Vaisala PTB210 SERIES Instruction manual

Vaisala PTB210 SERIES Instruction manual
Test and Installation of an
Automatic Weather Station to Provide
Ground-Based FTIR Measurements for TCCON
Diploma Thesis
by
Hendrik Zöphel
Mat.Nr.: 488470
born 18. October 1979
Supervised by
Dr. Dietrich Feist
Prof. Dr. Andreas Schleicher
Submitted on 26. November 2008
Presented as a part of the requirements
to gain the academical degree
Graduate Engineer
at the
Departement of SciTec - Precision - Optics - Materials - Environment
University of Applied Science Jena, Germany
Affidavit
I hereby declare on oath that this thesis is my own work and that it contains no
material previously published, or substantially overlapping with material submitted
for the award of any other degree at any institution, except where due acknowledgement is made in the text.
Ich versichere hiermit an Eides statt, dass ich diese Arbeit selbst verfasst habe und
das diese kein bereits veröffentlichtes, sowie Material aus anderen Diplomarbeiten
zur Erlangung eines akademischen Grades enthält, ausgenommen der im Text auf
Literatur verwiesenen Stellen.
Jena, 26. November 2008
.......................................
Acknowledgement
First of all I wish to thank Dr. Dietrich Feist and Dr. Martin Heimann for giving
me the opportunity to conduct this thesis. Furthermore, I want to express my gratitude for the great support and the survey of this work by Dr. Dietrich Feist. I also
want to thank Prof. Dr. Andreas Schleicher for supervising my thesis as dean of
the departement of SciTec of the University of Applied Science Jena.
My special thanks goes to Olaf Kolle and Marc Geibel who supported me with their
great assistance concerning various aspects of the practical part of this work. The
successful completion of this diploma thesis is to great extend due to them.
Additionally, I thank the colleagues from Campbell Scientific for many refreshing
ideas concerning the programming of the data logger.
In particular, I thank my friends Stephan Baum, Sebastian Klein, Carolin König
and Roberto Kretschmer - most of all - my family and Kristin Pohl for their neverending support, without which I would not have been able to complete this work.
Extra appreciation goes to all authors of the papers and manuals which I used within
my thesis.
Abstract
Measurements with the MPI-BGC FTIR system are only possible when the sun is
visible. However, the solar tracker which guides the sunlight into the instrument
has to be protected from precipitation and other adverse environmental conditions.
Therefore the FTIR system needs a weather station to determine if the local weather
conditions are favourable for measurements or if the solar tracker should be protected.
Figure 1: The BGC-FTIR Weather Station
The main parameters which will be determined are temperature, humidity, solar
radiation, wind speed and precipitation. To increase the reliability of the system,
all of the crucial parameters are measured redundantly with duplicate sensors or
sensors of different principle. The redundant sensor principle is also useful to correct long-term drift of the sensors.
The temperature and the humidity are measured with two compact meteorological
sensors. The wind speed is provided by two cup anemometers with high reliability.
The precipitation is detected by a light barrier and a contact conclusion system.
A pyranometer provides measurements of the global solar radiation. The high precision pressure measurement is implemented with a digital sensor which provides
maximum accuracy as well as long-term stability. A thermistor and a digital temperature/humidity sensor are used for monitoring the conditions inside container.
4
The sensor signals are collected by the Datalogger CR1000 at several analog and
digital inputs. The CR1000 and the sensors form a completely autonomous system
which works close together with the other systems installed in the Container. Thus,
this automated measurement system is possible. Communication with the master
PC is accomplished over an ethernet connection with the Ethernet/Compact Flash
Module NL115. Furthermore it makes it possible to be flexible in programming via
FTP, for example to adjust calibration factors, to balance the offset or to upload a
new program. The data are finally stored in tables on the CPU as well as on the
CF-Card.
The common handling of the automatic weather station was documnented in the
form of a comprehensive instruction manual which will be added to the documentation of the BGC-FTIR-Container.
The weather station was built as an efficient autonomous and easy to use system.
This system operates close together with the other systems in the container to
provide the required data for an fully automatic measurement system - the BGC
FTIR-Container
5
Contents
1 Scope
9
2 The Sensors
2.1
13
Weather Station - Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.1
Temperature/Humidity - Galltec/Mela KPC 1/6-ME . . . . . 14
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.2
Wind Speed - Lambrecht 14577 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1.3
Precipitation - Lambrecht 15153 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1.4
Precipitation - Lambrecht 15152 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.5
Solar Radiation - Kipp & Zonen CMP3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.6
Pressure - Vaisala PTB210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.2
BGC-FTIR-Container - Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.1
Temperature Probe - Campbell Scientific T107 . . . . . . . . . 25
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.2
Temperature/Humidity - Campbell Scientific CS215 . . . . . . 27
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3 Data Acquisition
3.1
29
Datalogger CR1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.1.1
Connecting Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.1.2
Peripheral Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Keyboard Display - CR1000KD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Ethernet and CompactFlash Modul NL115 . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4 Programming
35
4.1
Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.2
Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3
Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.3.1
Variables and Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Data Types and Operational Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.4
4.5
Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.4.1
DataTable() and EndTable() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.4.2
DataInterval() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.4.3
Output Processing Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Program - Main Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.5.1
Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Port-Configuration and Measurement Processing . . . . . . . . 47
Calibration Factors and Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.5.2
Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
String Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Mathematical and Logical Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.6
User-Defined Power-Up Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7
5 The Sensors - Test Series
5.1
52
Climate and Pressure Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5.1.1
Temperature/Humidity - Galltec/Mela KPC 1/6-ME . . . . . 52
Temperature and Humidity Mesurement as a Function of Time 52
Temperature and Humidity Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Sensor Difference for Temperature and Humidity . . . . . . . 57
5.1.2
Pressure - Vaisala PTB210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Pressure Measurement as a Function of Time . . . . . . . . . 59
Pressure Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Sensor Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.2
Air Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.2.1
Wind Speed - Lambrecht 14577 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6 Mounting of the Weather Station
62
6.1
Development of a Wiring Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.2
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7 Evaluation
7.1
66
Test Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.1.1
Datalogger Home Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.1.2
FTP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.1.3
Test Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8 Conclusion
71
List of Figures
73
List of Tables
75
Bibliography
76
A CRBasic - Program Weather Station
79
B CRBasic - Input file CONST.CR1
85
8
Chapter 1
Scope
The Earth’s climate has changed throughout the history. From glacial periods or
"ice ages" where ice covered significant portions of the Earth to interglacial periods
where ice retreated to the poles or melted entirely - the climate has continuously
changed.
Figure 1.1: Greenhouse Gas Cycle
[http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov/images/greenhouse-sm1.gif, 12.09.08]
There are a lot of factors effecting the climatic behaviour of the Earth. CO2 is a
critical component of the Earth’s atmosphere. Since the beginning of the industrial
9
age, there has been a concentration increase of CO2 of about 25%, from about 280
parts per million to over 370 parts per million. Scientific studies indicate that CO2
is one of several gases that trap heat near the surface of the Earth. These gases
are known as greenhouse gases [1]. Figure 1.1 shows the global greenhouse gas cycle.
Many scientists have concluded that substantial increases in the abundance of CO2
will generate an increase in the Earth’s surface temperature. Historical records provide evidence of this trend, which is often called global warming. Current research
indicates that continuing increases in atmospheric CO2 may modify the environment in a variety of ways. These changes may impact ocean currents, the jet stream
and rain patterns. Some parts of the Earth might actually cool while the average
temperature increases. Thus, a more correct term for this phenomenon is climate
change. CO2 can enter the atmosphere from a variety of sources. Some sources are
natural, such as rotting plants, forest fires and ordinary breathing. Human activities
augment the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Automobiles, factories and home
heating units burn fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas. Burning these fossil
fuels releases CO2 into the atmosphere. Other natural processes remove CO2 from
the atmosphere. Plants use sunlight to photosynthesize CO2 and water into sugar
and other carbohydrates. The oceans also absorb atmospheric CO2 . Sea creatures
incorporate the CO2 dissolved in sea water into their shells. After the death of these
creatures, their shells fall to the bottom of the ocean. Over time, these sediments
form carbonate rocks. Processes that absorb CO2 from the atmosphere are often
referred to as sinks. The complete process of CO2 exchange is known as the carbon
cycle [1].
In order to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle, the Carbon Dioxide
Information Analysis Center of the U. S. Department of Energy tracks and monitors
CO2 emissions from a global network of ground-based sites. This network provides
a tremendous amount of insight into the global abundance of CO2 and its variability
of changes in seasons [1].
10
Unfortunately, the global network does not include enough stations to resolve the
spatial distribution of CO2 sources and sinks at the scale of continents or ocean
basins. Thus, even with these extensive measurements, the processes that regulate
the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere, the oceans, and the biosphere are not
completely understood. One of the ground-based measurement projects that collaborates with the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center of the U. S. Department
of Energy is the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Figure 1.2
will give you an overview of the operational and the future site of ground-based
measurement stations from TCCON. Austria, the US, Japan, Spain, New Zealand
and Germany are involved so far and more will come along.
Figure 1.2: Operation and Future Site of ground-based Measurement Stations
[http://www.tccon.caltech.edu/images/tccon_080723.png,
12.09.09]
Thus, TCCON is a global network of ground-based fourier transformation spectrometers recording direct solar spectra in the near infrared spectral region from 4000 to
14000 cm− 1. From these spectra, accurate and precise column-averaged abundance
of CO2 , CH4 , N2 O, HF, CO, H2 O and HDO can be retrieved [2].
11
The column observation, in combination with the existing and growing surface measurements, will improve estimates of surface flux of greenhouse gases, allowing improved predictions of their future concentrations, and ultimately climate. In addition
to their direct use for carbon flux studies, TCCON measurements will be used to validate satellite column measurements for the Orbitting Carbon Observatory (OCO),
Scimatchy and the Global Greenhouse Observation by Satelite (GOSAT).
Several of the TCCON sites have been either fully or partly funded for validation of
the NASA OCO satellite. To provide useful constraints for the global carbon budget
the measurements must achieve a precision approaching 0.1%.
Within my diploma thesis my work will account for ground-based FTIR measurements by making a contribution for building up a fully automatic measurement
system - the BGC-FTIR-Container.
Figure 1.3: BGC-FTIR-Container
This container will likely takes up work on Ascension Island in the first quarter of
2009 for measuring CO2 and CH4 by means of the solar spectrum for carrying these
data forward into TCCON’s database. The ireland with its capital Georgetown is
situated in the south atlantic ocean, shown in Fig. 1.2, 7 °56’ 38" South and 14
°21’ 51" West. It has tropical climate and a population of 1100 people inhabiting
an area of 91 km2 .
12
Chapter 2
The Sensors
2.1
Weather Station - Instrumentation
The intended goal of the use of the weather station is to provide all the meteorological data which are required for measuring a solar spectrum by means of the
BGC-FTIR-System as well as to make this system completely automatic. Figure
2.1 shows the weather station.
Figure 2.1: The BGC-FTIR Weather Station
To increase the reliability of the system, all crucial parameters are measured redundantly with duplicate sensors or sensors of different principle. The redundant sensor
principle is also useful to correct long-term drift of the sensors. The following notes
will give an overview of the used sensors, their function in the BGC-FTIR-System
and their measuring principle.
13
2.1.1
Temperature/Humidity - Galltec/Mela KPC 1/6-ME
Function
Temperature and humidity are not only fundamental, but also crucial parameters,
within the measuring process of the BGC-FTIR-Container. So longterm recordings
outside the BGC-FTIR-Container are done to find out possible discrepancies in solar
spectra. Furthermore, these measurements contribute to avoid condensation on the
mirror‘s surface of the solar tracker in case of humidity levels at high ranges.
Figure 2.2: KPC 1/6-ME and Weather Guard
[Manual - Product Info Sheet No. C 2.4, 3/04]
Figure 2.2 shows the Galltec/Mela KPC 1/6-ME. This compact sensor has a rodtype design with a high degree of accuracy. It has been especially developed for
meteorological applications and provides with its redundant use maximum reliability
for the system.
The sensor can be exposed to salt mist because of its location close to the sea. Thus,
it is used the version with the ZE21-type sintered high-grade steel filter in order to
protect the sensing element and to reduce maintenance. Therefore the dynamic
behavior changes as one can see in section 5.1.1 on page 52.
Measuring Principle
To measure temperature, the sensor uses a platin PT100 temperature probe whose
basis is a resistance varying according to its temperature.
14
This sensor element is distinguished through its nominal resistance R0 of 100 ohm.
Humidity is measured by use of a capacitive sensor element. Thus, the humidity
sensor forms a capacitor with its environment. If there are any changes in humidity,
there are also changes in capacitance of the capacitor because of the difference in
permittivity. Figure 2.3 shows the capacitive sensor principle. The capacity is
calculated with equation 2.1.
Figure 2.3: Capacitive Sensor Principle
[http://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/2/20/PlateCapacitorII.svg, 10.10.08]
C0 = 0 r
• C0 = Capacity
A
d
(2.1)
[F]
• 0 = Permittivity Constant [Fm−1 ]
• r = Permittivity
[Fm−1 ]
• A = Area
[mm2 ]
• D = Distance
[mm2 ]
The higher the rate of water, the higher the permittivity and therefore the higher
the capacitance. This change is detected by the connected electronics of the sensor
and allocated as an electrical output signal. The output signal is proportianal to
the changes in capacitance.
15
The structure of the sensing element is demontrated in Fig. 2.4.
There is a thin gold layer, a hygroscopic polymer layer, a electrode system and a
ceramic substrate.
Figure 2.4: Sensing Element
[Physics of the Humidity Technology,
R. Freitag, PowerPoint Presentation, 4/07]
The Polymer is to be poised with the environment and store water, where the thin
goldlayer is water vapour permeable. By this means a storage of the H2 O-dipol
causes a change of the dielectric within the capacitor which depends on frequency.
So capacity increases by availability of charge carriers which is detected within the
connected electronics for further converting processes.
16
2.1.2
Wind Speed - Lambrecht 14577
Function
When weather condition are characterized by high wind speeds, the dome of the
solar tracker should close for protecting the sensitive instrument. Thus, wind speed
is one of the parameters which is determined for protecting the solar tracker. If high
wind speeds do occure at a high level a signal is send to the control system of the
BGC-FTIR-Container, the SPS, to close the dome of the solar tracker. To increase
the reliability of the system, the wind speed is provided by two cup anemometers.
Figure 2.5: Lambrecht Wind Speed 14577
[Manual - Wind-Sensors INDUSTRY 145x7, 10/06]
The sensor is shown in Fig. 2.5. Its main advantages are the electromagnetic, nonimpact measuring principle for precise data acquisition with high resolution and
the double supported ball bearing of the rotation axis. These characteristics assure
high reliability, longevity, lower friction as well as lower abrasion and high accuracy.
Furthermore, there is an automatic heating element to avoid freezing of the ball
bearing.
Measuring Principle
Measuring wind speed is implemented with an integrated circuit (IC) including a
hall-sensor-array. The IC is measuring the change in alignment of the magnetic field
by means of a rotating magnet which is mounted at the cup module of the anemome17
ter. This information of changing by time is going to be processed in the connected
microcontroller in order to have an analog output for wind speed. Unfortunately,
there are no further detailed information about the measuring principle from the
manufacturer.
2.1.3
Precipitation - Lambrecht 15153
Function
Figure 2.6 shows Lambrecht’s precipitation detector. This sensor transmits signals
to determine the beginning and the end of precipitation and the duration of the
period of precipitation.
