Research Institute Leiden Observatory
(Onderzoekinstituut Sterrewacht Leiden)
Annual Report 2009
Sterrewacht Leiden
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Leiden University
Niels Bohrweg 2
2333 CA Leiden
Postbus 9513
2330 RA Leiden
The Netherlands
Logarithmic rendering of the gas flow in the equatorial plane of a massive
binary star in which both stars are losing mass. The orbital eccentricity is 0.8, the
mass ratio is 0.25, the time is about one tenth of a period before periastron
passage. The red colour shows the gas density, green: pressure, blue: absolute
value of the velocity.
An electronic version of this annual report is available on the web at
Production Annual Report 2009:
A. van der Tang, E. Gerstel, F.P. Israel, A. van Genderen, J. Lub, E. van Uitert,
E. Deul.
Sterrewacht Leiden
(Directie Onderzoeksinstituut)
K. Kuijken
Director of Education F.P. Israel
Executive Secretary
J. Lub
Wetenschappelijk Directeur
Onderwijs Directeur
Secretaris Instituut
Supervisory Council
(Raad van toezicht)
Prof. Dr. Ir. J.A.M. Bleeker (Chair)
Dr. B. Baud
Drs. J.F. van Duyne
Prof. Dr. Ir. W. van Saarloos
Prof. Dr. C. Waelkens
Part I
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
History and heritage
2.1. Solar System
2.1.1. Asteroids
2.2. Exoplanets
2.2.1. Eclipsing Exoplanets
2.2.2. Metal-dependent Planet Formation
2.3. Protostars and Circumstellar Disks
2.3.1. Predicting the Water in Protoplanetary Disks
2.3.2. The Molecular Content of Protoplanetary Disks
2.3.3. Ice Survey of Low-Mass Protostellar Envelopes
2.3.4. Origin and Evolution of Complex Organic Molecules in Space
2.3.5. Chemical Evolution from Cloud to Disk
2.3.6. Sun-bathing around Low-Mass Protostars
2.3.7. Mid-infrared Spectral Variability Atlas of Young Stellar Objects
2.3.8. Characterization of Embedded YSOs and Disks
2.3.9. First Results from WISH
2.3.10 . Spitzer c2d Census of Cold Disks with Large Inner Dust Holes
2.3.11. CO Isotope-Selective Photodissociation Revisited
2.3.12. Crystalline Silicates in Disks
2.3.13. An Unbiased Disk Sample in Serpens
2.3.14. Pebbles in Disks
2.4. Star Formation
2.4.1. Zonal Flows in Accretion Disks
2.4.2. The Spitzer c2d Legacy: Statistics
2.4.3. Mapping Molecular Gas in Stellar Nurseries
2.4.4. High Mass Star Formation
2.5. Stars and Interstellar Matter
2.5.1. Searching for the Siblings of the Sun
2.5.2. An Arc of Gas and Dust around the Young Star DoAr21
2.5.3. The Misaligned DI Herculis System
2.5.4. Evolved Stars: Planetary Nebula Progenitors?
2.6. Structure of the Milky Way
2.6.1. The Galactic Magnetic Field
2.6.2. Bulge Dynamics: Studing the Closest Galactic Bar
2.6.3. Mass Function of the Arches Cluster
2.6.4. The Central Supermassive Black Hole
2.7. Nearby Galaxies
2.7.1. Magellanic Clouds
2.7.2. Star-Burst Modelling
2.7.3. Molecular Gas in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies
2.7.4. Infrared Study of the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39)
2.7.5. Atlas of High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Starburst Spectra
2.7.6. The SuperMassive Black Hole in Centaurus A
2.7.7. Using PN.S to Study Elliptical Galaxy Outskirts
2.7.8. Nuclear Phenomena in Active Galaxies
2.7.9. Nearby Clusters of Galaxies
2.8. Distant and High-Redshift Galaxies
2.8.1. Radio Cluster Haloes
2.8.2. Radio Structure of Abell 2256
2.8.3. Metallicities of Galaxies around Redshift of One
2.8.4. SDSS Galaxy Statistics
2.8.5. Blue-to-Red Ratio in Massive Clusters
2.8.6. Galaxy Proto-Cluster Structure in the Early Universe
2.8.7. The Spiderweb Galaxy
2.8.8. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies
2.8.9. Massive starburst galaxies at redshift 2
2.8.10. Lyman-Break Galaxies at 3<z<5
2.8.11. Distant Galaxies and the Red Sequence
2.8.12. Evolving Galaxies in the Distant Universe
2.8.13. The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS)
2.8.14. Weak Lensing in the COSMOS Field
2.8.15. Magnification Mapping of the Large-Scale Structure
2.8.16. Radio Haloes as Tracers of Cosmological Structure
2.9. Simulations, models, theory
2.9.1. Double-Winds in Eta Carinae
2.9.2. Pulsar Timing and Gravitational waves
2.9.3 AMUSE: Astrophysics Multipurpose Software Environment
2.9.4. N-body simulations on Graphical Processing Units
2.9.5. Shock-Processing of PAHs
2.9.6. Diagnosing the Excitation of Extragalactic Ionized Gas.
2.9.7. SIMPLEX and Cosmic reionization
2.9.8. Photo-ionization and Cooling Rates of Astrophysical Plasmas
2.9.9. Keeping the Universe Ionised
2.9.10. SuperMassive Black Holes and Feedback from AGNs
2.9.11. Formation of High-Redshift SuperMassive Black Holes
2.9.12. Chemical Enrichment in Cosmological Simulations
2.9.13. How to Study X-Ray Dominated Regions with ALMA
2.9.14. Cosmic Shear
2.10. Instruments and facilities
2.10.1. The Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR)
2.10.2. ALLEGRO: the ALMA Regional Center Node in the Netherlands
2.10.3. The expanded Submillimeter Array (eSMA)
2.10.4. VLTI: MIDI and Matisse
2.10.5. VLT: MUSE and ASSIST
2.10.6. KiDS: Studying Dark Matter with Light Rays
2.10.7. E-ELT-METIS
2.10.8. GAIA
2.10.9. JWST-MIRI Testing
2.11. Astrochemistry
2.11.1. Interstellar molecules formed on grains
2.11.2. Simulations of Ice Photo-Dissociation
2.12. Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics
2.12.1. Laboratory Experiments
2.12.2. UV Photo-Processing of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues
2.12.3. Atom Bombardment of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues
2.12.4. Molecular finger prints
Chapter 3
3.1. Education
3.2. Degrees awarded in 2009
3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees
3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s)
3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees
3.3. Academic Courses and Pre-University Programs
3.3.1. Courses taught by Observatory curriculum staff
3.3.2. Pre-University Programs
3.3.3. Contact.Vwo
3.4. Popularization and Media Contacts
3.4.1. Public Lectures and Media Interviews
3.4.3 Tours at the Old Observatory
3.5. Universe Awareness Program
3.6. IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the Developing World
3.7. The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F. Kaiser’
3.8. Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
Part II
Observatory staff December 31, 2009
Committee membership
Observatory Commitees
Membership of University Committees (non-Observatory) 105
Science policy functions
Visiting scientists
Workshops, colloquia and lectures
Endowed lectures
Scientific colloquia
Student colloquia
Participation in scientific meetings
Observing sessions abroad
Working visits abroad
Colloquia given outside Leiden
Scientific publications
Ph.D. Theses and Books
Publications in refereed journals
Publications in non-refereed journals and conference articles
Other Publications
major events
major events
2009 was a busy year at the Sterrewacht. The institute's permanent
staff saw some important changes, with the arrival of Xander
Tielens at the beginning of the year, Simon Portegies Zwart in the
spring, and Matt Kenworthy at the end of the year, and the
appointment of Rychard Bouwens (who will arrive during 2010).
Xander moved to Leiden from NASA-AMES, and takes up a chair
in interstellar medium physics and chemistry, and will further
strengthen our astrochemisty research. He won an important grant
from the European Research Council with which he will build up a
significant group.
Simon Portegies Zwart moved here from Amsterdam, and is our
new professor of numerical astrophysics. His work centers on
gravitational dynamics of star clusters and galaxies, and involves
using dedicated specialized hardware such as GRAPE boards and
Graphical Processing Units. He obtained a VICI grant for his
research, and leads a large NOVA project on computational
astrophysics, AMUSE. A third new professor is Huub Rottgering,
who was promoted from his senior lecturer position.
Matt Kenworthy joined us from Steward Observatory in Arizona,
and specializes in astronomical instrumentation, especially
adaptive optics, for exoplanet research. He takes up a position as
lecturer. Rychard Bouwens, from the University of California at
Santa Cruz, an expert on high-redshift galaxy studies with Hubble
Space Telescope in particular, accepted an offer of a lectureship
with us and will start in 2010.
A small symposium was held for Peter Katgert in September. Peter
retired after some 40 years on the faculty at the Sterrewacht, and
handed over his careful stewardship of the Leids Sterrewacht,
Leids Kerkhoven Bosscha, and Oort foundations as secretarytreasurer to Michiel Hogerheijde.
The support staff underwent many changes as well.
Jan Lub stepped down as institute manager after many years, but
will still be around to provide his successor, Evelijn Gerstel, with
the benefit of his memory and experience. Evelijn moved to the
Sterrewacht from the physics department, where she had been
coordinator of the education activities. The Sterrewacht's education
coordinator, Petra Oosthoek, moved to the Computer Science
department. Finally Kirsten Groen, who has been a member of our
secretariat for the last 10 years and has ably assisted me and my
predecessor as management assistant, decided to move full-time to
the NOVA office as financial controller, and her work was taken
over by Jeanne Drost. In spite of all the changes, the handovers
were smooth and somehow everything continued to run the way it
should, in large part due to the dedication of all concerned. My
The most significant events of the year included the launch of
Herschel, the successful refurbishment of Hubble, the first images
from VISTA and the first maps from LOFAR: we have major plans
for all these facilities and first results have already been obtained.
These highlights underscore that we owe much of our scientific
reach to the facilities we have access to, and have a role in
developing, in collaboration with organizations and institutes such
as ESA, ASTRON, ESO, SRON and our sister institutes in NOVA.
Continued involvement in developing the facilities of the future
will ensure that we keep on creating such scientific opportunities.
2009 was the International Year of Astronomy, and under this
extra spotlight a number of prominent activities took place. Ewine
van Dishoeck was the lecturer at the university's dies natalis on
February 9, speaking on "New Worlds". The 20th Oort lecturer was
Bruce Draine from Princeton, and Jerry Nelson (Santa Cruz)
delivered the Sackler lecture in the fall. The old observatory
building's renovation was started, with the first of the domes
hoisted off the building by minister Plasterk of education, culture
and science on April 6. Everything seems to be on track for the old
observatory's reopening in 2011.
11 graduate students successfully defended their thesis and
obtained their PhD, a near-record: but with around 50 PhD
students at the observatory now, we will have to get used to this
rate! Our graduates continue to do well on the international job
market, with the Hubble Fellowship for Karin Oberg, and the
Jansky Fellowship for Huib Intema, as most impressive examples.
Finally, a sad piece of news that reached us during the year was
the passing of Maarten Floor (1917-2008): he worked at the
Sterrewacht as a 'calculator' from 1955 until his retirement in 1980.
I imagine he would have been quite amazed at the calculations we
now take for granted.
As I write this introduction, preparations for a research assessment
in the spring of 2010 are in full swing. We are working hard to
ensure that the Sterrewacht (as well as the rest of NOVA) will
come through this process with flying colours, and given the many
results and achievements described in this annual report there
certainly are plenty of reasons to be optimistic!
Koen Kuijken
History and heritage
The Sterrewacht acts as host to the history group of the Leiden University
Department of Mathematics and Science.
Van Delft (director Museum Boerhaave), holding a part-time appointment as
professor extraordinary in the history of science, focused his research on the
Leiden cryogenic laboratory, the international temperature scale and the
International Institute of Refrigeration.
Van Lunteren, also holding a part-time appointment as professor extraordinary,
conducted studies on 19th- and 20th-century Leiden scientists which resulted in
three papers: one on the astronomer Kaiser as a Dutch pioneer of the new genre
of popular science, one on the cultural roots of the views of the physicist Fokker
on causality and time symmetry, and finally a study, together with Hollestelle,
of the Austrian-Dutch physicist Ehrenfest.
Elbers is studying the rise of radio astronomy in the Netherlands in the post-war
years. Her research is predominantly based on primary sources in the Oortarchives and in those of the Observatory itself. It focuses on the interplay of the
personal and as well as the more general factors that may serve to account for
the successful launch of this new research field. She presented preliminary
results at the meeting of the History of Science Society in Phoenix and
constructed a general framework for her PhD-project. She also located several
other relevant archival collections.
Weiss studied the archives of the Teyler's Museum in Haarlem in order to
reconstruct the changes in both the public and research functions of this
institution. He unearthed previously unknown documents concerning the
Teyler's Museum 19th- century collection policy. He also systematically
compiled the accounts by visitors of their experiences at Teyler's Museum from
the early decades of the museum's history. Finally, he initiated and organised a
national conference on the public usage of 19th century Dutch collections which
will be held in 2010.
Baneke completed his inventory of the paper collections of Frederik Kaiser and
Willem de Sitter, being the two major constituents of the Leiden Observatory
Archives. These archives were transferred to Leiden University Library for
preservation and digitalization. He also completed a research project on the
history of Dutch astronomy in 1880-1940, analyzing changes in the scientific
culture, the introduction of new educational programs at Dutch astronomical
institutes, and the remarkable renaissance of Leiden Observatory in the 1920's.
2.1. Solar System
2.1.1 Asteroids
After sixty years of minor planet (planetoiden in Dutch) research I. van HoutenGroeneveld and her late husband C.J. van Houten, the former is still actively
continuing her work. The new names of minor planets and the lists of new
definitive numbered minor planets of the van Houten sample are published in
the Minor Planet Circulars (MPC), which come out monthly at full Moon.
The van Houten Palomar-Leiden survey plates are now at Heidelberg
Sternwarte (Germany) in the custody of L. Schmadel (Astronomisches RechenInstitut). All short-exposure plates of P-L-survey and all Selected Area plates
have now been measured: 36 187 individual positions of 4 906 different objects.
The P-L-Survey contains the following numbers of objects: 2124 found, 242
found by other observers, as well as 2540 new ones found by Schmadel of which
1817 are numbered, and 723 are provisionally named. By using overlays of all
2008 known minor planets and extrapolating back to the P-L-plate epoch of
1960, Schmadel found the positions of significantly more objects than the van
Houtens originally found. This means 52% pre-discovery-objects were found!
In 2008 and 2009, 2093 van Houten survey minor planets were definitely
numbered, five of them being Trojans. In the same year, 40 received names
following proposals communicated by Van Houten-Groeneveld. Eleven names
of Dutch origin should be mentioned:
In addition to:
Oranje Nassau = 1220 T-1
Cellarius = 6217 P-L
Peterwisse = 3201 T-2
Munsterman = 2031 T-3
Vanvollenhoven = 2372 T-3
Können = 1070 T-2
Discovery date
1971 03 25
1960 09 24
1973 09 30
1977 10 16
1977 10 16
1973 09 29
1977 10 16
1977 10 16
1960 10 17
1971 03 25
1973 09 29
Name MPC
Anubelshunu = 6242 P-L
Simagian = 6335 P-L
Alsufi = 6585 P-L
Doppelmayr – 6614 P-L
Merbold – 6614 P-L
Thomasreiter = 1210 T-2
Promachus = 1973 SA1 (Trojan)
Aesop = 2091 P-L
Apollodoros = 2155 P-L
Lochner = 4874 = P-L
AngelusSilesius = 5568 P-L
Ringleb = 3289 T-2
Oliverherrmann = 3372 T-2
Olivermüller = 4306 T-2
Polko = 5141 = T-2
Neleus = 5214 T-2 (Trojan)
Evamaria = 6847 P-L
Ingola = 6240 P-L
Capys = 3184 T-3 (Trojan)
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1973 09 29
1973 09 29
1973 09 24
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1960 09 26
1960 10 17
1973 09 03
1973 09 25
1973 09 29
1973 09 25
1973 09 25
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1977 10 16
1960 10 17
1960 10 17
1971 03 25
1971 03 25
Tape – 1101 T-2
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1960 09 24
1973 09 29
2.2. Exoplanets
Figure 1: Artist impression of the changing phases of extrasolar planet CoRoT-1b, as
detected by Snellen, de Mooij, and Albrecht. The phase variation is just as we see it for
the interior planets in our own solar system.
2.2.1 Eclipsing Exoplanets
Snellen and collaborators worked on the detection and characterization of
transiting extrasolar planets. Most of the more than 200 known extrasolar
planets have been found using the radial velocity technique. Although their
orbits are well known, not much is being learned about the planets themselves.
This is very different when the orientation of a planet is such that it transits its
host star, regularly blocking off a fraction of the star light. For these planets, the
mass, radius, and average density can be determined, and their atmospheres
probed through secondary eclipse photometry and transmission spectroscopy.
De Mooij and Snellen presented the first ground-based K-band detection of the
secondary eclipse of an extrasolar planet. Together with Albrecht they published
in Nature the optical phase curve of an extrasolar planet using CoRoT data.
2.2.2 Metal-dependent Planet Formation
Exoplanets are preferentially observed around metal-rich stars. Rich in elements
heavier than hydrogen and helium. Johansen, Youdin (CITA, Canada), and Mac
Low (American Museum of Natural History) found a physical explanation for
this phenomenon. They performed 3-D computer simulations of the initial
stages of planet formation, varying the heavy element abundance of their disk
models. Planets form in protoplanetary discs around young stars as dust
particles collide and grow to ever larger structures, but this process becomes
inefficient on scales of a few centimeters. Pebbles of such size have very poor
sticking properties. However, hydrodynamical simulations show that pebbles
moving through gas will spontaneously form dense clumps and that these
clumps can contract under their own weight into mini-planets (called
planetesimals) of several hundreds of kilometers in diameter. Johansen and
collaborators found that the process of clumping depends strongly on the mass
loading of pebbles in the gas, i.e. on the heavy element abundance. Below solar
metallicity they observed no clumping and no planet formation, whereas
slightly above solar metallicity planet formation has become very efficient. Their
findings, summarized in a press release titled “Dirty stars make good planetary
hosts”, were picked up by several news media, including,
Astronomy Now, and ABC news.
2.3 Protostars and Circumstellar Disks
2.3.1 Predicting the Water in Protoplanetary Disks
Brinch completed the LIME code. This is a 3-D molecular excitation and
radiation transfer code that has been under development for several years.
LIME models radiation transfer on unstructured, random Delaunaytriangulated grids, and it produces high-resolution predictons of the spectral
emission distribution. LIME is designed to be used to model Young Stellar
Objects (YSO's) and their environments with the specific aim of becoming a
robust modeling tool for use with ALMA observations. Toward the end of 2009,
LIME was used for the first time to predict water line emission from the hot
surface of a protoplanetary disk (Fig. 2) in very high resolution. This predictions
will be verified by HIFI observations with the Herschel Space Observatory in the
near future.
Figure 2: Model prediction of water line emission from the hot surface layers of a
protoplanetary disk. The cold mid-plane of the disk is emission free because the water is
frozen out as ice.
2.3.2 The Molecular Content of Protoplanetary Disks
Panič completed her PhD thesis under supervision of Hogerheijde, describing
high-angular-resolution observations of protoplanetary disks. She focused on
the molecular content of these disks, the total amount of material and its
kinematics. Panič and Hogerheijde studied two samples of objects: T Tauri stars
(roughly comparable to the young Sun) and Herbig Ae stars (their slightly more
massive counterparts). It turned out that the latter class is most amenable to
investigation through the emission of CO and its isotopes, because these stars
are brighter: they heat the disks to higher temperatures in excess of 20 K. This
precludes the freeze-out of CO onto dust grains, prevalent in T Tauri disks. In a
more detailed study of the disk around the star HD100546, Panič et al. found
that there is a significant amount of warm (typically 100 K) gas, betrayed by
APEX/CHAMP+ CO J=6-5 measurements. This gas is probably heated by the
stellar ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, this radiation must be sufficiently
'soft' to avoid dissociation of CO into C and O, as emission from the carbon atom
is wholly absent in the same data. Interestingly, the shape of the spectral line
indicates that the disk is not uniformly heated, but rather that one side 20--40 K
warmer than the other side. It is possible that the inner disk is warped, and
casts a shadow on the outer disk.
2.3.3 Ice Survey of Low-Mass Protostellar Envelopes
Bottinelli, Öberg, Boogert (IPAC, Pasadena, USA), Pontoppidan (Caltech,
Pasadena, USA), van Dishoeck, Lahuis and the ‘Cores to Disks’ (c2d) IRS team
completed their Spitzer + ground-based 3-38 micron spectral survey of 41 lowluminosity young stellar objects (YSOs) down to proto-brown dwarfs. Their
fourth paper addressed the solid NH3 and CH3OH abundances, both of which
are key ingredients for making prebiotic molecules in ices. Identification of
these molecules is complicated by the blending of their main features at 9.0 and
9.7 micron with the strong silicate absorption band (see Figure below), and
different methods had to be developed to extract them. The resulting NH3
abundances were between 2 and 15%, whereas those for CH3OH had a broader
range from <1% to nearly 30% with respect to H2O ice. Comparison with
laboratorium results by Bouwman, Beckwith and Linnartz showed that NH3,
like CH4, is formed largely by hydrogenation of atomic N on grains, whereas
CH3OH appears to form mostly through hydrogenation of CO in a nearly pure
CO ice environment. Quantitative simulations of the latter process were carried
out by Cuppen and collaborators using the latest Leiden laboratory data.
Figure 3. Spitzer infrared spectrum toward the deeply embedded solar mass protostar
Serpens SVS 4-9, showing CH3OH and NH3 ice absorptions at 9.7 and 9.0 micron
superposed on the silicate feature. The background image is the Spitzer c2d 3.6, 8.0 and
24 micron color image of the Serpens core.
2.3.4 Origin and Evolution of Complex Organic Molecules in Space
Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous in space. Herbst (Ohio State, USA)
and Van Dishoeck reviewed the topic for Annual Reviews in Astronomy and
Astrophysics. There is now strong evidence that the rich variety of volatile
complex molecules seen in the millimeter spectra of young stellar objects are
primarily formed in the ice mantles on interstellar grains. This chemistry
appears ubiquitous throughout the Milky Way, with remarkably similar
abundances on large scales. Öberg, Bottinelli and van Dishoeck developed an
indirect method for testing this hypothesis through two organic molecules CH3OH and HNCO - that can be observed both in the gas and in the ice. They
found a tentative correlation between the ice and gas abundances with a
measured gas-to-ice ratio of 10-4, which agrees well with predictions for the
photo-desorption mechanism measured in the laboratory by Öberg and
collaborators. This provided a proof of concept that non-thermal desorption
products in cold clouds can serve as a signature of the (complex) ice
2.3.5 Chemical Evolution from Cloud to Disk
Visser, van Dishoeck, Doty (Denison Univ., Ohio, USA), and Dullemond (MPIA
Heidelberg, Germany) developed a semi-analytical 2-D model to describe how
material changes physically and chemically as it is transported from a collapsing
cloud to a protoplanetary disk. Thus far, only 1-D models were used but they
could not properly describe the incorporation of material into disks. The model
computed infall trajectories from any point in the cloud and tracked the radial
and vertical motion of material in the viscously evolving disk. It included a full
time-dependent radiative transfer treatment of the dust temperature, which
controls much of the chemistry. As a first application, the freeze-out and
evaporation of CO and H2O ice were studied, as well as the potential for
forming complex organic molecules in ices. A fraction of the ices in comets are
indeed expected to be pristine molecular cloud material. Material that ends up
in the planet- and comet-forming zones of the disk (~5-30 AU from the star) is
predicted to spend enough time in a warm zone during the collapse to form
first-generation complex organic species on the grains.
Figure 4. The evolution of material from the prestellar core stage through the collapsing
envelope into a protoplanetary disk. The formation of zeroth- and first-generation
organic molecules in the ices is indicated occurs at 0 and 1, and second-generation
molecules in the hot-core region at 2. Once material enters the disk, it will rapidly move
to the cold midplane where additional freeze-out and grain surface chemistry occur. All
ices evaporate inside the (species-dependent) sublimation radius (‘snow line’)
2.3.6 Sun-bathing around Low-Mass Protostars
Figure 5.Spitzer three color (3.6 (blue), 4.5 (green) and 8 micron (red)) image with the
contours of integrated CO J=6-5 emission (blue/dark) observed with APEX-CHAMP+
overlaid. The [C I] 2-1 emission (green/light) is detected weakly on source but peaks
further down at the tip of the outflow where the UV photons produced in the fast bow
shock are hard enough to dissociate CO. Analysis of the line profiles shows that the
emission consists both of accelerated swept-up gas along the outflow as well as quiescent,
photon-heated gas surrounding the outflow cavity walls.
Van Kempen, van Dishoeck, Hogerheijde, Kristensen, Yildiz, Guesten (MPIfR,
Bonn, Germany) and collaborators used the new CHAMP+ camera on APEX to
image CO J=6-5, 7-6 lines, as well as lines from isotopologues and [C I] 809 GHz,
in a dozen low-mass protostellar sources on scales of several arcmin to probe the
origin of warm gas in their surroundings. Such studies have only become
possible thanks to the development of heterodyne arrays at high frequency
combined with an excellent site. Surprisingly strong quiescent extended
emission from narrow high-J 12CO 6-5 and 7-6 lines is seen toward all protostars,
suggesting that heating by UV photons along the outflow cavity dominates the
emission. The UV photons are generally not energetic enough to dissociate CO
since the [C I] 2-1 emission, also probed by our data, is weak except at the bow
shock at the tip of the outflow. Shock-heated warm gas characterized by broad
CO line profiles is seen only toward the more massive Class 0 outflows. This
shocked gas is also revealed through Spitzer maps of the pure rotational lines of
H2 in the NGC 1333 region in a complementary study led by Maret (Grenoble,
France) and involving Kristensen.
In collaboration with Bruderer, Benz (both ETH, Zürich, Switzerland) and Doty
(Denison Univ., Ohio, USA), multidimensional chemical models have been
developed which can tackle the physical and chemical structure of irridiated
outflow walls. The initial application has been to high-mass YSOs, but such
models are now being constructed for low-mass YSOs together with Visser for
interpretation of Herschel data.
2.3.7 Mid-infrared Spectral Variability Atlas of Young Stellar Objects
Figure 6. Mid-infrared observations of pre-main sequence stars. Thin lines:
ISO/ISOPHOT-S, thick lines: Spitzer/IRS, dots: Spitzer/IRAC, squares: 2MASS. RR
Tau shows wavelength-independent flux changes; CT Cha displays a variable 10 micron
silicate feature but mostly constant continuum; WW Cha shows anti-correlation
between flux changes below and above 8 micron; while AK Sco exhibit no mid-infrared
Kóspál, Abrahám, Kun, Moór (Konkoly Obs., Hungary), Henning, Leinert
(MPIA Heidelberg, Germany), and Acosta-Pulido (IAC Tenerife, Spain),
compiled a mid-infrared spectral atlas containing observations of 68 low- and
intermediate-mass young stellar objects. The atlas contains 2.5-11.6 micron low-
resolution spectra obtained with the ISOPHOT-S instrument on-board the
Infrared Space Observatory, as well as 5.2-14.5 micron low-resolution spectra
obtained with the IRS instrument on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope between
2004 and 2007. The observations were retrieved from the archives and were
post-processed interactively by self-developed routines. Kóspál, and
Collaborators analyzed the mid-infrared variability on both yearly and decadal
timescales. They identified 38 candidate variable sources and characterized the
wavelength-dependence and possible physical mechanisms of the flux changes.
2.3.8 Characterization of Embedded YSOs and Disks
Van Kempen, van Dishoeck and collaborators developed a method to
characterize the truly embedded stellar population in Ophiuchus. They used the
extent and strength of a high density tracer, HCO+ J=4-3 observed with JCMT
HARP-B, combined with two column density tracers, C18OJ=3-2 and the SCUBA
dust continuum. Of the 40 candidate sources, only 17 turned out to be bona-fide
embedded YSOs. Accurate classification is essential to determine reliable
lifetimes of the various evolutionary phases. Jörgensen (Bonn, Germany), van
Dishoeck, Visser, Lommen and collaborators used the Smithsonian Millimeter
Array to characterize young disks in the embedded stage of star formation
through a survey of 20 sources. The interferometer data allow the disk and
envelope emission to be disentangled. They found the envelope mass to sharply
decrease from the Class 0 to the Class I stage, whereas the disk mass showed no
evolution between these stages. In addition, four Class I sources exhibited signs
of Keplerian disk rotation in HCO+ J=3-2 data. The inferred stellar masses
indicate that the stars contain 70-98% of the total mass in the star-disk-envelope
system, confirming that most of the material has already accreted onto the
central star at this stage. Comparison with evolutionary models showed that
these tended to overestimate disk relative to stellar masses. Thus, material
accreted from the large scale envelope has to be processed more rapidly onto the
central star by some mechanism.
2.3.9 First Results from WISH
Van Dishoeck, Kristensen, van Kempen (CfA, Boston, USA), Herczeg (MPE,
Munich, Germany) and collaborators obtained the first data from the 'Water in
Star-Forming Regions with Herschel' key program. PACS spectra and maps
were obtained for three science demonstration sources. The water molecule is a
particularly sensitive probe of where a young star dumps energy into its
surroundings. Figure 7 shows the water emission map along the outflow lobes
of the deeply embedded protostar L 1157 in a study led by Nisini (INAF, Rome,
Italy). The water emission shows up most strongly in "hot spots" due to strong
shocks symmetrically displaced from the young star. Toward another young
sun-like star, HH 46, PACS has imaged a strong line of atomic oxygen. This line
is one of the most direct probes of the rate at which the young star loses mass.
Interestingly, the line detected by PACS shows not only the low velocity gas
swept up by the jet, but also very fast moving gas that is part of the jet itself.
This will allow a direct determination of the energy involved in both processes.
Figure 7. PACS image of water 179 micron emission toward the young solar analog L
1157, lighting up the two-sided outflow of gas.
2.3.10 Spitzer c2d Census of Cold Disks with Large Inner Dust Holes
Understanding how disks evolve and dissipate is essential to studies of planet
formation. Merin (HSC Madrid, Spain), van Dishoeck, Brown (MPE, Munich,
Germany) and collaborators used the Spitzer c2d survey to identify 35 candidate
transitional disks for which IRS spectra were obtained in a Spitzer program. Of
these, 15 turn out to be 'cold' disks lacking mid-infrared excess, whereas a large
fraction of the remaining 20 are disks in which the grains have grown and
settled to the mid-plane. These statistics give a frequency of cold disks of 4-8% of
the YSO population, indicating that transitional disks represent a short-lived
phase in disk evolution. Hole sizes are generally smaller (a few AU) than for
previously discovered cold disks and reflect a distribution more consistent with
exoplanet radii. Reliable criteria for identifying disks with inner holes from
Spitzer photometry have been determined, which can be applied to larger
2.3.11 CO Isotope-Selective Photodissociation Revisited
Photodissociation by UV light is an important destruction mechanism for CO in
many astrophysical environments. Visser, van Dishoeck and Black (Chalmers
Univ., Göteborg, Sweden) revisited this process using recent spectroscopic data
which allowed determination of depth-dependent and isotope-selective
photodissociation rates with higher accuracies. Theirs is the first such model to
include the rare isotopologues C17O and 13C17O. The results have been applied
to diffuse and translucent clouds, photon-dominated regions, and circumstellar
disks. Increasing the excitation temperature reduces the isotopic selectivity by
as much as a factor of three, whereas grain growth can enhance it by an order of
magnitude. The photodissociation rates of C17O and C18O show almost exactly
the same depth dependence so 17O and 18O are equally fractionated with respect
to 16O.This supports the recent hypothesis that CO photodissociation in the solar
nebula is responsible for the anomalous 17O and 18O abundances in meteorites.
Using the unprecedented quality of ESO-VLT-CRIRES data, high precision
measurements of C17O, C18O and C16O abundances have been made by Smith
(UCLA, USA) and collaborators (including van Dishoeck) of one disk and one
protostellar envelope as part of a VLT large program led by van Dishoeck. The
derived oxygen abundance ratios for the VV CrA disk show a significant massindependent deficit of C17O and C18O relative to C16O compared to ISM baseline
abundances, consistent with the isotope selective process in the upper layers of
the disk. The Reipurth 50 envelope shows no clear differences, as expected.
2.3.12 Crystalline Silicates in Disks
As part of the c2d legacy program, Olofsson, Augereau (Grenoble, France), van
Dishoeck and the c2d team analyzed Spitzer-IRS spectra of ~100 T Tauri stars to
quantify their crystallinity fraction. More than 3/4 of the objects show at least
one crystalline silicate feature that can be essentially attributed to Mg-rich
silicates. The Fe-rich crystalline silicates are largely absent in the c2d sources.
