Research Institute Leiden Observatory (Onderzoekinstituut Sterrewacht Leiden) Annual Report 2009 Sterrewacht Leiden Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Leiden University Niels Bohrweg 2 2333 CA Leiden Postbus 9513 2330 RA Leiden The Netherlands http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl Cover: Logarithmic rendering of the gas flow in the equatorial plane of a massive binary star in which both stars are losing mass. The orbital eccentricity is 0.8, the mass ratio is 0.25, the time is about one tenth of a period before periastron passage. The red colour shows the gas density, green: pressure, blue: absolute value of the velocity. An electronic version of this annual report is available on the web at http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/research/annualreport.php?node=23 Production Annual Report 2009: A. van der Tang, E. Gerstel, F.P. Israel, A. van Genderen, J. Lub, E. van Uitert, E. Deul. Sterrewacht Leiden Executive (Directie Onderzoeksinstituut) Director K. Kuijken Director of Education F.P. Israel Executive Secretary J. Lub Wetenschappelijk Directeur Onderwijs Directeur Secretaris Instituut Supervisory Council (Raad van toezicht) Prof. Dr. Ir. J.A.M. Bleeker (Chair) Dr. B. Baud Drs. J.F. van Duyne Prof. Dr. Ir. W. van Saarloos Prof. Dr. C. Waelkens CONTENTS Contents: Part I Chapter 1 1 Foreword Chapter 2 History and heritage 2.1. Solar System 2.1.1. Asteroids 2.2. Exoplanets 2.2.1. Eclipsing Exoplanets 2.2.2. Metal-dependent Planet Formation 2.3. Protostars and Circumstellar Disks 2.3.1. Predicting the Water in Protoplanetary Disks 2.3.2. The Molecular Content of Protoplanetary Disks 2.3.3. Ice Survey of Low-Mass Protostellar Envelopes 2.3.4. Origin and Evolution of Complex Organic Molecules in Space 2.3.5. Chemical Evolution from Cloud to Disk 2.3.6. Sun-bathing around Low-Mass Protostars 2.3.7. Mid-infrared Spectral Variability Atlas of Young Stellar Objects 1 7 8 8 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 16 17 CONTENTS 2.3.8. Characterization of Embedded YSOs and Disks 2.3.9. First Results from WISH 2.3.10 . Spitzer c2d Census of Cold Disks with Large Inner Dust Holes 2.3.11. CO Isotope-Selective Photodissociation Revisited 2.3.12. Crystalline Silicates in Disks 2.3.13. An Unbiased Disk Sample in Serpens 2.3.14. Pebbles in Disks 2.4. Star Formation 2.4.1. Zonal Flows in Accretion Disks 2.4.2. The Spitzer c2d Legacy: Statistics 2.4.3. Mapping Molecular Gas in Stellar Nurseries 2.4.4. High Mass Star Formation 2.5. Stars and Interstellar Matter 2.5.1. Searching for the Siblings of the Sun 2.5.2. An Arc of Gas and Dust around the Young Star DoAr21 2.5.3. The Misaligned DI Herculis System 2.5.4. Evolved Stars: Planetary Nebula Progenitors? 2.6. Structure of the Milky Way 2.6.1. The Galactic Magnetic Field 2.6.2. Bulge Dynamics: Studing the Closest Galactic Bar 2.6.3. Mass Function of the Arches Cluster 2.6.4. The Central Supermassive Black Hole 2.7. Nearby Galaxies 2.7.1. Magellanic Clouds 2.7.2. Star-Burst Modelling 2.7.3. Molecular Gas in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies 2.7.4. Infrared Study of the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39) 2.7.5. Atlas of High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Starburst Spectra 2.7.6. The SuperMassive Black Hole in Centaurus A 2.7.7. Using PN.S to Study Elliptical Galaxy Outskirts 2.7.8. Nuclear Phenomena in Active Galaxies 2.7.9. Nearby Clusters of Galaxies 2.8. Distant and High-Redshift Galaxies 2.8.1. Radio Cluster Haloes 2.8.2. Radio Structure of Abell 2256 2.8.3. Metallicities of Galaxies around Redshift of One 2.8.4. SDSS Galaxy Statistics 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 25 25 25 26 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 30 31 32 32 32 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 38 CONTENTS 2.8.5. Blue-to-Red Ratio in Massive Clusters 2.8.6. Galaxy Proto-Cluster Structure in the Early Universe 2.8.7. The Spiderweb Galaxy 2.8.8. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies 2.8.9. Massive starburst galaxies at redshift 2 2.8.10. Lyman-Break Galaxies at 3<z<5 2.8.11. Distant Galaxies and the Red Sequence 2.8.12. Evolving Galaxies in the Distant Universe 2.8.13. The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS) 2.8.14. Weak Lensing in the COSMOS Field 2.8.15. Magnification Mapping of the Large-Scale Structure 2.8.16. Radio Haloes as Tracers of Cosmological Structure 2.9. Simulations, models, theory 2.9.1. Double-Winds in Eta Carinae 2.9.2. Pulsar Timing and Gravitational waves 2.9.3 AMUSE: Astrophysics Multipurpose Software Environment 2.9.4. N-body simulations on Graphical Processing Units 2.9.5. Shock-Processing of PAHs 2.9.6. Diagnosing the Excitation of Extragalactic Ionized Gas. 2.9.7. SIMPLEX and Cosmic reionization 2.9.8. Photo-ionization and Cooling Rates of Astrophysical Plasmas 2.9.9. Keeping the Universe Ionised 2.9.10. SuperMassive Black Holes and Feedback from AGNs 2.9.11. Formation of High-Redshift SuperMassive Black Holes 2.9.12. Chemical Enrichment in Cosmological Simulations 2.9.13. How to Study X-Ray Dominated Regions with ALMA 2.9.14. Cosmic Shear 2.10. Instruments and facilities 2.10.1. The Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) 2.10.2. ALLEGRO: the ALMA Regional Center Node in the Netherlands 2.10.3. The expanded Submillimeter Array (eSMA) 2.10.4. VLTI: MIDI and Matisse 2.10.5. VLT: MUSE and ASSIST 2.10.6. KiDS: Studying Dark Matter with Light Rays 2.10.7. E-ELT-METIS 2.10.8. GAIA 38 38 39 41 41 42 42 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 47 48 49 50 51 51 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 CONTENTS 2.10.9. JWST-MIRI Testing 2.11. Astrochemistry 2.11.1. Interstellar molecules formed on grains 2.11.2. Simulations of Ice Photo-Dissociation 2.12. Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics 2.12.1. Laboratory Experiments 2.12.2. UV Photo-Processing of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues 2.12.3. Atom Bombardment of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues 2.12.4. Molecular finger prints 63 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 Chapter 3 3.1. Education 3.2. Degrees awarded in 2009 3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees 3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s) 3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees 3.3. Academic Courses and Pre-University Programs 3.3.1. Courses taught by Observatory curriculum staff 3.3.2. Pre-University Programs 3.3.3. Contact.Vwo 3.4. Popularization and Media Contacts 3.4.1. Public Lectures and Media Interviews 3.4.3 Tours at the Old Observatory 3.5. Universe Awareness Program 3.6. IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the Developing World 3.7. The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F. Kaiser’ 3.8. Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters 71 73 73 75 75 76 76 77 77 79 79 85 85 86 87 87 CONTENTS Part II Appendix I Observatory staff December 31, 2009 II II.1 II.2 91 Committee membership 101 Observatory Commitees 101 Membership of University Committees (non-Observatory) 105 III Science policy functions 109 IV Visiting scientists 119 V Workshops, colloquia and lectures Workshops Endowed lectures Scientific colloquia Student colloquia 125 125 126 127 130 VI Participation in scientific meetings 133 VII Observing sessions abroad 157 VIII Working visits abroad 163 IX Colloquia given outside Leiden 173 Scientific publications Ph.D. Theses and Books Publications in refereed journals Publications in non-refereed journals and conference articles Other Publications 183 183 184 207 211 V.1 V.2 V.3 V.4 X X.1 X.2 X.3 X.4 Chapter 1 Review of major events Chapter Review of major events 1 Foreword 2009 was a busy year at the Sterrewacht. The institute's permanent staff saw some important changes, with the arrival of Xander Tielens at the beginning of the year, Simon Portegies Zwart in the spring, and Matt Kenworthy at the end of the year, and the appointment of Rychard Bouwens (who will arrive during 2010). Xander moved to Leiden from NASA-AMES, and takes up a chair in interstellar medium physics and chemistry, and will further strengthen our astrochemisty research. He won an important grant from the European Research Council with which he will build up a significant group. Simon Portegies Zwart moved here from Amsterdam, and is our new professor of numerical astrophysics. His work centers on gravitational dynamics of star clusters and galaxies, and involves using dedicated specialized hardware such as GRAPE boards and Graphical Processing Units. He obtained a VICI grant for his research, and leads a large NOVA project on computational 2 REVIEW OF MAJOR EVENTS astrophysics, AMUSE. A third new professor is Huub Rottgering, who was promoted from his senior lecturer position. Matt Kenworthy joined us from Steward Observatory in Arizona, and specializes in astronomical instrumentation, especially adaptive optics, for exoplanet research. He takes up a position as lecturer. Rychard Bouwens, from the University of California at Santa Cruz, an expert on high-redshift galaxy studies with Hubble Space Telescope in particular, accepted an offer of a lectureship with us and will start in 2010. A small symposium was held for Peter Katgert in September. Peter retired after some 40 years on the faculty at the Sterrewacht, and handed over his careful stewardship of the Leids Sterrewacht, Leids Kerkhoven Bosscha, and Oort foundations as secretarytreasurer to Michiel Hogerheijde. The support staff underwent many changes as well. Jan Lub stepped down as institute manager after many years, but will still be around to provide his successor, Evelijn Gerstel, with the benefit of his memory and experience. Evelijn moved to the Sterrewacht from the physics department, where she had been coordinator of the education activities. The Sterrewacht's education coordinator, Petra Oosthoek, moved to the Computer Science department. Finally Kirsten Groen, who has been a member of our secretariat for the last 10 years and has ably assisted me and my predecessor as management assistant, decided to move full-time to the NOVA office as financial controller, and her work was taken over by Jeanne Drost. In spite of all the changes, the handovers were smooth and somehow everything continued to run the way it should, in large part due to the dedication of all concerned. My thanks! REVIEW OF MAJOR EVENTS 3 The most significant events of the year included the launch of Herschel, the successful refurbishment of Hubble, the first images from VISTA and the first maps from LOFAR: we have major plans for all these facilities and first results have already been obtained. These highlights underscore that we owe much of our scientific reach to the facilities we have access to, and have a role in developing, in collaboration with organizations and institutes such as ESA, ASTRON, ESO, SRON and our sister institutes in NOVA. Continued involvement in developing the facilities of the future will ensure that we keep on creating such scientific opportunities. 2009 was the International Year of Astronomy, and under this extra spotlight a number of prominent activities took place. Ewine van Dishoeck was the lecturer at the university's dies natalis on February 9, speaking on "New Worlds". The 20th Oort lecturer was Bruce Draine from Princeton, and Jerry Nelson (Santa Cruz) delivered the Sackler lecture in the fall. The old observatory building's renovation was started, with the first of the domes hoisted off the building by minister Plasterk of education, culture and science on April 6. Everything seems to be on track for the old observatory's reopening in 2011. 11 graduate students successfully defended their thesis and obtained their PhD, a near-record: but with around 50 PhD students at the observatory now, we will have to get used to this rate! Our graduates continue to do well on the international job market, with the Hubble Fellowship for Karin Oberg, and the Jansky Fellowship for Huib Intema, as most impressive examples. Finally, a sad piece of news that reached us during the year was the passing of Maarten Floor (1917-2008): he worked at the Sterrewacht as a 'calculator' from 1955 until his retirement in 1980. I imagine he would have been quite amazed at the calculations we now take for granted. 4 REVIEW OF MAJOR EVENTS As I write this introduction, preparations for a research assessment in the spring of 2010 are in full swing. We are working hard to ensure that the Sterrewacht (as well as the rest of NOVA) will come through this process with flying colours, and given the many results and achievements described in this annual report there certainly are plenty of reasons to be optimistic! Koen Kuijken Chapter 2 Research Chapter Research 2 History and heritage The Sterrewacht acts as host to the history group of the Leiden University Department of Mathematics and Science. Van Delft (director Museum Boerhaave), holding a part-time appointment as professor extraordinary in the history of science, focused his research on the Leiden cryogenic laboratory, the international temperature scale and the International Institute of Refrigeration. Van Lunteren, also holding a part-time appointment as professor extraordinary, conducted studies on 19th- and 20th-century Leiden scientists which resulted in three papers: one on the astronomer Kaiser as a Dutch pioneer of the new genre of popular science, one on the cultural roots of the views of the physicist Fokker on causality and time symmetry, and finally a study, together with Hollestelle, of the Austrian-Dutch physicist Ehrenfest. Elbers is studying the rise of radio astronomy in the Netherlands in the post-war years. Her research is predominantly based on primary sources in the Oortarchives and in those of the Observatory itself. It focuses on the interplay of the personal and as well as the more general factors that may serve to account for the successful launch of this new research field. She presented preliminary results at the meeting of the History of Science Society in Phoenix and constructed a general framework for her PhD-project. She also located several other relevant archival collections. 8 2.1 SOLAR SYSTEM Weiss studied the archives of the Teyler's Museum in Haarlem in order to reconstruct the changes in both the public and research functions of this institution. He unearthed previously unknown documents concerning the Teyler's Museum 19th- century collection policy. He also systematically compiled the accounts by visitors of their experiences at Teyler's Museum from the early decades of the museum's history. Finally, he initiated and organised a national conference on the public usage of 19th century Dutch collections which will be held in 2010. Baneke completed his inventory of the paper collections of Frederik Kaiser and Willem de Sitter, being the two major constituents of the Leiden Observatory Archives. These archives were transferred to Leiden University Library for preservation and digitalization. He also completed a research project on the history of Dutch astronomy in 1880-1940, analyzing changes in the scientific culture, the introduction of new educational programs at Dutch astronomical institutes, and the remarkable renaissance of Leiden Observatory in the 1920's. 2.1. Solar System 2.1.1 Asteroids After sixty years of minor planet (planetoiden in Dutch) research I. van HoutenGroeneveld and her late husband C.J. van Houten, the former is still actively continuing her work. The new names of minor planets and the lists of new definitive numbered minor planets of the van Houten sample are published in the Minor Planet Circulars (MPC), which come out monthly at full Moon. The van Houten Palomar-Leiden survey plates are now at Heidelberg Sternwarte (Germany) in the custody of L. Schmadel (Astronomisches RechenInstitut). All short-exposure plates of P-L-survey and all Selected Area plates have now been measured: 36 187 individual positions of 4 906 different objects. The P-L-Survey contains the following numbers of objects: 2124 found, 242 found by other observers, as well as 2540 new ones found by Schmadel of which 1817 are numbered, and 723 are provisionally named. By using overlays of all 2008 known minor planets and extrapolating back to the P-L-plate epoch of 1960, Schmadel found the positions of significantly more objects than the van Houtens originally found. This means 52% pre-discovery-objects were found! 2.1 SOLAR SYSTEM 9 In 2008 and 2009, 2093 van Houten survey minor planets were definitely numbered, five of them being Trojans. In the same year, 40 received names following proposals communicated by Van Houten-Groeneveld. Eleven names of Dutch origin should be mentioned: (Number) (12151) (12618) (10662) (12169) (12170) (12156) (12173) (11433) (12625) (12626) (12157) In addition to: (12619) (12620) (12621) (12622) (10972) (10973) (173117) (12608) (12609) (12616) (12617) (12165) (12166) (12167) (12168) (136557) (171465) (173108) (189004) (12623) (12624) (12627) (12628) Name Oranje Nassau = 1220 T-1 Cellarius = 6217 P-L Peterwisse = 3201 T-2 Munsterman = 2031 T-3 Vanvollenhoven = 2372 T-3 Ubels Lansbergen Gemmafrisius Koopman Timmerman Können = 1070 T-2 Discovery date 1971 03 25 1960 09 24 1973 09 30 1977 10 16 1977 10 16 1973 09 29 1977 10 16 1977 10 16 1960 10 17 1971 03 25 1973 09 29 Name MPC 61764 61764 63639 64312 64563 65121 65121 65710 65710 65710 67759 Anubelshunu = 6242 P-L Simagian = 6335 P-L Alsufi = 6585 P-L Doppelmayr – 6614 P-L Merbold – 6614 P-L Thomasreiter = 1210 T-2 Promachus = 1973 SA1 (Trojan) Aesop = 2091 P-L Apollodoros = 2155 P-L Lochner = 4874 = P-L AngelusSilesius = 5568 P-L Ringleb = 3289 T-2 Oliverherrmann = 3372 T-2 Olivermüller = 4306 T-2 Polko = 5141 = T-2 Neleus = 5214 T-2 (Trojan) Evamaria = 6847 P-L Ingola = 6240 P-L Capys = 3184 T-3 (Trojan) Tawaddud Mariacunitia Maryedwards Ackworthorr 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1973 09 29 1973 09 29 1973 09 24 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1960 09 26 1960 10 17 1973 09 03 1973 09 25 1973 09 29 1973 09 25 1973 09 25 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1977 10 16 1960 10 17 1960 10 17 1971 03 25 1971 03 25 67759 71764 61764 61764 62928 62929 62932 63640 63640 63640 63640 64311 64311 64311 64311 64565 64565 64565 64565 65710 65710 65711 65711 9 2.1 SOLAR SYSTEM 10 (12615) (19872) (19873) (19874) (19875) (12158) Mendelsdeleon Chendonghua Chentao Liudongyan Guedes Tape – 1101 T-2 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1960 09 24 1973 09 29 66242 67217 67217 67217 67218 67759 2.2. Exoplanets Figure 1: Artist impression of the changing phases of extrasolar planet CoRoT-1b, as detected by Snellen, de Mooij, and Albrecht. The phase variation is just as we see it for the interior planets in our own solar system. 2.2 EXOPLANETS 11 2.2.1 Eclipsing Exoplanets Snellen and collaborators worked on the detection and characterization of transiting extrasolar planets. Most of the more than 200 known extrasolar planets have been found using the radial velocity technique. Although their orbits are well known, not much is being learned about the planets themselves. This is very different when the orientation of a planet is such that it transits its host star, regularly blocking off a fraction of the star light. For these planets, the mass, radius, and average density can be determined, and their atmospheres probed through secondary eclipse photometry and transmission spectroscopy. De Mooij and Snellen presented the first ground-based K-band detection of the secondary eclipse of an extrasolar planet. Together with Albrecht they published in Nature the optical phase curve of an extrasolar planet using CoRoT data. 2.2.2 Metal-dependent Planet Formation Exoplanets are preferentially observed around metal-rich stars. Rich in elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Johansen, Youdin (CITA, Canada), and Mac Low (American Museum of Natural History) found a physical explanation for this phenomenon. They performed 3-D computer simulations of the initial stages of planet formation, varying the heavy element abundance of their disk models. Planets form in protoplanetary discs around young stars as dust particles collide and grow to ever larger structures, but this process becomes inefficient on scales of a few centimeters. Pebbles of such size have very poor sticking properties. However, hydrodynamical simulations show that pebbles moving through gas will spontaneously form dense clumps and that these clumps can contract under their own weight into mini-planets (called planetesimals) of several hundreds of kilometers in diameter. Johansen and collaborators found that the process of clumping depends strongly on the mass loading of pebbles in the gas, i.e. on the heavy element abundance. Below solar metallicity they observed no clumping and no planet formation, whereas slightly above solar metallicity planet formation has become very efficient. Their findings, summarized in a press release titled “Dirty stars make good planetary hosts”, were picked up by several news media, including SPACE.com, Astronomy Now, and ABC news. 11 12 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS 2.3 Protostars and Circumstellar Disks 2.3.1 Predicting the Water in Protoplanetary Disks Brinch completed the LIME code. This is a 3-D molecular excitation and radiation transfer code that has been under development for several years. LIME models radiation transfer on unstructured, random Delaunaytriangulated grids, and it produces high-resolution predictons of the spectral emission distribution. LIME is designed to be used to model Young Stellar Objects (YSO's) and their environments with the specific aim of becoming a robust modeling tool for use with ALMA observations. Toward the end of 2009, LIME was used for the first time to predict water line emission from the hot surface of a protoplanetary disk (Fig. 2) in very high resolution. This predictions will be verified by HIFI observations with the Herschel Space Observatory in the near future. Figure 2: Model prediction of water line emission from the hot surface layers of a protoplanetary disk. The cold mid-plane of the disk is emission free because the water is frozen out as ice. 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS 13 2.3.2 The Molecular Content of Protoplanetary Disks Panič completed her PhD thesis under supervision of Hogerheijde, describing high-angular-resolution observations of protoplanetary disks. She focused on the molecular content of these disks, the total amount of material and its kinematics. Panič and Hogerheijde studied two samples of objects: T Tauri stars (roughly comparable to the young Sun) and Herbig Ae stars (their slightly more massive counterparts). It turned out that the latter class is most amenable to investigation through the emission of CO and its isotopes, because these stars are brighter: they heat the disks to higher temperatures in excess of 20 K. This precludes the freeze-out of CO onto dust grains, prevalent in T Tauri disks. In a more detailed study of the disk around the star HD100546, Panič et al. found that there is a significant amount of warm (typically 100 K) gas, betrayed by APEX/CHAMP+ CO J=6-5 measurements. This gas is probably heated by the stellar ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, this radiation must be sufficiently 'soft' to avoid dissociation of CO into C and O, as emission from the carbon atom is wholly absent in the same data. Interestingly, the shape of the spectral line indicates that the disk is not uniformly heated, but rather that one side 20--40 K warmer than the other side. It is possible that the inner disk is warped, and casts a shadow on the outer disk. 2.3.3 Ice Survey of Low-Mass Protostellar Envelopes Bottinelli, Öberg, Boogert (IPAC, Pasadena, USA), Pontoppidan (Caltech, Pasadena, USA), van Dishoeck, Lahuis and the ‘Cores to Disks’ (c2d) IRS team completed their Spitzer + ground-based 3-38 micron spectral survey of 41 lowluminosity young stellar objects (YSOs) down to proto-brown dwarfs. Their fourth paper addressed the solid NH3 and CH3OH abundances, both of which are key ingredients for making prebiotic molecules in ices. Identification of these molecules is complicated by the blending of their main features at 9.0 and 9.7 micron with the strong silicate absorption band (see Figure below), and different methods had to be developed to extract them. The resulting NH3 abundances were between 2 and 15%, whereas those for CH3OH had a broader range from <1% to nearly 30% with respect to H2O ice. Comparison with laboratorium results by Bouwman, Beckwith and Linnartz showed that NH3, like CH4, is formed largely by hydrogenation of atomic N on grains, whereas CH3OH appears to form mostly through hydrogenation of CO in a nearly pure CO ice environment. Quantitative simulations of the latter process were carried out by Cuppen and collaborators using the latest Leiden laboratory data. 14 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS Figure 3. Spitzer infrared spectrum toward the deeply embedded solar mass protostar Serpens SVS 4-9, showing CH3OH and NH3 ice absorptions at 9.7 and 9.0 micron superposed on the silicate feature. The background image is the Spitzer c2d 3.6, 8.0 and 24 micron color image of the Serpens core. 2.3.4 Origin and Evolution of Complex Organic Molecules in Space Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous in space. Herbst (Ohio State, USA) and Van Dishoeck reviewed the topic for Annual Reviews in Astronomy and Astrophysics. There is now strong evidence that the rich variety of volatile complex molecules seen in the millimeter spectra of young stellar objects are primarily formed in the ice mantles on interstellar grains. This chemistry appears ubiquitous throughout the Milky Way, with remarkably similar abundances on large scales. Öberg, Bottinelli and van Dishoeck developed an indirect method for testing this hypothesis through two organic molecules CH3OH and HNCO - that can be observed both in the gas and in the ice. They found a tentative correlation between the ice and gas abundances with a measured gas-to-ice ratio of 10-4, which agrees well with predictions for the photo-desorption mechanism measured in the laboratory by Öberg and collaborators. This provided a proof of concept that non-thermal desorption products in cold clouds can serve as a signature of the (complex) ice composition. 2.3.5 Chemical Evolution from Cloud to Disk Visser, van Dishoeck, Doty (Denison Univ., Ohio, USA), and Dullemond (MPIA Heidelberg, Germany) developed a semi-analytical 2-D model to describe how 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS 15 material changes physically and chemically as it is transported from a collapsing cloud to a protoplanetary disk. Thus far, only 1-D models were used but they could not properly describe the incorporation of material into disks. The model computed infall trajectories from any point in the cloud and tracked the radial and vertical motion of material in the viscously evolving disk. It included a full time-dependent radiative transfer treatment of the dust temperature, which controls much of the chemistry. As a first application, the freeze-out and evaporation of CO and H2O ice were studied, as well as the potential for forming complex organic molecules in ices. A fraction of the ices in comets are indeed expected to be pristine molecular cloud material. Material that ends up in the planet- and comet-forming zones of the disk (~5-30 AU from the star) is predicted to spend enough time in a warm zone during the collapse to form first-generation complex organic species on the grains. Figure 4. The evolution of material from the prestellar core stage through the collapsing envelope into a protoplanetary disk. The formation of zeroth- and first-generation organic molecules in the ices is indicated occurs at 0 and 1, and second-generation molecules in the hot-core region at 2. Once material enters the disk, it will rapidly move to the cold midplane where additional freeze-out and grain surface chemistry occur. All ices evaporate inside the (species-dependent) sublimation radius (‘snow line’) 16 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS 2.3.6 Sun-bathing around Low-Mass Protostars Figure 5.Spitzer three color (3.6 (blue), 4.5 (green) and 8 micron (red)) image with the contours of integrated CO J=6-5 emission (blue/dark) observed with APEX-CHAMP+ overlaid. The [C I] 2-1 emission (green/light) is detected weakly on source but peaks further down at the tip of the outflow where the UV photons produced in the fast bow shock are hard enough to dissociate CO. Analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission consists both of accelerated swept-up gas along the outflow as well as quiescent, photon-heated gas surrounding the outflow cavity walls. Van Kempen, van Dishoeck, Hogerheijde, Kristensen, Yildiz, Guesten (MPIfR, Bonn, Germany) and collaborators used the new CHAMP+ camera on APEX to image CO J=6-5, 7-6 lines, as well as lines from isotopologues and [C I] 809 GHz, in a dozen low-mass protostellar sources on scales of several arcmin to probe the origin of warm gas in their surroundings. Such studies have only become possible thanks to the development of heterodyne arrays at high frequency combined with an excellent site. Surprisingly strong quiescent extended emission from narrow high-J 12CO 6-5 and 7-6 lines is seen toward all protostars, suggesting that heating by UV photons along the outflow cavity dominates the emission. The UV photons are generally not energetic enough to dissociate CO since the [C I] 2-1 emission, also probed by our data, is weak except at the bow 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS 17 shock at the tip of the outflow. Shock-heated warm gas characterized by broad CO line profiles is seen only toward the more massive Class 0 outflows. This shocked gas is also revealed through Spitzer maps of the pure rotational lines of H2 in the NGC 1333 region in a complementary study led by Maret (Grenoble, France) and involving Kristensen. In collaboration with Bruderer, Benz (both ETH, Zürich, Switzerland) and Doty (Denison Univ., Ohio, USA), multidimensional chemical models have been developed which can tackle the physical and chemical structure of irridiated outflow walls. The initial application has been to high-mass YSOs, but such models are now being constructed for low-mass YSOs together with Visser for interpretation of Herschel data. 2.3.7 Mid-infrared Spectral Variability Atlas of Young Stellar Objects Figure 6. Mid-infrared observations of pre-main sequence stars. Thin lines: ISO/ISOPHOT-S, thick lines: Spitzer/IRS, dots: Spitzer/IRAC, squares: 2MASS. RR Tau shows wavelength-independent flux changes; CT Cha displays a variable 10 micron silicate feature but mostly constant continuum; WW Cha shows anti-correlation between flux changes below and above 8 micron; while AK Sco exhibit no mid-infrared variability. Kóspál, Abrahám, Kun, Moór (Konkoly Obs., Hungary), Henning, Leinert (MPIA Heidelberg, Germany), and Acosta-Pulido (IAC Tenerife, Spain), compiled a mid-infrared spectral atlas containing observations of 68 low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects. The atlas contains 2.5-11.6 micron low- 18 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS resolution spectra obtained with the ISOPHOT-S instrument on-board the Infrared Space Observatory, as well as 5.2-14.5 micron low-resolution spectra obtained with the IRS instrument on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope between 2004 and 2007. The observations were retrieved from the archives and were post-processed interactively by self-developed routines. Kóspál, and Collaborators analyzed the mid-infrared variability on both yearly and decadal timescales. They identified 38 candidate variable sources and characterized the wavelength-dependence and possible physical mechanisms of the flux changes. 2.3.8 Characterization of Embedded YSOs and Disks Van Kempen, van Dishoeck and collaborators developed a method to characterize the truly embedded stellar population in Ophiuchus. They used the extent and strength of a high density tracer, HCO+ J=4-3 observed with JCMT HARP-B, combined with two column density tracers, C18OJ=3-2 and the SCUBA dust continuum. Of the 40 candidate sources, only 17 turned out to be bona-fide embedded YSOs. Accurate classification is essential to determine reliable lifetimes of the various evolutionary phases. Jörgensen (Bonn, Germany), van Dishoeck, Visser, Lommen and collaborators used the Smithsonian Millimeter Array to characterize young disks in the embedded stage of star formation through a survey of 20 sources. The interferometer data allow the disk and envelope emission to be disentangled. They found the envelope mass to sharply decrease from the Class 0 to the Class I stage, whereas the disk mass showed no evolution between these stages. In addition, four Class I sources exhibited signs of Keplerian disk rotation in HCO+ J=3-2 data. The inferred stellar masses indicate that the stars contain 70-98% of the total mass in the star-disk-envelope system, confirming that most of the material has already accreted onto the central star at this stage. Comparison with evolutionary models showed that these tended to overestimate disk relative to stellar masses. Thus, material accreted from the large scale envelope has to be processed more rapidly onto the central star by some mechanism. 2.3.9 First Results from WISH Van Dishoeck, Kristensen, van Kempen (CfA, Boston, USA), Herczeg (MPE, Munich, Germany) and collaborators obtained the first data from the 'Water in Star-Forming Regions with Herschel' key program. PACS spectra and maps were obtained for three science demonstration sources. The water molecule is a particularly sensitive probe of where a young star dumps energy into its surroundings. Figure 7 shows the water emission map along the outflow lobes of the deeply embedded protostar L 1157 in a study led by Nisini (INAF, Rome, Italy). The water emission shows up most strongly in "hot spots" due to strong 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS 19 shocks symmetrically displaced from the young star. Toward another young sun-like star, HH 46, PACS has imaged a strong line of atomic oxygen. This line is one of the most direct probes of the rate at which the young star loses mass. Interestingly, the line detected by PACS shows not only the low velocity gas swept up by the jet, but also very fast moving gas that is part of the jet itself. This will allow a direct determination of the energy involved in both processes. Figure 7. PACS image of water 179 micron emission toward the young solar analog L 1157, lighting up the two-sided outflow of gas. 2.3.10 Spitzer c2d Census of Cold Disks with Large Inner Dust Holes Understanding how disks evolve and dissipate is essential to studies of planet formation. Merin (HSC Madrid, Spain), van Dishoeck, Brown (MPE, Munich, Germany) and collaborators used the Spitzer c2d survey to identify 35 candidate transitional disks for which IRS spectra were obtained in a Spitzer program. Of these, 15 turn out to be 'cold' disks lacking mid-infrared excess, whereas a large fraction of the remaining 20 are disks in which the grains have grown and settled to the mid-plane. These statistics give a frequency of cold disks of 4-8% of the YSO population, indicating that transitional disks represent a short-lived phase in disk evolution. Hole sizes are generally smaller (a few AU) than for previously discovered cold disks and reflect a distribution more consistent with exoplanet radii. Reliable criteria for identifying disks with inner holes from 20 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS Spitzer photometry have been determined, which can be applied to larger samples. 2.3.11 CO Isotope-Selective Photodissociation Revisited Photodissociation by UV light is an important destruction mechanism for CO in many astrophysical environments. Visser, van Dishoeck and Black (Chalmers Univ., Göteborg, Sweden) revisited this process using recent spectroscopic data which allowed determination of depth-dependent and isotope-selective photodissociation rates with higher accuracies. Theirs is the first such model to include the rare isotopologues C17O and 13C17O. The results have been applied to diffuse and translucent clouds, photon-dominated regions, and circumstellar disks. Increasing the excitation temperature reduces the isotopic selectivity by as much as a factor of three, whereas grain growth can enhance it by an order of magnitude. The photodissociation rates of C17O and C18O show almost exactly the same depth dependence so 17O and 18O are equally fractionated with respect to 16O.This supports the recent hypothesis that CO photodissociation in the solar nebula is responsible for the anomalous 17O and 18O abundances in meteorites. Using the unprecedented quality of ESO-VLT-CRIRES data, high precision measurements of C17O, C18O and C16O abundances have been made by Smith (UCLA, USA) and collaborators (including van Dishoeck) of one disk and one protostellar envelope as part of a VLT large program led by van Dishoeck. The derived oxygen abundance ratios for the VV CrA disk show a significant massindependent deficit of C17O and C18O relative to C16O compared to ISM baseline abundances, consistent with the isotope selective process in the upper layers of the disk. The Reipurth 50 envelope shows no clear differences, as expected. 