Middle Science FinalPress

Middle Science FinalPress
MIDDLE School
Ministry of Education
Department of Education
Essential Curriculum
2008
Curriculum and Instructional Leadership
Performance Standards Summary
SCIENCE
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ARE LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
“THE ESSENTIAL CURRICULUM”
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System (BPSS) is to be the first choice in
education by providing rigorous and stimulating learning experiences in safe, responsive
environments from which our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Performance Standards are statements
of what students should know and
be able to do and how they should
demonstrate their knowledge and skills
at the end of each year. Included within
the Performance Standards document
are strands, performance statements
and assessment indicators for English
language arts, mathematics, science
and social studies. It is important to
note that the assessment indicators
listed in this booklet represents the
“Essential Curriculum.” They are
the critical guidelines for ongoing
and island-wide curriculum based
assessment. They are guideposts in
the journey our students make from the
time they enter our schools to the time
they graduate confident and prepared
to compete and contribute locally and
globally.
Serving as guideposts, performance standards establish shared expectations for the:
• completion of each year of our school system,
• guidance in terms of how we may need to redirect our efforts during any given year
of our school system
• direction in terms of what we should be able to expect of students entering each
subsequent year of our school system.
As they serve as guideposts for teachers responsible for maximizing students’ learning
experiences, performance standards tell us not only the ultimate goals for each year level
but also provide direction towards achievement of the goals during each year.
Bermuda Performance Standards will be used to:
• emphasize the concepts and processes all students should learn with
understanding.
• provide explicit goals for student expectation at the end of each year.
• guide Bermuda Criterion Reference and classroom assessments
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
1
Bermuda Public School System Performance Standards
Science (SC)
Physical Science (P)
Life Science (L)
Earth and Space Science (E)
Nature of Science (N)
2
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
M1 Science (SC)
Introduction to Science Performance Standards ...................................................7
• Physical Science
• Life Science
• Earth and Space Science
• Nature of Science
References
Physical Science (P).................................................................................................11
P1 Matter and Materials
P2 Force and Motion
P3 Energy
P4 Forces of Nature
Life Science (L) .......................................................................................................13 L1 Diversity of Life
L2Heredity
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems
L4 Interdependence
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy
L6 Evolution of Life
Earth and Space Science (E) .................................................................................16
E1 Astronomy
E2 Geology
E3 Resources
E4 Meteorology
E5Oceanography
Nature of Science (N) .............................................................................................18 N1 Scientific Investigation
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation
N3 Designed World: Science Technology and Society
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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M2 Science (SC)
Introduction to Science Performance Standards ...................................................7
• Physical Science
• Life Science
• Earth and Space Science
• Nature of Science
References
Physical Science (P).................................................................................................21
P1 Matter and Materials
P2 Force and Motion
P3 Energy
P4 Forces of Nature
Life Science (L) .......................................................................................................23 L1 Diversity of Life
L2Heredity
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems
L4 Interdependence
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy
L6 Evolution of Life
Earth and Space Science (E) .................................................................................26
E1 Astronomy
E2 Geology
E3 Resources
E4 Meteorology
E5Oceanography
Nature of Science (N) .............................................................................................28 N1 Scientific Investigation
4
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation
N3 Designed World: Science Technology and Society
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
M3 Science (SC)
Introduction to Science Performance Standards ...................................................7
• Physical Science
• Life Science
• Earth and Space Science
• Nature of Science
References
Physical Science (P).................................................................................................31
P1 Matter and Materials
P2 Force and Motion
P3 Energy
P4 Forces of Nature
Life Science (L) .......................................................................................................33 L1 Diversity of Life
L2Heredity
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems
L4 Interdependence
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy
L6 Evolution of Life
Earth and Space Science (E) .................................................................................36
E1 Astronomy
E2 Geology
E3 Resources
E4 Meteorology
E5Oceanography
Nature of Science (N) .............................................................................................38 N1 Scientific Investigation
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation
N3 Designed World: Science Technology and Society
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
BERMUDA SCIENCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (SC)
The study of science is an intellectual and social endeavour – the application of human intelligence to
figuring out how the world works.
Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Project 2061 (1993)
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards document is an amalgam of widely respected science
documents that have been developed in many different countries, including the United Kingdom, United
States and Canada. As is easily recognizable in standards documents from other jurisdictions, Benchmarks
for Science Literacy has been used as the basis for Bermuda Science Performance Standards. Science in
the schools provides an introduction to many different scientific disciplines from the traditional physics,
chemistry and biology to geology, environmental science and meteorology. These standards are therefore
wide ranging and provide the foundation for not only scientific literacy, but also the critical knowledge and
skills for those who intend to study science as a requisite for their careers.
The National Science Education Standards (NSES, National Research Council, 1995) define scientific
literacy as the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes which are required for
participation in civic and cultural activities, economic productivity and personal decision making. The
philosophy of The Bermuda Science Curriculum (Bermuda Ministry of Education, 1997) echoes the
intent of the NSES statement and indicates that science education should empower all students to make
informed choices concerning personal, societal, environmental and technological issues, thus fostering an
appreciation and a sense of responsibility for the future.
In Bermuda, science is considered a critical component of education for all children and is therefore
mandated as a core subject from preschool through to senior school. The Bermuda Science Performance
Standards are not a curriculum. They provide the framework for our year-by-year science curriculum that
spans the fourteen years from preschool to senior school. They expand the “what” students should know
and be able to do to the “how” and “to what extent” students should demonstrate their understanding of
scientific concepts and skills.
As stated in the National Curriculum for England, the standards must be “robust enough to define and
defend the core of knowledge and cultural experience and flexible enough to give teachers scope to build
their teaching around it in ways that will enhance its delivery to pupils” (The National Curriculum for
England, 2000).
