of PXE-boot enabled systems.
80
Outbound
Satellite uses this port to reach RHN
80
Inbound
WebUI and client requests come in via
either http or https
443
Inbound
WebUI and client requests come in via
either http or https
443
Outbound
RHN Satellite uses this port to reach RHN
1
(unless running in a disconnected mode
for Satellite)
4545
Inbound/Outbound
RHN Satellite Monitoring makes
connections to rhnmd running on client
systems, if Monitoring is enabled and
probes are configured for registered
systems.
5222
Inbound
If you plan to push actions to client
systems
5269
Inbound/Outbound
If you push actions to or via an RHN
Proxy Server
RHN's list of hosts are as follows:rhn.redhat.com, xmlrpc.rhn.redhat.com, satellite.rhn.redhat.com, contentxmlrpc.rhn.redhat.com, content-web.rhn.redhat.com, and content-satellite.rhn.redhat.com
14
1
Additional Requirements
Note that Red Hat does not provide static IP addresses for RHN as the IP is subject to change. If you want to disable location
aware content, please review the Red Hat KnowledgeBase article at the following URL:
http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/docs/DOC-16881
•
Synchronized System Times
There is great time sensitivity when connecting to a Web server running SSL (Secure Sockets
Layer); it is imperative that the time settings on the clients and server be reasonably close together
so the SSL certificate does not expire before or during use. For this reason, Red Hat requires
the Satellite and all client systems to use Network Time Protocol (NTP). This also applies to the
separate database machine in RHN Satellite with Stand-Alone Database, which must also be set to
the same time zone as the Satellite.
• Setting System Language and Locale
You should properly set the UTF-8 encoding for your language and locale on your RHN Satellite
system via the /etc/sysconfig/i18n file. The LANG setting in the file must be in the following
format:
LANG="[language_TERRITORY].UTF-8"
The language and TERRITORY are entered as two-letter codes. For example if your language is
English and your locale is the United States, you set your LANG setting to en_US.UTF-8.
•
Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)
The system upon which the RHN Satellite will be installed must resolve its own FQDN properly. If
this is not the case, cookies will not work properly on the website.
Note
It is important that the hostname of a Satellite contains no uppercase letters. A hostname that
includes uppercase letters can cause jabberd to fail.
If, at any point, you need to change your Satellite hostname, refer to Section 8.7, “Changing
the Satellite Hostname”.
•
Functioning Domain Name Service (DNS)
For the RHN Satellite's domain name to be resolved by its clients, it and they must all be linked to a
working DNS server in the customer environment.
•
An Entitlement Certificate
The customer will receive, via email from the sales representative, a signed Entitlement Certificate
explaining the services provided by Red Hat through RHN Satellite. This certificate will be required
during the installation process.
15
Chapter 2. Requirements
If you do not have an Entitlement Certificate at installation time, contact Red Hat Global Support
Services at:
https://www.redhat.com/apps/support/
• A Red Hat Network Account
Customers who connect to the central Red Hat Network Servers to receive incremental updates
must have an external account with Red Hat Network. This account should be set up at the time of
purchase with the sales representative.
Warning
Do not subscribe your RHN Satellite to any of the following child channels available on RHN
Hosted:
• Red Hat Developer Suite
• Red Hat Application Server
• Red Hat Extras
Subscribing to these channels and updating your Satellite (such as by running yum on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 or 5 or up2date on earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux) may install
newer, incompatible versions of critical software components, causing the Satellite to fail.
• Backups of Login Information
It is imperative that customers keep track of all primary login information. For RHN Satellite, this
includes usernames and passwords for the Organization Administrator account on rhn.redhat.com,
the primary administrator account on the Satellite itself, SSL certificate generation, and database
connection (which also requires a SID, or net service name). Red Hat strongly recommends this
information be copied onto two separate floppy disks, printed out on paper, and stored in a fireproof
safe.
In addition to these requirements, it is recommended that the RHN Satellite be configured in the
following manner:
• The entire RHN Satellite solution should be protected by a firewall if the Satellite accesses or is
accessed via the Internet. An Internet connection is not required for RHN Satellites running in
completely disconnected environments. This feature instead uses Channel Content ISOs that can
be downloaded to a separate system to synchronize the Satellite with the central Red Hat Network
Servers. All other RHN Satellites should be synchronized directly over the Internet.
16
Additional Requirements
Note
If you are running a disconnected Satellite that is not registered to RHN Hosted the installation
program will note and return a list of any missing additional packages needed beyond @base
to be installed, then the installation program will exit. This allows you to install those packages.
You may want to use the installation ISO image or DVD media to create a repository for those
additional packages, and then rerun the Satellite installer.
• All unnecessary ports should be firewalled off. Client systems connect to RHN Satellite over ports
80, 443, and 4545 (if Monitoring is enabled). In addition, if you plan to enable the pushing of actions
from the Satellite to client systems, as described in Section 8.11, “Enabling Push to Clients”, you
must allow inbound connections on port 5222. Finally, if the Satellite will also push to an RHN Proxy
Server, you must also allow inbound connections on port 5269.
• No system components should be directly, publicly available. No user other than the system
administrators should have shell access to these machines.
•
•
•
All unnecessary services should be disabled using ntsysv or chkconfig.
The httpd service should be enabled.
If the Satellite serves Monitoring-entitled systems and you wish to acknowledge via email the
alert notifications you receive, you must configure sendmail to properly handle incoming mail as
described in Section 4.5, “Sendmail Configuration”.
Finally, you should have the following technical documents in hand for use in roughly this order:
1. The RHN Satellite Installation Guide — This guide, which you are now reading, provides the
essential steps necessary to get an RHN Satellite up and running.
2. The RHN Client Configuration Guide — This guide explains how to configure the systems to be
served by an RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite. (This will also likely require referencing The
RHN Reference Guide, which contains steps for registering and updating systems.)
3. The RHN Channel Management Guide — This guide identifies in great detail the recommended
methods for building custom packages, creating custom channels, and managing private Errata.
4. The RHN Reference Guide — This guide describes how to create RHN accounts, register and
update systems, and use the RHN website to its utmost potential. This guide will probably come in
handy throughout the installation and configuration process.
17
18
Chapter 3.
Example Topologies
The RHN Satellite can be configured in multiple ways. Select one method depending on the following
factors:
• The total number of client systems to be served by the RHN Satellite.
• The maximum number of clients expected to connect concurrently to the RHN Satellite.
• The number of custom packages and channels to be served by the RHN Satellite.
• The number of RHN Satellites being used in the customer environment.
• The number of RHN Proxy Servers being used in the customer environment.
The rest of this chapter describes possible configurations and explains their benefits.
3.1. Single Satellite Topology
The simplest configuration is to use a single RHN Satellite to serve your entire network. This
configuration is adequate to service a medium-size group of clients and network.
The disadvantage of using one RHN Satellite is that performance will be compromised as the number
of clients requesting packages grows.
Figure 3.1. Single Satellite Topology
3.2. Multiple Satellite Horizontally Tiered Topology
For very large networks, a more distributed method may be needed, such as having multiple RHN
Satellites in a horizontally tiered configuration and balancing the load of client requests.
It is possible to synchronize content between RHN Satellites using the rhn-satellite-exporter
and satellite-sync -m commands. This feature is discussed in detail in Section 6.1.1, “rhnsatellite-exporter”.
Additional maintenance is the biggest disadvantage of this horizontal structure.
19
Chapter 3. Example Topologies
Figure 3.2. Multiple Satellite Horizontally Tiered Topology
3.3. Satellite-Proxy Vertically Tiered Topology
An alternative method to balance load is to install RHN Proxy Servers below a RHN Satellite. These
Proxies connect to the Satellite for RPMs from Red Hat Network and custom packages created locally.
In essence, the Proxies act as clients of the Satellite.
This vertically tiered configuration requires that channels and RPMs be created only on the RHN
Satellite. In this manner, the Proxies inherit and then serve packages from a central location. For
details, refer to the RHN Channel Management Guide.
Similarly, you should make the Proxies' SSL certificates clients of the Satellite while also setting them
to serve the client systems. This process is described in the RHN Client Configuration Guide.
20
Satellite-Proxy Vertically Tiered Topology
Figure 3.3. Satellite-Proxy Vertically Tiered Topology
21
22
Chapter 4.
Installation
This chapter describes the initial installation of the RHN Satellite. It presumes the prerequisites listed
in Chapter 2, Requirements have been met. If you are instead upgrading to a newer version of RHN
Satellite, contact your Red Hat representative for assistance.
4.1. Base Install
RHN Satellite is designed to run on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux operating system. Therefore, the
first phase is to install the base operating system, either from disc, ISO image, or kickstart. During and
after operating system installation, make sure you:
• Allocate plenty of space to the partitions storing data. The default location for channel packages
is /var/satellite/. For RHN Satellite with Embedded Database, remember the database
RPMs go in the /opt/ partition, while the database itself is built in /rhnsat/. Refer to Section 2.2,
“Hardware Requirements” for precise specifications.
• Enable Network Time Protocol (NTP) on the Satellite and separate database, if it exists, and select
the appropriate time zone. All client systems should already be running the ntpd daemon and be
set to the correct time zone.
• Due to potential complications, it is strongly advised that the /home/ partition is locally mounted.
4.2. RHN Satellite Installation Program
The following instructions describe how to run the RHN Satellite Installation Program:
Important
Due to potential complications, it is strongly advised that the /home/ partition is locally mounted.
1. Log into the machine as root.
2. Insert the RHN Satellite Server CD containing the installation files or download the ISO image
from the RHN website.
3. If you are installing from CD, Red Hat Enterprise Linux may automount the CD. If it does so, it will
mount the CD to the /media/cdrom/ directory.
If Red Hat Enterprise Linux does not automount the CD, manually mount it to the /media/
cdrom/ directory with the following command:
mount /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom
If you are installing from an ISO, mount the file from within the directory containing it using the
command:
mount -o loop iso_filename /media/cdrom
The remaining instructions assume it is mounted in /media/cdrom/.
23
Chapter 4. Installation
4. Ensure that the RHN Entitlement Certificate has been copied onto the Satellite's file system. It
can be named anything and located in any directory. The installation program will ask you for its
location. Also, make sure your account has been granted the necessary entitlements to conduct
the installation. For instance, a new Satellite will require both a Management or Provisioning
entitlement for Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS and an RHN Satellite entitlement.
Warning
Users should note that the RHN Satellite Installation Program updates the kernel, as well
as all required packages.
5. From the /media/cdrom/ directory, enter the following command to start the RHN Satellite
Installation Program:
./install.pl
This script has several options to assist with your installation process. To view these options, enter
the following command:
./install.pl --help
6. The script first runs through a pre-requisite check. These checks make certain that all
prerequisites from Chapter 2, Requirements are met before proceeding with the installation.
* Starting the Red Hat Network Satellite installer.
* Performing pre-install checks.
* Pre-install checks complete. Beginning installation.
7. At the prompt, enter the email address to which you would like notifications from the Satellite to
be sent. It may be a good idea to choose a general email address rather than the address of an
individual, as there can be a large volume of emails.
? Admin email address? sat-admin@example.com
8. The Satellite is then registered with your RHN Hosted account, and all required packages are
installed and updated.
* RHN Registration
* Installing updates.
* Installing RHN packages.
9. Next, the RHN Satellite Installation Program downloads and installs the RHN GPG key, including
setting up the /root/.gnupg/ directory, if required.
* Setting up environment and users
24
RHN Satellite Installation Program
** GPG: Initializing GPG and importing RHN key.
** GPG: Creating /root/.gnupg directory
10. The next step creates and populates the initial database, if you have opted for the RHN Satellite
with Embedded Database. If you are installing RHN Satellite with Stand-Alone Database, the
installer connects with the database. This step can take quite a while. If you would like to monitor
the progress of the installation, use tail in a separate window to monitor the /var/log/rhn/
install_db.log file.