2.3.12 Crystalline Silicates in Disks As part of the c2d legacy program, Olofsson, Augereau (Grenoble, France), van Dishoeck and the c2d team analyzed Spitzer-IRS spectra of ~100 T Tauri stars to quantify their crystallinity fraction. More than 3/4 of the objects show at least one crystalline silicate feature that can be essentially attributed to Mg-rich silicates. The Fe-rich crystalline silicates are largely absent in the c2d sources. The strength and detection frequency of the crystalline features seen at long wavelengths (probing scales less than 10 AU) correlate with each other, but not with those at 10 micron (probing even smaller scales less than 1 AU). This leads to a crystal paradox: the crystalline silicate features are detected 3.5 times more frequently in the colder outer disk (~55% vs. ~15%) than in the much warmer inner disk regions where the material supposedly crystallized. Thus, the need for an efficient outward radial transport mechanism in disks around T Tauri stars is suggested. 2.3 PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS 21 2.3.13 An Unbiased Disk Sample in Serpens The Spitzer c2d survey has revealed a new population of YSOs in a previously unexplored region of the Serpens molecular cloud. Compared with other lowmass star-forming clouds, Serpens has a much higher star formation rate per unit volume. Thus, it is an excellent laboratory to test disk properties in a clustered environment. Oliveira, Pontoppidan, van Dishoeck, Merin and collaborators have carried out a flux-limited IRS spectroscopic survey of some 100 disks down to the young brown dwarf limit. In addition, complementary optical spectroscopy, millimeter emission and X-ray surveys have been done. The majority of the disks show silicate emission, 8% have 30/13 micron flux ratios consistent with cold disks with inner holes and 4% of the disks show PAH emission. Comparison with models indicates that dust grains in the surface layers have sizes of at least a few micron. No significant difference is found in the distribution of silicate feature shapes and strengths between Serpens and other well-studied large samples of disks such as that of Taurus. The remarkably similar distribution in samples with different median ages imply that the dust population in the disk surface results from an equilibrium between dust growth and destructive collisional processes that is maintained over a few million years, irrespective of environment. 2.3.14 Pebbles in Disks Grains in disks around young stars are thought to grow from interstellar submicron sizes to planetesimals, up to kilometres in size, over the course of several Myr. The largest grains that can be detected have sizes of pebbles, and can be best observed at centimeter wavelengths. However, other emission mechanisms can contribute, most notably free-free emission from stellar winds and chromospheric activity. Lommen, Wright (ADFA, Australia), Maddison (Swinburne Univ., Melbourne, Australia) and collaborators used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the mechanisms of centimeter emission for several T Tauri stars through monitoring over several years. Some disks have confirmed grain growth up to at least millimeter sizes, whereas one source shows variable emission at the longest wavelengths indicative of non-thermal emission. A larger sample has subsequently been surveyed with ATCA and SMA to search for correlations between the submillimeter spectral slope, characteristic of grain growth across the disk midplane, and the 10 micron feature, indicative of growth in the surface layers in the inner disk. 22 2.4 STAR FORMATION 2.4 Star Formation 2.4.1 Zonal Flows in Accretion Disks Young stars and supermassive black holes are fed by accreting gas from an orbiting disc, an accretion disk. Accretion is facilitated by the turbulent mass of the gas. A path to make accretion disks turbulent is through the so-called magnetorotational instability, which renders any Keplerian flow with an appropriately strenghted magnetic field unstable. Accretion disk turbulence is often studied in a corotating reference frame representing a small region in the disk. However, such an approach neglects potentially important dynamics at scales larger than the simulation box. Johansen, Youdin (CITA, Canada), Klahr (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany) developed a new numerical method that allows the study of MHD turbulence in very large simulation domains. They found that the turbulence has significant structure at large scales. The most striking feature of their simulations was large scale "zonal flows", i.e. regions of faster or slower rotation similar to the banded cloud structure on the giant planet Jupiter. Such zonal flows can have important effects on planet formation, since pebbles and rocks are trapped between regions of slower and faster rotation. Figure 8. Zonal flows. 2.4.2 The Spitzer c2d Legacy: Statistics The Spitzer c2d legacy team, led by Evans (Univ. Texas, USA), and including van Dishoeck, van Kempen and Merin, performed a statistical analysis of the more than 1000 YSOs found in the five star-forming clouds mapped by c2d. 2.4 STAR FORMATION 23 Current star-formation efficiencies are found to range from 3% to 6%, overall from 15% to 30%. The star-formation surface density is more than an order of magnitude larger than would be predicted from the Kennicutt relation used in extragalactic studies, reflecting the fact that those relations apply to larger scales where more diffuse matter is included in the gas surface density. The derived lifetime for the embedded Class I phase is 0.44 Myr, considerably longer than some estimates. Similarly, the lifetime for the Class 0 SED class, 0.1 Myr, with the notable exception of the Ophiuchus cloud, is longer than early estimates. The great majority (90%) of young stars lie within loose clusters with at least 35 members and a stellar density of 1 M_sun pc-3. The data confirm and aggravate the "luminosity problem" for protostars. At a given Tbol, the values for Lbol are less than predicted by standard infall models and scatter over several orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that accretion is time variable, with prolonged periods of very low accretion. 2.4.3 Mapping Molecular Gas in Stellar Nurseries Hogerheijde, together with a large team of researchers from the UK and Canada, is executing a Legacy Survey on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using the HARP receiver array. This 'spectral-line camera' has revolutionized the capabilities of the JCMT to map out the distribution of molecular gas in the Universe. Hogerheijde is one of the coordinators of the Gould Belt Survey, aimed at mapping all nearby star-forming regions in emission of CO and its isotopes 13CO and C18O. Papers describing the first results of this survey were completed in 2009, presenting maps of the star forming clouds in Serpens, Taurus, and Orion. These clouds showed a remarkable variety of morphologies and kinematics, illustrating the diversity of star-forming environments in the Solar vicinity. This ranges from isolated, mostly quiescent condensations in Taurus, to the much more energetic regions of Serpens and Orion which are criss-crossed by protostellar jets and show indication of large-scale cloud collisions. 2.4.4 High Mass Star Formation Torstensson and Van Langevelde continued their studies of methanol masers associated with high mass star formation. Collaborating with van der Tak (SRON, Groningen) and Vlemmings (Bonn Univ., Germany), they obtained interesting results on the nearest high-mass star-forming region Cep A, which is studied as the archetypical source in the sample. Analysis of HARP data taken with the JCMT allowed the derivation of the rotation temperature and column density of the thermal methanol gas. The methanol is clearly associated with the 24 2.4 STAR FORMATION central source in this famous HII region and the derived temperature peaks at the location of the maser. Excitation models show that radiative excitation is limited to the very central region. Figure 9. Thermal methanol in Cep A, from left to right the integrated flux, the velocity field and the line width of the methanol (7 1 7 -- 6 1 6) E-type transition is shown. This is the strongest unblended line in the JCMT HARP spectra. The direction of the outflow is roughly consistent with the orientation of the methanol masers on the much smaller scale observed with the European VLBI Network. The methanol masers straddling the waist of Cep A probably outline a large ring structure perpendicular to the outflow axis of the central source. Remarkably, the velocity field does not show a rotation signature but seems to be dominated by a small radial motion. Thus, the ring may outline an accretion shock, where in-falling gas hits the accretion disk. Figure 10. The magnetic field configuration around the young massive star Cepheus A HW2 and the location of the methanol regions from which the 3-D structure was inferred. The figure shows a magnetic field almost perfectly perpendicular to the disk through which matter is transported onto the star. 2.4 STAR FORMATION 25 Vlemmings observed the same Cep A methanol masers with MERLIN to obtain measurements of the magnetic field direction. Although the interpretation of maser polarization can be quite complex, the measurements reveal a structured large scale magnetic field perpendicular to the accretion disk in this high-mass YSO. Field structure and strength reveal that magnetic fields can be the dominant force in regulating the formation of high mass stars. This is an important clue that the formation mechanism of high mass stars may resemble that of less massive stars. 2.5 Stars and Interstellar Matter 2.5.1 Searching for the Siblings of the Sun Bean (Leiden and Missouri State University), Portegies Zwart and Brown used data from the Hipparcos Catalogue to conduct a preliminary search for stars that were born in the same cluster as the Sun: the Sun's Siblings. They ran simple simulations of a cluster dissolving during the Sun's lifetime as it orbits in the potential of the Galaxy. The stars lost from the cluster in the simulation end up along the cluster's orbit and their characteristics (space distribution and kinematics) should identify candidate siblings of the Sun in the Hipparcos Catalogue. Bean and coworkers made a further selection among the candidates by looking for stars that photometrically appear to have the same age as the sun and then examined these by looking up accurate age and metallicity estimates in the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey catalogue. Somewhat as expected, no actual siblings of the Sun were found but the study forms a good basis for future searches with larger astrometric and photometric surveys such as will be provided by the Gaia mission. 2.5.2 An Arc of Gas and Dust around the Young Star DoAr21 Hogerheijde, Panič, Merin, and Schouten obtained detailed images of the circumstellar dust around the young star DoAr21. It had been suggested that this star is surrounded by a disk, which has already cleared-out its inner region - a telltale sign of disk evolution and possible planet formation. However, the VLT-SINFONI and VLT-VISIR images obtained by Hogerheijde et al. showed a very different picture: instead of a disk, the molecular hydrogen and the warm dust form an arc on just one side, at roughly 70-200 AU from the star. The most likely explanation is that DoAr21 is not surrounded by a cleared-out disk, but instead that it just happens to travel past a dense cloud condensation in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud. DoAr21 is known to be bright in X-rays, and this radiation 26 2.5 STARS AND INTERSTELLAR MATTER should heat the surface of the condensation to hundreds if not thousands of K, sufficient to explain the observed emission. The observations illustrated the power of VISIR and SINFONI to probe the environment of young stars. Figure 11. Different views of the circumstellar environment of DoAr21: a) image of the star at 2.1 micron obtained with SINFONI using Adaptive Optics, clearly showing the diffraction pattern of the telescope. b) same, zoomed out to a 8 arcsecond field of view. c) image of the field at 19 micron showing the stellar photosphere and the emission of the arc of warm dust 1 arcsecond NW of the star. d) image of the inner field around DoAr21 at the wavelength of the H2 line emission, with the stellar emission subtracted, showing the absence of any circumstellar material in these scales. e) same, zoomed out to a 8 arcsecond field of view, clearly showing the arc of glowing H2 to the NW of the star. f) comparison of the locations of the warm dust and glowing H2 gas. 2.5.3 The Misaligned DI Herculis System Albrecht led a study using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect which reveals the spin-orbital alignment in two binary star systems, a technique also used for transiting extrasolar planets. In a Nature publication, they revealed that in one of these systems, DI Herc, the orbital plane and spin-axis are strongly misaligned. This unexpected result solved the 20-year old mystery of the slow apsidal motion of this binary star system. 2.5 STARS AND INTERSTELLAR MATTER 27 2.5.4 Evolved Stars: Planetary Nebula Progenitors? Amiri, van Langevelde, and Vlemmings (Bonn Univ., Germany) studied the role of magnetic fields in shaping the circumstellar envelope of evolved stars that are Planetary Nebula (PNe) progenitors. MERLIN observations of the OH maser region in the so-called water fountain source W43A revealed circular polarization. Amiri and coworkers interpreted this as caused by the Zeeman effect and found the strength to be consistent with previous determinations of the magnetic field in the jet-like water maser emission [see Figure]. Using Effelsberg 100 m telescope, the same team discovered another 22 GHz water maser in the supposedly dead OH/IR star, IRAS18455+0448 for which the sudden disappearance of the OH 1612 MHz line had been reported previously. Such a dying OH/IR star should not possess a water maser. An interesting possibility is that the new masing spots originate further out in the circumstellar envelope, making this the youngest proto-PNe ever detected. Figure 12. Spatial distribution of OH and H_2O maser features in W43A. The offset positions are with respect to the reference feature. H2O features are indicated by filled circles and OH components are shown as triangles. Red and blue show the redshifted and blueshifted features. 28 2.6 STRUCTURE OF THE MILKY WAY 2.6 Structure of the Milky Way 2.6.1 The Galactic Magnetic Field Nota and Katgert studied the large-scale magnetic field in the Galactic plane in the fourth Galactic quadrant. They used published rotation measures of pulsars and extragalactic sources. They made a special effort to identify those objects for which the distribution of free electrons between observer and source is probably far from uniform. Structure in the distribution of free electrons biases the estimate of the strength of the magnetic field from rotation measures, especially if the field reverses direction somewhere along the line of sight or has structure on small scales. The strength of the large-scale field was estimated by comparing the acceptable data to model predictions. It appears that the large-scale field most likely follows the spiral arms. For a large range of assumed arm properties (such as pitch angle and arm-width), the large-scale field shows two robust reversals; from Norma arm (counter-clockwise) to Norma-Crux interarm region (clockwise), and from Norma-Crux interarm region to Crux arm (CCW). The field strengths are typically a few μGauss. At the same time, Nota and Katgert found evidence for a small-scale field that is a factor of two to three stronger than the large-scale field. 2.6.2 Bulge Dynamics: Studing the Closest Galactic Bar Soto, Kuijken, and Rich (UCLA, USA) constructed a model of the stellar kinematics towards the bar in the Milky Way bulge. They based the model on new measurements of proper motions and radial velocities from HST and the ESO-VLT, respectively. The VLT observations used an integral field unit to take spectra of very crowded star fields in the bulge, from which stellar spectra were then extracted using the precise position information measured on the HST images. Repeat HST images separated by 3-5 years allowed accurate proper motions (equivalent to 30km/s accuracy at the distance of the bulge) to be measured. A separate analysis of a data set of K giants revealed a significant vertex deviation in the metal-rich stars which is a clear signature of bar-like kinematics. In their master thesis project, Zeballos and Astraatmadja derived proper motions from HST data in three new fields, at galactic longitudes between 5 and 10 degrees. 2.6 STRUCTURE OF THE MILKY WAY 29 2.6.3. Mass Function of the Arches Cluster The Arches cluster is one of only a handful of young and massive starburst clusters in the Milky Way. Located at the Galactic center, this cluster is a unique object for studying star formation and early cluster dynamics. Harfst and Portegies Zwart constructed an N-body counterpart of the Arches cluster by systematically comparing a large number of simulation results with observations. The observational data were provided by Stolte (Cologne University, Germany). The results showed that the flattened mass function observed today is the result of the dynamical evolution of the cluster combined with a selection effect. The Arches cluster is consistent with a standard Salpeter initial mass function and not, as was considered in earlier studies, an counterexample to the universality of the initial mass function. a) (b) Figure 13. Quality of fit to observation for varying model parameters, a value of unity indicating the best fit. The two panels show results from models using a Salpeter and a flat initial mass function (panel a) and b), respectively). 2.6.4 The Central Supermassive Black Hole Levin, PhD students and international collaborators continued to work on issues related to the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center, and to gravitational-wave detection. Madigan, Levin, and Hopman identified a new secular instability in eccentric stellar disks around supermassive black holes. They showed that a combination of coherent torques and retrograde precession of the stellar orbits amplifies deviations of individual orbital eccentricities from the average, and thus drives all eccentricities away from their initial value. This physical process is relevant for the Galactic center, where massive stars are likely to form in eccentric disks around the SgrA* black hole. They showed that the dynamical evolution of such a disk results in several of its stars acquiring high (e > 0.99) orbital eccentricities. 30 2.6 STRUCTURE OF THE MILKY WAY Binary stars on such highly eccentric orbits would get tidally disrupted by the SgrA* black hole, possibly producing both the S-stars, a cluster of young stars on random orbits near the black hole, and hyper-velocity stars in the Galactic halo. Levin, working with Genzel's group at MPE (Munich, Germany) has also obtained new results on the geometry of the Galactic-Center stellar disks. This work has shown that the clockwise disc is strongly warped and the counterclockwise disc is dissolving. 2.7 Nearby Galaxies 2.7.1 Magellanic Clouds To understand the impact of low metallicities on giant molecular cloud (MC) structure, Israel as part of an international team working on Spitzer Space Observatory data compared far-infrared dust and millimeter CO emission, and dynamics in the star-forming complex N83 in the Small Magellanic Cloud wing. Dust emission probes the total gas column independent of molecular line emission and traces shielding from photo-dissociating radiation. They resolved the relative structures of H2, dust, and CO within this a giant molecular cloud complex, one of the first times such a measurement has been made in a lowmetallicity galaxy. The results indicated that the CO is photo-dissociated while H2 self-shields in the outer parts of low-metallicity GMCs, implying that dust/self shielding is the primary factor determining the distribution of CO emission. The CO-to-H2 conversion factor averaged over the whole cloud is very high, 20 to 55 times the local Galactic value. This factor also varies across the complex, with the lowest values near the CO peaks. The bright CO emission is occurs along line-of-sight with high extinction. A simple model in which CO occurs in a smaller sphere nested inside a larger cloud roughly relates the H2 masses measured from CO kinematics and dust. 2.7.2 Star-Burst Modelling Martinez Galarza, Groves, and Brandl developed a method to compare physical models of star-burst spectral energy distributions with actual mid-infrared spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. They accomplished their star-burst modeling by implementing a reproducible least-square fitting method and comparing the model spectra to the spatially averaged IRS spectral map of 30 Doradus, which is a very well-studied giant HII region complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This approach can accurately constrain the relevant physical parameters of the star formation activity in 30 Doradus in a comprehensive 2.7 NEARBY GALAXIES 31 manner, including the mass of the central cluster, the contribution of UCHII regions, and the contribution of PDR material to the total luminosity and compactness. 2.7.3 Molecular Gas in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies Israel completed studies of molecular gas in the centers of the nearby star-burst galaxies NGC 278, NGC 660, NGC 3628, NGC 4631, and NGC 4666. The bright CO emission required modeling with at least two distinct gas components, although the physical condition differ from galaxy to galaxy. Relatively tenuous (less than a 1000 per cc) and warm (~125 K) gas occurs in all galaxies and is mixed with cooler (~20 K) and denser (~6000 per cc) gas. Molecular gas masses within radii of 0.6 to 1.5 kpc are about 100 million solar masses, i.e. no more than a few per cent of the dynamical mass in the same region. In all galaxy centers there is less H2 than CO intensities would suggest. Figure 14. Major-axis-velocity diagrams of the merger/starburst NGC 660 (right) and the starburst galaxy NGC4631 (left). NGC660 exhibits strong circumnuclear CO, whereas the edge-on NGC4631 only shows a number of giant molecular cloud complexes distributed throughout the disk. As co-coordinator of the JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) , Israel and NGLS team members published a CO(3-2) study of four spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster ((NGC 4254, NGC4321, NGC 4569, and NGC 4579). The first three have total molecular gas masses of about one billion solar masses and gas depletion times of about 1.5 Gyr. NGC 4254 appears to have a smaller gas depletion time (i.e. larger star formation rate) than the other, perhaps because it is on its first passage through the Virgo Cluster. The interaction of NGC 4569 with the interacted medium appears to be directly affecting the dense starforming portion of the interstellar medium. NGC 4579, has weak CO(3-2) emission although it is bright in the mid-infrared. Much of the central luminosity in this galaxy may be due to the presence of a central AN. The NGLS data of NGC 2403 were combined with Spitzer Space Telescope 32 2.7 NEARBY GALAXIES infrared maps at wavelengths between 3 and 160 microns and VELA HI data. In this very nearby Sabled galaxy, the dust surface density is a function of the total hydrogen gas surface density and galactocentric radius. The gas-to-dust ratio from ~100 in the nucleus to ~400 at 5.5 kpc radius. Its slope follows that of the oxygen abundance, suggesting that metallicity strongly affects the gas-todust ratio within this galaxy. The CO(3-2) radial profile has an exponential scale length identical to that of the (stellar continuum-subtracted) 8 micron PAH emission. However, CO J=(3-2) and PAH 8 micron surface brightnesses are uncorrelated on sub-kilo-parsec scales. 2.7.4 Infrared Study of the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39) Brandl, Groves, van der Werf, Snijders, and Den Brok have studied the famous Antennae galaxies NGC4038/39 with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spatially resolved spectra allowed a detailed study of the luminosities, dust content, and emission properties of the super star-clusters in the so-called overlap region. Molecular hydrogen was found to be rather confined to the nucleus of NGC 4039, where shocks appear to be the dominant excitation mechanism, and the southern part of the overlap region, where it traces the most recent star-burst activity. The overall properties of the warm molecular gas appear to be in good agreement with the findings in other starburst galaxies, which is in contrast to previously reported findings from ISO. 2.7.5 Atlas of High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Starburst Spectra Together with collaborators at Cornell and Caltech, Brandl produced an atlas of Spitzer/IRS high-resolution (R ~ 600) 10-37 micron spectra for 24 well-known star-burst galaxies. The spectra are dominated by fine-structure lines (including the high excitation [Ne V] line), molecular hydrogen lines, and emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The spectra also revealed weak hydrocarbon features at 10.6, 13.5, 14.2 μm, and a previously unreported emission feature at 10.75 μm. An unidentified absorption feature at 13.7 ?m is detected in many of the starbursts. From the mid-IR fine-structure lines and the atomic hydrogen (H 7-6) line, the metallicities for 14 objects were derived. The spectra of all starburst galaxies were combined to create a high signal-to-noise ratio template, which was subsequently made available to the community. 2.7.6 The SuperMassive Black Hole in Centaurus A In one of the first Guaranteed Time observing runs with SINFONI on the VLT, Van der Werf, De Zeeuw, Cappellari, Reunanen, Davies (MPE, Munich, Germany), Neumayer, and Rix (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany) observed the 2.7 NEARBY GALAXIES 33 Figure 15. Data-model comparison for the best-fitting three-integral model of CO-band stellar kinematics in the nucleus of Cen A. Top two panels: the top row shows the bisymmetrized and linearly interpolated 0.1 arcsec pixel SINFONI data. The second row shows the best-fitting dynamical model predictions. The central bins excluded from the fit are shown with white diamonds. Bottom two panels: same as in the top two panels, for the 0.25 arcsec pixel SINFONI kinematics. For each quantity, the colour scale is the same in the two instrumental configurations. optically obscured nucleus of the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A. A nearby star allowed adaptive optics corrections resulting in data with a K-band resolution of 0.12 arcsec. The CO bandheads at 2.3 micron in this data set were used to determine the central black hole mass from stellar kinematics. Due to 34 2.7 NEARBY GALAXIES the very high signal-to-noise ratios, the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution was reliably extracted. Remarkably, the stars were found to counter-rotate with respect to the gas. Using axisymmetric three-integral models (see Figure), the team found the black hole mass to be 55+/-30 million solar masses, in agreement with the earlier determination from the gas kinematics. The result provided one of the cleanest gas versus stars comparisons of MBH determination; it also brought Cen A into agreement with the general MBH - sigma relation. 2.7.7 Using PN.S to Study Elliptical Galaxy Outskirts The PN.S team (including Kuijken, Douglas, Arnaboldi, Capaccioli, Coccato, Freeman, Gerhard, Merrifield, Napolitano, Noordermeer, Romanowsky) is in the process of carrying out a study of elliptical galaxy halos. The PN.S is a purpose-built narrow-band, two-arm slitless counter-dispersing spectrograph that finds, and measures velocities of planetary nebulae (PNe) in external galaxies from a single observation. The ongoing survey typically yields 100-200 PNe per galaxy, mostly beyond two effective radii from the center where motions are dominated by the dark matter halo potential. The team has now obtained good data sets for a dozen galaxies. Interestingly, a significant number of galaxies exhibit a sharply declining velocity dispersion profile. 2.7.8 Nuclear Phenomena in Active Galaxies De Vries, Snellen, Schilizzi, and Röttgering studied very young radio galaxies in the expectation of shedding new light on the question why certain galaxies become active and how the central activity influences the surrounding galaxy. They showed that the expansion velocities of young radio sources depend on their radio luminosity. Their analysis also indicated that the mortality rate of radio-loud AGN is high during the earliest phase of their evolution. Holt also continued working on radio galaxies at optical wavelengths, in collaboration with Tadhunter (Sheffield, UK) and Morganti (Astron), among others. They presented their results on the dominant ionization mechanisms in the fast nuclear outflows in compact (young) radio galaxies. Finally, Spoon (Cornell) and Holt reported the discovery of strongly blueshifted mid-infrared neon emission lines in a sample of ULIRGs highlighting the presence of outflows in these sources. Jaffe, Oonk, and Hatch used the Hubble Space Telescope ACS to obtain evidence for large-spread Far-Ultraviolet emission from cooling flow clusters. The source 2.7 NEARBY GALAXIES 35 of this emission is unknown; it may be young stars (unusual for elliptical galaxies) or indirect emission from cosmic rays. 2.7.9 Nearby Clusters of Galaxies Katgert and Biviano (Trieste, Italy ) calibrated the effects of projection (from 6-d phase space to 2+1-d observation space) on the detection of kinematical and dynamical substructure in the clusters of the ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey. They used numerical simulations of clusters, in which all 6 phase-space coordinates are available, so that the real kinematical and dynamical substructure could be detected. These simulations were also projected into 2+1-d pseudo-observations. Special attention was given to the question of a meaningful cross-correlation between the properties of the substructure observed in 6-d and in the 2+1-d projection. 2.8 Distant and High-Redshift Galaxies Figure 16. GMRT radio (green), Chandra X-ray (blue/magenta) and HST (whitish/red) observations of the merging cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 ($z=0.5$). The main central radio emitting region is located at the interface between merging clusters. The temperature of the X-ray gas in this interface region is relatively high, indicating that shocks in the X-ray gas accelerate the radio emitting particles. 36 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES 2.8.1 Radio Cluster Haloes Diffuse radio emission in clusters, often classified as radio "relics" or "haloes", trace regions with shocks and turbulence resulting from cluster merger events. Van Weeren, Röttgering, Brüggen (Bremen, Germany), and Cohen (NRL, Washington, USA) have carried out low-frequency radio observations at 610 MHz with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of diffuse ultra-steepspectrum sources and constructed the first sample of such sources associated with clusters. They showed that smaller relics have steeper spectra and larger relics are predominantly located in cluster outskirts while smaller relics arecloser to cluster centers. They suspect that this is the consequence of larger shock waves occurring mainly in lower-density regions and having larger Mach numbers. Combining radio and Chandra X-ray observations of the merging cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z=0.5), Van Weeren, Röttgering, Brüggen, and Cohen (NRL, Washington, USA) discovered the most powerful radio halo known. The coincidence of steep-spectrum radio emission with high temperature X-ray gas (see Fig. 1) constituted strong evidence that the radio emitting particles are accelerated in a merger-related shock wave. 2.8.2 Radio Structure of Abell 2256 Abell 2256 is a massive cluster at a redshift of 0.0581. It is presently merging with a smaller sub-structure. At radio wavelengths, the cluster reveals a very complex morphology showing a bright peripheral radio relic, a radio halo, several complex relatively compact filamentary sources and “head-tail” sources. Van Weeren, Intema, Oonk, Röttgering and Clarke (Washington, USA) complemented deep 325 MHz GMRT radio continuum observations with WSRT 115-165 MHz observations and optical WHT imaging (See Figure previous page). They discovered three diffuse elongated radio sources about 1 Mpc from the clustercenter with extents of 170, 140 and 240 kpc, respectively. Their extremely steep radio spectra suggests them to be the result of adiabatic compression of fossil radio plasma caused by merger shocks. They concluded, from the timescales related to AGN activity, synchrotron losses, and the presence of shocks, that most massive clusters should possess similar sources. An exciting possibility is that such sources will determine the general appearance of clusters in the low-frequency, high-\ resolution radio maps produced by LOFAR or LWA. 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES 37 Figure 17. Left: 325 MHz GMRT radio map of the cluster A2256. Right: optical images around the diffuse steep spectrum radio sources AG+AH(top right) and AI (bottom rightl) composed out of V (blue), R (green), and I (red) band images. 2.8.3 Metallicities of Galaxies around Redshift of One Brinchmann participated in two efforts to determine metallicities in galaxies at redshifts between 0.5 and 1.3 from the Vimos Very Deep Survey. The effort led by Lamareille (Toulouse, France) focused on the evolution of the massmetallicity relation with redshift using the same techniques as had previously been applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). They found a modest evolution in the relation out to z~0.7 and possibly some evidence for a change in shape. The second effort, led by Pérez-Montero (Toulouse, France), focused on calibrating a new metallicity indicator for use at redshifts out to z~1.3. This was used to extend the study of the mass-metallicity relation to higher redshift, and an evolution relative to the present-day Universe was found but no statistically significant evolution was found between z~0.7 and z~1. 2.8.4 SDSS Galaxy Statistics Brinchmann, mainly in collaboration with Christy Tremonti (U. Wisconsin, USA), carried out a re-analysis of all SDSS DR7 spectra and derived physical 38 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES parameters for all galaxies in the SDSS DR7, about 1 million. This dataset has been provided on-line at http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/SDSS/DR7 and is a reference dataset for galaxy properties in the SDSS. Brinchmann also participated in an effort to study the effect of lopsidedness on the properties of galaxies in the SDSS. The effort was led by Reichard (Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, USA). They showed that lopsidedness in galaxies correlates with residuals in the mass-metallicity relation and that powerful AGN tend to be hosted by lopsided galaxies but that this is an incidental correlation. The physical correlation appears to be that the delivery of cold gas to the central regions of galaxies, triggering star formation and black hole growth, is aided by the process that produce lopsidedness. 2.8.5 Blue-to-Red Ratio in Massive Clusters Hoekstra, Willis, Urquhart (both Univ. of Victoria, Canada) and Pierre (CEA, France) studied the fraction of blue galaxies (relative to galaxies on the red sequence) for a combined sample of massive clusters (from the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project led by Hoekstra) and low mass systems discovered by the XMM-LSS survey. The results, although not fully conclusive, suggest that environment may play an important role in setting the blue fractions of galaxy clusters. 