The strength and detection frequency of the crystalline features seen at long
wavelengths (probing scales less than 10 AU) correlate with each other, but not
with those at 10 micron (probing even smaller scales less than 1 AU). This leads
to a crystal paradox: the crystalline silicate features are detected 3.5 times more
frequently in the colder outer disk (~55% vs. ~15%) than in the much warmer
inner disk regions where the material supposedly crystallized. Thus, the need
for an efficient outward radial transport mechanism in disks around T Tauri
stars is suggested.
2.3.13 An Unbiased Disk Sample in Serpens
The Spitzer c2d survey has revealed a new population of YSOs in a previously
unexplored region of the Serpens molecular cloud. Compared with other lowmass star-forming clouds, Serpens has a much higher star formation rate per
unit volume. Thus, it is an excellent laboratory to test disk properties in a
clustered environment. Oliveira, Pontoppidan, van Dishoeck, Merin and
collaborators have carried out a flux-limited IRS spectroscopic survey of some
100 disks down to the young brown dwarf limit. In addition, complementary
optical spectroscopy, millimeter emission and X-ray surveys have been done.
The majority of the disks show silicate emission, 8% have 30/13 micron flux
ratios consistent with cold disks with inner holes and 4% of the disks show PAH
emission. Comparison with models indicates that dust grains in the surface
layers have sizes of at least a few micron. No significant difference is found in
the distribution of silicate feature shapes and strengths between Serpens and
other well-studied large samples of disks such as that of Taurus. The remarkably
similar distribution in samples with different median ages imply that the dust
population in the disk surface results from an equilibrium between dust growth
and destructive collisional processes that is maintained over a few million years,
irrespective of environment.
2.3.14 Pebbles in Disks
Grains in disks around young stars are thought to grow from interstellar
submicron sizes to planetesimals, up to kilometres in size, over the course of
several Myr. The largest grains that can be detected have sizes of pebbles, and
can be best observed at centimeter wavelengths. However, other emission
mechanisms can contribute, most notably free-free emission from stellar winds
and chromospheric activity. Lommen, Wright (ADFA, Australia), Maddison
(Swinburne Univ., Melbourne, Australia) and collaborators used the Australia
Telescope Compact Array to determine the mechanisms of centimeter emission
for several T Tauri stars through monitoring over several years. Some disks have
confirmed grain growth up to at least millimeter sizes, whereas one source
shows variable emission at the longest wavelengths indicative of non-thermal
emission. A larger sample has subsequently been surveyed with ATCA and
SMA to search for correlations between the submillimeter spectral slope,
characteristic of grain growth across the disk midplane, and the 10 micron
feature, indicative of growth in the surface layers in the inner disk.
2.4 Star Formation
2.4.1 Zonal Flows in Accretion Disks
Young stars and supermassive black holes are fed by accreting gas from an
orbiting disc, an accretion disk. Accretion is facilitated by the turbulent mass of
the gas. A path to make accretion disks turbulent is through the so-called
magnetorotational instability, which renders any Keplerian flow with an
appropriately strenghted magnetic field unstable. Accretion disk turbulence is
often studied in a corotating reference frame representing a small region in the
disk. However, such an approach neglects potentially important dynamics at
scales larger than the simulation box. Johansen, Youdin (CITA, Canada), Klahr
(MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany) developed a new numerical method that allows
the study of MHD turbulence in very large simulation domains. They found that
the turbulence has significant structure at large scales. The most striking feature
of their simulations was large scale "zonal flows", i.e. regions of faster or slower
rotation similar to the banded cloud structure on the giant planet Jupiter. Such
zonal flows can have important effects on planet formation, since pebbles and
rocks are trapped between regions of slower and faster rotation.
Figure 8. Zonal flows.
2.4.2 The Spitzer c2d Legacy: Statistics
The Spitzer c2d legacy team, led by Evans (Univ. Texas, USA), and including
van Dishoeck, van Kempen and Merin, performed a statistical analysis of the
more than 1000 YSOs found in the five star-forming clouds mapped by c2d.
Current star-formation efficiencies are found to range from 3% to 6%, overall
from 15% to 30%. The star-formation surface density is more than an order of
magnitude larger than would be predicted from the Kennicutt relation used in
extragalactic studies, reflecting the fact that those relations apply to larger scales
where more diffuse matter is included in the gas surface density. The derived
lifetime for the embedded Class I phase is 0.44 Myr, considerably longer than
some estimates. Similarly, the lifetime for the Class 0 SED class, 0.1 Myr, with
the notable exception of the Ophiuchus cloud, is longer than early estimates. The
great majority (90%) of young stars lie within loose clusters with at least 35
members and a stellar density of 1 M_sun pc-3. The data confirm and aggravate
the "luminosity problem" for protostars. At a given Tbol, the values for Lbol are
less than predicted by standard infall models and scatter over several orders of
magnitude. These results strongly suggest that accretion is time variable, with
prolonged periods of very low accretion.
2.4.3 Mapping Molecular Gas in Stellar Nurseries
Hogerheijde, together with a large team of researchers from the UK and Canada,
is executing a Legacy Survey on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)
using the HARP receiver array. This 'spectral-line camera' has revolutionized the
capabilities of the JCMT to map out the distribution of molecular gas in the
Universe. Hogerheijde is one of the coordinators of the Gould Belt Survey,
aimed at mapping all nearby star-forming regions in emission of CO and its
isotopes 13CO and C18O. Papers describing the first results of this survey were
completed in 2009, presenting maps of the star forming clouds in Serpens,
Taurus, and Orion. These clouds showed a remarkable variety of morphologies
and kinematics, illustrating the diversity of star-forming environments in the
Solar vicinity. This ranges from isolated, mostly quiescent condensations in
Taurus, to the much more energetic regions of Serpens and Orion which are
criss-crossed by protostellar jets and show indication of large-scale cloud
2.4.4 High Mass Star Formation
Torstensson and Van Langevelde continued their studies of methanol masers
associated with high mass star formation. Collaborating with van der Tak
(SRON, Groningen) and Vlemmings (Bonn Univ., Germany), they obtained
interesting results on the nearest high-mass star-forming region Cep A, which is
studied as the archetypical source in the sample. Analysis of HARP data taken
with the JCMT allowed the derivation of the rotation temperature and column
density of the thermal methanol gas. The methanol is clearly associated with the
central source in this famous HII region and the derived temperature peaks at
the location of the maser. Excitation models show that radiative excitation is
limited to the very central region.
Figure 9. Thermal methanol in Cep A, from left to right the integrated flux, the velocity
field and the line width of the methanol (7 1 7 -- 6 1 6) E-type transition is shown. This
is the strongest unblended line in the JCMT HARP spectra.
The direction of the outflow is roughly consistent with the orientation of the
methanol masers on the much smaller scale observed with the European VLBI
Network. The methanol masers straddling the waist of Cep A probably outline a
large ring structure perpendicular to the outflow axis of the central source.
Remarkably, the velocity field does not show a rotation signature but seems to
be dominated by a small radial motion. Thus, the ring may outline an accretion
shock, where in-falling gas hits the accretion disk.
Figure 10. The magnetic field configuration around the young massive star Cepheus A
HW2 and the location of the methanol regions from which the 3-D structure was
inferred. The figure shows a magnetic field almost perfectly perpendicular to the disk
through which matter is transported onto the star.
Vlemmings observed the same Cep A methanol masers with MERLIN to obtain
measurements of the magnetic field direction. Although the interpretation of
maser polarization can be quite complex, the measurements reveal a structured
large scale magnetic field perpendicular to the accretion disk in this high-mass
YSO. Field structure and strength reveal that magnetic fields can be the
dominant force in regulating the formation of high mass stars. This is an
important clue that the formation mechanism of high mass stars may resemble
that of less massive stars.
2.5 Stars and Interstellar Matter
2.5.1 Searching for the Siblings of the Sun
Bean (Leiden and Missouri State University), Portegies Zwart and Brown used
data from the Hipparcos Catalogue to conduct a preliminary search for stars that
were born in the same cluster as the Sun: the Sun's Siblings. They ran simple
simulations of a cluster dissolving during the Sun's lifetime as it orbits in the
potential of the Galaxy. The stars lost from the cluster in the simulation end up
along the cluster's orbit and their characteristics (space distribution and
kinematics) should identify candidate siblings of the Sun in the Hipparcos
Catalogue. Bean and coworkers made a further selection among the candidates
by looking for stars that photometrically appear to have the same age as the sun
and then examined these by looking up accurate age and metallicity estimates in
the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey catalogue. Somewhat as expected, no actual
siblings of the Sun were found but the study forms a good basis for future
searches with larger astrometric and photometric surveys such as will be
provided by the Gaia mission.
2.5.2 An Arc of Gas and Dust around the Young Star DoAr21
Hogerheijde, Panič, Merin, and Schouten obtained detailed images of the
circumstellar dust around the young star DoAr21. It had been suggested that
this star is surrounded by a disk, which has already cleared-out its inner region - a telltale sign of disk evolution and possible planet formation. However, the
VLT-SINFONI and VLT-VISIR images obtained by Hogerheijde et al. showed a
very different picture: instead of a disk, the molecular hydrogen and the warm
dust form an arc on just one side, at roughly 70-200 AU from the star. The most
likely explanation is that DoAr21 is not surrounded by a cleared-out disk, but
instead that it just happens to travel past a dense cloud condensation in the Rho
Ophiuchi cloud. DoAr21 is known to be bright in X-rays, and this radiation
should heat the surface of the condensation to hundreds if not thousands of K,
sufficient to explain the observed emission. The observations illustrated the
power of VISIR and SINFONI to probe the environment of young stars.
Figure 11. Different views of the circumstellar environment of DoAr21: a) image of the
star at 2.1 micron obtained with SINFONI using Adaptive Optics, clearly showing the
diffraction pattern of the telescope. b) same, zoomed out to a 8 arcsecond field of view. c)
image of the field at 19 micron showing the stellar photosphere and the emission of the
arc of warm dust 1 arcsecond NW of the star. d) image of the inner field around DoAr21
at the wavelength of the H2 line emission, with the stellar emission subtracted, showing
the absence of any circumstellar material in these scales. e) same, zoomed out to a 8
arcsecond field of view, clearly showing the arc of glowing H2 to the NW of the star. f)
comparison of the locations of the warm dust and glowing H2 gas.
2.5.3 The Misaligned DI Herculis System
Albrecht led a study using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect which reveals the
spin-orbital alignment in two binary star systems, a technique also used for
transiting extrasolar planets. In a Nature publication, they revealed that in one
of these systems, DI Herc, the orbital plane and spin-axis are strongly
misaligned. This unexpected result solved the 20-year old mystery of the slow
apsidal motion of this binary star system.
2.5.4 Evolved Stars: Planetary Nebula Progenitors?
Amiri, van Langevelde, and Vlemmings (Bonn Univ., Germany) studied the role
of magnetic fields in shaping the circumstellar envelope of evolved stars that are
Planetary Nebula (PNe) progenitors. MERLIN observations of the OH maser
region in the so-called water fountain source W43A revealed circular
polarization. Amiri and coworkers interpreted this as caused by the Zeeman
effect and found the strength to be consistent with previous determinations of
the magnetic field in the jet-like water maser emission [see Figure].
Using Effelsberg 100 m telescope, the same team discovered another 22 GHz
water maser in the supposedly dead OH/IR star, IRAS18455+0448 for which the
sudden disappearance of the OH 1612 MHz line had been reported previously.
Such a dying OH/IR star should not possess a water maser. An interesting
possibility is that the new masing spots originate further out in the circumstellar
envelope, making this the youngest proto-PNe ever detected.
Figure 12. Spatial distribution of OH and H_2O maser features in W43A. The offset
positions are with respect to the reference feature. H2O features are indicated by filled
circles and OH components are shown as triangles. Red and blue show the redshifted
and blueshifted features.
2.6 Structure of the Milky Way
2.6.1 The Galactic Magnetic Field
Nota and Katgert studied the large-scale magnetic field in the Galactic plane in
the fourth Galactic quadrant. They used published rotation measures of pulsars
and extragalactic sources. They made a special effort to identify those objects for
which the distribution of free electrons between observer and source is probably
far from uniform. Structure in the distribution of free electrons biases the
estimate of the strength of the magnetic field from rotation measures, especially
if the field reverses direction somewhere along the line of sight or has structure
on small scales.
The strength of the large-scale field was estimated by comparing the acceptable
data to model predictions. It appears that the large-scale field most likely
follows the spiral arms. For a large range of assumed arm properties (such as
pitch angle and arm-width), the large-scale field shows two robust reversals;
from Norma arm (counter-clockwise) to Norma-Crux interarm region
(clockwise), and from Norma-Crux interarm region to Crux arm (CCW). The
field strengths are typically a few μGauss. At the same time, Nota and Katgert
found evidence for a small-scale field that is a factor of two to three stronger
than the large-scale field.
2.6.2 Bulge Dynamics: Studing the Closest Galactic Bar
Soto, Kuijken, and Rich (UCLA, USA) constructed a model of the stellar
kinematics towards the bar in the Milky Way bulge. They based the model on
new measurements of proper motions and radial velocities from HST and the
ESO-VLT, respectively. The VLT observations used an integral field unit to take
spectra of very crowded star fields in the bulge, from which stellar spectra were
then extracted using the precise position information measured on the HST
images. Repeat HST images separated by 3-5 years allowed accurate proper
motions (equivalent to 30km/s accuracy at the distance of the bulge) to be
measured. A separate analysis of a data set of K giants revealed a significant
vertex deviation in the metal-rich stars which is a clear signature of bar-like
kinematics. In their master thesis project, Zeballos and Astraatmadja derived
proper motions from HST data in three new fields, at galactic longitudes
between 5 and 10 degrees.
2.6.3. Mass Function of the Arches Cluster
The Arches cluster is one of only a handful of young and massive starburst
clusters in the Milky Way. Located at the Galactic center, this cluster is a unique
object for studying star formation and early cluster dynamics. Harfst and
Portegies Zwart constructed an N-body counterpart of the Arches cluster by
systematically comparing a large number of simulation results with
observations. The observational data were provided by Stolte (Cologne
University, Germany). The results showed that the flattened mass function
observed today is the result of the dynamical evolution of the cluster combined
with a selection effect. The Arches cluster is consistent with a standard Salpeter
initial mass function and not, as was considered in earlier studies, an counterexample to the universality of the initial mass function.
Figure 13. Quality of fit to observation for varying model parameters, a value of unity
indicating the best fit. The two panels show results from models using a Salpeter and a
flat initial mass function (panel a) and b), respectively).
2.6.4 The Central Supermassive Black Hole
Levin, PhD students and international collaborators continued to work on issues
related to the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center, and to
gravitational-wave detection.
Madigan, Levin, and Hopman identified a new secular instability in eccentric
stellar disks around supermassive black holes. They showed that a combination
of coherent torques and retrograde precession of the stellar orbits amplifies
deviations of individual orbital eccentricities from the average, and thus drives
all eccentricities away from their initial value. This physical process is relevant
for the Galactic center, where massive stars are likely to form in eccentric disks
around the SgrA* black hole. They showed that the dynamical evolution of such
a disk results in several of its stars acquiring high (e > 0.99) orbital eccentricities.
Binary stars on such highly eccentric orbits would get tidally disrupted by the
SgrA* black hole, possibly producing both the S-stars, a cluster of young stars on
random orbits near the black hole, and hyper-velocity stars in the Galactic halo.
Levin, working with Genzel's group at MPE (Munich, Germany) has also
obtained new results on the geometry of the Galactic-Center stellar disks. This
work has shown that the clockwise disc is strongly warped and the
counterclockwise disc is dissolving.
2.7 Nearby Galaxies
2.7.1 Magellanic Clouds
To understand the impact of low metallicities on giant molecular cloud (MC)
structure, Israel as part of an international team working on Spitzer Space
Observatory data compared far-infrared dust and millimeter CO emission, and
dynamics in the star-forming complex N83 in the Small Magellanic Cloud wing.
Dust emission probes the total gas column independent of molecular line
emission and traces shielding from photo-dissociating radiation. They resolved
the relative structures of H2, dust, and CO within this a giant molecular cloud
complex, one of the first times such a measurement has been made in a lowmetallicity galaxy. The results indicated that the CO is photo-dissociated while
H2 self-shields in the outer parts of low-metallicity GMCs, implying that
dust/self shielding is the primary factor determining the distribution of CO
emission. The CO-to-H2 conversion factor averaged over the whole cloud is
very high, 20 to 55 times the local Galactic value. This factor also varies across
the complex, with the lowest values near the CO peaks. The bright CO emission
is occurs along line-of-sight with high extinction. A simple model in which CO
occurs in a smaller sphere nested inside a larger cloud roughly relates the H2
masses measured from CO kinematics and dust.
2.7.2 Star-Burst Modelling
Martinez Galarza, Groves, and Brandl developed a method to compare physical
models of star-burst spectral energy distributions with actual mid-infrared
spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. They accomplished their star-burst
modeling by implementing a reproducible least-square fitting method and
comparing the model spectra to the spatially averaged IRS spectral map of 30
Doradus, which is a very well-studied giant HII region complex in the Large
Magellanic Cloud. This approach can accurately constrain the relevant physical
parameters of the star formation activity in 30 Doradus in a comprehensive
manner, including the mass of the central cluster, the contribution of UCHII
regions, and the contribution of PDR material to the total luminosity and
2.7.3 Molecular Gas in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies
Israel completed studies of molecular gas in the centers of the nearby star-burst
galaxies NGC 278, NGC 660, NGC 3628, NGC 4631, and NGC 4666. The bright
CO emission required modeling with at least two distinct gas components,
although the physical condition differ from galaxy to galaxy. Relatively tenuous
(less than a 1000 per cc) and warm (~125 K) gas occurs in all galaxies and is
mixed with cooler (~20 K) and denser (~6000 per cc) gas. Molecular gas masses
within radii of 0.6 to 1.5 kpc are about 100 million solar masses, i.e. no more than
a few per cent of the dynamical mass in the same region. In all galaxy centers
there is less H2 than CO intensities would suggest.
Figure 14. Major-axis-velocity diagrams of the merger/starburst NGC 660 (right) and
the starburst galaxy NGC4631 (left). NGC660 exhibits strong circumnuclear CO,
whereas the edge-on NGC4631 only shows a number of giant molecular cloud complexes
distributed throughout the disk.
As co-coordinator of the JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) , Israel
and NGLS team members published a CO(3-2) study of four spiral galaxies in
the Virgo cluster ((NGC 4254, NGC4321, NGC 4569, and NGC 4579). The first
three have total molecular gas masses of about one billion solar masses and gas
depletion times of about 1.5 Gyr. NGC 4254 appears to have a smaller gas
depletion time (i.e. larger star formation rate) than the other, perhaps because it
is on its first passage through the Virgo Cluster. The interaction of NGC 4569
with the interacted medium appears to be directly affecting the dense starforming portion of the interstellar medium. NGC 4579, has weak CO(3-2)
emission although it is bright in the mid-infrared. Much of the central
luminosity in this galaxy may be due to the presence of a central AN.
The NGLS data of NGC 2403 were combined with Spitzer Space Telescope
infrared maps at wavelengths between 3 and 160 microns and VELA HI data.
In this very nearby Sabled galaxy, the dust surface density is a function of the
total hydrogen gas surface density and galactocentric radius. The gas-to-dust
ratio from ~100 in the nucleus to ~400 at 5.5 kpc radius. Its slope follows that of
the oxygen abundance, suggesting that metallicity strongly affects the gas-todust ratio within this galaxy. The CO(3-2) radial profile has an exponential scale
length identical to that of the (stellar continuum-subtracted) 8 micron PAH
emission. However, CO J=(3-2) and PAH 8 micron surface brightnesses are
uncorrelated on sub-kilo-parsec scales.
2.7.4 Infrared Study of the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39)
Brandl, Groves, van der Werf, Snijders, and Den Brok have studied the famous
Antennae galaxies NGC4038/39 with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer
Space Telescope. The spatially resolved spectra allowed a detailed study of the
luminosities, dust content, and emission properties of the super star-clusters in
the so-called overlap region. Molecular hydrogen was found to be rather
confined to the nucleus of NGC 4039, where shocks appear to be the dominant
excitation mechanism, and the southern part of the overlap region, where it
traces the most recent star-burst activity. The overall properties of the warm
molecular gas appear to be in good agreement with the findings in other starburst galaxies, which is in contrast to previously reported findings from ISO.
2.7.5 Atlas of High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Starburst Spectra
Together with collaborators at Cornell and Caltech, Brandl produced an atlas of
Spitzer/IRS high-resolution (R ~ 600) 10-37 micron spectra for 24 well-known
star-burst galaxies. The spectra are dominated by fine-structure lines (including
the high excitation [Ne V] line), molecular hydrogen lines, and emission bands
of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The spectra also revealed weak
hydrocarbon features at 10.6, 13.5, 14.2 μm, and a previously unreported
emission feature at 10.75 μm. An unidentified absorption feature at 13.7 ?m is
detected in many of the starbursts. From the mid-IR fine-structure lines and the
atomic hydrogen (H 7-6) line, the metallicities for 14 objects were derived. The
spectra of all starburst galaxies were combined to create a high signal-to-noise
ratio template, which was subsequently made available to the community.
2.7.6 The SuperMassive Black Hole in Centaurus A
In one of the first Guaranteed Time observing runs with SINFONI on the VLT,
Van der Werf, De Zeeuw, Cappellari, Reunanen, Davies (MPE, Munich,
Germany), Neumayer, and Rix (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany) observed the
Figure 15. Data-model comparison for the best-fitting three-integral model of CO-band
stellar kinematics in the nucleus of Cen A. Top two panels: the top row shows the
bisymmetrized and linearly interpolated 0.1 arcsec pixel SINFONI data. The second row
shows the best-fitting dynamical model predictions. The central bins excluded from the
fit are shown with white diamonds. Bottom two panels: same as in the top two panels,
for the 0.25 arcsec pixel SINFONI kinematics. For each quantity, the colour scale is the
same in the two instrumental configurations.
optically obscured nucleus of the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A. A nearby
star allowed adaptive optics corrections resulting in data with a K-band
resolution of 0.12 arcsec. The CO bandheads at 2.3 micron in this data set were
used to determine the central black hole mass from stellar kinematics. Due to
the very high signal-to-noise ratios, the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity
distribution was reliably extracted. Remarkably, the stars were found to
counter-rotate with respect to the gas. Using axisymmetric three-integral
models (see Figure), the team found the black hole mass to be 55+/-30 million
solar masses, in agreement with the earlier determination from the gas
kinematics. The result provided one of the cleanest gas versus stars comparisons
of MBH determination; it also brought Cen A into agreement with the general
MBH - sigma relation.
2.7.7 Using PN.S to Study Elliptical Galaxy Outskirts
The PN.S team (including Kuijken, Douglas, Arnaboldi, Capaccioli, Coccato,
Freeman, Gerhard, Merrifield, Napolitano, Noordermeer, Romanowsky) is in
the process of carrying out a study of elliptical galaxy halos. The PN.S is a
purpose-built narrow-band, two-arm slitless counter-dispersing spectrograph
that finds, and measures velocities of planetary nebulae (PNe) in external
galaxies from a single observation. The ongoing survey typically yields 100-200
PNe per galaxy, mostly beyond two effective radii from the center where
motions are dominated by the dark matter halo potential. The team has now
obtained good data sets for a dozen galaxies. Interestingly, a significant number
of galaxies exhibit a sharply declining velocity dispersion profile.
2.7.8 Nuclear Phenomena in Active Galaxies
De Vries, Snellen, Schilizzi, and Röttgering studied very young radio galaxies in
the expectation of shedding new light on the question why certain galaxies
become active and how the central activity influences the surrounding galaxy.
They showed that the expansion velocities of young radio sources depend on
their radio luminosity. Their analysis also indicated that the mortality rate of
radio-loud AGN is high during the earliest phase of their evolution.
Holt also continued working on radio galaxies at optical wavelengths, in
collaboration with Tadhunter (Sheffield, UK) and Morganti (Astron), among
others. They presented their results on the dominant ionization mechanisms in
the fast nuclear outflows in compact (young) radio galaxies.
Finally, Spoon (Cornell) and Holt reported the discovery of strongly blueshifted
mid-infrared neon emission lines in a sample of ULIRGs highlighting the
presence of outflows in these sources.
Jaffe, Oonk, and Hatch used the Hubble Space Telescope ACS to obtain evidence
for large-spread Far-Ultraviolet emission from cooling flow clusters. The source
of this emission is unknown; it may be young stars (unusual for elliptical
galaxies) or indirect emission from cosmic rays.
2.7.9 Nearby Clusters of Galaxies
Katgert and Biviano (Trieste, Italy ) calibrated the effects of projection (from 6-d
phase space to 2+1-d observation space) on the detection of kinematical and
dynamical substructure in the clusters of the ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey.
They used numerical simulations of clusters, in which all 6 phase-space
coordinates are available, so that the real kinematical and dynamical
substructure could be detected. These simulations were also projected into 2+1-d
pseudo-observations. Special attention was given to the question of a
meaningful cross-correlation between the properties of the substructure
observed in 6-d and in the 2+1-d projection.
2.8 Distant and High-Redshift Galaxies
Figure 16. GMRT radio (green), Chandra X-ray (blue/magenta) and HST (whitish/red)
observations of the merging cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 ($z=0.5$). The main central
radio emitting region is located at the interface between merging clusters. The
temperature of the X-ray gas in this interface region is relatively high, indicating that
shocks in the X-ray gas accelerate the radio emitting particles.
Radio Cluster Haloes
Diffuse radio emission in clusters, often classified as radio "relics" or "haloes",
trace regions with shocks and turbulence resulting from cluster merger events.
Van Weeren, Röttgering, Brüggen (Bremen, Germany), and Cohen (NRL,
Washington, USA) have carried out low-frequency radio observations at 610
MHz with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of diffuse ultra-steepspectrum sources and constructed the first sample of such sources associated
with clusters. They showed that smaller relics have steeper spectra and larger
relics are predominantly located in cluster outskirts while smaller relics
arecloser to cluster centers. They suspect that this is the consequence of larger
shock waves occurring mainly in lower-density regions and having larger Mach
Combining radio and Chandra X-ray observations of the merging cluster MACS
J0717.5+3745 (z=0.5), Van Weeren, Röttgering, Brüggen, and Cohen (NRL,
Washington, USA) discovered the most powerful radio halo known. The
coincidence of steep-spectrum radio emission with high temperature X-ray gas
(see Fig. 1) constituted strong evidence that the radio emitting particles are
accelerated in a merger-related shock wave.
2.8.2 Radio Structure of Abell 2256
Abell 2256 is a massive cluster at a redshift of 0.0581. It is presently merging
with a smaller sub-structure. At radio wavelengths, the cluster reveals a very
complex morphology showing a bright peripheral radio relic, a radio halo,
several complex relatively compact filamentary sources and “head-tail” sources.
Van Weeren, Intema, Oonk, Röttgering and Clarke (Washington, USA)
complemented deep 325 MHz GMRT radio continuum observations with WSRT
115-165 MHz observations and optical WHT imaging (See Figure previous
page). They discovered three diffuse elongated radio sources about 1 Mpc from
the clustercenter with extents of 170, 140 and 240 kpc, respectively. Their
extremely steep radio spectra suggests them to be the result of adiabatic
compression of fossil radio plasma caused by merger shocks. They concluded,
from the timescales related to AGN activity, synchrotron losses, and the
presence of shocks, that most massive clusters should possess similar sources.
An exciting possibility is that such sources will determine the general
appearance of clusters in the low-frequency, high-\ resolution radio maps
produced by LOFAR or LWA.
Figure 17. Left: 325 MHz GMRT radio map of the cluster A2256. Right: optical images
around the diffuse steep spectrum radio sources AG+AH(top right) and AI (bottom
rightl) composed out of V (blue), R (green), and I (red) band images.
2.8.3 Metallicities of Galaxies around Redshift of One
Brinchmann participated in two efforts to determine metallicities in galaxies at
redshifts between 0.5 and 1.3 from the Vimos Very Deep Survey. The effort led
by Lamareille (Toulouse, France) focused on the evolution of the massmetallicity relation with redshift using the same techniques as had previously
been applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). They found a modest
evolution in the relation out to z~0.7 and possibly some evidence for a change in
shape. The second effort, led by Pérez-Montero (Toulouse, France), focused on
calibrating a new metallicity indicator for use at redshifts out to z~1.3. This was
used to extend the study of the mass-metallicity relation to higher redshift, and
an evolution relative to the present-day Universe was found but no statistically
significant evolution was found between z~0.7 and z~1.
2.8.4 SDSS Galaxy Statistics
Brinchmann, mainly in collaboration with Christy Tremonti (U. Wisconsin,
USA), carried out a re-analysis of all SDSS DR7 spectra and derived physical
parameters for all galaxies in the SDSS DR7, about 1 million. This dataset has
been provided on-line at and is
a reference dataset for galaxy properties in the SDSS. Brinchmann also
participated in an effort to study the effect of lopsidedness on the properties of
galaxies in the SDSS. The effort was led by Reichard (Johns Hopkins, Baltimore,
USA). They showed that lopsidedness in galaxies correlates with residuals in the
mass-metallicity relation and that powerful AGN tend to be hosted by lopsided
galaxies but that this is an incidental correlation. The physical correlation
appears to be that the delivery of cold gas to the central regions of galaxies,
triggering star formation and black hole growth, is aided by the process that
produce lopsidedness.
2.8.5 Blue-to-Red Ratio in Massive Clusters
Hoekstra, Willis, Urquhart (both Univ. of Victoria, Canada) and Pierre (CEA,
France) studied the fraction of blue galaxies (relative to galaxies on the red
sequence) for a combined sample of massive clusters (from the Canadian Cluster
Comparison Project led by Hoekstra) and low mass systems discovered by the
XMM-LSS survey. The results, although not fully conclusive, suggest that
environment may play an important role in setting the blue fractions of galaxy
2.8.6 Galaxy Proto-Cluster Structure in the Early Universe
Miley, Hatch, Röttgering, Masschietto, Kuiper, and collaborators have been
using high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) to probe galaxy and cluster
formation in the early Universe. The very massive luminous high-z radio
galaxies are the likely progenitors of cDs and Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs).
Leiden studies focussed on (i) population and kinematic study of radio-selected
protoclusters from 2<z<4, (ii) studies of merging, AGN feedback and galaxy
downsizing in the massive cD progenitor hosts and (iii) preparation for a search
for z>6 HzRGs with LOFAR (potential probes of the Epoch of Reionization).
To unravel the history of protoclusters, it is essential to study galaxies of
different ages, masses and dust content. Lyman-alpha excess galaxies and
Lyman break-galaxies are dominated by young dust-free stellar populations,
while Balmer-break galaxies are dominated by older stars. The Leiden group has
shown that Lyman-alpha is a powerful tracer of the young star-bursting
population in z>2 protoclusters. They were allocated an ESO large project with
the tunable OSIRIS camera on the new Grantecan Telescope to make a Lymanalpha kinematic study of 19 HzRGs at 2<z<3.5. Highlights of these studies are
the population studies of Maschietto and collaborators and Kuiper on the
protocluster MRC0316-257 at z=3.1, and Overzier and colleagues on
protoclusters at z>4.
Maschietto et al selected 13 candidate [OIII] emitters in a 1 Mpc2 region around
the z=3.1 radio galaxy, and followed up by spectroscopic observations. Three
[OIII] emitters have velocities within a few hundred km/s of each other, but
blue-shifted by about 2100 km/s from both the radio galaxy and the protocluster
Lyman-alpha emitters previously detected by Venemans et al. These results
indicate that the radio-selected protocluster is forming at the centre of a larger
superstructure with a size of 60 co-moving Mpc.
Kuiper and colleagues took this a step further and analyzed in detail four
distinct populations within this z>3.1 protocluster: the young stellar populations
pinpointed by Lyman alpha emitters and Balmer break candidates and the older
populations observed as [OIII] emitters and Balmer break candidates. They
found a radial spatial segregation within the protocluster. The galaxies with the
highest masses and star formation rates are located losest to the radio galaxy.
Thus, the protocluster environment already influences galaxy evolution at z~3.