Figure 2.6: Lambrecht Precipitation Sensor 15153
[Manual - Electronic Precipitation Indicator 15153, 1/07]
In the BGC-FTIR-System this sensor is used to report status and to transmit a
control signal to the SPS to protect the solar tracker by closing the dome in order
to avoid wetting of the sensitive instrument. The sensor is equipped with a heating
system for extreme weather conditions. This avoids ice and snow forming on the
housing’s surface and increases the reliability of the system.
Measuring Principle
Precipitation in the form of drizzle, rain, snow or hail is detected by means of an IR
light barrier system as shown in Fig. 2.7.
Infrared radiation is send and received by a photo diode. If this event is cut through
a signal is triggered within the connected electronics and reports precipitation.
18
The control system of the BGC-FTIR-Container processes this event for further
steps concerning the protection of the solar tracker.
Figure 2.7: Sensors Light Barrier System
[Manual - Electronic Precipitation Indicator 15153, 1/07]
A built-in incidence-filter smoothes the triggering of swiching signals in case of
individual incidences, as for example leafs, bird droppings, insects etc. For this, a
certain number of at least "n" incidences should have occured within a time-frame
of 50 seconds. The number of drop incidences (1...15) can be selected through the
DIP switch on the circuit board. For details please see [16]. When precipitation
ends, the switching signal is reset after a selectable switch-off delay.
19
2.1.4
Precipitation - Lambrecht 15152
Function
In order to provide a detection of all kinds of precipitation the precipitation instrumentation is enlarged by the Lambrecht 15152. It is a very simple but reliable sensor
as shown in Fig. 2.8.
Figure 2.8: Lambrecht Rain Sensor 15152
[Manual - Electronic Rain Indicator 15152, 6/07]
The sensor‘s surface is heated in two levels. The first level is switched on constantly
to prevent ice and dew formation. As soon as the sensing area is moistured, the
second heating level is switched on to make sure that the surface drys up as soon as
possible. After drying up the second level is switched off again. So a use at every
weather condition is implemented.
Measuring Principle
At the beginning of a precipitation event rain drops will cause a conductive connection between the two sensing electrodes to trigger the relay contacts. By this means
a relay is cut through and the controlling event is done. The SPS process this event
for further protection steps.
20
2.1.5
Solar Radiation - Kipp & Zonen CMP3
Function
Measurements with the BGC-FTIR-System are only possible when the sun is visible.
Therefore the Pyranometer CMP 3 comes into operation to determine if the local
conditions are favourable for measuremnts or not. Figure 2.9 shows the instrument.
Figure 2.9: Kipp & Zonen CMP3
[http://www.campbellsci.com/images/cmp3.jpg, 02.09.08]
The use of the CMP 3 is intended for shortwave global solar radiation measurements
(spectral range 310 to 2800 nm) and measures irradiance up to 2000 W/m2 with a
response time less than 18 seconds.
Measuring Principle
The thermopile sensor construction measures the solar energy that is received from
the total solar spectrum and the hole hemisophere (180 degrees field of view). The
output is expressed in W/m2 according to equation (2.2).
Esolar =
• Esolar = Irradiance
Uemf
S
(2.2)
[W/m2 ]
• Uemf = Output Voltage [V]
• S
= Sensitivity
[V/(W/m2 )]
In order to attain the proper directional and spectral characteristics, the pyranometer‘s main components are fundamental as shown in Fig. 2.10 according to [13].
21
The most important components are the thermopile sensor with a black coating,
which absorbs all solar radiation, has a flat spectrum covering the 300 to 50000
nanometer range and has a near-perfect cosine response as well as the glass dome.
This dome limits the spectral response from 310 to 2800 nanometers (cutting off
the part above 2800 nm) while preserving the 180 degrees field of view. Another
function of the dome is the shielding of the thermopile sensor from convection and
other adverse environmental conditions.
Figure 2.10: Main Components
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiImage:
Pyranometer_sr11_hukseflux_crosssection.gif, 24.09.08]
The black coating on the thermopile sensor absorbs the solar radiation. This radiation is converted to heat. The heat flows through the sensor to the pyranometer
housing. The thermopile sensor generates a voltage output signal that is proportional to the solar radiation.
22
2.1.6
Pressure - Vaisala PTB210
Function
The pressure measurement requires high accuracy and precision to calculate volume
mixing ratio of the measured trace gases. These data are also measured to be
archieved with the solar spectrum in the database of the TCCON network for further
processing. Thus, the automatic weather station is equipped with two digital Vaisala
PTB 210 which features digital output in an range of 500 to 1100 hPa. A third sensor
of the same type is used for the leap-frog recalibration scheme. All of them are
operating in a wide temperature range and the rugged corrosion-resistant housing
provides an IP65 standardized protection against sprayed water.
Figure 2.11: Vaisala PTB 210
[Manual - PTB210 Digital Series with Serial Output, 12/05]
To maintain the reliability of the system the leap-frog recalibration scheme is carried
out according to figure 2.12.
Figure 2.12: Leap-Frog Recalibration Scheme
The sensor is shown in Fig. 2.11. Two barometers are always used for operational
23
measurements. Upon every maintenance visit, one of the barometers should be
replaced with the recalibrated spare one. This way you can ensure that there is a
maximum in accuracy and precission for further calculations.
Measuring Principle
The PTB210 barometers incorporate the BAROCAP silicon capacitive absolute
pressure sensor developed by Vaisala [8] . The BAROCAP principle can be found in
2.13. The sensor features excellent hysteresis and repeatability characteristics and
has an outstanding temperature and long-term stability.
Figure 2.13: The BAROCAP Pressure Sensor
[Manuel - PTB210 Digital Series with Serial Output, 12/05]
The sensor consists of two layers of single crystal silicon having a layer of glass
between them. The thinner silicon layer creates an integrated vacuum reference
chamber and forms a pressure-sensitive silicon diaphragm. The thicker silicon layer
is the rigid base plate of the sensor and is clad with a glass dielectric. Thin film
metallization is deposited to form a capacitor electrode inside the vacuum reference
chamber. The other electrode is the pressure-sensitive silicon diaphragm. When
pressure changes, the silicon diaphram bends and changes the height of the vacuum
gap in the sensor. This changes the capacitance of the sensor which is measured
and converted into a pressure reading [18].
24
2.2
BGC-FTIR-Container - Monitoring
It is not only important to provide all the meteorological data, you also have to bear
in mind the conditions inside the BGC-FTIR-Container. In oder to do this several
sensors are mounted for monitoring the crucial parameters in case of a failure in air
conditioning or simply to control temperature inside the FTIR instrument.
2.2.1
Temperature Probe - Campbell Scientific T107
Function
A low pressure gas cell filled with HCL is used to provide narrow absorption lines
at a number of different frequencies across the bandwidth of the FTIR instrument.
The gas cell acts as an internal calibration reference and is placed directly into the
solar beam. Campbell Scientific‘s Temperature Probe T107 is shown in Fig. 2.14.
It is used for monitoring the temperature inside the FTIR spectrometer next to the
gas cell because absorption lines depend on temperature. Two redundant sensors
are used for monitor the temperature of the gas cell.
Figure 2.14: Temperature Probe T107
[Manual - Model 107 Temperature Probe, 4/07]
Measuring Principle
The Temperature Probe T107 uses a thermistor to measure temperature. This
thermistor is a kind of resistor with resistance varying according to its temperature.
The sensor measures the voltage drop across the 1K ohm resistor according to Fig.
2.15.
25
Figure 2.15: Thermistor Probe Schematic
[Manual - Model 107 Temperature Probe, 4/07]
The ration of measured voltage (Vs) to the excitation voltage (Vx) is related to
the thermistor resistance (Rs), and the 1000 and 249K ohm fixed resistor shown in
equation 2.3 below.
V s/V x =
1000
Rs + 249000 + 1000
(2.3)
The sensor calculates Rs from the voltage ration, and converts Rs to temperature
using the Steinhart-Hart equation in 2.4.
T =
• T
1
A + B(LnRs) + C(LnRs)3 ) − 273.15
= temperature returned in °C
• A, B, C = coefficients provided by the thermistor manufacteur
26
(2.4)
2.2.2
Temperature/Humidity - Campbell Scientific CS215
Function
To complete the monitoring of the conditions inside the BGC-FTIR-Container the
digital Temperature/Humidity Sensor CS215 comes into operation. Figure 2.16
shows the sensor. It features a digital SDI-12 output allowing simple connection to
the Control-Port of the Datalogger CR1000.
Figure 2.16: Campbell Scientific CS215
[Manual - CS215 Temperature & Relative Humidity Probe,
3/08]
The BGC-FTIR-Container is constructed to have two rooms, a main room where the
FTIR instrumentation is fitted and a secondary room with a built-in air conditioning,
a fuse box and additionally the control unit. Two digital CS215 observe temperature
and humidity in both rooms in order to control air conditions and further on to avoid
high humidity levels by providing data to control the air condition.
Measuring Principle
The core of this sensor is a specially developed, patented semiconductor chip, also
known as "computer chip". Special sensing structures are implemented on the chip
by means of micro systems engineering. They detect precisely and reliably the desired physical parameters, in that case relative humidity and temperature. The
fusion of sensor and evaluation circuitry on one chip named CMOS guarantees that
the sensitive, analog sensor signals can be amplified and digitized without noise and
with high precision. The scheme of this chip can be found in Fig. 2.17.
27
In addition to the resistive method for temperature measurement, the capacitive
measurement principle is used as in the KPC 1/6-ME temperature and humidity
sensor. For this principle, the sensor element is built out of a capacitor. The
dielectric is a polymer which absorbs or releases water proportionally to the relative
environmental humidity, and thus changes the capacitance of the capacitor. This
change in capacitance can be measured by an electronic circuit. This allows the
relative air humidity to be determined.
The sensor element itself is just as important for the sensor as the directly integrated
evaluation circuitry. It is the standard technology for integrated circuit fabrication
and the temperature sensor and the humidity sensor form one single unit together.
Figure 2.17: CMOSens Chip
[http://www.sensirion.com/en/images/CAD_SHT11.gif,
20.10.08]
This sensor includes a temperature sensor that is used for exact temperature compensation. CMOSens sensors also contain additional intelligence on the chip for
functional control of the sensor element, for low-power functions, and also for complete linearization and temperature compensation.
28
Chapter 3
Data Acquisition
3.1
Datalogger CR1000
The following notes give an outline of the ports and moduls which are used for
operating with the instrumentation of the automatic weather station. Figure 3.1
gives an overview of several possibilities of connecting sensors and modules to the
data logger.
Figure 3.1: Datalogger CR1000
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
29
3.1.1
Connecting Panel
The Datalogger CR1000 has powerful analog and digital features as well as a lot of
connection options for communication with several peripherals and sensors. That
makes it easy to assemble the weather station with all the instrumentation and additional moduls which are necessary to put a completely autonomous system into
practice.
Analog and Switched Voltage
The Temperature/Humidity Sensor KPC 1/6 ME and the Pyranometer CMP3
transmit analog voltage which is measured at the DIFF-Ports of the Datalogger
CR1000. Figure 3.2 shows the common connection scheme.
Figure 3.2: Connecting to SE- and DIFF-Ports
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
Lambrechts Wind Speed 14557 transmits analog current. This signal is also measured at the DIFF-Ports of the Datalogger CR1000 but has to be transformed into
analog voltage by using a high-precision shunt resistor of 100 Ohm. The Temperature Probe T107 has to be excited by the EX-Port because of switched voltage and
is measured at the SE-Ports.
30
Serial Data
The digital pressure sensor PTB210 transmits serial data which are received at the
COM-Ports of the Datalogger CR1000. Figure 3.3 shows the common connection
scheme.
Figure 3.3: Connecting to COM-Ports
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
The operating command is send through the transmit line (TX) while the receive
line (RX) is responsible for the data acquisition.
SDI-12
Campbell Scientifics Temperature/Humidity Sensor CS215 features a digital SDI-12
output (Serial Data Interface at 1200 Baud). It allows simple connection to the
Control-Ports of the Datalogger CR1000 according to Fig. 3.4.
Figure 3.4: Connecting to Control-Ports
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
Figure 3.4 shows the common connection sheme. Only the transmit lines (TX)
can be used to operate with the SDI-12 sensor output, because communication is
achieved by digital communications along a single serial line.
31
CS I/O
The 9-pin CS I/O-Port (Campbell Scientific Input / Output) as shown in Fig. 3.5
is used to connect to Campbell Scientific telecommuinication peripherals.
Figure 3.5: CS I/O Port
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
It is designed to operate and set-up the Datalogger CR1000 by using the additional
keyboard display CR1000KD.
Peripheral Port
To have the alternative of saving data to a CF-Card and operate through a ethernet
line the Datalogger CR1000 is equipped with the Ethernet/CompactFlash Module
NL115. It is connected to the 40-pin peripheral port on the CR1000 as shown in
Fig. 3.6.
Figure 3.6: Peripheral Port
[Manual CR1000 - Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
32
3.1.2
Peripheral Devices
Communication with the master host has to be as comfortable as possible due to
the flexible and worldwide use of the BGC-FTIR-Container. Moreover, the set-up of
parameters concerning the programming or communication should be easy to handle
in case of changes or maintenance. Thus, additional modules come into operation.
Keyboard Display - CR1000KD
The idea is to monitor the readings of the weather station as well as to have changes
of parameters without the need to connect to a laptop. An optimal solution to
achieve that is the additional keybord display CR1000KD as shown in Fig. 3.7.
Figure 3.7: Keyboard Display CR1000KD
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
You can have access to the file system on the CPU of the data logger as well as on
the CF Card. It is possible to check data and to run and stop a program. You can
look up the ports and the status and have the possibility to modify the configuration
and the settings of the logger. Detailed information can be found in [16].
33
Ethernet and CompactFlash Modul NL115
Figure 3.8 shows Campbell Scientific’s NL115 Ethernet/CompactFlash Module. It
provides two useful capabilities. It enables 10baseT Ethernet communications and
stores data on a removable CF-Card. So it is possible to communicate over the local
network of the BGC-FTIR-Container, respectively via TCP/IP.
Figure 3.8: Ethernet and CompactFlash Module - NL115
[Manual - NL115 Ethernet & CompactFlash Module, 4/08]
More important is the use of data transfer via FTP. The calibration factors and
constants which transform the signals into real units are stored on the CF-Card
for further processes by including them within the program run on the CPU. This
makes it possible to modify them without a need to access the main program on
the CPU. Besides there is a web site of the logger which provides its actual readings
and status. In order to have a look at it you simply have to connect with a standard
browser. Detailed informations can be found in [16].
34
Chapter 4
Programming
The CR1000 requires a program be sent to its memory to direct measurement, processing and data storage options. Programs are sent with a special support software
but can also be sent from a CF card by using the power-up funtion. For details
see section 4.6 on page 51. CR1000 application programs are written in a variation
of BASIC (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) computer language,
CRBASIC (Camp. Recorder BASIC). CRBASIC Editor is a text editor that facilitates creation and modification of the ASCII text file which constitutes the CR1000
application program.
The fundamental elements of CRBASIC are the variables, constants, common instructions and special instructions.
