ET-1 Model One Tonearm Manual in PDF format

ET-1 Model One Tonearm Manual in PDF format
*
EMINENT TECHNOLOG
1026 Merritt Drive e Tallahassee, FL 32301 e Telephone (
THE EMINENT TECHNOLOGY MODEL ONE AIR BEARING
TONEARM IS A DELICATE AND PRECISE INSTRUMENT WHICH
REQUIRES MAINTENANCE TO RETAIN ITS HIGH PERFORMANCE
CAPABILITIES. IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE USER TO
UNDERSTAND THE REQUIREMENTS OF THIS TONEARM, THIS
PRODUCT IS DESIGNED AND MANUFACTURED BY PEOPLE WHO
APPRECIATE AND ENJOY MUSIC. IT IS UNIQUE IN ITS
APPROACH, DESIGN AND OPERATION. THIS MANUAL SHOULD
BE THOROUGHLY REVIEWED BEFORE USING THIS PRODUCT.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
VI.
TABLE OF CONTENTS .. 2.2. e © © o o o o o o o o o =
INTRODUCT ION - - - . . . . - - - - - - = - =
A. SPECI FICATI ONS = * * = = + = + = + =
INSTALLATION = = + © = = © © +» +» + + +» oo.
Mounting the Tonearm on a Turntable
Routing Wire through the Tonearm
ALY PUIS «e + ve © = © т чз еее
Use of a Pressure Gage + « « « » e e
TONEARM USE AND OPERATION . . + « +» o » + + oo
Adjusting the Suspension System . .
Using the Cuing Lever e... os eo e
Stylus Reference Gage + + « o e s es
Setting the Tracking Force . . « . .
Setting VIA -2=* amet ales eee
MAI NTENANCE SECTI ON - - = - + - = = E = - -
A.
B.
E
Cleaning the Bearing . + e « « + o e
Air Pump Maintenance « « « « e . e o
Cuing Mechanism Maintenance . . . .
TECHNICAL SECTION = + s « + = as ¢ a % & = a =
WARRANTY
Anti-skating Forces . . « « « « + +
WATD/ HOW = =» с же © & & à 18 à & = ео
Low Frequency Resonance Measurements
Tonearm Resonance Measurements within
che Audible Range > 5 a « 4 a i» €
14
16
20
22
23
25
27
29
30
31
32
35
37
40
42
45
46
49
57
INTRODUCTION
The Model One is an air bearing straight line tracking
tonearm for precise reproduction of analog records.
It is a uniquely conceived tonearm designed to be
installed on turntables with universal mounts. It can be
adapted to both solid mount (direct drive) turntables and
spring suspended mount turntables. This product is designed
and manufactured by Eminent Technology, Inc.
The large surface area air bearing uses some of the
tightest tolerances in tonearm manufacturing today and is much
more rigid at audio frequencies than metal bearings. Unique
choice of materials was determined through extensive —
tests, measurements, and work in stress and resonant analysis
of materials.
The tonearm leadwire is important due to the requirement
that it must be flexible and interface with very low impedance
transducers. Multi-stranded oxygen free litz wire was chcsen
with gold plated connectors in the audio chain.
Resonances within the arm were carefully measured during
the prototyping stages. Results lead to the use of large
diameter thin wall aluminum tubing with foam filled damping.
Interface connections are made with heavy wall aluminum brackets
and socket head cap screws with ABS damping. The headshell is
rd
machined from solid high impact strength ABS stock. It
incorporates a unique expanding collet design which grips
over 1 sq. in. of inside surface area of the tonearm tube
when locked into place.
Counterbalance weights are provided for cartridges which
weigh up to 12 grams. Additional counterweights can be
used for heavier cartridges (to 20 grams). These weights
are isolated by rubber from the spindle. The air bearing
spindle is machined to within (2.0003") tolerances and is
hard coat anodized to prevent wear when the arm is moved
without air.
This arm does.not pivot at low frequencies. The air
bearing is a rigid system which provides support vertically
and horizontally and allows no motion outside of these two
Planes of operation. (The mechanical servo, and small surface
area air bearing type arms behave like a pivoted arm at and
close to their resonant frequencies.) This is a true high
mass arm which works well with most cartridges.
This arm has high horizontal inertia and medium vertical
inertia which splits the resonant frequencies and Severs their
peak amplitudes (See Technical Section) at those frequencies.
Resonance in one plane will not start resonance in another
plane (or rotational motion) which helps improve imaging and
phase response.
'
F
The mounting provisions allow the use of larger and
stronger hardware than that of conventional arms. This
product can be completely maintained while mounted on the
turntable.
OPTIONAL AIR PUMP
The Eminent Technology air pump is an industrial type
air supply. It utilizes two diaphragms operating out oi phase
and a surge tank to produce an extremely smooth airflow. It
is quiet enough to be used in most listening rooms.
SPECIFICATIONS:
TONEARM:
Type:
Length:
Tracking Error:
Effective Mass:
Height Adjustment
At Pivot:
Overhang Adjustment
at Tonearm:
Resonance Damping:
Maximum Cartridge Weight:
Maximum tracking
Force Available:
Tracking Force
Calibration:
Sidethrust Correction:
Pivot Damping:
Cuing:
Cartridge Leadwires:
Capacitance:
Resistance:
Straight line tracking air bearing
7" pivot to stylus distance
O°
(high) variable in both planes.
40 grams horizontal, 10 grams vertical.
.75" equal to =
adjustment
2%° of vertical angle
Slot with 5/8" range.
Tonearm tube and spindle are closed
cell foam filled.
Counterbalance weights supplied for.
up to 12 grams. Additional weight
available to 20 grams.
Cartridge weight plus 7 grams, infinitely
variable.
None. User must supply scales.
Not required with tangentially tracking
arm (See technical section)
None for vertical or horizontal motion.
Air bearing for other directions of
motion.
Mechanical with rubber damping.
Adjustable.
7/42 stranding color coded litz in
vinyl jacket.
30 p.f.
