Crate V16 Specifications
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Table of Contents:
The Front Panel ......................................................................................4
The Rear Panel........................................................................................5
Important Information About Tubes and Tube Products
A Brief History Of The Tube............................................................6
Tube Types and Usage .................................................................6,7
The Nature of Tubes: Why (and When) to Replace Them ........7,8
The Importance of Proper Biasing.................................................9
System Block Diagram.........................................................................10
Technical Specifications .......................................................back cover
CAUTION
PRECAUCION
ATTENTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
RIESGO DE CORRIENTAZO
NO ABRA
RISQUE D'ELECTROCUTION
NE PAS OUVRIR
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC
SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS APPARATUS TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
REMOVE COVER. NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE.
REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
PRECAUCION: PARA REDUCIR EL RIESGO DE INCENDIOS O DESCARGAS
ELECTRICAS, NO PERMITA QUE ESTE APARATO QUEDE EXPUESTO A LA
LLUVIA O LA HUMEDAD. PARA DISMINUOIR EL RIESGO DE CORRIENTAZO.
NO ABRA LA CUBIERTA. NO HAY PIEZAS ADENTRO QUE EL USARIO PUEDO
REPARAR DEJE TODO MANTENIMIENTO A LOS TECHNICOS CALIFICADOS.
ATTENTION: PROTÉGEZ CET APPAREIL DE LA PLUIE ET DE L'HUMIDITÉ
AFIN D'ÉVITER TOUT RISQUE D'INCENDIE OU D'ÉLECTROCUTION. POUR
REDUIRE D'ELECTROCUTION NE PAS ENLEVER LE COUVERCLE. AUCUNE
PIECE INTERNE N'EST REPRABLE PAR L'UTILISATEUR. POUR TOUTE
REPARATION, S'ADRESSER A UN TECHNICIEN QUALIFIE.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
• READ, FOLLOW, HEED, AND KEEP ALL INSTRUCTIONS AND WARNINGS.
• DO NOT OPERATE NEAR ANY HEAT SOURCE AND DO NOT BLOCK ANY VENTILATION OPENINGS ON THIS APPARATUS. FOR PROPER OPERATION,
THIS UNIT REQUIRES 3” (75mm) OF WELL VENTILATED SPACE AROUND HEATSINKS AND OTHER AIR FLOW PROVISIONS IN THE CABINET.
• DO NOT USE THIS APPARATUS NEAR SPLASHING, FALLING, SPRAYING, OR STANDING LIQUIDS.
• CLEAN ONLY WITH LINT-FREE DAMP CLOTH AND DO NOT USE CLEANING AGENTS.
• ONLY CONNECT POWER CORD TO A POLARIZED, SAFETY GROUNDED OUTLET WIRED TO CURRENT ELECTRICAL CODES AND COMPATIBLE WITH
VOLTAGE, POWER, AND FREQUENCY REQUIREMENTS STATED ON THE REAR PANEL OF THE APPARATUS.
• PROTECT THE POWER CORD FROM DAMAGE DUE TO BEING WALKED ON, PINCHED, OR STRAINED.
• UNPLUG THE APPARATUS DURING LIGHTNING STORMS OR WHEN UNUSED FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME.
• ONLY USE ATTACHMENTS, ACCESSORIES, STANDS, OR BRACKETS SPECIFIED BY THE MANUFACTURER FOR SAFE OPERATION AND TO AVOID INJURY.
• WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK OR FIRE, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS UNIT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE.
• SERVICE MUST BE PERFORMED BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
• OUR AMPLIFIERS ARE CAPABLE OF PRODUCING HIGH SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS. CONTINUED EXPOSURE TO HIGH SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS
CAN CAUSE PERMANENT HEARING IMPAIRMENT OR LOSS. USER CAUTION IS ADVISED AND EAR PROTECTION IS RECOMMENDED IF UNIT IS
OPERATED AT HIGH VOLUME.