2.8.6 Galaxy Proto-Cluster Structure in the Early Universe Miley, Hatch, Röttgering, Masschietto, Kuiper, and collaborators have been using high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) to probe galaxy and cluster formation in the early Universe. The very massive luminous high-z radio galaxies are the likely progenitors of cDs and Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs). Leiden studies focussed on (i) population and kinematic study of radio-selected protoclusters from 2<z<4, (ii) studies of merging, AGN feedback and galaxy downsizing in the massive cD progenitor hosts and (iii) preparation for a search for z>6 HzRGs with LOFAR (potential probes of the Epoch of Reionization). To unravel the history of protoclusters, it is essential to study galaxies of different ages, masses and dust content. Lyman-alpha excess galaxies and Lyman break-galaxies are dominated by young dust-free stellar populations, while Balmer-break galaxies are dominated by older stars. The Leiden group has shown that Lyman-alpha is a powerful tracer of the young star-bursting population in z>2 protoclusters. They were allocated an ESO large project with the tunable OSIRIS camera on the new Grantecan Telescope to make a Lymanalpha kinematic study of 19 HzRGs at 2<z<3.5. Highlights of these studies are the population studies of Maschietto and collaborators and Kuiper on the 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES 39 protocluster MRC0316-257 at z=3.1, and Overzier and colleagues on protoclusters at z>4. Maschietto et al selected 13 candidate [OIII] emitters in a 1 Mpc2 region around the z=3.1 radio galaxy, and followed up by spectroscopic observations. Three [OIII] emitters have velocities within a few hundred km/s of each other, but blue-shifted by about 2100 km/s from both the radio galaxy and the protocluster Lyman-alpha emitters previously detected by Venemans et al. These results indicate that the radio-selected protocluster is forming at the centre of a larger superstructure with a size of 60 co-moving Mpc. Kuiper and colleagues took this a step further and analyzed in detail four distinct populations within this z>3.1 protocluster: the young stellar populations pinpointed by Lyman alpha emitters and Balmer break candidates and the older populations observed as [OIII] emitters and Balmer break candidates. They found a radial spatial segregation within the protocluster. The galaxies with the highest masses and star formation rates are located losest to the radio galaxy. Thus, the protocluster environment already influences galaxy evolution at z~3. 2.8.7 The Spiderweb Galaxy Miley and his collaborators have shown that HzRGs have many of the properties expected from progenitor cD galaxies - clumpy optical morphologies, spectra indicative of extreme star formation and large stellar masses. The best studied example is the spectacular Spiderweb Galaxy at z=2.2, with a mass of about 1012 solar masses, among the largest known. The galaxy is surrounded by a giant (200 kpc) Lyman-alpha halo and embedded in dense hot ionized gas with an ordered magnetic field. It is associated with a 3 Mpc-sized structure of galaxies, of derived mass in excess of 2x1014 solar masses, a presumed antecedent of a local rich cluster. HST studies by Hatch et al revealed information about merging, downsizing, AGN feedback and intergalactic star formation. For the Spiderweb Galaxy comparison of the UV luminosity (young stars) with the IR luminosity (old stars) implied that most of the mass had already assembled by z~2.2, consistent with downsizing scenarios. Intriguingly, Hatch and colleagues showed that downsizing may also be occurring within the Spiderweb itself. Although the less massive satellite galaxies contain only 30% of the total mass, they are responsible for about 75% of the star formation. 40 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES Figure 18. Left. Deep HST/ACS image of the Spiderweb Galaxy at the center of the MRC 1138-262 protocluster at z = 2.2, with VLT Lyman alpha contours (blue) delineating the gaseous nebula and the VLA 8GHz radio contours (red) superimposed on the composite ACS image. The gaseous nebula is extended by ~200 kpc and comparable in size with the largest cD galaxies in the local Universe. Right. A H-band HST/NICMOS image at ~500A rest-frame. Red circles indicate red galaxies with little UV continuum. Note differences between the ACS image (young population) and the NICMOS image (old population). Spectral comparisons and IFU spectroscopy are being used to disentangle the history of star formation and structure assembly. Hatch and collaborators also found that about 40% of the UV light from the Spiderweb is in a diffuse intergalactic component, probably produced by intergalactic star formation at rates of 60 solar masses per year. This discovery posed several questions. How ubiquitous is the extended light and what role does it play in massive galaxy evolution? Are extended stars produced by gas that has been stripped from the satellite galaxies? 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES 41 Figure 19. On the right are the spectral energy distributions of galaxies within the Spiderweb Galaxy according to the decomposition shown at the top lefl. The first SED is that of the central massive radio galaxy (Galaxy 1) and the other SEDs are those of 18 satellite galaxies. The derived mass of the Spiderweb is ~10M, of which 70% is in the central object, whereas 75% of the star formation appears to occur in the less massive satellite galaxies. These data are presently being complemented by IFU spectroscopy. Bottom left is a simulation of the centre of the Spiderweb protocluster by Saro et al. for comparison. 2.8.8 Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Van der Werf, Knudsen (MPIfR, Bonn, Germany) and Kneib (LAS, Marseilles, France) studied the molecular (CO) properties of intrinsically faint Submillimeter Galaxies, gravitationally lensed by the massive cluster A2218. With the Plateau de Bure Interferometer they detected CO J=2-1 and J=4-3 emission from two SMGs at redshifts z=1.034 and z=3.187. They used the measurements to estimate molecular gas masses and star formation efficiencies, the results being consistent with the local L(FIR)-L(CO) relation. One of the objects had the lowest far-infrared luminosity of all SMGs with a known redshift and is one of the few high-redshift LIRGs whose properties can be estimated prior to ALMA. 2.8.9 Massive starburst galaxies at redshift 2 Van der Werf also collaborated with a team led by Huang (CfA, Boston, USA) in a study of infrared colour-selected galaxies. The selection criteria efficiently 42 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES isolated massive star-forming galaxies at a redshift of approximately 2. The fractional luminosity in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) features for the new sample is the highest ever seen, about three times higher than in local starbursts. HST images show that most objects have very extended morphologies in the rest-frame ultraviolet band. The resulting sample constitutes the first starburst-dominated ULIRG sample at high redshift with total infrared luminosity measured directly from FIR and millimeter photometry, and as such gives us the first accurate view of broadband spectral energy distributions for starburst galaxies at extremely high luminosity and at all wavelengths. 2.8.10 Lyman-BreakGalaxies at 3<z<5 Hildebrandt and coworkers selected the largest samples of high-redshift (3<z<5) galaxies to date, using Lyman-break imaging data from the Canada-FranceHawaii-Telescope Legacy Survey. They measured the clustering of the ~80 000 star-forming galaxies to unprecedented accuracy which yielded estimates of the masses of the dark matter halos hosting those Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). They used the same sample to establish a new observational technique of using weak gravitational lensing to study cosmology. They succeeded in detecting the cosmic magnification effect in the LBGs, the first time this was done with normal galaxies. This effect introduces characteristic angular cross-correlations between galaxies at low and at high redshift due to weak lensing by the foreground galaxies. Hildebrandt and coworkers showed that the signal scales with magnitude and redshift as expected from lensing theory (see Fig. 1). 2.8.11 Distant Galaxies and the Red Sequence Damen, Franx, and collaborators found that the specific star formation rates of massive galaxies out to z=3 increases rapidly with redshift (roughly like (1+z)5). The increase is similar for all masses, but galaxies with higher masses have lower average specific star formation rates. The observed high specific star formation rates lie well above the levels that can be reproduced by the current models for galaxy formation that generally predict specific star formation rates on the order of 1/t(hubble). Williams, Quadri, Franx, and collaborators used the Ultra Deep Near-IR Survey and found that galaxies with little star formation can be identified in a red sequence out to z=2 by combining the near-IR photometry with optical and 3-5 micron photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the rest-frame U-V, V-J color-color diagram, the star-forming galaxies lie in an area different from the “quiescent galaxies”. This new diagnostic is confirmed by using the mid-IR 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES 43 emission at 24 micron, which shows strong emission from star-forming galaxies and none from the quiescent galaxies. Holden (UC Santa Cruz, USA), Franx, and collaborators showed that early-type galaxies in high-z clusters have the same ellipticity distribution as early-type galaxies in clusters at low-z. This suggests strongly that the average bulge-todisk ratio is rather similar, and does not evolve. It also indicates that earlier efforts in trying to distinguish ellipticals and S0s are not effective. Taylor, Franx, and collaborators showed that red galaxies can be identified out to a redshift of two. Although photometric errors hamper the definition of red sequence galaxies at z=2, it is likely that a significant fraction of massive galaxies were ‘’red” at that redshift. 2.8.12. Evolving Galaxies in the Distant Universe Kriek (Princeton Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators obtained a very deep spectrum of a compact, massive galaxy at z=2.1. The spectrum shows clear absorption lines, indicating a 2 Gyr old galaxy. The galaxy must have formed at significantly higher redshift. In addition, the galaxy had weak liner-like emission lines, indicating the presence of an AGN. Van Dokkum (Yale Univ. USA), Kriek, and Franx measured the velocity dispersion to be 510 +- 100 km/s. The error on this measurement is large but the galaxy clearly is truely massive, and lies far from the local mass-size or velocity dispersion – size relation. Kriek, Franx, and collaborators presented high resolution imaging of z=2.3 galaxies with previously obtained rest-frame optical spectroscopy. There is a clear separation of galaxies into star-forming, large systems and compact quiescent systems showing that the equivalent of the Hubble Sequence is present at that redshift. Brammer (Yale Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators used a new, medium band near-IR survey to derive very accurate photometric redshifts and rest-frame colors. The survey shows a distinct red sequence for the galaxies without star formation. These galaxies can be selected based on their spectral energy distributions, or based on the absence of mid-IR emission as measured by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Bouwens (Univ of Santa Cruz, USA), Franx, and collaborators analyzed the properties of high redshift galaxies and found that high-z galaxies become bluer at higher redshift (from z=3 to z=7), and at lower intrinsic magnitude. The highest redshift galaxies are extremely blue, and hard to model. Muzzin (Yale Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators found consistently high masses, independent of model assumptions used, for the very compact galaxies at z=2.3. 44 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES Hence it is very hard to explain their small sizes by postulating that their masses are overestimated by a large factor. Marchesini (Yale Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators studied the evolution of the stellar mass function from z=3.5 to low-z. They specifically studied the uncertainties due to random and systematic effects, including the effect of metallicity, extinction law, stellar population synthesis model, and initial mass function. They show that these uncertainties dominate all other uncertainties. 2.8.13 The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS) Van der Werf participated in a new large-area submillimeter survey that was carried out with the LABOCA 870 micron bolometer camera at the APEX telescope, by a team led by Smail (Durham, UK), Weiss (MPIfR, Bonn, Germany) and Walter (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany ). The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimetre Survey (LESS) covers the full 30' x 30' field size of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South and is thus the largest contiguous deep submillimeter survey undertaken to date. In total 126 SMGs were detected with a significance level above 3.7 sigma. The field is sufficiently large that it can be shown that the shape of the source counts is not uniform across the field. Instead, it steepens in regions with low SMG density. This survey also allowed an investigation of the clustering of SMGs in the ECDFS by means of a two-point correlation function, providing evidence for strong clustering on angular scales <1' with a significance of 3.4 sigma. Another result from this survey was the discovery of the most distant SMG known today with a spectroscopic redshift (z=4.76). 2.8.14 Weak Lensing in the COSMOS Field Schrabback, Hoekstra, Kuijken, Hildebrandt, Semboloni, and Velander completed a comprehensive analysis of the large-scale mass distribution in the HST map of the COSMOS field, together with collaborators in the EU-funded DUEL network. A key development was the inclusion of accurate photometric redshifts for large numbers of galaxies, allowing a measurement of the evolution of the growth of large-scale structure and a 3-D tomographic lensing analysis. For the first time, they could show that the weak shear of distant galaxies scales with redshift as expected in the standard LambdaCDM model. This established the combination of weak lensing and photometric redshifts as a cosmological probe. The results of the 1.6-square degree survey confirmed the accelerated expansion of the universe, and demonstrated the potential of all-sky space-based weak lensing and photometric redshift surveys for precise measurements of the properties of the dark energy. 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES 45 Figure 20. Constraints on cosmological parameters from our three-dimensional analysis of weak gravitational lensing distortions in the Hubble Space Telescope COSMOS Survey. The ontours indicate the 68%, 95% (and 99.7%) confidence regions. Left: Constraints on the matter density Omegam and amplitude of matter fluctuations sigma8 for a standard, spatially flat Lambda-CDM cosmology. The COSMOS lensing constraints are nearly rthogonal and hence complementary to WMAP5 results from the cosmic microwave background. Right: Constraints on the density of matter Omegam and vacuum nergy OmegaLambda for a Lambda-CDM cosmology with curvature from COSMOS. From these constraints we compute a 96% probability for cosmic acceleration, providing further support for the presence of dark (or vacuum) energy. 2.8.15 Magnification Mapping of the Large-Scale Structure From the 4 square-degree CFHTLS-deep survey, Hildebrandt and collaborators (including members of the Leiden lensing group led by Kuijken and Hoekstra) compiled a large sample of high redshift Lyman-break galaxies. They convincingly demonstrated that these sources are correlated with foreground galaxies, due to the magnifying action of gravitational lensing. Though the effect is statistically less powerful than weak shear measurements, it can be applied to distant unresolved galaxies and therefore provides a complementary way of measuring the matter distribution from gravitational lensing, particularly for sources at high redshift. The study also served as an excellent qualification of photometric redshifts, which are a crucial component of any future projects to probe the cosmological model using gravitational lensing. 2.8.16 Radio Haloes as Tracers of Cosmological Structure Radio haloes provide one of the most important pieces of evidence for nonthermal components in large scale structure. Statistics of their properties can be 46 2.8 DISTANT AND HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES used to discriminate among various models for their origin. Cassano, Brunetti (Bologna, Italy), Röttgering, and Brüggen (Bremen, Germany) carried out Monte Carlo simulations to model the formation and evolution of radio haloes in a cosmological framework. First, they computed the fraction of galaxy clusters that show radio halos and derived the luminosity function of radio halos. Then, they established differential and integrated number count distributions of radio haloes at low radio frequencies with the goal of exploring the potential of the upcoming LOFAR surveys. By restricting themselves to clusters at redshifts z<0.6, they found that the planned LOFAR all sky survey at 120 MHz may detect about 350 giant radio haloes. 2.9. Simulations, models, theory Figure 21. Logarithmic rendering of the gas density in a simulated massive binary star in which both components are losing mass. The orbital eccentricity is 0.8, the mass ratio 1/4. Left: gas density at apastron. Right: gas density just after periastron. Due to the high eccentricity, the double-discontinuity layer beteen the stars is pierced by both stars on their closest approach, producing a very intricate entanglement of intersecting shocks. 2.9.1 Double-Winds in Eta Carinae Icke continued his exploration of the hydrodynamic behaviour of double-wind massive binaries, in preparation for his NWO project on the extreme binary star Eta Carinae. This system is one of the most complex and fascinating objects in 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY 47 our Galaxy: a supermassive interacting binary at the centre of a bipolar nebula expanding at about 500 km/s. The investigation aims at finding the mechanisms behind Eta Car's appearance and behaviour. Icke has already extensively explored the general types of flow pattern expected. 2.9.2. Pulsar Timing and Gravitational waves Van Haasteren and Levin continued their work on Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) data analysis. They developed, together with McDonald and Lu (CITA, Toronto, Canada), a Bayesian analysis method to detect the stochastic gravitational-wave background, thought to be emitted by an ensemble of supermassive black-hole binaries in galactic centers. Application of the analysis method to data of the European Pulsar Timing Array has led to the determination of a gravitationalwave background upper limit. van Haasteren and Levin also showed that the general relativistic effect of gravitational wave memory can be used to detect physical mergers of supermassive black holes in distant galactic nuclei. 2.9.3 AMUSE: Astrophysics Multipurpose Software Environment The core development team of AMUSE (Van Elteren, Pelupessy, Marosvolgyi and de Vries) released the first version of the AMUSE package for computational astrophysics. The initial release consisted of the basic framework and initial implementations of codes in the gravitational dynamics and stellar evolution domains. Later releases will also include support for hydrodynamics and radiative transport. MUSE is a software framework for combining existing computational tools for different astrophysical domains into a single multiphysics, multiscale application and facilitates the coupling of existing codes written in different languages by providing inter-language tools and by specifying an interface between each module and the framework. This approach allows scientists to use combinations of codes to solve highly-coupled problems without the need to write new codes for other domains or significantly alter their existing codes. MUSE currently incorporates the domains of stellar dynamics, stellar evolution and stellar hydrodynamics for studying generalized stellar systems. MUSE treats multi-scale and multi-physics systems in which the time- and size-scales are well separated. The current MUSE code base is publicly available as open source at http://muse.li. 2.9.4 N-body simulations on Graphical Processing Units Pelupessy has examined star formation and the evolution of the molecular gas phase using computer simulations. He developed a novel method to include the 48 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY multiscale physics inherent in these processes into galaxy-scaled simulations. This new method reproduces fundamental relations between star formation, gas surface densities and observed molecular gas fractions. Gravitational direct N-body simulations can be performed using the commercial NVIDIA GeForce 8800GTX Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The force evaluation of the N-body problem is implemented in CUDA using the GPU to speed-up the calculations. Portegies Zwart and collaborators tested the implantation on three different N-body codes, two direct N-body integration codes, using the 4th order predictor-corrector Hermite integrator with block time-steps, and one Barnes-Hut treecode, which uses a 2nd order leapfrog integration scheme. The integration of the equations of motions for all codes was implemented in C on the host computer. For simulations involving more than 512 particles the GPU outperforms the special purpose GRAPE-6Af, if some softening in the force calculation is accepted. Without softening and for very small integration time steps the GRAPE still outperforms the GPU. Portegies Zwart and co-workers concluded that modern GPUs offer an attractive alternative to GRAPE-6Af special purpose hardware. 2.9.5 Shock-Processing of PAHs Micelotta, Tielens, and Jones (IAS, Paris, France) have studied the processing of large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in interstellar shocks and in the hot gas associated with supernova remnants. Their analysis used a detailed model of the physical interaction of energetic electrons and ions with large molecules and established PAH molecule destruction timescales of 100 million years in the interstellar medium. The widespread association of PAH emission with hot, X-ray emitting gas reveals the importance of neutral material entrainment by explosions and fast stellar winds. PAHs act thus as colorful dye markers for such phenomena. Tielens collaborated with Boersma (RU Groningen), Allamandola, Bauschlicher (both NASA Ames Research Center, CA, USA), and Peeters (UNO) in a study of the emission characteristics of large PAH molecules at far-infrared wavelengths, using the NASA Ames data base of PAH infrared spectra. The results showed that the so-called drum head modes of PAHs are very characteristic of molecular size rather than molecular structure. Observations with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory are expected to provide key information on the population of large PAH molecules in space. 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY 49 Figure 22. Left: A schematic illustrating the lowest frequency mode of the coronene molecule (C_24H_12). In this drumhead mode, all atoms are in a concerted motion. Right: The frequency of the drumhead mode as a function of the PAH area. Triangles and diamonds mark species of the pyrene-like and coronene-like families, respectively. Molecular sizes are in the range (16 to 130 C-atoms) that is thought to dominate the interstellar PAH family. The dashed line indicates the frequencies expected for an unclamped drum with a rigidity characteristic of PAHs. 2.9.6. Diagnosing the Excitation of Extragalactic Ionized Gas. Groves created a new emission line tool for diagnosing the excitation mechanism of ionized gas in galaxies. His code, named ITERA (IDL Tool for Emission-line Ratio Analysis) enables users to compare observed emission line ratios with existing libraries of photoionization and shock models, involving supernova, AGN and starforming regions. ITERA was put publicly on-line at http://www.brentgroves.net/itera.html. In addition, his on-going work with Jonsson (CfA, Harvard, USA), included the implementation of his star formation region SEDs in a pre-existing 3-D radiative transfer code (SUNRISE). The code can be applied to hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies creating full UV-to-IR spectra of both quiescent and merging galaxies viewed at any inclination, on either global or kiloparsec scales. 50 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY Figure 23 Emission-line diagnostic diagram form ITERA, showing Starburst (left grid) and AGN (right grid) models overlaying the distribution of emission-line galaxies from SDSS. 2.9.7. SIMPLEX and Cosmic reionization Paardekooper developed a transport scheme for the SimpleX radiative transfer method that ensures correct photon transport in the low optical depth regime. This new transport scheme shows the results of standard test problems to correspond much better with the analytical solution (if available) and the results of other, more conventional radiative transfer methods. At the same time, the advantages of SimpleX remain, such as the high computational speed and the independence on the number of sources thereof. Paardekooper then used SimpleX to study the escape fractions of ionizing photons from high-redshift dwarf galaxies, which is an important parameter in models of cosmic reionisation. By post-processing dwarf galaxy models with realistic supernova and stellar wind feedback and star formation, Paardekooper and Pelupessy showed that high-z dwarf galaxies played an important role in early stages of cosmic reionisation. 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY 51 Figure 24. Translation from a density field to a representative point set of 1 105 points. Left panel: cut through a cosmological density field; colours indicate number density on a logarithmic scale. Middle panel: Using a sampling function that results in a linear scaling of the point-to-point distance with the mean free path of the photons. Right panel: Using our improved sampling function that incorporates information about the grid in order to get a point set optimized for SimpleX. Kruip devised a method to translate density/opacity fields from hydrodynamical simulation to an unstructured Delaunay grid optimized for the SimpleX radiative transfer method. Such a scheme paves the way to the coupling of SimpleX to hydrocodes. He also implemented multi-frequency support in SimpleX and substantially extended the physics module of the method. 2.9.8. Photo-ionization and Cooling Rates of Astrophysical Plasmas Wiersma, Schaye, and Smith (Univ. Colorado, USA) investigated the effects of photo-ionization of heavy elements by the meta-galactic ionizing background and those of variations in relative abundances on the cooling rates of optically thin gas in ionization equilibrium. They found that photo-ionization by the background radiation strongly reduces the net cooling rates at gas densities and temperatures typical of the shock-heated intergalactic medium and of protogalaxies. They concluded that both photo-ionization by the ionizing background and heavy elements need to be taken into account in order for cooling rates to be correct within an order of magnitude, and that more accurate rates require departures of the relative abundances from solar to be taken into account. 2.9.9. Keeping the Universe Ionised Pawlik, Schaye, and Van Scherpenzeel conducted a suite of cosmological simulations to calculate the clumping factor of the IGM at redshifts z >>= 6. The critical star formation rate density required to keep the intergalactic hydrogen ionised depends crucially on the average rate of recombinations in the 52 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY intergalactic medium (IGM), which is proportional to this clumping factor. They found that photo-ionization heating by the ultraviolet background strongly reduced the clumping factor as the increased pressure support smoothed out small-scale density fluctuations, making it easier to keep the universe ionised. They also found that the observed population of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 6 is sufficient to keep the IGM ionized if it was reheated at redshifts earlier than z = 9 and the fraction of ionizing photons escaping starforming regions to ionise the IGM exceeds 0.2. Figure 25. The effect of photo-heating on the gas density distribution of the intergalactic medium at redshift z=6. The figure shows the gas density contrast in a slice of comoving 3.125 Mpc/h on a side through a hydrodynamical simulation at redshift z = 6. The simulation on the left did not include reionization, while for the one shown on the right the ionizing background radiation was turned on at z = 9. The reheating associated with reionization strongly suppresses the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium. The associated reduction of the recombination rate strongly reduces the star formation rate required to keep the universe ionized. 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY 53 Pawlik and Schaye investigated the interplay between photo-heating associated with cosmic reionization and kinetic feedback from core-collapse supernovae in a set of cosmological simulations. They showed that photo-heating and supernova feedback mutually amplify each other's ability to suppress the highredshift cosmic star formation rate. Figure 26. The relation between black hole mass and dark matter halo mass. The grey pixels show the simulation predictions. The solid, red line withj a slope of 1.55 marks the observational determination of the MBH vs MHalo relation. The dotted, red lines show the observational 1-sigma errors. The slope and its scatter suggest that halo binding energy rather than halo mass determines black hole masses. 2.9.10 SuperMassive Black Holes and Feedback from AGNs Booth and Schaye presented a method that self-consistently tracks the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) in cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. Because cosmological simulations at present lack both the resolution and the physics to model the multiphase interstellar medium, they tend to strongly underestimate the BondiHoyle accretion rate. To allow low-mass BHs to grow, it is therefore necessary to increase the predicted Bondi-Hoyle rates in star-forming gas by large factors. Booth and Schaye found that the freedom introduced by the need to increase the predicted accretion rates by hand, is the most significant source of uncertainty in 54 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY the model. Their simulations demonstrated that supermassive BHs are able to regulate their growth by releasing a fixed amount of energy for a given halo mass, independent of the assumed efficiency of AGN feedback, which sets the normalization of the BH scaling relations. They further showed that, regardless of whether BH seeds are initially placed above or below the BH scaling relations, they grow on to the same scaling relations. Finally, they demonstrated that AGN feedback efficiently suppresses star formation in high-mass galaxies. 2.9.11 Formation of High-Redshift SuperMassive Black Holes Schleicher, Spaans and Glover examined the chemical conditions for black hole formation in massive primordial galaxies at z>10. They focussed on the effects of Lyman-alpha trapping and photo-dissociating radiation from nearby galaxies. They found that the combination of these effects can keep the primordial gas at temperatures larger than 5000 K during the collapse, which may give rise to large accretion rates on the central clump. However, as the temperature slightly decreases with density, fragmentation cannot be totally suppressed. The formation of a central clump may thus be accompanied by a nuclear starburst. 2.9.12 Chemical Enrichment in Cosmological Simulations Wiersma, Schaye, Theuns (Durham, UK), Dalla Vecchia, and Tornatore (Trieste, Italy) presented an implementation of stellar evolution and chemical feedback for smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. They considered the timed release of individual elements by both massive (Type II supernovae and stellar winds) and intermediate-mass stars (Type Ia supernovae and asymptotic giant branch stars). A comparison of nucleosynthetic yields taken from the literature indicated that relative abundance ratios may be reliable only to factors of two, even for fixed initial mass functions. Abundances relative to iron were found to be even less certain as Type Ia supernova rates are poorly known. Wiersma et al. investigated, using several large simulations, the evolution of the distribution of heavy elements and found them to be in reasonably good agreement with observational constraints. In the local universe, most of the metals are locked up in stars. The gaseous metals are distributed over a very wide range of densities and temperatures. The shock-heated warm-hot intergalactic medium has a relatively high metallicity of 0.1 solar that evolves only weakly. It is therefore an important reservoir of metals. Any census aiming to account for most of the metal mass will have to take a wide variety of objects and structures into account. 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY 55 2.9.13 How to Study X-Ray Dominated Regions with ALMA Schleicher, Spaans and Klessen looked into the possibilities of detecting the central X-ray-dominated regions (XDRs) of high-redshift quasars with ALMA. They showed that the expected sensitivity and angular resolution of ALMA should be sufficient to detect and at least marginally resolve such XDRs. The XDRs can be distinguished from starbursts on the same spatial scales by using the CO line transition ladder. Schleicher and colleagues estimated the expected CO line fluxes, as well as various fine-structure lines, illustrating their dependence on X-ray luminosity, cloud column density and gas volume density. They compared their models to observations of local and high-redshift objects such as NGC 1068, APM 08279 and SDSS J114816.64+525150.3. They found that both a cold low-density component and a warm high-density component were required to explain the observed line fluxes of the latter. Figure 27. Left: The third-order moment of the aperture mass statistics in the COSMOS galaxy catalogue. The black squares show the amplitude of the cosmic shear signal whereas the red triangles show the amplitude of the non-gravitational shear component, which should be zero. The pink solid line shows the amplitude of the third-order aperture mass statistics for a WMAP5 best-fit cosmology. The agreement between the WMAP5 best-fit model and the measured signal is remarkable. Right: Likelihood analysis performed using the third-order moment of the aperture mass statistics. The yellow (pink) region indicates the 68% (95%) confidence region of the value for the matter parameter, Om and the amplitude of the power spectrum of matter fluctuations, s8 2.9.14 Cosmic Shear Semboloni, Sanaz Vafaei, and Van Waerbeke (both UBC, Vancouver, Canada) have been working on the potential of three-point cosmic shear statistics 56 2.9 SIMULATIONS, MODELS, THEORY measurements. These are a powerful tool to investigate the evolution of the power spectrum of matter fluctuations on strongly non-linear regime and they can provide competitive constraints on cosmological parameters. Semboloni has recently completed the first three-point cosmic shear analysis using data from a galaxy catalogue produced by Schrabback, who was able to estimate highly accurate galaxy shapes in COSMOS images. 2.10 Instruments and facilities 2.10.1 The Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) LOFAR is a next-generation radio telescope that will observe in the frequency range of 10 to 240 MHz, presently being built by a Dutch consortium led by ASTRON. At the end of the year, hardware of 20 stations had been placed in the fields and connected to the central processor. Rollout of the LOFAR international stations also made excellent progress with the Effelsberg station coming fully on-line and the Tautenburg and Unterweilenbach stations only awaiting HBA tiles. In parallel with the station rollout, deployment of the first phase of LOFAR dedicated processing hardware was completed. This provided 10 TFLOPS of processing power and 2 PB of storage space. A first version of the LOFAR imaging pipeline was installed on the new hardware and started to be used to support commissioning activities. The Leiden LOFAR survey team (Röttgering, Miley, Snellen, Mohan, Birzan, Rafferty, van der Tol, Intema, van Weeren, and van Bemmel) concentrated on (i) testing and commissioning of LOFAR data, (ii) building software for the source extraction and characterization and for simulation of the LOFAR sky and (iii) ionospheric calibration. Birzan, Rafferty and van Weeren were deeply involved in taking and reducing first LOFAR data and testing the BSS reduction pipeline ( Figure below). While Birzan concentrated on reducing VLA data with BBS as a test of the software system, Rafferty worked on comparing the various methods to deal with Radio Frequency Interference. Mohan worked on his source extraction pipeline. The methods are now sufficiently robust that they deliver science quality source lists. Intema and Van der Tol designed and tested a method to take out ionospheric disturbances from low-frequency radio data on the basis of a 2-D ionospheric model. Extensive testing on VLA 74 MHz data showed improvements of up to a factor of 2 in dynamic range over classical methods. 