4.1
Outlook
The data acquisition of the instrumentation of the weather station has to be very
specific with user-defined declarations in view of variables, constants and instructions
in order to get all the necessarry data for implementing the automatic measurement
cycle of BGC-FTIR-Container. This includes communication among sensors and
ports of the data logger, data storage and measuring loops which are illustrated like
followed in this chapter.
35
4.2
Structure
The proper structure of an CRBASIC program is demontrated in Fig. 4.1 and
reflects the general structure of the program written for the automatic weather
station.
Figure 4.1: Proper Program Structure
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
36
4.3
Declarations
The declarations at the beginning of an CRBASIC program are like an abstract for
the user to know about the parameters of capital importance. This enfoldes the sensors with their port-usage at the data logger, peripheral devices, both measurement
and data storge characteristics. However, this program segment has nothing to do
with the actual program run and just gives an account of readings and terms.
4.3.1
Variables and Arrays
A variable is a packet of memory, given an alphanumeric name, through which
measurements and processing results pass during the program execution. Variables
are declared either as PUBLIC, ALIAS or DIM at the discretion of the programmer.
PUBLIC and ALIAS variables can be viewed through the CR1000KD or software
numeric monitors. DIM variables cannot but are not to be used for programming
the instrumentation of the weather station. The amount of variables depends on
the number of sensors and calculation processes which are to be done. First of all,
every sensor gets his own variable. If there are any calculations in the runtime of
the main scan, this result has to be assigned to annother variable. For example the
variables for the counter of measured data per interval are expressed as following:
Public N
Public Count
When a variable is declared, several variables of the same root name can also be
declared. This is done by adding a suffix of "(x)" to the alphanumeric name, wich
creates an array of x number of variables that differ only by the incrementing number
in the suffix. For example, rather than declaring some similar variables as follows,
Public T107_C_1
Public T107_C_2
Public TRHData_1
Public TRHData_2
Alias TRHData_1=TempC
Alias TRHData_2=HumidC
37
it is simply declared as array as shown below:
Public T107_C(2)
Public TRHData(2)
Alias TRHData(1)=Temp_C
Alias TRHData(2)=Humid_C
This creates in memory four variables T107_C(1), T107_C(2), Temp_C and Humid_C. Thus, the amount of required code reduces to a minimum. Furthermore,
this example demonstrates the use of aliases which is equivalent to the assignment
of stored ASCII data within the TRHData-Array to the variables Temp_C and
Humid_C. The procedure of declaration is repeated to name every sensor and calculating process with its own variable for further output and storage.
Data Types and Operational Detail
Variables and stored data can be configured with various data types to optimize
program execution and memory usage. Table 4.1 gives an outline of the used data
types.
Table 4.1: Details of used Data Types
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
The declaration of variables via PUBLIC or DIM statement allows an optional type
descriptor AS that specifies the data type. The default data type, without a description, is IEEE4 floating point (FLOAT).
38
Variable data types are STRING and the numeric types: FLOAT, LONG and
BOOLEAN. In the program sequence of the automatic weather station the data
types IEEE4 an STRING are to be used. The example below points this out.
Public T107_C(2)
Public AirPressString AS STRING * 30
In this case the T107_C(2) variable is a simple array of two temperature measurements with IEEE4 standard as data type where the STRING data type is put in
because of the need to transmit simple text commands through a serial line for
operating the digital pressure sensor PTB210. As a result serial data are received
in terms of pressure readings at a individual configured port of the data logger.
The numeric expression *30 represents the maximum of text characters to be sent
depending on the length of the required command.
Units
Every variable stored in the tables is assigned to its engineering unit as shown below.
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Temp_C = Deg C
Humid_C = %
WindSpd = m/s
Pyrano = W/m^2
AirPress = hPa
Thus, it is easier to handle data for future interpretations or calculations for people
who do not know about the source code of storage process. Units are strictly for
documentation. The CR1000 makes neither use of them nor checks on their accuracy.
Constants
A constant can be declared at the beginning of a program to assign an alphanumeric
name to be used in place of a value so the program can refer to the name rather
than the value itself. Using a constant in place of a value can make the program
easier to be read and to be modify and more secure against unintended changes.
39
In the programming of the weather station all constants such as calibraiton factors,
offsets and ASCII text commands are stored in an external data file on the CF
card. For detailed information of source code see appendix B on page 85. It is
itegrated within the normal program sequence through a simple include command
for execution. The example below shows the procedure of declaring constants.
Const = CR = CHR(13)
Const = LF = CHR(10)
Const = Command = ".P" + CR + LF
Const = wind_multiplier = 0.03125
Const = wind_offset = -12.5
The first part distinguishes the combination of commands like carriage return CHR(13)
and line feed CHR(10) with operating commands to a single instruction named
"Command". The characters were taken from the library of CRBASIC. This instruction can be sent through a serial line to operate sensors, in this case, the digital
PTB210 barometers from Vaisala.
Every analog sensors uses its proper multiplier and offset for converting the analog
voltage into real units like demonstrated. For details see section 4.5.1 on page 49.
4.4
Data Tables
Data are stored in tables as directed by the CR1000’s CRBASIC program. A data
table is created by a series of CRBASIC instructions which are entered after variable
declarations but before the main program. These intructions include:
DataTable() / EndTable
Output Trigger Condition(s)
Output Processing Instrucions
EndTable Instruction
A data table is essentially a file resides in CR1000 memory. The file is written to
each time data are directed to that file.
40
The program stores individual measurements as minimum, maximum, squared sum
and averages as base values for a scan interval in two different tables for outdoor and
indoor measurements. Moreover each table is associated with overhead information
that becomes part of the ASCII file header when data are downloaded to a PC. This
header includes:
• table format
• datalogger type and operating system version
• name of CRBASIC program running in the datalogger
• name of data table
• alphanumeric field names to attach at the head of data columns
A typical data table after downloading or after converting the binary file can be
viewed like shown in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2: Typical Data Table
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08]
41
4.4.1
DataTable() and EndTable()
As already shown, data table declartion begins with the DataTable() instruction
and ends with the EndTable instruction.
DataTable(Table_Indoor,True,-1)
...
EndTable
Between these instructions that define what data are to store and under what conditions data are stored. A data table must be called by the CRBASIC program for
data storage processing to occur. Typically, data tables are called by the CallTable()
instruction once each scan in the main program.
The DataTable instruction has three parameters:
• Name - name of data table up to 20 characters
• TrigVar - trigger conditions true or false
• Size - table size is set to a fixed number of records or to autoallocate function
In that case the table name is Table_Indoor with a trigger variabel set to true to
run the table and a size set to automatically allocated memory limit by using the
expression -1.
4.4.2
DataInterval()
DataInterval() sets the period in which data are stored. It has four parameters:
• TintInt - time into interval for offest
• Interval - how often data will be stored
• Units - specify units on which the TintInt and Interval argument will be based
• Lapses - number of lapses or gaps in the interval to track
42
A timestamp will not be stored for each record. When data are downloaded or the
binary fomat is converted by the support software, timestamps are calculated from
the data storage interval set in DataInterval() and the time of most recent record.
As each new record is stored, the current timestamp is compared with the last
known stored record. So when the CR1000 determines a record has been skipped,
a timestamp will be stored with the data. This discontinuity in records is termed a
"lapse". The DateInterval() for the tables of the weather station is set as followed:
DataInterval(0,60,Sec,10)
Thus, data are stored without an offset once a minute as defined and retains the
most recent records in RAM up to an automatically allocated memory limit. The
lapse parameter is set to 10 and characterizes the maximum number of lapse time
stamps that will be recored and allocates the additional memory space required for
the lapse time stamps.
4.4.3
Output Processing Instructions
Data storage processing instructions determine what data are stored in the data
table. When a data table is called in the CRBASIC program, data storage processing
instructions process the defined variables holding current inputs or calculations.
However, the process of data storage to the CF card can be implemented. The data
table for indoor monitoring looks as following:
DataTable(Table_Indoor,True,-1)
DataInterval(0,60,Sec,10)
CardOut(1,-1000)
Average(2,T107_C(1),FP2,Fasle)
Average(1,Temp_C,FP2,False)
Average(1,Humid_C,FP2,False)
Sample(1,N,FP2)
EndTable
Both data of temperature and humidity are stored without an offset once a minute
as defined average and the number of records during the main scan interval is stored
in the associated variable N. Furthermore the common output is carried forward to
the CF card and saved in fill and stop mode in data tables.
43
Average, Sample and CardOut are predefined instructions within the library of CRBASIC. The following notes give an account of the crucial instruction parameters
which are of great importance for the storage process.
The CardOut instruction has 2 parameters:
• StopRing - parameter 0 (Ring Mode) or 1 (Fill and Stop Mode)
• Size - fixed number of records, autoallocate (-1) or same
size like in memory (-1000)
The Average instruction has 4 parameters:
• Reps - number of elemets in the variable array for which to calculate the
averages
• Source - name of the variable for which an an average should be saved
• DataType - select the format in which an average should be saved
• DisableVar - variable used to determine, weather the current measurement
is included in the average saved to the data table (False = process current
measurement)
The Sample instruction has 3 parameters:
• Reps - number of samples to store to the data table
• Source - name of variable for which a sample should be saved
• DataType - selects the format in which to save the data
Once the instruction commands and paramters are determined they can be applied
in the same way to the storage process of the other sensor’s output.
44
The data table of outdoor measurements looks more comprehensive because of the
redundant sensor principle. Moreover are there further parameters (minimum, maximum, squared sum) which have to be recorded. An abstract of the outdoor data
table with its recording process for wind speed looks as follows:
DataTable(Table_Outdoor,True,-1)
DataInterval(0,60,Sec,10)
CardOut(1,-1000)
Average(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,False)
Minimum(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,False,False)
Maximum(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,False,False)
Totalize(1,WindSpd_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,WindSpd_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
Sample(1,N,FP2)
EndTable
The totalize instruction is to add up the squared records within the time interval. In
association with the number of measured data N scaned by the Sample instruction,
you can have calculations concerning the standard deviation.
The Minimum and Maxiumum instruction contains an additional parameter "Time"
which determines, weather the time that the minimum or maximum value occurred
should be stored. In this case, it should not be stored.
Thus, wind speed is recorded once a minute. Data types are FP2 for fundamental
values (average, minimum, maximum) and IEEE4 for squared sum because of greater
recording results and consequently the necessity of greater memory usage. The
variable N is stored as number associated with the counter of measured data per
interval. Instructions for the other senors are equivalent to that and can be looked
up in the appendix section A on page 79.
45
4.5
Program - Main Scan
Aside from declarations and tables the CRBASIC program needs more instructions
in order to work properly and above all instructions to assign the variables with
the intended values. The executable code begins with BeginProg and ends with
EndProg.
Measurements, processing and calls to data tables within the Scan / NextScan loop
determine the sequence and timing of program functions.
BeginProg
Scan(5,Sec,0,0)
Therm107(T107_C(1),2,1,Vx1,0,_50Hz,1,0)
Count = Count + 1
N = Count
If TimeIntoInterval(0,60,sec) Then
Count = 0
EndIf
CallTable(Table_Indoor)
NextScan
EndProg
This simple example represent a temperature reading of two temperature values
out of the T107_C-Array and its assignement to the variabels T107_C(1) and
T107_C(2). The records will be called to the data table Table_Indoor as well as
the number of measured data N within a scan loop of 5 seconds. An average of 12
values and the number of measured data per interval is to be saved every minute
according to the declarations for the data tables .
The scan intruction has an interval parameter for setting the interval between scans,
a units parameter for which this interval is based on and some buffer and counter
options which are set to false, because no scan has to be hold in RAM and the scan
should continue looping forever.
The counter is a simple incrementing number assigned to the varibale N within the
scan loop. It is set to zero after a time into interval of 60 seconds.
46
4.5.1
Instructions
In addition to BASIC syntax, additional intructions are included in CRBASIC to
facilitate measurements and store data like shown in in the previous example. The
following notes give an outline of the use of some instructions for operating the
instrumentation of the automatic weather station.
Port-Configuration and Measurement Processing
First of all it is of great importance to define the ports on which the sensors should
work. A distinction is drawn between the analog sensors, whose signals are picked
off at the SE- and DIFF-Ports and the serial sensors whose data comes in at the
COM- and C-Ports of the data logger.
The analog sensors featuring differential measuremnts are picked off as following:
VoltDiff(Temp(1),2,mV2500,7,True,0,_50Hz,temp_multiplier,temp_offset)
This instruction measures the voltage difference between the high and low inputs of
a differential channel, starting at DIFF-Port 7, ending at DIFF-Port 8 because of
temperature array which includes two temperature measurements of two differernt
sensors. Both the high and low inputs must be within +/- 5 V of the data loggers
common range. By including its multiplier and offset, the voltage output is converted
into the engineering unit °C at the same time.
However, there are also predefined intructions for frequently used sensors with analog
output as for example Campbell Scientifics T107.
Therm107(T107_C(1),2,1,Vx1,0,_50Hz,1,0)
In this case two temperature readings at SE-Port 1 and 2 are done with an output
in °C.
47
Serial sensors are not as easy to handle. The following example of pressure readings
illustrates this issue.
First you have to set up the datalogger‘s ports for communication with a non-PakBus
device.
SerialOpen(Com1,9600,10,0,0)
SerialOpen(Com2,9600,10,0,0)
When the serial open function is executed, the serial ports are "opened" at 9600
baud and subsequent textual messages will flow in and out of the port in between
PakBus packetes. The format parameter "10" specifies the type of error detection
to be used for the exchange of data. "10" equates the manufacturers’ instructions
of an RS232 logic type, even parity, one stop bit and 7 data bits for communication
with Vaisalas PTB210 barometer.
Accordingly serial text messages have to be transmitted through the serial lines for
operating the digital sensors.
SerialOut(Com1,Command,"",0,100)
SerialOut(Com2,Command,"",0,100)
Thus, the as constant defined "Command" is sent to both sensors including the
necessary parameters for operation, ".P", carriage return <cr> and line feed <lf>.
As a result serial data of both sensors in form of pressure readings in hPa is received
within the AirPress-Array as follows:
SerialIn(AirPress(1),Com1,100,10,10)
SerialIn(AirPress(2),Com2,100,10,10)
The acquired information of port configuration and measuring processing can be
brought forward to handle all the other sensors. For details see the appendix section
A on page 79.
48
Calibration Factors and Offsets
Calibration factors and offsets are important parameters which have to be determined for converting analog signals into engineering units. The parameters are calculated due to the voltage output ranges referring to their output range for metorological data according to a simple equation system:
xU (V )l − y = zl
(4.1)
xU (V )u − y = zu
(4.2)
• U (V )l = voltage output for the lower bound of measurement range
• U (V )u = voltage output for the upper bound of measurement range
• zl = lower bound of measurement range
• zu = upper bound of measurement range
• x = multiplier
• y = offset
The engineering unit for global solar radiation is calculated with its spectral sensitivity according to equation 2.2 on page 21.
In reference to the manufacturer’s data the following parameters in Table 4.3 were
calulated, defined as constants and included in the program sequence for converting
the outputs.
Sensor
KPC 1/6 ME Temp.
KPC 1/6 ME Humid.
14577 Wind Speed
CMP3 Pyranometer
Calibration Factor Offset
0.1
30
0.1
0
0.03125
12.5
75.13148
0
Table 4.3: Calibration Factors and Offsets
49
4.5.2
Expressions
Expressions are used as operators or numbers that produce a value or a result. The
programming of the automatic weather station requires such expressions in terms
of converting strings into numeric values as well as to save a squared sum over the
scan interval.