9 ohm
Azimuth Adj.:
Headshell weight:
Spindle Weight:
Tonearm Tube Weight:
Counterbalance Weight:
Air Bearing Surface Area:
Air Filter:
Air Bearing Pressure
Requirements:
MATERIALS:
Tonearm tube:
Spindle tube:
Headshell:
Counterbalance weights:
Overall Tonearm Weight:
AIR PUMP - OPTIONAL
Power Requirement:
+29
5 grams
14 grams
ll grams
15 grams "small"
30 grams "large"
6.8 sg. in.
.0l micron rating, moisture trap
3 psi @ 50 cu. in./min.
.035 wall aluminum tubing
6061-T6 hard anodized aluminum
.6110 O.D. .014" wall
ABS Composite, machined from solid
stock.
303 stainless steel, both rubber
isolated.
400 grams, .9 lbs.
120 Vac. 50 - 60 Hz. 8.5watts
MOUNTING THE TONEARM O
A TURNTABLE
This section is intended only as a guideline to be
used for installation of the tonearm to a turntable. In time
we will obtain more detailed information on how to install
the tonearm on specific turntables. The user can call or
send us a postcard for more information.
POSITIONING THE ARM
HEIGHT
When the arm is being positioned for height, (the
amount of height above the standard mounting board the channel
of the arm must be spaced in order to position the vertical
pivot point of the bearing) it is important to locate the
center of the air bearing tube (spindle) just above (approxi-
mately 1/8") the surface of a record with any pad to be used
in place. This will set the VTA adjustment in the middle of
its range and will be close to the ideal point for the vertical
pivot. The amount of spacing required is found by making the
following measurements:
‘Measure the distance from the flat surface (top) of
the mounting board on the turntable to the top of the platter
including the record pad to be used. If this distance is one
inch, then the spacer thickness should be 1/2 inch. If this
distance is higher, add an equal amount to the spacer.
— — — — WS "Ts PW US e EE TR ES) O ER ES ER e nn ee
If the distance is lower, subtract that amount from the spacer.
(EX. If this distance measured is 1% inches, the spacer
thickness should be. 3/4 inch).
See sketch.
=
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x;
{or Systemde K IL A 4 Uy nia ble, mia board plat ter (w/o mat \= | #
| i 1 ET / e :
Sub chassis — platter = / > sub-chossis —> Aadioguest mat / a < = | т
LENGTH AND WIDTH OF THE SPACER
The length of the mounting spacer should be as long
as is allowed by the mounting area provided on the turntable.
Its width should be 1% inches.
MAKING THE SPACER
The spacer can be made out of hardwood at a cabinet
shop or metal (aluminum preferred) from a machine shop. It
should be first made with at least 2 drilled or tapped holes
for mounting to the tonearm. Its surfaces must
be parallel and flat.
= = ew
+ haz 324 +
(wood) drill for
| #6 or #8 flat hd.
.625 wood screw
1.25 — Go) LR, ZN (FAN
© < 71
; Y (metal) drill
Se and tap 6-32
Teal lo — 1.50 oo LE |
for ground lead and
cartridge leads,
.250 dia.
Have the mounting spacer made before proceeding to the
next step with at least the holes necessary to mount it to the
channel. A closely matching black paint is Borden "Krylon"
#1613 semi-flat black.
POSITIONING THE TONEARM - DISTANCE FROM THE PLATTER
The mounting spacer should be complete and attached
to the channel for this step. Place the stylus reference
guage on the platter. (Do not install a cartridge in the
headshell.)
The arm should be placed on the turntable in the
position normally occupied by a conventional tonearm parallel
to the right side edge of the turntable.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Install the headshell in the tonearm tube and center
At in the middle of the slot (used for overhang) using the
innermost screw position of the headshell.
EEE. EES НН кой —F
1
UT
Stylus | a \
Reference | ee AOC ra
Gage NX — ;
Platter |
Then line up the headshell (tonearm assembled campletely) over the
stylus reference gage such that the position of the mourting platfom
of the headshell between its screw locations anc lack (see figure atove)
is directly over the back edge of the stylus reference
10
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
DESCRIPTION
Tonearm Channel
Tonearm Leadwire loop
Mounting holes for holding the channel to the mounting
board spacer.
Grounding wire (black) and lug from the phono jack plate
underneath.
Counter balance weight
Mounting Board of turntable. These vary in size and shape
for different turntables.
Airline and air fitting at the manifold. This should be
routed behind the channel and through the mounting board
of the turntable.
Sleeve (silver or black). The sleeve covers the manifold
which supports the spindle.
Spindle-tube which forms part of the air bearing.
Cuing Bar — Lever raises and lowers arm. This works only
when air is applied to the bearing.
Spindle Interface - Black right angle bracket which connects
the tonearm to the spindle. The slot is used for VTA (SRA)
adjustments. Each line represents a 4° change in VTA.
Tonearm - Black tube which holds the headshell and attaches
to the spindle at the spindle interface.
Headshell locking nut 4-40 x 3/8.
Headshell
Stylus reference gage.
11
ees — UN UU NN EE OT
guage. (Refer to drawing). This locates the dom distance
the spindle should be from the center of the record. The travel
of the arm should allow %" of over-run in both directions. Place
a record on the platter and position the arm assembly so that
the tonearm can travel approximately *% inch over the outside
of the record and % inch over the (label) inside of a record.
Now use a pencil to mark around the apacer so it can be located
and attached to the mounting board of the turntable.
12
ASSEMBLY DRAWING FOR MOUNTING SPACER
TE
' | | Top
A № Ah AÀA ds A view
y dE A]
i 1
| 1 - ke ]
О :
mn
DS hole through mounting board
for air line
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A
Side
| A view
wr Da |
7 1 Ца ; |
: = "Ie
1 E
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| "1 | |
| LA |
"NE. board of turntable
i Spacer
i
A 4
Back view
ROUTING OF WIRE THROUGH THE TONEARM
The wire will come properly routed through the tonearm
tube and spindle. The wire should be routed down through the
middle of the spacer and mounting board to the RCA phono jack
plate as shown.
The loop will be set at the proper length and the vinyl
jacket of the litz wire should extend out of the channel about
Y inch.
NOTE: Do not cut any of the litz wire that comes with
the arm. This additional length allows the
spindle to be removed from the manifold for
maintenance and cleaning without unsoldering
or cutting.