2.8.7 The Spiderweb Galaxy
Miley and his collaborators have shown that HzRGs have many of the
properties expected from progenitor cD galaxies - clumpy optical morphologies,
spectra indicative of extreme star formation and large stellar masses. The best
studied example is the spectacular Spiderweb Galaxy at z=2.2, with a mass of
about 1012 solar masses, among the largest known. The galaxy is surrounded by
a giant (200 kpc) Lyman-alpha halo and embedded in dense hot ionized gas
with an ordered magnetic field. It is associated with a 3 Mpc-sized structure of
galaxies, of derived mass in excess of 2x1014 solar masses, a presumed
antecedent of a local rich cluster. HST studies by Hatch et al revealed
information about merging, downsizing, AGN feedback and intergalactic star
formation. For the Spiderweb Galaxy comparison of the UV luminosity (young
stars) with the IR luminosity (old stars) implied that most of the mass had
already assembled by z~2.2, consistent with downsizing scenarios. Intriguingly,
Hatch and colleagues showed that downsizing may also be occurring within the
Spiderweb itself. Although the less massive satellite galaxies contain only 30% of
the total mass, they are responsible for about 75% of the star formation.
Figure 18. Left. Deep HST/ACS image of the Spiderweb Galaxy at the center of the
MRC 1138-262 protocluster at z = 2.2, with VLT Lyman alpha contours (blue)
delineating the gaseous nebula and the VLA 8GHz radio contours (red) superimposed
on the composite ACS image. The gaseous nebula is extended by ~200 kpc and
comparable in size with the largest cD galaxies in the local Universe.
Right. A H-band HST/NICMOS image at ~500A rest-frame. Red circles indicate red
galaxies with little UV continuum. Note differences between the ACS image (young
population) and the NICMOS image (old population). Spectral comparisons and IFU
spectroscopy are being used to disentangle the history of star formation and structure
Hatch and collaborators also found that about 40% of the UV light from the
Spiderweb is in a diffuse intergalactic component, probably produced by
intergalactic star formation at rates of 60 solar masses per year. This discovery
posed several questions. How ubiquitous is the extended light and what role
does it play in massive galaxy evolution? Are extended stars produced by gas
that has been stripped from the satellite galaxies?
Figure 19. On the right are the spectral energy distributions of galaxies within the
Spiderweb Galaxy according to the decomposition shown at the top lefl. The first SED is
that of the central massive radio galaxy (Galaxy 1) and the other SEDs are those of 18
satellite galaxies. The derived mass of the Spiderweb is ~10M, of which 70% is in the
central object, whereas 75% of the star formation appears to occur in the less massive
satellite galaxies. These data are presently being complemented by IFU spectroscopy.
Bottom left is a simulation of the centre of the Spiderweb protocluster by Saro et al. for
2.8.8 Faint Submillimeter Galaxies
Van der Werf, Knudsen (MPIfR, Bonn, Germany) and Kneib (LAS, Marseilles,
France) studied the molecular (CO) properties of intrinsically faint
Submillimeter Galaxies, gravitationally lensed by the massive cluster A2218.
With the Plateau de Bure Interferometer they detected CO J=2-1 and J=4-3
emission from two SMGs at redshifts z=1.034 and z=3.187. They used the
measurements to estimate molecular gas masses and star formation efficiencies,
the results being consistent with the local L(FIR)-L(CO) relation. One of the
objects had the lowest far-infrared luminosity of all SMGs with a known redshift
and is one of the few high-redshift LIRGs whose properties can be estimated
prior to ALMA.
2.8.9 Massive starburst galaxies at redshift 2
Van der Werf also collaborated with a team led by Huang (CfA, Boston, USA) in
a study of infrared colour-selected galaxies. The selection criteria efficiently
isolated massive star-forming galaxies at a redshift of approximately 2. The
fractional luminosity in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) features for
the new sample is the highest ever seen, about three times higher than in local
starbursts. HST images show that most objects have very extended
morphologies in the rest-frame ultraviolet band. The resulting sample
constitutes the first starburst-dominated ULIRG sample at high redshift with
total infrared luminosity measured directly from FIR and millimeter
photometry, and as such gives us the first accurate view of broadband spectral
energy distributions for starburst galaxies at extremely high luminosity and at
all wavelengths.
2.8.10 Lyman-BreakGalaxies at 3<z<5
Hildebrandt and coworkers selected the largest samples of high-redshift (3<z<5)
galaxies to date, using Lyman-break imaging data from the Canada-FranceHawaii-Telescope Legacy Survey. They measured the clustering of the ~80 000
star-forming galaxies to unprecedented accuracy which yielded estimates of the
masses of the dark matter halos hosting those Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs).
They used the same sample to establish a new observational technique of using
weak gravitational lensing to study cosmology. They succeeded in detecting the
cosmic magnification effect in the LBGs, the first time this was done with normal
galaxies. This effect introduces characteristic angular cross-correlations between
galaxies at low and at high redshift due to weak lensing by the foreground
galaxies. Hildebrandt and coworkers showed that the signal scales with
magnitude and redshift as expected from lensing theory (see Fig. 1).
2.8.11 Distant Galaxies and the Red Sequence
Damen, Franx, and collaborators found that the specific star formation rates of
massive galaxies out to z=3 increases rapidly with redshift (roughly like (1+z)5).
The increase is similar for all masses, but galaxies with higher masses have
lower average specific star formation rates. The observed high specific star
formation rates lie well above the levels that can be reproduced by the current
models for galaxy formation that generally predict specific star formation rates
on the order of 1/t(hubble).
Williams, Quadri, Franx, and collaborators used the Ultra Deep Near-IR Survey
and found that galaxies with little star formation can be identified in a red
sequence out to z=2 by combining the near-IR photometry with optical and 3-5
micron photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the rest-frame U-V, V-J
color-color diagram, the star-forming galaxies lie in an area different from the
“quiescent galaxies”. This new diagnostic is confirmed by using the mid-IR
emission at 24 micron, which shows strong emission from star-forming galaxies
and none from the quiescent galaxies.
Holden (UC Santa Cruz, USA), Franx, and collaborators showed that early-type
galaxies in high-z clusters have the same ellipticity distribution as early-type
galaxies in clusters at low-z. This suggests strongly that the average bulge-todisk ratio is rather similar, and does not evolve. It also indicates that earlier
efforts in trying to distinguish ellipticals and S0s are not effective. Taylor, Franx,
and collaborators showed that red galaxies can be identified out to a redshift of
two. Although photometric errors hamper the definition of red sequence
galaxies at z=2, it is likely that a significant fraction of massive galaxies were
‘’red” at that redshift.
2.8.12. Evolving Galaxies in the Distant Universe
Kriek (Princeton Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators obtained a very deep
spectrum of a compact, massive galaxy at z=2.1. The spectrum shows clear
absorption lines, indicating a 2 Gyr old galaxy. The galaxy must have formed at
significantly higher redshift. In addition, the galaxy had weak liner-like
emission lines, indicating the presence of an AGN. Van Dokkum (Yale Univ.
USA), Kriek, and Franx measured the velocity dispersion to be 510 +- 100 km/s.
The error on this measurement is large but the galaxy clearly is truely massive,
and lies far from the local mass-size or velocity dispersion – size relation.
Kriek, Franx, and collaborators presented high resolution imaging of z=2.3
galaxies with previously obtained rest-frame optical spectroscopy. There is a
clear separation of galaxies into star-forming, large systems and compact
quiescent systems showing that the equivalent of the Hubble Sequence is
present at that redshift. Brammer (Yale Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators
used a new, medium band near-IR survey to derive very accurate photometric
redshifts and rest-frame colors. The survey shows a distinct red sequence for the
galaxies without star formation. These galaxies can be selected based on their
spectral energy distributions, or based on the absence of mid-IR emission as
measured by the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Bouwens (Univ of Santa Cruz, USA), Franx, and collaborators analyzed the
properties of high redshift galaxies and found that high-z galaxies become bluer
at higher redshift (from z=3 to z=7), and at lower intrinsic magnitude. The
highest redshift galaxies are extremely blue, and hard to model. Muzzin (Yale
Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators found consistently high masses,
independent of model assumptions used, for the very compact galaxies at z=2.3.
Hence it is very hard to explain their small sizes by postulating that their masses
are overestimated by a large factor.
Marchesini (Yale Univ., USA), Franx, and collaborators studied the evolution of
the stellar mass function from z=3.5 to low-z. They specifically studied the
uncertainties due to random and systematic effects, including the effect of
metallicity, extinction law, stellar population synthesis model, and initial mass
function. They show that these uncertainties dominate all other uncertainties.
2.8.13 The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS)
Van der Werf participated in a new large-area submillimeter survey that was
carried out with the LABOCA 870 micron bolometer camera at the APEX
telescope, by a team led by Smail (Durham, UK), Weiss (MPIfR, Bonn, Germany)
and Walter (MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany ). The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimetre
Survey (LESS) covers the full 30' x 30' field size of the Extended Chandra Deep
Field South and is thus the largest contiguous deep submillimeter survey
undertaken to date. In total 126 SMGs were detected with a significance level
above 3.7 sigma. The field is sufficiently large that it can be shown that the shape
of the source counts is not uniform across the field. Instead, it steepens in
regions with low SMG density. This survey also allowed an investigation of the
clustering of SMGs in the ECDFS by means of a two-point correlation function,
providing evidence for strong clustering on angular scales <1' with a
significance of 3.4 sigma. Another result from this survey was the discovery of
the most distant SMG known today with a spectroscopic redshift (z=4.76).
2.8.14 Weak Lensing in the COSMOS Field
Schrabback, Hoekstra, Kuijken, Hildebrandt, Semboloni, and Velander
completed a comprehensive analysis of the large-scale mass distribution in the
HST map of the COSMOS field, together with collaborators in the EU-funded
DUEL network. A key development was the inclusion of accurate photometric
redshifts for large numbers of galaxies, allowing a measurement of the evolution
of the growth of large-scale structure and a 3-D tomographic lensing analysis.
For the first time, they could show that the weak shear of distant galaxies scales
with redshift as expected in the standard LambdaCDM model. This established
the combination of weak lensing and photometric redshifts as a cosmological
probe. The results of the 1.6-square degree survey confirmed the accelerated
expansion of the universe, and demonstrated the potential of all-sky space-based
weak lensing and photometric redshift surveys for precise measurements of the
properties of the dark energy.
Figure 20. Constraints on cosmological parameters from our three-dimensional analysis
of weak gravitational lensing distortions in the Hubble Space Telescope COSMOS
Survey. The ontours indicate the 68%, 95% (and 99.7%) confidence regions. Left:
Constraints on the matter density Omegam and amplitude of matter fluctuations sigma8
for a standard, spatially flat
Lambda-CDM cosmology. The COSMOS lensing
constraints are nearly rthogonal and hence complementary to WMAP5 results from the
cosmic microwave background. Right: Constraints on the density of matter Omegam and
vacuum nergy OmegaLambda for a Lambda-CDM cosmology with curvature from
COSMOS. From these constraints we compute a 96% probability for cosmic
acceleration, providing further support for the presence of dark (or vacuum) energy.
2.8.15 Magnification Mapping of the Large-Scale Structure
From the 4 square-degree CFHTLS-deep survey, Hildebrandt and collaborators
(including members of the Leiden lensing group led by Kuijken and Hoekstra)
compiled a large sample of high redshift Lyman-break galaxies. They
convincingly demonstrated that these sources are correlated with foreground
galaxies, due to the magnifying action of gravitational lensing. Though the effect
is statistically less powerful than weak shear measurements, it can be applied to
distant unresolved galaxies and therefore provides a complementary way of
measuring the matter distribution from gravitational lensing, particularly for
sources at high redshift. The study also served as an excellent qualification of
photometric redshifts, which are a crucial component of any future projects to
probe the cosmological model using gravitational lensing.
2.8.16 Radio Haloes as Tracers of Cosmological Structure
Radio haloes provide one of the most important pieces of evidence for nonthermal components in large scale structure. Statistics of their properties can be
used to discriminate among various models for their origin. Cassano, Brunetti
(Bologna, Italy), Röttgering, and Brüggen (Bremen, Germany) carried out Monte
Carlo simulations to model the formation and evolution of radio haloes in a
cosmological framework. First, they computed the fraction of galaxy clusters
that show radio halos and derived the luminosity function of radio halos. Then,
they established differential and integrated number count distributions of radio
haloes at low radio frequencies with the goal of exploring the potential of the
upcoming LOFAR surveys. By restricting themselves to clusters at redshifts
z<0.6, they found that the planned LOFAR all sky survey at 120 MHz may
detect about 350 giant radio haloes.
2.9. Simulations, models, theory
Figure 21. Logarithmic rendering of the gas density in a simulated massive binary star
in which both components are losing mass. The orbital eccentricity is 0.8, the mass ratio
1/4. Left: gas density at apastron. Right: gas density just after periastron. Due to the
high eccentricity, the double-discontinuity layer beteen the stars is pierced by both stars
on their closest approach, producing a very intricate entanglement of intersecting
2.9.1 Double-Winds in Eta Carinae
Icke continued his exploration of the hydrodynamic behaviour of double-wind
massive binaries, in preparation for his NWO project on the extreme binary star
Eta Carinae. This system is one of the most complex and fascinating objects in
our Galaxy: a supermassive interacting binary at the centre of a bipolar nebula
expanding at about 500 km/s.
The investigation aims at finding the
mechanisms behind Eta Car's appearance and behaviour. Icke has already
extensively explored the general types of flow pattern expected.
2.9.2. Pulsar Timing and Gravitational waves
Van Haasteren and Levin continued their work on Pulsar Timing Array (PTA)
data analysis. They developed, together with McDonald and Lu (CITA, Toronto,
Canada), a Bayesian analysis method to detect the stochastic gravitational-wave
background, thought to be emitted by an ensemble of supermassive black-hole
binaries in galactic centers. Application of the analysis method to data of the
European Pulsar Timing Array has led to the determination of a gravitationalwave background upper limit. van Haasteren and Levin also showed that the
general relativistic effect of gravitational wave memory can be used to detect
physical mergers of supermassive black holes in distant galactic nuclei.
2.9.3 AMUSE: Astrophysics Multipurpose Software Environment
The core development team of AMUSE (Van Elteren, Pelupessy, Marosvolgyi
and de Vries) released the first version of the AMUSE package for
computational astrophysics. The initial release consisted of the basic framework
and initial implementations of codes in the gravitational dynamics and stellar
evolution domains. Later releases will also include support for hydrodynamics
and radiative transport.
MUSE is a software framework for combining existing computational tools for
different astrophysical domains into a single multiphysics, multiscale
application and facilitates the coupling of existing codes written in different
languages by providing inter-language tools and by specifying an interface
between each module and the framework. This approach allows scientists to use
combinations of codes to solve highly-coupled problems without the need to
write new codes for other domains or significantly alter their existing codes.
MUSE currently incorporates the domains of stellar dynamics, stellar evolution
and stellar hydrodynamics for studying generalized stellar systems. MUSE
treats multi-scale and multi-physics systems in which the time- and size-scales
are well separated. The current MUSE code base is publicly available as open
source at
2.9.4 N-body simulations on Graphical Processing Units
Pelupessy has examined star formation and the evolution of the molecular gas
phase using computer simulations. He developed a novel method to include the
multiscale physics inherent in these processes into galaxy-scaled simulations.
This new method reproduces fundamental relations between star formation, gas
surface densities and observed molecular gas fractions.
Gravitational direct N-body simulations can be performed using the commercial
NVIDIA GeForce 8800GTX Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The force
evaluation of the N-body problem is implemented in CUDA using the GPU to
speed-up the calculations. Portegies Zwart and collaborators tested the
implantation on three different N-body codes, two direct N-body integration
codes, using the 4th order predictor-corrector Hermite integrator with block
time-steps, and one Barnes-Hut treecode, which uses a 2nd order leapfrog
integration scheme. The integration of the equations of motions for all codes
was implemented in C on the host computer.
For simulations involving more than 512 particles the GPU outperforms the
special purpose GRAPE-6Af, if some softening in the force calculation is
accepted. Without softening and for very small integration time steps the
GRAPE still outperforms the GPU. Portegies Zwart and co-workers concluded
that modern GPUs offer an attractive alternative to GRAPE-6Af special purpose
2.9.5 Shock-Processing of PAHs
Micelotta, Tielens, and Jones (IAS, Paris, France) have studied the processing of
large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in interstellar shocks
and in the hot gas associated with supernova remnants. Their analysis used a
detailed model of the physical interaction of energetic electrons and ions with
large molecules and established PAH molecule destruction timescales of 100
million years in the interstellar medium. The widespread association of PAH
emission with hot, X-ray emitting gas reveals the importance of neutral material
entrainment by explosions and fast stellar winds. PAHs act thus as colorful dye
markers for such phenomena.
Tielens collaborated with Boersma (RU Groningen), Allamandola, Bauschlicher
(both NASA Ames Research Center, CA, USA), and Peeters (UNO) in a study of
the emission characteristics of large PAH molecules at far-infrared wavelengths,
using the NASA Ames data base of PAH infrared spectra. The results showed
that the so-called drum head modes of PAHs are very characteristic of molecular
size rather than molecular structure. Observations with the PACS instrument on
board the Herschel Space Observatory are expected to provide key information
on the population of large PAH molecules in space.
Figure 22. Left: A schematic illustrating the lowest frequency mode of the coronene
molecule (C_24H_12). In this drumhead mode, all atoms are in a concerted motion.
Right: The frequency of the drumhead mode as a function of the PAH area. Triangles
and diamonds mark species of the pyrene-like and coronene-like families, respectively.
Molecular sizes are in the range (16 to 130 C-atoms) that is thought to dominate the
interstellar PAH family. The dashed line indicates the frequencies expected for an
unclamped drum with a rigidity characteristic of PAHs.
2.9.6. Diagnosing the Excitation of Extragalactic Ionized Gas.
Groves created a new emission line tool for diagnosing the excitation
mechanism of ionized gas in galaxies. His code, named ITERA (IDL Tool for
Emission-line Ratio Analysis) enables users to compare observed emission line
ratios with existing libraries of photoionization and shock models, involving
supernova, AGN and starforming regions. ITERA was put publicly on-line at In addition, his on-going work with
Jonsson (CfA, Harvard, USA), included the implementation of his star formation
region SEDs in a pre-existing 3-D radiative transfer code (SUNRISE). The code
can be applied to hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies creating full UV-to-IR
spectra of both quiescent and merging galaxies viewed at any inclination, on
either global or kiloparsec scales.
Figure 23 Emission-line diagnostic diagram form ITERA, showing Starburst (left grid)
and AGN (right grid) models overlaying the distribution of emission-line galaxies from
2.9.7. SIMPLEX and Cosmic reionization
Paardekooper developed a transport scheme for the SimpleX radiative transfer
method that ensures correct photon transport in the low optical depth regime.
This new transport scheme shows the results of standard test problems to
correspond much better with the analytical solution (if available) and the results
of other, more conventional radiative transfer methods. At the same time, the
advantages of SimpleX remain, such as the high computational speed and the
independence on the number of sources thereof. Paardekooper then used
SimpleX to study the escape fractions of ionizing photons from high-redshift
dwarf galaxies, which is an important parameter in models of cosmic
reionisation. By post-processing dwarf galaxy models with realistic supernova
and stellar wind feedback and star formation, Paardekooper and Pelupessy
showed that high-z dwarf galaxies played an important role in early stages of
cosmic reionisation.
Figure 24. Translation from a density field to a representative point set of 1 105 points.
Left panel: cut through a cosmological density field; colours indicate number density on
a logarithmic scale. Middle panel: Using a sampling function that results in a linear
scaling of the point-to-point distance with the mean free path of the photons. Right
panel: Using our improved sampling function that incorporates information about the
grid in order to get a point set optimized for SimpleX.
Kruip devised a method to translate density/opacity fields from
hydrodynamical simulation to an unstructured Delaunay grid optimized for the
SimpleX radiative transfer method. Such a scheme paves the way to the
coupling of SimpleX to hydrocodes. He also implemented multi-frequency
support in SimpleX and substantially extended the physics module of the
2.9.8. Photo-ionization and Cooling Rates of Astrophysical Plasmas
Wiersma, Schaye, and Smith (Univ. Colorado, USA) investigated the effects of
photo-ionization of heavy elements by the meta-galactic ionizing background
and those of variations in relative abundances on the cooling rates of optically
thin gas in ionization equilibrium. They found that photo-ionization by the
background radiation strongly reduces the net cooling rates at gas densities and
temperatures typical of the shock-heated intergalactic medium and of protogalaxies. They concluded that both photo-ionization by the ionizing background
and heavy elements need to be taken into account in order for cooling rates to be
correct within an order of magnitude, and that more accurate rates require
departures of the relative abundances from solar to be taken into account.
2.9.9. Keeping the Universe Ionised
Pawlik, Schaye, and Van Scherpenzeel conducted a suite of cosmological
simulations to calculate the clumping factor of the IGM at redshifts z >>= 6. The
critical star formation rate density required to keep the intergalactic hydrogen
ionised depends crucially on the average rate of recombinations in the
intergalactic medium (IGM), which is proportional to this clumping factor.
They found that photo-ionization heating by the ultraviolet background
strongly reduced the clumping factor as the increased pressure support
smoothed out small-scale density fluctuations, making it easier to keep the
universe ionised. They also found that the observed population of star-forming
galaxies at z ~ 6 is sufficient to keep the IGM ionized if it was reheated at
redshifts earlier than z = 9 and the fraction of ionizing photons escaping starforming regions to ionise the IGM exceeds 0.2.
Figure 25. The effect of photo-heating on the gas density distribution of the intergalactic
medium at redshift z=6. The figure shows the gas density contrast in a slice of comoving
3.125 Mpc/h on a side through a hydrodynamical simulation at redshift z = 6. The
simulation on the left did not include reionization, while for the one shown on the right
the ionizing background radiation was turned on at z = 9. The reheating associated with
reionization strongly suppresses the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium. The
associated reduction of the recombination rate strongly reduces the star formation rate
required to keep the universe ionized.
Pawlik and Schaye investigated the interplay between photo-heating associated
with cosmic reionization and kinetic feedback from core-collapse supernovae in
a set of cosmological simulations. They showed that photo-heating and
supernova feedback mutually amplify each other's ability to suppress the highredshift cosmic star formation rate.
Figure 26. The relation between black hole mass and dark matter halo mass. The grey
pixels show the simulation predictions. The solid, red line withj a slope of 1.55 marks
the observational determination of the MBH vs MHalo relation. The dotted, red lines show
the observational 1-sigma errors. The slope and its scatter suggest that halo binding
energy rather than halo mass determines black hole masses.
2.9.10 SuperMassive Black Holes and Feedback from AGNs
Booth and Schaye presented a method that self-consistently tracks the growth of
supermassive black holes (BHs) and the feedback from active galactic nuclei
(AGN) in cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. Because cosmological
simulations at present lack both the resolution and the physics to model the
multiphase interstellar medium, they tend to strongly underestimate the BondiHoyle accretion rate. To allow low-mass BHs to grow, it is therefore necessary to
increase the predicted Bondi-Hoyle rates in star-forming gas by large factors.
Booth and Schaye found that the freedom introduced by the need to increase the
predicted accretion rates by hand, is the most significant source of uncertainty in
the model. Their simulations demonstrated that supermassive BHs are able to
regulate their growth by releasing a fixed amount of energy for a given halo
mass, independent of the assumed efficiency of AGN feedback, which sets the
normalization of the BH scaling relations. They further showed that, regardless
of whether BH seeds are initially placed above or below the BH scaling relations,
they grow on to the same scaling relations. Finally, they demonstrated that AGN
feedback efficiently suppresses star formation in high-mass galaxies.
2.9.11 Formation of High-Redshift SuperMassive Black Holes
Schleicher, Spaans and Glover examined the chemical conditions for black hole
formation in massive primordial galaxies at z>10. They focussed on the effects
of Lyman-alpha trapping and photo-dissociating radiation from nearby galaxies.
They found that the combination of these effects can keep the primordial gas at
temperatures larger than 5000 K during the collapse, which may give rise to
large accretion rates on the central clump. However, as the temperature slightly
decreases with density, fragmentation cannot be totally suppressed. The
formation of a central clump may thus be accompanied by a nuclear starburst.
2.9.12 Chemical Enrichment in Cosmological Simulations
Wiersma, Schaye, Theuns (Durham, UK), Dalla Vecchia, and Tornatore (Trieste,
Italy) presented an implementation of stellar evolution and chemical feedback
for smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. They considered the timed
release of individual elements by both massive (Type II supernovae and stellar
winds) and intermediate-mass stars (Type Ia supernovae and asymptotic giant
branch stars). A comparison of nucleosynthetic yields taken from the literature
indicated that relative abundance ratios may be reliable only to factors of two,
even for fixed initial mass functions. Abundances relative to iron were found to
be even less certain as Type Ia supernova rates are poorly known. Wiersma et
al. investigated, using several large simulations, the evolution of the distribution
of heavy elements and found them to be in reasonably good agreement with
observational constraints. In the local universe, most of the metals are locked up
in stars. The gaseous metals are distributed over a very wide range of densities
and temperatures. The shock-heated warm-hot intergalactic medium has a
relatively high metallicity of 0.1 solar that evolves only weakly. It is therefore an
important reservoir of metals. Any census aiming to account for most of the
metal mass will have to take a wide variety of objects and structures into
2.9.13 How to Study X-Ray Dominated Regions with ALMA
Schleicher, Spaans and Klessen looked into the possibilities of detecting the
central X-ray-dominated regions (XDRs) of high-redshift quasars with ALMA.
They showed that the expected sensitivity and angular resolution of ALMA
should be sufficient to detect and at least marginally resolve such XDRs. The
XDRs can be distinguished from starbursts on the same spatial scales by using
the CO line transition ladder. Schleicher and colleagues estimated the expected
CO line fluxes, as well as various fine-structure lines, illustrating their
dependence on X-ray luminosity, cloud column density and gas volume density.
They compared their models to observations of local and high-redshift objects
such as NGC 1068, APM 08279 and SDSS J114816.64+525150.3. They found that
both a cold low-density component and a warm high-density component were
required to explain the observed line fluxes of the latter.
Figure 27. Left: The third-order moment of the aperture mass statistics in the COSMOS
galaxy catalogue. The black squares show the amplitude of the cosmic shear signal
whereas the red triangles show the amplitude of the non-gravitational shear component,
which should be zero. The pink solid line shows the amplitude of the third-order aperture
mass statistics for a WMAP5 best-fit cosmology. The agreement between the WMAP5
best-fit model and the measured signal is remarkable. Right: Likelihood analysis
performed using the third-order moment of the aperture mass statistics. The yellow
(pink) region indicates the 68% (95%) confidence region of the value for the matter
parameter, Om and the amplitude of the power spectrum of matter fluctuations, s8
2.9.14 Cosmic Shear
Semboloni, Sanaz Vafaei, and Van Waerbeke (both UBC, Vancouver, Canada)
have been working on the potential of three-point cosmic shear statistics
measurements. These are a powerful tool to investigate the evolution of the
power spectrum of matter fluctuations on strongly non-linear regime and they
can provide competitive constraints on cosmological parameters. Semboloni has
recently completed the first three-point cosmic shear analysis using data from a
galaxy catalogue produced by Schrabback, who was able to estimate highly
accurate galaxy shapes in COSMOS images.
2.10 Instruments and facilities
2.10.1 The Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR)
LOFAR is a next-generation radio telescope that will observe in the frequency
range of 10 to 240 MHz, presently being built by a Dutch consortium led by
ASTRON. At the end of the year, hardware of 20 stations had been placed in the
fields and connected to the central processor.
Rollout of the LOFAR
international stations also made excellent progress with the Effelsberg station
coming fully on-line and the Tautenburg and Unterweilenbach stations only
awaiting HBA tiles. In parallel with the station rollout, deployment of the first
phase of LOFAR dedicated processing hardware was completed. This provided
10 TFLOPS of processing power and 2 PB of storage space. A first version of the
LOFAR imaging pipeline was installed on the new hardware and started to be
used to support commissioning activities.
The Leiden LOFAR survey team (Röttgering, Miley, Snellen, Mohan, Birzan,
Rafferty, van der Tol, Intema, van Weeren, and van Bemmel) concentrated on (i)
testing and commissioning of LOFAR data, (ii) building software for the source
extraction and characterization and for simulation of the LOFAR sky and (iii)
ionospheric calibration. Birzan, Rafferty and van Weeren were deeply involved
in taking and reducing first LOFAR data and testing the BSS reduction pipeline (
Figure below). While Birzan concentrated on reducing VLA data with BBS as a
test of the software system, Rafferty worked on comparing the various methods
to deal with Radio Frequency Interference. Mohan worked on his source
extraction pipeline. The methods are now sufficiently robust that they deliver
science quality source lists. Intema and Van der Tol designed and tested a
method to take out ionospheric disturbances from low-frequency radio data on
the basis of a 2-D ionospheric model. Extensive testing on VLA 74 MHz data
showed improvements of up to a factor of 2 in dynamic range over classical
Figure 28. Part of an image of the field of 3C196 obtained with five stations. The
observations were made with a 24 MHz bandwidth spread over a 30-75 MHz frequency
range. The full field of view is ~ 6 x 3 degrees of which only 20% is shown here.
In collaboration with the MeqTree team at ASTRON, Van Bemmel has
developed the SimCa module to simulate the impact of ionospheric turbulence
and waves on LOFAR observations. Under average ionospheric conditions,
coherence is lost below 15 MHz. This implies that observing at low frequencies
is only possible under excellent ionospheric conditions. Van Bemmel also tested
the LOFAR pipeline software (BBS) in simulations. This uncovered some
interesting and not yet understood behaviour in the package, demonstrating the
power of using simulated data for software testing.
Cohen (NRL, Washington, USA) and Röttgering used data from the nearly
complete 74 MHz VLS Survey of the entire sky visible to the VLA telescope in
Socorro, New Mexico to study the the impact of the ionosphere on lowfrequency radio observations. They obtained a detailed characterisation of the
dependence of the median differential refraction on source pair separation,
elevation, and time of day.
They found large, but geometrically predictable at elevation effects that can be
removed analytically with a 'thin-shell"'model of the ionosphere. They also
noted significantly greater ionospheric spatial variations during the day than at
night. The diurnal variations appeared to affect the larger angular scales to a
greater degree indicating that they are caused by disturbances on relatively
large scales (hundreds, rather than tens of kilometres).
2.10.2 ALLEGRO: the ALMA Regional Center Node in the Netherlands
The year 2009 has been pivotal in the construction of ALMA, the Atacama Large
Millimeter / Submillimeter Array. In Chile, aantenna assembly progressed
steadily, and the first three antennae arrived at the Llano de Chajnantor. All
receiver bands have seen first light on the sky, and three-element interferometry
was established by the end of the year. At Leiden Observatory, the ALMA
Regional Center node (Allegro, ALMA Local Expertise Group) led by
Hogerheijde took further shape with a grant for long-term funding from NWO,
and the hiring of Brinch as Allegro postdoc. In addition to contributions to
testing of the ALMA software, Allegro has focused on the use of the expandedSMA as a testbed for submillimeter interferometry and the use of the CHAMP+
receiver on APEX for exploring the submillimeter sky. CO line measurements of
a sample of AGB stars have been performed with this instrument, and analysed
to form a calibration set for ALMA.
2.10.3 The expanded Submillimeter Array (eSMA)
The eSMA combines the dishes of the SMA, JCMT and CSO on the summit of
Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA) into a single facility, providing enhanced sensitivity
and spatial resolution owing to the increased collecting area at the longest
baselines. Until ALMA early science observing (2011), the eSMA will be the
facility capable of the highest angular resolution observations at 345 GHz. In
2009, development of the eSMA progressed toward making it a working
interferometer, involving Tilanus (JCMT), van Langevelde, Hogerheijde, and
Van Dishoeck, together with colleagues from SMA and CSO. Successful science
demonstration observations were obtained, followed by numerous tests of the
receivers and correlator to fully characterize the interferometer and its
sensitivities. The science demonstration observations included imaging of the
protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, resolving its component A into multiple
sources of emission of continuum and warm methanol. In contrast, its
component B, while clearly resolved by these high angular resolution data,
remains a single source, and exhibits remarkable absorption of the same
methanol lines.
2.10.4 VLTI: MIDI and Matisse
Jaffe continued his work on midInfrared interferometric observations of AGNs
with the VLTI instrument MIDI in collaboration with Raban and Röttgering, as
well as colleagues at MPIA Heidelberg and Bonn (Germany), and NRAO (USA).
Their most important result was a demonstration of the extreme irregularity of
the dust structures around the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC~1068. These
irregularities are indirect but strong proof of the clumpy nature of the dust.
Jaffe is also the Dutch PI for the instrument MATISSE, which has been accepted
as a second generation VLTI instrument by ESO. The ESO council and the team
agreed on the GTO allocation to the consortium upon completion. The Cold
Optical Bench for MATISSE will be built in Dwingeloo. Jaffe is on the Science
Team and the Instrument team with special responsibility for real-time data
processing and polarization characterisation. MATISSE should be at Paranal,
Chile in 2014.
Figure 29. AM1 under test at AMOS, the manufacturer of AM1. Shown is AM1 after
its spherical lapping. In its final shape, AM1 will be an 1.7-meter aspherical mirror with
a standard aluminum coating.
