T52-2-2-2005-1E .
TP 14371E
(2005-1)
1.
Other related TC Publications:
TP 12916 Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
2.
Previous Edition:
TP 2300E 2/05 04-14-2005
Printed in Canada
3.
Please direct your comments, orders and inquiries to:
Transport Canada
Civil Aviation Communications Centre (AARC)
Place de Ville
Tower C, 5th Floor
330 Sparks Street
Ottawa, ON K1A 0N8
Telephone:1 800 305-2059
Fax:
613 957-4208
E-mail: [email protected]
4.
©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Transport 2005
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without prior written permission of the Department of Transport, Canada. Please contact the Civil Aviation
Communications Centre at 1 800 305-2059 (EST) for assistance.
The information in this publication is to be considered solely as a guide and should not be quoted as or
considered to be a legal authority. It may become obsolete in whole or in part at any time without notice.
5.
ISSN: 1715-7382
TP 14371E
(10/2005)
TC-1001599
6.
Canada Post - Parcel Account #7003285
TP 14371E
Transport Canada
Aeronautical Information Manual
(TC AIM)
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
EXPLANATION OF CHANGES
EFFECTIVE — OCTOBER 27, 2005
GEN
(5) RAC 11.1.2: Contact information for the North Atlantic
Programme Coordination Office has been changed.
(1) GEN 1.1.3:
Information regarding the new TC AIM and
A.I.P. Canada (ICAO) has been added.
(6) RAC 11.18: “Shall” has been replaced by “Should”
in both RAC 11.18 a) & b).
(2) GEN 1.1.4:
TC AIM individual purchases and subscription
information has been added.
(7) RAC 12.3: Structured Airspace subparagraphs (b) to
(d) and figure 12.1 have been deleted.
(3) GEN 2.1.3: Occupational Health and Safety contact
telephone numbers have been updated.
(4) GEN 4.0: All references to the SST Organized Track System have been deleted.
(5) GEN 5.2: The abbreviation for Supersonic Transport
(SST) has been removed.
COM
(1) COM 3.16: Entire Global Navigation Satellite
System (GNSS) has been updated with current procedures.
MET
(1) MET 1.1.8: The entire section containing the State
Differences that are in effect against Amendment
73 of ICAO Annex 3 has been inserted.
RAC
(1) RAC 2.3.1: Information concerning cruising altitudes
and cruising flight levels appropriate to
aircraft track has been updated.
(2) RAC 3.14.1: Information regarding the Alternate Aerodrome
Weather Minima Requirements has been modified.
(3) RAC 7.5: The Note regarding Mode C altitude
readout has been amended.
(4) RAC 8.4: Information regarding pilot reports upon
reaching altitude and concerning Mode C
altitude readout has been modified.
(8) RAC 12.7.4.1: Information concerning the Polar Track Structure
(PTS) in the Reykjavik CTA has been deleted.
SAR
(1) SAR 4.7: The header of the second part of Schedule II (Signals
Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses
by Intercepting Aircraft) has been corrected.
MAP
(1) MAP 3.6.2: The fax number for ordering Aerodrome Obstacle
Charts has been changed and the edition dates for the
Vancouver International airport have been updated.
(2) MAP 5.6.4: A correction was made to the date-time
group in the RSC/CRFI NOTAM.
(3) MAP 6.0: Content of section has been updated.
LRA
(1) LRA 3.10:
New section concerning differences with
ICAO Standards and Recommended
Practices and Procedures was added.
AIR
(1) AIR 1.6.6: Additional information has been added to
the RSC and CRFI section; and, Table 4 has
been replaced by Tables 4 a) and 4 b).
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
GEN
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
GENERAL INFORMATION.......................................................................................... 1
Aeronautical Information........................................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1.1 Aeronautical Authority................................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1.2 AIS............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.3 Aeronautical Information Publications....................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.4 TC AIM Subscriptions................................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.5 NOTAM....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.6 Aerodromes................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Summary of National Regulations......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures................................................................................... 4
1.3.1 ICAO’s Procedures for Air Navigation Services—Aircraft Operations (PANS OPS)................................................................ 4
Abbreviations, Acronyms and Initialisms.............................................................................................................................................. 4
Units of Measurement.............................................................................................................................................................................. 4
1.5.1 Other Units.................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
1.5.2 Geographic Reference................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Time System.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
1.6.1 Date-Time Group......................................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.6.2 Morning and Evening Twilight Charts........................................................................................................................................ 4
1.6.3 Time Zone................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Nationality and Registration Marks....................................................................................................................................................... 6
Special Equipment to be Carried on Board Aircraft............................................................................................................................. 6
Miscellaneous Information...................................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.9.1 V Speeds...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.9.2 Conversion Tables ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7
1.9.3 RVR Comparative Scale – Feet to Metres................................................................................................................................... 8
SAFETY............................................................................................................................ 8
Aviation Occupational Health and Safety Program.............................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.1 General........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
2.1.2 Refusal to Work in Dangerous Situations .................................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.3 Civil Aviation Safety Inspectors — Occupational Health and Safety (CASI-OHS) . ................................................................ 9
2.1.4 Web site....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
System Safety Branch at Headquarters and in the Regions................................................................................................................. 9
2.2.1 General........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9
2.2.2 Regional System Safety Specialist.............................................................................................................................................. 9
2.2.3 Safety Newsletters .................................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.2.4 Web site..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD OF CANADA............................................ 10
Aviation Safety Investigation................................................................................................................................................................ 10
Definitions............................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
Reporting an Aviation Occurrence....................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.3.1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.3.2 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.3.3 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.3.4 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.3.5 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Protection of Occurrence Sites, Aircraft, Components and Documentation.................................................................................... 12
3.4.1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.4.2 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.4.3 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Aviation Safety REFLEXIONS................................................................................................................................................................... 13
SECURITAS Program................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
Offices of the TSB................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
4.0
INDEX OF KEYWORDS.............................................................................................. 14
5.0
MISCELLANEOUS....................................................................................................... 31
5.1
5.2
5.3
Glossary of Aeronautical Terms............................................................................................................................................................ 31
Abbreviations and Acronyms................................................................................................................................................................ 40
Legislation Index.................................................................................................................................................................................... 40
TC AIM
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3
October 27, 2005
CIVIL AVIATION CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS (CACO)................................ 45
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................ 45
Headquarters Operations....................................................................................................................................................................... 45
Civil Aviation Accident, Occurrence, or Incident Reporting ............................................................................................................ 45
AGA
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
ii
GENERAL INFORMATION ....................................................................................... 46
General.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 46
1.1.1 Aerodrome Authority ............................................................................................................................................................... 46
1.1.2 ICAO Documents ..................................................................................................................................................................... 46
1.1.3 Differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures ......................................................................... 46
1.1.4 Canadian Runway Friction Index . ........................................................................................................................................... 46
1.1.5 Contaminated Runway Operations . ......................................................................................................................................... 46
1.1.6 Bird Hazard .............................................................................................................................................................................. 46
International Airports . ......................................................................................................................................................................... 46
1.2.1 ICAO Definitions . .................................................................................................................................................................... 47
Aerodrome Directory ............................................................................................................................................................................ 47
Aeronautical Ground Lights ................................................................................................................................................................ 47
AERODROMES AND AIRPORTS.............................................................................. 47
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47
Use of Aerodromes and Airports ......................................................................................................................................................... 48
Airport Certification ............................................................................................................................................................................. 48
2.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 48
2.3.2 Applicability of Airport Certification........................................................................................................................................ 48
2.3.3 Transport Canada Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................ 48
2.3.4 Operator Responsibilities ......................................................................................................................................................... 48
2.3.5 Airport Certification Process .................................................................................................................................................... 49
2.3.6 Regulatory References for Airport and Heliport Certification ................................................................................................. 49
Airport Certificate ................................................................................................................................................................................. 49
2.4.1 Issue . ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 49
2.4.2 Airport Certificate Validity and Amendments .......................................................................................................................... 49
RUNWAY CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................... 49
Runway Length and Width .................................................................................................................................................................. 49
Graded Area .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 49
Displaced Runway Threshold .............................................................................................................................................................. 50
Turnaround Bay .................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Pre-Threshold Area . ............................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Stopway . ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 50
Clearway ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 50
Declared Distances................................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Rapid-Exit Taxiways . ........................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Runway and Taxiway Bearing Strength ............................................................................................................................................. 50
3.10.1 Pavement Load Rating Charts .................................................................................................................................................. 51
Heliports . ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
3.11.1 Arrival and Departure Hover Area ........................................................................................................................................... 51
OBSTACLE RESTRICTIONS...................................................................................... 51
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Obstacle Limitation Surfaces ............................................................................................................................................................... 51
4.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
4.2.2 Heliports.................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Airport Zoning Regulations ................................................................................................................................................................. 52
4.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 52
4.3.2 Airports Where Zoning Regulations are in effect...................................................................................................................... 52
MARKERS, MARKINGS, SIGNS AND INDICATORS........................................... 52
Aircraft Takeoff or Landing Area Boundary Markers . ..................................................................................................................... 52
Helicopter Hover Taxiway Route Markers ......................................................................................................................................... 52
Seaplane Dock Markers . ...................................................................................................................................................................... 52
Runway Markings ................................................................................................................................................................................. 53
5.4.1 Displaced Threshold Markings ................................................................................................................................................ 53
5.4.2 Stopways................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
5.4.3 Taxiway Exit and Holding Markings........................................................................................................................................ 53
Heliports.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 53
October 27, 2005
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
TC AIM
5.5.1 Heliport Takeoff and Landing Area Marking............................................................................................................................ 53
5.5.2 Safety Area Markers.................................................................................................................................................................. 53
5.5.3 Heliport Identification Markings .............................................................................................................................................. 53
5.5.4 Arrival and Departure Hover Area Marking . ........................................................................................................................... 54
5.5.5 Apron Touchdown Pad Marking .............................................................................................................................................. 54
5.5.6 Preferred Approach and Departure Path Markings .................................................................................................................. 54
Closed Markings . .................................................................................................................................................................................. 54
Unserviceable Area Markings .............................................................................................................................................................. 54
Airside Guidance Signs . ....................................................................................................................................................................... 54
5.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 54
5.8.2 Operational Guidance Signs...................................................................................................................................................... 55
5.8.3 Mandatory Instruction Signs .................................................................................................................................................... 56
5.8.4 Illumination of Airside Guidance Signs ................................................................................................................................... 57
Wind Direction Indicators . .................................................................................................................................................................. 57
6.0
OBSTRUCTION MARKINGS..................................................................................... 57
7.0
LIGHTING..................................................................................................................... 59
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 57
Standards ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 57
Requirements for an Aeronautical Evaluation ................................................................................................................................... 58
Day Marking . ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 58
Day Lighting .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 58
Appurtenances . ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 58
Suspended Cable Span Markings ........................................................................................................................................................ 58
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59
Aerodrome Beacon ................................................................................................................................................................................ 59
Minimum Night Lighting Requirements at Aerodromes . ................................................................................................................. 59
Unserviceable Area Markings .............................................................................................................................................................. 59
Approach Lighting ................................................................................................................................................................................ 59
7.5.1 Non-Precision Approach Runways .......................................................................................................................................... 59
7.5.2 Precision Approach Runways . ................................................................................................................................................. 60
Approach Slope Indicator Systems . .................................................................................................................................................... 60
7.6.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 60
7.6.2 2-BAR VASIS (V1and V2) . ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
7.6.3 3-BAR VASIS (V3) .................................................................................................................................................................. 61
7.6.4 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) ............................................................................................................................... 61
Runway Identification Lights (RILS) .................................................................................................................................................. 61
Runway Lighting . ................................................................................................................................................................................. 61
7.8.1 Runway Edge Lights ................................................................................................................................................................ 62
7.8.2 Runway Threshold End Lights . ............................................................................................................................................... 62
Displaced Runway Threshold Lighting................................................................................................................................................ 62
Runway Centre Line Lighting . ............................................................................................................................................................ 62
Runway Touchdown Zone Lighting .................................................................................................................................................... 62
Rapid-Exit Taxiway Lighting . ............................................................................................................................................................. 62
Taxiway Lighting . ................................................................................................................................................................................. 62
Clearance Bars ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 62
Stop Bars ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 62
Runway Guard Lights .......................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Heliport Lighting . ................................................................................................................................................................................. 63
7.17.1 Arrival and Departure Hover Area Lighting . ........................................................................................................................... 63
7.17.2 Approach and Departure Direction Lights ............................................................................................................................... 63
Emergency Lighting .............................................................................................................................................................................. 63
Aircraft Radio Control of Aerodrome Lighting (ARCAL) ................................................................................................................ 63
Retroreflective Markers ........................................................................................................................................................................ 64
8.0
AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING (ARFF)........................................... 64
9.0
MILITARY AERODROMES......................................................................................... 66
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
9.1
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64
AARF Hours of Availability ................................................................................................................................................................. 64
Classification System ............................................................................................................................................................................ 64
ARFF Standby Request ........................................................................................................................................................................ 65
ARFF Discreet Communication .......................................................................................................................................................... 65
Aircraft Emergency Intervention (AEI) .............................................................................................................................................. 65
AEI Availability ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 65
Arrester Cables ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 66
iii
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
COM
1.0
GENERAL INFORMATION........................................................................................ 67
2.0
LOCATION INDICATORS........................................................................................... 67
3.0
RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS....................................................................................... 67
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
4.0
4.1
iv
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
Responsible Authority .......................................................................................................................................................................... 67
Provision of Services ............................................................................................................................................................................. 67
1.3.1 NAV CANADA ........................................................................................................................................................................ 67
1.3.2 SERCo Aviation Services ......................................................................................................................................................... 67
1.3.3 Other Telecommunication System Operators . ......................................................................................................................... 67
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
3.1.1 Non-NAV CANADA Navigation Aids ..................................................................................................................................... 67
3.1.2 Interference with Aircraft Navigational Equipment ................................................................................................................. 68
Removal of Identification ..................................................................................................................................................................... 68
Accuracy, Availability and Integrity of Navigation Aids ................................................................................................................... 68
Pilot Reporting of Abnormal Operation of Navigation Aids.............................................................................................................. 69
VHF Omnidirectional Range ............................................................................................................................................................... 69
3.5.1 VOR Receiver Checks . ............................................................................................................................................................ 69
3.5.2 VOR Check Point ..................................................................................................................................................................... 69
3.5.3 VOT (VOR Receiver Test Facility) .......................................................................................................................................... 70
3.5.4 Airborne VOR Check ............................................................................................................................................................... 70
NDB ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70
Distance Measuring Equipment . ......................................................................................................................................................... 70
Tactical Air Navigation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 70
VHF Omnidirectional Range and Tactical Air Navigation ............................................................................................................... 71
VHF Direction Finding System ........................................................................................................................................................... 71
Fan Marker Beacons ............................................................................................................................................................................. 71
Localizer ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 71
ILS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
3.13.1 Caution—Use of ILS Localizers .............................................................................................................................................. 71
3.13.2 Localizer . ................................................................................................................................................................................. 73
3.13.3 Glide Path ................................................................................................................................................................................. 73
3.13.4 NDBs......................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
3.13.5 ILS/DME................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
3.13.6 ILS Categories........................................................................................................................................................................... 74
3.13.7 CAT II/III ILS............................................................................................................................................................................ 74
RADAR . ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 74
Area Navigation .................................................................................................................................................................................... 75
3.15.1 VOR/DME (RHO-THETA) System . ....................................................................................................................................... 75
3.15.2 DME-DME (RHO-RHO) System ............................................................................................................................................ 76
3.15.3 LORAN-C System ................................................................................................................................................................... 76
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) ....................................................................................................................................... 76
3.16.1 Satellite Navigation (SatNav).................................................................................................................................................... 76
3.16.2 Navigation Performance Requirements..................................................................................................................................... 77
3.16.3 Global Positioning System (GPS)............................................................................................................................................. 77
3.16.4 Augmentation Systems.............................................................................................................................................................. 78
3.16.5 IFR Approval to Use GNSS and WAAS in Domestic Airspace................................................................................................ 80
3.16.6 Flight Planning.......................................................................................................................................................................... 83
3.16.7 Flight Plan Equipment Suffixes................................................................................................................................................. 84
3.16.8 Avionics Databases.................................................................................................................................................................... 85
3.16.9 Use of GNSS in Lieu of Ground-based Aids............................................................................................................................ 85
3.16.10 Replacement of DME or ADF by GNSS Avionics.................................................................................................................... 85
3.16.11 NAT MNPS Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 85
3.16.12 GPS and WAAS Approaches at Alternate Aerodromes............................................................................................................. 86
3.16.13 Next Generation GNSS............................................................................................................................................................. 87
3.16.14 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and SatNav............................................................................................................. 87
3.16.15 GNSS Vulnerability – Interference/Anomaly Reporting . ........................................................................................................ 87
3.16.16 Proper Use of GNSS.................................................................................................................................................................. 88
3.16.17 Communication, Navigation, Surveillance Implementation Team (CNS IT)........................................................................... 88
3.16.18 GNSS User Comments . ........................................................................................................................................................... 88
TIME SIGNALS............................................................................................................. 90
General.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90
October 27, 2005
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
TC AIM
RADIO COMMUNICATIONS..................................................................................... 90
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90
Language . .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 90
VHF Communication Frequencies– Channel Spacing ...................................................................................................................... 90
Use of Phonetics .................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
Airways and Air Routes Designation .................................................................................................................................................. 91
Distance Reporting ............................................................................................................................................................................... 91
Use of Numbers ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
Call Signs ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
5.8.1 Civil Aircraft . ........................................................................................................................................................................... 91
5.8.2 Ground Stations . ...................................................................................................................................................................... 92
5.8.3 RCO . ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 93
Standard Radio Telephony.................................................................................................................................................................... 93
Communications Checks ...................................................................................................................................................................... 94
Emergency Communications................................................................................................................................................................ 94
Monitoring of Emergency Frequency 121.5 MHz . ............................................................................................................................. 95
VHF Frequency Allocations ................................................................................................................................................................. 95
5.13.1 Air Traffic Services .................................................................................................................................................................. 95
5.13.2 Soaring ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 95
5.13.3 Air-to-Air . ................................................................................................................................................................................ 95
Use of Frequency 5680 kHz . ................................................................................................................................................................ 95
Phone Use During a Radio Communications Failure ....................................................................................................................... 95
AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICES – INTERNATIONAL FLIGHTS.............. 95
Aeronautical Fixed Service (AFS) ....................................................................................................................................................... 95
6.1.1 Voice Systems . ......................................................................................................................................................................... 95
6.1.2 Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network (AFTN) .................................................................................................... 96
International Air-to-Ground Service.................................................................................................................................................... 96
Availability of Single Side Band . ......................................................................................................................................................... 96
Selective Calling System ....................................................................................................................................................................... 96
Telecommunications and En Route Facilities Service Fees . ............................................................................................................. 97
Radiotelephony Network Operations—at and Anchorage Arctic Flight FIR ................................................................................. 97
6.6.1 Gander International FSS ......................................................................................................................................................... 97
Use of General Purpose VHF in Lieu of International HF Air-to-Ground Frequencies . ............................................................... 98
6.7.1 VHF Coverage – NAT Region . ................................................................................................................................................ 98
6.7.2 VHF Coverage – Canadian Northern Airspace......................................................................................................................... 99
VOLMET................................................................................................................................................................................................ 99
COM ANNEX A – Radio Communications.............................................................................. 99
1.0
Canadian Aviation Regulations .................................................................................... 99
COM ANNEX B – USE OF PORTABLE PASSENGER-OPERATED ELECTRONIC DEVICES ON BOARD AIRCRAFT........................................................... 100
1.0
General ......................................................................................................................... 100
2.0
Regulatory Requirement ............................................................................................. 101
3.0
Operating Procedures .................................................................................................. 101
1.1
3.1
3.2
Portable Two-Way Radiocommunication Devices ........................................................................................................................... 101
Informing Passengers . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 101
Interference . ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 103
MET
1.0
1.1
GENERAL INFORMATION...................................................................................... 104
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 104
1.1.1 Meteorological Responsibility ............................................................................................................................................... 104
1.1.2 Meteorological Services Available ......................................................................................................................................... 104
1.1.3 Aviation Weather Services . .................................................................................................................................................... 104
1.1.4 Weather Service Information . ................................................................................................................................................ 105
1.1.5 Weather Observing Systems and Procedures at Major Aerodromes ...................................................................................... 105
TC AIM
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.1.6 Pilot Reports ........................................................................................................................................................................... 106
1.1.7 Applicable International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and World Meteorological Organziation
(WMO) Documents . .............................................................................................................................................................. 106
1.1.8 Differences from ICAO Annex 3............................................................................................................................................. 107
Meteorological Observation and Reports .......................................................................................................................................... 108
1.2.1 Aeronautical Meteorological Stations and Offices . ............................................................................................................... 108
1.2.2 Type and Frequency of Observations ..................................................................................................................................... 109
1.2.3 Flight Weather Documentation . ............................................................................................................................................. 109
1.2.4 Automated Weather Observation System................................................................................................................................ 109
1.2.5 Limited Weather Information System (LWIS) ....................................................................................................................... 109
Meteorological Forecasts and Charts ................................................................................................................................................ 109
1.3.1 Locations ................................................................................................................................................................................ 109
1.3.2 Hours of Service . ................................................................................................................................................................... 109
1.3.3 Aviation Forecast Charts ........................................................................................................................................................ 109
1.3.4 Aerodrome Forecasts . ............................................................................................................................................................ 109
1.3.5 Weather Information . ............................................................................................................................................................. 110
1.3.6 Area Forecasts and AIRMET.................................................................................................................................................. 110
1.3.7 Upper Level Wind and Temperature Forecasts ...................................................................................................................... 110
1.3.8 ATC Weather Assistance ........................................................................................................................................................ 110
1.3.9 Telephone Numbers of Flight Service Stations....................................................................................................................... 111
1.3.10 Supplementary Information . .................................................................................................................................................. 111
VOLMET.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 111
1.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 111
2.0
PILOT REPORTS......................................................................................................... 111
3.0
APPENDICES.............................................................................................................. 114
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
vi
October 27, 2005
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 111
Clear Air Turbulence............................................................................................................................................................................ 112
Wind Shear .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 112
Airframe Icing ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 112
Volcanic Ash ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 112
Pilot Estimation of Surface Wind ...................................................................................................................................................... 112
Location of Canadian Weather Centres ............................................................................................................................................ 114
Canadian Weather Information.......................................................................................................................................................... 115
3.2.1 Aviation Forecasts and Charts................................................................................................................................................. 115
3.2.2 Aviation Weather Reports . ..................................................................................................................................................... 116
3.2.3 Weather Charts ....................................................................................................................................................................... 116
Graphic Area Forecast (GFA) ............................................................................................................................................................ 116
3.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 116
3.3.2 Issue and Valid Times ............................................................................................................................................................. 116
3.3.3 Coverage Area......................................................................................................................................................................... 117
3.3.4 Units of Measure .................................................................................................................................................................... 117
3.3.5 Abbreviations and Symbols . .................................................................................................................................................. 117
3.3.6 Layout . ................................................................................................................................................................................... 117
3.3.7 Title Box ................................................................................................................................................................................. 117
3.3.8 Legend Box ............................................................................................................................................................................ 117
3.3.9 Comments Box ....................................................................................................................................................................... 118
3.3.10 Weather Information . ............................................................................................................................................................. 118
3.3.11 Clouds and Weather Chart....................................................................................................................................................... 118
3.3.12 Icing, Turbulence and Freezing Level Chart........................................................................................................................... 120
3.3.13 GFA Amendments .................................................................................................................................................................. 121
3.3.14 GFA Corrections . ................................................................................................................................................................... 121
AIRMET .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 121
3.4.1 Definition . .............................................................................................................................................................................. 121
3.4.2 Criteria..................................................................................................................................................................................... 121
3.4.3 Validity ................................................................................................................................................................................... 121
Abbreviations – Aviation Forecasts ................................................................................................................................................... 125
Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table.................................................................................................................................................. 128
Aerodrome Forecast Locations .......................................................................................................................................................... 129
Aerodrome Forecast – TAF ................................................................................................................................................................ 129
3.9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 129
3.9.2 National Variations ................................................................................................................................................................. 129
3.9.3 Sample Message ..................................................................................................................................................................... 129
3.9.4 Aerodrome Forecasts from AWOS Sites ................................................................................................................................ 132
Canadian Forecast Winds and Temperatures Aloft Network.......................................................................................................... 133
Upper Level Wind and Temperature Forecasts . .............................................................................................................................. 133
Upper Level Charts – PROG ............................................................................................................................................................. 133
Significant Weather Prognostic Charts – RAFC .............................................................................................................................. 134
Significant Weather Prognostic Charts — CMC .............................................................................................................................. 135
Aviation Routine Weather Report ‑ METAR . .................................................................................................................................. 136
3.15.1 The METAR Code . ................................................................................................................................................................ 136
October 27, 2005
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21
TC AIM
3.15.2 National Variations ................................................................................................................................................................. 136
3.15.3 Sample Message ..................................................................................................................................................................... 136
3.15.4 Special Weather Reports (SPECI) .......................................................................................................................................... 140
3.15.5 Reports from Automated Weather Observation Systems (AWOS) ........................................................................................ 141
3.15.6 Other Automated Reports . ..................................................................................................................................................... 144
EC/DND Weather Radar Network.................................................................................................................................................... 145
PIREP.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 145
SIGMET................................................................................................................................................................................................ 146
Surface Weather Maps......................................................................................................................................................................... 147
Upper Level Charts – ANAL ............................................................................................................................................................. 147
Volcanic Ash Prognostic Charts . ....................................................................................................................................................... 147
RAC
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
GENERAL.................................................................................................................... 149
Air Traffic and Advisory Services ...................................................................................................................................................... 149
1.1.1 Air Traffic Services ................................................................................................................................................................ 149
1.1.2 Flight Information Service ..................................................................................................................................................... 150
1.1.3 Flight Service Stations (FSS).................................................................................................................................................. 150
1.1.4 Remote Communications Outlets and Dial-up Remote Communications Outlets ................................................................ 151
1.1.5 Arctic Radio ........................................................................................................................................................................... 152
1.1.6 Military Flight Advisory Unit ................................................................................................................................................ 152
Services Other Than Air Traffic Services .......................................................................................................................................... 153
1.2.1 Universal Communications..................................................................................................................................................... 153
1.2.2 Airport Radio/Community Aerodrome Radio Station ........................................................................................................... 153
1.2.3 Private Advisory Stations (PAS)—Controlled Airports ......................................................................................................... 154
1.2.4 Apron Advisory Service ......................................................................................................................................................... 154
ATIS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 154
Use of Term “CAVOK” ...................................................................................................................................................................... 155
Radar Service ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 155
1.5.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................................... 155
1.5.2 Procedures .............................................................................................................................................................................. 155
1.5.3 Radar Traffic Information . ..................................................................................................................................................... 156
1.5.4 Radar Navigation Assistance to VFR Flights ......................................................................................................................... 156
1.5.5 Obstacle Clearance During Radar Vectors ..........................................................................................................................................................157
1.5.6 Misuse of Radar Vectors . ....................................................................................................................................................... 157
1.5.7 Canadian Forces Radar Assistance . ....................................................................................................................................... 157
1.5.8 The Use of Radar in the Provision of AAS by FSSs .............................................................................................................. 158
VHF Direction Finding Service ......................................................................................................................................................... 158
1.6.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................................................... 158
1.6.2 Equipment Operation ............................................................................................................................................................. 158
1.6.3 Provision of Service ............................................................................................................................................................... 158
1.6.4 Procedures .............................................................................................................................................................................. 158
ATC Clearances, Instructions and Information ............................................................................................................................... 159
Flight Priority ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 159
1.8.1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 159
1.8.2 Minimum Fuel Advisory ........................................................................................................................................................ 160
Transponder Operation ...................................................................................................................................................................... 160
1.9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 160
1.9.2 Transponder Requirements . ................................................................................................................................................... 161
1.9.3 IFR Operations in Other Low Level Airspace . ...................................................................................................................... 161
1.9.4 VFR Operations . .................................................................................................................................................................... 161
1.9.5 Phraseology............................................................................................................................................................................. 161
1.9.6 Emergencies ........................................................................................................................................................................... 162
1.9.7 Communication Failure .......................................................................................................................................................... 162
1.9.8 Unlawful Interference (Hijack)............................................................................................................................................... 162
Collision Avoidance—Right of Way (CARs)..................................................................................................................................... 162
Aerobatic Flight (CARs 602.27 and 602.28)....................................................................................................................................... 163
Pilot Reports ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 163
1.12.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................................... 163
1.12.2 CIRVIS Reports – Vital Intelligence Sightings ...................................................................................................................... 163
1.12.3 Meteorite Reports ................................................................................................................................................................... 164
1.12.4 Fire Detection – Northern Areas ............................................................................................................................................ 164
1.12.5 Pollution Reports . .................................................................................................................................................................. 164
ATS Reports—Possible Contravention of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)................................................................ 164
Conservation . ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 164
1.14.1 Fur and Poultry Farms............................................................................................................................................................. 164
1.14.2 Protection of Wildlife ............................................................................................................................................................. 165
1.14.3 Reindeer, Caribou, Moose and Muskoxen Conservation ....................................................................................................... 166
1.14.4 Migratory Bird Protection ...................................................................................................................................................... 166
1.14.5 National, Provincial and Municipal Parks, Reserves and Refuges ........................................................................................ 166
vii
TC AIM
1.15
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
viii
October 27, 2005
Bird Hazard ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 167
1.15.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................................... 167
1.15.2 Migratory Birds....................................................................................................................................................................... 170
AIRSPACE – REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES........................................ 171
General.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 171
Canadian Domestic Airspace.............................................................................................................................................................. 171
2.2.1 Northern Domestic Airspace................................................................................................................................................... 171
High and Low Level Airspace............................................................................................................................................................. 172
2.3.1 Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels Appropriate to Aircraft Track ....................................................................... 172
Flight Information Regions................................................................................................................................................................. 172
Controlled Airspace ............................................................................................................................................................................ 173
2.5.1 Use of Controlled Airspace by VFR Flights . ......................................................................................................................... 173
2.5.2 Aircraft Speed Limit Order According to CAR 602.32, no person shall operate an aircraft in Canada ................................ 173
High Level Controlled Airspace.......................................................................................................................................................... 173
Low Level Controlled Airspace .......................................................................................................................................................... 174
2.7.1 Low Level Airways ................................................................................................................................................................ 174
2.7.2 Control Area Extensions . ....................................................................................................................................................... 174
2.7.3 Control Zones ......................................................................................................................................................................... 174
2.7.4 VFR Over-the-Top . ................................................................................................................................................................ 175
2.7.5 Transition Areas ..................................................................................................................................................................... 176
2.7.6 Terminal Control Areas .......................................................................................................................................................... 176
Classification of Airspace ................................................................................................................................................................... 176
2.8.1 Class A Airspace...................................................................................................................................................................... 177
2.8.2 Class B Airspace . ................................................................................................................................................................... 177
2.8.3 Class C Airspace . ................................................................................................................................................................... 177
2.8.4 Class D Airspace .................................................................................................................................................................... 178
2.8.5 Class E Airspace...................................................................................................................................................................... 178
2.8.6 Class F Airspace ..................................................................................................................................................................... 178
2.8.7 Class G Airspace .................................................................................................................................................................... 180
Other Airspace Divisions .................................................................................................................................................................... 180
2.9.1 Altitude Reservation . ............................................................................................................................................................. 180
2.9.2 Temporary Flight Restrictions - Forest Fires ......................................................................................................................... 180
Altimeter Setting Region .................................................................................................................................................................... 181
Standard Pressure Region .................................................................................................................................................................. 181
Mountainous Regions.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182
Emergency Communications and Security........................................................................................................................................ 182
FLIGHT PLANNING ................................................................................................. 182
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 182
Weather Briefing ................................................................................................................................................................................. 182
NOTAM Information .......................................................................................................................................................................... 182
Single Source Preflight Service .......................................................................................................................................................... 183
3.4.1 FSS ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 183
3.4.2 DUATS ................................................................................................................................................................................... 183
Weight and Balance Form .................................................................................................................................................................. 183
3.5.1 Actual Weights ....................................................................................................................................................................... 183
3.5.2 Fuel and Oil Weights............................................................................................................................................................... 183
Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries . ................................................................................................................................................... 184
3.6.1 When Required . ..................................................................................................................................................................... 184
3.6.2 Filing (CAR 602.75)................................................................................................................................................................ 184
3.6.3 Flight Plan Requirements – Flights Between Canada and a Foreign State ............................................................................ 185
3.6.4 Opening a VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary ...................................................................................................................... 185
Changes to the Information in a Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary .................................................................................................... 185
3.7.1 VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary . ...................................................................................................................................... 185
3.7.2 IFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary ......................................................................................................................................... 185
Composite Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary—VFR and IFR . ........................................................................................................... 186
Defence VFR Flight Plans and Defence Flight Itineraries (CAR 602.145)..................................................................................... 186
Intermediate Stops .............................................................................................................................................................................. 186
3.10.1 Consecutive IFR Flight Plans ................................................................................................................................................. 187
Cross Country Instrument Training Flights ..................................................................................................................................... 187
Closing ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 187
3.12.1 Arrival Report . ....................................................................................................................................................................... 188
3.12.2 Closing of a Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary Prior to Landing . ............................................................................................... 188
Fuel Requirements .............................................................................................................................................................................. 188
3.13.1 VFR Flight . ............................................................................................................................................................................ 188
3.13.2 IFR Flight ............................................................................................................................................................................... 188
Requirements for Alternate Aerodrome — IFR Flight . .................................................................................................................. 189
3.14.1 Alternate Aerodrome Weather Minima Requirements ........................................................................................................... 189
Completion of Canadian Flight Plan / Flight Itinerary and ICAO Flight Plan ............................................................................ 190
3.15.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................................... 190
3.15.2 Canadian . ............................................................................................................................................................................... 190
October 27, 2005
3.16
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
TC AIM
3.15.3 ICAO ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 191
3.15.4 Instructions for Completing the Form .................................................................................................................................... 191
Contents of a Flight Plan/Itinerary ................................................................................................................................................... 191
3.16.1 Item 7: Aircraft Identification (maximum 7characters)........................................................................................................... 191
3.16.2 Item 8: Flight Rules and Type of Flight ................................................................................................................................. 191
3.16.3 Item 9: Number and Type of Aircraft and Wake Turbulence Category................................................................................... 192
3.16.4 Item 10: Equipment (Canadian and ICAO)............................................................................................................................. 192
3.16.5 Item13: Departure Aerodrome and Time ............................................................................................................................... 193
3.16.6 Item 15: Cruising Speed, Altitude/Level and Route . ............................................................................................................. 193
3.16.7 Item16: Destination Aerodrome, Total Estimated Elapsed Time, SAR Time (Canadian only)and Alternate Aerodrome(s).......................................................................................................................... 195
3.16.8 Item18: Other Information ..................................................................................................................................................... 195
3.16.9 Item 19: Supplementary Information ..................................................................................................................................... 196
AIRPORT OPERATIONS .......................................................................................... 199
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 199
4.1.1 Wake Turbulence .................................................................................................................................................................... 199
4.1.2 Noise Abatement .................................................................................................................................................................... 200
4.1.3 Preferential Runway Assignments ......................................................................................................................................... 201
Departure Procedures — Controlled Airports ................................................................................................................................. 201
4.2.1 ATIS Broadcasts ..................................................................................................................................................................... 201
4.2.2 Clearance Delivery ................................................................................................................................................................. 201
4.2.3 Radio Checks . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 201
4.2.4 Requests for Push-back or Power-back .................................................................................................................................. 201
4.2.5 Taxi Information . ................................................................................................................................................................... 201
4.2.6 Taxi Holding Positions ........................................................................................................................................................... 202
4.2.7 Taxiway Holding Positions During IFR Operations .............................................................................................................. 202
4.2.8 Takeoff Clearance . ................................................................................................................................................................. 202
4.2.9 Release from Tower Frequency .............................................................................................................................................. 203
4.2.10 Departure Procedures - NORDO Aircraft .............................................................................................................................. 203
4.2.11 Visual Signals ......................................................................................................................................................................... 203
4.2.12 Departure Procedures – RONLY Aircraft .............................................................................................................................. 203
Traffic Circuits — Controlled Aerodromes . ..................................................................................................................................... 203
Arrival Procedures— Controlled Airports ........................................................................................................................................ 204
4.4.1 Initial Contact ......................................................................................................................................................................... 204
4.4.2 Initial Clearance ..................................................................................................................................................................... 204
4.4.3 Landing Clearance . ................................................................................................................................................................ 205
4.4.4 Taxiing . .................................................................................................................................................................................. 205
4.4.5 Arrival Procedures – NORDO Aircraft .................................................................................................................................. 205
4.4.6 Arrival Procedures – RONLY Aircraft ................................................................................................................................... 206
4.4.7 Visual Signals ......................................................................................................................................................................... 206
4.4.8 Communications Failure - VFR ............................................................................................................................................. 206
4.4.9 Operations on Intersecting Runways . .................................................................................................................................... 206
4.4.10 High Intensity Runway Operations (HIRO)............................................................................................................................ 209
Aircraft Operations — Uncontrolled Aerodromes ........................................................................................................................... 209
4.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 209
4.5.2 Traffic Circuit Procedures — Uncontrolled Aerodromes . ..................................................................................................... 210
4.5.3 Helicopter Operations ............................................................................................................................................................ 211
4.5.4 Mandatory Frequency . ........................................................................................................................................................... 211
4.5.5 Aerodrome Traffic Frequency ................................................................................................................................................ 211
4.5.6 Use of MF and ATF ................................................................................................................................................................ 212
4.5.7 VFR Communication Procedures at Uncontrolled Aerodromes with MF and ATF Areas .................................................... 212
4.5.8 Aircraft Without Two-Way Radio (NORDO/RONLY)........................................................................................................... 213
Helicopter Operations at Controlled Airports .................................................................................................................................. 213
5.0
VFR EN ROUTE PROCEDURES ............................................................................ 214
6.0
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR) – GENERAL .......................................... 216
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
6.1
6.2
6.3
Monitoring 126.7 MHz and Position Reporting En route . .............................................................................................................. 214
Acknowledgement of Clearances ....................................................................................................................................................... 214
Altitudes and Flight Levels — VFR .................................................................................................................................................. 214
Minimum Altitudes — VFR (CARs 602.14 and 602.15)................................................................................................................... 214
Minimum Altitudes — Overflying Aerodromes [CARs 602.96(4)and(5)]....................................................................................... 215
Controlled VFR (CVFR) Procedures ................................................................................................................................................ 215
En route Radar Surveillance .............................................................................................................................................................. 216
VFR Operations Within Class C Airspace . ...................................................................................................................................... 216
ATC Clearance .................................................................................................................................................................................... 216
IFR Flights in VMC ............................................................................................................................................................................ 217
6.2.1 IFR Clearance with VFR Restrictions .................................................................................................................................... 217
6.2.2 VFR Release of an IFR Aircraft ............................................................................................................................................. 217
Emergencies and Equipment Failures — IFR .................................................................................................................................. 217
ix
TC AIM
6.4
6.5
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
October 27, 2005
6.3.1 Declaration of Emergency ...................................................................................................................................................... 217
6.3.2 Two-way Communications Failure ........................................................................................................................................ 217
6.3.3 Reporting Malfunctions of Navigation and Communications Equipment ............................................................................. 219
6.3.4 Fuel Dumping . ....................................................................................................................................................................... 219
IFR Separation .................................................................................................................................................................................... 219
6.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 219
6.4.2 Vertical Separation — General . ............................................................................................................................................. 219
6.4.3 Vertical Separation Between Flight Levels and Altitudes ASL . ............................................................................................ 220
6.4.4 Longitudinal Separation — Distance-based . ......................................................................................................................... 220
6.4.5 Lateral Separation — General ................................................................................................................................................ 220
6.4.6 Lateral Separation — Airways and Tracks . ........................................................................................................................... 220
6.4.7 Lateral Separation — Instrument Approach Procedure ......................................................................................................... 221
Development of Instrument Procedures ........................................................................................................................................... 221
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES – DEPARTURE PROCEDURES ................... 221
Aerodrome Operations . ...................................................................................................................................................................... 221
ATIS Broadcasts . ................................................................................................................................................................................ 221
Initial Contact ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 221
IFR Clearances .................................................................................................................................................................................... 221
Standard Instrument Departure ........................................................................................................................................................ 222
Noise Abatement Procedures — Departure . .................................................................................................................................... 223
7.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 223
7.6.2 Noise Preferential Runways ................................................................................................................................................... 223
7.6.3 Noise Abatement Procedures A and B ................................................................................................................................... 224
Obstacle and Terrain Clearance ......................................................................................................................................................... 225
Release from Tower Frequency .......................................................................................................................................................... 225
IFR Departures from Uncontrolled Airports ................................................................................................................................... 225
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR) – EN ROUTE PROCEDURES ............ 226
Position Reports .................................................................................................................................................................................. 226
Future Air Navigation Systems 1/A Automatic Dependent Surveillance Waypoint Position Reporting (FANS 1/A ADS WPR)........................................................................................................................................................................ 227
8.2.1 ADS WPR .............................................................................................................................................................................. 227
8.2.2 ATS Facilities Notification (AFN) Logon .............................................................................................................................. 227
8.2.3 Using ADS WPR .................................................................................................................................................................... 227
8.2.4 Aeradio Communications . ..................................................................................................................................................... 227
Mach Number/True Airspeed - Clearances and Reports.................................................................................................................. 227
8.3.1 Mach Number . ....................................................................................................................................................................... 227
8.3.2 True Airspeed ......................................................................................................................................................................... 227
Altitude Reports .................................................................................................................................................................................. 228
Climb or Descent ................................................................................................................................................................................. 228
8.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 228
8.5.2 Visual Climb and Descent ...................................................................................................................................................... 228
Minimum IFR Altitudes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 228
ATC Assignment of Altitudes ............................................................................................................................................................ 229
8.7.1 Minimum IFR Altitude . ......................................................................................................................................................... 229
8.7.2 Altitudes and Direction of Flight ........................................................................................................................................... 230
“1 000-ft-on-Top” IFR Flight ............................................................................................................................................................. 230
Clearances—Leaving or Entering Controlled Airspace . ................................................................................................................. 231
Clearance Limit ................................................................................................................................................................................... 231
Class G Airspace—Recommended Operating Procedures—En route ........................................................................................... 231
INSTRUMENT ARRIVAL FLIGHT RULES (IFR) – ARRIVAL PROCEDURES ..................................................................................... 232
ATIS Broadcasts . ................................................................................................................................................................................ 232
STAR .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 232
9.2.1 Conventional STAR . .............................................................................................................................................................. 232
9.2.2 RNAV Equipment . ................................................................................................................................................................. 232
9.2.3 RNAV STAR Procedure ......................................................................................................................................................... 232
Approach Clearance ........................................................................................................................................................................... 234
Descent Out of Controlled Airspace .................................................................................................................................................. 236
Advance Notice of Intent in Minimum Weather Conditions .......................................................................................................... 236
Contact and Visual Approaches ........................................................................................................................................................ 236
9.6.1 Contact Approach ................................................................................................................................................................... 236
9.6.2 Visual Approach ..................................................................................................................................................................... 237
Radar Arrivals ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 237
9.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 237
9.7.2 Radar Required . ..................................................................................................................................................................... 237
9.7.3 Speed Adjustment - Radar Controlled Aircraft ...................................................................................................................... 238
9.7.4 Precision RadarApproaches ................................................................................................................................................... 238
October 27, 2005
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18
9.19
9.20
9.22
9.23
9.24
9.25
9.26
9.27
9.28
TC AIM
Initial Contact with Control Towers . ................................................................................................................................................ 238
Approach Position Reports – Controlled Airports ........................................................................................................................... 238
Control Transfer – IFR Units to Towers ........................................................................................................................................... 239
Initial Contact with Air-to-Ground Facility at Uncontrolled Aerodromes .................................................................................... 239
Reporting Procedures for IFR Aircraft when Approaching or Landing at an Uncontrolled Aerodrome (CAR 602.104) (see RAC 4.5.4 and 4.5.5).......................................................................................................................................... 239
IFR Procedures at an Uncontrolled Aerodrome in Uncontrolled Airspace ................................................................................... 240
Outbound Report ................................................................................................................................................................................ 240
Straight-in Approach .......................................................................................................................................................................... 240
Straight-in Approaches from an Intermediate Fix . ......................................................................................................................... 240
Procedure Altitudes and Current Altimeter Setting ........................................................................................................................ 242
9.17.1 Corrections for Temperature .................................................................................................................................................. 242
9.17.2 Remote Altimeter Setting ....................................................................................................................................................... 243
Departure, Approach and Alternate Minima ................................................................................................................................... 243
9.18.1 Category II ILS Approach Minima ........................................................................................................................................ 243
Application of Minima . ...................................................................................................................................................................... 243
9.19.1 Take-off Minima . ................................................................................................................................................................... 243
9.19.2 Approach Ban . ....................................................................................................................................................................... 244
9.19.3 Landing Minima ..................................................................................................................................................................... 245
Runway Visual Range . ....................................................................................................................................................................... 246
9.20.1 Definitions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 246
9.20.2 Operational Use of RVR . ....................................................................................................................................................... 246
Straight-in Landing Minima .............................................................................................................................................................. 247
Circling . ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 247
Circling Procedures.............................................................................................................................................................................. 248
Missed Approach Procedure While Visually Manœuvring in the Vicinity of the Aerodrome ..................................................... 248
Missed Approach Procedures ............................................................................................................................................................. 248
Simultaneous Precision Instrument Approaches - Parallel Runways ............................................................................................ 249
Simultaneous Precision Instrument Approaches - Converging Runways ..................................................................................... 249
10.0
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES— HOLDING PROCEDURES . ...................... 250
11.0
NORTH ATLANTIC OPERATIONS......................................................................... 253
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
11.14
11.15
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 250
Holding Clearance .............................................................................................................................................................................. 250
Standard Holding Pattern................................................................................................................................................................... 250
Non-standard Holding Pattern .......................................................................................................................................................... 250
Entry Procedures . ............................................................................................................................................................................... 251
Timing .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 251
Speed Limitations . .............................................................................................................................................................................. 251
DME Procedures ................................................................................................................................................................................. 252
Shuttle Procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................ 252
Holding Patterns Published on Enroute and Terminal Charts ....................................................................................................... 252
Regulation Reference Documents and Guidance Material ............................................................................................................. 253
11.1.1 Regulation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 253
11.1.2 NAT Documents and Guidance Material ............................................................................................................................... 253
General Aviation Aircraft ................................................................................................................................................................... 253
North American Routes . .................................................................................................................................................................... 253
NAT Organized Track System ........................................................................................................................................................... 253
Flight Rules . ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 254
Flight Planning Procedures ................................................................................................................................................................ 254
11.6.1 Routes . ................................................................................................................................................................................... 254
11.6.2 Airspeed ................................................................................................................................................................................. 255
11.6.3 Altitude . ................................................................................................................................................................................. 255
11.6.4 Estimated Times ..................................................................................................................................................................... 255
11.6.5 Aircraft Approval Status and Registration ............................................................................................................................. 255
11.6.6 Height Monitoring Unit (HMU).............................................................................................................................................. 255
11.6.7 Filing ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 255
Preferred Routes Messages ................................................................................................................................................................. 255
Clearances . .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 256
11.8.1 Oceanic Clearances ................................................................................................................................................................ 256
11.8.2 Domestic Clearances – NAT Westbound Traffic .................................................................................................................... 256
11.8.3 Oceanic Clearance Delivery ................................................................................................................................................... 257
Position Reports .................................................................................................................................................................................. 257
11.9.1 Requirements . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 257
11.9.2 Communications . ................................................................................................................................................................... 257
Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS)............................................................................................................. 258
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM – Minimum Aircraft System Performance Specifications (MASPS)............... 258
Arrangements for Reduced Lateral Separation . .............................................................................................................................. 258
Adherence to Mach Number .............................................................................................................................................................. 259
Operation of Transponders . ............................................................................................................................................................... 259
Meteorological Reports ....................................................................................................................................................................... 259
xi
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
11.16
11.17
11.18
11.19
11.20
Adherence to Route . ........................................................................................................................................................................... 259
Step-Climb Procedure . ....................................................................................................................................................................... 259
Cruise Climbs and Altitude Reports ................................................................................................................................................. 259
In-flight Contingencies ....................................................................................................................................................................... 259
Communications Failure — NAT Traffic ......................................................................................................................................... 259
11.20.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 259
11.20.2 Communications Failure Prior to Entering NAT Oceanic Airspace . ..................................................................................... 259
11.20.3 Communications Failure Prior to Exiting NAT Oceanic Airspace . ....................................................................................... 260
11.21 North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace .................................................................................. 260
11.21.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 260
11.21.2 Time Keeping Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................... 261
11.21.3 Provisions for Partial Loss of Navigation Capability . ........................................................................................................... 261
11.21.4 Special Routes for Aircraft Fitted with a Single Long-Range Navigation System ................................................................ 261
11.21.5 Special Routes for Aircraft Fitted with Short-Range Navigation Equipment Operating
Between Iceland and Other Parts of Europe .......................................................................................................................... 262
11.21.6 Aircraft without MNPS Capability.......................................................................................................................................... 262
11.21.7 Monitoring of Gross Navigation Errors ................................................................................................................................. 262
11.22 North Atlantic Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum .................................................................................................................. 262
11.22.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 262
11.22.2 RVSM Details and Procedures ............................................................................................................................................... 262
11.22.3 RVSM Flight Level Allocation Scheme ................................................................................................................................. 263
11.22.4 NAT RVSM Aircraft Approvals . ............................................................................................................................................ 263
11.22.5 Central Monitoring Agency (CMA)........................................................................................................................................ 263
11.22.6 Height Monitoring . ................................................................................................................................................................ 264
11.22.7 Height Monitoring Unit (HMU).............................................................................................................................................. 264
11.22.8 GMU Monitoring ................................................................................................................................................................... 264
11.22.9 Further Information ................................................................................................................................................................ 264
12.0
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14
xii
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) SPECIAL PROCEDURES............................... 265
Adherence to Mach Number .............................................................................................................................................................. 265
Parallel Offset Procedures .................................................................................................................................................................. 265
Structured Airspace ............................................................................................................................................................................ 265
Required navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) Airspace..................................................................................................... 265
12.4.1 Definition................................................................................................................................................................................. 265
12.4.2 Aircraft Navigation Equipment for RNPC ............................................................................................................................. 265
12.4.3 Operator Certification for RNPC . .......................................................................................................................................... 266
12.4.4 Flight Planning ....................................................................................................................................................................... 266
12.4.5 RNAV/DME Distance ............................................................................................................................................................ 266
12.4.6 RNAV Equipment Failure Procedures . .................................................................................................................................. 266
CMNPS Airspace ................................................................................................................................................................................ 266
12.5.1 Definition . .............................................................................................................................................................................. 266
12.5.2 CMNPS Transition Airspace................................................................................................................................................... 266
12.5.3 Aircraft Navigation Equipment for CMNPS . ........................................................................................................................ 266
12.5.4 Operator Certificate for CMNPS . .......................................................................................................................................... 267
12.5.5 Flight Planning ....................................................................................................................................................................... 267
12.5.6 Partial or Complete Loss of Navigation Capability While Operating Within CMNPS Airspace .......................................... 267
12.5.7 Air-to-Ground Communications ............................................................................................................................................ 267
Canadian Domestic Routes ................................................................................................................................................................ 267
12.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 267
12.6.2 North American Route Program (NRP).................................................................................................................................. 267
12.6.3 Preferred IFR Routes . ............................................................................................................................................................ 268
12.6.4 Fixed RNAV Routes ............................................................................................................................................................... 268
12.6.5 Northern Control Area Random Routes ................................................................................................................................. 268
12.6.6 Arctic Control Area Random Routes ..................................................................................................................................... 268
Canadian Track Structures ................................................................................................................................................................ 268
12.7.1 Northern Control Area Track Structure .................................................................................................................................. 268
12.7.2 Southern Control Area Track System . ................................................................................................................................... 269
12.7.3 North American Routes .......................................................................................................................................................... 270
12.7.4 ACA Track Structure .............................................................................................................................................................. 270
Security Control of Air Traffic ........................................................................................................................................................... 270
12.8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 270
12.8.2 Emergency Security Control of Air Traffic Plan (ESCAT)..................................................................................................... 270
Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) ............................................................................................................................................. 271
Flow Control Procedures .................................................................................................................................................................... 271
Fuel Conservation High Level Airspace . .......................................................................................................................................... 272
Altimeter Setting Procedures During Abnormally High Pressure Weather Conditions ............................................................... 272
12.12.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 272
12.12.2 Flight Procedures . .................................................................................................................................................................. 272
Formation Flight Procedures ............................................................................................................................................................. 273
12.13.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 273
12.13.2 Formation Flight Planning Procedures . ................................................................................................................................. 273
12.13.3 IFR and CVFR Formation Flight ........................................................................................................................................... 273
Photographic Survey Flights .............................................................................................................................................................. 273
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
12.15 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems and Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems ....................................................... 274
12.15.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 274
12.15.2 Use of TCAS/ACAS . ............................................................................................................................................................. 274
12.15.3 Transport Canada TCAS/ACAS Policy . ................................................................................................................................ 274
12.15.4 Operational Approval ............................................................................................................................................................. 274
12.15.5 Airworthiness Approval . ........................................................................................................................................................ 275
12.15.6 Pilot Immunity from Enforcement Action for Deviating from Clearances . .......................................................................... 275
12.15.7 Mode S Transponder Approval and Unique Codes ................................................................................................................ 275
12.15.8 Pilot/Controller Actions . ........................................................................................................................................................ 275
12.15.9 Pilot and Controller Interchange ............................................................................................................................................ 276
12.15.10 Recommended Use . ............................................................................................................................................................... 276
12.16 RVSM ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 276
12.16.1 Definitions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 276
12.16.2 RVSM Airspace ...................................................................................................................................................................... 276
12.16.3 ATC Procedures . .................................................................................................................................................................... 276
12.16.4 In-Flight Procedures ............................................................................................................................................................... 277
12.16.5 Flight Planning Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 277
12.16.6 Operation of Non-RVSM Aircraft in RVSM Airspace . ......................................................................................................... 277
12.16.7 Delivery Flights for Aircraft that are RVSM-Compliant on Delivery .................................................................................... 278
12.16.8 Airworthiness and Operational Approval and Monitoring ..................................................................................................... 278
12.16.9 Monitoring . ............................................................................................................................................................................ 279
12.16.10 NAARMO .............................................................................................................................................................................. 279
12.16.11ACAS II................................................................................................................................................................................... 279
12.16.12 Mountain Wave Activity (MWA)............................................................................................................................................. 279
12.16.13 Wake Turbulence .................................................................................................................................................................... 280
12.16.14 In-Flight Contingencies . ........................................................................................................................................................ 280
RAC ANNEX ............................................................................................................................ 282
1.0
General........................................................................................................................... 282
2.0
Canadian Aviation Regulations .................................................................................. 282
3.0
Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) by Air . ............................................... 289
FAL
1.0
GENERAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................... 291
2.0
ENTRY, TRANSIT AND DEPARTURE OF AIRCRAFT ..................................... 292
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
1.1
1.2
General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 291
Designated Authorities ........................................................................................................................................................... 291
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 292
Commercial Flights . ........................................................................................................................................................................... 292
2.2.1 Aerodrome Use for Commercial Flights ................................................................................................................................ 292
2.2.2 International Commercial Flights Operating into and out of Canada or Transiting Canadian Airspace ............................... 292
2.2.3 Use of DND and Civil High Arctic Aerodromes . .................................................................................................................. 294
2.2.4 Documents Required by Passengers for Canadian Inspection Services . ............................................................................... 295
2.2.5 Requirement for Visas ............................................................................................................................................................ 295
2.2.6 Documents Required by CIS for Cargo/Passenger Baggage ................................................................................................. 296
Private Flights ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 296
2.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 296
2.3.2 Transborder Flights ................................................................................................................................................................ 296
2.3.3 Documentary Requirements for Customs Clearance of Aircraft ........................................................................................... 297
Public Health Measures Applied to Aircraft . ................................................................................................................................... 297
Regulations Concerning the Importation of Plants and Animals . ................................................................................................. 297
FEES AND CHARGES .............................................................................................. 298
Airport Fees ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 298
Air Navigation Service Charges (NAV CANADA) .......................................................................................................................... 298
3.2.1 En Route and Terminal Air Navigation Services ................................................................................................................... 298
3.2.2 Oceanic Services .................................................................................................................................................................... 299
3.2.3 Customer Service and Account Inquiries ............................................................................................................................... 299
Charges for Customs Services ............................................................................................................................................................ 299
Penalties for Customs Violations ....................................................................................................................................................... 299
xiii
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October 27, 2005
SAR
1.0
RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITY . ................................................................................ 300
2.0
FLIGHT PLANNING ................................................................................................. 300
3.0
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER . ........................................................ 302
4.0
AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE.............................................................. 305
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 300
Types of Service Available .................................................................................................................................................................. 300
SAR Agreements ................................................................................................................................................................................. 300
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 300
Request for Search and Rescue Assistance ....................................................................................................................................... 301
Missing Aircraft Notice . ..................................................................................................................................................................... 301
Aiding Persons in Distress .................................................................................................................................................................. 301
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 302
Categories of ELT . .............................................................................................................................................................................. 302
Installation and Maintenance Requirements .................................................................................................................................... 302
ELT Operating Instructions (Normal Use) ....................................................................................................................................... 302
ELT Operating Instructions (Emergency Use) ................................................................................................................................. 303
Maximizing the Signal ........................................................................................................................................................................ 303
Accidental ELT Transmissions . ......................................................................................................................................................... 304
Testing Procedures .............................................................................................................................................................................. 304
Schedule of Requirements .................................................................................................................................................................. 304
Declaring an Emergency .................................................................................................................................................................... 305
Action By the Pilot During Emergency Conditions ......................................................................................................................... 305
VHF Direction-finding Assistance...................................................................................................................................................... 305
Transponder Alerting . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 305
Radar Alerting Manoeuvres ............................................................................................................................................................... 306
Emergency Radio Frequency Capability............................................................................................................................................ 306
Interception Procedures (CAR 602.144) ........................................................................................................................................... 306
Downed Aircraft Procedures . ............................................................................................................................................................ 309
4.8.1 Ground-to-Air Signals . .......................................................................................................................................................... 309
4.8.2 Survival . ................................................................................................................................................................................. 310
Canada Shipping Act Extract ............................................................................................................................................................ 310
MAP
1.0
GENERAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................... 311
2.0
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION – VFR . .......................................................... 311
3.0
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION – IFR ............................................................. 312
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
xiv
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 311
Preflight Reference Information ........................................................................................................................................................ 311
Inflight Information ............................................................................................................................................................................ 311
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 311
Index to Canadian Aeronautical Charts ........................................................................................................................................... 312
Updating of Canadian Aeronautical Charts . ................................................................................................................................... 312
Chart Updating Data . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 312
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 312
En Route Products .............................................................................................................................................................................. 313
3.2.1 Low Altitude . ......................................................................................................................................................................... 313
3.2.2 High Altitude .......................................................................................................................................................................... 313
Terminal Products ............................................................................................................................................................................... 313
3.3.1 Terminal Area Charts . ............................................................................................................................................................ 313
3.3.2 Terminal Instrument Procedures ............................................................................................................................................ 313
Canada Flight Supplement ................................................................................................................................................................ 313
Publication Revision Cycles ............................................................................................................................................................... 314
Aerodrome Obstacle Charts – ICAO Type A .................................................................................................................................... 314
3.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 314
3.6.2 Index of Aerodrome Obstacle Charts – ICAO Type A (Operating Limitations)..................................................................... 314
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
4.0
INFORMATION COLLECTION .............................................................................. 315
5.0
NOTAM ........................................................................................................................ 315
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Responsibility ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 315
Correction Card System ..................................................................................................................................................................... 315
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 315
NOTAM Distribution — Canadian ................................................................................................................................................... 315
NOTAM Distribution — International ............................................................................................................................................. 315
Criteria for Issuing a NOTAM ........................................................................................................................................................... 315
NOTAM Summaries ........................................................................................................................................................................... 316
5.5.1 Summary Distribution Schedule ............................................................................................................................................ 316
NOTAM Format................................................................................................................................................................................... 316
5.6.1 New NOTAM.......................................................................................................................................................................... 316
5.6.2 Replacing NOTAM.................................................................................................................................................................. 316
5.6.3 Cancelling NOTAM................................................................................................................................................................. 316
5.6.4 RSC/CRFI NOTAM................................................................................................................................................................ 316
5.6.5 Query/Response NOTAM....................................................................................................................................................... 316
5.6.6 Automatic Query/Response — Canadian International NOTAM Data Base.......................................................................... 316
5.6.7 Response Delivery . ................................................................................................................................................................ 317
5.6.8 NOTAM Files ......................................................................................................................................................................... 317
6.0
A.I.P. CANADA (ICAO) SUPPLEMENTS, AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION CIRCULARS, AIRAC CANADA ............................................... 317
7.0
PROCUREMENT OF AERONAUTICAL CHARTS AND PUBLICATIONS .... 318
8.0
CHARTS AND PUBLICATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL FLIGHTS .............. 319
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.1
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 317
A.I.P. Canada (ICAO) Supplement ................................................................................................................................................... 317
Aeronautical Information Circular ................................................................................................................................................... 317
AIRAC Canada ................................................................................................................................................................................... 318
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 318
Canadian Government Publishing .................................................................................................................................................... 318
NAV CANADA ................................................................................................................................................................................... 319
7.3.1 Subscriptions .......................................................................................................................................................................... 319
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 319
LRA
1.0
AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION,MARKING, REGISTRATION AND INSURANCE . ................................................................... 320
2.0
AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS . ............................................................................. 321
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
General.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 320
Aircraft Identification ......................................................................................................................................................................... 320
Nationality and Registration Marks .................................................................................................................................................. 320
Change of Ownership — Canadian Registered Aircraft ................................................................................................................. 320
Initial Registration .............................................................................................................................................................................. 320
Importation of Aircraft Into Canada ................................................................................................................................................ 321
Export of Aircraft . .............................................................................................................................................................................. 321
Liability Insurance .............................................................................................................................................................................. 321
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 321
Aircraft Design Requirements ........................................................................................................................................................... 322
2.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 322
2.2.2 Canadian Type Certificate (CARs, Part V, Subpart 11) .......................................................................................................... 322
Flight Authority and Certificate of Noise Compliance .................................................................................................................... 322
2.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 322
2.3.2 Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) ..................................................................................................................................... 322
2.3.3 Special Certificate of Airworthiness (Special C of A) . .......................................................................................................... 323
2.3.4 Flight Permit . ......................................................................................................................................................................... 323
2.3.5 Certificate of Noise Compliance ............................................................................................................................................ 323
Maintenance Certification................................................................................................................................................................... 324
2.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 324
2.4.2 Certification of Maintenance Performed Outside Canada . .................................................................................................... 324
Annual Airworthiness Information Report ...................................................................................................................................... 324
xv
TC AIM
2.6
2.7
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
Maintenance Requirements for Canadian-Registered Aircraft ...................................................................................................... 324
2.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 324
2.6.2 Aircraft Used in Dual Role Operations .................................................................................................................................. 325
2.6.3 Aircraft Technical Records . ................................................................................................................................................... 325
2.6.4 Service Difficulty Reporting Program . .................................................................................................................................. 326
Airworthiness Directives...................................................................................................................................................................... 326
2.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 326
2.7.2 Availability of ADs . ............................................................................................................................................................... 326
2.7.3 AD Schedule and Compliance Records ................................................................................................................................. 327
PILOT LICENSING ................................................................................................... 327
General.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 327
3.1.1 Recreational Pilot Permits ...................................................................................................................................................... 327
Summaries of Licensing Requirements ............................................................................................................................................. 327
3.2.1 Student Pilot Permits .............................................................................................................................................................. 327
3.2.2 Pilot Permits............................................................................................................................................................................ 327
3.2.3 Pilot Licence . ......................................................................................................................................................................... 328
3.2.4 Private Pilot Licence (PPL) .................................................................................................................................................... 328
3.2.5 Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL) ........................................................................................................................................... 329
3.2.6 Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) . ............................................................................................................................... 331
3.2.7 Medical Examination Requirements....................................................................................................................................... 332
Other Licences ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 332
Medical Assessment Process . ............................................................................................................................................................. 332
3.4.1 Periodic Medical Exam and Category 4 Medical Declaration ............................................................................................... 332
3.4.2 Medically Fit Periodic Medical Exam Categories 1, 2, 3........................................................................................................ 333
3.4.3 Aviation Medical Review Board ............................................................................................................................................ 334
3.4.4 Unfit Assessment .................................................................................................................................................................... 334
3.4.5 Review by the Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada (TATC) ....................................................................................... 334
Replacement of Personnel Permits and Licences ............................................................................................................................. 335
3.5.1 Permit or Licence Lost or Destroyed ..................................................................................................................................... 335
3.5.2 Change of Name — Marriage or Court Order ....................................................................................................................... 335
3.5.3 Change of Name — Assumed ................................................................................................................................................ 335
3.5.4 Change of Citizenship ............................................................................................................................................................ 335
3.5.5 Change of Address ................................................................................................................................................................. 335
Reinstatement of Suspended Permit, Licence or Rating ................................................................................................................. 335
3.6.1 Medical Unfitness . ................................................................................................................................................................. 335
3.6.2 Incompetence, Qualifications Lacking or Conditions Not Met . ............................................................................................ 335
Crediting of Time ................................................................................................................................................................................ 335
3.7.1 Operation of Dual Control Aircraft ........................................................................................................................................ 335
3.7.2 In-flight Instruction (Dual): Non-Licensed Pilots ................................................................................................................. 335
3.7.3 In-flight Instruction (Dual): Licensed Pilots ......................................................................................................................... 336
3.7.4 Instrument Flying Practice ..................................................................................................................................................... 336
3.7.5 Co-Pilot: Non-Training .......................................................................................................................................................... 336
3.7.6 Maintaining a Personal Log ................................................................................................................................................... 336
3.7.7 Crediting of Actual Instrument Flight Time ........................................................................................................................... 336
Use of Hand-held Calculators or Computers for Written Examinations . ..................................................................................... 336
Recency Requirements . ...................................................................................................................................................................... 337
Differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures............................................................................... 338
4.0
THE TRANSPORTATION APPEAL TRIBUNAL OF CANADA (TATC) .......... 339
5.0
CANADIAN AVIATION REGULATION ADVISORY COUNCIL ..................... 341
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
xvi
October 27, 2005
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 339
Refusal to Issue or Amend a Canadian Aviation Document . ......................................................................................................... 339
Suspension, Cancellation or Refusal to Renew ................................................................................................................................ 340
Monetary Penalties . ............................................................................................................................................................................ 340
Appeals . ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 340
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 341
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 341
Governing Principles .......................................................................................................................................................................... 341
Objective . ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 341
Organization Structure ....................................................................................................................................................................... 342
Project Resources ................................................................................................................................................................................ 342
Communication and External Relationships . .................................................................................................................................. 342
Information . ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 342
Internet . ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 343
October 27, 2005
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
TC AIM
CIVIL AVIATION COMPLAINT – FILING PROCEDURES . ............................. 343
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 343
Applicability ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 343
Definition ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 343
Principles ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 343
Procedures ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 343
Response .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 344
LRA ANNEX – AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS ................................................................ 344
1.0
General........................................................................................................................... 344
2.0
Canadian Aviation Regulations................................................................................... 344
AIR
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
GENERAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................... 345
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 345
Pilot Vital Action Checklists .............................................................................................................................................................. 345
Aviation Fuels ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 345
1.3.1 Fuel Grades ............................................................................................................................................................................ 345
1.3.2 Aviation Fuel Handling .......................................................................................................................................................... 345
1.3.3 Fuel Anti-icing Additives ....................................................................................................................................................... 345
1.3.4 Fires and Explosions .............................................................................................................................................................. 346
Aircraft Hand Fire Extinguishers ...................................................................................................................................................... 346
1.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 346
1.4.2 Classification of Fires . ........................................................................................................................................................... 346
1.4.3 Types of Extinguishers ........................................................................................................................................................... 346
Pressure Altimeter . ............................................................................................................................................................................. 347
1.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 347
1.5.2 Calibration of the Pressure Altimeter ..................................................................................................................................... 347
1.5.3 Incorrect Setting on the Subscale of the Altimeter . ............................................................................................................... 347
1.5.4 Non-Standard Temperatures ................................................................................................................................................... 348
1.5.5 Standard Pressure Region . ..................................................................................................................................................... 348
1.5.6 Effect of Mountains . .............................................................................................................................................................. 348
1.5.7 Downdraft and Turbulence ..................................................................................................................................................... 349
1.5.8 Pressure Drop ......................................................................................................................................................................... 349
1.5.9 Abnormally High Altimeter Settings . .................................................................................................................................... 349
Canadian Runway Friction Index ..................................................................................................................................................... 349
1.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 349
1.6.2 Reduced Runway Coefficients of Friction and Aircraft Performance . .................................................................................. 349
1.6.3 Description of Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI) and Method of Measurement ....................................................... 349
1.6.4 Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Reports (AMSCR) . .................................................................................................. 350
1.6.5 Wet Runways . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 351
1.6.6 CRFI Application to Aircraft Performance ............................................................................................................................ 351
Jet and Propeller Blast Danger .......................................................................................................................................................... 355
Marshalling Signals . ........................................................................................................................................................................... 356
FLIGHT OPERATIONS ............................................................................................. 357
General ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 357
Crosswind Landing Limitations . ....................................................................................................................................................... 357
Carburetor Icing .................................................................................................................................................................................. 357
Low Flying ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 357
2.4.1 Flying Near Power Lines . ...................................................................................................................................................... 358
2.4.2 Logging Operations . .............................................................................................................................................................. 358
Flight Operations in Rain ................................................................................................................................................................... 359
Flight Operations In Volcanic Ash .................................................................................................................................................... 359
Flight Operation Near Thunderstorms ............................................................................................................................................. 359
2.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 359
2.7.2 Considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 360
Low Level Wind Shear . ...................................................................................................................................................................... 360
Wake Turbulence . ............................................................................................................................................................................... 361
2.9.1 Vortex Characteristics . ........................................................................................................................................................... 362
2.9.2 Considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 362
Clear Air Turbulence .......................................................................................................................................................................... 363
Flight Operations on Water ................................................................................................................................................................ 364
2.11.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 364
xvii
TC AIM
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
October 27, 2005
2.11.2 Ditching .................................................................................................................................................................................. 364
2.11.3 Life-Saving Equipment For Aircraft Operating Over Water .................................................................................................. 364
2.11.4 Landing Seaplanes on Glassy Water ...................................................................................................................................... 364
Flight Operations in Winter ............................................................................................................................................................... 365
2.12.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 365
2.12.2 Aircraft Contamination on the Ground – Frost, Ice or Snow ................................................................................................. 365
2.12.3 Aircraft Contamination in Flight – Inflight Airframe Icing ................................................................................................... 369
2.12.4 Landing Wheel-Equipped Light Aircraft on Snow Covered Surfaces ................................................................................... 371
2.12.5 Use of Seaplanes on Snow Surfaces . ..................................................................................................................................... 371
2.12.6 Landing Seaplanes on Unbroken Snow Conditions ............................................................................................................... 371
2.12.7 Whiteout ................................................................................................................................................................................. 371
Flight Operations in Mountainous Areas .......................................................................................................................................... 372
Flight Operations in Sparsely Settled Areas of Canada .................................................................................................................. 372
2.14.1 Single-engine Aircraft Operating in Northern Canada . ......................................................................................................... 373
Automatic Landing Operations ......................................................................................................................................................... 374
Flight Operations at Night ................................................................................................................................................................. 374
MEDICAL INFORMATION . .................................................................................... 374
General Health .................................................................................................................................................................................... 374
3.1.1 Mandatory Medical Reporting ............................................................................................................................................... 375
Specific Aeromedical Factors ............................................................................................................................................................. 375
3.2.1 Hypoxia .................................................................................................................................................................................. 375
3.2.2 Hyperventilation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 375
3.2.3 Carbon Monoxide . ................................................................................................................................................................. 376
Portable Combustion Heaters ............................................................................................................................................................ 375
High Altitude Flight in Aircraft with Unpressurized Cabins .......................................................................................................... 375
Decompression Sickness ..................................................................................................................................................................... 376
Scuba Diving . ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 376
Vision . .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 376
Middle Ear and Sinus Discomfort or Pain ........................................................................................................................................ 377
Disorientation ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 377
Fatigue ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 377
Alcohol ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 377
Drugs .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 378
Anesthetics ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 378
Blood Donation ................................................................................................................................................................................... 378
Pregnancy ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 378
Dry Ice — Safety Precautions ............................................................................................................................................................ 379
Hypothermia and Hyperthermia ....................................................................................................................................................... 379
Positive and negative G ...................................................................................................................................................................... 379
3.18.1 What is G? .............................................................................................................................................................................. 379
3.18.2 The effects of G ...................................................................................................................................................................... 380
3.18.3 G straining manoeuvres . ........................................................................................................................................................ 380
3.18.4 Dealing with G ....................................................................................................................................................................... 380
MISCELLANEOUS .................................................................................................... 381
Air Time and Flight Time . ................................................................................................................................................................. 381
Conduct of Experimental Test Flights .............................................................................................................................................. 381
Practice Spins ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 381
Cargo Restraint ................................................................................................................................................................................... 381
4.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 381
4.4.2 Regulations ............................................................................................................................................................................. 381
4.4.3 Guidelines . ............................................................................................................................................................................. 382
4.4.4 References .............................................................................................................................................................................. 382
4.4.5 Approval ................................................................................................................................................................................. 382
Collision Avoidance — Use of Landing Lights ................................................................................................................................. 382
Use of Strobe Lights ............................................................................................................................................................................ 382
Manned Free Balloon Operations ...................................................................................................................................................... 383
Parachute Jumping.............................................................................................................................................................................. 383
Hang Glider and Paraglider Operations ........................................................................................................................................... 383
Ultra-light Aircraft . ............................................................................................................................................................................ 383
Circuit Breakers and Alerting Devices . ............................................................................................................................................ 384
Design Eye Reference Point ............................................................................................................................................................... 385
First Aid Kits on Privately Owned and Operated Aircraft . ............................................................................................................ 385
AIR ANNEX............................................................................................................................... 385
1.0
xviii
Survival Advisory Information ................................................................................... 385
October 27, 2005
1.1
Aeronautical Information
1.1.1 Aeronautical Authority
Transport Canada is the responsible aeronautical authority
in Canada.