A
= ТИТ 3
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NA
|
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Lo |
| = ground
D N и lead
loop
Grounding lug goes
to the channel of
the tonearm
WIRING DIAGRAM FOR THE TONEARM
Solder the leads to the phono jack plate per the color
code given in the drawing. The right channel is identified
by a red dot on the plate.
15
nel — dis Moo Mica mens So — am re Mani Gm ws [ [ ve tu 1 da
AIR PUMP
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AN AIR SOURCE
NOTE: ANY PUMP USED WITH THIS PRODUCT MUST BE TURNED OFF
WHEN THE ARM OR SYSTEM IS NOT IN USE. THE FILTER
SUPPLIED WITH THE ARM MUST BE USED WITH THIS PRODUCT
AT ALL TIMES.
If the owner chooses to supply his/her own air source,
we offer the following suggestions:
We have experimented with many aquarium air pumps and
found only very few that will actual work. We have not found
a standard aquarium pump that is quiet. These pumps must be
placed a distance from the listening room in order to keep
noise levels low enough.
Smoothness of air flow is important in the operation of
the air bearing. A long length of air line smooths the flow
of air. The pressure drop is not significant with 1/8" I.D.
air line because the flow rates are low (50 cu. in./min.).
Therefore, long air line runs are favorable. If the user wants
an"ideal" air source, a surge tank can also be used. A quart
bottle stuffed with cotton with air input and output fittings
in series with the air line in this order (pump - surge tank -
filter - tonearm) works very well.
Standard aquarium air pumps produce 60 Hz pulses.
16
r E sa > — + Ma ms coe dam z
These can be smoothed by the above methods. If aquarium
pumps are chosen and the recommendations show that two are
required, these should be run out of phase. This can be done
by running them in parallel with a "T" air fitting and listening
to the output. Flip over the plug of one air pump and listen
to the output. Then reverse the plug, when the pumps are out
of phase, the output of air at the fitting will be much smoother.
—0
pump filter
Ct Te {] $= “earing
=>
a ¥ fi
Two pump configuration |
> pump g
th
RECOMMENDED AIR PUMPS
l. Silent Giant. « « « « « » ¢ + «(2 required), (quiet)
2. Hagen "Optima". . . . . . « « .(2 required), (noisy)
3. WISA Model 20 . . . . . . . .(1 required), (guiet)..:.
4. Hartz Mountain "Vibra Power". .(2 required), (noisy)
The user can also attach the air bearing arm to a shop
type air compressor with excellent results. The compressor
would need to turn on only once for hours of listening because
the arm can operate from the storage tank. The regulator should
17
En Pe Po ania al — — Qua AE amd wm a an O | er | A
be set on 3 to 5 psi. Higher pressure will not damage the
bearing; but it is not necessary. Remember that the included
filter must be used with any pump application.
EMINENT TECHNOLOGY AIR PUMP
THIS PUMP MUST BE TURNED OFF WHEN THE TONEARM OR
SYSTEM IS NOT IN USE. WE RECOMMEND USING A SWITCHED
OUTLET ON A PREAMP OR A SWITCHED TRACK LINE IN THE
SYSTEM TO TURN IT OFF.
The Eminent Technology air pump is designed to provide
an optimum air supply to the tonearm and be extremely quiet.
USE
The air pump should be used only in its upright position.
The air line and power cord come out of the side. If the pump
is not properly positioned, it will be noisy.
We have found that the best location for any of the
pumps would be a closet or in another room if possible.
Another good location would be close to or behind
the speaker system.
The user will have to experiment to find the optimum
position for the air pump.
Air line is available from an aquarium supply store.
18
Page 19 = blank
A pressure guage is not necessary for use with this
product. If the user wishes to use one, several options are
available.
Most heating and air conditioning suppliers offer a .
pressure guage which has a scale range from 0-5, 0-15, or 0-30 psi.
Any of these would be acceptable. These are usually used for
checking gas pressures in propane or natural gas heaters and
stoves. Ask them for the necessary fittings to adapt the guage
to 1/8" I.D. air line.
Another possibility is an automotive manifold vacuum/pressure
checking guage available from most hardware stores with an
automotive section. These guages will have scales which range
from 0-30" Hg. (vacuum) and 0-10 psi (pressure) on one scale.
The air line used in the tonearm will directly interface with
these guages.
„Ak 2 а
A pressure guage can tell you about the long-term
performance of the pump. It can also tell you if the filter
is clogging when the pressure drops and if the capillaries
20
within the tonearm manifold are clogging (see maintenance
section) if the pressure increases. Both problems are easy
to solve. Proper pressures should be between 2.5 and 3.5 psi
when used with any of the recommended air pumps.
21
*
OPERATION
22
TONEARM USE AND
ADJUSTING THE TURNTABLE SUSPENSION SYSTEM.
If the turntable used does not have a sub-base which is
suspended by springs, then the only adjustment necessary is to
level the turntable. This can be done with shims; or if the
turntable has adjustable feet which can raise and lower the
turntable, these can be used. We highly recommend the use of
accessory leveling feet (Audio Technica or equivalent) if
the turntable does not have that capability. The tonearm must
be level to perform at its best.
If the turntable has a spring suspended sub-base, then
this should first be leveled (adjusted) after installing the
tonearm. We recommend leveling the suspension and platter of the
turntable within itself with the tonearm installed and then
using feet below the turntable to level the entire system
using the tonearm as a guage for true level. (unless the sus-
pension system of the turntable is very easy to adjust).
When the arm is installed on a spring suspended turn-
table, the suspension system will usually have to be adjusted
to re=level the platter and arm within itself. This is because
the arm is lighter than most conventional pivoted arms and its
center of gravity is closer to the front of the turntable.
In some cases weight (lead from a fishing tackle supplier)
will have to be added at the back of the turntable. (Use double
23
sided adhesive foam tape to adhere the weight to the suspension
system). If the suspension system is easy to adjust, this can
be used to find the true .level of the turntable when it is
installed in the system and ready for use. If not, use the
adjustable type feet. |
LEVELING THE TURNTABLE USING THE TONEARM
The most accurate level available is the tonearm itself
(much more accurate than a bubble level). The horizontal
plane (direction of travel of the arm from the inside to the
outside of the record) is the only plane that must be level.