* Setting up database.
** Database: Installing the embedded database (not the schema).
** Database: Shutting down the database first.
** Database: Installing the database:
** Database: This is a long process that is logged in:
** Database:
/var/log/rhn/install_db.log
*** Progress: ####
11. Once database installation is complete, or once the connection to the database is established, the
Satellite is configured.
* Setting up environment and users.
12. In order to activate the Satellite, you must provide it with the location of your Satellite certificate.
* Activating Satellite.
Where is your satellite certificate file? /root/example.cert
13. The next step is to create a CA cert for the Satellite. To do so, you must answer a few questions.
CA cert
Enter a password for the certificate.
Organization
Enter the name of your organization
Email Address
Enter an email address to be associated with this certificate, such as the admin email entered
in the steps above.
City
Enter the city where the Satellite resides.
Country
Enter the country where the Satellite resides. The country code must be exactly two letters, or
the certificate generation fails.
14. Once the CA Cert certificate is generated, the RHN Satellite Installation Program performs final
configuration and restarts the associated services.
* Final configuration.
* Restarting services.
Installation complete.
25
Chapter 4. Installation
Visit https://your-satellite.example.com to create the satellite administrator account.
15. Follow the on-screen instructions and visit the FQDN of your Satellite via a web browser. Create
the satellite administrator account - also referred to as the Organization Administrator - and click
the Create Login button to move to the next screen, the Your RHN screen.
Figure 4.1. Admin Account Creation
16. A blue text box appears at the top of the screen indicating that you can now custom-configure the
Satellite and its behavior. To do so, click the bold clicking here text at the end.
26
RHN Satellite Installation Program
Figure 4.2. Final Configuration Prompt
17. The Satellite Configuration - General Configuration page allows you to alter the most basic
Satellite settings, such as the admin email address and whether Monitoring is enabled.
27
Chapter 4. Installation
Figure 4.3. General Configuration
18. The RHN Satellite Configuration - Monitoring page allows you to configure the monitoring
aspects of this Satellite. The local mail exchanger and local main domain are used to mail
monitoring notification messages to administration. This is required only if you intend to receive
alert notifications from probes. If you do, provide the mail server (exchanger) and domain to be
used. Note that sendmail must be configured to handle email redirects of notifications. Refer to
Section 4.5, “Sendmail Configuration” for instructions. When finished, click Continue. The RHN
Registration page appears.
28
RHN Satellite Installation Program
Figure 4.4. Monitoring
19. The RHN Satellite Configuration - Certificate page allows you to upload a new Satellite
certificate. To identify the certificate's path, click Browse, navigate to the file, and select it. To
input its contents, open your certificate in a text editor, copy all lines, and paste them directly into
the large text field at the bottom. Red Hat recommends using the file locator as it is less error
prone. Click Validate Certificate to continue. If you receive errors related to DNS, ensure your
Satellite is configured correctly. Refer to Section 7.4, “Host Not Found/Could Not Determine
FQDN”.
29
Chapter 4. Installation
Figure 4.5. Certificate
20. The RHN Satellite Configuration - Bootstrap page allows you to generate a bootstrap script for
redirecting client systems from the central RHN Servers to the Satellite. This script, to be placed
in the /var/www/html/pub/bootstrap/ directory of the Satellite, significantly reduces the
effort involved in reconfiguring all systems, which by default obtain packages from the central RHN
Servers. The required fields are pre-populated with values derived from previous installation steps.
Ensure this information is accurate.
Checkboxes offer options for including built-in security SSL and GNU Privacy Guard (GPG)
features, both of which are advised. In addition, you may enable remote command acceptance
and remote configuration management of the systems to be bootstrapped here. Both features are
useful for completing client configuration. Finally, if you are using an HTTP proxy server, complete
the related fields. When finished, click Generate Bootstrap Script. The Installation Complete
page appears.
30
RHN Satellite Installation Program
Figure 4.6. Bootstrap
21. The RHN Satellite Configuration - Restart page contains the final step in configuring the
Satellite. Click the Restart button to restart the Satellite in order to incorporate all of the
configuration options added on the previous screens. Note that it will take between four and five
minutes for the restart to finish.
Figure 4.7. Restart
31
Chapter 4. Installation
22. Once the Satellite has restarted, the countdown notice disappears. You are now free to begin
using your Satellite.
Figure 4.8. Restart Complete
4.2.1. Options to the Satellite Installation Program
The various options available for the Satellite Installation Program are included below for easy
reference.
Table 4.1. Installation Options
Option
Usage
--help
Print this help message.
--answer-file=<filename>
Indicates the location of an answer file to be use for answering
questions asked during the installation process.
--non-interactive
For use only with --answer-file. If the --answerfile does not provide a required response, exit instead of
prompting the user.
--re-register
Register the system with RHN, even if it is already registered.
--disconnected
Install the satellite in disconnected mode.
--clear-db
Clear any pre-existing database schema before installing. This
will destroy any data in the Satellite database and re-create
empty Satellite schema.
--skip-system-version-test
Do not test the Red Hat Enterprise Linux version before
installing.
--skip-selinux-test
Do not check to make sure SELINUX is disabled.
--skip-fqdn-test
Do not verify that the system has a valid hostname. RHN
Satellite requires that the hostname be properly set during
installation. Using this option may result in a Satellite server
that is not fully functional.
--skip-db-install
Do not install the embedded database. This option may be
useful if you are reinstalling the satellite, and do not want to
clear the database.
--skip-db-diskspace-check
Do not check to make sure there is enough free disk space to
install the embedded database.
--skip-db-population
Do not populate the database schema.
32
Automated RHN Satellite Server Installation
Option
Usage
--skip-gpg-key-import
Do not import Red Hat's GPG key.
--skip-ssl-cert-generation
Do not generate the SSL certificates for the Satellite.
--run-updater
Do not ask to install needed packages from RHN, if the system
is registered.
4.3. Automated RHN Satellite Server Installation
One option of the RHN Satellite Installation Program allows the user to reference an answer file. This
file contains pre-determined responses to all, or some, of the questions asked by the installer program.
This allows the installer to run without human interaction, and may be useful in instances where
Satellite deployment must be automated. An example answer file can be found in the install/
directory of the CD or ISO, and is titled answers.txt.
Follow the steps below to perform an automated install with an answer file:
1. Follow steps 1 through 5 from Section 4.2, “RHN Satellite Installation Program”.
2. Copy the example answers.txt file to /tmp/answers.txt
cp answers.txt /tmp/answers.txt
3. Edit the file and add your organization's desired options.
4. Once the answer file is ready, use the --answer-file option when starting the installation
process from the command line:
./install.pl --answer-file=/tmp/answers.txt
The RHN Satellite Installation Program then looks for answers in the file. For any option no filled
out in the file, the Installer Program prompts the user for the missing information.
4.4. Installing Satellite behind an HTTP Proxy
Due to the way that RHN Satellite uses the rhn.conf to control its connection settings, there is no
way to add options to that file prior to installation of RHN Satellite. If your network is behind an HTTP
proxy in your organization, you cannot activate the RHN Satellite at installation time. A workaround to
this issue is to first perform a disconnected installation of RHN Satellite, then switch the configuration
to a connected method after installation is completed. The following demonstrates how to create a
connected RHN Satellite installation behind an HTTP proxy:
1. Complete a minimal installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 or 5 (depending on the version of
RHN Satellite that you will install).
2. Configure the system so that it can connect to RHN behind the HTTP proxy. Edit the file /etc/
sysconfig/rhn/up2date.conf as follows:
enableProxy=1
enableProxyAuth=1
httpProxy=<http-proxy-fqdn>
proxyUser=<proxy-username>
33
Chapter 4. Installation
proxyPassword=<proxy-password>
3. Register the system to RHN.
4. Begin the installation of RHN Satellite with the disconnected option:
./install.pl --disconnected
5. Once the installation is completed, you will need to add or modify your settings in the /etc/rhn/
rhn.conf file:
server.satellite.http_proxy = <http-proxy-fqdn>
server.satellite.http_proxy_username = <proxy-username>
server.satellite.http_proxy_password = <proxy-password>
disconnected=0
6. Restart the Satellite service:
service rhn-satellite restart
7. Reactivate the Satellite as a connected Satellite:
rhn-satellite-activate --rhn-cert=<path-to-cert>
You should now have a connected RHN Satellite that will work behind an HTTP proxy.
4.5. Sendmail Configuration
If your RHN Satellite will serve Monitoring-entitled systems and you wish to acknowledge via email the
alert notifications you receive, you must configure sendmail to properly handle incoming mail. This
is required by the email redirect feature, which allows you to stop notifying users about a Monitoringrelated event with a single reply.
Important
Some more restrictive corporate mail configurations will not allow mail to be sent from
an address that is not recognized as valid. Therefore, it may be necessary to configure
rogerthat01@{mail domain} as a valid email address in your corporate environment. Check
with your mail systems administrator.
To configure sendmail correctly, run the following commands as root. First, create a symbolic link
allowing sendmail to run the notification enqueuer with the following command:
ln -s /usr/bin/ack_enqueuer.pl /etc/smrsh/.
Next, edit the /etc/aliases file on the mail server and add the following line:
34
MySQL Installation
rogerthat01: | /etc/smrsh/ack_enqueuer.pl
Next, edit the /etc/mail/sendmail.mc file and change:
"DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp,Addr=127.0.0.1, Name=MTA')dnl"
to:
"DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp, Name=MTA')dnl"
Then, have the alias processed like so:
newaliases
Finally, update the sendmail-cf package:
yum update sendmail-cf
Note, disconnected installs must obtain this package from the ISO.
Restart sendmail:
service sendmail restart
4.6. MySQL Installation
This sections is applicable only if your RHN Satellite will serve Monitoring-entitled systems and
you wish to run MySQL probes against them. Refer to the Probes appendix of the RHN Satellite
Reference Guide for a list of available probes.
If you do wish to run MySQL probes, subscribe the Satellite to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS
channel and install the mysql-server package either through the RHN website or by yum (or
up2date for earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux).
Two extra packages will also be downloaded in the transaction. These are needed for the mysqlserver package to be installed and run successfully. Once finished, your Satellite may be used to
schedule MySQL probes.
35
36
Chapter 5.
Entitlements
The RHN Satellite, like RHN itself, provides all services to customers through the setting of
entitlements. For RHN, entitlements are purchased by customers as needed; however, for RHN
Satellite, entitlements are contractually agreed-upon beforehand, and they are set at installation
time. All public channels are automatically available; the private channels that should also be made
available through the Satellite are determined by the RHN Entitlement Certificate.
The RHN Entitlement Certificate, which contains the precise set of entitlements attributed to your
organization, is provided by your Red Hat representative. Red Hat reserves the right to compare the
contents of that RHN Entitlement Certificate with the database's entitlement settings at any time to
ensure compliance with the terms of the customer's contract with Red Hat.
The steps referenced in this section are typically carried out by the RHN Satellite Installation
Program itself and do not need to be repeated during initial installation. Instead, they are listed here
for use by customers who have received a new RHN Entitlement Certificate, such as one reflecting an
increase in the number of entitlements.