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards are categorized into four (4) strands, recognizable as
organizers in curriculum documents of many jurisdictions:
1. Physical Science (P)
2. Life Science (L)
3. Earth and Space Science (E)
4. Nature of Science (N)
The first three strands, communicate the knowledge and concepts of science using traditional categories.
The Nature of Science emphasizes the way that science and scientists work and how, together with
mathematics and technology, the world has been shaped by human endeavour.
The strands are divided into standards that spiral throughout the compulsory years of the science
programme in Bermuda. When the goal is deep understanding it is essential for concepts to be revisited
over time. Standards are further broken down into indicators for assessment.
Students show conceptual understanding when they can:
• use a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions, first in familiar then
unfamiliar situations
• represent the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts and graphs, as
appropriate
Both aspects of understanding – explaining and representing – are required to meet the standard.
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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PHYSICAL SCIENCE (P)
Physical science, which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the study of matter and
materials, forces and energy. There are four (4) physical science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
P1 Matter and Materials - their properties, components, interactions and changes
P2 Force and Motion - the relationship between force, mass and motion of an object and the nature
and interaction of waves and matter
P3 Energy - the sources and forms of energy, including transmission and transformations and how
energy helps explain the structure of matter and the universe
P4 Forces of Nature - gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces as the fundamental forces acting
in nature
LIFE SCIENCE (L)
Life Science, which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the diversity of living
organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one another and their environment. There
are six (6) Life Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
L1 Diversity of Life - the variety of living things and the processes responsible for the maintenance
of life
L2 Heredity – biological traits and how they are passed on from generation to generation
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems – the structure, function and reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization essential for life and specialized organs systems that interact with
each other to maintain internal balance
L4 Interdependence of Life – relationships amongst organisms and their dependence on their
environment
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy - the linking of organisms to one another and their physical setting
by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy
L6 Evolution of Life – the evolution of life on earth and natural selection as an explanation of
biological processes
EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (E)
Earth and Space Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources, meteorology and
oceanography. Earth and Space Science involves the study of the earth, the universe, their components
and interactions. There are five (5) Earth and Space Science standards
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
E1 Astronomy - the current scientific view of the nature, components, matter and energy sources of
the universe
E2 Geology - the features of the earth’s surface, how they were formed and how they are continually
changing
E3 Resources - the earth’s limited and varied materials that supply many of the resources that
humans use
E4 Meteorology - the interactions of structures of the earth’s system and the sun’s energy which
cause weather and climate patterns
E5 Oceanography - the features of oceans and the impact of these features on the global
ecosystem
NATURE OF SCIENCE (N)
The Nature of Science strand involves of the understanding and application of scientific investigative
techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also includes the study of the interrelationships among
science, technology, and society. There are three (3) Nature of Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
N1 Scientific Investigation - People can often learn about things around them by just observing those
things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to things and noting
8
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
what happens. Investigations are conducted for different reasons, which include exploring new
phenomena, checking on previous results and comparing different theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and making predictions.
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation - Data must be analysed in order to make sense of
what has been collected. Sometimes the evidence collected might not be what you expected or
might not be sufficient to draw a conclusion. Clear and accurate communication is important in
doing science and an essential part of sharing an investigation order to inform others.
N3 Designed World: Science, Technology and Society - Over the course of the history of world
exploration, humans have shaped and reshaped the world we live in by using technology in
tandem with expanding science knowledge. Science cannot answer all questions and technology
cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs. Science influences society through its
knowledge and world view. Technology influences society through its products and processes.
Science and technology have advanced through contributions of many different people, in
different cultures, at different times in history.
REFERENCES
It should be noted that there is a great deal of similarity amongst standards. The main sources for the
Bermuda Performance Standards document contain hundreds of pages of detail that cannot be provided
in the Bermuda Science Performance Standards. If further amplification of standards is required, it
would appropriate to research the sources cited in this section.
Allport Geoff et al. (1996) The New Sc1 Book – Experimental and Investigative Science, Northampton:
NIAS Production Unit
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993) Bench Marks for Science Literacy:
Project 2061. New York: Oxford University Press
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001) Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington,
DC: AAAS
Council for Basic Education. (1998) Standards for Excellence in Education. Washington, DC: CBE
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (1997) Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Toronto, Ontario: CMEC
Department of Education and Science. (2000) National Curriculum for England: Science. London:
HMSO
National Center on Education and Economy and the University of Pittsburg. (1995) New Standards
Performance Standards. Washington, DC and Pittsburg, PA: Hartcourt Brace
National Research Council. (1995) National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press
Wiggins, G. McTighe J. (1998) Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Physical Science (P)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P1 - Matter and Materials their properties, components,
interactions and changes
P2 - Force and Motion the relationship between
force, mass and motion of
an object and the nature and
interaction of waves and
matter.
SC.M1.P1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Matter cannot be created or destroyed, but merely changed.
Assessment limits:
• conservation of mass in a closed system
Physical properties of matter can be measured and changed. Equal
volumes of different substances usually have different weights.
Assessment limits:
• phase change
• measurement tools rulers, graduated cylinders, balances,
thermometers
• density – can calculate given formula
b) Materials can be classified as pure substances or mixtures,
depending on their chemical and physical properties.
Assessment limits:
• e.g., pure substances have specific melting and boiling points no
matter how much is present
c) Mixtures are made of elements and/or compounds and they can be
separated using properties of substances from which they are made
such as density, solubility, particle size and boiling point.
Assessment limits:
• describe techniques and filtration, distillation, decanting process
• apply in new situations
d) Pure substances can either be elements or compounds and cannot
be broken down by physical means.