String Expressions
CRBASIC allows the addidtion and concatenation of string variables to variables of
all types using + operators. The serial output of the digitlal pressure sensor PTB210
is picked up as string which inevitably leads to problems having calculations with
it.
AirPressString = AirPress(1) + "," + AirPress(2)
SplitStr(AirPressNum(1),AirPressString,",",2,0)
AirPressString is an array of two serial pressure readings which is splited into two
equal numeric values assigned to the variables AirPressNum(1) and AirPressNum(2).
From now on every kind of mathematical instruction can be executed.
Mathematical and Logical Expressions
Mahtematical operations are written out as if they are algebraically. For example
the calculation of the squared value of pressure readings looks like following:
AirPress_SQ_1 = AirPressNum(1) * AirPressNum(1)
AirPress_SQ_2 = AirPressNum(2) * AirPressNum(2)
The squared sum is defined in the data tables with the following expression:
Totalize(1,AirPress_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,AirPress_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
This progression is applied to every reading.
A simple logical expression in the form of a counter for measured data perinterval
was already given in section 4.5 on page 46.
50
4.6
User-Defined Power-Up Function
The key to the CF power-up function is the powerup.ini file, which contains a list
of command lines. At power-up, the powerup.ini command line is executed prior
to compiling the program. The powerup.ini is created with a text editor and the
syntax is very simple. Detailed information can be found in [16].
Command,File,Device
The powerup.ini is allways copied to the CF-Card with the associated files for proceeding the action. The default file is:
6,WMS_FTIR.CR1,CPU
At power-up this file will lead to copy the main program WMS_FTIR.CR1 on the
CF-Card to the CPU of the datalogger for running immediately. Data on the CFCard will be preserved. The new data will be simply added to the old tables if there
are no changes in saving of data. Otherwise the data will be stored in new tables.
Thus, it is possible to load a new program to the data logger’s CPU as well as to
change calibration factors in the constant file on the CF card which will be executed
after power up without the need to change the main program.
51
Chapter 5
The Sensors - Test Series
It is a basic need to test the sensors for their functional capability and accuracy in
advance. This is also meant to prevent possible differences in readings due to the
redundant sensor principle.
The following sections will give an overview of the sensors which have been properly
tested. Some of the sensors measuring temperature, humidity and pressure have
been tested in the climate and pressure chamber at the Max Planck Institute for
Biogeochemie Jena. Wind speed was tested in the air duct of the University of
Applied Science Jena. The sensors which are not enumerated were just tested for
their operability.
5.1
5.1.1
Climate and Pressure Chamber
Temperature/Humidity - Galltec/Mela KPC 1/6-ME
The compact sensor KPC 1/6-ME has been testet for his operability, accuracy and
dynamic behavior in comparisson to a reference device. Additionally booth sensors
were compared in order to determine possible differences in the measurement result. Therefor readings in temperature and relative humidity varying according to
a programmable logic control were done.
Temperature and Humidity Mesurement as a Function of Time
The base for further interpretations are the time responsed measurements. Figure
5.1 reflects the chronological sequence of temperature in escalated steps of five de52
grees celsius which was kept within a period of thirty minutes before skipping to the
next temperature level.
Figure 5.1: Temperature Measurement as a Function of Time
The blue and green line represent the two sensors, whereas the red line expresses the
reference device. It is striking that there is almost no difference in readings among
the sensors. However, there are varieties in response time in comparison to the reference device. The reason for that is the use of the ZE21-type sintered high-grade
steel filter which leads to a change in dynamic behavior because of its fine pored
state to protect the sensing element for salt mist.
53
To verify the humidity readings the programmable logic control was set to escalated
steps of five percent which was kept within a period of thirty minutes before skipping
to the next level.
Figure 5.2: RH Measurement as a Function of Time
Figure 5.2 gives an account of the chronological sequence of this measurement.
The curve progression may appear a little bit strange at first sight. The reason for
that is as simple as partly preventable. The Dewmet Sensor from Michell Instrumentations is to be used as a reference. It measures humidity with the dew point
mirror principle. The mirror is cooled down and normaly should be kept around the
barrier of condensation. In this experimental set-up, the reference is placed next to
the chambers air flow which makes it almost impossible to keep the temperature of
the mirror at the dew point level. This is especially problematic at very low ranges
in case of reaching the dew point.
54
As a result measurements varying according to the process of line-up are recorded. A
simple troubleshooting can be accomplished by placing the reference sensor farther
to the air flow of the climate chamber. Thus, there are no problems in the lining
up of the intended humidity level. Furthermore can there be a filter to smooth the
curve progression.
Temperature and Humidity Profile
The profiles demonstrated in Fig. 5.3 point out the differences in response time as a
result of the changes in dynamic behaviour because of the filter around the sensing
element.
Figure 5.3: Temperature Profile Sensor 1 and Sensor 2
The readings need some time before reaching the same levels which, however, does
not affect the reliability of the system and therefore is insignificant.
55
However, regression shows linear characteristics towards the line-up of booth sensors. Apart from that accuracy amoung the two sensors in temperature reading is
well demonstrated, but is to be discussed later in this section.
Figure 5.4 shows the humidity profile of both sensors regarding the reference device
of the climate chamber.
Figure 5.4: RH Profile Sensor 1 and Sensor 2
Both sensors indicate quite linear charactericstics and there are just small variances
among the sensors in bands less and greater than 70 % humidity. However, the
actual result shows that readings range within the specified measuring tolerance of
2 % humidity.
56
Sensor Difference for Temperature and Humidity
To have quality assurance concerning the redundant sensor principle, an interesting
aspect is to find out possible differences in readings of the sensors. Thus, the sensor
difference was calculated which deliberates that accuracy among both sensors has
reached no mentionable value.
Figure 5.5: Sensor Difference for Temperature
The graph in Fig. 5.5 demonstrates this issue in case of sensor difference concering
the temperature reading versus the temperature reference. The inertia due to the
filter is also quite nice demonstrated. Anyway, differences in readings show a constant level of about 0.1 °C across the measuring cycle. Offsets are becoming smaler
with increasing temperature.
57
Figure 5.6 points out the sensor difference of humidity with a maximum at 1.4 %
humidity. Readings in bands around 70 % humidity show a minimum in variations
of recorded measurements among the sensors and also a minimum in variations relating to the reference. The sensors are slightly drifting apart in bands around 70
% humidity. Offsets are decreasing towards ranges around 70 % humidity.
Figure 5.6: Sensor Difference for RH
5.1.2
Pressure - Vaisala PTB210
The PTB210 series barometers offer an excellent solution for outdoor installations
with the need for high reliability and accuracy. Nevertheless, the sensors have been
tested for their operability, accuracy and dynamic behavior in comparisson to a
reference device as well as compared mutual. For this purpose readings within their
58
output range from 500 to 1100 hPa were done. The programmable logic control was
set up to steps of 50 hPa within a timeframe of 15 minutes.
Pressure Measurement as a Function of Time
The graph of pressure as a function of time gives an account of the excellent accuracy
of the digital barometers from Vaisala.
Figure 5.7: Pressure Measurement as a Function of Time
There are almost no variances in pressure readings, neither according to the climate
chamber reference device DPI 740 nor to the sensors itself.
The overshooting reflects the process of line-up.
59
Pressure Profile
Regarding the reference device of the pressure chamber, the profiles of pressure
readings show very good linear characteristics in the common measurement range
as shown in Fig. 5.8. This, requirements of high accuracy and precision concerning
further calculation of mixing ratio can be implemented with this sensors like expected.
Figure 5.8: Pressure Profile Sensor 1 and Sensor 2
Sensor Difference
The findings in differences of pressure readings among the sensors constrain at a
maximum of approximately 0.03 hPa according to Fig. 5.9 and have been found in
lower and higher pressure ranges around 500 to 600 and 1100 to 1200 hPa. Ranges
around the standard atmospheric pressure show almost no variatons.
Offsets are becoming greater with increasing pressure.
60
Figure 5.9: Sensor Difference for Pressure
5.2
5.2.1
Air Duct
Wind Speed - Lambrecht 14577
The cup anemometers were tested in escalated steps of 5 m/s, starting at 5 m/s, up
to 20 m/s within a timeframe of 10 minutes.
Unfortunately there ocured problems securing the data from the logger for which
reason this sections does not cover the evaluations for the measurements.
However, the readings were accurate and have shown no remarkable variations according to the reference device and the sensors.
61
Chapter 6
Mounting of the Weather Station
6.1
Development of a Wiring Panel
There are a couple of plug connections and interfaces in order to receive accurate
signals at the Datalogger CR1000 and the SPS.
Figure 6.1: Schematic of Information Flow and Power Supply
Figure 6.1 points out the common connection scheme. The green line represents the
information flow of the sensors, splited in a direct and in a indirect way. This is
because of direct connection among sensors and the data logger inside the container
as well as due to signal flows in very low mV ranges, i.e. transmitted by the pyranometer, in order to prevent losses in signal strength.
62
However, the signals of precipitation detection are directly processed by the SPS
where the remaining data is retrieved by the master PC for further processing.
The power supply is also splited which is represented by the red line.
6.2
Mounting
Figure 6.2: Weather Station Mast
There is a need to have an experimantal setup wich is equivalent to the information
flow in the container before finally installing all components. Therefore a wiring
panel was developed which contains all interfaces and plug connections from the
sensor to the logger. A setup according to this plan was done to simulate the operating mode in the BGC-FTIR-Container as well as to verify a proper signal flow.
For a detailed wiring plan please see [16].
After a proper test run, the instrumentation of the weather station has to be
mounted. For this purpose a mast was installed on top of the container to provide a basis for mounting as shown in Fig. 6.2. Further componets like power
63
supply, sensors for inside-monitoring and the data logger have been installed inside
the container at appropriate places.
Positioning of the pressure sensors is to be more difficult due to the need of high
precission. As the sensors are mounted inside, pressure sampling has to be at a
windless cavity outside the container. The outside positioning could lead to errors
in measuremnts in case of turbulences effecting some pressurization caused by the
aerator in the cavity. For that reason some test readings were done.
Figure 6.3: Absolute Sensor Difference Indoor and Outdoor
The test readings cover measurements of both sensors, inside and outside the container. These readings were compared and their results of absolute sensor difference
are presented in Fig. 6.3.
64
The offset of both measurements is a consequence of differences in height of the positioning of the sensors. However, there are some measurements in readings varying
from the actual sensor difference.
Figure 6.4: Wind Speed
Regarding to wind speed as shown in Fig. 6.4 at that time, the measurements
are keenly correlating among each other and give an account for the variant readings from the actual sensor difference. Thus, errors in measuremnts in case of an
operating aerator can be excepted.
65
Chapter 7
Evaluation
Once the hardware has been configured, basic communication over TCP/IP is possible. These functions include sending programs, collecting data and displaying at the
most current record from tables. The following notes do demonstrate this functions
using TCP/IP for data transfer and displaying latest records. All test were done
via the remote mode connecting from the office to the container.
7.1
7.1.1
Test Run
Datalogger Home Page
Figure 7.1: Datalogger Home Page
The CR1000 home page is built into the operating system of the logger as shown in
Fig. 7.1. This page provide links to the latest outdoor and indoor records, including
66
the status and public data to check the current settings and public variables. An
example of an extract of the outdoor data table is demonstrated in Fig. 7.2.
Figure 7.2: Extract of Data Table Outdoor
This table includes the latest records written to the data table outdoor including
the related timestamp and record number.
Essentially the displayed data is only used for monitoring and to have a quick look
at the remote site wether everything is working well. However, the HTML code can
also be used to implement data for further processing within the logic control.
7.1.2
FTP Server
The CR1000 runs a FTP server. This allows the user to access the CR1000 file
system via FTP with the drives being mapped into directories and folders. The root
directory includes CPU and CRD (CF card). The main program is running on the
CPU where the tables and calibration factors are saved to the CRD directory. Files
can be pasted and copied to and from the datalogger drives as they were drives on
the PC. Files can also be deleted through FTP.
67
The FTP server is a comfortable basis to get tables and to update calibration factors
from a remote site.
Data acqusition was tested in two ways. On the one hand the FTP funtion was used
to connect to the CRD directory as show in Fig. 7.3.
Figure 7.3: Copying Data Table Outdoor via FTP
On the other hand the transfer was tested with the use of IP-Port connection via
Campbell Scientific‘s special software PC400 like demonstrated in Fig. 7.4.
Figure 7.4: Collecting Data Tables via IP and PC400
68
7.1.3
Test Readings
Data were prepared for plotting some charts after file transfer has been carried out.
For this purpose a selective time period at any day has been choosen.
The graphs are representing the parameters which have been determined for providing outdoor data to automatize the BGC-FTIR-System.
Figure 7.5: Temperature and RH
This includes temperature and humidity as well as solar radiation, wind speed and
pressure as shown in Fig. 7.5, 7.6 and 7.7.
The pressure readings in Fig. 7.7 reflect the pressure inside in container due to test
Figure 7.6: Solar Radiation and Wind Speed
purposes at that time. Precipitation is not covered within this section because it
69
will not be detected on a quantity basis. There is only a triggered signal in case of
precipitation which is processed by the programmable logic controller of the BGCFTIR-Container.
Figure 7.7: Pressure
Finally the results from inside monitoring of temperature and humidity can be found
in Fig. 7.8. The graphs do demonstrate the control loop of the air conditioning.
There is less need to adjust temperature and humidity in the wee hours of the
morning and at night due to lower temperatures outside which is reflected by longer
control loops.
Figure 7.8: Temperature and RH
70
Chapter 8
Conclusion
The intention of this thesis was to establish a completely autonomous system to
determine local meteorological data like temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar
radiation, precipitation and pressure. Inside measurements should provide temperature and humidity readings in order to monitor the operating of the air conditioning.
Thus, the system should provide a base to automatize the BGC-FTIR-Container,
especially to protect the sensitive solar tracker from precipitation and other adverse
environmental conditions. The system requires high reliability, high-precission pressure measurement and a easy to use data processing.
Figure 8.1: Basic Strategy
Figure 8.1 reflects the basic strategy to implement these requirements. This strategy involves the redundant sensor principle as well as the use of digital pressure
measurement technology and communication via TCP/IP and FTP.
71
This way the system should meet the demands and should be up to standard.
The selection of the sensors aims at longevity, reliability and accuracy. The results
from the test readings came up to the expectations and requirements of the system.
Especially the pressure readings have shown excellent accuracy.
The data processing via TCP/IP is another fundamental component for real time
data processing of the meteorological data. The use of the Ethernet/CF-Card module also enables the feature of data transfer via FTP. Therefore the user can modify
the calibration factors and offsets without the need to open the main program file.
Averages, minima, maxima, squared sums and number of measured data are provided to the system every minute in SI units. The pressure readings are important
to calculate the mixing ratio of the measured trace gases and will be added to TCCON’s database with its related solar spectra. Moreover you can draw conclusions
from standard deviation by consulting the squared sum and the number of measured data. Finally the data are added to data tables with a timestamp for archival
storage in order to find out possible discrepancies in solar spectra.
There are still some parameters on the operational site which have to be determined,
for example at which wind speed the dome should be closed or at which time the
conditions are favorable for measurements. These parameters will result from further operation and its experienced data.
After all, the weather station was built as an efficient autonomous and easy to
use system. This system operates closely together with the other systems in the
container and provides the required data to built up a completely automatic measurement system - the BGC FTIR-Container.
