PK9
SEBU9070-01
July 2015
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1506A-E88TA, 1506C-E88TA and 1506DE88TA Industrial Engines
LG (Engine)
PK9 (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU9070
3
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 47
Foreword.............................. ............................. 4
Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 72
Safety Section
Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5
General Hazard Information ............... .............. 7
Maintenance Interval Schedule ........... ........... 75
Warranty Section
Warranty Information .................. .................. 101
Burn Prevention....................... ........................11
Reference Information Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ... ...11
Engine Ratings ....................... ...................... 102
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . 13
Reference Materials .................. ................... 104
Mounting and Dismounting............... .............. 13
Index Section
Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 13
Index............................... .............................. 107
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 14
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 14
Electrical System ...................... ...................... 14
Engine Electronics..................... ..................... 15
Product Information Section
General Information.................... .................... 16
Product Identification Information.......... ......... 25
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 27
Features and Controls .................. .................. 30
Engine Diagnostics..................... .................... 38
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 40
Engine Operation...................... ...................... 43
Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 44
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 46
Maintenance Section
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SEBU9070
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This manual
should be stored in or near the engine area in a
literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins
authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a
major engine failure, there are also numerous after
failure overhaul options available. Consult with your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
5
SEBU9070
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i06229776
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the
words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not
visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the
warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other
harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can
provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
Illustration 1
g01154807
Typical example
The Universal Warning label (1) is located in two
positions. The warning labels are located on the right
side of the valve mechanism cover and located on the
left side of the valve mechanism cover .
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SEBU9070
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 2
g03732105
1506A and C
Illustration 3
1506D
g03863615
7
SEBU9070
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
i05943048
General Hazard Information
• Tampering with the engine installation or tampering
with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.
Personal injury, death and/or engine damage
could result.
• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the
engine is operated in an enclosed area.
• If the engine is not running, do not release the
secondary brake or the parking brake systems
unless the vehicle is blocked or unless the vehicle
is restrained.
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
Illustration 4
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
each operator control station. When appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform the
maintenance under the following conditions:
8
SEBU9070
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Filler caps
• Grease fittings
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
• Pressure taps
• Engage the secondary brakes or parking brakes.
• Breathers
• Block the vehicle or restrain the vehicle before
maintenance or repairs are performed.
• Drain plugs
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks. If
equipped, allow the diesel exhaust fluid to be
purged before disconnecting the battery.
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two bolts
or nuts that are located at opposite ends of the cover
plate or the device. Before removing the last two bolts
or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to relieve any
spring pressure or other pressure.
• If equipped, disconnect the connectors for the unit
injectors that are located on the valve cover base.
This action will help prevent personal injury from
the high voltage to the unit injectors. Do not come
in contact with the unit injector terminals while the
engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to
the engine while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an
engine that has been serviced, make provisions to
stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. The
stopping of the engine may be accomplished by
shutting off the fuel supply and/or the air supply to
the engine. Ensure that only the fuel supply line is
shut off. Ensure that the fuel return line is open.
• Start the engine from the operators station (cab).
Never short across the starting motor terminals or
the batteries. This action could bypass the engine
neutral start system and/or the electrical system
could be damaged.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
Illustration 5
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
SEBU9070
9
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
Pressurized Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out. This action could result in
personal injury.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water
pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Illustration 6
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are
contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or
disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Static Electricity Hazard when
Fueling with Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel
Fuel
The removal of sulfur and other compounds in ultralow sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) decreases the
conductivity of ULSD and increases the ability of
ULSD to store static charge. Refineries may have
treated the fuel with a static dissipating additive.
Many factors can reduce the effectiveness of the
additive over time. Static charges can build up in
ULSD fuel while the fuel is flowing through fuel
delivery systems. Static electricity discharge when
combustible vapors are present could result in a fire
or explosion. Ensure that the entire system used to
refuel your machine (fuel supply tank, transfer pump,
transfer hose, nozzle, and others) is properly
grounded and bonded. Consult with your fuel or fuel
system supplier to ensure that the delivery system
complies with fueling standards for proper grounding
and bonding.
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SEBU9070
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra-low
sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) poses a greater static ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations
with a higher sulfur contents. Avoid death or serious injury from fire or explosion. Consult with
your fuel or fuel system supplier to ensure the delivery system is in compliance with fueling standards for proper grounding and bonding practices.
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
Inhalation
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations for
the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of
asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Illustration 7
g00702022
Dispose of Waste Properly
Exhaust
Use caution. Exhaust fumes can be hazardous to
health. If you operate the equipment in an enclosed
area, adequate ventilation is necessary.
Asbestos Information
Perkins equipment and replacement parts that are
shipped from Perkins engine company limited are
asbestos free. Perkins recommends the use of only
genuine Perkins replacement parts. Use the following
guidelines when you handle any replacement parts
that contain asbestos or when you handle asbestos
debris.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there are
several guidelines that should be followed:
Illustration 8
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
SEBU9070
11
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
i05943062
Burn Prevention
i05945996
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Allow
the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure in the
air system, in the hydraulic system, in the lubrication
system, in the fuel system, or in the cooling system
before any lines, fittings, or related items are
disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check that the coolant level after the engine has
stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Skin may be irritated following repeated or prolonged
exposure to mineral and synthetic base oils. Refer to
your suppliers Material Safety Data Sheets for
detailed information. Hot oil and lubricating
components can cause personal injury. Do not allow
hot oil to contact the skin. Appropriate personal
protective equipment should be used
Diesel Fuel
Diesel may be irritating to the eyes, respiratory
system, and skin. Prolonged exposure to diesel may
cause various skin conditions. Appropriate personal
protective equipment should be used. Refer to
supplier Material safety Data sheets for detailed
information.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended.
Illustration 9
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated, ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/
or your Perkins distributor for additional information
about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line, a
tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
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SEBU9070
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Ensure that all
electrical wires are correctly installed and securely
attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any
wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten all
electrical connections.
Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra-low
Sulfur Diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) poses a greater static
ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations with a
higher sulfur content. Avoid death or serious injury
from fire or explosion. Consult your fuel or fuel system
supplier to ensure that the delivery system is in
compliance with fueling standards for proper
grounding and bonding practices.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. Ensure that
the hoses are correctly routed. The lines and hoses
must have adequate support and secure clamps.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be installed correctly.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
manual for more information.
Illustration 11
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. A frozen battery may
cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Illustration 10
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not
smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on
the instruction plate.
Ether
Ether is flammable and poisonous.
SEBU9070
13
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Do not smoke while you are replacing an ether
cylinder or while you are using an ether spray.
Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in the
engine compartment. Do not store ether cylinders in
direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49° C
(120° F). Keep ether cylinders away from open
flames or sparks.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i05463929
Mounting and Dismounting
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
Do not climb on the engine. The engine has not been
designed with mounting or dismounting locations.
Refer to the Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM)
for the location of foot and hand holds for your
specific application.
i04257031
Before Starting Engine
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation,
correct installation will help to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Do not start the engine or move any of the controls if
there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or to
the controls.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work properly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not start an engine when the governor linkage is
disconnected.
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SEBU9070
Safety Section
Engine Starting
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
i02583384
Engine Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped) is
working correctly, check the water temperature gauge
and/or the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent
the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine may be equipped with a device for
cold starting. If the engine will be operated in very
cold conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
i01462046
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished
by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or
shutting off the air supply to the engine.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine.
i06230746
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is
operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the negative “−” terminal of
the starting motor. If the starting motor is not
equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect the
cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
SEBU9070
15
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
Grounding Practice
i05986490
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Engine Control
Module (ECM) will monitor the engine operating
conditions. If any of the engine parameters extend
outside an allowable range, the ECM will initiate an
immediate action.
Illustration 12
g03864331
Typical example
(1) Battery to grounding stud
(2) Battery to starter to grounding stud
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is
necessary for optimum engine performance and
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal. The
wire that is used must be adequate to handle the full
charging current of the alternator.
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control: WARNING, DERATE and
SHUTDOWN. These engine monitoring modes can
limit engine speed and/or the engine power.
Many of the parameters that are monitored by the
ECM can be programmed for the engine monitoring
functions. The following parameters can be monitored
as a part of the Engine Monitoring System:
• Operating Altitude
• Engine Coolant Level
• Engine Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Engine Speed
• Fuel Temperature
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
• System Voltage
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and
display modules that are available for Perkins
Engines will work in unison with the Engine
Monitoring System. Together, the two controls will
provide the engine monitoring function for the specific
engine application. Refer to the Troubleshooting
Manual for more information.
16
SEBU9070
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations
Product Information
Section
General Information
i06230810
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features of
the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine, may appear different from the illustrations.
1506A and C Engine and Radiator Views
Illustration 13
g03733708
Typical example
(1) Engine air cleaner service indicator
(2) Inspection guard
(3) Radiator
(4) Radiator pressure cap
(5) Air-to-air aftercooler
(6) Rain cap
(7) Air cleaner
(8) Vacuator valve (Dust valve)
SEBU9070
17
General Information
Model View Illustrations
1506A and C Engine Views
Illustration 14
g03734120
Typical example
(9) Cooling fan
(10) Oil filler cap
(11) Starting motor assembly
(12) Fuel priming pump
(13) Secondary fuel filter
(14) Primary fuel filter
(15) V Belts for fan
18
SEBU9070
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 15
g03734121
Typical example
(16) Rear lifting eye
(17) Coolant sampling valve
(18) Housing for coolant temperature
regulator
(19) Front lifting location
(20) Belt for coolant pump
(21) Crankshaft damper
(22) Idler for coolant belt
(23) Coolant pump
(24) Oil filter
(25) Oil gauge (Dipstick)
(26) Sample valve for engine oil
SEBU9070
19
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 16
g03734133
Typical example
(27) Turbocharger
(28) Alternator
(29) Oil pan
(30) Oil drain tap
(31) Flywheel housing
(32) Flywheel
20
SEBU9070
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 17
g03734135
Typical example
(33) Unit injector hydraulic pump
(34) Fuel transfer pump
(35) Crankcase breather
(36) Electronic control module
1506D Engine Views
The following model views show typical features of
the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine, may appear different from the illustrations.
(37) Breather outlet hose
(38) Oil drain plug
SEBU9070
21
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 18
g03864374
Typical example
(1) Switch for air inlet heater
(2) Twin compressor
(3) Auto tensioner
(4) Multi V belt
22
SEBU9070
General Information
Product Description
Illustration 19
g03864386
Typical example
(5) Wastegate actuator
i06231479
Product Description
The 1506 industrial engine has three different
emissions ratings A, C, and D. The 1506 industrial
engine can be configured for variable speed
applications or constant speed applications.
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
The 1506A and C industrial engines have five
different ratings. Visually the engines will look similar
the difference is due to the software that is loaded
into the engine Electronic Control Module (ECM).
The 1506D may be configured differently, with an air
inlet heater, automatic tensioner for the drive belt, and
a turbocharger with a wastegate actuator.
The Perkins 1506A, 1506C and 1506D industrial
engines have the following characteristics:
• In-Line 6-cylinder
• Four-stroke cycle
• Hydraulically Actuated Electronic Unit Injection
(HEUI)
• Turbocharged with air-to-air aftercooled (ATAAC)
Illustration 20
Cylinder and valve location
(A) Exhaust valve
(B) Inlet valve
g00609479
SEBU9070
23
General Information
Product Description
Engine Diagnostics
Table 1
1506 Engine Specifications
Arrangement and Cylinders
In-Line 6-cylinder
Bore
112.0 mm (4.41 inch)
Stroke
149.0 mm (5.87 inch)
Aspiration
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
ATAAC
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that all of the components are functioning properly. In
the event of a deviation from the programmed limits,
the operator will be alerted to the condition by a
“DIAGNOSTIC” lamp. Under certain conditions, the
engine horsepower and the vehicle speed may be
limited. The electronic service tool may be used to
display the diagnostic code.
8.8 L (537 in3)
1-5-3-6-2-4
Counterclockwise
Electronic Engine Features
The engine operating conditions are monitored. The
ECM controls the response of the engine to these
conditions and to the demands of the operator. These
conditions and operator demands determine the
precise control of fuel injection by the ECM. The
electronic engine control system provides the
following features:
• Engine speed governor
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
• Torque rise shaping
There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,
logged and event.
Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored in
the ECM. For additional information, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” topic.
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Centrifugal pump that is driven by a belt
• Cooling fan driven by belts
• Injection timing control
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
• System diagnostics
• Oil cooler and radiator
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Diagnostics” topic.
The drive belt can be a multi V belt or a single V belt
design.
The following additional features provide increased
engine fuel economy and serviceability:
The engine lubricating oil that is supplied is cooled.
The engine lubricating oil is also filtered. Bypass
valves provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to
the engine components during the following
conditions:
• Cold starting capability
• High oil viscosity
• Tampering detection
• Plugged oil cooler or plugged oil filter element
• Diagnostics
Engine Service Life
Additional Features
Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors
Hydraulically Actuated Electronic Unit Injectors
(HEUI) perform the following function:
• Atomizes the fuel
The unit injectors are controlled by the ECM which
uses the camshaft position, the engine speed signals,
and the inlet air pressure sensors. The ECM controls
when the fuel is injected into each cylinder. The rated
rpm is identified on the information plate.
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
24
General Information
Product Description
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of the
engine over a time. Reduced hours of operation at full
throttle and/or operating at reduced throttle settings
result in a lower average power demand. Reduced
hours of operation will increase the length of
operating time before an engine overhaul is required.
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives, catalysts, ) which are made by other
manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the
Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of
such use.
However, failures that result from the installation or
use of other manufacturers devices, accessories, or
consumables are NOT Perkins defects. Therefore,
the defects are NOT covered under the Perkins
warranty.
SEBU9070
SEBU9070
25
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Product Identification
Information
Serial Number Plate 1
i05951766
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Illustration 22
g01403841
Engine Identification
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
A typical example of an engine serial number is
LGE F**** N00001W.
Illustration 21
g03735788
Typical example
(1) Location of engine serial plate.
Perkins engines are identified by serial numbers.
These numbers are shown on the engine serial
number plate. Perkins distributors need these
numbers in order to determine the components that
were included with the engine. This information
permits accurate identification of replacement part
numbers.
L
Type of engine
G
Application (Table 2 )
E
Rating Type (Table 3 )
F
Number of cylinders (Table 4 )
*****
Fixed build number
N
Built in the USA
00001
Engine Number
W
Year of Manufacture
Table 2
Application
G
Genset
Table 3
Type of engine (Diesel)
A
TAG1
B
TAG2
D
TAG3
(continued)
26
SEBU9070
Product Identification Information
Emissions Certification Film
Fan Drive Belt
(Table 3, contd)
E
TAG4
F
TAG5
H
TAG6
Coolant Pump Belt
Table 4
Number of Cylinders
F
6
H
8
M
12
R
16
Perkins dealers and Perkins distributors require all
of these numbers in order to determine the
components that were included in the engine. This
information permits accurate identification of
replacement part numbers.
i05951816
Emissions Certification Film
Note: This information is pertinent in the United
States, in Canada and in Europe.
The emissions label is located on the top of the valve
mechanism cover.
i05951812
Reference Information
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model
Engine Serial Number
Engine RPM
Primary Fuel Filter
Secondary Fuel Filter Element
Lubrication Oil Filter Element
Total Lubrication System Capacity
Total Cooling System Capacity
Air Cleaner Element
SEBU9070
27
Operation Section
Product Lifting
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
i05951830
Product Lifting
Illustration 24
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Illustration 23
g03735832
The lifting eyes (1) are the lifting locations for lifting
the engine and radiator.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for the specific
engine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins distributor for information regarding fixtures
for proper engine lifting.
i05951855
Product Storage
Your Perkins distributor can assist in preparing the
engine for extended storage periods.
28
SEBU9070
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
Condition for Storage
Open Cooling System
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
Storage Period
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
Storage Procedure
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the
fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
For maintenance procedures ref to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change the
spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Also, rotate the
coolant pump pulley. Visibly check for damage or
corrosion to the engine.
Ensure that the engine is covered completely before
storage. Log the procedure in the record for the
engine.
a. If the engine has been operated using
biodiesel, the system must be drained and
new filters installed. The fuel tank will require
flushing.
Removal from Storage
b. Fill the fuel system with a correct specification
of fuel. For more information on acceptable
fuels refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid recommendations”. Operate the
engine for 15 minutes in order to remove all
biodiesel from the system.
2. Check the condition of the coolant pump belt and
the fan drive belts before tensioning the belts.
Tension the coolant pump belts and tension the fan
drive belts. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Belts - Inspect/Adjust” for
more information.
1. Remove all covers from engine and air cleaner.
Check the condition of the air filter element.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. Check the coolant level. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Coolant Level - Check”
3. Change the engine oil and filter. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil
and Filter - Change”. Ensure that the engine is
operated after the oil and filter has been changed.
Ensure that engine oil pressure is correct before
stopping the engine.
4. Remove valve cover, refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Valve Mechanism Cover - Remove and
Install”. Lubricate the valve train. Install the valve
cover.
4. For the correct specification of engine oil refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
5. Loosen the fan drive belts and loosen the coolant
pump belt. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Belts - Inspect/Adjust” for
more information.
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets “ASTM D6210”
specification.
5. Replace the fuel filters. Refer to the following
section within the Operation and Maintenance
Manual.
• Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace
• Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
• Fuel System - Prime
6. Use a bar or a turning tool in order to turn the
engine in the normal direction of rotation. The
procedure ensures that no hydraulic locks or
resistance exist.
SEBU9070
29
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
Illustration 25
g03774288
(1) Plug
7. If an engine is stored for more than 1 year, Perkins
recommends Pre lubrication of the engine in order
to avoid dry starting. Use a suitable pump in order
to put engine oil into the engine oil system.
The pump will need to create a minimum pressure
within the engine of 0.25 bar (3.6 psi). This
pressure is needed for 15 seconds in order to
lubricate the internal surfaces. Remove plug (1) in
order to connect to the engine oil system. The
connection required is 9/16" x 18 tpi. Ensure that
the correct oil specification is used, refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information. After the
engine internal surfaces have been lubricated,
remove connector and install plug (1). Tighten plug
to a torque of 30 N·m (265 lb in). Perkins
recommends that the procedure must be
performed in a minimum ambient temperature of
10° C (50° F).
8. Check engine oil level and visually inspect all
hoses and connections before starting the engine.
Start the engine, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Starting the Engine” for
more information.
After starting the engine and after correct operation
of the engine, stop the engine and check again the
engine oil level. Ensure that engine oil level is
correct.
30
SEBU9070
Features and Controls
Gauges and Indicators
Features and Controls
i05952344
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the literature that is
provided by the OEM.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins
distributor or the Perkins dealer for assistance.
Engine Oil Pressure – Typical oil
pressure for an engine at rated speed
with SAE 10W30 or with SAE 15W40 is
240 to 480 kPa (35 to 70 psi).
Engine Oil Temperature – This gauge
indicates the engine oil temperature. An
oil temperature that is higher than
normal indicates a heat problem in the lubrication
system and/or the cooling system. This problem
can damage the cylinder heads, the cylinder
liners, the pistons, and the crankshaft bearings.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 88 to 102 °C
(190 to 215 °F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system
is 105 °C (220 °F). Higher temperatures may
occur under certain conditions. The water
temperature reading may vary according to load.
The reading should never exceed the boiling
point for the pressurized system that is being
used.
If the engine is operating above the normal range or
steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
1. Reduce the engine load .
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
4. Check the coolant level.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed. When the throttle control
lever is moved to the full throttle position
without load, the engine is running at high idle.
The engine is running at the full load rpm when
the throttle control lever is at the full throttle
position with maximum rated load.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or of discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “ 0”” (zero).
Service Hour Meter – This gauge
indicates the total number of clock hours
of engine operation. Hours of operation
are logged in the ECM. A service tool is needed to
retrieve the hours from the ECM. A Service Hour
Meter may be installed on the engine.
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
level of fuel in the fuel tank. The fuel
level gauge registers the fuel level only
when the ignition switch is in the ON position.
Warning Indicators
There are two warning lamps available.
• Warning Lamp
• Shutdown Lamp
Instrument Panels and Displays
In order to monitor the engine a wide verity of
instrument panels are available. These instrument
panels can contain the indicator lamps and the
gauges for the application.
Also available are mini power displays and
performance monitors.
i05964915
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
3. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
Monitoring System
The
engine has protection in three stages:
SEBU9070
31
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
• Warning
Action Alert
• Action Alert
The action alert informs the OEM that the engine is
approaching a critical condition. The engine should
be stopped in a controlled manner. Further running of
the engine may result in an immediate shutdown.
• Shutdown
The engine protection may be overridden by the
critical condition mode.
• Engine Pressures
If the engine is in the action alert condition, the event
will be logged in the memory of the ECM. An event
code will be transmitted over the Perkins data link
and the hard wired action alert will be energized. If
the engine is in the action alert condition, the event
code and output will remain while the condition exists.
The event code cannot be cleared from the memory
of the ECM without using a factory password.
• Engine Speed
Shutdown
The indicator lamp will be illuminated after the trip
point is triggered. The ECM will log the event code.
• Overspeed
If the engine reaches the Shutdown condition, one of
the following events has occurred: low lubricating oil
pressure, high coolant temperature, or overspeed.
The event will be logged in the memory of the ECM.
The engine will be shut down. An event code will be
transmitted over the Perkins data link and the hard
wired Shutdown output will be energized. The
Shutdown condition will latch until the ECM is reset.
The event code for the shutdown cannot be cleared
from the memory of the ECM without using a factory
password.
• Intake Manifold Temperature
Critical Protection Override
• Intake Manifold Pressure
If the engine is in an application that is critical for
safety, the protection system can be overridden. This
action is in order to ensure the continuation of the
power supply during engine fault conditions.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors the
following parameters:
• Engine Temperatures
The following parameters are monitored for event
codes:
• Lubricating Oil Pressure
• Coolant Temperature
• Fuel Temperature
The temperature protection is disabled for a period
when the engine is cranking in order to compensate
for heat soak solutions.
The ECM has dedicated alarm outputs for each of the
three stages of protection. There are also dedicated
alarm outputs for oil pressure, coolant temperature,
and overspeed events which are energized at any
stage of protection.
Warning Alarm
The Warning alarm informs the user that the engine is
approaching a critical condition.
If the engine is in the warning condition, then the
event will be logged in the memory of the ECM. An
event code will be transmitted over the Perkins data
link and the hard wired Warning output will be
energized. If the engine is in the warning condition,
the event code and output will remain while the
condition exists. The electronic service tool is used to
remove the event code from the memory of the ECM.
The trip point for the warning alarm will be set to a
factory default in production. The electronic service
tool may be used to alter the trip point for a warning
within predefined limits.
Critical Protection Override will be set by a switch
input from the OEM. For example, a switch to battery
+ in order to disable a critical override. Critical
Protection Override input can be enabled in the
electronic service tool by use of a factory password.
When the Critical Protection Override feature is
active, the ECM will continue to run the engine in all
shutdown conditions except for Overspeed shutdown.
If the shutdown is overridden, an event code is
generated. The ECM will log the event code. The
ECM will energize the following: Warning, Action
Alert, Shutdown, oil pressure, coolant temperature
and overspeed outputs as normal. The warranty of
the engine will be invalidated if the engine is operated
in the following conditions: active event code and
Critical Protection Override mode.
Standard Warning Outputs
The ECM provides individual outputs in order to drive
warning lamps or relays to indicate each of the
following fault conditions:
32
SEBU9070
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
• Diagnostic Fault
• Oil Pressure
The following sensors are monitored in order to
determine if the sensors are out of the normal range,
an open circuit, or a short circuit:
• Coolant Temperature
• Atmosphere Pressure
• Overspeed
• Lubricating Oil Pressure
• Action Alert
• Inlet Manifold Pressure
• Warning
• Inlet Manifold Temperature
• Shutdown
• Fuel Temperature
If the ECM detects a warning from the coolant
temperature sensor, the ECM will energize a warning
output.
• Coolant Temperature
If the ECM detects a warning from the coolant
temperature sensor, the ECM will energize a warning
output. If the ECM detects a warning for the low oil
pressure, the output on the oil pressure will be
energized. The warning output will be energized.
• Desired Speed Input
If the Action Alert alarms are enabled and the ECM
detects a coolant temperature condition, the output
on the coolant temperature will be energized. The
output on the Action Alert will be energized.
If the engine shuts down on low oil pressure, the
output on the low oil pressure will be energized. The
output on the shutdown will be energized. If the
engine shuts down on coolant temperature, or the
engine shuts down on overspeed, the dedicated
output, and the shutdown output will be energized.
• Engine Speed
The Diagnostic output differs from the Warning and
Shutdown outputs. The Warning and Shutdown
outputs refer to the operation of the engine. The
Diagnostic output refers to the condition of the
electronic system and software system.
A diagnostic fault may develop on the lubricating oil
pressure or coolant temperature sensors. For
example, if a Shutdown protection sensor has a fault,
this fault will result in an engine shutdown. Unless the
system, is in critical protection override. If a
diagnostic fault occurs, with one of the engine speed
sensors while the engine is running. The engine
continues to run by using the other timing sensor for
reference.
Shutdown Reset
The cause of an engine shutdown must be
investigated. Corrective action must be taken before
the system is reset in order to operate the engine.
After an engine shutdown, operate the reset input of
the ECM or power down the controller.
Powering down the electronic control module can be
achieved by the operation of the keyswitch into sleep
mode. The electronic control module can be powered
down by isolating the power supply to the electronic
control module.
Note: The ECM cannot be reset using the reset input
until the engine has stopped.
Diagnostic
If there is a fault with an engine protection sensor on
the engine, the engine activates a diagnostic code.
The engine communicates the diagnostic code to the
operator via the Diagnostic output. The diagnostic
code provides an indication to the operator of a fault
with the engine protection system. Running of the
engine for a prolonged period in this condition may
result in engine failure. The output can be used to
drive lamps or relays.
i06231547
Sensors and Electrical
Components
The illustration within the section shows the typical
locations of the sensors and other electrical
components on the Industrial engine. Specific
engines may appear different due to the application.
SEBU9070
33
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 26
g03745560
Typical example
(1) Coolant sensor
(2) Injection actuation pressure control valve
(3) Fuel rail pressure sensor
(4) Intake air pressure sensor
(5) Intake air temperature sensor
(6) Injector harness connection
(7) Atmospheric pressure sensor
(8) Probe for top center position
(9) Electronic control module
(10) Starting motor
(11) Oil pressure sensor
(12) Fuel temperature sensor
(13) Fuel pressure sensor
(14) Speed timing sensor
(15) Speed timing sensor
34
SEBU9070
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 27
Typical example
(16) Alternator
g03745561
SEBU9070
35
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 28
g03745623
Typical example
(1) Coolant sensor
(2) Injection actuation pressure control valve
(3) Fuel rail pressure sensor
(4) Intake air pressure sensor
(5) Intake air temperature sensor
(6) Injector harness connection
36
SEBU9070
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 29
g03746096
Typical example
(7) Atmospheric pressure sensor
(8) Probe for top center position
(9) Electronic control module
(10) Starting motor
(11) Oil pressure sensor
(12) Fuel temperature sensor
SEBU9070
37
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 30
g03746099
Typical example
(13) Fuel pressure sensor
(14) Speed timing sensor
(15) Speed timing sensor
1506D Configuration
Illustration 31
Typical example
(16) Alternator
g03746100
Illustration 32
Typical example
(1) Switch
(2) Heating element
(3) Air inlet cover
g03864788
38
Engine Diagnostics
Self-Diagnostics
SEBU9070
Engine Diagnostics
i02651197
i02784187
Self-Diagnostics
The electronic control module has some selfdiagnostic ability. When an electronic problem with an
input or an output is detected, a diagnostic code is
generated. This indicates the specific problem with
the circuitry.
A diagnostic code which represents a problem that
currently exists is called an active code.
A diagnostic code that is stored in memory is called a
logged code. Always service active codes prior to
servicing logged codes. Logged codes may indicate
intermittent problems.
Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is
needed. The problems may have been repaired since
the logging of the code. Logged codes may be helpful
to troubleshoot intermittent problems.
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use the electronic service
tool to check the active diagnostic codes.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower and power outputs may
be automatically reduced. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for more
information on the relationship between each active
diagnostic code and the possible effect on engine
performance.
i02572812
i02784585
Diagnostic Lamp
The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp is used to indicate the
existence of an active fault.
A fault diagnostic code will remain active until the
problem is repaired.
i02784192
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be
logged in the memory of the ECM. The Perkins
electronic service tool can retrieve codes that have
been logged. The codes that have been logged can
be cleared with the Perkins electronic service tool.
The codes that have been logged in the memory of
the ECM will be automatically cleared from the
memory after 100 hours.
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts OFF, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes and
the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the fault.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting guide for this
engine.
SEBU9070
39
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
i05985293
Configuration Parameters
The engine electronic control module (ECM) has two
types of configuration parameters. The system
configuration parameters and the customer specified
parameters.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the configuration parameters.
System Configuration Parameters
System configuration parameters affect the emissions
of the engine or the power of the engine. System
configuration parameters are programmed at the
factory. Normally, system configuration parameters
would never require changing through the life of the
engine. System configuration parameters must be
reprogrammed if an ECM is replaced. System
configuration parameters do not require
reprogrammed if the ECM software is changed.
Factory passwords are required to change these
parameters.
For more information on refer to Troubleshooting,
“Configuration Parameters”.
40
SEBU9070
Engine Starting
Before Starting Engine
Engine Starting
i05953831
Before Starting Engine
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date.
• All of the guards must be put in place. Check for
damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair any
damaged guards. Replace damaged guards and/
or missing guards.
• For the maximum service life of the engine, make
a thorough inspection before starting the engine.
Look for the following items: oil leaks, coolant
leaks, loose bolts and trash buildup. Remove trash
buildup and arrange for repairs, as needed.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the high current drain that is
created when the electric starting motor (if
equipped) is engaged. Check electrical cables and
check the battery for poor connections and for
corrosion.
• Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and
for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for
cracks, breaks, and other damage.
• Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for
worn wires or frayed wires.
• Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water
separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply
valve.
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been run for several weeks, fuel
may have drained from the fuel system. Air may have
entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters have
been changed, some air space will be left in the
housing. In these instances, prime the fuel system.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fuel System - Prime” for more information on priming
the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Reset any of the shutoff components or alarm
components.
• Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the
oil level between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL”
mark on the oil level gauge.
• Check the coolant level, maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) from the neck of the
radiator cap.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator. Service
the air cleaner when the yellow diaphragm enters
the red zone, or when the red piston locks in the
visible position.
i06231552
Cold Weather Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
(If equipped), ensure operation of water jacket heater
before starting the engine.
Ensure that all daily maintenance checks are
performed before starting the engine.
If the engine has not been run for several weeks, fuel
may have drained. Air may have moved into the filter
housing. Also, when fuel filters have been changed,
some air will be left in the filter housing. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Prime” in order to remove air from the fuel system.
SEBU9070
41
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait 30 seconds to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
3. Turn keyswitch in order to crank engine and when
engine fires release keyswitch.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and check
that all indicator lamps operate correctly. When the
key is turned to the next position, some engines
will operate an air inlet heater. Allow time for the
heater to heat the incoming air.
4. If the engine fails to start, repeat step 2 to 3 repeat
these steps three times only.
3. Turn the keyswitch to the START position in order
to engage the electric starting motor and crank the
engine.
4. During the start procedure, if a warning indicator
becomes active the warning should be
investigated.
5. Repeat steps 2 through to step 3 three times if the
engine fails to start. If the engine fails to start, refer
to Troubleshooting, “Engine Cranks but Does Not
Start”.
Note: Check all gauges and indicators for correct
operation. A system fault may be indicated after the
engine is started. If this indication occurs, the ECM
has detected a problem with the system. The fault
must be investigated.
6. Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds after the
engine starts. The engine electronic controls
monitor the engine oil pressure. The electronic
controls will stop the engine if the oil pressure is
below normal.
The original equipment manufacturer may have their
own systems for starting an engine in cold weather.
i05975875
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
2. Turn keyswitch to the ON position and check for
correct operation of gauges and indicators. Refer
to original equipment manufacturer for information
on the starting control panel.
5. If the engine fails to start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but Does Not Start”.
i05954108
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: If possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Will
Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start” for
further information. Make any necessary repairs. If
the engine will not start only due to the condition of
the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump-start
cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
42
SEBU9070
Engine Starting
After Starting Engine
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engines accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump-start cable to
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jumpstart cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump-start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump-start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the
starting motor is operated or damage can occur.
4. Start the engine in the normal operating procedure.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting the Engine”.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump-start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
recharge completely the batteries that are severely
discharged. The batteries must be replaced or
charged to the proper voltage with a battery charger
after the engine is stopped. Many batteries which are
considered unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Battery Replace” and Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery
- Test”.
i06231640
After Starting Engine
Ensure that the self test for the monitoring system is
completed before operating the engine under load.
Constant Speed Engines
The engine will operate at a content speed. The
speed will be programmed in to the electronic control
unit. Check all gauges and indicator lamps after
starting for correct reading and correct actions.
Visually check for coolant, oil, or fuel leaks.
Allow the engine 3 minutes warm up time before
applying load.
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately 3 minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the
data should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Variable Speed Engines
The engine should not be raced in order to speed up
the warm-up process. Allow the engine to idle for 3 to
5 minutes, or allow the engine to idle until the water
temperature indicator begins to rise. Then, the engine
can be operated normally.
SEBU9070
43
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
i05954288
Engine Operation
• Avoid unnecessary operation at no load.
Shut off the engine instead of operating the engine at
no load for long periods of time.
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the
engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time needed for a walk-around inspection of the
engine.
After the engine is started and after the engine
reaches normal operating temperature, the engine
can be operated at load.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
i05954310
Engaging the Driven
Equipment
If possible, engage the driven equipment without a
load. With the engine in a stable operating mode,
apply the load.
With load applied check for correct operation of
gauges and indicators.
i05954305
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. The design and technology used byPerkins
in manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life of
the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Observe the service indicator for the air cleaner
frequently. Keep the air cleaner elements clean.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One bad battery cell will overwork the alternator and
will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Keep cooling
system components clean and keep cooling
system components in good repair. Never operate
the engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
44
SEBU9070
Cold Weather Operation
Radiator Restrictions
Cold Weather Operation
i05954317
Radiator Restrictions
Perkins discourages the use of airflow restriction
devices that are mounted in front of radiators. Airflow
restriction can cause the following conditions:
• High exhaust temperatures
The cloud point of the fuel is the temperature at which
waxes naturally found in the diesel fuel begin to form
crystals. The cloud point of the fuel must be below
lowest ambient temperature to prevent filters from
plugging.
Cold Filter Plugging Point is a temperature at which a
particular fuel will pass through a standardized
filtration device. This CFPP gives an estimate of the
lower operability temperature of fuel
Pour point is the last temperature before the fuel flow
stops and waxing of the fuel will start.
Be aware of these properties when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engines application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are shipped to colder climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
• Power loss
• Excessive fan usage
• Reduction in fuel economy
If an airflow restriction device must be used, the
device should have a permanent opening directly in
line with the fan hub. The device must have a
minimum opening dimension of at least 770 cm2
(120 in2).
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing
A centered opening that is directly in line with the fan
hub is specified in order to prevent an interrupted
airflow on the fan blades. Interrupted airflow on the
fan blades could cause a fan failure.
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
Perkins recommends a warning device for the inlet
manifold temperature and/or the installation of an inlet
air temperature gauge. The warning device for the
inlet manifold temperature should be set at 75 °C
(167 °F). The inlet manifold air temperature should
not exceed 75 °C (167 °F). Temperatures that
exceed this limit can cause power loss and potential
engine damage.
i05954321
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
Properties of the diesel fuel can have a significant
effect on the engine cold start capability. It is critical
that the low temperature properties of diesel fuel are
acceptable for the minimum ambient temperature the
engine is expected to see in the operation.
Following properties are used to define fuels low
temperature capability:
• Cloud point
• Pour point
• Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP)
The following components can provide a means of
minimizing fuel waxing problems in cold weather:
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
Winter and arctic grades of diesel fuel are available in
the countries and territories with severe winters. For
more information refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel For Cold Weather
Operation”
Another important fuel property which can affect cold
start and operation of diesel engine is Cetane
number. Detail and requirements of this property are
given in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations”.
i05955135
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after operating the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
SEBU9070
45
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Oil changes
• Refueling of the fuel tank
Draining the fuel tank will help prevent water and/or
sediment from being pumped from the fuel storage
tank and into the engine fuel tank.
Fuel Heaters
Fuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from plugging
in cold weather due to waxing. A fuel heater should
be installed in order for the fuel to be heated before
the fuel enters the primary fuel filter.
Select a fuel heater that is mechanically simple, yet
adequate for the application. The fuel heater should
also help to prevent overheating of the fuel. High fuel
temperatures reduce engine performance and the
availability of engine power. Choose a fuel heater with
a large heating surface. The fuel heater should be
practical in size. Small heaters can be too hot due to
the limited surface area.
Disconnect the fuel heater in warm weather.
Note: Fuel heaters that are controlled by the water
temperature regulator or self-regulating fuel heaters
should be used with this engine. Fuel heaters that are
not controlled by the water temperature regulator can
heat the fuel in excess of 65° C (149° F). A loss of
engine power can occur if the fuel supply temperature
exceeds 37° C (100° F).
Note: Heat exchanger type fuel heaters should have
a bypass provision in order to prevent overheating of
the fuel in warm-weather operation.
For further information on fuel heaters, consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor.
46
SEBU9070
Engine Stopping
Emergency Stopping
Engine Stopping
i02583411
After Stopping Engine
i05955161
Emergency Stopping
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the
engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with an
emergency stop button. For more information about
the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
i05955160
Manual Stop Procedure
Stopping the Engine
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it
down.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Allow the engine
to run under no load conditions for 5 minutes in
order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position. If
necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “LOW” mark and the “HIGH” mark
on the oil level gauge.
Note: Only use oil that is recommended in this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended
oil may result in engine damage.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
• Note the service hour meter reading. Perform the
maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
Maintain the cooling system at 13 mm (0.5 inch)
from the bottom of the pipe for filling.
Note: Only use coolant that is recommended in this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended
oil may result in engine damage.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
47
SEBU9070
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
i06231649
Fluid Recommendations
Refill Capacities
General Coolant Information
i05955174
Refill Capacities
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Section” for more information on Lubricant
Specifications.
Table 5
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or
System
At Commissioning
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
In Service
39 L
• Overheating of the engine
(1)
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the
auxiliary oil filter.
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will be
needed in order to determine the amount of coolant
that is required for the Total Cooling System.
Table 6
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Liters
Engine Only
14
External System Per OEM(1)
33
(1)
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
• Contamination of the cooling system
Crankcase Oil Sump 41 L
(1)
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
48
SEBU9070
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table 7
.
Table 7
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
• Boiling
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −13 °C (8.6 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 8 and refer to table 9 .
Table 8
Ethylene Glycol
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
• Independent laboratory
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
Table 9
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Over concentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• ELC
Extended Life Coolant
• Formation of gel compounds
• SCA
Supplement Coolant Additive
• Reduction of heat transfer
• ASTM
Materials
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
American Society for Testing and
The following two coolants are used in Perkins
diesel engines:
SEBU9070
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Preferred – Perkins ELC
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D6210” specifications
NOTICE
The 1500 series industrial engines must be operated with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This
concentration allows the NOx reduction system to
operate correctly at high ambient temperatures.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive
applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable
but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling
and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins
recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration
of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred. Water which has the
recommended properties may be used.
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is
an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has
been formulated with the correct amount of these
additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill
of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure
to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling
system components life unless appropriate corrective
action is performed.
Table 10
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life (1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or Three
Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D6210”
3000 Service Hours or Two Year
Commercial SCA inhibitor and
Water
3000 Service Hours or One Year
(1)
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also
be flushed out at this time.
ELC
In order to maintain the correct balance between the
antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the
recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the
proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This lowering will lower the ability of the
coolant to protect the system from pitting, from
cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at the
specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents
are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
50
SEBU9070
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After the
cooling system is drained and the cooling system is
refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and until
the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the
coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system
component life.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Fill the cooling system with a 33 percent solution of
Perkins ELC and operate the engine, ensure that
the thermostat opens. Stop the engine and allow
the engine to cool. Drain the coolant.
Note: Use distilled or deionized water in the solution.
4. Again, fill the cooling system with a 33 percent
solution of Perkins ELC and operate the engine
ensure that the thermostat opens. Stop the engine
and allow to cool.
5. Drain the drain the cooling system.
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
6. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC. Operate the engine. Ensure that all coolant
valves open then stop the engine. When cool
check the coolant level.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a
suitable container according to local regulations.
Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.
This procedure should lower the contamination to
less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to
ensure adequate protection against boiling or
freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A
hydrometer should not be used.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
SEBU9070
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Fluid Recommendations
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at
the Initial Fill
Use the equation that is in Table 11 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required when the cooling
system is initially filled.
Table 11
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At
The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
Table 14
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 12 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 11 .
Table 12
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
i06231742
Fluid Recommendations
(Lubricant Information for 1506A
and 1506C Engines)
S/N: LG11–Up
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
S/N: LGE1–Up
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the
lubricant recommendations must be followed.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Cooling System
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
General Lubricant Information
• API
• SAE
American Petroleum Institute
Society Of Automotive Engineers Inc.
• ACEA
Association des Constructers
European Automobiles.
• ECF
Engine Crankcase Fluid
Use the equation that is in Table 13 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required, if necessary:
• TBN
Total Base Number
Table 13
• PPM
Parts Per Million
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For
Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 14 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 13 .
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the API and the ACRA is recognized by Perkins . For
detailed information about this system, see the latest
edition of the “API publication No. 1509”. Engine oils
that bear the API symbol are authorized by API.
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Fluid Recommendations
Table 16
TBN Recommendations (1)
Fuel Sulfur Level percent (ppm)
TBN of Commercial Engine Oils
≤0.05 percent (≤500 ppm)
Min 7
0. 1- 0.05 percent (1000-500 ppm)
Min 7
Above 0.1 percent (above 1000 ppm)
(2)
(1)
(2)
Illustration 33
Min 10
When using fuel with 0.10% sulfur (1000 ppm) or higher, refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Severe Service Application” for more information.
For fuels of sulfur levels that exceed 1.0 percent (10,000 ppm),
refer to TBN and engine oil guidelines given in this section.
g03739817
Typical API symbol
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be
found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/
Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine.
Table 15
Classifications for the 1506A and C Industrial Engine
Oil Specification
CH-4
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels
The minimum required TBN for oil depends on the
fuel sulfur level. The TBN for new oil is typically
determined by the “ASTM D2896” procedure. For
direct injection engines that use distillate fuel, the
following guidelines apply:
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to illustration 34 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Refer to illustration 34 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
SEBU9070
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Fluid Recommendations
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
service life, or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the
performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not
be compatible with the finished oils additive package,
which could lower the performance of the finished oil.
The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the
finished oil and could produce sludge in the
crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
Illustration 34
g03329707
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked
starts below the minimum ambient temperature.
Supplemental heat may be required for cold soaked
starts that are above the minimum temperature that is
stated, depending on the parasitic load and other
factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine
has not been operated for a period of time. This
interval will allow the oil to become more viscous due
to cooler ambient temperatures.
Synthetic Base Stock Oils
Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in these
engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:
• Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low
temperatures especially in arctic conditions.
• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
Some synthetic base oils have performance
characteristics that enhance the service life of the oil.
Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.
• Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that
meets the recommended API classification.
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using the oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
54
SEBU9070
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil
is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The oil condition analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i06231780
Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Recommendations for the
1506A and 1506C Engines)
S/N: LG11–Up
S/N: LGE1–Up
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to evaluate continuously
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
Table 17 provides a known reliable baseline in order
to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel
fuels that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in
table 17 .
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFRCo-ordinating Fuel Research
• LSD Low Sulfur Diesel
• ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RMERape Methyl Ester
• SME Soy Methyl Ester
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
Table 17
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM Test”
“ISO Test”
(continued)
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Fluid Recommendations
(Table 17, contd)
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO 3837”
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO 6245”
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO 4262”
Cetane Number (1)
-
40 minimum
D613 or D6890
“ISO 5165”
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must not ex- D2500
ceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
“ISO 3015”
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO 2160”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO 3405”
Density at 15 °C (59 °F)(2) Kg / M 3
800 minimum and 860
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675” or “ISO 12185”
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO 2719”
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80% reflectance D6468
after aging for 180 minutes
at 150 °C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (10°F)
Minimum below ambient
temperature
D97
“ISO 3016”
Sulfur
%mass
(3)
D5453 or /D26222
“ISO 20846” or “ISO 20884”
Kinematic Viscosity (4)
“MM”2“/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the fuel that D445
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum
and /4.5 maximum”
“ISO 3405”
Water and sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D1796
“ISO 3734”
Water
% weight
0.05% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO 3735”
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL maximum D381
“ISO 6246”
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (6)
mm
0.46 maximum
D6079
“ISO 12156-1”
Fuel cleanliness (7)
-
“ISO”18/16/13
7619
“ISO 4406”
Sediment
Gums and
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Resins(5)
In order to insure minimum cetane number of 40 a distillate diesel fuel should have minimum cetane index of 44 when ASTM D4737 test method is used. A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
Density range allowed includes summer and winter diesel fuel grades. Fuel density varies depending on the sulfur level where high sulfur fuels
have higher densities. Some unblended alternative fuels have lower densities which are acceptable, if all the other properties meet this
specification.
Regional regulations, national regulations, or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulphur fuels
where allowed by legislation. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal
components. Fuel sulfur levels above 0.5% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to General lubricant Information.
The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity
requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40° C (104° F) of either the "ASTM D445" test method or the
"ISO 3104" test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater viscosity at the
fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(continued)
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SEBU9070
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Fluid Recommendations
(Table 17, contd)
(6) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1 or ASTM
D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel
supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in
the fuel system.
(7) Recommended cleanliness level for fuel as dispensed into machine or engine fuel tank is "ISO 18/16/13 or cleaner as per ISO 4406. Refer to
the "Contamination Control Recommendations for Fuels" in this chapter.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel
injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber and reduced service life of the engine.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with
the fuel that is prescribed by the European Certification and other regulatory agencies. Perkins does not
certify diesel engines on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
other appropriate regulatory agencies.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Perkins Recommendations
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a
better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived for
fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to “ISO 5165” for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A higher cetane value may be required for
operations at high altitudes or in cold-weather
operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during cold start.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to “ISO 3104” for the test
method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both cold temperatures
and hot temperatures. If the kinematic viscosity of the
fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump,
damage to the fuel injection pump can occur. This
damage can be excessive scuffing and seizure. Low
viscosity may lead to difficult hot restarting, stalling,
and loss of performance. High viscosity may result in
seizure of the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 cSt that is delivered to the fuel injection pump. If a
fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel
may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower
the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines the
heat output from a given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m3
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with a
specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel and
the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
57
SEBU9070
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
LSD fuel 0.05 percent (≤ 15 ppm (mg/kg)) sulfur is
strongly recommended for use in these engine
models.
ULSD and sulphur fuel diesel fuels are acceptable to
use in all engine models. The lubricity of these fuels
must not exceed wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm
(0.01811 inch) as per “ISO 12156-1”. Refer to
“Lubricity” for more information. Fuels with sulphur
content higher than 0.05 percent (500 PPM) can be
used where allowed by legislation.
In some parts of the world and for some applications,
high sulfur fuels above 0.5% by mass might only be
available. Fuel with a high sulfur content can cause
engine wear. High sulfur fuel will have a negative
impact on emissions of particulates. High sulfur fuel
can be used if the local emissions legislation will
allow the use. High sulfur fuel can be used in
countries that do not regulate emissions.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
Distillation will give an indication of the mixture of
different hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light
weight hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Classification of the Fuels
Diesel engines have an ability to burn wide variety of
fuels. Below is a list of typically encountered fuel
specifications that have been assessed as to their
acceptability and are divided into following
categories:
When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will be
necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is used in
the engine or that the lubricating oil change interval is
reduced. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations (Lubricant
Information)” for information on sulfur in fuel.
Group 1: Preferred Fuels
Lubricity
“EN590 - Grades A to F and class 0 to 4”
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The lubricity of the fluid describes the ability of
the fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that
are under load. This ability reduces the damage that
is caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on
the lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur
limits were mandated, the lubricity of the fuel was
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
“ASTM D975 Grade No. 1-D and 2-D”
“JIS K2204 Grades 1, 2 & 3 & Special Grade 3”
acceptable provided lubricity ware scar diameter
does not exceed of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1” .
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions.
Note: The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed
wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1” . Refer to “Lubricity”.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having
lubricity up to 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) wear scar diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
The following fuel specifications are considered
acceptable.
Fuels that meet the requirements that are listed in the
table 17 .
“BS2869 - Class A2 Off Highway Gas Oil, Red
Diesel”
Group 2: Aviation Kerosene Fuels
Following kerosene and jet fuel specifications are
acceptable alternative fuels, and may be used on a
contingency base for emergency or continuous use,
where standard diesel fuel is not available and where
legislation allows their use:
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F34 (JP-8)”
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F35”
“MIL-DTL-5624 NATO F44 (JP-5)”
“MIL-DTL-38219 (USAF) (JP7)”
In case of the fuels which do not meet specified
lubricity requirement appropriate lubricity additive can
be used to enhance the lubricity of the fuel. UMK8276
Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner is the approved
additive refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner”.
“NATO XF63”
“ASTM D1655 JET A”
“ASTM D1655 JET A1”
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NOTICE
These fuels are only acceptable when used with appropriate lubricity additive and must meet minimum
requirements that are listed in table 17 . The lubricity
of these fuels must not exceed wear scar diameter of
0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO 12156-1” . Refer
to “Lubricity”.
Note: Minimum cetane number of 40 is
recommended otherwise cold starting problems or
light load misfire might occur. Since jet fuel
specifications do not mention cetane requirements,
Perkins recommends that a fuel sample is taken to
determine the cetane number.
Note: Fuels must have minimum viscosity of 1.4 cSt
delivered to the fuel injection pump. Cooling of the
fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Perkins
recommends that the actual viscosity of the fuel, be
measured in order to determine if a fuel cooler is
needed. Refer to “Viscosity”.
Note: Rated power loss of up to 10 percent is
possible due to lower density and lower viscosity of
jet fuels compared to diesel fuels.
Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil.
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils may gel in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not
be compatible with many of the elastomers that are
used in engines that are manufactured today. In
original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a
fuel in compression engines. Alternate base stocks
for biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste
cooking oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to
use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based. The
U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM D97509a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification
“EN590:2010” includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to “EN14214” or
“ASTM D6751” (in the USA) and can only be blended
in mixture of up to 20 percent, by volume in
acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting requirements
that are listed in table 17 or the latest edition of
“EN590” and “ASTM D 975” commercial standards.
This blend is commonly known as B20.
Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with “XX”
representing the content of neat biodiesel contained
in the blend with mineral diesel fuel (for example B5,
B10, B20).
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must
be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements with B20
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel
lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can
prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommends that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
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When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using
biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the
typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In cylinder
emissions control strategies utilized in many of the
industrial latest engine designs may lead to a
higher level of biodiesel concentration in the
engine oil pan. The long-term effect of biodiesel
concentration in crankcase oil is currently
unknown.
• Perkins recommends the use of oil analysis in
order to check the quality of the engine oil if
biodiesel fuel is used. Ensure that the level of
biodiesel in the fuel is noted when the oil sample is
taken.
Performance Related Issues with B20
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2
to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may
deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause an
increase in fuel system deposits, most significant of
which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most effective in
cleaning and preventing the formation of deposits.
Refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner” for
more information. Perkins UMK8276 Perkins Diesel
Fuel Conditioner helps to limit deposit issues by
improving the stability of biodiesel while also
hindering the production of new deposits. For more
information refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel
Conditioner”. Therefore the use of Diesel Fuel
Cleaner and or Diesel Fuel Conditioner is strongly
recommended when running biodiesel blends,
especially B20.
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, Perkins strongly recommends that engines
with limited operational time either not use B20
biodiesel blends or, while accepting some risk, limit
biodiesel blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of
applications that should limit the use of biodiesel are
the following: Standby generator sets and certain
emergency vehicles.
Perkins strongly recommends that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate antimicrobial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate fuels,
water is naturally more likely to exist in the biodiesel.
It is therefore essential to check frequently and if
necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, led, tin, and
zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the biodiesel
fuel. The oxidation process can cause deposits
formation therefore these materials must not be used
for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” that is used in the
United States of America may be used in cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the
aviation kerosene fuels that are specified in
“Classification of the Fuels”. These fuels are intended
to be used in temperatures that can be as low as
−54 °C (−65.2 °F). Refer to “Classification of the
Fuels” for detail and conditions of use of the aviation
kerosene fuels.
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Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can
produce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase or the fuel tank. Alcohol or gasoline must
not be used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure
to follow this instruction may result in death or
personal injury.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not review
all the requirements that are addressed in table 17 .
To ensure optimum engine performance, a complete
fuel analysis should be obtained before engine
operation. The fuel analysis should include all of the
properties that are stated in the table 17 .
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
NOTICE
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives) which are made by other manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the Perkins
warranty is not affected simply because of such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices, accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins defects.
Therefore, the defects are NOT covered under the
Perkins warranty.
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. For
more information on the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends refer to “Biodiesel Fuel”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
Detailed instructions on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner
The Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner part number
21820275/(U5MK8276) is the only fuel conditioner
recommended by Perkins. The diesel fuel conditioner
is a proprietary metal and ash free formulation that
has been extensively tested for use with distillate
diesel fuels for use in Perkins diesel engines. The
diesel fuel conditioner helps address many of the
challenges that various fuels worldwide present in
regards to fuel life/stability, engine startability, injector
deposits, fuel system life, and long-term engine
performance.
Note: Diesel fuel additives/conditioners may not
improve markedly poor diesel fuel properties enough
to make poor diesel acceptable for use.
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not
recommended and is due to potential damage to the
fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier or the
fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate
supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Diesel fuel conditioner is a proven high performance,
multipurpose diesel fuel conditioner that is designed
to improve:
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances. Fuel
additives need to be used with caution. Contact your
fuel supplier for those circumstances when fuel
additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
• Lubricity
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 17 .
• Corrosion protection
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .
• Fuel economy (through fuel system clean-up)
• Oxidation stability
• Detergency/dispersancy
• Moisture dispersancy
• Cetane (typically 2-3 cetane numbers)
The diesel fuel conditioner also reduces the formation
of gums, resins, and sludge, and disperses insoluble
gums.
For maximum overall benefits, ask your fuel supplier
to add the fuel conditioner at the recommended treat
rate before fuel delivery. Or you may add the fuel
conditioner at the recommended treat rate during the
early weeks of fuel storage.
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Contamination Control
Recommendations for Fuels
• Use high-quality fuels per recommended and
required specifications
Fuels of “ISO 18/16/13” cleanliness level or cleaner
as dispensed into the engine or application fuel tank
should be used. Reduce power loss, failures, and
related down time of engines will result. This
cleanliness level is important for new fuel system
designs such as common rail injection systems and
unit injection systems. Injection system designs utilize
higher fuel pressures and tight clearances between
moving parts in order to meet required stringent
emissions regulations. Peak injection pressures in
current fuel injection systems may exceed 30,000 psi.
Clearances in these systems are less than 5 µm. As a
result, particle contaminants as small as 4 µm can
cause scoring and scratching of internal pump and
injector surfaces and of injector nozzles.
• Fill fuel tanks with fuels of “ISO 18/16/13”
cleanliness level or cleaner, in particular for
engines with common rail and unit injection
systems. When you refuel the tank, filter the fuel
through a 4 µm absolute filter (Beta 4 = 75 up to
200) in order to reach the recommended
cleanliness level. This filtration should be located
at the device that dispenses the fuel to the fuel
tank. In addition, filtration at the dispensing point
should remove water to ensure that fuel is
dispensed at 500 ppm water or less.
Water in the fuel causes cavitation, corrosion of fuel
system parts, and provides an environment where
microbial growth in the fuel can flourish. Other
sources of fuel contamination are soaps, gels, or
other compounds that may result from undesirable
chemical interactions in the fuels, particularly in
ULSD. Gels and other compounds can also form in
biodiesel fuel at low temperatures or if biodiesel is
stored for extended periods. The best indication of
microbial contamination, fuel additives, or cold
temperature gel is rapid filter plugging of bulk fuel
filters or application fuel filters.
In order to reduce downtime due to contamination,
follow these fuel maintenance guidelines.
• Perkins recommends the use of bulk fuel filter /
coalescer units which clean the fuel of both
particulate contamination and water in a single
pass.
• Ensure that you use Perkins Advanced Efficiency
Fuel Filters . Change your fuel filters per
recommended service requirements or as needed.
• Drain your water separators daily .
• Drain your fuel tanks of sediment and water per
the Operation and Maintenance Manual
instructions.
• Install and maintain a properly designed bulk filter /
coalescer filtration system. Continuous bulk
filtration systems may be required to ensure that
dispensed fuel meets the cleanliness target.
Consult your Perkins distributor for availability of
bulk filtration products.
• Centrifugal filters may need to be used as a prefilter with fuel that is severely contaminated with
gross amounts of water and/or large particulate
contaminants. Centrifugal filters can effectively
remove large contaminants, but may not be able to
remove the small abrasive particles required to
achieve the recommended “ISO” cleanliness level.
Bulk filter / coalescers are necessary as a final
filter in order to achieve the recommended
cleanliness level.
• Install desiccant type breathers of 4 µm or less
absolute efficiency with the ability to remove water
on bulk storage tanks.
• Follow proper practices of fuel transportation.
Filtration from the storage tank to the application
promotes the delivery of clean fuel. Fuel filtration
can be installed at each transport stage in order to
keep the fuel clean.
• Cover, protect, and ensure cleanliness of all
connection hoses, fittings, and dispensing nozzles.
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Consult your local Perkins distributor for additional
information on Perkins designed and produced
filtration products.
i06231828
Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Recommendations for the
1506D Engine)
S/N: PK91–Up
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFRCo-ordinating Fuel Research
• LSD Low Sulfur Diesel
• ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RMERape Methyl Ester
• SME Soy Methyl Ester
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to evaluate continuously
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
Table 18 provides a known reliable baseline in order
to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel
fuels that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in
table 18 .
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
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Table 18
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM Test”
“ISO Test”
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
“D1319”
“ISO 3837”
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
“D482”
“ISO 6245”
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
“D524”
“ISO 4262”
Cetane Number (1)
-
40 minimum
“D613 or D6890”
“ISO 5165”
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must not ex- “D2500”
ceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
“ISO 3015”
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
“D130”
“ISO 2160”
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
“D86”
“ISO 3405”
Density at 15 °C (59 °F)(2) Kg / M 3
800 minimum and 860
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675” or “ISO 12185”
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
“D93”
“ISO 2719”
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80% reflectance “D6468”
after aging for 180 minutes
at 150 °C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (10°F)
Minimum below ambient
temperature
“D97”
“ISO 3016”
Sulfur
%mass
(3)
“D5453 or /D26222”
“ISO 20846” or “ISO 20884”
2
Kinematic Viscosity (4)
“MM /S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the fuel that
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum
and /4.5 maximum”
“D445”
“ISO 3405”
Water and sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
“D1796”
“ISO 3734”
Water
% weight
0.05% maximum
“D1744”
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
“D473”
“ISO 3735”
Gums and Resins(5)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL maximum “D381”
“ISO 6246”
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (6)
mm
0.46 maximum
“D6079”
“ISO 12156-1”
Fuel cleanliness (7)
-
“ISO”18/16/13
“7619”
“ISO 4406”
(1)
(2)
(3)
In order to insure minimum cetane number of 40 a distillate diesel fuel should have minimum cetane index of 44 when ASTM D4737 test method is used. A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
Density range allowed includes summer and winter diesel fuel grades. Fuel density varies depending on the sulfur level where high sulfur fuels
have higher densities. Some unblended alternative fuels have lower densities which are acceptable, if all the other properties meet this
specification.
Regional regulations, national regulations, or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. LSD fuel with less than 0.05 percent (≤ 500 ppm (mg/kg)) sulfur is strongly recommended for use in these engine models. Diesel fuel with more than 0.05 percent (≥ 500 ppm (mg/kg)) sulphur can be used only where allowed
by legislation. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components.
Fuel sulfur levels above 0.05% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to General lubricant
Information.
(continued)
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(Table 18, contd)
(4) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity
requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40° C (104° F) of either the "ASTM D445" test method or the
"ISO 3104" test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater viscosity at the
fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
(5) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(6) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1 or ASTM
D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel
supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in
the fuel system.
(7) Recommended cleanliness level for fuel as dispensed into machine or engine fuel tank is "ISO 18/16/13 or cleaner as per ISO 4406. Refer to
the "Contamination Control Recommendations for Fuels" in this chapter.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel
injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber and reduced service life of the engine.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with
the fuel that is prescribed by the European Certification and other regulatory agencies. Perkins does not
certify diesel engines on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
other appropriate regulatory agencies.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Perkins Recommendations
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a
better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived for
fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to “ISO 5165” for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A higher cetane value may be required for
operations at high altitudes or in cold-weather
operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during cold start.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to “ISO 3104” for the test
method.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both cold temperatures
and hot temperatures. If the kinematic viscosity of the
fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump,
damage to the fuel injection pump can occur. This
damage can be excessive scuffing and seizure. Low
viscosity may lead to difficult hot restarting, stalling,
and loss of performance. High viscosity may result in
seizure of the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 cSt that is delivered to the fuel injection pump. If a
fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel
may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower
the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines the
heat output from a given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m3
in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter
fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce
the rated power.
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Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with a
specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel and
the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
LSD fuel with less than 0.05 percent (≤ 500 ppm (mg/
kg)) sulfur is strongly recommended for use in these
engine models.
In case of the fuels which do not meet specified
lubricity requirement appropriate lubricity additive can
be used to enhance the lubricity of the fuel.
21820275 Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner is the
approved additive refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel
Conditioner”.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
ULSD less than 0.0015% (≤15 PPM (mg/Kg)) sulphur
is acceptable to use in these engine models. The
lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO
12156-1”. Refer to “Lubricity” for more information.
Distillation will give an indication of the mixture of
different hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light
weight hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Fuels with sulphur content higher than 0.05 percent
(500 PPM) can be used where allowed by legislation.
Classification of the Fuels
Fuel with a high sulfur content can cause engine
wear. High sulfur fuel will have a negative impact on
emissions of particulates. High sulfur fuel can be
used if the local emissions legislation will allow the
use. High sulfur fuel can be used in countries that do
not regulate emissions.
When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will be
necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is used in
the engine or that the lubricating oil change interval is
reduced. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations (Lubricant
Information)” for information on sulfur in fuel.
Diesel engines have an ability to burn wide variety of
fuels. Below is a list of typically encountered fuel
specifications that have been assessed as to their
acceptability and are divided into following
categories:
Group 1: Preferred Fuels
The following fuel specifications are considered
acceptable.
• Fuels that meet the requirements that are listed in
the table 18 .
Lubricity
•
“EN590 - Grades A to F and class 0 to 4”
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The lubricity of the fluid describes the ability of
the fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that
are under load. This ability reduces the damage that
is caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on
the lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur
limits were mandated, the lubricity of the fuel was
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
•
“ASTM D975 Grade No. 1-D and 2-D”
•
“JIS K2204 Grades 1, 2 & 3 & Special Grade 3”
acceptable provided lubricity ware scar diameter
does not exceed of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1” .
•
“BS2869 - Class A2 Off Highway Gas Oil, Red
Diesel”
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic
fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet
stringent exhaust emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having
lubricity up to 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) wear scar diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
Note: The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed
wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per
“ISO 12156-1” . Refer to “Lubricity”.
Group 2: Aviation Kerosene Fuels
Following kerosene and jet fuel specifications are
acceptable alternative fuels, and may be used on a
contingency base for emergency or continuous use,
where standard diesel fuel is not available and where
legislation allows their use:
66
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Fluid Recommendations
•
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F34 (JP-8)”
•
“MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F35”
•
“MIL-DTL-5624 NATO F44 (JP-5)”
•
“MIL-DTL-38219 (USAF) (JP7)”
•
“NATO XF63”
•
“ASTM D1655 JET A”
•
“ASTM D1655 JET A1”
NOTICE
These fuels are only acceptable when used with appropriate lubricity additive and must meet minimum
requirements that are listed in table 18 . The lubricity
of these fuels must not exceed wear scar diameter of
0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO 12156-1” . Refer
to “Lubricity” and Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner.
Note: Minimum cetane number of 40 is
recommended otherwise cold starting problems or
light load misfire might occur. Since jet fuel
specifications do not mention cetane requirements,
Perkins recommends that a fuel sample is taken to
determine the cetane number.
Note: Fuels must have minimum viscosity of 1.4 cSt
delivered to the fuel injection pump. Cooling of the
fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater
viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Perkins
recommends that the actual viscosity of the fuel, be
measured in order to determine if a fuel cooler is
needed. Refer to “Viscosity”.
Note: Rated power loss of up to 10 percent is
possible due to lower density and lower viscosity of
jet fuels compared to diesel fuels.
Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil.
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils may gel in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not
be compatible with many of the elastomers that are
used in engines that are manufactured today. In
original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a
fuel in compression engines. Alternate base stocks
for biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste
cooking oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to
use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based. The
U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM D97509a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification
“EN590:2010” includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to “EN14214” or
“ASTM D6751” (in the USA) and can only be blended
in mixture of up to 20 percent, by volume in
acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting requirements
that are listed in table 18 or the latest edition of
“EN590” and “ASTM D 975” commercial standards.
This blend is commonly known as B20.
Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with “XX”
representing the content of neat biodiesel contained
in the blend with mineral diesel fuel (for example B5,
B10, B20).
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must
be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
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Fluid Recommendations
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements with B20
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel
lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can
prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommends that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems (if installed) may be
influenced. This influence is due to the chemical
composition and characteristics of biodiesel fuel,
such as density and volatility, and to chemical
contaminants that can be present in this fuel, such as
alkali and alkaline metals (sodium, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using
biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the
typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In cylinder
emissions control strategies utilized in many of the
industrial latest engine designs may lead to a
higher level of biodiesel concentration in the
engine oil pan. The long-term effect of biodiesel
concentration in crankcase oil is currently
unknown.
• Perkins recommends the use of oil analysis in
order to check the quality of the engine oil if
biodiesel fuel is used. Ensure that the level of
biodiesel in the fuel is noted when the oil sample is
taken.
Performance Related Issues with B20
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2
to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may
deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause an
increase in fuel system deposits, most significant of
which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most effective in
cleaning and preventing the formation of deposits.
Refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner” for
more information. Perkins UMK8276 Diesel Fuel
Conditioner helps to limit deposit issues by improving
the stability of biodiesel while also hindering the
production of new deposits. For more information
refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner”. Therefore
the use of Diesel Fuel Cleaner and or Diesel Fuel
Conditioner is strongly recommended when running
biodiesel blends, especially B20.
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, Perkins strongly recommends that engines
with limited operational time either do not use
biodiesel blends or, while accepting some risk, limit
biodiesel blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of
applications that should limit the use of biodiesel are
the following: Standby generator sets and certain
emergency vehicles.
If biodiesel must be used, then the quality of the fuel
needs to be periodically tested. The test must comply
with “EN15751”, commonly known as the Rancimat
Test.
Perkins strongly recommends that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate antimicrobial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate fuels,
water is naturally more likely to exist in the biodiesel.
It is therefore essential to check frequently and if
necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, led, tin, and
zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the biodiesel
fuel. The oxidation process can cause deposits
formation therefore these materials must not be used
for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
68
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Fluid Recommendations
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” that is used in the
United States of America may be used in cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the
aviation kerosene fuels that are specified in “Group 1:
Preferred Fuels”. These fuels are intended to be used
in temperatures that can be as low as −54 °C
(−65.2 °F). Refer to “Group 1: Preferred Fuels” for
detail and conditions of use of the aviation kerosene
fuels.
Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can
produce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase or the fuel tank. Alcohol or gasoline must
not be used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure
to follow this instruction may result in death or
personal injury.
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not
recommended and is due to potential damage to the
fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier or the
fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate
supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances. Fuel
additives need to be used with caution. Contact your
fuel supplier for those circumstances when fuel
additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 18 .
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. For
more information on the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends refer to “Biodiesel Fuel”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not review
all the requirements that are addressed in table 18 .
To ensure optimum engine performance, a complete
fuel analysis should be obtained before engine
operation. The fuel analysis should include all of the
properties that are stated in the table 18 .
Detailed instructions on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner
NOTICE
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
The Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner part number
21820275/(U5MK8276) is the only fuel conditioner
recommended by Perkins. The diesel fuel conditioner
is a proprietary metal and ash free formulation that
has been extensively tested for use with distillate
diesel fuels for use in Perkins diesel engines. The
diesel fuel conditioner helps address many of the
challenges that various fuels worldwide present in
regards to fuel life/stability, engine startability, injector
deposits, fuel system life, and long-term engine
performance.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives) which are made by other manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the Perkins
warranty is not affected simply because of such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices, accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins defects.
Therefore, the defects are NOT covered under the
Perkins warranty.
Note: Diesel fuel additives/conditioners may not
improve markedly poor diesel fuel properties enough
to make poor diesel acceptable for use.
SEBU9070
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Diesel fuel conditioner is a proven high performance,
multipurpose diesel fuel conditioner that is designed
to improve:
• Fuel economy (through fuel system cleanup)
• Lubricity
• Oxidation stability
• Detergency/dispersancy
• Moisture dispersancy
• Corrosion protection
• Cetane (typically 2-3 cetane numbers)
The diesel fuel conditioner also reduces the formation
of gums, resins, and sludge, and disperses insoluble
gums.
• Use high-quality fuels per recommended and
required specifications
• Fill fuel tanks with fuels of “ISO 18/16/13”
cleanliness level or cleaner, in particular for
engines with common rail and unit injection
systems. When you refuel the tank, filter the fuel
through a 4 µm absolute filter (Beta 4 = 75 up to
200) in order to reach the recommended
cleanliness level. This filtration should be located
at the device that dispenses the fuel to the fuel
tank. In addition, filtration at the dispensing point
should remove water to ensure that fuel is
dispensed at 500 ppm water or less.
• Perkins recommends the use of bulk fuel filter /
coalescer units which clean the fuel of both
particulate contamination and water in a single
pass.
• Ensure that you use Perkins Advanced Efficiency
Fuel Filters . Change your fuel filters per
recommended service requirements or as needed.
For maximum overall benefits, ask your fuel supplier
to add the fuel conditioner at the recommended treat
rate before fuel delivery. Or you may add the fuel
conditioner at the recommended treat rate during the
early weeks of fuel storage.
• Drain your water separators daily.
Contamination Control
Recommendations for Fuels
• Drain your fuel tanks of sediment and water per
the Operation and Maintenance Manual
instructions.
Fuels of “ISO 18/16/13” cleanliness level or cleaner
as dispensed into the engine or application fuel tank
should be used. Reduce power loss, fuel system
failures, and related down time of engines will result.
This cleanliness level is important for new fuel system
designs such as common rail injection systems and
unit injection systems. Injection system designs utilize
higher fuel pressures and tight clearances between
moving parts in order to meet required stringent
emissions regulations. Peak injection pressures in
current fuel injection systems may exceed 30,000 psi.
Clearances in these systems are less than 5 µm. As a
result, particle contaminants as small as 4 µm can
cause scoring and scratching of internal pump and
injector surfaces and of injector nozzles.
Water in the fuel causes cavitation, corrosion of fuel
system parts, and provides an environment where
microbial growth in the fuel can flourish. Other
sources of fuel contamination are soaps, gels, or
other compounds that may result from undesirable
chemical interactions in the fuels, particularly in
ULSD. Gels and other compounds can also form in
biodiesel fuel at low temperatures or if biodiesel is
stored for extended periods. The best indication of
microbial contamination, fuel additives, or cold
temperature gel is rapid filter plugging of bulk fuel
filters or application fuel filters.
In order to reduce downtime due to contamination,
follow these fuel maintenance guidelines.
• Install and maintain a properly designed bulk filter /
coalescer filtration system. Continuous bulk
filtration systems may be required to ensure that
dispensed fuel meets the cleanliness target.
Consult your Perkins distributor for availability of
bulk filtration products.
• Centrifugal filters may need to be used as a prefilter with fuel that is severely contaminated with
gross amounts of water and/or large particulate
contaminants. Centrifugal filters can effectively
remove large contaminants. Centrifugal filters may
not be able to remove the small abrasive particles
required to achieve the recommended “ISO”
cleanliness level. Bulk filter / coalescers are
necessary as a final filter in order to achieve the
recommended cleanliness level.
• Install desiccant type breathers of 4 µm or less
absolute efficiency with the ability to remove water
on bulk storage tanks.
• Follow proper practices of fuel transportation.
Filtration from the storage tank to the application
promotes the delivery of clean fuel. Fuel filtration
can be installed at each transport stage in order to
keep the fuel clean.
• Cover, protect, and ensure cleanliness of all
connection hoses, fittings, and dispensing nozzles.
70
SEBU9070
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Consult your local Perkins distributor for additional
information on Perkins designed and produced
filtration products.
i06231746
Fluid Recommendations
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine.
S/N: PK91–Up
General Lubricant Information for
the 1506D Engine
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the
lubricant recommendations must be followed.
• API
• SAE
American Petroleum Institute
Society Of Automotive Engineers Inc.
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API). For detailed
information about this system, see the latest edition of
the “API publication No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear
the API symbol are authorized by API.
Table 19
Oil Specification for the 1506D Industrial Engine
Preferred Oil Specification
Acceptable
API CI-4 Plus
API CI-4
API CI-4 Plus meets the designed life of the product,
the use of the appropriate engine oil is essential.
API CI-4 Plus provide two design improvements over
API CI-4 oil specification, soot viscosity control and
product shear stability.
Maintenance intervals for engines that use
biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely
affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in
order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change
interval that is optimum.
Note: These engine oils are not approved by
Perkins and these engine oils must not be used:
CC, CD, CD-2, CF-4, CG-4 and CH-4.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Illustration 35
g03813274
Typical API symbol
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be
found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/
Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Refer to illustration 36 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Refer to illustration 36 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
SEBU9070
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer
to the illustration 36 in order to find the correct oil
viscosity grade for your engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
Illustration 36
g03329707
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked
starts below the minimum ambient temperature.
Supplemental heat may be required for cold soaked
starts that are above the minimum temperature that is
stated. The requirement also depends on the
parasitic load and other factors. Cold soaked starts
occur when the engine has not been operated for a
longtime. This interval will allow the oil to become
more viscous due to cooler ambient temperatures.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. The use of aftermarket additives in
order to achieve the engines maximum service life or
rated performance is not necessary. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. Additive packages are blended
into the base oils at precise percentages in order to
provide finished oils with performance characteristics
that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the
performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not
be compatible with the finished oils additive package,
which could lower the performance of the finished oil.
The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the
finished oil. This failure could produce sludge in the
crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil
is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
72
Maintenance Recommendations
System Pressure Release
SEBU9070
Maintenance
Recommendations
1. Stop the engine.
2. Wait for 10 minutes.
i03648938
System Pressure Release
Coolant System
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system.
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
i05963859
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
The engine can have the ability to auto start. Ensure
that the power supply is isolated before any service or
repair is performed.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high pressure fuel pump and the high
pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equipment or your Perkins distributor regarding welding on
a chassis frame or rail.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to
avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other
components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
SEBU9070
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Maintenance Recommendations
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from the
wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
• ECM
• Sensors
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
Illustration 37
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
damage any associated components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to the
following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as
a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and
spatter.
74
SEBU9070
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
i04150276
Severe Service Application
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the
following engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be difficult. The buildup can contain
corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Fuel quality
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operational Altitude
• Operating at excessive loads
• Maintenance intervals
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Operating outside the intended application
• Coolant type and maintenance
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Environmental qualities
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Installation
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in cold environments
or hot environments. Valve components can be
damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently
started and stopped in cold temperatures. Hot intake
air reduces engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
75
SEBU9070
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i06233872
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ..............95
Maintenance Interval Schedule
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”...................97
When Required
“Radiator - Clean” ....................................................97
Every 2000 Service Hours
“Battery - Replace”...................................................77
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”...................78
“Engine - Clean”.......................................................85
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”...................................89
“Fuel System - Prime”..............................................92
Daily
“Coolant Level - Check”...........................................84
“Driven Equipment - Check” ....................................85
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” .....87
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.......................................88
“Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test” ...................76
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................77
“Belt Tensioner - Check” ..........................................78
“Belts - Replace” ......................................................80
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ...................................91
Every 2000 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean” .....................87
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2
Years
“Coolant (DEAC) - Change”.....................................81
“Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain” .......................................................................94
Every 4000 Service Hours or 2
Years
“Walk-Around Inspection”........................................99
“Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace” ...........84
Every Week
“Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect”.................85
“Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean” ...................87
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .......................................88
“Jacket Water Heater - Check” ................................97
Every 5000 Service Hours
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
“Starting Motor - Inspect” .........................................98
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .................96
“Turbocharger - Inspect” ..........................................98
Every 500 Service Hours
“Water Pump - Inspect”......................................... 100
“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................77
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3
Years
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace”......................................................86
“Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ..............................83
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................91
Every 10 000 Service Hours
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Grounding Stud - Inspect/Clean/Tighten”...............96
“Air Shutoff - Test” ....................................................76
“Overhaul Considerations” ......................................97
“Belt Tensioner - Check” ..........................................78
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust” ............................................79
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust” ............................................80
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”........................................82
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”..............................89
Commissioning
“Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace”..................................................93
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................91
76
Maintenance Recommendations
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test
SEBU9070
i05963992
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/
Clean/Test
4. Wash the core with hot, soapy water.
5. Flush the core thoroughly in order to remove
residue and remaining debris. Flush the core with
clean, fresh water until the water that is exiting the
core is clear and free of debris.
Inspect
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Inspect these items for good condition: welds,
mounting brackets, oil lines, water lines, connections,
clamps and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
nozzle is deadheaded.
Clean
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment. Clean and
test the aftercooler every 4000 service hours unless
the inspection indicates the need for more frequent
cleaning.
Remove the core. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual for the procedure.
1. Place the aftercooler on the side in order to remove
debris Remove the debris that is accessible.
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic
cleaner can attack the internal metals of the core and
cause leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of cleaner.
Table 20
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1)
Description
Hydrosolv 4165
Hydrosolv 100
(1)
Test
1. Inspect the core for trapped debris and cleanliness.
If necessary, remove the debris and repeat the
cleaning procedure.
2. Inspect the core for damage and perform a
pressure test in order to detect leaks. Many shops
that service radiators are equipped to perform
pressure tests.
3. Plug both ends of the aftercooler core and
pressurize the core to 205 kPa (30 psi). Submerge
the core in water. Look for bubbles which are being
emitted from the core. The bubbles are evidence of
leaks.
4. If any leaks are found, do not attempt to repair the
core.
2. Back flush the core with cleaner.
Part Number
6. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
the reverse direction of the normal flow.
Size
Install a core that is clean and that passes the
pressure test in step 3. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual for the procedure.
19 L (5 US gallon)
i05975681
19 L (5 US gallon)
Use a 2 percent to a 5 percent concentration of the cleaner at
temperatures up to 93°C (200°F). Consult your Perkins distributor for more information on a suitable cleaner.
3. Use a pressure steam cleaner in order to remove
residue from the core. Flush the fins of the
aftercooler core. Remove any other trapped debris
from the inside and from the outside of the core.
Note: Do not use high pressure when the fins are
cleaned. High pressure can damage the fins.
Air Shutoff - Test
If the engine has been equipped with an air shutoff
valve, the valve should be tested regularly. For
information on the test procedure, refer to the original
equipment manufacturer for the correct procedure.
77
SEBU9070
Maintenance Recommendations
Alternator - Inspect
i02322311
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the engine
is not run for long periods of time or if the engine is
run for short periods, the batteries may not fully
charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze more
easily than a battery with a full charge.
i05425759
Battery - Replace
3. Ensure that the battery disconnect switch is in the
OFF position.
4. Disconnect the NEGATIVE “-” cable from the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
5. Disconnect the POSITIVE “+” cable from the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
6. Remove the used battery.
7. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
8. Connect the POSITIVE “+” cable to the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal.
9. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
10. Turn the battery disconnect switch to the ON
position.
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible
gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
i02747977
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should be
very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
on or near batteries.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all
electrical loads.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
Note: After the engine has stopped, allow 2 minutes
in order for the diesel exhaust fluid lines to be purged
before disconnecting the power.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
78
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
SEBU9070
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive
connection before the negative connector.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
i06233840
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
Belt Tensioner - Check
(Model LG )
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
S/N: LG11–Up
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
S/N: LGE1–Up
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to not fit correctly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent
accidental starting.
Illustration 38
g03748098
Typical example
With this design of belt the tensioning pulley (1)
should be checked at 500 hours or each year.
Remove the belt. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
Ensure that the belt tensioner is securely installed.
Visually inspect the belt tensioner (1) for damage.
Check that the pulley on the tensioner rotates freely
and that the bearing is not loose.
i06233841
Belt Tensioner - Check
(Model PK9 )
S/N: PK91–Up
SEBU9070
79
Maintenance Recommendations
Belts - Inspect/Adjust
Fan Belts Adjust
Illustration 39
g03865369
Typical example
Illustration 40
Remove the belt. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
g03748150
Typical example
Ensure that the belt tensioner (1) is securely installed.
Visually inspect the belt tensioner for damage. Check
that the pulley on the tensioner rotates freely and that
the bearing is not loose. Inspect the idler pulley (2).
Ensure that the idler pulley is securely installed.
Visually inspect the idler pulley for damage. Ensure
that the idler pulley can rotate freely and that the
bearing is not loose. If necessary, replace damaged
components.
Install the belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
i06233845
Belts - Inspect/Adjust
(Model LG )
S/N: LG11–Up
S/N: LGE1–Up
Illustration 41
g03748169
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the belt
is worn or damaged.
Typical example
Fan Belts
2. Loosen bolt (4) and nut (7).
• Inspect each belt for cracks, splits, glazing,
grease, displacement of the cord and evidence of
fluid contamination.
Adjust nuts (5) and (7) in order to increase or
decrease the tension on union (6). This action will
tension the belts, the belts must be tensioned to
730 N (164 lb). To check accurately the belt tension,
a suitable gauge should be used.
1. Loosen bolts (1) and (2), also loosen nut (3).
80
Maintenance Recommendations
Belts - Inspect/Adjust
SEBU9070
1. Tighten nuts (5) and (7) securely. Tighten bolts (1)
and (2), also tighten nut (3). Tighten nut and bolts
to a torque of 89 N·m (65 lb ft). Tighten bolt (4) to a
torque of 100 N·m (73 lb ft).
i06233847
Belts - Inspect/Adjust
(Model PK9 )
Coolant Pump Drive Belt
• Inspect the belt for cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
displacement of the cord and evidence of fluid
contamination.
S/N: PK91–Up
Coolant Pump Drive Belt Adjust
Illustration 43
g03866010
(1) Auto tensioner
Inspect
Typical example
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the belt
is worn or damaged.
1. Loosen bolts (1) and (3). Using square (A) adjust
pulley assembly (2) in order to increase or
decrease the tension on the coolant drive belt.
• Inspect the belt for cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
displacement of the cord and evidence of fluid
contamination.
2. The tension on the belt must be set to 560 N
(125 lb).
Adjust
3. With the correct tension on the belt, tighten bolts
(1) and (3). Tighten bolts to a torque of 28 N·m
(247 lb in).
This engine option the belt adjustment is automatic.
Also, the belt tension is controlled by the auto
tensioner (1).
Illustration 42
g03748152
New belts
i05985281
Table 21
Belts - Replace
Tension for New Belts
Fan belt
Coolant pump Drive
Belt
912 N (205 lb)
734 N (165 lb)
Tension
Recheck new belts after 10 hours of operation.
The fan belts must be replaced as a set.
For the correct procedure for removing and installing
the drive belts, refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly, “V-Belts remove and Install”.
SEBU9070
81
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (DEAC) - Change
i05985305
Coolant (DEAC) - Change
• DEAC
Diesel Engine Antifreeze Coolant
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. Level ground
will allow you to check accurately the coolant level.
This procedure will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
Illustration 44
g03748670
Typical example
Note: Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “General Hazard Information” for information
on Containing Fluid Spillage.
2. Remove drain plug (1). Also remove the drain plug
on the radiator.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This inspection is a good opportunity to
replace the water pump, the water temperature
regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
3. Properly dispose of the drained material. Obey
local regulations for the disposal of the material.
Drain
Flush
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Allow the coolant to drain into a suitable container.
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water and a
suitable cleaning agent in order to remove any
debris. Refer to your Perkins distributor for suitable
cleaning agents.
2. Install the system drain plugs.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water and install
the cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine until normal operating
temperature.
82
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
SEBU9070
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
6. Check the O ring seal on the drain plugs, replace if
damaged. Install the system drain plugs. Tighten
the drain plug (1) to a torque of 80 N·m (59 lb ft).
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Fill
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. Replace the water pump, the water
temperature regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
1. Fill the cooling system with the coolant/antifreeze.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic
(Maintenance Section) for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
NOTICE
Service or repair of the engine cooling system must
be performed on level ground. The engine must be
level in order to check the coolant level. The engine
must be level in order to avoid the risk of introducing
an air lock into the coolant system.
2. Start and run the engine until normal operating
temperature.
Drain
3. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, perform a pressure test. If the cooling
system filler cap does not retain the correct
pressure, install a new cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for the correct operating temperature.
i05985294
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Perkins ELC must be using with an extender in order
to achieve 12000 hours operation. For more information on a suitable extender contact your Perkins
distributor.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
SEBU9070
83
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
5. Check the O ring seal on the drain plug, replace if
damaged. Install the system drain plugs. Tighten
the drain plug (1) to a torque of 80 N·m (59 lb ft).
Fill
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
1. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
Illustration 45
g03748670
2. Remove drain plug (1). Also, remove the drain plug
from the radiator.
2. Start and run the engine until normal operating
temperature. Stop the engine.
3. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
i05197396
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
3. Start and run the engine until normal operating
temperature.
4. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water.
In order for Perkins ELC to achieve 12000 hours an
extender must be added at 6000 hours. For a suitable
extender, contact your Perkins dealer or Perkins
distributor.
84
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Level - Check
SEBU9070
i05966993
Coolant Level - Check
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
Illustration 46
g00285520
Cooling system filler cap
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the proper level in the sight glass.
Illustration 47
g02590196
Typical filler cap gaskets
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i05975694
Coolant Temperature
Regulator - Replace
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a partially
opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear of
the cylinder liner.
SEBU9070
85
Maintenance Recommendations
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Water
Temperature Regulator Housing - Remove and
Install” for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Perkins
distributor.
• The damper is dented, cracked, or fluid is leaking
from the damper.
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the housing.
• The damper is bent.
i05967790
Crankshaft Vibration Damper Inspect
• The paint on the damper is discolored from
excessive heat.
• The bolt holes are worn or there is a loose fit for
the bolts.
• The engine has had a crankshaft failure due to
torsional forces.
Replace the damper if any of these conditions exist.
Ensure that the cooling fins (2) are clean and free
from damage.
Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure
of the crankshaft vibration damper can increase
torsional vibrations. This torsional vibration can result
in damage to the crankshaft and to other engine
components. A deteriorating damper can cause
excessive gear train noise at variable points in the
speed range.
The damper is mounted to the crankshaft which is
located behind the belt guard on the front of the
engine.
Removal and Installation
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Vibration Damper and Pulley - Remove and Install”
for information on removing and installing the damper.
i02151646
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i02568158
Engine - Clean
Illustration 48
g03741828
Typical example
(1) Vibration damper
(2) Cooling fins
Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage.
Inspection
Moisture can
conductivity.
Inspect the damper for the following conditions:
create
paths
of
electrical
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “ DO
NOT OPERATE”” .
86
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
SEBU9070
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when you clean the engine. Avoid
electrical components such as the alternator, the
starter, and the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
i05985308
Illustration 49
g03748730
1. Remove the six clips (2) and remove the cover (3).
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Single Element) - Inspect/
Replace
Perform the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”
procedure and perform the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Air Precleaner Check/
Clean” procedure (if equipped) before performing the
following procedure.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
Illustration 50
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
g03748780
2. Remove element (5) and discard old element.
3. Ensure that the cover (3) cap (1) and valve (4) are
clean and free from dirt.
4. Install new element (5), install cover (3). Install
clips (2). Insure that valve (4) is vertically down.
5. If necessary, reset the air cleaner service indicator.
SEBU9070
87
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
i05967801
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
(If Equipped)
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element, and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner housing.
Illustration 52
g00287039
Typical example
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i05967836
Engine Crankcase Breather Clean
Illustration 51
g03741837
(1) Reset button
(2) View area
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when the following condition
occurs:
• The red piston locks in the visible position of the
view area (2).
The reset button (1) reset the red piston.
i05967804
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/
Clean
(If Equipped)
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
NOTICE
If the crankcase breather is not maintained on a regular basis, it can become plugged. A plugged breather
will cause excessive crankcase pressure that may
cause crankshaft seal leakage.
88
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Mounts - Inspect
SEBU9070
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Illustration 53
g03741874
(1) Sealing washer
(2) Bolt
(3) Hose clamp
(4) Hose
(5) Housing
(6) Breather assembly
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i05967878
Engine Oil Level - Check
1. Thoroughly clean the breather assembly before
removing any parts.
2. Loosen hose clamp (3) and remove hose (4) from
breather assembly (6).
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
3. Remove bolt (2) and the washer (1). Remove the
breather assembly (6) from housing (5).
4. Wash the breather element in solvent that is clean
and nonflammable. Allow the breather element to
dry before installation.
5. Ensure that the hose (4) is clean and free from
damage.
Illustration 54
6. Install a breather element that is clean and dry.
Install breather assembly (6) to housing (5).
7. Install new sealing washer (1) to bolt (2) and install
into breather assembly. Tighten bolt (2) to a torque
of 28 N (6.3 lb).
8. Install hose (4) and clip (3) to breather assembly.
Tighten clip (3) to a torque of 7 N·m (62 lb in).
g00110310
(Y) “Add” mark. (X) “Full” mark.
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that the
engine is in the normal operating position in order to
obtain a true level indication.
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan. Then, check the oil level.
SEBU9070
89
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
1. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD” mark (Y)
and the “FULL” mark (X) on the engine oil
dipstick. Do not fill the crankcase above the
“FULL” mark (X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
• The date of the sample
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
• Engine model
• Engine number
i05969787
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve (1) as an option. The oil sampling
valve is included in order to sample regularly the
engine lubricating oil.
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labeled.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, mixed well oil
sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
The sample can be checked for the following: The
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in the
oil and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
i05969790
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Illustration 55
g03742403
Typical example
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
90
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU9070
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with the
engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the oil
warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Oil
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
• Use a container that is large enough to collect the
engine oil.
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn
the drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to
drain the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the
drain valve knob clockwise in order to close the
drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil to
drain. Discard the O ring seal. If the engine is
equipped with a shallow sump, remove the bottom
oil drain plugs from both ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plug should be
cleaned. Install a new O ring seal to the oil drain plug.
Reinstall the oil drain plug. Tighten drain plug to
40 N·m (29 lb ft), for aluminum oil pan. Remove
container and disposal of the waste oil in accordance
with local regulations.
Replace the Oil Filter
Illustration 56
g03742429
Typical example
1. Ensure that the oil filter assembly is clean before
starting the procedure for removing the spin on
filter. Place a suitable container below the oil filter
assembly.
2. Using a suitable tool, remove the oil filter (3) from
housing (1). Discard old filter.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components.
3. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal (2) and
install the new spin on oil filter.
4. Install the spin on oil filter (3) and tighten by hand
only. When the O ring seal contacts the sealing
surface, rotate the oil filter 1 full turn. Remove the
container and disposal of the waste oil in
accordance with local regulations.
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refill the engine
crankcase with engine oil. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities” and
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations” for more information.
SEBU9070
91
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Valve Lash - Check
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
2. Start the engine and run the engine for 2 minutes.
Perform this procedure in order to ensure that the
lubrication system has oil and that the oil filter is
filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil leaks.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement,
allow the valves to cool before this maintenance is
performed.
During valve adjustment, visibly inspect the valve
train of wear or damage.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for more
information.
i06023929
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Fan Clearance - Check
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the oil
level. Maintain the oil level between the “Low” and
“High” marks on the oil level gauge.
Ensure that the engine is stopped and that the battery
disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
Ensure that the radiator is full of the correct coolant.
i05969949
Engine Valve Lash - Check
The initial valve lash adjustment on new engines,
rebuilt engines, or remanufactured engines is
recommended at the first scheduled oil change. The
adjustment is necessary due to the initial wear of the
valve train components and to the seating of the
valve train components.
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor
for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve
lash can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce
engine component life.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
92
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU9070
Illustration 57
g03779353
Typical example
1. The clearance between the cover (1) and the fan
(2) must be checked at four equal distances.
Measure the distance between the fan tip and the
edge of the cover.
If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair any
leaks from the fuel system and from the cooling,
lubrication, or air systems. Ensure that all
adjustments and repairs are performed by authorized
personnel that have had the correct training.
2. The gap (A) must be between 8 to 10 mm
(0.31 to 0.39 inch).
The fuel system should be primed under the
following conditions:
i05969962
Fuel System - Prime
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
• The engine has been in storage.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
• The pressure fuel lines have been disconnected.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“General Hazard Information” before any adjustments
or repairs are performed
1. Ensure that the key switch is in the OFF position.
Ensure that the fuel tank is full of clean diesel fuel.
Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the “ON” position.
SEBU9070
93
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
i05970884
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Illustration 58
g03742605
2. Unlock the fuel priming pump handle (1). Turn
handle counter clockwise. Operate the fuel pump
handle until strong pressure can be felt.
3. When strong pressure can be felt, press in the fuel
pump handle and lock the handle into the fuel
pump body (2). In order to lock the handle, turn
handle clockwise.
Note: The stronger the pressure in the fuel system
the quicker the engine will start.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
4. Start the engine, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Starting the Engine” for
more information.
5. If the engine will not start, repeat Steps 2 to Step 3.
6. Once the engine starts, allow the engine to operate
with no load for 5 minutes.
7. If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but will not Start”.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position. Place a suitable container under the fuel
filter assembly. Clean the outside of the primary
fuel filter assembly.
94
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SEBU9070
5. Spin on the fuel filter by hand. When the O ring
seal (3) contacts the sealing surface rotate the fuel
filter ¾ of a full turn. Remove the container and
disposal of the waste fuel in accordance with local
regulations.
6. Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to the
ON position. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
- Prime” for more information.
The primary fuel filter and the secondary fuel filter
should be serviced together.
i05970923
Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain
Illustration 59
g03742960
2. Pace a suitable container below the primary fuel
filter. Drain the fuel from the primary fuel filter.
Open the drain valve (1) and allow the fluid to
drain. Then, close the drain valve.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
1. Place a suitable container below the primary filter.
Illustration 60
g03742961
3. Using a suitable tool, remove the primary fuel filter
(4) from housing (2). Discard the old primary fuel
filter.
4. Lubricate the O ring seal (3) with clean diesel fuel.
Install the new primary fuel filter (4).
SEBU9070
95
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
1. Residual fuel pressure should be relieved from the
fuel system before the fuel filter is removed. After
the engine has stopped, wait for one to 5 minutes
until the fuel pressure has lowered. Use a suitable
container in order to catch any fuel that may spill.
2. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position. Place a suitable container under the fuel
filter assembly. Clean the outside of the secondary
fuel filter assembly.
Illustration 61
g03742960
2. Open drain valve (1) and allow the fluid to drain.
When clean fuel can be seen, close the drain
valve. Remove the container and disposal of the
waste fuel in accordance with local regulations.
i05970937
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Illustration 62
g03743006
3. Using a suitable tool, remove the secondary fuel
filter (3) from housing (1). Discard the old
secondary fuel filter.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over any disconnected fuel system components.
NOTICE
Do not fill the secondary fuel filter with fuel before installing. The fuel would not be filtered and could be
contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel system parts.
4. Lubricate O ring seal (2) with clean diesel fuel.
Install new secondary fuel filter (3) to housing (1).
5. Spin on new secondary fuel filter, when the O ring
seal (2) contacts the sealing surface rotate the fuel
filter ¾ of a full turn. Remove the container and
disposal of the waste fuel in accordance with local
regulations.
6. Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to the
ON position. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
- Prime” for more information.
96
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
SEBU9070
The primary fuel filter and the secondary fuel filter
should be serviced together.
i02568194
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
i05970985
Grounding Stud - Inspect/
Clean/Tighten
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
The connection of battery cables to a battery and
the disconnection of battery cables from a battery
may cause an explosion which may result in injury or death. The connection and the disconnection of other electrical equipment may also cause
an explosion which may result in injury or death.
The procedures for the connection and the disconnection of battery cables and other electrical
equipment should only be performed in a nonexplosive atmosphere.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the
drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel
tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Illustration 63
g01376112
The electronics grounding stud is located on the
upper left corner of the engine control module.
Inspect the OEM harness for good connections.
Inspect the condition of the OEM harness.
SEBU9070
97
Maintenance Recommendations
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
The electronics grounding stud must have a wire
ground to the battery. Tighten the electronics
grounding stud at every oil change. Ground wires and
straps should be combined at engine grounds. All
grounds should be tight and free of corrosion.
• Clean the electronics grounding stud and the
terminals for the ground strap with a clean cloth.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen.
This action can result in leaks. A constant torque
hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• If the connections are corroded, clean the
connections with a solution of baking soda and
water.
• Type of fitting material
• Keep the electronics grounding stud and the strap
clean and coated with MPGM grease or petroleum
jelly.
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
i05971027
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
Replace
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps. For information on replacing hoses and
clamps refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
Manual.
i05971073
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
Jacket Water Heater - Check
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque.
Check for the following conditions:
Jacket water heaters help to improve startability in
ambient temperatures that are below 21 °C (70 °F).
All installations that require automatic starting should
have jacket water heaters.
Check the operation of the jacket water heater. Check
the operation of the circulation pump, if equipped. For
an ambient temperature of 0 °C (32 °F), the heater
should maintain the jacket water coolant temperature
at approximately 32 °C (90 °F).
i05971077
Overhaul Considerations
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
For an overhaul solution, contact your Perkins
distributor.
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
i05971137
Radiator - Clean
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of
any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
98
Maintenance Recommendations
Starting Motor - Inspect
SEBU9070
i02568203
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
nozzle is deadheaded.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction of
the air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the air
nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This movement will remove debris that is between the
tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The
maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must
be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water
in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both
sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
After cleaning, start the engine and operate the
engine with no load. This procedure will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order to
inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning,
if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
welds, mounting brackets, connections, clamps and
seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
Turbocharger - Inspect
Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended for
the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side). Any
fumes from the crankcase are filtered through the air
inlet system. Therefore, by-products from oil and from
combustion can collect in the turbocharger
compressor housing. Over time, this buildup can
contribute to loss of engine power, increased black
smoke and overall loss of engine efficiency.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel and/
or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not
occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
replaced.
An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
i02568202
Starting Motor - Inspect
S
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for proper operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Service Manual for more
information on the checking procedure and for
specifications or consult your Perkins distributors for
assistance.
Note: Turbocharger components require precision
clearances. The turbocharger cartridge must be
balanced due to high rpm. Severe Service
Applications can accelerate component wear. Severe
Service Applications require more frequent
inspections of the cartridge.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, repair
and replacement, consult your Perkins distributor.
Refer to the Service Manual for this engine for the
procedure and specifications.
Cleaning and Inspecting
SEBU9070
1. Remove the exhaust outlet piping and remove the
air inlet piping from the turbocharger. Visually
inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean the
interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt from
entering during reassembly.
2. Turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel
by hand. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect
the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for
contact with the turbocharger housing. There
should not be any visible signs of contact between
the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of
contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the
compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing,
the turbocharger must be reconditioned.
3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness. If
only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt and/or
moisture is passing through the air filtering system.
If oil is found only on the back side of the wheel,
there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger oil
seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
4. Use a dial indicator to check the end clearance on
the shaft. If the measured end play is greater than
the Service Manual specifications, the
turbocharger should be repaired or replaced. An
end play measurement that is less than the
minimum Service Manual specifications could
indicate carbon buildup on the turbine wheel. The
turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning
and for inspection if the measured end play is less
than the minimum Service Manual specifications.
5. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for
corrosion.
6. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard shop
solvents and a soft bristle brush.
7. Fasten the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet
piping to the turbocharger housing.
99
Maintenance Recommendations
Walk-Around Inspection
i02568213
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the proper place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak
is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
proved to be unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine or deck
is a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning or high pressure water.
• Ensure that the cooling lines are properly clamped
and that the cooling lines are tight. Check for
leaks. Check the condition of all pipes.
• Inspect the water pumps for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant in
the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount of
leakage to occur as the engine cools down and the
parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
water pumps and the installation of water pumps and/
or seals, refer to the Service Manual for the engine or
consult your Perkins distributor.
100
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU9070
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the valve cover.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps or for loose fuel line tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air inlet system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belt and the accessory drive
belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
• Drain the water and the sediment from fuel tanks
on a daily basis in order to ensure that only clean
fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection
and for good condition.
• Inspect the ECM to the cylinder head ground strap
for a good connection and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i02568235
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. If any
leaking is observed, replace the water pump seal or
the water pump assembly. Refer to the Service
Manual for the disassembly and assembly procedure.
Note: Refer to the Service Manual or consult your
Perkins distributor if any repair is needed or any
replacement is needed.
SEBU9070
101
Warranty Section
Emissions Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
102
SEBU9070
Reference Information Section
Engine Rating Conditions
Reference Information
Section
i05986477
Engine Rating Definitions
Engine Ratings
i00727327
Engine Rating Conditions
All engine ratings are in compliance with the following
standard ambient air conditions of “SAE J1349”:
• 99 kPa (29.3 inches of Hg)
• 30 percent relative humidity
• A temperature of 25 °C (77 °F)
Ratings relate to the standard conditions of
“ISO8665”, of “ISO3046/1”, of “DIN6271”, and of
“BS5514”.
The engine ratings are based on the following fuel
specifications:
• Low heat value (LHV) of the fuel of 42 780 kJ/kg
(18,390 Btu/lb) at 29 °C (84 °F)
• Gravity (API) of 35 degrees at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Specific gravity of .849 at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Density of 850 kg/m3 (7.085 lb/US gal)
The engine ratings are gross output ratings.
Gross Output Ratings – The total output capability
of the engine that is equipped with standard
accessories.
Standard accessories include the following
components:
• Oil pumps
• Fuel pumps
• Water pumps
Subtract the power that is required to drive auxiliary
components from the gross output. This will produce
the net power that is available for the external load
(flywheel).
It is important to know the use of the engine so that
the rating will match the operating profile. The proper
rating selection is also important so that the
customers perception of price and value is realized.
In selecting a rating for a specific application, the
most important consideration is the time that is spent
at full throttle. These rating definitions identify the
percent of time at full throttle. The definitions also
identify the corresponding times below rated rpm.
Note: The examples of the applications are only for
reference. For an exact determination of the
appropriate rating, follow the OEM specifications or
consult your Perkins distributor .
A Rating – This rating is used for heavy-duty
applications that are operated at rated load and at
rated rpm up to 100 percent. This rating is used for
engines that operate without interruption of load
cycling. Typical applications include the following
examples: pipeline pumping and ventilation.
B Rating – This rating is used when power and/or
rpm are cyclic. The engine should be run at full load.
The engine should not exceed 80 percent of the duty
cycle. Typical applications include the following
examples: irrigation, operation where normal pump
demand is 85 percent of the engine rating, oil
pumping/drilling, field mechanical pumping/drilling
and stationary/plant air compressors.
C Rating – This rating is used when power and/or
rpm are cyclic. The horsepower and the rpm of the
engine can be utilized continuously for 1 hour.
Followed by 1 hour of operation at the A rating or
below the A rating. The engine should be run at full
load. The engine should not exceed 50 percent of the
duty cycle. Typical applications include the following
examples: agricultural tractors, harvesters and
combines, off-highway trucks, fire pumps, blast hole
drills, rock crushers, wood chippers with high torque
rise and oil field hoisting.
D Rating – This rating is used when rated power is
required for periodic overloads. The maximum
horsepower and the rpm of the engine can be utilized
continuously for a maximum of 30 minutes. Followed
by 1 hour of operation at the C rating. The engine
should be run at full load. The engine should not
exceed 10 percent of the duty cycle. Typical
applications include the following examples: offshore
cranes, runway snow blowers, water well drills,
portable air compressors and fire pump certification
power.
E Rating – This rating is used when rated power is
required for a short time for initial starting or for
sudden overload. The rating is also used for
emergency service when standard power is not
available. The horsepower and the rpm of the engine
SEBU9070
can be utilized continuously for a maximum of 15
minutes. Followed by 1 hour of operation at the C
rating or by the duration of the emergency. The
engine should be run at full load. The engine should
not exceed 5 percent of the duty cycle. Typical
applications include the following examples: standby
centrifugal water pumps, oil field well servicing, crash
trucks, portable air compressors and gas turbine
starting motors.
NOTICE
Operating engines above the rating definitions can result in shorter service life before overhaul.
103
Engine Ratings
Engine Rating Definitions
104
SEBU9070
Reference Materials
Maintenance Records
Reference Materials
i05204672
Maintenance Records
Perkins recommends the retention of accurate
maintenance records. Accurate maintenance records
can be used for the following purposes:
• Determine operating costs.
• Establish maintenance schedules for other
engines that are operated in the same
environment.
• Show compliance with the required maintenance
practices and maintenance intervals.
Maintenance records can be used for various other
business decisions that are related to engine
maintenance.
Maintenance records are a key element of a
maintenance program that is correctly managed.
Accurate maintenance records can help your Perkins
dealer to fine-tune the recommended maintenance
intervals in order to meet the specific operating
situation. This should result in a lower engine
operating cost.
Records should be kept for the following items:
Fuel Consumption – A record of fuel consumption is
essential in order to determine when the load
sensitive components should be inspected or
repaired. Fuel consumption also determines overhaul
intervals.
Service Hours – A record of service hours is
essential to determine when the speed sensitive
components should be inspected or repaired.
Documents – These items should be easy to obtain,
and these items should be kept in the engine history
file. All of the documents should show this
information: date, service hours, fuel consumption,
unit number and engine serial number. The following
types of documents should be kept as proof of
maintenance or repair for warranty:
Keep the following types of documents as proof of
maintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types of
documents as proof of repair for warranty:
• Dealer work orders and itemized bills
• Owners repair costs
• Owners receipts
• Maintenance log
SEBU9070
105
Reference Materials
Maintenance Log
i05204675
Maintenance Log
Table 22
Engine Model
Customer Identifier
Serial Number
Arrangement Number
Service
Hours
Quantity Of
Fuel
Service Item
Date
Authorization
106
SEBU9070
Reference Materials
Reference Material
i05204677
Reference Material
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life bt covering the cost of getting your engine up and
running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mine from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams a
reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of
protection for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be
extended to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/
40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
www.perkins.com
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
SEBU9070
107
Index Section
Index
A
After Starting Engine........................................ 42
Constant Speed Engines ............................. 42
Variable Speed Engines............................... 42
After Stopping Engine...................................... 46
Aftercooler Core - Inspect/Clean/Test.............. 76
Clean............................................................ 76
Inspect ......................................................... 76
Test .............................................................. 76
Air Shutoff - Test .............................................. 76
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 77
B
Battery - Replace............................................. 77
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 77
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ............. 78
Before Starting Engine ...............................13, 40
Belt Tensioner - Check (Model LG )................. 78
Belt Tensioner - Check (Model PK9 )............... 78
Belts - Inspect/Adjust (Model LG ) ................... 79
Coolant Pump Drive Belt.............................. 80
Fan Belts...................................................... 79
New belts ..................................................... 80
Belts - Inspect/Adjust (Model PK9 ) ................. 80
Inspect ......................................................... 80
Belts - Replace ................................................ 80
Burn Prevention................................................11
Batteries........................................................11
Coolant..........................................................11
Diesel Fuel ....................................................11
Oils................................................................11
C
Cold Weather Operation.................................. 44
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 40
Configuration Parameters................................ 39
System Configuration Parameters............... 39
Coolant (DEAC) - Change ............................... 81
Drain ............................................................ 81
Fill................................................................. 82
Flush ............................................................ 81
Coolant (ELC) - Change .................................. 82
Drain ............................................................ 82
Fill................................................................. 83
Flush ............................................................ 83
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ......................... 83
Coolant Level - Check ..................................... 84
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace ...... 84
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect............ 85
Inspection..................................................... 85
Removal and Installation.............................. 85
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .. 13
D
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 38
Driven Equipment - Check............................... 85
E
Electrical System ............................................. 14
Grounding Practice ...................................... 15
Emergency Stopping ....................................... 46
Emissions Certification Film ............................ 26
Emissions Warranty Information.................... 101
Engaging the Driven Equipment...................... 43
Engine - Clean ................................................. 85
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single
Element) - Inspect/Replace ........................... 86
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator Inspect (If Equipped)...................................... 87
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean (If
Equipped) ...................................................... 87
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean................ 87
Engine Diagnostics.......................................... 38
Engine Electronics........................................... 15
Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................. 88
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................ 89
Drain the Engine Oil ..................................... 90
Fill the Engine Crankcase ............................ 90
Replace the Oil Filter.................................... 90
Engine Oil Level - Check ................................. 88
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ............................. 89
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis............ 89
Engine Operation............................................. 43
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic
Codes ............................................................ 38
Engine Operation with Intermittent
Diagnostic Codes........................................... 38
Engine Rating Conditions.............................. 102
Engine Rating Definitions .............................. 102
Engine Ratings .............................................. 102
Engine Starting ...........................................14, 40
108
SEBU9070
Index Section
Engine Stopping .........................................14, 46
Engine Valve Lash - Check.............................. 91
F
Fan Clearance - Check.................................... 91
Fault Logging................................................... 38
Features and Controls ..................................... 30
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .......11
Ether ............................................................ 12
Fire Extinguisher.......................................... 12
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ............................. 13
Fluid Recommendations.............................47, 70
ELC Cooling System Maintenance.............. 49
Engine Oil .................................................... 70
General Coolant Information........................ 47
General Lubricant Information for the 1506D
Engine ........................................................ 70
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel
Recommendations for the 1506A and
1506C Engines) ............................................ 54
Contamination Control Recommendations for
Fuels .......................................................... 61
Diesel Fuel Characteristics .......................... 56
Diesel Fuel Requirements............................ 54
General Information ..................................... 54
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel
Recommendations for the 1506D Engine).... 62
Contamination Control Recommendations for
Fuels .......................................................... 69
Diesel Fuel Characteristics .......................... 64
Diesel Fuel Requirements............................ 62
General Information ..................................... 62
Fluid Recommendations (Lubricant
Information for 1506A and 1506C Engines).. 51
Engine Oil .................................................... 52
General Lubricant Information ..................... 51
Foreword............................................................ 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4
Literature Information..................................... 4
Maintenance .................................................. 4
Maintenance Intervals.................................... 4
Operation ....................................................... 4
Overhaul ........................................................ 4
Safety............................................................. 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather............ 44
Fuel Conservation Practices............................ 43
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .... 44
Fuel Heaters ................................................ 45
Fuel Tanks.................................................... 44
Fuel System - Prime ........................................ 92
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ......................................... 93
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator
- Drain ............................................................ 94
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ......... 95
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain............ 96
Drain the Water and the Sediment............... 96
Fuel Storage Tanks ...................................... 96
Fuel Tank ..................................................... 96
G
Gauges and Indicators .................................... 30
Instrument Panels and Displays .................. 30
Warning Indicators ....................................... 30
General Hazard Information .............................. 7
Containing Fluid Spillage ............................... 9
Dispose of Waste Properly........................... 10
Fluid Penetration............................................ 9
Inhalation ..................................................... 10
Pressurized Air and Water ............................. 9
Static Electricity Hazard when Fueling with
Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Fuel.......................... 9
General Information......................................... 16
Grounding Stud - Inspect/Clean/Tighten ......... 96
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ............. 97
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ............ 97
I
Important Safety Information ............................. 2
J
Jacket Water Heater - Check........................... 97
L
Lifting and Storage........................................... 27
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ....................... 75
Commissioning ............................................ 75
Daily ............................................................. 75
Every 10 000 Service Hours ........................ 75
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 75
SEBU9070
109
Index Section
Every 2000 Service Hours ........................... 75
Every 2000 Service Hours or 1 Year............ 75
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years .......... 75
Every 4000 Service Hours or 2 Years .......... 75
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly .............. 75
Every 500 Service Hours ............................. 75
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 75
Every 5000 Service Hours ........................... 75
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 75
Every Week.................................................. 75
When Required............................................ 75
Maintenance Log ........................................... 105
Maintenance Recommendations..................... 72
Maintenance Records.................................... 104
Maintenance Section....................................... 47
Manual Stop Procedure................................... 46
Stopping the Engine..................................... 46
Model View Illustrations................................... 16
1506A and C Engine and Radiator Views... 16
1506D Engine Views................................... 20
Monitoring System........................................... 30
Action Alert................................................... 31
Critical Protection Override.......................... 31
Diagnostic .................................................... 32
Shutdown..................................................... 31
Shutdown Reset........................................... 32
Standard Warning Outputs .......................... 31
Warning Alarm ............................................. 31
Mounting and Dismounting.............................. 13
O
Operation Section............................................ 27
Overhaul Considerations................................. 97
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations................. 25
Engine Identification..................................... 25
Serial Number Plate 1 .................................. 25
Product Description ......................................... 22
Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines
................................................................... 24
Electronic Engine Features.......................... 23
Engine Cooling and Lubrication................... 23
Engine Service Life ...................................... 23
Engine Specifications .................................. 22
Product Identification Information.................... 25
Product Information Section ............................ 16
Product Lifting.................................................. 27
Product Storage............................................... 27
Condition for Storage ................................... 28
Removal from Storage ................................. 28
R
Radiator - Clean............................................... 97
Radiator Restrictions ....................................... 44
Reference Information..................................... 26
Record for Reference................................... 26
Reference Information Section ...................... 102
Reference Material (Extended Service
Contract) ...................................................... 106
Reference Materials ...................................... 104
Refill Capacities............................................... 47
Cooling System............................................ 47
Lubrication System ...................................... 47
S
Safety Messages ............................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .................................... 5
Safety Section ................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics............................................... 38
Sensors and Electrical Components ............... 32
1506D Configuration................................... 37
Severe Service Application.............................. 74
Environmental Factors................................. 74
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures.............. 74
Incorrect Operating Procedures................... 74
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................... 98
Starting the Engine .......................................... 41
Starting with Jump Start Cables ...................... 41
System Pressure Release............................... 72
Coolant System............................................ 72
Engine Oil .................................................... 72
Fuel System ................................................. 72
T
Table of Contents............................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .................................... 98
Cleaning and Inspecting .............................. 98
Removal and Installation.............................. 98
W
Walk-Around Inspection .................................. 99
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ............................................... 99
110
Index Section
Warranty Information ..................................... 101
Warranty Section ........................................... 101
Water Pump - Inspect .................................... 100
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls .. 72
SEBU9070
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For
product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification
Information” in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission
Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment
Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer
Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone
Number
Hours
©2015 Perkins Engines Compony Limited
All Rights Reserved
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