Assessment limits:
• name some common elements and compounds- such as carbon,
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sugar, common salt, water, vinegar,
coinage metals, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen
peroxide and terms such as gasoline and fuel
SC.M1.P2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Unbalanced forces acting on an object will change the speed of the
object or the direction in which it is traveling and sometimes its
shape. The larger the force, the greater the change in motion will
be. When two substances that are touching move past each other, a
frictional force is produced.
Assessment limits:
• canceling effect of balanced forces;
• gravitational force and weight- earth, space, moon
• force has both magnitude and direction (e.g. use of spring scale,
dropping /kicking ball)
• formula speed=distance/time (apply to problem)
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
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Physical Science (P)
(continued)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P3 - Energy the sources and forms of
energy, including transmission
and transformations and how
energy helps explain the
structure of matter and the
universe.
P4 - Forces of Nature gravitational, electrical
and magnetic forces as the
fundamental forces acting in
nature.
12
SC.M1.P3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one
form to another. Transformations of energy usually produce heat
energy.
Assessment limits:
• example: burning fuel gives heat and light
• identifying forms of energy heat, light, sound, electrical
• do not test nuclear
• conversions including familiar examples such as fuel combustion in
a car, electrical to sound in a CD player
• food as source of energy
SC.M1.P4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Objects exert gravitational forces on every other object.
b) The sun’s gravitational pull holds the earth and other planets in orbit
and holds moons in orbit around their planets.
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L1 - Diversity of Life the variety of living things
and the processes responsible
for the maintenance of life.
L2 - Heredity –
biological traits and how they
are passed on from generation
to generation
L3 - Cells, Organs and Organ
Systems –
the structure, function and
reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization
essential for life and
specialized organ systems that
interact with each other to
maintain internal balance
SC.M1.L1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Organisms can be grouped into plants, which use sunlight to make
their own food and animals, which consume energy-rich foods.
b) Similarities among organisms are used to infer how closely related
the organisms are used. Details of internal and external structures
are best used to classify organisms.
Assessment limits:
• simple classification keys
• animal and plant kingdom
• vertebrates and invertebrates
• microscopic living things
SC.M1.L2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.M1.L3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Cells are building blocks of all living organisms.
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
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Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L4 - Interdependence of Life –
relationships amongst
organisms and their
dependence on their
environment.
SC.M1.L4
L5 - Flow of Matter and Energy
- the linking of organisms to
one another and their physical
setting by the transfer and
transformation of matter and
energy.
SC.M1.L5
14
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) In all environments – fresh water, marine, forest etc- organisms with
similar needs may compete with each other for resources (food,
space, water, air, shelter). The growth and survival of organisms
depend on the physical conditions. In Bermuda many of the species
are at the extreme limits of their geographical distribution.
Assessment limits:
• endemic and naturalized plants and animals
• introduced and invasive species in Bermuda
b) Some organisms are better suited to survive in certain environments
due to their characteristics.
Assessment limits:
• do not test the term adaptation at this level
c) A species is at risk when there is a mismatch of adaptation and the
environment.
Assessment limits:
• Bermuda – how did organisms get here and survive – flotsam, jetsam,
flying, swimming, storm, ships etc.
• risk of invasive species in Bermuda
• species at risk - the cahow, tree frog, green turtle, cane toad and
skink
• food chains and food webs including local examples
d) Bermuda, as a small oceanic island, the land and water ecosystems
are especially at risk due to the pressure of development.
e) Organisms can be categorized as producers, consumers and
decomposers of organic matter.
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Food provides fuel and building material for all organisms. Plants
make their own food by using energy directly from sunlight.
Animals eat other organisms to obtain energy.
b) All organisms depend on two main interconnected food webs,
one in the ocean, the other on land. This becomes an indefinite
cycle as organisms decompose after death returning material to the
environment.
Assessment limits:
• Interpret food chains and simple food webs e.g. algae, tadpole, duck/
crane
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L5 - Flow of Matter and Energy
- the linking of organisms to
one another and their physical
setting by the transfer and
transformation of matter and
energy.
L6 - Evolution of Life –
the evolution of life on
earth, natural selection as
an explanation of biological
processes.
SC.M1.L5 (continued)
c) Matter is transferred from one organism to another organism
repeatedly. The amount of matter remains the same, although it
might change in form and location.
d) Energy can change from one form to another in living things.
Animals oxidize their food and get energy, releasing some of it as
heat. Almost all food energy comes from sunlight originally.
SC.M1.L6
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
15
Earth And Space Science (E)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E1 - Astronomy the current scientific view
of the nature, components,
matter and energy sources of
the universe.
E2 - Geology the features of the earth’s
surface, how they were
formed and how they are
continually changing.
E3 - Resources the earth’s limited and varied
materials that supply many of
the resources that humans use
16
SC.M1.E1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The sun is a medium sized star located near the edge of a disc shaped
galaxy called the Milky Way. The sun is the closest star to earth.
b) The universe contains billions of galaxies and each galaxy contains
billions of stars.
c) Telescopes show the characteristics of objects close to earth such
as the moon and they are part of important technologies that can
show that there are many more stars in the sky than one can see
with the unaided eye. Satellites are an important kind of technology
that have been put into orbit around the earth to send information
from place to place, monitor earth’s weather and other conditions,
observe the universe.
d) The sun and the stars are light sources. Planets are seen by reflected
light. Light from the sun takes a few minutes to reach the earth.
Light from the next star takes a few years to reach the earth.
e) Nine planets of different size, composition and physical features
rotate the sun in nearly circular orbits.
Assessment limits:
• gravitational pull of the sun,
• tides and gravity pull of moon and sun
f) Earth is orbited by one moon, artificial satellites and debris. Earth’s
moon orbits around the earth in a 28 day cycle. Moon phases
describe what part of the moon is lighted by the sun and how much
of that is seen from earth. Other planets have more than one moon
and other kinds of objects, including ice particles, orbiting them.