If the arm is level for horizontal movement, everything else
ill be set.
Use the arm for the level by trying to establish neutral
balance. (This cannot really be done because most of the
mass of the arm is above the center of the pivot point and
the arm will not quite balance out). Use a small weight (or
cartridge with stylus guard) on the headshell and the two
counterbalance weights and come as close as possible to a
floating condition. You will see the arm's tendency to move
in one direction or the other as it is pushed back and forth.
Adjust the suspension system or feet until the arm has no
tendency to move toward the inner or outer portion of the record.
It is now level. (You can see the effects of the leadwire
stiffness at the extreme ends of travel. This is normal.)
24
USING THE CUING LEVER
The cuing mechanism in the Model One is purely mechanical
and it takes practice to get used to its operation. We
recommend using the stylus guard of the cartridge to protect
it during all setup and adjustment procedures required for
this product. You should protect your stylus until you are
comfortable operating the cuing mechanism. Note: The cuing
lever works properly only with the ‘air on.
ADJUSTING THE CUING MECHANISM
The damping adjustment sz should be used for minor
changes in stiffness of operation and the cuing clamp screw
used for larger changes. Refer to the maintenance section
for more information on the cuing clamp and lubrication.
The damping adjustment (6-32 x 3/8) screw can be finger
tightened while testing the smoothness of operation of the
lever. The lever action should be free enough to allow easy
movement of the lever while retaining enough stiffness to hold
the arm and cartridge up above the record in its rest position.
The arm will slowly drift down if the screw is not tight enough.
cuing clamp
Screw
cuing lever
damping screw
25
Note: If the cuing lever is too long, it can be cut to the
proper length with wire cutters or needle nose pliers with
cutters. Remove the black cap and cut it to the desired length.
It should be as long as possible for best operation.
Note: Do not lower the arm below the surface of the platter
at the outer edge of the record. This could damage your stylus.
26
=
USING THE STYLUS REFERENCE GAGE
The stylus reference gage is used to align the cartridge
over the centerline of the record as well as insure that the |
cartridge is mounted exactly in line with the tonearm tube
(perpendicular to the centerline).
Use the stylus guard during these alignment procedures.
Do not lower the stylus directly on the reference gage.
The center hold of the gage is purposely made small.
You must use a pair of scissors to open up the hole by placing
one of the blades in the hole and rotating. Gradually open
the hole until it tightly slips over your turntable record pin.
Place the stylus reference gage on the spindle. Rotate
the gage around until the serien (air pump on) will track
straight down the centerline. You may have to move the channel
slightly by loosening its mounting screws to get this exact. Use
E |
eed | ()
x COOL =
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на: = = : )
zZ ~ slot
stylus reference gage
\
record pad
turntable
#
7
2
7
7
2
27
the slot in the tonearm tube to set overhang. ый the stylus tip
will travel down the centerline and the edges of the cartridge
body line up with the parallel lines on the reference gage,
you have established correct alignment.
AZIMUTH
Many tonearms do not provide an ability to adjust azimuth.
In the Model One, the slot in the headshell provides about 229
of azimuth adjustment. Set VTA/SRA at the back of the tonearm,
then rotate the headshell to find the optimum perpendicular
position for the stylus. Note: Both VTA and azimuth adjustments
can be done by critical listening or with a distortion analyzer
and test record. Some cartridges are more sensitive than others
to these adjustments. Both are equally important.
28
SETTING THE TRACKING FORCE
The owner must provide his/her own scales to set the
tracking force. Determine the number of counterbalance
weights necessary to balance the cartridge. (The large counter-
balance will support cartridges which weigh up to 8 grams.
Adding the small counterbalance weight allows cartridges which
weigh - up to 12 grams). It is best to use the large weight by
itself when possible unless the cartridge has very low compliance
(< 15 x 1079).
Set the scales on the platter of the turntable at the
desired force and move the weight(s) back (to reduce tracking
force) along the stem until the desired tracking force is
reached. The weight(s) will usually end up close to the end of
the counterbalance stem.
29
SETTING VTA (SRA)
The vertical tracking angle (some prefer stylus rake
angle) adjustment is made by loosening the (6-32 x %) socket
head screw at the back of the tonearm interface bracket and
sliding the tonearm up or down.
an allen wrench.
torque.
Each line on the interface represents a %° change in
vertical tracking angle.
selections and make large changes (1°) until you arrive at a
position you like.
It can be finger tightened to sufficient
Then make very small changes around a
setting.
mt O (
—ce>. -
uo Sas 0)
VTA calibration
grid
30
Do not over-torque this with
The best approach is to listen to
given
a aw a am SG Sn. in. ЯВ Я NN. NR e ви
VTA adjustmen-
screw
—_ PEE PE PE PE TEE UU I TE st UE TED TD TEE ew es we
MAINTENANCE SECTION
Your dealer is skilled in maintaining this product
and it is best to consult them concerning problems. We
hope you will use your dealer for service. The factory
is available for technical advice and help concerning problems
and we will be glad to offer assistance.
31
CLEANING THE AIR BEARING
We recommend cleaning the bearing once a month using
the following procedure: Dip a cotton ball in rubbing alcohol
and wipe down the air bearing spindle while the air is on all
along its length, top and bottom. This will greatly extend the
life of the bearing before more intense cleaning procedures
must be used.
If the bearing sticks while traveling across the record
and causes skipping, it is most like due to one of the following
reasons: |
1. Not enough air supplied to the bearing. This can be
the air pump (see air pump maintenance) or the filter.
CHECKING THE FILTER
The filter can be checked by removing it from the line
and hooking the air pump directly to the air bearing. If the
bearing then works, the filter is clogged and needs replacing.
Contact your dealer. Do not operate the bearing for long periods
of time without the filter (hours).
2. If the air supply to the bearing is good (over 2 psi
at the manifold), then the other possible causes of failure are
dirt buildup on the spindle or manifold or clogged capillaries
within the manifold.