Postal Address
Assistant Deputy Minister
Transport Canada, Safety and Security
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication
Network (AFTN):..........................................CYHQYAYB
The Transport Canada, Aerodromes and Air Navigation
Branch is responsible for the establishment and administration
of the Regulations and Standards for the provision of AIS
in Canada.
Enquiries relating to regulations and standards for AIS should
be addressed to:
Postal Address:
Transport Canada (AARNB)
AIS and Airspace Standards
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
Fax: . .............................................................. 613 998-7416
TRANSPORT CANADA REGIONAL OFFICES
Transport Canada has six Regional Offices:
Pacific Region
Transport Canada
Suite 620
800 Burrard Street
Vancouver BC V6Z 2J8
Air Navigation Services and Airspace:.........604 666-5490
Aerodrome Safety:........................................604 666-2103
General Aviation:..........................................604 666-5571
Maintenance and Manufacturing:.................604 666-5596
Aircraft Certification:...................................604 666-2535
Aviation Enforcement:...................................604 666-5586
Commercial and Business Aviation:.............604 666-5657
Civil Aviation Medicine:...............................604 666-5601
System Safety:...............................................604 666-9517
Fax:................................................................ 604 666-1175
Prairie and Northern Region
Transport Canada
Canada Place
1100 – 9700 Jasper Avenue
Edmonton AB T5J 4E6
Air Navigation Services and Airspace:......... 780 495-2505
Aerodrome Safety:........................................ 780 495-3850
General Aviation:.......................................... 780 495-2764
Maintenance and Manufacturing:................. 780 495-5224
Aircraft Certification:....................................780 495-7412
Aviation Enforcement:................................... 780 495-3993
Commercial and Business Aviation:............. 780 495-3873
Civil Aviation Medicine:............................... 780 495-3848
System Safety:............................................... 780 495-3861
Fax:................................................................ 780 495-5190
GEN
1.0 GENERAL INFORMATION
TC AIM
Transport Canada
344 Edmonton Street
P.O. Box 8550
Winnipeg MB R3C 0P6
Air Navigation Services and Airspace:.........204 983-5290
Aerodrome Safety:........................................204 983-4335
General Aviation:..........................................204 983-4341
Maintenance and Manufacturing:.................204 983-4352
Aircraft Certification:................................... 204 984-7713
Aviation Enforcement:...................................204 983-4348
Commercial and Business Aviation:............. 204 983-3139
System Safety:............................................... 204 983-5870
Fax: . ............................................................. 204 983-7339
Ontario Region
Transport Canada
4900 Yonge Street
Suite 300
North York ON M2N 6A5
Air Navigation Services and Airspace: ......... 416 952-1623
Aerodrome Safety: ........................................416 952-0335
General Aviation: ..........................................416 952-0215
Maintenance and Manufacturing: ................ 416 952-0326
Aircraft Certification: .................................. 416 952-6033
Aviation Enforcement: ................................. 416 952-0089
Commercial and Business Aviation: .............416 952-0011
Civil Aviation Medicine: .............................. 416 952-0562
System Safety: ...............................................416 952-0175
Fax: . ..............................................................416 952-0179
Quebec Region
Transport Canada
Regional Administration Bldg.
700 Leigh Capréol Place
Dorval QC H4Y 1G7
Air Navigation Services and Airspace: ......... 514 633-3514
Aerodrome Safety: ........................................514 633-3252
General Aviation: ..........................................514 633-3863
Maintenance: .................................................514 633-3047
Manufacturing: . ............................................514 633-3590
Aircraft Certification: ...................................514 633-3267
Aviation Enforcement: ..................................514 633-3248
Commercial and Business Aviation: .............514 633-3120
Civil Aviation Medicine: ...............................514 633-3258
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
GEN
System Safety: ...............................................514 633-3249
Fax:.................................................................514 633-3250
Atlantic Region
Transport Canada
P.O. Box 42
Moncton NB E1C 8K6
Air Navigation Services and Airspace: .........506 851-7586
Aerodrome Safety: ........................................506 851-3858
General Aviation: ..........................................506 851-7131
Maintenance and Manufacturing: ................. 506 851-7114
Aircraft Certification: ................................... 506 851-7114
Aviation Enforcement: ..................................506 851-7483
Commercial and Business Aviation: .............506 851-7191
Civil Aviation Medicine: ........................... 1-888-764-3333
System Safety:................................................ 506 851-7110
Fax:................................................................ 506 851-3022
Figure 1.1 – Transport Canada Regions
on the air navigation system can be submitted via any FSS.
Comments on the Air Navigation System
To report any concerns about the safety or quality of
services provided by NAV CANADA, please contact the
local NAV CANADA Site Manager or our Customer Service
Centre at:
NAV CANADA Customer Service
Tel.:....................................................... 1 800 876-4693-4*
(*Disregard the last digit when calling within
North America)
Fax:................................................................ 613 563-3426
E-mail:[email protected]a
Regular hours of operation:............ 08:00–18:00 EST/EDT
1.1.3 Aeronautical Information Publications
TC AIM
The Transport Canada Aeronautical information Manual
(TC AIM) has been developed to consolidate pre-flight
reference information of a lasting nature into a single primary
document. It provides flight crews with a single source for
information concerning rules of the air and procedures for
aircraft operation in Canadian airspace. It includes those
sections of the CARs that are of interest to pilots.
Throughout the TC AIM, the term “should” implies that
Transport Canada encourages all pilots to conform with
the applicable procedure. The term “shall” implies that the
applicable procedure is mandatory because it is supported
by regulations.
1.1.2 AIS
NAV CANADA, AIS is responsible for the collection,
evaluation and dissemination of aeronautical information
published in the A.I.P. Canada (ICAO), CFS, the WAS, the
CAP and aeronautical charts. In addition, AIS assigns and
controls Canadian location indicators and aircraft operating
agency designators. (For information on the dissemination of
aeronautical information and aeronautical products, see the
MAP section.)
Postal Address
NAV CANADA
Aeronautical Information Services
77 Metcalfe Street
Ottawa ON K1P 5L6
Tel.:.................................................................613 563-5553
Fax:................................................................ 613 563-5602
Any errors, omissions, anomalies, suggestions or comments
The rules of the air and air traffic control procedures are, to
the extent practical, incorporated into the main text of the TC
AIM in plain language. Where this was not possible, the proper
CARs have been incorporated verbatim into the Annexes;
however, editorial liberties have been taken in the deletion
of definitions not considered essential to the understanding
of the intent of the CARs. This has been done to enhance
comprehension of the rules and procedures essential to the
safety of flight. The inclusion of these rules and procedures in
this format does not relieve persons concerned with aviation
from their responsibilities to comply with all Canadian
Aviation Regulations as published in the Aeronautics Act and
CARs. Where the subject matter of the TC AIM is related to
CARs, the legislation is cited.
In the compilation of the TC AIM, care has been taken to
ensure that the information it contains is accurate and
complete. Any correspondence concerning the content of the
TC AIM is to be referred to:
TC AIM Co-ordinator
Transport Canada (AARBH)
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
Tel.:................................................................ 613 993-4502
October 27, 2005
A.I.P. Canada (ICAO)
The A.I.P. Canada (ICAO) is published and disseminated
by NAV CANADA and is an ICAO compliant publication
intended primarily to satisfy international requirements for
the exchange of aeronautical information of a lasting nature.
It contains or provides reference to basic permanent and longduration temporary Canadian aeronautical information. The
A.I.P. Canada (ICAO) is the main information source for
basic Canadian aeronautical information required by ICAO,
including Supplements and AICs.
A.I.P. Canada (ICAO) pre-flight and in-flight information
is provided in the following documents and charts: CFS,
WAS, CAP (Volumes 1 to 7), Enroute Low Altitude Charts
(GPH206), Enroute High Altitude Charts (GPH207), Terminal
Area Charts, Plotting Charts, Aeronautical Charts for Visual
Navigation, Canadian Airport Pavement Bearing Strengths
(TP 2162) and the DAH (TP 1820E). These documents and
charts are designated supplements and form an integral part
of the A.I.P. Canada (ICAO), in that they provide pre-flight
and in-flight information necessary for the safe and efficient
movement of aircraft in Canadian airspace. In due course, the
above publications and charts will be annotated to reflect their
relationship to the TC AIM and to the A.I.P. Canada (ICAO).
Any correspondence concerning the content of the A.I.P.
Canada (ICAO) is to be referred to:
service is established to advise individuals of changes to
the airspace, regulations or procedures. New editions of the
TC AIM are issued two times per year in phase with the ICAO
Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC)
schedule. Future issue dates are as follows:
2006-1 – April 13, 2006
2007-1 – April 12, 2007 2008-1 – April 10, 2008 2009-1 – April 09, 2009 2006-2 – October 26, 2006
2007-2 – October 25, 2007
2008-2 – October 23, 2008
2009-2 – October 22, 2009
Each new edition of the TC AIM, includes an explanation of
changes section that hightlights the most significant changes
made to the TC AIM and may provide a reference to detailed
information on the change.
Distribution
To ensure uninterrupted service or to rectify any distribution
problems, please contact:
Transport Canada (AARC)
Civil Aviation Communications Centre
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
Tel.:............................................................ 1-800-305-2059
. ..................................................................... 613 993-7284
Fax:................................................................ 613 957-4208
Internet:
<www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/communications/centre/
address.asp>
A.I.P. Canada (ICAO) Co-ordinator
NAV CANADA
77 Metcalfe Street
Ottawa ON K1P 5L6
Please include your name, address, telephone number and
licence number with all correspondence.
Tel.:................................................................ 613 563-5466
Fax:.................................................................613 563-7987
E-mail:......................................... [email protected]
NAV CANADA, International NOTAM Office (NOF), is
responsible for the collection, evaluation and dissemination of
NOTAMs. A complete description of the Canadian NOTAM
system is located in MAP 5.0.
1.1.4 TC AIM Publication Information
1.1.5 NOTAM
Postal Address
Individual copies of the TC AIM, may be purchased by
logging onto the Transport Canada Publication Storefront
Web site at: <www.tc.gc.ca/TRANSACT>. All information
with respect to purchases and subscriptions to the TC AIM
will be available on this Web site, or by contacting the Civil
Aviation Communications Centre.
NAV CANADA
International NOTAM Office
Combined ANS Facility
1601 Tom Roberts Avenue
P.O. Box 9824 Stn. T
Ottawa ON K1G 6R2
This edition of the TC AIM is designed to be as inexpensive
as possible since it is intended primarily for student pilots and
foreign pilots for use over a short period of time.
Tel.:................................................................613 248-4000
Fax:................................................................613 248-4001
AFTN:.......................................................... CYHQYNYX
The TC AIM is available on the Transport Canada Web site at:
<www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14371
/menu.htm>
Amendment Service
GEN
Fax:.................................................................613 990-1198
E-mail:[email protected]gc.ca
TC AIM
1.1.6 Aerodromes
Complete information for all Canadian aerodromes is
published in the CFS. ICAO Type A Charts are available from
NAV CANADA, AIS (see MAP 3.6).
This document is intended to provide users of Canadian
airspace with current information. A regular amendment
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
GEN
1.2 Summary of National Regulations
Civil aviation in Canada is regulated by the Aeronautics Act
and the CARs. (See MAP 7.2 for procurement of the CARs).
A legislation index is located in GEN 5.3.
1.3 Differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures
Differences with ICAO Standards and Recommended
Practices are listed in the appropriate ICAO Annexes.
However, differences with ICAO Procedures are listed in the
TC AIM.
UNITS
Weight
pounds
kilograms
kilonewtons
Wind direction, except for landing and
takeoff
degrees true
Wind direction observations for
landing and takeoff
*Degrees true in the Northern
Domestic Airspace
degrees magnetic
Wind speed
knots
1.5.2 Geographic Reference
1.3.1 ICAO’s Procedures for Air Navigation
Services—Aircraft Operations (PANS OPS)
Geographic co-ordinates are determined using the North
American Datum 1983 (NAD83). Canada has deemed NAD83
co-ordinates to be equivalent to the World Geodetic System
1984 (WGS-84) for aeronautical purposes.
Canada does not use ICAO’s Procedures for Air Navigation
Services—Aircraft Operations (PANS OPS). Instead, Canada
uses TP 308, Criteria for the Development of Instrument
Procedures, which is a document developed and produced by
Transport Canada, Aerodromes and Air Navigation.
1.6 Time System
1.4 Abbreviations, Acronyms and Initialisms
A list of the abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms that are
used in the TC AIM is located in GEN 5.2. Those that apply
to meteorology are contained in MET 3.6.
1.5 Units of Measurement
The Imperial system of units is used for all information
contained on aeronautical charts and publications.
Co-ordinated Universal Time, abbreviated UTC, Zulu (Z) or
spoken Universal, is used in Canadian aviation operations and
is given to the nearest minute. Time checks are given to the
nearest 15 seconds. The day begins at 0000 hours and ends at
2359 hours.
1.6.1 Date-Time Group
Date and time are indicated by a date-time group, which is a
combination of the date and time in a single six-figure group.
When used in the text of NOTAM, the date-time group is
composed of ten figures, e.g., 9501191200. The first two digits
indicate the year; the second two, the month; the third two, the
day; and the last four, the hour and the minutes.
1.6.2 Morning and Evening Twilight Charts
1.5.1 Other Units
Other units are given in the following table and apply to
specific situations.
MEASUREMENT
MEASUREMENT
UNITS
Altimeter setting
inches of mercury
Altitudes, elevations and heights
feet
Distance used in navigation
nautical miles
Horizontal speed
knots
Relatively short distances
feet
Runway Visual Range (RVR)
feet
Temperature
degrees Celsius
Tire Pressure
pounds per square
inch megapascals
Vertical speed
feet per minute
Visibility
statute miles
In the morning, Twilight begins when the sun is 6° below
the horizon ascending, and ends at sunrise, approximately
25 minutes later. In the evening, Twilight begins at sunset,
and ends when the sun is 6° below the horizon descending,
approximately 25 minutes later.
INSTRUCTIONS
1. Start at the top or bottom of the scale with the appropriate
date and move vertically, up or down to the curve of the
observer’s latitude.
2. From the intersection move horizontally and read the
local time.
3. To find the exact zone or standard time, ADD 4 minutes for
each degree west of the standard meridian, or SUBTRACT
4 minutes for each degree east of the standard meridian.
October 27, 2005
GEN
The standard meridians in Canada are: AST-60W; EST-75W;
CST-90W; MST-105W; PST-120W
TC AIM
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
GEN
1.6.3 Time Zone
Where Daylight Saving Time (DT) is observed in Canada,
clocks are advanced one hour. Daylight Saving Time is in
effect from 0200 local time on the first Sunday in April to
0200 local time on the last Sunday in October. Locations that
observe Daylight Saving Time are indicated in the CFS and
the WAS. See the Aerodrome/Facility Directory Legend of
these publications under “Times of Operation”.
Time Zone
To Obtain Local Time
Newfoundland
UTC minus 3 1/2 hours (2 1/2 DT)
Atlantic
UTC minus 4 hours (3 DT)
Eastern
UTC minus 5 hours (4 DT)
Central
UTC minus 6 hours (5 DT)
Mountain
Pacific
Special equipment to be carried on board aircraft is located in
AIR 2.14, 2.14.1, and AIR Annex 1.0.
1.9 Miscellaneous Information
1.9.1 V Speeds
V1
Critical engine failure recognition speed *
V2
Takeoff safety speed
V2min
Minimum takeoff safety speed
UTC minus 7 hours (6 DT)
V3
Flap retraction speed
UTC minus 8 hours (7 DT)
Va
Design safety speed
Vb
Speed for maximum gust intensity
Vc
Cruise speed
Vd
Diving speed
Vdf /Mdf
Demonstrated flight diving speed
Vf
Flap speed
Vfe
Maximum flap speed
Vh
Maximum level flight speed at maximum
continuous power
Vle
Landing gear extended speed
Vlo
Maximum landing gear operation speed
Vmc
Minimum control speed with critical
engine inoperative
Vmo /Mmo
Maximum operating limit speed
Vmu
Minimum unstick speed
Vno
Maximum structural cruising speed **
Vne
Never exceed speed
Vr
Rotation speed
Vref
Vso
Landing reference speed
Stalling speed or minimum steady
controllable flight speed
Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed obtained in a specific configuration
Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed in the landing configuration
Vx
Speed for best angle of climb
Vy
Speed for best rate of climb
1.7 Nationality and Registration Marks
The nationality mark for Canadian civil aircraft consists of
the capital letter “C” or two letters “CF”.
The registration mark of a Canadian registered aircraft shall
be a combination of three or four capital letters as specified by
Transport Canada Civil Aviation.
Each aircraft must carry its nationality and registration marks
in the following places:
(a) inscribed on a fireproof identification plate secured in a
prominent position near the main entrance to the aircraft;
and
(b)painted on or affixed to the aircraft (see LRA 1.0).
1.8 Special Equipment to be Carried on
Board Aircraft
Vs
Vsl
* This definition is not restrictive. An operator may adopt any other definition
outlined in the aircraft flight manual (AFM) of TC type-approved aircraft
as long as such definition does not compromise operational safety of
the aircraft.
**For older transport category aircraft Vno means normal operating limit speed.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
MILLIBARS TO INCHES OF MERCURY
mb
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
27.91
28.20
28.50
28.79
29.09
29.38
29.68
29.97
30.27
30.56
30.86
31.15
27.94
28.23
28.53
28.82
29.12
29.41
29.71
30.00
30.30
30.59
30.89
31.18
27.96
28.26
28.56
28.85
29.15
29.44
29.74
30.03
30.33
30.62
30.92
31.21
27.99
28.29
28.58
28.88
29.18
29.47
29.77
30.06
30.36
30.65
30.95
31.24
28.02
28.32
28.61
28.91
29.20
29.50
29.80
30.09
30.39
30.68
30.98
31.27
GEN
1.9.2 Conversion Tables
INCHES
940
950
960
970
980
990
1000
1010
1020
1030
1040
1050
27.76
28.05
28.35
28.64
28.94
29.23
29.53
29.83
30.12
30.42
30.71
31.01
27.79
28.08
28.38
28.67
28.97
29.26
29.56
29.85
30.15
30.45
30.74
31.04
27.82
28.11
28.41
28.70
29.00
29.29
29.59
29.88
30.18
30.47
30.77
31.07
27.85
28.14
28.44
28.73
29.03
29.32
29.62
29.91
30.21
30.50
30.80
31.09
27.88
28.17
28.47
28.76
29.06
29.35
29.65
29.94
30.24
30.53
30.83
31.12
TEMPERATURE: DEGREES C TO DEGREES F
° C
°F
° C
°F
° C
°F
° C
°F
° C
°F
° C
°F
° C
°F
° C
°F
-45
-44
-43
-42
-41
-40
-39
-38
-37
-36
-35
-34
-49.0
-47.2
-45.4
-43.6
-41.8
-40.0
-38.2
-36.4
-34.6
-32.8
-31.0
-29.2
-33
-32
-31
-30
-29
-28
-27
-26
-25
-24
-23
-22
-27.4
-25.6
-23.8
-22.0
-20.2
-18.4
-16.6
-14.8
-13.0
-11.2
-9.4
-7.6
-21
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
-13
-12
-11
-10
-5.8
-4.0
-2.2
-0.4
1.4
3.2
5.0
6.8
8.6
10.4
12.2
14.0
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
15.8
17.6
19.4
21.2
23.0
24.8
26.6
28.4
30.2
32.0
33.8
35.6
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
37.4
39.2
41.0
42.8
44.6
46.4
48.2
50.0
51.8
53.6
55.4
57.2
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
59.0
60.8
62.6
64.4
66.2
68.0
69.8
71.6
73.4
75.2
77.0
78.8
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
80.6
82.4
84.2
86.0
87.8
89.6
91.4
93.2
95.0
96.8
98.6
100.4
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
102.2
104.0
105.8
107.6
109.4
111.2
113.0
114.8
116.6
118.4
120.2
122.0
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
GEN
1.9.3 RVR Comparative Scale - Feet to Metres
CONVERSION FACTORS
To CONVERT
INTO
MULTIPLY BY
RVR - FEET
RVR - METRES
centimetres
inches
0.394
500
150
feet
metres
0.305
600
175
imperial gallon
U.S. gallon
1.201
700
200
imperial gallon
litres
4.546
1000
300
inches
centimetres
2.540
1200
350
inches of mercury
pounds per square
inch
0.490
1400
400
2600
800
kilograms
pounds
2.205
4000
1200
5000
1500
kilograms per litre
pounds per imperial
gallon
kilograms per litre
pounds per U.S. gallon 8.333
kilometres
nautical miles
0.540
kilometres
statute miles
0.621
litres
imperial gallon
0.220
litres
U.S. gallon
0.264
megapascals
pounds per
square inch
145.14
metres
feet
3.281
nautical miles
kilometres
1.852
nautical miles
statute miles
1.152
newton
pounds
0.2248
pounds
kilograms
0.454
pounds
newtons
4.448
kilograms per litre
0.0998
inches of mercury
2.040
megapascals
0.00689
pounds per imperial
gallon
pounds per square
inch
pounds per square
inch
10.023
pounds per U.S. gallon kilograms per litre
0.120
statute miles
kilometres
1.609
statute miles
nautical miles
0.868
U.S. gallon
imperial gallon
0.833
U.S. gallon
litres
3.785
2.0 SAFETY
2.1 Aviation Occupational Health and
Safety Program
2.1.1 General
The Transport Canada Aviation Occupational Safety and
Health (OSH) Program began in 1987. This Program has
recently been renamed the Transport Canada Aviation
Occupational Health and Safety (AOH&S) Program. The main
objective of the program is to ensure compliance with Part II
of the Canada Labour Code. As an extended jurisdiction of
the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development
Canada (HRSDC— Labour Program), it is administered by
Transport Canada, Safety and Security.
The corner-stone of the AOH&S Program is to ensure
compliance with the purpose of Part II of the Canada Labour
Code, i.e., “to prevent accidents and injury to health arising
out of, linked with or occurring in the course of employment.”
Transport Canada is responsible for the administration,
enforcement and promotion of the Code as it applies to
employees working on board an aircraft while in operation.
The AOH&S Program position in this regard is that an
aircraft is considered to be “in operation” anytime it is flying
in Canada or abroad, as well as anytime the aircraft doors are
closed and the aircraft is moving on the ground, under its own
power, for the purposes of taking off or landing.
2.1.2 Refusal to Work in Dangerous Situations
Based on the Canada Labour Code, Part II, subsection
128(1), pilots have a legal right to refuse to work, if they have
October 27, 2005
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“danger” means any existing or potential hazard or
condition or any current or future activity that could
reasonably be expected to cause injury or illness to a
person exposed to it before the hazard or condition
can be corrected, or the activity altered, whether or
not the injury or illness occurs immediately after the
exposure to the hazard, condition or activity, and
includes any exposure to a hazardous substance that
is likely to result in a chronic illness, in disease or in
damage to the reproductive system.
For pilots, refusals to work in dangerous, or potentially
dangerous, situations could occur under a variety of different
scenarios; for example, security issues on board aircraft;
concerns about improperly packaged, loaded or secured cargo;
pressures to complete flight on schedule; and deteriorating
weather conditions.
Once a pilot has indicated they are refusing to work, both they
and their employer have specific roles and responsibilities
that have been established to assist them in working together
to find a solution. Subsections 128(1) through 129(7) of
the Code identify these employee and employer roles
and responsibilities, as well as the role and responsibility
of the Civil Aviation Safety Inspector—Occupational
Health and Safety (CASI-OHS), should their intervention
become necessary.
Prairie and Northern Region:
Calgary Office
403 292-5226
(08:30 to 16:30)
403 228-8787(after working hours)
Edmonton Office
780 495-3898 (08:30 to 16:30)
780 495-7726 (08:30 to 16:30)
780 495-5271 (08:30 to 16:30)
403 228-8787(after working hours)
Ontario Region:
416 952-0020
(08:30 to 16:30)
905 612-6256
(08:30 to 16:30)
416 287-5387(after working hours)
Quebec Region:
514 633-3033
(08:30 to 16:30)
514 633-3261
(08:30 to 16:30)
514 633-3722 (08:30 to 16:30)
514 633-3534(after working hours)
Atlantic Region:
506 851-6561
(08:30 to 16:30)
506 851-7221(after working hours)
Headquarters:
(only if a Regional officer cannot be reached)
613 991-1271
(08:30 to 16:30)
613 990-1072
(08:30 to 16:30)
613 998-4705
(08:30 to 16:30)
613 996-6666(after working hours)
or write to the following address:
Transport Canada (AARXG)
330 Sparks Street
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
E-mail:...................................................... [email protected]
To protect an employee’s rights, section 147 of the Code
states that no employer shall take, or threaten to take, any
disciplinary action against an employee who has refused to
work in a dangerous situation. It should also be noted that
subsection 147.1(1) states that after all the investigations and
appeals have been exhausted by the employee who exercised
their rights to refuse dangerous work, the employer may
take disciplinary action against that employee provided the
employer can demonstrate the employee has willfully abused
those rights.
2.1.4 Web site
2.1.3 Civil Aviation Safety Inspectors —
Occupational Health and Safety (CASI-OHS)
2.2.1 General
CASI-OHSs in the Regions who report to their respective
Commercial and Business Aviation managers are responsible
for ensuring compliance with Part II of the Canada Labour
Code and the Aviation Occupational Safety and Health
Regulations. To ensure a 24-hr service to the aviation
community, CASI-OHSs or an alternate may be reached either
during the day at their work place or after working hours at
the following numbers:
Pacific Region:
604 666-0155
(08:30 to 16:30)
604 612-4944(after working hours)
GEN
reasonable cause to believe that taking off constitutes a danger,
or a potential danger, to themselves or others. Pursuant to
subsection 122(1) of the Code,
For additional information on the Transport Canada AOH&S
Program, visit our Web site at
< www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/commerce/ohs >.
2.2 System Safety Branch at Headquarters
and in the Regions
The System Safety Branch is composed of a main office and five
regional offices. The System Safety Branch promotes aviation
safety through the active search for hazards, the assessment
of risk, and the delivery of safety education programs.
Safety specialists monitor aviation safety throughout the
air transportation system, analyze factors contributing to
accidents, conduct research into accident causes, and advise
the aviation community of ways to improve safety in all
aviation operations. The System Safety Branch prepares
audio-visual presentations, letters, posters, pamphlets, etc., on
aviation safety subjects. Information regarding this material
and how it can be acquired is available from the Regional
System Safety offices.
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2.2.2 Regional System Safety Specialists
The Regional System Safety Specialists’ role is to provide
the aviation community with a safety advisory service. In
particular, these specialists concentrate on educating the
aviation community about the risks associated with the human
factors involved in the majority of accidents. Such emphasis
recognizes that most aircraft accidents do not result from a
conscious disregard for regulations.
Regional System Safety Specialists provide their services
through presentations to aviation groups, visits to flying
clubs and surveys of commercial companies. They encourage
the implementation of safety management systems (SMS)
throughout commercial aviation, and they evaluate
safety issues raised by persons who have discovered a
safety-related problem.
The Regional System Safety offices’ mailing addresses
and telephone numbers appear in each issue of the
safety newsletters.
2.2.3 Safety Newsletters
(a) Aviation Safety Letter: The Aviation Safety Letter is
published quarterly. It is distributed to all holders of a
valid Canadian pilot licence or permit, and to selected
international organizations. It contains safety insights
derived from accidents and incidents that have occurred
both in Canada and around the world. It includes a special
section to address recreational aviation topics, which were
previously addressed in the Aviation Safety Ultralight &
Balloon newsletter, which has been phased out.
(b)Aviation Safety Vortex: The Aviation Safety Vortex is
published quarterly. It is distributed to all holders of a
valid Canadian helicopter pilot licence and to selected
international organizations. It contains synopses of
helicopter accidents and other safety information aimed at
the diverse helicopter community.
(c) Aviation Safety Maintainer: The Aviation Safety
Maintainer is published quarterly. It is distributed to all
holders of a valid Canadian AME licence. It contains
safety information tailored to the needs of maintenance
and servicing personnel.
October 27, 2005
3.0 TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD OF CANADA
3.1 Aviation Safety Investigation
The objective of an aviation safety investigation into an aircraft
accident or aircraft incident is the prevention of recurrences.
Hence, it is not the purpose of this activity to determine
or apportion blame or liability. The Transportation Safety
Board of Canada (TSB), established under the Canadian
Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act,
is responsible for investigating all transportation occurrences
in Canada, including all aviation occurrences involving civil
aircraft, both of Canadian and non-Canadian registry. A team
of investigators is on 24-hour standby.
3.2 Definitions
“aviation occurrence” means
(a) any accident or incident associated with the operation of
aircraft; and
(b)any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable
grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an
accident or incident described in para. (a).
“dangerous goods” means dangerous goods as defined in the
Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act.
“reportable aviation accident” means an accident resulting
directly from the operation of an aircraft, where
(a) a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of
(i) being on board the aircraft,
(ii) coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or
its contents, or
(iii) being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor
downwash of the aircraft;
(b)the aircraft sustains damage or failure that adversely
affects the structural strength, performance or flight
characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major
repair or replacement of any affected component part; or
2.2.4 Web site
(c) the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.
Visit our site at:
“reportable aviation incident” means an incident resulting
directly from the operation of an airplane having a maximum
certificated takeoff weight greater than 5 700 kg, or from
the operation of a rotorcraft having a maximum certificated
takeoff weight greater than 2 250 kg, where
< www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/SystemSafety/menu.htm >.
(a) an engine fails or
cautionary measure;
is
shut
down
(b)a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
10
as
a
pre-
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
(c) the name of the pilot-in-command;
(d)difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered
owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather
phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or
operations outside the flight envelope;
(d)the date and time of the accident;
(e) the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing
or takeoff area, lands with all or part of the landing gear
retracted or drags a wing tip, an engine pod or any other
part of the aircraft;
(f) the position of the aircraft with reference to some
easily defined geographical point, and the latitude
and longitude;
(f) any crew member whose duties are directly related to the
safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew
member’s duties as a result of a physical incapacitation
that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property or
the environment;
(g)depressurization
occurs
emergency descent;
that
necessitates
an
(h)a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or
requires approach and landing priority at the destination
of the aircraft;
(i) the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or
contaminated fuel;
(j) a collision, a risk
separation occurs;
of
collision
or
a
loss
of
(k)a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any
degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an
air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency
response services;
(l) a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary
or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
(e) the last point of departure and the point of intended landing
of the aircraft;
GEN
(c) smoke or fire occurs;
(g)the number of crew members aboard, and how many were
killed or sustained serious injury;
(h)the number of passengers aboard, and how many were
killed or sustained serious injury;
(i) a description of the accident and the extent of damage to
the aircraft;
(j) a detailed description of any dangerous goods aboard the
aircraft; and
(k)the name and address of the person making the report.
3.3.2
Where an aircraft is missing on a flight or is completely
inaccessible and this accident has not yet been reported to
the Transportation Safety Board of Canada, the owner and
the operator of the aircraft shall, by the quickest means of
communication available, report to the Board the following
information relative to this aviation occurrence:
(a) the type, model, nationality and registration marks of
the aircraft;
(b)the names of the owner, operator and hirer, if any, of
the aircraft;
(m)any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.
(c) the name of the pilot-in-command;
3.3 Reporting an Aviation Occurrence
3.3.1
Where an accident occurs and it has not yet been reported
to the Transportation Safety Board of Canada, the pilot-incommand, the operator, owner and any crew member of the
aircraft involved shall, as soon as possible thereafter and by
the quickest means of communication available, report to the
Board the following information relative to this accident:
(a) the type, model, nationality and registration marks of
the aircraft;
(b)the names of the owner, operator and hirer, if any, of
the aircraft;
(d)the last point of departure and the point of intended landing
of the aircraft;
(e) the date and time of the last known takeoff of
the aircraft;
(f) the last known position of the aircraft;
(g)the names and addresses of crew members and passengers
aboard the aircraft;
(h)the action being taken to locate the aircraft;
(i) a detailed description of any dangerous goods aboard the
aircraft; and
(j) the name and address of the person making the report.
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GEN
3.3.3
Where a reportable incident occurs and this incident has
not yet been reported to the Transportation Safety Board of
Canada, the pilot-in-command, operator, owner and, in the
case of a risk of collision, any air traffic controller having
knowledge of the incident shall, as soon as possible thereafter
and by the quickest means of communication available,
report to the Board the following information relative to this
reportable incident:
(a) the type, model, nationality and registration marks of
the aircraft;
(b)the names of the owner, operator and hirer, if any, of
the aircraft;
(c) the name of the pilot-in-command;
(d)the date and time of the incident;
(e) the last point of departure and the point of intended landing
of the aircraft;
(f) the location of the incident with reference to some
easily defined geographical point, and the latitude
and longitude;
(g)the number of crew members aboard, and how many were
injured;
(h)the number of passengers aboard, and how many were
injured;
(i) a description of the incident and the extent of damage, if
any, to the aircraft;
(j) a detailed description of any dangerous goods aboard the
aircraft; and
(k)the name and address of the person making the report.
3.3.4
Any other incident indicative of a deficiency or discrepancy
in the Canadian air transportation system may be reported in
writing to the TSB. Sufficient details concerning the incident
should be provided to enable the identification of action
required to remedy the deficiency or discrepancy.
3.3.5
Aircraft accidents, missing aircraft and reportable incidents
are to be reported to the Regional TSB office at the telephone
numbers in GEN 3.7. Alternatively, occurrences may be
reported through a NAV CANADA ATS unit who will
forward the report to the appropriate TSB office.
October 27, 2005
For Canadian registered aircraft operating outside of
Canada, in addition to the reporting required by the
state of occurrence, a report shall be made to the TSB
Regional office nearest the company’s headquarters
or, for private aircraft, nearest the home base
of the aircraft.
The TSB-AIR Regions have the same boundaries as
Transport Canada.
3.4 Protection of Occurrence Sites,
Aircraft, Components and
Documentation
3.4.1
(1) No person shall displace, move or interfere with an aircraft
involved in an accident, or the components or contents of
any such aircraft, or interfere with or otherwise disrupt an
occurrence site without first having obtained permission to
do so from an investigator except to extricate any person,
to prevent destruction by fire or other cause, or to avoid
danger to any person or property.
(2)Where an aircraft is to be displaced or moved pursuant
to subsection (1), the person directing or otherwise
supervising or arranging the action shall, as far as possible
in the circumstances and prior to the moving of the aircraft
or any component or contents thereof or disturbance of the
site, record by the best means available the condition of
the aircraft, aircraft contents and the occurrence site.
3.4.2
Where an accident occurs, the pilot-in-command, operator,
owner and any crew member of the aircraft involved shall, as
far as possible, preserve and protect:
(a) the aircraft or any component or contents thereof and
the occurrence site until such time as an investigator
otherwise authorizes;
(b)the flight data and cockpit voice recorders and the
information recorded thereon; and
(c) all other records, documents and all materials of any kind
pertaining to:
(i) the flight during which the accident occurred,
(ii) the crew members involved, and
(iii) the aircraft, its contents and components,
and shall surrender on demand the recorders, information,
records, documents and materials referred to in (b) and (c)
to an investigator.
3.4.3
Where a reportable incident occurs, the pilot-in-command,
12
October 27, 2005
(a) the flight data recorders and the information recorded
thereon; and
(b)all other records, documents and materials of any kind
pertaining to:
(i) the flight during which the incident occurred,
(ii) the crew members involved, and
(iii) the aircraft, its contents and components,
and shall surrender on demand the recorders, information,
records, documents and materials referred to in (a) and (b)
to an investigator.
3.5 Aviation Safety REFLEXIONS
Aviation Safety REFLEXIONS is a safety digest providing
feedback to the aviation transportation community on safety
lessons learned, based on the circumstances of occurrences and
the results of TSB investigations. Besides articles compiled
from the official text of TSB reports, this publication provides
lists of recently reported aviation occurrences and recently
released investigation reports.
3.6 SECURITAS Program
The SECURITAS program provides a means for individuals
to report incidents and potentially unsafe acts or conditions
relating to the Canadian transportation system that would
not normally be reported through other channels. It should
be noted that this multi-modal confidential safety reporting
system replaces the Confidential Aviation Safety Reporting
Program (CARSP).
Each report is analyzed by SECURITAS analysts. Pertinent
information, minus the reporter’s identity, is entered
into SECURITAS data base. When a reported concern is
validated as a safety deficiency, the TSB normally forwards
the information, often with suggested corrective action,
to the appropriate regulatory authority, or in some cases,
the transportation company, organization, or agency. No
information will be released that could reasonably be
expected to reveal the reporter’s identity without the reporter’s
written consent.
SECURITAS is primarily concerned with unsafe acts and
conditions relating to commercial and public transportation
systems. To submit a report: write, FAX, E-mail, or telephone
SECURITAS at:
SECURITAS
P.O. Box 1996
Station “B”
Hull QC J8X 3Z2
Tel.:.............................................................1 800 567-6865
Fax:................................................................819 994-8065
Internet:[email protected].ca
From time to time, the safety lessons learned from confidential
reports to SECURITAS will be summarized in a de-identified
format in REFLEXIONS, the TSB’s safety digest. Contact the
TSB Communications Division at the Headquarters’ address
listed in GEN 3.7.