SC.M1.E2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Oceanic islands such as Bermuda are formed by volcanic activity
along ocean floor.
SC.M1.E3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Human decisions have changed the earth’s land, oceans and
atmosphere. Bermuda as an oceanic island is especially unique and
vulnerable.
b) The sun is the ultimate source of most of the earth’s energy resources
and these resources are not renewable
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Earth And Space Science (E)
(continued)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E4 - Meteorology the interactions of structures
of the earth’s system and the
sun’s energy which cause
weather and climate patterns
E5 - Oceanography the features of oceans and the
impact of these features on
the global ecosystem
SC.M1.E4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.M1.E5
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Most of the earth’s surface is covered by water. Earth is the only
planet that has liquid water on its surface.
b) People have a significant impact on the ocean environment and
ocean life.
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
17
Nature Of Science (N)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N1 - Scientific Investigation
-People can often learn
about things around them
by just observing those
things carefully, but
sometimes they can learn
more by doing something
to things and noting what
happens. Investigations
are conducted for different
reasons, which include
exploring new phenomena,
checking on previous results
and comparing different
theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting
evidence, reasoning, devising
hypotheses, and making
predictions.
SC.M1.N1
N2 - Data Representation and
Interpretation Data must be analysed in
order to make sense of
what has been collected.
Sometimes the evidence
collected might not be what
you expected or might
not be sufficient to draw
a conclusion. Clear and
accurate communication is
important in doing science
and an essential part of
sharing an investigation in
order to inform others.
SC.M1.N2
18
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Planning an investigation
Assessment limits:
• Select a question that can be answered by an investigation involving
one factor
• Make a prediction about the outcome using scientific knowledge
• Choose appropriate equipment
• Write a method for the investigation
b) Obtaining evidence for investigation.
Assessment limits:
• Recognize the need to make additional observations and
measurements when they are too different
• Use a range of apparatus with increasing precision
• (refer to curriculum Science Toolbox)
• Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct
measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates and
temperature
• Record measurements and observations on charts
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Summarising and organising data
Assessment limits:
• Represent data and results in multiple ways such as numbers, tables,
graphs; diagrams
• Make double bar charts and pie charts
• Read bar graphs, line graphs and pie charts
b) Analyzing evidence and making conclusions
Assessment limits:
• analysing evidence and making conclusi analysing evidence and
making conclusions
• Identify and explain a pattern
• Interpret bar graphs, line graphs and pie charts
• Draw conclusion based on gathered data
• Support conclusions with evidence from experiments or research
• Evaluate investigation (suggest what might have caused errors and
identify ways to improve investigation)
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Nature Of Science (N)
(continued)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N3 - The Designed World Over the course of the
history of world exploration,
humans have shaped and
reshaped the world we live
in by using technology in
tandem with expanding
science knowledge. Science
cannot answer all questions
and technology cannot solve
all human problems or meet
all human needs. Science
influences society through
its knowledge and world
view. Technology influences
society through its products
and processes. Science and
technology have advanced
through contributions of many
different people, in different
cultures, at different times in
history.
SC.M1.N3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Things found in nature are different from those that are made by
humans. New products and systems can be developed to help solve
problems, but there could be desirable or undesirable consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Plants growth require sunshine, air, water – things made by humans
require an idea, resources and a design.
• Satellites as communication – when unusable, resulting in “space
junk”; pesticides for plant growth can harm environment).
b) Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics
and technology have been made by different kinds of people in
different cultures in different times.
Assessment limits:
• Scientists differ in what phenomena they study and how they go
about their work. (astronomer, biologist, conservationist – deals with
at risk organisms and habitats etc.)
c) Diet, exercise, disease and toxic substances influence the physical
health of individuals. Science has contributed to health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• Micro-organisms, viruses, bacteria, safe handling of food and
water.
Ministry of Education | M1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
19
PLANNING Notes
20
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Physical Science (P)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P1 - Matter and Materials their properties, components,
interactions and changes
P2 - Force and Motion the relationship between
force, mass and motion of
an object and the nature and
interaction of waves and
matter.
SC.M2.P1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Chemical changes occur when one or more substances react together
to form another substance with different properties.
Assessment limits:
• chemical vs. physical changes
• recognition of occurrence of physical or chemical change
b) Chemical reactions can be represented by using appropriate
symbols, formulas and chemical equations.
Assessment limits:
• symbols and/or formulas for substances such as water, carbon
dioxide, sodium chloride, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, magnesium,
magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia),
magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) hydrochloric acid, vinegar,
baking soda
• counting atoms in a given formula
• chemical reactions - reactant vs. product in a reaction
• some examples of chemical reactions – dilute acid , vinegar, with
calcium carbonate forming carbon dioxide; peroxide and manganese
dioxide forming oxygen
• acids and bases, include testing using litmus paper, pH strips or
solution (broad categories only –acid range, alkaline range and
neutral)
c) Burning and rusting are examples of oxidation – when oxygen is
combined with another substance.
Assessment limits:
• burning of magnesium, carbon, wax, hydrogen, fossil fuels
• using up oxygen as things burn (candle experiment
• rusting – especially Bermuda context – salt air makes things rust
faster.
d) Reaction rates can be changed by certain factors.
Assessment limits:
• identify faster reaction rate from diagram or description
• suggest how a reaction rate can be made faster
SC.M2.P2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Work is the use of force to move an object.
Assessment limits:
• work (w)= force (f) x distance (d)
• use of spring scale
• energy transferred when work is done
• unit joule
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
21
Physical Science (P)
(continued)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P3 - Energy the sources and forms of
energy, including transmission
and transformations and how
energy helps explain the
structure of matter and the
universe.
P4 - Forces of Nature gravitational, electrical
and magnetic forces as the
fundamental forces acting in
nature.
22
SC.M2.P3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form
to another. Transformations of energy usually produce heat energy.
Energy provides the ability to do work and exists in many forms.
Assessment limits:
• sound, light etc.
b) Energy can be stored and transformed into the energy of motion.
Assessment limits:
• Understanding of kinetic v. potential energy
c) Heat is transferred by collision of atoms, radiation and convection in
fluids. Heat moves at different rates depending on where the objects
are in relation to each other. When different parts of a substance are
at different temperatures, energy is transferred from places where
the temperature is higher to places where the temperature is lower.
Assessment limits:
• Conductors and poor conductors (insulators)
• expansion and contraction
• impact of heat on environment, warming atmosphere, oceans
• reducing heat loss from homes
SC.M2.P4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L1 - Diversity of Life the variety of living things
and the processes responsible
for the maintenance of life.
L2 - Heredity –
biological traits and how they
are passed on from generation
to generation
L3 - Cells, Organs and Organ
Systems –
the structure, function and
reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization
essential for life and
specialized organ systems that
interact with each other to
maintain internal balance
SC.M2.L1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.M2.L2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.M2.L3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Cells are building blocks of all living organisms. In any given
organism there may be many millions of cells that repeatedly divide
to make more cells for growth and repair.
Assessment limits:
• specialized cells: animal - sperm cells, nerve cells, blood cells, egg
cells or ova; plant: root hair etc
• Cell functions are similar in organisms
• animal cell and plant cell
• structure and function of organelles including common ones:
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria ones
• plant cell – cell wall, vacuole, chloroplast
• basic movement of molecules in and out of the cell - diffusion,
osmosis
b) Humans and other animals have body systems for obtaining and
providing energy, defense, reproduction and the coordination of
body functions. Different body tissues and organs are made up of
different kinds of cells.
Assessment limits:
• organization of cells to tissues to organs to organ systems
• tissue - group of cells with similar structure
• organs made out of tissues
• different organs form organ systems
• functions of different systems and their coordination with each other
(digestive, respiratory, circulatory, urinary)
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
23
Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L4 - Interdependence of Life –
relationships amongst
organisms and their
dependence on their
environment.
SC.M2.L4
L5 - Flow of Matter and Energy
- the linking of organisms to
one another and their physical
setting by the transfer and
transformation of matter and
energy.
SC.M2.L5
24
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) In all environments – fresh water, marine, forest etc- organisms with
similar needs may compete with each other for resources (food,
space, water, air, shelter). The growth and survival of organisms
depend on the physical conditions.
Assessment limits:
• Bermuda’s 6 land habitats – listed in curriculum document
• main species in each habitat
• physical isolation and impact on species in habitats
b) As a small oceanic island, the land and water ecosystems are
especially at risk due to the pressure of development.
c) Organisms can be categorized as producers, consumers and
decomposers of organic matter.
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Food provides fuel and building material for all organisms. Plants
make their own food by using energy directly from sunlight.
Animals eat other organisms to obtain energy. All organisms
depend on two main interconnected food webs one in the ocean,
the other on land. This becomes an indefinite cycle as organisms
decompose after death returning material to the environment.
Assessment limits:
• Interpret food chains and simple food webs
• focus on land food webs
• e.g .ant, lizard, kiskadee
• decomposing matter, cockroach, toad
b) Matter is transferred from one organism to another organism
repeatedly. The amount of matter remains the same, although it
might change in form and location.
Assessment limits:
• closed system
c) Energy can change from one form to another in living things.
Animals oxidize their food and get energy, releasing some of it as
heat. Almost all food energy comes from sunlight originally.
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L6 - Evolution of Life –
the evolution of life on
earth, natural selection as
an explanation of biological
processes.
SC.M2.L6
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.
b) Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the
long history of earth and its life forms. Fossils of more recently
formed rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling
existing species.
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
25
Earth And Space Science (E)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E1 - Astronomy the current scientific view
of the nature, components,
matter and energy sources of
the universe.
E2 - Geology the features of the earth’s
surface, how they were
formed and how they are
continually changing.
E3 - Resources the earth’s limited and varied
materials that supply many of
the resources that humans use
26
SC.M2.E1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.M2.E2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The earth is mostly rock.
Assessment limits:
• rock vs. mineral
• weathering of rocks - chemical/physical weathering
• explanation of the impact of weathering and erosion on rocks
• cave formation, disintegration of cliff faces and walls, degradation
of building materials
• the rock cycle - rock forming processes
• Types of rock sedimentary – particularly limestone, metamorphic,
igneous
b) The rock cycle includes the formation, weathering, sedimentation
and reformation of rock. The forms of material change, but the
total amount stays the same. Rocks are usually found in layers with
the oldest at the bottom. Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock
can give evidence to the long history of the changing surface of the
earth and its life forms
SC.M2.E3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Humans benefit from the earth’s resources such as water, air, soil
and trees.
b) Human decisions have changed the earth’s land, oceans, and
atmosphere. Bermuda as an oceanic island is especially unique
and vulnerable.
Assessment limits:
• focus on land
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Earth And Space Science (E)
(continued)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E4 - Meteorology the interactions of structures
of the earth’s system and the
sun’s energy which cause
weather and climate patterns
E5 - Oceanography the features of oceans and the
impact of these features on
the global ecosystem
SC.M2.E4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.M2.E5
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
27
Nature Of Science (N)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N1 - Scientific Investigation
-People can often learn
about things around them
by just observing those
things carefully, but
sometimes they can learn
more by doing something
to things and noting what
happens. Investigations
are conducted for different
reasons, which include
exploring new phenomena,
checking on previous results
and comparing different
theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting
evidence, reasoning, devising
hypotheses, and making
predictions.
N2 - Data Representation and
Interpretation Data must be analysed in
order to make sense of
what has been collected.