CLEANING DIRT FROM THE SPINDLE
For this operation the air pump should be on. Take a
32
1
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в
и
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и
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и
toothbrush, dip it in rubbing alcohol and vigorously brush the
spindle on both ends. Then wipe the alcohol off with a soft
cloth. If this restores operation, then nothing else needs to
be done. If this does not work, you must clean the inside walls
of the manifold. Sometimes the dirt buildup on the spindle
must be removed by scraping on the surface with a single edge
razor blade. If residue comes off when this is done, the spindle
is not clean. Clean it again with a toothbrush.
CLEANING THE MANIFOLD
First you must remove the spindle from the manifold.
Pull the spindle out of the manifold in the direction toward
the outside edge of the record. The lead wire must be pulled
up from below the turntable to obtain enough length. With the
inside of the manifold exposed (leadwire will be through the
middle), take a toothbrush dipped in alcohol and vigorously
brush the inside walls of the manifold. You cannot damage the
surfaces of the air bearings by too much cleaning. Then push a
soft cloth into the manifold and gently dry it. This almost
always restores normal operation.
3. If the pump is working normally and the pressure is
too high at the input (over 3.5 psi with the Eminent Technology
pump) and the tonearm does not work, then the capillaries are
clogged within the manifold.
33
CLEANING THE CAPILLARIES
Remove the spindle as described above. The manifold can
either be taken off of the channel, which means unsoldering the
leadwire, or removed on the channel.
Either way, the manifold is removed by pushing very hard
with your thumb against the manifold while holding the sleeve.
The manifold will slide out of the sleeve. It is held in by
two O-rings which need to be lubricated with grease before
re-installing.
NOTE: The air fitting must be removed from the sleeve
or the O-rings will hit the threaded portion of the fitting as
it is sliding out.
When the manifold is out of the sleeve (14) 6-32 x 1/8 set
screws will be exposed. The threaded portion of the manifold is
designed to allow air to spiral around the outside of the set
screw and maintain the precise length and size of air passage
required for an efficient air bearing. Remove the set screws.
These holes and the set screws should be cleaned with a pipe
cleaner and alcohol. Re-assemble the air bearing assembly
(4 holes up) and normal operation should be restored.
(14) set screw
locations
(capillaries) Ac
+
| —— slide manifold out
in this direction
al
beto 4 4
X
"0" ring
au e. fitting
sleeve 34
AIR PUMP MAINTENANCE
Inside the enclosure of the pump there are two diaphragms.
If one of these breaks, it can be replaced by your dealer or
returned to the factory.
NO OUTPUT
If the pump fails completely, it is probably the result
of a bad line cord or open coil in the transformer. Return
the complete assembly to the factory for replacement.
35
Page 36 blank
CUING MECHANISM
ADJUSTING AND LUBRICATING THE CUING LEVER
If the cuing lever becomes too stiff (and adjustments
do not help) the bearings can be lubricated with grease by
removing the cuing clamp.
To remove the cuing lever and bearings, remove the
cuing clamp screw and remove the lever with its three bearings.
Lubricate the shaft, where the bearings are located, with grease.
To assemble, with all three bearings on the lever,
push the inner bearing under the manifold sleeve about % inch
using a small screwdriver. Then reassemble the cuing clamp
With one bearing at each end.
If the bearing movement is too free, remove the cuing
clamp and wrap a l-inch length of 3/8 inch wide electrical
cuing bar bearings
cuing clamp
scre
cuing lever
damping
adjustment
x
x
и
к
я
"
m
г
m
tape around each bearing and re-assemble. Then tighten the
cuing clamp down. This will help compress the bearings and
increase the stiffness.
NOTE: The cuing clamp might not rest on the channel when
tight. This is normal. However, you must make sure that it
clears the cuing stem (nylon post that comes down from the
tonearm interface) or the arm will stop when the stem hits the
cuing clamp.
38
MODEL D-12, D-13, AND D-14% DISPOSABLE FILTERS
GENERAL INFORMATION
THESE DISPOSABLE FILTERS HAVE BEEN DESIGNED TO REMOVE OIL AEROSOLS, SMOKE, AND CONDENSED
MOISTURE FROM COMPRESSED AIR LINES.... THE MODEL D-12, WITH %'" NPSCF) BY %''NPT(M) PORTS,
IS DESIGNED FOR DIRECT APPLICATION TO A PAINT SPRAY GUN.... THE MODEL D-13, WITH %'NPTCF)
PORTS, IS DESIGNED FOR GENERAL INDUSTRIAL AND LABORATORY APPLICATIONS.... AND THE D-14
WITH k"NPTCM) BY E"NPTCF) PORTS, IS DESIGNED FOR A DIRECT APPLICATION TO AN AIR BLOW GUN.
THE FILTERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE ACTUAL POINT OF AIR USAGE,
TO SUPPLEMENT RATHER THAN REPLACE EXISTING MOISTURE TRAPS, FILTERS, DRIERS, AND INTER-
COOLERS. THE CONVENTIONAL EQUIPMENT SHOULD REMOVE MOST OF THE CONTAMINATION, AND OUR
FILTER WILL REMOVE ANY CONDENSED MOISTURE, OIL AEROSOLS, SMOKE, OR OTHER PARTICULATES
THAT MIGHT PASS THE CONVENTIONAL EQUIPMENT.
INSTALLATION
THE D-12 FILTER, WITH ITS %"NPS(F) PORT, SHOULD BE ATTACHED DIRECTLY TO THE INLET OF THE
PAINT SPRAY GUN, AND TIGHTENED TO À LEAKPROOF SEAL BY HAND.... THE D-14 FILTER, WITH ITS
%"NPTCF) PORT, SHOULD BE ATTACHED DIRECTLY TO THE AIR BLOW GUN.... WHEN INSTALLING FILTERS,
GRASP THE HOUSING BY HAND, DO NOT USE A VISE, PLIERS, OR ANY MECHANICAL MEANS, AS THE
HOUSING COULD BE DAMAGED.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
THE RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE IS 100 PSI.... AND AS THE PLASTIC HOUSING WILL
BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, INCLUDING SOLVENTS, KETONES, ETC., DO NOT
ATTEMPT TO CLEAN THE FILTER, OTHER THAN A QUICK WIPE OFF WITH SOLVENT.