• WARNING: THIS UNIT REQUIRES A SAFETY GROUNDED OUTLET WIRED TO CURRENT ELECTRIC CODES HAVING THE LINE SUPPLY VOLTAGE,
POWER, AND FREQUENCY IDENTIFIED ON THE REAR OF THE UNIT. THE OUTLET MUST REMAIN ACCESSIBLE TO DISCONNECT THE UNIT IF A
FAULT SHOULD ARISE WHILE IN USE. THIS UNIT SHOULD BE UNPLUGGED WHEN NOT IN USE.
EXPLANATION OF GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS:
EXPLICACION DE SIMBOLOS GRAFICOS:
EXPLICATION DES SYMBÔLES GRAPHIQUES:
2
"DANGEROUS VOLTAGE"
=
“VOLTAJE PELIGROSO”
"DANGER HAUTE TENSION"
"IT IS NECESSARY FOR THE USER TO REFER TO THE INSTRUCTION MANUAL"
=
“ES NECESARIO QUE EL USUARIO SE REFIERA AL MANUAL DE INSTRUCCIONES.”
"REFERREZ-VOUS AU MANUAL D'UTILISATION"
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Congratulations!
You are now the proud owner of the Crate V16 Guitar Amplifier. This powerful little unit packs a whole lot of vintage tube sound into its compact cabinet – giving you an amp that’s small and easy to operate yet still produces
incredible sounds!
Like all Crate products, your V16 amplifier is designed by musicians, and
built using the finest components available. Extensive testing confirms that
this amplifier is the absolute best it can be.
In order to get the most out of your new amplifier, we strongly urge you to
read the information contained in this manual before you begin playing.
And Thank You for choosing Crate!
3
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
The Front Panel:
1
2
3
4
5
1. Input: Connect your instrument
here by means of a shielded signal
cable.
2. Gain: Use this control to adjust
the input gain. With the control
towards the counter clockwise position, the gain is low and very little
distortion is produced. As you rotate
the control clockwise the gain
increases, producing more overdrive distortion and a higher output
volume level.
3. Boost: This switch, when
depressed, increases the output of
the frequencies below 500Hz, giving
the bottom end more punch.
4. Treble: Use this control to adjust
the output level of the high frequencies. This control provides 8dB of cut
or boost at 10kHz.
4
6
7
8
9
10
5. Mid: Use this control to adjust the
output level of the middle frequencies. This control provides 9dB of cut
or boost at 700Hz.
6. Bass: Use this control to adjust
the output level of the low frequencies. This control provides 12dB of
cut or boost at 60Hz.
7. Level: Use this control to adjust
the output level of Channel B.
8. Reverb: Use this control to adjust
the amount of reverberation applied
to the signal. With the control fully
counter clockwise no reverb is
applied. As you rotate the control
clockwise the reverb increases.
9. Lamp: This lamp illuminates
when the amplifier is turned on.
10. On/Off Switch: Use this switch
to turn the amplifier on and off.
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
The Rear Panel (not shown):
11. AC Line Cord: The grounded power cord
should only be plugged into a grounded
power outlet that meets all applicable electrical codes and is compatible with the voltage,
power, and frequency requirements stated on
the rear panel. Do not attempt to defeat the
safety ground connection.
12. Speaker Connector: The V16 is shipped
with a 1/4” cable connected from the chassis
to the internal speaker. To connect the amplifier to an external speaker cabinet, disconnect the 1/4” plug from the amplifier and use
the jack to connect the external cabinet to the
amplifier by means of a heavy duty speaker
cable terminated with 1/4” plugs. The minimum impedance for the external speaker is
16 ohms.
5
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Important Information About Tubes and Tube Products:
A Brief History Of The Tube:
In 1883, Edison discovered that electrons would flow from a suspended filament when enclosed in an evacuated lamp. Years later, in 1905, Fleming expanded on Edison's discovery and created the "Fleming
Valve". Then, in 1907, Dr. Lee de Forest added a third component – the grid – to the "Fleming's Valve" and
the vacuum tube was a fact of life. The door to electronic amplification was now open.