GEN
operator, owner and any crew member of the aircraft involved
shall, as far as possible, preserve and protect:
TC AIM
3.7 Offices of the TSB
HEADQUARTERS:
Place du Centre, 4th Floor
200 Promenade du Portage
Hull QC K1A 1K8
Tel.:................................................................ 819 994-4252
. ................................................... (819) 994-3741, 24 hours
Fax:................................................................ 819 953-9586
E-mail:[email protected].gc.ca
REGIONAL OFFICES (AIR)
TSB - Pacific
Regional Manager, TSB-AIR
4-3071 Number Five Road
Richmond BC V6X 2T4
Tel.:................................................604 666-5826, 24 hours
Fax:................................................................604 666-7230
E-mail:[email protected]gc.ca
TSB - Western
Regional Manager, TSB-AIR
17803 - 106 A Avenue
Edmonton AB T5S 1V8
Tel.:................................................................ 780 495-3865
. ..................................................... 780 495-3999, 24 hours
Fax:................................................................ 780 495-2079
E-mail:.............................................. [email protected]
TSB - Central
Regional Manager, TSB-AIR
335-550 Century Street
Winnipeg MB R3H 0Y1
Tel.:................................................204 983-5548, 24 hours
Fax:................................................................204 983-8026
E-mail:[email protected]gc.ca
TSB - Ontario
Regional Manager, TSB-AIR
23 East Wilmot Street
Richmond Hill ON L4B 1A3
Tel.:.................................................905 771-7676, 24 hours
Fax:................................................................ 905 771-7709
E-mail:............................................... [email protected]
TSB - Quebec
Regional Manager, TSB-AIR
185 Dorval Avenue, Suite 403
13
TC AIM
GEN
Dorval QC H9S 5J9
Tel.:.................................................514 633-3246, 24 hours
Fax:................................................................ 514 633-2944
E-mail:............................................... [email protected]
TSB - Atlantic
Regional Manager, TSB-AIR
150 Thorne Avenue
Dartmouth NS B3B 1Z2
Tel.:................................................................902 426-2348
. ......................................................506 867-7173, 24 hours
Fax:................................................................ 902 426-5143
E-mail:[email protected]gc.ca
4.0 INDEX OF KEYWORDS
A
Abbreviations – Aviation Forecasts........................MET 3.6
Abbreviations and Acronyms.................................. GEN 5.2
Abnormal Operation of Navigation Aids,
Pilot Reporting of ............................................... COM 3.4
ACA (Arctic Control Area), Position
Reporting Within............................................. RAC 12.6.6
ACAS/TCAS....................................................... RAC 12.15
ACAS II and Transponder Equipage.............. RAC 12.16.11
ACATS – ACA Track Structure..........................RAC 12.7.4
Accident site, Protection of..................................... GEN 3.4
Accident reporting ................................................. GEN 3.3
– Confidential Incident Reporting
– SECURITAS Program...................................... GEN 3.6
Accuracy, Availability and Integrity
of Navigation Aids............................................... COM 3.3
Acknowledgement of Clearances – VFR . ............. RAC 5.2
Acronyms and Abbreviations.................................. GEN 5.2
ADCUS Service ...................................................FAL 2.3.2
ADIS (Automated Data Interchange System)......COM 6.1.2
ADIZ (Air Defence Identification Zone)
..........................................................RAC 2.13, 3.9, 12.8
ADS WPR FANS 1/A (Automatic Dependent
Surveillance Waypoint Position Reporting)......... RAC 8.2
Advance Notice of Intent in Minimum
Weather Conditions............................................... RAC 9.5
Advisory Airspace............................................... RAC 2.8.6
Advisory forecasts................................................ MET 3.9.1
Aerobatic Flight......................................................RAC 1.11
Aerodromes and airports .......................................AGA 2.0
– ARCAL (Aircraft Radio Control
of Aerodrome Lighting).................................. AGA 7.19
– ATF (Aerodrome Traffic Frequency).. .RAC 4.5.5, 4.5.6
– Authority.........................................................AGA 1.1.1
– Beacon.............................................................. .AGA 7.2
14
October 27, 2005
– Certification......................................................AGA 2.3
– Design Criteria, Runway.................................. AGA 3.1
– Directory...........................................................AGA 1.3
– DND (Snow Removal and Ice Control)......... AGA 1.1.5
– Lighting............................................................. AGA 7.0
– Maintenance
– Transport Canada.............................. AGA 1.1.5, 2.3.3
– Military.............................. AGA 1.1.5, 9.0, FAL 2.2.3
– Obstacle Charts (ICAO Type A)...................... MAP 3.6
– Operator Responsibilities...............................AGA 2.3.4
– PNR (Prior Notice Required)............................AGA 2.2
– PPR (Prior Permission Required).....................AGA 2.2
– Private-use Certificate......................................AGA 2.2
– Public-use Certificate........................................AGA 2.2
– Registration.......................................................AGA 2.1
– Runway Characteristics....................................AGA 3.0
– TAF (Forecasts)........................................MET 1.1.3, 3.9
– From AWOS Sites....................................... MET 3.9.4
– National Variations..................................... MET 3.9.2
– Uncontrolled Procedures (IFR.........................RAC 9.13
– Use, International Flights.............. AGA 1.2, FAL 2.2.2
Aeromedical Factors ............................................... AIR 3.2
Aeronautical
– AFS (Aeronautical Fixed Service.................... COM 6.1
– AFTN (Aeronautical Fixed
Telecommunications Network)..................... COM 6.1.2
– Authority.........................................................GEN 1.1.1
– Charts for Visual Flight................................... MAP 7.3
– Ground Lights................................................. . AGA 1.4
Aeronautical Information . .................................... GEN 1.1
– AIRAC Canada.............................................. . MAP 6.5
– AIS (Services).............................................. . GEN 1.1.2
– Broadcast Service ......................................... RAC 1.1.3
– Canada Flight Supplement . ........................... MAP 3.4
– Charts and Publications for International
Flights.............................................................. MAP 8.0
– Circular............................................................ MAP 6.3
– Collection......................................................... MAP 4.0
– ICAO Type A Charts....................................... MAP 3.6
– IFR................................................................... MAP 3.0
– In-flight Information ...................................... MAP 1.3
– Manual (TC AIM)...........................................GEN 1.1.3
– NOTAM.......................................................... MAP 5.0
– Procurement of Charts and Publications .........MAP 7.0
– Publication, Aeronautical Information
(A.I.P. Canada)................................................GEN 1.1.3
– Publication Revision Cycles........................... MAP 3.5
– VFR.................................................................. MAP 2.0
Aeronautical Study, Requirements for an ..............AGA 6.3
Aeronautical Terms, Glossary................................ GEN 5.1
Aeronautics Act and Canadian Air Regulations,
– Legislative Index.............................................. GEN 5.3
Aiding Persons in Distress‚..................................... SAR 2.4
A.I.P. Canada (ICAO)
– AIC (Aeronautical Information Circular) ...... MAP 6.3
– Content................................................... GEN 0-2, 1.1.3
– Co-ordinator................................................... GEN 1.1.3
– Enquiries........................................................ GEN 1.1.3
– Supplements ................................................... MAP 6.2
October 27, 2005
– Controlled Airports,
Departure Procedures....................................... RAC 4.2
– Snow Removal and Ice Control..................... AGA 1.1.5
– Uncontrolled Aerodromes................................. RAC 4.5
– Zoning Regulations...........................................AGA 4.3
Airside Guidance Signs, Types of...........................AGA 5.8
Airspace
– Advisory......................................................... RAC 2.8.6
– Air Navigation Service Charges........................FAL 3.2
– Altitude Reservations ................................... RAC 2.9.1
– Canadian Domestic / Northern and Southern
Domestic.............................................RAC 2.2, Fig. 2.1
– Classification of................................................. RAC 2.8
– CMNPS, RNPC and CMNPS Transition.......................
.................................................................. RAC Fig. 12.1
– CMNPS (Canadian Minimum Navigation
Performance Specifications) .......................... RAC 12.5
– High and Low Level..........................................RAC 2.3
– High Level Controlled...................................... RAC 2.6
– Joint Use......................................................... RAC 2.8.6
– Low Level Controlled....................................... RAC 2.7
– NAT MNPSA (North Atlantic Minimum
Navigation Performance – Specifications)
Between FL285 and FL420....RAC Fig.11.2, RAC 11.22
– Other Divisions................................................. RAC 2.9
– Requirements and Procedures ......................... RAC 2.0
– Restricted....................................................... RAC 2.8.6
– Southern, Northern and Arctic Control
Areas..........................................................RAC Fig. 2.4
– Structured........................................................ RAC 12.3
Airways and Air Routes Designation.................... COM 5.5
Airways, low level – LF/MF, VHF/UHF..............RAC 2.7.1
Airworthiness, Aircraft................. LRA 2.0, LRA ANNEX
– Annual Airworthiness Information Report...... LRA 2.5
– Flight Authority................................................ LRA 2.3
Airworthiness Directives (ADs)............................ .LRA 2.7
– Availability of................................................ .LRA 2.7.2
– Schedule and Compliance Records .............. LRA 2.7.3
AIS (Aeronautical Information Services) ............GEN 1.1.2
Alcohol....................................................................AIR 3.11
Alerting Devices and Circuit Breakers...................AIR 4.11
Alphabet, Phonetic................................................. COM 5.4
Alternate Aerodrome, Requirements for
IFR Flight.........................................................RAC 3.14
Altimeter
– Abnormally High Pressure
Weather Conditions......................RAC 12.12, AIR 1.5.9
– Calibration of............................RAC Fig. 9.1, AIR 1.5.2
– Downdraft and Turbulence..............................AIR 1.5.7
– Effect of Mountains........................................ AIR 1.5.6
– Incorrect Setting............................................ .AIR 1.5.3
– Major Errors of................................................ AIR 1.5.4
– Pressure.............................................................. AIR 1.5
– Pressure Drop.................................................. AIR 1.5.8
– Setting Region..................................RAC 2.10, Fig. 2.10
– Standard Pressure Region
........................................ RAC 2.11, Fig. 2.10, AIR 1.5.5
– Temperature Correction........... RAC Fig. 9.1, AIR 1.5.4
Altitude
GEN
AIRAC Canada .................................................... MAP 6.5
Air Navigation Service Charges............................. FAL 3.2
Air Routes and Airways Designation................... COM 5.5
Air Time and Flight Time ...................................... AIR 4.1
Air Traffic and Advisory Services . ....................... RAC 1.1
Air Traffic Services, Services Other Than............ RAC 1.2
Aircraft
– Accident Investigation...................................... GEN 3.1
– ARCAL (Radio Control of Aerodrome
Lighting).......................................................... AGA 7.19
– Airworthiness......................... LRA 2.0, LRA ANNEX
– Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF)................... AGA 8.0
– Categories........................................................ RAC 9.21
– Change of Ownership – Canadian Registered LRA 1.4
– Contamination (Frost, Ice or Snow)
– In Flight . .................................................. AIR 2.12.3
– On ground.................................................. AIR 2.12.2
– Design Requirements . .....................................LRA 2.2
– Emergency Assistance..................................... .SAR 4.0
– First Aid Kits on Privately Owned
and Operated Aircraft...................................... AIR 4.13
– Identification..................................................... LRA 1.2
– Identification, Marking, Registration
and Insurance.................................................... LRA 1.0
– Import/Export ............................................LRA 1.6, 1.7
– Liability Insurance............................................ LRA 1.8
– Nationality and Registration Marks...GEN 1.7, LRA 1.3
– Navigational Equipment, Interference with..COM 3.1.2
– Operations – Uncontrolled Aerodromes . ........ RAC 4.5
– Public Health Measures Applied to Aircraft.....FAL 2.4
– Registration, Initial........................................... LRA 1.5
– NAT RVSM Aircraft Approvals.................RAC 11.23.4
– Special Equipment to be Carried
on Board Aircraft.............................................. GEN 1.8
– Speed Limit.................................................... RAC 2.5.2
– Technical Records.......................................... LRA 2.6.3
Aircraft Contamination in Flight........................ AIR 2.12.3
Aircraft Contamination on the Ground.............. AIR 2.12.2
Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF).............AGA 8.0
– Hours of Availability.........................................AGA 8.2
– Classification System........................................AGA 8.3
– ARFF Standby Request....................................AGA 8.4
Aircraft Movement Surface Condition
Report (AMSCR)................................................ AIR 1.6.4
AIREP (Meteorological Report).......MET 1.1.6, RAC 11.15
Airmanship............................................................... AIR 1.1
– Flight Operations............................................... AIR 2.0
– Low Flying......................................................... AIR 2.4
AIRMET...................................................... .MET 1.3.6, 3.4
Arrival Procedures – IFR ...................................... RAC 9.0
Airport
– AAS (Advisory Service).................................RAC 1.1.3
– ASDE (Surface Detection Equipment)...........COM 3.14
– Airport Radio (APRT RDO).......................... RAC 1.2.2
– Bird Hazard...................................AGA 1.1.6, RAC 1.15
– Certificate..........................................................AGA 2.4
– Certification.................................. AGA 2.3, 2.3.5, 2.3.6
– Operational Guidance Signs..........................AGA 5.8.2
– Operations........................................................ .RAC 4.0
TC AIM
15
TC AIM
GEN
16
– And Direction of Flight................................. RAC 8.7.2
– Area Minimum Altitude (AMA)....................RAC 8.7.1
– Correction Chart....................................... .RAC Fig. 9.1
– IFR Minimum..........................................RAC 8.6, 8.7.1
– Minimum Holding.......................................... RAC 10.7
– Reservations................................................... RAC 2.9.1
– Cruise Climbs and Altitude Reports.............RAC 11.18
Animals and Plants
– Requirements for Importation ..........................FAL 2.5
Anti-icing Additives, Fuel..................................... AIR 1.3.3
Appeals – Transportation Appeal Tribunal of
Canada (TATC)................................................. LRA 4.5
Approach
– Ban................................................................RAC 9.19.2
– Contact........................................................... RAC 9.6.1
– From an Intermediate Fix................................RAC 9.16
– Lighting Systems – HIAL, MALSR.............. AGA 7.5.2
– LIAL, ODALS, MALSF................................ AGA 7.5.1
– PAPI............................................................... .AGA 7.6.1
– PAR (Precision Radar).................COM 3.14, RAC 9.8.4
– Position Reports – Controlled Airports............ RAC 9.9
– Slope Indicator Systems
– EWH (Eye-to-Wheel Height)......................... AGA 7.6
– Straight-in.........................................................RAC 9.15
– VASIS............................................................ .AGA 7.6.1
– Visual............................................................. RAC 9.6.2
Apron Advisory Service..................................... .RAC 1.2.4
ARCAL (Aircraft Radio Control of
Aerodrome Lighting)...................................... AGA 7.19
Arctic Radio .........................................................RAC 1.1.5
Area Navigation (RNAV) ....................................COM 3.15
– Equipment Failure Procedures ................... RAC 12.4.6
– Fixed RNAV Routes..................................... RAC 12.6.4
– Preferred IFR Routes (Including RNAV)... .RAC 12.6.3
Areas
– Gander Oceanic Control...........................RAC Fig. 11.1
– Mountainous....................................RAC 2.12, Fig. 2.11
– RVSM Transition Area............................RAC Fig. 12.3
– Southern, Northern and Arctic
Control Areas.............................................RAC Fig. 2.4
– Transition....................................................... RAC 2.7.5
Arrester Cables, Military Aircraft.......................... AGA 9.1
Arrival
– Procedures – Controlled Airports................... RAC 4.4
– Traffic Circuit Procedures
– Uncontrolled Aerodromes, VFR................. RAC 4.5.2
– Report – Contents.........................................RAC 3.12.1
ASDA (Accelerate – Stop Distance Available).......AGA 3.8
ATC (Air Traffic Control)
– Assignment of Altitudes.................................. .RAC 8.7
– Clearances, Instructions and Information........ RAC 1.7
– Flight Planning . .............................. RAC 12.4.4, 12.5.5
– Flight Priority . ................................................. RAC 1.8
– Parallel Offset Procedures ............................. RAC 12.2
– RNAV/DME Distance................................. .RAC 12.4.5
– RNPC (Required Navigation Performance
Capability)....................................................... RAC 12.4
– Special Procedures . ....................................... RAC 12.0
ATFM (Air Traffic Flow Management).............. . RAC 12.9
October 27, 2005
ATIS (Automatic Terminal Information Service)
................................................................. RAC 1.3, 4.2.1
– Broadcasts ...........................................RAC 1.3, 7.2, 9.1
– METAR AUTO / SPECI AUTO Reports... .MET 3.15.5
ATS Reports
– Possible Contravention of the Canadian Air
Regulations (CARs)........................................ RAC 1.13
Automatic Landing (Autoland) Operations
..................................................... COM 3.13.1, AIR 2.15
Aviation
– Automated Reports – Other......................... MET 3.15.6
– Fuels ................................................................. .AIR 1.3
– Medical Review Board................................... LRA 3.4.3
– METAR (Routine Weather Report) ............... MET 3.15
– Notice .............................................................. MAP 6.4
– Occurrence, Reporting an................................. GEN 3.3
– Recreational............................................AIR 4.7 to 4.10
– Regional System Safety Specialist ...............GEN 2.2.2
– Safety Investigation........................................... GEN 3.1
– Safety Newsletters.........................................GEN 2.2.3
– Safety Promotion............................................ GEN 2.2.1
– Weather Briefing Service
(AWBS)........................................MET 1.1.3, RAC 1.1.3
– Weather Information Service
(AWIS) ........................................MET 1.1.3, RAC 1.1.3
– Weather Reports / Charts . ..................MET 3.2.2, 3.2.3
Aviation Safety – Transport Canada Web Site....GEN 2.2.4
AWOS (Automated Weather
Observation Systems)............................ MET 1.2.4, 3.15.5
– actual weather information/reports/charts....MET 1.2.4
– METAR AUTO/SPECI AUTO Reports..... .MET 3.15.5
B
Balloon Operations, Manned Free . ........................ AIR 4.7
Barometric Vertical Navigation (BARO VNAV)
GPS Approaches ....................................... COM 3.16.4.5.1
Bars
– Clearance .........................................................AGA 7.14
– Stop.................................................................. AGA 7.15
Bay, Turnaround......................................................AGA 3.4
Beacons
– Aerodrome........................................................ AGA 7.2
– Fan Marker......................................................COM 3.11
Bearing Strength, Runway and Taxiway.............. AGA 3.10
Beaufort Wind Scale.................................MET 2.6, Table 1
Bird Hazard Control, Airport.............AGA 1.1.6, RAC 1.15
Bird/Wildlife Strike Report............................. RAC Fig. 1.2
Birds, Migratory.................................RAC 1.15.2, GEN 4-6
Blood Donation.......................................................AIR 3.14
Boundary Markers, Aerodromes............................ AGA 5.1
C
Cable Span Marking, Suspended........................... AGA 6.7
Call Signs ............................................................. COM 5.8
– Air Carriers.................................................. COM 5.8.1
– Ground Stations........................................... COM 5.8.2
– MEDEVAC................................................... COM 5.8.1
– Private Civil Registration............................ COM 5.8.1
– RCO............................................................... COM 5.8.3
October 27, 2005
– Prices..............................................................MAP 7.3
– Index of Aerodrome Obstacle Charts
– ICAO Type A.............................................. MAP 3.6.2
– Index to Canadian Aeronautical...................... MAP 2.2
– Pavement Load Rating..................................AGA 3.10.1
– Procurement – Individual and Subscription.....MAP 7.3
– Publication Revision Cycles............................ MAP 3.5
– Publications – International Flights................. MAP 8.0
– Procurement of Aeronautical............................MAP 7.0
– Terminal Area................................................MAP 3.3.1
– Updating Data.................................................. MAP 2.4
– Updating of Canadian Aeronautical................ MAP 2.3
– Upper Level – Actual, Forecast (PROG)........ MET 3.12
Checklists, Pilot Vital Action................................... AIR 1.2
Circling Minima and Procedures................. RAC 9.23, 9.24
Circuit Breakers and Alerting Devices...................AIR 4.11
Circuit
– Controlled Aerodromes..................................... RAC 4.3
– Uncontrolled Aerodromes................................. RAC 4.5
Circular, Aeronautical Information........................ MAP 6.3
CIRVIS Reports, Vital Intelligence Sightings..... RAC 1.12.2
Civil Aviation Complaint Filing Procedures.......... LRA 6.0
Civil Aviation Contingency Operations (CACO)... GEN 6.0
– Headquaters Operations....................................GEN 6.2
– Accident, Occurrence, or Incident Reporting.....GEN 6.3
Civil Twilight, Morning and Evening.................. GEN 1.6.2
Class
– A Airspace..................................................... RAC 2.8.1
– B Airspace......................................................RAC 2.8.2
– C Airspace............................................... RAC 2.8.3, 5.8
– D Airspace..................................................... RAC 2.8.4
– E Airspace...................................................... RAC 2.8.5
– F Airspace...................................................... RAC 2.8.6
– G Airspace.............................................RAC 2.8.7, 8.10
Classification of Airspace....................................... RAC 2.8
Clean Aircraft Concept....................................... AIR 2.12.2
Clear Air Turbulence (CAT),
Avoidance of.....................................MET 2.2, AIR 2.10
Clearance(s)
– Bars..................................................................AGA 7.14
– Delivery..........................................................RAC 4.2.2
– “Hold/hold Short”..........................................RAC 4.2.5
– IFR..................................................................... RAC 7.4
– Landing.......................................................... RAC 4.4.3
– Limit ............................................................... RAC 8.10
– Leaving or Entering Controlled Airspace........ RAC 8.9
– Oceanic Clearance Delivery....................... .RAC 11.8.3
– Pilot Immunity from Enforcement Action
for Deviating from......................................RAC 12.15.6
– Resolution Advisory (TCAS/ACAS)................ RAC 1.7
– Tower Frequency, Release from..................... RAC 4.2.9
Clearances Instructions and Information
from the ATC..............................................RAC 1.7, 6.1
Clearway, Definition............................................... AGA 3.7
Clock Position System (Radar Traffic Information)
........................................................................ RAC 1.5.3
Closed Markings – Runway, Taxiway, Heliports......AGA 5.6
Cloud Heights...............................................MET 1.1.5, 3.13
CMNPS Airspace . ............................................... RAC 12.5
GEN
Canada
– Canadian Government Publishing....................MAP 7.2
– Flight Supplement .....................................MAP 3.4, 7.3
– Charts and Publications
– Individual Purchases . ...................................MAP 7.3
– Subscriptions..................................................MAP 7.3
– Shipping Act, extract from............ SAR 4.9, AIR 2.11.1
Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory
Council (CARAC)............................................. LRA 5.0
Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
........... COM ANNEX A 1.0, COM ANNEX B 2.0, 3.1,
............................ RAC ANNEX 2.0, LRA ANNEX 2.0
– Legislative Index............................................... GEN 5.3
Canadian Domestic Airspace ................................RAC 2.2
– Type Certificate..............................................LRA 2.2.2
Canadian Domestic Routes .................................. RAC 12.6
– Canadian Track Structures............................. RAC 12.7
Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance
Specifications (CMNPS)
– Air-to-Ground Communications................. RAC 12.5.7
– Airspace.......................................................... RAC 12.5
– Certification................................................. RAC 12.5.3
– Flight Planning............................................ RAC 12.5.5
– Navigation Capability While Operating Within
CMNPS Airspace, Partial or Complete
Loss of ......................................................... RAC 12.5.6
– Transition Airspace . ................................... RAC 12.5.2
Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI) . ............ .AIR 1.6
– Coefficients..................................................... AIR 1.6.2
– Description and Method of Measurement..... .AIR 1.6.3
CANPASS – Private Aircraft Program.................FAL 2.3.3
Carbon Monoxide.................................................. AIR 3.2.3
Carburetor Icing....................................................... AIR 2.3
Cargo Restraint........................................................ AIR 4.4
CAVOK, Use of Term . ........................................... RAC 1.4
Central Monitoring Agency (CMA)..................RAC 11.23.5
Certificate
– Airport...............................................................AGA 2.4
– Maintenance...................................................... LRA 2.4
– of Maintenance Performed Outside
of Canada...................................................... .LRA 2.4.2
– of Noise Compliance . ................................... LRA 2.3.5
Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A)
– Standard, Special................................. LRA 2.3.2, 2.3.3
Certification
– CMNPS........................................................ RAC 12.5.3
– Of Aerodromes..................................................AGA 2.1
– Of Airports.................................... AGA 2.3, 2.3.5, 2.3.6
– RNPC Aircraft............................................ .RAC 12.4.2
Channel Spacing, VHF Communication
Frequencies...................................................... COM 5.3
Charges for Customs Services................................ .FAL 3.3
Charter Flight Airport Facilities Reservations.....FAL 2.2.2
– En Route, Low Altitude/High Altitude
– Products . ...................................................... MAP 3.2
Charts
– Aerodrome Obstacle – ICAO Type A............ . MAP 3.6
– Aeronautical, for Visual Flight.........................MAP 7.3
– En Route, Low Altitude/High Altitude
TC AIM
17
TC AIM
GEN
18
Code, Morse .......................................................... COM 5.4
Collision Avoidance
– Right of Way, Regulations...............................RAC 1.10
– Use of Landing Lights........................................ AIR 4.5
Communications
– ADIS (Automated Data Interchange System)
....................................................................... COM 6.1.2
– AFS (Aeronautical Fixed Service)................ COM 6.1.2
– Air-to-Air.....................................................COM 5.13.3
– Air-to-Ground, CMNPS.............................. RAC 12.5.7
– Air-to-Ground Service, International.............. COM 6.2
– Aviation Weather Information Service (AWIS)
........................................................................ MET 1.1.3
– Checks.............................................................COM 5.10
– Emergency Communications and Security
....................................................... COM 5.11, RAC 2.13
– Failure (VFR).................................... RAC 4.4.8, 6.3.2.2
– Fixed Telecommunications Service................RAC 1.1.3
– Frequency 5680 kHz, Use of...........................COM 5.14
– General Information ....................................... COM 1.0
– Initial Contact..........................................RAC 4.4.1, 9.9
– Language...................... COM 5.2, COM ANNEX A 1.0
– Location Indicators.......................................... COM 2.0
– Navigation Equipment, Reporting
Malfunction of............................................... RAC 6.3.3
– Paid Communications Service . .....................RAC 1.1.3
– Private Navigation Aids.................................COM 3.1.1
– Provision of Services....................................... COM 1.3
– Readability scale.............................................COM 5.10
– Radiocommunication Regulations.................. COM 5.9
– Radio Navigation Aids..................................... COM 3.0
– Responsible Authority..................................... COM 1.2
– Satellite Voice.................................................COM 5.11
– Selective Calling System (SELCAL)............... COM 6.4
– Strength Scale.................................................COM 5.10
– Summary of Services . .................................. RAC 1.2.3
– Use of MF and ATF....................................... RAC 4.5.6
– VFR Procedures at Uncontrolled Aerodromes
with MF and ATF areas................................. RAC 4.5.7
– VHF Coverage in the Canadian Northern
Airspace.........................................................COM 6.7.2
– VHF Coverage in the NAT Region................COM 6.7.1
– Weather Radar Network (EC/DND)............... MET 3.16
Community Aerodrome Radio Stations
(CARS)........................................................... RAC 1.2.2
Confidential Incident Reporting
– SECURITAS Program...................................... GEN 3.6
Conservation Reindeer, Caribou, Moose
and Muskoxen...............................................RAC 1.14.3
Contact and Visual Approaches . ........................... RAC 9.6
Contamination of Aircraft (Frost, Ice or Snow)
– In Flight......................................................... AIR 2.12.3
– On Ground.................................................... AIR 2.12.2
Control Transfer
– IFR Units to Towers.........................................RAC 9.10
Controlled Airports
– Approach Position Reports............................... RAC 9.9
– Arrival Procedures............................................ RAC 4.4
– Initial Clearance............................................. RAC 4.4.2
October 27, 2005
– Landing Clearance......................................... RAC 4.4.3
– Operations on Intersecting Runways............. RAC 4.4.9
– Private Advisory Stations.............................. RAC 1.2.3
– Sequential Operations.................................... RAC 4.4.9
– Simultaneous Operations............................... RAC 4.4.9
– Traffic Circuits.................................................. RAC 4.3
Controlled Airspace................................................RAC 2.5
– Area Extensions............................................. RAC 2.7.2
– Clearances
– Leaving or Entering....................................... RAC 8.9
– Control Zones.............................................. RAC 2.7.3
– High Level..................................................... .RAC 2.6
– Low Level...................................................... .RAC 2.7
– Low Level Airways – LF/MF, VHF/UHF.... RAC 2.7.1
– Transition Areas . ...................................... .RAC 2.7.5
– Use of Controlled Airspace by VFR Flights....RAC 2.5.1
Controlled VFR (CVFR) Procedures...................... RAC 5.6
Conversion Tables.................................................GEN 1.9.2
Correction Card System......................................... MAP 4.2
Credit of Time......................................................... LRA 3.7
– Actual Instrument Flight Time ......................LRA 3.7.7
– Inflight instruction
– Non-Licensed Pilots.....................................LRA 3.7.2
– Licensed Pilots.............................................LRA 3.7.3
– Instrument Flying Practice ............................LRA 3.7.4
– Maintaining a Personal Log . .........................LRA 3.7.6
– Operation of Dual Control Aircraft................LRA 3.7.1
CRFI.......................................................AGA 1.1.4, AIR 1.6
Cross Country Instrument Training Flights..........RAC 3.11
Crosswind Landing Limitations
– Light Aircraft..................................................... AIR 2.2
Cruise Climbs and Altitude Reports................... RAC 11.18
Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels.................. RAC 2.3.1
Customs
– Agriculture......................................................... FAL 1.2
– CANPASS – Private Aircraft Program..........FAL 2.3.3
– Charges for Customs Services........................... FAL 3.3
– Clearance of Aircraft, Documentary Requirements
– Commercial Flights.........................................FAL 2.2
– Private Flights.................................................FAL 2.3
– Designated Authorities...................................... FAL 1.2
– Documentary Requirements
for Customs Clearance of Aircraft.................FAL 2.3.3
– Fees and Charges............................................... FAL 3.0
– Immigration....................................................... FAL 1.2
– Public Health Measures and Requirements
for Passports and Visas......... FAL 2.2.4, 2.2.5, FAL 2.4
– Violations, Penalties for..................................... FAL 3.4
D
Dangerous Goods
– Transportation by Air........................RAC ANNEX 3.0
Dangerous Situations
– Refusal to Work............................................. GEN 2.1.2
Date – Time Group............................................... GEN 1.6.1
Day Markings of Obstructions................................AGA 6.4
Declared Distances..................................................AGA 3.8
Decompression Sickness.......................................... AIR 3.5
Defence – ADIZ (Air Defence
October 27, 2005
E
Electronic Devices on Board Aircraft,
Portable Passenger-operated........... COM Annex -B 1.0
ELT (Emergency Locator Transmitter)....................SAR 3.0
– Accidental Transmissions..................................SAR 3.7
– Categories.......................................................... SAR 3.2
– Downed Aircraft Procedures . ......................... SAR 4.8
– Flight Planning
(Supplementary Information).......................RAC 3.16.9
– Installation and Maintenance Requirements.... SAR 3.3
– Operating Instructions (Emergency Use)......... SAR 3.5
– Operating Instructions (Normal Use)................SAR 3.4
– Schedule of Requirements to Carry an ELT......SAR 3.9
– Signal, Maximizing the......................................SAR 3.6
– Testing Procedures . ......................................... SAR 3.8
Emergency
– Action by the Pilot during Emergency
Conditions........................................................ .SAR 4.2
– Assistance......................................................... SAR 4.0
– Communications and Security...... COM 5.11, RAC 2.13
– Declaring an....................................RAC 6.3.1, SAR 4.1
– Lighting, Aerodrome........................................AGA 7.18
– Locator Transmitter...........................................SAR 3.0
– Monitoring of Emergency Frequency 121.5 MHz.......................................................COM 5.12
– Procedures, Downed Aircraft........................... SAR 4.8
– Procedures for Signaling Vessels...................... SAR 2.4
– Radio Frequency Capability............................ .SAR 4.6
– Transponder Alerting........................................ SAR 4.4
Emergency Equipment
– Flight Planning (Supplementary
Information)..................................................RAC 3.16.9
– Operations Over Sparsely Settled Areas..........AIR 2.14
– Operations Over Water..................................AIR 2.11.3
Emergency Security Control of Air Traffic
(ESCAT)....................................................... RAC 12.8.2
English, Use of in Communications
...................................... COM 5.2, COM ANNEX-A 1.0
En-Route Procedures – VFR ................................. RAC 5.0
En Route Charts .....................................................MAP 7.3
Entry, Transit and Departure of Aircraft.................FAL 2.0
– Commercial Flights............................................FAL 2.2
– Designated Authorities...................................... FAL 1.2
– Private Flights....................................................FAL 2.3
Equipment
– COM/NAV....................................................RAC 3.16.4
– RNAV............................................................. RAC 9.2.2
– RNAV Equipment Failure Procedures......... RAC 12.4.5
– Surveillance (SSR) (Canadian and ICAO)....RAC 3.16.4
ESCAT................................................................ RAC 12.8.2
Examinations, Use of Hand-held Calculators
or Computers for Written.................................. LRA 3.8
Experimental Test Flights, Conduct of.................... AIR 4.2
Explosions and Fires............................................. AIR 1.3.4
Export of Aircraft.................................................... LRA 1.7
Eye Reference Point, Design.................................. AIR 4.12
GEN
Identification Zone)..........................RAC 2.13, 3.9, 12.8
– Flight Plans........................................................ RAC 3.9
Departure(s)
– Approach and Alternate Minima.....................RAC 9.18
– Non-radar........................................................RAC 4.1.1
– Procedures – Controlled Airports.................... RAC 4.2
– RONLY Aircraft.......................................... RAC 4.2.12
– Radar...............................................................RAC 4.1.1
Design Eye Reference Point.................................. .AIR 4.12
Designated Mountainous Regions
in Canada................................................. RAC Fig. 2.11
Dial-up RCO..........................................................RAC 1.1.4
Disorientation........................................................... AIR 3.9
Displaced
– Runway Threshold Lighting............................ .AGA 7.9
– Thresholds.........................................................AGA 3.3
– Threshold Markings...................................... .AGA 5.4.1
Ditching................................................................AIR 2.11.2
DME (Distance Measuring Equipment).................COM 3.7
– Intersections, Minimum En-Route
Altitude......................................................... RAC 8.7.1.1
– Procedures (Holding Patterns)........................ RAC 10.8
DME-DME (RHO-RHO) System......................COM 3.15.2
DND and Civil High Arctic Aerodromes.............FAL 2.2.3
Downed Aircraft Procedures.................................. SAR 4.8
Downdraft and Turbulence....................................AIR 1.5.7
Drugs.......................................................................AIR 3.12
Dry Ice – Safety Precautions ................................ AIR 3.16
DUATS (Direct User Access Terminal
System)............................................ MET 1.1.4, RAC 3.4.2
TC AIM
F
Facilitation
– Designated Authorities...................................... FAL 1.2
– General Information................................... .FAL 1.0, 1.1
Fan Marker Beacons..............................................COM 3.11
FANS 1/A ADS WPR............................................. .RAC 8.2
Fatigue.....................................................................AIR 3.10
FD (Upper Level Wind
and Temperature Forecasts)............................ MET 3.11
Fees
– Airport............................................................... .FAL 3.1
– Charges for Customs Services........................... FAL 3.3
– Telecommunications and En -Route
Facilities Services............................................ COM 6.5
Final Approach Fix (FAF)...................................RAC 9.19.2
FIR (Flight Information Regions).............RAC Fig. 2.3, 2.4
Fire Detection – Northern Areas ..................... RAC 1.12.4
Fire Extinguishers
– For Use in Aircraft............................................. AIR 1.4
– Types of........................................................... AIR 1.4.3
Fire Fighting, Aircraft Rescue and (ARFF)............AGA 8.0
– ARFF Hours of Availability.............................AGA 8.2
– Classification System........................................AGA 8.3
– ARFF Standby Request....................................AGA 8.4
– Discreet Communication..................................AGA 8.5
Fires and Explosions ............................................ AIR 1.3.4
Fires, Classification of........................................... AIR 1.4.2
First Aid Kits on Privately Owned
and Operated Aircraft...................................... AIR 4.13
Fitness
19
TC AIM
GEN
20
– Medically Fit................................................. LRA 3.4.2
– Unfit Assessment........................................... LRA 3.4.4
Flight Level Allocation Scheme (FLAS),
RVSM .........................................................RAC 11.23.3
Flight(s)
– Aerobatic..........................................................RAC 1.11
– AFS (Aeronautical Fixed)
– International Flights...................... COM 6.0, 6.1, 6.1.2
– Airmanship ....................................................... AIR 1.0
– Authority........................................................... LRA 2.3
– Experimental Test ............................................ AIR 4.2
– Fuel Requirements......................................... RAC 3.13
– Fuel, Sufficient Amount,
IFR/VFR Flights............................... RAC 3.13.1, 3.13.2
– In Rain............................................................... .AIR 2.5
– Information Regions (FIR).........RAC Fig.2.3, RAC 2.4
– Information Service.............................. RAC 1.1.1, 1.1.2
– Itineraries.......................................................... RAC 3.6
– Itinerary form, Composite IFR/VFR/
IFR Sample................................................. RAC Fig. 3.1
– Military Flight Advisory Unit (MFAU)..........RAC 1.1.6
– Mountainous Regions.................... RAC 2.12, AIR 2.13
– Operations – Airmanship................................... AIR 2.0
– Operations in Volcanic Ash.............................. .AIR 2.6
– Operations in Winter ...................................... AIR 2.12
– Operations – Mountainous Regions
........................................................ RAC 2.12, AIR 2.13
– Operations on Water.........................................AIR 2.11
– Other Information.........................................RAC 3.16.8
– Permit............................................................. LRA 2.3.4
– Photographic Survey..................................... RAC 12.14
– Plan Service.....................................................RAC 1.1.3
– Planning.................................RAC 3.0, 12.5.4, SAR 2.0
– Priority............................................................. .RAC 1.8
– Temporary Restrictions – Forest Fires........... RAC 2.9.2
– Time / Air Time................................................. AIR 4.1
– Transoceanic, General Aviation Aircraft....... RAC 11.2
Flight Plan/Itinerary
– Aerodrome, Departure and Time ............... RAC 3.16.5
– Aerodrome, Destination, Total Estimated
Elapsed Time, SAR Time (Canadian only)
and Alternate Aerodrome(s).........................RAC 3.16.7
– Aircraft Identification...................................RAC 3.16.1
– Alternate Aerodrome for IFR Flight................RAC 3.14
– Canadian.......................................................RAC 3.15.2
– Changes to the Information ............................. RAC 3.7
– Closing............................................................ RAC 3.12
– Closing of a Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
Prior to Landing........................................... RAC 3.12.2
– Composite, VFR and IFR................................. RAC 3.8
– Contents...........................................................RAC 3.16
– Cross Country Instrument Training Flights....RAC 3.11
– Cruising Speed, Altitude/Level
and Route......................................................RAC 3.16.6
– Defence VFR (DVFR) and Defence
Flight Itineraries................................................ RAC 3.9
– Equipment (Canadian and ICAO) ................RAC 3.16.4
– Filing (CAR 602.75)....................................... RAC 3.6.2
– Flight Rules and Type of Flight....................RAC 3.16.2
October 27, 2005
– Flights Along or Outside Designated
ATS Routes...................................................RAC 3.16.6
– Forms, Completion of.................................... .RAC 3.15
– Fuel Requirements.......................................... RAC 3.13
– Fuel, Sufficient Amount, IFR/VFR Flights
........................................................... RAC 3.13.1, 3.13.2
– ICAO...............................................RAC 3.15.3, Fig. 3.2
– IFR................................................................... RAC 3.15
– IFR Flight Plan................................................RAC 3.7.2
– Intermediate Stops.......................................... RAC 3.10
– Number and Type of Aircraft
and Wake Turbulence Category....................RAC 3.16.3
– Other Information.........................................RAC 3.16.8
– Opening a VFR Flight Plan
or Flight Itinerary........................................... RAC 3.6.4
– Requirements – Flights Between Canada
and a Foreign State......................................... RAC 3.6.3
– Sample – Composite IFR/VFR/ IFR Flight
Itinerary...................................................... RAC Fig. 3.1
– IFR (ICAO)..............................................RAC Fig. 3.2
– VFR.........................................................RAC Fig. 3.3
– Type of Flight and Flight Rules....................RAC 3.16.2
– VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary................RAC 3.7.1
Flight Operations...................................................... AIR 2.0
– At night............................................................ .AIR 2.16
Flight Planning........................................................ RAC 3.0
Flow Control Procedures.................................... RAC 12.10
Flying Low, Hazards of............................................ AIR 2.4
Forecast
– Aerodrome Forecasts from AWOS Sites....... MET 3.9.4
– Area (GFA)........................................................MET 3.3
– Aviation, Abbreviations ...................................MET 3.6
– Charts (PROG) ............................................... MET 3.12
– Significant Weather Prognostic Charts
– CMC............................................................. MET 3.14
– RAFC........................................................... MET 3.13
– TAF (Aerodrome)...........................................MET 3.9
– Upper Level Charts – PROG....................... MET 3.12
– Upper Level Wind and Temperature (FD)
................................................................ MET 1.1.3, 3.11
– Winds and Temperatures Aloft Network, Canadian...
......................................................................... MET 3.10
Forest Fires
– Temporary Flight Restrictions....................... RAC 2.9.2
Formation Flight – IFR and CVFR.................. RAC 12.13.3
– Procedures.................................................... .RAC 12.13
French, Use of in Communications........................ COM 5.2
Frequency
– Mandatory (MF), Use of...................... RAC 4.5.4, 4.5.6
– Monitoring 126.7 MHz..................................... RAC 5.1
– Release from Tower...................................... .RAC 4.2.9
FSS (Flight Service Stations)............................... RAC 3.4.1
– Services Provided...........................................RAC 1.1.3
Fuels
– Anti-icing Additives . ..................................... AIR 1.3.3
– Aviation ............................................................. AIR 1.3
– Fuel Conservation High Level Airspace.......RAC 12.11
– Dumping......................................................... RAC 6.3.4
– Fires and Explosions....................................... AIR 1.3.4
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
Hijack (Unlawful Interference) . ......................... RAC 1.9.8
Holding
– Clearance . ...................................................... RAC 10.2
– DME Procedures . ......................................... RAC 10.8
– Pattern, Entry Procedures . ........................... RAC 10.5
– Pattern, Non-Standard ................................. . RAC 10.4
– Pattern, Speed Limitations, DME Procedures,
Shuttle Procedure........................... RAC 10.7, 10.8, 10.9
– Pattern, Standard............................................. RAC 10.3
– Pattern, Timing............................................... RAC 10.6
– Patterns Depicted on En Route
and Terminal Charts......................................RAC 10.10
– Positions, Taxi................................................ RAC 4.2.6
– Procedures
– IFR................................................................ RAC 10.0
– VFR............................................................. RAC 4.4.2
– Speed Limitations........................................... RAC 10.7
Hover
– Arrival and Departure Hover
Area Marking................................................. AGA 5.5.4
– Taxi.................................................................... RAC 4.6
– Taxiway Route Markers, Helicopter.................AGA 5.2
Hydroplaning......................................................... AIR 1.6.5
Hyperventilation.................................................... AIR 3.2.2
Hypothermia and Hyperthermia.............................AIR 3.17
Hypoxia................................................................. AIR 3.2.1
G
Gander International FSS.................................... COM 6.6.1
Geographic Reference/Co-ordinates.................... GEN 1.5.2
Glassy Water and Landing Seaplanes..................AIR 2.11.4
Global Positioning System (GPS).........................COM 3.16
– Approach Procedures................................COM 3.16.4.5
– Approach Procedures with Barometric Vertical
Navigation (BARO VNAV)................... COM 3.16.4.5.1
– Approaches at Alternate Aerodromes..... .COM 3.16.4.6
– Avionics Databases................................COM 3.16.4.2.3
– Augmentation Systems
(ABAS, SBAS, GBAS)................................COM 3.16.5
– Current Approvals........................................COM 3.16.4
– Domestic En route
and Terminal Operations..........................COM 3.16.4.3
– GNSS Vulnerability
– Interference, Anomoly Reporting.............COM 3.16.8
– Navigation Performance Requirements.......COM 3.16.3
– Next Generation GNSS................................COM 3.16.6
– NOTAMs................................................ COM 3.16.4.2.1
– Proper use of................................................COM 3.16.9
Glossary of Aeronautical Terms............................. GEN 5.1
GNSS – Global Navigation Satellite System........COM 3.16
– Communication, Navigation, Surveillance
Steering committee (CNS SC)................... COM 3.16.10
– User Comments.......................................... COM 3.16.11
Graphic Area Forecast (GFA).................................MET 3.3
Gross Navigation Errors, Monitoring of...........RAC 11.22.7
Ground-to-Air Signals..........................................SAR 4.8.1
Guidance Signs, Operational..................................AGA 5.8
H
Hang Glider Operations ........................................ . AIR 4.9
Health and Safety Program, Transport Canada
Aviation Occupational (A-OH&S).................... GEN 2.1
Heaters, Portable Combustion – Danger of............. AIR 3.3
Height Monitoring............................... RAC 11.23.6, 12.16.9
– Height Monitoring Unit (HMU).................RAC 11.23.7
Helicopter Operations.................................. .RAC 4.5.3, 4.6
– At Controlled Airports...................................... RAC 4.6
– Takeoff, Landing and Safety Areas................ AGA 3.11
– Vortices.............................................................. AIR 2.9
Heliports..................................................................AGA 5.5
– Arrival and Departure Hover Area......AGA 3.11.1, 7.17.1
– Lighting............................................................AGA 7.17
– Markers and Markings......................................AGA 5.5
High Altimeter Settings.....................RAC 12.12, AIR 1.5.9
High Altitude Flight in Aircraft with
Unpressurized Cabins........................................ AIR 3.4
High Intensity Runway Operations (HIRO).......RAC 4.4.10
GEN
– Grades..............................................................AIR 1.3.1
– Handling.......................................................... AIR 1.3.2
– Minimum Fuel Advisory............................... RAC 1.8.2
– Requirements.................................................. RAC 3.13
– Sufficient Amount, IFR/VFR Flights
........................................................... RAC 3.13.1, 3.13.2
Fuel and Oil Weights............................................ RAC 3.5.2
Fur and Poultry Farms, avoidance......................RAC 1.14.1
I
ICAO
– Applicable ICAO and WMO Documents....... MET 1.1.7
ICAO Flight Plan Form, Sample......................RAC Fig. 3.2
ICAO Type A Charts.............................................. MAP 3.6
Ice Control and Snow Removal............................ AGA 1.1.5
Ice
– Aircraft Contamination on the Ground,
and in Flight...................................... AIR 2.12.2, 2.12.3
– Accumulation....................................................MET 2.4
– Types of Ice.................................................AIR 2.12.3.1
– Aerodynamic Effects of Airborne Icing.... AIR 2.12.3.2
– Roll Upset................................................... AIR 2.12.3.3
IFR
– Advance Notice of Intent.................................. RAC 9.5
– Aeronautical Information................................. MAP 3.0
– Air Traffic Control Clearance........................... RAC 6.1
– Aircraft Categories......................................... RAC 9.21
– Altitude Reports . ............................................. RAC 8.4
– Application of Takeoff Minima.................... RAC 9.19.1
– Approach Ban...............................................RAC 9.19.2
– Approach Clearance.......................................... RAC 9.3
– Approach Position Reports – Controlled Airports.........
........................................................................... RAC 9.9
– Arrival Procedures............................................ RAC 9.0
– Uncontrolled Aerodromes/Airspace....... RAC 9.12, 9.13
– ATC Assignment of Altitudes.......................... RAC 8.7
– Circling............................................................ RAC 9.23
– Procedures....................................................... RAC 9.24
– Clearance with VFR Restrictions.................. RAC 6.2.1
– Clearances ........................................................ RAC 7.4
21
TC AIM
GEN
22
– Clearances – Leaving or Entering Controlled
Airspace............................................................ RAC 8.9
– Climb or Descent.............................................. RAC 8.5
– Contact and Visual Approaches........................ RAC 9.6
– Corrections for Temperature............RAC 9.17.1, Fig. 9.1
– Cross Country Training Flight.........................RAC 3.11
– Departure, Approach and Alternate Minima....RAC 9.18
– Departure Procedures....................................... RAC 7.0
– Departure from Uncontrolled Aerodromes...... RAC 7.9
– Descent Out of Controlled Airspace................. RAC 9.4
– DME Holding Procedures............................... RAC 10.8
– Emergencies and Equipment Failures............... RAC 6.3
– En Route Procedures......................................... RAC 8.0
– En Route – Uncontrolled Aerodromes
(Class–“G” Airspace)...................................... RAC 8.11
– Flight – Two-Way Communications Failure... RAC 6.3.2
– Flight Plan.......................................................RAC 3.7.2
– Flight Plan – Completion of........................... .RAC 3.15
– Flight, “1 000-Ft-on-Top”................................. RAC 8.8
– Flights in VMC................................................. RAC 6.2
– Formation Flights.......................................... RAC 12.13
– General.............................................................. RAC 6.0
– Holding Clearance.......................................... RAC 10.2
– Holding Entry Procedures.............................. RAC 10.5
– Holding Pattern, Speed Limitations .............. RAC 10.7
– Holding Pattern, Timing................................. RAC 10.6
– Holding Procedures......................................... RAC 10.0
– ILS, Category II Minima .............................RAC 9.18.1
– Initial Contact at Uncontrolled Aerodromes.....RAC 9.11
– Initial Contact with Tower..........................RAC 7.3, 9.9
– Instrument Procedures, Development of.......... RAC 6.5
– Landing Minima...........................................RAC 9.19.3
– Mach Number..............................RAC 8.3.1, 11.13, 12.1
– Minimum Altitudes.......................................... RAC 8.6
– Missed Approach Procedures......................... RAC 9.26
– Missed Approach Procedures – Visual.......... RAC 9.25
– Noise Abatement Procedures – Departure....... RAC 7.6
– Non-Standard Holding Pattern....................... RAC 10.4
– Obstacle and Terrain Clearance....................... .RAC 7.7
– Outbound Report..............................................RAC 9.14
– PAR (Precision Radar Approaches)
......................................................COM 3.14, RAC 9.8.4
– Position Reports................................................ RAC 8.1
– Preferred Routes ..........................................RAC 3.16.6
– Preferred IFR Routes (Including RNAV)..... RAC 12.6.3
– Procedure Altitudes.........................................RAC 9.17
– Procedures – Uncontrolled Aerodromes/Airspace
................................................................RAC 4.5.2, 9.14
– Published Holding Patterns...........................RAC 10.10
– Radar Arrivals................................................... RAC 9.8
– Release from Tower Frequency........................ RAC 7.8
– Remote Altimeter Setting.............................RAC 9.17.2
– Reporting of Equipment Malfunction........... RAC 6.3.3
– Reporting Procedures
– Uncontrolled Aerodrome............................. RAC 9.12
– Required Visual Reference...........................RAC 9.19.3
– Runway Visual Range (RVR)......................... RAC 9.20
– Separation......................................................... RAC 6.4
– Shuttle Procedure............................................ RAC 10.9
October 27, 2005
– Simultaneous Approaches ............................. RAC 9.27
– Speed Adjustment – Radar Controlled Aircraft
........................................................................ RAC 9.8.3
– Standard Holding Pattern................................ RAC 10.3
– Standard Instrument Departure (SID).............. RAC 7.5
– Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR).................. RAC 9.2
– Straight-in Approach........................................RAC 9.15
– Straight-in Landing Minima........................... RAC 9.22
– True Airspeed (TAS)..................................... RAC 8.3.2
– Uncontrolled Airspace.....................................RAC 9.13
– Visual Approach.............................................RAC 9.7.2
ILS (Instrument Landing Systems)......................COM 3.13
– Automatic Landing (Autoland) Operations
......................................................................COM 3.13.1
– Categories.....................................................COM 3.13.6
– Glide Path.....................................................COM 3.13.3
– Localizer...........................................COM 3.13.1, 3.13.2
– Minima, Category II.....................................RAC 9.18.1
Importation of
– Aircraft into Canada......................................... LRA 1.6
– Plants and Animals............................................FAL 2.5
Index
– Aerodrome Obstacle Charts
– ICAO Type A.............................................. MAP 3.6.2
– Legislation – Canadian Aviation Regulations.... GEN 5.3
Inertial Navigation System (INS).........................COM 3.15
Information
– Survival Advisory.....................................AIR ANNEX
– Weather.............................................................MET 3.2
Initial Contact.................................................RAC 4.4.1, 9.9
INMARSAT..........................................................COM 5.11
Interception – Procedures............... SAR 4.7 SCHEDULE I
– Visual Signals for Use in the Event of.............................
..................................................SAR 4.7 SCHEDULE II
Intermediate Approach..........................................RAC 9.16
Intermediate Stops............................................... .RAC 3.10
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
– Definitions...................................................... AGA 1.2.1
– Differences with ICAO Standards, Recommended
Practices and Procedures............... GEN 1.3, AGA 1.1.3
– Documents..................................................... AGA 1.1.2
Internet address (Transport Canada Home Page)..... LRA 5.7
Instrument
– Flight Rules – General...................................... RAC 6.0
– Rating Minima........................................... RAC Fig. 9.2
Insurance
– Liability ............................................................ LRA 1.8
Interference with Aircraft Navigational Equipment
........................................................................COM 3.1.2
International Air-to-Ground Service..................... COM 6.2
International Flights
– ADCUS...........................................................FAL 2.3.2
– Aerodrome Use...............................................FAL 2.2.1
– Charts............................................................... MAP 8.0
– Commercial Flights.........................................FAL 2.2.2
– Documents Required by Passengers
for CIS.........................................FAL 2.2.4, 2.2.6, 2.3.3
– Importation of Plants and Animals....................FAL 2.5
– Passports.........................................................FAL 2.2.4
October 27, 2005
J
Jet and Propeller Blast Danger................................. AIR 1.7
L
Landing, Automatic, Operations....... COM 3.13.1, AIR 2.15
Landing Distance Available (LDA)........................AGA 3.8
Landing Lights, Collision Avoidance...................... AIR 4.5
Landing Minima................................................ RAC 9.19.3
Legislative Index
– Canadian Aviation Regulations......................... GEN 5.3
Licences
– Medical Examination Requirements............. LRA 3.2.7
– Recency Requirements..................................... LRA 3.9
– Reinstatement of Suspended Permit,
Licence or Rating.............................................. LRA 3.6
– Replacement of Personnel Permits and............ LRA 3.5
– Written Examinations, Use of Hand-held
Calculators or Computers for............................ LRA 3.8
Licensing and Registration of Aircraft................... LRA 1.3
Licensing Requirements.......................................... LRA 3.2
– Airline Transport Pilot Licence..................... LRA 3.2.6
– Commercial Pilot Licence.............................. LRA 3.2.5
– Crediting of Time.............................................. LRA 3.7
– Other Licences.................................................. LRA 3.3
– Pilot Licence................................................... LRA 3.2.3
– Pilot Permits................................................... LRA 3.2.2
– Private Pilot Licence...................................... LRA 3.2.4
– Student Pilot Permits..................................... LRA 3.2.1
Life-Saving Equipment for Aircraft
Operating Over Water....................................AIR 2.11.3
Light Aircraft
– Crosswind Landing Limitations........................ AIR 2.2
Lighting
– Aerodrome........................................................ AGA 7.0
– Approach........................................................... AGA 7.5
– Approach and Departure Hover Area........... AGA 7.17.1
– Displaced Runway Threshold........................... AGA 7.9
– Emergency...................................................... .AGA 7.16
– Heliport............................................................AGA 7.17
– High Intensity Approach (HIAL).................. AGA 7.5.2
– Low Intensity Approach (LIAL).................... AGA 7.5.1
– Medium Intensity Approach, System with Runway
Alignment Indicator Lights (MALSR).......... AGA 7.5.2
– Medium Intensity Approach, System with Sequenced
Flashing Lights (MALSF)............................. AGA 7.5.1
– Night.................................................................. AGA 7.3
– Obstructions......................................................AGA 6.0
– Omnidirectional Approach (ODALS)........... AGA 7.5.1
– Rapid-Exit Taxiway........................................ AGA 7.12
– Runway.............................................................. AGA 7.8
– Runway Centre Line...................................... .AGA 7.10
– Runway Touchdown Zone...............................AGA 7.11
– Taxiway........................................................... AGA 7.13
– Unserviceable Area Markings.......................... AGA 7.4
Lights
– Approach and Departure Direction Lights....AGA 7.17.2
– Runway Edge Lights ..................................... AGA 7.8.1
– Runway Threshold End Lights...................... AGA 7.8.2
– Use of Landing Lights – Collision Avoidance.... AIR 4.5
– Use of Strobe...................................................... AIR 4.6
Lights, Runway Identification (RILS).................... AGA 7.7
Limited Weather Information Systems (LWIS)
..............................................................MET 1.1.5, 1.2.5,
Localizer.................................................... COM 3.12, 3.13.2
Logging Operations.............................................. AIR 2.4.2
LORAN-C (Long Range Air Navigation) System.................
............................................................. COM 3.15, 3.15.3
Low
– Level Controlled Airspace................................ RAC 2.7
– Level Wind Shear............................................... AIR 2.8
– Flying................................................................. AIR 2.4
– Flying near power lines................................... AIR 2.4.1
GEN
– Private Flights....................................................FAL 2.3
– Public Health Measures.....................................FAL 2.4
– Services Available for Aircraft Engaged in..... COM 6.2
– Visas............................................................... FAL 2.2.5
– HF A/G Frequencies, Use of General Purpose
VHF, in Lieu of................................................ COM 6.7
– Operations, Use of Aerodromes by Aircraft
Engaged in.........................................................AGA 1.2
Intersecting Runways, Operations on.................. RAC 4.4.9
TC AIM
M
Mach Number
– Clearances and Reports.................................... RAC 8.3
– Adherence to......................................... RAC 11.13, 12.1
– True Airspeed (TAS) or.............................. .RAC 11.6.2
Maintenance Requirements
– For Canadian Registered Aircraft..................... LRA 2.6
– Aircraft used in Dual Role Operations.......... LRA 2.6.2
Maintenance Certificate.......................................... LRA 2.4
Major Errors in Altimeter...............RAC Fig. 9.1, AIR 1.5.4
Mandatory Frequency (MF), Use of.......... RAC 4.5.4, 4.5.6
Mandatory Instruction Signs...............................AGA 5.8.3
Manned Free Balloon Operations............................ AIR 4.7
Manœuvring Area, Visual.................................... RAC 9.25
MANOT (Missing Aircraft Notice)........................ SAR 2.3
Markers
– Aerodrome Boundary....................................... AGA 5.1
– Retroflective.................................................... AGA 7.20
– Seaplane Dock...................................................AGA 5.3
– Shore.................................................................. AGA 6.7
– Takeoff or Landing Area Boundary................. AGA 5.1
Markings
– Aerodrome........................................................ AGA 5.1
– Appurtenances..................................................AGA 6.6
– Apron Touchdown Pad................................... AGA 5.5.5
– Arrival and Departure Hover Area................ AGA 5.5.4
– Cable Spans................................................AGA 6.2, 6.7
– Closed................................................................AGA 5.6
– Day Marking.....................................................AGA 6.4
– Displaced Threshold...................................... AGA 5.4.1
– Helicopter Safety Area Markers.................... AGA 5.5.2
– Heliports............................................................AGA 5.5
– Heliport Identification.................................... AGA 5.5.3
– Heliport Takeoff and Landing Area Marking
........................................................................ AGA 5.5.1
23
TC AIM
GEN
24
– Holding........................................................... AGA 5.4.4
– Hover Area..................................................... AGA 5.5.4
– Hover Taxiway Route........................................AGA 5.2
– Obstruction........................................................AGA 6.0
– Power Line Crossings........................................ AGA 6.7
– Preferred Approach and Departure Path....... AGA 5.5.6
– Requirements for an Aeronautical Evaluation...AGA 6.3
– Runway..............................................................AGA 5.4
– Standards...........................................................AGA 6.2
– Taxiway Exit and Holding............................. AGA 5.4.4
– Threshold....................................................... AGA 5.4.3
– Unserviceable Area........................................... AGA 5.7
Marshalling Signals................................................. AIR 1.8
Measurement, Units of............................................ GEN 1.5
MEDEVAC – Call Signs..................................... COM 5.8.1
Medical
– Assessment Process.......................................... LRA 3.4
– Aeromedical Factors.......................................... AIR 3.2
– Aviation Medical Review Board.................... LRA 3.4.3
– Examination Requirements........................... LRA 3.2.7
– Periodic Exam............................................... .LRA 3.4.1
Medical Information................................................ AIR 3.0
– Alcohol..............................................................AIR 3.11
– Anesthetics........................................................AIR 3.13
– Blood Donation.................................................AIR 3.14
– Carbon Monoxide............................................ AIR 3.2.3
– Decompression Sickness.................................... AIR 3.5
– Disorientation..................................................... AIR 3.9
– Drugs.................................................................AIR 3.12
– Dry Ice – Safety Precautions............................AIR 3.16
– Fatigue...............................................................AIR 3.10
– General Health................................................... AIR 3.1
– High Altitude Flight in Aircraft with
Unpressurized Cabin.......................................... AIR 3.4
– Hyperventilation............................................. AIR 3.2.2
– Hypothermia and Hyperthermia.......................AIR 3.17
– Hypoxia........................................................... AIR 3.2.1
– Mandatory Medical Reporting........................AIR 3.1.1
– Middle Ear and Sinus Discomfort or Pain......... AIR 3.8
– Portable Combustion Heaters, Potential
Hazard of............................................................ AIR 3.3
– Pregnancy..........................................................AIR 3.15
– Scuba Diving...................................................... AIR 3.6
– Vision................................................................. AIR 3.7
Meteorite Reports............................................... RAC 1.12.3
Meteorological / Meteorology
– Abbreviations, Significant Weather................ MET 3.14
– AIRMET.............................. MET 1.1.3, 1.3.4, 1.3.6, 3.4
– Authority, Areas of Responsibility................ MET 1.1.1
– Automated Reports
– Other.......................................................... MET 3.15.6
– Reports from Other Non-aviation Autostations
................................................................... MET 3.15.6.2
– Voice Generator Module (VGM)........... MET 3.15.6.2
– Aviation Forecasts, Abbreviations....................MET 3.6
– METAR (Aviation Routine Weather Report)
............................................................... MET 3.2.2, 3.15
– Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)....MET 1.1.3
– Aviation Weather Information Service
October 27, 2005
(AWIS)............................................................ MET 1.1.3
– Aviation Weather Reports..................... MET 3.2.2, 3.15
– Aviation Weather Services............................. MET 1.1.3
– AWOS (Automated Weather Observation
System)......................................................... MET 3.15.5
– Canadian Forecast Winds and Temperatures
Aloft Network................................................. MET 3.10
– Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC)........ MET 3.14
– Canadian Weather Information.............. MET 1.3.5, 3.2
– Centres, Location of Canadian Weather........... MET 3.1
– Charts and Forecasts.........................................MET 1.3
– Clear Air Turbulence (CAT), Avoidance of.