2.10 INSTRUMENTS AND FACILITIES 57 Figure 28. Part of an image of the field of 3C196 obtained with five stations. The observations were made with a 24 MHz bandwidth spread over a 30-75 MHz frequency range. The full field of view is ~ 6 x 3 degrees of which only 20% is shown here. In collaboration with the MeqTree team at ASTRON, Van Bemmel has developed the SimCa module to simulate the impact of ionospheric turbulence and waves on LOFAR observations. Under average ionospheric conditions, coherence is lost below 15 MHz. This implies that observing at low frequencies is only possible under excellent ionospheric conditions. Van Bemmel also tested the LOFAR pipeline software (BBS) in simulations. This uncovered some interesting and not yet understood behaviour in the package, demonstrating the power of using simulated data for software testing. Cohen (NRL, Washington, USA) and Röttgering used data from the nearly complete 74 MHz VLS Survey of the entire sky visible to the VLA telescope in Socorro, New Mexico to study the the impact of the ionosphere on lowfrequency radio observations. They obtained a detailed characterisation of the dependence of the median differential refraction on source pair separation, elevation, and time of day. 58 2.10 INSTRUMENTS AND FACILITIES They found large, but geometrically predictable at elevation effects that can be removed analytically with a 'thin-shell"'model of the ionosphere. They also noted significantly greater ionospheric spatial variations during the day than at night. The diurnal variations appeared to affect the larger angular scales to a greater degree indicating that they are caused by disturbances on relatively large scales (hundreds, rather than tens of kilometres). 2.10.2 ALLEGRO: the ALMA Regional Center Node in the Netherlands The year 2009 has been pivotal in the construction of ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array. In Chile, aantenna assembly progressed steadily, and the first three antennae arrived at the Llano de Chajnantor. All receiver bands have seen first light on the sky, and three-element interferometry was established by the end of the year. At Leiden Observatory, the ALMA Regional Center node (Allegro, ALMA Local Expertise Group) led by Hogerheijde took further shape with a grant for long-term funding from NWO, and the hiring of Brinch as Allegro postdoc. In addition to contributions to testing of the ALMA software, Allegro has focused on the use of the expandedSMA as a testbed for submillimeter interferometry and the use of the CHAMP+ receiver on APEX for exploring the submillimeter sky. CO line measurements of a sample of AGB stars have been performed with this instrument, and analysed to form a calibration set for ALMA. 2.10.3 The expanded Submillimeter Array (eSMA) The eSMA combines the dishes of the SMA, JCMT and CSO on the summit of Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA) into a single facility, providing enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution owing to the increased collecting area at the longest baselines. Until ALMA early science observing (2011), the eSMA will be the facility capable of the highest angular resolution observations at 345 GHz. In 2009, development of the eSMA progressed toward making it a working interferometer, involving Tilanus (JCMT), van Langevelde, Hogerheijde, and Van Dishoeck, together with colleagues from SMA and CSO. Successful science demonstration observations were obtained, followed by numerous tests of the receivers and correlator to fully characterize the interferometer and its sensitivities. The science demonstration observations included imaging of the protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, resolving its component A into multiple sources of emission of continuum and warm methanol. In contrast, its component B, while clearly resolved by these high angular resolution data, remains a single source, and exhibits remarkable absorption of the same methanol lines. 2.10 INSTRUMENTS AND FACILITIES 59 2.10.4 VLTI: MIDI and Matisse Jaffe continued his work on midInfrared interferometric observations of AGNs with the VLTI instrument MIDI in collaboration with Raban and Röttgering, as well as colleagues at MPIA Heidelberg and Bonn (Germany), and NRAO (USA). Their most important result was a demonstration of the extreme irregularity of the dust structures around the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC~1068. These irregularities are indirect but strong proof of the clumpy nature of the dust. Jaffe is also the Dutch PI for the instrument MATISSE, which has been accepted as a second generation VLTI instrument by ESO. The ESO council and the team agreed on the GTO allocation to the consortium upon completion. The Cold Optical Bench for MATISSE will be built in Dwingeloo. Jaffe is on the Science Team and the Instrument team with special responsibility for real-time data processing and polarization characterisation. MATISSE should be at Paranal, Chile in 2014. Figure 29. AM1 under test at AMOS, the manufacturer of AM1. Shown is AM1 after its spherical lapping. In its final shape, AM1 will be an 1.7-meter aspherical mirror with a standard aluminum coating. 2.10.5 VLT: MUSE and ASSIST MUSE, the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer is a second generation instrument for the VLT, featuring Wide-Field, Adaptive Optics Assisted Integral Field Spectroscopy. MUSE passed its final design review and is currently being manufactured by a number of European companies. Integration will to start in mid-2010. The MUSE consortium consists of 7 institutes and is lead by the Observatory of Lyon. NOVA, by way of Stuik at Leiden Observatory, is mainly involved in the interface between MUSE and its Adaptive Optics system (GALACSI), the preparations for scientific operation of MUSE--like the 60 2.10 INSTRUMENTS AND FACILITIES Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) and Operation, Calibration of MUSE and the MUSE observation templates efforts led by Serre--and the MUSE science team. ASSIST--the Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator is the test system for the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) and will allow for verification of the operation of the various hardware and software systems for the AOF without the need for--sometimes long--on-sky testing. ASSIST, as currently being developed by Deep, Stuik and Wiegers has passed its Final Design Review and is currently being manufactured. The main optical components were well under way at the end of 2009 and the mechanical components will be ordered in early 2010, in time for the integration of the main components by the end of 2010. 2.10.6 KiDS: Studying Dark Matter with Light Rays Kuijken continued his role as P.I. of the KiDS project, a large collaboration of nine European institutes that will map 1500 square degrees of sky in good seeing conditions with OmegaCAM on the VST in Paranal, in order to find gravitational lenses. Weak gravitational lensing can be used to study the mass distribution around galaxies and on larger scales. Unfortunately the telescope construction has been long delayed, with start of operations considered likely only in 2010 at the time of writing. Over 2009, preparations for KiDS continued in the form of algorithm development for multi-colour photometry and for weak lensing measurement. Members of the KiDS team were also involved in the analysis of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS), currently the most powerful data set for weak lensing measurements. It comprises 170 square degrees of sky imaged in five bands. The CFHTLS analysis made it possible to identify and address various systematic effects that plague the measurements. 2.10.7 E-ELT-METIS Brandl, Stuik, Molster, Kendrew, van Dishoeck and van der Werf worked on the conceptual study of METIS - the Mid-Infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph. With a mirror diameter of 42 meter, the European Extremely Large Telescope (EELT) project aims to provide European astronomers with the largest opticalinfrared telescope in the World. METIS is a combined imager and spectrometer, working in the thermal/mid-infrared wavelength range from 3 to 14 microns. The design has been derived in collaboration with the instrumentation group at NOVA ASTRON, and partners at MPIA (Germany), CEA Saclay (France), KU Leuven (Belgium) and ATC (UK). The work was performed for ESO as a phase- 2.10 INSTRUMENTS AND FACILITIES 61 A study for an early E-ELT instrument. The figure below shows an artist conception of METIS on the E-ELT instrument platform. Figure 30. Artist impression of METIS on te ELT. 2.10.8 GAIA The Leiden Gaia group, led by Brown, is involved in the preparations for the data processing for ESA's Gaia mission. Scheduled for launch in 2011, Gaia aims at providing a stereoscopic census of the Milky Way galaxy by measuring highly accurate astrometry (positions, parallaxes and proper motions), photometry and radial velocities for one billion stars and other objects down to 20th magnitude. In the past year, Brown, Busso, and Marrese continued their work on the development of the data processing software for the photometric instrument of Gaia in collaboration with groups in Rome, Teramo, Cambridge, and Barcelona. The photometric data for Gaia will be collected through low dispersion spectrophotometry with prisms and the group in Leiden is responsible for developing the algorithms that extract the spectra from the raw data. A first version of the processing algorithms developed in Leiden, Rome, and Teramo were successfully integrated into the pipeline running in Cambridge and a test of the algorithms on a 30 million star data set was run without significant problems. Busso and Marrese completed a number of upgrades, related in particular to the crowded field treatment, to the data processing algorithms. Brown implemented a simplified version of some of the algorithms developed in 62 2.10 INSTRUMENTS AND FACILITIES Leiden in the initial data treatment pipeline. The latter is the data processing system that first receives the raw telemetry from Gaia and carries out important pre-processing steps for which photometric information is needed. Prod'homme addressed a major concern for the Gaia mission, the effect of radiation damage to the CCDs (due to Solar wind and cosmic ray protons) by conducting theoretical and empirical modeling of radiation damage effects. These would lead to an increased level of charge transfer inefficiency causeing a loss of signal as well as a distortion of the image. The latter will produce systematic errors in the astrometry if not carefully controlled. Prod'homme uded the CTI modelling tool CEMGA (CTI Effects Model for Gaia), developed by himself, to analyze laboratory test data from EADS-Astrium in order to probe the detailed physics of CTI. In addition, he used CEMGA to determine whether the Cramer-Rao limit on the precision of the estimated location for stellar images can still be reached in the presence of CTI. De Valk also used CEMGA, to study the effect of CTI on the weak-lensing survey planned for the proposed EUCLID space mission. The results were not conclusive but do indicate a need to carefully consider this issue for EUCLID. Ter Haar studied the variance in the CTI effects caused by the different orientations of the Gaia CCDs with respect to the same field on the sky over the course of the mission. The results confirmed the idea that the details of the so-called illumination history of the CCDs play an important role in the systematic errors induced in the Gaia measurements. Finally, Prod'homme also completed a first validation study of an approximate but fast analytical model of CTI effects. This kind of model will be needed in the Gaia data processing for which the detailed Monte Carlo model developed by Prod'homme is too slow. Risquez has been developing detailed simulations of Gaia's attitude, incorporating all of the relevant physical effects, in collaboration with van Leeuwen (Cambridge, UK) and Keil (Bremen, Germany. In order for Gaia to reach its astrometric accuracy goals, the highest quality for the attitude knowledge of the spacecraft is needed. It is thus important to incorporate a complete physical understanding of the dynamics of a continuously rotating space platform into the attitude modelling for Gaia. Risquez completed the development of several modules that simulate specific physical effects in the spacecraft attitude. These include: micro-meteoroid impacts, thermal infra-red emission from the satellite surface, and noise due to the micro-propulsion system. In addition, he implemented a model of Gaia's star-tracker and the onboard estimator of stellar image velocities in the focal plane (which serve as input to the on-board attitude control system). 2.10 INSTRUMENTS AND FACILITIES 63 2.10.9 JWST-MIRI Testing The mid-IR Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope approaches Flight Model (FM) Testing, preparing for a 2014 launch. As part of their contribution to the MIRI Test Team, Martinez Galarza, Kendrew and Brandl have analyzed a first set of data obtained using the Verification Model and developed a method to measure the wavelength characterization of the instrument's medium resolution IFU spectrometer (MRS) and low resolution slit spectrometer (LRS). Comparison with optical models has shown that the actual resolving power satisfies the requirements. Further analysis of FM data will allow a full wavelength range characterization and a study of the unresolved line profiles prior to delivery to NASA in early 2011. 2.11 Astrochemistry 2.11.1 Interstellar molecules formed on grains Cuppen studied the formation of methanol (CH3OH) and its precursor formaldehyde (H2CO) in dense cold cores. Many important molecules do not form efficiently in the gas phase in the cold, dilute interstellar medium. Instead, they require dust surfaces for their formation, but the detailed processes are still unclear. Laboratory experiments provide ways to study these, but the results are not always straightforward to interpret and the experiments themselves are performed under conditions that still differ much from interstellar conditions. Monte Carlo has been used successfully to disentangle the various mechanisms and to extrapolate results to interstellar conditions, for instance in the case of H2, H2O and CH3OH. Cuppen conducted Monte Carlo simulations under a variety of conditions and showed that both CH3OH and H2CO indeed form efficiently in cold dense insterstallar cloud cores and in the cold outer envelopes of young stellar objects. She discovered that dust grain mantles have a layered structure with CH3OH on top, whereas molecular species such as CO and H2CO exist mainly in the lower layers of ice mantles where they are not available for later hydrogenation. Her findings differ from many gas-grain models which do not take into account the layering of the ice. She found her model results to agree reasonably well with observed solid H2CO/CH3OH and CO/CH3OH abundance ratios in the outer envelopes of young stellar objects agree, and she concluded that the large range in observed CH3OH/H2O abundance ratios may represent a range in evolutionary stages. 64 2.11 ASTROCHEMISTRY 2.11.2 Simulations of Ice Photo-Dissociation Arasa, Andersson, Cuppen, Kroes and van Dishoeck used classical molecular dynamics simulations at different ice temperatures to clarify the photodesorption of water molecules in amorphous ice H photo-desorption provides the most important channel in the uppermost ice layers, with probabilities a hundred to a thousand times higher than those of OH and H2O photodesorption. It does not show a dependence on ice temperature. Arasa and collaborators also compared the estimated total OH+H2O photo-desorption probability per incident photon to the experimental yields measured by Oberg. The experimental yields exceeded the theoretical probabilities by factors of 3-6. Nevertheless, Arasa and coworkers concluded that, given the experimental uncertainties and the theoretical approximations, the simulations agreed reasonably well with the experimental results which are also typical for those used in modelling astrophysical environments. 2.12 Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics Figure 31. The Sackler Laboratory 2.12 RAYMOND AND BEVERLY SACKLER LABORATORY 65 2.12.1 Laboratory Experiments Conditions in space are extreme and not in favour of an efficient chemistry: temperatures are low, radiation fields are intense and particle densities are exceedingly low. Nevertheless, more than 150 different molecular species have been identified in star-forming regions. These comprise both simple and complex species as well as both stable and transient molecules and result from exotic chemical evolution. Today, astrochemists explain the chemical complexity in space as the cumulative outcome of gas, grain and gas-grain interactions. Gasphase models explain the observed abundances of the smaller as well as many of the larger radical species. These models, however, fail to explain the presence of stable and complex, partially organic species in space, such as acetonitrile, a precursor molecule for the simplest amino acid glycine. It is now generally accepted that such species form on icy dust grains, small solid particles that are an important ingredient of the material found between the stars. These dust particles play an essential role because they provide opacity (blocking regions of the galaxy from UV radiation). They are also the basic material that form icy planetesimals and ultimately planets and they provide catalytic sites for molecule formation. Thermal and ultraviolet processing as well as atom bombardment of icy dust grains trigger a fascinating solid state astrochemistry. Understanding the cycle of matter in galaxies, the origin of stars and planetary systems and the complex (organic) chemistry that is found in molecular clouds and proto-planetary disks is intimately linked to the study of the role icy solids have in space. A quantitative characterization of this role is only possible through detailed laboratory studies and this is the research topic of the work performed at the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics. The focus of the past year has been 'Molecular Complexity in Space'. 2.12.2 UV Photo-Processing of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues In September, Öberg defended her thesis 'Complex Processes in Simple Ices' describing UV-induced processes in ices under astronomical conditions: the photo-desorption and photo-dissociation as well as the photo-chemistry of ices (H2O, CO2 and CH3OH) upon UV irradiation. Her detailed analysis showed UVprocessed methanol ice to provide the basic elements for complex molecule formation, as observed around young stellar objects. Öberg's work at the setup CRYOPAD was continued by Fayolle who will focus on photo-induced processes upon resonant ice excitation. 66 2.12 RAYMOND AND BEVERLY SACKLER LABORATORY Figure 33. Karin Öberg addresses her favourite topic. The team around the setup CESSS (Bouwman, Allamandola and Cuppen) has been able to study the photophysical and photochemical behaviour upon UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included in an astronomical water ice analogue. In situ and real time optical data provided insight in the role PAHs play in the solid state and in addition provided an alternative route to search for PAHs in space. 2.12.3 Atom Bombardment of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues The team around the SURFRESIDE setup (Ioppolo, Romanzin, Cuppen) focused on water and methanol formation by hydrogenation reactions of oxygen/ozone and carbon monoxide ice, respectively. They derived temperature-dependent and flux-dependent reaction rates that elucidated the role of solid state reaction schemes in the formation of water and methanol in space and extended the results to astrochemical models. In parallel, they constructed a next generation setup constructed which will allow them to study the simultaneous processing of ices by H- and O/N-atoms. Isokoski constructed a new ultrasensitive setup, MATRI2CES, with which to test the influence of simultaneous UV irradiation and atom bombardment of an interstellar/circumstellar ice analogue. The setup combines laser desorption and time-of-flight detection and is expected to visualize chemical pathways towards molecular complexity in much more detail than possible with the regular UHV RAIRS and TPD techniques. 2.12.4 Molecular finger prints Bottinelli, Bouwman and Beckwith made detailed ice spectroscopic measurements on NH3 and CH3OH containing ices in order to identify 2.12 RAYMOND AND BEVERLY SACKLER LABORATORY 67 molecular signatures in recent Spitzer data. They found an unambiguous presence in space of ammonia in the solid state. This was an important result, as nitrogen-containing species are required in formation routes towards biologically relevant species. Wehres was able to measure vibronically excited C2 spectra on the LEXUS setup and to compare these to emission features observed in the nebula known as the Red Rectangle. Her laboratory data proved the presence of C2 in the outflows of this proto-planetary nebula and also offered an analytical tool to describe chemical processes as a function of the separation from the central star. Finally, Guss has started to construct a new infrared laser detection scheme for molecular transients in space on the setup SPIRAS. A cavity-enhanced detection scheme, in combination with a planar plasma expansion, is used to search for molecular fingerprints of transient species as may be detected by e.g. the HIFI experiment on the Herschel Space Observatory Chapter 3 Education, popularization and social events Chapter Education, popularization and social events 3 3.1. Education Education and training of students is a major priority of Leiden Observatory. In 2009, 46 freshmen started their studies in astronomy. Of this number, 10 (22%) are women, and 19 (41%) is pursuing a combined astronomy/physics or astronomy/mathematics degree. The Observatory registered a total number of 92 bachelor students at the end of the year, including 42 (46%) aiming for a combined astronomy/physics degree. A quarter of all BSc students is female. There were 36 MSc students, including 14 (39%) women and 12 (33%) foreign nationalities. In addition, there were still two old-style doctoral students. Several students from the applied physics department of Delft Technical University took courses of the Leiden astronomy curriculum as part of the requirements for a minor in astronomy. Twenty students passed their propedeutical exam, of which fully half completed the requirements in the nominal one year. There were 10 BSc exams, and 7 MSc exams. In addition, 4 students obtained the old-style degree of doctorandus. At the beginning of the year, three staff members were acting part-time as study advisers. However, Hogerheijde stepped down as freshman-student adviser in summer. His tasks were taken over by Linnartz, who already was the study adviser for the remainder of the Bachelor program. Portegies Zwart took over from Röttgering as master-program study adviser. At the end of the year, the number of student advisers was thus reduced from three to two. In November, 72 3.1 EDUCATION Oosthoek left as education coordinator leaving a gap in the daily running of tasks. In addition to regular counseling by the student adviser, incoming students were assigned to small groups meeting at regular intervals with a staff mentor (Hoekstra, Icke, and Levin) and a senior student mentor. Student tutoring was done by senior astronomy and physics students. In the tutor program, physics and astronomy freshman students are provided, on a voluntary but regular basis, with coaching by senior students. As part of the introductory astronomy course, students were taken to the Artis Planetarium in Amsterdam for a lesson in coordinate systems, time and constellations in the sky (Hoekstra). As part of the second-year training in practical astronomy, 12 honors students were offered the opportunity to take part in a specially arranged observing trip to the Isaac-Newton-Telescope on La Palma, Canary Islands (Van der Werf, de Mooij, van Haasteren). The parallel course Analysis 3NA, provided by the mathematics department at the specific request of both astronomy and physics, was very succesful. In this course, (astro)physical applications of the mathematical tools are covered more extensively than in the regular course which emphasizes mathemetical rigour. Unlike the regular course Analysis 3, this parallel course does not prepare for Analysis 4. The astronomy curriculum is monitored by the ‘Opleidingscommissie’ (education committee), which advises the Director of Education on all relevant matters, and which was chaired by Van der Werf. Other members are Icke, Schaye, Franx, and Damen, as well as De Valk, Van den Broek, Straatman, Langelaan and Pijloo for the student body. In the fall, the composition changed: Van der Werf, Icke and Damen were replaced by Röttgering, Van Dishoeck and Van Uitert respectively, and student representatives became Bremer, Pijloo, Segers, and Vreeker. Under the authority of the Opleidingscomissie, the lecture course monitoring system (SRS) was continued. In this system, students provide feedback to lecturers during and after the course. The quality of curriculum and exams is guarded by the Exam Committee (Examencommissie) chaired by Lub, with Israel, Aarts (physics), Hogerheijde and Röttgering as members. Admission to the master-curriculum for students without a BSc in astronomy from a Netherlands university requires a recommendation by the 'Toelatingscommissie’ (admissions committee) chaired by Schaye and having Israel and Linnartz as members. 3.2 DEGREES AWARDED IN 2009 73 3.2. Degrees awarded in 2009 3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees A total of 11 graduate students successfully defended their Ph.D. theses in 2009 and were duly awarded their Ph. D. degree: They are: Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Co-promotor Dave Lommen The first steps of planet formation E.F. van Dishoeck H.J. van Langevelde, C.M. Wright Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Co-promotor Huib Intema A sharp view on the low-frequency radio sky H. Röttgering G.K. Miley Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Anne-Marie Weijmans The Structure of Dark and Luminous Matter in EarlyType Galaxies P.T. de Zeeuw Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Karin Öberg Complex Processes in Simple Ices E.F. van Dishoeck, H.V.J. Linnartz Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Co-promotor: Andreas Pawlik Simulating Cosmic Reionisation H. Röttgering J. Schaye 74 3.2 DEGREES AWARDED IN 2009 Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Ruud Visser Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks E.F. van Dishoeck Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Co-promotor: Olja Panic High angular resolution studies of protoplanetary discs E.F. van Dishoeck M.R. Hogerheijde Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Co-promotor: Elisabetta Micelotta PAH Processing in Space F.P. Israel A.G.G.M. Tielens Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: David Raban Infrared Interferometric Observations of Dust in the Nuclei of Active Galaxies H. Röttgering, W.Jaffe Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Co-promotor: Nathan de Vries The Evolution of Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei R.T. Schilizzi I.A.G. Snellen, H. Röttgering Name: Titel thesis: Promotor: Edward Taylor Ten Billion Years of Massive Galaxies M. Franx 3.2 DEGREES AWARDED IN 2009 75 3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s) The following 11 students were awarded Master’s/Doctoral degrees in 2009: Name Wouter Spaan Bas Nefs Maarten van den Berg Niels ter Haar Marco van der Sluis Sander de Kievit Remco van der Burg Ali Rahmati Daniel Szomoru Jesse van de Sande Charlotte de Valk Date Mar 24 Mar 24 Aug 25 Aug 25 Aug 25 Aug 25 Aug 25 Aug 25 Aug 25 Oct 27 Dec 15 Present Position Physics Teacher (VWO) Ph.D. Leiden Observatory Physics Teacher (VWO) Interim manager Finance Concurrence Ph.D. Leiden Observatory Ph.D. Leiden Observatory Ph.D. Leiden Observatory Ph.D. Leiden Observatory - 3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees A total of 10 students obtained their Bachelor's degree: Name Arthur Bakker Tjarda Boekholt Nadieh Bremer Willem de Pous Ricardo Herbonnet David Huijser Marinus Israel Gilles Otten Piet Vandevelde Nienke van der Marel 76 3.3 ACADEMIC COURSES AND PRE-UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS 3.3. Academic Courses and Pre-University Programs 3.3.1. Courses taught by Observatory curriculum staff 2009 - 2010 Elementary courses: Semester Course title Teacher 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5-6 6 Introduction astrophysics Astronomy lab 1 Stars Modern astronomical research Astronomy lab 2 Stellar systems and cosmology Observational techniques 1 Radiative processes Bachelor research project Introduction observatory F.P. Israel H. Hoekstra A.C.A. Brown H.V.J. Linnartz P. van der Werf H.J.A. Röttgering B. Brandl V. Icke I. Snellen E.R. Deul Advanced Courses (Keuzevakken; semesters 7, 8, 9, 10): Stellar structure and evolution Galaxies: structure, dynamics, evolution Interstellar matter Galaxy formation Interferometry Radio Astronomy Databases and data mining Astrophysical accretion J. Lub M. Franx M. Hogerheijde J. Schaye W. Jaffe M. Garrett J. Brinchmann Y. Levin 3.3 ACADEMIC COURSES AND PRE-UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS 77 3.3.2. Pre-University Programs LAPP-Top, the Leiden Advanced Pre-University Program for Top Students, is aimed at enthusiastic and ambitious high-school students from the 5th and 6th grade. Candidates are selected on the basis of their high-school grades and their enthusiasm to participate. Students that are selected will then take part in 6 to 8 meetings from January till May, following the program of their own choice. The Sterrewacht has been participating in the LAPP-TOP program since its start in 2001. In that pilot year five students participated, in 2002/3 six, in 2003/4 eleven, in 2004/5 thirty-three, in 2005/6 seventeen, in 2006/7 twenty seven, in 2007/8 sixteen and in 2008/9 twenty. The astronomy LAPP-TOP program was developed by Van der Werf from 2002 onward. From 2005-2008 the project was coordinated by Snellen. Since 2008 it is coordinated by Franx. In eight sessions the following subjects were treated: Extrasolar planets – I. Snellen The Milky Way and other galaxies – J. Schaye Practicum: distances in the Universe Gas and Radiation - V. Icke Quasars, black holes and active galactic nuclei – H. Röttgering Practicum: The black hole in the center of our Milky Way Cosmology - P. Katgert Excursion to the radio telescopes in Westerbork and Dwingeloo After successfully completing the program participants have been awarded with a certificate from the University of Leiden. High-school students are allowed to use this project as part of their final exams. 3.3.3. Contact.Vwo Contact.Vwo has been in existence for three years. Buisman and van der Hoorn (physics teachers in secondary schools) both work one day a week for the Physics and Astronomy Departments in order to intensify the contacts between secondary schools and the university. Van der Hoorn organizes twice yearly a production and mailing of posters and organizes three times an informative meeting for physics teachers, starting at 6 78 3.3 ACADEMIC COURSES AND PRE-UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS p.m. and featuring a lecture on modern developments in physics or astrophysics, an informal dinner with extensive networking between teachers and university workers, and after-dinner subjects dealing with the change from secondary school to university study). Buisman is concerned with school classes (programs for whole-day visits as well as individual help (assisting pupils with practical work, answering questions by mail etc.). He also has organized a training session for the module Measuring in Star Systems (Meten aan Melkwegstelsels) which is part of the school curriculum track Nature, Life and Technology (Natuur, Leven en Technologie). Contact.Vwo answers ad hoc requests for assistance by school pupils or teachers. Buisman also has an appointment for one day a week as local coordinator of the HiSPARC project, but although related, this is not a part of the activities of Contact.Vwo. Activities at Leiden University in 2009 For teachers: February 12, 2009: Theme: Astrophysics: the use of Planck’s Law. April 8, 2009: Meeting teachers of the Modern Physics project May 18, 2009: Theme: Cosmology in the era of Planck and the LHC October 29, 2009: Measuring in star systems November 2, 2009. Theme: Elementary particles For School classes: January 23, 2009; school: De Populier, Den Haag; Measuring in Star Systems May 27, 2009, school: Hermann Wesselink, Amstelveen; Laboratory day June 12, 2009, school: Bonaventura, Leiden; Laboratory day July 01, 2009, school: VCL, Den Haag; profielwerkstukken November 13, 2009, school: VCL, Den Haag; Measuring in Star Systems Five teams of pupils have been supported by Contact.Vwo working on a practical assignment (profielwerkstuk) about astronomy. Further information http://www.physics.leidenuniv.nl/edu/contactpuntvwo/index.asp 3. 4 POPULARIZATION AND MEDIA CONTACTS 79 3.4. Popularization and Media Contacts 3.4.1. Public Lectures and Media Interviews Baneke Salon Boerhaave: Hoe Nederland een astronomische grootmacht werd (Leiden, Sep 30) van Bemmel Infraroodsterrenkunde (KNVWS, Delft, Netherlands; Jan 20) Het hoe en wat van LOFAR en SKA (KNVWS, Almere,Netherlands; Feb 3) Idem (Volkssterrenwacht Copernicus, Haarlem, Netherlands; Mar 19) Idem (Astronomische vereniging Wega (KNVWS, Tilburg, Netherlands; Apr 7) Brown ‘Gaia - Een stereoscopische kaart van de Melkweg‘(KNVWS, Roermond; Mar 3) Idem (Eindhoven; Mar 19) Idem (Den Bosch; Dec 16) van der Burg ‘Ja/Nee quiz’ (Old Observatory, Leiden; Jan 7) ‘Sterren & Exoplaneten’ (Groene Hart Lyceum; Alphen a/d Rijn, Jan 15) ‘Machten van 10’ (Old Observatory, Leiden; Jan 15) ‘Sterrenstelsels & het Heelal’ (Groene Hart Lyceum, Alphen a/d Rijn; Jan 22) ‘Het leven van een Astronoom‘(Visser 't Hoofd Lyceum, Leiden; Feb 5) ‘Extrasolaire Planeten’ (Lionsclub Rijnwoude, Hazerswoude Dorp; Apr 7) ‘De Maan, Ja/Nee quiz’ (Leonardoschool, Gouda; Dec 11) van Delft ‘De collectie is de ruggengraat van het museum’ (Interview, Universiteit Leiden Nieuwsbrief; Jan 16) ‘Blingbling, sleutelwaarde en het miskende instrument' (inaugural lecture special professor Material Cultures of the Sciences; Jan 16) ‘Koude en kunst’ (A.S.V. Prometheus; Mar 4) ‘Einstein’s vulpen’ (ScienceFlash; Mar 6) ‘Het nut van een biografisch portaal’ (symposium Het Biografisch Portaal Nederland; Mar 27) ‘De veiling van een Van Leeuwenhoek microscoop’ (Interview, Radio Wereldomroep; Mar 27) ‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Genootschap OudRijnsburg; Apr 22) 80 3.4 POPULARIZATION AND MEDIA CONTACTS ‘De evolutie van musea voor de geschiedenis van (bèta)wetenschap’ (Leidse Historische Kring; Apr 24) ‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Museum Boerhaave; May 9) ‘Met Einstein op de fiets’ (bike tour; May 10) ‘Over conservatoren, wetenschap en waarde’ (symposium Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht; May 15) ‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Keerpunten in de geschiedenis van de natuurwetenschappen; 25 mei) ‘Van Adam tot DNA’ (exhibition opening speech; June 5) ‘Museum Boerhaave and the History of Science’ (Woudschoten III; June 26) ‘Koude drukte. Het Leidse cryogeen laboratorium en de internationale temperatuurschaal 1927’ (Woudschoten III; June 27) ‘Museum Boerhaave and the digital world’ (Science Museum London; July 9) ‘400 jaar telescoop Galilei’ (radio interview Met het oog op morgen Aug 24) ‘400 jaar telescoop Galilei’ (RTL tv-journaal; Aug 25) ‘Kosmos’ (book presentation Harm Habing; Sep 1) ‘The Quest for Absolute Zero. A Human Story about Rivalry & Cold’ (Artefacts, Science Museum London; Sep 21) ‘Dat mag in de krant! Over wetenschap en de pers’ (Fysica & Samenleving; Oct 6) ‘Sleutelstukken en storytelling in Museum Boerhaave’ (master science communication; Oct 9) ‘Reis naar het ultieme onbekende: een zwart gat’ (Scheltemacomplex; Oct 18) ‘Einsteins liefde voor Leiden’ (P.J. Bloklezing; Oct 22) ‘To live and die in an Iron Lung’ (radio interview Met het oog op morgen; Oct 31) ‘Cool Reception. Leiden's Quest for Cold and the International Temperature Scale 1927’ (HSS Annual Meeting Phoenix; Nov 21) ‘Museum Boerhaave en het nut van wetenschap in een vitrine’ (Fysica & Samenleving; Nov 24) ‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, James Dewar en de strijd om vloeibaar helium’ (Cleveringa lecture London; Nov 26) ‘Zwaartekracht en NewtonMania’ (radio interview Met het oog op morgen; Dec 15) ‘NewtonMania and gravity’ (exhibition opening speech; Dec 16) ‘Museum Boerhaave en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Natuurwetenschappen voor nietbeta's; Dec 18) ‘Wat gebeurt er bij het absolute nulpunt?’ (MuseumjeugdUniversiteit; Dec 20) 3. 4 POPULARIZATION AND MEDIA CONTACTS 81 van Dishoeck ‘De 10 beste vrouwen in de wetenschap’ (Interview, Vrij Nederland; 17 jan) ‘NL activiteiten IYA2009’ (Opening IYA NL, Utrecht; Jan 21) Interview (Kijk; feb) ‘Vaklui (V): vrouwen met een mannencarrière ‘(ESTA, nr. 3-2009, p. 32-36) ‘Nieuwe werelden’ (Dies oratie, Universiteit nieuwsbrief, Leiden; 3 feb) Idem (Universiteit Leiden; 9 feb) ‘Van moleculen tot planeten’ (METIS, Alkmaar; Feb 27) ‘Astrochemie: op zoek naar de bouwstenen voor leven in de ruimte’ (Paradiso, Amsterdam; Mar 1) ‘Van moleculen tot planeten’ (IYA2009 cyclus, Leuven, Belgium; Mar 3) ‘Ontstaan planeten en sterrenstelsels onderzocht in nieuwe onderzoekscentrum’ (Universiteit nieuwsbrief, Leiden; Mar 24) Idem (Leidsch Dagblad, Leiden, Mar 25) ‘Nachtmijmeringen over de sterrenkunde ‘(Radio 1, Casa Luna, Apr 2) ‘Geboorte van sterren’ (NEMO, Masterdam; Apr 4) ‘Future millimeter and infrared telescopes: a supersharp view of stellar and planetary nurseries ‘(Fysica symposium, Groningen; Apr 24) ‘Serving the planet: scheikunde tussen de sterren’ (Hoftoren lezing, Den Haag, p.13; June 3) ‘Kraamkamer van sterren’ (NRC Wetenschap, p.13; June 27) ‘Natuur- en Scheikunde tussen de sterren’ (inauguratie VU; Sep 19) ‘Auf der spur einer zweiten Erde ‘(Münchner Mercur, P. 17; Sep 16) ‘Leidse leermeesters’ (Leidraad; Oct) ‘Water in de wolken zoeken’ (Quest, p. 105; Oct) Idem (Experiment.nl, p. 169; Oct) Interview (Eureka; Nov) ‘Mijn begin’ (Volkskrant; Dec 24) van Genderen ‘Over de Zon, de Maan, de kometen en de sterren’ (De Nuts Basisschool, Voorschoten; June 8) Haas ‘Stervorming: clusters of losse sterren?’ (KNVWS) (2x) ‘De vorming van sterrenstelsels; van waarneming tot simulatie’ (KNVWS) (3x) ‘Alternatieve zwaartekrachttheorieen’ (JWG summer camp; Aug) ‘Radiosterren of rare sterrenstelsels?’ (JWG, Utrecht, Netherlands; Feb) ‘Het ontstaan van de wereld’ (Islamic high school, Amsterdam, Netherland;, Jan) ‘Deep-sky objecten’ (beginners course of JWG, Amersfoort, Netherlands; Jan) 82 3.4 POPULARIZATION AND MEDIA CONTACTS Hoekstra ‘Wat doet een sterrenkundige?’ (Weekendschool, Den Haag; Mar 22) ‘De duistere kant van het heelal ‘(International year of astronomy event, NEMO, Amsterdam; Apr 5) Hopman ‘Laboratory Evidence for Solid State Astrochemical Processes’ (Hotel Oud Poelgeest , Oegstgeest; 10 Oct) Israel ‘40 Jaar Apollo Maanlanding’ (TOP, Delft; June 18) ‘Terug naar de Maan’ (Interview op Radio 1; June 19) ‘De vreemde exoplaneet’ WASP 18b (BNR Nieuwsradio; Aug 28) ‘Schietschijf Aarde’ (Leidsche Flesch; Oct 30) ‘Is de Zon dood?’ (NCRV radio; Nov 26) Johansen ‘Dirty stars make good solar system hosts’ (Press release for paper ‘Particle clumping and planetesimal formation depend strongly on metallicity’) Katgert ‘Het Uitdijend Heelal’ (VWO Zwijndrecht; Jan 14) ‘Terugkijken naar de Oerknal’ (VWO Hilversum; May 12) ‘Het Uitdijend Heelal’ (VWO Voorburg; Apr 16) Idem (VWO Haarlem; June 9) ‘Het Signalement van het Heelal’ (HOVO Leiden; Jan 29, Feb 5, Feb 12, Feb 19, Feb 26, Mar 5, Mar 12, Mar 19, Mar 26, Apr 2) Kóspál Participated at a TV shooting for a documentary programme about women in science for the Hungarian TV channel "Duna TV" (Budapest; June 22) Kuijken ‘Kosmologie, donkere materie, donkere energie en het ontstaan van Melkwegstelsels’ (Public lecture, Volkssterrewacht Armand Pien, Gent, Belgium; Oct 24) ‘Gravitational lensing: studying the dark energy with light rays’ (Invited lecture, NNV, Lunteren, Netherlands; Nov 6) ‘Missie Maan’ (Basisschoolproject + les, Montessorischool Oegstgeest; Dec 8 en 11) 3. 4 POPULARIZATION AND MEDIA CONTACTS 83 van Langevelde ‘Introducing JIVE, VLBI, e-VLBI ‘(SURFNet pres event, Dwingeloo; Apr 3) ‘The European VLBI Network‘(IYA round the world webcast Dwingeloo; Apr 3) ‘Een telescoop groter dan Europa’ (NL IYA event NEMO, Amsterdam; Apr 5) ‘Introducing JIVE, VLBI, e-VLBI‘(International ambassadors visiting Drenthe; May 15) Linnartz 'Het heelal, van toen tot nu' (for 'Vrouwen van nu', Loenen a/d Vecht; Oct 15) 'De hemel boven Vreeland' (Vreelandbode (monthly)) van Lunteren ‘Albert Einstein: leven en werk’ (Visit Scholengemeenschap Het Noordik, Leiden; Mar 3) ‘Nederland, de meter, en het Internationale Bureau voor Maten en Gewichten ‘ (Jaarvergadering Kadaster, Utrecht; Mar 18) ‘Galilei en de kerk ‘ (Grotius College, Delft; Apr 17) ‘Galilei en de Sterrenboodschapper ‘ (Ouderdag Leidsche Fles, Leiden; Apr 18) ‘De elementen: een geschiedenis van de bouwstenen van de wereld’ PION (Leiden; May 29) ‘De sterrenkundige ontdekkingen van Galilei ‘ (Sonnenborgh, Culturele Zondag, Utrecht; Sep 13) ‘Grootste natuurkundige aller tijden Galileo Galilei’ (Museum Boerhaave, Leiden; Oct 21) ‘Miskende Genieën’ (symposium ‘vergeten wetenschap’, Leidse Biologen Club; Nov 9) ‘Galilei en de ontdekking van de hemel’ (Cleveringa-lecture, Brussel; Nov 19) ‘Spanning en sensatie: elektriciteit in de achttiende eeuw’ (Teylers Museum, Haarlem; Dec 20) ‘De glimlach van de Cheshire kat’ (Oratie) Martinez Galarza ‘Astronomia en la Proxima Decada con el Telescopio Espacial James Webb’(Bogota; Nov 17) Idem (Videoconference, Cali; Nov 13) 84 3.4 POPULARIZATION AND MEDIA CONTACTS Ödman ‘Stars at your Fingertips’ (Workshop, Grahamstown, South Africa; Mar 25 – 31) ‘Space Journey: from SciFest to the Universe’ (Science show, Grahamstown, South Africa; Mar 25) ‘Workshop: Stars at your Fingertips’ (Workshop, Cairo, Egypt; May 12) ‘UNAWE – Perspectives’ (Public lecture, Dunsink Observatory, Dublin; Ireland; Sep 15) ‘Exhibition opening: Our place in the Universe’ (Birr Castle, Ireland; Sep 18) Portegies Zwart Nationale wetenschapsquiz (VPRO publieke omroep; 24-12) Noorderlicht Nieuws (VPRP publieke omroep) Publiekslezing (Amsterdam, Artis, Planetarium) Noorderlicht Nieuws (VPRO publieke omroep) Röttgering ‘De LOFAR radio telescoop’ (Katholieke Scholengemeenschap, Hoofddorp; 14 oct) Snellen ‘De ontdekking van nieuwe werelden’ (Guest lecture, Montaigne Lyceum, Den Haag; Feb 18) Idem (St. Michaelcollege Zaandam; Mar 12) Idem (Gymnasium Hilversum, Hilversum; Apr 7) ‘Op zoek naar exoplaneten’ (Science center NEMO, Amsterdam; Apr 5) ‘Op zoek naar tweeling Aarde’ (KNVWS Afdeling 't Gooi, Utrecht; Sep 26) Idem (Wetenschapsdag, Leiden; Oct 18) ‘Leven in het heelal’ (ESERO onderwijsconferentie, Hilversum; Nov 4) ‘The search for twin-Earth’ (University College Utrecht, Utrecht; Nov 11) ‘Detectie van extrasolaire planeten‘(VVTP symposium "Science of Fiction", Delft; Nov 24) ‘Op zoek naar tweeling Aarde’ (Cleveringalezing Rome, Italy; Nov 27) Press release: ‘Warme gloed exoplaneet vanaf de grond gemeten’ (Press release; Jan 15) ‘Astronomen ontwaren schijngestalten van een exoplaneet’ (Press release; May 27 ‘Bizar tollende dubbelster verklaart 30 jaar oud raadsel’ (Press release; Sep 16) Tielens ‘Ecology van de Melkweg‘(Presentation, Leuven, Belgium; June 2) 3. 4 POPULARIZATION AND MEDIA CONTACTS 85 Visser ‘Protosterren: Van Bewolkt tot Zonnig’ (Public lecture, Overveen; Feb 19Idem (Papendrecht; Oct 30) van de Voort ‘The Universe in the computer’ (Presentation, Leiden; Oct 27) Weekendschool (Den Haag; Mar 22, Mar 29, Apr 5) Board LWSK (from December 1) Publiekscommissie (Outreach committee) Sterrewacht; full year) 3.4.3 Tours at the Old Observatory None took place as the building was closed for restoration purposes. 3.5. Universe Awareness Program Universe Awareness: Ödman and Miley continued their work on the Universe Awareness programme. Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme instigated by Miley to expose underprivileged young children aged from 4 to 10 years to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. By raising awareness about the scale and beauty of the Universe, UNAWE attempts to broaden the mind and awaken curiosity in science, at a formative age when the value system of children is developing. A goal of UNAWE is to stimulate their development into curious, tolerant and internationally minded adults. Since its initiation by Miley in 2004, UNAWE has grown from a concept to a thriving network of more than 200 UNAWE volunteers and experts active in more than 35 partner countries worldwide. Some important achievements of UNAWE during 2009 were: (i) The addition of several new partner countries to the programme (ii) The organization of many international UNAWE events for young children (iii) The implementation of UNAWE as a global cornerstone programme of the UN-designated International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (iv) Development of a range of international UNAWE materials and activities, instigation of a sustained development of new materials (v) Lobbying for acquisition of EU funding 86 3.6 IAU STRATEGIC PLAN 3.6. IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the Developing World As the responsible IAU Vice President, George Miley led the development of a new strategy to use astronomy for international development and education. This was formalized as the IAU decadal strategic plan, “Astronomy for the Developing World – Building from IYA 2009”. The plan was written and edited by Miley and endorsed overwhelmingly at the IAU General Assembly at Rio de Janeiro in August. It shows that astronomy can make a unique contribution to building the technological, scientific and cultural capacities of developing countries. The plan lays out an ambitious plan to exploit astronomy for such ends during 2010 – 2020, with contributions at every level (primary, secondary and tertiary education, research infrastructure and public outreach). Elements of the strategy include: 1. An integrated strategic phased approach 2. Increase regional involvement 3. Building on the momentum generated by the IYA by continuing IYA cornerstone projects, exploiting the IYA network of 148 countries and the alliance between professional and non-professional astronomer, 4. Enlarging the number of active volunteers 5. Initiating several new activities, including semi-popular lectures in developing countries and long-term institute twinning between developed astronomy organizations and departments in developing countries 6. Advancing the UN Millennium Goals 7. Exploit new tools and opportunities, including mobile planetaria and internet educational telescope networks and 8. Creating small global “Office for Astronomy Development” and regional nodes throughout the world. Following on from the highly successful International Year of Astronomy 2009, the new plan is a pioneering international venture seeks to exploit scientists and pure research for the benefit of global development. 3. 7 THE LEIDSCH ASTRONOMISCH DISPUUT ‘F. KAISER’ 87 3.7. The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F. Kaiser’ With only one significant activity, this might well be the simplest annual report of L.A.D. F. Kaiser in years. In early february 2009 the Old Observatory closed its doors for a well deserved renovation, but this left Kaiser without its star attraction. This meant no observing nights and tours for some time to come. Despite this, the board organised the annual soccer tournament. This tournament was a huge success and a week later it was still easy to tell who had participated and who hadn't. Unfortunately the Kaiser team lost, but not without an heroic battle, making two board members limp for a few weeks. The winner was the Sterrewacht team "The Smokers", who ironically didn't have to catch their breath afterwards. In the course of the year, two board members got a PhD position in Leiden, which made it harder to find time to organise events. Therefore in 2010 we will be looking for new board members to take over the torch and entertain us with new exciting activities. 3.8 Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters The 'Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters' (VO-S; http://www.vo-s.nl/) is the official association of Sterrewacht/Observatory (ex-)affiliates. It has been in existence for over 15 years now and has seen another active year. As usual, the 150 members were offered a variety of activities. The activities included a social drink prior to the Oort Lecture and an annual meeting. This year, the annual meeting was held in Leiden and involved, among others, a visit of Museum Naturalis. The meeting was attended by 30 members. VO-S members also received a newsletters with Sterrewacht news and were offered an electronic member dictionary. Appendix I Observatory staff December 31, 2009 Appendix Observatory staff December 31, 2009 I Names, e-mail addresses, room numbers, and telephone numbers of all current personnel can be found on the Sterrewacht website: http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/people Telephone extensions should always be preceded by (071) 527 … (from inside The Netherlands) or by +31-71-527 … (from abroad) Full Professors: E.F. van Dishoeck M. Franx V. Icke F.P. Israel K. Kuijken (Director) G.K. Miley (0.0) S. Portegies Zwart H.J.A. Röttgering A.G.G.M. Tielens P.T. de Zeeuw (0.0) Full Professors by Special Appointments: D. van Delft* (Museum Boerhaave, Stichting tot beheer Museum Boerhaave) M. Garrett** (ASTRON, Sterrewacht, Faculty W&N) H.V.J. Linnartz (Stichting Fysica, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) F. van Lunteren (UL (0.5)/VU (0.3), Teijler’s Hoogleraar H.A. Quirrenbach (Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Faculty W&N) * Director Boerhaave Museum ** Director ASTRON 92 APPENDIX I. OBSERVATORY STAFF DECEMBER 31, 2009 Associate Professors and Assistant Professors / Tenured Staff: R. Bouwens (0.0) B.R. Brandl J. Brinchmann A. Brown M. Haverkorn (0.0) * H. Hoekstra M. Hogerheijde W.J. Jaffe P. Katgert (0.0) M. Kenworthy Visiting Scientists: J.K. Katgert-Merkelijn R. Mathar E.M. Penteado (Greenberg fellow) Emeriti: A. Blaauw W.B. Burton A.M. van Genderen H.J. Habing I. van Houten-Groeneveld * Staff, ASTRON Dwingeloo ** Director, JIVE, Dwingeloo H.J. van Langevelde (0.0)** Y. Levin (0.8) H.V.J. Linnartz J. Lub R.S. Le Poole (0.0) J. Schaye I.A.G. Snellen R. Stuik (NOVA Muse) P.P. van der Werf M. Spaans (RUG) R. Stark (NWO) J.A. Stüwe K. Kwee A. Ollongren C. Van Schooneveld J. Tinbergen APPENDIX I. OBSERVATORY STAFF DECEMBER 31, 2009 93 Postdocs and Project Personnel: C. Arasa Cid NWO TOP CW D. Baneke Gratama-St. I. van Bemmel UL, EU SKADS L. Birzan NWO LOFAR C. Booth NWO, EU-EXT L. Kristensen E. Loenen M.A. Marosvolgyi J. Meisner R. Meijerink C. Brinch NWO ALLEGRO F. Molster G. Busso H. Cuppen A. Deep A. van Elteren E. Gaburov UL/NOVA-GAIA NWO, VENI UL/NOVA NOVA AMUSE NWO VIDI NOVA O/IR (in Dwingeloo) UL/NOVA NWO VENI SRON/UL NWO STARE EU NWO NWO VIDI UL/NOVA NWO-VIDI C.J. Ödman B.D. Oppenheimer F.I. Pelupessy R. Quadri D.A. Rafferty UL NOVA/NW1 NOVA AMUSE EU OPTICON NWO TAMASIS NWO (NOVA) detachering UNAWE NOVA/NW1 NOVA AMUSE UL/NOVA NWO LOFAR N.M. Ramanujam NOVA, LOFAR D. Rizquez-Oneca D. Schleicher T. Schrabback E. Sembolini D. Serre S. van der Tol R. Visser C.E. Vlahakis N. de Vries EU-ELSA ESO, ALMA NWO NWO VIDI UL/NOVA-MUSE NWO LOFAR NWO SPINOZA NWO NOVA AMUSE C.H.J.M. Groothuis B. Groves M.A. Gurkan J. Guss S. Harfst H. Hildebrandt J. Holt A. Johansen S. Kendrew A. Kospal 94 APPENDIX I. OBSERVATORY STAFF DECEMBER 31, 2009 Ph.D. Students: N. Amiri J. Bast P. Beirao J. Bedorf * J. Bouwman R.F.J. van den Burg * Y. Cavecchi M. Damen A. Elbers * E. Fayolle * D. Groen * M. Haas R. van Haasteren M. van Hoven M. Iacobelli * S. Ioppolo K.M. Isokoski C. Kruip E. Kuiper A.M. Madigan J.R. Martinez Galarza F. Maschietto E. de Mooij M. Mosleh B. Nefs * I. Oliveira 12 3 10 3 8 3 1,2 1,2 9 2 3 1 3 1 11,1 2 2,1 2 3 3 2 3 1 5 3 1,4 R. Oonk J.-P. Paardekooper F. Petrignani T. Prod’homme A. Rahmati O. Rakic S. Rieder M. SadatShirazi D. Salter J. van de Sande D.M. Smit M.H. Soto Vicencio D. Szomoru K. Torstensson F. van de Voort E. van Uitert M. Velander S. Verdolini L. Vermaas K.-S. Wang R. van Weeren N. Wehres M. Weiss R. Wiersma U. Yildiz 1 2 16 5 2 3 3 1 1 2 10 10 15 12 3 1 5 1 2 2 1,6 13 14 10 1 Funding notes: 1. funded by Leiden University; 2. Funded by NOVA program; 3. funded by NWO, via Leiden University; 4. funded by Spinoza award; 5. funded by EU; 6. funded by KNAW; 7. funded by SRON; 8. employed by FOM; 9. funded by ‘Campagne voor Leiden’; 10. Guest finalizing thesis; 11. funded by ASTRON; 12. funded by JIVE – EU ESTRELA netwerk; 13, funded by Groningen – EU Molecular Universe Network; 14. funded by Teyler’s Foundation; 15. Funded by A-ERC grant Franx.16. Externally funded * denotes employment for only part of the year - see section staff changes. APPENDIX I. OBSERVATORY STAFF DECEMBER 31, 2009 95 Management Support and Secretaries: J.C. Drost E. Gerstel A. van der Tang L. van der Veld P. Oosthoek /Vacancy Management assistant Institute manager Secretary Secretary Programme coordinator BSc and MSc Computer staff: E.R. Deul D. J. Jansen T. Bot A. Vos Manager computer group Scientific programmer Programmer Programmer NOVA office: E. van Dishoeck W.H.W.M. Boland K. Groen J.T. Quist F. Molster Science director Managing director Financial controller Management Assistent (0.5) Project Manager (ESFRI, NWO) 96 APPENDIX I. OBSERVATORY STAFF DECEMBER 31, 2009 Msc Students: A.S. Abdullah A.H. Bakker T.C.N. Boekholt N.A. Bremer S. van den Broek J. Figuera M.P. van Daalen J.D. Delgado Diaz D.S. Harsono R.T.L. Herbonnet J. Hu D.S. Huijser M.P.H. Israël R.M.J. Janssen T.D.J. Kindt M.J. van der Laan Senior Bsc Students: K.A.J.B. Beemster Y.O. van Boheemen S. Crezee I.C. Icke M.T.A. Lambrechts M. Lameé N. van der Marel T.R. Meshkat A.N.G. Mortier G.P.P.L. Otten W.M. de Pous W.C. Schrier S. Shah A. Shulevski R. Smit C.M.S. Straatman C.H.M. de Valk F.N. Vuijsje S.T. Zeegers C.H. Schönau (doctoral student) M.J. Luitjens G.P.P.L. Otten S.T. Zeegers APPENDIX I. OBSERVATORY STAFF DECEMBER 31, 2009 97 Staff changes in 2009: Name (funded by) R. Alexander (NWO) S. Anderson (NWO - TOPCW) C. Arasa Cid (NWO - TOPCW) J. Bedorf (NWO) F.L. Birzan (NWO LOFAR, NOVA) C. Brinch (NWO, ALLEGRO) Y. Cavecchi (NOVA) H.M. Cuppen (NWO VENI) H.M. Cuppen (SPINOZA/NOVA) C. Dalla Vecchia (EU-EXT) M.C. Damen (UL, NOVA) N. de Vries (UL) N. de Vries (NOVA) A. Elbers (Campagne voor Leiden) E. Gerstel (UL) E.C. Fayolle (NOVA) D.J. Groen (NWO) M.A. Gürkan (NWO, VENI) J.S. Guss (UL) N. Hatch (UL, KNAW) S. Harfst (NWO) C.J.H.M. Groothuis (NOVA) C. Hopman (NWO, VENI) M. Iacobelli (NWO, ASTRON) H. Intema (NOVA, KNAW) L. Jolissaint de Sepibus (NWO/NOVA) S.A.S. Kendrew (UL/NOVA) S.A.S. Kendrew (NOVA/METIS) M. Kenworthy (UL) A.F. Loenen (NOVA) D.J.P. Lommen (NOVA) P. Lopes Beirao (UL) M.A. Marosvolgyi (NOVA) P. Marrese (UL/NOVA-GAIA) H. Masso-Gonzalez (NWO-Rubicon) R. Meijerink (NWO) E. Micelotta (UL, EU) start end 30-11-2009 1-5-2009 15-4-2009 1-5-2009 1-8-2009 1-9-2009 1-1-2009 30-9-2009 1-10-2009 31-5-2009 31-12-2009 31-10-2009 1-12-2009 15-2-2009 26-10-2009 1-5-2009 1-8-2009 1-9-2009 30-9-2009 1-6-2009 1-3-2009 31-8-2009 15-11-2009 31-7-2009 31-10-2009 31-1-2009 1-2-2009 1-1-2010 1-12-2009 14-6-2009 20-2-2009 1-10-2009 31-12-2009 14-5-2009 1-1-2010 14-5-2009 98 APPENDIX I. OBSERVATORY STAFF DECEMBER 31, 2009 Name (funded by) K.I. Oberg (EU) S.V. Nefs (NWO) C.J. Ödman (UNAWE, UL) C.J. Ödman (UNAWE, ASTRON) A. Omar (NWO) P. Oosthoek (UL) B.D. Oppenheimer (NOVA) M. Pandey (NWO, LOFAR) O. Panic (NWO, EU) A.H. Pawlik (EU) A.H. Pawlik (UL) F.I. Pelupessy (NOVA) S. Portegies Zwart (UL) D.A.Rafferty (NWO) A. Rahmati (NOVA) J.T. Quist (NOVA) D. Raban (NWO) S. Rieder (NWO) M. Sadatshirazi (UL) E. Semboloni (NWO) D.M. Smit (NWO) I.A.G. Snellen (KNAW) I.A.G. Snellen (UL) M.H. Soto Vicencio D. Szomoru (EU) E.N. Taylor (NWO) A.G.G.M. Tielens (UL) K.J.E. Torstensson (JIVE-EU ESTRELA netwerk) K.J.E. Torstensson (NWO ASTRON) O. Usov (UL, KVI) R.F.J. van de Burg (NWO) J. van de Sande (NOVA) S. van der Tol (NWO LOFAR) A.K. van Elteren (NOVA) S. Verdolini (UL) R. Visser (Spinoza award, PhD position) R. Visser (Spinoza award, postdoc position) K-S. Wang (NOVA) A. Weijmans (NWO) R. Wiersma (ASTRON) R. Williams (NWO) start 1-4-2009 end 31-8-2009 31-12-2009 1-1-2010 1-8-2009 1-5-2009 1-5-2009 1-5-2009 1-8-2009 1-9-2009 15-9-2009 15-5-2009 1-3-2009 1-10-2009 1-10-2009 1-9-2009 30-9-2009 26-11-2009 21-10-2009 14-8-2009 30-4-2009 30-9-2009 28-2-2009 31-8-2009 30-9-2009 31-3-2009 31-8-2009 1-1-2009 1-9-2009 15-9-2009 1-11-2009 1-5-2009 1-5-2009 1-9-2009 1-11-2009 15-9-2009 31-8-2009 30-4-2009 31-10-2009 31-7-2009 30-9-2009 31-8-2009 Appendix II Committee membership Appendix II Committee membership II.1. Observatory Committees (As on December 31, 2009) Directorate (Directie onderzoekinstituut) K. Kuijken (director of research) F.P. Israel (director of education) E. Gerstel (institute manager) Observatory management team (Management Team Sterrewacht) K.H. Kuijken (chair) E.R. Deul J. Drost (minutes) E. Gerstel F.P. Israel J. Lub (advisor) Oversight council (Raad van Toezicht) J.A.M. Bleeker (chair) B. Baud J.F. van Duyne W. van Saarloos C. Waelkens Research committee (Onderzoek-commissie OZ) M. Franx (chair) H. Cuppen A.G.A. Brown W. Jaffe Y. Levin P.P. van der Werf 102 APPENDIX II: COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP Research institute scientific council (Wetenschappelijke raad onderzoekinstituut) W. Boland H.J. van Langevelde B. Brandl R.S. Le Poole A.G.A. Brown Y. Levin D. van Delft H.V.J. Linnartz E.R. Deul J. Lub E.F. van Dishoeck F. van Lunteren M. Franx G.K. Miley M. Garrett S. Portegies Zwart T. de Graauw A. Quirrenbach H. Habing H.J.A. Röttgering H. Hoekstra M. Hogerheijde J. Schaye V. Icke I. Snellen F.P. Israel R. Stuik W.J. Jaffe (chair) A.G.G.M. Tielens P. Katgert P.P. van der Werf K.H. Kuijken P.T. de Zeeuw Institute council (Instituutsraad) E. Deul (chair) J. Drost F.P. Israel W.J. Jaffe M. Smit Astronomy education committee (Opleidingscommissie OC) E. van Uitert M. Franx E. van Dishoeck J. Schaye H. Röttgering vacancy (minutes) N.A. Bremer T. Pijloo M.C. Segers A. Vreeker Astronomy board of examiners (Examencommissie) J. Lub (chair) J. Aarts (Physics) F.P. Israel I. Snellen P.P. van der Werf APPENDIX II: COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP Oort scholarship committee F.P. Israel S. Portegies Zwart J. Schaye Mayo Greenberg prize committee G. Miley (chair) E.F. van Dishoeck P. Katgert H. Linnartz J. Lub PhD admission advisory committee H. Hoekstra J. Schaye (chair) MSc admission advisory committee J. Schaye (chair) F.P. Israel H.V.J. Linnartz Graduate student review committee (2009 Cttee) (Commissie studievoortgang promovendi) M. Franx (chair) H. Linnartz W. Boland J. Schaye Colloquia commitee J. Brinchmann H. Hoekstra Computer committee A.G.A. Brown (chair) B. Brandl A. Johansen M. Smit Library committee W.J. Jaffe (chair) F.P. Israel J. Lub Public outreach committee F.P. Israel (chair) V. Icke R. van der Burg J. van de Sande F. van der Voort 103 104 APPENDIX II: COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP Social committee M. Smit (chair) J. Bast J. Drost D. Groen I.A.G. Snellen APPENDIX II: COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP II.2. Membership of University Committees (non-Observatory) (As on December 31, 2009) Deul Member Begeleidings Commissie ICT projecten Chair Facultair Overleg ICT Member Facultair Beleids Commissie ICT van Dishoeck Chair, Faculty Research Committee (WECO) Member, Raad van Toezicht, Leiden Institute of Physics (LION) Franx Member, Faculty Research Committee (WECO) Director, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Foundation Director, Leids Sterrewacht Foundation Director, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation Hoekstra Member CFHT Science Advisory Committee until 12/2008 Hogerheijde Member, Board of Directors, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds Member, Board of Directors, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds Member, Board of Directors, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation Icke Member, Advisory Council, Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts Member, Belvédère Committee Israel Member, board FWN Graduate School 105 106 APPENDIX II: COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP Kuijken Chairman, board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds Chairman, board of directors Oort Fonds Member, board of directors Leidsch Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds Linnartz Member, FMD/ELD user committee Member, laboratory user group 'FWN nieuwbouw' (from november) Member, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize Chairman, SLA Exchange Foundation Van Lunteren Scientifc Board Scaliger Institute Historical Committee of Leiden University Studium Generale Committee Leiden University Writer-in-residence Committee Miley Chairman, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize Röttgering Member, Curatorium of the professorship at Leiden University ‘Experimental Astroparticle physics’ Schaye Member, education advisory committee new buildings Snellen Member, LUF International Study Fund (LISF) committee Van der Werf Member Faculty Council Organist of the Academy Auditorium Appendix III Science policy functions Appendix Science policy functions III Brandl Principal Investigator, E-ELT/METIS instrument phase-A study Deputy co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium Instrument Scientist, JWST-MIRI Spectrometer Member, NOVA Instrument Steering Committee (ISC) Editor, Conference proceedings on "400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes" Member, ELT Design Study WP5000 (science preparations) Member, Herschel Open Time Key Program (KINGFISH) Brinchmann Member, ESA Astronomy Working Group (AWG) Member, ESO FP7 coordinating action on Wide-field imaging with the E-ELT Member, OPTIMOS-DIORAMAS Science Team Member of management committee, Antarctic Research, a European Network for Astrophysics (ARENA) Member, WFOS-MOBIE Science Team Member, DFG review committee for Priority Program "Galaxy Evolution" Brown Member, Organizing Committee IAU Commission 8 Member, IAU Commission 37 Member, Gaia Science Team Member, EU Marie-Curie RTN European Leadership in Space Astrometry (ELSA) Member, AERES visiting committee to GEPI department of the Observatoire de Paris 110 APPENDIX III. SCIENCE POLICY FUNCTIONS van Delft Member commissie wetenschapsgeschiedenis KNAW Member jury Annual Prize ´Wetenschap en maatschappij Member Interdisciplinary Program Board Lorentz Center / NIAS Member organisatie KunstWetenschapSalon Member adviesraad tijdschrift NWT (Natuur, Wetenschap en Techniek) Member Raad van Advies Jaarboek KennisSamenleving Member begeleidingscommissie Digitaal Wetenschapshistorisch Centrum, Huygens Instituut Member comité van aanbeveling Science Café Leiden Member board Nederlands Natuur- en Geneeskundig Congres Member Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde Member (director) Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen van Dishoeck Scientific Director, Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) Associate Editor, Annual Reviews of Astronomy & Astrophysics Member, ALMA Board Member, SRON Board Member, MPIA-Heidelberg Fachbeirat Member, Spitzer Time Allocation Committee GO4 Member, Herschel-HIFI Science team Member, ASTRONET Science Vision Panel-C Member, VICI committee EW Co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium Chair, IAU Working Group on Astrochemistry Member, IAU Commission 14, working group on ‘molecular data’ Coordinator, Herschel-HIFI WISH Key Program Member, National Committee on Astronomy (NCA) Member, Search committee SRON director Vice-president, IAU Commission 14 Co-chair, Scientific Organising Committee, From circumstellar disks to planetary systems, Garching Franx Chair, Nova network 1 science team Member, MUSE science team Member, JWST-NIRSPEC science team Member, JWST Science Working Group Member, ACS science team Chair, ESO-ELT Science Working Group Member, ESO-ELT Science and Engineering Core Working Group APPENDIX III. SCIENCE POLICY FUNCTIONS Member, NL-PC Allocation Committee Hoekstra Member, Eilandtelescopen Time Allocation Committee Member, Science Advisory Commitee, Isaac Newton telescopes Group Hogerheijde Member, ALMA Science Advisory Committee Member, ALMA European Science Advisory Committee Member, ALMA Science Integrated Project Team Member, ALMA European Regional Center Coordinating Committee Member, IRAM Programme Committee Project Scientist for CHAMP+/Netherlands Co-coordinator, JCMT Gould Belt legacy Survey Member, Board of Directors Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds Member, Board of Directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds Member, Board of Directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds Member, SOC workshop From Disks to Planets Icke Member, National Committee on Astronomy Education Member, Minnaert Committee (NOVA Outreach) Member, Netherlands Astronomical Society Education Committee Member, Editorial Council Natuur & Techniek Member, Advisory Council, Technika 10 Member, Board of Directors, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde Member, Jury ‘Rubicon’ (NWO) Member, Jury, Annual Prize ‘Wetenschap en Maatschappij’ Israel Member, NWO Selection Committee for Free Competition Awards Member, IAU Comissions 28, 40 and 51 Member, Science Team Herschel-HIFI Member, Science Team JWST-MIRI Member, Science Team APEX-Champ+ Member, Editorial Board Europhysics News Coordinator-NL SCUBA2 Legacy Survey Nearby Galaxies Jaffe Director, NEVEC Member, IAU Commission 40, 28 Member FITS Working Group 111 112 APPENDIX III. SCIENCE POLICY FUNCTIONS Member ESO User's Committee Vice-Chairman European Interferometry Initiative Katgert Secretary/Treasurer, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds Secretary/Treasurer, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds Secretary/Treasurer, Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds Kuijken Advisor to National Delegate, ESO Council Chair, ESO contact committee Member, board of directors Kapteyn fonds Member, board NOVA Key researcher, NOVA Dieptestrategie Member, ESO KMOS Instrument Science Team Principal Investigator, ESO KiDS Survey Principal Investigator, OmegaCAM project Co-investigator, ESO VIKING Public Survey Co-investigator, Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph project Deputy coordinator, DUEL EU-FP6 Network Local coordinator, EVALSO EU-FP7 programme Member, board EARA Member, board MICADO E-ELT instrument design study External member, FWO-Flanders astronomy & physics programme committee Member, DFG visiting committee, IMPRESS astronomy research school Heidelberg Member, structuurcommissie Astrofysica, Universiteit Utrecht Member, ERC Starting grants jury Member, National commission for astronomy (NCA) Member, board Physics society 'Diligentia', The Hague van Langevelde Member consortium board European VLBI Network Member RadioNet Board and Executive Board Coordinator EXPReS (Expres Production Real-time e-VLBI System), board and management team PI, RadioNet reserach activity ALBiUS (Advanced Long Baseline Interoperable User Software) Member board ESTRELA (Early Stage Training Site for European Longwavelength Radio Astronomy) Member board SKADS (SKA Design Studies) Member board PrepSKA (Prepatory SKA studies) APPENDIX III. SCIENCE POLICY FUNCTIONS 113 Member European SKA Consortium NOVA Instrumentation Steering Committee Dutch URSI committee Member board of directors Leids Kerkhoven Bosscha Fonds Member board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds Member board of directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds NWO I-science program committee SKA klankbordgroep NL Allegro steering committee Linnartz 'SPIN' chair for Molecular Laboratory Astrophysics, LCVU Editor CAMOP (Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics) Workgroup leader, FOM group FOM-L-027 Workgroup leader, FP7 ITN 'LASSIE' (Laboratory Astrochemical Surface Science In Europe) Member, NWO-EW/CW 'DAN' (Dutch Astrochemistry Network) Member, NWO-EW 'Vrije Competitie' allocation committee Member, NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Panel Member, NWO-CW 'Spectroscopy and Theory' Member, NWO-FOM 'COMOP'' (Condensed Matter and Optical Physics) Member, HRSMC research school Chairman, 8th Workshop on Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy Member, International Scientific committee IPS (Infrard Plasma Spectroscopy) Lub Secretary, Netherlands Committee for Astronomy Member, Board Astronomy & Astrophysics van Lunteren Education and Research Board Huizinga Institute Miley Vice President, International Astronomical Union (Education and Development) Chair, International Universe Awareness Steering Committee Chair, LOFAR Research Management Committee Chairman, LOFAR Survey Science Group, Highest Redshift Objects Member Executive Committee International Astronomical Union Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee 114 APPENDIX III. SCIENCE POLICY FUNCTIONS Member, Board of Governors of the LOFAR Foundation Member, Max Planck Institut fur Radioastronomie Fachbeirat Member, Core Team, LOFAR Surveys Key Project Member, ESF Latsis Prize Committee Portegies Zwart Netherlands representative, ESF ASTROSIM European ambassador, Meta Institute for Computational Astrophysics member, Rhine Network: Inter European N-body community Röttgering Member, ESO OPC Member, ASTRON Science Advisory Committee Co-I, Near Infrared Spectrograph for Euclid, ESA's Dark Energy Mission Member, Science team MID-infrared Interferometric instrument for VLTI (MIDI) Member, XMM Large Scale Structure Survey Consortium PI, DCLA (Development and Commissioning of LOFAR for Astronomy) & project for the scientific preparation of science with &LOFAR at 4 partaking Netherlands universities Member, LOFAR Technical Working Group Member, LOFAR Astronomy Development (LAD) board Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee (ARC) Member, Selection panel NWO's Rubicon program. Member, Spitzer warm legacy survey project SERVS Schaye Member of the steering committee, Virgo Consortium for cosmological supercomputer simulations Co-Investigator, MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) Member, MUSE science team Member, LOFAR Epoch of Reionization science team Member, ISTOS science team (Imaging Spectroscopic Telescope for Origins Surveys) Member, Xenia science team (A probe of cosmic chemical evolution) NL-representative, Euro-VO Data Center Alliance, Theoretical astrophysics expert group Chair, Organizing Committee, LC workshop “The chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium” Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, “Cosmological reionization”, Allahabad, India APPENDIX III. SCIENCE POLICY FUNCTIONS 115 Member, NWO Rubicon committee PI, Marie Curie Excellence Team PI, OWLS collaboration Snellen Member, Astron (WSRT/LOFAR) Programme Committee Board member, Nederlandse Astronomen Club Stuik Associate member of the OPTICON Key Technologies Network Member of the FP7 Network “Wide field imaging at the E-ELT: from GLAO to diffraction limit” Tielens Member management committee, COST Action CM0805 The chemical cosmos: understanding chemistry in astronomical environments van der Werf Member, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Board Principal Investigator, SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey Principal Investigator, Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey Co-investigator, HIFI Co-investigator, MIRI Member, SAFARI Science team Member, METIS Science Team Member and co-chair of Galaxies Panel, ESO Observing Programmes Committee Member, STFC Herschel Oversight Committee Member, Scientific Organizing Committee of 3 international conferences Member, TAMASIS Network Appendix IV Visiting scientists Name K. Holhjem C. Tadhunter A. Duffy L. Koopmans O. Vaquero J. Hartlap K. Holhjem L. Allamandola O. Vaquero A. Pal Dates Jan 20-23 Jan 26 Feb 23-27 Feb 24 Feb 24 Mar 2-3 Mar 23-26 Apr 1-June 1 Apr 6 Apr 15-22 J. Szulagyi Apr 15-22 H. Zhao E. Tenenbaum May-Nov May 1-31 C. Bildfell C. Ferrari May 1-30 May 5-8 C. Coti May 5-19 A. Stolte T. Ishiyama A. Babul J.H. Fillion M. Gieles May 8-9 May 10-24 May 18-19 May 18-19 May 18-19 IV