2.10.5 VLT: MUSE and ASSIST
MUSE, the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer is a second generation instrument
for the VLT, featuring Wide-Field, Adaptive Optics Assisted Integral Field
Spectroscopy. MUSE passed its final design review and is currently being
manufactured by a number of European companies. Integration will to start in
mid-2010. The MUSE consortium consists of 7 institutes and is lead by the
Observatory of Lyon. NOVA, by way of Stuik at Leiden Observatory, is mainly
involved in the interface between MUSE and its Adaptive Optics system
(GALACSI), the preparations for scientific operation of MUSE--like the
Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) and Operation, Calibration of MUSE and the
MUSE observation templates efforts led by Serre--and the MUSE science team.
ASSIST--the Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator is the test
system for the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) and will allow for
verification of the operation of the various hardware and software systems for
the AOF without the need for--sometimes long--on-sky testing. ASSIST, as
currently being developed by Deep, Stuik and Wiegers has passed its Final
Design Review and is currently being manufactured. The main optical
components were well under way at the end of 2009 and the mechanical
components will be ordered in early 2010, in time for the integration of the main
components by the end of 2010.
2.10.6 KiDS: Studying Dark Matter with Light Rays
Kuijken continued his role as P.I. of the KiDS project, a large collaboration of
nine European institutes that will map 1500 square degrees of sky in good
seeing conditions with OmegaCAM on the VST in Paranal, in order to find
gravitational lenses. Weak gravitational lensing can be used to study the mass
distribution around galaxies and on larger scales. Unfortunately the telescope
construction has been long delayed, with start of operations considered likely
only in 2010 at the time of writing. Over 2009, preparations for KiDS continued
in the form of algorithm development for multi-colour photometry and for weak
lensing measurement. Members of the KiDS team were also involved in the
analysis of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS),
currently the most powerful data set for weak lensing measurements. It
comprises 170 square degrees of sky imaged in five bands. The CFHTLS analysis
made it possible to identify and address various systematic effects that plague
the measurements.
2.10.7 E-ELT-METIS
Brandl, Stuik, Molster, Kendrew, van Dishoeck and van der Werf worked on the
conceptual study of METIS - the Mid-Infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph.
With a mirror diameter of 42 meter, the European Extremely Large Telescope (EELT) project aims to provide European astronomers with the largest opticalinfrared telescope in the World. METIS is a combined imager and spectrometer,
working in the thermal/mid-infrared wavelength range from 3 to 14 microns.
The design has been derived in collaboration with the instrumentation group at
NOVA ASTRON, and partners at MPIA (Germany), CEA Saclay (France), KU
Leuven (Belgium) and ATC (UK). The work was performed for ESO as a phase-
A study for an early E-ELT instrument. The figure below shows an artist
conception of METIS on the E-ELT instrument platform.
Figure 30. Artist impression of METIS on te ELT.
2.10.8 GAIA
The Leiden Gaia group, led by Brown, is involved in the preparations for the
data processing for ESA's Gaia mission. Scheduled for launch in 2011, Gaia aims
at providing a stereoscopic census of the Milky Way galaxy by measuring highly
accurate astrometry (positions, parallaxes and proper motions), photometry and
radial velocities for one billion stars and other objects down to 20th magnitude.
In the past year, Brown, Busso, and Marrese continued their work on the
development of the data processing software for the photometric instrument of
Gaia in collaboration with groups in Rome, Teramo, Cambridge, and Barcelona.
The photometric data for Gaia will be collected through low dispersion
spectrophotometry with prisms and the group in Leiden is responsible for
developing the algorithms that extract the spectra from the raw data. A first
version of the processing algorithms developed in Leiden, Rome, and Teramo
were successfully integrated into the pipeline running in Cambridge and a test
of the algorithms on a 30 million star data set was run without significant
problems. Busso and Marrese completed a number of upgrades, related in
particular to the crowded field treatment, to the data processing algorithms.
Brown implemented a simplified version of some of the algorithms developed in
Leiden in the initial data treatment pipeline. The latter is the data processing
system that first receives the raw telemetry from Gaia and carries out important
pre-processing steps for which photometric information is needed.
Prod'homme addressed a major concern for the Gaia mission, the effect of
radiation damage to the CCDs (due to Solar wind and cosmic ray protons) by
conducting theoretical and empirical modeling of radiation damage effects.
These would lead to an increased level of charge transfer inefficiency causeing a
loss of signal as well as a distortion of the image. The latter will produce
systematic errors in the astrometry if not carefully controlled. Prod'homme
uded the CTI modelling tool CEMGA (CTI Effects Model for Gaia), developed
by himself, to analyze laboratory test data from EADS-Astrium in order to probe
the detailed physics of CTI. In addition, he used CEMGA to determine whether
the Cramer-Rao limit on the precision of the estimated location for stellar images
can still be reached in the presence of CTI. De Valk also used CEMGA, to study
the effect of CTI on the weak-lensing survey planned for the proposed EUCLID
space mission. The results were not conclusive but do indicate a need to
carefully consider this issue for EUCLID. Ter Haar studied the variance in the
CTI effects caused by the different orientations of the Gaia CCDs with respect to
the same field on the sky over the course of the mission. The results confirmed
the idea that the details of the so-called illumination history of the CCDs play an
important role in the systematic errors induced in the Gaia measurements.
Finally, Prod'homme also completed a first validation study of an approximate
but fast analytical model of CTI effects. This kind of model will be needed in the
Gaia data processing for which the detailed Monte Carlo model developed by
Prod'homme is too slow.
Risquez has been developing detailed simulations of Gaia's attitude,
incorporating all of the relevant physical effects, in collaboration with van
Leeuwen (Cambridge, UK) and Keil (Bremen, Germany. In order for Gaia to
reach its astrometric accuracy goals, the highest quality for the attitude
knowledge of the spacecraft is needed. It is thus important to incorporate a
complete physical understanding of the dynamics of a continuously rotating
space platform into the attitude modelling for Gaia. Risquez completed the
development of several modules that simulate specific physical effects in the
spacecraft attitude. These include: micro-meteoroid impacts, thermal infra-red
emission from the satellite surface, and noise due to the micro-propulsion
system. In addition, he implemented a model of Gaia's star-tracker and the onboard estimator of stellar image velocities in the focal plane (which serve as
input to the on-board attitude control system).
2.10.9 JWST-MIRI Testing
The mid-IR Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope approaches
Flight Model (FM) Testing, preparing for a 2014 launch. As part of their
contribution to the MIRI Test Team, Martinez Galarza, Kendrew and Brandl
have analyzed a first set of data obtained using the Verification Model and
developed a method to measure the wavelength characterization of the
instrument's medium resolution IFU spectrometer (MRS) and low resolution slit
spectrometer (LRS). Comparison with optical models has shown that the actual
resolving power satisfies the requirements. Further analysis of FM data will
allow a full wavelength range characterization and a study of the unresolved
line profiles prior to delivery to NASA in early 2011.
2.11 Astrochemistry
2.11.1 Interstellar molecules formed on grains
Cuppen studied the formation of methanol (CH3OH) and its precursor
formaldehyde (H2CO) in dense cold cores. Many important molecules do not
form efficiently in the gas phase in the cold, dilute interstellar medium. Instead,
they require dust surfaces for their formation, but the detailed processes are still
unclear. Laboratory experiments provide ways to study these, but the results
are not always straightforward to interpret and the experiments themselves are
performed under conditions that still differ much from interstellar conditions.
Monte Carlo has been used successfully to disentangle the various mechanisms
and to extrapolate results to interstellar conditions, for instance in the case of H2,
H2O and CH3OH.
Cuppen conducted Monte Carlo simulations under a variety of conditions and
showed that both CH3OH and H2CO indeed form efficiently in cold dense
insterstallar cloud cores and in the cold outer envelopes of young stellar objects.
She discovered that dust grain mantles have a layered structure with CH3OH on
top, whereas molecular species such as CO and H2CO exist mainly in the lower
layers of ice mantles where they are not available for later hydrogenation. Her
findings differ from many gas-grain models which do not take into account the
layering of the ice. She found her model results to agree reasonably well with
observed solid H2CO/CH3OH and CO/CH3OH abundance ratios in the outer
envelopes of young stellar objects agree, and she concluded that the large range
in observed CH3OH/H2O abundance ratios may represent a range in
evolutionary stages.
2.11.2 Simulations of Ice Photo-Dissociation
Arasa, Andersson, Cuppen, Kroes and van Dishoeck used classical molecular
dynamics simulations at different ice temperatures to clarify the photodesorption of water molecules in amorphous ice H photo-desorption provides
the most important channel in the uppermost ice layers, with probabilities a
hundred to a thousand times higher than those of OH and H2O photodesorption. It does not show a dependence on ice temperature. Arasa and
collaborators also compared the estimated total OH+H2O photo-desorption
probability per incident photon to the experimental yields measured by Oberg.
The experimental yields exceeded the theoretical probabilities by factors of 3-6.
Nevertheless, Arasa and coworkers concluded that, given the experimental
uncertainties and the theoretical approximations, the simulations agreed
reasonably well with the experimental results which are also typical for those
used in modelling astrophysical environments.
2.12 Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for
Figure 31. The Sackler Laboratory
2.12.1 Laboratory Experiments
Conditions in space are extreme and not in favour of an efficient chemistry:
temperatures are low, radiation fields are intense and particle densities are
exceedingly low. Nevertheless, more than 150 different molecular species have
been identified in star-forming regions. These comprise both simple and
complex species as well as both stable and transient molecules and result from
exotic chemical evolution. Today, astrochemists explain the chemical complexity
in space as the cumulative outcome of gas, grain and gas-grain interactions. Gasphase models explain the observed abundances of the smaller as well as many of
the larger radical species. These models, however, fail to explain the presence of
stable and complex, partially organic species in space, such as acetonitrile, a
precursor molecule for the simplest amino acid glycine. It is now generally
accepted that such species form on icy dust grains, small solid particles that are
an important ingredient of the material found between the stars. These dust
particles play an essential role because they provide opacity (blocking regions of
the galaxy from UV radiation). They are also the basic material that form icy
planetesimals and ultimately planets and they provide catalytic sites for
molecule formation. Thermal and ultraviolet processing as well as atom
bombardment of icy dust grains trigger a fascinating solid state astrochemistry.
Understanding the cycle of matter in galaxies, the origin of stars and planetary
systems and the complex (organic) chemistry that is found in molecular clouds
and proto-planetary disks is intimately linked to the study of the role icy solids
have in space. A quantitative characterization of this role is only possible
through detailed laboratory studies and this is the research topic of the work
performed at the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics. The focus of the past year
has been 'Molecular Complexity in Space'.
2.12.2 UV Photo-Processing of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues
In September, Öberg defended her thesis 'Complex Processes in Simple Ices'
describing UV-induced processes in ices under astronomical conditions: the
photo-desorption and photo-dissociation as well as the photo-chemistry of ices
(H2O, CO2 and CH3OH) upon UV irradiation. Her detailed analysis showed UVprocessed methanol ice to provide the basic elements for complex molecule
formation, as observed around young stellar objects. Öberg's work at the setup
CRYOPAD was continued by Fayolle who will focus on photo-induced
processes upon resonant ice excitation.
Figure 33. Karin Öberg addresses her favourite topic.
The team around the setup CESSS (Bouwman, Allamandola and Cuppen) has
been able to study the photophysical and photochemical behaviour upon UV
irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included in an astronomical
water ice analogue. In situ and real time optical data provided insight in the role
PAHs play in the solid state and in addition provided an alternative route to
search for PAHs in space.
2.12.3 Atom Bombardment of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ice Analogues
The team around the SURFRESIDE setup (Ioppolo, Romanzin, Cuppen) focused
on water and methanol formation by hydrogenation reactions of oxygen/ozone
and carbon monoxide ice, respectively. They derived temperature-dependent
and flux-dependent reaction rates that elucidated the role of solid state reaction
schemes in the formation of water and methanol in space and extended the
results to astrochemical models. In parallel, they constructed a next generation
setup constructed which will allow them to study the simultaneous processing
of ices by H- and O/N-atoms.
Isokoski constructed a new ultrasensitive setup, MATRI2CES, with which to test
the influence of simultaneous UV irradiation and atom bombardment of an
interstellar/circumstellar ice analogue. The setup combines laser desorption and
time-of-flight detection and is expected to visualize chemical pathways towards
molecular complexity in much more detail than possible with the regular UHV
RAIRS and TPD techniques.
2.12.4 Molecular finger prints
Bottinelli, Bouwman and Beckwith made detailed ice spectroscopic
measurements on NH3 and CH3OH containing ices in order to identify
molecular signatures in recent Spitzer data. They found an unambiguous
presence in space of ammonia in the solid state. This was an important result, as
nitrogen-containing species are required in formation routes towards
biologically relevant species.
Wehres was able to measure vibronically excited C2 spectra on the LEXUS setup
and to compare these to emission features observed in the nebula known as the
Red Rectangle. Her laboratory data proved the presence of C2 in the outflows of
this proto-planetary nebula and also offered an analytical tool to describe
chemical processes as a function of the separation from the central star.
Finally, Guss has started to construct a new infrared laser detection scheme for
molecular transients in space on the setup SPIRAS. A cavity-enhanced detection
scheme, in combination with a planar plasma expansion, is used to search for
molecular fingerprints of transient species as may be detected by e.g. the HIFI
experiment on the Herschel Space Observatory
and social events
and social events
3.1. Education
Education and training of students is a major priority of Leiden Observatory. In
2009, 46 freshmen started their studies in astronomy. Of this number, 10 (22%)
are women, and 19 (41%) is pursuing a combined astronomy/physics or
astronomy/mathematics degree.
The Observatory registered a total number of 92 bachelor students at the end of
the year, including 42 (46%) aiming for a combined astronomy/physics degree.
A quarter of all BSc students is female. There were 36 MSc students, including
14 (39%) women and 12 (33%) foreign nationalities. In addition, there were still
two old-style doctoral students. Several students from the applied physics
department of Delft Technical University took courses of the Leiden astronomy
curriculum as part of the requirements for a minor in astronomy.
Twenty students passed their propedeutical exam, of which fully half completed
the requirements in the nominal one year. There were 10 BSc exams, and 7 MSc
exams. In addition, 4 students obtained the old-style degree of doctorandus.
At the beginning of the year, three staff members were acting part-time as study
advisers. However, Hogerheijde stepped down as freshman-student adviser in
summer. His tasks were taken over by Linnartz, who already was the study
adviser for the remainder of the Bachelor program. Portegies Zwart took over
from Röttgering as master-program study adviser. At the end of the year, the
number of student advisers was thus reduced from three to two. In November,
Oosthoek left as education coordinator leaving a gap in the daily running of
In addition to regular counseling by the student adviser, incoming students
were assigned to small groups meeting at regular intervals with a staff mentor
(Hoekstra, Icke, and Levin) and a senior student mentor. Student tutoring was
done by senior astronomy and physics students. In the tutor program, physics
and astronomy freshman students are provided, on a voluntary but regular
basis, with coaching by senior students.
As part of the introductory astronomy course, students were taken to the Artis
Planetarium in Amsterdam for a lesson in coordinate systems, time and constellations
in the sky (Hoekstra). As part of the second-year training in practical
astronomy, 12 honors students were offered the opportunity to take part in a
specially arranged observing trip to the Isaac-Newton-Telescope on La Palma,
Canary Islands (Van der Werf, de Mooij, van Haasteren).
The parallel course Analysis 3NA, provided by the mathematics department at
the specific request of both astronomy and physics, was very succesful. In this
course, (astro)physical applications of the mathematical tools are covered more
extensively than in the regular course which emphasizes mathemetical rigour.
Unlike the regular course Analysis 3, this parallel course does not prepare for
Analysis 4.
The astronomy curriculum is monitored by the ‘Opleidingscommissie’
(education committee), which advises the Director of Education on all relevant
matters, and which was chaired by Van der Werf. Other members are Icke,
Schaye, Franx, and Damen, as well as De Valk, Van den Broek, Straatman,
Langelaan and Pijloo for the student body. In the fall, the composition changed:
Van der Werf, Icke and Damen were replaced by Röttgering, Van Dishoeck and
Van Uitert respectively, and student representatives became Bremer, Pijloo,
Segers, and Vreeker. Under the authority of the Opleidingscomissie, the lecture
course monitoring system (SRS) was continued. In this system, students provide
feedback to lecturers during and after the course.
The quality of curriculum and exams is guarded by the Exam Committee
(Examencommissie) chaired by Lub, with Israel, Aarts (physics), Hogerheijde
and Röttgering as members.
Admission to the master-curriculum for students without a BSc in astronomy
from a Netherlands university requires a recommendation by the
'Toelatingscommissie’ (admissions committee) chaired by Schaye and having
Israel and Linnartz as members.
3.2. Degrees awarded in 2009
3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees
A total of 11 graduate students successfully defended their Ph.D. theses in 2009
and were duly awarded their Ph. D. degree: They are:
Titel thesis:
Dave Lommen
The first steps of planet formation
E.F. van Dishoeck
H.J. van Langevelde, C.M. Wright
Titel thesis:
Huib Intema
A sharp view on the low-frequency radio sky
H. Röttgering
G.K. Miley
Titel thesis:
Anne-Marie Weijmans
The Structure of Dark and Luminous Matter in EarlyType Galaxies
P.T. de Zeeuw
Titel thesis:
Karin Öberg
Complex Processes in Simple Ices
E.F. van Dishoeck, H.V.J. Linnartz
Titel thesis:
Andreas Pawlik
Simulating Cosmic Reionisation
H. Röttgering
J. Schaye
Titel thesis:
Ruud Visser
Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks
E.F. van Dishoeck
Titel thesis:
Olja Panic
High angular resolution studies of protoplanetary
E.F. van Dishoeck
M.R. Hogerheijde
Titel thesis:
Elisabetta Micelotta
PAH Processing in Space
F.P. Israel
A.G.G.M. Tielens
Titel thesis:
David Raban
Infrared Interferometric Observations of Dust in the
Nuclei of Active Galaxies
H. Röttgering, W.Jaffe
Titel thesis:
Nathan de Vries
The Evolution of Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei
R.T. Schilizzi
I.A.G. Snellen, H. Röttgering
Titel thesis:
Edward Taylor
Ten Billion Years of Massive Galaxies
M. Franx
3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s)
The following 11 students were awarded Master’s/Doctoral degrees in 2009:
Wouter Spaan
Bas Nefs
Maarten van den Berg
Niels ter Haar
Marco van der Sluis
Sander de Kievit
Remco van der Burg
Ali Rahmati
Daniel Szomoru
Jesse van de Sande
Charlotte de Valk
Mar 24
Mar 24
Aug 25
Aug 25
Aug 25
Aug 25
Aug 25
Aug 25
Aug 25
Oct 27
Dec 15
Present Position
Physics Teacher (VWO)
Ph.D. Leiden Observatory
Physics Teacher (VWO)
Interim manager
Finance Concurrence
Ph.D. Leiden Observatory
Ph.D. Leiden Observatory
Ph.D. Leiden Observatory
Ph.D. Leiden Observatory
3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees
A total of 10 students obtained their Bachelor's degree:
Arthur Bakker
Tjarda Boekholt
Nadieh Bremer
Willem de Pous
Ricardo Herbonnet
David Huijser
Marinus Israel
Gilles Otten
Piet Vandevelde
Nienke van der Marel
3.3. Academic Courses and Pre-University
3.3.1. Courses taught by Observatory curriculum staff
2009 - 2010
Elementary courses:
Course title
Introduction astrophysics
Astronomy lab 1
Modern astronomical research
Astronomy lab 2
Stellar systems and cosmology
Observational techniques 1
Radiative processes
Bachelor research project
Introduction observatory
F.P. Israel
H. Hoekstra
A.C.A. Brown
H.V.J. Linnartz
P. van der Werf
H.J.A. Röttgering
B. Brandl
V. Icke
I. Snellen
E.R. Deul
Advanced Courses (Keuzevakken; semesters 7, 8, 9, 10):
Stellar structure and evolution
Galaxies: structure, dynamics, evolution
Interstellar matter
Galaxy formation
Radio Astronomy
Databases and data mining
Astrophysical accretion
J. Lub
M. Franx
M. Hogerheijde
J. Schaye
W. Jaffe
M. Garrett
J. Brinchmann
Y. Levin
3.3.2. Pre-University Programs
LAPP-Top, the Leiden Advanced Pre-University Program for Top Students,
is aimed at enthusiastic and ambitious high-school students from the
5th and 6th grade. Candidates are selected on the basis of their
high-school grades and their enthusiasm to participate. Students that
are selected will then take part in 6 to 8 meetings from January till
May, following the program of their own choice.
The Sterrewacht has been participating in the LAPP-TOP program since its start
in 2001. In that pilot year five students participated, in 2002/3 six, in 2003/4
eleven, in 2004/5 thirty-three, in 2005/6 seventeen, in 2006/7
twenty seven, in 2007/8 sixteen and in 2008/9 twenty.
The astronomy LAPP-TOP program was developed by Van der Werf from 2002
onward. From 2005-2008 the project was coordinated by Snellen. Since 2008 it is
coordinated by Franx. In eight sessions the following subjects were
Extrasolar planets – I. Snellen
The Milky Way and other galaxies – J. Schaye
Practicum: distances in the Universe
Gas and Radiation - V. Icke
Quasars, black holes and active galactic nuclei – H. Röttgering
Practicum: The black hole in the center of our Milky Way
Cosmology - P. Katgert
Excursion to the radio telescopes in Westerbork and Dwingeloo
After successfully completing the program participants have been awarded with
a certificate from the University of Leiden. High-school students are allowed to
use this project as part of their final exams.
3.3.3. Contact.Vwo
Contact.Vwo has been in existence for three years. Buisman and van der Hoorn
(physics teachers in secondary schools) both work one day a week for the
Physics and Astronomy Departments in order to intensify the contacts between
secondary schools and the university.
Van der Hoorn organizes twice yearly a production and mailing of posters and
organizes three times an informative meeting for physics teachers, starting at 6
p.m. and featuring a lecture on modern developments in physics or
astrophysics, an informal dinner with extensive networking between teachers
and university workers, and after-dinner subjects dealing with the change from
secondary school to university study).
Buisman is concerned with school classes (programs for whole-day visits as well
as individual help (assisting pupils with practical work, answering questions by
mail etc.). He also has organized a training session for the module Measuring in
Star Systems (Meten aan Melkwegstelsels) which is part of the school
curriculum track Nature, Life and Technology (Natuur, Leven en Technologie).
Contact.Vwo answers ad hoc requests for assistance by school pupils or
teachers. Buisman also has an appointment for one day a week as local
coordinator of the HiSPARC project, but although related, this is not a part of
the activities of Contact.Vwo.
Activities at Leiden University in 2009
For teachers:
February 12, 2009: Theme: Astrophysics: the use of Planck’s Law.
April 8, 2009: Meeting teachers of the Modern Physics project
May 18, 2009: Theme: Cosmology in the era of Planck and the LHC
October 29, 2009: Measuring in star systems
November 2, 2009. Theme: Elementary particles
For School classes:
January 23, 2009; school: De Populier, Den Haag; Measuring in Star Systems
May 27, 2009, school: Hermann Wesselink, Amstelveen; Laboratory day
June 12, 2009, school: Bonaventura, Leiden; Laboratory day
July 01, 2009, school: VCL, Den Haag; profielwerkstukken
November 13, 2009, school: VCL, Den Haag; Measuring in Star Systems
Five teams of pupils have been supported by Contact.Vwo working on a
practical assignment (profielwerkstuk) about astronomy.
Further information
3.4. Popularization and Media Contacts
3.4.1. Public Lectures and Media Interviews
Salon Boerhaave: Hoe Nederland een astronomische grootmacht werd (Leiden, Sep 30)
van Bemmel
Infraroodsterrenkunde (KNVWS, Delft, Netherlands; Jan 20)
Het hoe en wat van LOFAR en SKA (KNVWS, Almere,Netherlands; Feb 3)
Idem (Volkssterrenwacht Copernicus, Haarlem, Netherlands; Mar 19)
Idem (Astronomische vereniging Wega (KNVWS, Tilburg, Netherlands; Apr 7)
‘Gaia - Een stereoscopische kaart van de Melkweg‘(KNVWS, Roermond; Mar 3)
Idem (Eindhoven; Mar 19)
Idem (Den Bosch; Dec 16)
van der Burg
‘Ja/Nee quiz’ (Old Observatory, Leiden; Jan 7)
‘Sterren & Exoplaneten’ (Groene Hart Lyceum; Alphen a/d Rijn, Jan 15)
‘Machten van 10’ (Old Observatory, Leiden; Jan 15)
‘Sterrenstelsels & het Heelal’ (Groene Hart Lyceum, Alphen a/d Rijn; Jan 22)
‘Het leven van een Astronoom‘(Visser 't Hoofd Lyceum, Leiden; Feb 5)
‘Extrasolaire Planeten’ (Lionsclub Rijnwoude, Hazerswoude Dorp; Apr 7)
‘De Maan, Ja/Nee quiz’ (Leonardoschool, Gouda; Dec 11)
van Delft
‘De collectie is de ruggengraat van het museum’ (Interview, Universiteit Leiden
Nieuwsbrief; Jan 16)
‘Blingbling, sleutelwaarde en het miskende instrument' (inaugural lecture special
professor Material Cultures of the Sciences; Jan 16)
‘Koude en kunst’ (A.S.V. Prometheus; Mar 4)
‘Einstein’s vulpen’ (ScienceFlash; Mar 6)
‘Het nut van een biografisch portaal’ (symposium Het Biografisch Portaal
Nederland; Mar 27) ‘De veiling van een Van Leeuwenhoek microscoop’ (Interview,
Radio Wereldomroep; Mar 27)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Genootschap OudRijnsburg; Apr 22)
‘De evolutie van musea voor de geschiedenis van (bèta)wetenschap’ (Leidse
Historische Kring; Apr 24)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Museum Boerhaave; May 9)
‘Met Einstein op de fiets’ (bike tour; May 10)
‘Over conservatoren, wetenschap en waarde’ (symposium Natuurhistorisch Museum
Maastricht; May 15)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Keerpunten in de
geschiedenis van de natuurwetenschappen; 25 mei)
‘Van Adam tot DNA’ (exhibition opening speech; June 5)
‘Museum Boerhaave and the History of Science’ (Woudschoten III; June 26)
‘Koude drukte. Het Leidse cryogeen laboratorium en de internationale
temperatuurschaal 1927’ (Woudschoten III; June 27)
‘Museum Boerhaave and the digital world’ (Science Museum London; July 9)
‘400 jaar telescoop Galilei’ (radio interview Met het oog op morgen Aug 24)
‘400 jaar telescoop Galilei’ (RTL tv-journaal; Aug 25)
‘Kosmos’ (book presentation Harm Habing; Sep 1)
‘The Quest for Absolute Zero. A Human Story about Rivalry & Cold’ (Artefacts,
Science Museum London; Sep 21)
‘Dat mag in de krant! Over wetenschap en de pers’ (Fysica & Samenleving; Oct 6)
‘Sleutelstukken en storytelling in Museum Boerhaave’ (master science
communication; Oct 9)
‘Reis naar het ultieme onbekende: een zwart gat’ (Scheltemacomplex; Oct 18)
‘Einsteins liefde voor Leiden’ (P.J. Bloklezing; Oct 22)
‘To live and die in an Iron Lung’ (radio interview Met het oog op morgen; Oct 31)
‘Cool Reception. Leiden's Quest for Cold and the International Temperature Scale 1927’
(HSS Annual Meeting Phoenix; Nov 21)
‘Museum Boerhaave en het nut van wetenschap in een vitrine’ (Fysica &
Samenleving; Nov 24)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, James Dewar en de strijd om vloeibaar helium’ (Cleveringa
lecture London; Nov 26)
‘Zwaartekracht en NewtonMania’ (radio interview Met het oog op morgen; Dec 15)
‘NewtonMania and gravity’ (exhibition opening speech; Dec 16)
‘Museum Boerhaave en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Natuurwetenschappen voor nietbeta's; Dec 18)
‘Wat gebeurt er bij het absolute nulpunt?’ (MuseumjeugdUniversiteit; Dec 20)
van Dishoeck
‘De 10 beste vrouwen in de wetenschap’ (Interview, Vrij Nederland; 17 jan)
‘NL activiteiten IYA2009’ (Opening IYA NL, Utrecht; Jan 21)
Interview (Kijk; feb)
‘Vaklui (V): vrouwen met een mannencarrière ‘(ESTA, nr. 3-2009, p. 32-36)
‘Nieuwe werelden’ (Dies oratie, Universiteit nieuwsbrief, Leiden; 3 feb)
Idem (Universiteit Leiden; 9 feb)
‘Van moleculen tot planeten’ (METIS, Alkmaar; Feb 27)
‘Astrochemie: op zoek naar de bouwstenen voor leven in de ruimte’ (Paradiso,
Amsterdam; Mar 1)
‘Van moleculen tot planeten’ (IYA2009 cyclus, Leuven, Belgium; Mar 3)
‘Ontstaan planeten en sterrenstelsels onderzocht in nieuwe onderzoekscentrum’
(Universiteit nieuwsbrief, Leiden; Mar 24)
Idem (Leidsch Dagblad, Leiden, Mar 25)
‘Nachtmijmeringen over de sterrenkunde ‘(Radio 1, Casa Luna, Apr 2)
‘Geboorte van sterren’ (NEMO, Masterdam; Apr 4)
‘Future millimeter and infrared telescopes: a supersharp view of stellar and planetary
nurseries ‘(Fysica symposium, Groningen; Apr 24)
‘Serving the planet: scheikunde tussen de sterren’ (Hoftoren lezing, Den Haag, p.13;
June 3)
‘Kraamkamer van sterren’ (NRC Wetenschap, p.13; June 27)
‘Natuur- en Scheikunde tussen de sterren’ (inauguratie VU; Sep 19)
‘Auf der spur einer zweiten Erde ‘(Münchner Mercur, P. 17; Sep 16)
‘Leidse leermeesters’ (Leidraad; Oct)
‘Water in de wolken zoeken’ (Quest, p. 105; Oct)
Idem (, p. 169; Oct)
Interview (Eureka; Nov)
‘Mijn begin’ (Volkskrant; Dec 24)
van Genderen
‘Over de Zon, de Maan, de kometen en de sterren’ (De Nuts Basisschool,
Voorschoten; June 8)
‘Stervorming: clusters of losse sterren?’ (KNVWS) (2x)
‘De vorming van sterrenstelsels; van waarneming tot simulatie’ (KNVWS) (3x)
‘Alternatieve zwaartekrachttheorieen’ (JWG summer camp; Aug)
‘Radiosterren of rare sterrenstelsels?’ (JWG, Utrecht, Netherlands; Feb)
‘Het ontstaan van de wereld’ (Islamic high school, Amsterdam, Netherland;, Jan)
‘Deep-sky objecten’ (beginners course of JWG, Amersfoort, Netherlands; Jan)
‘Wat doet een sterrenkundige?’ (Weekendschool, Den Haag; Mar 22)
‘De duistere kant van het heelal ‘(International year of astronomy event, NEMO,
Amsterdam; Apr 5)
‘Laboratory Evidence for Solid State Astrochemical Processes’ (Hotel Oud Poelgeest ,
Oegstgeest; 10 Oct)
‘40 Jaar Apollo Maanlanding’ (TOP, Delft; June 18)
‘Terug naar de Maan’ (Interview op Radio 1; June 19)
‘De vreemde exoplaneet’ WASP 18b (BNR Nieuwsradio; Aug 28)
‘Schietschijf Aarde’ (Leidsche Flesch; Oct 30)
‘Is de Zon dood?’ (NCRV radio; Nov 26)
‘Dirty stars make good solar system hosts’ (Press release for paper ‘Particle
clumping and planetesimal formation depend strongly on metallicity’)
‘Het Uitdijend Heelal’ (VWO Zwijndrecht; Jan 14)
‘Terugkijken naar de Oerknal’ (VWO Hilversum; May 12)
‘Het Uitdijend Heelal’ (VWO Voorburg; Apr 16)
Idem (VWO Haarlem; June 9)
‘Het Signalement van het Heelal’ (HOVO Leiden; Jan 29, Feb 5, Feb 12,
Feb 19, Feb 26, Mar 5, Mar 12, Mar 19, Mar 26, Apr 2)
Participated at a TV shooting for a documentary programme about women in science for
the Hungarian TV channel "Duna TV" (Budapest; June 22)
‘Kosmologie, donkere materie, donkere energie en het ontstaan van Melkwegstelsels’
(Public lecture, Volkssterrewacht Armand Pien, Gent, Belgium; Oct 24)
‘Gravitational lensing: studying the dark energy with light rays’ (Invited lecture,
NNV, Lunteren, Netherlands; Nov 6)
‘Missie Maan’ (Basisschoolproject + les, Montessorischool Oegstgeest; Dec 8 en
van Langevelde
‘Introducing JIVE, VLBI, e-VLBI ‘(SURFNet pres event, Dwingeloo; Apr 3)
‘The European VLBI Network‘(IYA round the world webcast Dwingeloo; Apr 3)
‘Een telescoop groter dan Europa’ (NL IYA event NEMO, Amsterdam; Apr 5)
‘Introducing JIVE, VLBI, e-VLBI‘(International ambassadors visiting Drenthe;
May 15)
'Het heelal, van toen tot nu' (for 'Vrouwen van nu', Loenen a/d Vecht; Oct 15)
'De hemel boven Vreeland' (Vreelandbode (monthly))
van Lunteren
‘Albert Einstein: leven en werk’ (Visit Scholengemeenschap Het Noordik, Leiden;
Mar 3)
‘Nederland, de meter, en het Internationale Bureau voor Maten en Gewichten ‘
(Jaarvergadering Kadaster, Utrecht; Mar 18)
‘Galilei en de kerk ‘
(Grotius College, Delft; Apr 17)
‘Galilei en de Sterrenboodschapper ‘
(Ouderdag Leidsche Fles, Leiden; Apr 18)
‘De elementen: een geschiedenis van de bouwstenen van de wereld’
PION (Leiden; May 29)
‘De sterrenkundige ontdekkingen van Galilei ‘
(Sonnenborgh, Culturele Zondag, Utrecht; Sep 13)
‘Grootste natuurkundige aller tijden Galileo Galilei’
(Museum Boerhaave, Leiden; Oct 21)
‘Miskende Genieën’
(symposium ‘vergeten wetenschap’, Leidse Biologen Club; Nov 9)
‘Galilei en de ontdekking van de hemel’
(Cleveringa-lecture, Brussel; Nov 19)
‘Spanning en sensatie: elektriciteit in de achttiende eeuw’
(Teylers Museum, Haarlem; Dec 20)
‘De glimlach van de Cheshire kat’ (Oratie)
Martinez Galarza
‘Astronomia en la Proxima Decada con el Telescopio Espacial James Webb’(Bogota;
Nov 17)
Idem (Videoconference, Cali; Nov 13)
‘Stars at your Fingertips’ (Workshop, Grahamstown, South Africa; Mar 25 – 31)
‘Space Journey: from SciFest to the Universe’ (Science show, Grahamstown, South
Africa; Mar 25)
‘Workshop: Stars at your Fingertips’ (Workshop, Cairo, Egypt; May 12)
‘UNAWE – Perspectives’ (Public lecture, Dunsink Observatory, Dublin; Ireland;
Sep 15)
‘Exhibition opening: Our place in the Universe’ (Birr Castle, Ireland; Sep 18)
Portegies Zwart
Nationale wetenschapsquiz (VPRO publieke omroep; 24-12)
Noorderlicht Nieuws (VPRP publieke omroep)
Publiekslezing (Amsterdam, Artis, Planetarium)
Noorderlicht Nieuws (VPRO publieke omroep)
‘De LOFAR radio telescoop’ (Katholieke Scholengemeenschap, Hoofddorp; 14 oct)
‘De ontdekking van nieuwe werelden’ (Guest lecture, Montaigne Lyceum, Den
Haag; Feb 18)
Idem (St. Michaelcollege Zaandam; Mar 12)
Idem (Gymnasium Hilversum, Hilversum; Apr 7)
‘Op zoek naar exoplaneten’ (Science center NEMO, Amsterdam; Apr 5)
‘Op zoek naar tweeling Aarde’ (KNVWS Afdeling 't Gooi, Utrecht; Sep 26)
Idem (Wetenschapsdag, Leiden; Oct 18)
‘Leven in het heelal’ (ESERO onderwijsconferentie, Hilversum; Nov 4)
‘The search for twin-Earth’ (University College Utrecht, Utrecht; Nov 11)
‘Detectie van extrasolaire planeten‘(VVTP symposium "Science of Fiction", Delft;
Nov 24)
‘Op zoek naar tweeling Aarde’ (Cleveringalezing Rome, Italy; Nov 27)
Press release: ‘Warme gloed exoplaneet vanaf de grond gemeten’ (Press release; Jan 15)
‘Astronomen ontwaren schijngestalten van een exoplaneet’ (Press release; May 27
‘Bizar tollende dubbelster verklaart 30 jaar oud raadsel’ (Press release; Sep 16)
‘Ecology van de Melkweg‘(Presentation, Leuven, Belgium; June 2)
‘Protosterren: Van Bewolkt tot Zonnig’ (Public lecture, Overveen; Feb 19Idem
(Papendrecht; Oct 30)
van de Voort
‘The Universe in the computer’ (Presentation, Leiden; Oct 27)
Weekendschool (Den Haag; Mar 22, Mar 29, Apr 5)
Board LWSK (from December 1)
Publiekscommissie (Outreach committee) Sterrewacht; full year)
3.4.3 Tours at the Old Observatory
None took place as the building was closed for restoration purposes.
3.5. Universe Awareness Program
Universe Awareness:
Ödman and Miley continued their work on the Universe Awareness
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme instigated by
Miley to expose underprivileged young children aged from 4 to 10 years to the
inspirational aspects of astronomy. By raising awareness about the scale and
beauty of the Universe, UNAWE attempts to broaden the mind and awaken
curiosity in science, at a formative age when the value system of children is
developing. A goal of UNAWE is to stimulate their development into curious,
tolerant and internationally minded adults.
Since its initiation by Miley in 2004, UNAWE has grown from a concept to a
thriving network of more than 200 UNAWE volunteers and experts active in
more than 35 partner countries worldwide. Some important achievements of
UNAWE during 2009 were:
(i) The addition of several new partner countries to the programme
(ii) The organization of many international UNAWE events for young children
(iii) The implementation of UNAWE as a global cornerstone programme of the
UN-designated International Year of Astronomy in 2009
(iv) Development of a range of international UNAWE materials and activities,
instigation of a sustained development of new materials
(v) Lobbying for acquisition of EU funding
3.6. IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the
Developing World
As the responsible IAU Vice President, George Miley led the development of a
new strategy to use astronomy for international development and education.
This was formalized as the IAU decadal strategic plan, “Astronomy for the
Developing World – Building from IYA 2009”. The plan was written and edited
by Miley and endorsed overwhelmingly at the IAU General Assembly at Rio de
Janeiro in August. It shows that astronomy can make a unique contribution to
building the technological, scientific and cultural capacities of developing
The plan lays out an ambitious plan to exploit astronomy for such ends during
2010 – 2020, with contributions at every level (primary, secondary and tertiary
education, research infrastructure and public outreach).
Elements of the strategy include:
1. An integrated strategic phased approach
2. Increase regional involvement
3. Building on the momentum generated by the IYA by continuing IYA
cornerstone projects, exploiting the IYA network of 148 countries and the
alliance between professional and non-professional astronomer,
4. Enlarging the number of active volunteers
5. Initiating several new activities, including semi-popular lectures in
developing countries and long-term institute twinning between developed
astronomy organizations and departments in developing countries
6. Advancing the UN Millennium Goals
7. Exploit new tools and opportunities, including mobile planetaria and internet
educational telescope networks and
8. Creating small global “Office for Astronomy Development” and regional
nodes throughout the world.
Following on from the highly successful International Year of Astronomy 2009,
the new plan is a pioneering international venture seeks to exploit scientists and
pure research for the benefit of global development.
3.7. The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F.
With only one significant activity, this might well be the simplest annual report
of L.A.D. F. Kaiser in years. In early february 2009 the Old Observatory closed
its doors for a well deserved renovation, but this left Kaiser without its star
attraction. This meant no observing nights and tours for some time to come.
Despite this, the board organised the annual soccer tournament. This
tournament was a huge success and a week later it was still easy to tell who had
participated and who hadn't. Unfortunately the Kaiser team lost, but not
without an heroic battle, making two board members limp for a few weeks. The
winner was the Sterrewacht team "The Smokers", who ironically didn't have to
catch their breath afterwards.
In the course of the year, two board members got a PhD position in Leiden,
which made it harder to find time to organise events. Therefore in 2010 we will
be looking for new board members to take over the torch and entertain us with
new exciting activities.
3.8 Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
The 'Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters' (VO-S; is the
official association of Sterrewacht/Observatory (ex-)affiliates.
It has been in existence for over 15 years now and has seen another active year.
As usual, the 150 members were offered a variety of activities. The activities
included a social drink prior to the Oort Lecture and an annual meeting. This
year, the annual meeting was held in Leiden and involved, among others, a visit
of Museum Naturalis. The meeting was attended by 30 members. VO-S
members also received a newsletters with Sterrewacht news and were offered an
electronic member dictionary.
Observatory staff
December 31, 2009
Observatory staff
December 31, 2009
Names, e-mail addresses, room numbers, and telephone numbers of all
current personnel can be found on the Sterrewacht website:
Telephone extensions should always be preceded by (071) 527 …
(from inside The Netherlands) or by +31-71-527 … (from abroad)
Full Professors:
E.F. van Dishoeck
M. Franx
V. Icke
F.P. Israel
K. Kuijken (Director)
G.K. Miley (0.0)
S. Portegies Zwart
H.J.A. Röttgering
A.G.G.M. Tielens
P.T. de Zeeuw (0.0)
Full Professors by Special Appointments:
D. van Delft*
(Museum Boerhaave, Stichting tot beheer
Museum Boerhaave)
M. Garrett**
(ASTRON, Sterrewacht, Faculty W&N)
H.V.J. Linnartz
(Stichting Fysica, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
F. van Lunteren
(UL (0.5)/VU (0.3), Teijler’s Hoogleraar
H.A. Quirrenbach
(Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Faculty W&N)
* Director Boerhaave Museum
** Director ASTRON
Associate Professors and Assistant Professors / Tenured Staff:
R. Bouwens (0.0)
B.R. Brandl
J. Brinchmann
A. Brown
M. Haverkorn (0.0) *
H. Hoekstra
M. Hogerheijde
W.J. Jaffe
P. Katgert (0.0)
M. Kenworthy
Visiting Scientists:
J.K. Katgert-Merkelijn
R. Mathar
E.M. Penteado (Greenberg fellow)
A. Blaauw
W.B. Burton
A.M. van Genderen
H.J. Habing
I. van Houten-Groeneveld
* Staff, ASTRON Dwingeloo
** Director, JIVE, Dwingeloo
H.J. van Langevelde (0.0)**
Y. Levin (0.8)
H.V.J. Linnartz
J. Lub
R.S. Le Poole (0.0)
J. Schaye
I.A.G. Snellen
R. Stuik (NOVA Muse)
P.P. van der Werf
M. Spaans (RUG)
R. Stark (NWO)
J.A. Stüwe
K. Kwee
A. Ollongren
C. Van Schooneveld
J. Tinbergen
Postdocs and Project Personnel:
C. Arasa Cid
D. Baneke
I. van Bemmel
L. Birzan
C. Booth
L. Kristensen
E. Loenen
M.A. Marosvolgyi
J. Meisner
R. Meijerink
C. Brinch
F. Molster
G. Busso
H. Cuppen
A. Deep
A. van Elteren
E. Gaburov
C.J. Ödman
B.D. Oppenheimer
F.I. Pelupessy
R. Quadri
D.A. Rafferty
N.M. Ramanujam
D. Rizquez-Oneca
D. Schleicher
T. Schrabback
E. Sembolini
D. Serre
S. van der Tol
R. Visser
C.E. Vlahakis
N. de Vries
C.H.J.M. Groothuis
B. Groves
M.A. Gurkan
J. Guss
S. Harfst
H. Hildebrandt
J. Holt
A. Johansen
S. Kendrew
A. Kospal
Ph.D. Students:
N. Amiri
J. Bast
P. Beirao
J. Bedorf *
J. Bouwman
R.F.J. van den Burg *
Y. Cavecchi
M. Damen
A. Elbers *
E. Fayolle *
D. Groen *
M. Haas
R. van Haasteren
M. van Hoven
M. Iacobelli *
S. Ioppolo
K.M. Isokoski
C. Kruip
E. Kuiper
A.M. Madigan
J.R. Martinez Galarza
F. Maschietto
E. de Mooij
M. Mosleh
B. Nefs *
I. Oliveira
R. Oonk
J.-P. Paardekooper
F. Petrignani
T. Prod’homme
A. Rahmati
O. Rakic
S. Rieder
M. SadatShirazi
D. Salter
J. van de Sande
D.M. Smit
M.H. Soto Vicencio
D. Szomoru
K. Torstensson
F. van de Voort
E. van Uitert
M. Velander
S. Verdolini
L. Vermaas
K.-S. Wang
R. van Weeren
N. Wehres
M. Weiss
R. Wiersma
U. Yildiz
Funding notes:
1. funded by Leiden University; 2. Funded by NOVA program; 3. funded by NWO,
via Leiden University; 4. funded by Spinoza award; 5. funded by EU; 6. funded by
KNAW; 7. funded by SRON; 8. employed by FOM; 9. funded by ‘Campagne voor
Leiden’; 10. Guest finalizing thesis; 11. funded by ASTRON; 12. funded by JIVE – EU
ESTRELA netwerk; 13, funded by Groningen – EU Molecular Universe Network; 14.
funded by Teyler’s Foundation; 15. Funded by A-ERC grant Franx.16. Externally
* denotes employment for only part of the year - see section staff changes.
Management Support and Secretaries:
J.C. Drost
E. Gerstel
A. van der Tang
L. van der Veld
P. Oosthoek /Vacancy
Management assistant
Institute manager
Programme coordinator BSc and MSc
Computer staff:
E.R. Deul
D. J. Jansen
T. Bot
A. Vos
Manager computer group
Scientific programmer
NOVA office:
E. van Dishoeck
W.H.W.M. Boland
K. Groen
J.T. Quist
F. Molster
Science director
Managing director
Financial controller
Management Assistent (0.5)
Project Manager (ESFRI, NWO)
Msc Students:
A.S. Abdullah
A.H. Bakker
T.C.N. Boekholt
N.A. Bremer
S. van den Broek
J. Figuera
M.P. van Daalen
J.D. Delgado Diaz
D.S. Harsono
R.T.L. Herbonnet
J. Hu
D.S. Huijser
M.P.H. Israël
R.M.J. Janssen
T.D.J. Kindt
M.J. van der Laan
Senior Bsc Students:
K.A.J.B. Beemster
Y.O. van Boheemen
S. Crezee
I.C. Icke
M.T.A. Lambrechts
M. Lameé
N. van der Marel
T.R. Meshkat
A.N.G. Mortier
G.P.P.L. Otten
W.M. de Pous
W.C. Schrier
S. Shah
A. Shulevski
R. Smit
C.M.S. Straatman
C.H.M. de Valk
F.N. Vuijsje
S.T. Zeegers
C.H. Schönau (doctoral student)
M.J. Luitjens
G.P.P.L. Otten
S.T. Zeegers
Staff changes in 2009:
Name (funded by)
R. Alexander (NWO)
S. Anderson (NWO - TOPCW)
C. Arasa Cid (NWO - TOPCW)
J. Bedorf (NWO)
C. Brinch (NWO, ALLEGRO)
Y. Cavecchi (NOVA)
H.M. Cuppen (NWO VENI)
C. Dalla Vecchia (EU-EXT)
M.C. Damen (UL, NOVA)
N. de Vries (UL)
N. de Vries (NOVA)
A. Elbers (Campagne voor Leiden)
E. Gerstel (UL)
E.C. Fayolle (NOVA)
D.J. Groen (NWO)
M.A. Gürkan (NWO, VENI)
J.S. Guss (UL)
N. Hatch (UL, KNAW)
S. Harfst (NWO)
C.J.H.M. Groothuis (NOVA)
C. Hopman (NWO, VENI)
M. Iacobelli (NWO, ASTRON)
H. Intema (NOVA, KNAW)
L. Jolissaint de Sepibus (NWO/NOVA)
S.A.S. Kendrew (UL/NOVA)
S.A.S. Kendrew (NOVA/METIS)
M. Kenworthy (UL)
A.F. Loenen (NOVA)
D.J.P. Lommen (NOVA)
P. Lopes Beirao (UL)
M.A. Marosvolgyi (NOVA)
P. Marrese (UL/NOVA-GAIA)
H. Masso-Gonzalez (NWO-Rubicon)
R. Meijerink (NWO)
E. Micelotta (UL, EU)
Name (funded by)
K.I. Oberg (EU)
S.V. Nefs (NWO)
C.J. Ödman (UNAWE, UL)
A. Omar (NWO)
P. Oosthoek (UL)
B.D. Oppenheimer (NOVA)
M. Pandey (NWO, LOFAR)
O. Panic (NWO, EU)
A.H. Pawlik (EU)
A.H. Pawlik (UL)
F.I. Pelupessy (NOVA)
S. Portegies Zwart (UL)
D.A.Rafferty (NWO)
A. Rahmati (NOVA)
J.T. Quist (NOVA)
D. Raban (NWO)
S. Rieder (NWO)
M. Sadatshirazi (UL)
E. Semboloni (NWO)
D.M. Smit (NWO)
I.A.G. Snellen (KNAW)
I.A.G. Snellen (UL)
M.H. Soto Vicencio
D. Szomoru (EU)
E.N. Taylor (NWO)
A.G.G.M. Tielens (UL)
K.J.E. Torstensson (JIVE-EU ESTRELA netwerk)
K.J.E. Torstensson (NWO ASTRON)
O. Usov (UL, KVI)
R.F.J. van de Burg (NWO)
J. van de Sande (NOVA)
S. van der Tol (NWO LOFAR)
A.K. van Elteren (NOVA)
S. Verdolini (UL)
R. Visser (Spinoza award, PhD position)
R. Visser (Spinoza award, postdoc position)
K-S. Wang (NOVA)
A. Weijmans (NWO)
R. Wiersma (ASTRON)
R. Williams (NWO)
II.1. Observatory Committees
(As on December 31, 2009)
(Directie onderzoekinstituut)
K. Kuijken (director of research)
F.P. Israel (director of education)
E. Gerstel (institute manager)
Observatory management team
(Management Team Sterrewacht)
K.H. Kuijken (chair)
E.R. Deul
J. Drost (minutes)
E. Gerstel
F.P. Israel
J. Lub (advisor)
Oversight council
(Raad van Toezicht)
J.A.M. Bleeker (chair)
B. Baud
J.F. van Duyne
W. van Saarloos
C. Waelkens
Research committee
(Onderzoek-commissie OZ)
M. Franx (chair)
H. Cuppen
A.G.A. Brown
W. Jaffe
Y. Levin
P.P. van der Werf
Research institute scientific council
(Wetenschappelijke raad onderzoekinstituut)
W. Boland
H.J. van Langevelde
B. Brandl
R.S. Le Poole
A.G.A. Brown
Y. Levin
D. van Delft
H.V.J. Linnartz
E.R. Deul
J. Lub
E.F. van Dishoeck
F. van Lunteren
M. Franx
G.K. Miley
M. Garrett
S. Portegies Zwart
T. de Graauw
A. Quirrenbach
H. Habing
H.J.A. Röttgering
H. Hoekstra
M. Hogerheijde
J. Schaye
V. Icke
I. Snellen
F.P. Israel
R. Stuik
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
A.G.G.M. Tielens
P. Katgert
P.P. van der Werf
K.H. Kuijken
P.T. de Zeeuw
Institute council
E. Deul (chair)
J. Drost
F.P. Israel
W.J. Jaffe
M. Smit
Astronomy education committee
(Opleidingscommissie OC)
E. van Uitert
M. Franx
E. van Dishoeck
J. Schaye
H. Röttgering
vacancy (minutes)
N.A. Bremer
T. Pijloo
M.C. Segers
A. Vreeker
Astronomy board of examiners
J. Lub (chair)
J. Aarts (Physics)
F.P. Israel
I. Snellen
P.P. van der Werf
Oort scholarship committee
F.P. Israel
S. Portegies Zwart
J. Schaye
Mayo Greenberg prize committee
G. Miley (chair)
E.F. van Dishoeck
P. Katgert
H. Linnartz
J. Lub
PhD admission advisory committee
H. Hoekstra
J. Schaye (chair)
MSc admission advisory committee
J. Schaye (chair)
F.P. Israel
H.V.J. Linnartz
Graduate student review committee (2009 Cttee)
(Commissie studievoortgang promovendi)
M. Franx (chair)
H. Linnartz
W. Boland
J. Schaye
Colloquia commitee
J. Brinchmann
H. Hoekstra
Computer committee
A.G.A. Brown (chair)
B. Brandl
A. Johansen
M. Smit
Library committee
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
F.P. Israel
J. Lub
Public outreach committee
F.P. Israel (chair)
V. Icke
R. van der Burg
J. van de Sande
F. van der Voort
Social committee
M. Smit (chair)
J. Bast
J. Drost
D. Groen
I.A.G. Snellen
II.2. Membership of University
Committees (non-Observatory)
(As on December 31, 2009)
Member Begeleidings Commissie ICT projecten
Chair Facultair Overleg ICT
Member Facultair Beleids Commissie ICT
van Dishoeck
Chair, Faculty Research Committee (WECO)
Member, Raad van Toezicht, Leiden Institute of Physics (LION)
Member, Faculty Research Committee (WECO)
Director, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Foundation
Director, Leids Sterrewacht Foundation
Director, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member CFHT Science Advisory Committee until 12/2008
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member, Advisory Council, Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts
Member, Belvédère Committee
Member, board FWN Graduate School
Chairman, board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Chairman, board of directors Oort Fonds
Member, board of directors Leidsch Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, FMD/ELD user committee
Member, laboratory user group 'FWN nieuwbouw' (from november)
Member, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize
Chairman, SLA Exchange Foundation
Van Lunteren
Scientifc Board Scaliger Institute
Historical Committee of Leiden University
Studium Generale Committee Leiden University
Writer-in-residence Committee
Chairman, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize
Member, Curatorium of the professorship at Leiden University
‘Experimental Astroparticle physics’
Member, education advisory committee new buildings
Member, LUF International Study Fund (LISF) committee
Van der Werf
Member Faculty Council
Organist of the Academy Auditorium
Principal Investigator, E-ELT/METIS instrument phase-A study
Deputy co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium
Instrument Scientist, JWST-MIRI Spectrometer
Member, NOVA Instrument Steering Committee (ISC)
Editor, Conference proceedings on "400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes"
Member, ELT Design Study WP5000 (science preparations)
Member, Herschel Open Time Key Program (KINGFISH)
Member, ESA Astronomy Working Group (AWG)
Member, ESO FP7 coordinating action on Wide-field imaging with the E-ELT
Member, OPTIMOS-DIORAMAS Science Team
Member of management committee, Antarctic Research, a European Network
for Astrophysics (ARENA)
Member, WFOS-MOBIE Science Team
Member, DFG review committee for Priority Program "Galaxy Evolution"
Member, Organizing Committee IAU Commission 8
Member, IAU Commission 37
Member, Gaia Science Team
Member, EU Marie-Curie RTN European Leadership in Space Astrometry
Member, AERES visiting committee to GEPI department of the Observatoire de
van Delft
Member commissie wetenschapsgeschiedenis KNAW
Member jury Annual Prize ´Wetenschap en maatschappij
Member Interdisciplinary Program Board Lorentz Center / NIAS
Member organisatie KunstWetenschapSalon
Member adviesraad tijdschrift NWT (Natuur, Wetenschap en Techniek)
Member Raad van Advies Jaarboek KennisSamenleving
Member begeleidingscommissie Digitaal Wetenschapshistorisch Centrum,
Huygens Instituut
Member comité van aanbeveling Science Café Leiden
Member board Nederlands Natuur- en Geneeskundig Congres
Member Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde
Member (director) Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen
van Dishoeck
Scientific Director, Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA)
Associate Editor, Annual Reviews of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Member, ALMA Board
Member, SRON Board
Member, MPIA-Heidelberg Fachbeirat
Member, Spitzer Time Allocation Committee GO4
Member, Herschel-HIFI Science team
Member, ASTRONET Science Vision Panel-C
Member, VICI committee EW
Co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium
Chair, IAU Working Group on Astrochemistry
Member, IAU Commission 14, working group on ‘molecular data’
Coordinator, Herschel-HIFI WISH Key Program
Member, National Committee on Astronomy (NCA)
Member, Search committee SRON director
Vice-president, IAU Commission 14
Co-chair, Scientific Organising Committee, From circumstellar disks to
planetary systems, Garching
Chair, Nova network 1 science team
Member, MUSE science team
Member, JWST-NIRSPEC science team
Member, JWST Science Working Group
Member, ACS science team
Chair, ESO-ELT Science Working Group
Member, ESO-ELT Science and Engineering Core Working Group
Member, NL-PC Allocation Committee
Member, Eilandtelescopen Time Allocation Committee
Member, Science Advisory Commitee, Isaac Newton telescopes Group
Member, ALMA Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA European Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA Science Integrated Project Team
Member, ALMA European Regional Center Coordinating Committee
Member, IRAM Programme Committee
Project Scientist for CHAMP+/Netherlands
Co-coordinator, JCMT Gould Belt legacy Survey
Member, Board of Directors Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, Board of Directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member, Board of Directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
Member, SOC workshop From Disks to Planets
Member, National Committee on Astronomy Education
Member, Minnaert Committee (NOVA Outreach)
Member, Netherlands Astronomical Society Education Committee
Member, Editorial Council Natuur & Techniek
Member, Advisory Council, Technika 10
Member, Board of Directors, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde
Member, Jury ‘Rubicon’ (NWO)
Member, Jury, Annual Prize ‘Wetenschap en Maatschappij’
Member, NWO Selection Committee for Free Competition Awards
Member, IAU Comissions 28, 40 and 51
Member, Science Team Herschel-HIFI
Member, Science Team JWST-MIRI
Member, Science Team APEX-Champ+
Member, Editorial Board Europhysics News
Coordinator-NL SCUBA2 Legacy Survey Nearby Galaxies
Director, NEVEC
Member, IAU Commission 40, 28
Member FITS Working Group
Member ESO User's Committee
Vice-Chairman European Interferometry Initiative
Secretary/Treasurer, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Secretary/Treasurer, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Secretary/Treasurer, Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
Advisor to National Delegate, ESO Council
Chair, ESO contact committee
Member, board of directors Kapteyn fonds
Member, board NOVA
Key researcher, NOVA Dieptestrategie
Member, ESO KMOS Instrument Science Team
Principal Investigator, ESO KiDS Survey
Principal Investigator, OmegaCAM project
Co-investigator, ESO VIKING Public Survey
Co-investigator, Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph project
Deputy coordinator, DUEL EU-FP6 Network
Local coordinator, EVALSO EU-FP7 programme
Member, board EARA
Member, board MICADO E-ELT instrument design study
External member, FWO-Flanders astronomy & physics programme committee
Member, DFG visiting committee, IMPRESS astronomy research school
Member, structuurcommissie Astrofysica, Universiteit Utrecht
Member, ERC Starting grants jury
Member, National commission for astronomy (NCA)
Member, board Physics society 'Diligentia', The Hague
van Langevelde
Member consortium board European VLBI Network
Member RadioNet Board and Executive Board
Coordinator EXPReS (Expres Production Real-time e-VLBI System), board and
management team
PI, RadioNet reserach activity ALBiUS (Advanced Long Baseline Interoperable
User Software)
Member board ESTRELA (Early Stage Training Site for European Longwavelength Radio Astronomy)
Member board SKADS (SKA Design Studies)
Member board PrepSKA (Prepatory SKA studies)
Member European SKA Consortium
NOVA Instrumentation Steering Committee
Dutch URSI committee
Member board of directors Leids Kerkhoven Bosscha Fonds
Member board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member board of directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
NWO I-science program committee
SKA klankbordgroep NL
Allegro steering committee
'SPIN' chair for Molecular Laboratory Astrophysics, LCVU
Editor CAMOP (Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical
Workgroup leader, FOM group FOM-L-027
Workgroup leader, FP7 ITN 'LASSIE' (Laboratory
Astrochemical Surface Science In Europe)
Member, NWO-EW/CW 'DAN' (Dutch Astrochemistry Network)
Member, NWO-EW 'Vrije Competitie' allocation committee
Member, NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Panel
Member, NWO-CW 'Spectroscopy and Theory'
Member, NWO-FOM 'COMOP'' (Condensed Matter and Optical
Member, HRSMC research school
Chairman, 8th Workshop on Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy
Member, International Scientific committee IPS (Infrard
Plasma Spectroscopy)
Secretary, Netherlands Committee for Astronomy
Member, Board Astronomy & Astrophysics
van Lunteren
Education and Research Board Huizinga Institute
Vice President, International Astronomical Union (Education and Development)
Chair, International Universe Awareness Steering Committee
Chair, LOFAR Research Management Committee
Chairman, LOFAR Survey Science Group, Highest Redshift Objects
Member Executive Committee International Astronomical Union
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee
Member, Board of Governors of the LOFAR Foundation
Member, Max Planck Institut fur Radioastronomie Fachbeirat
Member, Core Team, LOFAR Surveys Key Project
Member, ESF Latsis Prize Committee
Portegies Zwart
Netherlands representative, ESF ASTROSIM
European ambassador, Meta Institute for Computational Astrophysics
member, Rhine Network: Inter European N-body community
Member, ESO OPC
Member, ASTRON Science Advisory Committee
Co-I, Near Infrared Spectrograph for Euclid, ESA's Dark Energy Mission
Member, Science team MID-infrared Interferometric instrument for VLTI
Member, XMM Large Scale Structure Survey Consortium
PI, DCLA (Development and Commissioning of LOFAR for Astronomy)
& project for the scientific preparation of science with
&LOFAR at 4 partaking Netherlands universities
Member, LOFAR Technical Working Group
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Development (LAD) board
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee (ARC)
Member, Selection panel NWO's Rubicon program.
Member, Spitzer warm legacy survey project SERVS
Member of the steering committee, Virgo Consortium for cosmological
supercomputer simulations
Co-Investigator, MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer)
Member, MUSE science team
Member, LOFAR Epoch of Reionization science team
Member, ISTOS science team (Imaging Spectroscopic Telescope for Origins
Member, Xenia science team (A probe of cosmic chemical evolution)
NL-representative, Euro-VO Data Center Alliance, Theoretical astrophysics
expert group
Chair, Organizing Committee, LC workshop “The chemical enrichment of the
intergalactic medium”
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, “Cosmological reionization”,
Allahabad, India
Member, NWO Rubicon committee
PI, Marie Curie Excellence Team
PI, OWLS collaboration
Member, Astron (WSRT/LOFAR) Programme Committee
Board member, Nederlandse Astronomen Club
Associate member of the OPTICON Key Technologies Network
Member of the FP7 Network “Wide field imaging at the E-ELT: from GLAO to
diffraction limit”
Member management committee, COST Action CM0805 The chemical cosmos:
understanding chemistry in astronomical environments
van der Werf
Member, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Board
Principal Investigator, SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey
Principal Investigator, Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey
Co-investigator, HIFI
Co-investigator, MIRI
Member, SAFARI Science team
Member, METIS Science Team
Member and co-chair of Galaxies Panel, ESO Observing Programmes
Member, STFC Herschel Oversight Committee
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee of 3 international conferences
Member, TAMASIS Network
K. Holhjem
C. Tadhunter
A. Duffy
L. Koopmans
O. Vaquero
J. Hartlap
K. Holhjem
L. Allamandola
O. Vaquero
A. Pal
Jan 20-23
Jan 26
Feb 23-27
Feb 24
Feb 24
Mar 2-3
Mar 23-26
Apr 1-June 1
Apr 6
Apr 15-22
J. Szulagyi
Apr 15-22
H. Zhao
E. Tenenbaum
May 1-31
C. Bildfell
C. Ferrari
May 1-30
May 5-8
C. Coti
May 5-19
A. Stolte
T. Ishiyama
A. Babul
J.H. Fillion
M. Gieles
May 8-9
May 10-24
May 18-19
May 18-19
May 18-19
AIfA Bonn, Germany
University of Sheffield, UK
University of Manchester, UK
University of Groningen, Netherlands
University of Groningen, Netherlands
AIfA Bonn, Germany
AIfA Bonn, Groningen
University of Groningen, Netherlands
Konkoly Observatory, Budapest,
Konkoly Observatory, Budapest,
University of St.Andrews, Scotland
Steward Observatory, University of
University of Victoria, Canada
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice,
Institute for advanced computer science,
Paris, France
Bonn University, Germany
Tokyo University, Japan
University of Victoria, Canada
SOLEIL, UPMC, Paris, France
ESO, Chili
B. Oppenheimer
M. Chun
D. Maschiettie
S. McMillan
R. Keil
K. Holhjem
K. Nitadori
L. Sales
R. Crain
P. Abraham
May 19-June 6
May 21
June 1-july 3
June 1-6
June 4-7
June 8-12
June 15-22
June 17
June 22-26
Juni 29- July 5
O. Mangete
A. Duffy
K. Holhjem
M. Schirmer
P. Brochado
July 25-30
Aug 4-7
Aug 6-14
Aug 6-14
Aug 10-20
R. Keil
A. Biviano
P. Melchior
O. Pols
J. Nelson
V. Springel
R. Azzollini
Aug 23-28
Sep 13-19
Sep 14-15
Sep 21-Oct 2
Sep 26- Oct 4
Sep 30
Oct 5-6
A. Glauser
Oct 5-6
A. Hernan
Oct 5-6
B. Devecci
G. de Marchi
E. Calzavarini
I. Cherchneff
C. Qi
Oct 11-15
Nov 2-3
Nov 6
Nov 9-11
Nov 9-13
C. Dalla Vecchia
M. Kato
E. Dwek
M. Gladders
Nov 2-6
Nov 8-22
Nov 9-12
Nov 18-20
University of Arizona, USA
University of Hawaii, USA
Padua, Italy
Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA
ZARM, Bremen, Germany
AIfA Bonn, Germany
University of Tokyo, Japan
University of Groningen, Netherlands
Swinburne University, Australia
Konkoly Observatory, Budapest,
Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA
University of Manchester, UK
AIfA Bonn, Germany
AIfA Bonn, Germany
Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade
do Porto, Portugal
ZARM, Bremen, Germany
Osservatorio Astronomico, Trieste, Italy
University of Heidelberg, Germany
University of Utrecht, Netherlands
MPA, Germany
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
Cientificas, Spain
UK Astronomy Technology Centre,
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
Cientificas, Spain
ESO, Noordwijk, Netherlands
ENS, Lyon, France
University of Basel, Switzerland
Harvard Smithsonian Center for
Astrophysics, USA
MPE, Germany
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
Nasa, Goddard, USA
University of Chicago, US
C. Kemper
M. Gieles
A. Duffy
Nov 30-Dec 1
Dec 3-4
Dec 4-12
University of Manchester, UK
ESO, Chili
University of Western Australia, USA
and colloquia
in Leiden
lectures and
colloquia in Leiden
V.1. Workshops
Most of the workshops were held in the Lorentz Center, an international center
which coordinates and hosts workshops in the sciences. In 2009 the Leiden
astronomers contributed to the following workshops there:
February 2 - 6
Deep IR studies of the distant universe
P. van Dokkum, M. Franx
March 16 - 20
From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight, 2009 EARA workshop
D. Salter, I. Oliveira, M. Hogerheijde, E.F. van Dishoeck
April 6 - 9
Interactions in the Dark: physics of Dark Energy-Dark Matter interactions
H.S. Zhao, H. Hoekstra, B. Famaey, B. Foster
May 18 - 20
Varying Fundamental Constants
C. Martins, J. Brinchmann
May 25 - 29
The Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium
J. Schaye, S. Borgani, J.X. Prochaska, J.M. Shull, C.C. Steidel
July 13 - 17
Distribution of Mass in the Milky Way Galaxy
A. Klypin, H. Zhao, J. Binney, L. Blitz, A.G.A. Brown
November 2 - 6
Cavity enhanced spectroscopy – Recent developments and new challenges
H.V.J. Linnartz, W. Ubachs, A. Ruth
November 23 - 27
Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback
C. Tadhunter, R. Morganti, P. Best, J. Holt, N. Nesvadba, M. Hardcastle
November 30 - December 4
Astronomy 2009 - Astronomy and the New Media in the International Year of
A. Allan, C. Odman, S. Kendrew, R. Simpson, S. Lowe, C. Lintott
Additional meetings:
October 9 – 10
Stockholm Astrobiology school visit
On October 8-10, about 15 members of the Stockholm Astrobiology school
visited Leiden Observatory. They participated in the NOVA network 2
meeting in Leiden on October 8 and joint scientific talks and
discussions with members of the astrochemistry and laboratory
astrophysics groups were held on October 9-10.
November 23 – 27
WISH team meeting
On November 23-27, about 35 members of the `Water in Star-forming
regions with Herschel' met in Leiden to discuss the initial Herschel
PACS science demonstration phase data, as well as progress on
complementary data and modeling efforts. More information can be found
V.2. Endowed Lectures
Apr 21
Bruce Draine
Oct 1
Jerry Nelson
Cosmic Dust – Mother Nature’s
Galactic Beauty Powder
Segmented Mirror Telescopes and
the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope)
V.3. Scientific Colloquia
Jan 29
Speaker (affiliation)
Leon Koopmans (Kapteyn)
Feb 4
Christoph Pfrommer (CITA)
Feb 5
David Raban (Leiden
Matt Lehnert (Observatoir de
Paris, GEPI)
Feb 12
Feb 19
Susanne Aalto (Onsala)
Feb 23
Ivo Labbé (OCIW)
Feb 24
Carsten Dominik (University
of Amsterdam)
Matthew Kenworthy
Feb 25
Mar 4
Rychard Bouwens (Lick
Mar 5
Joeri van Leeuwen (Astron)
Mar 10
Joe Tufts (Las Cumbres
Dave Lommen (Leiden
Mar 12
Mar 13
Mar 16
Mar 19
Mar 20
Michael McElwain
Lucas Labadie (MPIA
Georges Meynet (Geneva
Frans Snik (Utrecht)
Strong Gravitational Lens Modeling:
The Structure & Evolution of Earlytype Galaxies to z=1 and beyond
Deciphering an enigma - Non-thermal
emission from galaxy clusters
Mid-IR interferometric studies of
nearby AGN (PhD student colloquium)
Direct Observations of (some of) the
Physical Drivers of
Galaxy Evolution
Molecular gas and chemistry in dusty
The formation histories of massive
Dust in protoplanetary disks: Tales of
optical depth
Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Promises
and Challenges
Early Galaxy formation: Studying the
build up and evolution of galaxies
during the first 2 Gyr of the Universe
Radio pulsar surveys and the evolution
of neutron-star binaries
A biased approach to efficient ELT
The first steps of planet formation Studying grain growth with millimetre
interferometers (PhD colloquium)
Exoplanetary Science: Instrumentation,
Observations, and Expectations
Exoplanetary Systems:
Instrumentation, Technology and
Evolution of Massive Stars along the
Cosmic History
Polarized views of the Universe
Mar 26
Speaker (affiliation)
Chris Pritchett (University of
Apr 2
Thomas Henning (MPIA
Carolina Ödman (Leiden
Margaret Meixner (STScI)
Apr 8
Apr 22
May 7
May 19
Matthias Bartelmann (Institut
für Theoretische Astrophysik,
Alan McConnachie (Herzberg
Institute for Astrpphysics)
May 28
June 4
Crystal Martin (UCSB)
Karin Öberg (Leiden
June 11
Andreas Pawlik (Leiden
Olja Panić (Leiden
Simon Portegies Zwart
(Leiden Observatory)
Steve Kahn (Stanford)
Anne-Marie Weijmans
(Leiden Observatory)
June 18
June 25
Aug 6
Aug 27
Sep 4
Sep 10
Sep 17
Sep 21
Oct 1
Elisabetta Micelotta (Leiden
Richard Bower (Durham)
Ray Jayawardhana
(University of Toronto)
Ruud Visser (Leiden
Jerry Nelson (UCSC)
The Supernova Legacy Survey Cosmology and Constraints on the
Nature of Type Ia Supernovae
The Formation of Massive Stars
Universe Awareness
Spitzer Survey of the Large Magellanic
Cloud, Surveying the Agents of a
Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE)
Do we understand gravitational arcs?
The Pan-Andromeda Archaeological
Survey: unraveling galaxy formation in
the near-field
Galactic Winds
Complex processes in simple ices - Gasgrain interactions during star formation
(PhD colloquium)
Simulating cosmic reionization (PhD
The gas and dust spatial distribution in
disks around low-mass stars
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope
Dark matter in early-type galaxies:
mapping dark haloes with integral-field
PAH Processing in Space
The flipside of galaxy formation
Exploring Young Brown Dwarfs: disks,
companions and the bottom of the IMF
Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks
Segmented Mirror Telescopes and the
TMT (thirty Meter Telescope) [2009
Sackler Lecture]
Oct 8
Oct 9
Oct 15
Oct 20
Oct 22
Oct 29
Nov 11
Nov 11
Nov 12
Nov 19
Nov 26
Speaker (affiliation)
Jason Hessels
Pedro Beirao (Leiden
Jörg Hörandel (Radboud
University Nijmegen)
Cecilia Ceccarelli (Laboratoire
d’Astrophysique de
Steve Balbus (Laboratoire de
Nathan de Vries (Leiden
Ian McCarthy (Kavli Institute
for Cosmology, Cambridge
Eli Dwek (NASA, Goddard
Space Flight Center)
Anatoly Spitkovsky
Mike Gladders (Chicago)
Dec 14
Matthew Bate (Exeter
S. George Djorgovski
Edward Taylor (Leiden
Mark Krumholz (UCSC)
Dec 17
Leo Blitz (UC Berkeley)
Dec 3
Dec 11
Exploring the World of Pulsars and
Fast Radio Transients with LOFAR
ISM Conditions in Starburst Galaxies
(PhD colloquium)
Exploring the highest-energy particles
in the Universe with the Pierre Auger
Molecular complexity and star
Differential Rotation and Convection in
the sun
The evolution of radio-loud Active
Galactic Nuclei (PhD colloquium)
Thermal histories of galaxies and groups
in cosmological hydrodynamic
Five Years in the Mid-Infrared
Evolution of the SN 1987A Supernova
Physics and Astrophysics of
Collisionless Shocks
Strong Lensing by Optically-Selected
Galaxy Clusters
Numerical simulations of star cluster
Exploring the Time Domain With
Synoptic Sky Surveys
10 Billion Years of Massive Galaxies
Turbulence, Feedback, and Slow Star
Counterintuitive Star Formation
V.4. Student Colloquia
Feb 16
Wouter Spaan
Feb 23
Bas Nefs
June 2
Niels ter Haar
June 8
Sander de Kievit
June 15
June 22
Daniel Szomoru
Marco van der Sluis
June 29
Remco van der Burg
July 6
Maarten van den Berg
July 13
Jesse van de Sande
July 20
Nov 2
Alireza Rahmati
Charlotte de Valk
SOS: simulated observations of cluster
A LABOCA continuum view on dusty
envelopes in southern starforming
Systematic study of radiation effects on
Gaia astrometric measurements
Starts around Recoiled Super Massive
Black Holes
Biases in cosmic shear surveys
Analysis of the WFCAM Transit
Survey: The search for planetary
transits around M dwarfs
The UV galaxy luminosity function at
3D Weak Lensing with Galaxy Cluster
Sizes and colour gradients of High
Redshift Galazies in GOODS CDFS
Evolution of Dusty Galaxies
The effects of CCD radiation damage on
the EUCLID weak-lensing survey
in scientific
in scientific
EARA Workshop "From disks to planets: learning from starlight"
(Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20)
Talk: ‘Can [NeII] emission-line profiles probe photoevaporative disc winds?’
The dynamics of discs and planets (Cambridge, UK; Aug 17-21)
Poster: ‘Planet migration in evolving gas discs’
Angular Momentum Transport and Energy Release in Accretion Discs
(Cambridge, UK; Sep 7-8)
Invited talk: ‘Giant planet migration, disc evolution, and the origin of transitional
Dynamics of Outer Planetary Systems (Edinburgh, UK; Nov 9-11)
Invited review talk: ‘Outer disc evolution’
ESTRELA workshop (Bologna, Italy; Jan)
Scientific Writing workshop (Blankenberge, Belgium; May )
ESTRELA workshop (Gothenberg, Sweden; May)
Maser Workshop (Bonn, Germany; Nov 11-12)
42nd IUPAC Conference (Glasgow, Scotland; Aug 1-7)
‘Molecular dynamics simulations of ice photochemistry at different
GORDON Conference (Dynamics At Surfaces),Proctor Academy (Andover,
USA; Aug 9-14)
‘Molecular dynamics simulations of ice photochemistry at different
Landelijke Werkgroep Wetenschapsgeschiedenis (Woudschoten,
Netherlands; June 26-27)
Hoe word ik astronoom? Veranderingen in de professionele identiteit,
IUHPS / ICHST (Budapest, Hungary; July 28-Aug 2)
‘Look South, Go West. The astronomical community, 1870-1940’
History of Science Society Annual Meeting (Phoenix, USA; Nov 19-22)
‘Educating Astronomers: the astronomical community 1880-1940’
Vatican Observatory Super Science Summer School 2009 Astronomy: A
Common Ground for Sharing Humanity's Concerns (Sassone, Italy, June; 2126)
'Exploring terrestrial planet-forming regions in protoplanetary disks with
high resolution spectroscopy'
42nd IUPAC congress Analysis & Detection Astrochemistry (Glasgow, UK;
Aug 2-5)
'Exploring the chemical and physical structure of terrestrial planet-forming zones in
protoplanetary disks with CO line profiles'
CRIRES + CO meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Aug 31)
'Single-peaked CO emission line profiles from the inner regions of disks'
Van Bemmel
SKADS DS2 team meeting (Valletta, Malta; Jan 6-8)
‘SimCa for LOFAR: ionospheric impact on imaging’
The Monster's Fiery Breath (Madison, WI, USA; Jun 1-6)
‘AGN modelling in a cosmological context’
Virgo Consortium Meeting (Garching, Germany; Jan 28-29)
‘Understanding AGN models’
International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Columbus OH, USA;
June 22-26)
‘Shining light on PAHs in interstellar ices’
NAC - Dutch Astronomy Conference (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13 – May
‘Shining light on PAHs in interstellar ices’
AO4ELT (Paris, France, June; 22-26)
‘Extreme Adaptive Optics in the mid-IR: The METIS AO system’
[email protected] (Spineto, Italy; July 5-10)
‘Starburst Activity on Small Scales’
Data Needs for ALMA (Cologne, Germany; Oct 5-7)
ARTIST meeting (Bonn, Germany; Nov 9-11)
‘Introducing LIME’
Deep IR studies of the distant universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2-6)
‘Estimating gas masses in galaxies. Can we move past the Kennicutt-Schmidt law?’
ESO Spectroscopic Survey Workshop (Garching, Germany; Mar 9-10)
An astronomical Observatory at Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica) for the next
decade (Frascati, Italy; May 11-15)
Imaging at the E-ELT - a one day workshop (Garching, Germany; May 29)
‘Deep Extra-Galactic Imaging’
IAU General Assembly, S262: Stellar Populations: Planning for the Next
Decade (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-7)
‘Challenges in Stellar Population Studies’
UK E-ELT Science Workshop II. Stellar Populations with the European
ELT(Cambridge, UK; Sep 17-18)
‘Challenges in Stellar Population Studies’
Assembly, Gas Content and Star Formation History of Galaxies
(Charlottesville, USA; Sep 21-24)
‘Moving past the Kennicutt-Schmidt law?’
Observing the Dark Universe with Euclid (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Nov 1718)
ELSA CCD modelling workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 19-21)
Talk: ‘Dealing with Gaia CCD radiation damage effects: overview of activities’
ELSA Mid-Term Review and follow-up meeting (Brussels, Belgium; Feb 2-4)
Gaia Science Team meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Feb 26-27)
Gaia radiation calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands;
mar 6)
GREAT kick-off meeting (Cambridge, UK; Mar 26-27)
Talk: ‘ELSA - European Leadership in Space Astrometry’
Gaia Coordination Units 2 and 3 meeting (Torino, Italy; Apr 20-23)
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
Gaia Science Team meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; May 19-20)
Satellite dynamics: Simulation challenges and requirements (Bremen,
Germany; June 18-19)
Gaia calibration workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; June 25-26)
Talk: ‘Gaia System Calibration Plan Workshop – Introduction’
Gaia radiation calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands;
July 7)
Talk: ‘CDM-02 validation and parameter estimation - progress report’
GREAT Gaia spectroscopic follow-up meeting (Cambridge, UK; July 8-9)
Talk:’ Gaia - need for follow-up spectroscopy’
Distribution of Mass in the Milky Way Galaxy (Leiden, Netherlands; July 1317)
The Milky Way and the Local Group - Now and in the Gaia Era (Heidelberg,
Germany; Aug 31 - Sep 4)
Invited talk: ‘The scientific impact of Gaia’
Gaia Science Team meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Sep 17-18)
ELSA School on the Techniques of Gaia (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 28 Oct 2)
AMUSE workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 5-7)
Gaia calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Oct 6)
Talk: ‘DPAC inputs to the Gaia Calibration Plan’
Gaia DPAC Radiation Task Force meeting (Cambridge, UK; Oct 26-27)
Gaia Coordination Unit 8 meeting (Nice, France; Nov 18)
Talk: ‘Status of hardware issues and data processing for BP/RP’
GREAT plenary meeting (Nice, France; Nov 19-20)
Gaia Coordination Unit 5 meeting (Barcelona, Spain; Dec 1-4)
van der Burg
Nationale Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘The UV Luminosity Function at z=3-5’
Galaxies and Cosmology meeting (Groningen, Netherlands; Aug 24)
Observing the Dark Universe with Euclid (Noordwijk, Netherlands;
Nov 17-18)
GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting (Bologna, Italy; Mar 17-20)
GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting (Barcelona, Spain; Dec 1-4)
IAU XXII General Assembly, JD5 "Modelling the Milky Way in the Era of
Gaia" (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
‘Gaia Photometric Data Processing in Crowded Fields’
Annual FOM meeting (Veldhoven, Netherlands; Jan 20-21)
Annual CW Theoretical Chemistry and Spectroscopy meeting (Lunteren,
Netherlands; Jan 26-27)
‘H2 formation on graphitic surfaces’
Heterogeneous Chemical Processes in the Astronomical Environment
(London, UK; June 16)
‘Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with models’
Nordic-NASA Summerschool on Water, Ice and the Origin of Life in the
Universe (Iceland; June 29-July 10)
Contribution 1: ‘Depletion of molecules in the pre-collapse phase of star-forming
Contribution 2:’Chemistry on icy grain surfaces’
Contribution 3: ‘Introduction into Monte-Carlo studies on ice surface chemistry’
42nd International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry congress
"Chemistry Solutions"(Glasgow, UK; Aug 2-7)
Contribution 1: ‘H2 formation on graphitic surfaces’
Contribution 2: ‘Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with
European Conference on Surface Science 26 (Parma, Italy; Aug 30- Sep 4)
‘Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with models’
NAC 2009 ,Rolduc (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
ASSIST: the test set-up for VLT adaptive optics facility AO4ELT (Paris,
France; June 22 -26)
‘Use of AO PSF Models for the Study of Resolved Stellar Population’
Van Delft
Het biografisch portaal (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Mar 27)
‘Het nut van een biografisch portaal’
Symposium Natural History Museum Maastricht (Maastricht, Netherlands;
May 15)
‘Over conservatoren, wetenschap en waarde’
Dutch Science, World Science (Woudschoten, Netherlands; June 26-27)
‘Museum Boerhaave and the History of Science’; Koude drukte’
‘Het Leidse cryogeen laboratorium en de internationale temperatuurschaal 1927’
The relations of science and technology as portrayed in Museums (London,
UK; Sep 20-22)
‘The Quest for Absolute Zero. A Human Story about Rivalry & Cold’
HSS Annual Meeting 2009 (Phoenix, USA; Nov 19-22)
‘Cool Reception. Leiden's Quest for Cold and the International Temperature Scale
van Dishoeck
Submillimeter astrophysics and technology (Pasadena, USA; Feb 23-25)
Invited: ‘Sun-bathing around low-mass protostars: APEX-CHAMP+ observations of
high-J CO’
From Disks to planets: learning from starlight (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 1720)
Invited: ‘Disks and their evolution: future prospects’
ALMA and ELTs: a deeper, finer view of the Universe (Garching, Germany;
Mar 24-27)
Invited review: ‘Star- and planet formation in our Galaxy: ALMA-ELT synergies’
StScI symposium: The search for life in the Universe (Baltimore, USA; May
Invited review: ‘Complex organic molecules in star- and planet-forming regions’
High angular resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths (Taipei,
Taiwan; June 6-10)
Invited review: ’Water and organic molecules in disks: ALMA and IR synergy’
Science with JWST-MIRI (Chicago, USA; June 15-16)
‘MIRI observations of protostars’
Astrochemistry: 42nd IUPAC congress (Glasgow, UK; Aug 2-5)
Invited review: ‘Chemistry during star- and planet formation’
To the edge of the Universe: 30 yr IRAM (Grenoble, France; Sep 28-30)
Invited review: ‘Astrochemistry’
Spitzer and VLT observations of protostars and protoplanetary disks
(Garching, Germany; Oct 30 - Nov 2)
‘Introductory overview’
From circumstellar disks to planetary systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 3-6)
Invited review: ‘Chemistry of protoplanetary disks’
Herschel science demonstration phase results (Madrid, Spain; Dec 17-18)
‘First results from the WISH key program’
Annual Meeting History of Science Society (Phoenix (AZ), USA; Nov 19-22)
‘Radio astronomy in the Netherlands: a peculiar history’
NAC 2009 (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
Poster: ‘Ice Segregation around Protostars’
42nd International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Congress
(Glasgow, UK ; Aug 2-7)
Poster: ‘Thermal Dynamics of Ice Mixtures’
NOVA Fall School, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 5 - 9
‘Ices in Star Forming Regions’
Galaxy Metabolism: Galaxy Evolution near and far (Sydney, Australia; 22-26
June 2009)
Invited Talk: ‘The UV-IR SEDs of Galaxies’
Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback, Lorentz Center (Leiden,
Netherlands; 23-27 Nov)
Talk: ‘Distinguishing Diagnostics; Emission Line Ratios as analysis tools’
IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14)
‘Galactic consequences of clustered star formation’
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘Physical Properties of Simulated Galaxies’
Virgo Meeting (Garching, Germany; Jan 28-29)
NAC 2009 (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘Reconstructing Arches’
Meeting of the DUEL Network (Heidelberg, Germany; Jan 14-16)
‘DUEL Node Overview Leiden’
NAC 2009 (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
DUEL Mid-Term Review (Edinburgh, UK; July 8-9)
Meeting of the CFHTLS Collaboration (Edinburgh, UK; Oct 1-3)
‘Cosmic Magnification - A New Window to Cosmology’
Dutch Astroparticle-physics meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 20)
‘Weak lensing by large scale structure’
Lorentz Workshop “Interactions in the dark”(Leiden, Netherlands; Apr 6-9)
‘Weak gravitational lensing’
JENAM (Hertfortshire, UK; Apr 20-23)
‘Weak lensing by large scale structure: results from the CFHTLS’
‘Weak lensing studies of galaxy clusters’
Nederlandse Astronomen Club AGM (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘Weak lensing by large scale structure’
Galaxy masses (Kingston, Canada; June 15-19)
‘Weak lensing studies of galaxy halos’
Lensing school (Paris, France, Aug 26-29)
‘Lectures on shape measurement methods’
NOVA herfstschool (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 6-9)
‘Lecture series on gravitational lensing’
From Disks to Planets (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20)
ALMA and the ELTs (Garching, Germany; Mar 24-27)
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘An arc of gas and dust around the young star DoAr21’
Submillimeter Astronomy at High Angular Resolution (Taipei, Taiwan; June
‘Gas and dust in protoplanetary disks: recent results from SMA, CARMA, and PdBI’
Data Needs for ALMA (Cologne, Germany; Oct 5-7)
‘Self–consistent radiative transfer models of low–mass protostars in the ALMA era’
From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 36)
Poster: ‘An arc of gas and dust around the young star DoAr 21’
Deep IR studies of the distant universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2-6)
‘UltraVISTA survey: progress report AGN-induced outflows in young radio sources’
UK National Astronomy Meeting (Hatfield, UK; Apr 20-23)
‘AGN-induced feedback in young radio galaxies’
Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback (Leiden, Netherlands;
Nov 23-27)
‘Member of the SOC’
CW Theoretical Chemistry and Spectroscopy meeting (Lunteren,
Netherlands; Jan 26-27)
Poster: ‘Laboratory Evidence for Efficient Water Formation in Interstellar Ices’
Nordic-NASA Summer School: Water, Ice and the Origin of Life (Reykjavik,
Iceland; June 29-July 13)
Poster: ‘Water Formation in the Interstellar Medium’
42nd IUPAC World Chemistry Congress (Glasgow, UK; Aug 2-7)
Poster: ‘Water Formation in the Interstellar Medium’
CW Theoretical Chemistry and Spectroscopy meeting (Lunteren,
Netherlands; Jan 26-27)
Poster: ‘Double-Insertion of Xe into Water: HXeOXeH ‘
Nordic-NASA Summer School: Water, Ice and the Origin of Life (Reykjavik,
Iceland; June 29-July 13)
NOVA Fall School 2009 (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 5-9)
3rd Arena Conference: An astronomical observatory at Concordia (Dome C,
Antarctica) for the next decade (Frascati , Italy; May 11-15)
`Dense star forming gas and dust in the Magellanic Clouds'
The Many Faces of Centaurus A (Sydney, Australia; Jun 28 - Jul 3)
`Emission and absorption of circumnuclear molecular gas in Centaurus A'
Interferometry of AGNs (Heidelberg, Germany; Mar 29-30)
MIDI Science Team Meeting(Heidelberg, Germany; Apr 21-23)
MIDI Science Team Meeting(Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 09-10)
Turbulence-Assisted Planetary Growth (Uppsala, Sweden; Feb 25-27)
‘Why do planets rotate?’
Planet Formation and Evolution: The Solar System and Extrasolar Planets
(Tübingen, Germany; Mar 02-06)
’Formation and growth of planets in turbulent protoplanetary discs’
From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar
‘Why do planets rotate?’
The Astrophysics of the Magnetorotational Instability and Related
Processes (Ringberg, Germany; Apr 14-18)
‘The role of the MRI for planetesimal formation’
Workshop on the Magneto-Rotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks
(Kobe, Japan; June 02-03)
‘Planetesimal formation in turbulent protoplanetary discs’
Origins Of Solar Systems (Mt Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA; July 05-10)
‘Formation and growth of planets in turbulent protoplanetary discs’
The Dynamics of Discs and Planets (Cambridge, United Kingdom; Aug 1721)
‘The crucial role of metallicity for planetesimal formation’
Pencil Code User Meeting 2009 (Heidelberg, Germany; Aug 24-28)
‘Pencil Code on a Blue Gene/P’
Angular momentum transport and energy release in accretion discs
(Cambridge, United Kingdom; Sep 07-08)
‘Computer simulations of the Parker instability in strongly magnetised
Keplerian discs’
ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 08)
‘On the metallicity dependence of planet formation’
MIRI European Consortium meeting (Leuven, Belgium; Jan 21-23)
MIRI European Consortium meeting (Leicester, UK; Apr 28-30)
METIS progress meeting (Edinburgh, UK; May 19)
IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14)
‘High-resolution infrared spectroscopy at high and low altitudes’
MIRI European Consortium meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-9)
DotAstronomy workshop(organizing committee) (Leiden, Netherlands;
Nov 30- Dec 4)
Planet Formation and Evolution: The Solar System and Extrasolar Planets
(Tübingen, Germany; Mar 2 – 6)
Contributed talk: ‘On the relationship of planets and debris disks’
From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight (2009 EARA workshop)
(Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16 – 20)
Contributed talk: ‘On the relationship of planets and debris disks’
From circumstellar disks to planetary systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 3 –
Poster: ‘Infrared variability as disk diagnostics’
Herschel data processing spectroscopy workshop (Madrid, Spain; Mar 2426)
42nd IUPAC Congress (Glasgow, Scotland; Aug 2-4)
Talk: ‘Mapping CH3OH emission in young stellar objects’
Herschel data reduction and first results workshop (Madrid, Spain, Dec 1418)
Subdivide and Tile(Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 16-21)
‘Systematic effects in transport over Delaunay structures’
ESO Committee of Council (Garching, Germany; Mar 2-3)
ESO Spectroscopic Surveys Workshop (Garching, Germany; Mar 9-10)
‘Extragalactic imaging surveys with VST and VISTA’
EUCLID Stakeholders' meeting, ESTeC (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Mar 20)
‘Dutch contributions to EUCLID’
ESO Council (Vienna, Austria; June 3-4)
OmegaCAM/VST interface meeting, ESO (Garching, Germany; June 16-17)
Workshop on Astronomical Instrumentation, TU (Delft, Netherlands; July 8
‘Instrument research in Astronomy’
Workshop on using OmegaCAM/VST Guaranteed Time Observations
(Naples, Italy; July 20-21)
‘OmegaCAM Guaranteed Time plans; the KiDS survey’
ESO Committee of Council (San Pedro de Atacama, Chile; Oct 5-7)
Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph Team meeting (Malta; Oct 20)
EUCLID Conference, ESTeC (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Nov 17-18)
‘Groundbased imaging for the EUCLID mission’
MICADO phase A final review meeting, ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 30Dec 1)
ESO Council (Garching, Germany; Dec 9-10)
Deep IR studies of the distant universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2 - 6
Talk: ‘Galaxy Populations in a protocluster at z=3.13’
Galaxy Clusters in the Early Universe (Pucon, Chile; Nov 9 – 12)
Talk: ‘Growing up in the city: Galaxy populations in a z~3 protocluster’
van Langevelde
Start International Year of Astronomy (Paris, France; Jan 15-16)
‘Introducing the e-VLBI demo’
Int. SKA Forum (Cape Town, South Africa; Feb 23-28)
Science and Technology of Long Baseline Real-time Interferometry: The 8th
International e-VLBI Workshop (Madrid, Spain; June 21-26)
“The future of e-VLBI” dot-Astronomy 2009 (Leiden, the Netherlands; Nov
‘e-VLBI: a telescope larger than Europe’
CW 'Spectroscopy and Theory' meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; January)
DPG Meeting, Special symposium 'High resolution spectroscopy'
(Hamburg, Germany; Mar 2-6)
ISM/CSM meetings (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 5)
Clustertreffen Heraeus Stiftung (Freiburg, Germany; Oct 4-7)
ISM/CSM meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 8)
8th Workshop on cavity enhanced spectroscopy (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 26)
Opening Ceremony International Year of Astronomy 2009 (Unesco, Paris ,
France; Jan 15-16)
Stellar Pulsation, Challenges for Theory and Observation (Santa Fe NM,
USA; May 31 - June 5)
IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14)
Nederlandse Astronomenconferentie (NAC) (Rolduc; Netherlands; May 13 –
Van Lunteren
Meeting of the Dutch Mass Spectrometry Society (NVMS) and the Belgium
Society for Mass Spectrometry (BSMS), Rolduc (Kerkrade, Netherlands; Mar
‘Instruments and the early-modern rise of experimental science’
KNAW symposium ‘Alexander von Humboldt in Holland (1800-1900)’
(Amsterdam, Netherlands, Apr 3)
‘Buys Ballot as a Humboldtian scientist’
History of Science Society Annual Meeting (Phoenix, USA, Nov 19-22)
‘Frederik Kaiser, popular astronomy, and the decline of natural theology’
Physics of Galactic Nuclei (Ringberg, Germany; June 15-19)
‘A new secular instability in eccentric stellar disks around supermassive black holes,
with application to the Galactic Center’
ASGI Meeting (Galway, Ireland; Oct 8-9)
‘A New Instability in Eccentric Stellar Disks around Supermassive Black Holes’
Galactic Center Workshop 2009 (Shanghai, China; Oct 19-23)
‘A New Instability in the Eccentric Stellar Disk Around SgrA*’
Stars and Singularities (Rehovot, Israel; Dec 8-14)
‘Resonant relaxation and the angular momentum distribution of stars around MBHs’
GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting(Bologna, Italy; Mar 17-20)
GAIA CU5 Plenary Meeting (Barcelona, Spain; Dec 1-4)
MIRI Data analysis workshop (Leuven, Belgium; Jan 19-23)
‘Wavelength characterisation of the MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrmoeter’
MIRI Data analysis workshop (Madrid, Spain; June 1-5)
XXVII IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14)
‘Characterizing Star Formation in 30 Doradus via Mid-IR Starburst Modelling
Astronomy Education and Research in Colombia’
MIRI EC Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-10)
MIRI Test team meeting (Ghent, Belgium; Dec 2-4)
‘Wavelength characterisation of the MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrmoeter’
International Year of Astronomy Opening Ceremony (UNESCO) (Paris,
France; Jan 15 - 16)
IAU Symposium 260 - Astronomy and Culture (UNESCO) (Paris, France; Jan
15 - 16)
‘The IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the Developing World’
VTB-Pro Symposium
‘The Universe Awareness Programme for very young children’
LOFAR Survey Science Team (ROE) (Edinburgh, Scotland; June 17 - 19)
‘The LOFAR High-redshift programme’
IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 2 - 15)
The IAU Strategic Plan (Science City, Tunis; June 22)
The IAU Strategic Plan (IAU Special Session 2; Aug 5)
The IAU Strategic Plan (IAU Special Session 4; Aug 7)
Influence of Society on Astronomical Discovery (IAU Special Session 5; Aug
International UNAWE Workshop (Aug 9)
EU-South African Collaboration in astronomy (Brussels, Belgium; Sep 24)
The IAU Strategic Plan
ESO Conference on distant cluster (Pucon, Chile; Nov 9 - 12)
‘Probing distant protoclusters with radio sources’
Deciphering the Universe through Spectroscopy (Potsdam, Germany; Sep
‘Cosmogrid: Simulating the Universe across the Globe’
De Mooij
2009 Sagan Exoplanet Summer Workshop: Exoplanetary Atmospheres
(Pasadena CA, USA; July 20-24)
NOVA Fall School (Westerbork, Netherlands; Oct 5-9)
'Hot planets and cool stars-the hunt for M dwarf planets'
RoPacS meeting (La Laguna Tenerife, Spain; Nov 17-19)
'Hot planets and cool stars-Leiden analysis and follow-up'
Advancing Chemical Understanding through Astronomical Observations
(Green Bank, West Virginia, U.S.A.; May 26-29)
‘Complex processes in simple ices Ð the role of UV light’
IAU Symposium 260 (Paris, France; Jan 19 – 13)
‘Universe Awareness: Inspiring young children around the world’
2nd International Meeting of Astronomy and Astronautics (Campos de
Goytacazes, Brazil; Apr 17 – 20)
‘The Universe Awareness Programme’
JENAM - European week of Astronomy and Space Science (Hatfield, UK;
Apr 20 – 23)
‘Making Universe Awareness Happen’
Building the Scientific Mind (co-organiser) (Cairo, Egypt; May 10 – 14)
‘Universe Awareness: A programme about children’
‘Building the scientific mind in practice: Analysis of the 'Stars at your Fingertips'
IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro,Brazil; Aug 3 – 14)
‘Universe Awareness: an update (SpS2)’
‘Universe Awareness: Innovations in Astronomy Education (SpS4)’
4th International UNAWE Multidisciplinary Workshop (organisor) (Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 9 – 10)
South Africa - EU International Year of Astronomy event (co-organisor)
(Brussels, Belgium; Sep 24)
Astronomy 2009, Lorentz Center (co-organisor) (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov
30 - Dec 4
‘Boinc 101, introduction to a citizen science platform’
From Disks to Planets (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16 – 20)
‘Serpens as a laboratory for star and planet formation’
NAC (Rodulc, Netherlands; May 13 – 15)
‘Evolution of Young Stars and their Disks in Serpens’
ASTROCAM Summer School (El Escorial, Spain; Jun 29 - Jul 3)
‘Serpens as a laboratory for star and planet formation’
General Assembly of the IAU - Special Session 7 (Rio, Brasil; Aug 11 – 14)
‘Evolution of Young Stars and their Disks in Serpens’
From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 3
– 6)
‘Evolution of Young Stars and their Disks in Serpens’
IAU General Assembly XXVII - JD2 Diffuse Light in Galaxy Clusters (Rio
de Janeiro, Brasil; Aug 3-14)
‘Extended Ionized and Molecular Gas Emission in Galaxy Clusters’
IAU General Assembly XXVII - JD8 Hot Interstellar matter in Elliptical
Galaxies (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Aug 3-14)
‘Extended Ionized and Molecular Gas surrounding Brightest Cluster Galaxies’
IAU General Assembly XXVII - S267 Evolution of Galaxies and Central
Holes: Feeding and Feedback (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Aug 3-14)
‘Ionized and Molecular Gas in and around Brightest Cluster Galaxies’
The Cosmic Evolution of Helium and Hydrogen (Ringberg, Germany, Mar 2427)
'SimpleX: Radiative Transfer on an Unstructured, Dynamic Grid'
From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar
‘Do gas and dust in discs have their story straight?’
Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (Blankenberge, Belgium; May 1820)
ISM/CSM meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 5)
Workshop on Galaxy formation (Sesto, Italy; July 13-17)
Molecular gas and Star Formation in Galaxy Simulations: emergent
empirical rela$AMUSE kickoff meeting and workshop (Leiden,
Netherlands; Oct 5-7)
‘Science with AMUSE’
Portegies Zwart
MODEST-9b (Tokyo, Japan, Sep 5-10)
KNAW FOS (Beijing, China, Nov 7-10)
CCD modelling workshop at Dutch Space (Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 19-21)
Talk: ‘CTI Modelling at the CCD Pixel Level’
ELSA Mid-Term Review (Brussels, Belgium; Feb 2-3)
Talk: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs - Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’
4th Gaia Radiation Task Force (Cambridge, UK; Apr 6-7)
Talk: ‘RC2 Charge Injection Profile Analysis’
Talk: ‘CDM02 Validation’
1st EIROforum School on Instrumentation (CERN, Switzerland; May 11-15)
Poster: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs, Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’
IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14)
Poster: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs, Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’
Poster: ‘ELSA - a Research Training Network for Gaia’
The Milky Way and the Local Group - Now and in the Gaia Era (Heidelberg,
Germany; Aug 31 - Sep 4)
Talk: ‘Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs - Modelling to Mitigate the Threat’
ELSA school on the techniques of Gaia (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 28 - Oct
Talk: ‘Euclid’
5th Gaia Radiation Task Force (Cambridge, UK; Oct 26-27)
Talk: ’Testing CDM02 on Radiation Campaigns 2 data’
The Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium (Leiden,
Netherlands; May 25-29)
‘Observations of the IGM near star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2.3’
Harvesting the Desert: The Universe Between Redshift 1 and 3 (Marseille,
France; June 29 - July 3)
‘Observations of the IGM near star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2.3’
MODEST-9c (Tokyo, Japan; Sep 7-14)
SIREN09 (Enschede, Netherlands; Nov 5-5)
MPWide: a light-weight communication library
SC09 (Portland OR, USA; Nov 14-20)
MPWide: a light-weight communication library
CCD modelling workshop at Dutch Space (Leiden, Netherlands; January 1921)
Talk: ‘CCD experience from the Optical Monitoring Camera of Integral’
CU2 Metting Cycle 7 Kick-Off (Turin, Italy; April 21-24)
Talk:’ Modelling Physical Effects in Gaia Attitude’
Workshop Simulation Challenges and Requirements (Bremen, Germany;
June 18-19)
Talk: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’
International Astronomical Union, General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil; Aug 3-14)
Poster: ‘ELSA - a Research Training Network for Gaia’
Poster: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’
Congress The Milky Way and the Local Group - Now and in the Gaia Era
(Heidelberg, Germany; Aug 31 - Sep 4)
Talk: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’
ELSA School on the Techniques of Gaia (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep28 - Oct
Talk: ‘Gaia Attitude Model’
SKADS consortium meeting (Malta; Jan 9-10)
‘SKA en ionospheric calibration’
Swedish LOFAR meeting( Stockholm, Sweden; Jan 15)
‘LOFAR key programme on extra-galactic surveys’
Deep IR studies of the distant Universe (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 2- 6)
‘Two distinct accretion processes in radio galaxies’
Multi-field and multi-beam science with the SKA (Mar 16-17)
‘Ionospheric calibration’
Meeting LOFAR key programme ''Cosmic Magnetism'' (Cambridge, USA;
Mar 25-26)
‘Progress report on LOFAR key programme on extra-galactic surveys’
Meeting LOFAR survey team (Edinburgh, UK; June 16-19)
The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology & Astrophysics: Revealing the
Origins of Planets and Galaxies (Oxford, UK; July 6-8)
‘SPICA and the upcoming revolution in radio astronomy’
Euclid team meeting (Bologna, Italy; Sep 20)
Evolution of galaxies from mass selected samples (Nov 9-13)
‘Feedback, a few recent results’
Powerful Radio Galaxies: Triggering and Feedback (Leiden, Netherlands;
Nov 23-27 )
‘Two distinct accretion processes in AGN: evolution up to z~1 and prospects for
[email protected]: The Cosmic Evolution of Helium and Hydrogen
(Ringberg Castle, Germany; Mar 24-27)
Invited review: ‘Metals as a probe of helium reionisation’
The Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium (Leiden,
Netherlands; May 25-29)
MUSE science team meeting (Lyon, France; June 3-5)
Virgo collaboration meeting (Durham, U.K.; June 9-10)
Harvesting the desert: The universe between redshift 1 and 3 (Marseille,
France; June 30 - July 2)
Invited review: ‘Metals in the IGM as a star formation tracer’
[email protected]: Filling the Cosmos with Stars (Spineto, Italy; July 6-10)
Invited: ‘Star formation laws and their role in models of the formation and evolution of
IAU General Assembly XXVII - Joint Discussion #12 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;
Aug 10-11)
Invited: ‘Feedback from High Redshift Star Formation’
Hunting for the Dark: The Hidden Side of Galaxy Formation (Malta; Oct 1923)
‘Insights into the formation of galaxies from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations
Virgo collaboration meeting (Durham, U.K.; Nov 30 - Dec 1)
‘The OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project’
ELIXIR network meeting (Oxford, UK; Dec 10)
Invited: ‘Feedback and self-regulation in galaxy formation’
Annual Fall Meeting of the German Astronomical Society "Deciphering the
Universe through Spectroscopy" (Potsdam, Germany; Sep 21-25)
‘Probing the center of high-redshift quasars with ALMA’
Kick-off workshop "The Formation of the First Stars" (Heidelberg, Germany;
Oct 6)
‘Primordial magnetic fields: Influence on reionization and the first stars’
AG Annual Fall Meeting - Splinter: Recent advances in cosmology, AIP
(Potsdam, Germany; Sep 22-25)
3D Cosmological Weak Lensing with COSMOS CFHTLS weak lensing
systematics workshop, ROE (Edinburgh, UK; Oct 1-3)
‘Summary CFHTLS PCA PSF modelling’
Observing the Dark Universe with Euclid, ESTEC (Noordwijk, Netherlands;
Nov 17-18)
CFHTLS workshop (Edinburgh, UK; Oct 1-3)
‘Three-point shear statistics with the CFHTLS’
Galaxies at redshift >3 with MUSE (Toulouse, France; Mar 18-19)
‘The MUSE Exposure Time Calculator’
Preparing the way to space borne Fresnel Imagers (Nice, France; Sep 23-25)
‘The Fresnel Imager: Learning from ground-based generation I prototype’
‘The Fresnel Imager: Instrument Numerical Model’
Pathways towards habitable planets (Barcelona, Spain; Sept 14-18)
‘Secondary eclipses in the PLATO era’
JENAM (Hatfield, UK; Apr 20-23)
‘Ground-based observations of hot_jupiter atmospheres’
ROPACS meeting (Hatfield, UK; Apr 23)
‘Transiting extrasolar planets at Leiden Observatory’
Dutch Exoplanet Meeting, UvA (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 25)
‘The changing phases of extrasolar planet CoRoT-1b’
Verwevenheid van onderzoek en onderwijs (Leiden, Netherlands; Sep 23)
‘Undergraduate research in de sterrenkunde’
ROPACS, IAC (Tenerife, Spain; Nov 17-18)
XXVII General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14)
‘Extreme Adpative Optics in the mid-IR: the METIS AO system’
Adaptive Optics for ELTs (Paris, France; June 22-26)
‘Extreme Adaptive Optics in the mid-IR: the METIS AO system’
Nederlands Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘Adaptive Optics in Antarctica’
JENAM, University of Hertfordshire (UK, Apr 21-23)
Keynote address: The cosmic journey of dust.
Life in the Universe, STScI (Baltimore, May 4-8)
Herschel Science Demonstration Phase Initial Results Workshop,The promise of HIFI.
4th ESTRELA Workshop (Bologna, Italy; Jan 19-22)
‘JCMT observations of methanol in Cepheus A’
2nd Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (Blankenberge, Belgium; May
5th ESTRELA Workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden; May 27-29)
‘Distribution and excitation of thermal methanol in Cepheus A’
Dutch ISM/CSM Meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 5)
‘Distribution and excitation of thermal methanol in Cepheus A’
Masers: the ultimate astrophysical tools (Bonn, Germany; Nov 11-12)
‘Methanol masers in Cepheus A’
van Uitert
DUEL winter meeting (Heidelberg Germany; Jan 13-16)
Unveiling the Mass: Extracting and Interpreting Galaxy Masses (Kingston,
Canada; June 14-20)
Poster: Weak lensing in the RCS2 survey
DUEL summer school (Paris, France; Aug 23-28)
Computational Astrochemistry (London, UK; Jan 6-7)
‘Chemical History of Ices in Protoplanetary Disks: Chemistry in a Dynamical Model’
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Rolduc, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘A New CO Photodissociation Model Applied to Circumstellar Disks’
From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems (Garching, Germany; Nov 36)
‘Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks’
[email protected]: filling the Cosmos with Stars (Spineto, Italy; July 6-10)
‘A HARP-B CO(J=3-2) map of M51: Investigating star formation processes on 600pc
VII Reunion Anual de la sociedad Chilena de Astronomia (SOCHIAS)
(Santiago, Chile; Jan 14-16)
‘The Sombrero galaxy’s dust ring’
Van de Voort
Virgo meeting (Munich, Germany; Jan 28-29)
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 13-15)
‘How hot and cold accretion determine the cosmic star formation rate’
The Lyman alpha universe (Paris, France; July 6-10)
‘Lighting up structure formation with Lyman-alpha’
Prospects in theoretical physics: computational astrophysics (summer
school) (Princeton, NJ, USA; July 13-24)
Virgo meeting (Durham, UK; Nov 30-Dec 1)
‘The growth of haloes and galaxies’
Van Weeren
IAU XXVII GENERAL ASSEMBLY (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 3-14)
‘The diffuse radio emission and magnetic field in the galaxy cluster ZwCl
Tweede Promovendicongres Wetenschapsgeschiedenis (Kerkrade,
Netherlands; Jan 22-23)
‘Geschiedenis van Teylers Museum in de 19de Eeuw’
Instruction, Amusement and Spectacle (Exeter, UK, Apr 16-18
Third Bi-Annual Dutch Conference in the History of Science (Woudschoten,
Netherlands, June 26-27)
‘A Writer of Popular Science as Curator ? T.C. Winkler at Teylers Museum’
Das Neue Museum im Internationalen Kontext: Museale Spezialisierung
und Nationalisierung ab 1830 (Berlin, Germany, Oct 22-24)
Van der Werf
Vatican Observatory Summer School (Sassone, Italy; June 22-24)
‘Inside the music of the spheres’
Joint European/Japanese Workshop on the SPICA Mission (Oxford, UK; July
‘Cooling lines as probes of the formation and buildup of galaxies and black holes’
General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil; Aug 7-14)
‘Probing the warm and dense molecular gas in (U)LIRGs’
Herschel Science Demonstration Program Workshop (Madrid, Spain; Dec 1718)
‘First results from the Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey’
2009 EARA Workshop; “From Disks to Planets: Learning from Starlight”
(Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 16-20)
64th Nederlandse Astronomie Conferentie (Kerkrade, Netherlands; May 1315)
Poster: ‘The shocking truth about star formation as revealed by warm CO CHAMP+
5th IRAM 30m Summer School, Paving the way: From Millimeter to FarInfrared Astronomy (Sierra Nevada, Spain; Sep 4-11)
Project & Talk: ‘Trifid Nebula, High-Mass Star Forming Region’
WISH Team Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands ; Nov 23-27)
Talk: ‘Low-Mass Star Formation as revealed by warm CO CHAMP+mapping’
Effelsberg Telscope (Bonn, Germany; Nov 13)
JCMT (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Nov 25-29)
Van Dishoeck
VLT-CRIRES (Paranal, Chile; Jan 1-3)
JCMT (Hawaii, USA; June 30 - July 4)
ING WHT Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Oct 9-14)
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, US, Aug 02-08)
Telescopio Carlos Sanchez, Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands,
Spain; Sep 16 – 25)
APEX (San Pedro, Chile; June 16-18)
IRAM-30m (Granada, Spain; July 15-18)
William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Mar 27-30)
De Mooij
INT (La Palma, Spain; May 6-11)
WHT (La Palma, Spain; July 3, 5 and 8)
INT (La Palma, Spain; July 9-11)
WHT (La Palma, Spain; Sep 5)
VLT (Paranal, Chile, Oct 9)
UKIRT (Hawaii, USA, Dec 15-18)
Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; July 7-12)
William Herschel Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; Aug 8)
William Herschel Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; Oct 2)
Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma; Dec 24-Jan 3)
IRAM 30m telescope (Pico Veleta, Spain; Feb 27 - Mar 3)
Keck Observatory (Waimea, HI, USA; Mar 24-26)
Palomar Observatory (CA, USA; Apr 3-5)
Keck Observatory (Waimea, HI, USA; Nov 13-14)
WHT (La Palma, Spain; Apr 14-18)
Keck Observatory (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Nov 13-14)
Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La
Palma, Spain; Oct 16-20)
ESO VLT (Paranal, Chile; Aug 6-7)
van Weeren
4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Apr 15-19)
Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (Pune, India; May 12-20)
2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Oct 1-8)
Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (Pune, India; Nov 9-27)
Van der Werf
Isaac Newton Telescope (La Palma, Spain; May 6-11)
ESO VLT (Paranal, Chile; July 7-14)
IRAM 30m Telescope (Sierra Nevada, Spain; June 5-9)
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii; Feb 9-13)
Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (Cambridge, UK; Aug 16Sep 12)
Bonn University (Germany; Mar)
University of Michigan (USA; Aug-Nov)
National Air and Space Museum (Washington DC, USA; Oct 26-30)
MPE, Garching (Germany; Jan 22 -Aug 29)
Van Bemmel
Oxford University Astrophysics Department (Oxford, UK; mar 23-27)
ICC (Durham; Oct 7-25)
NASA Ames (Moffett Field CA, USA; Sep 18 – Nov 14)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium; Jan 21-23)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Jan 26-27)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium; Feb 3-5)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Feb 9-10)
Department of Astronomy, University of Leicester (UK; Apr 28-30
ATC (Edinburgh, UK; May 18-20)
ESO (Garching, Germany; May 25-28)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; June 30 - July 2)
Department of Astronomy (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-10)
ASTRID (Madrid, Spain; Sep 22-24)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Dec 16-18)
CAUP (Porto, Portugal; Jan 1-13)
CAUP (Porto, Portugal; Mar 31 - Apr 14)
LAM (Marseille, France; Nov 9-10)
IAP (Paris, France; Nov 30)
CAUP (Porto, Portugal; Dec 7-18)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Jan 20-23)
Observatoire de Paris (Paris, France; Apr 6-7)
University of Iceland (Reykjavik, Iceland; June 21-29)
University College Londen (Londen, United Kingdom; 15 Sep)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Mar 23-26)
AMOS (Leige, Belgium; Mar 31)
ESO (Garching, Germany; June 07 -10)
ESO (Garching, Germany; June 29 - July 03)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Aug 25 -28)
Winlight Optics (Marseille, France; Sep 28 -29)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Oct 12 -16)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 29 - Dec 1)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Dec 7 – 11)
van Dishoeck
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Jan 6-14)
Sterrenkundig instituut (Leuven, Belgium; Jan 22-23)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Feb 14-18)
ALMA (Santiago/San Pedro, Chile; Mar 7-15)
Royal Observatory Edinburgh (Edinburgh, UK; Apr 8-9)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Apr 25-27)
University of Leicester (Leicester, UK; Apr 28-29)
Princeton University (Princeton, USA; May 4-15)
Annual Reviews (Palo Alto, USA; May 16)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; May 21-26)
University of Illinois (Urbana, USA; June 17)
California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, USA; June 18-19)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; July 8-31)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Aug 16-30)
Danish Space Science Institute (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-9)
University of Cologne (Cologne, Germany; Sep 18)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Oct 16-19)
ALMA (San Pedro, Chile; Nov 9-14)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Dec 9-14)
Laboratoire de physique moléculaire pour l’atmosphère et l’astrophysique
(LPMAA) (Paris, France; Oct 19)
Laboratoire de physique moléculaire pour l’atmosphère et l’astrophysique
(LPMAA) (Paris, France; Nov 3)
IAP (Paris, France; 8 -24 Jan)
University of Crete (Heraklion, Greece; 13-27 July)
University of Hertfordshire (Hatfield, UK; 8-9 Oct)
ZAA (Berlin, Germany; Aug 3-14)
AIfA (Bonn, Germany; Jan 11-12)
UBC (Vancouver, Canada; May 16-June 4)
AIfA (Bonn, Germany; June 17-19)
Institute for the Physics & Mathematics of the Universe (Tokyo, Japan; Jan 413)
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research AGM (Mt Tremblant, Canada; Mar
University of Edinburgh (UK; Oct 1-3)
University of Chicago (USA; Oct 22-24)
UC Berkeley, Berkeley (US; Nov 23-25)
University of Victoria (Victoria, Canada; Nov 26-Dec 4)
ESO User's Committee (Garching, Germany; Apr 27-28)
MATISSE PDR Planning(Nice, France; June 02-03)
MIDI Large AGN Project Planning(Bonn, Germany; Oct 16)
ESO VLTI baseline strategy meeting (Garching, Germany; Oct 19)
MATISSE PDR (Garching, Germany; Nov 16-19)
Center for Planetary Science (Kobe, Japan; May 25-June 18)
Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (Cambridge, UK; Oct 8-26)
Osservatorio Astronomico (Trieste, Italy; May 20 -29)
Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (Garching, Germany; Jan 2830))
University of Texas at Austin (Austin, USA; Feb 23- Mar 13)
University of Texas at Austin (Austin, USA; 21 Sep-16 Oct)
CEA Saclay (Paris, France; Nov 20-23)
Eotvos Lorand University (Budapest, Hungary; Jan 18 – 21)
IRAM Headquarters (Grenoble, France; May 13 – 16)
Konkoly Observatory (Budapest, Hungary; Jun 21 – 28)
Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Orsay, France; Feb 24 – 28)
Observatoire de Paris (Paris, France; Jan 12-16)
SRON (Groningen, Netherlands; Jan 20-23)
Observatoire de Paris (Paris, France; May 4)
CAMOP editorial meeting (London, UK; Apr 16)
NASA Laboratory Astrophysics meeting (Washington, USA;
June 19th)
Columbia University (New York, USA; July 6-10)
Discussions with EC DG Research about UNAWE (Mar 18)
IAU Executive Committee (IAP, Paris, France; Apr 7 - 8)
Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; Apr 9 - 11)
AURA Representatives meeting (Tucson, USA; Apr 23 - 24)
Visit to UNAWE Tunisia (Tunis, Tunisia; June 21 -24)
Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; July 30 –
Aug 1)
IAU General Assembly (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Aug 2 - 15)
The IAU Strategic Plan, South African Embassy (Brussels, Belgium; Aug 24)
Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; Nov 15 16)
Collaborative research, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA; Dec 9 - 13)
Cambridge University (Cambridge, UK; June 30)
Observatoire de Meudon (Paris, France; Feb 5 – 8)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Feb 1 – 28)
ESAC (Madrid, Spain; July 6 – 10)
MPE (Garching, Germany; Oct 27 - Nov 2)
LAOG (Grenoble, France; Dec 7 – 11)
Portegies Zwart
CfCA (Tokyo, Japan; Sept 10-14)
KITP (Beijing, China; Nov 10-14)
Lund Observatory (Lund, Sweden; Mar 9-20)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge; UK; Mar 23 - Apr 9)
Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (Meudon, France; June 28 - July 5)
Caltech (Pasadena, CA, USA; Mar 22 - Apr 8)
Caltech (Pasadena, CA, USA; Nov 8 – 25)
Vanderbilt University (Nashville TN, USA; Dec 12-19)
Lund Observatory (Lund, Sweden; Mar 9-20)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Apr 14-18)
ZARM (Bremen, Germany; Nov 23-27)
ESO (Garching, Germany; May 25-29)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 16-20)
Oxford (UK; July 1 - Sept 1)
MPA (Garching, Germany; July 17)
Lyon Observatory (Lyon, France; Sep 15)
ITA (Heidelberg, Germany; Oct 5-23)
MPIfR (Bonn, Germany; Oct 29-30)
ITA (Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 26 - Dec 4)
AIfA, Bonn (Germany; Feb 11 -13)
AIfA, Bonn (Germany; July 31)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Mar 11-13)
CRAL (Lyon, France; July 6-8)
OCA (Nice, France; July 20-24)
CRAL (Lyon, France; Sep 14-15)
Porquerolles Island (France; Oct 5-9)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Nov 4-6)
LATT (Toulouse, France; Nov 18-20)
LATT (Toulouse, France; Dec 14-15)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK ; June 30)
KU Leuven (Leuven, Belgium; Feb 4)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Mar 11-12)
AMOS (Liege, Belgium; Mar 31)
UK ATC, (Edinburgh, UK; May 19-20)
ESO (Garching, Germany; May 16)
ESO (Garching, Germany; June 30)
Arcetri Observatory (Florence, Italy; July 28)
Winlight (Aix-en-Provence, France; Sept 29)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Dec 17-18)
NASA ARC (California, USA; Jan 31-Feb 7)
CEA (Paris, France; Mar 1–4)
LAOG (Grenoble, France; Mar 30-Apr 3)
Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University (Sweden; Apr 7-9)
COST Office Brussel, Kick off meeting CM0805 (Brussel, Belgium; Apr 17)
STScI (Baltimore, Md, USA; Apr 29-May 21)
CESR (Toulouse, France; May 25-27)
CEA & IAS (Paris, France; June 28-July 1)
STScI (Baltimore, Md, USA; July 11-July 17)
NASA ARC (California, USA; July 18-Aug 30)
CEA (Paris, France; Sep 7-11)
University of Cologne (Cologne, Germany; Sep 17-18)
Osservatorio astrofysica di Catania (Italy; Oct 13-16)
NASA ARC (California, USA; Oct 19-Nov 6)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium; Dec 7)
MPIfR (Bonn, Germany; Dec 14)
ESO Garching (Germany; Apr 20-May 1)
Denison University (Granville, OH, USA; Jan 8-25)
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH, USA; Jan 26-27)
University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Jan 29-30)
MPE (Garching, Germany; Mar 23-27)
ETH (Zurich, Switzerland; May 25-30)
MPE (Garching, Germany; July 13-17)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 16-17)
Bonn University (Bonn, Germany; Nov 18-20)
ESO Santiago (Santiago, Chile; Jan 5 - Feb 2)
Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (Florence, Italy; Mar 10-13)
ESO Garching (Munich, Germany; Mar 24-27)
ESO Garching (Munich, Germany; May 11-13)
Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (Madrid, Spain; Oct 26-30)
Van de Voort
CRAL (Lyon, France; Nov 1-2)
van der Werf
Leicester University (Leicester, UK; Apr 28-29)
European Southern Observatory (Garching, Germany; May 24-29)
Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge, UK; June 1-3)
Royal Observatory (Edinburgh, UK; June 8-10)
Copenhagen University Observatory (Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 8-9)
European Southern Observatory (Garching, Germany; Nov 15-20)
Joint Astronomy Center (Hilo, Hawaii, USA; Dec 6-12)
ESAC (Madrid, Spain; Dec 17-18)
outside Leiden
outside Leiden
The evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs
Instituut Anton Pannekoek, Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands;
Jan 15
The evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary discs
Yale Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven,
Connecticut, USA; Feb17
Protoplanetary disc evolution and the formation of planets
University College London, London, UK; Oct 19
The magnetic field of the evolved star W43A
MPIfR, Bonn, Germany; Nov 13
Joint Astronomy Center, Hilo, Hawaii, USA; Nov 24
What Physics Shapes the Galaxy Population?
ICC, Durham, UK; Oct 11
Understanding Galaxy Formation Simulations
Physics, Leicester, UK; Jul 8
IOA, Cambridge, UK; June 11
Experimental Techniques in Laboratory Astrophysics
NASA Ames, Moffett Field CA, United States; Nov 6
UC Berkeley, Berkeley CA, United States; Nov 13
Infrared Views of Starburst Clusters
Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Mar 24
Astronomical Institute "Anton Pannekoek", Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 7
Astronomical Institute, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; June 11
Emission lines in the SDSS from the extreme to the mundane
Kapteyn, Groningen, Netherlands; Mar 2
Wolf-Rayet stars in the local Universe, from stellar models to GRBs
Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 16 June
Gaia - Taking the Galactic Census
Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands;
Dec 8
Surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data with models and
University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 16 Sep
University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 18 Sep
University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 17 Sep
Modelling surface processes on interstellar grains: linking laboratory data and
astronomical observations
Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 12 Oct
Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 15 Oct
FOM Institute Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein, Netherlands; 19 Nov
ASSIST : the test set-up for VLT adaptive optics facility
IUCAA, Pune, India; Jan 6
TIFR, Mumbai, India; Jan 9
van Dishoeck
Star formation in our Galaxy: new insights from Spitzer
MPE, Garching, Germany; Mar 5
From molecules to planets: SACIRR colloquium
University of Edinburgh, UK; Apr 8
Chemistry in evolving protoplanetary disks
Royal Observatory Edinburgh, UK; Apr 9
Evolving protoplanetary disks
Princeton University, USA; May 5
Astrochemistry lectures: 1. Basic molecular processes; 2. Chemistry in star-forming
regions; 3. Chemistry in circumstellar disks
Princeton University, USA; May 6-14
Chemistry in protostellar and protoplanetary regions
University of Illinois, USA; June 17
Gas in protostellar and protoplanetary regions: a VLT-CRIRES evolutionary study
University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Aug 31
ALMA: a supersharp view on galaxy-, star- and planet-forming regions
Groningen, Netherlands; Oct 12
Controlling Parameters of the Starburst SED
University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece; 14 Apr
Nature and Nurture in Galaxy Formation Simulations
Steward Observatory, Tucson, USA; Nov 13
University of California, San Diego, USA; Nov 17
University of California, Irvine, USA; Nov 18
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory
and Computation, Cambridge, USA; Nov 24
American Museum for Natural Histroy, New York, USA; Dec 1
STScI, Baltimore, USA; Dec 4
Stockholm Observatory, Stockholm, Sweden; Oct 13
Department of Mathematical Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University,
Belgium; Oct 2
Numerical Simulations of Stellar Dynamical Problems
ZAA, Berlin, Germany; Aug 7
Cosmic Magnification
UC Santa Barbara, USA; Dec 11
UC Berkeley, USA; Dec 14
Stanford University, USA; Dec 15
Weak lensing by large scale structure
IPMU, Tokyo, Japan; Jan 7
Groningen University, Groningen, Netherlands; Jan 19
Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; May 19
Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK; Oct 29
UC Berkeley, Berkeley, USA; Nov 24
Measuring masses: from galaxy cluster down to galaxies
University of Edinburgh, UK; Sep 30
The molecular content of planet-forming disks
Kapteyn Institute Groningen, Netherlands; Mar 9
Astronomy Department, ETH Zürich, Switzerland; Oct 29
Centaurus A
ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Feb 5
MHD simulations of accretion discs
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; Feb 03
Formation (and growth) of planetesimals in turbulent protoplanetary discs
Universität Zürich, Switzerland; Apr 22
Computer simulations of accretion discs: Planet formation and large scale
magnetic fields
AIP Potsdam, Germany; Oct 16
Planetesimal formation in turbulent protoplanetary discs
Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nov 27
Lecture series on weak lensing and photometric redshifts
Institute for Mathematical Physics, Astrophysics, Tehran, Iran; Apr 22-28
KiDS: studying dark energy end dark matter with light rays
Naples University, Italy; May 26
Resonant Relaxation near Massive Black Holes
Columbia University, New York, USA; July 9
Probing the Early Universe with Radio Galaxies
INAF Trieste, Italy; May 21
De Mooij
Optical and Near-Infrared day-side emission from exoplanets
IAC, La Laguna, Spain; July 7
About Universe Awareness
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, Ireland; Sep 15
Portegies Zwart
CfCA, Tokyo, Japan; Sep 10-14
CTI Modelling at the CCD Pixel Level
Dutch Space, Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 20
Radiation Damage on Gaia CCDs - Modelling to Mitigate the Threat
Université Libre de Bruxelles; Feb 2
Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 1
RC2 Charge Injection Profile Analysis
Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK; Apr 6
CDM02 Validation
Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK; Apr 6
Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 28
Testing CDM02 on Radiation Campaigns 2 data
Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK; Oct 26
LOFAR: Opening up a new window on the Universe
Krakow, Poland; Feb 6
Sheffield, UK; Apr 1
Insights into the formation of galaxies from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; Nov 18
Primordial magnetic fields: Influence on reionization and the first stars
MPIfR, Bonn, Germany; Oct 30
Studying the Dark Side of the Universe with Weak Gravitational Lensing
IKTP, Dresden, Germany; Feb 12
Een brilletje voor je telescoop - Adaptive Optics
Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica Universiteit van
Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; May 27
Interstellar PAHs and star formation
Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University; Apr 8
STScI, Baltimore, Md, USA; May 13
Osservatorio astrofysica di Catania; Oct 15
Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Sep 29
First results from Herschel
STScI, Baltimore, Md, USA; July 16
Herschel and SOFIA
The Chemical History of Molecules in Circumstellar Disks
ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; May 29
Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks
MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 16
Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks
Bonn University, Bonn, Germany; Nov 19
A new class of submm galaxy? Properties of very low-z sources from the CUDSS survey
ESO Santiago, Santiago, Chile; Jan 26
Van Weeren
Diffuse radio emission from galaxy clusters
NCRA, Pune, India; Nov 26
X.1. Ph.D. Theses and Books
B. R. Brandl; R. Stuik; J. Katgert-Merkelijn ; 400 Years Of Astronomical
Telescopes: A Review Of History, Science And Technology; ISBN: 9048122325;
H. T. Intema, A Sharp View of the Low-Frequency Radio Sky; Ph.D. thesis
Leiden; 2009
D. Lommen, The first Steps of Planet Formation: Studying Grain Growth with
Millimetre Interferometers; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009
E. Micelotta, PAH Processing in Space; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009
K. Öberg, Complex Processes in Simple Ices:Laboratoty and Observational
Studies of Gas-Grain Interactions during Star Formation; Ph.D. thesis Leiden;
O. Panic, High Angular Resolution Studies of Proto Planetary Disks; Ph.D.
thesis Leiden; 2009
A. H. Pawlik , Simulating Cosmic Reionisation; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009
D. Raban, Infrared Interferometric Observations in the Nuclei of Active
Galaxies; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009
E. N. Taylor, Ten Billion Years of Massive Galaxies; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009
R. Visser, Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009
N. de Vries, The Evolution of Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei; Ph.D. thesis
Leiden; 2009
A. Weijmans, The Structure of Dark and Luminous Matter in Early-Type
Galaxies; Ph.D. thesis Leiden; 2009
X.2. Publications in refereed journals
K.N. Abazajian, J. K.Adelman-McCarthy; M. A. Agüeros; S. S. Allam; C.
Allende Prieto; D. An; K. S. J.Anderson; S. F.Anderson; J. Annis; N. A.Bahcall;
C. A. L.Bailer-Jones; J. C.Barentine; B. A.Bassett; A. C.Becker; T. C.Beers; E.
F.Bell; V. Belokurov; A. A.Berlind; E. F.Berman; M. Bernardi; S. J.Bickerton; D.
Bizyaev; J. P.Blakeslee; M. R.Blanton; J. J.Bochanski; W. N. Boroski; H.
J.Brewington;J. Brinchmann; J. Brinkmann; R. J.Brunner; T. Budavari; L.
N.Carey; S. Carliles; M. A. Carr; F. J.Castander; D. Cinabro; A. J. Connolly; I.
Csabai; C. E. Cunha; P. C.Czarapata; J. R. A.Davenport; E. de Haas; B. Dilday;
M. Doi; D. J.Eisenstein; M. L.Evans; N. W.Evans; X. Fan; S. D. Friedman; J.
A.Frieman; M. Fukugita; B. T.Gänsicke; E. Gates; B. Gillespie; G. Gilmore; B.
Gonzalez; C. F.Gonzalez; E. K. Grebel; J. E.Gunn; Z. Györy; P. B.Hall; P.
Harding; F. H. Harris; M. Harvanek; S. L.Hawley; J. J. E.Hayes; T. M.Heckman;
J. S.Hendry; G. S.Hennessy; R. B.Hindsley; J. Hoblitt; C. J. Hogan; D. W.Hogg; J.
A.Holtzman; J. B.Hyde;S.-i.Ichikawa; T. Ichikawa; M. Im;v Z Ivezic; S. Jester; L.
Jiang; J. A. Johnson; A. M.Jorgensen; M. Juric; S. M.Kent; R. Kessler; S.
J.Kleinman; G. R.Knapp; K. Konishi; R. G.Kron; J. Krzesinski; N. Kuropatkin; H.
Lampeitl; S. Lebedeva; M. G.Lee; Y. S.Lee; R. F.Leger; S. Lépine; N. Li; M. Lima;
H. Lin; D. C.Long; C. P.Loomis; J. Loveday; R. H.Lupton; E. Magnier; O.
Malanushenko; V. Malanushenko; R. Mandelbaum; B. Margon; J. P. Marriner; D.
Martínez-Delgado; T. Matsubara; P. M.McGehee; T. A.McKay; A. Meiksin; H.
L.Morrison; F. Mullally; J. A.Munn; T. Murphy; T. Nash; A. Nebot; E. H.Neilsen;
H. J.Newberg; P. R. Newman; R. C.Nichol; T. Nicinski; M. Nieto-Santisteban; A.
Nitta; S. Okamura; D. J.Oravetz; J. P.Ostriker; R. Owen; N. Padmanabhan; K.
Pan; C. Park; G. Pauls; J. Peoples; W. J.Percival; J. R. Pier; A. C.PAPe; D.
Pourbaix; P. A.Price; N. Purger; T. Quinn; M. J.Raddick; P. R.Fiorentin; G.
T.Richards; M. W.Richmond; A. G. Riess;H.-W.Rix; C. M.Rockosi; M. Sako; D.
J.Schlegel; D. P. Schneider;R.-D.Scholz; M. R.Schreiber; A. D.Schwope; U. Seljak;
B. Sesar; E. Sheldon; K. Shimasaku; V. C.Sibley; A. E. Simmons; T. Sivarani; J.
A.Smith; M. C.Smith; V. Smolv cic; S. A.Snedden; A. Stebbins; M. Steinmetz; C.
Stoughton; M. A.Strauss; M. Subba Rao; Y. Suto; A. S.Szalay; I. Szapudi; P.
Szkody; M. Tanaka; M. Tegmark; L. F. A.Teodoro; A. R.Thakar; C. A.Tremonti;
D. L.Tucker; A. Uomoto; D. E.Vanden Berk; J. Vandenberg; S. Vidrih; M.
S.Vogeley; W. Voges; N. P.Vogt; Y. Wadadekar; S. Watters; D. H.Weinberg; A.
A.West; S. D. M. White; B. C.Wilhite; A. C.Wonders; B. Yanny; D. R.Yocum; D.
G. York; I. Zehavi; S. Zibetti; and D. B.Zucker, The Seventh Data Release of the
Sloan Digital Sky Survey, ApJS, 2009, 182, 543
A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; M. Axelsson; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G.
Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; E.
D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A.W. Borgland; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P.
Bruel; T. H. Burnett; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; J. M.
Casandjian; E. Cavazzuti; C. Cecchi; O. Celik; A. Celotti; A. Chekhtman; J.
Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; W. Collmar; J. Conrad; L.
Costamante; S. Cutini; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; E. D. C. e. Silva; P. S. Drell; D.
Dumora; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; P. Fortin; L. Foschini;
M. Frailis; L. Fuhrmann; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; N. Gehrels;
S. Germani; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; M. Giroletti; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I.
A. Grenier; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; Y. Hanabata; E. Hays; R. E.
Hughes; M. S. Jackson; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; M. Kadler;
T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. L.
Kocian; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N.
Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; W. Max-Moerbeck; M. N.
Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; S. McGlynn; C. Meurer; P. F.
Michelson;W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani;
A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; I. Nestoras; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; E. Nuss; T.
Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; D. Paneque; D. Parent; V. Pavlidou;
V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando;
M. Razzano; A. Readhead; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; J. L. Richards; A. Y.
Rodriguez; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; P. M.
Saz Parkinson; J. D. Scargle; C. Sgrò; M. S. Shaw; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P.
Spinelli; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; G. Tagliaferri; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; T.
Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; O. Tibolla; D. F.
Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; Y. Uchiyama; T. L. Usher; V. Vasileiou; N.
Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; A. E. Wehrle; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood;
T. Ylinen; J. A. Zensus; M. Ziegler; The Fermi/LAT Collaboration; E. Angelakis;
C. Bailyn; H. Bignall; J. Blanchard; E. W. Bonning; M. Buxton; R. Canterna; A.
Carraminana; L. Carrasco; F. Colomer; A. Doi; G. Ghisellini; M. Hauser; X.
Hong; J. Isler; M. Kino; Y. Y. Kovalev; Y. A. Kovalev; T. P. Krichbaum; A.
Kutyrev; A. Lahteenmaki; H. J. van Langevelde; M. L. Lister; D. Macomb; L.
Maraschi; N. Marchili; H. Nagai; Z. Paragi; C. Phillips; A. B. Pushkarev; E.
Recillas; P. Roming; M. Sekido; M. A. Stark; A. Szomoru; J. Tammi; F. Tavecchio;
M. Tornikoski; A. K. Tzioumis; C. M. Urry; and S. Wagner, Multiwavelength
Monitoring of the Enigmatic Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PMN J0948+0022 in 2009
March-July, ApJ, 2009, 707,727
P. Abraham, A. Juhàsz; C. P.Dullemond; Á. Kóspál; R. van Boekel; J. Bouwman;
T. Henning; A. Móor; L. Mosoni; A. Sicilia-Aguilar; and N. Sipos;, Episodic
formation of cometary material in the outburst of a young Sun-like star, Natur,
2009, 459, 224
S. Albrecht, S. Reffert;I.A.G. Snellen; and J. N.Winn, Misaligned spin and
orbital axes cause the anomalous precession of DI Herculis, Natur, 2009, 461,
R.D. Alexander, P. J.Armitage, Giant Planet Migration, Disk Evolution and the
Origin of Transitional Disks, ApJ, 2009, 704, 989
T. Alexander, C. Hopman, Strong Mass Segregation Around a Massive Black
Hole, ApJ, 2009, 697, 1861
R.J. Allison, S. P.Goodwin; R. J.Parker; R. de Grijs; S. F. Portegies Zwart; and
M. B. N.Kouwenhoven, Dynamical Mass Segregation on a Very Short
Timescale, ApJL, 2009, 700, 99
A. Alonso-Herrero, G. H.Rieke; L. Colina; M. Pereira-Santaella; M. GarcíaMarín;J.-D. T.Smith; B.R.Brandl; V. Charmandaris; and L. Armus; The Extreme
Star Formation Activity of Arp 299 Revealed by Spitzer IRS Spectral Mapping,
ApJ, 2009, 697, 660
M. Andersen, H. Zinnecker; A. Moneti; M. J. McCaughrean; B.R.Brandl; W.
Brandner; G. Meylan; and D. Hunter, The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in
the 30 Doradus Starburst Cluster, ApJ, 2009, 707, 1347
M.L.N. Ashby, D. Stern; M. Brodwin; R. Griffith; P. Eisenhardt; S. Kozlowski;
C. S.Kochanek; J. J.Bock; C. Borys; K. Brand; M. J. I.Brown; R. Cool; A. Cooray;
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497, 773
E. Vesperini, S. L. W.McMillan; and S. F. Portegies Zwart;, Effects of
Primordial Mass Segregation on the Dynamical Evolution of Star Clusters, ApJ,
2009, 698, 615
R. Visser, E. F. van Dishoeck; and J. H.Black;, The photodissociation and
chemistry of CO isotopologues: applications to interstellar clouds and
circumstellar disks, A&A, 2009, 503, 323
R. Visser, E. F. van Dishoeck; S. D.Doty; and C. P.Dullemond, The chemical
history of molecules in circumstellar disks. I. Ices, A&A, 2009, 495, 881
N. de Vries, I.A.G. Snellen;R. T. Schilizzi;K.-H.Mack; and C. R.Kaiser;, VLBI
observations of the CORALZ sample: young radio sources at low redshift,
A&A, 2009, 498, 641
N. de Vries, I.A.G. Snellen;R. T. Schilizzi; andK.-H.Mack, Further evidence for
synchrotron self-absorption from the CORALZ sample of young radio-loud
AGN, AN, 2009, 330, 214
A.-M. Weijmans, M. Cappellari; R. Bacon;P. T. de Zeeuw; E. Emsellem; J.
Falcon-Barroso; H. Kuntschner; R. M. McDermid;R. C. E. van den Bosch; and G.
van de Ven, Stellar velocity profiles and line strengths out to four effective radii
in the early-type galaxies NGC3379 and 821, MNRAS, 2009, 398, 561
A. Weiß, A. Kovacs; K. Coppin; T. R. Greve; F. Walter; I. Smail; J. S. Dunlop; K.
K. Knudsen; D. M. Alexander; F. Bertoldi; W. N. Brandt; S. C. Chapman; P. Cox;
H. Dannerbauer; C. De Breuck; E. Gawiser; R. J. Ivison; D. Lutz; K. M. Menten;
A. M. Koekemoer; E. Kreysa; P. Kurczynski; H.-W. Rix; E. Schinnerer; and P. P.
van der Werf, The Large Apex Bolometer Camera Survey of the Extended
Chandra Deep Field South, ApJ, 2009, 707, 1201
R. P. C. Wiersma, J. Schaye; T. Theuns; C. Dalla Vecchia; and L.
Tornatore;Chemical enrichment in cosmological, smoothed particle
hydrodynamics simulations, MNRAS, 2009, 399, 574
R. P. C. Wiersma, J. Schaye; and B. D.Smith; The effect of photoionization on
the cooling rates of enriched, astrophysical plasmas, MNRAS, 2009, 393, 99
W. Wild, N. S.Kardashev; S. F.Likhachev; N. G.Babakin; V. Y. Arkhipov; I.
S.Vinogradov; V. V.Andreyanov; S. D.Fedorchuk; N. V. Myshonkova; Y.
A.Alexsandrov; I. D.Novokov; G. N.Goltsman; A. M. Cherepaschuk; B.
M.Shustov; A. N.Vystavkin; V. P.Koshelets; V. F. Vdovin; T. de Graauw; F.
Helmich; F. Vd Tak; R. Shipman; A. Baryshev; J. R.Gao; P. Khosropanah; P.
Roelfsema; P. Barthel; M. Spaans; M. Mendez; T. Klapwijk;F.P. Israel;
M.R.Hogerheijde; P. van der Werf; J. Cernicharo; J. Martin-Pintado; P.
Planesas; J. D.Gallego; G. Beaudin; J. M. Krieg; M. Gerin; L. Pagani; P. Saraceno;
A. M.di Giorgio; R. Cerulli; R. Orfei; L. Spinoglio; L. Piazzo; R. Liseau; V.
Belitsky; S. Cherednichenko; A. Poglitsch; W. Raab; R. Guesten; B. Klein; J.
Stutzki; N. Honingh; A. Benz; A. Murphy; N. Trappe; and A. Räisänen;,
Millimetron -- a large Russian-European submillimeter space observatory, ExA,
2009, 23, 221
R.J. Williams, R. F. Quadri;M. Franx; P. van Dokkum; and I. Labbé;, Detection
of Quiescent Galaxies in a Bicolor Sequence from Z = 0-2, ApJ, 2009, 691, 1879
G. Wilson, A. Muzzin; H. K. C.Yee; M. Lacy; J. Surace; D. Gilbank; K. Blindert;
H. Hoekstra; S. Majumdar; R. Demarco; J. P. Gardner; M. D.Gladders; and C.
Lonsdale;, Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Massive Red-Sequence-Selected
Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.34 in the SpARCS-South Cluster Survey, ApJ, 2009, 698,
C. D. Wilson, B. E.Warren; F. P. Israel; S. Serjeant; G. Bendo; E. Brinks; D.
Clements; S. Courteau; J. Irwin; J. H. Knapen; J. Leech; H. E.Matthews; S. Mühle;
A. M. J.Mortier; G. Petitpas; E. Sinukoff; K. Spekkens; B. K.Tan; R. P. J.Tilanus;
A. Usero; P. van der Werf; T. Wiegert; and M. Zhu;, The James Clerk Maxwell
Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. I. Star-Forming Molecular Gas in
Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies, ApJ, 2009, 693, 1736
J. N. Winn, J. A. Johnson; S. Albrecht; A. W.Howard; G. W. Marcy; I.
J.Crossfield; and M. J.Holman;, HAT-P-7: A Retrograde or Polar Orbit, and a
Third Body, ApJ, 2009, 703, 99
A. Winnberg, S. Deguchi; M. J.Reid; J. Nakashima; H. Olofsson; and H. J.
Habing, CO in OH/IR stars close to the Galactic centre, A&A, 2009, 497, 177
P. Woitke, W.-F.Thi; I. Kamp; and M.R. Hogerheijde, Hot and cool water in
Herbig Ae protoplanetary disks. A challenge for Herschel, A&A, 2009, 501, 5
S. Wuyts, M. Franx; T. J.Cox; N. M.Förster Schreiber; C. C.Hayward; L.
Hernquist; P. F.Hopkins; I. Labbe; D. Marchesini; B. E.Robertson; S. Toft; and P.
G.van Dokkum; Color Distributions, Number, and Mass Densities of Massive
Galaxies at 1.5 < z < 3: Comparing Observations with Merger Simulations, ApJ,
2009, 700, 799
S. Wuyts, M. Franx; T. J.Cox; L. Hernquist; P. F.Hopkins; B. E.Robertson; and P.
G.van Dokkum;, Recovering Stellar PAPulation Properties and Redshifts from
Broadband Photometry of Simulated Galaxies: Lessons for SED Modeling, ApJ,
2009, 696, 348
S. Wuyts, P. G. van Dokkum;M. Franx; N. M. F?orster Schreiber; G. D.
Illingworth; I. Labb?e; and G. Rudnick, Optical Spectroscopy of Distant Red
Galaxies, ApJ, 2009, 706, 885
J. R. Zaurin, J. Holt; C. N. Tadhunter; and R. M. González Delgado, Gas
kinematics in the halo of the warm ULIRG PKS1345+12, A. Space Sci., 2009, 324,
P. T. de Zeeuw, Perspectives and challenges for future telescopes, Experimental
Astronomy , 2009, 26, 201
X.3. Publications in non-refereed journals and
conference articles
S. Albrecht, I. A. G. Snellen; E. de Mooij; and R. Le Poole, Ground-based
detections of sodium in HD 209458b's atmosphere in two data sets, IAU
Symposium 253 , 2009, 520
N. Amiri, W.Vlemmings; and H. J. van Langevelde;, The magnetic field of the
evolved star W43A, IAU Symposium 259 , 2009, 109
E. Arzoumanian, C. Romanzin; M. C.Gazeau; E. T. E.Sebbar; A. Jolly; S. Perrier;
and Y. Benilan;, Contributions to the Development of the S.E.T.U.P.,
Experimental and Theoretical Simulations Useful for Planetology) Project,
AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstract, 2009, 41, 3001
M. Ashby, D. Stern; M. Brodwin; R. Griffith; P. Eisenhardt; S. Kozlowski; C.
S.Kochanek; J. Bock; C. Borys; K. Brand; M. J. I. Brown; R. Cool; A. Cooray; S.
Croft; A. Dey; D. Eisenstein; A. Gonzalez; V. Gorjian; N. Grogin; R. Ivison; J.
Jacob; B. Jannuzi; A. Mainzer; L. Moustakas; H. J. A. Röttgering; N. Seymour;
H. Smith; A. Stanford; J. R.Stauffer; I. Sullivan; W. van Breugel; E. L.Wright; and
S. P.Willner;, The Spitzer Deep; Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS), American
Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts , 2009, 41, 670
O. Berné, C. Joblin; G. Mulas; A. G. G. M.Tielens; and J. R. Goicoechea,
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with SPICA, SPICA joint European/Japanese
Workshop, 2009,
S. Chi, M. A. Garrett; and P. D.Barthel;, SB and AGNs in the HDF-N and HFF:
Deep; Global VLBI Observations, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference
Series , 2009, 408, 242
S. P. Driver, P. Norberg; I. K.Baldry; S. P.Bamford; A. M.Hopkins; J. Liske; J.
Loveday; J. A.Peacock; D. T.Hill; L. S.Kelvin; A. S. G.Robotham; N. J. G.Cross;
H. R.Parkinson; M. Prescott; C. J.Conselice; L. Dunne; S. Brough; H. Jones; R.
G.Sharp; E. van Kampen; S. Oliver; I. G.Roseboom; J. Bland-Hawthorn; S. M.
Croom; S. Ellis; E. Cameron; S. Cole; C. S.Frenk; W. J.Couch; W. G.Alister; R.
Proctor; R. De Propris; I. F.Doyle; E. M. Edmondson; R. C.Nichol; D. Thomas; S.
A.Eales; M. J.Jarvis; K. Kuijken; O. Lahav; B. F.Madore; M. Seibert; M. J.Meyer;
L. Staveley-Smith; S. Phillipps; C. C. Papescu; A. E.Sansom; W. J. Sutherland; R.
J.Tuffs; and S. J.Warren, GAMA: towards a physical understanding of galaxy
formation, Astronomy and Geophysics , 2009, 50, 12
D. J. E. Floyd, D. Axon; S. Baum; A. Capetti; M. Chiaberge; D. Macchetto; J.
Madrid; G. K. Miley; C. P. O'Dea; E. Perlman; A. Quillen; W. Sparks; and G.
Tremblay;, HST survey of 3CR radio source counterparts. II. (Floyd+2008),
VizieR Online Data Catalog: J/ApJS/177/148. , 2009, ,
H.Francke, E. Gawiser; P. Lira; E. Treister; S. Virani; C. Cardamone; C. M.Urry;
P. van Dokkum; and R. Quadri; Clustering of Intermediate Luminosity X-ray
selected AGN at z ~ 3, Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica Conference
Series , 2009, 35, 221
E. J. de Geus, P. T. de Zeeuw; and J. Lub;, Short Title (De Geus+; 1989), VizieR
Online Data Catalog: J/A+A/216/44. , 2009
K.D. Gordon, M. Meixner; R. D.Blum; W. Reach; B. A.Whitney; J. Harris; R.
Indebetouw; A. D.Bolatto;J.-P.Bernard; M. Sewilo; B. L.Babler; M. Block; C. Bot;
S. Bracker; L. Carlson; E. Churchwell; G. C.Clayton; M. Cohen; C. W.
Engelbracht; Y. Fukui; V. Gorjian; S. Hony; J. L.Hora; F.P. Israel; A. Kawamura;
A. K.Leroy; A. Li; S. Madden; A. R. Marble; F. Markwick-Kemper; M. Meade; K.
A.Misselt; A. Mizuno; N. Mizuno; E. Muller; J. M.Oliveira; K. Olsen; T. Onishi;
R. Paladini; D. Paradis; S. Points; T. Robitaille; D. Rubin; K. M. Sandstrom; S.
Sato; H. Shibai; J. D.Simon; L. J.Smith; S. Srinivasan;A. G. G. M.Tielens; U.
P.Vijh; S. van Dyk; J. T.van Loon; K. Volk; and D. Zaritsky;, Early results from
the SAGE-SMC Spitzer legacy, IAU Symposium 256 , 2009, 184
A. Johansen, The role of magnetic fields for planetary formation, IAU
Symposium 259 , 2009, 249
M. Krok, A. Mahdavi; H. Hoekstra; A. Babul; J. Sievers; and J. Henry, Joint
Multiwavelength Constraints on Cluster Dark Matter Profiles from the JACO
Collaboration, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts 41 ,
J. M. D. Kruijssen, Models for dynamically dissolving star clusters
(Kruijssen+,2009), VizieR Online Data Catalog: J/A+A/507/1409., 2009, ,
D. Marchesini, P. van Dokkum; N. M.Förster Schreiber; M. Franx; I. Labbe; and
S. Wuyts, The Evolution Of The Stellar Mass Function Of Galaxies From Z=4
And The First Comprehensive Analysis Of Its Uncertainties: Evidence For
Mass-dependent Evolution, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society , 2009,
41, 213302.02
C. Martin-Zaïdi, J.-C. Augereau; F. Ménard; E. F. van Dishoeck; E. Habart; P.O. Lagage; E. Pantin; and J. Olofsson, Searching for molecular hydrogen midinfrared emission in the circumstellar environments of Herbig stars, SF2A-2009:
Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and
Astrophysics, 2009, , 293
B. Merin, J. Jorgensen; L. Spezzi; J. M. Alcala; N. J. Evans; II; P. M. Harvey; T.
Prusti; N. Chapman; T. Huard; E. F. van Dishoeck; and F. Comeron, Spitzer
c2d survey of Lupus dark clouds (Merin+2008), VizieR Online Data Catalog:
J/ApJS/177/551 , 2009
C. W. Ormel, D.Paszun; C.Dominik; and A.G.G.M. Tielens, Dust coagulation
in molecular clouds, Ormel+ 2009, VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/A+A/502/845,
H. J. A. Röttgering , SPICA and the Upcoming Revolution in Radio Astronomy,
SPICA joint European/Japanese Workshop, 2009, , 4010
D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; C.
J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky;, Supernovae 2009cc-2009cf, Central
Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1753,
D. M. Salter, M.R. Hogerheijde; and G. Blake, Captured at Millimeter
Wavelengths: a Flare from the Classical T Tauri Star DQ Tau, American
Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts 213, 2009,605.07
D. Sand, M. L.Graham; R. Foley; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S.
Sivanandam; C. J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky, Supernovae 2009ef2009ek, Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1796,
D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; C.
J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; D. Zaritsky; and A. Seth; ;, Supernovae 2009gv-2009gz,
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1864,
D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; D. W.Just; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; C.
J.Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky;, Supernovae 2009hb and 2009hc,
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 1866,
D. Sand, M. L.Graham; C. Bildfell; S. Herbert-Fort; D. Just; S. Sivanandam; C.
J.Pritchet;H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky;, Supernovae 2009jj-2009jo, Central
Bureau Electronic Telegrams , 2009, 1961,
D. Sand, M. L. Graham; C. Bildfell; S. Herbert-Fort; D. Just; S. Sivanandam; C. J.
Pritchet; H. Hoekstra; and D. Zaritsky, Supernovae 2009ly and 2009ml-2009ms,
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams, 2009, 2089, 1
P. Serra, R. M.McDermid; K. Alatalo; L. Blitz; M. Bois; F. Bournaud; M. Bureau;
M. Cappellari; R. L.Davies; T. A.Davis; P. T. de Zeeuw; E. Emsellem; J. FalconBarroso; S. Khochfar; D. Krajnovic; H. Kuntschner;P.-Y.Lablanche; R. Morganti;
T. Naab; M. Sarzi; N. Scott; R. C. E.van den Bosch; G. van de Ven; A.
Weijmans; and L. M.Young;, Stellar populations of early-type galaxies in the
ATLAS3D sample, American Institute of Physics Conference Series , 2009, 1111, 111
I. A. G. Snellen, GPS and CSS Radio Sources and Space-VLBI, Astronomical
Society of the Pacific Conference Series , 2009, 402, 221
G. Testor, J. L. Lemaire; L. E. Kristensen; S. Diana; D. Field; and M. HeydariMalayeri, VLT/NACO near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of N88A in the
SMC, SF2A-2009: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2009, ,
V. Tudose, Z. Paragi; P. Soleri; D. M.Russell; D. Maitra; F. Lewis; R. P.Fender;
M. A. Garrett; R. E.Spencer; and A. Rushton, e-EVN observations of Aql X-1 in
outburst, , 2009, 2000, 1
V.Tudose, Z. Paragi; J. Miller-Jones; M. A. Garrett; R. Fender; A. Rushton; and
R. Spencer, EVN detection of Aql X-1 in outburst, The Astronomer?s Telegram,
2009, 2317, 1
M. J. Valtonen, S. Mikkola; H. J.Lehto; T. Hyvonen; D. Merritt; A. Gopakumar;
H. Rampadarath; R. Hudec; M. Basta; and R. Saunders, Measuring Black Hole
Spin in OJ287, AAS/Division of Dynamical Astronomy Meeting, 2009, 41, 1504
M.J. Valtonen, S. Mikkola; D. Merritt; A. Gopakumar; H. J.Lehto; T. Hyvönen;
H. Rampadarath; R. Saunders; M. Basta; and R. Hudec, Black Holes in Active
Galactic Nuclei, IAU Symposium 261, 2009, 1302
P. P. van der Werf, M. Spaans, Cooling Lines as Probes of the Formation and
Buildup of Galaxies and Black Holes, SPICA joint European/Japanese Workshop,
2009, 3009
C. J. van Van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld; A. M. van Genderen; and K.
K. Kwee, VBLUW photometry of eclipsing binary stars (Van Houten+, 2009),
VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/other/JAD/15.2, 2009
R. Williams, Local X-ray absorption: Galactic corona or IGM?; High Resolution
X-ray Spectroscopy: Towards IXO, Proceedings of the international workshop held at
the Mullard Space Science Laboratory of University College London, 2009, 47
A. Youdin, A. Johansen; and M. Mac Low;, How High Metallicity Can Trigger
Planet Formation, AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts , 2009,
41, 5202
X.4. Other Publications
D. Baneke, If you can’t beat them, teach them; Zenit; December, 569-571
D. Baneke , De onfortuinlijke sterrenwacht van Haren?; Zenit, November, 511512
D. Baneke , De luis en de pels. De zelfbenoemde elite versus de zelfbenoemde
buitenstaander in de wetenschappen; Academische Boekengids;. 74, 8-12
R. F. J. van der Burg, Een Nederlandse exoplaneet; Zenit; 2009; Februari
R. F. J. van der Burg ,Interview met ontdekkers exoplaneet; Eureka!; 2009, April
R. F. J. van der Burg; M. de Hoon; F. Vuijsje (& I. A. G. Snellen): "Hoe
nederlandse studenten een exoplaneet ontdekten; Zenit; februari 2009; p56
F. Lahuis ; B.Brandl; James Webb ruimtetelescoop; NVR magazine "Ruimtevaart";
2009; 2
M.R. Hogerheijde; De chaos binnen onze geordende wereld. Over het ontstaan
van sterren en planeten. Academische Boekengids; 74; 13 (bookreview)
Á. Kóspál; Spitzer Catches Star Cooking Up Comet Crystals; Spitzer Space
Telescope Press Release ; 13 May 2009;
S. F. Portegies Zwart; The Long Lost Siblings of the Sun, Scientific American
November, 2009,
F. H. van Lunteren; ‘Academische Vrijheid’, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor
Natuurkunde ; 2009; 75; 122-125.
F. H. van Lunteren ; Galilei en de Sterrenboodschapper; Universum, Tijdschrift
van de jongerenwerkgroep voor Sterrenkunde; 2009
R. Ros , C. Ödman ; Tales of the stars inspires young children from around the
world; Physics Education, Institute of Physics; July 2009
C. Ödman; Universe Awareness: An astronomy programme where the children
are stars; Nightscape (International Dark Skies Association); 2009; 76,
C. Ödman; UNAWE: Programme d'Accueil á l'Univers oú les enfants sont les
véritables étoiles, l'Astronomie, Décembre 2009
D. van Delft; Preventing theft: the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory in wartime.
Scientific Research in World War II. What scientists did in the war; Routledge;
2009; 62-76
D. van Delft; Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Road to Liquid Helium;
Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and
International Cryogenic Materials Conference 2008 ; Seoul, 2009; 1-8.
D. van Delft, Robbert Dijkgraaf: A Mathematical Physicist Throws the Windows
Wide Open; Jaarboek The Low Countries ; 2009; 17 ; 301-302.
D. van Delft, Het koudste plekje op aarde. Leiden: Conventie van de Ontdekkingen
LIONS Leiden Lakenstad; 2009; 12-16.
D. van Delft; Blingbling, sleutelwaarde en het miskende instrument (Leiden,
D. van Delft; Een koppige kortsluiting. Onbekende vaderlanders. Over minder
bekende helden & schurken uit de Nederlandse geschiedenis;NRC Boeken; 2009 ;
D. van Delft, Brief aan Charles Darwin;, Volkskrant, section Kennis, May 9.
Geachte Darwin. Brieven aan de grondlegger van de evolutietheorie (Atheneum-& Van
Gennep, 2009), 48-50.
D. van Delft, Koude drukte. Het laboratorium van Heike Kamerlingh Onnes als
internationaal centrum van lage temperaturenonderzoek;. Over de grens.
Internationale contacten aan Nederlandse universiteiten sedert 1875 (Verloren
2009) 31-52.
D. van Delft ; Magic is no magic, Review of J.T. Devreese and G.
Vandenberghe, The wonderful world of Simon Stevin (WIT Press 2008)
europhysicsnews 40/4 (2009) 31-32.
F. van Lunteren ; Over nut en noodzaak van onderwijs in
wetenschapsgeschiedenis voor bètastudenten, in Ch. Sterken & D. Segers, Over
wetenschapshistorisch onderwijs (Brussel 2009) 8-28.
F. van Lunteren, Academische Vrijheid, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde
2009) 82-85.
F. van Lunteren, De Sterrenboodschapper, Universum (2009) 3; 8-11.
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