5.1. Receiving the Certificate
The RHN Entitlement Certificate is an XML document that looks something like this:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<rhn-cert version="0.1">
<rhn-cert-field name="product">RHN-SATELLITE-001</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="owner">Clay's Precious Satellite</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="issued">2005-01-11 00:00:00</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="expires">2005-03-11 00:00:00</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="slots">30</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="provisioning-slots">30</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="nonlinux-slots">30</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="channel-families" quantity="10" family="rhel-cluster"/>
<rhn-cert-field name="channel-families" quantity="30" family="rhel-ws-extras"/>
<rhn-cert-field name="channel-families" quantity="10" family="rhel-gfs"/>
<rhn-cert-field name="channel-families" quantity="10" family="rhel-es-extras"/>
<rhn-cert-field name="channel-families" quantity="40" family="rhel-as"/>
<rhn-cert-field name="channel-families" quantity="30" family="rhn-tools"/>
<rhn-cert-field name="satellite-version">5.2</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-field name="generation">2</rhn-cert-field>
<rhn-cert-signature>
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----Version: Crypt::OpenPGP 1.03
iQBGBAARAwAGBQJCAG7yAAoJEJ5yna8GlHkysOkAn07qmlUrkGKs7/5yb8H/nboG
mhHkAJ9wdmqOeKfcBa3IUDL53oNMEBP/dg==
=0Kv7
-----END PGP SIGNATURE----</rhn-cert-signature>
</rhn-cert>
Note
Do not try to use this RHN Entitlement Certificate; it is just an example.
37
Chapter 5. Entitlements
The initial RHN Entitlement Certificate is generated by a member of the RHN team and emailed to a
consultant or customer prior to installation. This process helps guarantee that we do not inadvertently
install any RHN Satellites that the RHN team does not know about.
Save the XML file to the Satellite machine in preparation for activation.
5.2. Uploading the RHN Entitlement Certificate
If your RHN Satellite is connected to the Internet, you have the option of uploading your new RHN
Entitlement Certificate through the RHN website. To do this:
1. Log into https://rhn.redhat.com with your organization's Satellite-entitled account.
2. Click Systems in the top navigation bar and then the name of the RHN Satellite. You may also
find the Satellite through the Satellite line item within the Channels category.
3. In the System Details page, click the Satellite subtab and examine the existing certificate. Ensure
you have a backup of this file by copying and pasting its contents into a text editor.
4. Click Deactivate Satellite License at the bottom of the page. Then click Confirm Deactivation.
You will receive a message describing the deactivation at the top of the page.
5. You may then browse to the location of your new RHN Entitlement Certificate or paste its contents
into the text field provided. When done, click Update Certificate.
Your Satellite now has access to additional channels and client entitlements outlined in the new
certificate. You may now synchronize it with the central RHN Servers. Refer to Chapter 6, Importing
and Synchronizing.
5.3. Managing the RHN Certificate with RHN Satellite
Activate
For disconnected Satellites or customers who prefer to work locally, Red Hat provides a command line
tool for managing your RHN Entitlement Certificate and activating the Satellite using that certificate:
RHN Satellite Activate (rhn-satellite-activate). This is included with the Satellite installation
as part of the rhns-satellite-tools package.
5.3.1. Command Line Entitlement Options
The rhn-satellite-activate tool offers a handful of command line options for activating a
Satellite using its RHN Entitlement Certificate:
Table 5.1. RHN Entitlement Certificate Options
Option
Description
-h, --help
Display the help screen with a list of options.
--sanity-only
Confirm certificate sanity. Does not activate the
Satellite locally or remotely.
--disconnected
Activates locally but not on remote RHN Servers.
--rhn-cert=/PATH/TO/CERT
Uploads new certificate and activates the Satellite
based upon the other options passed (if any).
--systemid=/PATH/TO/SYSTEMID
For testing only - Provides an alternative system ID
by path and file. The system default is used if not
specified.
38
Activating the Satellite
Option
Description
--no-ssl
For testing only - Disable SSL.
To use these options, insert the option and the appropriate value, if needed, after the rhnsatellite-activate command. Refer to Section 5.3.2, “Activating the Satellite”.
5.3.2. Activating the Satellite
You should use the options in Table 5.1, “RHN Entitlement Certificate Options” to accomplish the
following tasks in this order:
1. Validate the RHN Entitlement Certificate's sanity (or usefulness).
2. Activate the Satellite locally by inserting the RHN Entitlement Certificate into the local database.
3. Activate the Satellite remotely by inserting the RHN Entitlement Certificate into the central RHN
(remote) database. This is typically accomplished during local activation but may require a second
step if you chose the --disconnected option.
Here are some examples depicting use of the tool and these options.
To validate an RHN Entitlement Certificate's sanity only:
rhn-satellite-activate --sanity-only --rhn-cert=/path/to/demo.cert
To validate an RHN Entitlement Certificate and populate the local database:
rhn-satellite-activate --disconnected --rhn-cert=/path/to/demo.cert
To validate an RHN Entitlement Certificate and populate both the local and the RHN database:
rhn-satellite-activate --rhn-cert=/path/to/demo.cert
Once you run this final command, the Satellite is running and able to serve packages locally and
synchronize with the central RHN Servers. Refer to Chapter 6, Importing and Synchronizing.
5.4. Satellite Entitlement Certificate Expiration
Satellite certificates expire at 11:59:59 PM on the date listed in the certificate's expires field, and new
certificates become active at 12:00:00 AM on their issued date.
A standard grace period of seven (7) days exists between the date of Satellite certificate expiration
and when the Satellite becomes inactive. This grace period is provided in order for customers to
contact Red Hat Support and obtain a new certificate. During the grace period, the following things
happen:
• The Satellite remains active.
• Each user that logs into the Satellite sees a banner on their Your RHN page that explains that the
Satellite certificate has expired.
• Once a day, for all seven days, the Satellite Administrator's email receives notification that the
certificate has expired.
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Chapter 5. Entitlements
When the grace period is over, the Satellite becomes unavailable: users will be unable to login to the
web UI and all client-side tools will present an Expired Certificate message.
Finally, the Satellite Administrator receives a daily email alerting them that the certificate has expired.
40
Chapter 6.
Importing and Synchronizing
After installing the RHN Satellite, you must provide it with the packages and channels to be served
to client systems. This chapter explains how to import that data and keep it up to date whether the
content is from RHN's central servers, local media, or from one Satellite within your organization to
another.
Two tools, RHN Satellite Exporter and RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool, come installed as part of
the rhns-sat-tools package.
6.1. Exporting with RHN Satellite Exporter
The RHN Satellite Exporter (rhn-satellite-exporter) tool exports Satellite content in an
XML format that can then be imported into another identical Satellite. The content is exported into a
directory specified by the user with the -d option. Once that directory has been transported to another
Satellite, the RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool may be used to import the contents, synchronizing
two Satellites.
6.1.1. rhn-satellite-exporter
The RHN Satellite Exporter can export the following content:
• Channel Families
• Architectures
• Channel metadata
• Blacklists
• RPMs
• RPM metadata
• Errata
• Kickstarts
The amount of time it takes rhn-satellite-exporter to export data is dependent on the number
and size of the channels being exported. Using the --no-packages, --no-kickstarts, -no-errata, and --no-rpms options reduces the amount of time required for rhn-satelliteexporter to run, but also prevents potentially useful information from being exported. For that
reason, these options should only be used when you are certain that you will not need the content that
they exclude. Additionally, you must use the matching options for satellite-sync when importing
the data. For example, if you use --no-kickstarts with rhn-satellite-exporter you must
specify the --no-kickstarts option when importing the data.
When exporting an RHN base channel, you must also export the tools channel associated with that
base channel in order to kickstart machines to the distribution in the base channel. For instance, if you
export rhel-i386-as-4 you must also export the rhn-tools-rhel-4-as-i386 channel in order to kickstart
machines to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 AS. This is because the tools channels contain the autokickstart packages that install packages for kickstarting a machine through the Satellite.
The RHN Satellite Exporter offers several command line options. To use them, insert the option and
appropriate value after the rhn-satellite-exporter command.
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Chapter 6. Importing and Synchronizing
Table 6.1. RHN Satellite Exporter Options
Option
Description
-d, --dir=
Place the exported information into this directory.
-cCHANNEL_LABEL, -channel=CHANNEL_LABEL
Process data for this specific channel (specified
by label) only. NOTE: the channel's *label* is
NOT the same as the channel's *name*.
--list-channels
List all available channels and exit.
--list-steps
List all of the steps that rhn-satellite-exporter
takes while exporting data. These can be used
as values for --step.
-p --print-configuration
Print the configuration and exit.
--print-report
Print a report to the terminal when the export is
complete.
--no-rpms
Do not retrieve actual RPMs.
--no-packages
Do not export RPM metadata.
--no-errata
Do not process Errata information.
--no-kickstarts
Do not process kickstart data (provisioning only).
--debug-level=LEVEL_NUMBER
Override the amount of messaging sent to log
files and generated on the screen set in /etc/
rhn/rhn.conf, 0-6 (2 is default).
--start-date=START_DATE
The start date limit that the last modified
dates are compared against. Must be in the
format YYYYMMDDHH24MISS (for example,
20071225123000)
--end-date=END_DATE
The end date limit that the last modified dates
are compared against. Must be typed in the
format YYYYMMDDHH24MISS (for example,
20071231235900)
--make-isos=MAKE_ISOS
Create a channel dump ISO directory called
satellite-isos (for example, --makeisos=cd or dvd
--email
Email a report of what was exported and what
errors may have occurred.
--traceback-mail=EMAIL
Alternative email address for --email.
--db=DB
Include alternate database connect string:
username/password@SID.
--hard-links
Export the RPM and kickstart files with hard links
to the original files.
6.1.2. Exporting
To perform a RHN Satellite Exporter export, the following prerequisites must be met:
• The RHN Satellite installation must have been performed successfully.
• There must be sufficient disk space in the directory specified in the --dir option to contain the
exported contents.
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Importing with RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool
Although it is not a requirement for the export to succeed, the export will be most useful when
performed on a Satellite that has populated channels.
6.1.2.1. Running the Export
First, be sure to configure the Satellite in the manner that you would either like to duplicate in another
Satellite or back up to a storage solution. Second, select the contents you would like to export. You
can choose not to export RPMs, errata, or kickstarts by using the options mentioned in Section 6.1.1,
“rhn-satellite-exporter”. Finally, execute the command as root. The following is an example
command:
rhn-satellite-exporter --dir=/var/rhn-sat-export --no-errata
When finished, the export directory may be moved to another Satellite or a storage solution using
rsync or scp -r.
6.2. Importing with RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool
Before distributing packages via RHN Satellite, the packages must first be uploaded to the Satellite.
This section describes the process for importing packages and other channel data.
Important
To populate custom channels correctly, you must first populate at least one Red Hat base
channel. The RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool creates the necessary directory structures
and permissions; without these, the custom channel tools will not work properly. For this reason,
you should use these instructions to set up your base channel(s) and then refer to the RHN
Channel Management Guide for steps to establish custom channels.
6.2.1. satellite-sync
The RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool (satellite-sync) enables an RHN Satellite to update its
database metadata and RPM packages with those of RHN's central servers, another Satellite within
your organization, or local media.
Important
Running satellite-sync can import a large amount of data, especially on newly installed
Satellite servers. If your database has performance issues after a significant amount of data
changes, consider gathering statistics on the database. Refer to Section 8.4, “Using RHN DB
Control” for more information.
To launch the RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool, execute the following command as root:
satellite-sync
This tool can be used in a closed environment, such as the one created with a disconnected install,
or it may obtain data directly over the Internet. Closed environment imports can get their data from
downloaded ISOs or from the XML data generated by RHN Satellite Exporter.
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Chapter 6. Importing and Synchronizing
The RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool works incrementally, or in steps. For it to obtain Errata
information, it must first know the packages contained. For the packages to be updated, the tool must
first identify the associated channel(s). For this reason, the RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool
performs its actions in the following order:
1. channel-families — Import/synchronize channel family (architecture) data.