Sometimes the evidence
collected might not be what
you expected or might
not be sufficient to draw
a conclusion. Clear and
accurate communication is
important in doing science
and an essential part of
sharing an investigation in
order to inform others.
28
SC.M2.N1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Planning an investigation
Assessment limits:
• Select a question that can be answered by an investigation involving
one or two factors
• Use science knowledge to predict effect of variable (term variable
not testable)
• Choose equipment capable of measuring to 1/10ths as appropriate
• Write/evaluate clear step by step procedure for investigation
b) Obtaining evidence for investigation.
Assessment limits:
• Select what to measure
• Make series of observations and measurements/ record clearly and
accurately on charts
• Use a range of apparatus with increasing precision (nearest 1/10th)
• Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct
measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates and
temperature (refer to curriculum Science Toolbox)
• Know when to repeat measurements (when they are too different/
until they are considered correct (consistent)
• Calculate and record averages as required.
• Make further predictions based on patterns in results
SC.M2.N2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Summarising and organising data
Assessment limits:
• Summarise and organize data in tables and line and bar graphs;
represent data and results in multiple ways such as numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
• Read bar graphs, pie charts and line graphs
b) Analyzing evidence and making conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Compare related data sets
• Interpret bar graphs, pie charts and line graphs
• Identify and explain a pattern
• Draw a conclusion related to the question being investigated
• Relate conclusion to science knowledge
• Support conclusions with evidence from experiments or research
• Evaluate investigation (describe and explain errors and improvement;
suggest further investigations)
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Nature Of Science (N)
(continued)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N3 - The Designed World Over the course of the
history of world exploration,
humans have shaped and
reshaped the world we live
in by using technology in
tandem with expanding
science knowledge. Science
cannot answer all questions
and technology cannot solve
all human problems or meet
all human needs. Science
influences society through
its knowledge and world
view. Technology influences
society through its products
and processes. Science and
technology have advanced
through contributions of many
different people, in different
cultures, at different times in
history.
SC.M2.N3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Things found in nature are different from those that are made by
humans. New products and systems can be developed to help solve
problems, but there could be desirable or undesirable consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Engines can decrease travel time, increase productivity, lessen need
for manual labour
• More and better vehicles– problem of disposal of them in Bermuda,
increased fuel consumption damaging to fragile ecosystem, increased
air pollution)
b) Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics
and technology have been made by different kinds of people in
different cultures in different times.
Assessment limits:
• Scientists differ in what phenomena they study and how they go
about their work. (e.g., geologist studying rocks and minerals;
specialist doctors treating patients)
c) Diet, exercise, disease and toxic substances influence the physical
health of individuals. Science has contributed to health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• Importance of good dietary habits, vitamins and minerals; disease,
medicines and vaccinations; transplants and replacement of body
parts; blood transfusions; harmful substances in the environment –
soil, air and water; avoidance of toxic substances.
Ministry of Education | M2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
29
PLANNING Notes
30
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Physical Science (P)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P1 - Matter and Materials their properties, components,
interactions and changes
P2 - Force and Motion the relationship between
force, mass and motion of
an object and the nature and
interaction of waves and
matter.
SC.M3.P1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Matter is made up of atoms that are too small to see, even using
a microscope. Atoms of any element are alike, but different from
atoms of other elements. Atoms are composed of a positively
charged nucleus (containing neutrons and protons (+ve) and
surrounded by electrons (-ve) Atoms may combine to form new
molecules.
b) These particles are in constant motion. Increased temperature
means greater energy of motion.
Assessment limits:
• use of particle model – states of matter, phase changes
• conservation in a closed system.
c) About 100 different elements have been identified, out of which
everything is made. Some groups of elements have similar properties.
The periodic table is a classification system of elements.
Assessment limits:
• Mendeleev’s contribution
• broad structure – metals/nonmetals, groups and periods, families
alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, coinage
metals
• symbols for first 20 elements and coinage metals
d) Chemical changes occur when one or more substances react together
to form another substance with different properties. Chemical
changes can be represented by using appropriate symbols, formulas
and chemical equations.
Assessment limits:
• name simple compounds using standard convention e.g. oxides,
chlorides
• identification and counting atoms in an unfamiliar formula
• word equations only terms – reactant and product; reactions include
metal + acid forming hydrogen, metal carbonate+ acid forming
carbon dioxide; manganese dioxide + hydrogen peroxide forming
oxygen; acid +base =neutralization
• chemical reactions that occur in the human body and during photosynthesis
e) Some factors that influence reaction rates include temperature and
particle size.
SC.M3.P2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Vibrations such as sound and earthquakes set up wave like
disturbances that spread away from the source much like water
waves. Sound waves enter the ear causing hearing, just as emission
or reflection of light waves causes ‘seeing.’ Light travels in a
straight line and can be reflected, refracted or absorbed.
Assessment limits:
• recognize, compare, contrast examples
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
31
Physical Science (P)
(continued)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P2 - Force and Motion the relationship between
force, mass and motion of
an object and the nature and
interaction of waves and
matter.
P3 - Energy the sources and forms of
energy, including transmission
and transformations and how
energy helps explain the
structure of matter and the
universe.
P4 - Forces of Nature gravitational, electrical
and magnetic forces as the
fundamental forces acting in
nature.
32
SC.M3.P2 (continued)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
b) White light can be split up into a spectrum of different colours.
The human eye only responds to a narrow range of wavelengths.
There are other types of radiation beyond the ends of the visible
spectrum. Similarly, there are sound waves that we cannot hear –
“ultrasound.”
c) Waves move at different speeds in different materials. Light can
travel through a vacuum, but sound requires a medium to travel
(speed of sound).
SC.M3.P3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Energy is transferred from batteries to other components in
electrical circuits. Electrical energy in circuits can produce heat,
light sound and chemical changes. Components in a circuit resist a
current flowing through them.