..........................................................MET 2.2, AIR 2.10
– Coastal Weather ............................................ MET 1.3.5
– Differences with ICAO Annex-3................... MET 1.1.8
– EC/DND Weather Radar Network................. MET 3.16
– GFA (Area Forecast)......................MET 1.1.3, 1.3.6, 3.3
– Forecasts and Charts.........................................MET 1.3
– Ice Accumulation .............................................MET 2.4
– Locations – Aerodrome Forecast......................MET 3.8
– METAR (Aviation Routine Weather
Report)......................................... MET 1.2.2, 3.2.2, 3.15
– Observations and Reports................................ MET 1.2
– PATWAS........................................................ MET 1.3.5
– Pilot Report (PIREP)
.............................. MET 1.1.3, 1.1.6, 2.0, 3.17, RAC1.1.3
– Reference Points Map.......................................MET 3.5
– Report (AIREP)...........................MET 1.1.6, RAC 11.15
– Reports, Forecasts and Charts............. MET 3.2.1, 3.2.2
– Responsibility................................................ MET 1.1.1
– Services Available.......................................... MET 1.1.2
– SIGMET.................................................MET 1.1.3, 3.18
– SPECI (Special Weather Reports)
................................................. MET 1.2.2, 3.15.4, 3.15.5
– Special VFR Weather Minima...................RAC Fig. 2.9
– Stations and Office – Aeronautical......... MET 1.2.1, 3.1
– Surface Weather Maps.................................... MET 3.19
– Symbols
– Significant Weather...................................... MET 3.14
– Surface Weather Maps................................. MET 3.19
– TAF (Aerodrome Forecast)......................MET 1.1.3, 3.9
– Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWB)....... MET 1.3.6
– Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table................ MET 3.7
– Upper Level Charts, analysed (ANAL)..........MET 3.20
– Upper Level Wind and Temperature
Forecasts................................................. MET 1.3.7, 3.11
– VOLMET.........................................COM 6.8, MET 1.4
– Weather Charts...............................................MET 3.2.3
– Weather Observing Systems...... MET 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 1.1.5
– Weather Radar............................COM 3.14, MET 1.3.10
– Wind Shear........................................................MET 2.3
Middle Ear and Sinus Discomfort or Pain............... AIR 3.8
Migratory Birds....................................... RAC 1.14.4, 1.16.2
– Charts............................................................RAC 1.15.2
– Protection, Hazard........................................RAC 1.14.4
Military
– Arrester Cables................................................. AGA 9.1
– Flight Advisory Unit (MFAU)........................RAC 1.1.6
– Radar Assistance (Canadian Forces)............. RAC 1.5.7
October 27, 2005
N
North American Approvals Registry and Monitoring
Organization (NAARMO)........................RAC 12.16.10
NAR (North American Routes)............................ RAC 11.3
National Harbours Board Act.............................. AIR 2.11.1
Nationality and Registration Marks.........GEN 1.7, LRA 1.3
NAV CANADA
– Air Navigation Service Charges........................FAL 3.2
– Regions – Addresses, Facsimile
and Telephone Numbers................................. GEN 1.1.2
NAVAID
– DME (Distance Measuring Equipment).......... COM 3.7
– Fan Marker Beacons.......................................COM 3.11
– LOC (Localizer).................................. COM 3.12, 3.13.2
– NDB (Non-Directional Beacon)...........COM 3.6, 3.13.4
– Radio Navigation Aids..................................... COM 3.0
– TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation)................... COM 3.8
– VDF (VHF Direction Finding System)
.........................................COM 3.10, RAC 1.6, SAR 4.3
– VOR (VHF Omnidirectional Range)............... COM 3.5
– VORTAC (VOR and TACAN)......................... COM 3.9
– VOT (VOR Receiver Test Facility)............... COM 3.5.3
Navigation Aids
– Accuracy, Availability and Integrity of........... COM 3.3
– Assistance Service..........................................RAC 1.1.3
– Monitoring Service.........................................RAC 1.1.3
– Pilot Reporting of Abnormal Operation of...... COM 3.4
Navigation System
– INS (Inertial Navigation System)...................COM 3.15
– GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)
................................................................ COM 3.15, 3.16
– GPS (Global Positioning System)................COM 3.16.2
– LORAN-C (Long Range Air Navigation) system
............................................................. COM 3.15, 3.15.3
– NDB (Non-Directional Beacon)...........COM 3.6, 3.13.4
– VOR/DME (RHO-THETA)........................ COM 3.15.1
NCA (Northern Control Area) Track Structures
.......................................................................RAC 12.7.1
Night Lighting......................................................... AGA 7.3
Night, Flight Operations at.....................................AIR 2.16
Noise
– Abatement................................................RAC 4.1.2, 7.6
– Preferential Runways............................RAC 4.1.3, 7.6.2
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB).................COM 3.6, 3.13.4
Non-scheduled International Air Service.............FAL 2.2.2
NORDO/RONLY.........................RAC 4.2.10, 4.2.12, 4.4.5,
.............................................................. 4.4.6, 4.5.7, 4.5.8
North American Route Program (NRP)............ RAC 12.6.2
North American Routes (NAR)................. RAC 11.3, 12.7.3
North Atlantic
– Clearances...................................................... .RAC 11.8
– Communications Failure............................... RAC 11.20
– Documents and Guidance Material..............RAC 11.1.2
– Domestic Clearances .................................. RAC 11.8.2
– Families of HF.................................................. COM 6.6
– Flight Planning Procedures..............................RAC 11.6
– Flight Rules..................................................... RAC 11.5
– In-flight Contingencies..................................RAC 11.19
– Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications
Airspace (NAT MNPSA).................... RAC 11.10, 11.22
– Oceanic Clearance Delivery........................ RAC 11.8.3
– Operations (NAT)................... RAC 11.0, COM 3.16.4.4
– Organized Track System..................................RAC 11.4
– Regulation..................................................... RAC 11.1.1
– Step-Climb Procedure................................... RAC 11.17
– Transponders, Operation of...........................RAC 11.14
– VHF coverage................................................COM 6.7.1
Northern and Southern Domestic Airspace......... RAC 2.2.1
Northern Canada, Single-engine Aircraft Operations
........................................................................AIR 2.14.1
Northern Control Area (NCA), position reporting
within........................................................... RAC 12.6.5
NOTAM................................................................. .MAP 5.0
– Collection, Evaluation and Dissemination.....GEN 1.1.5
– Criteria for Issuance........................................ .MAP 5.4
– Distribution – Canadian, International..... MAP 5.2, 5.3
– Format............................................................. .MAP 5.6
– Information for Flight Planning........................ RAC 3.3
– Location Indicators – Files........................... MAP 5.6.8
– GPS Satellite Outages............................ COM 3.16.4.2.1
– Service . ..........................................................RAC 1.1.3
– Summaries ...................................................... MAP 5.5
Notice – PNR (Prior Notice Required)...................AGA 2.2
Numbers, Use of..................................................... COM 5.7
GEN
Minima
– Application of...................................................RAC 9.19
– Circling............................................................ RAC 9.23
– Departure, Approach and Alternate................RAC 9.18
– Straight-in Landing......................................... RAC 9.22
Minimum
– Altitudes – Overflying Aerodromes................. RAC 5.5
– Altitudes – VFR................................................ RAC 5.4
– En-Route Altitudes (MEA).............................RAC 8.7.1
– Fuel Advisory................................................. RAC 1.8.2
– Holding Altitude (MHA)................................ RAC 10.7
– IFR Altitudes............................................RAC 8.6, 8.7.1
– Geographic Area Safe Altitude (GASA)........RAC 8.7.1
– En Route Altitude (MEA)...............................RAC 8.7.1
– Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA)
..................................................................RAC 8.6, 8.7.1
Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications
(MNPS)................................................ RAC 11.10, 11.22.6
– Certification.................................... RAC 11.6.5, 11.22.8
– Navigation Errors, Monitoring of Gross.....RAC 11.22.7
– North Atlantic (NAT) MNPS Operations...COM 3.16.4.4
Missed Approach
– From a Circling Procedure.............................. RAC 9.25
– Procedures....................................................... RAC 9.26
Monitoring Emergency Frequency 121.5 MHz....COM 5.12
Morning and Evening Twilight Charts................ GEN 1.6.2
Morse Code and the Phonetic Alphabet................. COM 5.4
Mountainous
– Areas, Flight Operations in............................. AIR 2.13
– Regions.............................................RAC 2.12, Fig. 2.11
TC AIM
25
TC AIM
GEN
O
Obstacle
– And Terrain Clearance...................................... RAC 7.7
– Clearance During Radar Vectors................... RAC 1.5.5
– Limitation Surfaces...........................................AGA 4.2
– Restrictions.......................................................AGA 4.0
– Heliports.........................................................AGA 4.2.2
Obstruction
– Appurtenances..................................................AGA 6.6
– Day Lighting.....................................................AGA 6.5
– Day Marking.....................................................AGA 6.4
– Markings...........................................................AGA 6.0
– Markings, Standards.........................................AGA 6.2
– Requirement for an Aeronautical Evaluation...AGA 6.3
– Suspended Cable Span Markings..................... AGA 6.7
Occupational Health and Safety Program, Aviation
(A-OH&S)......................................................... GEN 2.1
– Civil Aviation Safety Inspectors.................... GEN 2.1.3
Occurrence – Reporting an Aviation...................... GEN 3.3
Occurrence Sites, Aircraft, Components and
Documentation, Protection of........................... GEN 3.4
Oceanic Clearances.............................................RAC 11.8.1
Oceanic Services...................................................FAL 3.2.2
– NAT - En-route Facilities and Services Charge
...................................................................... FAL 3.2.2.1
– International Communication Services Charge
......................................................................FAL 3.2.2.2
– Customer Service and Accounts Inquiries.....FAL 3.2.3
Oil and Fuel Weights............................................ RAC 3.5.2
Operational Guidance Signs................................AGA 5.8.2
Operations
– On Intersecting Runways............................... RAC 4.4.9
– Sequential....................................................... RAC 4.4.9
– Simultaneous.................................................. RAC 4.4.9
Organized Track System (NAT) ...........................RAC 11.4
Over-the-Top, VFR................................................RAC 2.7.4
Overflying Aerodromes, Minimum Altitudes........ RAC 5.5
P
PAPI (Precision Approach Path Indicator).... AGA 7.6.1, 7.6.4
Parachute Jumping................................................... AIR 4.8
Paraglider operations............................................... AIR 4.9
Parks, refuges and reserves (National, Provincial
and Municipal)..............................................RAC 1.15.5
Passenger(s) – Actual Weights............................. RAC 3.5.1
– Weight standards............................................... RAC 3.5
Passports and Visas, Requirements for.................FAL 2.2.5
PATWAS (Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather
Answering Service)........................................ MET 1.3.5
Pavement Load Rating Charts.......................... .AGA 3.10.1
Permission – PPR (Prior Permission Required).....AGA 2.2
Permits
– Medical Examination Requirements............. LRA 3.2.7
– Reinstatement of Suspended Permit, Licence
or Rating............................................................ LRA 3.6
– Replacement of Licences and........................... LRA 3.5
Phonetics, Use of.................................................... COM 5.4
Phone use During a Radio Communications
26
October 27, 2005
Failure..............................................................COM 5.15
Photographic Survey Flights............................... RAC 12.14
Pilot
– Licensing........................................................... LRA 3.0
– Permits................................................ .LRA 3.2.1, 3.2.2
– Reporting of Abnormal Operation
of Navigation Aids........................................... COM 3.4
– Reports – CIRVIS, Meteorite, Fire Detection
and Pollution................................................... RAC 1.12
– Pilot Vital Action Checklists............................. AIR 1.2
– Waivers – Wake Turbulence...........................RAC 4.1.1
Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather
Answering Service (PATWAS)..................... MET 1.3.5
PIREP (Pilot Report)...........MET 1.1.6, 2.0, 3.17, RAC 1.1.3
Plants and Animals, Regulations Concerning
the Importation of..............................................FAL 2.5
Pollution Reports................................................ RAC 1.12.5
Portable Combustion Heaters, Danger of................ AIR 3.3
Portable Passenger-Operated Electronic Devices
on Board Aircraft, Use of............. COM ANNEX B 1.0
– Regulatory Requirement............... COM ANNEX B 2.0
– Operating Procedures................... COM ANNEX B 3.0
– Informing Passengers................... COM ANNEX B 3.1
Portable Two-way Radiocommunication Devices
...................................................... COM ANNEX -B 1.1
Position Reports.....................................................RAC 11.9
– IFR..................................................................... RAC 8.1
– VFR................................................................... RAC 5.1
– Automatic Dependent Surveillance Waypoint Position
Reporting (FANS 1/A ADS WPR)...................RAC 8.2
Positive and Negative G..........................................AIR 3.18
Power-back / Push-back Requests........................ RAC 4.2.4
Power Line Crossing Markings............................... AGA 6.7
Practice Spins........................................................... AIR 4.3
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)
...............................................................AGA 7.6.1, 7.6.4
Preferential Runways
– Assignments................................................... RAC 4.1.3
– Noise............................................................... RAC 7.6.2
Preferred Routes Messages (PRM)........................RAC 11.7
Preflight
– Reference Information.................................... .MAP 1.2
– Service, Single Source...................................... RAC 3.4
Pregnancy................................................................AIR 3.15
Pre-threshold Area..................................................AGA 3.5
Pressure
– Altimeter............................................................ AIR 1.5
– Drop................................................................. AIR 1.5.8
– Region, Standard............................................. AIR 1.5.5
Private
– Advisory Stations – Controlled Airports...... RAC 1.2.3
– Aircraft Program (CANPASS).......................FAL 2.3.3
Procedure(s)
– Flow Control................................................. RAC 12.10
– Altitudes...........................................................RAC 9.17
– Downed Aircraft.............................................. .SAR 4.8
– Flight Procedures when the Barometric Pressure
Exceeds 31.00 Inches of Mercury.............. RAC 12.12.2
– RVSM In-flight............................................RAC 12.16.4
October 27, 2005
R
RADAR . ..............................................................COM 3.14
– Alerting Manœuvres........................................ SAR 4.5
– Arrivals............................................................ RAC 9.8
– ASDE (Airport Surface Detection Equipment)
.........................................................................COM 3.14
– Canadian Forces Radar Assistance................ RAC 1.5.7
– EC/DND Weather Radar Network................. MET 3.16
– Navigation Assistance to VFR Flights.......... RAC 1.5.4
– Network, EC/DND Weather,.......................... MET 3.16
– Obstacle Clearance During Radar Vectors.... RAC 1.5.5
– PAR (Precision Approach)..............................COM 3.14
– Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR).................COM 3.14
– Required......................................................... RAC 9.8.2
– Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR).............COM 3.14
– Service............................................................... RAC 1.5
– Procedures...................................................... RAC 1.5.2
– Surveillance – VFR........................................... RAC 5.7
– Traffic Information (Clock System).............. RAC 1.5.3
– Use of Radar in the Provision of AAS by FSSs
........................................................................ RAC 1.5.8
– Vectors, Misuse of Radar............................... RAC 1.5.6
– Vectors, Obstacle Clearance During............. RAC 1.5.5
– Weather Radar.................................................COM 3.14
Radio
– Checks........................................... COM 5.9, RAC 4.2.3
– Navigation Aids............................................... COM 3.0
– Radio Telephony Network Operations – North
Atlantic Area (NAT)/Anchorage Arctic FIR... COM 6.6
– Telephony, Standard......................................... COM 5.9
Radio Communications.......................................... COM 5.0
– Arctic...............................................................RAC 1.1.5
– Call Signs......................................................... COM 5.8
– Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs)
....................................................... COM ANNEX A 1.0
– Channel Spacing.............................................. COM 5.3
– Phonetic Alphabet / Morse Code..................... COM 5.4
– Phonetic Designation of Air Routes and Airways
.......................................................................... COM 5.5
– Radiocommunication Regulations.................. COM 5.8
– Regulations – Operator’s Certificates and
Station Licences............................................... COM 5.1
– Time, Heading, Altimeter, Flight Level.......... COM 5.7
Rapid-Exit Taxiway Lighting................................ AGA 7.12
Rapid-Exit Taxiways............................................... AGA 3.9
Readability Scale – Communications Checks......COM 5.10
Recency Requirements – Pilot Licence Privileges....LRA 3.9
Recreational Aviation....................................AIR 4.7 to 4.10
Reduced Lateral Separation, Arrangements for.... RAC 11.12
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM)
...................................................RAC 11.23, 12.16, 12.17
– Aircraft Approvals Process............. RAC 11.23.4, 2.17.2
– Aircraft Certification.........................RAC 12.4.2, 12.17
– Air Traffic Control (ATC) Procedures........RAC 12.16.3
– Aircraft Without RVSM Capability............RAC 12.16.6
– Airworthiness and Operational Approval
and Monitoring............................................RAC 12.16.8
– Altitude Transitions – 1000/2000 Feet
.......................................................... RAC 11.23.2, 12.16
– Delivery flights for Aircraft that are
on Delivery..................................................RAC 12.16.7
– Flight Level Allocation Scheme.................RAC 11.23.3
– Further Information.................................. RAC 11.23.11
– GMU Monitoring........................................RAC 11.23.8
– Height Monitoring......................... RAC 11.23.6, 12.16.9
– Height Monitoring Unit (HMU)..............RAC 11.23.7
– In-flight Procedures....................................RAC 11.23.5
– In-flight Contingencies............................ RAC 12.16.12
– Meteorological Effects............................... RAC 11.23.4
– Minimum Aircraft System Performance
Specification................................................... RAC 11.11
– Transition Area.................... RAC Fig. 12.2, 12.3, 12.16
REFLEXIONS – Aviation Safety........................... GEN 3.5
Refuges, Reserves and Parks (National, Provincial
and Municipal)............................................. RAC-1.15.5
Region(s)
– Altimeter Setting............................................. RAC 2.10
– Mountainous.......................... RAC 2.12, RAC Fig. 2.11
– NAV CANADA.............................................. GEN 1.1.2
– Transport Canada............................................GEN 1.1.1
Regional System Safety Specialist.......................GEN 2.2.2
Registered Aerodrome............................................AGA 2.1
Registration Marks and Nationality.........GEN 1.7, LRA 1.3
Regulations, Airport Zoning ................................ AGA 4.3
Reinstatement of Suspended Permit, Licence
or Rating........................................................... LRA 3.6
Remote Altimeter Setting.................................. RAC 9.17.2
Remote Communications Outlets (RCO).............RAC 1.1.4
– Dial-up RCOs..................................................RAC 1.1.4
– Flight Information Service En Route (FISE)
..................................COM 5.8.3, RAC 1.1.3, 1.1.4, 4.5.1
– Remote Aerodrome Advisory Service (RAAS)
..................................COM 5.8.3, RAC 1.1.3, 1.1.4, 4.5.1
Replacement of Personnel Permits and Licences......LRA 3.5
Reports
– ATS – Possible Contravention of the
Air Regulations...............................................RAC 1.1.4
– Automated Reports
– Other.......................................................... MET 3.15.6
– Limited Weather Information System (LWIS)
....................................................................MET 3.15.6.1
– Voice Generator Module (VGM)............MET 3.15.6.1
– AWOS – METAR AUTO or SPECI AUTO.... MET 3.15.5
– CIRVIS, Vital Intelligence Sightings.......... RAC 1.12.2
– CRFI.................................................AGA 1.1.4, AIR 1.6
– Fire Detection – Northern Areas................. RAC 1.12.4
– Meteorite...................................................... RAC 1.12.3
– Pilot (PIREP).................................. MET 2.0, RAC 1.1.3
– Pollution...................................................... RAC 1.12.5
GEN
– Terminal Instrument.................................... .MAP 3.3.2
Propeller and Jet Blast Danger . ...............................AIR 1.7
Protection of Occurrence Sites, Aircraft,
Components and Documentation...................... GEN 3.4
Public Health Measures Applied to Aircraft...........FAL 2.4
Publications and Charts, Procurement
of Aeronautical..................................................MAP 7.0
Push-back / Power-back Requests........................ RAC 4.2.4
TC AIM
27
TC AIM
GEN
Required Visual Reference.................................RAC 9.19.3
Reserves, Refuges and Parks (National, Provincial
and Municipal)..............................................RAC 1.14.5
Reservation, charter flights...................................FAL 2.2.2
Resolution Advisories (TCAS/ACAS).................... RAC 1.7
Responsibilities
– Nav Canada.................................................... GEN 1.1.2
– Transport Canada.........................GEN 1.1.1, AGA 2.3.3
Restricted Airspace.............................................. RAC 2.8.6
Retroflective Markers............................................ AGA 7.20
Right of Way – Collision Avoidance RegulationsRAC 1.10
RILS (Runway Identification Lights)...................... AGA 7.7
RNAV (Area Navigation) Operations...................COM 3.15
– Equipment Failure Procedures ................... RAC 12.4.6
– Fixed RNAV Routes..................................... RAC 12.6.4
– Preferred IFR Routes................................... RAC 12.6.3
RNPC (Required Navigation Performance
Capability) Airspace....................................... RAC 12.4
RONLY (Receiver Only) /NORDO (No Radio),
Procedures.. RAC 4.2.10, 4.2.12, 4.4.5, 4.4.6, 4.5.7, 4.5.8
Route, Adherence to.............................................RAC 11.16
Routes, Canadian Domestic.................................. RAC 12.6
– Canadian Track Structures............................. RAC 12.7
– Fixed RNAV................................................. RAC 12.6.4
– North American (NAR)................................RAC 12.7.3
– North American Route Program (NRP)...... RAC 12.6.2
– Preferred IFR Routes (including RNAV)
...........................................................RAC 3.16.6, 12.6.3
RSC and CRFI Reporting..................................... AIR 1.6.4
Runway(s)
– Centre Line Lighting....................................... AGA 7.10
– Characteristics..................................................AGA 3.0
– CRFI................................................................... AIR 1.6
– Declared Distances...........................................AGA 3.8
– Dimensions........................................................ AGA 3.1
– Friction Calibration Method.......................... AGA 1.1.4
– Graded Area......................................................AGA 3.2
– Heading............................................................. RAC 7.5
– Identification Lights (RILS).............................. AGA 7.7
– Intersecting, Operations on............................ RAC 4.4.9
– Lighting............................................................. AGA 7.8
– Markings...........................................................AGA 5.4
– Sequential Operations . ................................. RAC 4.4.9
– Simultaneous Operations............................... RAC 4.4.9
– Taxiway Bearing Strength.............................. AGA 3.10
– Touchdown Zone Lighting...............................AGA 7.11
– Wet................................................RAC 4.4.9, AIR 1.6.5
– Winter Condition NOTAM............................. AIR 1.6.4
Runway Visual Range (RVR)............................... RAC 9.20
– Comparative Scale – Feet to Meters.............. GEN 1.9.3
– Operational use of RVR............................... RAC 9.20.2
S
Safety....................................................................... GEN 2.0
– Newsletters.....................................................GEN 2.2.3
– Occupational..................................................... GEN 2.1
– System Safety....................................................GEN 2.2
– System Safety Specialists.................... GEN 2.2.1, 2.2.2
SAR (Search and Rescue) .......................................SAR 1.1
28
October 27, 2005
– Agreements........................................................SAR 1.3
– Aiding Persons in Distress................................ SAR 2.4
– Assistance, Request for..................................... SAR 2.2
– Assistance to Aircraft With Emergencies....... .SAR 4.0
– Closing of a Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
Prior to Landing........................................... RAC 3.12.2
– Declaring an Emergency....................................SAR 4.1
– Distress Signal Panel........................................ SAR 2.4
– Downed Aircraft Procedures............................ SAR 4.8
– Emergency Locator Transmitter........................SAR 3.0
– Flight Planning.................................................. SAR 2.0
– Ground-to-Air Signals....................................SAR 4.8.1
– Interception Procedures.....................................SAR 4.7
– MANOT (Missing Aircraft Notice).................. SAR 2.3
– Procedures for Signaling Vessels...................... SAR 2.4
– Regions (SRR).............................................SAR Fig. 1.1
– Rescue Co-ordination Centres (RCCs)..............SAR 1.1
– Responsible Authority.......................................SAR 1.0
– Services Available..............................................SAR 1.2
– Survival ......................................................... SAR 4.8.2
Satellite Navigation (SatNav).............................COM 3.16.1
– Current Approvals........................................COM 3.16.4
– Required Navigation Performance.............. COM 3.16.7
Scheduled International Air Service.....................FAL 2.2.2
Scuba Diving............................................................ AIR 3.6
Seaplane Dock Markers .........................................AGA 5.3
Seaplanes
– Landing on Glassy Water...............................AIR 2.11.4
– Landing on Unbroken Snow Conditions....... AIR 2.12.6
– Use on Snow Surfaces................................... AIR 2.12.5
Search and Rescue (see SAR)..................................SAR 1.1
SECURITAS Program............................................ GEN 3.6
Security, Emergency Communications and
....................................................... COM 5.11, RAC 2.13
– Distress Message from an Aircraft,
example of a....................................................COM 5.11
– Urgency Message Addressed to All Stations,
example of a....................................................COM 5.11
SELCAL (Selective Calling System)..................... COM 6.4
Sequential Operations.......................................... RAC 4.4.9
Service Difficulty Reporting Program................ LRA 2.6.4
Services
– AFS (Aeronautical Fixed) – International Flights
.......................................................... COM 6.0, 6.1, 6.1.2
– Air Traffic........................................................RAC 1.1.1
– Apron Advisory.............................................. RAC 1.2.4
– Arctic Radio....................................................RAC 1.1.5
– Other Than Air Traffic Services....................... RAC 1.2
“Shall” and “Should” (Definitions).......................GEN 1.1.3
Shore Markers......................................................... AGA 6.7
“Should” and “Shall” (Definitions).......................GEN 1.1.3
SIGMET
(Significant Meteorological Report)......MET 1.1.3, 3.18
Signals
– Ground-to-Air................................................... SAR 4.8
– Intercepting and Intercepted Aircraft................SAR 4.7
– Marshalling for Aircraft and Helicopters ......... AIR 1.8
– Visual.................................................. RAC 4.2.11, 4.4.7
Significant Weather Prognostic Charts (RAFC).....MET 3.13
October 27, 2005
T
Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN)......................... COM 3.8
Takeoff Clearance ............................................... RAC 4.2.8
Takeoff Distance Available (TODA) . ....................AGA 3.8
Takeoff Minima................................................... RAC 9.19.1
Takeoff Run Available (TORA) .............................AGA 3.8
TATC
– Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada...... LRA 4.0
Taxi
– Holding Positions........................................... RAC 4.2.6
– Holding Positions During IFR Operations...... RAC 4.2.7
– Information....................................................RAC 4.2.5
Taxiing.................................................................. RAC 4.4.4
Taxiway
– Bearing Strength............................................. AGA 3.10
– Exit and Holding Markings............................ AGA 5.4.4
– Lighting........................................................... AGA 7.13
– Rapid-Exit.................................................AGA 3.9, 7.12
TCAS/ACAS (Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance Systems and Airborne Collision
Avoidance Systems)...................................... RAC 12.15
– Airworthiness Approval.............................RAC 12.15.5
– Mode S Transponder Approval
and Unique Codes.......................................RAC 12.15.7
– Operational Approval..................................RAC 12.15.4
– Pilot and Controller Interchange.................RAC 12.15.9
– Pilot/Controller Actions..............................RAC 12.15.8
– Pilot Immunity from Enforcement Action
for Deviating from Clearances...................RAC 12.15.6
– Transport Canada Policy.............................RAC 12.15.3
– Use of......................................................... RAC 12.15.2
– Use, Recommended..................................RAC 12.15.10
Technical Records, Aircraft .............................. . LRA 2.6.3
Temperature Correction for Altimeter
...................................................RAC Fig. 9.1, AIR 1.5.2
Terminal Control Areas........................................RAC 2.7.6
Terminal Products.................................................. MAP 3.3
Test Flights, Conduct of Experimental.................... AIR 4.2
Thresholds
– Displaced, Lighting........................................... AGA 7.9
– Displaced, Markings...................................... AGA 5.4.1
– Stopways........................................................ AGA 5.4.2
Thunderstorms
– Flight Operations Near...................................... AIR 2.7
Time
– Signals ............................................................. COM 4.0
– System............................................................... GEN 1.6
– Zone, UTC/Local........................................... GEN 1.6.3
Track System, Southern Control Area................RAC 12.7.2
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems
(TCAS).......................................................... RAC 12.15
Traffic Circuit Procedures
– Controlled Aerodromes..................................... RAC 4.3
– NORDO/RONLY........................................ RAC 4.5.8.2
– Uncontrolled Aerodromes.............................. RAC 4.5.2
Transborder Flights
– CANPASS – Private Aircraft Program..........FAL 2.3.3
– Flight Plan Requirements (Between Canada
and a Foreign State)........................................ RAC 3.6.3
– Private (ADCUS, Airport of Entry)................FAL 2.3.2
Transfer – IFR Units to Towers............................. RAC 9.10
GEN
Signs
– Airside Guidance..............................................AGA 5.8
– Illumination of Airside Guidance.................. AGA 5.8.4
– Mandatory Instruction...................................AGA 5.8.3
– Operational Guidance....................................AGA 5.8.2
Simultaneous Operations..................................... RAC 4.4.9
Simultaneous Precision Instrument Approaches
– Converging Runways...................................... RAC 9.28
– Parallel Runways............................................. RAC 9.27
Single-engine Aircraft Operating
in Northern Canada........................................AIR 2.14.1
– Transoceanic Flight......................................... RAC 11.2
Single Side Band ................................................... COM 6.3
Snow
– Flight Operations in Winter............................. AIR 2.12
– Landing Seaplanes on Unbroken Snow Conditions
....................................................................... AIR 2.12.6
– Landing Wheel-equipped Light Aircraft
on Snow Covered Surfaces........................... AIR 2.12.4
– Removal and Ice Control............................... AGA 1.1.5
Soaring...............................................................COM 5.13.2
Southern and Northern Domestic Airspace......... RAC 2.2.1
Southern Control Area
– Position Reporting Within........................ RAC 12.7.2.3
– Track System.................................................RAC 12.7.2
Sparsely Settled Areas
– Flight Operations..............................................AIR 2.14
– Single-engine Aircraft Operating in Northern
Canada............................................................AIR 2.14.1
Special VFR Weather Minima . .......................... RAC 2.7.3
Speed
– Adjustment – Radar Controlled Aircraft....... RAC 9.8.3
– Aircraft Speed Limit...................................... RAC 2.5.2
Spins, Practice.......................................................... AIR 4.3
Standard
– Instrument Departure (SID).............................. RAC 7.5
– Pressure Region.............................................. RAC 2.11
– Radio Telephony.............................................. COM 5.9
– Terminal Arrival (STAR).................................. RAC 9.2
– Conventional STAR....................................... RAC 9.2.1
– RNAV STAR........................................ RAC 9.2.2, 9.2.3
Stop Bars............................................................... AGA 7.15
Stops, Intermediate............................................... RAC 3.10
Stopway
– Definition..........................................................AGA 3.6
– Markings........................................................ AGA 5.4.2
Straight-in Approach..............................................RAC 9.15
Strength Scale – Communications Checks...........COM 5.10
Strobe Lights, Use of................................................ AIR 4.6
Study, Requirements for an Aeronautical...............AGA 6.3
Sunrise/Sunset...................................................... GEN 1.6.2
Supplement, A.I.P. Canada (ICAO)....................... MAP 6.2
Surface Condition Reports
– Aircraft Movement (AMSCR)........................ AIR 1.6.4
Survival................................................................ SAR 4.8.2
– Advisory Information...............................AIR ANNEX
TC AIM
29
TC AIM
GEN
Transoceanic Flight – General Aviation Aircraft.... RAC 11.2
Transition Areas................................................... RAC 2.7.5
– CMNPS Transition Airspace.................... RAC Fig.12.2
– RVSM Transition Airspace....................... RAC Fig.12.3
Transponder
– Alerting............................................................. SAR 4.4
– Communication Failure..................................RAC 1.9.7
– Emergencies................................................... RAC 1.9.6
– IFR Operations in Other Low Level Airspace
........................................................................ RAC 1.9.3
– Mode S, Approval and Unique Codes........RAC 12.15.7
– Operation ............................................... RAC 1.9, 11.14
– Phraseology . ................................................. RAC 1.9.5
– Requirements................................................. RAC 1.9.2
– VFR Operations............................................. RAC 1.9.4
– Unlawful Interference (Hijack) .................... RAC 1.9.8
Transport Canada
– Internet Address (Home Page).......................... LRA 5.7
– Regions – Addresses, Facsimile and
Telephone Numbers........................................GEN 1.1.1
– Responsibilities..............................................AGA 2.3.3
Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada
(TATC).............................................................. LRA 4.0
– Refusal to issue or Amend a Canadian
Aviation Document........................................... LRA 4.2
– Suspension, Cancellation or Refusal to Renew
........................................................................... LRA 4.3
– Monetary Penalties .......................................... LRA 4.4
– Appeals.............................................................. LRA 4.5
Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB)....... GEN 3.0
– Addresses, Facsimile and Telephone NumbersGEN 3.7
Tribunal – Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada
(TATC).............................................................. LRA 4.0
True Airspeed (TAS).................................RAC 8.3.2, 11.6.2
Turbulence............................................................. MET 3.13
– Clear Air (CAT) ............................................. .AIR 2.10
– Reporting Criteria Table................................... MET 3.7
– Pilot Waivers ..................................................RAC 4.1.1
– Wake.................................................RAC 4.1.1, AIR 2.9
Turbulence, Downdraft and...................................AIR 1.5.7
Turnaround Bay...................................................... AGA 3.4
Twilight Charts, Morning and Evening............... GEN 1.6.2
U
Ultra-light Aircraft..................................................AIR 4.10
Uncontrolled Aerodromes
– Aircraft Operations........................................... RAC 4.5
– Class “G” Airspace
– Recommended Operating Procedures
– En-Route...................................................... RAC 8.11
– Helicopter Operations.................................... RAC 4.5.3
– Initial Contact with Air-to-Ground Facility......RAC 9.11
– Licensing, Registration and Airworthiness......LRA 0-1
– Reporting Procedures (IFR).......................... .RAC 9.12
– Traffic Circuit Procedures.............................. RAC 4.5.2
Uncontrolled Airspace – Procedures (IFR)...........RAC 9.13
Underwater Diving................................................... AIR 3.6
UNICOM (Universal Communications).............. RAC 1.2.1
– Approach UNICOM (AU)............................. RAC 1.2.1
30
October 27, 2005
Units of Measurement............................................. GEN 1.5
Unlawful Interference (Hijack)............................ RAC 1.9.8
Unserviceable Area Markings................................ AGA 5.7
Upper Level
– Charts (ANAL)............................................... MET 3.20
– Wind and Temperature Forecasts (FD)....MET 1.3.8, 3.11
Upper side Band..................................................... COM 6.3
Use of Numbers...................................................... COM 5.7
V
V Speeds................................................................GEN 1.9.1
VASIS (Visual Approach Slope Indicator
System)...............................................AGA 7.6.1 to 7.6.3
VDF (VHF Direction Finder)..............COM 3.10, RAC 1.6,
........................................................................... SAR 4.3
Vehicle Control Service (VCS).............................RAC 1.1.3
Vertigo...................................................................... AIR 3.9
VFR
– Acknowledgement of Clearances..................... RAC 5.2
– Aeronautical Information................................. MAP 2.0
– Alerting Service..............................................RAC 1.1.3
– Altitudes and Flight Levels . ............................ RAC 5.3
– Controlled Airspace, Use of by VFR FlightsRAC 2.5.1
– En Route Procedures......................................... RAC 5.0
– Flight Plan and Flight Itineraries............. RAC 3.6, 3.7.1
– Holding Procedures........................................ RAC 4.4.2
– Minimum Altitudes................................... RAC 5.4, 5.5
– Operations within Class-“C” Airspace............. RAC 5.8
– Over-the-Top...................................................RAC 2.7.4
– Position Reporting............................................ RAC 5.1
– VFR Release of an IFR Aircraft....................RAC 6.2.2
– Weather Minima.............................. RAC 2.7.3, Fig. 2.8
VGM (Voice Generated Module)................. RAC 4.5.1, 9.12
VHF
– Air Traffic Services......................................COM 5.13.1
– Channel Spacing............................................ . COM 5.3
– Direction Finding System (VDF)
..........................................COM 3.10 RAC 1.6, SAR 4.3
– Frequency Allocations....................................COM 5.13
– In Lieu of International HF A/G Frequencies.... COM 6.7
– Omnidirectional Range and Tactical
Air Navigation (VORTAC).............................. COM 3.9
– Omnidirectional Range (VOR)........................ COM 3.5
Visas and Passports, Requirements for.......FAL 2.2.4, 2.2.5
Visibility, Ground................................................ RAC 9.19.1
Vision....................................................................... AIR 3.7
Visual
– Approach Slope Indicator System (VASIS)
............................................................AGA 7.6.1 to 7.6.3
– Climb and Descent......................................... RAC 8.5.2
Visual Signals....................................................... RAC 4.4.7
– Ground......................................................... RAC 4.2.11
– Ground-to-Air.................................................SAR 4.8.1
– Intercepting and Intercepted Aircraft................SAR 4.7
– Marshalling for Aircraft and Helicopters.......... AIR 1.8
– Tower to Aircraft.......................................... RAC 4.2.11
Voice Generated Module (VGM)................. RAC 4.5.1, 9.12
................................................................... MET 3.15.6.2
Voice Systems......................................................COM 6.1.1
October 27, 2005
W
Wake Turbulence....................................RAC 4.1.1, AIR 2.9
Water
– Operations on....................................................AIR 2.11
– Operations Over, Life-saving Equipment......AIR 2.11.3
Web, Transport Canada Site................................ GEN 2.2.4
Weather
– ATC Weather Assistance............................... MET 1.3.8
– ATIS (Automatic Terminal Information
Service)................................................... RAC 1.3, 4.2.1
– Automated Reports – Other......................... MET 3.15.6
– Reports from Other Non-aviation
Autostations.............................................. MET 3.15.6.2
– Voice Generator Module (VGM)...............MET 3.15.6.1
– Briefing, Flight Planning.................................. RAC 3.2
– Centres.............................................................. MET 3.1
– Charts, Reports....................................MET 3.2.2, 3.2.3
– Codes, significant......................................... MET 3.15.3
– Flight Operation Near Thunderstorms.............. AIR 2.7
– Information.......................................................MET 3.2
– Minima Requirements, Alternate
Aerodrome....................................................RAC 3.14.1
– Minima, VFR................................... RAC 2.7.3, Fig. 2.8
– Observations, Surface..................................... MET 3.15
– Pilot Report (PIREP)..... MET 1.1.6, 3.17, RAC 1.1.3, 1.13
– Radar............................................................ MET 1.3.10
– Radar Network................................................ MET 3.16
– Reporting of Cloud Bases.............................. MET 1.1.5
– Reports, Charts....................................MET 3.2.2, 3.2.3
– METAR (Routine Report).................... MET 3.2.2, 3.15
– Special Reports (SPECI).............................. MET 3.15.4
– Surface Maps.................................................. MET 3.19
– Surface Weather Observing Service...............RAC 1.1.3
– Symbols, Significant....................................... MET 3.19
– TAF (Aerodrome Forecast)...............................MET 3.9
– Volcanic Ash.................................. MET 2.5, 3.2.2, 3.21
– Flight Operations in........................................... AIR 2.6
Weight and Balance Form....................................... RAC 3.5
– Actual Weights............................................... RAC 3.5.1
– Fuel and Oil Weights...................................... RAC 3.5.2
– Passenger Standards.......................................... RAC 3.5
Wet Runways.......................................RAC 4.4.9, AIR 1.6.5
Wheel-Equipped Light Aircraft on Snow Covered
Surfaces......................................................... AIR 2.12.4
Whiteout...............................................................AIR 2.12.7
Wildlife, Protection of.........................................RAC 1.14.2
Wind Direction Indicators (Wind Socks)............... AGA 5.9
Wind
– Pilot Estimate of Surface Wind........................MET 2.6
– Beaufort Wind Scale...........................MET 2.6, Table 1
Wind Shear..............................................................MET 2.3
– Low Level......................................................... . AIR 2.8
Winter Operations – Aircraft Contamination..... AIR 2.12.2
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ICAO
– Applicable Documents................................... MET 1.1.7
121.5 MHz, Monitoring of Emergency Frequency
.........................................................................COM 5.12
126.7 MHz, Monitoring of...................................... RAC 5.1
5680 kHz, Use of Frequency.................................COM 5.14
GEN
Volcanic Ash ....................................... MET 2.5, 3.2.2, 3.21
– Flight Operations in........................................... AIR 2.6
VOLMET ..............................................COM 6.8, MET 1.4
VOR/DME (RHO-THETA) System..................COM 3.15.1
VORTAC (VHF Omnidirectional Range
and Tactical Air Navigation)............................ COM 3.9
Vortex
– Characteristics.................................................AIR 2.9.1
– Strength.............................................................. AIR 2.9
Vortices, Helicopter.................................................. AIR 2.9
VOR
– Airborne VOR Check.................................... COM 3.5.4
– Check Point................................................... COM 3.5.2
– Receiver Checks.............................................COM 3.5.1
VOT (VOR Receiver Test Facility).................... .COM 3.5.3
TC AIM
5.0MISCELLANEOUS
5.1 Glossary of Aeronautical Terms
“Acknowledge”
“Let me know that you have received and understood
my message.”
Active Runway
Any runway or runways currently being used for takeoff
or landing. When multiple runways are used, they are all
considered active runways. When an aircraft is landing or
taking off on an airport surface other than a runway, the
direction of flight will determine the active runway.
Aerodrome
Any area of land, water (including the frozen surface thereof)
or other supporting surface used or designed, prepared,
equipped or set apart for use either in whole or in part of
the arrival and departure, movement or servicing of aircraft
and includes any buildings, installations and equipment in
connection therewith.
Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS)
An aircraft system based on secondary surveillance radar
(SSR) transponder signals which operates independently
of ground-based equipment to provide advice to the pilot
on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with
SSR transponders.
Aircraft Classification Number (ACN)
ACNs are numbers expressing, in ICAO terminology, the
relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement. The use of the ACN
– Pavement Classification Number (PCN) method of reporting
pavement strength is described in ICAO Annex 14. The ACN
should not exceed the PCN for unrestricted operations.
31
TC AIM
GEN
Aircraft Load Rating (ALR)
ALRs are numbers, using the Transport Canada system,
which express the relative effect of an aircraft loading on a
pavement. ALRs have been assigned to present day aircraft
at their maximum and minimum operating weights and
at specific tire pressures. The ALR should not exceed the
Pavement Load Rating (PLR) for unrestricted use.
as the circumstances require.
Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ)
Airspace of defined dimensions extending upwards from the
surface of the earth within which certain rules for the security
control of air traffic apply.
Alternate Airport
An aerodrome specified in a flight plan to which a flight
may proceed when a landing at the intended destination
becomes inadvisable.
Airport
An aerodrome in respect of which a Canadian Aviation
document is in force.
Apron
That part of an aerodrome, other than the manœuvring area,
intended to accommodate the loading and unloading of
passengers and cargo; the refuelling, servicing, maintenance
and parking of aircraft; and any movement of aircraft, vehicles
and pedestrians necessary for such purposes.
Airport and Airways Surveillance Radar (AASR)
A medium range radar designed for both airway and airport
surveillance applications
control service to IFR flights and controlled VFR flights
operating within a terminal control area; or
(c) an airport control tower unit established to provide air
traffic control service to airport traffic;
Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)
Relatively short range radar intended primarily for surveillance
of airport and terminal areas.
Arc
The track over the ground of an aircraft flying at a constant
distance from a navigation aid by reference to Distance
Measuring Equipment (DME).
Airport Traffic
All traffic on the manœuvring area of an airport and all
aircraft flying in the vicinity of an airport.
Arctic Control Area (see RAC Figure 2.3)
Controlled airspace within the Northern Domestic Airspace as
defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E).
Air Traffic
All aircraft in flight and aircraft operating on the manœuvring
area of an aerodrome.
Area Minimum Altitude (AMA)
The lowest altitude to be used under Instrument Meteorological
Conditions (IMC) that will provide a minimum vertical
clearance of 1 000 feet or in designated mountainous terrain
2 000 feet above all obstacles located in the area specified,
rounded up to the nearest 100 foot increment.
Air Traffic Control Clearance
Authorization by an air traffic control unit for an
aircraft to proceed within controlled airspace under
specified conditions.
Air Traffic Control Instruction
A directive issued by an air traffic control unit for air traffic
control purposes.
Air Traffic Control Service
Services, other than flight information services, provided for
the purpose of
(a) preventing collisions between
(i) aircraft,
(ii) aircraft and obstructions, and
(iii) aircraft and vehicles on the manœuvring area; and
(b)expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.
Air Traffic Control Unit
(a) An area control centre established to provide air traffic
control service to Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flights
and Controlled Visual Flight Rules (CVFR) flights;
(b)a terminal control unit established to provide air traffic
32
October 27, 2005
Area Navigation (RNAV)
A method of navigation which permits aircraft operations
on any desired flight path within the coverage of stationreferenced navigation aids, within the limits of the capability
of self-contained aids, or a combination of these.
Blind Transmission
A transmission from one station to another in circumstances
where two-way communications cannot be established, but
where it is believed that the called station is able to receive
the transmission.
Broadcast (BCST)
A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is
not addressed to a specific station or stations.
Canadian Domestic Airspace (CDA)
All navigable airspace of Canada designated and defined as
such in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E).
October 27, 2005
Class of Airspace: See RAC 2.8.
Clearance Limit
The point to which an aircraft is granted an air traffic
control clearance.
“Cleared for the option”
For an arriving aircraft: ATC authorization for an aircraft to
make a touch-and-go, low approach, missed approach, stopand-go, or full-stop landing, at the discretion of the pilot.
For a departing aircraft: ATC authorization for an aircraft
to execute manœuvres other than a normal takeoff (e.g., an
aborted takeoff). After such a manœuvre, the pilot is expected
to exit the runway by the most expeditious way rather than
backtracking the runway.
Composite Flight Plan
A flight plan which specifies VFR operation for one portion of
flight and IFR for another portion.
Contact Approach
An approach wherein an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having
an air traffic control authorization, operating clear of clouds
with at least 1 mile flight visibility and a reasonable expectation
of continuing to the destination airport in those conditions,
may deviate from the instrument approach procedure and
proceed to the destination airport by visual reference to the
surface of the earth.
Control Area Extension (CAE)
Controlled airspace of defined dimensions within the Low
Level Airspace extending upwards from 2 200 feet above the
surface of the earth unless otherwise specified.
Controlled Airspace
Airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic
control service is provided.
Controlled VFR Flight (CVFR)
A flight conducted under VFR within Class B airspace and in
accordance with an air traffic control clearance.
Control Zone (CZ)
Controlled airspace of defined dimensions extending upwards
from the surface of the earth up to and including 3 000 feet
AAE unless otherwise specified.
Cruising Altitude
An altitude, as shown by a constant altimeter indication in
relation to a fixed and defined datum, maintained during a
flight or portion thereof.
Daylight
In respect of any place in Canada, the period of time in any
day when the centre of the sun’s disc is less than 6° below
the horizon, and in any place where the sun rises and sets
daily, may be considered to be the period of time commencing
1/2 hour before sunrise and ending 1/2 hour after sunset.
GEN
Ceiling
The lowest height at which a broken or overcast condition
exists, or the vertical visibility when an obscured condition
such as snow, smoke or fog exists, whichever is the lower.
TC AIM
Dead Reckoning (DR)
The estimating or determining of position by advancing an
earlier known position by the application of direction, time
and speed data.
Decision Height (DH)
A specified height at which a missed approach must be initiated
during a precision approach if the required visual reference to
continue the approach to land has not been established.
Defence VFR Flight (DVFR)
A flight conducted in accordance with VFR under the
limitations set out in CAR 602.145.
Direct User Access Terminal System (DUATS)
A computer-based system provided by a vendor to pilots or
other operational personnel. DUATS supplies the aviation
weather and NOTAM information necessary for preflight
planning via computer terminals or personal computers
owned by the vendor or users.
Downwind Termination Waypoint (DTW)
The waypoint located downwind to the landing runway abeam
the final approach course fix (FACF) where an open RNAV
STAR terminates.
Expected Approach Time (EAT)
The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft,
following a delay, will leave the holding fix to complete its
approach for a landing.
Expect Further Clearance Time
The time at which it is expected that further clearance will be
issued to an aircraft.
“Expedite”
A term used by ATC when prompt compliance by the pilot is
required to avoid the development of an imminent situation.
Final Approach
That segment of an instrument approach between the final
approach fix or point and the runway, airport or missed
approach point, whichever is encountered last, wherein
alignment and descent for landing are accomplished.
Final Approach Area
That area within which the final approach portion of an
instrument approach procedure is carried out.
Final Approach Course Fix (FACF)
A fix aligned on the final approach course of an instrument
procedure designed primarily to accommodate computer
33
TC AIM
GEN
based systems of modern aircraft.
approach procedure or proceed as instructed by ATC.
Final Approach Fix (FAF)
The fix from which the final approach (IFR) to an aerodrome
is executed and which identifies the beginning of the final
approach segment. It is designated on instrument approach
charts by a Maltese Cross symbol.
Ground Visibility
The visibility at an aerodrome as contained in a weather
observation reported by
Flight Information Region (FIR) (see RAC Figure 2.2)
Airspace of defined dimensions extending upwards from the
surface of the earth within which flight information service
and alerting service are provided.
(b)a Flight Service Station (FSS);
Flight Level (FL)
An altitude expressed in hundreds of feet indicated on an
altimeter set to 29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.2 millibars.
(a) an Air Traffic Control (ATC) unit;
(c) a Community Aerodrome Radio Station (CARS);
(d)a radio station that is ground-based and operated by an air
carrier; or
(e) an Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS).
Flight Management System (FMS)
A computer system that uses a large data base to allow routes
to be preprogrammed and fed into the system by means of
data loader. The system is constantly updated with respect to
position accuracy by reference to navigation aid(s).
Hang Glider
A motorless heavier-than-air aircraft deriving its lift from
surfaces that remain fixed in flight, designed to carry not
more than two persons and having a launch weight of 45 kg
or less.
Flight Service Station (FSS)
An aeronautical facility providing mobile and fixed
communications, flight information, search and rescue
alerting, and weather services to pilots and other users.
“Have Numbers”
Expression used by pilots to indicate that they have received
runway, wind and altimeter information only.
Flight Visibility
The average range of visibility at any given time forward from
the cockpit of an aircraft in flight.
Heading
The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft
is pointed, usually expressed in degrees from North (True,
Magnetic, Compass or Grid).
Flow Control
Measures designed to adjust the flow of traffic into a given
airspace, along a given route, or bound for a given aerodrome
so as to ensure the most effective utilization of the airspace.
Heavy Aircraft / Jet
For wake turbulence categorization purposes, an aircraft
certificated for a maximum takeoff weight of 136 000 kilograms
(300 000 lbs) or more.
Fuel Dumping
Airborne release of usable fuel. This does not include the
dropping of fuel tanks.
Height Above Aerodrome (HAA)
The height in feet of the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)
above the published aerodrome elevation. The Height Above
Aerodrome (HAA) will be published for all circling minima.
Fuel Remaining
A phrase used by both pilots and ATS when referring to
the amount of fuel remaining on board until actual fuel
exhaustion. When transmitting such information either in
response to an ATS query or a pilot-initiated advisory to
ATC, pilots will state the approximate number of minutes the
flight can continue with the fuel remaining. All reserve fuel
should be included in the time stated, as should an allowance
for established fuel gauge system error.
Go Around
An ATC instruction for a pilot to abandon an approach or
landing. Unless otherwise advised by ATC, a VFR aircraft
or an aircraft conducting a visual approach should overfly the
runway while climbing to traffic pattern altitude and enter
the traffic pattern via the crosswind leg. A pilot conducting
an instrument approach should execute the published missed
34
October 27, 2005
Height Above Touchdown (HAT)
The height in feet of the Decision Height (DH) or the
Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) above the touchdown
zone elevation.
High Intensity Runway Operations (HIRO)
Operations, used at very busy airports, that consist of
optimizing separation of aircraft in final approach in order to
minimize runway occupancy time (ROT) for both arrivingand
departing aircraft and to increase runway capacity.
High Level Air Route
In the High Level Airspace, a prescribed track between
specified radio aids to navigation.
October 27, 2005
High Level Airway
In controlled High Level Airspace, a prescribed track between
specified radio aids to navigation.
IFR Departure Procedure
Published procedures which, if followed, will ensure obstacle
and terrain clearance on an IFR departure. IFR departure
procedures are based on the premise that, on departure, an
aircraft will:
(a) cross at least 35 feet above the departure end of
the runway;
(b)climb straight ahead to 400 above aerodrome elevation
before turning; and
(c) maintain a climb gradient of at least 200 feet per NM
throughout the climb to the minimum altitude for
enroute operations.
Initial Approach
That segment of an instrument approach between the initial
approach fix or point and the intermediate fix or point
wherein the aircraft departs the enroute phase of the flight
and manœuvres to enter the intermediate segment.
Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP)
A series of predetermined manœuvres by reference to flight
instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the
initial approach fix, or where applicable, from the beginning
of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can
be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed,
to a position at which holding or enroute obstacle clearance
criteria apply.
Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)
Meteorological conditions less than the minima specified
in Division VI of Subpart 2 of CARs, Part VI, for visual
meteorological conditions, expressed in terms of visibility
and distance from cloud.
Intermediate Approach
That segment of an instrument approach between the
intermediate fix or point and the final approach fix or point
wherein the aircraft configuration, speed and positioning
adjustments are made in preparation for the final approach.
Intersection
(a) A point on the surface of the earth over which two or more
position lines intersect. The position lines may be true
bearings from NDBs (magnetic bearings shown on chart
for pilot usage), radials from VHF/UHF aids, centre lines
of airways, fixed RNAV routes, air routes, localizers and
DME distances.
(b)The point where two runways, a runway and a taxiway, or
two taxiways cross or meet.
Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)
Operations which include simultaneous takeoffs and landings
and/or simultaneous landings when a landing aircraft is
able and is instructed by the controller to hold-short of the
intersecting runway/taxiway or designated hold-short point.
GEN
High Level Airspace
All airspace within the Canadian Domestic Airspace 18 000
feet ASL and above.
TC AIM
Launch Weight
The total weight of a hang glider or an ultra-light aeroplane
when it is ready for flight including any equipment, instruments
and the maximum quantity of fuel and oil that it is designed to
carry, but does not include:
(a) the weight of any float equipment to a maximum weight
of 34 kg;
(b)the weight of the occupant; or
(c) the weight of any ballistic parachute installation.
Low Approach
An approach over an airport or runway following an instrument
or VFR approach, including the go-around manœuvre, where
the pilot intentionally does not intend to land.
Low Level Air Route
Within low level airspace, a route extending upwards from
the surface of the earth and for which air traffic control is
not provided.
Low Level Airspace
All airspace within the Canadian Domestic Airspace below
18 000 feet ASL.
Low Level Airway
Within low level airspace, a route extending upwards from
2 200 feet above the surface of the earth up to, but not
including, 18 000 feet ASL, and for which air traffic control
is provided.
Manœuvring Area
That part of an aerodrome intended to be used for the taking
off and landing of aircraft and for the movement of aircraft
associated with takeoff and landing, excluding aprons.
MEDEVAC
A term used to request ATS priority handling for a medical
evacuation flight based on a medical emergency in the
transport of patients, organ donors, organs, or other urgently
needed life-saving medical material. The term is to be used
on flight plans and in radiotelephony communications if a
pilot determines that a priority is required.
35
TC AIM
GEN
Military Operations Area (MOA)
Airspace of defined dimensions established to segregate
certain military activities from IFR traffic and to identify for
VFR traffic where these activities are conducted.
Military Terminal Control Area (MTCA)
Controlled airspace of defined dimensions designated to serve
arriving, departing and enroute aircraft, and within which
special procedures and exemptions exist for military aircraft.
Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)
A specified altitude referenced to sea level for a non-precision
approach below which descent must not be made until the
required visual reference to continue the approach to land has
been established.
Minimum EnRoute Altitude (MEA)
The published altitude above sea level between specified fixes
on airways or air routes which assures acceptable navigational
signal coverage, and which meets the IFR obstruction
clearance requirements.
Minimum Fuel
An aircraft’s fuel supply has reached a state where, upon
reaching the destination, it can accept little or no delay.
This is not an emergency situation but merely indicates
that an emergency situation is possible should any undue
delay occur.
Minimum Holding Altitude (MHA)
The lowest altitude prescribed for a holding pattern which
assures navigational signal coverage, communications, and
meets obstacle clearance requirements.
Minimum IFR Altitude
The lowest IFR altitude established for use in a specific
airspace. Depending on the airspace concerned, the minimum
IFR altitude may be a Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude
(MOCA), a Minimum EnRoute Altitude (MEA), a Minimum
Sector Altitude (MSA), a Minimum Vectoring Altitude
(MVA), safe altitude 100 NM, an area minimum altitude
(AMA), a transition altitude or a missed approach altitude.
The minimum IFR altitude provides obstacle clearance but
may or may not be within controlled airspace.
Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA)
The altitude above sea level in effect between radio fixes on
low level airways or air routes which meet the IFR obstruction
clearance requirement for the route segment.
Minimum Reception Altitude (MRA)
Minimum reception altitude, when applied to a specific VHF/
UHF intersection, is the lowest altitude above sea level at
which acceptable navigational signal coverage is received to
determine the intersection.
Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA)
The lowest altitude which will provide a minimum clearance
of 1 000 ft above all objects located in an area contained
36
October 27, 2005
within a sector of a circle of 25 NM radius centred on a radio
aid to navigation.
Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA)
The lowest altitude approved for vectoring aircraft by air
traffic control that meets obstacle clearance requirements in
the airspace specified.
Missed Approach (MA)
A manœuvre conducted by the pilot when an instrument
approach cannot be completed to a landing. Also, used by the
pilot to indicate that a missed approach is being executed.
Missed Approach Point (MAP)
A point prescribed in each instrument approach procedure
at which a missed approach shall be initiated if the required
visual reference is not acquired.
Mountainous Region (see RAC Figure 2.10)
An area of defined lateral dimensions above which special
rules concerning minimum enroute altitudes apply.
Movement Area
That part of an aerodrome intended to be used for the surface
movement of aircraft, and includes the manœuvring area
and aprons.
Navigation Aid (NAVAID)
Any visual or electronic device, airborne or on the surface of
the earth which provides point-to-point guidance information
or position data to aircraft in flight.
Night
In respect of any place in Canada, the period of time when
the centre of the sun’s disc is more than 6° below the horizon,
and in any place where the sun rises and sets daily, may be
considered to be the period of time commencing 1/2 hour
after sunset and ending 1/2 hour before sunrise. (For military
pilots, the definition in CFP100 applies.)
Non-Precision Approach (NPA)
An instrument approach in which electronic azimuth
information is only provided. No electronic glide path
information is provided and obstacle assessment in the final
segment is based on minimum descent altitude.
Non-RVSM Aircraft
An aircraft that does not meet RVSM certification and/or
operator approval requirements.
Northern Control Area (NCA) (see RAC Figure 2.3)
Controlled airspace within the Northern Domestic Airspace as
defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E).
Northern Domestic Airspace (NDA) (see RAC Figure 2.1)
All airspace within the Canadian Domestic Airspace as
defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E).
October 27, 2005
NOTAM
A notice containing information concerning the establishment,
condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service,
procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is
essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.
Obstacle
An existing object, object of natural growth, or terrain at
a fixed geographical location or which may be expected at
a fixed location within a prescribed area with reference
to which vertical clearance is or must be provided during
flight operations.
Obstacle Rich Environment (ORE)
An environment is obstacle rich when it is not possible
to construct an unguided discontinued approach using
procedural method. Approach operations in an Obstacle Rich
Environment require supplementary guidance to proceed
along a published course to the missed approach point and
to achieve a climb to a minimum IFR altitude. Approach
procedures will be annotated “CAUTION: OBSTACLE
RICH ENVIRONMENT”.
Oceanic Entry Point
That point on the flight information region (FIR) boundary
where the aircraft enters the first oceanic control area.
Oceanic Exit Point
That point on the flight information region (FIR) boundary
where the aircraft leaves the last oceanic control area.
Pavement Classification Number (PCN)
PCNs are numbers expressing, in ICAO terminology, the
bearing strength of a pavement for unrestricted operations
in a similar fashion to Transport Canada’s Pavement Load
Rating (PLR).
Pilot’s Discretion
When used in conjunction with altitude assignments, means
that ATC has offered the pilot the option of starting climb or
descent whenever the pilot wishes. Pilots may temporarily level
off at any intermediate altitude; however, once an altitude has
been vacated, the pilot may not return to that altitude because
ATC may have reassigned it to another aircraft. Pilots are
expected to advise ATC of any temporary level-off at any
intermediate altitude.
Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
A high definition, short-range radar used as an approach aid.
This system provides the controller with altitude, azimuth
and range information of high accuracy for the purpose of
assisting the pilot in executing an approach and landing.
This form of navigational assistance is termed “Precision
Approach Radar”.
Preferred Runway
When there is no active runway the preferred runway is
considered to be the most suitable operational runway taking
into account such factors as the runway most nearly aligned
with the wind, noise abatement or other restrictions which
prohibit the use of certain runway(s); ground traffic and
runway conditions.
GEN
North Warning System (NWS) (see COM 6.7.2)
A system that provides airspace surveillance and command
and control capability for air defence identification over the
northern approaches to the continent. It consists of 15 longrange radars (LRR) and 39 short-range radars (SRR) across the
Canadian Arctic and Alaska. Systems deployed on Canadian
territory are operated and maintained by Canada for NORAD
on behalf of Canada and the United States.
TC AIM
Procedure Turn (PT)
A manœuvre in which a turn is made away from a designated
track followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit
the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the reciprocal of
the designated track.
Procedure Turn Inbound
That point of a procedure turn manœuvre where course reversal
has been completed and the aircraft is established inbound on
the intermediate approach segment or final approach course.
Progressive Taxi
Precise taxi instructions given to a pilot unfamiliar with the
aerodrome or issued in stages as the aircraft proceeds along
the taxi route.
“Radar Identified”
Used by ATC to inform the pilot that the aircraft has been
identified on the radar display and radar flight following will
be provided until radar identification is terminated.
Radar Identification
The process of ascertaining that a particular target is the radar
return from a specific aircraft.
Radar Required
A term displayed on instrument approach charts to alert pilots
that segments of either an instrument approach procedure or a
route will be provided by radar vectors.
Radial
A magnetic bearing from a VOR, TACAN, or VORTAC
facility, except for facilities in the Northern Domestic
Airspace which may be oriented on True or Grid North.
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
The application of 1 000 ft vertical separation between RVSM
aircraft in RVSM airspace.
Required Visual Reference
In respect of an aircraft on an approach to a runway, means
that section of the approach area of the runway or those visual
aids that, when viewed by the pilot of the aircraft, enables the
pilot to make an assessment of the aircraft position and the
rate of change of position relative to the nominal flight path.
37
TC AIM
GEN
Restricted Area
Class F airspace of defined dimensions above the land areas
or territorial waters within which the flight of aircraft is
restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.
Stepdown Fix
A fix permitting additional descent within a segment of an
instrument approach procedure by identifying a point at
which a controlling obstacle has been safely overflown.
Runway Heading
The Magnetic or True, as applicable, direction that corresponds
with the runway centre line.
Stop-and-Go
A procedure in which an aircraft lands, makes a complete
stop on the runway, and then commences a takeoff from
that point.
Runway Incursion
Any occurrence at an airport involving the unauthorized or
unplanned presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or person on the
protected area of a surface designated for aircraft landings
and departures.
RVSM Aircraft
An aircraft that meets RVSM certification and operator
approval requirements.
Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)
A radar system that requires complementary aircraft
equipment (transponder). The transponder generates a
coded reply signal in response to transmissions from the
ground station (interrogator). Since this system relies on a
transponder-generated signal rather than a signal reflected
from the aircraft, as in primary radar, it offers significant
operational advantages such as increased range and
positive indication.
Shuttle Procedure
A manœuvre involving a descent or climb in a pattern
resembling a holding pattern.
Southern Control Area (SCA) (see RAC Figure 2.3)
Controlled airspace within the Southern Domestic Airspace as
defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E).
Southern Domestic Airspace (SDA) (see RAC Figure 2.1)
All airspace within the Canadian Domestic Airspace as
defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E).
“Squawk Ident”
A request for a pilot to activate the aircraft transponder
identification feature.
Standard Instrument Departure (SID)
A preplanned IFR air traffic control departure procedure,
published in graphic and textual form, for the use of pilots and
controllers. Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) provide
transition from runways to the appropriate enroute structure.
Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR)
A preplanned IFR air traffic control arrival procedure,
published in graphic and textual form, for the use of pilots
and controllers. STARs provide published route links
between the enroute structure and a published instrument
approach procedure.
38
October 27, 2005
Straight-In Approach – IFR
An instrument approach wherein final approach is begun
without first having executed a procedure turn, not necessarily
completed with a straight-in landing or made to straight-in
landing minima.
Straight-In Approach – VFR
Entry into the traffic pattern by interception of the extended
runway centre line (final approach course) without executing
any other portion of the traffic pattern.
Terminal Control Area (TCA)
Controlled airspace of defined dimensions designated to serve
arriving, departing and en-route aircraft.
Threshold
The beginning of that portion of the runway usable
for landing.
Threshold Crossing Height
The height of the glide slope above the runway threshold.
Touch-and-Go
An operation by an aircraft that lands and departs on a runway
without stopping or exiting the runway.
Touchdown Zone (TDZ)
The first 3 000 feet of the runway or the first third of the runway,
whichever is less, measured from the threshold in the direction
of landing.
Touchdown Zone Elevation (TDZE)
The highest elevation in the touchdown zone.
Track
The projection on the earth’s surface of the path of an aircraft,
the direction of which path at any point is usually expressed
in degrees from North (True, Magnetic or Grid).
Transition
The general term that describes the change from one phase
of flight or flight conditions to another; e.g., transition from
enroute flight to the approach or transition from instrument
flight to visual flight.
A published procedure providing navigation information from
the enroute structure to the instrument approach procedure.
Also includes SID/STAR transitions.
October 27, 2005
Ultra-light Aeroplane
(a) Basic
(i) a single-seat aeroplane that has a launch weight
of 165 kg (363.8 pounds) or less, and a wing area,
expressed in square metres, of not less than the
launch weight minus 15, divided by 10, and in no
case less than 10 m2;
(ii) a two-seat instructional aeroplane that has a launch
weight of 195 kg (429.9 pounds) or less, and a wing
area expressed in square metres, of not less than
10 m2 and a wing loading of not more than 25 kg/
m2 (5.12 pounds/feet2), the wing loading being
calculated using the launch weight plus the occupant
weight of 80 kg (176.4 pounds) per person; or
(iii) an aeroplane having no more than two seats,
designed and manufactured to have a maximum
takeoff weight of 544 kilograms and a stall speed
in the landing configuration (Vso ) of 39 knots
(45 mph) or less indicated airspeed at the maximum
takeoff weight.
(b)Advanced
An aeroplane that has a type design that is in compliance
with the standards specified in the manual entitled Design
Standards for Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplanes.
Vector
A heading issued to an aircraft to provide navigation guidance
by radar.
Visual Approach
A visual approach is an approach wherein an aircraft on
an IFR flight plan (FP), operating in visual meteorological
conditions (VMC) under the control of ATC and having ATC
authorization, may proceed to the airport of destination.
Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)
Meteorological conditions equal to or greater than the minima
prescribed in Division VI of Subpart 2 of CARs, Part VI,
expressed in terms of visibility and distance from cloud.
GEN
“Transmitting in the Blind”
An expression used to indicate that a blind transmission is
being conducted.
TC AIM
Visual Separation
A means employed by a controller to separate aircraft. There
are two ways of effecting visual separation:
(a) VFR – the airport controller issues clearances or instructions
to assist the pilots in avoiding other aircraft; or
(b)IFR or CVFR – following a pilot’s report that the airport
or traffic is in sight, the IFR controller issues the clearance
and instructs the pilot to maintain visual separation.
Way Point (WP)
A specified geographical location used to define an area
navigation route or the flight path of an aircraft employing
area navigation.
Wind Shear (WS)
A change in wind speed and/or wind direction in a short
distance resulting in a tearing or shearing effect. It can exist
in a horizontal or vertical direction and occasionally in both.
39
TC AIM
GEN
40
5.2 Abbreviations and Acronyms
AAE...........................................Above aerodrome elevation
AAIR................ Annual Airworthiness Information Report
AAD..........................................Assigned altitude deviation
AAS......................................... Aerodrome advisory service
AASR..................... Airport and airways surveillance radar
AC............................................................Advisory Circular
ACA.......................................................Arctic Control Area
ACAS.......................... Airborne collision avoidance system
ACC........................................................Area control centre
ACN..........................Aircraft classification number (ICAO)
AD..................................................Airworthiness Directive
ADCUS....................................................... Advise customs
ADF............................................ Automatic direction finder
ADIZ................................... Air defence identification zone
AFS..............................................Aeronautical fixed service
A/G................................................................. Air-to-ground
AFTN...... Aeronautical fixed telecommunications network
AGL....................................................... Above ground level
AIC..................................Aeronautical information circular
AIP........................... Aeronautical Information Publication
AIRAC..Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control
AIREP...................................................................Air report
AIS................................... Aeronautical information service
ALR........................................................Aircraft load rating
AM.................................................... Amplitude modulation
AMA................................................ Area minimum altitude
AME................................... Aircraft Maintenance Engineer
AMIS..................... Aircraft movement information service
ANO..................................................Air Navigation Orders
AOE............................................................. Airport of entry
AOM..........................................Airport Operations Manual
APAPI......... Abbreviated precision approach path indicator
ARCAL...........Aircraft radio control of aerodrome lighting
ARFF................................ Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting
ARP............................................Aerodrome reference point
ARU............................................. Altitude Reservation Unit
ASDA............................. Accelerate-stop distance available
ASDE.......................... Airport surface detection equipment
ASE...................................................Altimetry system error
ASL...............................................................Above sea level
ASR.............................................Airport surveillance radar
ATC.......................................................... Air traffic control
ATF..........................................Aerodrome traffic frequency
ATFM...................................... Air traffic flow management
ATIS..................... Automatic terminal information service
ATS........................................................... Air traffic service
ATZ.................................................Aerodrome Traffic Zone
AU........................................................Approach UNICOM
AWBS.............................. Aviation weather briefing service
AWIS.........................Aviation weather information service
AWOS.................... Automated weather observation system
BBS................................................... Bulletin Board System
BC..................................................................... Back course
BCST..................................................................... Broadcast
C ............................................................................. Celsius
C of A........................................Certificate of airworthiness
C of R........................................... Certificate of Registration
October 27, 2005
CG............................................................. Centre of gravity
CADOR............................ Civil Aviation Daily Occurrence
............................................................Reporting System
CAE...................................................Control area extension
CAP............................................................Canada Air Pilot
CARs.................................. Canadian Aviation Regulations
CARAC...Canadian Aviation Regulation Advisory Council
CARS.......................... Community aerodrome radio station
CAT.......................................................Clear air turbulence
CAT I, II, III.............................................. Category I, II, III
CAVOK......................................... Ceiling and visibility OK
CB................................................................ Cumulonimbus
CCI............................ Condition and conformity inspection
CDA........................................Canadian Domestic Airspace
CFB................................................... Canadian Forces Base
CFS............................................. Canada Flight Supplement
CMA......................................... Central Monitoring Agency
CMC................................. Canadian Meteorological Centre
CMNPS...............................Canadian minimum navigation
............................................. performance specifications
CMNPSA............................Canadian minimum navigation
............................... performance specifications airspace
COP......................................................... Change-over point
C.R.C..........................Consolidated Regulations of Canada
CRFI................................ Canadian Runway Friction Index
CTA................................................................... Control area
CVFR..........................................................Controlled VFR
CVR................................................ Cockpit Voice Recorder
CZ.................................................................... Control zone
DAH................ Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E)
DCPC......................Direct controller-pilot communications
DEW...................................................Distant early warning
DF............................................................... Direction finder
DH................................................................Decision height
DME....................................Distance measuring equipment
DND................................. Department of National Defence
DOT...............................................Department of Transport
DR............................................. Dead reckoning navigation
DRCO......................Dial-up remote communications outlet
DST...................................................... Daylight saving time
DTW................................ Downwind termination waypoint
DUATS...................... Direct User Access Terminal System
DVFR..........................................Defence visual flight rules
E .................................................................................. East
EA.................................................. Expected approach time
EC.......................................................Environment Canada
EET.................................................. Estimated elapsed time
EFC.................................... Expected further clearance time
ELT.......................................Emergency locator transmitter
ERS........................................ Emergency Response Service
ESCAT Plan.................. Emergency Security Control of Air
...................................................................... Traffic Plan
EST.............................................................. Estimated Time
ETA................................................Estimated time of arrival
ETD..........................................Estimated time of departure
ETE................................................. Estimated time en route
EWH . ...................................................Eye-to-wheel height
FAA....................... Federal Aviation Administration (USA)
FACF ........................................... Final approach course fix
October 27, 2005
MA ............................................................Missed approach
MALSF ................... Medium Intensity Approach Lighting
........................ System with Sequenced Flashing Lights
MALSR ...... Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System
...................... with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights
MANOT .......................................... Missing aircraft notice
MAP ................................................ Missed approach point
MASPS ................ Minimum Aircraft System Performance
.................................................................... Specification
mbs ........................................................................ Millibars
MDA . ........................................ Minimum descent altitude
MEA ......................................... Minimum en route altitude
MEDEVAC . ................................Medical evacuation flight
MF .....................................................Mandatory frequency
MFAU ...................................Military Flight Advisory Unit
MHA ......................................... Minimum holding altitude
MHz . ...................................................................Megahertz
MLS . .........................................Microwave landing system
MM . ............................................................. Middle marker
MNPS .... Minimum navigation performance specifications
MNPSA ........................ Minimum navigation performance
.....................................................specifications airspace
MOA ..............................................Military operations area
MOCA ...................... Minimum obstacle clearance altitude
MPa ...................................................................Megapascal
mph ............................................................... Miles per hour
MRA . ................................... Minimum Reception Altitude
MSA .............................................Minimum sector altitude
MTCA ..................................Military terminal control area
MVA ....................................... Minimum vectoring altitude
N ................................................................................North
NAARMO .......... North American Approvals Registry and
................................................ Monitoring Organization
NAR ................................................ North American Route
NASA ............................... National Aeronautics and Space
.....................................................Administration (USA)
NAT ...............................................................North Atlantic
NATO ..........................North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVAID ....................................................... Navigation aid
NCA . ............................................... Northern Control Area
NDA ...................................... Northern Domestic Airspace
NDB ...............................................Non-directional beacon
NM ................................................................. Nautical mile
no PT ...................................................... No procedure turn
NORDO . ................................................................ No radio
NWS ................................................North Warning System
OAC ..........................................Oceanic area control centre
OAT ................................................Outside air temperature
OBST ...................................................................... Obstacle
O/C..................................................Observer-communicator
OCA......................................................Oceanic control area
OCL................................................ Obstacle clearance limit
ODALS ..........Omnidirectional Approach Lighting System
OKTA .................................................................One-eighth
OM . ................................................................ Outer marker
ORE ...........................................Obstacle-rich environment
OTS ................................................Organized track system
OTT ................................................................. Over-the-top
PAC . .......................................................................... Pacific
GEN
FAF ..........................................................Final approach fix
FAR ........................... Federal Aviation Regulations (USA)
FAX .......................................................................Facsimile
FDR .................................................... Flight Data Recorder
FIR . ............................................. Flight information region
FISE ..............................Flight information service en route
FL .......................................................................Flight level
FLAS .................................Flight Level Allocation Scheme
FM ....................................................Frequency modulation
FMS ...........................................Flight management system
FOD ................................................Foreign Object Damage
FPM .............................................................Feet per minute
FSS ..................................................... Flight service station
GHz ...................................................................... Gigahertz
GMU . ................................................ GPS Monitoring Unit
GNSS ............................. Global navigation satellite system
GP ........................................................................ Glide path
GPI . ....................................... Ground Point of Interception
GPS . ...........................................Global positioning system
GS . .....................................................................Glide slope
H .................................................................................Hour
HAA.............................................. Height above aerodrome
HAI......................................... High Altitude Indoctrination
HAT............................................... Height above touchdown
HF................................................................High frequency
Hg ........................................................................... Mercury
HIAL.............................. High Intensity Approach Lighting
HMU................................................Height Monitoring Unit
hPa .................................................................... Hectopascal
HSI........................................ Horizontal Situation Indicator
Hz ................................................................................ Hertz
IAF......................................................... Initial approach fix
IAP .................................... Instrument approach procedure
IAS ......................................................... Indicated airspeed
IC .............................................................. Industry Canada
ICAO................... International Civil Aviation Organization
IF ............................................................... Intermediate fix
IFR . ..................................................Instrument flight rules
ILS..............................................Instrument landing system
IMC.......................... Instrument meteorological conditions
INF ..................................................... Inland navigation fix
INS..............................................Inertial Navigation System
IRS . ............................................ Inertial Reference System
ISA................................International Standard Atmosphere
J or JET...................................................High Level Airway
kg ..........................................................................Kilogram
kHz.........................................................................Kilohertz
kN.................................................................... Kilonewtons
kt ............................................................................... Knots
LAHSO............................. Land and Hold Short Operations
lb ...............................................................................Pound
LDA............................................Landing distance available
LF .................................................................Low frequency
LIAL . .............................Low Intensity Approach Lighting
LO . ...................................................... Low Enroute Charts
LOP ............................................................ Line of Position
LORAN.................................... Long Range Air Navigation
LRNS . ...............................Long Range Navigation System
M or Mag . .............................................................Magnetic
TC AIM
41
TC AIM
GEN
42
PAL . .........................................................Peripheral station
PAPI.................................Precision approach path indicator
PAR ..............................................Precision approach radar
PAS .................................................Private advisory station
PATWAS ......................Pilots automatic telephone weather
............................................................answering service
PCN ...................... Pavement classification number (ICAO)
PIREP ................................................... Pilot weather report
PLR . ................................................... Pavement load rating
PPR ............................................. Prior permission required
PRM........................................... Preferred Routes Messages
PSI .................................................. Pounds per square inch
PSR ........................................... Primary surveillance radar
PT .................................................................Procedure turn
PVT .................................................................... Private use
RA ........................................................Resolution advisory
RAAS .........................Remote aerodrome advisory service
RAIM .............. Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring
RCC ........................................ Rescue co-ordination centre
RCMP ...............................Royal Canadian Mounted Police
RCO.....................................Remote communications outlet
RCR ..............................................Runway condition report
READAC..............Remote Environmental Automated Data
........................................................ Acquisition Concept
RILS........................................ Runway identification lights
RMI.............................................. Radio magnetic indicator
RNAV.......................................................... Area navigation
RNPC.............Required navigation performance capability
RONLY............................................................Receiver only
RSC..............................................Runway surface condition
RTF............................................. Radiotelephony frequency
RVR..................................................... Runway visual range
RVSM...................... Reduced vertical separation minimum
S . ..............................................................................South
SA............................................................ Select availability
SAR..........................................................Search and rescue
SCA.................................................. Southern Control Area
SCIA.....Simultaneous Converging Instrument Approaches
SDA........................................ Southern Domestic Airspace
SELCAL......................................... Selective calling system
SID....................................... Standard instrument departure
SIGMET................. Significant meteorological information
SM......................................................................Statute mile
SNR...................................................... Signal-to-noise ratio
SPEC VIS................ Specified Takeoff Minimum Visibility
SSALR................. Simplified Short Approach Light System
....................................................................... with RAIL
SSB...............................................................Single sideband
SSR.........................................Secondary surveillance radar
STAR............................................ Standard terminal arrival
STOL aircraft..................Short takeoff and landing aircraft
SVFR.......................................................Special VFR flight
T ..................................................................................True
TA............................................................... Traffic advisory
TACAN........................................ Tactical air navigation aid
TAS..................................................................True airspeed
TC............................................................ Transport Canada
TCA.................................................... Terminal control area
TCAS...............Traffic alert and collision avoidance system
October 27, 2005
TCH............................................. Threshold crossing height
TCU.....................................................Terminal control unit
TDZ............................................................Touchdown zone
TDZE.......................................... Touchdown zone elevation
TDZL............................................ Touchdown zone lighting
TMI......................................... Track Message Identification
TODA........................................ Take-off distance available
TORA................................................ Take-off run available
TP ......................................... Transport Canada publication
TPS....................................................... Third Party Support
TRA............................................................Tower radar area
TRP.............................................................Tower radar plan
TSB........................ Transportation Safety Board of Canada
TSO.............................................. Technical Standard Order
TWR................................................................Control tower
UFN........................................................Until further notice
UHF...................................................... Ultrahigh frequency
ULA...................................Unsupported Landing Authority
ULD............................................ Underwater locator device
UNICOM....................................Universal communications
USAF...............................................United States Air Force
USB..............................................................Upper sideband
UTC....................................... Co-ordinated Universal Time
VAS............................................... Vehicle advisory service
VASIS.....................Visual approach slope indicator system
VCS................................................... Vehicle control service
VDF service......................... VHF direction finding service
VFR.......................................................... Visual flight rules
VHF......................................................Very high frequency
VLF....................................................... Very low frequency
VMC.................................Visual meteorological conditions
VNAP.........................Vertical Noise Abatement Procedure
VNC.................................................... VFR navigation chart
VOLMET.....................In-flight meteorological information
VOR.......................................... VHF omnidirectional range
VORTAC....................... Combination of VOR and TACAN
VOT..............................................VOR receiver test facility
VTA............................................... VFR terminal area chart
VTOL aircraft.............Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft
VTPC................................ VFR Terminal Procedures Chart
W . ............................................................................... West
WAC.............................................. World aeronautical chart
WAS...................................... Water Aerodrome Supplement
WP......................................................................... Waypoint
WS.......................................................................Wind shear
zulu (Z).................................. Co-ordinated Universal Time
NOTES1: The Supplements contain additional abbreviations applicable to aeronautical charts and
publications.
2: Abbreviations typical
contained in MET 3.6.
of
meteorology
are
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
This index provides the user with a cross reference between
Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) and corresponding
TC AIM pages where relevant information can be found.
Some administrative or enabling legislation has been omitted
where it has been determined that knowledge of the rule is not
required for aircraft operations.
The Canadian Aviation Regulations section numbers
contained throughout the text are those of the Consolidated
Regulations of Canada (CRC), Chapter 2, as contained in the
Canadian Aviation Regulations
GEN
5.3 Legislation Index
Canadian Aviation Regulations
CARs
Section No.
CAR Name
TC AIM
Paragraph No.
Part I
General
LRA 2.6.1, 4.2, 5.2, 5.5
103
Administration and Compliance
LRA 4.3, 4.4
Part II
Identification, Registration and Leasing of Aircraft
LRA 1.1, 1.6, 5.5
201
Identification of Aircraft and Other Aeronautical Products
LRA 1.2
202
Aircraft Marking and Registration
LRA 1.3, 1.7, 2.7.2
203
Operation of a Leased Aircraft by a Non-registered Owner
Part III
Aerodromes and Airports
LRA 5.5
301
Aerodromes
AGA 2.1, 7.3
302
Airports
AGA 2.3.6
Part IV
Personnel Licensing and Training
LRA 5.5
403
Aircraft Maintenance Engineer Licences and Ratings
LRA 2.4.2
406
Flight Training Units
LRA 2.6.1
421
Personnel Licensing Standards Respecting Flight Crew Permits, Licences
and Ratings
LRA 3.1
422
Personnel Licensing Standards Respecting Air Traffic Controller
Licences and Ratings
LRA 3.3
423
Personnel Licensing Standards Respecting Aircraft Maintenance
Engineer Licensing
LRA 3.3
424
Personnel Licensing Standards Respecting Medical Requirements
LRA 3.1, 3.2, 3.3
425
Personnel Licensing and Training Standards RespectingFlight Training
LRA 3.7.3
Part V
Airworthiness
LRA 5.5
501
Annual Airworthiness Information Report
LRA 2.5
507
Flight Authority
LRA 2.1, 2.3.1, 2.3.3
509
Export Airworthiness Certificate
511
Type Certificate – Aeronautical Product
LRA 2.2.2, 2.6.1
571
Maintenance
LRA 2.4.1, 2.6.1
43
TC AIM
GEN
44
October 27, 2005
Canadian Aviation Regulations
591
Service Difficulty Reporting
LRA 2.6.4
593
Airworthiness Directives
LRA 2.7.1
Part VI
General Operating and Flight Rules
RAC 3.1, LRA 5.5
601
Airspace
RAC 1.10.2, 2.8, 2.8.6, 2.9.2
602
Operating and Flight Rules
COM 5.2, COM Annex A 1.0, COM
Annex B 1.0, RAC 1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 2.3.1,
2.5.2, 2.7.3, 2.7.4, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12,
2.13, 3.1, 3.2, 3.4.2, 3.6.1, 3.6.2, 3.7.1,
3.7.2, 3.9, 3.12, 3.12.1, 3.13, 3.14,
4.1, 4.1.2, 4.3, 4.4.8, 4.5.2, 4.5.4,
4.5.7, 5.4, 5.5, 6.1, 6.2, 8.1, 8.4.1, 8.5,
8.6.2, 9.7.1, 9.8.3, 9.13, 9.19.1, 9.20.1,
9.20.2, 9.20.3, 11.2, 12.8, 12.14,
12.15.6, RAC Annex 2.0, FAL 2.3.2,
4.7, 4.8.2, AIR 2.11.2, 2.11.3, 2.14,
2.14.1, 4.4.2, 4.8
603
Special Flight Operations
RAC 2.5.2, AIR 4.8
604
General Operating and Flight Rules – Private Operator Passenger
Transportation
COM Annex B 2.0, RAC 9.19, 9.20.1,
LRA 2.6.1
624
Private Operator Passenger Transportation Standards
COM Annex B 2.0
605
General Operating and Flight Rules – Aircraft Requirements
RAC 1.10.2, 11.2, SAR 3.1, 3.9, LRA
2.3.1, 2.4.1, 2.6.1, 2.6.3, 2.7.1, 2.7.3
625
Aircraft Equipment and Maintenance Standard
LRA 2.4.1, 2.6.1, 2.7.1
Part VII
Commercial Air Service Operations
RAC 9.19, 9.20.1, LRA 2.6.1, 5.5, AIR
2.14.1
703
Air Taxi Operations
AIR 4.4.2, COM Annex B 2.0
723
Commercial Air Service Standards – Air Taxi
COM Annex B 2.0
704
Commuter Operations
AIR 4.4.2, COM Annex B 2.0
724
Commercial Air Service Standards – Commuter Operations
COM Annex B 2.0
705
Airline Operations
AIR 4.4.2, COM Annex B 2.0
725
Standards Respecting the Use of Aeroplanes– Airline Operations
COM Annex B 2.0
706
Air Operator Maintenance Requirements
LRA 2.6.1, 2.6.3
Part VIII
Air Navigation Services
LRA 5.5
October 27, 2005
6.1 Introduction
GEN
6.0 CIVIL AVIATION CONTINGENCY
OPERATIONS (CACO)
TC AIM
The Civil Aviation Contingency Operations (CACO) Division
is part of the Transport Canada, Civil Aviation, System
Safety Branch. It is the focal point for providing services in
the areas of contingency planning, exercises and operational
response in support of the Civil Aviation emergency response
mandate. In addition, it participates in or provides support to
the aviation-related activities of NATO, NORAD, ICAO, the
FAA and NASA (shuttle-launching).
6.2 Headquarters Operations
CACO manages the national Aviation Operations Centre
(AOC). The AOC monitors the national civil air transportation
system (NCATS) twenty-four hours a day, and responds to
NCATS emergencies that require the attention or co-ordination
of concerned functional branches, including regional offices
and other departments or agencies, as per contingency plans.
6.3 Civil Aviation Accident, Occurrence,
or Incident Reporting
The AOC is the initial contact point for all aviation-related
occurrences. It receives reports on accidents, occurrences,
and any incidents that occur within the NCATS from various
sources, including NAV CANADA, airport authorities,
Emergency Preparedness Canada (EPC), law enforcement
agencies, other government departments, foreign
governments, and the general public. These reports are
continuously monitored and then distributed to the appropriate
functional areas of Transport Canada, Civil Aviation, for
review, investigation (if necessary), and final inclusion in
the CADORS.
Reports requiring regional, modal, muti-modal, interdepartmental, or an outside agency’s attention are immediately
forwarded to that agency for further action.
To report an aircraft accident, occurrence, or incident,
individuals can call the AOC twenty-four hours a day by
dialing 1 877 992-6853 (toll-free) or 613 992-6853; or by
sending a fax to 1 866 993-7768 (toll-free) or 613 993-7768;
or via the Web site at
<http://www.tc.gc.ca/civilaviation/systemsafety/caco
/report.asp>.
For information on CACO, visit our Web site at
<http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/SystemSafety/CACO/
menu.htm>.
45
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October 27, 2005
1.0 GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1
General
AGA
All flights into, from or over the territory of Canada and
landings in such territory shall be carried out in accordance
with the regulations of Canada regarding civil aviation.
Aircraft landing in or departing from the territory of Canada
must first land at an aerodrome at which Customs control
facilities have been provided. (See CFS for complete list.)
The privileges extended are subject to each flight having
been properly authorized and to whatever restrictions the
Government of Canada may, from time to time, or in specific
cases, deem to be warranted.
1.1.1 Aerodrome Authority
Transport Canada is responsible for the surveillance of all
certified civil aerodromes in Canada. The addresses can be
found in GEN 1.1.2.
1.1.2 ICAO Documents
International Standards and Recommended Practices,
Aerodromes, ANNEX 14, Volumes I and II.
1.1.3 Differences with ICAO Standards,
Recommended Practices and Procedures
Differences between Canadian regulations and practices and
ICAO standards, recommended practices and procedures will
be published at a future date.
1.1.4 Canadian Runway Friction Index
Many airports throughout Canada are equipped with
mechanical and electronic decelerometers which are used
to obtain an average of the runway friction measurement.
The average decelerometer reading of each runway is
reported as the Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI).
Experience has shown that results obtained from the various
types of decelerometers on water and slush are not accurate,
and the CRFI will not be available when these conditions
are present.
Aerodromes equipped with runway friction decelerometer
capability are listed in CFS under “Runway Data”.
Operational data relating to the reported average CRFI and
the methods to be used when applying the factors to aircraft
performance are presented in AIR 1.6.
1.1.5 Contaminated Runway Operations
Canadian Civil Aerodromes
At Canadian Aerodromes where snow removal and ice
control operations are conducted, assessment and mitigation
procedures, are carried out to the extent that is practicable
in order to provide movement surfaces that will permit safe
operational use.
Pilots who are confronted with conditions produced by
the changing Canadian climate must be familiar with and
anticipate the overall effect of contaminated runways on
aircraft handling characteristics in order to take any corrective
actions considered necessary for flight safety.
In general terms, whenever a contaminant such as water, snow
or ice is introduced onto the runway surface, the effective
coefficient of friction between the aircraft tire and runway
is reduced. However, the accelerate/stop distance, landing
distance and crosswind limitations contained in aircraft
flight manuals are demonstrated in accordance with specified
performance criteria on bare and dry runways during the
aircraft certification flight test program, and are thus valid
only when the runway is bare and dry.
As a result, the stop portion of the accelerate/stop distance will
increase, the landing distance will increase and a crosswind
will present directional control difficulties.
It is therefore expected that pilots will take all necessary
action, including the application of any appropriate adjustment
factor to calculate stopping distances for their aircraft as may
be required based on the Runway Surface Condition and
CRFI information.
Department of National Defence Aerodromes
Snow removal and ice control policy and procedures at
Canadian military aerodromes are similar to those of Canadian
Civil Aerodromes; however, the military aerodrome operator
may not use the same type of decelerometer to obtain the
average runway friction index.
1.1.6 Bird Hazard
Most major airports in Canada have a plan to identify and
control the hazards birds present to flight operations. This
situation generally is a problem during the spring and
autumn migrations; however, some airports are continuously
subjected to bird hazard. Pilots should monitor ATIS during
the migratory season for information concerning this hazard.
For more information on bird hazard, migratory birds and
bird strike reporting, see RAC 1.15.
1.2 International Airports
Some airports are designated “International Airport” by
Transport Canada to support international commercial air
transport and are listed as such in the ICAO Air Navigation
46
October 27, 2005
Plan - North Atlantic, North American, and Pacific Regions
(ICAO Doc 8755/13). (See FAL 2.2.2 for information on
International Commercial Flights.)
1.2.1 ICAO Definitions
International Scheduled Air Transport, Regular Use (RS):
An aerodrome which may be listed in the flight plan as an
aerodrome of intended landing.
International General Aviation, Regular Use (RG): All aircraft
other than those operated on an international air service.
NOTE: Any of the listed regular aerodromes may be used as
a regular or alternate aerodrome.
1.3 Aerodrome Directory
Complete general data on aerodromes is listed in CFS. ICAO
Type A Charts are available from Aeronautical Information
Service (see MAP 3.6)
1.4 Aeronautical Ground Lights
Aeronautical ground lights are found in CFS under the
aerodrome they serve or on VFR navigational charts.
Rules for operating an aerodrome are provided in Part III
of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) under
Subsection 301. The focus is to define the minimum safety
standards that must be offered as well as making provision for
inspection by the Minister. The operators of aerodromes are
encouraged, in the interest of aviation safety, efficiency and
convenience to improve their aerodromes beyond the basic
regulatory requirements using, as guidelines, the standards
and recommended practices applicable for the certification
of aerodromes as airports. The users of aerodromes are,
however, reminded that the improvement of aerodrome
physical characteristics, visual aids, lighting and markings
beyond the basic regulatory requirements for aerodromes is
a matter of individual aerodrome operator initiative. Such
improvements do not require regulatory compliance, nor are
those improvements inspected or certified in accordance with
the standards and recommended practices applicable for the
certification of aerodromes as airports.
Subsection 301 also puts into regulation the “Registration”
process, which is used to publish and maintain information
on an aerodrome in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) or
the Water Aerodrome Supplement (WAS). This specifies that
an aerodrome operator can expect:
(a) their aerodrome will be registered in the appropriate
publication when the operator provides the necessary
information respecting location, markings, lighting, use
and operation of the aerodrome;
(b)their aerodrome will not be registered in the appropriate
publication if the operator of the aerodrome does not
meet the aerodrome regulatory requirements for markers
and markings, warning notices, wind direction indicator
and lighting;
2.0 AERODROMES AND AIRPORTS
(c) to assume responsibility to immediately notify the Minister
of any changes in the aerodrome’s published information
regarding location, markings, lighting, use or operation of
the aerodrome; and
2.1 General
(d)their aerodrome will be classed as a registered aerodrome
when it is published in the CFS or WAS.
An aerodrome is defined by the Aeronautics Act as:
Any area of land, water (including the frozen surface
thereof) or other supporting surface used, designed,
prepared, equipped or set apart for use either in
whole or in part for the arrival, departure, movement
or servicing of aircraft and includes any buildings,
installations and equipment situated thereon or
associated therewith.
This has a very broad application for Canada where there are
no general restrictions preventing landings or takeoffs. There
are defined exceptions, but, for the most part, all of Canada
can be an aerodrome.
AGA
International Scheduled Air Transport, Alternate Use (AS): An
aerodrome specified in the flight plan to which a flight may
proceed when it becomes inadvisable to land at the aerodrome
of intended landing.
TC AIM
NOTE: No aerodrome operator is obliged by these regulations
to have information published in the CFS or WAS and
the Minister may choose not to publish information
for a site that is considered to be hazardous to
aviation safety.
In addition to the initial application inspection, registered
aerodromes are inspected on a required basis to verify
compliance with CARs and the accuracy of information
published in the CFS and WAS. Such information, however,
is only published for the convenience of the pilot and should
be confirmed through contact with the aerodrome operator
before using a site.
47
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
AGA
Besides the “Aerodrome” and “Registered Aerodrome”
terminology, there is also the term “Airport.” This is an
aerodrome for which a certificate has been issued under
Subsection 302 of CARs. The objective is to protect those that
do not have the knowledge or ability to protect themselves
– the fare paying public and the resident in the vicinity of
an airport that could be affected by unsafe operations. This
is done by ensuring the site is inspected periodically for
compliance with Transport Canada Standards for obstruction
surfaces, physical characteristics, marking and lighting,
which have been recorded in an Airport Operations Manual,
and Airside Operating Procedures. The current status is to
be advertised to all interested aircraft operators through the
CFS, Canada Air Pilot (CAP), NOTAM and voice advisory
as applicable.
2.2 Use of Aerodromes and Airports
The requirement for airport certificationapplies to:
(a) any aerodrome that is located within the built-up area of a
city or town;
(b)any land aerodrome that is used by an air carrier as a main
operations base or for a scheduled passenger-carrying
service; or
(c) any other aerodrome which the Minister feels aerodrome
certification is in the public interest.
Exempt are:
(a) military aerodromes; and
Public Use: An aerodrome or airport listed in the CFS or WAS
that does not require prior permission of the aerodrome or
airport operator for aircraft operations is called a public-use
aerodrome or airport.
(b)aerodromes for which the Minister has written an
exemption, and an equivalent level of safety is defined.
Private Use: An aerodrome or airport can be listed in the CFS
or WAS, but be limited in its use. This can include:
The responsibilities of Transport Canada include:
(a) Prior Permission Required (PPR): The aerodrome operator’s
permission is required prior to use. All military aerodromes
require PPR for Civilian aircraft.
(b)Prior Notice Required (PNR): The aerodrome operator
owner or operator is to be notified prior to use in order that
current information on the aerodrome may be provided.
NOTES 1: Pilots and aerodrome operators are reminded that
aerodrome or airport trespass restrictions are not
applicable to aircraft in distress.
2: Pilots intending to use a non-certified aerodrome
are advised to obtain current information from
the aerodrome operator concerning operating
conditions prior to using that aerodrome for
aircraft operations.
2.3 Airport Certification
2.3.1 General
Transport Canada has the responsibility for the development
and operation of a safe national air transportation system.
Therefore,
airports
supporting
passenger-carrying
commercial operations must meet accepted safety standards.
An airport certificate testifies that an aerodrome meets such
safety standards. Where exemptions from airport certification
safety standards are required, studies will be undertaken to
devise offsetting procedures, which will provide equivalent
levels of safety.
48
2.3.2 Applicability of Airport Certification
2.3.3 Transport Canada Responsibilities
(a) developing safety standards, policies and criteria for:
(i) airfield physical characteristics, including runway
and taxiway dimensions, and separations,
(ii) marking and lighting of manoeuvring surfaces and
obstacles, and
(iii) obstacle limitation surfaces in the vicinity
of airports;
(b)providing assistance to airport operators in drafting
Airport Operations Manuals (AOM);
(c) conducting aeronautical studies where exemptions from
airport certification safety standards are required;
(d)certifying airports and inspect against the requirements
and conditions of the AOM; and
(e) verifying, amending and relaying pertinent airport
information to be identified in the appropriate aeronautical
information services (AIS) publications.
2.3.4 Operator Responsibilities
The aerodrome or airport operator’s responsibilities include:
(a) completing and distributing an approved AOM;
(b)maintaining an airport in accordance with the requirements
specified in the AOM;
(c) detailing the airport general operating procedures,
including the following:
(i) hours of operation,
(ii) apron management and apron safety plans,
October 27, 2005
(iii) airside access and traffic control procedures,
(iv) snow and ice removal and grass cutting services,
(v) airport emergency services, such as Emergency
Response Service (ERS) and medical services,
(vi) bird and animal hazard procedures,
(vii) airport safety programs, including Foreign Object
Damage control,
(viii)airport security programs,
(ix) the issuance of NOTAM; and
2.3.5 Airport Certification Process
Airport certification is a process whereby Transport Canada
certifies that an aerodrome meets airport certification safety
standards and that aerodrome data, as provided by the owner
or operator and confirmed by Transport Canada inspectors,
is correct and published in the appropriate aeronautical
information publications. When these requirements are
met, an airport certificate is issued. The airport certificate
documentation includes:
(a) the airport certificate, which certifies that the airport
meets required standards; and
(b)the AOM, which details the airport specifications,
facilities and services, and specifies the responsibilities of
the operator for the maintenance of airport certification
standards. The AOM is a reference for airport operations
and inspections, which ensures that deviations from
airport certification safety standards and the resulting
conditions of airport certification are approved.
2.3.6 Regulatory References for Airport and
Heliport Certification
The regulatory authority for airport and heliport certification
is Subpart 302 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations
(CARs). Standards for airport certification and the associated
process are contained in the Aerodrome Standards and
Recommended Practices (TP 312E), while standards for
heliport certification and the associated process are contained
in the Heliport and Helideck Standards and Recommended
Practices (TP 2586E).
2.4 Airport Certificate
2.4.1 Issue
An airport certificate will be issued when an inspection
confirms that all requirements for airport certification have
been met, including the following:
(a) where an exemption from airport certification safety
standards exists, measures have been implemented to
provide for an equivalent level of safety; and
(b)the AOM has been approved by the Regional Director,
Civil Aviation.
2.4.2 Airport Certificate Validity and
Amendments
The airport certificate is a legal aviation document that
remains valid as long as the airport is operated in accordance
with the AOM. Periodic inspections are conducted to verify
continued conformity to airport certification safety standards
and conditions specified in the AOM.
Transport Canada may make amendments to the conditions of
issue of an airport certificate where:
AGA
(d)advising Transport Canada and aircraft operators whenever
services or facilities fall below requirements prescribed in
the AOM.
TC AIM
(a) an approved deviation from airport certification safety
standards and a change in the conditions of airport
certification are required;
(b)there is a change in the use or operations of the airport;
(c) there is a change in the boundaries of the airport; and
(d)it is requested by the holder of the airport certificate.
3.0 RUNWAY CHARACTERISTICS
3.1 Runway Length and Width
Runways are generally dimensioned to accommodate the
aircraft considered to be the most “critical aircraft” that is
anticipated to utilize the runways most frequently. The
“critical aircraft” is defined as being the aircraft type which
the airport is intended to serve and which requires the
greatest runway length. To identify the “critical aircraft”,
flight manual performance data of a variety of aircraft are
examined. Having determined the “critical aircraft”, the
longest distance determined from analyzing both takeoff
and landing performance is used as the basis for runway
dimensions. Generally, the runway width is increased to a
maximum of 200 ft as a function of length.
3.2 Graded Area
Each runway is bounded on the sides and ends by a prepared
“graded” area. This graded area is provided to prevent
catastrophic damage to aircraft leaving the runway sides and
to protect aircraft that overfly the runway at very low altitudes
during a balked approach to landing. The graded area at the
end of the runway is not considered as normal stopway for
49
TC AIM
accelerate-to-stop calculations except where it has been
declared as such, and is properly surfaced and kept free
of snow.
3.3 Displaced Runway Threshold
Occasionally, natural and human-made obstacles penetrate
the obstacle limitation surfaces of the take-off and approach
paths to runways.
AGA
To ensure that a safe clearance from these obstacles is
maintained, it is necessary to displace the runway thresholds. In
the case of runways for which instrument approach procedures
are published in the CAP, the usable runway distances for
landings and takeoffs are specified as declared distances. The
displacements are also depicted on the aerodrome or airport
diagram in both the CAP and the CFS. For other runways not
having published CAP approaches, the requisite data is given
in the CFS. Where a threshold is displaced, it is marked as
shown in AGA 5.4.1.
When the portion of the runway before the displaced
threshold is marked with displaced threshold arrows (see
AGA 5.4.1), it is permissible to use that portion of the runway
for taxiing, for takeoff and for the landing roll-out from the
opposite direction. In addition, this displaced portion of the
runway may be used for landing; however, it is the pilot’s
responsibility to ensure that the descent path can be safely
adjusted to clear all obstacles. When taking off from the end
opposite to the displaced threshold, pilots should recognize
the fact that there are obstacles present that penetrated above
the approach slope to the physical end of the runway, which
resulted in the threshold being displaced.
When a section of a runway is closed, either temporarily
because of construction or permanently because the full
length is no longer required, the closed portion of the runway
will not be available for the surface movement of aircraft for
taxiing, take-off or landing purposes and is marked with an
“X”, indicating that the area is not suitable for aircraft use.
The closed portion of the runway may be shown on the
aerodrome or airport diagram in the CFS and the CAP for
identification purposes; however, declared distances will only
include runway length starting at the new threshold position.
in AGA 5.4.2.
3.6 Stopway
A Stopway is defined as a rectangular area on the ground at
the end of the runway, in the direction of takeoff, prepared as
a suitable area in which an aeroplane can be stopped in the
case of an abandoned takeoff and is marked over the entire
length with yellow chevrons as shown in AGA 5.4.2.
3.7 Clearway
A Clearway is defined as a rectangular area on the ground or
water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected
or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may
make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.
3.8 Declared Distances
The CAP provides declared distance information which is
defined as follows:
(a) Take-off Run Available (TORA): The length of runway
declared available and suitable for the ground run of an
aeroplane taking off.
(b)Takeoff Distance Available (TODA): The length of the
takeoff run available plus the length of the clearway,
where provided. (Maximum clearway length allowed is 1
000 ft. and the clearway length allowed must lie within
the aerodrome or airport boundary).
(c) Accelerate Stop Distance Available (ASDA): The length of
the takeoff run available plus the length of the stopway,
where provided.
(d)Landing Distance Available (LDA): The length of runway
which is declared available and suitable for the ground run
of an aeroplane landing.
3.9 Rapid-Exit Taxiways
To reduce the aircraft runway occupancy time, some
aerodromes or airports provide rapid-exit taxiways which are
angled at approximately 30 degrees to the runway.
3.4 Turnaround Bay
3.10 Runway and Taxiway Bearing Strength
Some runways have thresholds not served directly by taxiways.
In such cases, there may be a widened area which can be used
to facilitate turnaround. Pilots are cautioned that these bays
do not give sufficient clearance from the runway edge to allow
their use for holding while other aircraft use the runway.
The bearing strength of some aerodrome or airport pavement
surfaces (runways, taxiways and aprons) to withstand
continuous use by aircraft of specific weights and tire pressures
has been assessed at specific locations. The results are
published in TP 2162/ AK-67-09-140 using Transport Canada
and ICAO terminology. The TC Pavement Load Rating (PLR)
and ICAO Pavement Classification Number (PCN) define the
weight limits at or below which the aircraft may operate on
pavements without prior approval of the aerodrome or airport
Authority. The tire pressure and Aircraft Load Rating (ALR)/
Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) must be equal to or
3.5 Pre-Threshold Area
A paved, non load-bearing surface with a length in excess of
200 ft., which precedes a runway threshold, and is marked
over the entire length with yellow chevrons as shown
50
October 27, 2005
October 27, 2005
less than the PLR/PCN figures published for each aerodrome
or airport. Aircraft exceeding published load restrictions may
be permitted limited operations following an engineering
evaluation by the airport operator. Requests to permit such
operations should include the type of aircraft, operating
weight and tire pressure, frequency of proposed operation and
the pavement areas required at the aerodrome or airport.
3.10.1 Pavement Load Rating Charts
4.0 OBSTACLE RESTRICTIONS
4.1 General
The safe and efficient use of an aerodrome, airport or heliport
can be seriously eroded by the presence of obstacles within
or close to the takeoff or approach areas. The airspace in the
vicinity of takeoff or approach areas (to be maintained free
from obstacles so as to facilitate the safe operation of aircraft)
is defined for the purpose of either:
(a) regulating aircraft operations where obstacles exist;
AGA
Operators requiring information respecting aircraft weight
limitations in effect at an aerodrome or airport can contact
the airport operator. For Transport Canada (TC) airports,
TC Pavement Load Rating Charts are contained in TP 2162,
which is available from the appropriate TC Region.
TC AIM
(b)removing obstacles; or
3.11 Heliports
Because of the unique operational characteristics of
helicopters, heliport physical characteristics are significantly
different from the physical characteristics of aerodromes. For
instance, there is no requirement for a runway at a heliport. In
addition, the heliport takeoff and landing area size is based on
the factor 1.5 times the overall length of the critical helicopter
the heliport is intended to serve. A safety area surrounds the
takeoff and landing area as an area to be kept free of obstacles
other than visual aids.
(c) preventing the creation of obstacles.
4.2 Obstacle Limitation Surfaces
4.2.1 General
An obstacle limitation surface establishes the limit to which
objects may project into the airspace associated with an
aerodrome yet assure that aircraft operations at the aerodrome
will be conducted safely. It includes a takeoff surface, an
approach surface, a transitional surface and an outer surface.
3.11.1 Arrival and Departure Hover Area
Obstacle-free arrival and departure paths to and from a takeoff
and landing area are not always possible due to constraints of
topography or man-made structures. In such cases, an arrival
and departure hover area will be established. The arrival and
departure paths are to and from the hover area. The associated
apron touchdown pad is reached by hover taxi. An arrival and
departure hover area may also be established at heliports as a
means of increasing utilisation.
4.2.2 Heliports
Heliports are normally served by two approach and departure
paths. In some instances, only one approach and departure
path may be established. Heliports intended to be used in
IMC, include a transitional surface in addition to the approach
and departure path(s).
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October 27, 2005
5.0 MARKERS, MARKINGS, SIGNS AND INDICATORS
5.1 Aircraft Takeoff or L anding Area
Boundary Markers
AGA
4.3 Airport Zoning Regulations
The takeoff or landing area boundaries of aerodromes without
prepared runways are indicated by pyramid or cone-type
markers (highway-type cone markers are acceptable) or by
evergreen trees in winter. No boundary markers are required
if the entire movement area is safe for aircraft operations. At
airports, the markers will be coloured international orange
and white, and at aerodromes, the markers will be coloured
solid international orange.
4.3.1 General
An Airport Zoning Regulation is a regulation respecting a
given airport pursuant to section 5.4(1) of the Aeronautics Act
for the purposes of:
(a) preventing lands adjacent to or in the vicinity of a TC
airport or airport site from being used or developed in a
manner that is, in the opinion of the Minister, incompatible
with the operation of an airport;
(b)preventing lands adjacent to or in the vicinity of an airport
or airport site from being used or developed in a manner
that is, in the opinion of the Minister, incompatible with
the safe operation of an airport or aircraft; and
(c) preventing lands adjacent to or in the vicinity of facilities
used to provide services relating to aeronautics from
being used or developed in a manner that would, in the
opinion of the Minister, cause interference with signals
or communications to and from aircraft or to and from
those facilities.
NOTE: An Airport Zoning Regulation applies only to land
outside the boundary of the airport protected by
the Airport Zoning Regulation. Obstacles within
an airport boundary must not penetrate an obstacle
limitation surface for the runway(s) involved
unless the obstacle is exempted as the result of an
aeronautical study.
4.3.2 Airports Where Zoning Regulations are in effect
A list of airports where Airport Zoning Regulations
are in effect is maintained in the Regional Aerodrome
Safety office.
52
5.2 Helicopter Hover Taxiway Route
Markers
Helicopter hover taxiway routes are indicated by markers
35 cm (14 inches) in height consisting of three equal horizontal
bands arranged vertically with the top surface coloured yellow,
the middle green, and the bottom surface yellow.
5.3 Seaplane Dock Markers
Seaplane docks are marked to facilitate their identifications.
For durability, ease of transportation and installation the
marker is made up of 3 interchangeable fibreglass sections.
The equilateral triangle formed by the 3 sections measures
8 feet (2.4 m) from apex to apex.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
5.4 Runway Markings
Aeroplane runway markings vary depending on runway
length and width, and are described in detail in Transport
Canada publication, Aerodrome Standards and Recommended
Practices (TP 312E). The colour of the markings is white.
(a) Non-Instrument Runway – over 5 000 feet in length
AGA
5.4.3 Taxiway Exit and Holding Markings
(b)Instrument Runway – over 5 000 feet in length
5.5 Heliports
5.4.1 Displaced Threshold Markings
5.5.1 Heliport Takeoff and Landing Area Marking
When the perimeter of the takeoof and landing are is not
otherwise obvious, it will be marked by a solid white line.
5.5.2 Safety Area Markers
The safety area which surrounds the takeoff and landing area
will be indicated by either pyramidal, conical or other types
of suitable markers or marking except where a fence has been
installed for crowd and animal control.
NOTE: When the threshold must be displaced for a relatively
short period of time, painting a temporary threshold
bar would be impractical. Flags, cones, or wing bar
lights would be installed to indicate the position of
the displaced threshold. A NOTAM or voice advisory
warning of the temporary displacement will contain a
description of the markers and the expected duration
of the displacement in addition to the length of the
closed portion and the remaining usable runway.
5.4.2 Stopways
The paved area preceding a runway threshold prepared and
maintained as a stopway may be marked with yellow chevrons.
This area is not available for taxiing, the initial takeoff roll or
the landing rollout. The chevron markings may also be used
on blast pads.
5.5.3 Heliport Identification Markings
Heliports are identified by a white capital letter “H” centred
within the takeoff and landing area. Where it is necessary
to enhance the visibility of the letter “H”, it may be centred
within a dashed triangle. Hospital heliports are identified by a
red capital letter “H” centred within a white cross.
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TC AIM
The letter “H” will be oriented with magnetic north, except in
the area of compass unreliability where it will be true north.