72
List of Figures
1
The BGC-FTIR Weather Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
Greenhouse Gas Cycle
[http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov/images/greenhouse-sm1.gif, 12.09.08] . . . . .
1.2
4
9
Operation and Future Site of ground-based Measurement Stations
[http://www.tccon.caltech.edu/images/tccon_080723.png, 12.09.09] . 11
1.3
BGC-FTIR-Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1
The BGC-FTIR Weather Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2
KPC 1/6-ME and Weather Guard
[Manual - Product Info Sheet No. C 2.4, 3/04] . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3
Capacitive Sensor Principle
[http://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/2/20/PlateCapacitorII.svg, 10.10.08] . . . . . . . 15
2.4
Sensing Element
[Physics of the Humidity Technology,
R. Freitag, PowerPoint Presentation, 4/07] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.5
Lambrecht Wind Speed 14577
[Manual - Wind-Sensors INDUSTRY 145x7, 10/06] . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.6
Lambrecht Precipitation Sensor 15153
[Manual - Electronic Precipitation Indicator 15153, 1/07] . . . . . . . 18
2.7
Sensors Light Barrier System
[Manual - Electronic Precipitation Indicator 15153, 1/07] . . . . . . . 19
2.8
Lambrecht Rain Sensor 15152
[Manual - Electronic Rain Indicator 15152, 6/07] . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
73
2.9
Kipp & Zonen CMP3
[http://www.campbellsci.com/images/cmp3.jpg, 02.09.08] . . . . . . . 21
2.10 Main Components
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiImage:
Pyranometer_sr11_hukseflux_crosssection.gif, 24.09.08] . . . . . . . 22
2.11 Vaisala PTB 210
[Manual - PTB210 Digital Series with Serial Output, 12/05] . . . . . 23
2.12 Leap-Frog Recalibration Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.13 The BAROCAP Pressure Sensor
[Manuel - PTB210 Digital Series with Serial Output, 12/05] . . . . . 24
2.14 Temperature Probe T107
[Manual - Model 107 Temperature Probe, 4/07] . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.15 Thermistor Probe Schematic
[Manual - Model 107 Temperature Probe, 4/07] . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.16 Campbell Scientific CS215
[Manual - CS215 Temperature & Relative Humidity Probe, 3/08] . . 27
2.17 CMOSens Chip
[http://www.sensirion.com/en/images/CAD_SHT11.gif, 20.10.08] . . 28
3.1
Datalogger CR1000
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 29
3.2
Connecting to SE- and DIFF-Ports
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 30
3.3
Connecting to COM-Ports
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 31
3.4
Connecting to Control-Ports
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 31
3.5
CS I/O Port
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 32
3.6
Peripheral Port
[Manual CR1000 - Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 32
3.7
Keyboard Display CR1000KD
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 33
74
3.8
Ethernet and CompactFlash Module - NL115
[Manual - NL115 Ethernet & CompactFlash Module, 4/08] . . . . . . 34
4.1
Proper Program Structure
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 36
5.1
Temperature Measurement as a Function of Time . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.2
RH Measurement as a Function of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.3
Temperature Profile Sensor 1 and Sensor 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.4
RH Profile Sensor 1 and Sensor 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.5
Sensor Difference for Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.6
Sensor Difference for RH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.7
Pressure Measurement as a Function of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.8
Pressure Profile Sensor 1 and Sensor 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.9
Sensor Difference for Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.1
Schematic of Information Flow and Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.2
Weather Station Mast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.3
Absolute Sensor Difference Indoor and Outdoor . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.4
Wind Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.1
Datalogger Home Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.2
Extract of Data Table Outdoor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.3
Copying Data Table Outdoor via FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.4
Collecting Data Tables via IP and PC400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.5
Temperature and RH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.6
Solar Radiation and Wind Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.7
Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.8
Temperature and RH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.1
Basic Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
75
List of Tables
4.1
Details of used Data Types
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 38
4.2
Typical Data Table
[Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08] . . . . . . . 41
4.3
Calibration Factors and Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
76
Bibliography
[1] IPCC, 2007: , Climate change 2007 - The Physical Science Basis. Contribution
of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change,
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.
Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United
Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.
[2] California Institute of Technology, TCCON - Total Carbon Column Observing
Network,
http://rsnz.org/advisory/igbp/solas/Posters/P22_Sherlock.pdf, 11.09.2008
[3] Lambrecht, Manual - Product Info Sheet No. C 2.4, 3/04
[4] Galltec/Mela, Manual - Wind-Sensors INDUSTRY 145x7, 10/06
[5] Lambrecht, Manual - Electronic Precipitation Indicator 15153, 1/07
[6] Lambrecht, Manual - Electronic Rain Indi- cator 15152, 6/07
[7] Kipp & Zonen, Manual - Pyranometer CMP3, 1/07
[8] Vaisala, Manual - PTB210 Digital Series with Serial Output, 12/05
[9] Campbell Scientific, Manual - Model 107 Temperature Probe, 4/07
[10] Campbell Scientific, Manual - CS215 Temp. & Relative Humidity Probe, 3/08
[11] Campbell Scientific, Manual - CR1000 Measurement & Control System, 1/08
[12] Campbell Scientific, Manual - NL115 Ethernet & CompactFlash Module, 4/08
77
[13] Wikipedia, Pyranometer, 9/08
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyranometer
[14] R. Freitag, Presentation - Physics of the Humidity Technology, 4/07
[15] Sensirion, CMOSens Technology - Orbital Ccarbon Observatory,
http://www.sensirion.com, 21.09.2008
[16] H. Zöphel, Manual - BGC-FTIR Weather Station, 8/08
[17] F. Hase, T. Blumenstock, C. Paton-Walsh, Paper - Analysis of the instrumental
line shape of high-resolution Fourier transform IR spectrometers with gas cell
measurements and new retrieval software, 5/99
[18] Vaisala, Brochure - Vaisala BAROCAP Sensor Technology for Barometric
Pressure Measurements, 12/05
78
Appendix A
CRBasic - Program Weather Station
’PROGRAM:
’WEATHER STATION BGC-FTIR CONTAINER
’AUTOR:
’Hendrik Zoephel (MPI-BGC, Jena, Germany)
’DATALOGGER AND PERIPHERALS:
’CR1000/NL115
’DATALOGGER SETTINGS:
’Logger IP Adress: 10.3.9.60
’Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
’IP Gateway: 10.9.3.1
’INSTRUMENTATION:
’temperature: 2 x T107 (Campbell)
’wind speed: 2 x 14577 (Lambrecht)
’humidity and temp.: 2 x KPC 1/6-ME (Galltec)
’humidity and temp.: 1 x CS215 (Campbell Sci.)
’global radiation: 1 x CMP3 (Kipp&Zonen)
’atmospheric press.: 2 x PTB210 (Vaisala)
’humidity/temerature: 2x CS215 (Campbell Sci.)
’CHANNEL USAGE:
’SE1,2: 2 x T107
’EX1: 2 x T107
’DIFF2: CMP3
’DIFF3,4: 2 x 14577
’DIFF5: KPC 1/6-ME (humidity)
’DIFF6: KPC 1/6-ME (humidity)
’DIFF7: KPC 1/6-ME (temperature)
’DIFF8: KPC 1/6-ME (temperature)
’COM1,2: 2 x PTB210
79
’C5,7: 2 x CS215
’CALCULATION:
’conversion to real units
’square sum
’PROGRAM PARAMETERS:
’Scan rate: 5 sec
’Avg. period: 60 sec.
’Min., Max. period: 60 sec.
’Square sum period: 60 sec
’____________________ DECLARATIONS_________________________________
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
TRHData(2)
TRHData_2(2)
Temp_Indoor(2) As String
Humid_Indoor(2) As String
TempString As String * 30
HumidString As String * 30
Temp_FTIR(2)
WindSpd_Check(2)
WindSpd(2)
WindSpd_SQ_1
WindSpd_SQ_2
N
Count
Humid(2)
Humid_SQ_1
Humid_SQ_2
Temp(2)
Temp_SQ_1
Temp_SQ_2
Pyrano(1)
Pyrano_SQ_1
OutString As String * 10
AirPress(2) As String * 10
AirPress_SQ_1
Airpress_SQ_2
AirPressString As String * 30
AirPressNum(2)
80
’_________________________UNITS____________________________________
Units Temp_Indoor = deg C
Units Humid_Indoor = % RH
Units Temp_FTIR = deg C
Units WindSpd = m/s
Units WindSpd_SQ_1 = (m/s)^2
Units WindSpd_SQ_2 = (m/s)^2
Units Humid = % RH
Units Humid_SQ_1 = (% RH)^2
Units Humid_SQ_2 = (% RH)^2
Units Temp = deg C
Units Temp_SQ_1 = (deg C)^2
Units Temp_SQ_2 = (deg C)^2
Units Pyrano = W/m^2
Units Pyrano_SQ_1 = (W/m^2)^2
Units AirPress = hPa
Units AirPress_SQ_1 = (hPa)^2
Units AirPress_SQ_2 = (hPa)^2
’_______________________CONST______________________________________
Include "CRD:Const.CR1"
’____________________OUTPUT SECTION________________________________
’_______TABLE CONTAINER_______
DataTable(Table_Indoor,True,-1)
’_______CARDOUT AS RING_______
’OpenInterval
DataInterval(0,60,Sec,10)
CardOut(0,-1000)
’_______T107_______
Average(2,Temp_FTIR(1),FP2,0)
81
’_______CS215_______
Average(2,Temp_Indoor(1),IEEE4,False)
Average(2,Humid_Indoor(1),IEEE4,False)
’_______NUMBER OF MEASURED DATA_______
Sample(1,N,FP2)
EndTable
’_______TABLE WEATHER STATION_______
DataTable(Table_Outdoor,True,-1)
’_______CARDOUT AS RING_______
’OpenInterval
DataInterval(0,60,Sec,10)
CardOut(0,-1000)
’_______TEMP_______
Average(2,Temp(1),FP2,0)
Minimum(2,Temp(1),FP2,0,0)
Maximum(2,Temp(1),FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,Temp_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,Temp_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’_______HUMID_______
Average(2,Humid(1),FP2,0)
Minimum(2,Humid(1),FP2,0,0)
Maximum(2,Humid(1),FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,Humid_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,Humid_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’_______WINDSPD_______
Average(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,0)
Minimum(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,0,0)
Maximum(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,WindSpd_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,WindSpd_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’Sample(1,Check1,Boolean)
’Sample(1,Check2,Boolean)
82
’_______AIRPRESS_______
Average(2,AirPress(1),IEEE4,0)
Minimum(2,AirPress(1),IEEE4,0,0)
Maximum(2,AirPress(1),IEEE4,0,0)
Totalize(1,AirPress_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,AirPress_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’_______PRYRANO_______
Average(1,Pyrano,FP2,0)
Minimum(1,Pyrano,FP2,0,0)
Maximum(1,Pyrano,FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,Pyrano_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
’_______NUMBER OF MEASURED DATA_______
Sample(1,N,FP2)
EndTable
’________________________PROGRAMM__________________________________
BeginProg
’_______SET COMMUNICATION-PARAMETERS FOR PTB210_______
SerialOpen(Com1,9600,10,0,0)
SerialOpen(Com2,9600,10,0,0)
Scan(5,Sec,0,0)
’_______SEND STRING ".P<cr><lf>" TO PTB210_______
SerialOut(Com1,Command,"",0,100)
SerialOut(Com2,Command,"",0,100)
’_______RECEIVE SERIAL DATA AS STRING FROM PTB210_______
SerialIn(AirPress(1),Com1,100,10,10)
SerialIn(AirPress(2),Com2,100,10,10)
’_______CONVERTING STRING INTO NUMERIC VALUE_______
AirPressString = AirPress(1) + "," + AirPress(2)
SplitStr(AirPressNum(1),AirPressString,",",2,0)
AirPress_SQ_1 = AirPressNum(1) * AirPressNum(1)
AirPress_SQ_2 = AirPressNum(2) * AirPressNum(2)
83
’_______RECEIVE VALUES, VOLTAGES ARE CONVERTED IN REAL UNITS________
SDI12Recorder(TRHData(),5,"0","R!",1,0)
SDI12Recorder(TRHData_2(),7,"0","R!",1,0)
’_______ALLOCATION OF INDOOR MEASUREMENTS TO STRINGS_______
TempString = TRHData(1) + "," + TRHData_2(1)
HumidString = TRHData(2) + "," + TRHData_2(2)
SplitStr(Temp_Indoor(1),TempString,",",2,0)
SplitStr(Humid_Indoor(1),HumidString,",",2,0)
Therm107(Temp_FTIR(1),2,1,Vx1,0,_50Hz,1,0)
VoltDiff(WindSpd(1),2,mV2500,3,True,0,_50Hz,wind_multiplier,wind_offset)
WindSpd_SQ_1 = WindSpd(1) * WindSpd(1)
WindSpd_SQ_2 = WindSpd(2) * WindSpd(2)
VoltDiff(Humid(1),2,mV2500,5,True,0,_50Hz,humid_multiplier,humid_offset)
Humid_SQ_1 = Humid(1) * Humid(1)
Humid_SQ_2 = Humid(2) * Humid(2)
VoltDiff(Temp(1),2,mV2500,7,True,0,_50Hz,temp_multiplier,temp_offset)
Temp_SQ_1 = Temp(1) * Temp(1)
Temp_SQ_2 = Temp(2) * Temp(2)
VoltDiff(Pyrano(1),1,mV2_5,2,True,0,_50Hz,pyrano_multiplier,pyrano_offset)
Pyrano_SQ_1 = Pyrano * Pyrano
’_______COUNTER OF MEASURED DATA PER INTERVAL_______
Count = Count + 1
N = Count
If TimeIntoInterval(0,60,sec) Then
Count = 0
EndIf
’_______PUT OVER DATA TO TABLE_______
CallTable(Table_Outdoor)
CallTable(Table_Indoor)
NextScan
EndProg
84
Appendix B
CRBasic - Input file CONST.CR1
’_______________________
’COMMAND FOR PTB210
’_______________________
Const = CR = CHR(13) ’carriage return
Const = LF = CHR(10) ’line feed
Const = Command = ".P" + CR + LF
’_______________________
’MULTIPLIER AND OFFSETS
’_______________________
Const = wind_multiplier = 0.03125
Const = wind_offset = -12.5
Const = humid_multiplier = 0.1
Const = humid_offset = 0
Const = temp_multiplier = 0.1
Const = temp_offset = -30
Const = pyrano_multiplier = 75.1314800901577
Const = pyrano_offset = 0
85
BGC FTIR-CONTAINER
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
WEATHER STATION
Issued: August 2008
Copyright © Hendrik Zöphel
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
Jena, January 9, 2009
Contents
1.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.2
The Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
1.2.1
Temperature/Humidity
Galltec/Mela KPC 1/6-ME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.2
Wind Speed
Lambrecht 14577 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.3
Precipitaion
Lambrecht 15153 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Adjusting of Incidences and Swich-off Delay . . . . . . . 16
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.4
Precipitaion
Lambrecht 15152 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.2.5
Solar Radiation
Kipp & Zonen CMP3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.2.6
Pressure
Vaisala PTB210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.2.7
Temperature Probe
Campbell Scientific T107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.2.8
Temperature/Humidity
Campbell Scientific CS215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
User Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.3
Data Acquisition - Datalogger CR1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.3.1
Connecting Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.3.2
Peripheral Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Keybord Display - CR1000KD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Ethernet and CompactFlash Module - NL115 . . . . . . 38
1.3.3
Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Multiplier and Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Power-Up Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.4
Wiring Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.4.1
Sensor <-> Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.4.2
25 Pin D-Sub (Logger) <-> 40 Pin Connector (Box) . . 43
1.4.3
9 Pin D-Sub (SPS) <-> 40 Pin Connector (Box)
1.4.4
25 Pin D-Sub <-> Datalogger CR1000 . . . . . . . . . . 44
4
. . . . 43
1.4.5
9 Pin D-Sub Box <-> SPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.4.6
Sensor <-> Datalogger CR1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.4.7
Power Supply - Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
A.1 CRBasic - Weather Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
A.2 CRBasic - Input file CONST.CR1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
A.3 CRBasic - powerup.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5
BGC-FTIR | Introduction
1.1
7
Introduction
Measurements with the MPI-BGC FTIR system are only possible when the
sun is visible. However, the solar tracker which guides the sunlight into the
instrument has to be protected from precipitation and other adverse environmental conditions. Therefore the FTIR system needs a weather station to
determine if the local weather conditions are favourable for measurements or
if the solar tracker should be protected.