Assessment limits:
• Interpretation of circuit diagrams
• complete circuit
• understand parallel and series circuits
SC.M3.P4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Electric currents and magnets can exert a force on each other, that
is, electric currents can produce magnetic forces and magnets can
cause electric currents.
Assessment limits:
• static electricity – caused by friction
• current electricity
• magnets
• electromagnets example how to increase strength
• magnetic fields - illustrations
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L1 - Diversity of Life the variety of living things
and the processes responsible
for the maintenance of life.
L2 - Heredity –
biological traits and how they
are passed on from generation
to generation
L3 - Cells, Organs and Organ
Systems –
the structure, function and
reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization
essential for life and
specialized organ systems that
interact with each other to
maintain internal balance
SC.M3.L1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.M3.L2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) In some organisms all genes come from a single parent and in others
half come from each parent.
Assessment limits:
• DNA contains information necessary to make an organism
b) In sexual reproduction a single specialized cell from a female
merges with a specialized cell from a male. As the fertilized
egg multiplies, the same genetic information is copied in each
cell. This cell division produces a small cluster of cells that then
differentiate by appearance and function to form the basic tissues
of an embryo. Patterns of human development are similar to those
of other vertebrates.
c) Selective breeding involves breeding individuals with particular
inherited characteristics.
Assessment limits:
• Interpretation of completed Punnett square
SC.M3.L3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Cells are building blocks of all living organisms. In any given
organism there may be many millions of cells that repeatedly divide
to make more cells for growth and repair.
Assessment limits:
• comparison of fertilization of human and flowering plants
• cells-sperm and ova
• parts of flower including stigma, style, ovary, stamen, anther,
filament
b) Humans and other animals have body systems for obtaining and
providing energy, defense, reproduction and the coordination of
body functions.
Assessment limits:
• reproductive system;
• protection and support of fetus, including risk of harmful substances
including drugs, viruses
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
33
Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L4 - Interdependence of Life –
relationships amongst
organisms and their
dependence on their
environment.
SC.M3.L4
L5 - Flow of Matter and Energy
- the linking of organisms to
one another and their physical
setting by the transfer and
transformation of matter and
energy.
SC.M3.L5
34
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) In all environments – fresh water, marine, forest etc. - organisms
with similar needs may compete with each other for resources (food,
space, water, air, shelter). The growth and survival of organisms
depend on the physical conditions. In Bermuda many of the species
are at the extreme limits of their geographical distribution. As a
small oceanic island, the land and water ecosystems are especially
at risk due to the pressure of development.
b) Coral reefs are physical structures produced by organisms. Corals
need light and warm temperatures, thus grow in shallow, clear,
warm waters. Vast numbers of species live on coral reefs and have
evolved special symbiotic relationships.
Assessment limits:
• marine habitats – coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove forests
• function of reef systems and risk to reef systems locally and
globally
• over fishing, fish pot ban, interpreting data of fish catch, invasive
species e.g. lion fish
• rocky coast as a habitat – structure and organisms that live there
c) Ocean food chains are threatened by over fishing by people. As
the large predatory fish stocks such as tuna, shark and swordfish
decline, smaller fish near the base of the ocean food web are taken.
This is a serious international problem that threatens the health of
the oceans.
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Food provides fuel and building material for all organisms. Plants
make their own food by using energy directly from sunlight.
Animals eat other organisms to obtain energy.
b) All organisms depend on two main interconnected food webs in
the ocean, the other on land. This becomes an indefinite cycle
as organisms decompose after death returning material to the
environment.
Assessment limits:
• Interpret food chains and simple food webs
• focus on marine food webs
c) Matter is transferred from one organism to another organism
repeatedly. The amount of matter remains the same, although it
might change in form and location.
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L6 - Evolution of Life –
the evolution of life on
earth, natural selection as
an explanation of biological
processes.
SC.M3.L6
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Some individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and
reproduce than others. Changes in the environment can affect
survival.
b) Patterns in human development are similar to that of other
vertebrates. Similarities among organisms are found in internal
features as well. This infers a degree of relatedness.
c) People can control some characteristics of plants and animals by
selective breeding. This means that the descendants are different
from their ancestors.
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
35
Earth And Space Science (E)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E1 - Astronomy the current scientific view
of the nature, components,
matter and energy sources of
the universe.
E2 - Geology the features of the earth’s
surface, how they were
formed and how they are
continually changing.
36
SC.M3.E1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The sun and the stars are light sources. Planets are seen by reflected
light.
SC.M3.E2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The earth is mostly rock. Three quarters of the earth’s surface
is covered by a layer of water, some of which is frozen. Earth is
surrounded by a blanket of air. The interior of the earth is hot.
Heat flow and the movement of material within the earth cause
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and create mountains and ocean
basins. Oceanic islands, such as Bermuda, are formed by volcanic
activity along ocean floor.
Assessment limits:
• Earth layers - crust, mantle, inner core, outer core
• identification of layers and recognize basic characteristics
• formation of Bermuda using ridge and adapted hot spot theories
• limestone caps and reefs
• conditions for coral growth;
• function of reef system - barrier/protection from storm surge,
tsunami;, food source , beauty
b) Waves, wind, water and ice reshape the earth’s surface, such as
removing evidence of the volcanic seamount that formed Bermuda.
Bermuda is capped by sandy limestone rocks that are sedimentary
deposits. Sandy beaches preceded beach dune formation in
Bermuda. Beach sand is Bermuda can be pink due to the remains
of an animal that has coloured its calcium carbonate skeleton red.
Some changes in the earth’s surface are caused by sudden events
such as earthquakes, volcanoes and in Bermuda, hurricanes.
However, other changes happen over long periods of time.
c) Matching coastlines and similarities in rock types and life forms
suggest that today’s continents are separated parts of what was long
ago a single continent.
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Earth And Space Science (E)
(continued)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E3 - Resources the earth’s limited and varied
materials that supply many of
the resources that humans use
E4 - Meteorology the interactions of structures
of the earth’s system and the
sun’s energy which cause
weather and climate patterns
E5 - Oceanography the features of oceans and the
impact of these features on
the global ecosystem
SC.M3.E3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Human decisions have changed the earth’s land, oceans and
atmosphere. Bermuda as an oceanic island is especially unique and
vulnerable.
Assessment limits:
• focus on marine
• threats to health of reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove forests
b) The sun is the ultimate source of most of the earth’s energy resources
and these resources are not renewable.
SC.M3.E4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Solar energy causes ocean and air currents. These currents impact
upon weather patterns and climate.
b) Water cycles throughout the earth system. It evaporates from the
surface of the earth, rises, cools, condenses into rain or snow and
falls again to the surface of the earth, collecting in rivers, lakes, soil
and rock. Much of it flows back to the ocean.
c) Weather can be described and studied in terms of properties of the
atmosphere.
Assessment limits:
• factors that cause weather
• reading simple weather maps
• air masses, high and low pressure, fronts
• severe weather conditions such as hurricanes
SC.M3.E5
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Most of the earth’s surface is covered by water. Earth is the only
planet that has liquid water on its surface.
b) The open ocean regulates earth’s climate, conditions of the
atmosphere and provides food and many other resources.
c) Coastal peoples of every culture developed a large amount of
practical knowledge about the ocean and its organisms. As
people gained skills in seamanship and navigation, this knowledge
increased. Increasingly sophisticated technologies are being used
to explore the oceans.
d) People have a significant impact on the ocean environment and
ocean life.
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
37
Nature Of Science (N)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N1 - Scientific Investigation
-People can often learn
about things around them
by just observing those
things carefully, but
sometimes they can learn
more by doing something
to things and noting what
happens. Investigations
are conducted for different
reasons, which include
exploring new phenomena,
checking on previous results
and comparing different
theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting
evidence, reasoning, devising
hypotheses, and making
predictions.
N2 - Data Representation and
Interpretation Data must be analysed in
order to make sense of
what has been collected.
Sometimes the evidence
collected might not be what
you expected or might
not be sufficient to draw
a conclusion. Clear and
accurate communication is
important in doing science
and an essential part of
sharing an investigation in
order to inform others.
38
SC.M3.N1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Planning an investigation
Assessment limits:
• Identify appropriate question being tested
• Make a prediction about the outcome supported by data, science
knowledge, or research
• Choose equipment as in level M2 (capable of measuring to 1/10ths
as appropriate)
• Write/evaluate clear step by step procedure for investigation
b) Obtaining evidence for investigation.
Assessment limits:
• Identify variables in an experiment and indicate which variables
should be controlled
• Measure appropriate quantities. Determine the number of
measurements, record and average as required /record clearly and
accurately on charts
• Use a range of apparatus with increasing precision (nearest 1/10th)
• Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct
measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates and
temperature refer to curriculum Science Toolbox)
• Know when to repeat measurements (when they are too different for
example). Calculate and record averages as required.
• Make further predictions based on patterns in results
SC.M3.N2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Summarising and organising data
Assessment limits:
• Summarise and organize data in tables and line and bar graphs;
represent data and results in multiple ways such as numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
• Read bar graphs, pie charts and line graphs
• Choose appropriate scales for charts and line graphs
b) Analyzing evidence and making conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Compare related data sets
• Interpret pie charts and line graphs
• Identify measurements and observations that do not seem to fit the
pattern
• Draw appropriate conclusions that fit the evidence
• Recognise whether the data collected is sufficient for conclusions
drawn
• Support conclusions with evidence from experiments or research
• Use scientific knowledge to explain evidence
• Evaluate investigation
• Describe and explain errors and improvement; suggest further
investigations
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Nature Of Science (N)
(continued)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N3 - The Designed World Over the course of the
history of world exploration,
humans have shaped and
reshaped the world we live
in by using technology in
tandem with expanding
science knowledge. Science
cannot answer all questions
and technology cannot solve
all human problems or meet
all human needs. Science
influences society through
its knowledge and world
view. Technology influences
society through its products
and processes. Science and
technology have advanced
through contributions of many
different people, in different
cultures, at different times in
history.
SC.M3.N3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Things found in nature are different from those that are made by
humans. New products and systems can be developed to help solve
problems, but there could be desirable or undesirable consequences.
Assessment limits:
• tape recorders and digital TV’s and play stations are applications of
sound and light technology
• Selective breeding and long distance food transportation increase
productivity, but affect risks and costs for producing food
• increased water traffic including ferries, personal water craft, jet
skis - damage to the marine ecosystem – sea grass beds, reefs, fuel
exhaust pollution)
b) Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics
and technology have been made by different kinds of people in
different cultures in different times.
Assessment limits:
• Scientists differ in what phenomena they study and how they go
about their work. (meteorologist, oceanographer, and other careers
associated with science such as electrician)
c) Diet, exercise, disease and toxic substances influence the physical
health of individuals. Science has contributed to health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• as M2 – include movement across the placenta, risks to unborn child,
technologies that help sight and hearing; medical technologies such
as ultrasound, radiation techniques for cancer patients.
Ministry of Education | M3 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
39
PLANNING Notes
40
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
MISSION STATEMENT
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System is to be the
1st choice in education by providing rigorous and stimulating
learning experiences in safe responsive environments from which
our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Ministry of Education
Curriculum & Instructional Leadership Office
P. O. Box HM 1185
Hamilton HMEX
Telephone: (441) 292-3507
Fax: (441) 296-2843
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