During World War II, data gleaned from their intensive research on the detectors used in radar systems led
Bell Telephone Laboratories to the invention of the transistor. This reliable little device gained quick support as the new component for amplification. The death of the vacuum tube seemed imminent as designers, scientists, and engineers reveled in the idea of replacing large, fragile glass tubes with these small,
solid-state devices.
However, there were (and still are) many serious listeners who realized that the sound produced by a "transistor" amplifier is significantly different from that produced by a tube amplifier with identical design specifications. They considered the sound produced by these new solid-state devices to be hard, brittle, and lifeless. It was determined that solid-state devices produced a less musical set of harmonics than tubes. When
pushed past their limits, they tend to mute the tone and emphasize the distortion.
Tubes, on the other hand, produce a more musical set of harmonics, the intensity of which can be controlled by the player. This characteristic adds warmth and definition to the sound which has become the
hallmark of tube amplifiers. When tubes are driven into clipping, the harmonic overtones can be both sweet
and pleasing or intense and penetrating, depending on the musician’s musical taste and playing technique.
Over the years, application engineers have designed a number of outstanding solid-state amplifiers that
sound very, very good. Some use special circuitry which enables them to simulate the distortion characteristics of a tube amplifier. However, the tube amplifier, still held in the highest esteem by many musicians,
offers a classic "vintage" sound in a contemporary market.
Tube Types And Usage:
Tube amplifiers are based primarily on two types of tubes – preamplifier tubes and power tubes. The tubes
used in preamplifiers (12AX7, 12AU7, 12AT7, etc.) are smaller than the power tubes. These tubes amplify the signal from your instrument and shape the sound. They are inherently microphonic (mechanically
pick up and transmit external noises). Since these tubes are used in the critical first stages of a tube amplifier's circuitry, it is very important to use high-quality, low noise/low microphonic tubes for this application.
Although tubes of this quality may be difficult to find and typically cost more than "off-the-shelf" tubes, the
improvement in performance is worth the investment.
Preamplifier tubes are also used to drive the power tubes. When used in this application, a 12AX7 will produce a more distorted tone than a 12AT7, which produces a clearer, sweeter sound. A 12AU7 is even
cleaner and brighter than a 12AT7, giving more definition to the sound. (In some cases it is possible to
change the sound by changing the type of preamp and/or driver tubes. When making any modification to
your equipment, it is highly recommended that you consult with a qualified service center.)
The power tubes are the largest tubes used in an amplifier. These tubes convert the low-level, conditioned
signal from the preamplifier into a level that is sufficient to drive the speakers. There are several types of
power tubes available, each of which offers a different performance/sound characteristic. For example, the
EL34 power tube produces a great Classic rock sound. When an EL34 is driven into distortion it produces
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V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Important Information About Tubes and Tube Products (continued):
a unique sound ("crunch"). When compared to the 6L6, the EL34 distorts more quickly, exhibits a "looser"
low-end response and produces more harmonics at mid and high frequencies ("creamier" sound). These
differences become more noticeable at higher volumes.
The 6L6 tubes produce a big low-end thump and have a very good dynamic range. They offer a more traditional "American Rock" sound. The 6V6 tubes produce a creamy sound with nice distortion. On the other
hand, the KT88 produces a big low-end but sounds more like an EL34 in the mid and high frequencies.
The 6550 power tubes are more rugged and stay cleaner sounding even at full power. When they do distort, the sound produced is more solid and has a tighter low end; more of a "heavy metal" type distortion
with lots of power.
Some tubes are available in matched sets. These tubes have been extensively tested for optimum performance and longevity.
The Nature Of Tubes: Why (And When) To Replace Them:
Tubes are made up of a number of fragile mechanical components that are vacuum-sealed in a glass envelope or bubble. The tube's longevity is based on a number of factors which include how hard and often the
amplifier is played, vibration from the speakers, road travel, repeated set up and tear down, etc.