UNDER AVERAGE CONDITIONS, THE FILTER WILL ABSORB APPROXIMATELY ONE FLUID OUNCE OF CON-
DENSED MOISTURE, AND IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE FILTER BE CHANGED AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK.
WITH RELATIVELY DRY INDUSTRIAL OR LABORATORY AIR, THE EFFECTIVE LIFE OF THE FILTER
SHOULD BE SEVERAL WEEKS. (NOTE:) When used with the air bearing, this
filter should last approximately one year with average use.
LIMITED WARRANTY
MOTOR GUARD CORPORATION ASSUMES THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROVIDING EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL
THAT IS FREE OF DEFECTS IN WORKMANSHIP AND MATERIAL.
SHOULD THIS PRODUCT FAIL DUE TO A DEFECT IN WORKMANSHIP OR MATERIAL, MOTOR GUARD CORPORA-
TION WILL REPAIR, OR AT ITS OPTION, REPLACE THE PRODUCT WITHOUT CHARGE, OTHER THAN THE
TRANSPORTATION CHARGES, PROVIDED THE PRODUCT IS RETURNED TO THE ADDRESS BELOW, TRANSPORTA-
TION PREPAID, WITHIN ONE YEAR OF THE DATE OF PURCHASE.
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY DOES NOT COVER DAMAGE TO THE PRODUCT THROUGH NEGLECT, MIS-USE, OR
ACCIDENT, NOR DOES IT COVER ANY LOSS, DAMAGE, OR EXPENSE EITHER DIRECT OR INDIRECT, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL, ARISING FROM THE NON-FUNCTION OR MALFUNCTION OF THIS PRODUCT.
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY NOTICE REPLACES ANY OTHER WARRANTY OR GUARANTEE INFORMATION
ENCLOSED WITH THIS PRODUCT OR APPEARING IN LITERATURE REFERRING TO THIS PRODUCT.
MOTOR GUARD CORP. - 2110 ADAMS AVE. P.O. BOX 1834 - SAN LEANDRO, CA 94577 - 415-569-9766
39
TECHNICAL SECTION
40
INSTRUMENTATION LIST
The following list details the test equipment used to
develop and measure the performance of the tonearm:
MAKE MODEL NUMBER DESCRIPTION
Tektronix 5111 Storage Scope
Tektronix 5B10 Time Base
Tektronix 5A18N 2-Channel Amplifier
Tektronix 5A15N 1-Channel Amplifier
Tektronix C59B Camera
Tektronix TMS15 Power Supply + case
Tektronix DC504 Counter/Timer
Tektronix AF501 Bandpass Filter/Amplifier
Tektronix 5A22N Differential Amplifier
Nicolet 440B Digital Spectrum Analyzer
Bruel & Kjaer 2209 Spl Meter & Amplifier
Bruel & Kjaer - 1613 Bandpass Filter
Bruel & Kjaer 4332 Accelerometer
Bruel & Kjaer ZR0020 Integrator
PCB 308B Accelerometer. & Power Supp.
Gould Strip Chart Recorder
BPI 1600 Wow & Flutter Meter .
Bruel & Kjaer QR2009 Test Record
Bruel & Kjaer QR2010 Test Record
Bruel & Kjaer QR2011 Test Record
CBS STR 100 Test Record
CBS STR 101 Test Record
CBS STR 112 Test Record
CBS STR 120 Test Record
CBS STR 130 Test Record
CBS STR 140 Test Record
CBS STR 150 Test Record
CBS STR 170 Test Record
Audio Technica AT6606 Test Record
Shure PR 103 Test Record
Shure TTR 109 Test Record
Shure TTR 110 Test Record
BLH 1200B Digital Strain Indicator
TESTDATA/ INMET T201B Strain Cage Transmitter
TESTDATA/ INMET Series-10B Telemetry Receiver
Micro-Measurements CEA-06-125UT-350 Strain Gage
Micro-Measurements EA-06-250-MQ-350 Strain Gage
Micro-Measurements EA-06-250-TR-350 Strain Gage
BLH FAQ Strain Gage SR-4 Type
General Electric Variac
41
ANTI-SKATING FORCES IN CONVENTIONAL AND STRAIGHT LINE ARMS.
In a conventional pivoted tonearm, the resulting frictional
forces at the stylus are not always in line with the arm bear-
ing causing the stylus to be pulled in a direction tangent
to the groove toward the center of the record. This force
(sometimes called skating or sidethrust) is influenced by
many things {record surface velocity 33 & 45, position of the
arm with respect to the record, record surface friction, shape
and polish of the stylus, vertical tracking force, etc.) The
correction for it is usually made by some mechanism in the
tonearm.
ей Direction of
rotation of recor
centerline
/
to friction:
Fy = Friction tan-
am
e e
=} ali
E fat esultant forces due
Figure shows arc of pivoted Tip of stylus gent to cente
arm as it tracks record and line
deviation from the centerline. Fi = Inline frictio®
\ Fr = Resulting
friction
H
42
The inward skating or frictional forces tend to
move the stylus up the inside wall of the record groove,
reducing the effective tracking force at the tip causing
slight mistracking. When a mechanical force is applied to
improve tracking ability from a pivoted arm, this must work
through the cartridge suspension system, moving it slightly
out of its center position causing slight channel imbalance
and more important, larger angular tracking error, equivalent
to an arm with improper geometry and its associated problems.
We performed a survey of conventional pivoted arm anti-skating
BR EE
forces and the average was .2 grams of sidethrust applied for
each gram of tracking force although there was wide variation
and some linear, some not.
In the case of the Model One tonearm, the antiskating
force is not necessary because the frictional force at the
stylus tip is always in a line directly ahead of the tonearm.
(See Figure). The only forces left to act against the stylus
as a result of the tonearm are the forces required to accelerate
the system (F = MA), the frictional forces, and the imbalance
forces (a function of how level the arm is).
With a properly setup Model One tonearm, (the arm must
be level) these combined forces measure around .1 gram or less
for small accelerations and do not change with vertical
tracking force.
43
This means that a given cartridge will work against
lower horizontal forces in the Model One tonearm (.1 gram or
less) as opposed to those of a conventional arm (.2 grams/gram VTF).