2. channels — Import/synchronize channel data.
3. rpms — Import/synchronize RPMs.
4. packages — Import/synchronize full package data for those RPMs retrieved successfully.
5. errata — Import/synchronize Errata information.
Each of these steps can be initiated individually for testing purposes with the effect of forcing the tool
to stop when that step is complete. All steps that precede it, however, will have taken place. Therefore,
calling the rpms step will automatically ensure the channels and channel-families steps take
place first. To initiate an individual step, use the --step option, like so:
satellite-sync --step=rpms
In addition to --step, the RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool offers many other command
line options. To use them, insert the option and the appropriate value after the satellite-sync
command when launching import/synchronization.
Table 6.2. Satellite Import/Sync Options
Option
Description
-h, --help
Display this list of options and exit.
-d=, --db=DB
Include alternate database connect string:
username/password@SID.
-m=, --mount-point=MOUNT_POINT
Import/sync from local media mounted
to the Satellite. To be used in closed
environments (such as those created
during disconnected installs).
--list-channels
List all available channels and exit.
-cCHANNEL, --channel=CHANNEL_LABEL
Process data for this channel only.
Multiple channels can be included by
repeating the option. If no channels are
specified, all channels on the Satellite will
be freshened.
-p, --print-configuration
Print the current configuration and exit.
--no-ssl
Not Advisable - Turn off SSL.
--step=STEP_NAME
Perform the sync process only to the step
specified. Typically used in testing.
--no-rpms
Do not retrieve actual RPMs.
--no-packages
Do not process full package data.
--no-errata
Do not process Errata information.
--no-kickstarts
Do not process kickstart data
(provisioning only).
44
Preparing for Import from Local Media
Option
Description
--force-all-packages
Forcibly process all package data without
conducting a diff.
--debug-level=LEVEL_NUMBER
Override the amount of messaging sent
to log files and generated on the screen
set in /etc/rhn/rhn.conf, 0-6 (2 is
default).
--email
Email a report of what was imported/
synchronized to the designated recipient
of traceback email.
--traceback-mail=TRACEBACK_MAIL
Direct sync output (from --email) to this
email address.
-s=, --server=SERVER
Include the hostname of an alternative
server to connect to for synchronization.
--http-proxy=HTTP_PROXY
Add an alternative HTTP proxy server in
the form hostname:port.
--http-proxy-username=PROXY_USERNAME
Include the username for the alternative
HTTP proxy server.
--http-proxy-password=PROXY_PASSWORD
Include the password for the alternative
HTTP proxy server.
--ca-cert=CA_CERT
Use an alternative SSL CA certificate by
including the full path and filename.
--systemid=SYSTEM_ID
For debugging only - Include path to
alternative digital system ID.
--batch-size=BATCH_SIZE
For debugging only - Set maximum batch
size in percent for XML/database-import
processing. Open man satellite-sync for
more information.
If no options are included, satellite-sync synchronizes all channels that already exist in the
Satellite's database. By default, the --step (all steps) option is enabled.
Keep in mind that the --channel option requires the channel label, not its name. For instance, use
"rhel-i386-as-3" not "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 i386." Use the --list-channels option to obtain a
list of all channels by label. All displayed channels are available for importing and synchronizing.
6.2.2. Preparing for Import from Local Media
To perform the RHN Satellite import, the following prerequisites must be met:
• The RHN Satellite installation must have been performed successfully.
• The Red Hat Network Channel Content ISOs or RHN Satellite Exporter data must be available, or
the Satellite must have access to the Internet and the RHN website.
Although it is possible to conduct the import directly from the RHN website, this should be done only if
Channel Content ISOs are not available. It takes a long time to populate a channel from scratch over
the Internet. For this reason, Red Hat urges you to use ISOs, if they are available, for initial import.
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Chapter 6. Importing and Synchronizing
6.2.2.1. Preparing Channel Content ISOs
Channel Content ISOs are special collections that contain both packages and XML dumps of
metadata. The ISO images can be downloaded from the RHN website on a machine connected to the
Internet and then transferred to the Satellite. After logging in, click Channels in the top navigation bar.
Then, click on the RHN Satellite channel, making sure to select the Satellite channel that corresponds
to your version of Satellite. Click the Downloads tab and use the instructions on the page to obtain
the Channel Content ISOs, available by version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If the desired Channel
Content ISOs do not appear, ensure your RHN Entitlement Certificate has been uploaded to RHN and
correctly identifies the target channels.
Channel Content ISOs are mounted and then copied to a temporary repository directory. Before
mounting the ISOs, ensure the temporary repository has enough disk space to copy all the contents
into a single directory. For a single channel, the approximate required space is at least 20 GB. The
process to copy Channel Content ISOs is to mount each one, copy its contents to the temporary
repository, and then unmount the ISO. Each channel consists of several ISOs. Once finished, the
administrator should delete the temporary directory and all of its contents. Follow these steps:
1. Log into the machine as root.
2. Insert the first Channel Content ISO that has been burned to disc.
3. Create a directory in /mnt/ to store the file(s) with the command:
mkdir /mnt/import/
4. Mount the ISO file from within the directory containing it using the command:
mount iso_filename /mnt/import -o loop
5. Create a target directory for the files, such as:
mkdir /var/rhn-sat-import/
6. This sample command assumes the administrator wants to copy the contents of the ISO (mounted
in /mnt/import/) into /var/rhn-sat-import/:
cp -ruv /mnt/import/* /var/rhn-sat-import/
7. Then unmount /mnt/import in preparation for the next CD or ISO:
umount /mnt/import
8. Repeat these steps for each Channel Content ISO of every channel to be imported.
6.2.2.2. Preparing RHN Satellite Exporter Data
In order to perform the import from data previously exported using RHN Satellite Exporter, you must
first copy that data onto the local system. Steps such as the following will enable you to procede to
running the import as described in Section 6.2.3, “Running the Import”.
46
Running the Import
1. Log into the machine as root.
2. Create a target directory for the files, such as:
mkdir /var/rhn-sat-import/
3. Make the export data available on the local machine in the directory created in the previous step.
This can be done by copying the data directly, or by mounting the data from another machine
using NFS. It is perhaps easiest to copy the data into the new directory with a command such as
the following:
scp -r root@storage.example.com:/var/sat-backup/* /var/rhn-sat-import
Now that the data is available, you can procede to performing the import.
6.2.3. Running the Import
The rhns-satellite-tools package provides the satellite-sync program for managing all
package, channel, and errata imports and synchronizations.
The following process assumes in the previous step the user has copied all data to /var/rhn-satimport.
The first step in importing channels into the database is listing the channels available for import. This
is accomplished with the command:
satellite-sync --list-channels --mount-point /var/rhn-sat-import
The next step is to initiate the import of a specific channel. Do this using a channel label presented in
the previous list. The command will look like:
satellite-sync -c rhel-i386-as-3 --mount-point /var/rhn-sat-import
Note
Importing package data can take up to two hours per channel. You may begin registering
systems to channels as soon as they appear in the RHN Satellite's website. No packages are
necessary for registration, although updates cannot be retrieved from the Satellite until the
channel is completely populated.
You may repeat this step for each channel or include them all within a single command by passing
each channel label preceded by an additional -c flag, like so:
satellite-sync -c channel-label-1 \
-c channel-label-2 \
--mount-point /var/rhn-sat-import
This conducts the following tasks in this order:
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Chapter 6. Importing and Synchronizing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Populating the tables describing common features for channels (channel families). This can
also be accomplished individually by passing the --step=channel-families option to
satellite-sync.
Creating a particular channel in the database and importing the metadata describing the channel.
Individually, use the --step=channels option.
Moving the RPM packages from the temporary repository into their final location. Individually, use
the --step=rpms option.
Parsing the header metadata for each package in the channel, uploading the package data, and
associating it with the channel. Individually, use the --step=packages option.
Identifying Errata associated with the packages and including them in the repository. Individually,
use the --step=errata option.
After running the preceding sample command, the population of the channel should be complete. All
of the packages should have been moved out of the repository; this can be verified with the command
cd /var/rhn-sat-import/; ls -alR | grep rpm. If all RPMs have been installed and moved
to their permanent locations, then this count will be zero, and the administrator may safely remove the
temporary repository (in this case, /var/rhn-sat-import/).
6.3. Synchronizing
An update channel is only as useful as the freshness of the information in that channel. Since the RHN
Satellite is designed to be a standalone environment, any update advisories published by RHN must
be manually imported and synchronized by the administrator of the RHN Satellite.
During synchronization over the Internet, the RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool performs the
following steps:
1. Connects over SSL to central RHN Servers, authenticates itself as an RHN Satellite, and triggers
an export of RHN data — unless a local mount point for RHN-exported data is specified, in which
case no connection is necessary. Refer to Section 6.3.2, “Synchronizing Errata and Packages via
Local Media” for an explanation.
2. Examines the export and identifies differences between the RHN Satellite data set and the
exported RHN data set. For a particular channel, the following information is analyzed:
• Channel metadata
• Metadata of all packages in that channel
• Metadata for all Errata that affect that channel
Note
All analysis is performed on the RHN Satellite; the central RHN Servers deliver only an export
of its channel information and remain ignorant of any details regarding the RHN Satellite.
48
Synchronizing Errata and Packages Directly via RHN
3. After the analysis of the export data, any differences are imported into the RHN Satellite database.
Please note that importing new packages may take variable lengths of time. For a large update, an
import can take many hours.
The satellite-sync command can be used in two modes: via RHN and via local media.
6.3.1. Synchronizing Errata and Packages Directly via RHN
For customers who want to sync data as frequently as possible and who can initiate connections
outside of their own environments, the satellite sync can be run over the Internet through SSL. This is
the default setting for the satellite sync script. For example:
satellite-sync -c rhel-i386-as-3
This connects to central Red Hat Network Servers and performs the process described above.
Multiple channels can be included by repeating the option. If no channels are specified, all channels
on the Satellite will be refreshed.
6.3.2. Synchronizing Errata and Packages via Local Media
For customers who cannot connect their Satellite directly to RHN, Red Hat recommends downloading
Channel Content ISOs to a separate, Internet-connected system and then transferring them to the
Satellite. Refer to Section 6.2.2.1, “Preparing Channel Content ISOs” for instructions on downloading
the ISOs. For ease of import, we recommend that the data be copied from media directly into a
common repository through a command such as the following:
cp -rv /mnt/cdrom/* /var/rhn-sat-sync/
Then, the following command:
satellite-sync -c rhel-i386-as-3 --mount-point /var/rhn-sat-sync
This can be used to perform the sync process described above, using the dump files in /var/rhnsat-sync to perform the necessary comparisons and imports. See Section 6.2.3, “Running the
Import” for precise steps.
6.4. Inter-Satellite Sync
RHN Satellite 5.3 or greater supports synchronization between two Satellites. This synchronization,
also called Inter-Satellite Sync, allows administrators to simplify the process of coordinating content
from one RHN Satellite source to another or several others.
The following are the basic requirements for Inter-satellite Sync.
• At least two RHN Satellite 5.3 or greater servers
• At least one RHN Satellite populated with at least one channel
• Master RHN Satellite SSL certificate available on each of the slave RHN Satellites for secure
connection
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Chapter 6. Importing and Synchronizing
6.4.1. Recommended Models for Inter-Satellite Sync
The Inter-Satellite Sync feature for Satellite provides facilities for synchronizing content between
two or more Satellites. The following are some of the more typical uses that show the possibilities of
Inter-Satellite Sync and help guide you in determining how to make the most of this feature in your
environment.