Figure 1.1: The BGC-FTIR weather station
The main parameters which will be determined are temperature, humidity,
solar radiation, wind speed and precipitation. To increase the reliability of the
system, all of the crucial parameters are measured redundantly with duplicate
sensors or sensors of different principle. The redundant sensor principle is also
useful to correct for long-term drift of the sensors.
Temperature and humidity are measured with two compact meteorological sensors. Wind speed is provided by two cup anemometers with high reliability.
Precipitation is detected by a light barrier and a contact conclusion system.
A pyranometer provides measurements of the global solar radiation. The high
precision pressure measurement is implemented with a digital sensor which
provides maximum accuracy as well as long-term stability. A thermistor and
a digital temperature/humidity sensor are used for monitoring the conditions
inside the BGC-FTIR-Container.
The sensor signals are collected by the Datalogger CR1000 at several analog
and digital inputs. The CR1000 and the sensors form a completely autonomous
system. Communication with the master PC is accomplished over an ethernet
connection with the Ethernet/Compact Flash Module NL115. Data are stored
in tables on the CPU as well as on the CF-Card.
8
1.2
1.2.1
CONTENTS
The Sensors
Temperature/Humidity
Galltec/Mela KPC 1/6-ME
User Information
The sensor is placed outdoors and therefore used in a weather gurad (ZA
161/1-type) to avoid direct sunlight as well as other adverse effects. The sensor can be installed in any postiton. However, do not place it in a position
where water ingrees can occur. Dew formation and splashes do not damage
the sensor, although corrupt measurement readings are recorded until all the
moisture on and directly around the sensor element has dried up.
Figure 1.2: KPC 1/6-ME and Weather Guard
Because measurement conditions can be at high wind speeds or the sensor can
be exposed to salt mist and sandIt the version with the sintered high-grade
steel filter is used (ZE 21 response time < 1,5 minutes).
Therefore the dynamic behaviour changes. To avoid corrosion it is recommended to apply some acid-free grease on the screw thread sparingly.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | KPC 1/6-ME
9
Maintenance
The protective filter should only be screwed off carefully to check functioning
with a humidity standard. Take care not to touch the highly sensitive sensor
element. If necerssary, the soiled sintered filter can be screwed off and rinsed.
When you screw them back on, bear in mind that the sensor will not meassure
accurately again until everything is completely dry. For ballancing the offset
after calibration see section 1.3.3 on page 39.
Mounting
The weather guard can easily be mounted on the mast on top of the BGCFTIR-Container. It has to be pointed out that there is a difference in height
because of the construction of the clamps.
Figure 1.3: Mounting of the Weather Guard and the Sensor
NOTE: Take care not to damage the sensing elemet when screwing-off the
filter.
10
CONTENTS
Connection
The connection cable is led along the mast and has to be fastened using appropriate cable ties. To sensor must be properly grounded. Make sure that
the cable is protected from humidity on both sides.
Figure 1.4: Connection Diagram
For connecting the sensor simply follow Fig. 1.4. See section 1.4.1 on page 42
for more details.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | Wind Speed 14577
1.2.2
11
Wind Speed
Lambrecht 14577
User Information
When weather condition are are at high wind speeds, the dome of the solar
tracker should close for protecting the sensitive instrument. Thus, wind speed
is one of the parameters which are detemined for protecting the solar tracker.
To increase the reliability of the system, wind speed is provided by two cup
anemometers.
Figure 1.5: Lambrecht Wind Speed 14577
The sensors main advantages are the electromagnetic, non-impact measuring
principle for precise data acquisition and the double supported ball bearing of
the rotation axis. These characteristics assure high reliability, longevity, lower
friction as well as lower abrasion. Fhurthermore there is an automatic heating
element to avoid freezing of the ball bearing.
Maintenance
The Sensor design permits long periods of maintenance-free operation. A
regular visual verification of the sensor as well as a sensor calibration is recommended every two years. In this case remove the cable-plug connection and the
lower nut from the sensors and take it out of the traverse for further services.
12
CONTENTS
Mounting
There are bores with a diameter of 30 mm at each end of the mast’s traverse
First remove the lower nut and put the sensor with assembled cable sidewise
into the bore. Attach the sensor with the flat side of deteached nut from below
and tighten with a suitable tool until the sensor is attached firmly.
Figure 1.6: Mounting of Lambrecht 14577
Make sure, that the place of installation is not under the lee of great obsacles.
If there are any obstacles, pay heed that the distance between the obstacles
and the sensor should be 10 times the height of the obstacles.
This way you can assure that the installation corresponds to the definition of
an undisturbed terrain.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | Wind Speed 14577
13
Connection
The connection cable is led along the mast and has to be fastened using appropriate cable ties. To reduce the risk of inductive interference the sensor must
be properly grounded. Make sure, that the cable is protected from humidity
on both sides and that the cable plug connection is properly fixed.
Figure 1.7: Connection Diagram
For connecting the sensor simply follow Fig. 1.7. See section 1.4.1 on page 42
for more details.
14
1.2.3
CONTENTS
Precipitaion
Lambrecht 15153
User Information
The precipitation detector transmits signals to determine the beginning and
the end of precipitation and the duration of the period of precipitation.
Figure 1.8: Lambrecht Precipitation Sensor 15153
In the automatic weather station of the BGC-FTIR-Container this sensor is
used to report status and to transmit a control signal to the SPS. This is
to protect the solar tracker by closing the dome to avoid wetting of the sensitive instrument. Precipitation in the form of drizzle, rain, snow or hail is
detected by means of an IR light barrier system and trigger a signal within
the connected electronics. A built-in incidence-filter smoothes the triggering
of swiching signals in case of individual incidences, as for example leafs, bird
droppings, insects etc. For this, a certain number of at least n incidences should
have occured within a time-frame of 50 sec. The number of drop incidences
(1...15) can be selected through the DIP switch 2 on the circuit board. For
details see section 1.2.3 on page 16. When precipitation ends, the switching
signal is reset after a selectable switch-off delay. The sensor is equipped with
a heating (temperature > 0 °C) system for extreme weather conditions. This
avoids ice and snow forming on the housing’s surface.
Maintenance
Dust and dirt may accumulate and form a layer on the sensing element. This,
however, is usually washed off by precipitation. The windows of the sensor
should be checked and cleaned on every maintenance visit.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | Precipitaion 15153
15
Mounting
The mounting system of the instrument is designed for attachment to a mast.
When mounting, make sure that the precipitation can easily reach the opening
of the sensor and that the instrument is not exposed to strong vibrations or
shocks.
Figure 1.9: Mounting of Lambrecht 15153
16
CONTENTS
Adjusting of Incidences and Swich-off Delay
To select the number of incidences and switch-off delay remove the cover with
its 5 screws with a screwdriver. Now the DIP swiches in Fig. 1.10 are accessible.
Figure 1.10: Circuit board with DIP switches
The adjustment carried out for protecting the solar tracker is set to 3 drop
incidences within 50 sec. with a swich-off delay of 25 sec. If this adjustment is
to be changed, the swich-off delay is set through the DIP switch 1 and the
number of drop incidences is selected through the DIP switch 2 according
to Table 1.1.
Table 1.1: Table for Adjusting Incidences and Swich-off Delay
BGC-FTIR Sensors | Precipitaion 15153
17
After setting up the sensor screw the case back on and power up the supply
voltage. The setting of the relay output shows "no precipitation".
NOTE:
Make sure that you allways disconnect the supply voltage for set
up the sensor!
Connection
The connection cable is led along the mast and has to be fastened using appropriate cable ties. The sensor must be properly grounded. Make sure, that
the cable is protected from humidity on both sides.
Figure 1.11: Connection Diagram
To access the connection terminal, remove the 5 screws of the cover with a
slotted screwdriver. The electrical connection is carried out according to Fig.
1.11. For more details see section 1.4.1 on page 42.
NOTE:
The relay output is connected in a manner that a failure of supply
voltage is signaled as "precipitation"!
18
1.2.4
CONTENTS
Precipitaion
Lambrecht 15152
User Information
In order to provide a detection of all kinds of precipitation the precipitation
instrumentation is enlarged by the Lambrecht 15152. At the beginning of a
precipitation event rain drops will cause a conductive connection between the
two sensing electrodes to trigger the relay contacts. By this means a relay is
cut through and the controlling event is done.
Figure 1.12: Lambrecht Precipitation Sensor 15152
The sensor surface is heated in two levels. The first level is switched on constantly to prevent ice and dew formation. As soon as the sensing area is
moistured, the second heating level is switched on to make sure that the surface drys up as soon as possible. After drying up, the second level is switched
off again.
Maintenance
According to the atmospheric pollution a layer of dirt can form on the sensors
surface. This dirt has an isolating effect and may lead to short-circuits. So the
sensor is not able to set off an accurate signal by falling rain. Therefore the
sensor surface has to be cleaned with a light cleaner on every maintenance visit.
NOTE:
Take care not to damage the sensing electrodes by using the wrong
cleaner!
BGC-FTIR Sensors | Precipitation 15152
19
Mounting
The Sensor can be fixed at the mast on the top of the BGC-FTIR-Container.
When selecting the installation place please pay attention that the sensing
surface points in direction to the sky. Also check that the installation site is
free of obstacles to the close surrounding. Maintaine a distance of 10 times
the hight of the obstacles to assure that the installation corresponds to the
definition of an undisturbed terrain.
Connection
The connection cable is led along the mast and has to be fastened using appropriate cable ties.
Figure 1.13: Connection Diagram
The electrical connection is carried out according to Fig. 1.13. For more details see section 1.4.1 on page 42.
NOTE:
After connecting the sensor to the power supply the relay will stay
in the precipitation = yes state for about 5.5 minutes. After that,
the sensor will resume normal operation.
20
CONTENTS
1.2.5
Solar Radiation
Kipp & Zonen CMP3
User Information
Measurements with the BGC-FTIR-System are only possible when the sun is
visible. Therefor the Pyranometer CMP 3 comes into operation. The thermopile sensor construction measures the solar energy that is received from the
total solar spectrum and the whole hemisphere (180 degrees field of view). The
output is expressed in W/m2 according to equation (1.1).
Esolar =
• Esolar = Irradiance
Uemf
S
(1.1)
[W/m2 ]
• Uemf = Output Voltage [V]
• S
= Sensitivity
[V/(W/m2 )]
Figure 1.14: Kipp & Zonen CMP3
The CMP 3 is intended for shortwave global solar radiation measurements
(spectral range 310 to 2800 nm) and measures irradiance up to 2000 W/m2
with a response time < 18 seconds.
Maintenance
Dust and dirt may collect on the glass dome. This, however, is usually washed
off by the precipitation, but can disturbe the measurements if not. The glass
dome of the sensor should be checked and cleaned with water or alcohol on
every maintenance day. Also check the level of the sensor and adjust with its
set screws if required. The sensor should be recalibrated every two years.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | CMP 3
21
Mounting
The sensor is designed for attachement to a mast. A mounting sleeve is installed at the top of the mast on th BGC-FTIR-Container where you can fix
the pyranometer with 2 screws and a screwdriver according to Fig. 1.15.
Figure 1.15: Mounting of Kipp & Zonen CMP3
First remove the white sun shield by clipping it off to access the bores and
the spirit level at the base of the pyranometer. Tighten the sensor with two
screws to the mounting sleeve on the top of the mast and use the adjustment
screws for leveling the sensor. Afterwards snap-on the white sun shield again
and reconnect the cable.
Make sure that the place of installation is not shadowed by great obstacles.
If there are any obstacles, make sure that the distance between the obstacles
and the sensor is at least ten times the height of the obstacles.
This way you can assure that the installation corresponds to the definition of
an undisturbed terrain.
NOTE: Do not forget to level the sensor after fixing it on the mounting
sleeve.
22
CONTENTS
Connection
The connection cable is led along the mast and has to be fastened using appropriate cable ties. The sensor must be properly grounded. Make sure that
the cable plug connection is properly fixed.
Pyranometer - Connection
Wire Function Connect with
Red
+
+ (Hi)
Blue
- (Lo)
Shield
Housing
Ground
Table 1.2: Connection diagram
For connecting the sensor simply follow Table 1.2. See section 1.4.6 on page
45 for more details.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | PTB 210
1.2.6
23
Pressure
Vaisala PTB210
User Information
The pressure measurement requires high accuracy and precision to calculate
volume mixing ratio of the measured trace gases. So the automatic weather
station is equipped with two digital Vaisala PTB 210 which feature digital
output in a range of 500 to 1100hPa. A third sensor of the same type is
used for the leap-frog recalibration scheme (for details see figure 1.17). They
operate in a wide temperature range and the rugged corrosion-resistant housing
provides an IP65 standardized protection against sprayed water.
Figure 1.16: Vaisala PTB 210
Maintenance
The barometers are digitally adjusted and calibrated by using electronic working standards. To maintain the reliability of the system the leap-frog recalibration scheme is carried out according to Fig. 1.17.
Figure 1.17: Leap-Frog recalibration scheme
24
CONTENTS
Two barometers are always used for operational measurements. Upon every
maintenance visit, one of the barometers should be replaced with the recalibrated spare barometer. See this section on page 24 for details.
Mounting
Figure 1.18: Mounting of Vaisala PTB 210
NOTE:
Always place the barometer in a way that the pressure fitting is
downwards and check that the cable is not taken upwards from the
barometer. This is to prevent water flowing along the cable, and
gathering close to the feed-through.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | PTB 210
25
Operation
The PTB210 can be operated through a serial line with any terminal emulator
program and the commands given in the following pages. Note to use the right
parameters for communication with the RS232-Port on your PC or laptop.
(baud rate 9600, parity even, data bits 7, stop bits 1)
General and Communication
The general command format is:
.ZZZ.xxx<cr>
• ZZZ = event
• xxx = given value of a parameter
If there are several barometers on same line, it is necessary to use an ID-code:
123.ZZZ.xxx<cr>
The default ID-code is 0. If necessary, you can change the ID:
.ID.xxx<cr>
• xxx = identification code (max. 15 characters)
To set the baud rate of the barometer use the command:
.BAUD.xxxx<cr>
• xxxx = baud rate (1200...19200
NOTE:
The barometer does not echo the given commands nor confirm the
new settings by echoing them. However, the settings can be checked
with the command ?<cr>. Make sure to reset the barometer with
the command .RESET<cr> to activate the new settings.