October 27, 2005
sensitive areas, preferred approach and departure paths are
designated. The direction of the arrival and departure paths
is indicated by a double headed arrow showing their inbound
and outbound directions. They are located at the edge of the
safety area or on the aiming point marking.
AGA
5.5.4 Arrival and Departure Hover Area Marking
Where practicable, the boundary of the arrival and departure
hover area will be indicated by either pyramidal, conical or
other types of suitable markers.
An aiming point marking will be provided and located in
the centre of the arrival and departure hover area where
practicable. Where the direction of the apron touchdown pad
is not obvious, an indicator will show their direction.
5.6 Closed Markings
Runways, taxiways or portions thereof, and helicopter takeoff
and landing areas that are closed to aircraft operations are
marked by white or yellow X’s, 20 feet in length. Snow
covered areas may be marked by X’s formed by conspicuously
coloured dye. When a runway, taxiway or helicopter takeoff
and landing area is permanently closed all markers and
markings except the X’s are removed.
5.5.5 Apron Touchdown Pad Marking
Apron touchdown pad markings consist of two concentric
circles. The inner circle size will not be less than 2.0 times
the skid length or wheelbase of the helicopter that the pad is
intended to be used by. The outer circle marking is based on
the overall length of the design helicopter.
An “H” marking will be centred within the inner circle. The
cross-bar of the letter “H” will normally be parallel to the
major axes of the apron area.
5.7 Unserviceable Area Markings
Unserviceable portions of the movement area other that
runways and taxiways are delineated by markings such as
marker boards, cones, or red flags and, where appropriate,
a flag or suitable marker is placed near the centre of the
unserviceable area. Red flags are used when the unserviceable
portion of the movement area is sufficiently small for it to
be by-passed by aircraft without affecting the safety of
their operations.
5.8 Airside Guidance Signs
5.8.1 General
5.5.6 Preferred Approach and Departure Path Markings
There may be heliports where, due to nearby obstacles or noise
54
The primary purpose of airside guidance signs is to provide
direction and information to pilots of taxiing aircraft for the
safe and expeditious movement of aircraft on the aprons,
taxiways and runways.
Airside guidance signs are divided into two categories by using
colours to differentiate between signs that provide guidance
or information and signs that provide mandatory instructions.
October 27, 2005
5.8.2 Operational Guidance Signs
TC AIM
The only exception to this rule is for a simple “T” or “+”
intersection. In this case, the location sign and direction
sign may be as depicted below.
When a taxiway continues through the intersection
and changes heading by more than 25˚ or changes its
designation, a direction sign will indicate this fact.
Operational guidance signs provide directions and information
to pilots. The inscriptions incorporate arrows, numbers,
letters or pictographs to convey instructions, or to identify
specific areas.
(b)Direction Sign: A direction sign has a black inscription on a
yellow background and is used to identify the intersecting
taxiways toward which an aircraft is approaching. The sign
is, whenever possible, positioned to the left-hand side of
the taxiway and prior to the intersection. A direction sign
will always contain arrows to indicate the approximate
angle of intercept. Direction signs are normally used in
combination with location signs to provide the pilot with
position information. The location sign will be in the centre
or datum position. In this configuration, all information
on taxiways that require a right turn are to the right of the
location sign and all information on taxiways that require
left turns are to the left of the location sign.
AGA
(a) Location Sign: A location sign has a yellow inscription on
a black background and is used to identify the taxiway
which the aircraft is on or is entering. A location sign never
contains arrows.
(c) Runway Exit Signs: A runway exit sign has a black
inscription on a yellow background and is used to identify
a taxiway exiting a runway. The sign is positioned prior to
the intersection on the same side of the runway as the exit.
The sign will always contain an arrow and will indicate
the approximate angle that the taxiway intersects the
runway. When a taxiway crosses a runway, a sign will be
positioned on both sides of the runway. Runway exit signs
may be omitted in cases where aircraft do not normally
use the taxiway to exit or in cases of one-way taxiways.
(d)Destination Signs: A destination sign has a black inscription
on a yellow background and is used to provide general
55
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
guidance to points on the airfield. These signs will always
contain arrows. The use of destination signs will be kept
to a minimum. Airports with a good direction sign layout
will have little need for destination signs.
AGA
(e) Other Guidance Signs: Other guidance signs have a
black inscription on a yellow background and include
information such as stand identification, VOR check point
and parking areas.
5.8.3 Mandatory Instruction Signs
Mandatory instruction signs are used to identify mandatory
holding positions where pilots must receive further ATC
clearance to proceed. At uncontrolled aerodromes, pilots are
required to hold at points marked by these signs until they
have ascertained that there is no air traffic conflict. Mandatory
instruction signs have white letters, numbers or symbols
against a red background.
(a) Holding Position Sign: A holding position sign is installed
at all taxiway-to-runway intersections at certified
aerodromes. A normal holding position sign is used for
runways certified for VFR, IFR non-precision, and IFR
precision CAT I operations. The sign, when installed at
the runway end, shows the designator of the departure
runway. Signs installed at locations other than the runway
ends shall show the designator for both runways. A
location sign is positioned in the outboard position beside
the runway designator. A sign will be installed at least on
the left side of the taxiway in line with the hold position
markings. It is recommended that signs be installed on
both sides of the taxiway.
In the following examples, “A” shows that an aircraft is
located on Taxiway “A” at the threshold of Runway 25.
The second example has the aircraft on Taxiway “B” at the
intersection of Runway 25/07. The threshold of Runway 25
is to the left and Runway 07 to the right.
For airports located within the NDA, the same rules apply,
except that the sign shows the exact true azimuth of the
runway(s).
Holding position signs are also installed at runway-to-runway
intersections when one runway is used regularly as a taxi route
to access another runway or where simultaneous intersecting
runway operations are authorized. In both cases, the signs are
installed on each side of the runway.
(b)Category II and Category III Holding Position Signs:
CAT II and CAT III holding position signs are installed
to protect the ILS or MLS critical area during CAT II and
CAT III operations. A sign is installed on each side of the
taxiway in line with the CAT II/III hold position marking.
The inscription will consist of the designator of the
runway and the inscription CAT II, CAT III or CAT II/III
as appropriate.
NOTE: Where only one holding position is necessary for
all categories of operation, a CAT II/III sign is not
installed. In all cases, the last sign before entering a
runway will be the normal holding position sign.
(c) No Entry Sign: A no entry sign, as shown below, will
be located on both sides of a taxiway into which entry
is prohibited.
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October 27, 2005
Airside guidance signs are illuminated at airports which are
used at night or in low visibility. Signs, which are illuminated
internally, may be of two types. In one case, the sign face is
constructed from material, such as plexiglass, which permits
the entire sign face to be illuminated. In the other case, the
sign faces incorporate imbedded fibre optic bundles which
illuminate the individual letters, numbers and arrows, not the
face of the sign. At night or in low visibility, pilots approaching
a fibre optic sign will see RED illuminated characters on
mandatory instruction signs, YELLOW characters on a
location sign, and WHITE characters on all other information
signs.
NOTE: At the present time and for several years to come,
signs not conforming to this convention will continue
to be used. There are still airports which have signs
with white characters on a green background. Pilots
should be aware of the possibility of confusion,
particularly when operating at unfamiliar airports.
5.9 Wind Direction Indicators
At aerodromes that do not have prepared runways, the wind
direction indicator is usually mounted on or near some
conspicuous building or in the vicinity of the general aircraft
parking area.
Runways greater than 4 000 feet in length will have a wind
direction indicator for each end of the runway. It will be
located 500 feet in from the runway end and 200 feet outward,
usually on the left side.
Runways 4 000 feet in length and shorter will have a wind
direction indicator centrally located so as to be visible from
approaches and the aircraft parking area. Where only one
runway exists, it will be located at the mid-point of the runway
200 feet from the edge.
For night operations the wind direction indicator will
be lighted.
NOTE: At aerodromes certified as airports, a dry Transport
Canada standard Wind Direction Indicator will react
to wind speed as follows:
WIND SPEED
WIND INDICATOR ANGLE
15 KT or above
Horizontal
10 KT
5˚ below horizontal
6 KT
30˚ below horizontal
At aerodromes not certified as airports, non-standard wind
indicator systems may be in use which could react differently
to wind speed.
AGA
5.8.4 Illumination of Airside Guidance Signs
TC AIM
6.0 OBSTRUCTION MARKINGS
6.1 General
Where it is likely that a building, structure or object, including
an object of natural growth, is hazardous to aviation safety
because of its height and location, the owner, or other person
in possession or control of the building, structure or object,
may be ordered to mark it and light it in accordance with the
requirements stipulated in standard 621.19 to the Canadian
Aviation Regulations (CARs), Standards Obstruction
Markings.
Except in the vicinity of an airport where an airport zoning
regulation has been enacted, Transport Canada has no authority
to control the height or location of structures. However, all
objects, regardless of their height, that have been assessed as
constituting a hazard to air navigation require marking and/or
lighting in accordance with the CARs and should be marked
and/or lighted to meet the standards specified in CAR 621.19.
6.2 Standards
The following obstructions should be marked and/or lighted
in accordance with the standards specified in CAR 621.19:
(a) any obstruction penetrating an airport obstacle limitation
surface as specified in TP 312, Aerodrome Standards and
Recommended Practices;
(b)any obstruction greater than 90 m (300 ft) AGL within two
nautical miles of the imaginary centre-line of a recognized
VFR route, including but not limited to a valley, a railroad,
a transmission line, a pipeline, a river or a highway;
(c) any permanent catenary wire crossing where any portion
of the wires or supporting structures exceeds 90 m
(300 ft) AGL;
(d)any obstructions greater than 150 m (500 ft) AGL; and
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TC AIM
(e) any other obstruction to air navigation that is assessed as
a likely hazard to aviation safety.
6.3 Requirements for an Aeronautical Evaluation
AGA
Because of the nature of obstructions, it is not possible to fully
define all situations and circumstances. Thus, in certain cases,
a Transport Canada aeronautical evaluation will be required to
determine whether an obstruction to air navigation is a likely
hazard to aviation safety or to specify alternative methods of
complying with the obstacle marking and lighting standards
while ensuring that the visibility requirement is met.
An aeronautical evaluation may be performed with respect to
the following types of obstructions:
(a) obstructions greater than 90 m (300 ft) AGL but not
exceeding150 m (500 ft) AGL;
(b)catenary wire crossings, including temporary crossings,
where the wires or supporting structures do not exceed
90 m (300 ft) AGL;
(c) obstructions less than 90 m (300 ft) AGL; and
(d)any other obstruction specified in CAR 621.19.
6.4 Day Marking
Day marking of obstructions 150 m (500 ft) AGL or less,
such as poles, chimneys, antennas, and cable tower support
structures, may consist of alternate bands of international
orange and white paint. A checkerboard pattern may be
used for water tanks, etc. Dependent on the degree of
hazard assessed, such structures could require red (steady or
flashing), medium-intensity omnidirectional white flashing
or high-intensity unidirectional white flashing strobe lighting
systems during the day. Lighting systems may be used in lieu
of other means of day marking.
6.5 Day Lighting
Lighting is installed on obstructions primarily in order to warn
pilots of a potential collision during nighttime operations.
However, if the lighting is of sufficient intensity, it may also
serve to give warning during daytime operations and may be
approved in lieu of other means of day markings.
6.6 Appurtenances
Where an obstruction is provided with a red obstruction
lighting system, any appurtenance 12 m (40 ft) in height will
require an obstruction light at the base of the appurtenance.
Where such an appurtenance is more than 12 m (40 ft) in height,
the light must be installed on the top of the appurtenance. If
the appurtenance is not capable of carrying the light unit, the
light may be mounted on the top of an adjacent mast.
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October 27, 2005
Where a high-intensity white flashing lighting system is
required, appurtenances higher than 12 m (40 ft) in height
will require a top-mounted medium-intensity white flashing
omnidirectional light unit.
6.7 Suspended Cable Span Markings
Suspended cable spans, such as power line crossings, assessed
as being hazardous to air navigation are normally marked
with coloured balls suspended from a messenger cable
between the top of the support towers. The support towers
are obstruction painted. When painting the support towers
is not practical, or to provide added warning, shore markers
painted international orange and white will be displayed. In
some cases, older marker panels that have not been updated
are of a checkerboard design.
An alternative method of marking is to use strobe lights on
shore-based cable support towers. Normally three levels of
lights are installed as follows: one light unit at the top of the
structures to provide 360˚ coverage; two light units on each
structure at the base of the arc of the lowest cable; and two
light units at a point midway between the top and bottom
levels with 180˚ coverage. The beams of the middle and lower
lights are adjusted so that the signal will be seen from the
approach direction on either side of the power line. The lights
flash sequentially: middle lights followed by the top lights and
then the bottom lights in order to display a “fly up” signal
to the pilot. The middle light may be removed in the case of
narrow power line sags; in this case the bottom lights will
flash first then the top lights will flash in order to display a
“fly up” signal to the pilot. When determined appropriate
by an aeronautical study, medium-intensity white flashing
omnidirectional lighting systems may be used on supporting
structures of suspended cable spans lower than 150 m
(500 ft) AGL.
Obstruction markings on aerial cables (i.e., marker balls)
that define aeronautical hazards are generally placed on the
highest line for crossings where there is more than one cable.
Obstruction markings can also be installed on crossings under
the Navigable Waters Protection Act. In this case, the marker
balls are placed on the lowest power line and are displayed to
water craft as a warning of low clearance between the water
and an overhead cable.
In accordance with the foregoing, pilots operating at low levels
may expect to find power line crossings marked as either an
aeronautical hazard or a navigable water hazard. They may be
unmarked if it has been determined by the applicable agency
to be neither an aeronautical nor a navigable waters hazard.
Pilots operating at low altitudes must be aware of the hazards
and exercise extreme caution.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
7.0 LIGHTING
7.1
General
AGA
The lighting facilities available at an aerodrome or airport are
described in the CFS. Information concerning an aerodrome
or airport’s night lighting procedures is included as part of the
description of lighting facilities where routine night lighting
procedures are in effect. Where night lighting procedures
are not published for an aerodrome or airport, pilots should
contact the aerodrome operator concerned and request that
the appropriate lights be turned on to facilitate their intended
night operations.
7.2 Aerodrome Beacon
Many aerodromes are equipped with a flashing white beacon
light to assist pilots in locating the aerodrome at night. The
flash frequency of beacons at aerodromes or airports used by
aeroplanes is 20 to 30 evenly spaced flashes per minute. The
flash frequency of beacons at aerodromes and heliports used
by helicopters only is sequenced to transmit the Morse code
letter “H” (groups of four quick flashes) at the rate of three to
four groups per minute.
7.3 Minimum Night Lighting Requirements
at Aerodromes
Section 301.07 of the CARs requires that any area of land or
water that is to be used as an aerodrome at night shall have
fixed (steady) white lights to mark take-off and landing areas,
and fixed red lights to mark unserviceable (hazardous) areas.
Retroreflective markers may be substituted for lights to
mark the landing and take-off areas at aerodromes provided
alignment lights are installed. This alternative for night
marking of landing areas, however, is not approved for
certified sites.
7.4 Unserviceable Area Markings
Unserviceable areas within the manoeuvring area of an
aerodrome being used at night are marked by steady burning
red lights outlining the perimeter of the unserviceable area(s).
Where it is considered necessary in the interest of safety, one
or more flashing red lights may be used in addition to the
steady red lights.
7.5 Approach Lighting
The approach lighting systems depicted in the CFS include
the following:
7.5.1 Non-Precision Approach Runways
(a) Low Intensity Approach Lighting System: This system is
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TC AIM
provided on non-precision approach runways and consists
of twin aviation yellow fixed intensity light units spaced
at 60-m (200-ft) intervals commencing 60 m (200 ft) from
the threshold and extending back for a distance of 900 m
(3 000 ft) (terrain permitting).
AGA
(b)Omnidirectional Approach Lighting System (ODALS):
This system is a configuration of seven omnidirectional,
variable intensity, sequenced flashing lights. ODALS
provides circling, offset, and straight-in visual guidance
for non-precision approach runways. There are five lights
on the extended centreline commencing 90 m (300 ft)
from the threshold and spaced 90 m (300 ft) apart for
450 m (1 500 ft). Two lights are positioned 12 m (40 ft) to
the left and right of the threshold.
(c) Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System with
Sequenced Flashing Lights (MALSF): This system consists
of seven bars of variable intensity lights spaced 60 m
(200 ft) apart for 420 m (1 400 ft) commencing at 60 m
(200 ft) from the threshold. The three bars farthest away
from the threshold also contain a sequenced flashing
light unit.
7.5.2 Precision Approach Runways
(a) High Intensity Approach Lighting (HIAL) System—CAT I:
This system consists of rows of five white variable intensity
light units spaced at 100-ft intervals commencing 300 ft
from the threshold and extending back for a distance of
3 000 ft (terrain permitting). Additional light bars have
been added to the low intensity system (incorporated
in this system) because of the lower landing minimum.
These are as follows:
(i) approach threshold bar (green)
(ii) contrast bars (red)
(iii) imminence of threshold bar (red)
(iv) l 000-ft distance bar (white)
(b)Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System with Runway
Alignment Indicator Lights—CAT I (MALSR): This system
consists of a variable intensity approach lighting system
extending 2 400 ft from the threshold. This system
consists of the following:
(i) seven bars of light spaced at 200 ft over a distance of
1 400 ft; and
(ii) five sequenced flashing lights spaced at 200 ft over a
further distance of 1 000 ft.
(c) High Intensity Approach Lighting System—CAT II: This
system consists of rows of five white variable intensity
light units placed at longitudinal intervals of 30 m
(100 ft) commencing 30 m (100 ft) from the threshold
and extending for a distance of 720 m (2400 ft). In view
of the very low decision height associated with CAT II
operations, the following lights are provided in addition to
the lights of the CAT I system:
(i) runway threshold (green)
(ii) 500-ft distance bar (white with red barrettes)
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October 27, 2005
(iii) side barrettes (red)
7.6 Approach Slope Indicator Systems
7.6.1 General
An approach slope indicator consists of a series of lights visible
from at least 4 NM (2.5 NM for abbreviated installations)
designed to provide visual indications of the desired approach
slope to a runway (usually 3˚). Aircraft following the on-slope
signal are provided with safe obstruction clearance within 6˚
to 9˚ on either side of the extended centreline out to 4 NM
from the runway threshold. Exceptions will be noted in the
CFS. Descent using an approach slope indicator should not
be initiated until the aircraft is visually aligned with the
runway. Approach slope indicator systems provide safe wheel
clearance over the runway threshold. The vertical distance
from a pilot’s eyes to the lowest portion of the aircraft in the
landing attitude is called the EWH, and this distance varies
from less than four feet to up to 45 ft for some wide-bodied
aircraft, such as the B-747. Consequently, approach slope
indicator systems are related to the EWH for the aircraft that
the aerodrome is intended to serve and provide safe wheel
clearance over the threshold when the pilot is receiving the
on-slope indication.
The Canadian civil standard for VASIS and PAPI has the
lights normally situated on the left side of the runway only.
When available strip widths preclude the use of a full system,
an abbreviated approach slope indicator consisting of only
two light units may be installed.
Approach slope indicator systems are categorized as follows:
Visual Approach Slope Indicator System (VASIS)
V1: 2-BAR VASIS intended to serve aircraft with an
EWH up to three metres (ten feet).
V2: 2-BAR VASIS intended to serve aircraft with an
EWH up to 7.5 m (25 ft).
V3: 3-BAR VASIS intended to serve wide-bodied
aircraft with an EWH up to 14 m (45 ft).
AV: AVASIS intended to serve aircraft with EWH up to
three metres (ten feet).
PAPI (Precision Approach Path Indicator)
P1: PAPI for aircraft with an EWH up to three metres
(ten feet).
P2: PAPI for aircraft with an EWH up to 7.5 m (25 ft).
P3: PAPI for aircraft with an EWH up to 14 m (45 ft).
AP: APAPI for aircraft with an EWH up to three metres
(ten feet).
7.6.2 2-BAR VASIS (V1 and V2)
The 2-BAR VASIS (V1 and V2) consists of four light units
situated on the left side of the runway in the form of two pairs
of wing bars referred to as the upwind and downwind wing
bars. The wing bars project a beam of light having a white
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
colour in the upper part and a red colour in the lower part.
7.6.4 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)
(a) When you are on the approach slope, the upwind bar will
show red and the downwind bar will show white.
PAPI consists of four light units situated on the left side of the
runway in the form of a wing bar.
(b)When you are above the approach slope, both upwind and
downwind bars will show white.
(a) When you are on the approach slope, the two units nearest
the runway show red and the two units furthest from the
runway show white.
(d)When you are well below the approach slope, the lights of
the two wing bars will merge into one red signal.
(b)When you are slightly above the approach slope, the one
unit nearest the runway shows red and the other three show
white. When you are further above the approach slope, all
four units show white.
(c) When you are slightly below the approach slope, the three
units nearest the runway show red and the other white.
When you are well below the approach slope, all four units
show red.
7.6.3 3-BAR VASIS (V3)
AGA
(c) When you are below the approach slope, both upwind and
downwind bars will show red.
(d)Although the single wing bar configuration remains the
same for all PAPI systems, it is possible to provide for
safe wheel clearance over the threshold for aircraft with
different EWHs, i.e., P1, P2 and P3 for aircraft with an
EWH of up to 3 m (10 ft), 7.5 m (25 ft) and 14 m (45 ft)
respectively, by varying the distance of the wing bar from
the runway threshold.
The 3-BAR VASIS (V3) is basically a 2-BAR VASIS (V2)
with one light unit added to form an additional upwind bar.
This provides a greater threshold wheel clearance for aircraft
with a large EWH (a wide body). The system then consists of
three wing bars as follows:
• upwind bar (added)
• middle bar (upwind bar of V2)
• downwind bar of V2
Wide-bodied aircraft use the upwind and middle bars to
provide safe wheel clearance and conventional aircraft (up
to 7.5 m (25 ft) EWH) use the middle and downwind bars as
with V2.
Where VASIS is provided on a precision approach runway,
it will be turned off in weather conditions of less than 500 ft
ceiling and/or visibility less than one mile, unless specifically
requested by the pilot. This is to avoid possible contradiction
between the precision approach and VASIS glide paths.
7.7
Runway Identification Lights (RILS)
These are provided at aerodromes where terrain precludes
the installation of approach lights, or where unrelated nonaeronautical lights or the lack of daytime contrast reduces the
effects of approach lights. Aerodromes equipped with RILS
are listed in the CFS and the RILS system is indicated by the
notation “AS”.
RILS are operated to accommodate arriving aircraft
as follows:
(a) by day: When the visibility is 5 miles or less, they are
turned on and will be left on unless the pilot requests that
they be turned off.
(b)by night: These lights are operated in conjunction with the
approach and runway lights, but can be turned off at the
pilot’s request.
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October 27, 2005
7.8 Runway Lighting
7.11 Runway Touchdown Zone Lighting
A runway that is used at night shall display 2 parallel lines of
fixed white lights visible for at least 2 miles to mark takeoff
and landing areas. These lights are arranged so that:
Touchdown zone variable intensity white lights are provided
on CAT II instrument runways. They consist of bars of three
inset lights per bar disposed on either side of the runway
centre line, spaced at l00-foot intervals commencing l00 feet
from the threshold, extending 3 000 feet down the runway.
The lights are unidirectional, showing in the direction of
approach to landing.
(a) the minimum distance between parallel lines is 75 feet,
and the maximum is 200 feet;
AGA
(b)the maximum distance between lights in the parallel lines
is 200 feet;
(c) the minimum length of parallel lines is 1 400 feet;
(d)the minimum number of lights in parallel lines is 8; and
(e) each light in the parallel lines is aligned opposite the other
and at right angles to the centre line of the takeoff and
landing area.
7.8.1 Runway Edge Lights
These are variable intensity white lights at the runway edges
along the full length of the runway spaced at 200-foot intervals,
except at intersections with other runways. The units are light
in weight and mounted in a frangible manner.
7.8.2 Runway Threshold End Lights
These are variable intensity red and green light units in the
form of wing bars along the threshold on each side of the
runway centre line, except that for CAT II runways, the red
and green light units extend along the full width of the runway.
Red shows in the direction of takeoff and green shows in the
approach direction.
7.9 Displaced Runway Threshold Lighting
Where runway thresholds have been displaced they are lighted
as follows:
7.12 Rapid-Exit Taxiway Lighting
Rapid-exit taxiway lights are green in colour and are installed
on the runway surface commencing approximately 200 feet
before the turn and continuing through the rapid-exit taxiway
to 200 feet beyond the turn.
7.13 Taxiway Lighting
Taxiway edge lights are blue in colour and are spaced at
200‑foot intervals. Where a taxiway intersects another
taxiway or a runway, two adjacent blue lights are placed at
each side of the taxiway. The intersection of taxiway and
parking aprons is indicated by two adjacent yellow lights at
taxiway/apron corners.
Centre line taxiway lights are green in colour and are installed
on the taxiway surface. They are spaced at 200-foot intervals
with less spacing on taxiway curves.
7.14 Clearance Bars
Clearance bars may be provided on taxiways where it is
desirable to define a specific aeroplane holding limit. They
are located at a point 30 m (100 ft) to 60 m (200 ft) from the
near edge of the taxiway and runway intersection.
The clearance bars consist of at least three flush-mounted
unidirectional yellow lights visible in the direction of the
approach to the intersection. They are placed symmetrically
about and at 90˚ to the taxiway centre-line with individual
lights 1.5 m (5 ft) apart.
7.10 Runway Centre Line Lighting
Runway centre line lighting is provided on CAT II runways.
It consists of variable intensity lights installed on the runway
surface spaced at intervals of 50 feet. The lights leading in
the takeoff or landing direction are white to a point 3 000 feet
from the runway end. They then change to white and red
until 1 000»feet from the runway end, at which point they
become red.
62
7.15 Stop Bars
Stop bars are provided at every taxi-holding position serving
a runway when it is intended that the runway will be used
October 27, 2005
in RVR conditions of less than a value of the order of 400 m
(1 400 ft). Stop bars are located across the taxiway at the
point where it is desired that traffic stop and consist of lights
spaced at intervals of 3 m (10 ft) across the taxiway. They
appear showing red in the intended direction of approach to
the intersection or taxi-holding position.
TC AIM
by white lights in the same configuration as the takeoff and
landing area perimeter lighting. Where practicable, the aiming
point will be defined by at least six red aviation lights located
on the triangular marking.
7.16 Runway Guard Lights
(a) They can consist of a series of lights spaced at intervals
of 3 m (10 ft) across the taxiway. Where this is the case,
the adjacent lights illuminate alternately and even lights
illuminate alternately with odd lights; or
(b)They can consist of two pairs of lights, one on each side
of the taxiway adjacent to the hold line. Where this is the
case, the lights in each unit illuminate alternately.
AGA
Runway guard lights are provided at each taxiway/runway
intersection where enhanced conspicuity of the intersection
is needed, such as on a wide-throat taxiway. They consist of
yellow unidirectional lights that are visible to the pilot of an
aircraft taxiing to the holding position but their configuration
may vary:
7.17.2 Approach and Departure Direction Lights
At some heliports, where it is necessary to follow preferred
approach and departure paths to avoid obstructions or noise
sensitive areas, the direction of the preferred approach and
departure routes will be indicated by a row of five yellow or
white omnidirectional or sequenced flashing lights at the edge
of the takeoff and landing area or the arrival and departure
hover area.
7.17 Heliport Lighting
Where a heliport is used at night, the perimeter of the takeoff
and landing area may be lighted by yellow perimeter lights or
by floodlighting.
(a) Yellow Perimeter Lights: Where the takeoff and landing
area is circular, not less than five yellow lights are used to
mark the perimeter. In a rectangular layout, the perimeter
is marked by a minimum of eight yellow lights with a light
at each corner.
(b)Floodlighting: When provided, the floodlighting will
illuminate the takeoff and landing area such that the
perimeter marking of the takeoff and landing area is
visible. Low mount floodlight units (15 in. or less) will
be used when located on the perimeter of the takeoff and
landing area. Where the floodlight units are mounted
higher than 15 in., they will be located outside the perimeter
of the takeoff and landing area (e.g., on a hangar or
adjacent structure).
NOTE: Perimeter lighting or reflective tape may be used in
addition to floodlighting.
7.17.1 Arrival and Departure Hover Area Lighting
An arrival and departure hover area perimeter is marked
7.18 Emergency Lighting
Most major airports in Canada are equipped with an
emergency power system for lighting visual aids. This system
is normally capable of assuming the electrical load within
approximately 15 seconds. At airports with non-instrument
approach runways, the changeover time may be upwards of
two minutes.
7.19 Aircraft Radio Control of Aerodrome
Lighting (ARCAL)
ARCAL systems are becoming more prevalent as a means of
conserving energy, especially at aerodromes and airports not
staffed on a continuous basis or where it is not practicable
to install a land line to a nearby FSS. Aside from obstacle
lights, some or all of the aerodrome and airport lighting may
be radio-controlled.
Control of the lights should be possible when aircraft are
within 15 NM of the aerodrome or airport. The frequency
range is 118 to 136 MHz.
Activation of the system is via the aircraft VHF transmitter
and is effected by depressing the push-to-talk button on the
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TC AIM
AGA
microphone a given number of times within a specified number
of seconds. Each activation will start a timer to illuminate the
lights for a period of approximately l5 min. The timing cycle
may be restarted at any time during the cycle by repeating the
specified keying sequence. It should be noted that for ARCAL
Type K runway identification lights (code AS) can be turned
off by keying the microphone three times on the appropriate
frequency. The code for the intensity and the lighting period
varies for each installation. Consequently, the CFS must be
consulted for each installation.
NOTE: Pilots are advised to key the activating sequence when
commencing their approach, even if the aerodrome
or airport lighting is on. This will restart the timing
cycle so that the full 15-min cycle is available for
their approach.
7.20 Retroreflective Markers
Some aerodromes may use retroreflective markers in place
of lights to mark the edges of runways or helipads. These
retroreflective markers are approved for use on runways at
registered aerodromes only; however, they may be used as
a substitute for edge lighting on taxiways or apron areas at
some certified airports.
Retroreflective markers are to be positioned in the same
manner as runway lighting described in earlier paragraphs of
this chapter. Therefore, when the aircraft is lined up on final
approach, retroreflective markers will provide the pilot with
the same visual presentation as normal runway lighting. A
fixed white light or strobe light shall be installed at each end
of the runway to assist pilots in locating the aerodrome and
aligning the aircraft with the runway. Similarly, retroreflective
markers at heliports are to be positioned in the same pattern
as prescribed for helipad edge lighting.
The approved standard for retroreflective markers requires
that they be capable of reflecting the aircraft landing lights
so that they are visible from a distance of two nautical
miles. Pilots are cautioned that the reflective capabilities of
retroreflective markers are greatly affected by the condition of
the aircraft landing lights, the prevailing visibility and other
obscuring weather phenomena. Therefore, as part of pre­flight
planning to an aerodrome using retroreflective markers, pilots
should exercise added caution in checking the serviceability
of their aircraft landing lights and making provision for an
alternate airport with lighting in case of an aircraft landing
light failure.
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October 27, 2005
8.0 AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIRE
FIGHTING (ARFF)
8.1 General
Airports obligated to provide ARFF are found in the schedule
under CAR 303. Other airports choosing to provide ARFF
must do so in accordance with CAR 303.
The primary responsibility of an ARFF service is to provide
a fire-free egress route for the evacuation of passengers and
crew following an aircraft accident.
8.2 AARF Hours of Availability
The aerodromes or airports providing ARFF are required to
publish the hours during which an ARFF service is operated
in the CFS under the ARFF annotation.
8.3 Classification System
The following table identifies the critical category for fire
fighting as it relates to the aircraft size, the quantities of water
and complementary extinguishing agents, the minimum
number of ARFF vehicles and the total discharge capacity.
For ease of interpretation, the table is a combination of the
two tables found under CAR 303.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
Aeroplane Aeroplane Overall
Category
Length
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
at least 9 m but
less than 12 m
at least 12 m but
less than 18 m
at least 18 m but
less than 24 m
at least 24 m but
less than 28 m
at least 28 m but
less than 39 m
at least 39 m but
less than 49 m
at least 49 m but
less than 61 m
at least 61 m but
less than 76 m
at least 76 m
Quantity of
Water
(in litres)
Quantity of
Complementary
Agents
(in kilograms)
Minimum
Number of
Aeroplane Firefighting Vehicles
Total Discharge
Capacity
(in litres
per minute)
2 m
230
45
1
230
2 m
670
90
1
550
3 m
1 200
135
1
900
4 m
2 400
135
1
1 800
4 m
5 400
180
1
3 000
5 m
7 900
225
2
4 000
5 m
12 100
225
2
5 300
7 m
18 200
450
3
7 200
7 m
24 300
450
3
9 000
8 m
32 300
450
3
11 200
8.4 ARFF Standby Request
8.5 ARFF Discreet Communication
Local standby means the level of response when an aircraft
has, or is suspected to have, an operational defect. The defect
would normally cause serious difficulty for the aircraft to
achieve a safe landing.
The capability to communicate on a discreet frequency is
normally available at airports that provide ARFF services.
Full emergency standby means the level of response when
an aircraft has, or is suspected to have, an operational defect
that affects normal flight operations to the extent that there is
possibility of an accident.
When informed that an emergency has been declared by a
pilot, the airport ARFF unit will take up emergency positions
adjacent to the landing runway and stand by to provide
assistance. Once response to an emergency situation has
been initiated, the ARFF unit will remain at the increased
state of alert until informed that the pilot-in-command has
terminated the emergency. After the landing, ARFF will
intervene as necessary and, unless the pilot-in-command
authorizes their release, escort the aircraft to the apron and
remain in position until all engines are shut down.
AGA
3
less than 9 m
Maximum
Fuselage
Width
8.6 Aircraft Emergency Intervention (AEI)
An AEI service may be provided as per Part III, Subpart 8, of
the CARs for the qualifying movements of aircraft that seat
20 or more passengers.
8.7 AEI Availability
Airports providing AEI are required to publish this
information in the CFS under the ARFF annotation. To
ensure AEI service availability, airports should be advised of
qualifying aircraft movement schedule changes in advance.
In order to adequately respond, a pilot request to “stand
by in the fire hall” is not appropriate. Pilots are reminded,
however, that the ARFF unit will terminate their alert posture
when informed by the pilot that the emergency situation no
longer exists.
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TC AIM
9.0 MILITARY AERODROMES
9.1 Arrester Cables
AGA
Some military aerodromes and civil airports are equipped
with aircraft arrester cables at both ends of the main
runway. Information relating to specific types, location and
precautionary measures are provided in the CFS.
Arrester cables are usually located approximately 1 500 to
2 000 feet from the end of the runway. For ease of identification
yellow circles are painted across the runway along the cable.
A yellow lighted circle on the edge of the runway marks the
location during darkness.
Pilots are advised to avoid crossing the raised arrester cable at
speeds in excess of 10 MPH as a wave action may develop in
the cable which could damage the aircraft. This is particularly
important for nose wheel aircraft having small propeller,
undercarriage door clearance or wheel fairings. Tail wheel
aircraft may also sustain damage if the tail wheel engages
the cable. The approach end cable is normally removed, but if
both cables are in position, landing aircraft will be advised by
the tower. When the approach end cable is in position pilots
should plan to touch down beyond the cable or sufficiently
short of the cable to permit a crossing speed of 10 MPH
or less.
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October 27, 2005
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
1.0 GENERAL INFORMATION
2.0 LOCATION INDICATORS
1.1
2.1 General
General
This section contains a description of the radio navigation
aids and communication facilities available in Canada and in
the Gander Oceanic Control Area.
1.2 Responsible Authority
The authority for the regulation of Communications
Navigation, Surveillance (CNS) / Air Traffic Management
(ATM) systems in Canada is the Air Navigation Services and
Airspace Branch of Transport Canada. Enquiries should be
addressed to:
Telephone: .................................................... 613 998-9694
Fax: . .............................................................. 613 998-7416
E-mail: . ................................................. [email protected]
1.3 Provision of Services
1.3.1 NAV CANADA
NAV CANADA is responsible for the installation,
maintenance and operation of the majority of aeronautical
telecommunication systems in Canada (see GEN 1.1 for
address). This includes the operation of a network of area
control centres, terminal control units, airport control towers
and flight service stations used for the provision of air traffic
services. The types of services provided by these facilities are
described in RAC 1.1.
1.3.2 SERCo Aviation Services
SERCo Aviation Services is responsible for the
installation, maintenance and operation of the aeronautical
telecommunication systems and the provision of air traffic
services at Portage la Prairie/Southport Airport, Manitoba.
Enquiries should be addressed to:
SERCo Aviation Services
P.O. Box 220
Southport MB R0H 1N0
1.3.3 Other Telecommunication System Operators
A number of CNS/ATM systems throughout Canada are owned
and operated by individuals, companies or government. See
COM 3.1.1 for details.
3.0 RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS
COM
Transport Canada (AARND)
CNS / ATM Systems Standards Division
Tower C, 7th Floor, Place de Ville
Ottawa ON KIA 0N8
Responsibility for Canadian location indicators rests
with the Aeronautical Information Services Division of
NAV CANADA. Canadian Location Indicators (NP 667)
contains the procedures for assignment or cancellation
of location indicators, as well as a complete list of
Canadian location indicators. Location indicators are also
listed and updated every 56 days in the Canada Flight
Supplement (CFS)
3.1 General
The following types of radio navigation and surveillance
systems exist in Canada, although signal coverage cannot be
guaranteed in all parts of the Canadian domestic airspace:
• Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
• En Route and Terminal Radar
• Instrument Landing System (ILS)
• Localizer Long-Range Navigation (LORAN-C)
• Fan Marker Beacons
• Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
• Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)
• Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
• Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN)
• VHF Direction Finder (VDF)
• VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR)
• VHF Omnidirectional Range and
Tactical Air Navigation (VORTAC)
A complete list of all Canadian NDBs, VORs, VORTACs and
TACANs is contained in the CFS.
3.1.1 Non-NAV CANADA Navigation Aids
Some non-NAV CANADA owned navigation aids (NAVAIDs)
are shown on aviation charts and maps. They are depicted
as ‘private’, but must meet ICAO standards as required by
CAR 802.02.
The status of non-NAV CANADA NAVAIDs used in
instrument approaches s normally provided through the
NOTAM system.
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TC AIM
3.1.2 Interference with Aircraft Navigational Equipment
ensure that they meet these stringent standards. This may be
achieved through:
Some portable electronic devices can interfere with aircraft
communications and radio navigation systems. The radiation
produced by FM radio receivers and television broadcast
receivers falls within the ILS localizer and VOR frequency
band, while the radiation produced by the AM radio receivers
falls into the frequency range of ADF receivers. This radiation
could interfere with the correct operation of ILS, VOR
and ADF equipment. Pilots are therefore cautioned against
permitting the operation of any portable electronic device on
board their aircraft during takeoff, approach and landing. See
COM Annex B for more information.
(a) electronic means – the provision of alternate or redundant
circuitry for the electronic elements of the NAVAID;
COM
After extensive testing, Industry Canada (IC) has concluded
that the switching on or use of hand-held electronic calculators
can cause interference to airborne ADF equipment in the
200 to 450 kHz frequency range when the calculator is held
or positioned within 5 feet of the loop or sense antenna, or
lead-in cable installation of the system. Pilots, especially of
small aircraft and helicopters, are therefore cautioned against
allowing the operation of calculators on board their aircraft
while airborne.
3.2 Removal of Identification
During periods of routine or emergency maintenance, the
identification is removed from NDBs, VORs, DMEs, TACANs,
and ILSs. The removal of this identification warns pilots that
the facility may be unreliable even though it transmits. Under
these circumstances the facility should not be used. Similarly,
prior to commissioning, a new facility (particularly VOR
or ILS) may transmit with or without identification. In such
cases, the facility is advertised as being ‘ON TEST’ and it
should not be used for navigation.
3.3 Accuracy, Availability and Integrity of
Navigation Aids
Aviation navigation systems must meet stringent accuracy,
availability and integrity requirements as specified in ICAO
Annex 10. These terms may be defined as follows:
Accuracy – conformance with the ICAO standards, i.e., course
guidance for the intended operation, whether it be en route
navigation, non-precision approach or precision approach
systems, must meet the required standards;
Availability – the proportion of time that the system is available
for operational use versus the proportion of time that it is
not available; and
Integrity – the ability of the systems to provide a warning if
it is not providing service or providing false information,
e.g., warning flags on ILS and VOR cockpit displays.
Operators of aeronautical telecommunications systems shall
68
October 27, 2005
(b)emergency back–up power – all precision approach aids
are provided with emergency power and all TACANs for
which NAV CANADA has responsibility are provided
with emergency power.
Other NAVAIDs provided with emergency power are:
(i) within terminal RADAR coverage – one primary
terminal NAVAID, and
(ii) outside of RADAR coverage – all NAVAIDs which
are used for airways or air routes and one primary
NAVAID at each aerodrome with a published
instrument approach.
(c) Monitoring – is accomplished in three ways:
(i) Executive monitoring is an electronic means in
which the system checks its critical parameters and
in the event of an out of tolerance condition, either
changes to an auxiliary back-up equipment or shuts
the system down if there is no redundancy or if the
redundant circuit is also failed. This monitoring
is continuous.
(ii) Status monitoring is the automatic notification,
either to the maintenance centre or to an operational
position, that the system has taken executive action
and the navigation system is off-the-air. Many
NAVAIDs are not continuously status–monitored.
(iii) Pilot monitoring is when pilots tune and identify
NAVAIDs prior to use and monitor the indicator
displays to ensure they are appropriate. When flying
instrument approach procedures, particularly NDB
approaches, it is recommended that pilots aurally
monitor the NAVAID identifier.
(d)Flight Inspection – NAVAIDs are flight inspected by
specially equipped aircraft on a regular basis to ensure
that standards are met; and
(e) NOTAM – when NAVAIDs are identified as not meeting
the required performance standard, NOTAM are issued to
advise pilots of the deficiency.
The end result of these combined efforts is a safe and reliable
air navigation system which meets the established standards.
Nevertheless, prior to using any NAVAID, pilots should:
(a) check NOTAM prior to flight for information on NAVAID
outages. These may include scheduled outages for
maintenance or calibration. For remote aerodromes, or
aerodromes with Community Aerodrome Radio Stations
(CARS), it is recommended that pilots contact the CARS
observer/communicator or the aerodrome operator prior
to flight to determine the condition of the aerodrome,
availability of services, and the status of NAVAIDs;
October 27, 2005
(b)ensure that on board navigation receivers are properly
tuned and that the NAVAID identifier is aurally confirmed;
and
(c) visually confirm that the appropriate indicator displays
are presented.
3.4 Pilot Reporting of Abnormal
Operation of Navigation Aids
It is the responsibility of pilots to report any NAVAID failure
or abnormality to the appropriate ATS facility. If it is not
practical to report while airborne, a report should be filed
after landing.
Reports should contain:
(b)the approximate distance of the aircraft from the NAVAID
when the observation was made; and
(c) the time of the observation.
3.5 VHF Omnidirectional Range
The VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) is a ground-based,
short distance NAVAID which provides continuous azimuth
information in the form of 360 usable radials to or from a
station. It is the basis for the VHF airway structure. It is also
used for VOR non-precision instrument approaches.
(a) Frequency Band: The frequency range 108.1 to 117.95 MHz
is assigned to VORs. Frequency assignment has been in
0.1 MHz (100 kHz) increments. However, in some areas
the number and proximity of VOR installations are such
that existing spacing does not allow for a sufficient number
of frequencies. In these areas additional channels will be
obtained by reducing the spacing to 0.05 MHz (50 kHz).
The implication for users is that, in airspace serviced
solely by VOR, aircraft equipped with VOR receivers
which cannot be tuned to two decimal places (e.g.,
115.25 MHz) may not be able to operate under IFR. Of
course, RNAV, where approved for use, may provide an
alternative means.
Receivers with integrated DME (i.e., VOR/DME receivers)
normally select the associated DME “Y” channel
automatically, while stand alone DME receivers display
the “X” and “Y” channels separately.
(b)Range: VOR reception is subject to line-of-sight restrictions
and range varies with aircraft altitude. Subject to shadow
effect, reception at an altitude of 1 500 feet AGL is about
50 NM. Aircraft operating above 30 000 feet normally
receive VOR at a distance of 150 NM or more.
(c) Voice Communication and Identification: A VOR may
be provided with a voice feature. Those without voice
are identified on the aeronautical charts and in CFS.
Identification is accomplished by means of a threeletter station indicator keyed in Morse code at regular
7.5 second intervals.
(d)VOR Courses: Theoretically, an infinite number of courses
(radials) are radiated from a VOR station; however, in
actual practice, 360˚ are usable under optimum conditions.
The accuracy of course alignment for published VOR
radials is ±3˚. Unpublished radials are not required to meet
a particular standard of accuracy and may be affected
by siting difficulties. Any significant anomalies in these
unpublished radials from VOR serving an aerodrome will
be published in the CFS.
3.5.1 VOR Receiver Checks
As VOR is the primary NAVAID and is used extensively
in Canada, it is important that the accuracy of the aircraft
equipment be checked in accordance with principles of good
airmanship and aviation safety. To this end, NAV CANADA
has identified specific airports where suitable facilities will
be provided for the preflight check of equipment. This will be
done by the provision of a VOT transmitter or a VOR check
point sign on the aerodrome.
COM
(a) the nature of the abnormal operation detected by the pilot,
and the approximate magnitude and direction of any
course shift (if applicable). The magnitude may be either
in miles or degrees from the published bearing;
TC AIM
No correction other than the correction card figures supplied
by the manufacturer should be applied in making VOR
receiver checks. Any attempt to apply a “degrees-off”
correction will complicate VOR navigation procedures, and
may be hazardous because there is no guarantee that the error
is constant throughout 360˚.
If neither a test signal (VOT) nor a designated check point
on the surface is available and an aircraft is equipped with
dual VORs (units independent of each other except for the
antenna), the equipment may be checked against each other
by tuning both sets to the same VOR facility and noting the
indicated bearings to that station. A difference greater than 4˚
between the aircraft’s two VOR receivers indicate that one of
the aircraft’s receivers may be beyond acceptable tolerance.
In such circumstances, the cause of the error should be
investigated and, if necessary, corrected before the equipment
is used for an IFR flight.
3.5.2 VOR Check Point
VOR check point signs indicate a location on the aerodrome
manoeuvring surface where there is a sufficiently strong VOR
signal to check VOR equipment against the designated radial.
The indicated radial should be within 4˚ of the posted radial
and the DME should be within 0.5 NM of the posted distance.
If beyond this tolerance, the cause of the error should be
corrected before the equipment is used for IFR flight.
69
TC AIM
3.5.3 VOT (VOR Receiver Test Facility)
The VOT transmits a “North” or 360˚ radial on all azimuths
of an assigned frequency. With the track bar centred, the track
selector should read 360 and the TO–FROM indicator should
read “FROM”; or the track selector should read 180˚ and the
TO–FROM indicator should read “TO”. A radio magnetic
indicator or the bearing pointer on a horizontal situation
indicator (HSI) should point to 180. Differences greater
than ±4˚ indicate that the aircraft receiver may be beyond
acceptable tolerance.
3.5.4 Airborne VOR Check
COM
Aircraft VOR equipment may also be checked while airborne
by flying over a landmark located on a published radial and
noting the indicated radial. Equipment which varies more
than ±6˚ from the published radial should not be used for
IFR navigation.
3.6 NDB NDBs combine a transmitter with an antenna system providing
a non-directional radiation pattern within the low frequency
(LF) and medium frequency (MF) bands of 190–415 kHz and
510–535 kHz. NDBs are the basis of the LF/MF airway and
air route system. In addition, they function as marker beacons
for ILS as well as non-precision approach aids for NDB
instrument approaches.
(a) Identification: Identification consists of two- or
three-letter or number indicators keyed in Morse
code at regular intervals. (Private NDBs consist of a
letter/number combination.)
(b)Voice Feature: Voice transmissions can be made from
NDBs, unless otherwise indicated on the aeronautical
charts and in the CFS.
(c) Classification: NDBs are classified by high, medium or
low power output as follows:
• “H” power output 2 000 W or more;
• “M” power output 50 W to less than 2 000 W; or
• “L” power output less than 50 W.
(d)Accuracy: NDB systems are flight checked to an accuracy
of at least ±5˚ for an approach and ±10˚ for enroute.
However, much larger errors are possible due to propagation
disturbances caused by sunrise or sunset, reflected signals
from high terrain, refraction of signals crossing shorelines
at less than 30˚ and electrical storms.
70
October 27, 2005
same pulse spacing but on a different frequency. The time
required for the round trip of this signal exchange is measured
in the airborne DME unit and is translated into distance (NM)
from the aircraft to the ground station. Distance information
received from DME equipment is slant range distance and not
actual horizontal distance. Accuracy of the DME system is
within ±0.5 NM or 3% of the distance, whichever is greater.
DME is normally collocated with VOR installations (VOR/
DME) and may be collocated with an ILS or with localizers
for LOC approaches. Where they can be justified, DME
are also being collocated with NDBs to provide improved
navigation capability.
For collocated sites, a single keyer is used to key both the
VOR/ILS/localizer and the DME with the three-letter
station indicator. The VOR/ILS/localizer transmits three
consecutive indicator codes in a medium pitch of 1 020 Hz
followed by a single DME indicator code transmitted on the
DME frequency (UHF) and modulated at a slightly higher
pitch of 1 350 Hz. In the event that one system should fail, the
identification of the other will be transmitted continuously at
approximately 7.5 second intervals. Independent DMEs and
those collocated with NDBs normally have a two-letter or a
letter-number indicator.
The DME system is in the UHF frequency band and therefore
is limited to line of sight reception with a range similar to that
of a VOR. The DME frequency is “paired” with VOR and
localizer frequencies. As a result, the receiving equipment
in most aircraft provide automatic DME selection through
a coupled VOR/ILS receiver. Otherwise, the DME receiver
must be selected to the “paired” VOR or localizer frequency.
Distance information from a TACAN facility can be obtained
by selecting the appropriate paired VOR frequency. (In that
case, only DME information is being received, any apparent
radial information must be ignored.) The DME paired
frequency and channel number are published in the CFS and
on the Enroute IFR charts in the navigation data box for all
TACAN and DME installations.
By convention, those frequencies requiring only one decimal
place (e.g., 110.3 MHz) are known as “X” channels and those
associated with two decimal places are designated as “Y”
channels (e.g., 112.45 MHz)
3.8 Tactical Air Navigation
3.7 Distance Measuring Equipment
Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) is a NAVAID used primarily
by the military for en route, non-precision approaches and
other military applications. It provides azimuth in the form
of radials, and slant distance in NM from the ground station.
The system operates in the UHF range with the frequencies
identified by channel number. There are 126 channels.
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) functions by means of
two-way transmissions of signals between the aircraft and the
DME site. Paired pulses at a specific spacing are sent out from
the aircraft and are received by the ground station. The ground
station then transmits paired pulses back to the aircraft at the
TACAN users may obtain distance information from a DME
installation by selecting their receiver to the TACAN channel
that is “paired” with the VOR frequency. This TACAN
“paired” channel number is published in the CFS for every
October 27, 2005
VOR/DME facility. (Pilots are cautioned, however, that only
DME information is being received. Any apparent radial
information obtained through a coupled VOR receiver can
only be false signals.)
3.9 VHF Omnidirectional Range and
Tactical Air Navigation
A number of TACANs, supplied by DND, are collocated with
VORs to form facilities called VORTACs.
3.10 VHF Direction Finding System
VHF Direction Finding System (VDF) equipment, capable
of multi-channel operation, has been established at a number
of FSSs and airport control towers. VDF normally operates
on six preselected frequencies in the 115 to 144 MHz range.
Information displayed to the controller or FSS position on a
numerical readout gives an accurate (± 2˚) visual indication of
the bearing of an aircraft from the VDF site. This is based on
the radio transmission received from the aircraft, thus giving
the VDF operator a means of providing steering, bearing, or
homing information to pilots requesting the service.
(a) Primary Services: Directional guidance to the VDF and, if
requested, a bearing from the VDF site.
(b)Additional Services: Track out assistance, estimated times
or distances from the site, or fixes when used in conjunction
with another VDF site, a VOR radial or a bearing from
an NDB.
(c) Emergency Service: “No compass homing” will be
provided when no other course of action is available
provided the pilot declares an emergency, or accepts the
service suggested by the VDF operator. Cloud breaking
procedures will be provided where they exist.
3.11 Fan Marker Beacons
Fan marker beacons provide guidance on localizer approaches
into mountain valleys. A fan marker is a signal radiated in an
elliptical pattern which has its major dimension at right angles
to the localizer course. They are located on LOC facility
courses to identify a designated position along the course.
All fan markers are coded and their audible signal is a high
pitched (3 000 Hz) tone. They activate the aircraft’s white
marker beacon light.
3.12 Localizer
A localizer without glide path guidance may be installed at
some locations to provide positive track guidance during an
approach. These aids may have a back-course associated with
them. A cautionary note will be published on the approach
plate whenever the localizer alignment exceeds 3˚ of the
runway heading. No note will be published if the alignment
is 3˚ or less.
Localizers operate in the 108.1 to 111.9 MHz frequency
range and are identified by a three-letter indicator. Localizer
alignment exceeding 3˚ of the runway heading will have an
“X” as the first letter of the indicator, whereas localizers and
back-courses with an alignment of 3˚ or less will have an “I”
as the first letter.
The technical characteristics of this localizer are the same as
described for the ILS localizer in COM 3.13.2.
3.13 ILS
COM
This facility provides VOR azimuth, TACAN azimuth and
slant distance from the site. Although it consists of more
than one component, incorporates more than one operating
frequency, and uses more than one antenna system, a
VORTAC is considered to be a single NAVAID. Components
of a VORTAC operate simultaneously on “paired” frequencies
so that aircraft DME receivers, when selected to the VOR
frequency, will obtain distance information from the DME
component of the TACAN. An aircraft must be equipped with
a VOR receiver to use VOR, DME equipment to use DME, or
TACAN equipment to use TACAN (azimuth and DME).
TC AIM
At present, the ILS is the primary international non-visual
precision approach system approved by ICAO and is protected
until 2010.
The ILS is designed to provide an aircraft with a precision
final approach with horizontal and vertical guidance to the
runway. The ground equipment consists of a localizer, a glide
path transmitter and an NDB along the approach path. A
DME fix may replace the NDB. See Figure 3.2 for a typical
ILS installation.
3.13.1 Caution—Use of ILS Localizers
(a) Localizer Coverage and Integrity: The coverage and
validity of ILS localizer signals are regularly confirmed
by flight inspection within 35˚ of either side of a frontor back-course nominal approach path to a distance of
10 NM, and through 10˚ of either side of a front- or backcourse nominal approach path to a distance of 18 NM (see
Figure 3.1).
(b)Low Clearance Indications: No problems with front and
back courses have been observed within 8˚ of the course
centreline. However, it has been found that failure of
certain elements of the multi-element localizer antenna
array systems can cause false courses or low clearances*
beyond 8˚ from the front- or back-course centreline that are
not detected by the localizer monitoring system. This could
result in a premature cockpit indication of approaching or
intercepting an on-course centreline. For this reason, a
coupled approach should not be initiated until the aircraft
is established on the localizer centreline. It is also essential
to confirm the localizer on-course indication by reference
to aircraft heading and other NAVAIDs, such as an ADF
71
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
bearing, before commencing final descent. Any abnormal
indications experienced within 35˚ of the published frontor back-course centreline of an ILS localizer should be
reported immediately to the appropriate ATS facility.
*A low clearance occurs whenever there is less than fullscale deflection of the omnibearing selector or course
deviation indicator at a position where a full-scale
deflection should be displayed.
COM
(c) Localizer False Course: False course captures may occur
when the pilot prematurely selects APPROACH MODE
from either heading (HDG) or lateral navigation (LNAV)
MODE. Some ILS receivers produce lower than expected
course deviation outputs in the presence of high modulation
levels of the localizer radiated signal. This can occur
even when both the ground transmitter and the airborne
receiver meet their respective performance requirements.
The reduced course deviation can, in turn, trigger a false
course capture in the automatic flight control system
(AFCS). False course captures can occur at azimuths
anywhere from 8˚ to 35˚, but are most likely to occur
in the vicinity of 8˚ to 12˚ azimuth from the published
localizer course.
In order to minimize the possibility of a false course
capture during an ILS approach, pilots should use raw
data sources to ensure that the aircraft is on the correct
localizer course prior to initiating a coupled approach.
The following cockpit procedures are recommended:
(i) APPROACH MODE should not be selected until
the aircraft is within 18 NM of the threshold and the
aircraft is positioned within 8˚ of the inbound ILS
course; and
(ii) pilots should:
(A) ensure that the ADF bearing (associated with
the appropriate NDB site) is monitored for
correct runway orientation;
(B) be aware when the raw data indicates that the
aircraft is approaching and established on the
correct course; and
(C) be aware that, should a false course capture
occur, it may be necessary to deselect and rearm the APPROACH MODE in order to achieve
a successful coupled approach on the correct
localizer course.
(d)Electromagnetic Interference (EMI): The effect of EMI,
particularly on ILS localizer system integrity, is becoming
increasingly significant. In built-up areas, power
transformer stations, industrial activity and broadcast
transmitters have been known to generate interference
that affects localizer receivers. The effect is difficult to
quantify as the interference may be transitory, and certain
localizer receivers are more susceptible than others to EMI.
New ICAO standards for localizer and VOR receivers took
effect on January 1, 1998. The increased immunity from
FM broadcast interference may alleviate the situation
once avionics are available. However, until new avionics
72
are installed, operators may face increased interference
and restricted operations in some areas, especially outside
North America. In the interim, awareness by pilots and
the use of compensating safety measures are necessary.