Appendix Visiting scientists Institute AIfA Bonn, Germany University of Sheffield, UK University of Manchester, UK University of Groningen, Netherlands University of Groningen, Netherlands AIfA Bonn, Germany AIfA Bonn, Groningen NASA AMES, USA University of Groningen, Netherlands Konkoly Observatory, Budapest, Hungary Konkoly Observatory, Budapest, Hungary University of St.Andrews, Scotland Steward Observatory, University of Arizona University of Victoria, Canada Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice, France Institute for advanced computer science, Paris, France Bonn University, Germany Tokyo University, Japan University of Victoria, Canada SOLEIL, UPMC, Paris, France ESO, Chili 120 APPENDIX IV. VISITING SCIENTISTS Name B. Oppenheimer M. Chun D. Maschiettie S. McMillan R. Keil K. Holhjem K. Nitadori L. Sales R. Crain P. Abraham Dates May 19-June 6 May 21 June 1-july 3 June 1-6 June 4-7 June 8-12 June 15-22 June 17 June 22-26 Juni 29- July 5 O. Mangete A. Duffy K. Holhjem M. Schirmer P. Brochado July 25-30 Aug 4-7 Aug 6-14 Aug 6-14 Aug 10-20 R. Keil A. Biviano P. Melchior O. Pols J. Nelson V. Springel R. Azzollini Aug 23-28 Sep 13-19 Sep 14-15 Sep 21-Oct 2 Sep 26- Oct 4 Sep 30 Oct 5-6 A. Glauser Oct 5-6 A. Hernan Oct 5-6 B. Devecci G. de Marchi E. Calzavarini I. Cherchneff C. Qi Oct 11-15 Nov 2-3 Nov 6 Nov 9-11 Nov 9-13 C. Dalla Vecchia M. Kato E. Dwek M. Gladders Nov 2-6 Nov 8-22 Nov 9-12 Nov 18-20 Institute University of Arizona, USA University of Hawaii, USA Padua, Italy Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA ZARM, Bremen, Germany AIfA Bonn, Germany University of Tokyo, Japan University of Groningen, Netherlands Swinburne University, Australia Konkoly Observatory, Budapest, Hungary Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA University of Manchester, UK AIfA Bonn, Germany AIfA Bonn, Germany Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Portugal ZARM, Bremen, Germany Osservatorio Astronomico, Trieste, Italy University of Heidelberg, Germany University of Utrecht, Netherlands UCSC, USA MPA, Germany Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Scotland Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain ESO, Noordwijk, Netherlands ENS, Lyon, France University of Basel, Switzerland Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA MPE, Germany Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan Nasa, Goddard, USA University of Chicago, US APPENDIX IV. VISITING SCIENTISTS Name C. Kemper M. Gieles A. Duffy Dates Nov 30-Dec 1 Dec 3-4 Dec 4-12 121 Institute University of Manchester, UK ESO, Chili University of Western Australia, USA Appendix V Workshops, lectures, and colloquia in Leiden Appendix Workshops, lectures and colloquia in Leiden V V.1. Workshops Most of the workshops were held in the Lorentz Center, an international center which coordinates and hosts workshops in the sciences. In 2009 the Leiden astronomers contributed to the following workshops there: February 2 - 6 Deep IR studies of the distant universe P. van Dokkum, M. Franx March 16 - 20 From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight, 2009 EARA workshop D. Salter, I. Oliveira, M. Hogerheijde, E.F. van Dishoeck April 6 - 9 Interactions in the Dark: physics of Dark Energy-Dark Matter interactions H.S. Zhao, H. Hoekstra, B. Famaey, B. Foster May 18 - 20 Varying Fundamental Constants C. Martins, J. Brinchmann May 25 - 29 The Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium J. Schaye, S. Borgani, J.X. Prochaska, J.M. Shull, C.C. Steidel July 13 - 17 Distribution of Mass in the Milky Way Galaxy A. Klypin, H. Zhao, J. Binney, L. Blitz, A.G.A. Brown 126 APPENDIX V. WORKSHOPS, LECTURES AND COLLOQUIA November 2 - 6 Cavity enhanced spectroscopy – Recent developments and new challenges H.V.J. Linnartz, W. Ubachs, A. Ruth November 23 - 27 Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback C. Tadhunter, R. Morganti, P. Best, J. Holt, N. Nesvadba, M. Hardcastle November 30 - December 4 Astronomy 2009 - Astronomy and the New Media in the International Year of Astronomy A. Allan, C. Odman, S. Kendrew, R. Simpson, S. Lowe, C. Lintott Additional meetings: October 9 – 10 Stockholm Astrobiology school visit On October 8-10, about 15 members of the Stockholm Astrobiology school visited Leiden Observatory. They participated in the NOVA network 2 meeting in Leiden on October 8 and joint scientific talks and discussions with members of the astrochemistry and laboratory astrophysics groups were held on October 9-10. November 23 – 27 WISH team meeting On November 23-27, about 35 members of the `Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel' met in Leiden to discuss the initial Herschel PACS science demonstration phase data, as well as progress on complementary data and modeling efforts. More information can be found on www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/WISH V.2. Endowed Lectures Date Apr 21 Speaker Bruce Draine Oct 1 Jerry Nelson Title Cosmic Dust – Mother Nature’s Galactic Beauty Powder Segmented Mirror Telescopes and the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) APPENDIX V. WORKSHOPS, LECTURES AND COLLOQUIA 127 V.3. Scientific Colloquia Date Jan 29 Speaker (affiliation) Leon Koopmans (Kapteyn) Feb 4 Christoph Pfrommer (CITA) Feb 5 David Raban (Leiden Observatory) Matt Lehnert (Observatoir de Paris, GEPI) Feb 12 Feb 19 Susanne Aalto (Onsala) Feb 23 Ivo Labbé (OCIW) Feb 24 Carsten Dominik (University of Amsterdam) Matthew Kenworthy Feb 25 Mar 4 Rychard Bouwens (Lick Observatories) Mar 5 Joeri van Leeuwen (Astron) Mar 10 Joe Tufts (Las Cumbres Observatory) Dave Lommen (Leiden Observatory) Mar 12 Mar 13 Mar 16 Mar 19 Mar 20 Michael McElwain (Princeton) Lucas Labadie (MPIA Heidelberg) Georges Meynet (Geneva Observatory) Frans Snik (Utrecht) Title Strong Gravitational Lens Modeling: The Structure & Evolution of Earlytype Galaxies to z=1 and beyond Deciphering an enigma - Non-thermal emission from galaxy clusters Mid-IR interferometric studies of nearby AGN (PhD student colloquium) Direct Observations of (some of) the Physical Drivers of Galaxy Evolution Molecular gas and chemistry in dusty nuclei The formation histories of massive galaxies Dust in protoplanetary disks: Tales of optical depth Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Promises and Challenges Early Galaxy formation: Studying the build up and evolution of galaxies during the first 2 Gyr of the Universe Radio pulsar surveys and the evolution of neutron-star binaries A biased approach to efficient ELT instrumentation The first steps of planet formation Studying grain growth with millimetre interferometers (PhD colloquium) Exoplanetary Science: Instrumentation, Observations, and Expectations Exoplanetary Systems: Instrumentation, Technology and Observations Evolution of Massive Stars along the Cosmic History Polarized views of the Universe 128 APPENDIX V. WORKSHOPS, LECTURES AND COLLOQUIA Date Mar 26 Speaker (affiliation) Chris Pritchett (University of Victoria) Apr 2 Thomas Henning (MPIA Heidelberg) Carolina Ödman (Leiden Observatory) Margaret Meixner (STScI) Apr 8 Apr 22 May 7 May 19 Matthias Bartelmann (Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Heidelberg) Alan McConnachie (Herzberg Institute for Astrpphysics) May 28 June 4 Crystal Martin (UCSB) Karin Öberg (Leiden Observatory) June 11 Andreas Pawlik (Leiden Observatory) Olja Panić (Leiden Observatory) Simon Portegies Zwart (Leiden Observatory) Steve Kahn (Stanford) Anne-Marie Weijmans (Leiden Observatory) June 18 June 25 Aug 6 Aug 27 Sep 4 Sep 10 Sep 17 Sep 21 Oct 1 Elisabetta Micelotta (Leiden Observatory) Richard Bower (Durham) Ray Jayawardhana (University of Toronto) Ruud Visser (Leiden Observatory) Jerry Nelson (UCSC) Title The Supernova Legacy Survey Cosmology and Constraints on the Nature of Type Ia Supernovae The Formation of Massive Stars Universe Awareness Spitzer Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud, Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) Do we understand gravitational arcs? The Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey: unraveling galaxy formation in the near-field Galactic Winds Complex processes in simple ices - Gasgrain interactions during star formation (PhD colloquium) Simulating cosmic reionization (PhD colloquium) The gas and dust spatial distribution in disks around low-mass stars Simonfest The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Dark matter in early-type galaxies: mapping dark haloes with integral-field spectrography PAH Processing in Space The flipside of galaxy formation Exploring Young Brown Dwarfs: disks, companions and the bottom of the IMF Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks Segmented Mirror Telescopes and the TMT (thirty Meter Telescope) [2009 Sackler Lecture] APPENDIX V. WORKSHOPS, LECTURES AND COLLOQUIA Date Oct 8 Oct 9 Oct 15 Oct 20 Oct 22 Oct 29 Nov 11 Nov 11 Nov 12 Nov 19 Nov 26 Speaker (affiliation) Jason Hessels (ASTRON/UvA) Pedro Beirao (Leiden Observatory) Jörg Hörandel (Radboud University Nijmegen) Cecilia Ceccarelli (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Grenoble) Steve Balbus (Laboratoire de Radioastronomie) Nathan de Vries (Leiden Observatory) Ian McCarthy (Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge University Eli Dwek (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center) Anatoly Spitkovsky (Princeton) Mike Gladders (Chicago) Dec 14 Matthew Bate (Exeter University) S. George Djorgovski (Caltech) Edward Taylor (Leiden Observatory) Mark Krumholz (UCSC) Dec 17 Leo Blitz (UC Berkeley) Dec 3 Dec 11 129 Title Exploring the World of Pulsars and Fast Radio Transients with LOFAR ISM Conditions in Starburst Galaxies (PhD colloquium) Exploring the highest-energy particles in the Universe with the Pierre Auger Observatory Molecular complexity and star formation Differential Rotation and Convection in the sun The evolution of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (PhD colloquium) Thermal histories of galaxies and groups in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations Five Years in the Mid-Infrared Evolution of the SN 1987A Supernova Remnant Physics and Astrophysics of Collisionless Shocks Strong Lensing by Optically-Selected Galaxy Clusters Numerical simulations of star cluster formation Exploring the Time Domain With Synoptic Sky Surveys 10 Billion Years of Massive Galaxies Turbulence, Feedback, and Slow Star Formation Counterintuitive Star Formation 130 APPENDIX V. WORKSHOPS, LECTURES AND COLLOQUIA V.4. Student Colloquia Date Feb 16 Speaker Wouter Spaan Feb 23 Bas Nefs June 2 Niels ter Haar June 8 Sander de Kievit June 15 June 22 Daniel Szomoru Marco van der Sluis June 29 Remco van der Burg July 6 Maarten van den Berg July 13 Jesse van de Sande July 20 Nov 2 Alireza Rahmati Charlotte de Valk Title SOS: simulated observations of cluster simulations A LABOCA continuum view on dusty envelopes in southern starforming regions Systematic study of radiation effects on Gaia astrometric measurements Starts around Recoiled Super Massive Black Holes Biases in cosmic shear surveys Analysis of the WFCAM Transit Survey: The search for planetary transits around M dwarfs The UV galaxy luminosity function at z=3-5 3D Weak Lensing with Galaxy Cluster MS0451 Sizes and colour gradients of High Redshift Galazies in GOODS CDFS Evolution of Dusty Galaxies The effects of CCD radiation damage on the EUCLID weak-lensing survey Appendix VI Participation in scientific meetings Appendix Participation in scientific meetings VI Alexander EARA Workshop "From disks to planets: learning from starlight" (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20) Talk: ‘Can [NeII] emission-line profiles probe photoevaporative disc winds?’ The dynamics of discs and planets (Cambridge, UK; Aug 17-21) Poster: ‘Planet migration in evolving gas discs’ Angular Momentum Transport and Energy Release in Accretion Discs (Cambridge, UK; Sep 7-8) Invited talk: ‘Giant planet migration, disc evolution, and the origin of transitional discs’ Dynamics of Outer Planetary Systems (Edinburgh, UK; Nov 9-11) Invited review talk: ‘Outer disc evolution’ Amiri ESTRELA workshop (Bologna, Italy; Jan) Scientific Writing workshop (Blankenberge, Belgium; May ) ESTRELA workshop (Gothenberg, Sweden; May) Maser Workshop (Bonn, Germany; Nov 11-12) Arasa 42nd IUPAC Conference (Glasgow, Scotland; Aug 1-7) ‘Molecular dynamics simulations of ice photochemistry at different Temperatures’ GORDON Conference (Dynamics At Surfaces),Proctor Academy (Andover, USA; Aug 9-14) ‘Molecular dynamics simulations of ice photochemistry at different Temperatures’ 134 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Baneke Landelijke Werkgroep Wetenschapsgeschiedenis (Woudschoten, Netherlands; June 26-27) Hoe word ik astronoom? Veranderingen in de professionele identiteit, IUHPS / ICHST (Budapest, Hungary; July 28-Aug 2) ‘Look South, Go West. The astronomical community, 1870-1940’ History of Science Society Annual Meeting (Phoenix, USA; Nov 19-22) ‘Educating Astronomers: the astronomical community 1880-1940’ Bast Vatican Observatory Super Science Summer School 2009 Astronomy: A Common Ground for Sharing Humanity's Concerns (Sassone, Italy, June; 2126) 'Exploring terrestrial planet-forming regions in protoplanetary disks with high resolution spectroscopy' 42nd IUPAC congress Analysis & Detection Astrochemistry (Glasgow, UK; Aug 2-5) 'Exploring the chemical and physical structure of terrestrial planet-forming zones in protoplanetary disks with CO line profiles' CRIRES + CO meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Aug 31) 'Single-peaked CO emission line profiles from the inner regions of disks' Van Bemmel SKADS DS2 team meeting (Valletta, Malta; Jan 6-8) ‘SimCa for LOFAR: ionospheric impact on imaging’ Booth The Monster's Fiery Breath (Madison, WI, USA; Jun 1-6) ‘AGN modelling in a cosmological context’ Virgo Consortium Meeting (Garching, Germany; Jan 28-29) ‘Understanding AGN models’ Bouwman International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Columbus OH, USA; June 22-26) ‘Shining light on PAHs in interstellar ices’ NAC - Dutch Astronomy Conference (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13 – May 15) ‘Shining light on PAHs in interstellar ices’ APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 135 Brandl AO4ELT (Paris, France, June; 22-26) ‘Extreme Adaptive Optics in the mid-IR: The METIS AO system’ [email protected] (Spineto, Italy; July 5-10) ‘Starburst Activity on Small Scales’ Brinch Data Needs for ALMA (Cologne, Germany; Oct 5-7) ARTIST meeting (Bonn, Germany; Nov 9-11) ‘Introducing LIME’ Brinchmann Deep IR studies of the distant universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2-6) ‘Estimating gas masses in galaxies. Can we move past the Kennicutt-Schmidt law?’ ESO Spectroscopic Survey Workshop (Garching, Germany; Mar 9-10) An astronomical Observatory at Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica) for the next decade (Frascati, Italy; May 11-15) Imaging at the E-ELT - a one day workshop (Garching, Germany; May 29) ‘Deep Extra-Galactic Imaging’ IAU General Assembly, S262: Stellar Populations: Planning for the Next Decade (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-7) ‘Challenges in Stellar Population Studies’ UK E-ELT Science Workshop II. Stellar Populations with the European ELT(Cambridge, UK; Sep 17-18) ‘Challenges in Stellar Population Studies’ Assembly, Gas Content and Star Formation History of Galaxies (Charlottesville, USA; Sep 21-24) ‘Moving past the Kennicutt-Schmidt law?’ Observing the Dark Universe with Euclid (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Nov 1718) Brown ELSA CCD modelling workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 19-21) Talk: ‘Dealing with Gaia CCD radiation damage effects: overview of activities’ ELSA Mid-Term Review and follow-up meeting (Brussels, Belgium; Feb 2-4) Gaia Science Team meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Feb 26-27) Gaia radiation calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; mar 6) GREAT kick-off meeting (Cambridge, UK; Mar 26-27) Talk: ‘ELSA - European Leadership in Space Astrometry’ Gaia Coordination Units 2 and 3 meeting (Torino, Italy; Apr 20-23) Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) 136 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Gaia Science Team meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; May 19-20) Satellite dynamics: Simulation challenges and requirements (Bremen, Germany; June 18-19) Gaia calibration workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; June 25-26) Talk: ‘Gaia System Calibration Plan Workshop – Introduction’ Gaia radiation calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; July 7) Talk: ‘CDM-02 validation and parameter estimation - progress report’ GREAT Gaia spectroscopic follow-up meeting (Cambridge, UK; July 8-9) Talk:’ Gaia - need for follow-up spectroscopy’ Distribution of Mass in the Milky Way Galaxy (Leiden, Netherlands; July 1317) The Milky Way and the Local Group - Now and in the Gaia Era (Heidelberg, Germany; Aug 31 - Sep 4) Invited talk: ‘The scientific impact of Gaia’ Gaia Science Team meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Sep 17-18) ELSA School on the Techniques of Gaia (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 28 Oct 2) AMUSE workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 5-7) Gaia calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Oct 6) Talk: ‘DPAC inputs to the Gaia Calibration Plan’ Gaia DPAC Radiation Task Force meeting (Cambridge, UK; Oct 26-27) Gaia Coordination Unit 8 meeting (Nice, France; Nov 18) Talk: ‘Status of hardware issues and data processing for BP/RP’ GREAT plenary meeting (Nice, France; Nov 19-20) Gaia Coordination Unit 5 meeting (Barcelona, Spain; Dec 1-4) van der Burg Nationale Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘The UV Luminosity Function at z=3-5’ Galaxies and Cosmology meeting (Groningen, Netherlands; Aug 24) Observing the Dark Universe with Euclid (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Nov 17-18) Busso GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting (Bologna, Italy; Mar 17-20) GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting (Barcelona, Spain; Dec 1-4) IAU XXII General Assembly, JD5 "Modelling the Milky Way in the Era of Gaia" (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) ‘Gaia Photometric Data Processing in Crowded Fields’ APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 137 Cuppen Annual FOM meeting (Veldhoven, Netherlands; Jan 20-21) Annual CW Theoretical Chemistry and Spectroscopy meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Jan 26-27) ‘H2 formation on graphitic surfaces’ Heterogeneous Chemical Processes in the Astronomical Environment (London, UK; June 16) ‘Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with models’ Nordic-NASA Summerschool on Water, Ice and the Origin of Life in the Universe (Iceland; June 29-July 10) Contribution 1: ‘Depletion of molecules in the pre-collapse phase of star-forming regions’ Contribution 2:’Chemistry on icy grain surfaces’ Contribution 3: ‘Introduction into Monte-Carlo studies on ice surface chemistry’ 42nd International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry congress "Chemistry Solutions"(Glasgow, UK; Aug 2-7) Contribution 1: ‘H2 formation on graphitic surfaces’ Contribution 2: ‘Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with models’ European Conference on Surface Science 26 (Parma, Italy; Aug 30- Sep 4) ‘Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with models’ Deep NAC 2009 ,Rolduc (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ASSIST: the test set-up for VLT adaptive optics facility AO4ELT (Paris, France; June 22 -26) ‘Use of AO PSF Models for the Study of Resolved Stellar Population’ Van Delft Het biografisch portaal (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Mar 27) ‘Het nut van een biografisch portaal’ Symposium Natural History Museum Maastricht (Maastricht, Netherlands; May 15) ‘Over conservatoren, wetenschap en waarde’ Dutch Science, World Science (Woudschoten, Netherlands; June 26-27) ‘Museum Boerhaave and the History of Science’; Koude drukte’ ‘Het Leidse cryogeen laboratorium en de internationale temperatuurschaal 1927’ The relations of science and technology as portrayed in Museums (London, UK; Sep 20-22) ‘The Quest for Absolute Zero. A Human Story about Rivalry & Cold’ HSS Annual Meeting 2009 (Phoenix, USA; Nov 19-22) 138 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS ‘Cool Reception. Leiden's Quest for Cold and the International Temperature Scale 1927’ van Dishoeck Submillimeter astrophysics and technology (Pasadena, USA; Feb 23-25) Invited: ‘Sun-bathing around low-mass protostars: APEX-CHAMP+ observations of high-J CO’ From Disks to planets: learning from starlight (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 1720) Invited: ‘Disks and their evolution: future prospects’ ALMA and ELTs: a deeper, finer view of the Universe (Garching, Germany; Mar 24-27) Invited review: ‘Star- and planet formation in our Galaxy: ALMA-ELT synergies’ StScI symposium: The search for life in the Universe (Baltimore, USA; May 4-7) Invited review: ‘Complex organic molecules in star- and planet-forming regions’ High angular resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths (Taipei, Taiwan; June 6-10) Invited review: ’Water and organic molecules in disks: ALMA and IR synergy’ Science with JWST-MIRI (Chicago, USA; June 15-16) ‘MIRI observations of protostars’ Astrochemistry: 42nd IUPAC congress (Glasgow, UK; Aug 2-5) Invited review: ‘Chemistry during star- and planet formation’ To the edge of the Universe: 30 yr IRAM (Grenoble, France; Sep 28-30) Invited review: ‘Astrochemistry’ Spitzer and VLT observations of protostars and protoplanetary disks (Garching, Germany; Oct 30 - Nov 2) ‘Introductory overview’ From circumstellar disks to planetary systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 3-6) Invited review: ‘Chemistry of protoplanetary disks’ Herschel science demonstration phase results (Madrid, Spain; Dec 17-18) ‘First results from the WISH key program’ Elbers Annual Meeting History of Science Society (Phoenix (AZ), USA; Nov 19-22) ‘Radio astronomy in the Netherlands: a peculiar history’ Fayolle NAC 2009 (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) Poster: ‘Ice Segregation around Protostars’ 42nd International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Congress (Glasgow, UK ; Aug 2-7) APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 139 Poster: ‘Thermal Dynamics of Ice Mixtures’ NOVA Fall School, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 5 - 9 ‘Ices in Star Forming Regions’ Groves Galaxy Metabolism: Galaxy Evolution near and far (Sydney, Australia; 22-26 June 2009) Invited Talk: ‘The UV-IR SEDs of Galaxies’ Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback, Lorentz Center (Leiden, Netherlands; 23-27 Nov) Talk: ‘Distinguishing Diagnostics; Emission Line Ratios as analysis tools’ Haas IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) ‘Galactic consequences of clustered star formation’ Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘Physical Properties of Simulated Galaxies’ Virgo Meeting (Garching, Germany; Jan 28-29) Harfst NAC 2009 (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘Reconstructing Arches’ Hildebrandt Meeting of the DUEL Network (Heidelberg, Germany; Jan 14-16) ‘DUEL Node Overview Leiden’ NAC 2009 (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) DUEL Mid-Term Review (Edinburgh, UK; July 8-9) Meeting of the CFHTLS Collaboration (Edinburgh, UK; Oct 1-3) ‘Cosmic Magnification - A New Window to Cosmology’ Hoekstra Dutch Astroparticle-physics meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 20) ‘Weak lensing by large scale structure’ Lorentz Workshop “Interactions in the dark”(Leiden, Netherlands; Apr 6-9) ‘Weak gravitational lensing’ JENAM (Hertfortshire, UK; Apr 20-23) ‘Weak lensing by large scale structure: results from the CFHTLS’ ‘Weak lensing studies of galaxy clusters’ Nederlandse Astronomen Club AGM (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘Weak lensing by large scale structure’ Galaxy masses (Kingston, Canada; June 15-19) 140 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS ‘Weak lensing studies of galaxy halos’ Lensing school (Paris, France, Aug 26-29) ‘Lectures on shape measurement methods’ NOVA herfstschool (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 6-9) ‘Lecture series on gravitational lensing’ Hogerheijde From Disks to Planets (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20) ALMA and the ELTs (Garching, Germany; Mar 24-27) Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘An arc of gas and dust around the young star DoAr21’ Submillimeter Astronomy at High Angular Resolution (Taipei, Taiwan; June 8-12) ‘Gas and dust in protoplanetary disks: recent results from SMA, CARMA, and PdBI’ Data Needs for ALMA (Cologne, Germany; Oct 5-7) ‘Self–consistent radiative transfer models of low–mass protostars in the ALMA era’ From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 36) Poster: ‘An arc of gas and dust around the young star DoAr 21’ Holt Deep IR studies of the distant universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2-6) ‘UltraVISTA survey: progress report AGN-induced outflows in young radio sources’ UK National Astronomy Meeting (Hatfield, UK; Apr 20-23) ‘AGN-induced feedback in young radio galaxies’ Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 23-27) ‘Member of the SOC’ Ioppolo CW Theoretical Chemistry and Spectroscopy meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Jan 26-27) Poster: ‘Laboratory Evidence for Efficient Water Formation in Interstellar Ices’ Nordic-NASA Summer School: Water, Ice and the Origin of Life (Reykjavik, Iceland; June 29-July 13) Poster: ‘Water Formation in the Interstellar Medium’ 42nd IUPAC World Chemistry Congress (Glasgow, UK; Aug 2-7) Poster: ‘Water Formation in the Interstellar Medium’ Isokoski CW Theoretical Chemistry and Spectroscopy meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Jan 26-27) APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 141 Poster: ‘Double-Insertion of Xe into Water: HXeOXeH ‘ Nordic-NASA Summer School: Water, Ice and the Origin of Life (Reykjavik, Iceland; June 29-July 13) NOVA Fall School 2009 (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 5-9) Israel 3rd Arena Conference: An astronomical observatory at Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica) for the next decade (Frascati , Italy; May 11-15) `Dense star forming gas and dust in the Magellanic Clouds' The Many Faces of Centaurus A (Sydney, Australia; Jun 28 - Jul 3) `Emission and absorption of circumnuclear molecular gas in Centaurus A' Jaffe Interferometry of AGNs (Heidelberg, Germany; Mar 29-30) MIDI Science Team Meeting(Heidelberg, Germany; Apr 21-23) MIDI Science Team Meeting(Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 09-10) Johansen Turbulence-Assisted Planetary Growth (Uppsala, Sweden; Feb 25-27) ‘Why do planets rotate?’ Planet Formation and Evolution: The Solar System and Extrasolar Planets (Tübingen, Germany; Mar 02-06) ’Formation and growth of planets in turbulent protoplanetary discs’ From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20) ‘Why do planets rotate?’ The Astrophysics of the Magnetorotational Instability and Related Processes (Ringberg, Germany; Apr 14-18) ‘The role of the MRI for planetesimal formation’ Workshop on the Magneto-Rotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks (Kobe, Japan; June 02-03) ‘Planetesimal formation in turbulent protoplanetary discs’ Origins Of Solar Systems (Mt Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA; July 05-10) ‘Formation and growth of planets in turbulent protoplanetary discs’ The Dynamics of Discs and Planets (Cambridge, United Kingdom; Aug 1721) ‘The crucial role of metallicity for planetesimal formation’ Pencil Code User Meeting 2009 (Heidelberg, Germany; Aug 24-28) ‘Pencil Code on a Blue Gene/P’ Angular momentum transport and energy release in accretion discs (Cambridge, United Kingdom; Sep 07-08) ‘Computer simulations of the Parker instability in strongly magnetised 142 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Keplerian discs’ ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 08) ‘On the metallicity dependence of planet formation’ Kendrew MIRI European Consortium meeting (Leuven, Belgium; Jan 21-23) MIRI European Consortium meeting (Leicester, UK; Apr 28-30) METIS progress meeting (Edinburgh, UK; May 19) IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) ‘High-resolution infrared spectroscopy at high and low altitudes’ MIRI European Consortium meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-9) DotAstronomy workshop(organizing committee) (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 30- Dec 4) Kóspál Planet Formation and Evolution: The Solar System and Extrasolar Planets (Tübingen, Germany; Mar 2 – 6) Contributed talk: ‘On the relationship of planets and debris disks’ From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight (2009 EARA workshop) (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16 – 20) Contributed talk: ‘On the relationship of planets and debris disks’ From circumstellar disks to planetary systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 3 – 6) Poster: ‘Infrared variability as disk diagnostics’ Kristensen Herschel data processing spectroscopy workshop (Madrid, Spain; Mar 2426) 42nd IUPAC Congress (Glasgow, Scotland; Aug 2-4) Talk: ‘Mapping CH3OH emission in young stellar objects’ Herschel data reduction and first results workshop (Madrid, Spain, Dec 1418) Kruip Subdivide and Tile(Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 16-21) ‘Systematic effects in transport over Delaunay structures’ Kuijken ESO Committee of Council (Garching, Germany; Mar 2-3) ESO Spectroscopic Surveys Workshop (Garching, Germany; Mar 9-10) ‘Extragalactic imaging surveys with VST and VISTA’ EUCLID Stakeholders' meeting, ESTeC (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Mar 20) APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 143 ‘Dutch contributions to EUCLID’ ESO Council (Vienna, Austria; June 3-4) OmegaCAM/VST interface meeting, ESO (Garching, Germany; June 16-17) Workshop on Astronomical Instrumentation, TU (Delft, Netherlands; July 8 ‘Instrument research in Astronomy’ Workshop on using OmegaCAM/VST Guaranteed Time Observations (Naples, Italy; July 20-21) ‘OmegaCAM Guaranteed Time plans; the KiDS survey’ ESO Committee of Council (San Pedro de Atacama, Chile; Oct 5-7) Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph Team meeting (Malta; Oct 20) EUCLID Conference, ESTeC (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Nov 17-18) ‘Groundbased imaging for the EUCLID mission’ MICADO phase A final review meeting, ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 30Dec 1) ESO Council (Garching, Germany; Dec 9-10) Kuiper Deep IR studies of the distant universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2 - 6 Talk: ‘Galaxy Populations in a protocluster at z=3.13’ Galaxy Clusters in the Early Universe (Pucon, Chile; Nov 9 – 12) Talk: ‘Growing up in the city: Galaxy populations in a z~3 protocluster’ van Langevelde Start International Year of Astronomy (Paris, France; Jan 15-16) ‘Introducing the e-VLBI demo’ Int. SKA Forum (Cape Town, South Africa; Feb 23-28) Science and Technology of Long Baseline Real-time Interferometry: The 8th International e-VLBI Workshop (Madrid, Spain; June 21-26) “The future of e-VLBI” dot-Astronomy 2009 (Leiden, the Netherlands; Nov 30-4) ‘e-VLBI: a telescope larger than Europe’ Linnartz CW 'Spectroscopy and Theory' meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; January) DPG Meeting, Special symposium 'High resolution spectroscopy' (Hamburg, Germany; Mar 2-6) ISM/CSM meetings (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 5) Clustertreffen Heraeus Stiftung (Freiburg, Germany; Oct 4-7) ISM/CSM meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 8) 8th Workshop on cavity enhanced spectroscopy (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 26) 144 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Lub Opening Ceremony International Year of Astronomy 2009 (Unesco, Paris , France; Jan 15-16) Stellar Pulsation, Challenges for Theory and Observation (Santa Fe NM, USA; May 31 - June 5) IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) Nederlandse Astronomenconferentie (NAC) (Rolduc; Netherlands; May 13 – 15) Van Lunteren Meeting of the Dutch Mass Spectrometry Society (NVMS) and the Belgium Society for Mass Spectrometry (BSMS), Rolduc (Kerkrade, Netherlands; Mar 25-26) ‘Instruments and the early-modern rise of experimental science’ KNAW symposium ‘Alexander von Humboldt in Holland (1800-1900)’ (Amsterdam, Netherlands, Apr 3) ‘Buys Ballot as a Humboldtian scientist’ History of Science Society Annual Meeting (Phoenix, USA, Nov 19-22) ‘Frederik Kaiser, popular astronomy, and the decline of natural theology’ Madigan Physics of Galactic Nuclei (Ringberg, Germany; June 15-19) ‘A new secular instability in eccentric stellar disks around supermassive black holes, with application to the Galactic Center’ ASGI Meeting (Galway, Ireland; Oct 8-9) ‘A New Instability in Eccentric Stellar Disks around Supermassive Black Holes’ Galactic Center Workshop 2009 (Shanghai, China; Oct 19-23) ‘A New Instability in the Eccentric Stellar Disk Around SgrA*’ Stars and Singularities (Rehovot, Israel; Dec 8-14) ‘Resonant relaxation and the angular momentum distribution of stars around MBHs’ Marrese GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting(Bologna, Italy; Mar 17-20) GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting (Barcelona, Spain; Dec 1-4) Martinez-Galarza MIRI Data analysis workshop (Leuven, Belgium; Jan 19-23) ‘Wavelength characterisation of the MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrmoeter’ MIRI Data analysis workshop (Madrid, Spain; June 1-5) XXVII IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) ‘Characterizing Star Formation in 30 Doradus via Mid-IR Starburst Modelling Astronomy Education and Research in Colombia’ APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 145 MIRI EC Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-10) MIRI Test team meeting (Ghent, Belgium; Dec 2-4) ‘Wavelength characterisation of the MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrmoeter’ Miley International Year of Astronomy Opening Ceremony (UNESCO) (Paris, France; Jan 15 - 16) IAU Symposium 260 - Astronomy and Culture (UNESCO) (Paris, France; Jan 15 - 16) ‘The IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the Developing World’ VTB-Pro Symposium ‘The Universe Awareness Programme for very young children’ LOFAR Survey Science Team (ROE) (Edinburgh, Scotland; June 17 - 19) ‘The LOFAR High-redshift programme’ IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 2 - 15) The IAU Strategic Plan (Science City, Tunis; June 22) The IAU Strategic Plan (IAU Special Session 2; Aug 5) The IAU Strategic Plan (IAU Special Session 4; Aug 7) Influence of Society on Astronomical Discovery (IAU Special Session 5; Aug 14) International UNAWE Workshop (Aug 9) EU-South African Collaboration in astronomy (Brussels, Belgium; Sep 24) The IAU Strategic Plan ESO Conference on distant cluster (Pucon, Chile; Nov 9 - 12) ‘Probing distant protoclusters with radio sources’ Deciphering the Universe through Spectroscopy (Potsdam, Germany; Sep 21-25) ‘Cosmogrid: Simulating the Universe across the Globe’ De Mooij 2009 Sagan Exoplanet Summer Workshop: Exoplanetary Atmospheres (Pasadena CA, USA; July 20-24) Nefs NOVA Fall School (Westerbork, Netherlands; Oct 5-9) 'Hot planets and cool stars-the hunt for M dwarf planets' RoPacS meeting (La Laguna Tenerife, Spain; Nov 17-19) 'Hot planets and cool stars-Leiden analysis and follow-up' Öberg Advancing Chemical Understanding through Astronomical Observations (Green Bank, West Virginia, U.S.A.; May 26-29) 146 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS ‘Complex processes in simple ices Ð the role of UV light’ Ödman IAU Symposium 260 (Paris, France; Jan 19 – 13) ‘Universe Awareness: Inspiring young children around the world’ 2nd International Meeting of Astronomy and Astronautics (Campos de Goytacazes, Brazil; Apr 17 – 20) ‘The Universe Awareness Programme’ JENAM - European week of Astronomy and Space Science (Hatfield, UK; Apr 20 – 23) ‘Making Universe Awareness Happen’ Building the Scientific Mind (co-organiser) (Cairo, Egypt; May 10 – 14) ‘Universe Awareness: A programme about children’ ‘Building the scientific mind in practice: Analysis of the 'Stars at your Fingertips' workshop’ IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro,Brazil; Aug 3 – 14) ‘Universe Awareness: an update (SpS2)’ ‘Universe Awareness: Innovations in Astronomy Education (SpS4)’ 4th International UNAWE Multidisciplinary Workshop (organisor) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 9 – 10) South Africa - EU International Year of Astronomy event (co-organisor) (Brussels, Belgium; Sep 24) Astronomy 2009, Lorentz Center (co-organisor) (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 30 - Dec 4 ‘Boinc 101, introduction to a citizen science platform’ Oliveira From Disks to Planets (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16 – 20) ‘Serpens as a laboratory for star and planet formation’ NAC (Rodulc, Netherlands; May 13 – 15) ‘Evolution of Young Stars and their Disks in Serpens’ ASTROCAM Summer School (El Escorial, Spain; Jun 29 - Jul 3) ‘Serpens as a laboratory for star and planet formation’ General Assembly of the IAU - Special Session 7 (Rio, Brasil; Aug 11 – 14) ‘Evolution of Young Stars and their Disks in Serpens’ From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 3 – 6) ‘Evolution of Young Stars and their Disks in Serpens’ Oonk IAU General Assembly XXVII - JD2 Diffuse Light in Galaxy Clusters (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Aug 3-14) APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 147 ‘Extended Ionized and Molecular Gas Emission in Galaxy Clusters’ IAU General Assembly XXVII - JD8 Hot Interstellar matter in Elliptical Galaxies (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Aug 3-14) ‘Extended Ionized and Molecular Gas surrounding Brightest Cluster Galaxies’ IAU General Assembly XXVII - S267 Evolution of Galaxies and Central Black Holes: Feeding and Feedback (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Aug 3-14) ‘Ionized and Molecular Gas in and around Brightest Cluster Galaxies’ Paardekooper The Cosmic Evolution of Helium and Hydrogen (Ringberg, Germany, Mar 2427) 'SimpleX: Radiative Transfer on an Unstructured, Dynamic Grid' Panič From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20) ‘Do gas and dust in discs have their story straight?’ Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (Blankenberge, Belgium; May 1820) ISM/CSM meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 5) Pelupessy Workshop on Galaxy formation (Sesto, Italy; July 13-17) Molecular gas and Star Formation in Galaxy Simulations: emergent empirical rela$AMUSE kickoff meeting and workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 5-7) ‘Science with AMUSE’ Portegies Zwart MODEST-9b (Tokyo, Japan, Sep 5-10) KNAW FOS (Beijing, China, Nov 7-10) Prod'homme CCD modelling workshop at Dutch Space (Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 19-21) Talk: ‘CTI Modelling at the CCD Pixel Level’ ELSA Mid-Term Review (Brussels, Belgium; Feb 2-3) Talk: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs - Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’ 4th Gaia Radiation Task Force (Cambridge, UK; Apr 6-7) Talk: ‘RC2 Charge Injection Profile Analysis’ Talk: ‘CDM02 Validation’ 1st EIROforum School on Instrumentation (CERN, Switzerland; May 11-15) 148 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Poster: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs, Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’ IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) Poster: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs, Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’ Poster: ‘ELSA - a Research Training Network for Gaia’ The Milky Way and the Local Group - Now and in the Gaia Era (Heidelberg, Germany; Aug 31 - Sep 4) Talk: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs - Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’ ELSA school on the techniques of Gaia (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 28 - Oct 2) Talk: ‘Euclid’ 5th Gaia Radiation Task Force (Cambridge, UK; Oct 26-27) Talk: ’Testing CDM02 on Radiation Campaigns 2 data’ Rakic The Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium (Leiden, Netherlands; May 25-29) ‘Observations of the IGM near star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2.3’ Harvesting the Desert: The Universe Between Redshift 1 and 3 (Marseille, France; June 29 - July 3) ‘Observations of the IGM near star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2.3’ Rieder MODEST-9c (Tokyo, Japan; Sep 7-14) CosmoGrid SIREN09 (Enschede, Netherlands; Nov 5-5) MPWide: a light-weight communication library SC09 (Portland OR, USA; Nov 14-20) MPWide: a light-weight communication library Risquez CCD modelling workshop at Dutch Space (Leiden, Netherlands; January 1921) Talk: ‘CCD experience from the Optical Monitoring Camera of Integral’ CU2 Metting Cycle 7 Kick-Off (Turin, Italy; April 21-24) Talk:’ Modelling Physical Effects in Gaia Attitude’ Workshop Simulation Challenges and Requirements (Bremen, Germany; June 18-19) Talk: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’ International Astronomical Union, General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) Poster: ‘ELSA - a Research Training Network for Gaia’ Poster: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’ APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 149 Congress The Milky Way and the Local Group - Now and in the Gaia Era (Heidelberg, Germany; Aug 31 - Sep 4) Talk: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’ ELSA School on the Techniques of Gaia (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep28 - Oct 2) Talk: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’ Röttgering SKADS consortium meeting (Malta; Jan 9-10) ‘SKA en ionospheric calibration’ Swedish LOFAR meeting( Stockholm, Sweden; Jan 15) ‘LOFAR key programme on extra-galactic surveys’ Deep IR studies of the distant Universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2- 6) ‘Two distinct accretion processes in radio galaxies’ Multi-field and multi-beam science with the SKA (Mar 16-17) ‘Ionospheric calibration’ Meeting LOFAR key programme ''Cosmic Magnetism'' (Cambridge, USA; Mar 25-26) ‘Progress report on LOFAR key programme on extra-galactic surveys’ Meeting LOFAR survey team (Edinburgh, UK; June 16-19) The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology & Astrophysics: Revealing the Origins of Planets and Galaxies (Oxford, UK; July 6-8) ‘SPICA and the upcoming revolution in radio astronomy’ Euclid team meeting (Bologna, Italy; Sep 20) Evolution of galaxies from mass selected samples (Nov 9-13) ‘Feedback, a few recent results’ Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 23-27 ) ‘Two distinct accretion processes in AGN: evolution up to z~1 and prospects for LOFAR’ [email protected]: The Cosmic Evolution of Helium and Hydrogen (Ringberg Castle, Germany; Mar 24-27) Invited review: ‘Metals as a probe of helium reionisation’ The Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium (Leiden, Netherlands; May 25-29) MUSE science team meeting (Lyon, France; June 3-5) Virgo collaboration meeting (Durham, U.K.; June 9-10) Harvesting the desert: The universe between redshift 1 and 3 (Marseille, France; June 30 - July 2) Invited review: ‘Metals in the IGM as a star formation tracer’ [email protected]: Filling the Cosmos with Stars (Spineto, Italy; July 6-10) 150 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Invited: ‘Star formation laws and their role in models of the formation and evolution of galaxies’ IAU General Assembly XXVII - Joint Discussion #12 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 10-11) Invited: ‘Feedback from High Redshift Star Formation’ Hunting for the Dark: The Hidden Side of Galaxy Formation (Malta; Oct 1923) ‘Insights into the formation of galaxies from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project’ Virgo collaboration meeting (Durham, U.K.; Nov 30 - Dec 1) ‘The OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project’ ELIXIR network meeting (Oxford, UK; Dec 10) Invited: ‘Feedback and self-regulation in galaxy formation’ Schleicher Annual Fall Meeting of the German Astronomical Society "Deciphering the Universe through Spectroscopy" (Potsdam, Germany; Sep 21-25) ‘Probing the center of high-redshift quasars with ALMA’ Kick-off workshop "The Formation of the First Stars" (Heidelberg, Germany; Oct 6) ‘Primordial magnetic fields: Influence on reionization and the first stars’ Schrabback AG Annual Fall Meeting - Splinter: Recent advances in cosmology, AIP (Potsdam, Germany; Sep 22-25) 3D Cosmological Weak Lensing with COSMOS CFHTLS weak lensing systematics workshop, ROE (Edinburgh, UK; Oct 1-3) ‘Summary CFHTLS PCA PSF modelling’ Observing the Dark Universe with Euclid, ESTEC (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Nov 17-18) Semboloni CFHTLS workshop (Edinburgh, UK; Oct 1-3) ‘Three-point shear statistics with the CFHTLS’ Serre Galaxies at redshift >3 with MUSE (Toulouse, France; Mar 18-19) ‘The MUSE Exposure Time Calculator’ Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel Imagers (Nice, France; Sep 23-25) ‘The Fresnel Imager: Learning from ground-based generation I prototype’ ‘The Fresnel Imager: Instrument Numerical Model’ APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 151 Snellen Pathways towards habitable planets (Barcelona, Spain; Sept 14-18) ‘Secondary eclipses in the PLATO era’ JENAM (Hatfield, UK; Apr 20-23) ‘Ground-based observations of hot_jupiter atmospheres’ ROPACS meeting (Hatfield, UK; Apr 23) ‘Transiting extrasolar planets at Leiden Observatory’ Dutch Exoplanet Meeting, UvA (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 25) ‘The changing phases of extrasolar planet CoRoT-1b’ Verwevenheid van onderzoek en onderwijs (Leiden, Netherlands; Sep 23) ‘Undergraduate research in de sterrenkunde’ ROPACS, IAC (Tenerife, Spain; Nov 17-18) Stuik XXVII General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) ‘Extreme Adpative Optics in the mid-IR: the METIS AO system’ Adaptive Optics for ELTs (Paris, France; June 22-26) ‘Extreme Adaptive Optics in the mid-IR: the METIS AO system’ Nederlands Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘Adaptive Optics in Antarctica’ Tielens JENAM, University of Hertfordshire (UK, Apr 21-23) Keynote address: The cosmic journey of dust. Life in the Universe, STScI (Baltimore, May 4-8) Herschel Science Demonstration Phase Initial Results Workshop,The promise of HIFI. Torstensson 4th ESTRELA Workshop (Bologna, Italy; Jan 19-22) ‘JCMT observations of methanol in Cepheus A’ 2nd Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (Blankenberge, Belgium; May 18-20) 5th ESTRELA Workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden; May 27-29) ‘Distribution and excitation of thermal methanol in Cepheus A’ Dutch ISM/CSM Meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 5) ‘Distribution and excitation of thermal methanol in Cepheus A’ Masers: the ultimate astrophysical tools (Bonn, Germany; Nov 11-12) ‘Methanol masers in Cepheus A’ van Uitert DUEL winter meeting (Heidelberg Germany; Jan 13-16) 152 APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Unveiling the Mass: Extracting and Interpreting Galaxy Masses (Kingston, Canada; June 14-20) Poster: Weak lensing in the RCS2 survey DUEL summer school (Paris, France; Aug 23-28) Visser Computational Astrochemistry (London, UK; Jan 6-7) ‘Chemical History of Ices in Protoplanetary Disks: Chemistry in a Dynamical Model’ Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Rolduc, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘A New CO Photodissociation Model Applied to Circumstellar Disks’ From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 36) ‘Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks’ Vlahakis [email protected]: filling the Cosmos with Stars (Spineto, Italy; July 6-10) ‘A HARP-B CO(J=3-2) map of M51: Investigating star formation processes on 600pc scales’ VII Reunion Anual de la sociedad Chilena de Astronomia (SOCHIAS) (Santiago, Chile; Jan 14-16) ‘The Sombrero galaxy’s dust ring’ Van de Voort Virgo meeting (Munich, Germany; Jan 28-29) Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15) ‘How hot and cold accretion determine the cosmic star formation rate’ The Lyman alpha universe (Paris, France; July 6-10) ‘Lighting up structure formation with Lyman-alpha’ Prospects in theoretical physics: computational astrophysics (summer school) (Princeton, NJ, USA; July 13-24) Virgo meeting (Durham, UK; Nov 30-Dec 1) ‘The growth of haloes and galaxies’ Van Weeren IAU XXVII GENERAL ASSEMBLY (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14) ‘The diffuse radio emission and magnetic field in the galaxy cluster ZwCl 2341.1+0000’ Weiss Tweede Promovendicongres Wetenschapsgeschiedenis (Kerkrade, Netherlands; Jan 22-23) ‘Geschiedenis van Teylers Museum in de 19de Eeuw’ APPENDIX VI. PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 153 Instruction, Amusement and Spectacle (Exeter, UK, Apr 16-18 Third Bi-Annual Dutch Conference in the History of Science (Woudschoten, Netherlands, June 26-27) ‘A Writer of Popular Science as Curator ? T.C. Winkler at Teylers Museum’ Das Neue Museum im Internationalen Kontext: Museale Spezialisierung und Nationalisierung ab 1830 (Berlin, Germany, Oct 22-24) Van der Werf Vatican Observatory Summer School (Sassone, Italy; June 22-24) ‘Inside the music of the spheres’ Joint European/Japanese Workshop on the SPICA Mission (Oxford, UK; July 6-8) ‘Cooling lines as probes of the formation and buildup of galaxies and black holes’ General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 7-14) ‘Probing the warm and dense molecular gas in (U)LIRGs’ Herschel Science Demonstration Program Workshop (Madrid, Spain; Dec 1718) ‘First results from the Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey’ Yildiz 2009 EARA Workshop; “From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight” (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20) 64th Nederlandse Astronomie Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 1315) Poster: ‘The shocking truth about star formation as revealed by warm CO CHAMP+ Mapping’ 5th IRAM 30m Summer School, Paving the way: From Millimeter to FarInfrared Astronomy (Sierra Nevada, Spain; Sep 4-11) Project & Talk: ‘Trifid Nebula, High-Mass Star Forming Region’ WISH Team Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands ; Nov 23-27) Talk: ‘Low-Mass Star Formation as revealed by warm CO CHAMP+mapping’ Appendix VII Observing sessions abroad VII Appendix Observing sessions abroad Amiri Effelsberg Telscope (Bonn, Germany; Nov 13) JCMT (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Nov 25-29) Van Dishoeck VLT-CRIRES (Paranal, Chile; Jan 1-3) Fayolle JCMT (Hawaii, USA; June 30 - July 4) Hildebrandt ING WHT Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Oct 9-14) Isokoski James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, US, Aug 02-08) Kóspál Telescopio Carlos Sanchez, Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain; Sep 16 – 25) Kristensen APEX (San Pedro, Chile; June 16-18) IRAM-30m (Granada, Spain; July 15-18) Kuijken William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Mar 27-30) 158 APPENDIX VII. OBSERVING SESSIONS ABROAD De Mooij INT (La Palma, Spain; May 6-11) WHT (La Palma, Spain; July 3, 5 and 8) INT (La Palma, Spain; July 9-11) WHT (La Palma, Spain; Sep 5) VLT (Paranal, Chile, Oct 9) UKIRT (Hawaii, USA, Dec 15-18) Nefs Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; July 7-12) William Herschel Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; Aug 8) William Herschel Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; Oct 2) Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; Dec 24-Jan 3) Öberg IRAM 30m telescope (Pico Veleta, Spain; Feb 27 - Mar 3) Rakic Keck Observatory (Waimea, HI, USA; Mar 24-26) Palomar Observatory (CA, USA; Apr 3-5) Keck Observatory (Waimea, HI, USA; Nov 13-14) Röttgering WHT (La Palma, Spain; Apr 14-18) Schaye Keck Observatory (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Nov 13-14) Schrabback Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Oct 16-20) Snellen ESO VLT (Paranal, Chile; Aug 6-7) van Weeren 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Apr 15-19) Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (Pune, India; May 12-20) 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Oct 1-8) Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (Pune, India; Nov 9-27) APPENDIX VII. OBSERVING SESSIONS ABROAD Van der Werf Isaac Newton Telescope (La Palma, Spain; May 6-11) ESO VLT (Paranal, Chile; July 7-14) Yildiz IRAM 30m Telescope (Sierra Nevada, Spain; June 5-9) James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii; Feb 9-13) 159 Appendix VIII Working visits abroad Appendix Working visits abroad VIII Alexander Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (Cambridge, UK; Aug 16Sep 12) Amiri Bonn University (Germany; Mar) University of Michigan (USA; Aug-Nov) Baneke National Air and Space Museum (Washington DC, USA; Oct 26-30) Bast MPE, Garching (Germany; Jan 22 -Aug 29) Van Bemmel Oxford University Astrophysics Department (Oxford, UK; mar 23-27) Booth ICC (Durham; Oct 7-25) Bouwman NASA Ames (Moffett Field CA, USA; Sep 18 – Nov 14) Brandl Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium; Jan 21-23) ESO (Garching, Germany; Jan 26-27) Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium; Feb 3-5) 164 APPENDIX VIII. WORKING VISITS ABROAD ESO (Garching, Germany; Feb 9-10) Department of Astronomy, University of Leicester (UK; Apr 28-30 ATC (Edinburgh, UK; May 18-20) ESO (Garching, Germany; May 25-28) MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; June 30 - July 2) Department of Astronomy (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-10) ASTRID (Madrid, Spain; Sep 22-24) ESO (Garching, Germany; Dec 16-18) Brinchmann CAUP (Porto, Portugal; Jan 1-13) CAUP (Porto, Portugal; Mar 31 - Apr 14) LAM (Marseille, France; Nov 9-10) IAP (Paris, France; Nov 30) CAUP (Porto, Portugal; Dec 7-18) Busso Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Jan 20-23) Brown Observatoire de Paris (Paris, France; Apr 6-7) Cuppen University of Iceland (Reykjavik, Iceland; June 21-29) University College Londen (Londen, United Kingdom; 15 Sep) Deep ESO (Garching, Germany; Mar 23-26) AMOS (Leige, Belgium; Mar 31) ESO (Garching, Germany; June 07 -10) ESO (Garching, Germany; June 29 - July 03) ESO (Garching, Germany; Aug 25 -28) Winlight Optics (Marseille, France; Sep 28 -29) ESO (Garching, Germany; Oct 12 -16) ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 29 - Dec 1) ESO (Garching, Germany; Dec 7 – 11) van Dishoeck MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Jan 6-14) Sterrenkundig instituut (Leuven, Belgium; Jan 22-23) MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Feb 14-18) ALMA (Santiago/San Pedro, Chile; Mar 7-15) APPENDIX VIII. WORKING VISITS ABROAD 165 Royal Observatory Edinburgh (Edinburgh, UK; Apr 8-9) MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Apr 25-27) University of Leicester (Leicester, UK; Apr 28-29) Princeton University (Princeton, USA; May 4-15) Annual Reviews (Palo Alto, USA; May 16) MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; May 21-26) University of Illinois (Urbana, USA; June 17) California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, USA; June 18-19) MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; July 8-31) MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Aug 16-30) Danish Space Science Institute (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-9) University of Cologne (Cologne, Germany; Sep 18) MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Oct 16-19) ALMA (San Pedro, Chile; Nov 9-14) MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Dec 9-14) Fayolle Laboratoire de physique moléculaire pour l’atmosphère et l’astrophysique (LPMAA) (Paris, France; Oct 19) Laboratoire de physique moléculaire pour l’atmosphère et l’astrophysique (LPMAA) (Paris, France; Nov 3) Groves IAP (Paris, France; 8 -24 Jan) University of Crete (Heraklion, Greece; 13-27 July) University of Hertfordshire (Hatfield, UK; 8-9 Oct) Harfst ZAA (Berlin, Germany; Aug 3-14) Hildebrandt AIfA (Bonn, Germany; Jan 11-12) UBC (Vancouver, Canada; May 16-June 4) AIfA (Bonn, Germany; June 17-19) Hoekstra Institute for the Physics & Mathematics of the Universe (Tokyo, Japan; Jan 413) Canadian Institute for Advanced Research AGM (Mt Tremblant, Canada; Mar 5-7) University of Edinburgh (UK; Oct 1-3) University of Chicago (USA; Oct 22-24) 166 APPENDIX VIII. WORKING VISITS ABROAD UC Berkeley, Berkeley (US; Nov 23-25) University of Victoria (Victoria, Canada; Nov 26-Dec 4) Jaffe ESO User's Committee (Garching, Germany; Apr 27-28) MATISSE PDR Planning(Nice, France; June 02-03) MIDI Large AGN Project Planning(Bonn, Germany; Oct 16) ESO VLTI baseline strategy meeting (Garching, Germany; Oct 19) MATISSE PDR (Garching, Germany; Nov 16-19) Johansen Center for Planetary Science (Kobe, Japan; May 25-June 18) Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (Cambridge, UK; Oct 8-26) Katgert Osservatorio Astronomico (Trieste, Italy; May 20 -29) Kendrew Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (Garching, Germany; Jan 2830)) University of Texas at Austin (Austin, USA; Feb 23- Mar 13) University of Texas at Austin (Austin, USA; 21 Sep-16 Oct) CEA Saclay (Paris, France; Nov 20-23) Kospal Eotvos Lorand University (Budapest, Hungary; Jan 18 – 21) IRAM Headquarters (Grenoble, France; May 13 – 16) Konkoly Observatory (Budapest, Hungary; Jun 21 – 28) Kuiper Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Orsay, France; Feb 24 – 28) Kristensen Observatoire de Paris (Paris, France; Jan 12-16) SRON (Groningen, Netherlands; Jan 20-23) Observatoire de Paris (Paris, France; May 4) Linnartz CAMOP editorial meeting (London, UK; Apr 16) NASA Laboratory Astrophysics meeting (Washington, USA; June 19th) APPENDIX VIII. WORKING VISITS ABROAD 167 Madigan Columbia University (New York, USA; July 6-10) Miley Discussions with EC DG Research about UNAWE (Mar 18) IAU Executive Committee (IAP, Paris, France; Apr 7 - 8) Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; Apr 9 - 11) AURA Representatives meeting (Tucson, USA; Apr 23 - 24) Visit to UNAWE Tunisia (Tunis, Tunisia; June 21 -24) Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; July 30 – Aug 1) IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 2 - 15) The IAU Strategic Plan, South African Embassy (Brussels, Belgium; Aug 24) Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; Nov 15 16) Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; Dec 9 - 13) Nefs Cambridge University (Cambridge, UK; June 30) Ödman Observatoire de Meudon (Paris, France; Feb 5 – 8) Oliveira ESO (Garching, Germany; Feb 1 – 28) ESAC (Madrid, Spain; July 6 – 10) MPE (Garching, Germany; Oct 27 - Nov 2) LAOG (Grenoble, France; Dec 7 – 11) Portegies Zwart CfCA (Tokyo, Japan; Sept 10-14) KITP (Beijing, China; Nov 10-14) Prod’Homme Lund Observatory (Lund, Sweden; Mar 9-20) Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge; UK; Mar 23 - Apr 9) Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (Meudon, France; June 28 - July 5) Rakic Caltech (Pasadena, CA, USA; Mar 22 - Apr 8) Caltech (Pasadena, CA, USA; Nov 8 – 25) 168 APPENDIX VIII. WORKING VISITS ABROAD Rieder Vanderbilt University (Nashville TN, USA; Dec 12-19) Risquez Lund Observatory (Lund, Sweden; Mar 9-20) Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Apr 14-18) ZARM (Bremen, Germany; Nov 23-27) Röttgering ESO (Garching, Germany; May 25-29) ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 16-20) Oxford (UK; July 1 - Sept 1) Schaye MPA (Garching, Germany; July 17) Lyon Observatory (Lyon, France; Sep 15) Schleicher ITA (Heidelberg, Germany; Oct 5-23) MPIfR (Bonn, Germany; Oct 29-30) ITA (Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 26 - Dec 4) Schrabback AIfA, Bonn (Germany; Feb 11 -13) AIfA, Bonn (Germany; July 31) Serre ESO (Garching, Germany; Mar 11-13) CRAL (Lyon, France; July 6-8) OCA (Nice, France; July 20-24) CRAL (Lyon, France; Sep 14-15) Porquerolles Island (France; Oct 5-9) ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 4-6) LATT (Toulouse, France; Nov 18-20) LATT (Toulouse, France; Dec 14-15) Snellen Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK ; June 30) Stuik KU Leuven (Leuven, Belgium; Feb 4) APPENDIX VIII. WORKING VISITS ABROAD ESO (Garching, Germany; Mar 11-12) AMOS (Liege, Belgium; Mar 31) UK ATC, (Edinburgh, UK; May 19-20) ESO (Garching, Germany; May 16) ESO (Garching, Germany; June 30) Arcetri Observatory (Florence, Italy; July 28) Winlight (Aix-en-Provence, France; Sept 29) ESO (Garching, Germany; Dec 17-18) Tielens NASA ARC (California, USA; Jan 31-Feb 7) CEA (Paris, France; Mar 1–4) LAOG (Grenoble, France; Mar 30-Apr 3) Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University (Sweden; Apr 7-9) COST Office Brussel, Kick off meeting CM0805 (Brussel, Belgium; Apr 17) STScI (Baltimore, Md, USA; Apr 29-May 21) CESR (Toulouse, France; May 25-27) CEA & IAS (Paris, France; June 28-July 1) STScI (Baltimore, Md, USA; July 11-July 17) NASA ARC (California, USA; July 18-Aug 30) CEA (Paris, France; Sep 7-11) University of Cologne (Cologne, Germany; Sep 17-18) Osservatorio astrofysica di Catania (Italy; Oct 13-16) NASA ARC (California, USA; Oct 19-Nov 6) Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium; Dec 7) MPIfR (Bonn, Germany; Dec 14) Vermaas ESO Garching (Germany; Apr 20-May 1) Visser Denison University (Granville, OH, USA; Jan 8-25) Ohio State University (Columbus, OH, USA; Jan 26-27) University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Jan 29-30) MPE (Garching, Germany; Mar 23-27) ETH (Zurich, Switzerland; May 25-30) MPE (Garching, Germany; July 13-17) MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 16-17) Bonn University (Bonn, Germany; Nov 18-20) Vlahakis ESO Santiago (Santiago, Chile; Jan 5 - Feb 2) 169 170 APPENDIX VIII. WORKING VISITS ABROAD Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Florence, Italy; Mar 10-13) ESO Garching (Munich, Germany; Mar 24-27) ESO Garching (Munich, Germany; May 11-13) Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (Madrid, Spain; Oct 26-30) Van de Voort CRAL (Lyon, France; Nov 1-2) van der Werf Leicester University (Leicester, UK; Apr 28-29) European Southern Observatory (Garching, Germany; May 24-29) Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge, UK; June 1-3) Royal Observatory (Edinburgh, UK; June 8-10) Copenhagen University Observatory (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-9) European Southern Observatory (Garching, Germany; Nov 15-20) Joint Astronomy Center (Hilo, Hawaii, USA; Dec 6-12) ESAC (Madrid, Spain; Dec 17-18) Appendix IX Colloquia given outside Leiden Appendix Colloquia given outside Leiden IX Alexander The evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs Instituut Anton Pannekoek, Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Jan 15 The evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs Yale Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Feb17 Protoplanetary disc evolution and the formation of planets University College London, London, UK; Oct 19 Amiri The magnetic field of the evolved star W43A MPIfR, Bonn, Germany; Nov 13 Idem Joint Astronomy Center, Hilo, Hawaii, USA; Nov 24 Booth What Physics Shapes the Galaxy Population? ICC, Durham, UK; Oct 11 Understanding Galaxy Formation Simulations Physics, Leicester, UK; Jul 8 Idem IOA, Cambridge, UK; June 11 Bouwman Experimental Techniques in Laboratory Astrophysics NASA Ames, Moffett Field CA, United States; Nov 6 Idem UC Berkeley, Berkeley CA, United States; Nov 13 174 APPENDIX XI. COLLOQUIA GIVEN OUTSIDE LEIDEN Brandl Infrared Views of Starburst Clusters Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Mar 24 Idem Astronomical Institute "Anton Pannekoek", Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 7 Idem Astronomical Institute, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; June 11 Brinchmann Emission lines in the SDSS from the extreme to the mundane Kapteyn, Groningen, Netherlands; Mar 2 Wolf-Rayet stars in the local Universe, from stellar models to GRBs Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 16 June Brown Gaia - Taking the Galactic Census Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Dec 8 Cuppen Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with models and observations University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 16 Sep Idem University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 18 Sep Idem University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 17 Sep Modelling surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data and astronomical observations Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 12 Oct Idem Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 15 Oct Idem FOM Institute Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein, Netherlands; 19 Nov Deep ASSIST : the test set-up for VLT adaptive optics facility IUCAA, Pune, India; Jan 6 Idem TIFR, Mumbai, India; Jan 9 APPENDIX XI. COLLOQUIA GIVEN OUTSIDE LEIDEN van Dishoeck Star formation in our Galaxy: new insights from Spitzer MPE, Garching, Germany; Mar 5 From molecules to planets: SACIRR colloquium University of Edinburgh, UK; Apr 8 Chemistry in evolving protoplanetary disks Royal Observatory Edinburgh, UK; Apr 9 Evolving protoplanetary disks Princeton University, USA; May 5 Astrochemistry lectures: 1. Basic molecular processes; 2. Chemistry in star-forming regions; 3. Chemistry in circumstellar disks Princeton University, USA; May 6-14 Chemistry in protostellar and protoplanetary regions University of Illinois, USA; June 17 Gas in protostellar and protoplanetary regions: a VLT-CRIRES evolutionary study University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Aug 31 ALMA: a supersharp view on galaxy-, star- and planet-forming regions Groningen, Netherlands; Oct 12 Groves Controlling Parameters of the Starburst SED University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece; 14 Apr Haas Nature and Nurture in Galaxy Formation Simulations Steward Observatory, Tucson, USA; Nov 13 Idem University of California, San Diego, USA; Nov 17 Idem University of California, Irvine, USA; Nov 18 Idem Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, Cambridge, USA; Nov 24 Idem American Museum for Natural Histroy, New York, USA; Dec 1 Idem STScI, Baltimore, USA; Dec 4 Idem Stockholm Observatory, Stockholm, Sweden; Oct 13 Idem Department of Mathematical Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Belgium; Oct 2 175 176 APPENDIX XI. COLLOQUIA GIVEN OUTSIDE LEIDEN Harfst Numerical Simulations of Stellar Dynamical Problems ZAA, Berlin, Germany; Aug 7 Hildebrandt Cosmic Magnification UC Santa Barbara, USA; Dec 11 Idem UC Berkeley, USA; Dec 14 Idem Stanford University, USA; Dec 15 Hoekstra Weak lensing by large scale structure IPMU, Tokyo, Japan; Jan 7 Idem Groningen University, Groningen, Netherlands; Jan 19 Idem Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; May 19 Idem Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK; Oct 29 Idem UC Berkeley, Berkeley, USA; Nov 24 Measuring masses: from galaxy cluster down to galaxies University of Edinburgh, UK; Sep 30 Hogerheijde The molecular content of planet-forming disks Kapteyn Institute Groningen, Netherlands; Mar 9 Idem Astronomy Department, ETH Zürich, Switzerland; Oct 29 Israel Centaurus A ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Feb 5 Johansen MHD simulations of accretion discs Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; Feb 03 Formation (and growth) of planetesimals in turbulent protoplanetary discs Universität Zürich, Switzerland; Apr 22 APPENDIX XI. COLLOQUIA GIVEN OUTSIDE LEIDEN Computer simulations of accretion discs: Planet formation and large scale magnetic fields AIP Potsdam, Germany; Oct 16 Planetesimal formation in turbulent protoplanetary discs Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nov 27 Kuijken Lecture series on weak lensing and photometric redshifts Institute for Mathematical Physics, Astrophysics, Tehran, Iran; Apr 22-28 KiDS: studying dark energy end dark matter with light rays Naples University, Italy; May 26 Madigan Resonant Relaxation near Massive Black Holes Columbia University, New York, USA; July 9 Miley Probing the Early Universe with Radio Galaxies INAF Trieste, Italy; May 21 De Mooij Optical and Near-Infrared day-side emission from exoplanets IAC, La Laguna, Spain; July 7 Ödman About Universe Awareness Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, Ireland; Sep 15 Portegies Zwart AMUSE CfCA, Tokyo, Japan; Sep 10-14 Prod'homme CTI Modelling at the CCD Pixel Level Dutch Space, Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 20 Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs - Modelling to Mitigate the Threat Université Libre de Bruxelles; Feb 2 Idem Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 1 RC2 Charge Injection Profile Analysis Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK; Apr 6 177 178 APPENDIX XI. COLLOQUIA GIVEN OUTSIDE LEIDEN CDM02 Validation Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK; Apr 6 Euclid Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 28 Testing CDM02 on Radiation Campaigns 2 data Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK; Oct 26 Röttgering LOFAR: Opening up a new window on the Universe Krakow, Poland; Feb 6 Idem Sheffield, UK; Apr 1 Schaye Insights into the formation of galaxies from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; Nov 18 Schleicher Primordial magnetic fields: Influence on reionization and the first stars MPIfR, Bonn, Germany; Oct 30 Schrabback Studying the Dark Side of the Universe with Weak Gravitational Lensing IKTP, Dresden, Germany; Feb 12 Stuik Een brilletje voor je telescoop - Adaptive Optics Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; May 27 Tielens Interstellar PAHs and star formation Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University; Apr 8 idem STScI, Baltimore, Md, USA; May 13 idem Osservatorio astrofysica di Catania; Oct 15 idem Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Sep 29 First results from Herschel STScI, Baltimore, Md, USA; July 16 APPENDIX XI. COLLOQUIA GIVEN OUTSIDE LEIDEN 179 Herschel and SOFIA NASA ARC, USA; Aug 26 Visser The Chemical History of Molecules in Circumstellar Disks ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; May 29 Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 16 Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks Bonn University, Bonn, Germany; Nov 19 Vlahakis A new class of submm galaxy? Properties of very low-z sources from the CUDSS survey ESO Santiago, Santiago, Chile; Jan 26 Van Weeren Diffuse radio emission from galaxy clusters NCRA, Pune, India; Nov 26 Appendix X Scientific publications Appendix Scientific publications X X.1. Ph.D. Theses and Books B. R. Brandl; R. Stuik; J. Katgert-Merkelijn ; 400 Years Of Astronomical Telescopes: A Review Of History, Science And Technology; ISBN: 9048122325; 2009 H. T. Intema, A Sharp View of the Low-Frequency Radio Sky; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 D. Lommen, The first Steps of Planet Formation: Studying Grain Growth with Millimetre Interferometers; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 E. Micelotta, PAH Processing in Space; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 K. Öberg, Complex Processes in Simple Ices:Laboratoty and Observational Studies of Gas-Grain Interactions during Star Formation; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 O. Panic, High Angular Resolution Studies of Proto Planetary Disks; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 A. H. Pawlik , Simulating Cosmic Reionisation; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 D. Raban, Infrared Interferometric Observations in the Nuclei of Active Galaxies; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 E. N. Taylor, Ten Billion Years of Massive Galaxies; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 184 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS R. Visser, Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 N. de Vries, The Evolution of Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 A. Weijmans, The Structure of Dark and Luminous Matter in Early-Type Galaxies; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009 X.2. Publications in refereed journals K.N. Abazajian, J. K.Adelman-McCarthy; M. A. Agüeros; S. S. Allam; C. Allende Prieto; D. An; K. S. J.Anderson; S. F.Anderson; J. Annis; N. A.Bahcall; C. A. L.Bailer-Jones; J. C.Barentine; B. A.Bassett; A. C.Becker; T. C.Beers; E. F.Bell; V. Belokurov; A. A.Berlind; E. F.Berman; M. Bernardi; S. J.Bickerton; D. Bizyaev; J. P.Blakeslee; M. R.Blanton; J. J.Bochanski; W. N. Boroski; H. J.Brewington;J. Brinchmann; J. Brinkmann; R. J.Brunner; T. Budavari; L. N.Carey; S. Carliles; M. A. Carr; F. J.Castander; D. Cinabro; A. J. Connolly; I. Csabai; C. E. Cunha; P. C.Czarapata; J. R. A.Davenport; E. de Haas; B. Dilday; M. Doi; D. J.Eisenstein; M. L.Evans; N. W.Evans; X. Fan; S. D. Friedman; J. A.Frieman; M. Fukugita; B. T.Gänsicke; E. Gates; B. Gillespie; G. Gilmore; B. Gonzalez; C. F.Gonzalez; E. K. Grebel; J. E.Gunn; Z. Györy; P. B.Hall; P. Harding; F. H. Harris; M. Harvanek; S. L.Hawley; J. J. E.Hayes; T. M.Heckman; J. S.Hendry; G. S.Hennessy; R. B.Hindsley; J. Hoblitt; C. J. Hogan; D. W.Hogg; J. A.Holtzman; J. B.Hyde;S.