These figures apply if you use records that are not severely
out of round.
For vertical forces while tracking warps, the cartridge
suspension system must work against the tonearms moment of
inertia about its vertical axis of rotation. For the Model One,
these forces will be similar to those of a conventional tonearm
which has medium effective mass (i0 grams).
44
Warp/Wow
As a tonearm travels over a warp in the record, it moves over an arc
equal to the angle ©, as shown in the figure below. The effective
length of the arm changes by the cosine "®" multiplied by the length
of the tonearm. When the arm goes over the warp, the position of
the stylus moves ahead or behind the centerline of the record because
of the arc it must go through. This change in position changes the
pitch or frequency of the sound being reproduced.
General relationships for a given warp size.
1. The longer the tonearm, the less significant warp wow becomes.
2. Warp wow increases with increasing 8.
For the Model One the pivot point is fixed by the air bearing just
above the surface of the record, which minimizes warp wow.
The height adjustment on the Model One tonearm will not affect
warp wow. The lines on the interface bracket between the spindle and
tonearm can be used as a reference for vertical tracking angle adjust-
ments. These lines are spaced at %° increments. With most conven-
tional pivoted arms, raising or lowering the arm involves raising or
lowering the pivot point which does affect warp wow.
X = R - RCos 6
< К — ———
==
THE EFFECTS Or A WARP O TO.IAXRE LINSTH
45
LOW FREQUENCY RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS
The goal of the design of this tonearm was to provide
higher horizontal inertia to reproduce low frequency energy
+!
= она
“present in records today and have lower vertical inertia
(higher vertical natural frequency) to stay away from likely
vertical warp Frequencies.
The rise in response at resonance is 0 to 4dB using the
B & K 2010 test record and 5-8 dB using the CBS STR 120 test
record. |
The resonance is very well controlled because a resonance
in one plane will not affect or start resonance in the other
plane.
Vertically, with almost any compliance cartridge the
natural frequency will be above likely warp frequencies (.55 Hz x
number of bumps). Horizontally the natural frequency will be
low to maintain good phase response for high horizontal low
frequency information cut into a record. Warps will not excite
the horizontal — and our tests show that there is very
little horizontal "rumble" present in records. The fundamental
eccentricity Preguensa (.55 Hz) is also well below cutoff. This
arm will provide very gend Kunde figures when used on most
turntables. It will, however, reproduce almost all of the low
frequency energy cut into records including thumps, pops, etc.
46
CALCULATING THE RESONANT FREQUENCY OF A TONEARM
n
lt
1
2 WIC, (M, + MJ)
Co = Compliance of Cartridge
in cm/Dyne
MO, = Mass of -Cartridge (gms.)
M, = Mass of Arm
10g Vertical
40g Horizontal
~ MEASURED TABLE OF RESONANT FREQUENCIES FOR VARIOUS CARTRIDGE
COMPLIANCES AND COUNTERWEIGHT COMBINATIONS
Cartridge Compliance Natural Frequency Counterweights
Vert. Horiz.
45 x 1079 cm/dyne 10Hz 3.5Hz Only Large
15 x 1076 cm/dyne 13Hz 5.5Hz Only Large
15 x 1076 cm/dyne 12Hz 4.5Hz Small & Large
LOW FREQUENCY RESONANCE TEST RESULTS
Cartridge Compliance 45 x 1076 CM/Dyne
44 RAA "NN. SHOR. CLE.
28 HE 313 D8
2 20 200Fz 2 20 20Chz
Vertical resonance 4dB rise Vertical Resonance 8dRB rise
at 9 Hz using B & K 2010 at 9 Hz using CBS STR 120
5Hz to 20 Hz sweep 8 Hz to 40 Hz sweep
Cartridge Compliance 15 x 10-6 CM/Dyne
47 Z0® PCONU HLS ViLE-1®
E
206 PEONV HLOS VLO-19
EA -334 DB :
138 HZ -L%7 DE
2 20 200HZ 2 20 200HZ
Horizontal resonance 5dB rise Vertical resonance 7dB rise
at 5.0 Hz using B € K 2010 at 13 Hz using CBS STR-120
3 Hz to 15 Hz sweep 10 Hz to 40 Hz sweep
TONEARM RESONANCE TEST WITHIN THE AUDIBLE RANGE
There are many daa kn test a tonearm for audible
resonance problems. We have done work in this area and offer
these easy tests with the hope that comparisons will be made.
These test methods were applied in the design of this tonearm.
IMPACT TEST
A simple and sometimes most revealing test is an impact
test. This can be done to any tonearm installed on a turntable.
With the tonearm installed and a cartridge mounted and
connected to a system, the gain of the system should be turned
up very high. Then tap or strike the tonearm with any small
hard object (pencil, pen). The system and cartridge will
reproduce the fundamental and any other resonances within the
arm. The best result would be a "thump" heard when the arm was
hit with almost no ringing. Poorly des nes arms will ring
with a clearly audible tone.
TWO TONEARM TESTS
This test involves the use of a second tonearm to
measure the resonance (play on top) of the tonearm being
tested while it is playing a record. The second tonearm is
connected to a system (or spectrum analyzer) and the resonant
frequencies of the tested arm will be reproduced by this arm.
Two cartridges are needed. The test arm should have a
49
low compliance cartridge installed in it. Low compliance
cartridges with their stiffer cantilevers transfer more
vibrational energy to the tonearm than high compliance
cartridges. This provides a more crucial test.
The test arm should be installed on a turntable ready
to play. It does not need to be connected to any amplifier.
A record with high amplitude wide range music or a test
record with pink noise (B á K 2011) can be used.
The second tonearm is positioned so its stylus tip can sit
on the headshell of the test arm. (In our case we mounted the
tonearm on a wooden block). This is the one that will be
listened to and will play the headshell of the test tonearm.
It is through the second tonearm that you will hear or measure
any resonance that occurs in the test arm while playing the
record. This includes the effects of bearings and other
mechanical properties. The second arm should be set at a
low tracking force and use a high compliance cartridge. It can
play any part of the test arm and reveal resonance problems
within individual parts. All resonance must originate from
the headshell as a result of forcing functions from the stylus.