Any time you notice a change in your amplifier's performance, check the tubes first.
If it's been a while since the tubes were replaced and the sound from your amplifier lacks punch, fades in
and out, loses highs or lows or produces unusual sounds, the power tubes probably need to be replaced.
If your amplifier squeals, makes noise, loses gain, starts to hum, lacks "sensitivity", or feels as if it is working against you, the preamplifier tubes may need to be replaced.
The power tubes are subjected to considerably more stress than the preamplifier tubes. Consequently, they
almost always fail/degrade first. If deteriorating power tubes aren't replaced they will ultimately fail.
Depending on the failure mode, they may even cause severe damage to the audio output transformer
and/or other components in the amplifier. Replacing the tubes before they fail completely has the potential
to save you time, money and unwanted trouble. Since power tubes work together in an amplifier, it is crucial that they (if there is more than one) be replaced by a matched set. If you're on the road a lot, we recommend that you carry a spare matched set of replacement power tubes and their associated driver tubes.
After turning off the power and disconnecting the amplifier from the power source, carefully check the tubes
(in bright light) for cracks or white spots inside the glass or any other apparent damage. Then, with the
power on, view the tubes in a dark room. Look for preamplifier tubes that do not glow at all or power tubes
that glow excessively red.
Whenever you replace the power tube(s):
• Always have the amplifier's bias voltage checked by a qualified service center. Improper bias voltage will
cause degradation in performance and possibly damage the tubes and/or the amplifier. (See the section
below entitled, "The Importance of Proper Biasing", for more information on this subject).
• We highly recommend that you replace the driver tube(s) as well. The driver tube determines the shape
and amplitude of the signal applied to the power tube(s) and has to work almost as hard as the power
tube(s).
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V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Important Information About Tubes and Tube Products (continued):
You can check your preamplifier tubes for microphonics by turning the amplifier on, turning up the gain and
tapping lightly on each tube with the end of a pencil or a chop stick (my favorite). You will be able to hear
the tapping through your speakers, which is normal. It is not normal for a tube to ring like a bell after it’s
tapped. If it does ring then it’s microphonic and should be replaced. Remember to use only high quality,
low microphonic tubes in the preamplifier section.
Even though power tubes are rarely microphonic, you should check them anyway. The power tubes can
be checked for microphonics just like pre-amp tubes.
In the case of very high gain amps, you may be able to reduce the amount of noise generated by simply
swapping the preamp tubes around.
The Importance Of Proper Biasing:
For the best performance and longest tube life, proper biasing is imperative. Bias is the negative voltage
which is applied to the power tube’s control grid to set the level of idle current. We cannot over emphasize
the difference in warmth of tone and dynamic response that come with proper biasing. If the bias is set too
high (overbiased), the sound from the amp will be distorted at all levels. If the bias is set too low, (under
biased) the power tubes will run hot (the plates inside the tubes may glow red due to excessive heat) and
the sound from the amplifier will lack power and punch. The excessive heat greatly reduces tube life – from
a few days to as little as a few hours in extreme cases. Setting the bias on your amp is like setting the idle
on your car. If it’s too high or hot it’s running away with you and if it’s too low or cold it will choke when you
step on it.
The bias is adjusted at the factory in accordance with the type of power tube(s) installed in your amplifier.
It is important to point out that tubes of the same type and specification typically exhibit different performance characteristics. Consequently, whenever power tubes are replaced, the bias voltage must be checked
(unless the amplifier is equipped with “self-biasing circuitry”) and readjusted to accommodate the operating parameters of the replacement tubes.
Depending on the model and amplifier type, there may be hum balance controls, trim pots, or bias adjustment controls on its rear panel. However, the bias adjustment should be performed only by qualified service personnel with the proper, calibrated test equipment.
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V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Important Information About Tubes and Tube Products (continued):
Survival Tips For Tube Amplifiers:
To prolong tube life, observe these tips and recommendations:
• Match the impedance of your speaker cabinet(s) to your amplifier. Improper impedance matching will contribute to early tube degradation and may cause premature tube failure.
• Make sure the speaker(s) are properly connected prior to turning on the amplifier.
• After playing the amplifier, allow sufficient time for it to properly cool down prior to moving it. A properly
cooled amplifier prolongs tube life due to the internal components being less susceptible to the damage
caused by vibration.
• Allow the amplifier to warm up to room temperature before turning it on. The heat generated by the tube
elements can crack a cold glass housing.
• Replace the output tube(s) before the performance degrades or the tubes fail completely. Replace the
tube(s) on a regular basis (at least once per year or as often as every 4 to 6 months if you play long and
hard every day).
• Always have the bias checked after replacing the output tubes (unless the amplifier is equipped with "selfbiasing circuitry"). This should be done ONLY at a qualified service center. Improper biasing could result
in the tubes running too hot, which greatly reduces the life of the tubes – or too cold, which results in distorted sound regardless of level settings. Do not play the amplifier if it exhibits these symptoms – get the
bias checked/adjusted immediately to prevent tube failure and/or other damage.
• If the locating notch on the base of a power tube breaks off, replace the tube. This significantly reduces
the risk of damaging your amplifier by incorrectly inserting the tube.
• Protect the amplifier from dust and moisture. If liquid gets into the amplifier proper, or if the amplifier is
dropped or otherwise mechanically abused, have it checked out at an authorized service center before
using it.
• Proper maintenance and cleaning in combination with routine checkups by your authorized service center will insure the best performance and longest life from your amplifier.
CAUTION: Tube replacement should be performed only by qualified service personnel who are
familiar with the dangers of hazardous voltages that are typically present in tube circuitry.
9
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
System Block Diagram:
10
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
Declaration of Conformity
Manufacturer’s Name: SLM Electronics
Corporate Headquarters: 1901 Congressional Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146
Primary Production Facility: 700 Hwy 202 W, Yellville, Arkansas, 72687
Product Type: Audio Amplifier
Products meet the regulations for compliance marking under:
ETL standards UL6500, UL60065, or UL813
CSA standards E60065 or C22.2 No.1-M90
CE safety standard EN60065
CE EMC standards EN55103 or EN55013 and EN61000
FCC standards 47CFR 15.107 and 15.109 Class A
C-tick designation Level 2, ABN #56748810738, ARBN# N222
KETI standard K60065 (limited model approval)
Compliance Support Contact: SLM Electronics, Attn: R&D Compliance Engineer
1901 Congressional Drive, St Louis, Missouri, 63146 • Tel.: 314-569-0141, Fax: 314-569-0175
11
V16 GUITAR AMPLIFIER
V16 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
OUTPUT POWER RATING
15 Watts RMS @ 5 % THD, 16 ohm load, 120VAC
SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO
65dB Typical
GAIN
98dB
TREBLE
8dB range @ 10kHz
MID
9dB range @ 700Hz
BASS
12dB range @ 60Hz
INTERNAL SPEAKER
12”, 60W Celestion, 16 ohm, 1.75” voice coil dia, 38oz magnet
PREAMP TUBES
(3) 12AX7A
POWER AMP TUBES
(2) EL84
POWER REQUIREMENTS
120VAC, 60 Hz, 70VA
100/115 VAC, 50/60Hz, 70VA
230 VAC, 50/60Hz, 70VA
SIZE AND WEIGHT
18-1/2” H x 16-1/2” W x 9-1/2” D, 38 lbs.
The V16 is covered with a durable Tolex material: wipe it clean with a lint-free cloth.
Never spray cleaning agents onto the cabinet. Avoid abrasive cleansers which would damage the finish.
Specifications and information in this manual are subject to change without notice.
www.crateamps.com
@2005 SLM Electronics, a division of St. Louis Music, Inc • 1400 Ferguson Avenue • St. Louis, MO 63133
47-696-03 • 011805
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