26
CONTENTS
Setting of Measurement Parameters
Before using the barometer you have to set up the parameters. The following
commands will give you an overview in terms of possible measurement settings.
To check the actual settings use ?<cr>.
To set the number of measurements performed in one minute use the command:
.MPM.xxxx<cr>
• xxxx = number of measurements per minute (6...4200)
To set the number of measurement points that are used for calculating
an average pressure reading use the command:
.AVRG.xxx<cr>
• xxxx = number of measurements (not a moving number) of which the
average is calculated (0...255)
NOTE:
Make sure to reset the barometer with the command .RESET<cr>
to activate the new settings. The settings can be checked with the
command ?<cr>.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | PTB 210
27
Operating Commands
To output one single pressure reading with two decimals (as used in the
programming of the weather station) use the command:
.P<cr>
For continous output of the pressure readings use the command:
.BP<cr>
The output depends on the measurement rate and the averaging setting (see
this section on page 26). Output is stopped by pressing the enter-key (<cr>).
To select a pressure unit use the command:
.UNIT.x<cr>
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
unit
x
hPa (default) 6
mbar
7
inHg
8
psia
9
torr
10
mmHg
Unit
kPa
Pa
mmH2 O
inH2 O
bar
For output with the unit use the command:
.FORM.1<cr>
For output without the unit use the command:
.FORM.0<cr>
NOTE:
Make sure to reset the barometer with the command .RESET<cr>
to activate the new settings. The settings can be checked with the
command ?<cr>.
28
CONTENTS
Power Down and Saving of Calibration Date
If you want to set the instrument to power down state use the command:
.PD<cr>
The barometer does not measure the pressure in this state. It is re-activated
by pressing the enter-key or by sending a <cr> over the serial line. After this,
the barometer settles in about half a second. Afterwards any command can
be given to the barometer.
To store the last calibration date use the command:
.CALD.xxx<cr>
• xxx = calibration date (max. 15 characters)
Basic Informations about the Barometer Settings
In Order to get the status of settings use the command:
?<cr>
As result you should receive something like shown in Fig. 1.19.
Figure 1.19: Vaisala PTB 210 status
NOTE:
Make sure to reset the barometer with the command .RESET<cr>
to activate the new settings. The settings can be checked with the
command ?<cr>.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | PTB 210
29
Connection
For connecting the sensor simply follow Table 1.3. See section 1.4.6 on page
45 for more details.
PTB 210 - Connection
Wire
Signal
Greey
RX
Green
TX
Blue
Ground
Pink
Power (12V)
Brown
- Not Connected White
- Not Connected Yellow External power control
Table 1.3: Connection Diagram
30
1.2.7
CONTENTS
Temperature Probe
Campbell Scientific T107
User Information
A low pressure gas cell filled with HCL is used to provide narrow absorption
lines at a number of different frequencies across the bandwidth of the FTIR
instrument. The gas cell acts as an internal calibration reference and is placed
directly into the solar beam. Campbell Scientific‘s Temperature Probe T107
is used for monitoring the temperature inside the FTIR spectrometer next to
the gas cell because absorption lines depend on temperature. Two redundant
sensors are used for monitor the temperature of the gas cell.
Figure 1.20: Campbell Scientific Temperature Probe T107
AC power lines can be the source of electrical noise. Because the CR1000
is in an electronically noisy environment, the T107 is measured with 50 Hz
rejection.
Maintenance
The T107 is a very user-friendly sensor which requires minimal maintenance.
For most applications it is unnecessary to recalibrate the thermistor offset.
However, you can determine the offset by placing the sensor in the calibration
chamber at a certain value of e.g. 0 °C. The offset has to be placed in the
Const.CR1 file on the CF Card of the CR1000. For details see section 1.3.3
on page 39.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | T107
31
Mounting
The sensor is placed next to the gas cell in the FTIR instrument.
Connection
The connection is carried out to the table in section 1.4.6 on page 45.
Pay attention that the cable is properly fixed.
T107 - Connection
Wire
Signal
Red
Signal
Black
Excitation
White Signal Ground
Clear
Shield
Table 1.4: Connection Diagram
32
1.2.8
CONTENTS
Temperature/Humidity
Campbell Scientific CS215
User Information
To monitor the conditions inside the BGC-FTIR-Container a digital Temperature/Humidity Sensor CS215 comes into operation. It features a digital SDI12 output allowing simple connection to the Control-Port of the Datalogger
CR1000.
Figure 1.21: Campbell Scientific CS215
Maintenance
Because the sensor is used inside only minimal maintenance is required. However, if there should appear dirt on the filter, simply clean with water or replace
it. The life of the chip element is quoted as many years with a typical drift of
less than 1% per year. If there is a need to change the sensing element please
see the operating manual.
Mounting
The sensor is mounted at an appropriate place inside the BGC-FTIR-Container.
NOTE: Take care not to damage the sensing element when screwing-off the
filter.
BGC-FTIR Sensors | CS215
33
Connection
The connection is carried out according to the table in section 1.4.6 on page
45. Make sure that the cable is properly fixed.
CS215 - Connection
Wire
Signal
Red 12 V Power Suply
White
Ground
Black
Ground
Green
Signal
Clear
Shield
Table 1.5: Connection Diagram
34
1.3
CONTENTS
Data Acquisition - Datalogger CR1000
The CR1000 must be grounded to minimize the risk of damage by voltage transients associated with power surges and lightning induced transients. Earth
grounding is required to form a complete circuit for voltage clamping devices
internal to the CR1000.
1.3.1
Connecting Panel
The following notes give an outline of the ports which are used for operating
the instrumentation of the automatic weather station.
Figure 1.22 gives an overview of several possibilities to connect sensors and
peripheral devices to the Datalogger CR1000.
Figure 1.22: Campbell Scientific CR1000
BGC-FTIR | Data Acquisition
35
Analog and Switched Voltage
The Temperature/Humidity Sensor KPC 1/6 ME and the Pyranometer CMP3
transmit analog voltage which is measured at the DIFF-Ports of the Datalogger
CR1000.
Figure 1.23: Connecting to SE- and DIFF-Ports
Lambrechts Wind Speed 14557 transmits analog current. Anyway, this signal
is also measured at the DIFF-Port of the Datalogger CR1000 but has to be
transformed into analog voltage by using a high-precision shunt resistor of 100
Ohm. The Temperature Probe T107 has to be excited by the EX-Port because
of switched voltage and is measured at the SE-Port. For details see section
1.3.3 on page 42 and 45.
Serial Data
The digital pressure sensor PTB210 transmits serial data which are received
at the COM-Port of the Datalogger CR1000. For connection see section 1.4.6
on page 45 . For setting up like shown in section 1.2.6 on page 25 simply
connect to the RS232-Interface on your PC or Laptop according to figure 1.24
and start communication with a terminal program.
Figure 1.24: Connecting to COM-Ports and RS232
NOTE:
Take care to use the right parameters for communication through
the serial line. (section 1.2.6 on page 25)
36
CONTENTS
SDI-12
Campbell Scientifics Temperature/Humidity Sensor CS215 features a digital
SDI-12 output. It allows simple connection to the Control-Port of the Datalogger CR1000 according to figure 1.25. Only the TX-Ports can be used to
receiving a SDI-12 output. For details connecting the CS215 see section 1.4.6
on page 45.
Figure 1.25: Connecting to Control-Ports
CS I/O
This port of the Datalogger CR1000 is used to connect the keyboard display
CR1000KD. For details see section 1.3.2.
Figure 1.26: CS I/O Port
Peripheral Port
To have the alternative to save data to a CF-Card and to operate through a
ethernet line (access to filesystem via ftp) the Datalogger CR1000 is equipped
with the Ethernet/CompactFlash Module NL115. It is connected to the 40-pin
peripheral port on the CR1000. For details see section 1.3.2.
Figure 1.27: Peripheral Port
BGC-FTIR | Peripheral Devices
1.3.2
37
Peripheral Devices
Keybord Display - CR1000KD
The CR1000 has an optional keyboard display, the CR1000KD. The table
below shows a few keys with its special functions.
Figure 1.28: Keyboard Display CR1000KD
key
2 and 8
Enter
Esc
Home
End
Pg Up
Pg Dn
BkSpc
Shift
Num Lock
Del
Ins
Graph
comment
To navigate up and down through the menu list on line at a time
Selects the line or toggles the option of the line the cursor is on
Back up one level in the menu
Move cursor to top of the list
Move cursor to bottom of the list
Move cursor up on screen
Move cursor down on screen
Delete character to the left
Change alpha character selected
Change to numeric entry
Delete
Insert/change graph setup
Graph
In any case the keyboard display is self-explanatory because of its menu navigation. It is possible to check data and to run and stop a program or to access
the file system on the CPU as well as on the CF Card. Furthermore it can be
used to check the ports and the status and to modify the configuration and
the settings of the logger.
NOTE: For further instructions please read section CR1000KD: Using the
Keyboard Display of the CR1000 manual.
38
CONTENTS
Ethernet and CompactFlash Module - NL115
Campbell Scientific’s NL115 Ethernet/CompactFlash Module provides two
useful capabilities. It enables 10baseT Ethernet communications and stores
data on a removable CF-Card. So it is possible to communicate over the local
network of the BGC-FTIR-Container, respectively via TCP/IP.
To remove a card, press the control button on the NL115. The datalogger will
transfer any buffered data to the card and then power it off. The status LED
will turn green when it is OK to remove the card. The card will be reactivated
after 20 sec if it is not removed.
Figure 1.29: Ethernet and CompactFlash Module - NL115
More important is the use of data transfer via FTP. The calibration factors
and constants which transform the signals into real units are stored on the
CF-Card. This makes it possible to modify them without a need to access the
main program on the CPU. For details see section 1.3.3 on page 39.
When you are connected through a ethernet line you can also visit the homepage of the datalogger to check the latest records or the status.
http://IP
• IP Adress = 10.3.9.60
NOTE: Removing a card while it is active can cause grabled data and can
actually damage it. Do not switch off the datalogger power if a card
is present and active.
BGC-FTIR | Programming
1.3.3
39
Programming
To modify any parameter via FTP the basic need is to access the file system
of the datalogger. You can do so by opening a standard browser and using the
following FTP-Adress:
ftp://UserName:[email protected]
• User Name = BGCJena
• Password = ftp
• IP Adress = 10.3.9.60
Now you can access the files on the CPU and the CF-Card by selecting the
appropriate folder. You can also access with the CR1000KD. In that case
you don’t need a PC or a connection to the local network of the BGC-FTIRContainer.
Multiplier and Offsets
To modify a multiplier or an offset you have to open the file Const.CR1 on
the CF-Card of the Datalogger CR1000. Actually there are two possibilities
to make the file accessible. The first is to use the keyboard display CR1000KD.
1. Select "Home", background light should flash.
2. Select "File", confirm with "Enter".
3. Select "Edit", confirm with "Enter".
4. Select "Crd", confirm with "Enter" to access CF-Card.
5. Select "Const.CR1", confirm with "Enter".
6. Search for the parameter which should be modified.
7. Press "NumLock" for activating the edit-modus, enter the value.
8. Exit with "Esc", confirm settings.
NOTE:
Don’t forget to power up the Dalalogger CR1000 to activate the new
seetings.
40
CONTENTS
You can also modify via FTP using a standard browser. Assure, that there is
a connection from the Compact/Flash Module Nl115 to your PC or laptop.
1. Open a browser and access the file system via:
"ftp://BGCJena:[email protected]"
2. Select "Crd" directory and choose the file "Const.CR1".
3. Search for the parameter which should be modified and save file.
NOTE:
Don’t forget to power up the Dalalogger CR1000 to activate the new
seetings.
Power-Up Function
The key to the CF power-up function is the powerup.ini file, which contains
a list of command lines. At power-up, the powerup.ini command line is
executed prior to compiling the program. The powerup.ini is created with a
text editor and the syntax is very simple.
Command,File,Device
• Command = numeric command according to table
• File
= file on CF-Card associated with the action
• Device
= the device to which the associated file will be copied to.
(CPU/CRD)
Command
1
2
5
6
9
13
14
Description
Run Always, preserve data files
Run on power up
Format
Run now, preserve CF data files
Load OS (File=.obj)
Run always, erase CF data files now
Run now, erease CF data files now
BGC-FTIR | Programming
41
The powerup.ini is always copied to the CF-Card with the associated files
for proceeding the action. See section A.3 on page 52 for the default file.
At power-up this file will copy the program on the CF-Card to the CPU of the
datalogger for running immediately. Data on the CF-Card will be preserved.
The new data will be simply added to the old tables if there are no changes in
saving of data. Otherwise the data will be stored in new tables.
NOTE:
Do not use editors like WordPad, because it will attach header informations to the file causing it to abort. Check the file with the
CR1000KD to see what the CR1000 actually sees.
42
CONTENTS
1.4
Wiring Panel
There are a couple of plug connections to receive accurate signals at the Datalogger and the SPS. The following tables give proper instructions about connecting the sensors and its information flow for data acquisition.