Note
If you are not sure if the Inter-Satellite Sync feature is right for your organization, please note that
you can continue to use RHN Satellite 5.3 or greater in the typical manner. Installing or upgrading
to RHN Satellite 5.3 or greater does not require that you make use of this feature.
Figure 6.1. Staging Satellite
In this example, the Stage Satellite is used to prepare the content and perform quality assurance
(QA) work — to make sure that packages are fit for production use. After content is approved to go to
production, the Production Satellite will then synchronize the content from the Stage Satellite.
Figure 6.2. Master Server and Slave Peers that include their own custom content
In this example, the master Satellite is the development channel, from which content is distributed to
all production slave Satellites. Some slave Satellites have extra content not present in master Satellite
channels. These packages are preserved, but all changes from master Satellite are synchronized to
Slave Satellite.
50
Configuring the Master RHN Satellite Server
Figure 6.3. Slave Satellites are maintained exactly as the master Satellite
In this example, the master Satellite (for example, a software or Hardware vendor) provides data to its
customer. These changes are regularly synchronized to slave Satellites.
6.4.2. Configuring the Master RHN Satellite Server
To use the inter-satellite sync feature, you must first ensure that you have it enabled. Make sure that
the /etc/rhn/rhn.conf contains the following line:
disable_iss=0
In the same file is the variable:
allowed_iss_slaves=
By default, no slave Satellites are specified to sync from the master server, so you must enter the
hostname of each slave Satellite server, separated by commas. For example:
allowed_iss_slaves=slave1.satellite.example.org,slave2.satellite.example.org
Once you finished configuring the rhn.conf file, restart the httpd service by issuing the following
command:
service httpd restart
6.4.3. Configuring the Slave RHN Satellite Servers
To configure RHN Satellite slave servers for Inter-Satellite Sync, ensure that you have the ORG-SSL
certificate from your master RHN Satellite server so you can securely transfer content. This can be
downloaded over http from the /pub/ directory of any Satellite. The file is called RHN-ORG-TRUSTEDSSL-CERT, but can be renamed and placed anywhere on the slave Satellite, such as the /usr/
share/rhn/ directory.
For information about SSL configuration for use with RHN Satellite, refer to Chapter 3, "SSL
Infrastructure" in the RHN Satellite Client Configuration Guide
Once the SSL certificate is placed on the slave server, you can see the list of channels available
to sync from the master Satellite server by running the following command (replacing the
master.satellite.example.com with the hostname of the master Satellite server):
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Chapter 6. Importing and Synchronizing
satellite-sync --iss-parent=master.satellite.example.com --ca-cert=/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORGTRUSTED-SSL-CERT --list-channels
This command lists both Red Hat Network Hosted channels as well as any custom channels available
on the master Satellite server.
6.5. Using Inter-Satellite Sync
Now that Inter-Satellite Sync is configured, you can now use it to synchronize channels from the
master Satellite to the slave servers.
On the slave servers, configure the Master server hostname and SSL certificate file path in the
following lines of the /etc/rhn/rhn.conf file:
iss_parent
iss_ca_chain
= master.satellite.domain.com
= /usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
Then run the satellite-sync command by typing:
satellite-sync -c your-channel
Note
Any command line options to the satellite-sync command will override any default or
customized settings in the /etc/rhn/rhn.conf file
6.5.1. Syncing between a Development Staging Server and a
Production Satellite
There may be instances where an administrator wants to sync data from a staging server that has
custom channels that are ready for production use to a production Satellite server.
For example, a production Satellite Server normally syncs directly from RHN Hosted servers for
content updates, but will occasionally sync production-ready information from a RHN Satellite
development server.
Figure 6.4. Syncing from RHN Hosted and a Satellite Staging Server
Normally, the administrator runs:
satellite-sync -c your-channel
This command downloads directly from data from rhn_parent (usually RHN Hosted, rhn.redhat.com).
Then, to sync from the staging Satellite server address , the administrator runs:
52
Bi-directional sync
satellite-sync --iss-parent=staging-satellite.example.com -c custom-channel
6.5.2. Bi-directional sync
Administrators can configure an environment where two RHN Satellite servers act as masters of each
other. For example, Satellite A and B can sync content from one another.
Figure 6.5. Bi-directional syncing
Both Satellites would need to share SSL certificates, then set the iss_parent option in the /etc/
rhn/rhn.conf file of Satellite A to point to the hostname of Satellite B, and do the same for Satellite
B to point to Satellite A as the iss_parent.
6.6. Synchronizing by Organization
Satellite-sync has a new enhancement as part of the inter satellite sync feature where a user can
import content to any specific organization. This can be done locally or by a remote syncing from
hosted or another satellite.
The aim is for Satellite sync to be able to import content with respect to org_id. This targets two sets of
users. One is the disconnected Multi-Org case, where the main source of content for the user is either
to get content from channel dumps or to export them from connected satellites and import it to the
Satellite. The user mainly hosts custom channels from disconnected satellites. If they wish to export
custom channels from connected satellites, they can do so by organizational sync.
The other case is a connected Multi-Org satellite customer. These new flags could work as a means of
moving content between multiple orgs.
Synchronizing by organization has a few rules that it follows to maintain the integrity of the source org.
• If the source content belongs to a base org (any Red Hat content) it will default to the base org even
if a destination org is specified. This ensures that the specified content is always in that privileged
base org.
• If an org is specified at the command line, it will import content from that org.
• If no org is specified, it will default to org 1.
The following are three example scenarios where organizational IDs (orgid) are used to synchronize
between Satellites:
1. Import content from master to slave satellite.
satellite-sync --parent-sat=master.satellite.domain.com -c channel-name --orgid=2
2. Import content from an exported dump of a specific org
$ satellite-sync -m /dump -c channel-name --orgid=2
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Chapter 6. Importing and Synchronizing
3. Import content from RHN Hosted (assuming the system is registered and activated. If the source
org is not specified, the base Red Hat channel is chosen).
$ satellite-sync -c channel-name
54
Chapter 7.
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides tips for determining the cause of and resolving the most common errors
associated with RHN Satellite. If you need additional help, contact Red Hat Network support at https://
rhn.redhat.com/help/contact.pxt. Log in using your Satellite-entitled account to see your full list of
options.
In addition, you may package configuration information and logs from the Satellite and send them to
Red Hat for further diagnosis. Refer to Section 7.8, “Satellite Debugging by Red Hat” for instructions.
7.1. Gathering information with spacewalk-report
There are instances where administrators may need a concise, formatted summary of their RHN
Satellite resources, whether it is to take inventory of their entitlements, subscribed systems, or users
and organizations. Rather than gathering such information manually from the Satellite Web interface,
RHN Satellite 5.4 includes the spacewalk-report command to gather and display vital Satellite
information at once.
Note
To use spacewalk-report you must have the spacewalk-reports package installed.
spacewalk-report allows administrators to organize and display reports about content, systems,
and user resources across the Satellite. Using spacewalk-report, you can receive reports on:
• System Inventory — Lists all of the systems registered to the Satellite.
• Entitlements — Lists all organizations on the Satellite and sorted by system or channel entitlements.
• Errata — Lists all the errata relevant to the registered systems and sorts errata by severity as well
as the systems that apply to a particular erratum.
• Users — Lists all the users registered to the Satellite, and lists any systems associated with a
particular user.
spacewalk-report allows administrators to organize and display reports about content, systems,
and user resources across the Satellite. To get the report in CSV format, run the following at the
command line of your Satellite server.
spacewalk-report report_name
The following reports are available:
Table 7.1. spacewalk-report Reports
Report
Invoked as
Description
Channel Packages
channelpackages
List of packages in a channel
Channel Report
channels
Detailed report of a given channel
System Inventory
inventory
List of systems registered to the server, together with
hardware and software information.
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Chapter 7. Troubleshooting
Report
Invoked as
Description
Entitlements
entitlements Lists all organizations on the Satellite with their
system or channel entitlements.
Errata details
errata-list
All Errata
errata-list- Complete list of all errata.
all
Errata for systems
erratasystems
Lists applicable errata and any registered systems
that are affected.
Users in the system
users
Lists all users registered to the Satellite.
Systems administered
userssystems
List of systems that individual users can administer.
Lists all errata that affects systems registered to the
Satellite
For more information about an individual report, run spacewalk-report with the --info or -list-fields-info and the report name. The description and list of possible fields in the report will
be shown.
For further information, the spacewalk-report(8) manpage as well as the --help parameter
of the spacewalk-report program can be used to get additional information about the program
invocations and their options.
7.2. Log Files
Virtually every troubleshooting step should start with a look at the associated log file or files. These
provide invaluable information about the activity that has taken place on the device or within the
application that can be used to monitor performance and ensure proper configuration. See Table 7.2,
“Log Files” for the paths to all relevant log files:
Note
There may be numbered log files (such as /var/log/rhn/rhn_satellite_install.log.1, /var/
log/rhn/rhn_satellite_install.log.2, etc.) within the /var/log/rhn/ directory. These
are rotated logs, which are log files created with a .<NUMBER> extension when the
current rhn_satellite_install.log file fills up to a size as specified by the
logrotate(8) daemon and the contents written to a rotated log file. For example,
the rhn_satellite_install.log.1 contains the oldest rotated log file, while
rhn_satellite_install.log.4 contains the most recently rotated log.
Table 7.2. Log Files
Component/Task
Log File Location
Apache Web server
/var/log/httpd/ directory
RHN Satellite
/var/log/rhn/ directory
RHN Satellite Installation Program
/var/log/rhn/rhn_satellite_install.log
Database installation - Embedded
Database
/var/log/rhn/install_db.log
Database population
/var/log/rhn/populate_db.log
56
General Problems
Component/Task
Log File Location
RHN Satellite Synchronization
Tool
/var/log/rhn/rhn_server_satellite.log
Monitoring infrastructure
/var/log/nocpulse/ directory
Monitoring notifications
/var/log/notification/ directory
RHN DB Control - Embedded
Database
/var/log/rhn/rhn_database.log
RHN Task Engine (taskomatic)
/var/log/messages
yum
/var/log/yum.log
XML-RPC transactions
/var/log/rhn/rhn_server_xmlrpc.log
7.3. General Problems
To begin troubleshooting general problems, examine the log file or files related to the component
exhibiting failures. A useful exercise is to issue the tail -f command for all log files and then run
yum list on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (or up2date --list on earlier Red Hat Enterprise Linux
versions). You should then examine all new log entries for potential clues.
A common issue is full disk space. An almost sure sign of this is the appearance of halted writing
in the log files. If logging stopped during a write, such as mid-word, you likely have filled disks. To
confirm this, run this command and check the percentages in the Use% column:
df -h
In addition to log files, you can obtain valuable information by retrieving the status of your RHN
Satellite and its various components. This can be done with the command:
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite status
In addition, you can obtain the status of components such as the Apache Web server and the
RHN Task Engine individually. For instance, to view the status of the Apache Web server, run the
command:
service httpd status
If the Apache Web server isn't running, entries in your /etc/hosts file may be incorrect. Refer
to Section 7.4, “Host Not Found/Could Not Determine FQDN” for a description of this problem and
possible solutions.
To obtain the status of the RHN Task Engine, run the command:
service taskomatic status
For more information, see Section 8.8.1.1, “Maintaining the RHN Task Engine”.
To obtain the status of the Satellite's Embedded Database, if it exists, run the command:
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Chapter 7. Troubleshooting
service oracle status
To determine the version of your database schema, run the command:
rhn-schema-version
To derive the character set types of your Satellite's database, run the command:
rhn-charsets
If the administrator is not getting email from the RHN Satellite, confirm the correct email addresses
have been set for traceback_mail in /etc/rhn/rhn.conf.