Unless the interference is of unusual intensity, or a very
susceptible receiver is being used, the interference is not
likely to cause any erroneous readings while the aircraft is
flown within the area shown in Figure 3.1. If the localizer
goes off the air, the “off” flag may remain out of sight or
the flag and course deviation indicator may give erratic or
erroneous indications. It is even possible that normal oncourse cockpit indications may continue. Under normal
circumstances, ATS will advise pilots conducting an
approach if there is equipment failure.
(e) Automatic Landing (Autoland) Operations: It has been
common practice for operators of aircraft that are
appropriately equipped and certified to conduct automatic
flight control guidance system (AFCGS) autoland
(CAT III) operations on CAT II/III facilities when
weather conditions were above CAT I minima, to satisfy
maintenance, training or reliability program requirements.
To achieve the necessary autoland rate, some percentage
of these autolands are also being conducted on runways
that are only approved for CAT I operations.
The successful outcome of any AFCGS autoland is
dependent upon the performance of the aircraft AFCGS
and the performance of the ILS localizer and glide path
signals. The course structure and the integrity of an ILS
can be compromised when protection of the ILS critical
areas cannot be assured. The localizer is particularly
sensitive due to its larger signal volume in the aerodrome
area. Surface and airborne traffic and stationary vehicles
temporarily parked in these critical areas can create
a deflection in, or a disturbance to, the ILS signal. The
AFCGS will respond to this interference in a manner
dependent upon the effect the interference has on the
ILS signal characteristics and the control methods of the
AFCGS. Observed AFCGS responses to ILS interference,
reported aircraft flight path deviations, and/or hard
landings during autoland operations being conducted on
CAT II or III systems without the requisite low visibility
procedures, or on CAT I ILS systems, provide sufficient
evidence that extreme caution must be exercised during
these operations.
The commissioning, periodic flight inspection, and
maintenance of the ILS facility serving a CAT I or
CAT II runway, do not include analysis of the ILS
localizer performance passed the runway threshold or
along the runway. Glide path signal quality is inspected
and calibrated to support the minima associated with the
category of operation. CAT I and II ILS facilities have
the signal characteristics to support AFCGS operations
to CAT I and II minima, as applicable, but may not have
the requisite signal characteristics to support autoland
operations. Several CAT I facilities are known to exhibit
very poor glide path signal qualities below minima where
October 27, 2005
it is assumed that the pilot would be visual and therefore,
these poor signal characteristics would have no bearing on
the approach facility’s status.
The commissioning, periodic flight inspection, and
maintenance of the ILS facility serving a CAT III runway,
include an analysis of the ILS localizer signal through
the rollout to confirm that the ILS facility will support
CAT III operations. However, this signal is only protected
by aerodrome and ATC when low visibility procedures
are in effect at that aerodrome. In general, the localizer
critical area for CAT III operations extends along the
runway approximately 250 ft on either side of the runway
centreline. CAT III critical area dimensions are based on
the assumption that the entire longitudinal axis of any
aircraft or vehicle is clear of this area.
(f) Glide Path False Course: Glide path installations generate
a radiated signal resulting in a normal glide path angle
of 3˚ (it can currently be anywhere from 2.5˚ up to 3.5˚).
The normal antenna pattern, of glide path installations,
generates a side-lobe. The side-lobe pattern produces a
false glide path angle at three times the set angle (e.g. at 9˚
for a normal 3˚ glide path angle).
ATC procedures in terminal areas are designed to maintain
aircraft at an altitude providing a normal rate of descent
and a suitable position to capture the published glide path
signal. Following the instrument procedures carefully
will ensure an approach with a stable rate of descent
and completely avoid the false glide path generated at
three times the set angle. Failure to adhere to instrument
procedures (i.e. remaining at a higher than published
altitude) could result in positioning the aircraft in a false
glide path radiated lobe.
In order to minimize the possibility of false glide path
capture during an ILS approach, pilots should verify the
rate of descent and the altitude at the FAF to ensure that
the aircraft is on the published glide path.
the “front course.” It is adjusted to provide an angular width
between 3˚ and 6˚. Normally, the width is 5˚, which results in
full deflection of the track bar at 2.5˚. The transmitter antenna
array is located at the far end of the runway from the approach.
The localizer may be offset up to 3˚ from the runway heading;
however, the amount of offset will be published as a cautionary
note on the approach plate.
At many aerodromes, a localizer “back course” is also
provided. This allows for a non-precision approach in the
opposite direction to a front course approach without glide
path information. Note that not all ILS localizers radiate a
usable back course signal.
The normal reliable coverage of ILS localizers is 18 NM
within 10˚ of either side of the course centreline and 10 NM
within 35˚ of the course centreline for both front and
back courses.
Figure 3.1
COM
Flight crews must recognize that changes in the ILS signal
quality may occur rapidly and without any warning from
the ILS monitor equipment. Furthermore, flight crews
are reminded to exercise extreme caution whenever ILS
signals are used beyond the minima specified in the
approach procedure and when conducting autolands on
any category of ILS when the critical area protection is not
assured by ATC. Pilots must be prepared to immediately
disconnect the autopilot and take appropriate action should
unsatisfactory AFCGS performance occur during these
operations. (See AIR 2.15 for more information.)
TC AIM
Identification for both the localizer and glide path is transmitted
on the localizer frequency in the form of a two-letter or letternumber indicator preceded by the letter “I” (e.g. IOW).
3.13.3 Glide Path
The glide path transmitter operates within the frequency
range of 329.3 to 335.0 MHz. The frequency is paired with
the associated localizer frequency in accordance with ICAO
standards. The glide path is normally adjusted to an approach
angle of 3˚ and a beam width of 1.4˚. There is no usable back
course. The antenna array is located approximately 1 000 ft
from the approach end of the runway and offset approximately
400 ft from the runway centreline.
At some of the larger airports, an ILS is installed at each end
of a runway. In this way, a front course approach may be made
to either end of the runway. The two systems are interlocked
so that only one ILS can operate at any time.
3.13.2 Localizer
The localizer operates within the frequency range of 108.1
to 111.9 MHz and provides the pilot with course guidance to
the runway centreline. When the localizer is used with the
glide slope as well as the outer and middle markers, it is called
73
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
Figure 3.2 — Typical ILS Installation
The following airport systems must be fully serviceable to
meet CAT II/III standards:
(a) Airport Lighting: a lighting system which includes:
• approach lights
• runway threshold lights
• touchdown zone lights
• centreline lights
• runway edge lights
• runway end lights
• all stop bars and lead-on lights
• essential taxiway lights
(b)ILS Components: including:
• localizer
• glide path
COM
3.13.4 NDBs
Low powered NDB transmitters are usually located on the
localizer (front and back course) 3.5 to 6 mi. from the runway
threshold. If it is not possible to install an NDB, a DME fix
may be used instead. In a number of cases, an en route NDB is
located on a localizer so that it may serve as a terminal as well
as an en route facility. The NDBs provide a fix to which the
pilot can navigate for the transition to the ILS. As a general
rule, these NDBs transmit a two- or three-letter indicator.
3.13.5 ILS/DME
At some locations, it is not practicable to install an NDB
because of terrain or costs. In such cases, DME provides
distance information to define the IAF and MAP. In some
locations, the availability of VOR/DME either on the airport,
or aligned with the appropriate runway, will be used to provide
distance information for the transition to the ILS.
3.13.6 ILS Categories
(a) Operational CAT I: operation down to a minima of 200 ft
DH and RVR 2 600 ft with a high probability of success.
(When RVR is not available, 1/2 SM ground visibility
is substituted.)
(b)Operational CAT II: operation down to a minima below
200 ft DH and RVR 2 600 ft, to as low as 100 ft DH and
RVR 1 200 ft, with a high probability of success.
(c) Operational CAT III: CAT III minima will be prescribed
in the carrierís operating specifications, in the operator ís
operations manual, or in CAP.
3.13.7 CAT II/III ILS
CAT II/III ILS enable pilots to conduct instrument approaches
to lower weather minima by using special equipment and
procedures in the approaching aircraft and at the airport.
74
(c) RVR Equipment: for CAT II operations, two
transmissometers, one located adjacent to the runway
threshold, and one located adjacent to the runway midpoint. For CAT III operations, three transmissometers,
one located adjacent to the runway threshold, one located
adjacent to the runway mid-point, and one located at other
end of the runway (ref. ICAO recommendation Annex III,
para 4.7.2).
(d)Power Source: airport emergency power (primary electrical
source for all essential system elements), commercial
power available within one second as backup.
The tower controller will determine the suitability for CAT II/
III operations. Complete information regarding CAT II/III
operations is found in the Manual of All Weather Operations
(Categories II and III) (TP 1490E)
3.14 RADAR The use of radar increases airspace utilization by allowing
ATC to reduce separation between aircraft. In addition, radar
permits an expansion of flight information services such as
traffic information and navigation assistance. Radar is also
used by AES meteorological staff for locating and defining
storm areas and for tracking airborne equipment to determine
upper winds, etc.
There are two types of radar systems currently in use: Primary
Surveillance Radar (PSR) and Secondary Surveillance Radar
(SSR). PSR determines the position (range and azimuth) of
contacts (aircraft and weather) by measuring and displaying
reflected radio frequency signals from the contacts. It does not
rely on information transmitted from the aircraft. SSR relies
on measurement of the time interval between the interrogation
and reply by an airborne transponder to determine aircraft
range. The instantaneous direction of the antenna determines
contact azimuth.
SSR will provide neither a position for aircraft without
operating transponders, nor will it locate weather. However,
SSR offers significant operational advantages to ATC, such as
October 27, 2005
increased range, positive identification and aircraft altitude,
when the aircraft has an altitude encoding transponder.
Radar is currently in use for the following functions:
(a) En Route and Terminal Control: SSR is the main source
of en route (airways) information. Several locations have
“stand alone” SSR. SSR is a long-range radar in the
+200 NM range transmitting on 1030 MHz and receiving
the transponder reply on 1090 MHz.
(b)Precision Approach Radar (PAR): PAR is a high definition
short-range PSR operating on 9000 to 9180 MHz, and
is used as an approach aid. The system provides the
controller with altitude, azimuth and range information
of high accuracy to assist pilots in executing approaches.
While basically a military system, PAR is available at
some civilian airports and may be used by civilian pilots.
Civil approach limits are published in CAP.
(c) Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE): Radar
surveillance of surface traffic is provided at certain
airports where traffic warrants. This high-definition
primary surveillance radar operating on 16 GHz is used
by tower controllers to monitor the position of aircraft
and vehicles on the manoeuvring areas of the airport
(runways and taxiways) particularly during conditions of
reduced visibility.
(d)Weather Radar: Weather radar is a PSR used by EC to
monitor for hazardous weather conditions.
Airspace management systems and procedures, as well as
future planning of ground based navigation aids, will focus
on an area navigation concept to enable aircraft operators to
exploit the benefits of RNAV. These benefits equal savings in
operational costs resulting from more efficient routings.
Radio transmission based area navigation systems such as
LORAN-C provide accurate positioning through the use of
hyperbolic or direct-ranging techniques.
The hyperbolic mode of operation defines a line of position
(LOP) by plotting points which have the same relative signal
phase or time difference from two stations. The use of three
stations will produce two LOPs, the intersection of which
is the actual position of the receiver. The use of additional
transmitting stations will normally provide better accuracy.
The advantages of this mode are: no requirement for a
costly high precision time reference in the receiver, improved
dynamic performance, long-term accuracy, and freedom from
phase related errors.
The direct-ranging mode of operations defines the position
by measuring the signal phase from two or more stations. A
high precision oscillator reference is required in the aircraft
receiver to provide acceptable accuracy when only two
stations (RHO-RHO) are used. However, with three stations
(RHO-RHO-RHO) the requirement for a precise oscillator
reference is not as stringent because self-calibration of the
low cost oscillator is possible.
COM
In general, SSR is complemented by the shorter range PSR
for terminal operations. The radar types predominantly in
use are:
(i) Terminal surveillance radar (TSR), which consists of:
• primary surveillance radar (PSR)—a short-range
radar (80 NM) operating on 1250 to 1350 MHz;
and
• secondary surveillance radar (SSR)—a
long-range radar (250 NM) transmitting on
1030 MHz and receiving airborne transponder
replies on 1090 MHz.
(ii) Independent secondary surveillance radar (ISSR):
a long-range radar (250 NM) transmitting on
1030 MHz and receiving airborne transponder
replies on 1090 MHz.
TC AIM
Radio area navigation systems such as LORAN-C may exhibit
local inaccuracies as a result of propagation anomalies, errors
in geodesy and non-programmed variations in signal timing.
The effects of these variances may be substantially reduced
by employing differential signal techniques. The differential
facility is a precisely located receiver which continually
monitors signals from the system and compares them with the
expected signal at that location. If a difference is determined,
a resulting correction factor is transmitted to users to upgrade
the precision and performance of the receiver processor.
The area over which corrections can be made from a single
differential facility depends on a number of factors such as
timeliness of the transmission of the correction factor, range
of the correction signal, uniformity of the system grid and
user receiver limitations. As an example, LORAN-C may be
effective up to 60 to 70 NM.
3.15.1 VOR/DME (RHO-THETA) System
3.15 Area Navigation
Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation which
permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within
the coverage of station-referenced navigation aids or within
the limits of the capability of self-contained navigation aids,
or a combination of these.
Existing navigation systems which provide a RNAV capability
include Inertial Navigation System (INS), VOR/DME (RHOTHETA), DME-DME (RHO-RHO), LORAN-C and GPS.
The capability of on-board RNAV computer systems which
utilize VOR/DME signals varies considerably. The computer
electronically offsets a VOR/DME station to any desired
location within reception range. The relocated position
is known as a way point and is defined by its bearing and
distance from the station. Way points are used to define route
segments and the computer provides steering guidance to and
from way points.
75
TC AIM
3.15.2 DME-DME (RHO-RHO) System
DME-DME is a system which combines DME receivers
with a microprocessor to provide an RNAV capability. The
system has the location of the DME facilities in its data base.
Measuring the distance from two or more of these stations
can provide a positional fix. The system provides a means of
entering way points for a random route and displays navigation
information such as bearing, distance, cross-track error and
time to go between two points.
3.15.3 LORAN-C System
System Description
COM
LORAN-C is a long-range navigation system based on the
measurement of the time difference in the arrival of signal
pulses from a chain of widely spaced ground stations operating
at 90 to 110 kHz. A chain consists of a master station linked
to a maximum of four secondary stations whose signals
are synchronized with the master. The LORAN-C receiver
measures the time difference between the master and at least
two of the secondary stations to provide a position fix.
Errors and Loss of Signal
There are several inexpensive receivers available that can be
useful to VFR navigation in areas of adequate signal coverage.
However, caution must be exercised since large along-track
and cross-track errors can occur without warning if the
receiver locks onto sky waves or erroneous signals. Errors of
up to 8 NM are not uncommon and errors of up to 15 NM
have been reported.
Factors affecting accuracy include: distance from the
transmitters; geometry between the receiver and the
transmitters; type of terrain over which the signals pass to
reach the receiver; and the existence of sky waves. Optimum
results will be obtained from ground wave signals having
an uninterrupted salt water path to the receiver. Signals
with an over-land path are influenced by changes in earth
conductivity which may result in the receiver measuring
incorrect time differences. Sky waves may also introduce
errors in the time difference measurements. The likelihood
of sky wave interference increases with distance from the
transmitter station.
Integrity
This system gives no warning to the pilot if signals are giving
inaccurate position information. LORAN-C thus lacks the
integrity so vital to IFR operations.
Coverage
Coverage is very difficult to estimate. Figure 3.3 gives
Canadian coverage for areas where accuracies of 0.25 NM are
possible. Signal reception from transmitters can range from
120 NM to 900 NM depending upon the many factors listed
above. The areas shown are rough approximations at best.
VFR
LORAN-C can be used to supplement map reading for
VFR flights.
IFR
LORAN-C can be used for enroute IFR navigation
subject to certain limitations and conditions. Operation in
terminal control areas and during instrument approaches
must be with reference to conventional navigation aids or
IFR-certified GPS.
Figure 3.3 - Estimated LORAN-C Area
for Signal-to-Noise Ratio 1:3
3.16 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
Certain drawbacks to the system also serve to restrict its use
in air navigation. For example:
3.16.1 Satellite Navigation (SatNav)
(a) The signals are subject to local interference from such
sources as LF transmitters and high tension power lines;
The GNSS includes navigation satellites and ground systems
that monitor satellite signals and provide corrections and
integrity messages, where needed, to support specific phases
of flight.
(b)The receiver system may be susceptible to precipitation
static; and
(c) Failure of one transmitter can leave a large area without
signal coverage.
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October 27, 2005
Currently, there are two navigation satellite systems in orbit:
the U.S. GPS and the Russian global navigation satellite
system (GLONASS). The U.S. and Russia have offered these
systems as the basis for a GNSS, free of direct user charges.
A third system, Galileo, is being developed by the European
Union, with a planned initial operational capability in 2008,
and is expected to support aviation use by 2010.
October 27, 2005
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Only GNSS based on GPS is approved for aviation use; it
is the cornerstone of SatNav in Canada. Transport Canada
has authorized the use of GNSS under IFR in Canada for
en-route, terminal and approach phases of flight. Terms and
conditions of the domestic approval are found in AIC 27/05
and in a Special Notice in the CAP. Detailed information and
guidance material is provided later in this section.
The design GPS constellation contains 24 GPS satellites,
orbiting the earth twice a day at an altitude of 10 900 NM
(20 200 km). They are arranged in six separate orbital
planes, with four satellites in each; this gives complete global
coverage. In the past few years, there have actually been 26 to
28 operational satellites, but one or two can be out of service
temporarily for orbital manoeuvres or maintenance.
GNSS is also approved as a source of guidance in NAT MNPS
airspace, as described in AIC 2/00.
All GPS orbits cross the equator at a 55° angle, so it is not
possible to see a GPS satellite directly overhead north of 55°
N or south of 55° S latitude. This does not affect service in
polar areas adversely; in fact, on average, more satellites are
visible at high latitudes since receivers can track satellites
over the poles.
GNSS supports RNAV, permitting aircraft operation on
any desired flight path, thus allowing operators to choose
fuel-efficient routes. GNSS also supports better instrument
approaches at many airports, including vertical navigation
when augmented, reducing delays and diversions. For these
reasons, many Canadian aircraft operators have equipped
with GNSS avionics.
Navigation systems used for IFR must meet international
safety standards for accuracy, integrity, availability and
continuity, which are key to safety and user acceptance. These
terms are explained below:
Accuracy is the measure of position error, which is the
difference between the estimated and the actual position.
Integrity is the measure of trust that can be placed in the
correctness of the information supplied by the system.
Integrity includes the system’s ability to tell the user, in a
timely fashion, when the system must not be used for the
intended operation. The level of integrity required for each
phase of flight is expressed in terms of horizontal (and in
some cases, vertical) alert limits, as well as time-to-alarm.
Continuity is the system’s capability (expressed as a
probability) to perform its function throughout a specific
operation. For example, there must be a high probability that
the service remains available without interruption during a
full instrument approach procedure.
Availability is the portion of time during which the system is
able to deliver the required accuracy, integrity and continuity
for a specific phase of flight.
3.16.3 Global Positioning System (GPS)
GPS was developed by the U.S. military, but since 1996, it
has been managed by an executive board, chaired jointly
by the departments of Defense and Transportation, that is
comprised of representatives from several other departments
to ensure that civil users’ requirements are considered in
the management of the system. A Presidential Statement
was issued in December 2004 that made commitments to
ensure the continued operation of the GPS constellation,
with uninterrupted access to its signals, free of direct
user charges.
GPS provides a precise positioning service (PPS) and a
standard positioning service (SPS). The PPS broadcast on L1
and L2 is encrypted and reserved for military applications.
The SPS broadcast on L1 is for civil users.
COM
3.16.2 Navigation Performance Requirements
Each satellite transmits a unique coded signal, allowing
identification by receivers, on two frequencies: 1575.42 (L1)
and 1227.60 MHz (L2).
GPS positioning is based on precise timing. Each satellite has
four atomic clocks on board, guaranteeing an accuracy of one
billionth of one second, and broadcasts a digital pseudorandom
noise (PRN) code that is repeated every millisecond. All
GPS receivers start generating the same code at the same
time. Code matching techniques establish the time of arrival
difference between the generation of the signal at the satellite
and its arrival at the receiver. The speed of the signal is closely
approximated by the speed of light, with variations resulting
from ionospheric and atmospheric effects modeled or directly
measured and applied. The time of arrival difference is
converted to a distance, referred to as a pseudorange, by
computing the product of the time of arrival difference and
the average speed of the signal. The satellites also broadcast
orbit information (ephemeris) to permit receivers to calculate
the position of the satellites at any instant in time.
A receiver normally needs four pseudoranges to calculate a
three-dimensional position and to resolve the time difference
between receiver and satellite clocks. In addition to position
and time, GPS receivers can also calculate velocity—both
speed and direction of motion.
GPS accuracy depends on transit time and signal propagation
speed to compute pseudoranges. Therefore, accurate
satellite clocks, broadcast orbits, and computation of delays
as the signals pass through the ionosphere are critical. The
ionosphere, which is a zone of charged particles several
hundred kilometres above the earth, causes signal delays that
vary from day to night and by solar activity. Current receivers
contain a model of the nominal day/night delay, but this model
does not account for variable solar activity. For applications
requiring high accuracy, GPS needs space or ground-based
augmentation systems (GBAS) to correct the computed transit
time to compensate for this delay. These are discussed later.
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Another key to GPS accuracy is the relative position of
satellites in the sky, or satellite geometry. When satellites are
widely spread, geometry and accuracy are better. If satellites
are clustered in a small area of the sky, geometry and accuracy
are worse. Currently, GPS horizontal and vertical positions
are accurate to 6 m and 8 m, respectively, 95% of the time.
The GPS satellite constellation is operated by the U.S. Air
Force from a control centre at Schriever Air Force Base in
Colorado. A global network of monitor and uplink stations
relays information about the satellites to the control centre
and sends messages, when required, to the satellites.
COM
If a problem is detected with a satellite, it is commanded to send
an “unhealthy” status indication, causing receivers to drop it
from the position solution. Since detection and resolution of a
problem take time, and this delay is unacceptable in aviation
operations, augmentation systems are used to provide the
level of integrity required by aviation.
Current GNSS approvals require retention of traditional
ground aids as a backup. Future approvals will emerge
as GNSS evolves and can demonstrate that it meets
availability requirements.
3.16.4 Augmentation Systems
Augmentation of GPS is required to meet the accuracy,
integrity, continuity and availability requirements for aviation.
There are currently three types of augmentation:
(a) aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS);
(b)satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS); and
If the number of satellites in view and their geometry do
not support the applicable alert limit (2 NM en route, 1 NM
terminal and 0.3 NM non-precision approach), RAIM is
unable to guarantee the integrity of the position solution.
(Note that this does not imply a satellite malfunction.) In
this case, the avionics RAIM function will alert the pilot,
but will continue providing a navigation solution. Except in
cases of emergency, pilots must discontinue using GNSS for
navigation when such an alert occurs.
A second type of RAIM alert occurs when the avionics
detects a satellite range error (typically caused by a satellite
malfunction) that may cause an accuracy degradation that
exceeds the alert limit for the current phase of flight. When
this occurs, the avionics alerts the pilot and denies navigation
guidance by displaying red flags on the HSI or course
deviation indicator (CDI). Continued flight using GNSS is
then not possible until the satellite is flagged as unhealthy by
the control centre, or normal satellite operation is restored.
Some avionics go beyond basic RAIM by having an FDE
feature that allows the avionics to detect which satellite is
faulty, and then to exclude it from the navigation solution.
FDE requires a minimum of six satellites with good geometry
to function. It has the advantage of allowing continued
navigation in the presence of a satellite malfunction.
Most first generation avionics do not have FDE and were
designed when GPS had a feature called selective availability
(SA) that deliberately degraded accuracy. SA has since been
discontinued, and new generation (wide area augmentation
system) WAAS-capable receivers (TSO C145a/C146a) account
for SA being terminated. These receivers experience a higher
RAIM availability, even in the absence of WAAS messages,
and also have FDE capability.
(c) ground-based augmentation system (GBAS).
3.16.4.1
Aircraft-based Augmentation System (ABAS)
The RAIM and fault detection and exclusion (FDE) functions
in current IFR-certified avionics are considered ABAS.
RAIM can provide the integrity for the en-route, terminal,
and non-precision approach phases of flight. FDE improves
the continuity of operation in the event of a satellite failure
and can support primary-means oceanic operations.
RAIM uses extra satellites in view to compare solutions and
detect problems. It usually takes four satellites to compute
a navigation solution, and a minimum of five for RAIM to
function. The availability of RAIM is a function of the number
of visible satellites and their geometry. It is complicated
by the movement of satellites relative to a coverage area
and temporary satellite outages resulting from scheduled
maintenance or failures.
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For avionics that cannot take advantage of SA being
discontinued, average RAIM availability is 99.99% for
en-route and 99.7% for non-precision approach operations
for a 24-satellite GPS constellation. FDE availability
ranges from 99.8% for en-route to 89.5% for non-precision
approach. Avionics that can take advantage of SA having
been discontinued have virtually 100% availability of RAIM
for en-route and 99.998% for non-precision approach; FDE
availability ranges from 99.92% for en-route to 99.1% for
non-precision approach. These figures have been computed
for mid-latitudes, and are dependent on user position and also
on which satellites are operational at any given time. RAIM
and FDE availability is typically even better at high latitudes,
since the receiver is able to track satellites on the other side of
the North Pole.
The level of RAIM or FDE availability for a certain airspace
at a certain time is determined by an analysis of satellite
geometry, rather than signal measurement. This is why it can
be predicted by receivers or with PC-based computer software.
The difference between the two methods is that the receivers
use the current constellation in their calculations while the
PC software can use a constellation definition that takes into
October 27, 2005
account scheduled satellite outages.
Most TSO C129a avionics also accept signals from an aircraft
altitude encoder. This is called baro-aiding, and it essentially
reduces the number of satellites required by one, thus further
increasing the availability of RAIM and providing an
additional measure of tolerance to satellite failures. Operators
contemplating the installation of SatNav receivers are
encouraged to incorporate a baro encoder input to the receiver
wherever possible.
With proper integration, IRS can augment/enhance GNSS
navigation. This system allows “coasting” through periods of
low availability. IRS is costly; therefore, it is usually found
in commercial airline and sophisticated business aircraft.
A low cost IRS-like alternative for aviation, using solid-state
sensors, is starting to emerge, but none is currently approved
in Canada.
SBAS uses a network of ground-based reference stations
that monitor navigation satellite signals and relay data to
master stations, which assess signal validity and compute
error corrections. The master stations generate two primary
types of messages: integrity, and range corrections. These
are broadcast to users via geostationary earth orbit (GEO)
satellites (hence SBAS) in fixed orbital positions over the
equator. The SBAS GEO satellites also serve as additional
sources of navigation ranging signals.
The integrity messages provide a direct validation of each
navigation satellite’s signal. This function is similar to RAIM,
except that the additional satellites required for RAIM are
not necessary when SBAS integrity messages are used. The
integrity messages are available wherever the GEO satellite
signal can be received.
The range corrections contain estimates of the errors
introduced into the range measurements as a result of
ionospheric delays, and satellite ephemeris (orbit) and clock
errors. Ionospheric delay terms are critical for correction
messages, and are also the most challenging to characterize.
First, each reference station measures the ionospheric delay
for each visible satellite. These observations are sent to the
master station, where they are combined, and used to generate
a model of the ionosphere, which is then transmitted to the
receivers via the GEO satellite. The accuracy of the model
is dependent on the number and placement of the reference
stations providing observations of ionospheric delays.
By compensating for these errors, SBAS receivers can compute
the position of the aircraft with the accuracy necessary to
support advanced flight operations with vertical guidance.
SBAS can provide lateral accuracy similar to a localizer,
and vertical performance somewhat better than barometric
vertical navigation (BARO VNAV), but without the need for
temperature correction or a local field altimeter setting.
Unlike BARO VNAV, SBAS vertical guidance is not subject to
altimeter setting errors, or non-standard temperatures or lapse
rates. Vertical guidance provides safer stabilized approaches
and transition to visual for landing. This represents one of
the principal benefits from SBAS service. The other is lower
approach minima at many airports, as a result of greater lateral
accuracy. SBAS has the potential to meet CAT I approach
standards with the next generation of GPS satellites.
The first SBAS, the U.S. FAA’s WAAS, was commissioned in
2003. Europe, Japan and India are also building compatible
systems to augment GPS [EGNOS (European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay Service), MSAS (Multi-functional
Transport Satellite (MTSAT) Satellite-Based Augmentation
System) and GAGAN (GPS and GEO Augmented
Navigation), respectively].
The use of WAAS receivers for en-route, terminal, and
non-precision approach (RNAV and overlay) operations
has been permitted in Canada since January 2003. Vertical
guidance provided by WAAS receivers is now authorized for
RNAV approaches.
WAAS currently uses two GEO satellites located over the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
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3.16.4.2 Satellite-based Augmentation System (SBAS)
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This gives integrity message coverage over most of Canada
south of 70° latitude, and increases the availability of nonprecision approach to virtually 100%.
There is a program underway to deploy additional GEO
satellites to provide redundant WAAS coverage over all but
the extreme north of Canada.
The coverage of WAAS vertical guidance is also dependent
on the location of the reference stations. There must be a
sufficient number of ionospheric delay measurements to
model the ionosphere accurately to determine its effect at a
receiver’s position.
Currently, all the reference stations are located in the
conterminous United States and Alaska. Consequently, WAAS
service that supports vertical guidance is now available in
most of the Yukon Territory, the western half of the Northwest
Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, the
southern half of Ontario, and the portion of Quebec south of a
line running from Rouyn-Noranda to Québec City.
NAV CANADA is currently working to extend WAAS vertical
service throughout much of Canada by establishing reference
stations in Canada and linking them to the FAA WAAS
network. It is anticipated that this will result in the expansion
of WAAS vertical guidance capability to the southern half
of Quebec, all of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince
Edward Island, and the western portion of Newfoundland by
late 2006. Another expansion phase during 2007 will result
in these services being available to all of Ontario, Quebec,
Labrador, and most of Newfoundland.
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October 27, 2005
3.16.4.3 Ground-based Augmentation System (GBAS)
Another augmentation system being developed is GBAS,
or the local-area augmentation system (LAAS). It is called
GBAS because corrections are sent directly to user receivers
from a ground station at an airport.
GPS receivers with antennas at surveyed locations provide
measurements used to generate and broadcast pseudorange
corrections. Aircraft receivers use the corrections for
increased accuracy, while a monitor function in the ground
station assures the integrity of the broadcast. GBAS provides
service over a limited area, typically within 30 NM of the
ground station.
The goal of GBAS is to support all precision approach
categories and, possibly, surface movement guidance. There
are still a number of technical challenges to overcome, and it
is not clear when GBAS will be available in Canada.
COM
3.16.5 IFR Approval to Use GNSS and WAAS in
Domestic Airspace
Pilots in Canada can use GNSS (GPS, or GPS augmented by
WAAS), to fly IFR in the en-route, terminal and non-precision
approach phases of flight.
Approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV) classified
as LPV (localizer performance with vertical guidance) and
lateral navigation / vertical navigation (LNAV/VNAV)
approaches may be flown using WAAS.
Suitably-equipped aircraft may fly LNAV/VNAV approaches
using GNSS to provide lateral navigation and BARO VNAV
for the vertical.
The following table lists the capability required for each phase
of flight:
Phase Of Flight
SatNav Capability
En-route
GPS or WAAS
Terminal
GPS or WAAS
Non-precision
approach (LNAV)
GPS or WAAS
LNAV/VNAV
WAAS (for lateral and vertical)
LNAV/VNAV
GPS or WAAS lateral
BARO VNAV vertical
LPV
WAAS (for lateral and vertical)
SatNav capability may be provided by a panel-mount
GPS or WAAS receiver, or an FMS that uses a GPS or
WAAS sensor.
Avionics have to meet appropriate equipment standards,
which are listed in the CAP Special Notice and AIC 27/05,
and referenced throughout this document.
Equally important, the avionics installation must be approved
by Transport Canada to ensure proper avionics integration
and display.
Hand-held and other VFR receivers do not support
integrity monitoring, nor do they comply with other
certification requirements; therefore, they cannot be used for
IFR operations.
Holders of air operator certificates (AOC) issued under Part
VII of the CARs, and private operator certificates issued
under Subpart 604 of the CARs, are required to be authorized
by an operations specification to conduct GNSS instrument
approach operations in IMC. This is explained in Commercial
and Business Aviation Advisory Circular (CBAAC) 0123R,
dated 25 March 2004.
3.16.5.1 Domestic En-route and Terminal Operations
GNSS may be used for all en-route and terminal operations,
including navigation along airways and air routes, navigation
to and from ground-based aids along specific tracks, and
RNAV. In accordance with the approval described in the
CAP Special Notice, the aircraft must also carry approved
traditional systems, such as VOR and ADF, to serve as a
backup when there are not enough GPS satellites in view to
support RAIM. Certain GNSS avionics systems can also meet
long-range navigation requirements for flight in CMNPSA and
RNPC airspace. For more information on MNPS, RNPC and
CMNPS certification, contact the Transport Canada Regional
Manager, Commercial and Business Aviation.
In practice, pilots can use GNSS for guidance most of the
time. If an integrity alert occurs while en route, the pilot can
then continue by using traditional aids, diverting if necessary
from the direct routing, notifying ATS of any changes to the
flight and obtaining a new clearance, as required.
When using GNSS to maintain a track in terminal operations,
the avionics shall be in terminal mode and/or the course
deviation indicator (CDI) shall be set to terminal sensitivity.
(Most avionics set the mode and sensitivity automatically
within 30 NM of the destination airport, or when an arrival
procedure is loaded.)
When using GNSS to navigate along airways, VOR or ADF
reception is not an issue. This means that pilots using GNSS
for navigation can file or request an altitude below the MEA,
but at or above the MOCA, to avoid icing, optimize cruise
altitude, or in an emergency. However, an ATS clearance to fly
at a below-MEA altitude could be dependent on issues such as
traffic communications reception and the base of controlled
airspace. In the rare case of a RAIM alert while en route
below the MEA, and out of range of the airway navigation
aid, pilots should advise ATS and climb to continue the flight
using VOR or ADF.
GNSS avionics typically display the distance to the next
waypoint. To ensure proper separation between aircraft,
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October 27, 2005
a controller may request the distance from a waypoint that
is not the currently-active waypoint in the avionics; it may
even be behind the aircraft. Pilots must be able to obtain
this information quickly from the avionics. Techniques vary
by manufacturer, so pilots should ensure familiarity with
this function.
At times outside radar coverage, pilots may be cleared by ATS
to a position defined by a latitude and longitude. As these
are usually outside the range of traditional navigation aids,
there is no means to cross check that the coordinates have
been entered accurately. Pilots must be particularly careful to
verify that the coordinates are correct.
3.16.5.2 GNSS-based RNAV Approach Procedures
GNSS-based approaches are charted as “RNAV (GPS) RWY
XX” or “RNAV (GNSS) RWY XX.” The “(GPS)” before
the runway identification indicates that GNSS must be used
for guidance. Pilots and controllers shall use the prefix
“RNAV” in radio communications (e.g. “cleared the RNAV
RWY 04 approach”).
The airborne equipment required to fly to the various minima
is described in later sections.
The LNAV minima indicate a non-precision approach, while
the LNAV/VNAV and LPV minima refer to APV approaches
(RNAV approaches with vertical guidance). However, the
actual terms “NPA” and “APV” do not appear on the charts
because they are approach categories not related to specific
procedure design criteria. The depiction of the three sets of
minima is analogous to the way that an ILS approach may show
landing minima for ILS, localizer (LOC) and CIRCLING.
The approach chart may indicate a WAAS channel number.
This is used for certain types of avionics, and permits the
approach to be loaded by entering the number shown.
All approaches must be retrieved from the avionics database,
and that database must be current. While it is sometimes
acceptable to use pilot-generated waypoints en route, it is
not permitted for approach procedures, as any database or
waypoint coordinate errors could have serious consequences.
Because flying GNSS-based approaches requires good
familiarity with the avionics, it is recommended that pilots
make use of PC-based simulation features available from most
manufacturers (often via the Internet). Several approaches
should first be flown VFR to build confidence and familiarity
before attempting operations in IMC. Of particular concern
is the missed approach procedure, where some older avionics
may require several pilot actions.
GNSS-based RNAV approaches are designed to take full
advantage of GNSS capabilities. A series of waypoints in a “T”
or “Y” pattern eliminates the need for a procedure turn. The
accuracy of GNSS often means lower minima and increased
capacity at the airport. Because GNSS is not dependent on
the location of a ground-based aid, straight-in approaches are
possible for most runway ends at an airport.
3.16.5.2.1RNAV Approaches with Lateral Guidance Only
GNSS-based RNAV approaches are often provided for
runways that have no traditional approach, runways that are
served only by circling approaches, or runways that have
traditional approaches, but where a GNSS-based approach
would provide an operational advantage. At this time, over
350 public RNAV (GPS) approaches are published in the
CAP. This number will continually increase because the great
majority of new approaches designed in Canada are RNAV
(GPS) or RNAV (GNSS) approaches.
GPS (TSO C129/C129a Class A1, B1, B3, C1 or C3) and
WAAS (TSO C145a/C146a, any class) avionics are both able
to provide the lateral guidance required for these approaches.
RNAV (GPS) and RNAV (GNSS) approach charts will, in
many cases, depict three sets of minima:
•
LPV (localizer performance with
vertical guidance—APV)
•
LNAV/VNAV (lateral/vertical navigation—APV); and
•
LNAV (lateral navigation only—NPA);
COM
Prior to the advent of GNSS, ICAO defined only two approach
and landing operations: precision approach (PA) and nonprecision approach (NPA). It has now added definitions for
approach and landing operations with vertical guidance
(APV) to cover approaches that use lateral and vertical
guidance, but that do not meet the requirements established for
precision approach.
TC AIM
RNAV (GPS) LNAV approaches do not define a vertical
path through space; as such, each approach segment has a
minimum step-down altitude below which the pilot may not
descend. These are normally flown using the “level-descendlevel” method familiar to most pilots.
Without vertical guidance, pilots fly to the LNAV MDA line
depicted on the plate. The pilot is required to remain at or
above the MDA unless a visual transition to landing can be
accomplished, or to conduct a missed approach at the missed
approach waypoint (MAWP), typically located over the
runway threshold.
WAAS and some TSO C129/C129a avionics may provide
advisory vertical guidance when flying approaches without
LNAV/VNAV or LPV minima. It is important to recognize
that this guidance is advisory only and the pilot is responsible
for respecting the minimum altitude for each segment until a
visual transition to land is commenced.
Pilots using TSO C129/C129a avionics should use the RAIM
prediction feature to ensure that approach-level RAIM will be
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supported at the destination or alternate airport for the ETA
(±15 min). This should be done before takeoff, and again prior
to commencing a GNSS-based approach. If approach-level
RAIM is not expected to be available, pilots should advise
ATS as soon as practicable and state their intentions (e.g.
delay the approach, fly another type of approach, proceed
to alternate).
3.16.5.2.2 GPS Overlay Approaches
GPS overlay approaches are traditional VOR- or NDB-based
approaches that have been approved to be flown using the
guidance of IFR approach-certified GNSS avionics. Because
of approach design criteria, LOC-based approaches cannot
be overlaid.
COM
GPS overlay approaches are identified in the CAP by including
“(GPS)” in small capitals after the runway designation [e.g.
NDB RWY 04 (GPS)]. When using GNSS guidance, the pilot
benefits from improved accuracy and situational awareness
through a moving map display (if available) and distanceto-go indication. In many cases, the pilot can bypass the
procedure turn and fly directly to the FAF for a more efficient
approach, as long as minimum sector altitudes are respected.
Unless required by the aircraft flight manual (AFM) or AFM
Supplement, it is not necessary to monitor the underlying
navigation aid, and it is even permissible to fly a GPS overlay
approach when the underlying navigation aid is temporarily
out of service. Nevertheless, good airmanship dictates that all
available sources of information be monitored.
Pilots shall request GPS overlays as follows: “request GPS
overlay RWY XX.” ATS may ask the pilot to specify the
underlying navigation aid if more than one overlay approach
is published for the runway.
GPS overlay approaches were intended to be a transition
measure to allow immediate benefits while waiting for the
commissioning of a GNSS stand-alone approach for a runway.
For this reason, in most cases, the GPS overlay approach
will be discontinued when a GNSS stand-alone approach is
published for a given runway. There are still over 120 GPS
overlay approaches published in the CAP.
When flying overlay approaches, pilots should use the RAIM
prediction feature of TSO C129/C129a avionics to ensure that
approach-level RAIM will be supported, as described in the
preceding section.
3.16.5.2.3 Vertical Guidance on RNAV Approaches
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and RNAV (GNSS) approaches to LNAV/VNAV minima
with vertical guidance in a similar manner to the way they
fly an ILS approach: with both a lateral course deviation
indicator (CDI) and a vertical deviation indicator (VDI).
The lateral guidance must be based on GPS or WAAS. The
vertical guidance may be based on WAAS, or on barometric
inputs (BARO VNAV), depending on the approach and the
aircraft equipage.
Aircraft with WAAS Class 3 avionics may fly RNAV (GNSS)
approaches to LPV minima in a similar manner. In this case,
both the lateral and vertical guidance are based on WAAS.
The nominal final approach course vertical flight path angle
for LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches is 3°, avoiding the
step-down minimum altitudes associated with traditional
non-precision approaches.
The LNAV/VNAV and LPV minima depict a decision altitude
(DA), which requires the pilot to initiate a missed approach
at the DA if the visual reference to continue the approach
has not been established. In most cases, the DA associated
with LNAV/VNAV or LPV approaches will be lower than
the LNAV MDA, since the LNAV/VNAV and LPV approach
designs use a sloped vertical obstacle clearance surface.
3.16.5.2.4 RNAV Approaches with Vertical Guidance Based
on BARO VNAV
Multi-sensor FMSs meeting TSO C115b have been certified
since the late eighties to provide guidance for a stabilized final
approach segment while flying non-precision approaches.
The vertical guidance for these systems has been derived
from a barometric altitude input; hence, these approaches
are known as BARO VNAV approaches. This equipment
has typically only been installed on transport category
airplanes. The information provided by these systems is
advisory only, and pilots are required to respect all minimum
altitudes, including step-down altitudes, since non-precision
approaches are not specifically designed to take advantage of
BARO VNAV capability.
With the publication in Canada of RNAV (GNSS) approaches
with vertical guidance, suitably-equipped aircraft may fly
BARO VNAV approaches to the LNAV/VNAV minima
published on these approach plates. The standard for
equipage is a multi-sensor FMS meeting TSO C115b and
certified in accordance with FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 20129, or equivalent. The FMS must use GNSS sensor input,
but does not require a WAAS-capable receiver to fly to
LNAV/VNAV minima.
LNAV/VNAV and LPV describe approaches with vertical
guidance. These will deliver the safety benefits of a
stabilized approach and, in many cases, will improve airport
accessibility. However, as with any advance in aviation, pilots
must appreciate the relevant requirements and limitations.
Pilots must note that the vertical path defined by BARO
VNAV is affected by altimeter setting errors. For this reason,
BARO VNAV is not authorized unless a local field altimeter
setting is available.
Aircraft with TSO C145a/C146a (WAAS Class 2 or 3) or TSO
C115b (multi-sensor FMS) avionics, may fly RNAV (GPS)
Non-standard
atmospheric
conditions,
particularly
temperature, also induce errors in the BARO VNAV
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
vertical path. For example, a nominal 3° glide path may be
closer to 2.5° at very low temperatures. Similarly, at above
ISA temperatures, a BARO VNAV vertical path would be
steeper than normal. To compensate for these temperature
effects, some avionics allow input of the temperature at
the airport, and apply temperature compensation so that
the BARO VNAV vertical path is not biased as a function
of temperature. Unfortunately, not all systems have the
capability to compensate for temperature effects.
The sample vertical path angle (VPA) deviation chart, below,
indicates the effect of temperature on the uncorrected BARO
VNAV VPA, for an aerodrome at sea level.
VPA Deviations
Uncorrected VPA
+30˚C
3.2˚
+15˚C
3.0˚
0˚C
2.8˚
-15˚C
2.7˚
-31˚C
2.5˚
When temperature compensation is not, or cannot be, applied
through the FMS, pilots shall refer to a temperature limit,
referred to as TLim, published on the approach chart. Below
this temperature, the approach is not authorized using BARO
VNAV guidance. TLim will be a function of the reduced obstacle
clearance resulting from flying an uncompensated VPA, and
will vary from approach to approach. For avionics systems
that have the capability to correctly compensate the VPA for
temperature deviations, the published TLim does not apply if
the pilots enable the temperature compensation.
Regardless of whether the FMS provides temperature
compensation of the vertical path or not, all altitudes on
the approach, including DA, should still be temperaturecorrected (by FMS temperature compensation or per the
Altitude Correction Chart in the CAP GEN section and TC
AIM RAC Section 9.17.1, Figure 9.1).
WAAS avionics continuously calculate integrity levels
during an approach and will provide a message to the crew
if alert limits are exceeded, analogous to ILS monitors that
shut down an ILS signal when its accuracy does not meet the
required tolerances.
Although the WAAS integrity monitor is very reliable, good
airmanship nevertheless dictates that pilots verify the final
approach waypoint (FAWP) crossing altitude depicted on
approach plates with LNAV/VNAV and LPV minima, in the
same way that the beacon crossing altitude is checked when
flying an ILS approach. Large altitude deviations could be
an indication of a database error or otherwise undetectable
incorrect signal.
3.16.6 Flight Planning
NOTAM on ground-based navigation aid outages are of direct
use to pilots because if a navigation aid is not functioning,
the related service is not available. With GPS and WAAS,
the knowledge of a satellite outage does not equate to a
direct knowledge of service availability. The procedures
for determining service availability are different for GPS
(TSO C129/C129a) and WAAS (TSO C145a/C146a) avionics,
and are explained in the next sections.
3.16.6.1
COM
Aerodrome Temp.
250 ft HAT.
GPS NOTAM
This section is applicable only to operators using TSO C129/
C129a avionics.
Research has shown minor differences among avionics’
computations of RAIM availability, making it impractical to
develop a GPS RAIM NOTAM system that will work reliably
for all receivers. Because of this, and since the IFR GPS
approval requires aircraft to be equipped with traditional
avionics to be used when RAIM is unavailable, NOTAM
information on GPS RAIM availability is not provided
in Canada.
3.16.5.2.5 RNAV Approaches with Vertical Guidance Based Canadian flight information centres (FIC) can supply NOTAM
on GPS satellite outages by querying the international
on WAAS
NOTAM identifier KNMH. (This information is also
RNAV (GNSS) approaches with vertical guidance based on available at <https://www.notams.jcs.mil>.) The availability
WAAS require a Class 2 or 3 (for LNAV/VNAV minima) or of RAIM can then be computed from the satellite availability
Class 3 (for LPV minima) TSO C145a WAAS receiver, or a information by entering the expected outages into PC-based
TSO C146a sensor interfaced to appropriate avionics.
RAIM prediction software provided by some avionics
manufacturers or through direct entry into FMS computers
RNAV (GNSS) approaches with vertical guidance based that support this function.
on WAAS are entirely dependent on the WAAS signal.
WAAS meets essentially the same navigation performance GNSS avionics also contain such a model, and this allows
requirements (accuracy, integrity and continuity) as ILS, and pilots to determine if approach-level RAIM will be supported
pilots can expect that guidance will be similar to that provided (available) upon arrival at destination or an alternate. The
by an ILS, with some improvement in signal stability over calculation typically uses current information, broadcast
ILS. The LPV approach design criteria are similar to ILS by the satellites, identifying which satellites are in service
CAT I, although the lowest currently-attainable DA will be at that time. However, unlike the software that is based on
the NOTAM data, this prediction does not take into account
83
TC AIM
scheduled satellite outages.
Operators using TSO C129/C129a avionics who wish to take
advantage of an RNAV (GPS) or RNAV (GNSS) approach
when specifying an alternate airport must check KNMH
NOTAM to verify the status of the constellation, as described
in Section 3.16.12.
3.16.6.2 WAAS NOTAM
NAV CANADA has implemented a NOTAM system for
users of WAAS avionics (TSO C145a/C146a). It makes use
of a service volume model (SVM) that considers current and
anticipated GPS constellation status and geometry, and the
availability of WAAS GEO satellites, and computes estimates
of the availability of service where SatNav-based approach
procedures are published.
COM
The SVM runs twice daily, at 0000Z and 1200Z. It computes
the expected availability of LPV, and WAAS-based LNAV/
VNAV and LNAV for a period of eighteen hours for all
aerodromes in its database. When a service is predicted not
to be available for a duration of more than fifteen minutes,
an aerodrome NOTAM will be issued. In the event that two
outages of less than fifteen minutes each are predicted, and
are separated by a period of less than fifteen minutes during
which the service is available, a NOTAM will be issued for a
single outage covering the entire period.
The SVM is also run in response to an unscheduled change
in the GPS constellation status. This typically implies a
satellite failure.
Pilots should flight plan based on the assumption that the
services referred to in a NOTAM will not be available.
However, once they arrive at the aerodrome, they may
discover that a service is, in fact, available because of the
conservative nature of the prediction, in which case they may
use the approach safely if they so choose.
When LPV and WAAS-based LNAV/VNAV are not available,
pilots may fly the LNAV procedure to the published MDA;
this will almost always be available to pilots using WAAS
avionics. Since LNAV procedures will be used when LPV and
LNAV/VNAV is not available, pilots should ensure that they
maintain their skills in flying these approaches.
Because of the high availability of services supporting enroute and terminal operations, no NOTAMs are issued for
these phases of flight.
Some examples of WAAS NOTAMs are listed below:
(a) LPV NOT AVBL 0511211200 TIL 0511211240. This is
issued as an aerodrome NOTAM, and indicates that the
SVM has predicted that LPV service may not be available
for the specified period.
(b)LPV AND WAAS-BASED LNAV/VNAV NOT AVBL
84
October 27, 2005
0511211205 TIL 0511211235. This aerodrome NOTAM
indicates that LPV and LNAV/VNAV based on WAAS is
expected to be unavailable for the specified period. This
will be the most common type of WAAS NOTAM. Note
that if LNAV is available, the LNAV/VNAV approach may
be flown by aircraft equipped for BARO VNAV.
(c) WAAS-BASED LNAV NOT AVBL 0511211210 TIL
0511211225. This is an aerodrome NOTAM that indicates
that the SVM has predicted that LNAV service may not be
available for the specified period.
(d)LPV AND WAAS-BASED LNAV/VNAV NOT AVBL
WEST OF LINE FM WHITEHORSE TO CALGARY
0511011800 TIL APRX 0511071800. This will be issued
as an FIR NOTAM, and is used to communicate that a
GEO satellite failure has occurred, disrupting all WAAS
messages for the area covered by that satellite.
(e) LPV AND WAAS-BASED LNAV/VNAV NOT AVBL
0511200800 TIL APRX 0511241600. When issued as a
national (CYHQ) NOTAM, this indicates the complete
loss of WAAS services. Note that LNAV will still likely be
available for operators using WAAS avionics; NOTAM for
LNAV outages will be issued for each affected aerodrome,
as described in (c) above.
(f) WAAS UNMONITORED 0511302100 TIL APRX
0512011200. This national NOTAM is used to indicate a
failure in the WAAS NOTAM system itself. Since pilots
would not be alerted to disruptions of WAAS services,
flight planning should be based on the assumption that LPV
and WAAS-based LNAV/VNAV may be unavailable.
Note that WAAS NOTAM information is not applicable to
users of TSO C129a avionics.
3.16.6.3 Negative W Notation
Normally, WAAS-based approaches will only be designed
and published where the nominal availability of the required
service is greater than 99%. This policy avoids issuing a large
number of NOTAM for sites where the availability is low.
However, there may be aerodromes for which an LNAV/VNAV
approach is published because of a local demand by operators
flying BARO VNAV-equipped aircraft. These procedures
will appear in the database of WAAS receivers, and will be
flyable by them. In the event that such an aerodrome is located
in a region of poor WAAS availability, NOTAMs will not be
issued when WAAS-based LNAV/VNAV is expected to be
unavailable. Pilots will be alerted to this fact by a negative
“W” (white on a black background) on the approach plate.
Pilots should flight plan as though WAAS-based LNAV/
VNAV will not be available at these aerodromes; however,
if the service is available, it may be used safely at the
pilot’s discretion.
October 27, 2005
3.16.7 Flight Plan Equipment Suffixes
TC AIM
The letter “G” in item 10 of the IFR flight plan (equipment)
indicates that the aircraft has IFR-approved GPS or
WAAS avionics, and can therefore be cleared by ATS on
direct routings while en route, in terminal areas, and for
GNSS-based approaches. It is the pilot’s responsibility to
ensure that the relevant equipage requirements are met for
GNSS-based approaches.
requires flying a published track to or from an NDB or VOR.
Where ATS requests a position based on a distance from a
DME facility for separation purposes, the pilot should report
GPS distance from the same DME facility, stating the distance
in “miles” and the facility name (e.g. “30 miles from Sumspot
VOR”). This phraseology is used for all RNAV systems.
When reporting DME distance, the pilot includes “DME” in
the report (e.g. “30 DME from Sumspot VOR”). This enables
ATS to allow for the DME slant range.
Pilots using GPS or WAAS, including hand-held units, who
are filing VFR flight plans are also encouraged to use the “G”
notation to convey their ability to follow direct routings. This
does not imply a requirement for IFR-approved avionics.
Note that under this approval, there is no requirement to
carry the avionics normally used to identify fixes defined by
ground-based aids, but other considerations may apply. This
topic is discussed in Section 3.16.10.
3.16.8 Avionics Databases
3.16.10Replacement of DME or ADF by GNSS Avionics
Database errors do occur, and should be reported to the
avionics database supplier. Jeppesen accepts e-mailed
database reports at <[email protected]>. It
is good practice to verify that retrieved data is correct, and
it is mandatory to do so for approach data. Verification can
be accomplished either by checking waypoint co-ordinates
or by checking bearings and distances between waypoints
against charts.
3.16.9 Use of GNSS in Lieu of Ground-based Aids
Subject to any overriding conditions or limitations in the
aircraft flight manual (AFM) or AFM Supplement, GNSS
may be used to identify all fixes defined by DME, VOR, VOR/
DME and NDB, including fixes that are part of any instrument
approach procedure, to navigate to and from these fixes along
specific tracks, including arcs, and to report distances along
airways or tracks for separation purposes. This can be done
as long as there is no integrity alert, and provided that all
fixes that are part of a terminal instrument procedure (arrival,
departure, or approach) are named, charted and retrieved
from a current navigation database. GNSS may be used to
identify fixes defined by ground-based aids, even if they are
temporarily out of service.
For example, if the DME associated with an ILS/DME
approach is unserviceable, traditional aircraft would be
denied the approach; however, under these rules, the pilot of a
GNSS-equipped aircraft may request and fly the approach.
Note that for NDB or VOR approaches that are not part of
the GPS overlay program described in Section 3.16.5.2.2,
pilots shall use ADF or VOR as the primary source for final
approach track guidance. For these approaches, and for
approaches based on a localizer (LOC) for lateral guidance,
pilots shall not use GNSS as the primary source for missed
approach guidance when the missed approach procedure
Before making a decision on avionics equipment, aircraft
operators should take GNSS performance and their operational
environment into consideration. Some analysis is required to
determine how CAR 605.18(j) relates to a specific operation.
The following paragraphs highlight some of the factors that
should be considered.
COM
GNSS avionics used for IFR flight require an electronic
database that can be updated, normally on 28- or 56-day cycles.
The updating service is usually purchased under subscription
from avionics manufacturers or database suppliers.
In the settled areas of southern Canada, aerodromes are
relatively plentiful and a variety of navigation aids is typically
available. In these areas, operators equipped with GNSS
avionics meeting the conditions of approval described in
the CAP Special Notice may consider eliminating DME and
perhaps ADF avionics. Such a decision should be based on a
thorough analysis of the navigation aids available in the normal
area of operations, the availability of GNSS approaches, and
the availability of alternate aerodromes. The decision should
also be made within the context of the regulatory requirements
described above. Operators should also remember that the
availability of RAIM or WAAS integrity depends on the
phase of flight and on the number of satellites in view at any
given time.
In sparsely settled areas, particularly in the Arctic, aerodromes
are farther apart and the most common navigation aid is the
NDB. In these areas, operators equipped with GNSS avionics
meeting the conditions in this document may consider
eliminating DME avionics, but would likely not meet the CAR
605.18 requirements without ADF. On the other hand, with
either a GNSS stand-alone or GPS overlay approach available
at virtually all aerodromes, a single ADF would likely meet the
requirements. Generally, approach-level RAIM availability
should be highest in northern Canada because satellites over
the other side of the North Pole are visible to receivers at
high latitudes.
3.16.11NAT MNPS Operations
In the NAT, a single GPS/RAIM unit can be used to replace
one of the two required long range navigation systems, as
specified in AIC 2/00. In this case, inertial reference systems
can be used if RAIM is lost.
85
TC AIM
Alternatively, as described in AIC 2/00, a dual GPS/FDE
(global positioning system / fault detection and exclusion)
installation, including TSO C145a/C146a avionics, can meet
requirements, provided that operators complete a softwarebased pre-flight RAIM/FDE prediction to ensure service
will be available for the Atlantic crossing. On very rare
occasions, operators may have to delay a flight based on the
RAIM/FDE prediction.
3.16.12GPS and WAAS Approaches at Alternate Aerodromes
Risk assessment of GNSS performance has made it possible
to relax the restriction that prohibited taking credit for GNSSbased approaches when selecting alternate aerodromes for
flight planning purposes. This includes aerodromes served
only by GPS-based approaches.