1.4.1
Sensor <-> Box
Sensor
Wind Speed 14557
Temp./Humid. KPC 1/6-ME
Precipitation 15152
Precipitation 15153
Wire
Sensor 1 - Blue (High)
Sensor 1 - Black (Low)
Sensor 1 - Brown (24V +)
Sensor 1 - White (-)
Sensor 2 - Blue (High)
Sensor 2 - Black (Low)
Sensor 2 - Brown (24V +)
Sensor 2 - White (-)
Sensor 1 - Black (High)
Sensor 1 - Orange (Low)
Sensor 1 - Yellow (High)
Sensor 1 - Green (Low)
Sensor 1 - Red (24V +)
Sensor 1 - Brown (-)
Sensor 1 - Yellow/Green
Sensor 2 - Black (High)
Sensor 2 - Orange (Low)
Sensor 2 - Yellow (High)
Sensor 2 - Green (Low)
Sensor 2 - Red (24V +)
Sensor 2 - Brown (-)
Sensor 2 - Yellow/Green
Wire 1 - White (24V +)
Wire 2 - Brown (-)
Wire 3 - Green (A)
Wire 4 - Yellow (W)
Wire 5 - Grey (R)
Wire 1 - Brown (24V +)
Wire 2 - Black (-)
Wire 3 - Not Connected Wire 4 - White (W)
Wire 5 - Blue (R)
Comment
Block A - Pin 01
Block A - Pin 02
Power (24V +)
Power (-)
Block A - Pin 03
Block A - Pin 04
Power (24V +)
Power (-)
Block A - Pin 05
Block A - Pin 06
Block A - Pin 07
Block A - Pin 08
Power (24V +)
Power (-)
- Not Connected Block A - Pin 09
Block A - Pin 10
Block B - Pin 01
Block B - Pin 02
Power (24V +)
Power (-)
- Not Connected Power (24V +)
Power (-)
Block B - Pin 03
Block B - Pin 04
- Not Connected Power (24V +)
Power (-)
- Not Connected Block B - Pin 05
Block B - Pin 06
BGC-FTIR | Wiring Panel
1.4.2
25 Pin D-Sub (Logger) <-> 40 Pin Connector (Box)
25 Pin D-Sub
Pin 01
Pin 02
Pin 03
Pin 04
Pin 05
Pin 06
Pin 07
Pin 08
Pin 09
Pin 10
Pin 11
Pin 12
Pin 13
Pin 14
Pin 15
Pin 16
Pin 17
Pin 18
Pin 19
Pin 20
Pin 21
Pin 22
Pin 23
Pin 24
Pin 25
1.4.3
43
40 Pin Connector
Block A - Pin 01 - Brown
Block A - Pin 02 - Yellow
Block A - Pin 03 - Brown
Block A - Pin 04 - Green
Block A - Pin 05 - Brown
Block A - Pin 06 - Blue
Block A - Pin 07 - Brown
Block A - Pin 08 - Purple
Block A - Pin 09 - Brown
Block A - Pin 10 - Grey
Block B - Pin 01 - Brown
Block B - Pin 02 - White
Block C - Pin 03 - Black
Block C - Pin 04 - Purple
Block C - Pin 05 - Black
Block C - Pin 06 - Grey
Block C - Pin 07 - Black
Block C - Pin 08 - White
Block C - Pin 09 - Black
Block C - Pin 10 - Orange
Block D - Pin 01 - Black
Block D - Pin 02 - Red
Block D - Pin 03 - Black
Block D - Pin 04 - Brown
Block D - Pin 05 - Orange
Comment
Wind Speed 14557 1 (High)
Wind Speed 14557 1 (Low)
Wind Speed 14557 2 (High)
Wind Speed 14557 2 (Low)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (High)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (Low)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (High)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (Low)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (High)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (Low)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (High)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (Low)
- Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected -
9 Pin D-Sub (SPS) <-> 40 Pin Connector (Box)
9 Pin D-Sub
Pin 01
Pin 02
Pin 03
Pin 04
Pin 05
Pin 06
Pin 07
Pin 08
Pin 09
Wire
Block B
Block B
Block B
Block B
Block B
Block B
Block B
Block B
Block C
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
01
-
Brown
Orange
Brown
Red
Black
Yellow
Black
Green
Black
Comment
Precipitation 15152
Precipitation 15152
Precipitation 15153
Precipitation 15153
- Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected -
(A)
(W)
(W)
(R)
44
1.4.4
CONTENTS
25 Pin D-Sub <-> Datalogger CR1000
25 Pin D-Sub
Pin 01 - Brown
Pin 02 - Yellow
Pin 03 - Brown
Pin 04 - Green
Pin 05 - Brown
Pin 06 - Blue
Pin 07 - Brown
Pin 08 - Purple
Pin 09 - Brown
Pin 10 - Grey
Pin 11 - Brown
Pin 12 - White
Pin 13 - Black
Pin 14 - Purple
Pin 15 - Black
Pin 16 - Grey
Pin 17 - Black
Pin 18 - White
Pin 19 - Black
Pin 20 - Orange
Pin 21 - Black
Pin 22 - Red
Pin 23 - Black
Pin 24 - Brown
Pin 25 - Orange
1.4.5
Datalogger
SE 05 (DIFF 3)
SE 06 (DIFF 3)
SE 07 (DIFF 4)
SE 08 (DIFF4)
SE 09 (DIFF 5)
SE 10 (DIFF 5)
SE 13 (DIFF 7)
SE 14 (DIFF 7)
SE 11 (DIFF 6)
SE 12 (DIFF 6)
SE 15 (DIFF 8)
SE 16 (DIFF 8)
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
- Not Connected
-
Comment
Wind Speed 14557 1 (High)
Wind Speed 14557 1 (Low)
Wind Speed 14557 2 (High)
Wind Speed 14557 2 (Low)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (High)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (Low)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (High)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 1 (Low)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (High)
Humid. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (Low)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (High)
Temp. KPC 1/6-ME 2 (Low)
- Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected -
9 Pin D-Sub Box <-> SPS
9 Pin D-Sub Box
Pin 01
Pin 02
Pin 03
Pin 04
Pin 05
Pin 06
Pin 07
Pin 08
Pin 09
Wire to SPS
Green
Yellow
Grey
Purple
Black
Brown
White
Red
Blue
Comment
Precipitation 15152
Precipitation 15152
Precipitation 15153
Precipitation 15153
- Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected - Not Connected -
(A)
(W)
(W)
(R)
BGC-FTIR | Wiring Panel
1.4.6
Sensor <-> Datalogger CR1000
Sensor
Temp. Probe 107
Pyrano. CMP3
Press. PTB210
Temp./Humid. CS215
1.4.7
45
Wire
Sensor 1 - Red (Temp. Signal)
Sensor 1 - Black (Excitation)
Sensor 1 - White (Signal Ground)
Sensor 1 - Clear (Shield)
Sensor 2 - Red (Temp. Signal)
Sensor 2 - Black (Excitation)
Sensor 2 - White (Signal Ground)
Sensor 2 - Clear (Shileld)
Sensor 1 - Red (High)
Sensor 1 - Blue (Low)
Sensor 1 - Black (Shield)
Sensor 1 - White (RX)
Sensor 1 - Green (TX)
Sensor 2 - White (RX)
Sensor 2 - Green (TX)
Connection Box - Red (12V + )
Connection Box - Black (Ground)
Sensor 1 - Red (12V +)
Sensor 1 - White (Ground)
Sensor 1 - Black (Ground)
Sensor 1 - Green (Signal)
Sensor 1 - Clear (Ground)
Sensor 2 - Red (12V +)
Sensor 2 - White (Ground)
Sensor 2 - Black (Ground)
Sensor 2 - Green (Signal)
Sensor 2 - Clear (Ground)
Comment
SE 01
EX 01
Ground
Ground
SE 02
EX 01
Ground
Ground
SE 03 (DIFF 2)
SE 04 (DIFF 2)
Ground
C 1 - TX (COM 1)
C 2 - RX (COM 1)
C 3 - TX (COM 2)
C 4 - RX (COM 2)
Power Out - 12V +
Power Out - Ground
Power Out - 12V +
Power Out - Ground
Power Out - Ground
Control Port 5
Shield
Power Out - 12V +
Power Out - Ground
Power Out - Ground
Control Port 7
Shield
Power Supply - Box
4 Pin Plug Connection
Pin 01
Pin 02
Pin 03
Pin 04
Wire
Grey
Black
Brown
Yellow/Green
Comment
Power (24V +)
Power (-)
- Not Connected - Not Connected -
46
A.1
CONTENTS
CRBasic - Weather Station
’PROGRAM:
’WEATHER STATION BGC-FTIR CONTAINER
’AUTOR:
’Hendrik Zoephel (MPI-BGC, Jena, Germany)
’DATALOGGER AND PERIPHERALS:
’CR1000/NL115
’DATALOGGER SETTINGS:
’Logger IP Adress: 10.3.9.60
’Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
’IP Gateway: 10.9.3.1
’INSTRUMENTATION:
’temperature: 2 x T107 (Campbell)
’wind speed: 2 x 14577 (Lambrecht)
’humidity and temp.: 2 x KPC 1/6-ME (Galltec)
’humidity and temp.: 1 x CS215 (Campbell Sci.)
’global radiation: 1 x CMP3 (Kipp&Zonen)
’atmospheric press.: 2 x PTB210 (Vaisala)
’humidity/temerature: 2x CS215 (Campbell Sci.)
’CHANNEL USAGE:
’SE1,2: 2 x T107
’EX1: 2 x T107
’DIFF2: CMP3
’DIFF3,4: 2 x 14577
’DIFF5: KPC 1/6-ME (humidity)
’DIFF6: KPC 1/6-ME (humidity)
’DIFF7: KPC 1/6-ME (temperature)
’DIFF8: KPC 1/6-ME (temperature)
’COM1,2: 2 x PTB210
’C5,7: 2 x CS215
’CALCULATION:
’conversion to real units
’square sum
’PROGRAM PARAMETERS:
’Scan rate: 5 sec
’Avg. period: 60 sec.
’Min., Max. period: 60 sec.
’Square sum period: 60 sec
BGC-FTIR | Appendix
47
’_______________________
’DECLARATIONS
’_______________________
Public TRHData(2)
Public TRHData_2(2)
Public Temp_Indoor(2) As String
Public Humid_Indoor(2) As String
Public TempString As String * 30
Public HumidString As String * 30
Public Temp_FTIR(2)
Public WindSpd_Check(2)
Public WindSpd(2)
Public WindSpd_SQ_1
Public WindSpd_SQ_2
Public N
Public Count
Public Humid(2)
Public Humid_SQ_1
Public Humid_SQ_2
Public Temp(2)
Public Temp_SQ_1
Public Temp_SQ_2
Public Pyrano(1)
Public Pyrano_SQ_1
Public OutString As String * 10
Public AirPress(2) As String * 10
Public AirPress_SQ_1
Public Airpress_SQ_2
Public AirPressString As String * 30
Public AirPressNum(2)
’_________________________UNITS____________________________________
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Temp_Indoor = deg C
Humid_Indoor = % RH
Temp_FTIR = deg C
WindSpd = m/s
WindSpd_SQ_1 = (m/s)^2
WindSpd_SQ_2 = (m/s)^2
Humid = % RH
Humid_SQ_1 = (% RH)^2
Humid_SQ_2 = (% RH)^2
Temp = deg C
Temp_SQ_1 = (deg C)^2
48
CONTENTS
Units Temp_SQ_2 = (deg C)^2
Units Pyrano = W/m^2
Units Pyrano_SQ_1 = (W/m^2)^2
Units AirPress = hPa
Units AirPress_SQ_1 = (hPa)^2
Units AirPress_SQ_2 = (hPa)^2
’_______________________CONST______________________________________
Include "CRD:Const.CR1"
’____________________OUTPUT SECTION________________________________
’_______TABLE CONTAINER_______
DataTable(Table_Indoor,True,-1)
’_______CARDOUT AS RING_______
’OpenInterval
DataInterval(0,60,Sec,10)
CardOut(0,-1000)
’_______T107_______
Average(2,Temp_FTIR(1),FP2,0)
’_______CS215_______
Average(2,Temp_Indoor(1),IEEE4,False)
Average(2,Humid_Indoor(1),IEEE4,False)
’_______NUMBER OF MEASURED DATA_______
Sample(1,N,FP2)
EndTable
’_______TABLE WEATHER STATION_______
DataTable(Table_Outdoor,True,-1)
’_______CARDOUT AS RING_______
’OpenInterval
DataInterval(0,60,Sec,10)
CardOut(0,-1000)
BGC-FTIR | Appendix
49
’_______TEMP_______
Average(2,Temp(1),FP2,0)
Minimum(2,Temp(1),FP2,0,0)
Maximum(2,Temp(1),FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,Temp_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,Temp_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’_______HUMID_______
Average(2,Humid(1),FP2,0)
Minimum(2,Humid(1),FP2,0,0)
Maximum(2,Humid(1),FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,Humid_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,Humid_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’_______WINDSPD_______
Average(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,0)
Minimum(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,0,0)
Maximum(2,WindSpd(1),FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,WindSpd_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,WindSpd_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’Sample(1,Check1,Boolean)
’Sample(1,Check2,Boolean)
’_______AIRPRESS_______
Average(2,AirPress(1),IEEE4,0)
Minimum(2,AirPress(1),IEEE4,0,0)
Maximum(2,AirPress(1),IEEE4,0,0)
Totalize(1,AirPress_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
Totalize(1,AirPress_SQ_2,IEEE4,False)
’_______PRYRANO_______
Average(1,Pyrano,FP2,0)
Minimum(1,Pyrano,FP2,0,0)
Maximum(1,Pyrano,FP2,0,0)
Totalize(1,Pyrano_SQ_1,IEEE4,False)
’_______NUMBER OF MEASURED DATA_______
Sample(1,N,FP2)
EndTable
’________________________PROGRAMM__________________________________
BeginProg
50
CONTENTS
’_______SET COMMUNICATION-PARAMETERS FOR PTB210_______
SerialOpen(Com1,9600,10,0,0)
SerialOpen(Com2,9600,10,0,0)
Scan(5,Sec,0,0)
’_______SEND STRING ".P<cr><lf>" TO PTB210_______
SerialOut(Com1,Command,"",0,100)
SerialOut(Com2,Command,"",0,100)
’_______RECEIVE SERIAL DATA AS STRING FROM PTB210_______
SerialIn(AirPress(1),Com1,100,10,10)
SerialIn(AirPress(2),Com2,100,10,10)
’_______CONVERTING STRING INTO NUMERIC VALUE_______
AirPressString = AirPress(1) + "," + AirPress(2)
SplitStr(AirPressNum(1),AirPressString,",",2,0)
AirPress_SQ_1 = AirPressNum(1) * AirPressNum(1)
AirPress_SQ_2 = AirPressNum(2) * AirPressNum(2)
’_______RECEIVE VALUES, VOLTAGES ARE CONVERTED IN REAL UNITS________
SDI12Recorder(TRHData(),5,"0","R!",1,0)
SDI12Recorder(TRHData_2(),7,"0","R!",1,0)
’_______ALLOCATION OF INDOOR MEASUREMENTS TO STRINGS_______
TempString = TRHData(1) + "," + TRHData_2(1)
HumidString = TRHData(2) + "," + TRHData_2(2)
SplitStr(Temp_Indoor(1),TempString,",",2,0)
SplitStr(Humid_Indoor(1),HumidString,",",2,0)
Therm107(Temp_FTIR(1),2,1,Vx1,0,_50Hz,1,0)
VoltDiff(WindSpd(1),2,mV2500,3,True,0,_50Hz,wind_multiplier,wind_offset)
WindSpd_SQ_1 = WindSpd(1) * WindSpd(1)
WindSpd_SQ_2 = WindSpd(2) * WindSpd(2)
VoltDiff(Humid(1),2,mV2500,5,True,0,_50Hz,humid_multiplier,humid_offset)
Humid_SQ_1 = Humid(1) * Humid(1)
Humid_SQ_2 = Humid(2) * Humid(2)
VoltDiff(Temp(1),2,mV2500,7,True,0,_50Hz,temp_multiplier,temp_offset)
Temp_SQ_1 = Temp(1) * Temp(1)
Temp_SQ_2 = Temp(2) * Temp(2)
VoltDiff(Pyrano(1),1,mV2_5,2,True,0,_50Hz,pyrano_multiplier,pyrano_offset)
Pyrano_SQ_1 = Pyrano * Pyrano
BGC-FTIR | Appendix
’_______COUNTER OF MEASURED DATA PER INTERVAL_______
Count = Count + 1
N = Count
If TimeIntoInterval(0,60,sec) Then
Count = 0
EndIf
’_______PUT OVER DATA TO TABLE_______
CallTable(Table_Outdoor)
CallTable(Table_Indoor)
NextScan
EndProg
51
52
CONTENTS
A.2
CRBasic - Input file CONST.CR1
’_______________________
’COMMAND FOR PTB210
’_______________________
Const = CR = CHR(13) ’carriage return
Const = LF = CHR(10) ’line feed
Const = Command = ".P" + CR + LF
’_______________________
’MULTIPLIER AND OFFSETS
’_______________________
Const
Const
Const
Const
Const
Const
Const
Const
A.3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
wind_multiplier = 0.03125
wind_offset = -12.5
humid_multiplier = 0.1
humid_offset = 0
temp_multiplier = 0.1
temp_offset = -30
pyrano_multiplier = 75.1314800901577
pyrano_offset = 0
CRBasic - powerup.ini
6,WMS_FTIR.CR1,CPU
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement