Brocade Communications Systems ServerIron ADX 12.4.00 Technical data

Brocade Communications Systems ServerIron ADX 12.4.00 Technical data
53-1002435-01
January, 2012
ServerIron ADX
Advanced Server Load Balancing Guide
Supporting Brocade ServerIron ADX version 12.4.00
®
© 2012 Brocade Communications Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Brocade, Brocade Assurance, the B-wing symbol, DCX, Fabric OS, MLX, SAN Health, VCS, and VDX are registered trademarks, and
AnyIO, Brocade One, CloudPlex, Effortless Networking, ICX, NET Health, OpenScript, and The Effortless Network are trademarks of
Brocade Communications Systems, Inc., in the United States and/or in other countries. Other brands, products, or service names
mentioned may be trademarks of their respective owners.
Notice: This document is for informational purposes only and does not set forth any warranty, expressed or implied, concerning
any equipment, equipment feature, or service offered or to be offered by Brocade. Brocade reserves the right to make changes to
this document at any time, without notice, and assumes no responsibility for its use. This informational document describes
features that may not be currently available. Contact a Brocade sales office for information on feature and product availability.
Export of technical data contained in this document may require an export license from the United States government.
The authors and Brocade Communications Systems, Inc. shall have no liability or responsibility to any person or entity with
respect to any loss, cost, liability, or damages arising from the information contained in this book or the computer programs that
accompany it.
The product described by this document may contain "open source" software covered by the GNU General Public License or other
open source license agreements. To find out which open source software is included in Brocade products, view the licensing
terms applicable to the open source software, and obtain a copy of the programming source code, please visit
http://www.brocade.com/support/oscd.
Brocade Communications Systems, Incorporated
Corporate and Latin American Headquarters
Brocade Communications Systems, Inc.
130 Holger Way
San Jose, CA 95134
E-mail: [email protected]
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Brocade Communications Systems China HK, Ltd.
No. 1 Guanghua Road
Chao Yang District
Units 2718 and 2818
Beijing 100020, China
Tel: +8610 6588 8888
Fax: +8610 6588 9999
E-mail: [email protected]
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Tel: +41 22 799 5640
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E-mail: [email protected]
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Citic Plaza
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Fax: +8620 3891 2111
E-mail: [email protected]
Document History
Title
Publication number
Summary of changes
Date
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Balancing Guide
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New document
January, 2012
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Contents
About This Document
Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Supported hardware and software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Document conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Text formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Command syntax conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Notes, cautions, and danger notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Notice to the reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Getting technical help or reporting errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Web access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
E-mail and telephone access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Chapter 1
SIP Server Load Balancing
SIP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SIP packet flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SIP terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SIP message headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
SIP SLB and Call Persistence using ServerIron ADX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
SIP and Call Persistence specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Sample deployment topologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
SIP server health monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Configuring SIP SLB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Load Balancing SIP over UDP (Stateless SLB mode) . . . . . . . . 11
Load Balancing SIP over UDP (Stateful SLB mode). . . . . . . . . . 15
Load Balancing SIP over TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Load Balancing SIP over TCP sample configuration . . . . . . . . . 24
Other Load Balancing SIP over TCP options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
SIP SLB command reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 2
Transparent Cache Switching
TCS Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Advanced statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
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Sample Deployment Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Basic TCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
TCS with spoofing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
TCS with destination NAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
TCS with Source NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
VIPs with reverse proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Configuring TCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Configuration notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Defining a cache server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Identify application ports for caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Assigning web cache servers to cache groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Enabling TCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Other TCS options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Resetting the server cache table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Disabling a cache group or a server in a cache group . . . . . . . 45
Removing or re-assigning an interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Cache Route Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Enabling Destination NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Configuring Source NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Selecting a method for server selection within a cache group. 52
Controlling traffic distribution among cache servers . . . . . . . . 53
Increasing the TCS hash bucket count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Enabling cache server spoofing support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Configuring maximum connections for a cache server. . . . . . . 59
Setting the maximum TCP connection rate for a cache server. 60
Setting the cache server weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Enabling FastCache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Enabling remote cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Shutting down a cache server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Forceful shutdown on cache servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Passive FTP for TCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Streaming media support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Policy based caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Creating a set of filters using access-list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Configuring default cache-group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Configuring an ACL to bypass caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Content aware cache switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
How CSW works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Basic example of content aware cache switching . . . . . . . . . . . 71
HTTP 1.1 support for content aware cache switching . . . . . . . . 77
Traffic Distribution based on Cache Server Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Configuring SNMP-based Cache Server load balancing . . . . . . 81
Displaying cache information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
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Sample configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Basic TCS configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
POP belonging to an ISP using caching to
minimize WAN costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Policy-based caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Asymmetric TCS (FastCache) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Policy-based cache failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
TCS with reverse proxy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
High availability designs with TCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Layer 3 TCS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Active-standby TCS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Interoperability issues with cache servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
CacheFlow server version 2.x.x and 3.x.x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
NetCache servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
NetCache C720 cache server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
CSW with NetCache cache servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Cache Persistence using URL Hashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Cache Persistence using hashing on a portion of the URL. . .118
Supporting multiple pattern search for the same rule . . . . . .123
Selecting the IP addresses hash method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Force rehash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
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About This Document
Audience
This document is designed for system administrators with a working knowledge of Layer 2 and
Layer 3 switching and routing.
If you are using a Brocade Layer 3 Switch, you should be familiar with the following protocols if
applicable to your network – IP, RIP, OSPF, BGP, ISIS, IGMP, PIM, DVMRP, and VRRP.
Supported hardware and software
Although many different software and hardware configurations are tested and supported by
Brocade Communications Systems, Inc. for 12.3 documenting all possible configurations and
scenarios is beyond the scope of this document.
The following hardware platforms are supported by this release of this guide:
•
•
•
•
ServerIron ADX 1000
ServerIron ADX 4000
ServerIron ADX 8000
ServerIron ADX 10K
Document conventions
This section describes text formatting conventions and important notice formats used in this
document.
Text formatting
The narrative-text formatting conventions that are used are as follows:
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bold text
Identifies command names
Identifies the names of user-manipulated GUI elements
Identifies keywords
Identifies text to enter at the GUI or CLI
italic text
Provides emphasis
Identifies variables
Identifies document titles
code text
Identifies CLI output
For readability, command names in the narrative portions of this guide are presented in bold: for
example, show version.
Command syntax conventions
Command syntax in this manual follows these conventions:
command and
parameters
Commands and parameters are printed in bold.
[]
Optional parameter.
variable
Variables are printed in italics enclosed in angled brackets < >.
...
Repeat the previous element, for example “member[;member...]”
|
Choose from one of the parameters.
Notes, cautions, and danger notices
The following notices and statements are used in this manual. They are listed below in order of
increasing severity of potential hazards.
NOTE
A note provides a tip, guidance or advice, emphasizes important information, or provides a reference
to related information.
CAUTION
A Caution statement alerts you to situations that can be potentially hazardous to you or cause
damage to hardware, firmware, software, or data.
DANGER
A Danger statement indicates conditions or situations that can be potentially lethal or extremely
hazardous to you. Safety labels are also attached directly to products to warn of these conditions
or situations.
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Notice to the reader
This document may contain references to the trademarks of the following corporations. These
trademarks are the properties of their respective companies and corporations.
These references are made for informational purposes only.
Corporation
Referenced Trademarks and Products
Sun Microsystems
Solaris
Microsoft Corporation
Windows NT, Windows 2000
The Open Group
Linux
Related publications
The following © 2009 Brocade Communications Systems Inc. documents supplement the
information in this guide:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Release Notes for ServerIron Switch and Router Software TrafficWorks 12.2.00
ServerIron ADX Graphical User Interface
ServerIron ADX Server Load Balancing Guide
ServerIron ADX Advanced Server Load Balancing Guide
ServerIron ADX Global Server Load Balancing Guide
ServerIron ADX Security Guide
ServerIron ADX Administration Guide
ServerIron ADX Switching and Routing Guide
ServerIron ADX Installation Guide
ServerIron ADX Firewall Load Balancing Guide
Ironware MIB Reference Manual
NOTE
For the latest edition of these documents, which contain the most up-to-date information, see
Product Manuals at kp.foundrynet.com.
Getting technical help or reporting errors
Brocade is committed to ensuring that your investment in our products remains cost-effective. If
you need assistance, or find errors in the manuals, contact Brocade using one of the following
options.
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Web access
The Knowledge Portal (KP) contains the latest version of this guide and other user guides for the
product. You can also report errors on the KP.
Log in to my.Brocade.com, click the Product Documentation tab, then click on the link to the
Knowledge Portal (KP). Then click on Cases > Create a New Ticket to report an error. Make sure you
specify the document title in the ticket description.
E-mail and telephone access
Go to http://www.brocade.com/services-support/index.page for the latest e-mail and telephone
contact information.
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Chapter
SIP Server Load Balancing
1
SIP Overview
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol used by numerous IP communication
products to create session-oriented connections between two or more endpoints in an IP network.
SIP is emerging as the preferred technology for Voice over IP (VoIP) implementations.
Application-aware network switches play a vital role in increasing the uptime and availability of IP
based services such as VoIP. Many customers rely on this technology to meet mission-critical
application requirements. Together with advanced SIP intelligence, ServerIron switches offer highly
scalable, available, and secure load balancing infrastructure for SIP applications.
SIP is an application-layer protocol that can establish, modify, and terminate multimedia sessions,
such as Internet telephony. In this implementation, ServerIron SIP Server Load Balancing balances
SIP requests and responses, based on a call-ID.
SIP Server Load Balancing is based on a request and response transaction model that is similar to
HTTP. Each transaction consists of a request that invokes a particular method on the server, and at
least one response. The method is carried within the request message.
References
• SIP: Session Initiation Protocol - RFC 3261
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3261.txt?number=3261
SIP packet flow
Figure 1 demonstrates the basic operation of SIP signaling protocol; location of an end-point, signal
of a desire to communicate, negotiation of session parameters to establish the session, and
tear-down of the session after completion.
FIGURE 1
SIP packet flow
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SIP Overview
SIP Proxy Server
user1
IP Phone
user2
IP Phone
INVITE F1
INVITE F2
TRYING F3
RINGING F4
RINGING F5
200 OK F6
200 OK F7
ACK F8
MEDIA FLOW
BYE F9
OK F10
This example shows packet exchange between two SIP clients, also known as user agent clients
(UAC). Each message is labeled with the letter "F" and a number for reference by the text. The
session established between the two end clients is facilitated by the SIP proxy server. User1 "calls"
User2 using his/her SIP identity, a type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) called a "SIP URI." The
SIP URI is similar to an email address, typically containing a username and a host name. In this
case, it is sip:[email protected], where brocade.com is the domain of User1's SIP service
provider.
SIP is based on an HTTP-like request and response transaction model. Each transaction consists of
a request that invokes a particular method, or function, on the server, and at least one response. In
this example, the transaction begins with User1's SIP phone sending an INVITE request addressed
to User2's SIP URI. The INVITE request contains a number of header fields. The fields present in an
INVITE include a unique identifier for the call (Call-ID), the destination address, User1's address,
and information about the type of session that User1 wishes to establish with User2. The INVITE
(message F1 in Figure 1) would look like the following.
INVITE sip:[email protected] SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pcuser1.brocade.com;branch=dkDKdkDKdkDK1111
Max-Forwards: 50
To: User2 <sip:[email protected]>
From: User1 <sip:[email protected]>;tag=1122334455
Call-ID: [email protected]
CSeq: 123456 INVITE
Contact: <sip:[email protected]>
Content-Type: application/sdp
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SIP Overview
1
Content-Length: 142
Since User1's SIP phone does not know the location of User2's SIP phone, it sends the INVITE
message to the SIP proxy server that is serving the brocade.com domain. The address of the
brocade.com proxy server is known to the SIP phone through static configuration or through DHCP.
The proxy server receives the INVITE request and sends a 100 (Trying) response back to User1's
SIP phone. This response contains the same To, From, Call-ID, CSeq and branch parameter in the
Via as the INVITE, which allows User1's SIP phone to correlate this response to the previously sent
INVITE. The proxy server consults a database, generally called a location service, that contains the
current IP address of User2. It then forwards (or proxies) the INVITE request there. Before
forwarding the request, the proxy server adds an additional Via header field value with its own
address (the INVITE already contains User1's address in the first Via).
User2's SIP phone receives the INVITE and alerts User2 of the incoming call from User1, that is,
User2's phone rings. User2's SIP phone indicates this by a 180 (Ringing) response, which is routed
back through the SIP proxy server in the reverse direction. When User1's SIP phone receives the
180 (Ringing) response, it passes this information to User1, using an audio ringback tone.
If User2 decides to answer the call (User2 picks up the handset), the SIP phone sends a 200 OK
response to indicate that the call has been answered. The 200 OK contains the Via, To, From,
Call-ID, and CSeq header fields that are copied from the INVITE request, and a message body with
the SDP media description of the type of session that User2 is willing to establish with User1. The
200 OK (message F6 in Figure 1) would look like the following.
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pcproxy.brocade.com
;branch= dkDKdkDKdkDK2222;received=172.1.1.2
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pcuser1.brocade.com
;branch= dkDKdkDKdkDK1111;received=172.1.1.1
To: User2 <sip:[email protected]>;tag=dkdkdk1
From: User1 <sip:[email protected]>;tag=1122334455
Call-ID: [email protected]
CSeq: 123456 INVITE
Contact: <sip:[email protected]>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 131
The 200 OK message is routed back through the SIP proxy server to the User1's SIP phone, which
then stops the ringback tone and indicates that the call has been answered. Finally, User1's SIP
phone sends an acknowledgement message, ACK, to User2's SIP phone to confirm the reception of
the final response (200 OK). This ACK is sent directly from User1's SIP phone to User2's SIP phone,
bypassing the SIP proxy server. This occurs because the endpoints have now learned each other's
IP address from the Contact header fields through the INVITE/200 OK exchange, which was not
known when the initial INVITE was sent. This completes the INVITE/200/ACK three-way handshake
used to establish SIP sessions.
User1 and User2's media exchange now begins using the format that they have agreed upon
through SDP. In general, the end-to-end media packets take a different path from the SIP signaling
messages. At the end of the call, User2 disconnects (hangs up) the phone and generates a BYE
message. This BYE is routed directly to User1's SIP phone, again bypassing the SIP proxy. User1
confirms receipt of the BYE with a 200 OK response, which terminates the session and the BYE
transaction. No ACK is sent. (An ACK is only sent in response to an INVITE request.)
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SIP Overview
SIP client registration
Registration is another common SIP operation. Registration is the means through which the SIP
domain's registrar server learns the current location of SIP clients (UAC). Upon initialization, and at
periodic intervals, the SIP clients send REGISTER messages to domain's SIP registrar server. The
REGISTER messages associate an individual SIP URI (sip:[email protected]) with the machine (IP
address) into which the user is currently logged. The registrar server writes this association to a
database, called the location service, where it can be used by the SIP proxy server of the domain.
Often, a registrar server and the location service for a domain are co-located with the proxy server
for that domain.
SIP terminology
This section describes terms and concepts that you might find useful when configuring SIP-LB.
Request-URI
Every SIP user has a URI. One SIP user calls another by setting the SIP URI of the latter in the
request message, (also called request-URI), which appears before all message headers.
UAC
A User Agent Client (UAC) is a logical entity that creates a new request. The role of UAC lasts only for
the duration of the transaction.
UAS
A User Agent Server (UAS) is a logical entity that generates a response to a SIP request. The
response accepts, rejects, or redirects the request.
Proxy server
An intermediary entity that acts as both a server and a client for the purpose of making requests on
behalf of other clients. A proxy server is primarily a router, which means its job is to ensure that a
request is sent to another entity nearer to the targeted user. A proxy interprets and, if necessary,
rewrites specific parts of a request message before forwarding it.
Redirect server
A redirect server is a user agent server that generates 3xx responses to requests it receives,
directing the client to contact an alternate set of URIs.
Registrar server
A registrar server accepts REGISTER requests and places the information it receives in those
requests into the location service for the domain it handles.
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SIP Overview
1
SIP message headers
This section describes SIP message headers that you might find useful when making decisions
about SIP Server Load Balancing.
CALL-ID
The call-ID is a header field that appears in all SIP requests and responses. This header field acts
as a unique identifier to group together a series of messages. It must be the same for all requests
and responses sent by either UAC or UAS in a dialog.
Call-ID is generated by the combination of a random string and the host name or IP address of a
particular UAC. There is no length restriction on call-ID. in the first implementation, real server is
selected based on hash value of call ID (stateless mode) or value of call ID (stateful mode).
Record-Route
The Record-Route header field is inserted by a proxy in a request to force future requests in the
dialog to be routed through the proxy.For example, Record-Route: <sip: server10.Biloxi.com; 1r>
From
The From header field indicates the LOGICAL identity of the initiator of the request. It contains a URI
and, optionally, a display name. This field MUST contain a "tag" parameter, chosen by the UAC.
IP addresses of the host on which the UA is running should not be used as "from" URIs, as these are
not logical names.
For example,
From: "Alice" <sip: [email protected]> ; tag=a48s or From: "Alice" <sip: [email protected]> ; tag=a48s
To
The To header field specifies the desired logical recipient of the request. This might not be the
ultimate recipient of the request. Normally, the initial To field is set to be the value of the
Request-URI. One exception is the REGISTER method.
To: Alice <sip: [email protected] > or To: Alice <sip: [email protected] >
Via
The Via header field indicates the path taken by the request so far and indicates the path that
should be followed in routing responses. A Via header field value contains the transport protocol
used to send the message, the client's host name or network address, and possibly the port
number at which it wishes to receive responses. It is a mandatory field for the UAC or UAS SIP
proxies, and guarantees that the responses traverse through the same route as the requests.
For example, Via: SIP/2.0/UDP erlang.bell-telephone.com:5060; branch=z9hGbK87asdks7
The branch ID parameter in the Via header field values serve as a transaction identifier, and is
used by proxies to detect loops.
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Max-Forwards
The Max-Forwards header field must be used with any SIP method to limit the number of proxies or
gateways that can forward the request to the next downstream server.
The Max-Forwards value is an integer in the range 1-255 indicating the remaining number of times
that a request message is allowed to be forwarded. The recommended initial value is 70.
SIP SLB and Call Persistence using ServerIron ADX
Figure 2 shows an overview of a ServerIron SIP Server Load Balancing implementation.
FIGURE 2
ServerIron SIP Server Load Balancing implementation
User 1
TRYING F3
TRYING F3
RINGING F5
RINGING F5
OK F7
OK F7
INVITE F1
L2/3
Infrastructure
INVITE F1
RINGING F4
OK F6
OK F10
BYE F9
MEDIA RTP
ACK F8
ServerIron
SIP
Proxy
Server
INVITE F2
RINGING F4
OK F6
INVITE F2
User 2
From/To SIP Phone To/From VIP
There are three kinds of SIP servers:
• proxy server
• redirect server, and
• registrar server.
In Figure 2, the ServerIron SIP load balancer (SIP Server Load Balancing) uses the Domain-1 VIP to
load balance SIP requests from Client A (user1) or Client B (user2) among Domain 1 proxy servers
and registrar servers.
The SIP Server Load Balancing uses the Domain-2 VIP to load balance SIP requests from Client A
(user1) or Client B (user2) among Domain 2 proxy servers and registrar servers.
The ServerIron offers support for the following SIP servers in accordance with RFC 3261:
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• Proxy
• Redirect
• Registrar
The ServerIron supports the following methods in accordance with RFC 3261:
•
•
•
•
•
•
INVITE
REGISTER
ACK
CANCEL
BYE
OPTIONS
Additionally, the following methods are supported:
• SUBSCRIBE
• NOTIFY
• Other proprietary methods
SIP and Call Persistence specifications
The SIP Server Load Balancing feature has the following specifications:
• By default, server selection is persistent on Call-ID.
• Pass-through SIP traffic from real SIP servers to SIP clients gets translated. The ServerIron
replaces source IP (SIP server real IP) with Virtual IP (VIP)
• The ServerIron does not modify any of the SIP header fields.
• No SIP Aware NAT support.
• This implementation is based on RFC 3261.
NOTE
The ServerIron SIP SLB is not implemented as a SIP proxy server, but rather as a load balancer of
proxy or registrar traffic.
NOTE
The ServerIron does not modify any of the SIP headers. It also does not perform SIP-aware NAT.
Sample deployment topologies
ServerIron switches offer application-aware advanced intelligence for SIP server load balancing.
The following sections describe some SIP Server Load Balancing scenarios.
Design #1: SIP Server Load Balancing with DSR mode
Figure 3 shows an SIP server farm built around ServerIron application switches for higher
availability, accelerated performance, on-demand scalability, and robust security.
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FIGURE 3
SIP server farm with DSR mode
SIP Proxy Server
G
YIN
TR
F3
ING
G
RIN
OK
F5
F7
IN
VI
TE
user1
F1
ServerIron
F2
F4
L2/3
Infrastructure
F1
SI
OK
F6
G
TE
VI
IN
IN
NG
RI
OK F10
BYE F9
MEDIA RTP
ACK F8
INVITE
user2
From/To SIP Phone To/From VIP
From/To SIP Phone To/From Real IP
Figure 3 demonstrates a typical use case - the ServerIron application switch provides call-id based
server persistence for UDP SIP traffic. The Call-ID attribute that uniquely identifies a SIP call is used
to maintain session persistence. Due to the unique call flow requirements of SIP, most SIP
implementations require you to enable direct server return (DSR) mode on the ServerIron switch.
Since User1's SIP phone does not know the location of User2's SIP phone, it initiates a new SIP
session by sending INVITE request to SIP Proxy server. It also generates a unique identifier (Call-ID)
for the call. Because the SIP proxy server used by User1's SIP phone is actually the virtual IP
address hosted on the ServerIron switch, the ServerIron switch receives the INVITE request and,
using a server selection mechanism, identifies the best available SIP server for this INVITE. The
ServerIron uses the call-ID attribute value to select one of SIP servers in either stateless or stateful
mode. For all SIP transactions within a dialog that use same call-ID, the ServerIron selects the
same SIP server. A new INVITE message with a different call-ID is again subjected to Server Load
Balancing and may be forwarded to a different SIP server.
The proxy server receives the INVITE request and sends 100 (Trying) message to User1's SIP
phone. Since the ServerIron switch is configured in DSR mode, the response message that is
sourced from the virtual IP address flows directly to User1's SIP phone, bypassing the ServerIron.
The proxy server then consults the location service and forwards the INVITE request directly to
User2's SIP phone, again bypassing the ServerIron and is sourced from the proxy server's own IP
address.
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NOTE
The proxy server's IP address must be reachable from all SIP clients.
User2's SIP phone receives the INVITE and alerts User2 of an incoming call. User2 replies with a
Ringing message to the proxy server. if User2 answers the call, a 200 OK message is sent to the
proxy server. The proxy server forwards this message to User1's SIP phone. Upon receiving the 200
OK message, User1's SIP phone sends an acknowledgement (ACK) message directly to User2's SIP
phone, bypassing the proxy server. User1 and User2 SIP phones now begin media exchange and
upon completion, a BYE message closes the call.
Some SIP servers may be configured to use virtual IP address (VIP) as the source address for all
communications. Figure 4 shows SIP packet flows in this type of configuration.
FIGURE 4
SIP server farm with DSR and SIP server using VIP as source address
SIP Proxy Server
G
YIN
TR
F3
ING
G
RIN
IN
F5
VI
TE
RI
NG
7
KF
F1
IN
O
G
O
user1
K
F6
F4
ServerIron
SI
VI
TE
F2
L2/3
Infrastructure
F1
IN
OK F10
BYE F9
MEDIA RTP
ACK F8
INVITE
ING
G
RIN
OK
F4
F6
user2
From/To SIP Phone To/From VIP
In this implementation, the SIP proxy server must use same call-ID for both legs of communication
(the same call-ID for message exchange with both SIP clients within a given SIP dialog). Session
persistence and transaction integrity can only be achieved if the proxy server uses same call-ID.
Design #2: SIP Server Load Balancing with ServerIron non-DSR mode
Figure shows a SIP server farm with proxy servers connected inline (non-DSR mode) with the
ServerIron switch.
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FIGURE 5
SIP Server Load Balancing with ServerIron non-DSR mode
OK F7
TRYING F3
INVITE F1
INVITE F2
RINGING F4
OK F6
RINGING F5
SIP Proxy Server
SI
TE
I
NV
F3
G
ServerIron
F5
F7
F2
F6
F4
K
O
O
G
IN
G
K
IN
NG
RI
R
IN
TE
G
VI
N
YI
TR
IN
I
F1
ACK F8
MEDIA RTP
user1
user2
BYE F9
OK F10
From/To SIP Phone To/From VIP
To maintain session persistence and transaction integrity, this implementation has the following
requirements:
• The SIP proxy server should use same call-ID for both legs of communication (for example, for
message exchange with both SIP clients within a given SIP dialog).
• For all outbound SIP communications, the proxy server should use the same UDP/TCP source
port as that used as the destination port for all inbound communications.
NOTE
If the proxy server uses a source port other than the one used as the destination port for inbound
communications, then these packets arriving from proxy server go untranslated by the ServerIron.
The proxy server IP address must be reachable from all SIP clients in such cases.
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SIP server health monitoring
There are two types of SIP servers of particular importance — SIP proxy servers and SIP registrar
servers. The ServerIron supports advanced UDP layer-7 application health checks for both server
types.
ServerIron switches can be enabled to send REGISTER or OPTION messages to SIP servers to track
their health. When an error-free response status (default is 200 OK) is received, then the
ServerIron marks the SIP server as being available, and starts assigning new SIP sessions to the
available servers.
The switches can also be configured to send health monitoring messages at user-defined
frequency and retrial attempts. Our unique system architecture allows a dedicated processor for
health monitoring and device management, which significantly increases the reliability and
efficiency of health monitoring and therefore improves the overall service availability. By default,
200 OK is considered a valid response code. Optionally, you can configure the switch to accept
other response codes that indicate a healthy and available server.
SIP messages with specific SIP methods are switched to the appropriate SIP server. As an example,
REGISTER messages are forwarded only to the SIP registrar server; whereas INVITE messages are
distributed among SIP proxy servers.
Configuring SIP SLB
Load Balancing SIP over UDP (Stateless SLB mode)
The following sections discuss SIP over UDP.
Configure a SIP proxy server and enable health check
Follow the steps given below to configure a real SIP proxy server and its health check.
1. Configure a real server and IP address for a proxy server and enter the real-server
configuration mode.
ServerIronADX(config)# server real proxy-server-1 1.1.3.1
Syntax: [no] server real <name> <ip address>
2. Specify the SIP port.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-proxy-server-1)# port sip
Syntax: [no] port sip
NOTE
You can specify SIP port number 5060 or the keyword SIP.
3. Specify a proxy-server and a health-check method with options.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-redirect-server-1)# port sip sip-proxy-server
health-check-method options
Syntax: port sip [sip-proxy-server] [health-check-method register|options]
[health-check-no-dsr]
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• sip-proxy-server— Identifies the server as SIP proxy server.
• health-check-method— specifies the SIP health check method.
• options— enables health check through OPTION messages.
• register— enables health check through REGISTER messages (default method).
• health-check-no-dsr— specifies for health check to be sent to a real server rather than a
virtual server.
Configure a SIP registrar server and enable health check
Follow the steps given below to configure real SIP registrar server and its health check.
1. Configure a real server and IP address for a registrar server and enter the real-server
configuration mode.
ServerIronADX(config)# server real registrar-1 1.1.5.1
Syntax: [no] server real <name> <ip address>
2. Specify the SIP port.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-registrar-1)#port sip
Syntax: [no] port sip
3. Specify a registrar and a health-check with no DSR. In this scenario, health-check messages
are sent directly to a real server IP address.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-registrar-1)#port sip sip-registrar
health-check-no-dsr
Syntax: port sip [sip-registrar] [health-check-method register|options] [health-check-no-dsr]
• sip-registrar— Identifies the server as SIP registrar.
• health-check-method— specifies the SIP health check method.
• options— enables health check through OPTION messages.
• register— enables health check through REGISTER messages (default method).
• health-check-no-dsr— specifies for health check to be sent to a real server rather than a
virtual server.
Configure a SIP proxy plus registrar server and enable health check
Follow the steps given below to configure real SIP proxy/registrar server and its health check.
1. Configure a real server name and IP address for a registrar/proxy server and enter the real
server configuration mode.
ServerIronADX(config)# server real registrar-proxy-server-5 1.1.9.5
Syntax: [no] server real <name> <ip address>
2. Specify the SIP port.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-registrar-proxy-server-5)# port sip
Syntax: [no] port sip
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NOTE
You can specify SIP port number 5060 or the keyword SIP.
3. Specify a registrar-proxy server.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-registrar-proxy-server-5)# port sip
sip-both-registrar-proxy-server
Syntax: port sip [sip-both-registrar-proxy-server] [health-check-method register|options]
[health-check-no-dsr]
• sip-both-registrar-proxy-server— Identifies the server as an SIP registrar or a proxy server.
• health-check-method— specifies the SIP health check method.
• options— enables health check through OPTION messages.
• register— enables health check through REGISTER messages (default method).
• health-check-no-dsr— specifies for health check to be sent to a real server rather than a
virtual server.
Configure a SIP redirect server and enable health check
Follow the steps given below to configure real SIP redirect server and its health check.
1. Configure a real server name and IP address for a redirect server and enter the real server
configuration mode.
ServerIronADX(config)# server real redirect-server-1 1.1.1.1
Syntax: [no] server real <name> <ip address>
2. Specify the SIP port.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-redirect-server-1)# port sip
Syntax:
[no] port sip
NOTE
You can specify SIP port number 5060 or the keyword sip.
3. Specify a redirect-server and a health-check method.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-redirect-server-1)# port sip sip-redirect-server
health-check-method register
Syntax: port sip [sip-redirect-server] [health-check-method register|options]
[health-check-no-dsr]
• sip-redirect-server— Identifies the server as SIP redirect server.
• health-check-method— specifies the SIP health check method.
• options— enables health check through OPTION messages.
• register— enables health check through REGISTER messages (default method).
• health-check-no-dsr— specifies for health check to be sent to a real server rather than a
virtual server.
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Configure a SIP virtual server
Follow the steps given below to configure SIP Server Load Balancing virtual redirect-proxy servers
and virtual proxy domains, and bind real severs to virtual servers.
1. Configure a virtual proxy-domain-name and IP address for Domain 1 and enter the virtual
server configuration mode.
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip proxy-domain-1 1.1.6.9
Syntax: [no] server virtual-name-or-ip <name> <ip address>
2. Specify the SIP port and SIP switch.
ServerIronADX(config-vs-proxy-domain-1)# port sip sip-switch
Syntax: [no] port sip sip-switch
This "must have" command enables sip switch for this virtual port.
NOTE
You can also specify the logical SIP port number 5060 or the keyword sip.
3. Configure a domain and specify a SIP domain name and dummy user.
ServerIronADX(config-vs-proxy-domain-1)# port sip sip-user-name sipuser
domain-name domain-1
Syntax: [no] port sip [sip-user-name <user-name> [domain-name <domain-name>]]
NOTE
The domain name is now optional. If you do not specify a domain name, the server IP address
is used.
4. Bind real SIP registrar servers.
ServerIronADX(config-vs-proxy-domain-1)# bind sip registrar-1 sip registrar-2
sip
Syntax: bind sip <registrar-name> bind sip <registrar-name> sip
5. Bind real SIP proxy servers.
ServerIronADX(config-vs-proxy-domain-1)# bind sip proxy-server-1 sip
proxy-server-2 sip
6. Return to global configuration mode.
ServerIronADX(config-vs-proxy-domain-1)# exit
Configuring health check
SIP Health Check can be performed by either the SIP REGISTER or OPTIONS method. Configure the
method according to your needs. The default method is REGISTER.
To configure SIP Health Check correctly, you must configure the sip-domain-name and dummy-user
at the virtual port level. SIP Health Check is only enabled at Layer 7 using UDP as the transport
layer.
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SIP stateless sample configuration
Load Balancing SIP over UDP (Stateful SLB mode)
This feature enhances the SIP feature by making it stateful and by adding necessary intelligence for
handling varying caller-id situations.
This feature has the following elements:
• SIP stateful support— Server selection is based on round robin persistent on user configured
key-header, such as Call-ID, and corresponding SIP sessions are created for this purpose.
• Persistence parameter can be extended— The persistence parameter can be extended to other
key header field, such as, VIA header. This applies to both SIP stateful and SIP stateless.
• Server initiated SIP requests handling— Sessions created so that subsequent transactions with
the same persistence parameter are directed to the same real server. This applies to SIP
stateful only. This enables the ServerIron to load-balance the B2BUA SIP servers.
• Support for fragmentated UDP support— Applies to both SIP stateful and SIP stateless.
• TCP SIP requests result in a TCP reset packet— According to RFC 3261, this will force sender to
retry the request using UDP. This applies to both SIP stateful and stateless.
• Redundancy support— SIP stateful supports both hot-standby and symmetric configuration by
synchronizing SIP sessions to peer box. Sym-active configuration is not recommended.
• SIP session created in ServerIron with multiple barrel processor are synched to all BPs.
SIP stateful basic configuration
1. Configure a Real Server
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs 2.2.2.2
ServerIronADX(config)# port sip sip-proxy-server
ServerIronADX(config)# port sip sip-both-registrar-proxy-server
health-check-method register
2. Configure a Virtual Server
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip sip_vip 1.1.1.1
ServerIronADX(config)# port sip sip-stateful sip-keyfield-call-id
Syntax: [no] port sip sip-stateful [sip-keyfield-call-id |sip-keyfield-via]
ServerIronADX(config)# port sip sip-stateful
Syntax: [no] port sip sip-stateful
3. Bind Virtual Server to a Real Server
ServerIronADX(config)# bind sip rs sip
Additional SIP session-specific commands
The following global configuration commands are related to SIP load-balancing. They will affect all
virtual servers with statefull SIP load-balancing. This will not have any effect on the old stateless
SIP load-balancing. Stateless SIP load-balancing will still follow the hash table and ages
accordingly.
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Configure max number of SIP sessions
ServerIronADX(config)# server sip session max-sip-sessions 1000000
Syntax: [no] server sip session max-sip-sessions <sip-sessions>
• Where <sip-sessions> is between 10 and 2 Million.
NOTE
This command requires a reload. Removing this configuration using no command will reset the
session to 500000.
Configure SIP session age
ServerIronADX(config)# server sip session session-max-age 50
Syntax: no] server sip session session-max-age <age>
• Where age is between 0 and 60 minutes. Default Age is set to 60.
Disable partial SIP support for stateless SIP switching
ServerIronADX# server sip no-create-forward-l7-session
Syntax: [no] server sip no-create-forward-l7-session
This command does not create forward SIP sessions for the second leg Call initiation by real
servers, if the real server is bound to SIP switch enabled virtual server.
Clear SIP sessions
ServerIronADX# clear server sip session rs1
Syntax: clear server sip session <real-server>
This command clears all sip sessions load balanced to <real-server> by setting up age to be
max-age. This command can only be accessed from the management processor (MP).
Show commands for displaying SIP sessions
NOTE
The "show sip session" command does not count SIP sessions. Use the show "sip server" command
to display SIP related real server information.
•
•
•
•
•
“show sip session all”
“show sip session all detail”
“show sip session all source-ip”
“show sip session info”
“show sip server”
show sip session all
ServerIronADX# show sip sess all 0
Syntax: show sip session all <count>
NOTE
This command will display 20 SIP sessions after skipping <count > number of sessions in the
session table.
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Example
ServerIronADX# show sip sess all 0
Session Info:
Indx
====
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Src-IP
======
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.131
VIP
======
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
4.4.4.171
Key-Field
===============
QjRhwkKdnlLtANNOLLLcQokc
RlNlvdSnmjPpBUFEMNHgPhsm
KhNnihSdtnPnOQFOFJHiClsc
IrTpooNpvdJlIJKCDTNkIsno
OoWijjKppgGsNONCJQQdDnko
MnMfhmFlrhQvPLSGHPGaBqfk
TfHflbSdkpVvLWFOOHBaFfsc
NjUujnPrqlIgNKIAILOpDrpq
LiKrhqKnsmSjPHNEGKEmBukm
LtWmjiNjsbGoNPKIGVQhDmni
JsMjhlIfucQrPMPMEUGeBpie
WnLlslHlhhRpEMQGRPFgMphk
VfSinoHhipKsJJQKQHMdHshg
KuRhpqLftaLtHHMMFWLcJule
KoUijmTltgIsNLEGFQOdDqtk
VoNmpgKrigPoHRNAQQHhJkkq
InKfhpOhvhSvPIJKDPEaBtog
QrKqwdTlndSkAUEGLTElQhtk
HuJfkoJhwaTvMJOKCWDaEsjg
IqRumpTnveLgKIEEDSLpGttm
FLG Age Serv
======= =====
CID 0
r35
CID 0
r35
CID 0
r33
CID 0
r33
CID 1
r35
CID 1
r33
CID 0
r34
CID 0
r35
CID 0
r33
CID 0
r35
CID 0
r33
CID 0
r34
CID 0
r31
CID 0
r33
CID 0
r35
CID 0
r32
CID 0
r33
CID 1
r34
CID 0
r34
CID 0
r31
show sip session all detail
ServerIronADX# show sip session all detail 0
Syntax: show sip session all detail <index>
NOTE
<index> is based on the display index in "show sip session all <skipping-sessions>" above.
ServerIronADX# show sip sess all det 0
Session at index: 0
Sip: 4.4.4.131 Real Server: r34 age: 0 kcnt: 0
Is_in_hash_table: Y Not_owner: N
Key-header: PgUprlMdooIlFMLOKIOkLpmc
Ð Callid which is used for persistence.
Dump: 04040483 50675570 726c4d64 6f6f496c 464d4c4f 4b494f6b 4c706d63 00000000
00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000080 40340000 040404ab 00000000
show sip session all source-ip
ServerIronADX# show sip session all source-ip <source-IP-address> <skip-count>
Syntax: show sip session all source-ip <source-IP-address>
NOTE
This command will only show sessions initiated from <source-IP-address>
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Configuring SIP SLB
ServerIronADX# show sip sess all source-ip 4.4.4.131
0
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
SnPtwbMhlhNhAWLKNPJoQfmg
1
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
PgUprlMdooIlFMLOKIOkLpmc
2
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
OoHhjcPlpgVtNVIGJQBcDgpk
3
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
MpVgjiPlrfHuNPIGHRPbDmpk
4
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
MtUplcPrrbIlLVIAHVOkFgpq
5
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
SqUhwjUjleItAODINSOcQnui
6
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
OiTsmkRhpmJiKNGKJKNnGorg
7
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
LlIlkpHpsjUpMIQCGNCgEtho
8
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
ThNfrgUfknPvFRDMOJHaLkue
9
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
UiTgkmGnjmJuMLREPKNbEqgm
10
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
QiQtqeUnnmMhGTDELKKoKium
11
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
OnTpukHdphJlCNQOJPNkOohc
12
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
QiNsunMpnmPiCKLCLKHnOrmo
13
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
KsKmjfKntcSoNSNEFUEhDjkm
14
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
NpSspjMhqfKiHOLKIRMnJnmg
15
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
MhJpknMdrnTlMKLOHJDkErmc
16
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
IfUfmgIpvpIvKRPCDHOaGkio
17
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
QjRhwkKdnlLtANNOLLLcQokc
18
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
SoMfufPflgQvCSIMNQGaOjpe
19
4.4.4.131
4.4.4.171
TpVhjcJlkfHtNVOGORPcDgjk
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
CID
2
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
0
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
2
4
0
3
r31
r34
r33
r34
r33
r32
r35
r33
r33
r34
r34
r35
r32
r31
r31
r33
r34
r35
r34
r32
show sip session info
ServerIronADX# show sip session info
Syntax: show sip session info
This command displays information on SIP session usage.
ServerIronADX# show sip session info
Avail. SIP sessions
=
499998 Total SIP sessions
=
500000
show sip server
Use this command to display real server related information.
ServerIronADX# show sip server
Avail. SIP sessions
=
0 Total SIP sessions
=
500000
Server State - 0: disabled, 1:enabled, 2:failed, 3:test, 4:suspect, 5:grace_dn,
6:active
18
Real Server
St CurrConn
TotConn
CurrSess
PeakConn
r31
r32
r33
r34
r35
6
6
6
6
6
344489
344505
344549
344596
344702
28723
28722
28722
28722
28723
91687
91632
91951
91566
91870
28723
28722
28722
28722
28723
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SIP Stateful sample configuration
Load Balancing SIP over TCP
Like HTTP, SIP protocol follows a request and response model. However, SIP transactions are
independent of the underlying transport layer protocol. For example, some transactions run over
UDP connections, some get transported over TCP connections, and some use a combination of TCP
and UDP interchangeably, depending on the size of the data.
Generally most SIP deployments are observed over UDP transport. However, some service
providers use TCP instead of UDP to offer advanced SIP based voice and video services. The
primary reason for this method is to avoid the fragmentation experience over UDP connections and
to use the congestion avoidance mechanism of TCP.
In most cases, TCP and UDP are used interchangeably, depending on the data length. This behavior
poses a few challenges for the SIP application delivery controller vendor. Support for TCP in
addition to UDP is provided for seamless deployment of advanced SIP services. This
implementation is based on RFC 3261.
The sections below describe sample supported topologies for TCP SIP SLB.
Connection handling with SIP requests initiated by client
When a SIP client initiates a call using TCP, it uses either a separate TCP connection for each call or
groups multiple calls together over a single TCP connection.
When a ServerIron receives these calls over a single or multiple TCP connections, it load balances
them among back end proxy servers. The call persistence is maintained using SIP Call-ID.
For the server side connection, the ServerIron uses either a single or multiple TCP connections with
or without using source NAT of the client IP address.
Client side: No connection reuse
Figure 6 shows that each SIP call uses a separate TCP connection. Each request has its unique
Call-ID. ServerIron load balances these requests among backend SIP proxy servers.
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Configuring SIP SLB
FIGURE 6
Single TCP connection for each SIP request
SIP Proxy Server
TCP Connection
Cal
l-ID
...
-ID1
1...
Call
ServerIron
SIP phone
Cal
..
D2.
all-I
C
l-ID
2...
TCP Connection
SIP phone
SIP Proxy Server
Client side: Connection reuse with mega proxy client
Figure 7, shows several SIP requests being initiated by a Mega Proxy client. The Mega Proxy uses a
single TCP connection to send all these requests. Each of these requests are identified using their
unique SIP Call-ID. The ServerIron separates these requests and load balances them among
different back end proxy servers.
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FIGURE 7
1
Reuse of TCP connection
...
-ID1
Call
Mega-proxy
SIP Proxy Server
Call-ID1...Call-ID2...Call-ID3
ServerIron
Call-ID2
Several SIP messages
using one TCP Connection
Ca
ll-ID
3...
SIP Proxy Server
SIP Proxy Server
Server side connection: With source NAT
If source NAT is enabled, then the ServerIron uses source NAT IP addresses and ports for
establishing connections with proxy servers.
Server side connection: Without source NAT
A ServerIron may be configured with a maximum number of TCP connections to a specific proxy
server.
If source NAT is disabled on the ServerIron, then the ServerIron establishes new TCP connections
based on connection reuse setting:
• Connection reuse disabled - If a new SIP requests is received and the configured maximum
number of server connections has been reached, then ServerIron drops any new request. This
is the default behavior.
• Connection reuse enabled - If a new SIP requests is received and the configured maximum
number of server connections has been reached, then ServerIron reuses an established
connection to process client request.
NOTE
With either setting, the client identity (IP address and port) is preserved since source NAT is not
enabled.
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Configuring SIP SLB
Connection handling with SIP requests
initiated by proxy server
The topologies involving B2BUA are supported. ServerIron performs reverse source NAT on SIP
server initiated traffic.
FIGURE 8
SIP proxy server initiated SIP requests
SIP Proxy Server
Cal
l-ID
ServerIron
SIP phone
1...
l-ID
1...
Cal
Cal
l-ID
...
D2
all-I
C
2...
SIP phone
Load balancing modes
The ServerIron can be enabled in one of the following modes while performing TCP SIP server load
balancing:
• Stateless: The system maintains an internal hash table to ensure SIP call persistence.
• Stateful: The system creates session table entries to ensure SIP call persistence.
Other commands for SIP over TCP SLB
Several new commands have been introduced for SIP support over TCP. They are discussed in the
following sections:
• “Global SIP over TCP commands” on page 22
• “Real server commands for SIP over TCP” on page 23
• “Virtual server commands for SIP over TCP” on page 24
Global SIP over TCP commands
Use the following command to configure the maximum number of TCP-based client connections.
ServerIronADX(config)# server sip max-client-tcp-connections 25
Syntax: [no] server sip max-client-tcp-connections <#-of-connections>
Enter 1 - 64 for <#-of-connections>, which specifies the maximum number of concurrent TCP
connections that ServerIron can actively open to a specific event.
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Use the following command to configure the maximum number of TCP-based server connections.
ServerIronADX(config)# server sip max-server-tcp-connections 25
Syntax: [no] server sip max-server-tcp-connections <#of connections>
Enter 1 - 64 for <#-of-connections>, which specifies the maximum number of concurrent TCP
connections that ServerIron can actively open to a specific server.
Use the following command to limit the maximum number of TCP transactions.
ServerIronADX(config)# server sip max-tcp-transaction-limit 200,000
Syntax: [no] server sip max-tcp-transaction-limit <#-of-transactions>
The <#of transactions> is the concurrent SIP transactions that a ServerIron can manage. Enter 10
- 300,000 for <#-of-transactions>. The default value is 100,000.
The command should adjust the default number of concurrent SIP transactions supported on a
local BP. Normally, the default value is more than sufficient. Changing this value is not
recommended.
Real server commands for SIP over TCP
The commands in this section are entered under the SIP real server configuration level.
Use the following command to specify the maximum number of SIP connections allowed for a real
server.
ServerIronADX(config-rs1)#sip max-tcp-connections 15
Syntax: [no] sip max-tcp-connections <#of connections>
Enter 1 - 64 for <#of connections>. The default is as follows:
• 64 for connection-reuse cases, source-NAT or non-source-NAT
• For non-connection reuse cases, the value is determined by the value configured for the
max-conn command configured.
NOTE
This command takes precedence over the server sip max-client-tcp-connections and server sip
max-server-tcp-connections (global) commands.
To enable server side connection reuse when Source-NAT is not configured, enter the following
command.
ServerIronADX(config-rs1)# sip enable-tcp-connection-reuse
Syntax: [no] sip enable-tcp-connection-reuse
You can specify an alternate real server IP address for the SIP real server. This is the IP address
that the real server will use to send out SIP requests and responses. This configuration is required
for those SIP servers that may use different IP address other than the configured real server IP
address. It helps a ServerIron to identify the traffic as real server traffic.
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Configuring SIP SLB
Enter the following command.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip)# sip alternative-server-ip 10.120.5.34
Syntax: [no] sip alternative-server-ip <alternate-ip>
Enter an IP address for <alternate-ip>.
By default, real server traffic is deeply scanned by the ServerIron SIP parser. In some cases, you
may want to prevent traffic from being deeply scanned because the real server initiated other
traffic beside SIP (such as HTTP, DNS, and others). For these cases, configure an ACL for SIP. If the
ACL action is "permit", packets should be forwarded without being deeply scanned by the SIP
parser.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip)# sip tcp-access-list 2
Syntax: [no] sip tcp-access-list <acl-id>
The <acl-id> is the access list ID that will be used only for TCP.
Virtual server commands for SIP over TCP
Configure an alternate virtual port to be used by TCP-based SIP and the maximum local
connections for a client. This port is configured under the SIP virtual server configuration level.
ServerIronADX(config-vs1)# port 5060 sip-alternative-port-start 5061
max-tcp-connections 3
Syntax: port <sip-port> sip-alternative-port-start <start-port> max-tcp-connections
<#connections>
Enter the virtual SIP port for <sip-port> . Typically this is port 5060,
Enter the beginning of the alternate virtual port for <start-port>. This port will be used as the
source-port of the client-side connection. The default value is the next unused port that is greater
than the virtual port.
Specify the maximum number of local connections allowed for a client for <#connections>. This
value takes precedence over the server sip max-client-tcp-connections and server sip
max-server-tcp-connections (global) commands. The default number of connection is 64.
The port range between <start-port> and <start-port>+<max-tcp-connection> should be reserved
for alternative virtual port usage.
Load Balancing SIP over TCP sample configuration
1. Configure a source IP address for the SIP Proxy Server.
ServerIronADX(config)# server source-ip 172.28.8.3 255.255.255.0 0.0.0.0
2. Configure a SIP real server.
ServerIronADX(config)# server
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip)#
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip)#
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip)#
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip)#
real rs1 172.28.8.67
source-nat
sip max-tcp-connections 2
port sip
port sip sip-both-registrar-proxy-server
3. Configure a SIP virtual server and bind it to a SIP real server.
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ServerIronADX(config)#server virtual vs-sip 172.28.8.100
ServerIronADX(config-vs-sip)# port sip
ServerIronADX(config-vs-sip)# port sip sip-stateful
ServerIronADX(config-vs-sip)# port sip sip-keyfield-call-id
ServerIronADX(config-vs-sip)# port sip sip-alternative-port-start 5061
max-connections 3
ServerIronADX(config-vs-sip)# bind sip rs1 sip
Other Load Balancing SIP over TCP options
Configuring periodic keepalive
Use the keepalive command to periodically check the real server state after bring-up. You can
enable keepalive from the port profile configuration or from the real server port configuration.
SIP port profile configuration
To configure keepalive from the SIP port profile configuration, use the following commands.
ServerIronADX(config)# server port sip
ServerIronADX(config-port-sip)# udp keepalive protocol sip
Syntax: udp keepalive protocol sip
Real server port configuration
To configure keepalive from the real server port configuration, use the following commands.
ServerIronADX(config)# server real proxy-server-1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-proxy-server-1)# port sip keepalive
Syntax: port sip keepalive
Configuring a DSCP value for SIP health checks
During periods of network congestion, SIP health checks don’t get high enough priority in a network
which causes servers to needlessly fail. Consequently, high-priority services such as VOIP can
suffer service interruptions. This feature allows you to set a DSCP value in the IP header of SIP
health-check packets. The network can then be configured to grant sufficient priority to the SIP
heath-check packets to ensure robust service.
In the following example, a DSCP value of 46 is set for health check packets sent to SIP proxy
service 1.1.9.5:SIP.
ServerIronADX(config)# server real si-server 1.1.9.5
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip-server)# port sip sip-proxy-server
ServerIronADX(config-rs-sip-server)# port sip hc-dscp-mark 46
Syntax: port sip hc-dscp-mark <DSCP-value>
The <DSCP-value> variable can be set to a value between 0 and 63.
NOTE
When this command is configured for real service ports other than that of a SIP service, the value
is ignored during health check. Examples include: sip-proxy-server, sip-redirect-server, sip-registrar,
and sip-both-registrar-proxy-server.
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Configuring SIP SLB
Rehashing the SIP hash table
This section describes the commands for hash table management. It contains the following
sections:
• “Manual rehash” on page 26
• “Automatic rehash” on page 26
Manual rehash
Use the following command to manually rehash the hash table.
ServerIronADX# server sip-hash-table-rehash vip1 sip
registrar-table
Syntax: server sip-hash-table-rehash <virtual server name> <virtual port> <registrar-table |
proxy-table>
Automatic rehash
Use the following command to set the hash table idle time for real server replacement.
ServerIronADX# server sip-hash-table-idle 300000
Syntax: server sip-hash-table-idle <sip-hash-table-idle-time>
• Idle time for hash table server port replacement in the unit of seconds.
• Default is 1000 seconds.
NOTE
With this command, if real server has been idling for <sip-hash-table-idle-time> or is not reachable
due to health check, then it will be replaced with a new healthy real server on arrival of new packet
to hash bucket. The replacement algorithm attempts to achieve equal distribution of hash-buckets
among available healthy real servers. The system will continue to assign idle or failed server
hash-buckets to another healthy server till it reaches equilibrium.
NOTE
Setting the idle time to 0 redistributes the hash buckets to include new healthy real servers.
Displaying SIP real server connection rate
Use the show server sip-conn-rate command to display the connectivity rate for a real server.
ServerIronADX(config)# show server sip-conn-rate proxy-server-1
Syntax: show server sip-conn-rate <real-server-name>
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Example
ServerIronADX# show server sip-conn proxy-server-1
Real Server: proxy-server-1
:
Real Port: sip(BOTH REGISTRAR AND PROXY SERVER):
Type:
Cur Local Rate:Last Conn Rate:Max Local Rate:TTL Conns
INVITE*
0
0/0
1
1/1
ACK
0
0/0
0
0/0
OPTIONS
0
0/0
0
0/0
BYE*
0
0/0
0
0/0
CANCEL*
0
0/0
0
0/0
REGISTER*
0
0/0
1
1/1
RQST UNKNOWN
0
0/0
0
0/0
RESP INFO
0
0/0
0
0/0
RSP SUCCESS
0
0/0
0
0/0
RSP REDIRECT
0
0/0
0
0/0
RESP C ERR
0
0/0
0
0/0
RSP S ERR
0
0/0
0
0/0
RESP FAIL
0
0/0
0
0/0
Displaying SIP virtual server connection rate
Use the show server sip-hash proxy vs command to display the hash table for a virtual server.
ServerIronADX(config)# show server sip-hash proxy-domain-1
Syntax: show server sip-hash <virtual-server-name>
Example
ServerIronADX# show server sip-hash proxy proxy-domain-1
SIP HashTable for virtual server :<proxy-domain-1>
Summary for virtual port <5060>:
==============================
RS|Port
#buckets RS|Port
#bucketss
172.16.1.155|sip
0
Total active real ports bound to vport <5060>: 0
# of average buckets(proxy) for each real port: 0/256
Details for virtual port <5060>
==============================
Hash Real-Server|Port
TS Hash Real-Server|Port
Total used buckets for vport <5060> :
TS
0
Stateful SIP session handling in the event of a proxy server failure
ServerIron can seamlessly handle failure of proxy servers while running in stateful mode. The
ServerIron can be enabled to re-route subsequent SIP packets on an existing flow for a failed proxy
server to an available healthy proxy server. However, note that the backend SIP proxy server should
have the capability of handling such SIP calls which were originally serviced by a different proxy
server.
This feature is generally useful when backend proxy servers are configured in cluster configuration.
Enter the following command.
ServerIronADX(config)# server sip enable-session-failover-on-server-failure
Syntax: [no] server sip enable-session-failover-on-server-failure
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Configuring SIP SLB
NOTE
This command is not required when ServerIron is configured in SIP stateless mode. With stateless
mode, ServerIron automatically assigns a new proxy server when packets arrive on an existing flow
to failed server.
Debug commands
The following commands and the counters they display are useful for internal debugging purpose.
Show various SIP counters
ServerIronADX# show sip debug parser
SIP Parser Counters:
PARSER ERR
:1
PARSER MEM ALLOC ERR
:0
PARSER ABNORMAL HDR END
:0
PARSER UNKNOWN PKT
:21
PARSER CSEQ NOT FOUND
:1
PARSER
PARSER
PARSER
PARSER
PARSER
PKT CORRUPT
MULTI CALLID
PKT HDR TOO LONG
CONTENT TOO LONG
PACKET MALFORMED
:4
:0
:8
:0
:0
Syntax: show sip debug [parser|session|sip-transaction|tcp-connection|udp-process]
Debug SIP session
ServerIronADX# show sip debug session
SIP Session Debug Counters
SIP SESSION GET
:4381
SIP SESS FREE LIST CORUPT
:0
SIP SESS FINAL FREE
:84
SIP SESS AGED
:60
SIP SESS CORRUPT
:0
SIP HA AGE SYNC RECV
:0
SIP HA OUT OF IPC BUF
:0
SIP HA SESS CREAT RECV
:0
SIP HA DEL MSG RECV
:0
SIP HA DEL ATTEMPT SENT
:0
SIP HA CREATE EXIST
:0
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SIP
SESSION GET FAILURE
SESS INDEX INVALID
SESS DEALLOC
SESS ERR
HA AGE SYNC ERR
HA AGE SYNC SENT
HA SESS CREAT SENT
HA ASP SENT
HA DEL ATTEMPT RECV
HA DELETE MSG SENT
HA DELETE NON-EXIST
:0
:0
:4179
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:3910
Syntax: show sip debug session
Debug SIP transactions
ServerIronADX# show sip debug sip-tran
SIP Transaction Counters:
TRANSACT ERR
:0
TRANSACT ENTRY CORRUPTED
:0
TRANSACT INDEX INVALID
:0
TRANSACT FROMFLOW NOT FOUND :206
TRANSACT ENTRY AGED
:3533
TRANSACT CONTENT ERR
:5
TRANSACT PKT TOO BIG
:0
TRANSACT CLIENT NOT FOUND
:0
TRANSACT MSG OUTOF BOUND
:0
TRANSACT
TRANSACT
TRANSACT
TRANSACT
TRANSACT
TRANSACT
TRANSACT
TRANSACT
ENTRY GET
ENTRY GET FAIL
FINAL FREED
TOFLOW NOT FOUND
HEADER INCOMPLETE
INVALID SIP HEADER
PKT DROPPED
RESPONSE ENTRY NOT
:10585
:0
:2828
:354
:0
:0
:5
:0
Syntax: show sip debug sip-transaction
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Debug SIP TCP connection
ServerIronADX# show sip debug tcp-connection
SIP Connection Counters:
TCP CONNECT ERR
:130
TCP CONNECT HOST ERR
TCP CONNECT ALLOC FAILED
:0
TCP CONN BUSY
TCP CONN RPORT FAILED
:5
TCP DYNAMIC BACKEND LISTEN
TCP DYNAMIC FRONTEND LISTEN :0
TCP CONN PKT CHAIN ERR
TCP CONN DBL FREE
:0
TCP MAX CONN REACHED
TCP SESSION ERR
:0
SERVERIRON 1/1#
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
Syntax: show sip debug tcp-connection
Debug UDP process
ServerIronADX# show sip debug udp-process
SIP UDP Process Counters:
UDP ERR
:0
UDP NO HEADER
UDP UNKNOWN PKT
:0
UDP PKT TO MP
UDP FWD DROP
:55
UDP REV DROP
UDP NO ACTION
:0
:0
:0
:2
Syntax: show sip debug udp-process
Debug SIP packet trace
The show sip debug packet-trace command shows the packets whose IP address is either of
<src-or-dest-IP-1> or <src-or-dest-IP-2>. The output prints out packet processing starting from
parsing to forwarding. It is very useful in debugging; however, it only prints in the BP console not on
rconsole.
Syntax: show sip debug packet-trace <src-or-dest-IP-1> <src-or-dest-IP-2>
The following example is a display of "INVITE" packet processing shown on a BP console.
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SIP SLB command reference
ServerIronADX4/2 # show sip
4/2 #
->Start processing Incoming
[1460]...
Start SIP Parsing for chain
SIP header parsing for flow
debug packet-trace 172.28.8.67 172.28.8.100
Flow [172.28.8.67:3798->172.28.8.100:5060] Data len
len [1460]...
COMPLETED with sip header - orig chain len [1460]
SIP packet header dump:
Packet type: INVITE
URI: sip:[email protected]:5060
parse completed: 1
version: SIP/2.0
num pkts processed: 1
response code: 0
method: INVITE
VIA header: SIP/2.0/TCP 172.28.8.67:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
Max forward: 70
Call ID: [email protected]
Cseq: 1 INVITE
Top branch id: z9hG4bKnashds8
Top Sent By: 172.28.8.67
Top Sent By Port: 5060
In sip_process_incoming_frontend_request...
…
Current transaction: branch [z9hG4bKnashds8] client[172.28.8.67]
Forwarding request from flow [172.28.8.67:3798->172.28.8.100:5060]
[172.28.8.155:5060->172.28.8.67:3798]
to Server
SIP SLB command reference
This section describes the syntax and usage for each SIP Server Load Balancing command in the
following modes:
• “Port sip (real server configuration mode)”
• “Port sip (virtual server configuration mode)”
Port sip (real server configuration mode)
Use the port sip command in the real server or virtual server configuration mode to configure a
proxy, redirect, registrar, or registrar-proxy server.
Syntax: port sip {sip-redirect-server | sip-proxy-server | sip-registrar |
sip-both-registrar-proxy-server} [health-check-method [options | register]] |
health-check-no-dsr]
• sip-redirect-server— Identifies the server as SIP redirect server.
• sip-proxy-server— Identifies the server as SIP proxy server.
• sip-registrar— Identifies the server as SIP registrar.
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• sip-both-registrar-proxy-server— Identifies the server as an SIP registrar or a proxy server.
• health-check-method— specifies the SIP health check method.
• options— enables health check through OPTION messages.
• register— enables health check through REGISTER messages (default method).
• health-check-no-dsr— specifies for health check to be sent to a real server rather than a virtual
server.
Usage guidelines
These commands are issued from the real server configuration.
History
The port sip command was introduced in Release 09.4.00.
Port sip (virtual server configuration mode)
Use the port sip command in the virtual server configuration mode to configure sip switch or sip
domain name.
Syntax: port sip sip-switch | sip-domain-name <domain-name>
• sip-switch— Enable SIP switching
• sip-domain-name— Specify SIP domain name
Usage guidelines
The above commands are issued from under virtual server configuration.
History
This command was introduced in Release 09.4.00.
Sample configuration
The following example shows the configuration details for SIP Server Load Balancing.
server real rs1 20.20.20.1
port sip
port sip sip-both-registrar-proxy-server health-check-method register
port sip keepalive
!
server real rs2 20.20.20.2
port sip
port sip sip-both-registrar-proxy-server health-check-method register
port sip keepalive
!
server virtual-name-or-ip vs1 10.10.0.100
port sip
port sip dsr
port sip sip-switch
bind sip rs1 sip rs2 sip
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Transparent Cache Switching
2
TCS Overview
Transparent Cache Switching (TCS) allows a ServerIron ADX to detect and switch web traffic to a
local cache server within the network. A single ServerIron ADX (or hot standby pair) can provide
transparent cache switching for up to 256 web cache servers per cache group.
Cache servers process web queries faster and more efficiently by temporarily storing details about
repetitive web queries locally, reducing the number of external inquiries required to process a web
query. By limiting the number of queries sent to remote web servers, the overall WAN access
capacity required is lessened as is the overall operating cost for WAN access.
Brocade switches increase the reliability of transparent caching within a network by supporting
redundant web cache server configurations known as web cache server groups.
While TCS can be configured to support IPv4 and IPv6 cache servers separately or concurrently,
IPv4 cache servers can only handle IPv4 traffic and IPv6 cache servers can only handle IPv6 traffic.
Suppose you want to use transparent caching within the network to increase the performance of
web queries and lessen the demands on the current WAN access link to the Internet. Refer to
Figure 9.
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TCS Overview
FIGURE 9
Logical representation of transparent caching
Internet
Web Servers
www.rumors.com
www.stockquotes.com
www.news.com
Border Access
Router (BAR)
Web Queries
208.95.8.3
Remote Access
Router
e18 (output port)
SI
e17
e4
e5
e16
e15
208.95.7.3
208.95.6.3
2001:db8::1
Cache
Server 1
207.95.5.11
Cache
Server 2
207.95.5.129
Cache
Server 3
Cache
Server 4
2001:db8::30:1 2001:db8::30:2
2001:db8::2
Four cache servers, server1, server2 server3 and server4, are installed within the network to
handle the transparent caching of HTTP traffic. Server1 and server 2 are IPv4 cache servers and
server3 and server4 are IPv6 cache servers. TCS is enabled on the ServerIron ADX to direct all
HTTP traffic to the cache servers for processing.
A ServerIron ADX or backbone switch operating as a transparent cache switch detects and
forwards all HTTP traffic to an available cache server. IPv4 HTTP traffic is directed to the IPv4 cache
servers and IPv6 HTTP traffic is directed to the IPv6 cache servers.The cache server then
processes the query and forwards the response back to the user through the attached ServerIron
ADX.
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The cache server determines how the web query will be handled by pulling from its local
information stores and facilitating that information with external web queries on the WAN, as
needed, to complete the query.
The ServerIron ADX provides the detection and switching of those HTTP packets forwarded from the
cache server. This process is known as “transparent” cache switching because it is transparent to
the end user. The end user continues to see the web site pages as expected in answer to his or her
query and is unaware that the access point to the information is through the cache server.
Additionally, because TCS works with the default settings of web browsers, no configuration
changes are required on the client station, which further adds to the transparency of the feature.
Response to cache server failures
Web cache servers are grouped with other cache servers to provide for automatic recovery from a
failed or otherwise out-of-service web cache server. The ServerIron ADX monitors the availability of
the cache servers in the group. If a web cache server failure occurs, the switch detects the failure
and directs subsequent requests to the next available cache server or forwards the request directly
to the WAN link. You can gain further reliability by using redundant ServerIron ADXs, thereby
eliminating any single point of failure in the server group network path.
Stateful caching
Stateful caching provides the following services:
•
•
•
•
•
Minimization of route flap problems.
Graceful shutdown of transparent cache servers.
Ability to set maximum connections allowed for a cache server.
Use of access list to control caching based on source and destination addresses.
Advanced statistics for TCS.
In stateful TCS, the ServerIron ADX creates session table entries for the client connections
redirected to cache servers. The ServerIron ADX uses the return traffic as one means to assess the
health of a cache server.
Minimization of route flap problems
When a route change causes web query traffic to be moved from an non-cached path to a cached
path, no TCS is performed on the active connections.
NOTE
When the opposite transition occurs— web query traffic moving from a cached to non-cached path
— the ServerIron ADX takes no action because the traffic is no longer visible to the ServerIron ADX.
Configurable maximum connections for cache server
You can set the maximum number of connections that a cache server will accept. By setting a limit,
you can avoid a condition where the capacity threshold of a cache server is exceeded.
When a server reaches the maximum defined connection threshold, an SNMP trap is sent. When
all the cache servers in a cache group reach the maximum connection threshold, the ServerIron
ADX sends the client requests to the Internet.
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Sample Deployment Topologies
Advanced statistics
Our TCS implementation provides the following advanced statistics:
•
•
•
•
•
Current connections on a per cache basis
Peak connections on a per cache basis
Total connections on a per cache basis
Packet counts to and from cache on a per-cache basis
Octet counts to and from cache on a per-cache basis
Sample Deployment Topologies
ServerIron ADX supports TCS in the following example topologies.
•
•
•
•
•
“Basic TCS” on page 36
“TCS with spoofing” on page 37
“TCS with destination NAT” on page 37
“TCS with Source NAT” on page 38
“VIPs with reverse proxy” on page 39
Basic TCS
The following example configuration shows simple TCS on the ServerIron ADX.
Client
CIP
ServerIron
VIP
1a(CIP-RIP)
2b(TIP-RIP)
Real Server
RIP
3a(RIP-TIP)
4b(RIP-CIP)
3b(RIP-TIP)
2a(TIP-RIP)
1b(CIP-RIP)
4a(RIP-CIP)
CIP-Client IP Address
RIP-Real Server IP Address
VIP-Virtual IP Address
TIP-Cache Server IP Address
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
The above illustration shows the packet flow in a basic TCS configuration. In this example, flow 1 is
the client request getting forwarded to the cache server. If the cache server has the required
information, the request is sent to the client via flow 4. If the cache server does not have the
information, it accesses the real server via flow 2 and the traffic from the real server to the cache
server comes from flow 3.
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2
The following table lists the entries that need to be programmed in the CAM for hardware
forwarding of pass-through traffic.
TABLE 1
Required CAM programming for simple TCS configurations
Level
Match
Hash
1
Destination port
Source IP address
2
Source port
Destination IP address
TCS with spoofing
In the following example configuration, the cache server is spoofing the client’s IP address instead
of using its own IP address when accessing the real server.
Client
CIP
ServerIron
VIP
1a(CIP-RIP)
2b(CIP-RIP)
Real Server
RIP
3a(RIP-CIP)
4b(RIP-CIP)
3b(RIP-CIP)
2aSpoofing (CIP-RIP)
4a(RIP-CIP)
1b(CIP-RIP)
CIP-Client IP Address
RIP-Real Server IP Address
VIP-Virtual IP Address
TIP-Cache Server IP Address
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
In flow 2a, the cache server is using the client’s IP address as the source address instead of using
its own IP address. There is no difference in the CAM programming for spoofing and non-spoofing
cases. Refer to Table 1 for CAM programming details.
TCS with destination NAT
If the cache server is operating in the promiscuous or transparent mode, it can receive packets for
any IP address. But, if the cache server requires that the client traffic arrive at the IP address of the
cache server, destination NAT must be enabled on the ServerIron. The following diagram illustrates
this.
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Sample Deployment Topologies
Client
CIP
ServerIron
VIP
1a(CIP-RIP)
Real Server
RIP
2b(TIP-RIP)
3a(RIP-TIP)
4b(RIP-CIP)
3b(RIP-TIP)
2a(TIP-RIP)
4a(TIP-CIP)
1bDestNAT(CIP-TIP)
CIP-Client IP Address
RIP-Real Server IP Address
VIP-Virtual IP Address
TIP-Cache Server IP Address
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
In flow 1b, the ServerIron changes the destination address in flow 1a to that of the cache server.
CAM programming is the same as for basic TCS, as detailed in Table 1.
NOTE
FTP is not supported for TCS with destination NAT.
TCS with Source NAT
To make sure that the reverse traffic from the cache server hits the ServerIron ADX, source NAT may be
used as shown in the following diagram:
Client
CIP
4b
(R
IP
1a
-C
(C
IP
IP
)
-R
IP
)
ServerIron
VIP
Switch
2b(TIP-RIP)
Real Server
RIP
IP
-S
IP
38
IP
IP
3b
(R
IP
-T
(T
2a
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
)
-R
IP
)
(R
4a
1b
So
ur
ce
NA
T
)
(S
IP
-R
I
P)
3a(RIP-TIP)
CIP-Client IP Address
RIP-Real Server IP Address
VIP-Virtual IP Address
TIP-Cache Server IP Address
SIP-Source IP Address
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In flow 1b, the ServerIron ADX changes the source address to a configured IP address. The
ServerIron ADX applies source NAT to the requests going from the ServerIron ADX to the cache
server. Table 2 illustrates the CAM programming for this example.
TABLE 2
Required CAM programming for simple TCS with Source NAT configuration
Level
Match
Hash
1
Source NAT IP address
Destination port
2
Destination port
Source IP address
Source port
Destination IP address
VIPs with reverse proxy
In the following example, SLB is configured and one or more of the virtual ports have Reverse Proxy
SLB enabled (cache-enable). This is usually the case with server side caching topologies, when the
cache server is running in transparent mode. This means that traffic destined to that particular VIP
will be redirected to the cache server. If the cache server does not have the requested data, it
makes a connection to the VIP, which is then load balanced across the real servers, and retrieves
the data.
NOTE
FTP is not supported for TCS with source NAT.
Cache enable
Configuration
Client
CIP
ServerIron
VIP
1a(CIP-VIP)
2b(TIP-RIP)
Real Server
RIP
3a(RIP-TIP)
4b(VIP-CIP)
3b(VIP-TIP)
2a(TIP-VIP)
4a(VIP-CIP)
1b(CIP-VIP)
CIP-Client IP Address
RIP-Real Server IP Address
VIP-Virtual IP Address
TIP-Cache Server IP Address
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
The above diagram illustrates the packet flow in a TCS configuration with a VIP that has Reverse
Proxy SLB enabled. Flow 1 shows the client request getting forwarded to the cache server. If the
cache server has the required information, it is sent to the client via flow 4. If the flows cache
server does not have the information, it accesses the VIP via flow 2 and the traffic from the load
balanced real server to the cache server comes from flow 3.
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Configuring TCS
The following table lists the entries that need to be programmed in the CAM for hardware
forwarding of pass- through traffic.
TABLE 3
Required CAM programming for VIPs with reverse proxy SLB enabled
Level
Match
Hash
1
Destination IP = cache enabled
VIP
Source IP address
2
Source IP = cache enabled VIP
Destination IP address
3
Destination port = cache port
Source IP address
4
Source port = cache port
Destination IP address
Configuring TCS
TCS is disabled by default. To set up TCS, perform the following tasks.
1. Assign a name and IP address to each web cache server.
2. Configure port to each web cache server.
3. Assign web cache servers to specific cache groups.
4. Enable TCS. Refer to “Enabling TCS” on page 44.
NOTE
You cannot enable the web cache feature on both a global (switch) and local (interface) basis.
5. Assign an interface to a cache group (optional).
6. Define distribution of web requests within a cache group (optional).
7.
Modify default settings for TCS parameters (optional).
8. Save the configuration to flash.
Configuration notes
Consider the following:
• Once TCS is enabled on a switch, all ports on the switch are members of cache group 1 by
default.
• You can configure up to 14 cache groups.
• Web cache servers must be members of a cache group.
• A cache group is defined in terms of input ports to the ServerIron ADX. To give a client access
to a group of cache servers, the input port connecting the client to the ServerIron ADX must be
in the cache group that contains the cache servers. If you plan to have only one cache group,
you do not need to add the input ports to the cache group because all ports are members of
cache group 1 by default.
• If you do not want a specific port to support TCS (for example, you want to redirect HTTP traffic
for that port directly to the Internet instead), then you need to remove that port from default
cache group 1.
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Configuring TCS
2
• You must apply an IP policy to redirect Internet traffic to the cache servers. You can apply a
global or local policy. A global policy takes effect on all ports as soon as you configure the
policy. A local policy does not take effect until it is assigned to an interface. If you assign a local
policy, assign it to the output port connected to the Internet. The policy sends all HTTP traffic
addressed as output traffic to the port to the CPU instead for processing and forwarding.
• Although TCS can be concurrently be configured for cache servers with either IPv4 or IPv6
addresses, IPv4 traffic can only be directed to an IPv4 cache server and IPv6 traffic can only
be directed to an IPv6 cache server.
Defining a cache server
Once you have enabled TCS on the ServerIron ADX, assign a name and IP address to each cache
server. Once you have assigned the name and IP address, you can reference the server in CLI
commands by either the server’s name or its IP address.
To assign the names and IP addresses to the cache servers shown in Figure 9 on page 34, enter
commands such as the following.
For IPv4
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server3 192.168.1.1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server3)# server cache-name server4 192.168.1.2
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server4)# end
ServerIronADX# write memory
For IPv6
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server1 2001:db8::1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# server cache-name server2 2001:db8::2
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server2)# end
ServerIronADX# write memory
Syntax: [no] server cache-name <text> { <ipv4-addr> | <ipv6-addr> }
The <text> variable specifies a name for the server. It can be any alphanumeric string of up to 42
characters.
The <ipv4-addr> variable specifies the IPv4 address of the web cache server.
The <ipv6-addr> variable specifies the IPv6 address of the web cache server.
Identify application ports for caching
For each defined cache server you must specify the ports whose traffic you want to cache. The
following example configures the previously named “server1” cache server to cache traffic from the
port: “http”, “ssl” and port number “8080”.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port 8080
Syntax: [no] port <portname or portnum>
NOTE
A maximum of 256 non-well-known ports (port number >1024) can be configured.
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Configuring TCS
NOTE
Where a non-well-known port is configured for the <portname or portnum> variable, a policy with
port “0” needs to be configured as described in “Enabling TCS” on page 44.
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Assigning web cache servers to cache groups
TCS requires all cache servers to belong to a cache group. To assign cache servers to a different
cache group, use the server cache-group <number> command.
The ServerIron ADX uses one of two possible methods to distribute requests among the servers in a
cache group. These are the least-connection method or a hashing algorithm based on source and
destination IP addresses. The default method for HTTP and SSL protocols is the hashing algorithm
and the least-connection method for all other protocols. The method can be changed from the
default setting for all protocols. (Refer to “Selecting a method for server selection within a cache
group” on page 52.)
In addition, cache groups provide automatic recovery from a failed or otherwise out-of-service web
cache server. If a web cache server failure occurs, ServerIron ADX detects the failure and directs
subsequent requests to the next available cache server or forwards the request directly to the WAN
link.
To assign cache servers 1 and 2 to the same cache group (as in Figure 9 on page 34), you first
create the server group and then assign the servers to the group, as shown in the following.
For IPv4
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name server1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name server2
For IPv6
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 2 ipv6
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)# cache-name server3
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)# cache-name server4
Syntax: server cache-group <number> [ ipv6 ]
The <number> variable specifies an integer that identifies cache group you are creating. Up to 14
server cache groups can be assigned to a ServerIron ADX.
The ipv6 parameter specifes that the cache group being created is for IPv6 servers.
NOTE
You can gain additional reliability by using redundant ServerIron ADXs, thus eliminating any single
point of failure in the network path to the web cache server group.
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Configuring TCS
Enabling TCS
When TCS is enabled, the feature detects web traffic addressed for output to the Internet and
redirects the traffic to the CPU, which processes the traffic and forwards it to the cache servers
instead. TCS can be defined on either a global or local basis as described:
globally – If TCS is enabled on a global basis, all ports redirect web traffic toward the cache
servers. Globally assigning TCS to all ports eliminates the need to individually configure ports
added in the future.
locally – If TCS is enabled on a local basis only web traffic that is outbound from a specified
ethernet port (or ports) will be directed toward the cache servers.
To enable TCS for HTTP traffic on all interfaces (globally) of the ServerIron ADX shown in Figure 9 on
page 34, enter a command such as the following.
NOTE
The command for enabling TCS is different if you are running a switch image or a router image on
the ServerIron ADX as shown.
When running a switch image
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 80 global
Syntax: ip policy <index> cache {tcp | udp} <portnum> { global | local }
When running a router image
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 80 global
Syntax: ip l4-policy <index> cache {tcp | udp} <portnum> { global | local }
The <index> variable specifies the index value for the policy. This number can be any unused
number from 1 – 64. Thus, up to 64 IP policies can be defined on a ServerIron ADX. You can use
the show ip policy command to display the session policies that have been defined.
The <portnum> variable after TCP/UDP refers to the traffic which should be redirected to a cache
server.
Where the <portnum> variable is a non-wellknown-port
To enable caching for any traffic destined to a non-well-known port (>1024), do not include the
port number. Instead, configure a policy where the <portnum> variable is set to “0”. For
example, where you want to configure traffic to be redirected from port 8080 to a cache server,
the <portnum> variable will be set to “0” as shown in the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
NOTE
In this configuration, the policy with a <portnum> variable of “0” only needs to be configured
once to support all non-well-known ports.
Where the global parameter is used, web traffic from all ports on the ServerIron ADX will be
redirected toward the cache servers.
Where the local parameter is used, only web traffic that is outbound from a configured ethernet
port will be directed to the cache servers. In this configuration, the ip policy command specifies
that TCS is enabled locally. You must then configure each port whose outbound traffic you want to
direct to the cache servers to use the previously configured ip policy.
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In the following example, the ip policy command is configured to direct traffic locally. That ip policy
is then configured under the interface configuration for ethernet port 18.
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 2 cache tcp 80 local
ServerIronADX(config)# int e 18
ServerIronADX(config-if-18)# ip-policy 2
Syntax: ip-policy <policy-index>
The <policy-index> variable specifies index of the ip policy that defines the web traffic that you
want to direct towards the cache servers.
Other TCS options
Resetting the server cache table
You can configure the ServerIron ADX to reset the server cache table when a new cache server is
added to a cache group or one cache server recovers from a failure, effectively enabling all cache
servers to participate in the load balancing algorithm.
To enable the ServerIron ADX to automatically reset the server cache table when a new cache
server is added to a cache group or one cache server recovers from a failure, enter the following
command.
ServerIronADX(config)# server force-cache-rehash
Syntax: [no] server force-cache-rehash
Disabling a cache group or a server in a cache group
You can disable a cache group or server within a cache group to allow for maintenance.
To disable cache group 1, enter the following commands.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# disable
Syntax: [no] disable
To disable a server (server2) within an active cache group, enter the following commands at the
cache server level.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server2
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server2)# disable
Syntax: [no] disable
Removing or re-assigning an interface
By default, all ports (physical interfaces) on the ServerIron belong to cache group 1. An interface
however, can assigned to more than one cache group.
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Other TCS options
Removing an interface from a cache group
You can remove an interface from a cache group to assign it to another cache group or to bias its
traffic away from cache servers entirely.
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ethernet 3
ServerIronADX(config-if-3)# no cache-group 1
Syntax: [no] cache-group <group-#>
Assigning an interface to a cache group
To assign an interface to cache group, enter the following command.
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ethernet 3
ServerIronADX(config-if-3)# cache-group 1
NOTE
You must use cache-group 1 to remove no cache-group command.
NOTE
You must create the cache group before you can assign an interface to the group.
Cache Route Optimization
Typically the ServerIron ADX sits between a border access router (BAR) and a remote access server
(RAS) where the BAR connects to the Internet/Intranet. The RAS forwards the client HTTP traffic to
the ServerIron ADX, which re-directs the traffic to the cache servers. When a border router is
configured as the default router for the cache servers, all traffic sent towards the browsing clients
behind the RAS must first go to the BAR.
At Layer 3, the cache server sends its response to the IP address of the client (or to the ServerIron
ADX if source NAT is enabled on the ServerIron ADX). However, at Layer 2, the cache server sends
its response to the MAC address of its default gateway. In configurations where the default
gateway is the BAR, this traffic pattern can cause significant (and unnecessary) BAR performance
degradation and poor response time as perceived by the clients.
The Cache Route Optimization (CRO) feature sends traffic from a cache server toward the RAS.
When you enable the feature, the ServerIron ADX uses information in its Layer 4 session table and
its traffic pattern recognition capabilities to redirect the traffic directly toward the clients instead of
sending the traffic needlessly to the BAR.
CRO is disabled by default.
Enabling Cache Router Optimization
Cache Route Optimization (CRO) is useful for situations in which a cache server’s default gateway is
the Border Access Router (BAR) that goes to the Internet, instead of the remote access server (RAS)
that goes to the HTTP clients.
When you enable CRO, the ServerIron ADX intelligently sends cache responses directly to the RAS
at Layer 2 instead of sending them to the BAR for switching back through the ServerIron to the RAS.
CRO is enabled on a ServerIron ADX as shown.
ServerIronADX(config)#server cache-router-offload
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Syntax: [no] server cache-router-offload
NOTE
FTP is not supported when cache-router-offload is enabled.
Cache Route Optimization example
The Cache Route Optimization (CRO) feature solves a typical network topology dilemma, in which a
cache server’s default gateway is not the most direct route to the client. Figure 10 shows an
example of a network with this topology.
In this example, return traffic from the cache servers passes through the ServerIron ADX to the BAR
because the BAR is the default gateway for the cache servers. However, the traffic is destined for
the clients on the other side of the RAS. The ServerIron ADX can switch the traffic at wire-speed,
causing no perceivable response delays for the clients even if their return traffic must pass through
the ServerIron ADX twice. However, the client return traffic might add noticeable overhead to the
BAR, especially if the BAR is also the default gateway for other devices on the network.
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Other TCS options
You can reduce the burden on the BAR by enabling CRO. This feature configures the ServerIron
ADX to use the information in its Layer 4 session table to recognize that the return traffic actually
should go to the RAS instead of the BAR, and send the return traffic directly to the RAS. Thus, the
return traffic does not needlessly add overhead to the BAR.
FIGURE 10
Cache route optimization
Internet
Web servers
www.oldnews.com
1.0.0.1
www.livenews.com
1.0.0.3
www.stockquotes.com
1.0.0.2
Border Access
Router (BAR)
Web Queries
208.95.8.3
Remote Access
Server (RAS)
e18 (output port)
e17
SI
Each cache server has a
default route to the BAR,
which must send the traffic
back through the ServerIron
to the RAS.
208.95.7.3
The Cache Router Optimization
feature configures the ServerIron
to send the return traffic directly
to the RAS.
208.95.6.3
Cache server3
209.157.22.205
Cache server4
209.157.22.215
Cache server5
209.157.22.225
To enable CRO for this configuration, enter the following command:
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-router-offload
Why ICMP Redirects Do Not Solve the Problem
The ServerIron ADX redirects HTTP traffic destined for the Internet to the cache server. When the
cache server responds to the client, it does so by sending its packets to its default gateway
because the users are not in the same subnet as the cache server. However, at Layer 3, the packet
is addressed to a client that is actually accessible through the RAS. The BAR knows the proper next
hop router is the RAS, through a routing protocol, and retransmits the packet to the RAS, at Layer 2.
The RAS forwards the packet to the client. Thus every packet to every client must go to the BAR
and then be retransmitted. The BAR port is already carrying all the fetch and refresh traffic from
that cache and this additional traffic can overload it.
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• The BAR does not send an ICMP redirect in this case, as you might expect. A router sends
ICMP redirects only if the following conditions are met:
• The interface on which the packet comes into the router is the same as the interface on which
the packet gets routed out.
• The route being used for the outgoing packet must not have been created or modified by an
ICMP redirect, and must not be the router's default route.
• The sub-net of the source IP address is the same as the sub-net of the next-hop IP address of
the routed packet.
• The packet must not be source routed.
• The router must be configured to send redirects.
The third rule is violated here because caches put the web server’s address in the source address
field rather than the cache’s address. Thus in this scenario, the packet is retransmitted to the best
next hop router (the RAS) but no ICMP redirect is sent.
The ServerIron ADX Solution
The CRO feature of the ServerIron ADX is a Layer 2 mechanism that solves the problem described
above. When the cache server responds to a client, the first packet is forwarded to the BAR as
discussed above. The BAR then retransmits the packet with the RAS as the destination MAC
address and the BAR as the source MAC. The ServerIron ADX examines the packet at Layer 4. The
ServerIron ADX finds a session table entry for this packet and knows it came from the cache server.
The ServerIron ADX knows the packet has been re-transmitted because the packet’s source MAC
address isn’t the cache server’s MAC address and the input port isn’t the cache server’s port. The
ServerIron ADX also recognizes that for this particular TCP session, it has seen the same packet
with two different destination MAC addresses and knows that the second MAC address is the more
appropriate one to use.
The ServerIron ADX contains a state table that includes a field for a MAC address. Initially this field
is blank. If the ServerIron ADX sees that a packet has been re-transmitted, the ServerIron ADX
places the new destination MAC address (the RAS MAC address) in the state table. When
subsequent packets are sent from the cache server, the ServerIron ADX sees that there is a MAC
address in the state table and replaces the destination MAC address with this address and
forwards the packet.
How Cache Route Optimization Works
Each TCP connection between the cache and a client is tracked by the ServerIron ADX in a state
table. The state table uses a key made up of the Layer 4 header: Source IP address, Source TCP
port, Destination IP address, and Destination TCP port. The state table also has a field for a MAC
address. This field is initially set to null (empty). When the cache server sends a packet a client,
the ServerIron ADX examines its Layer 4 header and checks to see whether it matches an entry in
the state table. The ServerIron ADX also examines the source MAC address to verify that the cache
sent the packet. If the MAC address field in the state table is null, and it will be for the first packet,
the ServerIron ADX simply forwards the packet at Layer 2 to the cache’s default gateway, the BAR.
When the packet is re-transmitted by the BAR, the ServerIron ADX examines the Layer 4 header
again, and sees that it matches an existing connection. The ServerIron ADX also examines the
source MAC address to be sure the cache server sent the packet. In this case, the source MAC
address is the BAR’s MAC, not the cache server’s. The ServerIron ADX concludes that this packet
has been retransmitted and places the destination MAC address of the packet, the RAS’s MAC, into
the state table’s MAC address field for this connection. Then the packet is forwarded to the RAS at
Layer 2.
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When the cache server transmits the next packet, the ServerIron ADX compares its Layer 4 header
to the state table and gets a match and now the entry has a MAC address in the MAC address field.
The ServerIron ADX replaces the destination address with the stored MAC address and transmits
the packet at Layer 2 using the new “optimum” MAC address. Thus all packets except the first
packet are sent directly to the optimum router.
Because this scheme works at the MAC layer, it is compatible with all routing protocols. Moreover,
because the scheme is session specific, it can handle any number or RASs. When a session is
terminated, the table entry is deleted and so is the “optimization”. Thus changes in the network at
Layer 3 are immediately implemented.
Enabling Destination NAT
By default, the ServerIron ADX translates the destination MAC address of a client request into the
MAC address of the cache server. However, the ServerIron ADX does not translate the IP address of
the request to the cache server’s IP address. Instead, the ServerIron ADX leaves the destination IP
address untranslated.
This behavior assumes that the cache server is operating in promiscuous mode, which allows the
cache server to receive requests for any IP address so long as the MAC address in the request is
the cache server’s. This behavior works well in most caching environments. However, if your cache
server requires that the client traffic arrive in directed IP unicast packets, you can enable
destination NAT.
NOTE
This option is rarely used. If your cache server operates in promiscuous mode, you probably do not
need to enable destination NAT. Otherwise, enable destination NAT. Consult your cache server
documentation if you are unsure whether you need to enable destination NAT.
To enable destination NAT, enter commands such as the following:
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# dest-nat
Syntax: dest-nat
Destination NAT is disabled by default.
NOTE
FTP is not supported when destination NATis enabled.
Configuring Source NAT
Normally, when the ServerIron ADX redirects a client’s web request to a cache server, the
ServerIron ADX translates the destination MAC address of a client request into the MAC address of
the cache server. However, the ServerIron ADX does not translate the source or destination IP
addresses in the client’s request.
Generally, in network topologies where the ServerIron ADX and cache server are directly connected
or connected through a Layer 2 switch or bridge, the cache’s response to a client query always
passes back through the ServerIron ADX. The ServerIron ADX uses the cache response to assess
the health of the cache server. When the ServerIron ADX passes a cache response to the client,
the ServerIron ADX assumes the cache server is healthy.
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However, if the time since the last packet the ServerIron ADX sent to the cache server and the
cache server’s response increases significantly, or the cache server’s reply never reaches the
ServerIron ADX but instead takes an alternate path to the client, the ServerIron assumes that the
cache server has stopped responding. When this occurs, the ServerIron ADX marks the cache
server FAILED and stops redirecting client queries to the cache server.
You can ensure that cache server replies always pass back through the ServerIron ADX by
configuring Source NAT.
FIGURE 11
Using Source NAT with TCS
Internet
141.149.65.1
SI
Management IP address 141.149.65.10
Source IP address 10.10.10.5
Source NAT enabled
141.149.65.20
10.10.10.10
Cache Server C1
10.10.10.2
In this example, the ServerIron ADX and cache server are connected by a router and are in different
sub-nets. In a topology where the cache server’s response is guaranteed to pass back through the
ServerIron, you may not need to configure Source NAT. However, if the cache server’s reply can
reach the client by a path that does not pass through the ServerIron, you need to configure Source
NAT.
To configure Source NAT:
• Enable the Source NAT feature. You can enable the feature at the cache group level for all
cache servers or at the cache server level for individual servers.
• Configure a source IP address. A source IP address allows the ServerIron ADX to be a member
of more than one sub-net. If the cache server and ServerIron ADX are in different sub-nets,
configure a source IP address that is in the cache server’s sub-net.
To enable Source NAT globally for all cache servers and configure a source IP address, enter
commands such as the following:
ServerIronADX(config)# server source-ip 10.10.10.5
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ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# source-nat
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# dest-nat
These commands configure a source IP address at the global CONFIG level of the CLI, then change
the CLI to the cache group configuration level and enable source NAT and Destination NAT. Source
NAT configures the ServerIron ADX to change the source IP address in a client query from the
client’s IP address to configured source IP address. Destination NAT configures the ServerIron ADX
to change the destination IP address of the client’s request to the IP address of the cache server.
Syntax: [no] source-ip <ip-addr> <network-mask> <default-gateway>
NOTE
The gateway parameter is required. If you do not want to specify a gateway, enter "0.0.0.0".
Syntax: [no] source-nat
To enable source NAT on a specific cache server instead of at the cache group configuration level
for all cache servers, enter commands such as the following:
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-C1)# source-nat
ServerIronADX(config-rs-C1)# dest-nat
The commands in this example enable Source NAT and Destination NAT on cache server C1 only.
This example assumes that the source IP address also is configured as shown in the previous
example.
NOTE
FTP is not supported when source NATis configured.
Selecting a method for server selection within a cache group
By default, selecting a server within a cache group is performed using a hash method that is based
on source and destination IP addresses for the SSL and HTTP protocols and for all other protocols
the least connection method is used. The method of server selection within a cache group can be
changed as shown in the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# predictor least-connection port http
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# predictor hash port ftp
Syntax: predictor { hash | least-connection } port <portname or number>
The default predictor for SSL and HTTP is the hash method described in “Controlling traffic
distribution among cache servers” on page 53.
The default predictor for all other protocols is least-connection.
Examples
In the following example, SSL traffic uses the hash mechanism to select a cache server which is
the default action. SSL and HTTP traffic can use one hash table, This means that traffic having the
same hash value will go to the same cache server whether it is SSL traffic or HTTP traffic.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cs1 3.3.3.1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http
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ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http url “HEAD/”
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cs2 3.3.3.2
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http url “HEAD/”
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cs1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 2 cache tcp ssl global
In the following example, the cache server selection mechanism for the FTP protocol has been
changed to “hash” and is uses the same hash table as HTTP. The cache server selection
mechanism for the telnet protocol remains “least-connection” which is the default.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cs1 3.3.3.1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http url “HEAD/”
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port telnet
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cs2 3.3.3.2
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port http url “HEAD/”
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# port telnet
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cs1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# predictor hash port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 2 cache tcp ftp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 2 cache tcp telnet global
Controlling traffic distribution among cache servers
To define how requests are distributed among multiple web cache servers within a cache group,
you can use the hash-mask <destination-ip-mask> <source-ip-mask> CLI command at the
transparent cache level. The ServerIron ADX uses the source and destination IP addresses as hash
values. By default, the destination IP mask is 255.255.255.0, and the source IP mask is 0.0.0.0
which means only first three octets of destination ip are used to calculate the hash. All other
services (known or unknown port) including SSL uses the predictor which is by default least
connection.
The hash mechanism minimizes duplication of content on the cache servers by ensuring that a
particular web site is always cached on the same cache server.
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NOTE
If you configure the ServerIron ADX for Server Load Balancing (SLB) in addition to TCS, and the SLB
configuration provides load balancing for your cache servers, then content will be duplicated on the
cache servers as a result of the SLB predictor (load balancing metric). The SLB predictor works
differently from the TCS hash mechanism and assumes that content is duplicated across the
load-balanced server.
NOTE
Traffic controlled by policy-based caching on an individual server level is load balanced, whereas
traffic for the other cache servers is partitioned according to the hash feature. Refer to “Policy-based
caching” on page 90.
NOTE
If you use Content Aware Cache Switching (CSW in a TCS environment), URL string hashing is used
to select a cache server within a server group. Content duplication is minimized because requests
for cached content always go to the same cache server. Refer to “Active-standby TCS” on page 113
for more information.
Distribution algorithm
When a cache group contains multiple cache servers, the ServerIron ADX distributes traffic across
the caches. The ServerIron ADX distributes the traffic using a hashing feature. The hashing feature
uses a source hash mask and a destination hash mask for each cache group. The ServerIron ADX
maintains a separate hash table for each cache group.
The masks determine how much of the source and destination IP addresses are used by the hash
function to select a cache server. The ServerIron ADX uses the following hash masks by default:
For IPv4
• Destination Hash Mask:255.255.255.0
• Source Hash Mask:0.0.0.0
In the default hash mask, the first three octets of the destination address are significant and the
source address is not significant. Therefore, traffic addressed to any of the addresses in a Class-C
subnet always goes to the same cache server, regardless of the source address.
The ServerIron ADX uses the following algorithm for distributing traffic among the cache servers:
• "AND" the destination IPv4 address and destination IPv4 mask to get d1.d2.d3.d4.
• "AND" the source IPv6 address and source IPv6 mask to get s1.s2.s3.s4.
• Add each of the 1-byte values together sequentually: d1 + d2 +d3 +d4 + s1 + s2 +s3 +s4. This
yields a 1-byte value that is used as the hash value.
• This 1-byte hash value is used to map to an entry in the hash table. Each entry maps to an
active cache server.
For IPv6
• Destination Hash Mask:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:: (/64)
• Source Hash Mask::: (/0)
The ServerIron ADX uses the following algorithm for distributing traffic among the cache servers:
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• "AND" the destination IPv6 address and destination IPv6 mask to get 16 1-byte values: d1, d2
... d15, d16
• "AND" the source IP address and source IP mask to get 16 1-byte values: s1, s2 ... s15, s16
• Add each of the 1-byte values together sequentually: d1 + d2 + ...+ d15 + d16 + s1 + s2 + ... +
s15 + s16. This yields a 1-byte value that is used as the hash value.
• This 1-byte hash value is used to map to an entry in the hash table. Each entry maps to an
active cache server.
The ServerIron ADX contains 256 hash slots. If you do not assign weights to the cache servers
(refer to “Setting the cache server weight” on page 61), the software divides the hash slots evenly
among the cache servers. If you assign differing weights to the cache servers, the software assigns
hash slots to the cache servers based on the ratios of their relative weights.
The hashing feature allows the switch to spread the traffic across the caches and minimizes
duplicate data on the cache servers.
If all the cache servers become unavailable, traffic flows across the switch at Layer 2 and users go
directly out to the Internet. The ServerIron ADX does not drop the traffic.
To change the hash-mask use the following command.
For IPv4
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# hash-mask 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0
For IPv6
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# hash-mask ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:: ffff:ffff:ffff::
Syntax: hash-mask { <IPv4-destination-mask> <IPv4-source-mask> | <IPv6-destination-mask>
<IPv6-source-mask> }
The <IPv4-destination-mask> <IPv4-source-mask> variables specify the IPv4 destination and
source masks to be used for the distribution algorithm.
The <IPv6-destination-mask> <IPv6-source-mask> variables specify the IPv6 destination and
source masks to be used for the distribution algorithm.
Table 4 shows other examples of how the hash masks work.
TABLE 4
Example TCS hash masks (IPv4+IPv6)
Destination mask
Source mask
Destination IP address
Source IP address
Cache server
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
125.24.32.12
Any
C1
125.24.32.210
Any
C1
125.24.33.210
Any
C2
125.24.34.210
Any
C3
125.24.32.12
Any
C1
125.24.32.70
Any
C2
125.24.32.190
Any
C3
255.255.255.192
0.0.0.0
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TABLE 4
Example TCS hash masks (IPv4+IPv6) (Continued)
Destination mask
Source mask
Destination IP address
Source IP address
Cache server
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.255
125.24.32.12
149.165.16.233
C1
125.24.32.12
189.12.122.233
C1
125.24.32.12
189.12.122.200
C2
2001:db8:0102:0303:6::1
Any
C1
2001:db8:0102:0303:7::1
Any
C1
2001:db8:0102:0304:8::1
Any
C2
2001:db8:0102:0305:9::1
Any
C3
2001:db8:0102:0303:6::1
Any
C1
2001:db8:0102:0303:7::1
Any
C2
2001:db8:0102:0304:8::1
Any
C3
2001:db8:0102:0303:6::1
2001:db8:0102:1
C1
2001:db8:0102:0303:7::1
2001:db8:0304:1
C1
2001:db8:0102:0303:8::1
2001:db8:0506:2
C2
ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::
ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::
ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::
::
::
::ffff
Increasing the TCS hash bucket count
The ServerIron ADX supports 256 hash buckets by default. If you do not assign weights to the
cache servers, the software divides the hash buckets evenly among the cache servers. With the
default hash bucket count of 256; there is a limitation of traffic distribution. In a setup with large
number of cache servers, if one of the cache servers fails, then their remaining cache servers may
get hit by traffic spike due to limited load balancing by hash buckets.
Consider an example where there are 64 cache servers within one cache group(CS1-CS64). Since
there are 256 buckets; 256 / 64 = 4, each server is assigned with 4 buckets. If one cache server,
(CS1), goes down, the 4 buckets assigned to CS1 are re-assigned to cache servers “CS2-CS5”.
Consequently, “CS2-CS5” have 5 buckets each while CS6 through CS64 still have 4 buckets. This
means that the original traffic handled by the cache server going down isn’t distributed evenly
among the rest of the cache servers. The traffic on CS2-CS5 increases by ( 5 - 4 ) / 4 = 25%.
You can increase the TCS hash bucket count to a higher number to ensure a more reasonable
distribution of excess traffic among remaining cache servers when a cache server goes down.
Using the previous example where there are 64 cache servers(CS1-CS64) you can upgrade the TCS
hash bucket count to 8192. Since 8192 / 64 = 128, each server is now assigned with 128
buckets. If one cache server (CS1) goes down, then the 128 buckets assigned to CS1 are
re-assigned to the other 63 servers. In this situation, CS2 and CS3 get 3 additional buckets each
while CS4 through CS64 get 2 buckets each (2 * 3 + 61 * 2 = 128). The result is that the original
traffic handled by the cache server that went down is now distributed evenly among the remaining
functional cache servers. The traffic on CS2-CS3 increases by ( 131 - 128 ) / 128 = 2.34%, and on
CS4-CS64 ( 130 - 128) / 128 = 1.56%.
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Configuring an increased hash bucket count
You can set the size of the TCS hash bucket count to a value from 256 to 16384 using the following
system-max command.
ServerIronADX(config)# system-max tcs-hash-table-size 2048
Syntax: [no] system-max tcs-hash-table-size <hash-table-size>
The hash-table-size variable specifies the size that you want to configure the hash table.
Acceptable values are: 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192 and 16384. Entering a value for this
variable other than those described will cause an error message to be displayed. The default value
is 256.
NOTE
The hash table size will only be effective after saving the configuration using the write mem
command and reloading the ServerIron ADX.
Displaying the hash values per BP
You can display the hash values for a specific Source and Destination IP pair. The output first
displays the current hash table size, then the hash value which is the bucket number for the given
Destination and Source IP addresses. If a cache server is selected for this bucket, the selected
cache server name is displayed and if no cache server is selected for this bucket yet, "empty" is
displayed. Examples are shown in the following.
ServerIronADX1/1# show cache-hash 1 1.2.3.4 192.168.1.1
Cache-group 1:
Hash table size:
512
Hash_info: Dest_mask = 255.255.255.255 Src_mask = 0.0.0.0
bucket#:
38 -> cs1
ServerIronADX1/1# show cach-hash 1 1.2.3.4 192.168.1.1
Cache-group 1:
Hash table size:
512
Hash_info: Dest_mask = 255.255.255.255 Src_mask = 0.0.0.0
bucket#:
39 -> empty
Syntax: show cache-hash <cache-group> <destination-IP> <source-IP>
NOTE
This command is available at the BP console only.
NOTE
The hash table is not synced between ServerIron ADX switches for both Hot-Standby and
Active-Active mode.
Enabling cache server spoofing support
In TCS, when a client makes a request for HTTP content on the Internet, the ServerIron ADX directs
the request to a cache server, rather than to the Internet. If the requested content is not on a cache
server, it is obtained from an origin Web server on the Internet, stored on a cache server to
accommodate future requests, and sent from the cache server back to the requesting client.
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NOTE
You cannot use the cache server spoofing feature with the Reverse Proxy SLB feature on the same
ServerIron ADX.
When a cache server makes a request for content from the origin server, it can do one of the
following:
• The cache server replaces the requesting client's IP address with its own before sending the
request to the Internet. The origin server then sends the content to the cache server. The
cache server stores the content and sends it to the requesting client, changing the source IP
address from its own to the origin server's IP address.
• The cache server does not replace the requesting client's IP address with its own. Instead, the
cache server sends the request to the Internet using the requesting client's IP address as the
source. This allows the origin server to perform authentication and accounting based on the
client’s IP address, rather than the cache server’s IP address. This functionality is known as
cache server spoofing.
When cache server spoofing support is enabled, the ServerIron ADX does the following with
requests sent from a cache server to the Internet.
1. The ServerIron ADX looks at the MAC address to see if the packet is from a cache server. Note
that the ServerIron ADX and the cache server cannot be separated by any router hops; they
must be on the same physical segment. The ServerIron ADX uses an ARP request to get the
MAC address of each configured cache server.
2. If the MAC address indicates that the packet is from a cache server, the ServerIron ADX checks
the source IP address. If the source IP address does not match the cache server's IP address,
the ServerIron ADX concludes that this is a spoofed packet.
3. The ServerIron ADX creates a session entry for the source and destination (IP address, port)
combination, and then sends the request to the Internet.
When the origin server sends the content back, the ServerIron ADX looks for a session entry that
matches the packet. If the session entry is found, the ServerIron ADX sends the packet to the
appropriate cache server.
To enable cache server spoofing support, enter commands such as the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# spoof-support
Syntax: [no] spoof-support
The no form of the command disables cache server spoofing support. Cache server spoofing
support is disabled by default.
To display the number of spoofed packets encountered by the ServerIron ADX, enter the following
command.
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ServerIronADX# show cache-group
Cache-group 1 has 1 members Admin-status = Enabled Active = 0
Hash_info: Dest_mask = 255.255.255.0 Src_mask = 0.0.0.0
Cache Server Name
cs1
Admin-status L4-Hash-Buckets L7-Hash-Buckets
6
0
0
Name: cs1
IP: 192.168.1.1
Spoof Enable
Total
http
Total
State
active
State: 6
Groups =
1
CurCon TotCon
0
0
Cache->Web-Server
Packets
Octets
0
0
Web-Server->Cache
Packets
Octets
0
0
CurCon TotCon
0
0
0
0
Client->Cache
Packets
Octets
0
0
0
0
Cache->Client
Packets
Octets
0
0
0
0
Syntax: show cache-group
Configuring maximum connections for a cache server
You can limit the maximum number of connections supported on a server-by-server basis. By
setting a limit, you can avoid a condition where the capacity threshold of a cache server is
exceeded.
When a cache server reaches the maximum defined connection threshold, the ServerIron ADX
sends an SNMP trap. When the cache server reaches its maximum connection threshold, the
ServerIron ADX sends client requests to the Internet by default. You can optionally direct the
ServerIron ADX to send client requests to another available cache server that has not reached its
maximum connection threshold.
Up to 1,000,000 sessions are supported. This is the default.
To limit the connections to a maximum of 100,000 for cache server1 and 200,000 for server2 in
the network seen in Figure 9 on page 34, enter the following commands.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# max-conn 100000
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# server cache-name server2
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server2)# max-conn 200000
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server2)# end
ServerIronADX# write mem
Syntax: max-conn <connections-supported>
The <connections-supported> variable specifies the number of connections supported. Acceptable
values are: 1 to 2000000.
Redirecting client requests to an available cache server
When the limit specified in the max-conn command is reached for a cache server, the default
behavior is that the ServerIron ADX will redirect any traffic intended for this cache server (according
to the allocated hash distribution) directly to the internet.
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Optionally, you can direct the ServerIron ADX to send client requests to another available cache
server in the same cache-group that has not reached its maximum connection threshold without
changing the current hash distribution. Use the reselect-server-if-overloaded command under the
cache-group configuration as shown in the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# reselect-server-if-overloaded
Syntax: [no] reselect-server-if-overloaded
Setting the maximum TCP connection rate for a cache server
You can modify the following parameters for individual TCP/UDP ports:
• Maximum connection rate
Configuring the connection rate control
Connection Rate Control (CRC) enables you to limit the connection rate to a cache server. The
ServerIron ADX limits the number of new port connections per second to the number you specify.
The ServerIron ADX increments the connection counter for cache connections only after the
ServerIron ADX selects one for the connection. If the ServerIron ADX cannot serve a client request
because a cache already has the maximum number of connections for the current second for the
requested port, the ServerIron ADX tries another cache. If there are no caches available, the
ServerIron ADX directs the request to the Internet.
If you configure a limit for TCP and also for an individual application port, the ServerIron ADX uses
the lower limit. For example, if you limit new TCP connections to a real server to 1000 per second
and also limit new HTTP connections to 600 per second, the ServerIron ADX limits connections to
TCP port HTTP to 600 per second.
NOTE
The ServerIron ADX counts only the new connections that remain in effect at the end of the one
second interval. If a connection is opened and terminated within the interval, the ServerIron ADX
does not include the connection in the total for the server.
To limit the number of new TCP connections a cache can receive each second, enter commands
such as the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache C1 5.6.7.8
ServerIronADX(config-rs-C1)# max-tcp-conn-rate 2000
You also can specify the connection rate for an individual port. Here is an example.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache C1 5.6.7.8
ServerIronADX(config-rs-C1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-C1)# port http max-tcp-conn-rate 2000
Syntax: max-tcp-conn-rate <num>
The <num> parameter specifies the maximum number of connections per second. There is no
default.
Syntax: port <TCP/UDP-portnum> max-tcp-conn-rate <num>
The port <TCP/UDP-portnum> parameter specifies the application port.
The <num> parameter specifies the maximum number of connections per second.
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Setting the cache server weight
You can assign a performance weight to each server. Servers assigned a larger or higher weight
receive a larger percentage of connections.
To set the weight for cache server1 to 5 from the default value of 1, enter the following commands.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# weight 5
Syntax: weight <server-weight>
Both the <server-weight> variable may have any value between 1 to 65000. The default value is 1.
Enabling FastCache
By default, the ServerIron ADX uses cache responses to client requests as a means to assess the
health of the cache server. However, in an asymmetric topology where the cache server uses a path
to the client that does not pass through the ServerIron ADX, the ServerIron ADX does not observe
the return traffic. As a result, the ServerIron ADX concludes that the cache server has failed even
though the server might still be healthy.
When the ServerIron ADX concludes that a cache server is unavailable, the ServerIron ADX stops
sending client requests to the cache server. You can override this behavior by enabling the
FastCache feature. The FastCache feature configures the ServerIron ADX to continue sending client
requests to a cache server even if the ServerIron ADX does not see responses from the server.
To enable FastCache, enter commands such as the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name server1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-server1)# asymmetric
Syntax: asymmetric
Enabling remote cache
The configuration examples in “Enabling remote cache” on page 61 assume that Proxy ARP is
enabled on the router that connects the ServerIron ADX to the cache servers. When Proxy ARP is
enabled on the router, the router informs the ServerIron ADX that it can respond on behalf of the
cache server. The ServerIron ADX uses ARP requests as part of the keepalive health checking
mechanism, so Proxy ARP enables the keepalive health checking mechanism to function.
If Proxy ARP is disabled on the router, the keepalive health checking mechanism believes the cache
server cannot be reached, and does not mark the server ACTIVE or direct request to the cache
server.
You can enable the ServerIron ADX to overcome the limitation posed by the absence of Proxy ARP
by enabling the Remote Cache feature for the cache server. To do this, enter commands such as
the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-C1)# remote-cache
Syntax: [no] remote-cache
This example enables Remote Cache on cache server C1. With Remote Cache enabled, the
ServerIron ADX can perform health checks on the cache server, even though Proxy ARP is disabled
on the router connecting the ServerIron ADX to the cache server.
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This example assumes that a source IP address is configured and Source NAT and Destination NAT
also are enabled, if applicable.
Shutting down a cache server
The force shutdown feature (sometimes called the force delete feature) allows you to force
termination of existing SLB connections. This feature assumes that you already have shut down a
TCP/UDP service on the real server or you have shut down the real server itself.
There are several methods for shutting down a cache server. Some methods involve changing the
ServerIron ADX configuration while other methods involve shutting down the cache server itself.
Each method has consequences, so choose the method that works best in your situation.
• Edit the cache server configuration on the ServerIron ADX to disable the HTTP (or other) port
on the server. For example, to disable port 80 (HTTP), you can use the port http disable
command at the cache level of the CLI. If you use this method, you do not need to re-define the
cache server to add the server back to TCS. However, you do need to re-enable the disabled
TCP/UDP ports.
Although the HTTP port is disabled in the ServerIron ADX definition of the cache server, all the
sites mapped to the cache server before the port was disabled remain mapped to the cache
server. When the cache server comes back up, it gets the same traffic it used to have. While
the cache server is disabled, the remaining cache servers temporarily handle caching for the
down cache server’s sites, but stop when the cache is restored. This behavior is the same as if
the cache actually died.
NOTE
You might need to set the maximum connections parameter for the remaining cache servers,
especially if the servers already run at a high percentage of their capacity when all cache
servers are available. Refer to “Configuring maximum connections for a cache server” on
page 59.
• Delete the cache server from the ServerIron ADX. This option immediately prevents new
connections. The ServerIron ADX ends existing connections after two minutes or, if you have
enabled the force shutdown option, immediately.
Do not use this method unless you have only one cache server. If you use this method, to
re-add the cache server to the ServerIron ADX, you must redefine the cache server and
re-assign it to a cache group. Moreover, because the ServerIron ADX uses a hashing function to
allocate contents among cache servers, the ServerIron ADX allocates traffic to the remaining
caches. If the deleted cache server is down for a while in a busy network, the traffic might be
unevenly balanced between the cache server tat was down and the other cache servers. To
reset the hash function and thus rebalance the serving load, you need to reboot the ServerIron
ADX.
• Shut down the cache server itself, rather than change definitions on the ServerIron ADX. When
the cache server stops responding to health checks, the ServerIron ADX removes the server
from TCS. If you have only one cache server, user traffic is switched at Layer 2 to the Internet
until the cache server comes back. If you have more than one cache server, the remaining
cache servers provide service until the disabled cache server comes back.
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This option is simple because it does not require any configuration changes on the ServerIron
ADX. However, this option immediately disconnects all users from the cache server, whereas
the above options allow the server or service to gracefully shut down (unless you use the force
shutdown option).
NOTE
You might need to set the maximum connections parameter for the remaining cache servers,
especially if the servers already run at a high percentage of their capacity when all cache
servers are available. Refer to “Configuring maximum connections for a cache server” on
page 59.
Forceful shutdown on cache servers
SLB and TCS allow the graceful shutdown of servers and services. By default, when a service is
disabled or deleted, the ServerIron ADX does not send new connections the real servers for that
service. However, the ServerIron ADX does allow existing connections to complete normally,
however long that may take.
You can use the force shutdown option (sometimes called the force delete option) to force the
existing connections to be terminated within two minutes.
NOTE
If you disable or delete a service, do not enter an additional command to reverse the command you
used to disable or delete the service, while the server is in graceful shutdown.
NOTE
Refer to “” on page 83 for important information about shutting down services or servers.
Suppose you have unbound the Telnet service on real server 15 but you do not want to wait until
the service comes down naturally. To force TCS connections to be terminated, enter the following
command.
ServerIronADX(config)# server force-delete
Syntax: server force-delete
Passive FTP for TCS
Passive FTP (sometimes referred to as PASV FTP because it involves the FTP PASV command) is a
more secure form of data transfer in which the flow of data is set up and initiated by the File
Transfer Program (FTP) client rather than by the FTP server program. Most Web browsers (which act
as FTP clients) use passive FTP by default because corporations prefer it as a safety measure. As a
general rule, any corporate firewall server, which exists in order to protect an internal network from
the outside world, recognizes input from the outside only in response to user requests that were
sent out requesting the input. The use of passive FTP ensures all data flow initiation comes from
inside the network rather than from the outside.
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Traffic flow of passive FTP
Using normal or passive FTP, a client begins a session by sending a request to communicate
through TCP port 21, the port that is conventionally assigned for this use at the FTP server. This
communication is known as the Control Channel connection.
Using passive FTP, a PASV command is sent instead of a PORT command. Instead of specifying a
port that the server can send to, the PASV command asks the server to specify a port it wishes to
use for the Data Channel connection. The server replies on the Control Channel with the port
number which the client then uses to initiate an exchange on the Data Channel. The server will
thus always be responding to client-initiated requests on the Data Channel and the firewall can
co-relate these.
FIGURE 12
Traffic flow for passive FTP
FTP Client
FTP Server
SYN
Port X
Port X
SYN ACK
ACK
Port X
Port X
Port X
PASV
PASV OK, IP address, Port Y
User lists directory or gets or puts a file
SYN
Port Z
Port Z
Port Z
Port Z
Port Z
SYN ACK
ACK
LIST, RETR, or STOR
Data segments and ACKs
Port 21
Port 21
Port 21
Port 21
Port 21
Port Y
Port Y
Port Y
Port 21
Port Y
Topologies supported
The following topologies are supported by Passive FTP for TCS on the ServerIron ADX as described.
• Basic TCS
• TCS with spoofing
Basic TCS
Figure 13 shows the packet flow in a basic TCS configuration. In this example, flows 1 and 2 are the
control channel and data channel between the client and cache servers. Both flows are opened by
the client. If the cache server doesn't have the information, it establishes flows 3 and 4 which are
the control channel and data channel between the cache server and the real server.
FIGURE 13
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Client
CIP
ServerIron ADX
1a Ctrl (CIP:x - RIP:21)
3b Ctrl (TIP:i - RIP:21)
2a Data (CIP:z - RIP:y)
4b Data (TIP:j - RIP:k)
2
Real Server
RIP
3a Ctrl (TIP:i - RIP:21)
4a Data (TIP:j - RIP:k)
1b Ctrl (CIP:x - RIP:21)
2b Data (CIP:z - RIP:y )
CIP-Client IP Address
RIP-Real Server IP Address
TIP-Cache Server IP Address
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
TCS with spoofing
In Figure 14, the cache server is spoofing the client's IP address instead of using its own IP address
when accessing the real server: In flows 3 and 4, the cache server is using the client's IP address
as the source address instead of using its own IP address.
FIGURE 14
Client
CIP
TCS with spoofing for passive FTP
ServerIron ADX
1a Ctrl (CIP:x - RIP:21)
3b Ctrl (CIP:i - RIP:21)
2a Data (CIP:z - RIP:y)
4b Data (CIP:j - RIP:k)
Real Server
RIP
Spoofing
3a Ctrl (CIP:i - RIP:21)
4a Data (CIP:j - RIP:k)
1b Ctrl (CIP:x - RIP:21)
2b Data (CIP:z - RIP:y )
CIP-Client IP Address
RIP-Real Server IP Address
TIP-Cache Server IP Address
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
High availability support
Since sessions are synced between ServerIron ADX devices, Passive FTP for TCS also supports the
high availability (HA) topology. The most common HA setup is Active-Active mode. The following
diagram shows an example of an L2 Active-Active setup:
FIGURE 15
L2 Active-Active high availability setup
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Real Server
RIP
R3
R4
Transparent
Cache Server
TIP
ServerIron ADX 1
ServerIron ADX 2
Session Sync Link
R1
R2
Client
CIP
Asymmetric flow
The control and data traffic between a client and cache server or between a cache server and a
real server can be asymmetric as described in Figure 16.
FIGURE 16
Client
Asymmetric flow example
R1
SI1
Cache Server
SI2
R2
Client
Or
Cache Server
SI1
R3
Real Server
R4
SI2
Cache Server
ServerIron ADX Failover
Failover of the router or ServerIron ADX device is supported as described in the following.
Configure VRRP on routers “R1’ and “R2”. Where R1 is the master or default gateway for both the
client and cache server the flow will be as shown in Figure 17.
FIGURE 17
Client
Normal flow before failover
R1
SI1
Cache Server
SI1
R1
Client
If the “R1” router or “ServerIron ADX 1” fails the flow will switch as shown in Figure 18.
FIGURE 18
Client
R2
Failover flow
SI2
Cache Server
SI2
R2
Client
During the failover, any traffic of the control or data channels won't be corrupted. After a short
break, all transport will continue.
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Enabling passive FTP caching
There is no specific CLI command to enable passive FTP caching. To enable passive CLI caching,
configure “port ftp” within a cache-server configuration, as shown in the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer6
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer6)# port ftp
Whether the data channel is in active mode or passive mode depends on the operation of the FTP
Client and Server. If they support passive mode, the ServerIron ADX can automatically adapt to it
for data channel traffic.
Streaming media support
TCS can be used with streaming media content. The RTSP, MMS, and Real streaming media
protocols are supported. The source NAT and destination NAT features are applied correctly to
streams using these protocols, both for the parent TCP connection as well as the actual data
stream.
NOTE
RTSP SLB and source NAT are not supported if Darwin Streaming server is used.
To configure TCS for streaming media content, specify a streaming media port (RTSP, PNM, or
MMS) as part of the definition of the cache server and configure an ip policy statement for the
specified port.
For example, to configure TCS for the RTSP protocol, enter commands such as the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer1 192.168.1.101
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp rtsp global
If you use TCS with MMS (TCP port 1755 with random UDP ports) or PNM (TCP port 7070), you
must specify port 0 in the ip policy command, since the command accepts TCP or UDP port
numbers no higher than 1023. For example,
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer1 192.168.1.101
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port pnm
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 2 cache udp 0 global
NOTE
Streaming media protocols are not supported for IPv6 traffic of TCS.
Policy based caching
Policy based caching allows configuration of a separate set of filters for each cache-group. Users
can use access-lists to define a set of filters and apply these to different cache groups.
To configure the enhanced policy-based caching features, follow the steps below.
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Creating a set of filters using access-list
First create a set of filters using the access-list command at the CLI. You can use regular or
extended access lists.
Applying access-list to cache group
Apply the access-list to the desired cache group as follows.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# filter-acl 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
In the above example, the filters defined in access-list 1 are used for cache-group 1.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)#filter-acl 2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)#exit
In the above example, the filters defined in access-list 2 are used for cache-group 2.
Syntax: filter-acl { <Access List ID> | < Access List Name > }
NOTE
Although IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs are supported, an IPv4 ACL can only be bound to an IPv4 cache group
and an IPv6 ACL can only be bound to an IPv6 cache group.
Configuring default cache-group
You can also configure a default cache-group. If the traffic does not match the acl-ids for any of the
cache-groups, then it is sent to the default cache group. You do not need to explicitly associate an
acl-id with the default cache-group; the behavior of the default cache-group is "permit any any".
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 3
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name Cache-Server1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name Cache-Server2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# default-group
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
Syntax: default-group
NOTE
If default cache-group is not configured or if no cache servers are associated with the default
cache-group, then the traffic is sent to the Internet, if the traffic does not match any of the group
acls.
Configuring an ACL to bypass caching
You can configure a bypass filter to redirect traffic to the Internet instead of sending it to the cache
servers. Configure an access list using the existing access-list CLI if you want to designate it as the
bypass filter as follows.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-bypass 3
Syntax: server cache-bypass <acl-id> [ ipv6 ]
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The <acl-id>variable specifies the ID of the IPv4 or IPv6 ACL being used for bypass caching.
You must use ipv6 parameter if the ACL being used for bypass caching is an IPv6 ACL.
The above bypass caching ACL will be evaluated first. If traffic matches this ACL, this traffic will be
sent directly to the Internet.
NOTE
This bypass caching ACL is global in scope i.e. it will apply to all cache-groups. It should be configured
as a permit ACL.
Summary of configuration constraints
Consider the following:
• User will configure the filters using the access-list command and associate the id with a
cache-group. Note that the filters in the acl-id will apply to all cache servers in the cache-group.
If you don't want the acl-id to apply to a particular server in the cache-group, you need to create
another cache group and move the server to this group.
• If user does not configure a default cache-group, then traffic that does not match any of the
group ACLs will be sent to the Internet.
• When policy-based caching is enabled, user should not disable any cache groups. Disabling a
cache group could result in disruption of traffic. If user needs to prevent traffic from being
serviced by a particular group, he or she should update the filter-acl associated with the group
accordingly instead of disabling the group.
• When policy-based caching is enabled, user should not turn on spoofing for a subset of the
cache groups. User can either turn on spoofing for all the cache groups or turn it off for all of
them.
Show commands
Syntax: show cache-group [cache-group number]
The show cache-group command displays the acl-id, if one is associated with the group and the hit
count for the associated policy number.
Debug commands
You can configure the following command to enable debugging for enhanced policy based caching.
ServerIronADX(config)# server debug-policy-caching
Syntax: server debug-policy-caching
NOTE
This command impacts performance and should be used for debugging purposes only. Output for
this command is sent to the BP.
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Content aware cache switching
Content aware cache switching
Content aware cache switching (CSW in a TCS environment) uses information in the header of an
HTTP request to determine how or if content should be retrieved from a cache server. Using the text
in a URL string, the ServerIron ADX sends a request from a client to a cache server or to the Internet
according to user-defined policies.
You can configure content aware cache switching on the ServerIron ADX to do the following:
• Group cache servers by content; for example, GIF files can be cached on one cache server and
HTML files on another
• Cause HTTP requests containing a given URL string always to go to the same cache server,
minimizing content duplication among cache servers
• Use information in the URL string or Host header field of an HTTP request to determine how the
requested content should be cached
• Explicitly direct requests for dynamic content to the Internet, rather than to a cache server
• Use directives in the HTTP 1.0 or 1.1 header to determine whether requested content should
be cached
The following sections discuss how CSW operates in a TCS environment and present some sample
configurations that demonstrate the features of content aware cache switching.
How CSW works
The CSW is the ServerIron ADX's ability to direct HTTP requests to a server, or group of servers,
using information in the text of a URL string. The ServerIron ADX examines the contents of a URL
string and makes a decision about where to send the packet based on selection criteria in
user-defined policies. If text in the URL string matches the selection criteria, the HTTP request is
sent to a server group specified in the policy.
NOTE
"URL string" is defined as the contents of the Request-URI part of the Request-Line in an HTTP
request message. This information usually consists of the absolute pathname (directory and
filename) of a resource. For example,
/doc/ServerIron ADX/1199/url_switching.html
The URL string can also be the input to a process running on a remote server. For example,
/quote.cgi?s=BRCD&d=1d
The network location of the resource is specified in the Host header field in an HTTP request
message. For example,
Host: www.brocade.com
The ServerIron ADX can examine both the URL string and Host header field when determining where
to send the HTTP request. Refer to RFC 1945 or RFC 2616 for more information on HTTP request
messages.
The selection criteria in a policy can be a string of characters starting from the beginning of the URL
string, end of the URL string, or within any part of the URL string. For example, selection criteria can
be a URL string that starts with the text “/home”. In a TCS environment, when a client sends an
HTTP request that has a URL string beginning with the text “/home", the policy can direct that
request to a specific group of cache servers (or to another CSW policy for additional matching).
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Basic example of content aware cache switching
The diagram in Figure 19 illustrates a configuration that uses content aware cache switching to
cache GIF files on one set of cache servers and different kinds of files on another set.
In this configuration, cache group 1 consists of three cache servers. CacheServer1 and
CacheServer2 are allocated to server group ID = 1, and CacheServer3 is allocated to server group
ID = 2. The ServerIron ADX has CSW policies in place that cause HTTP requests to be directed to
the cache servers as follows:
• HTTP requests containing URL strings that end with the text "gif" are sent to one of the cache
servers in server group ID = 1.
• If a URL string does not end with the text "gif", the HTTP request is sent to the cache server in
server group ID = 2.
FIGURE 19
Content aware cache switching
Internet
BAR
Web Queries
RAS
SI
CacheServer1
192.168.1.101
CacheServer2
192.168.1.102
Server Group ID=1
Client requests for URLs that end with gif
are directed to one of the cache servers
in this server group
CacheServer3
192.168.1.103
Server Group ID=2
Client requests for all other URLs
are directed to the cache server in
this server group
Cache Group 1
The first time a client requests a URL that ends with "gif" (for example, /home/main/banner.gif) the
following events take place.
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1. Since the URL ends with "gif", the CSW policy on the ServerIron ADX directs the request to one
of the cache servers in Server Group ID=1.
2. When a server group consists of more than one cache server, the ServerIron ADX uses a
hashing algorithm to select one of the cache servers, and directs the request to the selected
cache server.
3. Since this is the first time the content is requested, the selected cache server does not have
the content stored, so the cache server retrieves it from the Internet.
4. The cache server receives the content, caches it, and sends it to the requesting client.
The next time a client requests the content, the following events take place.
1. Since the URL begins with "gif", the CSW policy directs the request to one of the cache servers
in Server Group ID=1.
2. The ServerIron ADX hashes the URL string, selecting the same server it selected previously.
3. This time the cache server has the content and does not have to go to the Internet to get it; it
sends the cached content to the requesting client.
Setting up content aware cache switching consists of the following steps.
1. Enabling TCS on the ServerIron ADX
2. Setting up CSW policies
3. Configuring the cache servers
4. Assigning the cache servers to a cache group
These tasks are described in the following sections.
Enabling TCS
To enable TCS on all interfaces (globally) of the ServerIron ADX shown in Figure 19, enter the
following command.
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 80 global
Syntax: ip policy <index> cache | normal | high tcp | udp <tcp/udp-portnum> global | local
Setting up the CSW policies
The CSW policies define selection criteria for URL strings and specify what happens when a URL
string matches the selection criteria. In content aware cache switching, if an HTTP request contains
a URL string that matches a policy’s selection criteria, the HTTP request can be sent to a
load-balanced cache server group or to another policy for additional matching.
NOTE
The CSW policies discussed in this section apply to the example in Figure 19 on page 71.
The following commands define a CSW policy called p1.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-rule r1 url suffix “gif”
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# default forward 2
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# exit
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Syntax: csw-rule r1 url prefix | suffix | pattern"<selection-criteria>"
Syntax: csw-policy <policy-name>
Syntax: match r1 forward <server-group-id>
Syntax: default forward<server-group-id>
The csw-rule r1 url suffix gif command consists of two parts. The first part specifies what kind of
matching the policy does on the selection criteria. Three kinds of matching methods are supported:
• The prefix keyword compares the selection criteria to the beginning of the URL string.
• The suffix keyword compares the selection criteria to the end of the URL string.
• The pattern keyword looks for the selection criteria anywhere within the URL string.
The second part of the specifies the selection criteria, which can be up to 80 characters in length;
In this example, the selection criteria is the text string "gif". Since the matching method is suffix, the
policy looks at the end of the URL string. If the URL string ends with the text "gif", then the URL
string meets the selection criteria.
NOTE
In addition to using text as selection criteria, you can use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard character to
specify one or more characters at the end of a URL string. For example, using "/ho*" as the selection
criteria matches /home, /hotels, and /home/main/index.html.
If you are using the suffix matching method, you cannot use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard character.
The asterisk wildcard character is valid for the prefix and pattern matching methods only.
The csw-policy p1 command sets the name of the policy.
If the URL string meets the selection criteria, the second part of the match command specifies
what to do with the HTTP request. In this example, the 1 in the command causes the HTTP request
to be sent to the cache server group whose ID = 1. Specifying 0 in the match command causes the
request to be directed to the Internet. A CSW policy can contain multiple match commands, each
with different selection criteria.
The default forward 2 command specifies what happens when the URL string does not meet any of
the selection criteria in a CSW policy’s match command. With a match command, you can specify a
server group ID number. In this example, if a URL string does not match the selection criteria in
policy p1, it is sent to group-id 2 for evaluation.
NOTE
As the diagram in Figure 19 illustrates, there is only one cache server in server group ID = 2. Even
so, the match command must refer to a server group, rather than an actual cache server. Server
groups can consist of one or more cache servers.
Configuring the cache servers
The cache servers return the content to the requesting clients. When configuring content aware
cache switching, you place the cache servers into logical server groups. CSW policies direct HTTP
requests to one of the cache servers in these logical groups.
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A server group can contain one or more cache servers. When a server group consists of more than
one cache server, the ServerIron ADX uses a hashing algorithm to select one of the cache servers,
and directs the request to the selected cache server. When configuring content aware cache
switching, you establish the IP address of each cache server and specify the server group to which
it belongs.
To configure CacheServer1 in Figure 19 on page 71, enter a command such as the following
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer1 192.168.1.101
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port http group-id 1 1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# exit
Syntax: port http group-id <server-group-id-pairs>
The port http group-id command indicates the server groups to which the cache server belongs.
The server group is expressed as a pair of numbers, indicating a range of server group IDs. The first
number is the lowest-numbered server group ID, and the second is the highest-numbered server
group ID. For example, if a cache server belongs only to the server group with ID = 1, the last two
numbers in the port http group-id command would be 1 1. (Note the space between the two
numbers.) If a cache server belongs to server groups 1 – 10, the last two numbers in the command
would be 1 10. Valid numbers for server group IDs are 0 – 1023.
To include a cache server in groups that are not consecutively numbered, you can enter up to four
server group ID pairs. For example, to include a cache server in groups 1 – 5 and 11 – 15, you
would enter the following command.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port http group-id 1 5 11 15
You can also specify the server group ID pairs on separate lines, by entering commands such as the
following.
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port http group-id 1 5
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port http group-id 11 15
The configuration for the remaining cache servers in Figure 19 is shown below. These commands
place CacheServer2 in server group ID = 1 (along with CacheServer1) and CacheServer3 in server
group ID = 2.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer2 192.168.1.102
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer2)# port http group-id 1 1
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer3 192.168.1.103
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer3)# port http group-id 2 2
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer3)# exit
Assigning the cache servers to a cache group
To activate content aware cache switching (as in Figure 19), you create a cache group, assign the
cache servers to that group, and specify a CSW policy to be active for the cache group, such as the
following.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name CacheServer1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name CacheServer2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name CacheServer3
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# csw
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# csw-policy p1
Syntax: csw
Syntax: csw-policy <policy-name>
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Configuring policies for dynamic content
For dynamic Web pages, such as Active Server Pages, it may be preferable not to cache the
content. You can configure CSW policies on the ServerIron ADX that cause requests for these kinds
of pages to bypass the cache servers and go directly to the Internet.
In addition, the ServerIron ADX examines directives in the HTTP 1.0 or 1.1 header to determine
whether a request should be sent to the cache servers or to the Internet. When this feature is
enabled (the default), a request is sent to the origin server regardless of the URL string if one of the
following is true:
• The request contains a pragma:no-cache header (HTTP 1.0 requests)
• The Cache-Control header in the request contains a no-cache directive (HTTP 1.1 requests)
In the configuration in Figure 20 on page 76, the ServerIron ADX has CSW policies in place that
cause HTTP requests to be directed to the cache servers as follows:
• Requests that have URL strings with the text "asp" anywhere within go directly to the Internet
• Requests for all other content are directed to one of the cache servers in server group ID = 100
• HTTP 1.0 requests that have a pragma:no-cache header are sent to the Internet regardless of
the URL string
• HTTP 1.1 requests that have a Cache-Control header containing a no-cache directive are sent
to the Internet regardless of the URL string
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FIGURE 20
Sending requests for Active Server Pages to the Internet
Internet
Client requests for URLs that contain
asp anywhere within are directed to
the Internet
BAR
Web Queries
RAS
SI
CacheServer1
192.168.1.101
CacheServer2
192.168.1.102
CacheServer3
192.168.1.103
Server Group ID=100
Client requests for URLs that do not contain
asp are directed to one of the cache servers
in this server group
Cache Group 1
The following sections explain how to set up this configuration.
Enabling TCS
To enable TCS on all interfaces (globally) of the ServerIron ADX shown in Figure 20, enter the
following command.
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 80 global
Syntax: ip policy <index> cache | normal | high tcp | udp <tcp/udp-portnum> global | local
Setting up the CSW policies
To implement the configuration in Figure 20, you would create a CSW policy that sends all requests
containing URL strings ending with "asp" directly to the Internet, bypassing the cache servers. All
other requests are sent to one of the cache servers in server group ID = 100.
The following commands define a CSW policy called policyA1.
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ServerIronADX(config)# csw-rule r1 url pattern “asp”
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy policyA1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-policyA1)# match forward 0
ServerIronADX(config-csw-policyA1)# default forward 100
ServerIronADX(config-csw-policyA1)# exit
The pattern method in the command causes the policy to look for the selection criteria anywhere
within the URL string.
The match forward 0 command looks for URL strings that contain the text "asp"; for example,
/active/q.asp?ln=fdry. These HTTP requests are sent to the Internet.
The default forward 100 command sends HTTP requests that do not meet the selection criteria in
policyA1’s match command server group ID = 100.
Configuring the cache servers
To place the cache servers in Figure 20 on page 76 into server group ID = 100, enter the following
commands.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer1 192.168.1.101
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# port http group-id 100 100
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer5 192.168.1.102
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer5)# port http group-id 100 100
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer5)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name CacheServer6 192.168.1.103
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer6)# port http group-id 100 100
ServerIronADX(config-rs-CacheServer6)# exit
Assigning the cache servers to a cache group
To activate the configuration shown in Figure 20, enter the following commands.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name CacheServer1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name CacheServer2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name CacheServer3
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# http-cache-control
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# csw
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# csw-policy policyA1
Syntax: [no] http-cache-control
The http-cache-control command ensures that HTTP 1.0 requests that have a pragma:no-cache
header and HTTP 1.1 requests that have a Cache-Control header containing a no-cache directive
are sent to the Internet. This is the default behavior. To configure the ServerIron ADX to ignore the
pragma:no-cache or Cache-Control header in an HTTP request, use the no http-cache-control
command.
HTTP 1.1 support for content aware cache switching
Beginning with release 12.4.00, HTTP keep-alive mode is enabled by default for content aware
cache switching. This has been added to fully support HTTP 1.1 for TCS CSW; Unlike the operation
in previous releases of ServerIron ADX, the client request isn’t downgraded to HTTP 1.0 and the
connection header is unmodified. The client will send subsequent requests over the same TCP
connection if the server supports HTTP keep-alive. The ServerIron ADX software will maintain HTTP
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state machine to track HTTP request/response transactions. Every HTTP request will be analyzed
and forwarded according to the CSW configuration. When CSW makes a decision to switch from
one server to another server, it will send a TCP reset to the previously chosen server and establish
a TCP connection to the newly selected server
Disabling HTTP Keep Alive mode
HTTP keep-alive mode is the default mode for TCS CSW. You can disable keep-alive to return the
ServerIron ADX to HTTP 1.0 mode which was supported in releases prior to 12.4.00 as shown.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# no-keep-alive
Syntax: [no] no-keep-alive
Use the no parameter to re-enable HTTP keep alive if you have disabled it.
Displaying HTTP keep alive statistics
You can use the show server proxy keep-alive command to display HTTP keep alive statistics. The
statistics relevant to HTTP keep alive are shown (in bold) in the abbreviated output below and
described in Table 5.
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ServerIronADX 1000#sh server proxy keep-alive
Keep-alive connection statistics:
...
TCB status:
Total in mem
Allocated from mem
Allocated from pool
Allocated from FS po
Free to FS mem
Clean reusables
None-reusable to mem
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
100000
2
36
0
0
0
0
Connection unreusable reasons:
Small window
=
Not reusable
=
Image
=
Delayed ACK list status:
Total TCBs in list
=
Generated ack num
=
...
SYN_RECV
=
0
NOT_COMPLETE
=
SYN_SENT
=
PAGE_REPLIED
=
Reply_Sent
=
sock get from mem
=
send SYN to server f =
KA switch real port =
Curr TCBs in list
=
Generated ack num
=
Curr buffered pkts
=
Unknown
=
KA DEBUG: URL_MULTI_STATE_FREED [
0
0
0
12
0
Current in pool
Freed to mem
Freed to pool
Freed to FS pool
Clean non-reusables
Clean in wrong state
Rate exceeded to mem
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0
1
36
0
0
0
0
No rev sess
Fin/RST received
=
=
=
0
0
0
Curr TCBs in list
=
0
WAIT_REQ
=
0
REQ_STORED
=
0
REQ_SENT
=
0
STATE_UNKNOWN
=
0
sock free to pool er =
0
send SYN to server
=
0
send reset to server =
0
KA reuse connection =
0
Total TCBs in list
=
0
Curr buffered data
=
0
Total pipeline reqs =
0
=
31] =
37
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
0
0
0
Syntax: show server proxy keep-alive
The fields described in Table 5 provide statistics about HTTP keep alive.
TABLE 5
HTTP keep alive statistics
This field...
Displays
Allocated from pool
The number of instances when a server port was allocated
from the Keep-Alive pool.
Freed to pool
The number of instances when a server port was freed to
the Keep-Alive pool.
Total TCBs in list
(appears in two locations)
The total number of Keep-Alive connections received by
the ServerIron ADX.
You can clear the HTTP keep alive counter on a ServerIron ADX as shown.
ServerIronADX# clear server keep-alive statistics
Syntax: clear server keep-alive statistics
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Traffic Distribution based on Cache Server Capacity
Traffic Distribution based on Cache Server Capacity
This feature allows you to use SNMP to monitor the load on cache servers and load-balance the
cache servers using that information. For this feature to operate, the cache server must run an
SNMP agent and support MIBs that can be queried by the SNMP manager software on the
ServerIron ADX.
The following specifications currently exist for this feature:
• Only HTTP traffic on port 80 is currently supported
• This feature is not supported for CSW in a TCL environment
• The default cache server state is set to OFFLINE. If an out-of-range SNMP MIB value is
received, the cache server state is set to the default state (OFFLINE).
• Only SNMPv2 is currently supported
This feature operates by performing queries to cache server states that are held in the SNMP agent
on the cache server. The ServerIron ADX then uses the cache server state obtained from the query
to determine the load balancing action to take as described in Table 6.
TABLE 6
Load balancing action as determined by cache server state
Cache Server States
ServerIron ADX load balancing action
UNDERUSED (1):
Cache is operating normally with low resource
utilization
For UNDERUSED (1) or NORMAL (2) or BURDENED (3) the
action is the same:
The ServerIron ADX will allow new connections to these
cache servers and will also forward connections that were
originally hashed to other stressed cache servers to these
cache servers.
NORMAL (2):
Cache is operating normally with no resource
constraints
BURDENED (3):
Cache is operating normally but nearing
resource constraints.
STRESSED (4):
Cache has reached its effective capacity limit
and cannot stably handle additional load.
For STRESSED (4) the action is:
The ServerIron ADX will not allow new connections to
these cache servers if other under used or normal cache
servers are available. If no under used or normal cache
servers are available, ServerIron ADX will continue to use
these cache servers.
OVERTAXED (5):
Cache load has exceeded its maximum
sustainable capacity and should be decreased.
For OVERTAXED (5) or OVERLOADED (6) the action is the
same:
The ServerIron ADX will not allow new connections to
these cache servers but will continue servicing existing
connections. Any new connections will instead be
forwarded to the under used and normal cache servers.
OVERLOADED (6):
Cache load has reached an unsustainable level
and must be decreased immediately.
HALTING (7):
Cache is in the process of shutting down.
80
The ServerIron ADX will neither allow any new connections
nor continue servicing existing connections on these
cache servers. Any new connections will instead be
forwarded to the under used and normal cache servers.
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TABLE 6
2
Load balancing action as determined by cache server state
Cache Server States
ServerIron ADX load balancing action
OFFLINE (8):
Cache is out-of-service and unable to handle
any traffic.
The ServerIron ADX will neither allow any new connections
nor continue servicing existing connections on these
cache servers. Any new connections will instead be
forwarded to the under used and normal cache servers.
INITIALIZING (9):
Cache is preparing to enter service but not
ready to handle traffic.
The ServerIron ADX will not allow any new connections to
these cache servers.
Configuring SNMP-based Cache Server load balancing
To configure SNMP-based Cache Server load balancing you must do the following.
Within the cache server configuration:
• Set the SNMP request community string to the same as the cache server
• Set the SNMP request oid of the cache server
Within the cache group configuration
• Set the predictor to be SNMP weighted
The following configuration sets the SNMP request community string and oid.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cs100 20.20.20.100
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cs100)# snmp-request community public
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cs100)# snmp-request oid 1 1.3.6.1.4.1.14501.3.2.1.42.42.0
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cs100)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cs100)#exit
ServerIronADX(config)#
Syntax: [no] snmp-request community <community-string>
The <community-string> variable specifies the community string name. The string can be up to 32
characters long.
Syntax: [no] snmp-request oid <oid-index> <oid-value>
The <oid-index> variable specifies an index number for the SNMP object identifier that you are
configuring.
The <oid-value> variable specifies the SNMP object identifier for the cache server.
By default, the ServerIron ADX polls the cache server for the configured oid every 3 seconds. To
change the SNMP poll interval, you can use the following command.
ServerIronADX(config)# server snmp-poll 30
Syntax: [no] server snmp-poll <seconds>
The <seconds> variable specifies the poll interval for the SNMP queries send by the ServerIron ADX
to the cache servers. The ServerIron ADX then sets the cache state based on the reply received
from the cache server.
The following configuration sets server cache group “1” to use the SNMP predictor configured with
the OID index “1” with the “cs100” cache server.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
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ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# hash-mask 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cs100
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# predictor snmp-weighted oid 1
Syntax: [no] predictor snmp-weighted oid <oid-index>
The <oid-index> variable specifies the index number for the SNMP object identifier that you want to
use for operating SNMP weighted load sharing for this cache group. This must be the same
identifier as that defined under the cache servers.
A typical flow for SNMP-based cache server load balancing would include the following.
1. ServerIron ADX sends periodic SNMP queries to the cache server.
2. ServerIron ADX sets the cache server state based on the reply it receives from the cache
server.
3. For an incoming connection, a hash is computed based on its load state.
TABLE 7
Hash allocation and load balancing performed by ServerIron ADX based on the
load state of the cache server
Cache Server
state
Allocated has
bucket
New connections
Overflow
Connections**
Existing
connections
Clears
hash-buckets
Underused
Yes
Allows
Allows
Allows
No
Normal
Yes
Allows
Allows
Allows
No
Burdened
Yes
Allows
Allows
Allows
No
Stressed
Yes
Allows (If no other
cache is
available)
Does not allow
Allows
No
Overloaded/
overtaxed
Yes
Does not allow
Does not allow
Allows
No
Halting
No
Does not allow
Does not allow
Allows
Yes
Offline
No
Does not allow
Does not allow
Deletes*
Yes
Initializing
Yes
Does not allow
Does not allow
Deletes*
No
* In order to delete the existing connection on an offline/initializing cache server immediately
the server force-delete command needs to be configured.
** Overflow connections indicates that the connection that previously hashed to a cache
server that is currently either burdened, stressed, overloaded, overtaxed, halting or offline.
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Displaying cache information
To display cache information, enter the following command at any level of the CLI.
ServerIronADX# show cache-group
Cache-group 1 has 1 members Admin-status = Enabled
Hash_info: Dest_mask = 255.255.255.0 Src_mask = 0.0.0.0
Cache Server Name
cs1
cs2
cs3
Admin-status
6
6
6
Hash-distribution L7-hash-distribution
4
21
3
22
4
21
HTTP Traffic From <-> to Web-Caches
=====================================
Name: cf
Client
Web-Server
Total
IP: 209.157.23.195
State CurConn TotConn
active
0 386581
Active
0
0
0 386581
State: 6
Groups =
Host->Web-cache
Packets
Octets
1932917 185657048
0
0
1932917 185657048
1
Web-cache->Host
Packets
Octets
1547981 393357745
0
0
1547981 393357745
HTTP Uncached traffic
=====================
Traffic to Web-server port 1
Client->Web-Server
Client-port
Packets
Octets
2
8230
670375
4
97
8129
Total
8327
678504
Web-Server->Client
Packets
Octets
8038
7348299
92
83257
8130
7431556
Syntax: show cache-group
To clear the statistics displayed by the show cache-group command use the following command.
ServerIronADX# clear server traffic
Syntax: clear server traffic
This display of the show cache-group command shows the following information.
TABLE 8
TCS information
This field...
Displays...
Global cache group information
This section of the display lists global information for the cache group.
Admin-status
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The administrative status of the cache group. The status can be one of
the following:
• Disabled
• Enabled
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TABLE 8
TCS information (Continued)
This field...
Displays...
Hash_info
The source and destination mask for the cache distribution hash value.
The ServerIron ADX compares the web site’s IP address to the hash
mask to determine which cache server to send a a request for a given
web site to.
As long as the cache server is available, the ServerIron ADX always
sends requests for a given IP address to the same cache. If a cache
becomes unavailable, the ServerIron ADX directs requests for web sites
normally served by that cache to the remaining cache servers until the
unavailable cache server becomes available again.
Cache Server Name
The names of the cache servers in the cache group. These are the
names you assigned when you configured cache server information on
the ServerIron ADX.
Admin-status
The administrative state of the cache server, which can be one of the
following:
• 1 – Enabled
• 2 – Failed
• 3 – Testing
• 4 – Suspect
• 5 – Graceful shutdown
• 6 – Active
L4-Hash-Buckets
The number of hash distribution slots used by the cache server. The
ServerIron ADX has 256 hash distribution slots available. A hash
distribution slot associates a web site destination IP addresses with a
specific cache server. Refer to “Controlling traffic distribution among
cache servers” on page 53 for more information about has values.
L7-Hash-Buckets
The number of L7 cache buckets.
Traffic statistics for traffic between clients and the cache
Name
The cache server name
IP
The cache server’s IP address
State
The administrative state of each of the services on cache server which
can be one of the following:
• 1 – Enabled
• 2 – Failed
• 3 – Testing
• 4 – Suspect
• 5 – Graceful shutdown
• 6 – Active
Groups
The cache groups of which the cache server is a member.
State
CurConn
84
The state of the service, which can be one of the following:
1 – Enabled
2 – Failed
3 – Testing
4 – Suspect
5 – Graceful shutdown
6 – Active
•
•
•
•
•
•
The number of currently active connections between hosts and the
cache server.
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TABLE 8
2
TCS information (Continued)
This field...
Displays...
TotConn
The total number of connections between hosts and the cache server.
Cache->Web-Server
The total number of packets and octets from cache server to web
servers.
Web-Server->Cache
The total number of packets and octets from web servers to cache
server.
Client->Cache
The total number of packets and octets from clients to cache server.
Cache->Client
The total number of packets and octets from cache server to clients.
Traffic statistics for traffic between clients and web servers
The statistics for this section are for traffic that did not go to the cache server. Generally, statistics in this section
accumulate when the cache server is not available. When the cache server is not available, the ServerIron ADX
sends client requests directly to the network or Internet for servicing by the web servers.
Connection
The total number of connections that ServerIron ADX has sent directly to
web servers.
Client->Web-Server
The total number of packets and octets from clients that the ServerIron
ADX has sent directly to the web servers.
Web-Server->Client
The total number of packets and octets from web servers to clients.
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Basic TCS configuration
Figure 21 shows a configuration in which HTTP traffic flows into a Point-of-Presence (POP) from
remote access servers (RASs) and out of the POP to the Internet through a Border Area Router
(BAR). The cache servers are labeled C1, C2, and C3.
FIGURE 21
Basic TCS configuration example
Internet
Remote Access Server (RAS)
The CAR connects the clients
(through the ServerIron) to the
cache servers.
Border Access Router (BAR)
BAR
BAR
RAS1
e6
e4
e5
SI
e7
RAS2
e8
The BAR connects the clients
(through the ServerIron) to the
Internet.
e1
e2
e3
RAS3
Cache server C1
Cache server C2
Cache server C3
In the most basic setup, HTTP traffic flowing across the ServerIron ADX, in any direction, is
redirected to the cache servers. If a cache server has the requested content, the server returns the
content to the client. If the cache server does not have the content, the cache server goes to the
Internet to get the requested content, then caches the content and sends it to the client.
The client never accesses the Internet directly, unless all the cache servers in the cache group are
unavailable. In that case, traffic flows across the ServerIron ADX at Layer 2 and out to the Internet
in the normal way.
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In a transparent caching scheme, the ServerIron ADX acts as the traffic redirector and the cache
servers accept requests for any destination IP address. A cache server that accepts requests for
any IP address are running in promiscuous mode. The client does not have to configure anything on
their web browser. Thus, the caching is “transparent” to the client. It is this transparent
characteristic that sets proxy-based caching and transparent caching apart.
In this example, suppose you want all traffic to be cached and you want to use the ServerIron ADX’s
default settings. To configure the ServerIron ADX for this example, you define the caches, assign
them to cache groups, and apply an IP policy.
Applying IP policies
For the simple case in which you want to cache everything no matter where it comes from or where
it is going to, use a global policy, such as the following.
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 80 global
By using a global policy, you can make rule 2 true for all ports. Rule 1 is true by default because all
ports are in cache group 1. Any HTTP traffic flowing across the switch is redirected to the caches.
You can accomplish the same thing with a local policy. With local policies you have to first define
and then apply the policy to the appropriate output ports. In this case, since you want to cache all
traffic, you need to apply the policy to the RAS and BAR ports.
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 80 local
ServerIronADX(config)# int e 4
ServerIronADX(config-if-4)# ip-policy 1
ServerIronADX(config-if-4)# int e 5
ServerIronADX(config-if-5)# ip-policy 1
ServerIronADX(config-if-5)# int e 6
ServerIronADX(config-if-6)# ip-policy 1
ServerIronADX(config-if-6)# int e 7
ServerIronADX(config-if-7)# ip-policy 1
ServerIronADX(config-if-7)# int e 8
ServerIronADX(config-if-8)# ip-policy 1
NOTE
Note the subtle syntax difference between the commands to create a local policy and apply a policy
to a port. If you leave the dash out of the command, the command does not work.
The local policies make rule 2 true for the BAR and RAS ports. Rule 1 is true by default. Local
policies provide better control at the cost of more configuration steps. If you add a BAR to port 10,
traffic destined for it is not redirected because you have not applied the policy to port 10. With a
global policy, traffic is redirected automatically.
Defining the caches
To make caching work, you need to apply an IP policy and you need to define the caches and assign
them to a cache-group. You define cache servers as follows.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C1 11.11.11.11
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C2 11.11.11.12
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C3 11.11.11.13
The ServerIronADX ARPs for these addresses to determine which ports the caches are on.
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Defining the cache groups
A cache group is a collection of ServerIron ADX input ports and cache servers. You can define up to
four cache groups on a ServerIron ADX. Each cache group can have a cache server farm with up to
256 caches. If a cache group has more than one cache server, the ServerIron ADX distributes
traffic among the servers using a hashing algorithm. (Refer to “Controlling traffic distribution
among cache servers” on page 53.)
All ports on the ServerIron ADX are assigned to cache group 1 by default. Ports can be assigned to
any cache group (only one at a time) or removed from all cache-groups. If a port is removed from all
cache-groups, traffic entering on that port is not be redirected to a cache because rule 1 in this
example is not true.
Once the caches have been defined, they must be associated (bound) with a particular cache
group. The following CLI commands bind the cache servers shown in Figure 21 with a cache group.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name C1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name C2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name C3
POP belonging to an ISP using caching to
minimize WAN costs
This example assumes a POP that belongs to an ISP. The RASs are actually remote access routers
for customer dial-in. The ISP does not pay the phone company for access to the RASs; the ISP
customers pay the phone company for this access. However, the ISP does pay for the WAN links
connecting the BARs to the Internet. The ISP wants to introduce caching to improve user response
time without the need to increase the size of the WAN links.
The ISP does not want to fill up the cache servers with content in its customer’s web sites. The ISP
wants to cache only the content on the other side of the BARs. The ISP wants only the traffic
entering from a RAS destined for a BAR to be cached. The ISP does not want to cache RAS-to-RAS
or BAR-to-RAS traffic.
In this example, the configuration requires more control than a global policy allows. Therefore, local
policies are used. Only one cache group, the default cache group 1, is required.
To configure the ServerIron ADX for this application, apply IP policies only to the BAR ports (4 and
5), define the caches, and place them in cache group 1. Here are the CLI commands for creating
this configuration.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C1 11.11.11.11
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C2 11.11.11.12
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name C3 11.11.11.13
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 80 local
ServerIronADX(config)# int e 4
ServerIronADX(config-if-4)# ip-policy 1
ServerIronADX(config-if-4)# int e 5
ServerIronADX(config-if-5)# ip-policy 1
ServerIronADX(config-if-5)# ser cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name c1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name c2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name c3
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Traffic entering from a BAR destined for a RAS is not cached because rule 2 (output redirection
enabled) is not true for the RAS ports. Traffic from RAS-to-RAS is not cached because rule 2 is false
in this case as well. Traffic from RAS-to-BAR is cached because both rules are true.
Both rules are true for BAR-to-BAR traffic as well. This type of traffic rarely, if ever, occurs. However,
if this type of traffic does occur and you do not want to cache the traffic, you cannot turn off the
output policy on the BAR ports or nothing will get cached. Instead, make rule 1 false by removing
the BAR ports from all cache groups. These ports are in the default cache group 1.
ServerIronADX(config)# int e 4
ServerIronADX(config-if-4)# no cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-if-4)# int e 5
ServerIronADX(config-if-5)# no cache-group 1
Now RAS-to-BAR traffic is still cached because the input ports are in the default cache group and
the output ports have the IP policy applied. BAR-to-RAS and RAS-to-RAS traffic is not cached
because rule 2 is still false. BAR-to-BAR traffic is not cached because rule 1 is false.
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Policy-based caching
Policy-based caching enables you to selectively cache some web sites but not others, on specific
cache servers. For example, an ISP can use a ServerIron ADX configured for policy-based caching to
redirect HTTP traffic to a series of web cache servers made by different vendors with different
caching criteria.
In the example shown in Figure 22, there are four cache servers with 2 cache servers in one group
(cache group 1) and 2 cache servers in another group (cache group 2). Policy based caching is
applied for traffic destined to Web Server 1, Web Server 2, and Web Server 3.
Access Control List “101” is tied under Cache Group 1. The filter-acl 101 command diverts traffic to
cache 1 and cache 2 that was originally destined to Web Server 3 (IP address 1.1.1.1).
In the same way, Access List “102” is tied under Cache Group 2. The filter-acl 102 command
diverts all the traffic that was originally destined to Web Server 2 (IP address 1.1.1.2) to cache 3
(ch3) and cache 4 (ch4).
The server cache-bypass 103 command divert all the traffic to Internet Web Server 3 (IP address
1.1.1.3). The fundamental use of the server cache-bypass command is to skip the caching
mechanism and send web queries directly to the Internet.
FIGURE 22
Policy based caching topology
Client Web Queries
Organization Domain LAN
10.10.0.0/16
Remote Access
Router
40.40.40.100
40.40.40.102
15.15.0.0/16
ch1
e3
e1
e4
e7
ch3
e5
Cache Group 1
e6
80.80.0.0/16
ch4
ch2
Border Access
Router
40.40.40.101
40.40.40.103
Internet
Web Server 3
1.1.1.1
90
Web Server 2
1.1.1.2
Web Server 1
1.1.1.3
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Policy based caching configuration
The following configuration implements the topology described in Figure 22.
ServerIronADX(config)#server cache-name
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch1)#port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch1)#exit
ServerIronADX(config)#server cache-name
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch2)#port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch2)#exit
ServerIronADX(config)#server cache-name
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch3)#port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch3)#exit
ServerIronADX(config)#server cache-name
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch4)#port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-ch4)#exit
ch1 40.40.40.100
ch2 40.40.40.101
ch3 40.40.40.102
ch4 40.40.40.103
ServerIronADX(config)#server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)#cache-name ch1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)#cache-name ch2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)#filter-acl 101
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)#exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)#cache-name ch3
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)#cache-name ch4
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)#filter-acl 102
ServerIronADX(config-tc-2)#exit
ServerIronADX(config)#
ServerIronADX(config)#
ServerIronADX(config)#
ServerIronADX(config)#
server cache-bypass 103
access-list 101 permit tcp any host 1.1.1.1
access-list 102 permit tcp any host 1.1.1.2
access-list 103 permit tcp any host 1.1.1.3
Asymmetric TCS (FastCache)
Traffic in typical TCS configurations passes through the ServerIron ADX both from the client to the
cache and from the cache to the client. The ServerIron ADX uses the cache responses to the client
to diagnose the health of the cache server.
If the cache server responds to the client requests the ServerIron ADX redirects to the cache server,
the ServerIron ADX knows that the cache server is healthy. However, if the cache server stops
sending replies to the client requests, the ServerIron ADX assumes that the cache server is down
and stops redirecting requests to that cache server.
Some configurations are asymmetric—traffic from the cache server to the client does not pass back
through the ServerIron ADX. For example, caches that support multiple NICs might at the same
time support only one default gateway. Figure 23 shows a configuration in which a cache server’s
default gateway is configured to go to the customer access router (RAS) instead of the ServerIron
ADX. In this configuration, the ServerIron ADX does not see cache responses to client requests.
Because the ServerIron ADX does not see responses coming from the cache server, the ServerIron
ADX assumes that the cache server is down and stops redirecting requests to that cache server.
You can override this behavior by enabling the FastCache feature. This feature configures the
ServerIron ADX to continue redirecting client requests to a cache server even though the ServerIron
ADX does not see responses from the cache server. You enable the feature individually for real
servers.
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NOTE
Even when use the FastCache feature, the ServerIron ADX still performs a Layer 3 health check by
regularly pinging the cache server. In addition, you can continue to use HTTP health checking.
FIGURE 23
FastCache feature used for asymmetric topology
Internet
Web Servers
www.livenews.com
1.0.0.3
www.oldnews.com
1.0.0.1
www.stockquotes.com
1.0.0.2
Border Access
Router (BAR)
Web Queries
208.95.8.3
Remote Access
Server (RAS)
e18 (output port)
e17
SI
208.95.7.3
208.95.6.3
The ServerIron uses cache
responses from cache server 4
and cache server 5 for health
checking.
However, cache server 3
responds directly to the
RAS. Therefore, the
direct cache-server return
feature is used to disable
health checking based on
cache responses from cache
server 3.
Cache interface 209.157.22.140.
A default route on this
interface directly to the CAR
bypasses the ServerIron.
Cache server3
209.157.22.205
Cache server4
209.157.22.215
Cache server5
209.157.22.225
Here are the commands for configuring the ServerIron ADX for the topology shown in Figure 23. The
line that enables the FastCache feature is shown in bold.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cacheserver3 209.157.22.205
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cacheserver3)# asymmetric
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cacheserver3)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cacheserver4 209.157.22.215
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cacheserver4)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cacheserver5 209.157.22.225
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cacheserver5)# exit
This example assumes that the cache contains the contents requested by the client. However, if
the cache does not contain the requested page, the cache tries to get the page from the live web
site. In this case, the source address for the request is the IP address of the cache server, instead
of the IP address of the client. Moreover, this behavior can result in a loop from the cache server to
the RAS to the ServerIron ADX and back to the cache server.
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To prevent this situation from occurring:
• Define the other interface on the cache server as a cache, but do not place the cache in a
cache group.
Policy-based cache failover
In some TCS configurations, the ServerIron ADX is connected to the clients and also to the Internet
through the same router. Moreover, in some cases the router contains a policy to forward HTTP
requests to a next-hop IP address (virtual IP address) if the packet containing the request matches
a filter configured in the router. Cache Failover (CFO) prevents client requests from becoming lost in
a “black hole” when the cache servers are unavailable. When you configure the ServerIron ADX for
CFO, the ServerIron ADX forwards client requests back to the router for forwarding to the Internet.
Thus, clients still receive the requested content even though the cache servers are unavailable.
Normally, cache groups on the ServerIron ADX do not have virtual IP addresses. Instead, the
ServerIron ADX selects a cache server from the cache group that contains the port to which the
router is connected. Within the cache group, the ServerIron ADX uses a hashing algorithm to select
a specific cache server.
NOTE
The virtual servers in SLB use virtual IP addresses, but TCS does not use virtual IP addresses unless
you are using CFO.
To configure CFO, make sure you do the following.
1. Set up the router and aim the policy on the router at the virtual address on the ServerIron ADX
rather than at the address of the cache.
2. Define the cache or caches on the ServerIron ADX and place them into cache group 1.
3. Define the virtual IP address in cache group 1.
4. Define the IP cache policy as a global cache.
NOTE
For CFO, you must define a global policy, not a local policy.
When you add the virtual IP address to the cache group:
• If the cache server to which the ServerIron ADX sends the HTTP traffic has the requested page,
the cache server sends the page back to the client, typically through the ServerIron ADX. (This
is the normal behavior regardless of whether you have added a virtual IP address.)
• If the cache server is unavailable or does not have the page and thus attempts to send the
request back through the ServerIron ADX to the Internet, the ServerIron ADX sends the request
to the router for forwarding to the Internet. If the virtual IP address is not configured on the
ServerIron ADX, the ServerIron ADX drops the request from the cache server.
Figure 24 shows an example of a configuration that requires CFO.
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FIGURE 24
Configuration using policy-based Cache Failover (CFO)
Internet
Web servers
www.oldnews.com
1.0.0.1
www.livenews.com
1.0.0.3
www.stockquotes.com
1.0.0.2
The router has a policy that
forwards HTTP requests to
a virtual IP address.
To enable the ServerIron to
properly forward the requests,
add the virtual IP address to
the cache group.
Border Access
Router (BAR)
Web Queries
208.95.8.3
Remote Access
Server (RAS)
e18 (output port)
e17
SI
208.95.7.3
Cache group 1,
Virtual IP address 209.147.22.77
208.95.6.3
Cache server3
209.157.22.205
Cache server4
209.157.22.215
Cache server5
209.157.22.225
Here are the CLI commands for adding a virtual IP address to a cache group. Add the virtual IP
address to which your router forwards the clients’ HTTP requests.
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 80 global
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# virtual-ip 209.157.22.77
Syntax: [no] virtual-ip { <ipv4_address> | <ipv6_address> }
The <ipv4_address> variable specifies an IPv4 address for the virtual IP address of the cache
group. An IPv4 virtual-ip address can only be configured under an IPv4 cache-group.
The <ipv6_address> variable specifies an IPv6 address for the virtual IP address of the cache
group. An IPv6 virtual-ip address can only be configured under an IPv6 cache-group.
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TCS with reverse proxy
TCS with reverse proxy relieves clients who have configured their web browsers to point to a proxy
server from the need to reconfigure their browsers. When you configure the ServerIron ADX for this
feature, the ServerIron ADX performs TCS for clients whose browsers do use a proxy and for clients
whose browsers do not use a proxy:
• For clients whose browsers do not use a proxy, the ServerIron ADX performs transparent TCS,
using the normal hash mechanism to map requests to a cache server based on the source and
destination information in the mask and the IP address of the requested site.
• For clients whose browsers use a proxy, the ServerIron ADX load balances the requests across
the cache servers. The clients are served transparently by a virtual IP address (VIP) that you
configure on the ServerIron ADX with the same IP address as the proxy. Although this is
different from the hash mechanism used for transparent TCS, the results for the client are
exactly the same. The ServerIron ADX sends the request to a cache server that either has the
requested content and sends it back to the client or does not have the requested content but
quickly obtains it from the Internet, then sends it back to the client. In addition, the hash
mechanism not only distributes traffic, but also ensures that duplication of content is
minimized. The hash mechanism minimizes duplication by ensuring that a particular web site
is always cached on the same cache server.
In either case, the ServerIron ADX provides the requested content to the client.
Figure 25 shows an example of a TCS configuration in which some clients have browsers
configured to use a proxy while other clients’ browsers are not thus configured.
FIGURE 25
Example Proxy Server Cache Load Balancing Configuration
Internet
Client browers A, B, and C
do not use a proxy address.
The ServerIron transparently switches
client requests for web site IP addresses
to a cache server based on the hash mask.
BAR
A
C
B
RAS
D
E
SI
F
Client browsers D, E, and F
are configured to use proxy address
209.157.22.2
The ServerIron receives requests
from these clients on the VIP, which
is configured as the proxy server.
The ServerIron then load balances
the requests to the cache servers.
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209.157.22.26
Cache-Server2
209.157.22.27
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As shown in Figure 25, some clients’ web browsers are configured to use proxy IP address
209.157.22.2, while other client’s web browsers are not configured to use a proxy server. You can
configure the ServerIron ADX to satisfy both sets of clients.
Follow the steps given below to configure Proxy Server Cache Load Balancing.
1. Add the cache servers as customary, using the server cache-name <string> <ip-addr>
command.
2. Add the HTTP ports and configure port-specific health check parameters at the Cache Server
level, using the port http | <num> commands.
3. Create the proxy virtual IP address (VIP) and bind the HTTP ports of the cache servers to the
VIP. Use the server virtual-name-or-ip <string> <ip-addr> and bind… commands.
4. Add the cache servers to a cache group using the server cache-group 1 command.
5. Save the configuration changes to the startup-config file using the write memory command.
NOTE
If you have already configured your cache servers and cache group, you do not need to change their
configuration. You only need to add the VIP for the proxy and bind the HTTP ports to it, then save the
changes.
To configure the ServerIron ADX for the example shown in Figure 25 on page 95, enter the following
commands on the ServerIron ADX.
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 4199
ServerIronADX(config-port-4199)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-4199)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 8080
ServerIronADX(config-port-8080)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-8080)# exit
The commands above add port profiles for the two HTTP ports in this example that are using port
numbers other than the well-known port 80: 4199 and 8080. The tcp command at each port’s
configuration level is required. If you do not identify the ports as TCP ports, the ServerIron ADX
assumes the ports are UDP ports and thus does not use an appropriate health check for the ports.
You do not need to add a port profile for port 80, since that is the well-known HTTP port.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name Cache-Server1 209.157.22.26
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server1)# port 4199
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server1)# port 8080
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name Cache-Server2 209.157.22.27
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server2)# port 4199
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server2)# port 8080
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server2)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-Cache-Server2)# exit
The commands above add cache servers Cache-Server1 and Cache-Server2. The port commands
add the HTTP ports to the cache servers. This example does not include optional modification of
the HTTP health check parameters for specific servers. For information about customizing an HTTP
health check for a specific server.
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ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip Proxy 209.157.22.2
ServerIronADX(config-vs-Proxy)# port 4199 sticky
ServerIronADX(config-vs-Proxy)# port 8080 sticky
ServerIronADX(config-vs-Proxy)# bind 4199 Cache-Server1 4199 Cache-Server2 4199
ServerIronADX(config-vs-Proxy)# bind 8080 Cache-Server1 8080 Cache-Server2 8080
ServerIronADX(config-vs-Proxy)# exit
The commands above configure a virtual IP address (VIP) to take the place of the Proxy IP address
to which some of the client browsers are directing their web requests. The IP address specified with
the server virtual-name-or-ip command is the IP address that is configured as the proxy on some
clients’ web browsers. The port 4199 sticky and port 8080 sticky commands add the ports and
also make them “sticky”. When a port is sticky, once a client session is established on the port, the
ServerIron ADX’s load balancing mechanism (used for the proxy) sends subsequent packets in the
same session to the same cache server. The sticky parameter is not required in this configuration
but it can streamline cache performance by keeping client sessions on the same cache servers.
The bind commands create table entries in the ServerIron ADX that associate the cache servers
and their HTTP ports with the Proxy VIP.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name Cache-Server1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name Cache-Server2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# write mem
The commands above add the cache servers to a cache group, then save the configuration
changes to the ServerIron ADX’s startup-config file.
High availability designs with TCS
Layer 3 TCS
The following sections illustrate Layer 3 TCS support in the following configurations:
•
•
•
•
“Layer 3 basic TCS configuration” on page 98
“Layer 3 active-active TCS configuration” on page 99
“Layer 3 active-active TCS configuration with a remote cache server” on page 102
“Layer 3 Sym-Active SLB with TCS” on page 105
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Layer 3 basic TCS configuration
Figure 26 illustrates a basic Layer 3 TCS configuration.
FIGURE 26
Basic TCS configuration
e
1/
22
17
2.
32
.1
.1
Cache Server
172.32.1.22
10.10.20.1
VLAN 100
tag e 1/1-1/4
ve 1
10.10.10.1
SI
VLAN 200
untag e 1/5-1/7
ve 2
ve1
(tag e1)
Port e1
Port e1
10.10.20.2
Router
10.10.10.2
Router
Port e7
Port e7 195.92.10.1
195.92.20.1
Clients
Multimedia
Server
DNS
Server
195.92.20.102
195.92.20.104
The following commands configure the ServerIron ADX in Figure 26.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 100 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# untagged ethe 1/1 to 1/4 ethe 2/1 to 2/4
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 200 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# untagged ethe 1/5 to 1/7 ethe 2/5 to 2/7
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 10.10.20.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache3 172.32.1.22
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port pnm
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# prefer-router-cnt 0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache3
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
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ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 3 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 4 cache tcp rtsp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 5 cache tcp pnm global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 6 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ethernet 1/22
ServerIronADX(config-if-1/22)# ip address 172.32.1.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-if-1/22)# exit
Layer 3 active-active TCS configuration
Figure 27 illustrates an active-active TCS configuration.
FIGURE 27
Active-active TCS configuration
SI
10.10.20.3
untag e 1/1-1/4
ve 1
untag e 1/1-1/4
ve 1
ServerIron A
SI
10.10.20.1
Port e7
Active-Active Link
195.92.20.104
195.92.20.102
ve 3
3.3.3.1
Cache3
3.3.3.22
ve 1
3.3.3.2
Port e1
Port e5
Router
VRRP-E on 10.10.10.10
10.10.20.2
10.10.10.3
untag e 1/5-1/7
ve 2
B
10.10.10.1
VRRP-E on 3.3.3.10
Port e1
Router
VRRP-E on 10.10.20.10
untag ve 1
ServerIron
Port e22 172.32.1.1
untag e 1/5-1/7
ve 2
ve 1
Port e1
10.10.10.2
Router
Port e3
Port e3
Internet
Port e3
Port e7
195.92.10.1
195.92.20.1
ve 3
3.3.3.3
10.10.20.3
untag e 1/1-1/4
ve 1
SI
ServerIron B
10.10.10.3
untag e 1/5-1/7
ve 2
Client
195.92.10.102
195.92.20.102
Client
195.92.10.103
195.92.20.104
Internet
Commands for ServerIron ADX A
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX A in Figure 27.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 100 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# untagged ethe 1/1 to 1/4
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 200 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# untagged ethe 1/5 to 1/7
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 500 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# untagged ethe 1/8 to 1/12
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# router-interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# exit
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ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 16 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# untagged ethe 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# static-mac-address 00e0.52c2.8b00 ethernet 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 10.10.20.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# ip-address 10.10.20.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# ip-address 10.10.10.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip address 3.3.3.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# ip-address 3.3.3.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache3 3.3.3.22
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache2)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache2)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache2)# port pnm
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache2)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache2)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# prefer-router-cnt 0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# no http-cache-control
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 3 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 4 cache tcp rtsp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 5 cache tcp pnm global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 6 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip route 195.92.20.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.20.2
ServerIronADX(config)# ip route 195.92.10.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.2
ServerIronADX(config)# router vrrp-extended
ServerIronADX(config)# server active-active-port ethe 1/16 vlan-id 16
ServerIronADX(config)# server force-delete
ServerIronADX(config)# no server l4-check
Commands for ServerIron ADX B
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX B in Figure 27.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
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ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 100 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# untagged ethe 1/1 to 1/4
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 200 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# untagged ethe 1/5 to 1/7
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 500 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# untagged ethe 1/8 to 1/12
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# router-interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 16 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# untagged ethe 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# static-mac-address 00e0.52ee.6900 ethernet 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 10.10.20.3 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# ip-address 10.10.20.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.10.10.3 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# ip-address 10.10.10.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# ip-address 3.3.3.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache3 3.3.3.22
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port pnm
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache3)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# prefer-router-cnt 0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache3
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# no http-cache-control
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 3 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 4 cache tcp rtsp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 5 cache tcp pnm global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 6 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip route 195.92.10.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.2
ServerIronADX(config)# ip route 195.92.20.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.20.2
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ServerIronADX(config)#
ServerIronADX(config)#
ServerIronADX(config)#
ServerIronADX(config)#
router vrrp-extended
server active-active-port ethe 1/16 vlan-id 16
server force-delete
no server l4-check
Layer 3 active-active TCS configuration with a remote cache server
Figure 28 illustrates an active-active TCS configuration with a remote cache server.
FIGURE 28
Active-active TCS configuration with remote cache server
untag e 1/1-1/4
ve 1
SI
10.10.20.1
Port e7
Active-Active Link
10.10.20.2
10.10.20.104
Internet
ve 3
3.3.3.1
Cache3
3.3.3.22
ve 1
3.3.3.2
Port e1
Port e5
Router
VRRP-E on 10.10.10.10
Port e1
Router
10.10.10.1
VRRP-E on 3.3.3.10
untag ve 1
VRRP-E on 10.10.20.10
10.10.20.102
Port e22 172.32.1.1
untag e 1/5-1/7
ve 2
ServerIron A
ve 1
Port e1
10.10.10.2
Router
Port e3
Port e3
Port e3
Port e7
195.92.10.1
195.92.20.1
ve 3
3.3.3.3
10.10.20.3
untag e 1/1-1/4
ve 1
SI
ServerIron B
10.10.10.3
untag e 1/5-1/7
ve 2
Client
195.92.10.102
195.92.20.102
Client
195.92.10.103
195.92.20.104
Internet
Commands for ServerIron ADX A
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX A in Figure 28.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 100 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# untagged ethe 1/1 to 1/4
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 200 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# untagged ethe 1/5 to 1/7
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 500 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# untagged ethe 1/8 to 1/12
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# router-interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 16 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# untagged ethe 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# static-mac-address 00e0.52ee.6900 ethernet 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 10.10.20.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# backup
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ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# ip-address 10.10.20.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# ip-address 10.10.10.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip address 3.3.3.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# ip-address 3.3.3.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache1 172.32.1.20
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# remote-cache
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port pnm
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# prefer-router-cnt 0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# dest-nat
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# no http-cache-control
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 3 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 4 cache tcp rtsp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 5 cache tcp pnm global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 6 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip route 172.32.1.0 255.255.255.0 3.3.3.4
ServerIronADX(config)# router vrrp-extended
ServerIronADX(config)# server active-active-port ethe 1/16 vlan-id 16
ServerIronADX(config)# server force-delete
ServerIronADX(config)# no server l4-check
Commands for ServerIron ADX B
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX B in Figure 28.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 100 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# untagged ethe 1/1 to 1/4
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-100)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 200 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# untagged ethe 1/5 to 1/7
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-200)# exit
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ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 500 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# untagged ethe 1/8 to 1/12
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# router-interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-500)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 16 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# untagged ethe 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# static-mac-address 00e0.52ee.d600 ethernet 1/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 10.10.20.3 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# ip-address 10.10.20.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-1)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.10.10.3 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# ip-address 10.10.10.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# track-port ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2-vrid-2)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# ip-address 3.3.3.10
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# track-port ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3-vrid-3)# enable
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache1 172.32.1.20
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# remote-cache
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port pnm
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# prefer-router-cnt 0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# dest-nat
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# no http-cache-control
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 3 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 4 cache tcp rtsp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 5 cache tcp pnm global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 6 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip route 172.32.1.0 255.255.255.0 3.3.3.4
ServerIronADX(config)# router vrrp-extended
ServerIronADX(config)# server active-active-port ethe 1/16 vlan-id 16
ServerIronADX(config)# server force-delete
ServerIronADX(config)# no server l4-check
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Layer 3 Sym-Active SLB with TCS
Figure 29 illustrates a Sym-Active configuration with TCS, using VRRPE.
NOTE
To allow failover and session synchronization in an Sym-Active configuration to work properly, there
must be a Layer 2 connection between the two ServerIron ADXs. This connection is required so that
Layer 2 broadcasts, including ARP to the VIP from the ServerIron ADX with lower symmetric priority,
can be exchanged between the two ServerIron ADXs. In configurations with multiple VLANs, the
Layer 2 link must be on the sub-net where the VIPs are configured.
FIGURE 29
Sym-Active configuration with TCS and VRRPE
Client Systems
172.1.1.0/24
Gateway: 172.1.1.1, 172.1.1.2
Layer 2 Switch
Router NI1
Router NI2
Port e8
VLAN1, Port Based, VE 1, IP addr 172.1.1.3
VRRPR VRID 3, VRIP 172.1.1.1, Backup pri 100
VRRPR VRID 4, VRIP 172.1.1.2, Backup pri 100
Port e8
Port e2
OSPF Area 0
Port e1
VLAN2, Port Based, VE 2,
10.2.24.1
Port e1
Cache
VLAN2, Port Based, VE 2,
10.2.24.252
Port3/1
Port3/1
Port 3/3
VLAN1, Port Based, VE 1, IP addr 100.1.1.251
VRRPR VRID 5, VRIP 100.1.1.254, Backup pri 100
VRRPR VRID 6, VRIP 100.1.1.253, Backup pri 100
Port e2
SI
Port3/13
VLAN 13
Port3/2
ServerIron 254
VLAN1, Port Based, VE 1, IP addr 172.1.1.4
VRRPR VRID 3, VRIP 172.1.1.1, Backup pri 100
VRRPR VRID 4, VRIP 172.1.1.2, Backup pri 100
VLAN2, Port Based, VE 2,
10.2.24.2
VLAN2, Port Based, VE 2,
10.2.24.251
Port 3/3
Cache
Port3/13
SI
Sync Link VLAN 13
Port3/2
ServerIron 253
SLB VIP:
HTTP: 10.2.24.100
SSL: 10.2.24.101
FTP: 10.2.24.102
MMS: 10.2.24.103
DNS: 10.2.24.105
Layer 2 Switch
VLAN1, Port Based, VE 1, IP addr 100.1.1.251
VRRPR VRID 5, VRIP 100.1.1.254, Backup pri 100
VRRPR VRID 6, VRIP 100.1.1.253, Backup pri 100
Layer 2 Switch
Real Servers
100.1.1.29, 30, 31
HTTP, SSL, FTP, DNS, RTSP, MMS
Gateway: 100.1.1.254
cache1: 100.1.1.99
Real Servers
100.1.1.129, 130, 131
HTTP, SSL, FTP, DNS, RTSP, MMS
Gateway: 100.1.1.253
cache2: 100.1.1.98
cache1 rs29
rs30
rs31
cache2 rs29.1 rs30.1 rs31.1
Commands for Router NI1
The following commands configure router NI1 in Figure 29,
NOTE
The route-only command is omitted on this NetIron’s configuration to allow Layer 2 connectivity
between the two ServerIron ADXs on the VIP's sub-net.
NetIron(config)# vlan 1
NetIron(config-vlan-1)#
NetIron(config-vlan-1)#
NetIron(config)# vlan 2
NetIron(config-vlan-2)#
NetIron(config-vlan-2)#
NetIron(config-vlan-2)#
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name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
router-interface ve 1
exit
by port
untagged ethe 1 to 2
router-interface ve 2
exit
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NetIron(config)# vlan 23 by port
NetIron(config-vlan-23)# untagged ethe 23
NetIron(config-vlan-23)# exit
NetIron(config)# interface ve 1
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip address 172.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip ospf area 0
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 3
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# backup
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# ip-address 172.1.1.1
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# track-port e 1
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# track-port e 2
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# track-port e 8
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# enable
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 4
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# backup
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# ip-address 172.1.1.2
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# track-port e 1
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# track-port e 2
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# track-port e 8
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# enable
NetIron(config-ve-1)# exit
NetIron(config)# interface ve 2
NetIron(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.2.24.1 255.255.255.0
NetIron(config-ve-2)# ip ospf area 0
NetIron(config-ve-2)# exit
NetIron(config)# interface ethernet 23
NetIron(config-if-23)# ip address 173.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
NetIron(config-if-23)# exit
NetIron(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.2.24.254
NetIron(config)# ip router-id 10.2.24.1
NetIron(config)# router vrrp-extended
NetIron(config)# router ospf
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# area 0
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# redistribution connected
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# redistribution static
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# exit
Commands for ServerIron ADX 254
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX 254 in Figure 29.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 2 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-2)# untagged ethe 3/1 ethe 3/3 ethe 4/1 ethe 4/3
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-2)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 16 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# untagged ethe 3/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# static-mac-address 00e0.5212.3400 ethernet 3/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 999 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-999)# untagged ethe 3/24
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-999)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 100.1.1.252 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 5
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# ip-address 100.1.1.254
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# track-port e 3/1
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ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# track-port e 3/2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# track-port e 3/3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# enable
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 6
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# ip-address 100.1.1.253
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# track-port e 3/1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# track-port e 3/2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# track-port e 3/3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# enable
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.2.24.252 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip ospf area 0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 3 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 4 cache tcp ftp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 5 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# router vrrp-extended
ServerIronADX(config)# server active-active-port ethe 3/13 vlan-id 13
ServerIronADX(config)# router ospf
ServerIronADX(config-ospf-router)# area 0
ServerIronADX(config-ospf-router)# redistribution connected
ServerIronADX(config-ospf-router)# exit
The following commands enable session synchronization on the ports where the active-active SLB
feature is used. This is required both to ensure continued service following a failover and to enable
each ServerIron ADX to send server replies back to the clients, regardless of which ServerIron ADX
load balanced the request.
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 80
ServerIronADX(config-port-80)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-80)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-80)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 21
ServerIronADX(config-port-21)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-21)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 1755
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# udp
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 53
ServerIronADX(config-port-53)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-53)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 443
ServerIronADX(config-port-443)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-443)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-443)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server router-ports ethernet 3/1
ServerIronADX(config)# server router-ports ethernet 3/3
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs29 100.1.1.29
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port http
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ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs30 100.1.1.30
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs31 100.1.1.31
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs29.1 100.1.1.129
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs30.1 100.1.1.130
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs31.1 100.1.1.131
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip www 10.2.24.100
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# predictor round-robin
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# bind http rs31.1 http rs30.1 http rs29.1 http rs30
http
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# bind http rs31 http rs29 http
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip ftp 10.2.24.102
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# bind ftp rs31.1 ftp rs30.1 ftp rs29.1 ftp rs29 ftp
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# bind ftp rs30 ftp rs31 ftp
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# exit
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ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip mms 10.2.24.103
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# bind mms rs31.1 mms rs30.1 mms rs29.1 mms rs29 mms
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# bind mms rs30 mms rs31 mms
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip dns 10.2.24.105
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# bind dns rs31.1 dns rs30.1 dns rs29.1 dns rs29 dns
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# bind dns rs30 dns rs31 dns
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip ssl 10.2.24.101
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# port ssl sticky
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# bind ssl rs31.1 ssl rs30.1 ssl rs29.1 ssl rs31 ssl
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# bind ssl rs30 ssl rs29 ssl
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache1 100.1.1.99
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache2 100.1.1.98
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# prefer-router-cnt 0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# no http-cache-control
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
Commands for Router NI2
The following commands configure router NI2 in Figure 29.
NetIron(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
NetIron(config-vlan-1)# router-interface ve 1
NetIron(config-vlan-1)# exit
NetIron(config)# vlan 2 by port
NetIron(config-vlan-2)# untagged ethe 1 to 2
NetIron(config-vlan-2)# router-interface ve 2
NetIron(config-vlan-2)# exit
NetIron(config)# vlan 23 by port
NetIron(config-vlan-23)# untagged ethe 23
NetIron(config-vlan-23)# exit
NetIron(config)# interface ve 1
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip address 172.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip ospf area 0
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 3
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# backup
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NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# ip-address 172.1.1.1
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# track-port e 1
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# track-port e 2
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# track-port e 8
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-3)# enable
NetIron(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 4
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# backup
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# ip-address 172.1.1.2
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# track-port e 1
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# track-port e 2
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# track-port e 8
NetIron(config-ve-1-vrid-4)# enable
NetIron(config-ve-1)# exit
NetIron(config)# interface ve 2
NetIron(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.2.24.2 255.255.255.0
NetIron(config-ve-2)# ip ospf area 0
NetIron(config-ve-2)# exit
NetIron(config)# interface ethernet 23
NetIron(config-if-23)# ip address 173.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
NetIron(config-if-23)# exit
NetIron(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.2.24.251
NetIron(config)# ip router-id 10.2.24.2
NetIron(config)# router vrrp-extended
NetIron(config)# route-only
NetIron(config)# router ospf
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# area 0
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# redistribution connected
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# redistribution static
NetIron(config-ospf-router)# exit
Commands for ServerIron ADX 253
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX 253 in Figure 29.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 2 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-2)# untagged ethe 3/1 ethe 3/3 ethe 4/1 ethe 4/3
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-2)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 16 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# untagged ethe 3/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# static-mac-address 00e0.52ee.c700 ethernet 3/16
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-16)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 999 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-999)# untagged ethe 3/24
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-999)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 100.1.1.251 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 5
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# ip-address 100.1.1.254
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# track-port e 3/1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# track-port e 3/2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# track-port e 3/3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-5)# enable
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip vrrp-extended vrid 6
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# backup
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# ip-address 100.1.1.253
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# track-port e 3/1
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ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# track-port e 3/2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# track-port e 3/3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# enable
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1-vrid-6)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 10.2.24.251 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip ospf area 0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 3 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 4 cache tcp ftp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip l4-policy 5 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip router-id 10.2.24.251
ServerIronADX(config)# router vrrp-extended
ServerIronADX(config)# server active-active-port ethe 3/13 vlan-id 13
ServerIronADX(config)# router ospf
ServerIronADX(config-ospf-router)# area 0
ServerIronADX(config-ospf-router)# redistribution connected
ServerIronADX(config-ospf-router)# exit
The following commands enable session synchronization on the ports where the active-active SLB
feature is used. This is required both to ensure continued service following a failover and to enable
each ServerIron ADX to send server replies back to the clients, regardless of which ServerIron ADX
load balanced the request.
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 80
ServerIronADX(config-port-80)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-80)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-80)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 21
ServerIronADX(config-port-21)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-21)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 1755
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# udp
ServerIronADX(config-port-1755)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 53
ServerIronADX(config-port-53)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-53)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server port 443
ServerIronADX(config-port-443)# session-sync
ServerIronADX(config-port-443)# tcp
ServerIronADX(config-port-443)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server router-ports ethernet 3/1
ServerIronADX(config)# server router-ports ethernet 3/3
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs29 100.1.1.29
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs30 100.1.1.30
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port http
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ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs31 100.1.1.31
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs29.1 100.1.1.129
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs29.1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs30.1 100.1.1.130
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs30.1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server real rs31.1 100.1.1.131
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-rs-rs31.1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip www 10.2.24.100
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# predictor round-robin
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# bind http rs31.1 http rs30.1 http rs29.1 http rs30
http
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# bind http rs31 http rs29 http
ServerIronADX(config-vs-www)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip ftp 10.2.24.102
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# bind ftp rs31.1 ftp rs30.1 ftp rs29.1 ftp rs29 ftp
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# bind ftp rs30 ftp rs31 ftp
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ftp)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip mms 10.2.24.103
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# bind mms rs31.1 mms rs30.1 mms rs29.1 mms rs29 mms
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# bind mms rs30 mms rs31 mms
ServerIronADX(config-vs-mms)# exit
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ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip dns 10.2.24.105
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# port dns
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# bind dns rs31.1 dns rs30.1 dns rs29.1 dns rs29 dns
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# bind dns rs30 dns rs31 dns
ServerIronADX(config-vs-dns)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server virtual-name-or-ip ssl 10.2.24.101
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# sym-priority 254
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# sym-active
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# port ssl sticky
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# bind ssl rs31.1 ssl rs30.1 ssl rs29.1 ssl rs31 ssl
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# bind ssl rs30 ssl rs29 ssl
ServerIronADX(config-vs-ssl)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache1 100.1.1.99
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache2 100.1.1.98
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port ssl
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-cs-cache2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# prefer-router-cnt 0
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# no http-cache-control
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
Active-standby TCS
TCS is supported in an active-standby configuration. Figure 27 illustrates a sample active-standby
TCS configuration. In this configuration, one of the ServerIron ADXs serves as the active ServerIron
ADX, while the other remains in standby mode. If the active ServerIron ADX fails, the standby
ServerIron ADX assumes the duties of the failed ServerIron ADX and becomes the new active
ServerIron ADX.
FIGURE 30
Active-standby TCS configuration
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Layer 2 Switch
195.92.10.5
Port e1/1
Port e1/10
SI-A
Port e1/13
Port e1/5
Cache1
195.92.10.22
Port e1
195.92.10.1
Port e3
Server
Router
Port e1/13
Port e1/1
SI-B
Client
Port e1/10
Port e1/5
195.92.10.6
Layer 2 Switch
Client
Configuring Router R1
The following commands configure router R1 in Figure 27.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# router-interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 200 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# untagged ethe 9 to 16 ethe 26
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# router-interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 3 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# untagged ethe 17 to 18
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# router-interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 24 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# untagged ethe 24
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# router-interface ve 4
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip route 195.90.5.0 255.255.255.0 195.92.10.7
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 1
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# ip address 195.92.10.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 2
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# ip address 195.92.20.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-2)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# interface ve 3
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# ip address 172.32.1.1 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config-ve-3)# exit
Configuring ServerIron ADX A
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX A in Figure 27.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# no spanning-tree
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
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ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 13 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-13)# untagged ethe 1/13
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-13)# no spanning-tree
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-13)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip address 195.92.10.5 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config)# ip default-gateway 195.92.10.1
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 3 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 4 cache tcp rtsp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 5 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 6 cache tcp ftp global
ServerIronADX(config)# server backup ethe 1/13 00e0.52c2.8b00
ServerIronADX(config)# server tcp-age 20
ServerIronADX(config)# server udp-age 20
ServerIronADX(config)# no server l4-check
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache1 195.92.10.22
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
Configuring ServerIron ADX B
The following commands configure ServerIron ADX B in Figure 27.
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 1 name DEFAULT-VLAN by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# no spanning-tree
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# vlan 13 by port
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-13)# untagged ethe 1/13
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-13)# no spanning-tree
ServerIronADX(config-vlan-13)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# ip address 195.92.10.6 255.255.255.0
ServerIronADX(config)# ip default-gateway 195.92.10.1
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 1 cache tcp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 2 cache udp 0 global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 3 cache tcp http global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 4 cache tcp rtsp global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 5 cache tcp mms global
ServerIronADX(config)# ip policy 6 cache tcp ftp global
ServerIronADX(config)# mirror ethernet 1/5
ServerIronADX(config)# server backup ethe 1/13 00e0.52c2.8b00
ServerIronADX(config)# server tcp-age 20
ServerIronADX(config)# server udp-age 20
ServerIronADX(config)# no server l4-check
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-name cache1 195.92.10.22
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port http url "HEAD /"
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port mms
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port rtsp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# port ftp
ServerIronADX(config-rs-cache1)# exit
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# cache-name cache1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# exit
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Interoperability issues with cache servers
The defaults for many of the ServerIron ADX’s parameters are applicable to most TCS
environments. However, depending on the brand of cache server you use, you might need to make
minor modifications either to the cache server or to the ServerIron ADX for interoperability.
CacheFlow server version 2.x.x and 3.x.x
These versions send HTTP error code 503 in response to an HTTP keepalive health check sent by
the ServerIron ADX. By default, the ServerIron ADX does not consider this to be a valid health check
response. To work around this issue, configure status code 503 to be a valid response to the health
check. To do so, enter the port http status_code 503 503 command at the configuration level for
the cache server. This issue has not been observed with CacheFlow version 1.x.x.
NetCache servers
When the ServerIron ADX sends a packet to a NetCache server, by default the server addresses its
replies to the packet to the source MAC address of the packet, instead of replying to the MAC
address of the server's default gateway. This causes problems, especially in one-arm routing
configurations.
To work around this issue, enter the following commands on the NetCache server.
priv set advanced
show config.system.fast_ip.enable
set config.system.fast_ip.enable off
NetCache C720 cache server
This model of cache server sends HTTP error code 500 in response to an HTTP keepalive health
check sent by the ServerIron ADX. By default, the ServerIron ADX does not consider this to be a
valid health check response. To work around this issue, configure status code 500 to be a valid
response to the health check. To do so, enter the port http status_code 500 500 command at the
configuration level for the cache server.
CSW with NetCache cache servers
When the ServerIron ADX redirects a TCP SYN to a cache server, the ServerIron ADX uses the
ServerIron ADX port's MAC address as the source MAC address and the cache server's MAC
address as the destination MAC address. The source and destination IP addresses are not
changed. The source IP address is the client's and the destination IP address is the Web site the
client is requesting.
When the ServerIron ADX receives the SYN-ACK from the cache server, the ServerIron ADX expects
the destination MAC address in the cache server's reply to belong to the destination IP address (the
requested Web site). The ServerIron ADX does not expect the destination MAC address to be the
ServerIron ADX port's MAC address.
If you are using a NetCache cache server, you must enable the server to respond appropriately to
the ServerIron ADX. To do so, access the following URL on the Netcache server:
• http:// cache_IP_address:3132/cache_config/ui_toggle_basic
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On this page, disable IP Fast Output. When this feature is disabled, the cache server performs a
route lookup and sends the packet to the correct destination address.
Cache Persistence using URL Hashing
The ServerIron ADX enables traffic distribution among cache servers in a TCS setup after
inspecting and hashing based on the request URL. This enables cache persistence based on the
requested URL and minimizes duplication of content among multiple cache servers.
The hashing can be done on a complete URL or a portion of the URL. The following choices are
available:
•
•
•
•
•
Complete URL
Path only
Path and Parameters only
Host only
Host and Path only
Additionally, you can identify a sub-portion of either the complete URL or the Host portion of the
URL to perform the hashing on.
The hashing method is specified within a CSW policy definition as an action to be taken when a
match is made.
NOTE
In previous versions of the ServerIron ADX software, this feature was configured using the csw-hash
url command within the server cache-group configuration. This command is no longer available.
The following example directs the ServerIron ADX to hash on the complete URL when the conditions
in the “r1” CSW rule is met.
NOTE
Since hash-persist action is a secondary action, you must add a forward action as shown in the
following example, before adding a hash-persist action.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url complete
Syntax: [no] hash-persist url <method>
The <method> variable can be one of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
complete
path-only
path-and-parameters - default value
host-only
host-and-path
For example, when a client tries to connect to http://login.yahoo.com/config/mail?.src=ym, the
http requests can come in two different ways:
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1. Get http://login.yahoo.com/config/mail?.src=ym HTTP 1.1
2. Get /config/mail?.src=ym
Host: login.brocade.com
The following table demonstrates which part of the string would be used for hashing either of the
prior examples depending the method selected with the csw-hash url command.
TABLE 9
Hashing methods
Method
String used for hashing
Complete
login.brocade.com/confg/mail?.src=ym
path-only
config/mail
path-and-parameters
confg/mail?.src=ym
host-only
login.brocade.com
host-and-path
login.brocade.com/confg/mail
Cache Persistence using hashing on a portion of the URL
You can be more specific about the information in the URL that you want to determine traffic
distribution for by parsing the URL string. This is done by specifying a “pattern-string” and parsing
the URL string using a delimiter or an length limit. You can either parse the entire URL string or only
the “host-only” portion of the string.
• the hash-persist url search-url command is used where the entire URL is being parsed.
• the hash-persist url search-host command is used where the host portion of the URL is being
parsed.
Parsing the entire URL
Parsing the entire URL string allows you to select a portion of a URL to perform hashing on. The URL
is searched to find a pattern string. This pattern string is combined with a configured offset value to
identify a starting point. From this starting point in the URL, a string that will be used for hashing is
derived by a method that is specified by the options you select for the hash-persist url search-url
command. These options are described in the following.
Parsing using the “pattern string” only – With this option, the ServerIron ADX begins at the starting
point in the URL and includes all of the characters up-to the end of the URL to form the string used
for hashing.
Search URL string by starting at a “pattern string” and ending at a delimiter – With this option, the
ServerIron ADX begins at the starting point in the URL and includes all of the characters up-to a
specified delimiter character in the URL to form the string used for hashing.
Search URL string by starting at a “pattern string” and continuing for a specified length – With this
option, the ServerIron ADX begins at the starting point in the URL and includes the number of
characters specified to form the string used for hashing.
Parsing using the “pattern string” only
The following example identifies a pattern string to perform hashing on with an offset of “0”.
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NOTE
Since hash-persist action is a secondary action, you must add a forward action as shown in the
following example, before adding a hash-persist action.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-url “v=” offset 0
Syntax: [no] hash-persist url search-url <pattern-string> offset <offset-value>
The contents of the <pattern-string> variable are used to define the starting place on the URL
string. If the URL string has multiple such pattern strings, only the first one will be used. If the
pattern string is not found, the system will abort the rest of the searching steps, and choose the
default hashing method. If the pattern string is found, the system will start the second step after
skipping the length of the pattern string. The second step in the process is to adjust the starting
place on the URL string by moving it by the number of characters defined by a value specified in the
<offset-value>. If the pattern string is empty, the system will not search the pattern part, and use
the beginning of URL string as the start point of the third step.
The <offset-value> is used to define how many characters will be skipped after the start point that
is defined by the pattern-string. Normally this value is 0 (zero) which places the start point directly
after the pattern string. A negative value can be used to move the starting place to the left in the
URL string. If the <offset-value> is greater than the length of the rest of the URL string, the system
will abort the rest of the searching steps, and start the next search (if configured). If another search
isn’t configured, the default hashing method is used. If the value of the <offset-value> variable is
within the length of the rest of the URL string, the system will skip to the offset place, and start the
third step.
With this command, the third step is for the system to look to the end of the URL to define the string
used for hashing.
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a delimiter
The following example identifies a pattern string to perform hashing on with an offset of “0” and a
delimiter with the value “&”.
NOTE
Since hash-persist action is a secondary action, you must add a forward action as shown in the
following example, before adding a hash-persist action.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-url “v=” offset 0
delimiter “&”
Syntax: [no] hash-persist url search-url <pattern-string> offset <offset-value> delimiter
<delimiter-string>
The contents and operation of the <pattern-string> variable is the same as described in “Parsing
using the “pattern string” only”.
The contents and operation of the <offset-value> is the same as described in “Parsing using the
“pattern string” only”.
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With this command, the third step is for the system to parse the URL string up-to a character
defined by the value of the <delimiter-string>. The delimiter string is used to define the end pattern
after finding the substring. If the rest of URL string has multiple delimiter strings, only the first one
will be used. If the <delimiter-string> is not found, or the value of the <delimiter-string> value is
empty, the system will look to the end of the URL to define the string used for hashing.
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a specified string length
The following example identifies a pattern string to perform hashing on with an offset of “0” and a
length value of “8”.
NOTE
Since hash-persist action is a secondary action, you must add a forward action as shown in the
following example, before adding a hash-persist action.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-url “v=” offset 0
length 8
Syntax: [no] hash-persist url search-url <pattern-string> offset <offset-value> length <length>
The contents and operation of the <pattern-string> variable is the same as described in “Parsing
using the “pattern string” only”.
The contents and operation of the <offset-value> variable is the same as described in “Parsing
using the “pattern string” only”.
With this command, the third step is for the system to parse the URL string up-to the number of
characters defined by the value of the <length> variable. The value of the <length> variable must
be greater than 0 (zero). If the value of the <length> variable extends beyond the length of the URL,
the system will look to the end of the URL to define the string used for hashing.
Examples for parsing on the entire URL
In the following example, the client tries to connect to youtube at the following URL.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUfp24dwzOA&playnext=1&videos=XA7MyzKoQXQ&feature=
featured
Table 10 displays the contents of the strings used for hashing if the <pattern-string> variable is set
to “v=” and the offset value is set to “0” depending on the method used. The methods and
commands required are described as follows.
Parsing using the “pattern string” only
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-url “v=” offset 0
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a delimiter
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-url “v=” offset 0
delimiter “v=”
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a specified string length
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
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ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-url “v=” offset 0
length 16
TABLE 10
Results for parsing the entire URL by method
Method
String used for hashing
pattern string only
bUfp24dwzOA&playnext=1&videos=XA7MyzKoQXQ&feature=featured
pattern string with a
delimiter of “&”
cbUfp24dwzOA
pattern string with a
length value of “16”
bUfp24dwzOA&play
Parsing the host string
Parsing the host string allows you to select a “pattern-string” within a URL to determine a starting
point for identifying a URL sting to perform hashing on. This pattern string is combined with a
configured offset value to identify a starting point. From this starting point in the URL, a string that
will be used for hashing is derived by a method that is specified by the options you select for the
hash-persist url search-host command. These options are described in the following.
Parsing using the “pattern string” only – With this option, the ServerIron ADX begins at the starting
point in the URL and includes all of the characters up-to the end of the host string to form the string
used for hashing.
Search host string by starting at a “pattern string” and ending at a delimiter – With this option, the
ServerIron ADX begins at the starting point in the URL and includes all of the characters up-to a
specified delimiter character in the host string to form the string used for hashing.
Search host string by starting at a “pattern string” and continuing for a specified length – With this
option, the ServerIron ADX begins at the starting point in the URL and includes the number of
characters specified to form the string used for hashing.
Parsing using the “pattern string” only
The following example identifies a pattern string to perform hashing on with an offset of “0”.
NOTE
Since hash-persist action is a secondary action, you must add a forward action as shown in the
following example, before adding a hash-persist action.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-host “www.” offset
0
Syntax: [no] hash-persist url search-url <pattern-string> offset <offset-value>
The contents of the <pattern-string> variable string are used with this command to define the
starting place in the hash string portion of the URL string. If the url string has multiple such pattern
strings, only the first one will be used. If the pattern string is not found, the system will abort the
rest of searching steps, and choose the default hashing method. If the pattern string is found, the
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system will start the second step. The second step in the process is to adjust the starting place on
the URL string by moving it by the number of characters defined by a value specified in the
<offset-value>. If the pattern string is empty, the system will not search the pattern part, and use
the beginning of URL string as the start point of the third step.
The <offset-value> is used to define how many characters will be skipped after the start point that
is defined by the pattern string. Normally this value is 0 (zero) which places the start point at the
beginning of the host string. A negative value can be used to move the starting place to the left in
the host string. If the <offset-value> is greater than the length of the rest of the URL, the system will
abort the rest of the searching steps, and start the next search (if configured). If another search
isn’t configured, the default hashing method is used. If the value of the <offset-value> variable is
within the length of the rest of the URL string, the system will skip to the offset place, and start the
third step.
With this command, the third step is for the system to look to the end of the host string to define
the string used for hashing.
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a delimiter
The following example identifies a pattern string to perform hashing on with an offset of “0” and a
delimiter value of “.”.
NOTE
Since hash-persist action is a secondary action, you must add a forward action as shown in the
following example, before adding a hash-persist action.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-host “www.” offset
0 delimiter “.”
Syntax: [no] hash-persist url search-url <pattern-string> offset <offset-value> delimiter
<delimiter-string>
The contents of the <pattern-string> variable is the same as described in “Parsing using the
“pattern string” only”.
The contents and operation of the <offset-value> is the same as described in “Parsing using the
“pattern string” only”.
With this command, the third step is for the system to parse the URL string up-to a character
defined by the value of the <delimiter-string>. The delimiter string is used to define the end pattern
after finding the substring. If the rest of URL string has multiple delimiter strings, only the first one
will be used. If the <delimiter-string> is not found, or the value of the <delimiter-string> variable is
empty, the system will look to the end of the host string to define the string used for hashing.
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a specified string length
The following example identifies a pattern string to perform hashing on with an offset of “0” and a
length of “8”.
NOTE
Since hash-persist action is a secondary action, you must add a forward action as shown in the
following example, before adding a hash-persist action.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
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ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-host “www.” offset
0 length 5
Syntax: [no] hash-persist url search-url <pattern-string> offset <offset-value> length <length>
The contents of the <pattern-string> variable is the same as described in “Parsing using the
“pattern string” only”.
The contents and operation of the <offset-value> is the same as described in “Parsing using the
“pattern string” only”.
With this command, the third step is for the system to parse the URL string up-to the number of
characters defined by the value of the <length> variable. The value of the <length> variable must
be greater than 0 (zero). If the value of the <length> variable extends beyond the length of the host
string, the system will look to the end of the host string to define the string used for hashing.
Examples for parsing on the host string of the URL
In the following example, the client tries to connect to Brocade at the following URL.
http://www.brocade.com
Table 11 displays the contents of the stings used for hashing if the <pattern-string> variable is set
to “yahoo.com” and the offset value is set to “0” depending on the method used. The methods and
commands required are described as follows.
Parsing using the “pattern string” only
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-host “www.” offset
0
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a delimiter
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-host “www.” offset
0 delimiter “.”
Parsing using the “pattern string” with a specified string length
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 forward 1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1 hash-persist url search-host “www.” offset
0 length 5
TABLE 11
Results for parsing the host string of a URL by method
Method
String used for hashing
pattern string only
brocade.com
pattern string with a
delimiter of “.”
brocade
pattern string with a
length value of 4”
broc
Supporting multiple pattern search for the same rule
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ServerIron ADX supports multiple pattern search for the same rule. Support is provided for up to 4
different pattern strings as shown in the following example.
ServerIronADX(config)# csw-policy p1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1
delimiter “&”
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r1
length 3
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r2
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r2
ServerIronADX(config-csw-p1)# match r2
forward 10
hash-persist url search-url “v1” offset 0
hash-persist url search-url “v2” offset 0
hash-persist url search-url “v3” offset 0
hash-persist url search-url “v4” offset 0
forward 20
hash-persist url search-host “m1” offset 0
hash-persist url search-host “m2” offset 0
Selecting the IP addresses hash method
You can use the csw-hash ip-addresses command within the cache group configuration to perform
the hash using IP addresses.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 2
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# csw-hash ip-addresses
Syntax: [no] csw-hash ip-addresses
Force rehash
By default, the following will happen when the cache server goes down and goes up again:
• When the cache server goes down, its hash bucket will be taken by other active cache server.
• When a failed cache server comes up, the hash bucket will be allocated if, and only if, there
are hash buckets without server association. In most cases, where traffic is evenly spread,
none of the hash buckets will be available to the new server.
When a cache server goes down and up, the group hash table is not rehashed and the other server
won't be affected. This will make the ServerIron maintain the persistence of the cache servers.
Though in a situation where all of the hash table entries are taken by other cache servers, the
failed cache server may not be able to process traffic after it comes back to active. This also
applies to the situation that the new cache server is added to the group.
You can configure the entire hash table to be re-hashed when a new cache server is added or a
failed cache server recovers. Use the csw-force-rehash command within the cache group
configuration to enable automatic rehash of hash buckets.
ServerIronADX(config)# server cache-group 1
ServerIronADX(config-tc-1)# csw-force-rehash
Syntax: [no] csw-force-rehash
NOTE
This command generally disrupts the existing cache persistence.
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