If the traceback mail is marked from dev-null@rhn.redhat.com and you would like the address to be
valid for your organization, include the web.default_mail_from option and appropriate value in /
etc/rhn/rhn.conf.
If importing/synchronizing a channel fails and you can't recover it in any other way, run this command
to delete the cache:
rm -rf temporary-directory
Note that Section 6.2.2.1, “Preparing Channel Content ISOs” suggested that this temporary directory
be /var/rhn-sat-import/.
Next, restart the importation or synchronization.
If yum (or up2date) or the push capability of the RHN Satellite ceases to function, it is possible that
old log files may be at fault. Stop the jabberd daemon before removing these files. To do so, issue the
following commands as root:
service jabberd stop
cd /var/lib/jabberd
rm -f _db*
service jabberd start
7.4. Host Not Found/Could Not Determine FQDN
Because RHN configuration files rely exclusively on fully qualified domain names (FQDN), it is
imperative key applications are able to resolve the name of the RHN Satellite into an IP address.
Red Hat Update Agent, Red Hat Network Registration Client, and the Apache Web server are
particularly prone to this problem with the RHN applications issuing errors of "host not found" and the
Web server stating "Could not determine the server's fully qualified domain name" upon failing to start.
This problem typically originates from the /etc/hosts file. You may confirm this by examining /etc/
nsswitch.conf, which defines the methods and the order by which domain names are resolved.
Usually, the /etc/hosts file is checked first, followed by Network Information Service (NIS) if used,
followed by DNS. One of these has to succeed for the Apache Web server to start and the RHN client
applications to work.
To resolve this problem, identify the contents of the /etc/hosts file. It may look like this:
58
Connection Errors
127.0.0.1 this_machine.example.com this_machine localhost.localdomain \ localhost
First, in a text editor, remove the offending machine information, like so:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain.com localhost
Then, save the file and attempt to re-run the RHN client applications or the Apache Web server. If they
still fail, explicitly identify the IP address of the Satellite in the file, such as:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain.com localhost
123.45.67.8 this_machine.example.com this_machine
Replace the value here with the actual IP address of the Satellite. This should resolve the problem.
Keep in mind, if the specific IP address is stipulated, the file will need to be updated when the machine
obtains a new address.
7.5. Connection Errors
A common connection problem, indicated by SSL_CONNECT errors, is the result of a Satellite
being installed on a machine whose time had been improperly set. During the Satellite installation
process, SSL certificates are created with inaccurate times. If the Satellite's time is then corrected, the
certificate start date and time may be set in the future, making it invalid.
To troubleshoot this, check the date and time on the clients and the Satellite with the following
command:
date
The results should be nearly identical for all machines and within the "notBefore" and "notAfter" validity
windows of the certificates. Check the client certificate dates and times with the following command:
openssl x509 -dates -noout -in /usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
Check the Satellite server certificate dates and times with the following command:
openssl x509 -dates -noout -in /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
By default, the server certificate has a one-year life while client certificates are good for 10 years. If
you find the certificates are incorrect, you can either wait for the valid start time, if possible, or create
new certificates, preferably with all system times set to GMT.
The following measures can be used to troubleshoot general connection errors:
• Attempt to connect to the RHN Satellite's database at the command line using the correct
connection string as found in /etc/rhn/rhn.conf:
sqlplus username/password@sid
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Chapter 7. Troubleshooting
• Ensure the RHN Satellite is using Network Time Protocol (NTP) and set to the appropriate time
zone. This also applies to all client systems and the separate database machine in RHN Satellite
with Stand-Alone Database.
• Confirm the correct package:
7 rhn-org-httpd-ssl-key-pair-MACHINE_NAME-VER-REL.noarch.rpm
is installed on the RHN Satellite and the corresponding rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert*.noarch.rpm or raw CA SSL public (client) certificate is installed on all client systems.
• Verify the client systems are configured to use the appropriate certificate.
• If also using one or more RHN Proxy Servers, ensure each Proxy's SSL certificates are prepared
correctly. The Proxy should have both its own server SSL key-pair and CA SSL public (client)
certificate installed, since it will serve in both capacities. Refer to the SSL Certificates chapter of the
RHN Client Configuration Guide for specific instructions.
• Make sure client systems are not using firewalls of their own, blocking required ports as identified in
Section 2.4, “Additional Requirements”.
7.6. SELinux Issues
If you encounter any issues with SELinux messages (such as AVC denial messages) on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 while installing RHN Satellite, be sure to have the audit.log files available
so that Red Hat Support personnel can assist you. You can find the file in /var/log/audit/
audit.log and can attach the file to your Support ticket for engineers to assist you.
7.7. Updated Software Components
Do not subscribe your RHN Satellite to any of the following child channels available from RHN's
central servers:
• Red Hat Developer Suite
• Red Hat Application Server
• Red Hat Extras
Subscribing to these channels and updating your Satellite (such as by running yum on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 (or up2date on earlier Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions), may install newer,
incompatible versions of critical software components, causing the Satellite to fail.
7.8. Satellite Debugging by Red Hat
If you've exhausted these troubleshooting steps or want to defer them to Red Hat Network
professionals, Red Hat recommends you take advantage of the strong support that comes with RHN
Satellite. The most efficient way to do this is to aggregate your Satellite's configuration parameters, log
files, and database information and send this package directly to Red Hat.
RHN provides a command line tool explicitly for this purpose: The Satellite Diagnostic Info Gatherer,
commonly known by its command satellite-debug. To use this tool, issue the command as root.
You will see the pieces of information collected and the single tarball created, like so:
60
Satellite Debugging by Red Hat
[root@miab root]# satellite-debug
Collecting and packaging relevant diagnostic information.
Warning: this may take some time...
* copying configuration information
* copying logs
* querying RPM database (versioning of RHN Satellite, etc.)
* querying schema version and database character sets
* get diskspace available
* timestamping
* creating tarball (may take some time): /tmp/satellite-debug.tar.bz2
* removing temporary debug tree
Debug dump created, stored in /tmp/satellite-debug.tar.bz2
Deliver the generated tarball to your RHN contact or support channel.
Once finished, email the new file from the /tmp/ directory to your Red Hat representative for
immediate diagnosis.
61
62
Chapter 8.
Maintenance
Because of the RHN Satellite's unique environment, its users are provided with abilities not available
to any other Red Hat Network customers. In addition, the Satellite itself also requires maintenance.
This chapter discusses the procedures that should be followed to carry out administrative functions
outside of standard use, as well as to apply patches to the RHN Satellite.
8.1. Managing the Satellite with rhn-satellite
Since the RHN Satellite consists of a multitude of individual components, Red Hat provides a
command-line tool that allows you to stop, start, or retrieve status information from the various
services in the appropriate order: rhn-satellite. This tool accepts all of the typical commands:
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite
start
stop
restart
reload
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite enable
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite disable
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite status
Use rhn-satellite to shut down and bring up the entire RHN Satellite and retrieve status
messages from all of its services at once.
8.2. Updating the Satellite
If any critical updates are made to RHN Satellite, they will be released in the form of an Erratum for the
RHN Satellite.
For RHN Satellite systems that may be connected to the Internet, the best method for applying these
Errata Updates is using the Red Hat Update Agent via Red Hat Network. Since the RHN Satellite is
subscribed to Red Hat Network during initial installation, the user should be able to run yum update
(or up2date -u on versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux earlier than version 5) on the RHN Satellite
or use the website at https://rhn.redhat.com to apply the updates.
Important
Apache RPMs do not restart the httpd service upon installation. Therefore, after conducting a full
update of an RHN Satellite Server (such as with the command yum update (or up2date -uf
on earlier versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux), Apache may fail. To avoid this, make sure you
restart the httpd service after upgrading it.
For RHN Satellite systems that may not be connected to the Internet, the packages themselves may
be retrieved using a customer account at https://rhn.redhat.com. Then, they can be applied manually
by the customer according to instructions in the Errata Advisory.
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Chapter 8. Maintenance
Warning
It is very important to read the Errata Advisory before applying any RHN Satellite Errata Updates.
Additional configuration steps may be required to apply certain RHN Satellite updates, especially
if they involve the database. In such cases, the advisory will contain specific and detailed
information about necessary steps that may be required.
If instead of installing new Satellite packages, you are attempting to update the server's RHN
Entitlement Certificate, such as to increase its number of client systems, refer to Chapter 5,
Entitlements for instructions.
8.3. Backing Up the Satellite
Backing up an RHN Satellite can be done in several ways. Regardless of the method chosen, the
associated database also needs to be backed up. For the Stand-Alone Database, consult your
organization's database administrator. For the Embedded Database, refer to Section 8.4, “Using RHN
DB Control” for a complete description of this process and the options available.
Here are the minimum files and directories Red Hat recommends backing up:
• /rhnsat/ - Embedded Database only (never to be backed up while the database is running - refer
to Section 8.4.2, “Backing up the Database”)
• /etc/sysconfig/rhn/
• /etc/rhn/
• /etc/sudoers
• /etc/tnsnames.ora
• /var/www/html/pub/
• /var/satellite/redhat/1 - custom RPMs
• /root/.gnupg/
• /root/ssl-build/
• /etc/dhcp.conf
• /tftpboot/
• /var/lib/cobbler/
• /var/lib/rhn/kickstarts/
• /var/www/cobbler
• /var/lib/nocpulse/
If possible, back up /var/satellite/, as well. In case of failure, this will save lengthy download
time. Since /var/satellite/ (specifically /var/satellite/redhat/NULL/) is primarily a
duplicate of Red Hat's RPM repository, it can be regenerated with satellite-sync. Red Hat
recommends the entire /var/satellite/ tree be backed up. In the case of disconnected satellites,
/var/satellite/ must be backed up.
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Using RHN DB Control
Backing up only these files and directories would require reinstalling the RHN Satellite ISO RPMs and
reregistering the Satellite. In addition, Red Hat packages would need to be resynchronized using the
satellite-sync tool. Finally, you would have to reinstall the /root/ssl-build/\ rhn-orghttpd-ssl-key-pair-MACHINE_NAME-VER-REL.noarch.rpm.
Another method would be to back up all of the files and directories mentioned above but reinstall the
RHN Satellite without reregistering it. During the installation, cancel or skip the RHN registration and
SSL certificate generation sections.
The final and most comprehensive method would be to back up the entire machine. This would save
time in downloading and reinstalling but would require additional disk space and back up time.
Note
Regardless of the back-up method used, when you restore the Satellite from a back-up, you must
run the following command to schedule the recreation of search indexes the next time the rhnsearch service is started:
/etc/init.d/rhn-search cleanindex
8.4. Using RHN DB Control
RHN Satellite with Embedded Database requires a utility for managing that database. Red Hat
provides just such a tool: RHN DB Control. This command line utility allows you to do everything from
make, verify, and restore backups to obtain database status and restart it when necessary. You must
be the oracle user to invoke RHN DB Control. To begin, switch to the oracle user:
su - oracle
Next, issue the following command:
db-control option
8.4.1. DB Control Options
RHN DB Control offers many command line options. To use them, as oracle insert the option and the
appropriate value, if needed, after the db-control command.
Table 8.1. RHN DB Control Options
Option
Description
help
Lists these db-control options with additional
details.
backup DIRNAME
Backs up the database to the directory specified.
examine DIRNAME
Examines the contents of a backup directory. Returns
the timestamp of backup creation and reports on its
contents.
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Chapter 8. Maintenance
Option
Description
extend
Increase the RHN Oracle tablespace
gather-stats PCT
Gather statistics on RHN Oracle database objects. PCT
is the percentage of rows to estimate (the default is
15%).
report
Reports on current usage of database space.
report-stats
Reports on segments with stale or empty statistics.
restore DIRNAME
Restores the database from backup kept in DIRNAME.
Database must be stopped for this command to run
successfully.
start
Starts the database instance. This can also be
accomplished by issuing the service oracle
start command as root.
shrink-segments
Shrinks RHN Oracle database segments with
signifcant amounts of free space.
status
Shows the current status of the database, either
"running" or "offline".
stop
Stops the database instance. This can also be
accomplished by issuing the service oracle stop
command as root.
tablesizes
Show space report for each table
verify DIRNAME
Verifies the contents of the backup kept in DIRNAME.
This command runs a checksum of each of the files
kept in the backup.
Note
Database statistics are collections of data that describe more details about the database and
the objects in the database. These statistics are used by the query optimizer to choose the best
execution plan for each SQL statement. Because the objects in a database can be constantly
changing, statistics must be regularly updated so that they accurately describe these database
objects. Statistics are maintained automatically by Oracle. However, if your database has
performance issues after a significant amount of data changes, consider performing manual
gathering of statistics.
Note
After deleting large amount of data, use the segment-shrink feature to reclaim fragmented
free space in an Oracle Database segment. The benefits of segment-shrink are compaction
of data that leads to better cache utilization and the compacted data requires fewer blocks to be
scanned in full table scans, which both lead to better performance.
The segment shrink feature works only on newly created Oracle Database 10g Release 2 that
comes with RHN Satellite Server 5.2.0. Due to different default database settings in Oracle
Database 9i this feature does not work on databases that were upgraded from previous RHN
Satellite Server releases.
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Backing up the Database
8.4.2. Backing up the Database
Red Hat recommends performing nightly backups of the Embedded Database and moving the
resulting directory to another system via NFS, SCP, FTP, etc. Preferably, this backup system resides
off-site. To conduct a backup, shut down the database and related services first by issuing the
following command as root:
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite stop
Then switch to the oracle user and issue this command to initiate the backup:
db-control backup DIRNAME
Backup files are stored in the directory specified. Note that this is a cold backup; the database must be
stopped before running this command. This process takes several minutes. The first backup is a good
indicator of how long subsequent backups will take.
Once the backup is complete, return to root user mode and restart the database and related services
with the following command:
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite start
You should then copy that backup to another system using rsync or another file-transfer utility. Red
Hat strongly recommends scheduling the backup process automatically using cron jobs. For instance,
back up the system at 3 a.m. and then copy the backup to the separate repository (partition, disk, or
system) at 6 a.m.
8.4.3. Verifying the Backup
Backing up the Embedded Database is useful only if you can ensure the integrity of the resulting
backup. RHN DB Control provides two methods for reviewing backups, one brief, one more detailed.
To conduct a quick check of the backup's timestamp and determine any missing files, issue this
command as oracle:
db-control examine DIRNAME
To conduct a more thorough review, including running a checksum of each of the files in the backup,
issue this command as oracle:
db-control verify DIRNAME
8.4.4. Restoring the Database
RHN DB Control makes Embedded Database restoration a relatively simple process. As in the
creation of backups, you will need to shut down the database and related services first by issuing the
following commands in this order as root:
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite stop
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Chapter 8. Maintenance
Then switch to the oracle user and issue this command, including the directory containing the backup,
to begin the restoration:
db-control restore DIRNAME
This not only restores the Embedded Database but first verifies the contents of the backup directory
using checksums. Once the restoration is complete, return to root user mode and restart the database
and related services with these commands in this order:
/usr/sbin/rhn-satellite start
8.5. Cloning the Satellite with Embedded DB
You may limit outages caused by hardware or other failures by cloning the Satellite with Embedded
Database in its entirety. The secondary Satellite machine can be prepared for use if the primary fails.
To clone the Satellite, perform these tasks:
1. Install RHN Satellite with Embedded Database (and a base install of Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS)
on a separate machine, skipping the SSL Certificate generation step.
2. Back up the primary Satellite's database daily using the commands described in Section 8.4.2,
“Backing up the Database”. If this is done, only changes made the day of the failure will be lost.
3. Establish a mechanism to copy the backup to the secondary Satellite and keep these repositories
synchronized using a file transfer program such as rsync. If you're using a SAN, copying isn't
necessary.
4. Use RHN DB Control's restore option to import the duplicate data.
5. If the primary Satellite fails, transfer the SSL key pair RPM package in /root/ssl-build from
the primary to the secondary Satellite, and install the package. This ensures that RHN clients can
authenticate with and securely connect to the secondary Satellite.
6. Change DNS to point to the new machine or configure your load balancer appropriately.
8.6. Establishing Redundant Satellites with Stand-Alone DB
In keeping with the cloning option available to Satellite with Embedded Database, you may limit
outages on Satellites with Stand-Alone Database by preparing redundant Satellites. Unlike cloning a
Satellite with Embedded Database, redundant Satellites with Stand-Alone Database may be run as
active, as well as standby. This is entirely up to your network topology and is independent of the steps
listed here.
To establish this redundancy, first install the primary Satellite normally, except the value specified in
the Common Name field for the SSL certificate must represent your high-availability configuration,
rather than the hostname of the individual server. Then:
1. Prepare the Stand-Alone Database for failover using Oracle's recommendations for building a
fault-tolerant database. Consult your database administrator.
2. Install RHN Satellite with Stand-Alone Database (and a base install of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux AS) on a separate machine, skipping the database configuration, database schema, SSL
certificate, and bootstrap script generation steps. Include the same RHN account and database
connection information provided during the initial Satellite install and register the new Satellite.
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Changing the Satellite Hostname
If your original SSL certificate does not take your high-availability solution into account, you may
create a new one with a more appropriate Common Name value now. In this case, you may also
generate a new bootstrap script that captures this new value.
3. After installation, copy the following files from the primary Satellite to the secondary Satellite:
• /etc/rhn/rhn.conf
• /etc/tnsnames.ora
• /var/www/rhns/server/secret/rhnSecret.py
4. Copy and install the server-side SSL certificate RPMs from the primary Satellite to the secondary.
Refer to the Sharing Certificates section of the RHN Client Configuration Guide for precise
instructions. Remember, the Common Name value must represent the combined Satellite solution,
not a single machine's hostname.
If you generated a new SSL certificate during Satellite installation that included a new Common
Name value, copy the SSL certificate RPMs from the secondary to the primary Satellite and
redistribute the client-side certificate. If you also created another bootstrap script, you may use this
to install the certificate on client systems.
5. If you did not create a new bootstrap script, copy the contents of /var/www/html/pub/
bootstrap/ from the primary Satellite to the secondary. If you did generate a new one, copy that
directory's contents to the primary Satellite.
6. Turn off the RHN Task Engine on the secondary Satellite with the following command:
/sbin/service taskomatic stop
You may use custom scripting or other means to establish automatic start-up/failover of the RHN
Task Engine on the secondary Satellite. Regardless, it will need to be started upon failover.
7. Share channel package data (by default located in /var/satellite) between the Satellites over
some type of networked storage device. This eliminates data replication and ensures a consistent
store of data for each Satellite.
8. Share cache data (by default located in /var/cache/rhn) between the Satellites over some type
of networked storage device. This eliminates data replication and ensures a consistent store of
cached data for each Satellite.
9. Make the various Satellites available on your network via Common Name and a method suiting
your infrastructure. Options include round-robin DNS, a network load balancer, and a reverseproxy setup.
8.7. Changing the Satellite Hostname
If you need to change the hostname or IP address of your Satellite server, the satellite-utils
package contains the satellite-hostname-rename script.
To use the satellite-hostname-rename script, you must first ensure that you know your SSL CA
passphrase by performing the following command:
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Chapter 8. Maintenance
openssl rsa -in path/RHN-ORG-PRIVATE-SSL-KEY
Then enter passphrase when prompted.
satellite-hostname-rename requires one mandatory argument, which is the IP address of the
Satellite server, regardless of whether the IP address will change along with the hostname or not.
The usage of satellite-hostname-rename is as follows:
spacewalk-hostname-rename <ip address> [ --ssl-country=<country> --ssl-state=<state>\
--ssl-org=<organization/company> --ssl-orgunit=<department> --ssl-email=<email address> -ssl-ca-password=<password>]
If there is a need to generate a new SSL certificate, all necessary information will be asked
interactively via series of prompts, unless options are passed at the command-line (as in the above
example). When the system hostname has not changed, the regeneration of a new SSL server
certificate is not necessary. However, if at least one SSL option is specified, then satellitehostname-rename will generate a certificate.
For more information about using satellite-hostname-rename, refer to the following Red Hat
Knowledgebase entry:
https://access.redhat.com/kb/docs/DOC-32318.
8.8. Conducting Satellite-Specific Tasks
Using a RHN Satellite is quite similar to using the hosted version of Red Hat Network. For this reason,
you should consult the RHN Reference Guide to obtain detailed instructions to standard tasks, such as
editing System Profiles and updating packages. Tasks directly related to managing custom channels
and Errata are covered in the RHN Channel Management Guide. This section seeks to explain
activities available only to Satellite customers.
8.8.1. Using the Tools menu
In addition to the standard categories available to all users through the top navigation bar, Satellite
Organization Administrators also have access to a Tools menu. Clicking this opens the RHN Internal
Tools page.
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Deleting Users
Figure 8.1. Internal Tools
To refresh the view of channels that have been updated but do not yet reflect those modifications on
the Satellite website, click the Update Errata cache now link on this page.
8.8.1.1. Maintaining the RHN Task Engine
The default display shows the status of the RHN Task Engine. This tool is a daemon that runs on the
Satellite server itself and performs routine operations, such as database cleanup, Errata mailings, etc.,
that must be performed in the background. The page displays the execution times for various activities
carried out by the daemon.
Administrators should ensure the RHN Task Engine stays up and running. If this daemon hangs for
any reason, it can be restarted using it's filename, taskomatic. As root, run the command:
/sbin/service taskomatic restart
Other service commands can also be used, including start, stop, and status.
8.8.2. Deleting Users
Because of the isolated environment in which RHN Satellites operate, Satellite customers have been
granted the ability to delete users. To access this functionality, click Users in the top navigation bar of
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Chapter 8. Maintenance
the RHN website. In the resulting User List, click the name of the user to be removed. This takes you
to the User Details page. Click the delete user link at the top-right corner of the page.
Figure 8.2. User Deletion
A confirmation page appears explaining that this removal is permanent. To continue, click Delete User
at the bottom-right corner of the page.
Note
The Organization Administrator role must be removed from the user's profile before deleting the
user from the RHN Satellite. Failing to do so causes the delete operation to fail.
The Organization Administrator role may be removed by any Organization Administrator
(provided they are not the sole Organization Administrator for the organization) by clicking on the
Users tab and then visiting the Details sub-tab.
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Configuring Satellite Search
Figure 8.3. User Delete Confirmation
Many other options exist for managing users. You can find instructions for them in the RHN website
chapter of the RHN Reference Guide.
8.8.3. Configuring Satellite Search
Satellite Administrators may want to configure certain search options to customize search results for
their own optimization requirements.
RHN Satellite search results can be customized via the /etc/rhn/search.rhn-search.conf file.
The following list defines the search configuration and their default values in parentheses.
• search.index_work_dir : Specifies where Lucene indexes are kept (/usr/share/rhn/search/
indexes)
• search.rpc_handlers : semi-colon separated list of classes to act as handlers for XMLRPC calls.
(filename>index:com.redhat.satellite.search.rpc.handlers.IndexHandler,
db:com.redhat.satellite.search.rpc.handlers.DatabaseHandler,
admin:com.redhat.satellite.search.rpc.handlers.AdminHandler)
• search.max_hits_returned : maximum number of results which will be returned for the query (500)
• search.connection.driver_class : JDBC driver class to conduct database searches
(oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver)
• search.score_threshold : minimum score a result needs to be returned back as query result (.10)
• search.system_score_threshold : minimum score a system search result needs to be returned back
as a query result (.01)
• search.errata_score_threshold : minimum score an errata search result needs to be returned back
as a query result (.20)
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Chapter 8. Maintenance
• search.errata.advisory_score_threshold : minimum score an errata advisory result needs to be
returned back as a query result (.30)
• search.min_ngram : minimum length of n-gram characters. Note that any change to this value
requires clean-index to be run, and doc-indexes need to be modified and rebuilt) (1)
• search.max_ngram : maximum length of n-gram characters. Note that any change to this value
requires clean-index to be run, and doc-indexes need to be modified and rebuilt) (5)
• search.doc.limit_results : type true to limit the number of results both on search.score_threshold
and restrict max hits to be below search.max_hits_returned; type false means to return all
documentation search matches (false)
• search.schedule.interval : input the time in miliseconds to control the interval with which the
SearchServer polls the database for changes; the default is 5 minutes (300000).
• search.log.explain.results : used during development and debugging. If set to true, this will log
additional information showing what influences the score of each result. (false)
8.9. Automating Synchronization
Manually synchronizing the RHN Satellite repository with Red Hat Network can be a time-intensive
task. United States business hours tend to be the peak usage time for Red Hat Network, so
synchronization at that time may be slow. For these reasons, Red Hat encourages you to automate
synchronization at other times to better balance load and ensure quick synchronization. Continental
United States business hours are roughly 8:00 AM to 9:00 PM EST (UTC -5), due to four time zones,
Monday through Friday. These hours may vary seasonally by one hour. Further, Red Hat strongly
recommends that synchronization occur randomly for best performance.
This automation can be set easily by the addition of a simple cron job. To do this, edit the crontab as
root:
crontab -e
This opens the crontab in a text editor, by default Vi. Another editor can be used by first changing the
EDITOR variable, like so: export EDITOR=gedit.
Once opened, use the first five fields (minute, hour, day, month, and weekday) to schedule
the synchronization. Remember, hours use military time. Edit the crontab to include random
synchronization, like so:
0 1 * * * perl -le 'sleep rand 9000' && satellite-sync --email >/dev/null \
2>/dev/null
This particular job will run randomly between 1:00 a.m. and 3:30 a.m. system time each night and
redirect stdout and stderr from cron to prevent duplicating the more easily read message from
satellite-sync. Options other than --email can also be included. Refer to Table 6.2, “Satellite
Import/Sync Options” for the full list of options. Once you exit from the editor, the modified crontab is
installed immediately.
8.10. Implementing PAM Authentication
As security measures become increasingly complex, administrators must be given tools that simplify
their management. For this reason, RHN Satellite supports network-based authentication systems via
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Enabling Push to Clients
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM). PAM is a suite of libraries that helps system administrators
integrate the Satellite with a centralized authentication mechanism, thus eliminating the need for
remembering multiple passwords.
RHN Satellite supports LDAP, Kerberos, and other network-based authentication systems via PAM.
To enable the Satellite to use PAM and your organization's authentication infrastructure, follow the
steps below.
Note
To ensure that PAM authentication functions properly, install the pam-devel package.
Set up a PAM service file (usually /etc/pam.d/rhn-satellite) and have the Satellite use it by
adding the following line to /etc/rhn/rhn.conf:
pam_auth_service = rhn-satellite
This assumes the PAM service file is named rhn-satellite.
To enable a user to authenticate against PAM, select the checkbox labeled Pluggable
Authentication Modules (PAM). It is positioned below the password and password confirmation
fields on the Create User page.
As an example, for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 i386 system, to authenticate against Kerberos one
could put the following in /etc/pam.d/rhn-satellite:
#%PAM-1.0
auth
auth
auth
account
required
sufficient
required
required
pam_env.so
pam_krb5.so no_user_check
pam_deny.so
pam_krb5.so no_user_check
Please note that changing the password on the RHN website changes only the local password on the
RHN Satellite, which may not be used at all if PAM is enabled for that user. In the above example, for
instance, the Kerberos password will not be changed.
8.11. Enabling Push to Clients
In addition to allowing client systems to regularly poll the Satellite for scheduled actions, you may
enable the Satellite to immediately initiate those tasks on Provisioning-entitled systems. This bypasses
the typical delay between scheduling an action and the client system checking in with RHN to retrieve
it. This support is provided by the OSA dispatcher (osad).
OSA dispatcher is a service that periodically runs a query that checks the Satellite server to see
if there are any commands to be executed on the client. If there are, it sends a message through
jabberd to the osad instances running on the clients.
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Important
SSL must be employed between the Satellite and its clients systems for this feature to work. If the
SSL certificates are not available, the daemon on the client system fails to connect.
To take advantage of this feature, you must first configure your firewall rules to allow connections on
the required port(s), as described in Section 2.4, “Additional Requirements”.
Then you must install the osa-dispatcher package, which can be found in the RHN Satellite
software channel for the Satellite within the central RHN website. Once installed, start the service on
the Satellite as root using the command:
service osa-dispatcher start
Finally, install the osad package on all client systems to receive pushed actions. The package can be
found within the RHN Tools child channel for the systems on the RHN Satellite.
Warning
Do not install the osad package on the Satellite server, as it will conflict with the osadispatcher package installed on the Satellite.
Once installed, start the service on the client systems as root using the command:
service osad start
Like other services, osa-dispatcher and osad accept stop, restart, and status commands,
as well.
Keep in mind, this feature depends on the client system recognizing the fully qualified domain
name (FQDN) of the Satellite. This name and not the IP address of the server must be used when
configuring the Red Hat Update Agent. Refer to the RHN Client Configuration Guide for details.
Now when you schedule actions from the Satellite on any of the push-enabled systems, the task will
begin immediately rather than wait for the system to check in.
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Appendix A. Sample RHN Satellite
Configuration File
The /etc/rhn/rhn.conf configuration file for the RHN Satellite provides a means for you to
establish key settings. Be warned, however, that errors inserted into this file may cause Satellite
failures. So make configuration changes with caution.
You should be particularly concerned with the following parameters: traceback_mail, default_db, and
server.satellite.http_proxy. Review the sample and its comments, beginning with a hash mark (#), for
additional details.
#/etc/rhn/rhn.conf example for an RHN Satellite
#---------------------------------------------# Destination of all tracebacks, such as crash information, etc.
traceback_mail = test@pobox.com, test@redhat.com
# Location of RPMs (Red Hat and custom) served by the RHN Satellite
mount_point = /var/satellite
# Corporate gateway (hostname:PORT):
server.satellite.http_proxy = corporate_gateway.example.com:8080
server.satellite.http_proxy_username =
server.satellite.http_proxy_password =
# Database connection information username/password@SID
default_db = test01/test01@test01
### DON'T TOUCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ###
web.satellite = 1
web.session_swap_secret_1
web.session_swap_secret_2
web.session_swap_secret_3
web.session_swap_secret_4
web.session_secret_1
web.session_secret_2
web.session_secret_3
web.session_secret_4
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
ea6c79f71cfcf307d567fed583c393b9
01dee83a7b7f27157f5335744eb02327
4e89e7697ce663149ca9e498cbc08b4f
a0fed2d77a950fc9a800b450a45e89d2
24bc562e04c9b93f5be94f793738e104
7667a7c2db311b1ea04271ecc1b82314
442e7dc4f06f63eba9a0408d499c6a8d
587a0db47856f685d989095629a9bd6f
encrypted_passwords = 1
web.param_cleansers = RHN::Cleansers->cleanse
web.base_acls = RHN::Access
web.default_taskmaster_tasks = RHN::Task::SessionCleanup,
RHN::Task::ErrataQueue,
RHN::Task::ErrataEngine,
RHN::Task::DailySummary,
RHN::Task::SummaryPopulation,
RHN::Task::RHNProc,
RHN::Task::PackageCleanup
web.rhn_gpg_backend_module = RHN::GPG::OpenPGP
web.restrict_mail_domains =
77
78
Appendix B. Revision History
Revision 1-29
Fri Feb 27 2009
79
80
Index
Symbols
/etc/nsswitch.conf , 58
/etc/rhn/rhn.conf , 58
A
advantages, 1
Apache, 63
Apache HTTP, 3
automating Satellite synchronization, 74
B
backing up the RHN Satellite, 64
block sizes, 13
C
channel
definition, 2
channel content
import process, 46
channel content ISOs
preparing, 46
channel package
default location
/var/satellite/ , 23
chkconfig , 17
cloning satellite, 68
Configuration Administrator
definition, 2
connection errors, 59
D
database requirements
Oracle access level, 13
database RPMs
default location
/opt/ , 23
db-control
options, 65
db-control use, 65
disable services
ntsysv
chkconfig , 17
E
embedded database
default location
/rhnsat/ , 23
enabling push to clients, 75
entitlement certificate, 15, 23
uploading, 38
F
firewall rules
requirements, 14
G
general problems, 57
GPG keys, 23
H
host not found error
could not determine FQDN, 58
how it works, 3
httpd , 17
I
import
channel content
process, 46
importing
satellite data, 41
importing data
placing Errata in repository, 48
populating the channel, 48
running the import, 47
installation
base, 23
MySQL, 35
of RHN Satellite, 23
sendmail, 34
Installation
automated, 33
installation task list, 4
L
log files, 56
table, 56
M
maintenance, 63
mysql-server , 35
N
Network Time Protocol, 15
ntp, 15
ntsysv , 17
O
operating system
supported, 9
Oracle 10g, 3
Organization Administrator
definition, 2
81
Index
osa-dispatcher , 76
osad , 76
P
PAM authentication
implementation, 74
port 443, 14
port 4545, 14
port 5222, 14
port 5269, 14
port 80, 14
R
Red Hat Network
introduction, 1
Red Hat Update Agent
definition, 2
redundant satellite, 68
requirements, 9
additional, 14
database, 12
DNS, 15
entitlement certificate, 15
firewall rules, 14
FQDN, 15
hardware, 10
jabberd, 15
ntp, 15
software, 9
TCP Ports, 14
RHN
components, 3
RHN DB Control
backup, 67
options, 65
restore, 67
verify, 67
RHN Entitlement Certificate
options, 38
RHN Entitlement Certificates, 37
receiving, 37
RHN Satellite Activate , 38
RHN Satellite Exporter, 41
RHN Satellite Server entitlement, 23
RHN Satellite Synchronization Tool , 43
options, 44
RHN Task Engine, 71
rhn-satellite, 63
rhn-satellite-activate , 38
activating, 39
options, 38
rhn-satellite-exporter, 41
export, 42
82
options, 42
rhn.conf
sample file, 77
rhns-satellite-tools , 38, 47
rogerthat01@{mail domain} , 34
S
Satellite configuration
search, 73
Satellite Installation Program
options, 32
Satellite Ports, 14
satellite redundancy, 68
satellite-debug , 60
satellite-sync , 47, 49
--step=channel-families , 48
--step=channels , 48
--step=rpms , 48
cron job, 74
search, 73
sendmail , 17
summary of steps, 4
synchronizing
keeping channel data in sync, 48
satellite data, 41
T
terms to understand, 2
tool use, 70
topologies, 19
multiple satellites horizontally tiered, 19
satellite and proxies vertically tiered, 20
single satellite, 19
traceback, 2
definition, 2
troubleshooting, 55
/etc/hosts , 57
Embedded Database, 58
full disk space, 57
SSL_CONNECT errors, 59
traceback email address, 58
U
updating the RHN Satellite, 63
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