There could, however, be mechanical or bearing noise from some
tonearms.
CALIBRATION
Use the second tonearm and its cartridge to play a
50
m a es GE WE e EE WR WT WE A; E; E
—
=!
he =
test record and set up full scale readings (reference levels)
on the spectrum analyzer. When this arm plays the resonance in
the test arm, these levels can be measured with respect to
the reference level in the record and direct comparisons can
be made in terms of frequency content and amplitude. If a
resonance measures 40 dB down, this means that the amplitude
of the resonance will be 40 dB (which is audible) below the
actual music levels,
EXPLANATION OF RESONANCE
Most structures, specifically metal tubes, have resonant
frequencies. The resonant frequency is a function of the
stiffness of the material. At the resonant frequency the tube
can be made to bend or twist (torsional resonance) very easily
with very little energy input. For a tube there is usually a
fundamental bending resonant frequency and a fundamental
torsional resonant frequency and these may or may not be the
same. At all other frequencies the tube is very strong relative
to its resonant frequencies. The resonant frequency can be
excited (from the forces of a phono cartridge) at many multiples
of the fundamental frequency, so music almost always excites
the resonance. Here the theory actually coincides with reality.
Our results are almost identical using wide band orchestral
music and pink noise. When bending occurs, it must be terminated
51
N
and this is where the strength of bearings and damping materials
come into play. Damping materials, which are usually soft,
are statically not strong at all. They are strong (stiff) at
audio frequencies and are used because they can dissipate
vibrational energy (usually as heat) and reduce the amplitude
of the днев. Bearings should be coupled to something
which can-damp out or terminate the resonance.
A cartridge is a velocity measuring device. Its signal
could be converted to displacement by integration or acceleration
by differentiation. None of this is really necessary and an
audio preamplifier will not accomplish this. (With tone controls
you might come close.) When the output signal of the second
tonearm is fed through a preamplifier, the resonance you hear
will be the same ones that affect the audible characteristics of
the tonearm.
There are many more refined methods of running resonance
tests on tonearms. The use of strain gages and accelerometers
are excellent laboratory methods, but this equipment is not
readily available to the audiophile. The above method (2nd
tonearm) gives results which are essentially identical to those
given with an accelerometer or strain gage when the data is
converted to displacement. The accelerometer has an advantage
below 250 Hz where the two tonearm test is not useful. (Combimed
52
a m sn ws 9m SE UE WA BE BE BE WA OBE e PE P= Ee E
1
effects of low frequency resonancesof the two tonearms).
Strain gages have the advantage of being able to identify
bending and torsional mode shapes which are not available with
the other methods.
RESULTS OF TWO TONEARM TESTS ON THE MODEL ONE
PROTOTYPE TESTS
The first test displays the resonance of a complete
tonearm with undamped tone arm tube. The top of the graph is
OdB. The test record is B & K 2011 wide band pink noise.
There is a range of resonance from about 200 Hz to 800 Hz with
a peak (fundamental bending resonance) at 750 Hz.
le 20K PCONU' HLE VLE-180
200 2K 20K
The second test places the stylus (again an undamped
tonearm tube) on the interface bracket between the spindle and
the tonearm tube to determine the location of the movement.
If the bearing was deflecting, movement would still be seen
53
at this point. Clearly there is no bearing movement. This
indicates that the arm has a very rigid bearing system with a
need to damp the fundamental resonance within the tonearm tube.
i Ler LL LL RC ERE So
PRODUCTION VERSION TESTS
The production version uses internal tube damping to
lower the amplitude and broad reasonance range in the undamped
tube. The results are shown below (pink noise) using a worst
case cartridge (compliance of 8 x 107% cm/dyne) and a high
level signal. This resonance centered at 750 Hz will be much
lower in level with higher compliance cartridges and with lower
recording levels. Note the improvement over the undamped arm.
20K PCONU HLO.ULO-16
738 HZ
Ш = № №,
=.
сн ==
This test uses the same cartridge as above with the
production tonearm and shows resonance levels using high level
orchestral music as a signal source. Fundamental resonance is
“46 dB at 750 Hz.
“Л.В 3.) 31-3.) VUE NES RE.
er]
200 2K 20K
55
WARRANTY
Eminent Technology, Inc. warrants the Model One Tonearm
to be free from defects in performance, materials and workman-
ship for a period of 30 days from the date of purchase. Within
that period, any failure of the Model One Tonearm will be
corrected without charge for parts, labor or transportation
from the factory. After this period, pending receipt of the
warranty form, filled out and mailed to Eminent Technology
postmarked no later than one month after purchase, the above
warranty will be extended to three years for parts and one year
for labor. This warranty is transferable. The obligation of
Eminent Technology under the terms of this warranty does not
extend to:
(1) Any Model One not installed or operated in accordance
with the instructions contained in this manual.
(2) Any Model One while under performance testing or
after being used in such a test by any facility
or personnel not authorized by Eminent Technology.
(3) Any other component part connected to or operated
in conjúnction with the Model One.
(4) Any traumatic damage, accidental damage or damage
incurred in shipping or to defects which upon
examination by Eminent Technology and in its sole
opinion have been caused by abuse, neglect, improper
or abnormal installation or operation for extended
periods in industrial applications.
This warranty is not applicable if any part of the Model One
has been removed or taken apart, repaired, altered or modified
by anyone not receiving prior authorization in writing by
Eminent Technology nor if the Ai numbers have been defaced
or rendered illegible.
If an Eminent Technology product is removed from any country
in which the original consumer purchase was made, Eminent
Technology distributors and authorized dealers in any subsequent
country are not obligated by the terms of this warranty. Eminent
Technology reserves the right to incorporate design refinements
and changes to its existing products without notice or obligation.
If practical, these design modifications will be incorporated
into existing units for a reasonable charge.
Eminent Technology expressly does not warrant or insure for loss
of use of the tonearm due to failure or periods of repair.
Warranty repairs will be carried out by the factory. The Model
One must be returned prepaid in its original factory carton to:
EMINENT TECHNOLOGY, INC.
P. O. Box 6894
Tallahassee, Fla. 32314.
57
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