-i.Ichikawa; T. Ichikawa; M. Im;v Z Ivezic; S. Jester; L. Jiang; J. A. Johnson; A. M.Jorgensen; M. Juric; S. M.Kent; R. Kessler; S. J.Kleinman; G. R.Knapp; K. Konishi; R. G.Kron; J. Krzesinski; N. Kuropatkin; H. Lampeitl; S. Lebedeva; M. G.Lee; Y. S.Lee; R. F.Leger; S. Lépine; N. Li; M. Lima; H. Lin; D. C.Long; C. P.Loomis; J. Loveday; R. H.Lupton; E. Magnier; O. Malanushenko; V. Malanushenko; R. Mandelbaum; B. Margon; J. P. Marriner; D. Martínez-Delgado; T. Matsubara; P. M.McGehee; T. A.McKay; A. Meiksin; H. L.Morrison; F. Mullally; J. A.Munn; T. Murphy; T. Nash; A. Nebot; E. H.Neilsen; H. J.Newberg; P. R. Newman; R. C.Nichol; T. Nicinski; M. Nieto-Santisteban; A. Nitta; S. Okamura; D. J.Oravetz; J. P.Ostriker; R. Owen; N. Padmanabhan; K. Pan; C. Park; G. Pauls; J. Peoples; W. J.Percival; J. R. Pier; A. C.PAPe; D. Pourbaix; P. A.Price; N. Purger; T. Quinn; M. J.Raddick; P. R.Fiorentin; G. T.Richards; M. W.Richmond; A. G. Riess;H.-W.Rix; C. M.Rockosi; M. Sako; D. J.Schlegel; D. P. Schneider;R.-D.Scholz; M. R.Schreiber; A. D.Schwope; U. Seljak; B. Sesar; E. Sheldon; K. Shimasaku; V. C.Sibley; A. E. Simmons; T. Sivarani; J. A.Smith; M. C.Smith; V. Smolv cic; S. A.Snedden; A. Stebbins; M. Steinmetz; C. APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 185 Stoughton; M. A.Strauss; M. Subba Rao; Y. Suto; A. S.Szalay; I. Szapudi; P. Szkody; M. Tanaka; M. Tegmark; L. F. A.Teodoro; A. R.Thakar; C. A.Tremonti; D. L.Tucker; A. Uomoto; D. E.Vanden Berk; J. Vandenberg; S. Vidrih; M. S.Vogeley; W. Voges; N. P.Vogt; Y. Wadadekar; S. Watters; D. H.Weinberg; A. A.West; S. D. M. White; B. C.Wilhite; A. C.Wonders; B. Yanny; D. R.Yocum; D. G. York; I. Zehavi; S. Zibetti; and D. B.Zucker, The Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, ApJS, 2009, 182, 543 A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; M. Axelsson; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A.W. Borgland; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; E. Cavazzuti; C. Cecchi; O. Celik; A. Celotti; A. Chekhtman; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; W. Collmar; J. Conrad; L. Costamante; S. Cutini; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; E. D. C. e. Silva; P. S. Drell; D. Dumora; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; P. Fortin; L. Foschini; M. Frailis; L. Fuhrmann; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; M. Giroletti; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; Y. Hanabata; E. Hays; R. E. Hughes; M. S. Jackson; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; M. Kadler; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. L. Kocian; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; W. Max-Moerbeck; M. N. Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; S. McGlynn; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson;W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; I. Nestoras; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; D. Paneque; D. Parent; V. Pavlidou; V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando; M. Razzano; A. Readhead; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; J. L. Richards; A. Y. Rodriguez; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; J. D. Scargle; C. Sgrò; M. S. Shaw; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; G. Tagliaferri; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; O. Tibolla; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; Y. Uchiyama; T. L. Usher; V. Vasileiou; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; A. E. Wehrle; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; J. A. Zensus; M. Ziegler; The Fermi/LAT Collaboration; E. Angelakis; C. Bailyn; H. Bignall; J. Blanchard; E. W. Bonning; M. Buxton; R. Canterna; A. Carraminana; L. Carrasco; F. Colomer; A. Doi; G. Ghisellini; M. Hauser; X. Hong; J. Isler; M. Kino; Y. Y. Kovalev; Y. A. Kovalev; T. P. Krichbaum; A. Kutyrev; A. Lahteenmaki; H. J. van Langevelde; M. L. Lister; D. Macomb; L. Maraschi; N. Marchili; H. Nagai; Z. Paragi; C. Phillips; A. B. Pushkarev; E. Recillas; P. Roming; M. Sekido; M. A. Stark; A. Szomoru; J. Tammi; F. Tavecchio; 186 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS M. Tornikoski; A. K. Tzioumis; C. M. Urry; and S. Wagner, Multiwavelength Monitoring of the Enigmatic Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PMN J0948+0022 in 2009 March-July, ApJ, 2009, 707,727 P. Abraham, A. Juhàsz; C. P.Dullemond; Á. Kóspál; R. van Boekel; J. Bouwman; T. Henning; A. Móor; L. Mosoni; A. Sicilia-Aguilar; and N. Sipos;, Episodic formation of cometary material in the outburst of a young Sun-like star, Natur, 2009, 459, 224 S. Albrecht, S. Reffert;I.A.G. Snellen; and J. N.Winn, Misaligned spin and orbital axes cause the anomalous precession of DI Herculis, Natur, 2009, 461, 373 R.D. Alexander, P. J.Armitage, Giant Planet Migration, Disk Evolution and the Origin of Transitional Disks, ApJ, 2009, 704, 989 T. Alexander, C. Hopman, Strong Mass Segregation Around a Massive Black Hole, ApJ, 2009, 697, 1861 R.J. Allison, S. P.Goodwin; R. J.Parker; R. de Grijs; S. F. Portegies Zwart; and M. B. N.Kouwenhoven, Dynamical Mass Segregation on a Very Short Timescale, ApJL, 2009, 700, 99 A. Alonso-Herrero, G. H.Rieke; L. Colina; M. Pereira-Santaella; M. GarcíaMarín;J.-D. T.Smith; B.R.Brandl; V. Charmandaris; and L. Armus; The Extreme Star Formation Activity of Arp 299 Revealed by Spitzer IRS Spectral Mapping, ApJ, 2009, 697, 660 M. Andersen, H. Zinnecker; A. Moneti; M. J. McCaughrean; B.R.Brandl; W. Brandner; G. Meylan; and D. Hunter, The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the 30 Doradus Starburst Cluster, ApJ, 2009, 707, 1347 M.L.N. Ashby, D. Stern; M. Brodwin; R. Griffith; P. Eisenhardt; S. Kozlowski; C. S.Kochanek; J. J.Bock; C. Borys; K. Brand; M. J. I.Brown; R. Cool; A. Cooray; S. Croft; A. Dey; D. Eisenstein; A. H.Gonzalez; V. Gorjian; N. A.Grogin; R. J. Ivison; J. Jacob; B. T.Jannuzi; A. Mainzer; L. A.Moustakas; H. J. A. Röttgering; N. Seymour; H. A.Smith; S. A. Stanford; J. R.Stauffer; I. Sullivan; and E. L.Wright , The Spitzer Deep, Wide-field Survey, ApJ, 2009, 701, 428 P. von Ballmoos, B.R.Brandl; and R. Khanna, 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes, Experimental Astronomy, 2009, 25, 1 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 187 N. Barriere, J. Rousselle; P. von Ballmoos; N. V. Abrosimov; P. Courtois; P. Bastie; T. Camus; M. Jentschel; V. N. Kurlov; N. Vladimir; L. Natalucci; G. Roudil; N. F.Brejnholt; D. Serre, Experimental and theoretical study of the diffraction properties of various crystals for the realization of a soft gamma-ray Laue lens, Journal of Applied Crystallography, 2009, 42, 834 A. Bartkiewicz, M. Szymczak; H. J. van Langevelde; A. M. S. Richards; and Y. M.Pihlström, The diversity of methanol maser morphologies from VLBI observations, A&A, 2009, 502, 155 H. Bartko, F. Martins; T. K.Fritz; R. Genzel; Y. Levin; H. B.Perets; T. Paumard; S. Nayakshin; O. Gerhard; T. Alexander; K. Dodds-Eden; F. Eisenhauer; S. Gillessen; L. Mascetti; T. Ott; G. Perrin; O. Pfuhl; M. J.Reid; D. Rouan; A. Sternberg; and S. Trippe, Evidence for Warped Disks of Young Stars in the Galactic Center, ApJ, 2009, 697, 1741 P. Beirao, P. N.Appleton; B.R.Brandl; M. Seibert; T. Jarrett; and J. R.Houck, Powerful H2 Emission and Star Formation on the Interacting Galaxy System Arp 143: Observations with Spitzer and Galex, ApJ, 2009, 693, 1650 B. Benthem, Y. Levin, ThermoPGractive and thermochemical noise in the beamsplitter of the GEO600 gravitational-wave interferometer, prd , 2009, 80, 2004 G. Bernardi, A. G.de Bruyn; M. A.Brentjens; B. Ciardi; G. Harker; V. Jelic; L. V. E.Koopmans; P. Labropoulos; A. Offringa; V. N. Pandey;J. Schaye; R. M.Thomas; S. Yatawatta; and S. Zaroubi, Foregrounds for observations of the cosmological 21 cm line. I. First Westerbork measurements of Galactic emission at 150 MHz in a low latitude field, A&A, 2009, 500, 965 J. Bernard-Salas, H. W. W.Spoon; V. Charmandaris; V. Lebouteiller; D. Farrah; D. Devost; B.R.Brandl; Y. Wu; L. Armus; L. Hao; G. C.Sloan; D. Weedman; and J. R.Houck, A Spitzer High-resolution Mid-Infrared Spectral Atlas of Starburst Galaxies, ApJS, 2009, 184, 230 R. Bezanson, P. G.van Dokkum; T. Tal; D. Marchesini; M. Kriek; M. Franx; and P. 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A.Boogert, The nature of the Class I PAPulation in Ophiuchus as revealed through gas and dust mapping, A&A, 2009, 498, 167 U Keshet, C. Hopman; and T. Alexander;, Analytic Study of Mass Segregation Around a Massive Black Hole, ApJL, 2009, 698, 64 H-R Kloeckner, A. Martínez-Sansigre; S. Rawlings; and M. A. Garrett, Highredshift obscured quasars: radio emission at sub-kiloparsec scales, MNRAS, 2009, 398, 176 C Knez, J. H.Lacy; N. J.Evans; E. F. van Dishoeck; and M. J.Richter;, HighResolution Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of NGC 7538 IRS 1: Probing Chemistry in a Massive Young Stellar Object, ApJ, 2009, 696, 471 L Koechlin, D. Serre; and P. Deba;, The Fresnel interferometric imager, ApSS, 2009, 320, 225 L Koechlin, D. Serre; P. Deba; R. Pello; C. Peillon; P. Duchon; A. I. G. de Castro; M. Karovska; J. M. Desert; D. Ehrenreich; G. Hebrard; A. L. Des Etangs; R. Ferlet; 196 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS D. Sing; A. 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Grupe, XMMNewton Observations of SDSS J143030.22 - 001115.1: An Unusually FlatSpectrum Active Galactic Nucleus, AJ, 2009, 138, 1655 M. Messineo, B. Davies; V. D.Ivanov; D. F.Figer; F. Schuller; H. J. Habing; K. M.Menten; and M. G.Petr-Gotzens, Near-Infrared Spectra of Galactic Stellar Clusters Detected on Spitzer/GLIMPSE Images, ApJ, 2009, 697, 701 198 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS E. R. Micelotta, B.R.Brandl; and F. P. Israel;, Spitzer observations of the N157B supernova remnant and its surroundings, A&A, 2009, 500, 807 E.J.W. de Mooij, I.A.G. Snellen, Ground-based K-band detection of thermal emission from the exoplanet TrES-3b, A&A, 2009, 493, 35 A. Moor, D. Apai; I. Pascucci; P. Ábrahám; C. Grady; T. Henning; A. Juhász; C. Kiss; and Á. Kóspál; The Discovery of New Warm Debris Disks Around F-type Stars, ApJL, 2009, 700, 25 A. Muzzin, G. Wilson; H. K. C.Yee; H. Hoekstra; D. Gilbank; J. Surace; M. Lacy; K. Blindert; S. Majumdar; R. Demarco; J. P.Gardner; M. Gladders; and C. Lonsdale; Spectroscopic Confirmation of Two Massive Red-Sequence-Selected Galaxy Clusters at z ~ 1.2 in the SpARCS-North Cluster Survey, ApJ, 2009, 698, 1934 A. Muzzin, D. Marchesini; P. G.van Dokkum; I. Labbé; M. Kriek; and M. Franx, A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of K-Selected Galaxies at z~2.3: Comparison of Stellar PAPulation Synthesis Codes and Constraints from the Rest-Frame NIR, ApJ, 2009, 701, 1839 A. Muzzin, P. van Dokkum; M. Franx; D. Marchesini; M. Kriek; and I. Labbé, How Massive are Massive Compact Galaxies?, ApJL, 2009, 706, 188 R. Nakajima, G. M.Bernstein; R. Fadely; C. R.Keeton; and T. Schrabback;, Improved Constraints on the Gravitational Lens Q0957+561. I. Weak Lensing, ApJ, 2009, 697, 1793 K. I. Öberg, E. C. Fayolle; H. M. Cuppen;E. F. van Dishoeck; and H. Linnartz; Quantification of segregation dynamics in ice mixtures, A&A, 2009, 505, 183 K. I. Öberg, S. Bottinelli; and E. 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Marengo, Ice Chemistry in Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud, ApJ, 2009, 707, 1269 J. Olofsson, J.-C. Augereau; E. F. van Dishoeck; B. Merín; F. Lahuis; J. KesslerSilacci; C. P. Dullemond; I. Oliveira; G. A. Blake; A. C. A. Boogert; J. M. Brown; N. J. Evans; II; V. Geers; C. Knez; J.-L. Monin; and K. Pontoppidan, C2D SpitzerIRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars. IV. Crystalline silicates, A&A, 2009, 507, 327 C.W. Ormel, D. Paszun; C. Dominik; and A. G. G. M.Tielens, Dust coagulation and fragmentation in molecular clouds. I. How collisions between dust aggregates alter the dust size distribution, A&A, 2009, 502, 845 R. A. Overzier, X. Shu; W. Zheng; A. Rettura; A. Zirm; R. J. Bouwens; H. Ford; G. D.Illingworth;G. K. Miley; B. Venemans; and R. L.White; Stellar Masses of Lyman Break Galaxies, Lyα Emitters, and Radio Galaxies in Overdense Regions at z = 4-6, ApJ, 2009, 704, 548 O. Panic, M.R. Hogerheijde; D. Wilner; and C. 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Silk, Evidence for recent star formation in BCGs: a correspondence between blue cores and UV excess, MNRAS, 2009, 395, 462 S. F. Portegies Zwart , The Lost Siblings of the Sun, ApJL, 2009, 696, 13 D. Raban, W. Jaffe; H. J. A. Röttgering; K. Meisenheimer; and K. R. W.Tristram;, Resolving the obscuring torus in NGC 1068 with the power of infrared interferometry: revealing the inner funnel of dust, MNRAS, 2009, 394, 1325 H. Rampadarath, M. A. Garrett; and A. Polatidis;, Observations of 44 extragalactic radio sources with the VLBA at 92 cm. A list of potential calibrators and targets for LOFAR and RadioAstron, A&A, 2009, 500, 1327 C. Ruhland, E. F.Bell; B. Häussler; E. N. Taylor; M. Barden; and D. H.McIntosh, The Evolution of the Scatter of the Cosmic Average ColorMagnitude Relation: Demonstrating Consistency with the Ongoing Formation of Elliptical Galaxies, ApJ, 2009, 695, 1058 L. V. Sales, J. F.Navarro; J. Schaye; C. Dalla Vecchia; V. Springel; M. R. Haas; and A. Helmi;, The origin of extended disc galaxies at z = 2, MNRAS, 2009, 399, 64 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 201 D. M. Salter, D. Heisselmann;G. Chaparro; , A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures, Review of Scientific Instruments, 2009, 80, 74501 D. H. F. M. Schnitzeler, P. Katgert; and A. G.de Bruyn, WSRT Faraday tomography of the Galactic ISM at λ ~ 0.86 m. I. The GEMINI data set at (l, b) = (181°, 20°), A&A, 2009, 494, 611 M. Scodeggio, D. Vergani; O. Cucciati; A. Iovino; P. Franzetti; B. Garilli; F. Lamareille; M. Bolzonella; L. Pozzetti; U. Abbas; C. Marinoni; T. Contini; D. Bottini; V. Le Brun; O. Le Fèvre; D. Maccagni; R. Scaramella; L. Tresse; G. Vettolani; A. Zanichelli; C. Adami; S. Arnouts; S. Bardelli; A. Cappi; S. Charlot; P. Ciliegi; S. Foucaud; I. Gavignaud; L. Guzzo; O. Ilbert; H. J. McCracken; B. Marano; A. Mazure; B. Meneux; R. Merighi; S. Paltani; R. Pellò; A. Pollo; M. Radovich; G. Zamorani; E. 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Holt, Discovery of Strongly Blueshifted Mid-Infrared [Ne III] and [Ne V] Emission in ULIRGs, ApJL, 2009, 702, 42 G. Surcis, W. H. T. Vlemmings; R. Dodson; and H. J. van Langevelde, Methanol masers probing the ordered magnetic field of W75N, A&A, 2009, 506, 757 E. N. Taylor, M. Franx; P. G.van Dokkum; E. F. Bell; G. B.Brammer; G. Rudnick; S. Wuyts; E. Gawiser; P. Lira; C. M.Urry; and H.-W.Rix;, The Rise of Massive Red Galaxies: The Color-Magnitude and Color-Stellar Mass Diagrams for z phot ≤ 2 from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile, ApJ, 2009, 694, 1171 E. N. Taylor, M. Franx; P. G.van Dokkum; R. F. Quadri; E. Gawiser; E. F.Bell; L. F.Barrientos; G. A. Blanc; F. J.Castander; M. Damen; V. Gonzalez-Perez; P. B.Hall; D. Herrera; H. Hildebrandt; M. Kriek; I. Labbe; P. Lira; J. Maza; G. Rudnick; E. Treister; C. M. Urry; J. P.Willis; and S. Wuyts;A Public; K-Selected;, Optical-to-Near-Infrared Catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South APPENDIX X. 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Gil de Paz; S. Pedraz; and U. Yildiz, Kinematic Properties as Probes of the Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, ApJL, 2009, 707, 17 S. Toonen, C. Hopman; and M. Freitag;, The gravitational wave background from star-massive black hole fly-bys, MNRAS, 2009, 398, 1228 T. Travouillon, L. Jolissaint; M. C. B.Ashley; J. S. Lawrence; and J. W. V.Storey;, Overcoming the Boundary Layer Turbulence at Dome C: Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics versus Tower, PASP, 2009, 121, 668 E .Treister, S. Virani; E. Gawiser; C. M.Urry; P. Lira; H. Francke; G. A.Blanc; C. N.Cardamone; M. Damen; E. N. Taylor; and K. Schawinski, Optical Spectroscopy of X-Ray Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, ApJ, 2009, 693, 1713 E Treister, C. N. Cardamone; K. Schawinski; C. M. Urry; E. Gawiser; S. Virani; P. Lira; J. Kartaltepe; M. Damen; E. N. Taylor; E. Le Floch; S. Justham; and A. M. Koekemoer, Heavily Obscured AGN in Star-Forming Galaxies at z < 2, ApJ, 2009, 706, 535 GR Tremblay, M. Chiaberge; W. B.Sparks; S. A.Baum; M. G.Allen; D. J.Axon; A. Capetti; D. J. E.Floyd; F. D.Macchetto; G. K. Miley; J. Noel-Storr; C. P.O'Dea; 204 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS E. S.Perlman; and A. C.Quillen, HST/ACS Emission Line Imaging of Lowredshift 3CR Radio Galaxies. I. The Data, ApJS, 2009, 183, 278 KRW Tristram, D. Raban; K. Meisenheimer;W. Jaffe; H. J. A. Röttgering; L. Burtscher; W. D.Cotton; U. Graser; T. Henning; C. Leinert; B. Lopez; S. Morel; G. Perrin; and M. Wittkowski, Parsec-scale dust distributions in Seyfert galaxies. Results of the MIDI AGN snapshot survey, A&A, 2009, 502, 67 T. A. van Van Kempen, E. F. van Dishoeck; R. Gusten; L. E. Kristensen; P. Schilke; M.R. Hogerheijde; W. Boland; K. M. Menten; and F. Wyrowski, APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. II. Distribution and origin of warm molecular gas, A&A, 2009, 507, 1425 T. A. van Van Kempen, E. F. van Dishoeck; M.R. Hogerheijde; and R. Gusten, Dense and warm molecular gas in the envelopes and outflows of southern lowmass protostars, A&A, 2009, 508, 259 R. J. van Weeren, H. T. Intema; J. B. R. Oonk; H. J. A. Röttgering; and T. E. Clarke, The discovery of diffuse steep spectrum sources in Abell 2256, A&A, 2009, 508, 1269 R. J. van Weeren, H. J. A. Röttgering; J. Bagchi; S. Raychaudhury; H. T. Intema; F. Miniati; T. A. Enßlin; M. Markevitch; and T. Erben, Radio observations of ZwCl 2341.1+0000: a double radio relic cluster, A&A, 2009, 506, 1083 R. J. van Weeren, H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Brüggen; and A. Cohen, A search for steep spectrum radio relics and halos with the GMRT, A&A, 2009, 508, 75 R. J. van Weeren, H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Brüggen; and A. Cohen, Diffuse radio emission in the merging cluster MACS J0717.5+3745: the discovery of the most powerful radio halo, A&A, 2009, 505, 991 R. J. van Weeren, C. Brinch; and M. R. Hogerheijde;, Modeling the chemical evolution of a collapsing prestellar core in two spatial dimensions, A&A, 2009, 497, 773 E. Vesperini, S. L. W.McMillan; and S. F. Portegies Zwart;, Effects of Primordial Mass Segregation on the Dynamical Evolution of Star Clusters, ApJ, 2009, 698, 615 R. Visser, E. F. van Dishoeck; and J. H.Black;, The photodissociation and chemistry of CO isotopologues: applications to interstellar clouds and circumstellar disks, A&A, 2009, 503, 323 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 205 R. Visser, E. F. van Dishoeck; S. D.Doty; and C. P.Dullemond, The chemical history of molecules in circumstellar disks. I. Ices, A&A, 2009, 495, 881 N. de Vries, I.A.G. Snellen;R. T. Schilizzi;K.-H.Mack; and C. R.Kaiser;, VLBI observations of the CORALZ sample: young radio sources at low redshift, A&A, 2009, 498, 641 N. de Vries, I.A.G. Snellen;R. T. Schilizzi; andK.-H.Mack, Further evidence for synchrotron self-absorption from the CORALZ sample of young radio-loud AGN, AN, 2009, 330, 214 A.-M. Weijmans, M. Cappellari; R. Bacon;P. T. de Zeeuw; E. Emsellem; J. Falcon-Barroso; H. Kuntschner; R. M. McDermid;R. C. E. van den Bosch; and G. van de Ven, Stellar velocity profiles and line strengths out to four effective radii in the early-type galaxies NGC3379 and 821, MNRAS, 2009, 398, 561 A. Weiß, A. Kovacs; K. Coppin; T. R. Greve; F. Walter; I. Smail; J. S. Dunlop; K. K. Knudsen; D. M. Alexander; F. Bertoldi; W. N. Brandt; S. C. Chapman; P. Cox; H. Dannerbauer; C. De Breuck; E. Gawiser; R. J. Ivison; D. Lutz; K. M. Menten; A. M. Koekemoer; E. Kreysa; P. Kurczynski; H.-W. Rix; E. Schinnerer; and P. P. van der Werf, The Large Apex Bolometer Camera Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, ApJ, 2009, 707, 1201 R. P. C. Wiersma, J. Schaye; T. Theuns; C. Dalla Vecchia; and L. Tornatore;Chemical enrichment in cosmological, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, MNRAS, 2009, 399, 574 R. P. C. Wiersma, J. Schaye; and B. D.Smith; The effect of photoionization on the cooling rates of enriched, astrophysical plasmas, MNRAS, 2009, 393, 99 W. Wild, N. S.Kardashev; S. F.Likhachev; N. G.Babakin; V. Y. Arkhipov; I. S.Vinogradov; V. V.Andreyanov; S. D.Fedorchuk; N. V. Myshonkova; Y. A.Alexsandrov; I. D.Novokov; G. N.Goltsman; A. M. Cherepaschuk; B. M.Shustov; A. N.Vystavkin; V. P.Koshelets; V. F. Vdovin; T. de Graauw; F. Helmich; F. Vd Tak; R. Shipman; A. Baryshev; J. R.Gao; P. Khosropanah; P. Roelfsema; P. Barthel; M. Spaans; M. Mendez; T. Klapwijk;F.P. Israel; M.R.Hogerheijde; P. van der Werf; J. Cernicharo; J. Martin-Pintado; P. Planesas; J. D.Gallego; G. Beaudin; J. M. Krieg; M. Gerin; L. Pagani; P. Saraceno; A. M.di Giorgio; R. Cerulli; R. Orfei; L. Spinoglio; L. Piazzo; R. Liseau; V. Belitsky; S. Cherednichenko; A. Poglitsch; W. Raab; R. Guesten; B. Klein; J. Stutzki; N. Honingh; A. Benz; A. Murphy; N. Trappe; and A. Räisänen;, 206 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS Millimetron -- a large Russian-European submillimeter space observatory, ExA, 2009, 23, 221 R.J. Williams, R. F. Quadri;M. Franx; P. van Dokkum; and I. Labbé;, Detection of Quiescent Galaxies in a Bicolor Sequence from Z = 0-2, ApJ, 2009, 691, 1879 G. Wilson, A. Muzzin; H. K. C.Yee; M. Lacy; J. Surace; D. Gilbank; K. Blindert; H. Hoekstra; S. Majumdar; R. Demarco; J. P. Gardner; M. D.Gladders; and C. Lonsdale;, Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Massive Red-Sequence-Selected Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.34 in the SpARCS-South Cluster Survey, ApJ, 2009, 698, 1943 C. D. Wilson, B. E.Warren; F. P. Israel; S. Serjeant; G. Bendo; E. Brinks; D. Clements; S. Courteau; J. Irwin; J. H. Knapen; J. Leech; H. E.Matthews; S. Mühle; A. M. J.Mortier; G. Petitpas; E. Sinukoff; K. Spekkens; B. K.Tan; R. P. J.Tilanus; A. Usero; P. van der Werf; T. Wiegert; and M. Zhu;, The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. I. Star-Forming Molecular Gas in Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies, ApJ, 2009, 693, 1736 J. N. Winn, J. A. Johnson; S. Albrecht; A. W.Howard; G. W. Marcy; I. J.Crossfield; and M. J.Holman;, HAT-P-7: A Retrograde or Polar Orbit, and a Third Body, ApJ, 2009, 703, 99 A. Winnberg, S. Deguchi; M. J.Reid; J. Nakashima; H. Olofsson; and H. J. Habing, CO in OH/IR stars close to the Galactic centre, A&A, 2009, 497, 177 P. Woitke, W.-F.Thi; I. Kamp; and M.R. Hogerheijde, Hot and cool water in Herbig Ae protoplanetary disks. A challenge for Herschel, A&A, 2009, 501, 5 S. Wuyts, M. Franx; T. J.Cox; N. M.Förster Schreiber; C. C.Hayward; L. Hernquist; P. F.Hopkins; I. Labbe; D. Marchesini; B. E.Robertson; S. Toft; and P. G.van Dokkum; Color Distributions, Number, and Mass Densities of Massive Galaxies at 1.5 < z < 3: Comparing Observations with Merger Simulations, ApJ, 2009, 700, 799 S. Wuyts, M. Franx; T. J.Cox; L. Hernquist; P. F.Hopkins; B. E.Robertson; and P. G.van Dokkum;, Recovering Stellar PAPulation Properties and Redshifts from Broadband Photometry of Simulated Galaxies: Lessons for SED Modeling, ApJ, 2009, 696, 348 S. Wuyts, P. G. van Dokkum;M. Franx; N. M. F?orster Schreiber; G. D. Illingworth; I. Labb?e; and G. Rudnick, Optical Spectroscopy of Distant Red Galaxies, ApJ, 2009, 706, 885 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 207 J. R. Zaurin, J. Holt; C. N. Tadhunter; and R. M. González Delgado, Gas kinematics in the halo of the warm ULIRG PKS1345+12, A. Space Sci., 2009, 324, 225 P. T. de Zeeuw, Perspectives and challenges for future telescopes, Experimental Astronomy , 2009, 26, 201 X.3. Publications in non-refereed journals and conference articles S. Albrecht, I. A. G. Snellen; E. de Mooij; and R. Le Poole, Ground-based detections of sodium in HD 209458b's atmosphere in two data sets, IAU Symposium 253 , 2009, 520 N. Amiri, W.Vlemmings; and H. J. van Langevelde;, The magnetic field of the evolved star W43A, IAU Symposium 259 , 2009, 109 E. Arzoumanian, C. Romanzin; M. C.Gazeau; E. T. E.Sebbar; A. Jolly; S. Perrier; and Y. Benilan;, Contributions to the Development of the S.E.T.U.P., Experimental and Theoretical Simulations Useful for Planetology) Project, AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstract, 2009, 41, 3001 M. Ashby, D. Stern; M. Brodwin; R. Griffith; P. Eisenhardt; S. Kozlowski; C. S.Kochanek; J. Bock; C. Borys; K. Brand; M. J. I. Brown; R. Cool; A. Cooray; S. Croft; A. Dey; D. Eisenstein; A. Gonzalez; V. Gorjian; N. Grogin; R. Ivison; J. Jacob; B. Jannuzi; A. Mainzer; L. Moustakas; H. J. A. Röttgering; N. Seymour; H. Smith; A. Stanford; J. R.Stauffer; I. Sullivan; W. van Breugel; E. L.Wright; and S. P.Willner;, The Spitzer Deep; Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS), American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts , 2009, 41, 670 O. Berné, C. Joblin; G. Mulas; A. G. G. M.Tielens; and J. R. Goicoechea, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with SPICA, SPICA joint European/Japanese Workshop, 2009, S. Chi, M. A. Garrett; and P. D.Barthel;, SB and AGNs in the HDF-N and HFF: Deep; Global VLBI Observations, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series , 2009, 408, 242 S. P. Driver, P. Norberg; I. K.Baldry; S. P.Bamford; A. M.Hopkins; J. Liske; J. Loveday; J. A.Peacock; D. T.Hill; L. S.Kelvin; A. S. G.Robotham; N. J. G.Cross; H. R.Parkinson; M. Prescott; C. J.Conselice; L. Dunne; S. Brough; H. Jones; R. 208 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS G.Sharp; E. van Kampen; S. Oliver; I. G.Roseboom; J. Bland-Hawthorn; S. M. Croom; S. Ellis; E. Cameron; S. Cole; C. S.Frenk; W. J.Couch; W. G.Alister; R. Proctor; R. De Propris; I. F.Doyle; E. M. Edmondson; R. C.Nichol; D. Thomas; S. A.Eales; M. J.Jarvis; K. Kuijken; O. Lahav; B. F.Madore; M. Seibert; M. J.Meyer; L. Staveley-Smith; S. Phillipps; C. C. Papescu; A. E.Sansom; W. J. Sutherland; R. J.Tuffs; and S. J.Warren, GAMA: towards a physical understanding of galaxy formation, Astronomy and Geophysics , 2009, 50, 12 D. J. E. Floyd, D. Axon; S. Baum; A. Capetti; M. Chiaberge; D. Macchetto; J. Madrid; G. K. Miley; C. P. O'Dea; E. Perlman; A. Quillen; W. Sparks; and G. Tremblay;, HST survey of 3CR radio source counterparts. II. (Floyd+2008), VizieR Online Data Catalog: J/ApJS/177/148. , 2009, , H.Francke, E. Gawiser; P. Lira; E. Treister; S. Virani; C. Cardamone; C. M.Urry; P. van Dokkum; and R. Quadri; Clustering of Intermediate Luminosity X-ray selected AGN at z ~ 3, Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica Conference Series , 2009, 35, 221 E. J. de Geus, P. T. de Zeeuw; and J. Lub;, Short Title (De Geus+; 1989), VizieR Online Data Catalog: J/A+A/216/44. , 2009 K.D. Gordon, M. Meixner; R. D.Blum; W. Reach; B. A.Whitney; J. Harris; R. Indebetouw; A. D.Bolatto;J.-P.Bernard; M. Sewilo; B. L.Babler; M. Block; C. Bot; S. Bracker; L. Carlson; E. Churchwell; G. C.Clayton; M. Cohen; C. W. Engelbracht; Y. Fukui; V. Gorjian; S. Hony; J. L.Hora; F.P. Israel; A. Kawamura; A. K.Leroy; A. Li; S. Madden; A. R. Marble; F. Markwick-Kemper; M. Meade; K. A.Misselt; A. Mizuno; N. Mizuno; E. Muller; J. M.Oliveira; K. Olsen; T. Onishi; R. Paladini; D. Paradis; S. Points; T. Robitaille; D. Rubin; K. M. Sandstrom; S. Sato; H. Shibai; J. D.Simon; L. J.Smith; S. Srinivasan;A. G. G. M.Tielens; U. P.Vijh; S. van Dyk; J. T.van Loon; K. Volk; and D. Zaritsky;, Early results from the SAGE-SMC Spitzer legacy, IAU Symposium 256 , 2009, 184 A. Johansen, The role of magnetic fields for planetary formation, IAU Symposium 259 , 2009, 249 M. Krok, A. Mahdavi; H. Hoekstra; A. Babul; J. Sievers; and J. Henry, Joint Multiwavelength Constraints on Cluster Dark Matter Profiles from the JACO Collaboration, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts 41 , 2009,214415.03 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 209 J. M. D. Kruijssen, Models for dynamically dissolving star clusters (Kruijssen+,2009), VizieR Online Data Catalog: J/A+A/507/1409., 2009, , D. Marchesini, P. van Dokkum; N. M.Förster Schreiber; M. Franx; I. Labbe; and S. Wuyts, The Evolution Of The Stellar Mass Function Of Galaxies From Z=4 And The First Comprehensive Analysis Of Its Uncertainties: Evidence For Mass-dependent Evolution, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society , 2009, 41, 213302.02 C. Martin-Zaïdi, J.-C. Augereau; F. Ménard; E. F. van Dishoeck; E. Habart; P.O. Lagage; E. Pantin; and J. Olofsson, Searching for molecular hydrogen midinfrared emission in the circumstellar environments of Herbig stars, SF2A-2009: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2009, , 293 B. Merin, J. Jorgensen; L. Spezzi; J. M. Alcala; N. J. Evans; II; P. M. Harvey; T. Prusti; N. Chapman; T. Huard; E. F. van Dishoeck; and F. Comeron, Spitzer c2d survey of Lupus dark clouds (Merin+2008), VizieR Online Data Catalog: J/ApJS/177/551 , 2009 C. W. Ormel, D.Paszun; C.Dominik; and A.G.G.M. Tielens, Dust coagulation in molecular clouds, Ormel+ 2009, VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/A+A/502/845, 2009 H. J. A. Röttgering , SPICA and the Upcoming Revolution in Radio Astronomy, SPICA joint European/Japanese Workshop, 2009, , 4010 D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; C. J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky;, Supernovae 2009cc-2009cf, Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1753, D. M. Salter, M.R. Hogerheijde; and G. Blake, Captured at Millimeter Wavelengths: a Flare from the Classical T Tauri Star DQ Tau, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts 213, 2009,605.07 D. Sand, M. L.Graham; R. Foley; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; C. J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky, Supernovae 2009ef2009ek, Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1796, D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; C. J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; D. Zaritsky; and A. Seth; ;, Supernovae 2009gv-2009gz, Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1864, 210 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; C. J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky;, Supernovae 2009hb and 2009hc, Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1866, D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; S. Herbert-Fort; D. Just; S. Sivanandam; C. J.Pritchet;H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky;, Supernovae 2009jj-2009jo, Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams , 2009, 1961, D. Sand, M. L. Graham; C. Bildfell; S. Herbert-Fort; D. Just; S. Sivanandam; C. J. Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky, Supernovae 2009ly and 2009ml-2009ms, Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 2089, 1 P. Serra, R. M.McDermid; K. Alatalo; L. Blitz; M. Bois; F. Bournaud; M. Bureau; M. Cappellari; R. L.Davies; T. A.Davis; P. T. de Zeeuw; E. Emsellem; J. FalconBarroso; S. Khochfar; D. Krajnovic; H. Kuntschner;P.-Y.Lablanche; R. Morganti; T. Naab; M. Sarzi; N. Scott; R. C. E.van den Bosch; G. van de Ven; A. Weijmans; and L. M.Young;, Stellar populations of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS3D sample, American Institute of Physics Conference Series , 2009, 1111, 111 I. A. G. Snellen, GPS and CSS Radio Sources and Space-VLBI, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series , 2009, 402, 221 G. Testor, J. L. Lemaire; L. E. Kristensen; S. Diana; D. Field; and M. HeydariMalayeri, VLT/NACO near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of N88A in the SMC, SF2A-2009: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2009, , V. Tudose, Z. Paragi; P. Soleri; D. M.Russell; D. Maitra; F. Lewis; R. P.Fender; M. A. Garrett; R. E.Spencer; and A. Rushton, e-EVN observations of Aql X-1 in outburst, , 2009, 2000, 1 V.Tudose, Z. Paragi; J. Miller-Jones; M. A. Garrett; R. Fender; A. Rushton; and R. Spencer, EVN detection of Aql X-1 in outburst, The Astronomer?s Telegram, 2009, 2317, 1 M. J. Valtonen, S. Mikkola; H. J.Lehto; T. Hyvonen; D. Merritt; A. Gopakumar; H. Rampadarath; R. Hudec; M. Basta; and R. Saunders, Measuring Black Hole Spin in OJ287, AAS/Division of Dynamical Astronomy Meeting, 2009, 41, 1504 M.J. Valtonen, S. Mikkola; D. Merritt; A. Gopakumar; H. J.Lehto; T. Hyvönen; H. Rampadarath; R. Saunders; M. Basta; and R. Hudec, Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei, IAU Symposium 261, 2009, 1302 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 211 P. P. van der Werf, M. Spaans, Cooling Lines as Probes of the Formation and Buildup of Galaxies and Black Holes, SPICA joint European/Japanese Workshop, 2009, 3009 C. J. van Van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld; A. M. van Genderen; and K. K. Kwee, VBLUW photometry of eclipsing binary stars (Van Houten+, 2009), VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/other/JAD/15.2, 2009 R. Williams, Local X-ray absorption: Galactic corona or IGM?; High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy: Towards IXO, Proceedings of the international workshop held at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory of University College London, 2009, 47 A. Youdin, A. Johansen; and M. Mac Low;, How High Metallicity Can Trigger Planet Formation, AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts , 2009, 41, 5202 X.4. Other Publications D. Baneke, If you can’t beat them, teach them; Zenit; December, 569-571 D. Baneke , De onfortuinlijke sterrenwacht van Haren?; Zenit, November, 511512 D. Baneke , De luis en de pels. De zelfbenoemde elite versus de zelfbenoemde buitenstaander in de wetenschappen; Academische Boekengids;. 74, 8-12 R. F. J. van der Burg, Een Nederlandse exoplaneet; Zenit; 2009; Februari R. F. J. van der Burg ,Interview met ontdekkers exoplaneet; Eureka!; 2009, April R. F. J. van der Burg; M. de Hoon; F. Vuijsje (& I. A. G. Snellen): "Hoe nederlandse studenten een exoplaneet ontdekten; Zenit; februari 2009; p56 F. Lahuis ; B.Brandl; James Webb ruimtetelescoop; NVR magazine "Ruimtevaart"; 2009; 2 M.R. Hogerheijde; De chaos binnen onze geordende wereld. Over het ontstaan van sterren en planeten. Academische Boekengids; 74; 13 (bookreview) Á. Kóspál; Spitzer Catches Star Cooking Up Comet Crystals; Spitzer Space Telescope Press Release ; 13 May 2009; 212 APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS S. F. Portegies Zwart; The Long Lost Siblings of the Sun, Scientific American November, 2009, F. H. van Lunteren; ‘Academische Vrijheid’, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde ; 2009; 75; 122-125. F. H. van Lunteren ; Galilei en de Sterrenboodschapper; Universum, Tijdschrift van de jongerenwerkgroep voor Sterrenkunde; 2009 R. Ros , C. Ödman ; Tales of the stars inspires young children from around the world; Physics Education, Institute of Physics; July 2009 C. Ödman; Universe Awareness: An astronomy programme where the children are stars; Nightscape (International Dark Skies Association); 2009; 76, C. Ödman; UNAWE: Programme d'Accueil á l'Univers oú les enfants sont les véritables étoiles, l'Astronomie, Décembre 2009 D. van Delft; Preventing theft: the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory in wartime. Scientific Research in World War II. What scientists did in the war; Routledge; 2009; 62-76 D. van Delft; Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Road to Liquid Helium; Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference 2008 ; Seoul, 2009; 1-8. D. van Delft, Robbert Dijkgraaf: A Mathematical Physicist Throws the Windows Wide Open; Jaarboek The Low Countries ; 2009; 17 ; 301-302. D. van Delft, Het koudste plekje op aarde. Leiden: Conventie van de Ontdekkingen LIONS Leiden Lakenstad; 2009; 12-16. D. van Delft; Blingbling, sleutelwaarde en het miskende instrument (Leiden, 2009) D. van Delft; Een koppige kortsluiting. Onbekende vaderlanders. Over minder bekende helden & schurken uit de Nederlandse geschiedenis;NRC Boeken; 2009 ; 100-103. D. van Delft, Brief aan Charles Darwin;, Volkskrant, section Kennis, May 9. Geachte Darwin. Brieven aan de grondlegger van de evolutietheorie (Atheneum-& Van Gennep, 2009), 48-50. APPENDIX X. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS 213 D. van Delft, Koude drukte. Het laboratorium van Heike Kamerlingh Onnes als internationaal centrum van lage temperaturenonderzoek;. Over de grens. Internationale contacten aan Nederlandse universiteiten sedert 1875 (Verloren 2009) 31-52. D. van Delft ; Magic is no magic, Review of J.T. Devreese and G. Vandenberghe, The wonderful world of Simon Stevin (WIT Press 2008) europhysicsnews 40/4 (2009) 31-32. F. van Lunteren ; Over nut en noodzaak van onderwijs in wetenschapsgeschiedenis voor bètastudenten, in Ch. Sterken & D. Segers, Over wetenschapshistorisch onderwijs (Brussel 2009) 8-28. F. van Lunteren, Academische Vrijheid, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde (Maart 2009) 82-85. F. van Lunteren, De Sterrenboodschapper, Universum (2009) 3; 8-11.
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