COM
Pilots can take credit for a GNSS-based approach at an
alternate aerodrome when all of the following conditions
are met:
(a) A useable approach at the planned destination is served
by a functioning traditional aid. This is to ensure that
an approach is available in the event of a widespread
GPS outage. (Good airmanship dictates that the weather
forecast at the destination should provide confidence that
the approach could be used successfully.) This approach
must be completely independent of GNSS. Note that this
precludes the GNSS in lieu of ground-based aids credit;
(b)The published LNAV minima are the lowest landing limits
for which credit may be taken when determining alternate
weather minima requirements. No credit may be taken for
LNAV/VNAV or LPV minima;
(c) The pilot-in-command verifies that the integrity, provided
by RAIM or WASS, and that is required for an LNAV
approach, is expected to be available at the planned
alternate aerodrome at the ETA, taking into account
predicted satellite outages; and
(d)For GPS TSO C129/C129a avionics, periodically during
the flight, and at least once before the mid-point of the
flight to the destination, the pilot-in-command verifies
that approach-level RAIM is expected to be available at
the planned alternate aerodrome at the ETA. This may be
accomplished using the RAIM prediction capability of the
avionics. If an in-flight prediction indicates that approachlevel RAIM will not be available at the alternate, the pilot
should plan accordingly. (In-flight predictions are not
required for TSO C145a/C146a avionics.)
For the purposes of determining alternate weather minima per
TC AIM RAC 3.14.1 or the CAP GEN section, LNAV/VNAV
shall be considered to be a non-precision approach.
NOTE: These provisions are applicable to meet the legal
flight planning requirements for alternate airports.
86
October 27, 2005
Once airborne, pilots are free to re-plan as needed to
accommodate changing situations while exercising
good airmanship.
Taking credit for RNAV (GPS) and RNAV (GNSS) approaches
at an alternate aerodrome for IFR flight plan filing purposes is
possible because the availability of RAIM or WAAS integrity
to support non-precision approaches is normally very high.
However, when satellites are out of service, availability could
decrease. Consequently, it is necessary to determine satellite
status to ensure that the necessary level of integrity will be
available at the ETA at the alternate, as indicated by 3.16.12(c),
above. The procedures for this are explained in the next
two sections.
3.16.12.1 GNSS Approaches at Alternate Aerodromes –
GPS (TSO C129/C129a) Avionics
The status of the GPS constellation may be obtained through
the FAA by contacting a NAV CANADA flight information
centre (FIC) and requesting the international NOTAM
file KNMH.
A procedure that meets the requirement to ensure that
approach-level RAIM will be available at the alternate for
TSO C129/C129a avionics is:
(a) Determine the ETA at the proposed alternate aerodrome
following a missed approach at the destination.
(b)Check GPS NOTAM (KNMH) file for a period of 60 min
before and after the ETA. If not more than one satellite
outage is predicted during that period, then 3.16.12(c) is
satisfied. If two or more satellites are anticipated to be
unserviceable during the ETA ±60-min period, then it is
necessary to determine if approach-level RAIM will be
available, taking into account the reduced availability
resulting from the outages. This may be accomplished by
using commercially-available dispatch RAIM prediction
software, acquiring a current almanac, and manually
deselecting those satellites for the times described in
the NOTAM.
The RAIM availability requirement is satisfied if the resulting
prediction indicates that RAIM will be unavailable for a total
of 15 min or less during the ETA ±60-min period.
It may be possible to change the alternate or adjust the
departure time (and hence the ETA at the alternate) and rerun the prediction to find a time for which the required RAIM
availability is achieved, or simply to find a time when fewer
than two satellite outages are predicted.
3.16.12.2 GNSS Approaches at Alternate Aerodromes –
WAAS Avionics
Verifying that an LNAV approach is expected to be available
is less complicated for operators using WAAS avionics
(TSO C145a/C146a). Simply check the national (CYHQ) and
FIR NOTAM files to ensure that the WAAS NOTAM system
October 27, 2005
has not failed, and that no widespread WAAS outages have
occurred, and then check the aerodrome NOTAM file for the
alternate to ensure that LNAV will be available.
The NOTAM system automatically evaluates if sufficient
integrity will be available from WAAS GEO satellite messages.
In the event of a widespread outage of WAAS messages (as in
the rare case of a GEO satellite or total system failure), or at
an aerodrome outside the GEO coverage area, it determines
if approach-level RAIM, as computed by a WAAS receiver,
will be available. For all of these situations, the absence of an
aerodrome NOTAM will give the pilot a reasonable assurance
that an LNAV approach will be available.
3.16.13Next Generation GNSS
The U.S. has started planning for the next-generation GPS
satellites, and Europe is proceeding with Galileo, which
should be interoperable with GPS. These new systems will
have features that improve performance considerably. Both
will transmit higher power signals on at least two frequencies
in protected navigation bands. Because ionospheric delay is
related to frequency, next-generation avionics will be able to
calculate the delay directly. This will mean that SBAS should
readily support CAT I approaches over wide areas because the
greatest challenge for today’s SBAS is ensuring the integrity
of the ionospheric corrections.
Latest estimates suggest that the Galileo constellation
should be commissioned for aviation use by 2010, while the
modernized GPS constellation should be fully operational
by 2015.
3.16.14Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
and SatNav
In the future, standards for operations in specified airspace or
to fly specific procedures will likely follow the RNP concept.
In principle, instead of legislating that aircraft be equipped
with specific avionics to operate within designated airspace,
an RNP level will be specified. The pilot and operator
will be responsible for ensuring that the aircraft has the
proper equipment.
RNP is based on an RNAV system, but uses a total
performance-based approach to ensure a high probability of
containment within a defined corridor.
Potential benefits expected from RNP include tighter lateral
and longitudinal separation, more direct routings, and
lower approach minima and increased capacity at certain
airports. There are, however, other factors to consider
when implementing RNP, including the availability of
surveillance and communications. Therefore, separation
standards will depend on total system performance, not just
navigation performance.
3.16.15GNSS Vulnerability – Interference/Anomaly Reporting
One of the most controversial issues surrounding SatNav is
its ability to become a “sole means” system, thus allowing the
decommissioning of traditional ground aids.
Recent studies confirmed that interference (unintentional
and intentional) is the key concern, because GNSS signals
are very weak. In reality, intentional interference is the
key threat, because a well-regulated spectrum and the fact
that next-generation satellites will broadcast on multiple
frequencies make the probability of unintentional interference
negligible. The solution will be some combination of groundbased systems, on-board systems (e.g. IRS) and operating
procedures. The appropriate mix for a given area will result
from careful analysis of threats, area complexity, benefits,
costs and risk acceptance.
COM
If the WAAS NOTAM system has failed, a national NOTAM
will be issued, indicating that WAAS is unmonitored. In
this case, the pilot may use the procedure described in the
preceding section for TSO C129/C129a avionics. This will
provide a safe, although conservative indication of the
availability of LNAV.
TC AIM
The primary goal when developing a mitigation strategy is to
ensure safety. A secondary but very important goal is to reduce
disruption and economic impact to a minimum. If the impact
of intentional interference is reduced to the nuisance level, it
will not be worth the effort to interfere with the signal.
Decisions on the retention of ground aids will be based on
an area-specific analysis. Approach guidance is a critical
application, but this does not mean that each approach
would require backup guidance. The number of backup
approaches in an area would be based on a thorough analysis
of the hazard and on ensuring that all aircraft could land
safely somewhere.
Vulnerability and backup issues must be coordinated globally
to ensure that a uniform and appropriate strategy is applied
by all States. Material on the subject was presented at the 11th
ICAO Air Navigation Conference, held in September 2003,
and should help countries make planning decisions.
Canada must find a solution that is matched to the traffic
density and potential for interference in Canada. NAV
CANADA is actively researching this issue, and will make
decisions in consultation with its customers and Transport
Canada. Regardless, even if SatNav never attains “sole
means” status for all phases of flight, it will deliver significant
safety and efficiency benefits to aircraft operators.
This requires availability of containment integrity and
continuity. Since all SatNav systems are designed to these
standards, it is expected that SatNav will support these
advanced operations.
87
TC AIM
In the near term, pilots using IFR-certified GNSS avionics are
protected against interference-induced navigation errors by
integrity monitoring provided by RAIM or WAAS. A degraded
SNR can also hinder navigation. In the event of suspected
GPS interference or other problems with GPS, pilots should
advise ATS, and, if necessary, revert to using traditional aids
for navigation. Pilots are also requested to complete a “GPS
Anomaly Report Form” (Figure 3.4), or equivalent, in order
to assist in the identification and elimination of sources of
interference or degradation of the GPS signal.
3.16.16Proper Use of GNSS
SatNav offers a great opportunity to improve aviation safety
and efficiency. Many pilots are already benefiting from the
advantages of GPS as a principal navigation tool for IFR flight
or for VFR operations. To ensure safety, pilots must use GNSS
properly. Here are some safety tips:
COM
•
Use only IFR-certified avionics for IFR flights because
hand-held and panel-mount VFR do not provide the
integrity needed for IFR operations;
•
For IFR flight, a valid database shall be used for
approach—a new one is required every 28 or 56 days;
•
Data storage limitations have resulted in some
manufacturers omitting certain data from the avionics
database. Prior to flight to remote or small aerodromes,
pilots should verify that all procedures that could be
required are present in the database;
•
88
Do not become approach designers—approach designers
require special training and specific tools, and there
are many levels of validation before an approach is
commissioned. Furthermore, the receiver RAIM level
and course deviation indicator (CDI) sensitivity will not
be appropriate if an approach is not retrieved from the
avionics database;
•
Never fly below published minimum altitudes while in
instrument conditions. Accidents have resulted from
pilots relying too much on the accuracy of GNSS;
•
VFR receivers may be used to supplement map reading in
visual conditions, but are not to be used as a replacement
for current charts;
•
Hand-held receivers and related cables should be
positioned carefully in the cockpit to avoid the potential
for electromagnetic interference (EMI), and to avoid
interfering with aircraft controls; hand-held units with
valid databases can also be useful in emergencies when
IFR units fail; and
•
When navigating VFR, resist the urge to fly into marginal
weather. The risk of becoming lost is small when using
GNSS, but the risk of controlled flight into terrain or
obstacles increases in low visibility. VFR charts must
October 27, 2005
also be current and updated from applicable NOTAM,
and should be the primary reference for avoiding alert
areas, etc. Some VFR receivers display these areas, but
there is no guarantee that the presentation is correct,
because there is no standard for such depictions.
3.16.17Communication, Navigation, Surveillance
Implementation Team (CNS IT)
NAV CANADA and Transport Canada work together on
GNSS implementation and transition issues through the
joint CNS IT. The CNS IT has taken over the functions of
the GNSS Implementation Team (GIT). One of the concerns
of the CNS IT is ensuring that new GNSS services meet
aviation’s stringent safety standards while serving the needs
of the Canadian aviation community.
The CNS IT often forms working groups to address specific
issues. These groups discuss the expansion of approvals to
use SatNav or the resolution of an operational or technical
problem. The working groups present the results of their work
to the CNS IT for discussion, endorsement and forwarding
to Transport Canada and NAV CANADA management for
final approval.
The CNS IT follows a safety management methodology
that dictates that a risk assessment be completed before
implementing new services.
3.16.18GNSS User Comments
NAV CANADA’s CNS Service Design (CNS SD) Branch is
constantly assessing the capabilities and limitations of SatNav
in order to bring maximum benefits to users as soon as possible.
CNS SD staff participate in the development of international
standards, keep abreast of technology developments and
assess the operational application of GNSS.
Through the CNS IT, NAV CANADA and Transport Canada
are working with national user organizations on GPS and
other initiatives to make aircraft operations more efficient. As
a pilot or operator, you can relay your comments on GNSS
and related issues via one of these organizations, or you can
contact the CNS SD directly:
NAV CANADA
CNS Service Design
77 Metcalfe Street
Ottawa ON K1P 5L6
Fax:................................................................ 613 563-7995
E-mail:.............................................. [email protected]
Web site:......................................... <www.navcanada.ca>
October 27, 2005
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COM
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4.0 TIME SIGNALS
4.1 General
The National Research Council time signals emanate
from Ottawa station CHU on the frequencies 3330, 7335
and 14670 kHz. Transmissions are AM, continuous and
simultaneous on all frequencies and the area of coverage
includes most of North America and many other parts of
the world.
COM
The listener hears a beat for each mean second which is a
pulse 1/5 of a second long except that the zero pulse of each
minute is increased to 1/2 second long and the zero pulse for
each hour is a full second long followed by 40 seconds of
silence. In order to permit the listener to detect half-minutes,
the 29th pulse of each minute is omitted.
A voice announcement of the time is made each minute in
the ten-second gap between the 50th and 60th seconds. The
announced time refers to the beginning of the minute pulse
which follows the announcement. The voice announcements
are made in English and French using the 24-hour system.
5.0 RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
5.1 General
This part deals with radio communications between
aircraft and ground stations. Particular emphasis is
placed on radiotelephony procedures that are intended
to promote understanding of messages and reduce
communications time.
The primary medium for aeronautical communications
in Canada is VHF-AM in the frequency range of 118 to
137 MHz. For increased range in the northern areas and the
North Atlantic, HF-SSB is available in the frequency range of
2.8 to 22 MHz.
Regulations
Operator’s Certificates: In accordance with the
Radiocommunication Regulations, a person may operate radio
apparatus in the aeronautical service only where the person
holds a Restricted Operator Certificate with Aeronautical
Qualification, issued by Industry Canada.
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October 27, 2005
Station Licences: All radio equipment used in aeronautical
services required to be licensed by Industry Canada.
For complete information on the requirements for
communication in Canada, please consult the Study Guide
for the Radiotelephone Operator’s Restricted Certificate
Aeronautical, (RIC21). This study guide is available from
the nearest Industry Canada district office or by calling
(613) 998‑4149.
5.2 L anguage
The use of English and French for aeronautical radio
communications in Canada is detailed in sections 602.133,
602.134, and 602.135 of the CARs. The regulations specify
that air traffic services shall be provided in English and sets
out the locations where services shall be provided in French
as well. The tables containing the names of those locations,
as well as the pertinent section of the CARs are contained in
COM Annex A.
For safety and operational efficiency, once the language to
be used has been determined, the pilot should refrain from
changing language in the course of communications without
formal notification to that effect. In addition, pilots should
endeavour to become thoroughly familiar with the aeronautical
phraseology and terminology applicable to the type of service
being provided in the official language of their choice.
5.3 VHF Communication Frequencies–
Channel Spacing
The standard VHF A/G channel spacing in Canada is 25 kHz.
A 760 channel transceiver is necessary for operation of
25 kHz channels. In some areas of Europe, channel spacing
has been reduced to 8.33 kHz.
This channel spacing means that some operators with 50 kHz
capability will have their access to certain Canadian airspace
and airports restricted as 25 kHz channels are implemented
for ATC purposes. Similarly, where ATC makes use of
8.33 kHz channels in Europe, restrictions may also apply.
Because the frequency selectors on some 25 kHz transceivers
do not display the third decimal place, misunderstanding may
exist in the selection of frequencies. With such transceivers,
if the last digit displayed includes 2 and 7, then the equipment
is capable of 25 kHz operations.
Example:
Toronto Centre: . .......................132.475 (actual frequency)
ATC Assigned Frequency: ........... 132.47 (digit 5 omitted)
Aircraft Radio Display: ..........................132.475 or 132.47
In either case, the aircraft radio is actually tuned to the
proper frequency.
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TC AIM
5.4 Use of Phonetics
flight levels.
Phonetic letter equivalents shall be used for single letters or
to spell out groups of letters or words as much as practicable.
The ICAO phonetic alphabet should be used.
Examples:
2700 FL260 TWO THOUSAND SEVEN HUNDRED
Flight Level TWO SIX ZERO
Aircraft type numbers, wind speed and cloud base may be
expressed in group form:
Examples:
DC10
DC TEN
Wind 270/10 WIND TWO SEVEN ZERO AT TEN
3400 broken THREE THOUSAND FOUR HUNDRED BROKEN
Time – Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC)
When spoken, capitalized syllables are given equal stress,
e.g., ECKS-RAY. When only one syllable is capitalized, that
syllable is given primary stress, e.g., NINE-er.
5.5 Airways and Air Routes Designation
Phonetics are used with the designation of Canadian airways
and air routes.
Examples:
WRITTEN
AIRWAYS
G1 A2
J500
AIR ROUTES
RR3
BR4
Example:
005 degrees HEADING ZERO ZERO FIVE
Aerodrome elevations are expressed in feet, prefixed by the
words “Field Elevation”.
SPOKEN
GOLF1
ALFA 2
JET 500
ROMEO
ROMEO 3
BRAVO ROMEO 4
5.6 Distance Reporting
Distance reporting based on RNAV and GPS will be provided
in miles, e.g. 30 mi. from Someplace. When distance reports
are based on DME, pilots will state DME, e.g. 30 DME
from Someplace.
5.7 Use of Numbers
All numbers except whole thousands should be transmitted
by pronouncing each digit separately:
Examples:
572 11000
Aircraft headings are given in groups of three digits prefixed
by the word “Heading”. If operating within the Southern
Domestic Airspace, degrees are expressed in “magnetic”. If
operating within the Northern Domestic Airspace, degrees
are expressed in “True”.
COM
Examples:
0920Z
ZERO NINE TWO ZERO ZULU
09 minutes ZERO NINE (past the next hour)
FIVE SEVEN TWO
ONE ONE THOUSAND
Altitude above sea level is expressed in thousands and
hundreds of feet. Separate digits must be used to express
Example:
150 FIELD ELEVATION ONE FIVE ZERO
Transponder codes are preceded by the word SQUAWK.
Example:
code 1200
SQUAWK ONE TWO ZERO ZERO
Numbers containing a decimal point are expressed with
the decimal point in the appropriate sequence by the word
DECIMAL except that for VHF or UHF frequencies, the
decimal point may be omitted if the omission is not likely to
cause any misunderstanding.
5.8 Call Signs
5.8.1 Civil Aircraft
In radio communications, the registration letters of an aircraft
call sign must be expressed in phonetics at all times.
The word “heavy” is used to indicate an aircraft capable of a
takeoff weight of 300,000 lbs or more.
After communication has been established and when no
likelihood of confusion, the word “heavy” may be omitted
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TC AIM
and call signs may be abbreviated.
Foreign Private Civil Registration:
A “MEDEVAC” is a flight responding to a medical emergency
for the transport of patients, organ donors, organs or other
urgently needed lifesaving medical material. This can also
apply to certain medical flights, generally helicopters, which
may be designated as Air Ambulance Flights.
(a) Initial contact: The manufacturer’s name or the type of
aircraft, followed by the full aircraft registration.
Canadian Air Carriers:
(a) Initial contact: The operator’s radiotelephony
call-sign followed by: the flight number, or the
last four characters of the aircraft registration,
and the word “heavy” if applicable.
Example:
Air Canada 149 Heavy
(AIR CANADA ONE FOUR NINE HEAVY )
COM
(b)Subsequent communications: No abbreviations permitted
except that “heavy” may be omitted.
Foreign Air Carriers:
(a) Initial contact: The operator’s assigned radio telephony callsign followed by the flight number, or the full registration
of the aircraft, and the word “heavy” if applicable.
Example:
Speedbird GABCD Heavy (SPEEDBIRD GOLF ALFA
BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA HEAVY)
(b)Subsequent communications:
Where the aircraft
registration is used, it may be abbreviated to the
radiotelephony designator and the last two characters.
Example:
Speedbird CD (SPEEDBIRD CHARLIE DELTA)
Canadian Private Civil Registration and Canadian or Foreign
Carriers Without an Assigned Call Sign
(a) Initial contact:
The manufacturer’s name or the
type of aircraft, followed by the last four letters of
the registration.
Examples:
Cessna GADT (CESSNA GOLF ALFA DELTA TANGO)
Aztec-FADT (AZTEC FOXTROT ALFA DELTA TANGO)
NOTE: The words helicopter, glider or ultralight are an
acceptable substitute to the type of aircraft.
(b)Subsequent communications may be abbreviated to the last
three letters of the registration, if this abbreviation is initiated
by ATS.
92
October 27, 2005
Examples:
Cessna GADT becomes “ADT” (ALFA DELTA TANGO)
Aztec-FADT becomes “ADT” (ALFA DELTA TANGO)
Example:
Mooney-N6920K (expressed: MOONEY NOVEMBER SIX
NINE TWO ZERO KILO).
(b)Subsequent communications may be abbreviated to the last
three characters of the registration if initiated by ATS.
Example:
Mooney-N6920K becomes 20K
(expressed: TWO ZERO KILO).
Medical Evacuation Flight (MEDEVAC)
(a) Initial contact: The manufacturer’s name or type of aircraft
or company call sign followed by:
(i) the flight number and the word MEDEVAC, or
(ii) the last four characters of the aircraft registration
and the word MEDEVAC.
Examples:
Austin 101 MEDEVAC
(expressed: AUSTIN ONE ZERO ONE MEDEVAC)
Cessna FABC MEDEVAC (expressed: CESSNA FOXTROT
ALFA BRAVO CHARLIE MEDEVAC).
(b)Subsequent communications: May be abbreviated as per
normal procedures retaining the word MEDEVAC.
5.8.2 Ground Stations
General
The aerodrome name as published in the CFS is used to form
the call sign to the associated ground stations. When the
aerodrome name is different from the community (location)
name, it will be published following the community (location)
name and will be separated by a diagonal (/). Exceptions
should be listed in the COMM Section of the CFS.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
Example:
TORONTO/LESTER B. PEARSON INTL ONT
COMM
TWR
Toronto
TORONTO TOWER
Other Examples of Call Signs:
CFS
Call Sign
COMM
Area Control Centre
Flight Service Station
Terminal Control
Arrival Control
Departure Control
Clearance Delivery
Community Aerodrome
Radio Station
Pilot to Forecaster
Apron Advisory Service
RCO Rouyn rdo
MF rdo
ATF
PAL Winnipeg Ctr
VFR ADV
MONTRÉAL CENTRE
MONCTON RADIO
QUÉBEC TERMINAL
VANCOUVER ARRIVAL
EDMONTON DEPARTURE
OTTAWA CLEARANCE
DELIVERY
REPULSE BAY AIRPORT
RADIO
COMOX METRO
MIRABEL APRON
ROUYN RADIO
FREDERICTON RADIO
MANIWAKI UNICOM
WINNIPEG CENTRE
TORONTO TERMINAL
In addition, a person may operate radio apparatus only to
transmit a non-superfluous signal or a signal containing nonprofane or non-obscene radiocommunications.
Pilots should
(a) send radio messages clearly and concisely using standard
phraseology whenever practical;
(b)plan the content of the message before transmitting; and
(c) listen out before transmitting to avoid interference with
other transmissions.
Message: Radiotelephony traffic generally consists of
four parts: the call-up, the reply, the message and
the acknowledgement.
Pilot: REGINA TOWER, (THIS IS) CESSNA FOXTROT BRAVO
CHARLIE DELTA (OVER).
5.8.3 RCO
Tower: FOXTROT BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA, REGINA TOWER.
An RCO is a facility remotely established from an FSS or flight
information centre (FIC) to provide communications between
aircraft and this FSS or FIC. They are intended only for FISE
and RAAS communications. There is only one procedure to
be used to establish communications on any RCO.
Pilot: REGINA TOWER, FOXTROT BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA, TEN SOUTH THREE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED FEET VFR
LANDING INSTRUCTIONS
On initial contact, the pilot should state the identification
of the ATS unit (FSS or FIC) controlling the RCO, the
aircraft identification, and the name of the location of
the RCO followed by the individual letters R‑C‑O in a
non-phonetic form.
Example:
HALIFAX RADIO, CHEROKEE GOLF ALFA BRAVO
CHARLIE ON THE FREDERICTON R-C-O
The name of the RCO assists the flight service specialist
in identifying the RCO on which the call is made, as
the same person can monitor many frequencies. The
specialist will respond with the aircraft identification
followed by the identification of the unit controlling
the RCO.
Example:
GOLF ALFA BRAVO CHARLIE, HALIFAX RADIO
5.9 Standard Radio Telephony
COM
Remote Communication
Outlet
Mandatory Frequency
Aerodrome Traffic
Frequency
Peripheral Station
VFR Advisory
CENTRE
RADIO
TML
ARR
DEP
CLNC DEL
APRT RDO
PMSV
APRON
communications relating to
• the safety and navigation of an aircraft;
• the general operation of the aircraft; and
• the exchange of messages on behalf of the public.
Tower: BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA, REGINA TOWER, RUNWAY TWO
SIX, WIND TWO THREE ZERO AT TEN, ALTIMETER TWO NINE
NINE TWO, CLEARED TO THE CIRCUIT.
Pilot: BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA.
The terms “this is” and “over” may be omitted, and if no
likelihood of confusion exists, the call sign for the agency
being called maybe abbreviated as follows:
Pilot: TOWER, BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA, CONFIRM RIGHT TURN.
Message Acknowledgement: Pilots should acknowledge
the receipt of all messages directed to them, including
frequency changes. Such acknowledgement may take the
form of a transmission of the aircraft call sign, a repeat
of the clearance with the aircraft call sign or the call sign
with an appropriate word(s).
Tower: VICTOR LIMA CHARLIE, CLEARED TO LAND.
Pilot: VICTOR LIMA CHARLIE.
General
Tower: FOXTROT VICTOR LIMA CHARLIE, CONFIRM YOU ARE AT
FIVE THOUSAND.
The Radiocommunication Regulations specify that
aeronautical radio communications are restricted to
Pilot: FOXTROT VICTOR LIMA CHARLIE, AFFIRMATIVE.
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October 27, 2005
NOTE: The clicking of the microphone button as a
form of acknowledgement is not an acceptable
radio procedure.
5.10 Communications Checks
The readability scale from
following meaning:
1. unreadable;
2. readable now and then;
3. readable with difficulty;
4. readable; and
5. perfectly readable.
one
to
five
has
The distress call shall have absolute priority over all other
transmissions. All stations hearing it shall immediately cease
any transmission which may interfere with it and shall listen
on the frequency used for the distress call.
the
COM
The strength scale from one to five used in HF communications
has the following meaning:
1. bad;4. good; and
2. poor;
5. excellent.
3. fair;
Communications checks are categorized as follows:
Signal Check — if the test is made while the aircraft
is airborne.
Pre-flight Check — if the test is made prior to departure.
Maintenance Check — if the test is made by
ground maintenance.
Pilot: THOMPSON RADIO, CESSNA FOXTROT ALFA BRAVO
CHARLIE, RADIO CHECK ON FIVE SIX EIGHT ZERO.
Radio: FOXTROT ALFA BRAVO CHARLIE, THOMPSON RADIO,
READING YOU STRENGTH FIVE, OVER.
5.11 Emergency Communications
General
An emergency condition is classified in accordance with the
degree of danger or hazard present.
(a) Distress is a situation when safety is being threatened
by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate
assistance. The spoken word for distress is MAYDAY and
is pronounced 3 times.
94
communications with any ground or other aircraft station.
Example of a Distress Message from an Aircraft:
MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, THIS IS CFZXY, CFZXY, CFZXY, FIVE
ZERO MILES SOUTH OF YELLOWKNIFE AT ONE SEVEN TWO FIVE
ZULU, FOUR THOUSAND, NORSEMAN, ICING, WILL ATTEMPT
CRASH LANDING ON ICE, CFZXY, OVER.
Example of An Urgency Message Addressed to All Stations:
PANPAN, PANPAN, PANPAN, ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS,
ALL STATIONS, THIS IS TIMMINS RADIO, TIMMINS RADIO,
TIMMINS RADIO, EMERGENCY DESCENT AT TIMMINS AIRPORT,
ATC INSTRUCTS ALL AIRCRAFT BELOW SIX THOUSAND FEET
WITHIN RADIUS OF ONE ZERO MILES OF TIMMINS NDB LEAVE
EAST AND NORTH COURSES IMMEDIATELY, THIS IS TIMMINS
RADIO OUT.
Emergency procedures are contained in RAC and SAR
sections of the TC AIM.
Satellite Voice
INMARSAT, in conjunction with ICAO, has developed
a telephone numbering plan to facilitate use by Air Traffic
Services (ATS) of satellite voice calls from suitably equipped
aircraft as an additional backup to the existing primary airto-ground facilities. A unique number is assigned to each
Flight Information Region (FIR) which may be used only by
aircraft using the satellite network. When the unique number
is received from an aircraft by a Ground Earth Station, it is
converted and the call is routed to the appropriate ATS unit.
The INMARSAT numbers for Canadian FIRs, which are to
be used for non-routine flight safety calls only, are:
Location
Short Code/
INMARSAT
PSTN Number
Gander Oceanic FIR
431603
1-709-651-5316
(b)Urgency is a situation where the safety of an aircraft or
other vehicle, or of some person on board or within sight is
threatened, but does not require immediate assistance. The
spoken word for urgency is PANPAN and is pronounced
3 times.
Gander Domestic FIR
431602
1-709-651-5315
Gander Radio
431613
1-709-651-5328
Moncton FIR
431604
1-506-867-7173
Montréal FIR
431605
1-514-633-3211
The first transmission of the distress call and message by an
aircraft should be on the air-to-ground frequency in use at
the time. If the aircraft is unable to establish communication
on the frequency in use, the distress call and message should
be repeated on the general calling and distress frequency
(3023.5 kHz or 121.5 MHz), or any other frequency available,
such as 2182 kHz and 5680 kHz, in an effort to establish
Toronto FIR
431606
1-905-676-4509
Winnipeg FIR
431608
1-204-983-8338
Edmonton FIR
431601
1-780-890-8397
Vancouver FIR
431607
1-604-270-4811
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TC AIM
5.12 Monitoring of Emergency Frequency 121.5 MHz
A pilot should continuously monitor 121.5 MHz when
operating within sparsely settled areas or when operating
a Canadian aircraft over water more than 50 NM from
shore unless:
(a) essential cockpit duties or aircraft electronic equipment
limitations do not permit simultaneous monitoring of two
VHF frequencies; or
(b)the pilot is using other VHF frequencies.
5.13 VHF Frequency Allocations
FREQUENCY SUMMARY TABLE
USE
ALLOCATED FREQUENCY
All Aeronautical
(Civil)
118.0 MHz to 137.00 MHz
Emergency
121.5 MHz
Soaring
123.4 MHz
Air-to-Air
122.75 MHz in Southern
Domestic Airspace
123.45 MHz in Northern Domestic
Airspace and North Atlantic
ATF
123.2 MHz where a UNICOM
does not exist
ATS frequencies are published in the Canada Flight
Supplements (CFS), aeronautical charts and the Canada Air
Pilot (CAP).
5.15 Phone Use During a Radio
Communications Failure
5.13.2 Soaring
Paragraph 5.11 outlines the procedures for emergency
communications using very high frequency (VHF) channels.
Frequency 123.4 MHz is allocated for the use of soaring
activities, which include balloons, gliders, sailplanes,
ultralights and hang gliders. The use of this frequency for
these activities includes air-to-air, air-to-ground instructional
and air-to-ground aerodrome traffic communications; the use
of this frequency as an aerodrome traffic frequency (ATF)
is normally restricted to privately operated aerodromes used
primarily for these activities.
5.13.3 Air-to-Air
COM
5.13.1 Air Traffic Services
NAV CANADA publishes the phone numbers of ACCs, control
towers, and FSS units in the Canada Flight Supplement.
In the event of an in-flight radio communications failure, and
only after normal communications failure procedures have
been followed (see RAC 6.3.2.1), the pilot-in-command may
attempt to contact the appropriate NAV CANADA ATS unit
by means of a phone. Before the pilot begins using a phone
to contact ATS in the event of an in-flight communications
failure, transponder-equipped aircraft should squawk
Code 7600 (see RAC 1.9.7).
For air-to-air communications between pilots within the
Canadian Southern Domestic Airspace, the correct frequency
to use is 122.75 MHz; in the Northern Domestic Airspace
and the North Atlantic, the frequency allocated by ICAO is
123.45 MHz.
5.14 Use of Frequency 5680 kHz
This frequency provides air-to-ground long-range
communications operations in the remote areas of Canada
outside of designated airways when VHF communications
cannot be established.
The frequency is assigned on a basis of non-interference to
its world-wide application as outlined in Appendix 27 Aer 2
to the Radio Regulations, Geneva 1983. It is assigned to FSSs
in remote areas to provide adequate area coverage. Aircraft
must use single side bands (SSB) when communicating with
an FSS. (See CFS.)
6.0 AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICES –
INTERNATIONAL FLIGHTS
6.1 Aeronautical Fixed Service (AFS)
Canadian Area Control Centres, towers, FSSs and other
aeronautical facilities are interconnected by an aeronautical
fixed communication system.
6.1.1 Voice Systems
Voice systems consist of Interphone, direct speech and
Aircraft Movement Information Service (AMIS).
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6.1.2 Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications
Network (AFTN)
The AFTN is an integral part of Aeronautical Fixed Service
comprising a worldwide system of Message Switching
Centres and fixed circuits that allows for the aeronautical data
exchange between ICAO member States.
Canada’s contribution to the AFTN is provided by the
AFTN Message Handling System, owned and operated by
NAV CANADA, Ottawa. This centralized store and forward
Message Handling System provides for the real-time reception,
storage and delivery of aeronautical data to national AFTN
stations within Canada and internationally via the USA, UK,
Iceland and Greenland. Command and control of the AFTN
Message Handling System is provided by NAV CANADA’s
National Systems Control Centre (NSCC). Queries on AFTN
service can be directed to the NSCC at:
COM
NAV CANADA
National Systems Control Centre
1601 Tom Roberts
P.O. Box 9824 Stn. T
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1G 6R2
AFTN Message Address:..............................CYAAMCFA
. .................................................................or CYAAYFAX
Telephone:..................................................... 613 248-3993
Fax:................................................................613 248-4001
E-mail:................................................. [email protected]
The standards, recommended practices and procedures
for the acceptance, transmission and delivery of messages
within the AFTN are in accordance with the provisions of
ICAO Annex 10, Volume II and allow for the exchange of the
following categories of aeronautical messages:
(a) distress messages;
(b)urgency messages;
(c) flight safety messages;
(d) meteorological messages;
October 27, 2005
ICAO standards, recommended practices and procedures
contained in the following documents apply:
Annex 10 Aeronautical Telecommunications;
DOC 7910 Locations Indicators;
DOC 8400 ICAO Abbreviation and Codes; and
DOC 8585 Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies,
Aeronautical Authorities and Services.
6.2 International Air-to-Ground Service
Canadian stations operating in the International Aeronautical
Telecommunications Service are:
North Bay, Ontario (Arctic radio)
Gander, Newfoundland
6.3 Availability of Single Side Band
All international HF equipment is operated on single side
band (SSB) J3E emission. In all cases, the upper side band
is employed.
6.4 Selective Calling System
The Selective Calling System (SELCAL) is installed on all
international frequencies at Canadian stations. SELCAL
provides an automatic and selective method of calling any
aircraft. Voice calling is replaced by the transmission of code
tones to the aircraft over the international radiotelephony
channels. A single selective call consists of a combination
of four preselected audio tones requiring approximately two
seconds of transmission time. The tones are generated in the
ground station coder and are received by a decoder connected
to the audio output of the airborne receiver. Receipt of the
assigned tone code (SELCAL code) activates a light or chime
signal in the cockpit of the aircraft.
It is the responsibility of the flight crew to ensure that the
ground stations with which they would normally communicate
are advised of the SELCAL code available in the airborne
equipment. This may be done in connection with the “offground” report or when transferring in flight from one
network to another.
(e) flight regularity messages;
(f) aeronautical information services (AIS) messages;
(g)aeronautical administrative messages; and
(h)AFTN service messages.
Canadian locations and location indicators are listed in
ICAO 7910. Messages addressed to aeronautical stations not
directly connected to the AFTN Message Handling System
are automatically routed to the nearest aeronautical facility
for delivery.
96
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
establishes the standards and procedures for SELCAL in
Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation,
Volume II. The worldwide administration of SELCAL code
assignments has been delegated to ARINC Incorporated.
Applications for SELCAL codes may be obtained at:
< www.arinc.com/Ind_Govt_Srv/Freq_Mgmt/selcal.html >
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
and should be returned by fax to 410 266-2047, attn: Patricia
Baton, or by surface mail to:
ARINC Incorporated
2551 Riva Road
Annapolis, MD, 21401-7465
USA
6.5 Telecommunications and En Route
Facilities Service Fees
A service fee is levied for each international flight in the
course of which an aircraft uses air/ground frequencies
to obtain telecommunication services provided by the
aeronautical stations listed in COM 6.2. Also, there is a service
fee for aircraft flying over the North Atlantic. For details,
see FAL 3.0.
For clarification, the HF Aeromobile Operations in NAT are
set out below.
(a) The families of HF allotted to NAT are to be used according
to the routes flown. The following frequencies apply:
kHz
Emission
Southern
Central
North
Aircraft flying northern
routes outside OTS tracks
—
—
D
Aircraft flying southern
routes
E
—
—
NOTES1: Southern routes are those that enter New York
or Santa Maria Oceanic FIRs. The Central and
Northern routes comprise all others.
2. Aircraft registered in Australia will use families
designated for aircraft registered east of 030˚W.
In the event of the overloading of a family actually occurring
or being anticipated, aircraft of one or more operators
may be offloaded from that family to another appropriate
family for the expected duration of the condition. The
offloading may be requested by any station, but Shannon
and Gander will be responsible for taking a decision after
co-ordination with all NAT stations concerned.
(c) Aircraft operating in the Anchorage Arctic CTA/FIR
beyond the line-of-sight range of remote control VHF airto-ground facilities operated from the Anchorage ACC
shall maintain communications with Arctic radio and a
listening or SELCAL watch on HF frequencies of North
Atlantic Delta (NATD) network 2 971 kHz, 4 675 kHz,
8 891 kHz and 11 279 kHz. Additionally, and in view of
reported marginal reception of Honolulu Pacific VOLMET
broadcast in that and adjacent Canadian airspace,
Arctic radio can provide, on request, Anchorage and
Fairbanks surface observations and aerodrome forecast to
flight crews.
Family A
3 016
5 598
8 906
—
13 306
J3E
Family B
2 899
5 616
8 864
—
13 291
J3E
Family C
2 872
5 649
8 879
11 336 13 306
J3E
Family D
2 971
4 675
8 891
11 279 13 291
J3E
Family E
2 962
6 628
8 825
11 309 13 354
J3E
6.6.1 Gander International FSS
Family F
3 476
6 622
8 831
J3E
HF Frequencies
—
13 291
Family A
NOTE: See CFS for frequency assignment.
(b)In the table under route flown, the letters “A,” “B,” “C,”
“D”, “E” and “F” refer to NAT frequency families A, B,
C, D, E and F.
DESTINATED
FOR USE BY:
Aircraft registered in the
hemisphere west of 030˚W
Aircraft registered in the
hemisphere east of 030˚W
Family B
ROUTE FLOWN
Southern
A
A
Central
B and F
C and F
North
B
C
COM
6.6 Radiotelephony Network Operations—
at and Anchorage Arctic Flight FIR ROUTE FLOWN
DESTINATED
FOR USE BY:
Family C
3 016 kHz
2030Z – 0830Z :
5 598 kHz
24 hour service
8 906 kHz
0830Z – 2230Z
13 306 kHz
1230Z – 1830Z
2 899 kHz
2030Z – 0830Z
5 616 kHz
24 hour service
8 864 kHz
0830Z – 2230Z
13 291 kHz
1000Z – 2000Z
2 872 kHz
2030Z – 0830Z
5 649 kHz
24 hour service
8 879 kHz
0830Z – 2230Z
11 336 kHz
1030Z – 1830Z
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October 27, 2005
HF Frequencies
Family D
Family F
2 971 kHz
2030Z – 0830Z
4 675 kHz
24 hour service
8 891 kHz
0830Z – 2230Z
11 279 kHz
1030Z– 1830Z
3 476 kHz
2030Z – 0830Z
6 622 kHz
24 hour service
8 831 kHz
0830Z – 2230Z
NOTE: Unless otherwise advised, aircraft should make
initial contact with Gander Radio on Families B,
C, or F. Families A and D are operated on an as
required basis.
VHF Frequencies
COM
126.9
(45N050W – 51N050W)
127.1
(48N050W – 54N050W)
122.375
(45N050W – 54N050W)
127.9
(57N–63N040W 57N–61N050W)
SELCAL utilized on all air to ground frequencies.
Satellite
Communications
(SATCOM):
Routine
communications may be initiated to Gander Radio by using
SATCOM Voice. International Maritime Satellite Organization
(INMARSAT) Code 431613, Public Phone 709 651-5328.
6.7 Use of General Purpose VHF in Lieu of International HF Air-to-Ground Frequencies
6.7.1 VHF Coverage – NAT Region
General purpose VHF communications facilities have
been provided by Canada, Denmark and Iceland in order to
supplement HF radio coverage in the NAT Region.
General purpose VHF coverage charts are shown on Pages 6‑4
and 6‑5. It should be noted that:
(a) charts depict approximate coverage areas only;
(b)coverage at lower altitudes will be less than depicted; and
(c) the minimum altitude for continuous VHF coverage across
NAT is considered to be 30 000 feet (Page 6‑5).
Several attempts to establish communication may be necessary
upon entry into the “fringe area” of reception. Aircraft should
maintain SELCAL watch on HF when in fringe areas of
VHF coverage. Upon exiting, communications should be reestablished on HF channels, preferably before flying beyond
normal VHF coverage.
98
Because VHF coverage is limited, aircraft must be equipped
with an approved and serviceable HF radio capable of twoway radio communications with ATS from any point along
the route during flight.
NOTE: Notwithstanding the foregoing, aircraft may proceed
across the Atlantic without HF radio subject to the
following restrictions:
(a) below FL195, routing Iqaluit (Frobay) – Sondre
Stromfjord – Keflavik; and
(b) FL250 or above, routing Goose VOR – Prins
Christian Sund (or Narsarsuaq) – Keflavik.
The aircraft is not allowed to operate in MNPS
airspace unless MNPS authority is held (see
RAC 11.22).
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
COM ANNEX A -
Radio Communications
1.0 Canadian Aviation Regulations
Language Used in Aeronautical Radio Communications
602.133
English and French are the languages of aeronautical radio
communication in Canada.
Locations Where Services are Available in English and French
General purpose VHF communication services from North
Warning System (NWS) are provided form North Bay (ROCC
FSS: Arctic Radio) in order to supplement HF radio coverage
in the Canadian Northern Airspace.
General purpose VHF coverage is shown below. It should be
noted that:
(2) Every flight service station set out in Table I and every
air traffic control unit set out in Table III shall provide
advisory services in English and French.
COM
6.7.2 VHF Coverage – Canadian Northern
Airspace
602.134
(1) Any person operating an aircraft who wishes to receive
the services referred to in this section in one of either
English or French shall so indicate to the appropriate
air traffic control unit or flight service station by means
of an initial radiocommunication in English or French,
as appropriate.
(3) Every air traffic control unit set out in Table III shall
provide air traffic services in English and French.
(a) the chart depicts approximate coverage area only; and
(b)the coverage at the lower altitude will be less
that depicted.
(4) Every temporary air traffic control unit located in the
province of Quebec shall provide air traffic services in
English and French.
(5) Every flight service station set out in Table II shall provide,
between any person operating an aircraft and any air traffic
control unit set out in Table III, a relay service of IFR air
traffic control messages in English or French, as indicated
by that person.
Locations Where Services are Available in English
602.135
All air traffic control units and flight service stations
shall provide aeronautical radiocommunication services
in English.
TABLE I (Section 602.134)
FLIGHT SERVICE STATIONS WHERE ADVISORY SERVICES ARE
AVAILABLE IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH
6.8 VOLMET
VOLMET broadcast service is provided by Gander Radio. (See
CFS, Section “D”, Radio Navigations and Communications.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Charlo
Gaspé
Gatineau
Îles-de-la-Madeleine
Kuujjuaq
Kuujjuarapik
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October 27, 2005
TABLE III (Section 602.134)
TABLE I (Section 602.134)
FLIGHT SERVICE STATIONS WHERE ADVISORY SERVICES ARE
AVAILABLE IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
La Grande Rivière
Mont-Joli
Montréal
Québec
Roberval
Rouyn
Sept-Îles
Squaw Lake (seasonal station)
Val-d’Or
COM
TABLE II (Section 602.134)
FLIGHT SERVICE STATIONS WHERE RELAY SERVICES OF
IFR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL MESSAGES ARE AVAILABLE IN
ENGLISH AND FRENCH
1.
Gaspé
2.
Gatineau
3.
Îles-de-la-Madeleine
4.
Kuujjuaq
5.
Kuujjuarapik
6.
La Grande Rivière
7.
Mont-Joli
8.
Montréal
9.
Québec
10.
Roberval
11.
Rouyn
12.
Sept-Îles
13.
Squaw Lake (seasonal station)
14.
Val-d’Or
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL UNITS WHERE ADVISORY SERVICES
AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES ARE AVAILABLE IN
ENGLISH AND FRENCH
1.
Area Control Centre
Montréal
2.
3.
4.
5.
Terminal Control Units
Bagotville
Montréal
Ottawa
Québec
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Air Traffic Control Towers
Bagotville
Montréal International (Dorval)
Montréal International (Mirabel)
Ottawa/Macdonald-Cartier
International Québec/Jean Lesage
St-Honoré
St-Hubert
St-Jean (Province of Quebec)
COM ANNEX B –
USE OF PORTABLE PASSENGEROPERATED ELECTRONIC DEVICES ON
BOARD AIRCRAFT
1.0 General
After reports of interference to aircraft systems caused
by portable electronic devices operated on board aircraft,
the airline industry requested that the RTCA Inc. conduct
an investigation into the problem. In 1988, RTCA Special
Committee 156 (SC-156) completed its study of this
interference problem and concluded that for interference
to occur, at least eight conditions would have to occur
simultaneously. These include:
(a) a portable device radiating over the limit at which receiver
disruption can occur;
(b)a location in the worst-case position in the aircraft cabin
(i.e., in a seat with a window near the aircraft antennas);
(c) the portable device is orientated to maximum peak
radiation in direction for minimum path (signal) loss (i.e.,:
normally out the window);
100
October 27, 2005
(d)reflection paths offered by objects outside the aircraft (i.e.,
wing, control surfaces, etc.);
(e) the frequency of emission from the portable device
falls within the aircraft receiver system operational
frequency band;
(f) the frequency of emission from the portable device falls
within the receiver pass band;
(g)the characteristic of emission is suitable to cause receiver
disruption which may or may not be observable by the
flight crew; and
(h)a receiver system is operating at near its minimum
signal level.
The vulnerability of aircraft radio-navigation and
communications systems may be greatest during the takeoff,
climb, approach and landing phases of flight. During these
phases, the aircraft is at lower altitudes and may be in close
proximity to numerous ground-based interference sources,
which could increase the likelihood of disruptive interference
due to combined interference effects.
1.1
Portable Two-Way
Radiocommunication Devices
Portable two-way radiocommunication devices such as
cellular phones are classified as transmitters. Transport
Canada Civil Aviation is therefore concerned that passenger
use of portable two-way radiocommunication devices on
board aircraft may interfere with the safe operation of the
aircraft radio navigation/radiocommunication systems and
flight management systems.
The onus for determining if passenger-operated electronic
devices will cause interference is placed on the operator of the
aircraft because there are no airworthiness standards for the
manufacture of passenger-operated devices, no maintenance
standards and no performance standards in relation to their
use on an aircraft. It is therefore the responsibility of the
operator of the aircraft and/or the pilot to determine if these
devices cause interference.
CAR 602.08(2) prohibits a person from using a portable
electronic device on board an aircraft except with the
permission of the operator of the aircraft.
CAR 703.38, 704.33, and 705.40 require air operators to
establish procedures for the use of portable electronic devices
on board aircraft that meet the Commercial Air Services
Standards (CASS) and are specified in the air operator’s
company operations manual.
3.0 Operating Procedures
Operating procedures have been divided into two categories:
Informing Passengers and Interference.
COM
Because these conditions are independently variable, the
RTCA concluded the chances of all occurring simultaneously
are very low.
TC AIM
3.1 Informing Passengers
CARs 703.39 and 723.39; 704.34 and 724.34; 705.43 and
725.43, and 604.18 and 624.18 require passengers to be
informed of the air operator’s policy pertaining to the use of
electronic devices during the preflight safety briefing.
Although not required to do so by regulatory requirement,
we recommend that all other operators inform their
passengers accordingly.
Portable two-way radiocommunication devices include, but
are not limited to, cellular phones, two-way radios, mobile
satellite service handsets, personal communications services
devices, etc.
NOTE: Radio telephones which are permanently installed
in aircraft are installed and tested in accordance
with appropriate certification and airworthiness
standards. In the context of this document, these
devices are not considered portable two-way
radiocommunication devices.
2.0 Regulatory Requirement
The Canadian Aviation Regulation (CAR) 602.08(1) prohibits
the use of a portable electronic device on board an aircraft
where the device may impair the functioning of the aircraft
systems or equipment.
101
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
Permitted Devices (if demonstrated acceptable)
– With Restrictions
Prohibited Devices
Any transmitting
device which
intentionally
radiates radio
frequency signals,
such as citizen band
(CB) radios and
transmitters that
remotely control
devices such as toys.
(a)Personal Life Support Systems: Personal life support
systems may be operated during all phases of flight,
provided that these systems will not cause interference
with the aircraft systems or equipment.
(b)Portable Two-Way Radiocommunication Devices:
Passenger use of portable two-way radiocommunication
devices on board aircraft is prohibited at all times when
the aircraft engines are running, excluding the auxiliary
power unit (APU).
COM
Passengers may use portable two-way radiocommunication
devices if the air operator has established procedures in
the Operations Manual (and Flight Attendant Manual,
if applicable):
(i) to inform the passengers when the use of these
devices is prohibited, and
(ii) to ensure these devices are turned off and
properly stowed:
(A) during the delivery of the preflight safety
briefing and demonstrations, and
(B) while the aircraft engines are running.
(c)Other portable electronic devices may be used except
during takeoff, climb, approach and landing. Typically
these phases of flight coincide with the “seat belt on” sign
and the requirement to stow seat trays;
102
If the preflight safety briefing and demonstrations
begin prior to engine start, use of portable two-way
communication devices must be terminated during the
delivery of the safety briefing and demonstrations.
Devices that may be used include, but are not limited to:
(i) audio or video recorders,
(ii) audio or video playback devices,
(iii) electronic entertainment devices,
(iv) computers and peripheral devices,
(v) calculators,
(vi) FM receivers,
(vii) TV receivers, and
(viii)electric shavers.
Permitted Devices – Without Restrictions
The following devices are permitted
without any restrictions:
(a)hearing aids;
(b)heart pacemakers;
(c)electronic watches; and
(d)properly certified operator
equipment, such as operator
provided passenger air/ground
telephone equipment operated
in accordance with all other
safety requirements.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
3.2 Interference
In accordance with regulatory requirements, if interference
from a portable electronic device is suspected, the operator of
the aircraft shall prohibit the use of the device.
Procedures – Suspected Interferences
Where interference from a portable
electronic device is suspected,
crew members shall prohibit the
use of the suspected device(s) by:
(a) confirming passenger use
of electronic device(s);
Reporting Interference
The operator is responsible for reporting incidents of interference by completing
a report form or by providing the following details:
Flight Information: aircraft type, registration number, date and UTC time of
incident, aircraft location (VOR bearing / DIST/LAT/LONG), altitude, weather
conditions, pilot name and telephone number.
Description of Interference: describe effects on cockpit indicators, audio, or
systems, including radio frequency, identification, duration, severity and other
pertinent information.
Action Taken by Pilot/Crew to Identify Cause or the Source of Interference.
(c) rechecking the aircraft
electronic equipment
Identification of Portable Electronic Device: description of device, brand name,
model, serial number, mode of operation (i.e., FM radio), device location (seat
location), and regulatory approval number (FCC/other).
COM
(b)terminating the use
of portable electronic
device(s); and
It is recommended that all operators implement the
following suspected interference procedures and reporting
interference procedures:
Identification of User: the name and telephone number of the passenger operating
the device would be beneficial, if the passenger is willing to provide it.
Additional Information: as determined by the crew.
Reports of interference are to be submitted to:
Transport Canada (AARQ)
Director, Safety Services
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
Telephone:..................................................... 613 990-1280
Fax:................................................................ 613 991-4280
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October 27, 2005
and while en route (in flight). It is predicated primarily on
alphanumeric weather information.
1.0 GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1
At the pre-flight stage, FSS personnel are trained and
equipped to provide a plain-language description of
the weather for the point of departure, the destination,
alternates and points along the intended route of flight,
to include:
(i) the latest routine or special reports (METAR
or SPECI),
(ii) the aerodrome forecast (TAF),
(iii) current PIREP,
(iv) SIGMET,
(v) graphic area forecast (GFA),
(vi) AIRMET, and
(vii) upper level wind and temperature forecasts (FD).
For the area within approximately 500 NM from the FSS,
a summary of the area forecast prognosis is also available,
to include, where applicable, an outline of the location
of weather systems (such as fronts, lows, highs, troughs,
etc.) that might affect the route to be flown with particular
emphasis on the locations of critical ceilings, visibilities,
icing and turbulence.
At the inflight stage, the FSS provides enroute air crew
with updated weather information, although they do
not have real-time radar imagery on site. An important
aspect of this VHF inflight weather service is the
solicitation of pilot reports on upper winds, cloud tops,
icing and turbulence and the relay of this information to
other pilots.
This service equates to Weather Service Level W2, as
published in the CFS and WAS.
General
The Minister of Transport is responsible for the development
and regulation of aeronautics and the supervision of all matters
connected with aeronautics.
The responsibility for the provision of aviation weather services
in Canadian airspace, and any other airspace in respect of
which Canada has the responsibility for the provision of ATC
services, has been delegated by the Minister of Transport to
NAV CANADA. NAV CANADA also specifies the location
and frequency of aviation weather observations and forecasts,
and is responsible for the dissemination of this information
for aviation purposes.
Under a contract with NAV CANADA, Environment Canada
(EC) is responsible for the collection of weather observations
and production of aviation weather forecasts.
1.1.1 Meteorological Responsibility
Enquiries relating to the provision of aviation weather services
should be addressed to NAV CANADA:
MET
NAV CANADA
Aviation Weather Services
77 Metcalfe Street
Ottawa ON K1P 5L6
Tel.: ............................................................... 613 563-5603
Fax: . ............................................................. 613 563-5602
E-mail: . [email protected]
Enquiries relating to regulations and standards for aviation
weather services should be addressed to:
Transport Canada (AARNB)
Aeronautical Studies and Weather Standards
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
(b)Aviation Weather Briefing Service
The Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS) is a
fully interpretive weather briefing service. In addition
to the weather information included under AWIS,
briefers, trained and equipped to the AWBS standard, are
authorized to provide, an interpretation and adaptation of
meteorological information to fit the changing weather
situation and the special needs of the user; consultation and
advice on special weather problems; and, on request, flight
documentation for long-range flights. The NAV CANADA
FSS Specialists are equipped with a full range of charts,
plus satellite and radar imagery.
This service equates to Weather Service Level W1, as
published in the CFS and WAS.
Tel.: ................................................................613 991-9962
Fax: . .............................................................. 613 998-7416
E-mail: . .................................................. [email protected]
1.1.2 Meteorological Services Available
Aviation weather information is available from NAV
CANADA FSSs. Telephone numbers, levels and hours of
services are listed in the CFS and the WAS.
1.1.3 Aviation Weather Services
(c) Aviation Weather Web Site
(a) AWIS
104
The AWIS is the basic weather briefing service provided
from certain NAV CANADA FSSs and is tailored to
accommodate pilots at the flight planning stage (pre-flight)
NAV CANADA has re-hosted the NAV CANADA
Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS). Some of the features
of the Web site include the following:
(i) Local Briefings: user-selected weather information
October 27, 2005
within a 100-NM radius of any site in Canada that has
a surface aviation weather observation program;
(ii) Regional Briefings: user-selected weather information
within given regional areas selected by the user;
and
(iii) Route Briefings: user-selected weather information
along a user-defined narrow route.
In addition to the above, users can individually select
all text, chart, and imagery observation and forecast
products for display. They can also save regional area
and route briefings for subsequent recall. A search engine
is available to allow users to search documentation
in the database, including FAQs (frequently asked
questions). The URL for the Aviation Weather Web Site is
< http://www.flightplanning.navcanada.ca >.
(d)Other Pilot Weather Services
Aviation weather flight documentation is provided,
subject to prior notification, as determined by the local
weather service outlet in consultation with the operator’s
local representative.
Operators requiring user-pay connections to the EC
weather communications systems for preflight planning,
flight documentation or flight watch purposes should
apply to the:
Director General,
National Weather Services Directorate,
Environment Canada,
4905 Dufferin Street,
Downsview ON M3H 5T4.
It is the responsibility of the operator to notify NAV CANADA,
Aviation Weather Services, of new requirements. (See
MET 1.1.1 for address.)
1.1.4 Weather Service Information
When planning a flight, you can obtain aviation weather and
NOTAM information and file a flight plan from a single source:
NAV CANADA FSS. In the event that a fully interpretive
weather briefing is required, this service is available from
FSSs at the W1 level.
If inflight information is required to assist in making a decision
or to terminate a flight plan, or to alter course before adverse
weather conditions are encountered, VHF radio contact
should be established with any in-range FSS, normally on
frequency 126.7 MHz.
Pilot requests for initial weather briefings while airborne
are not encouraged because this practice ties up the
radio frequencies.
The telephone numbers of NAV CANADA FSS and Weather
Offices are found in the Aerodrome/Facility Directory of the
CFS or WAS. Long distance phone calls can be made to an
FSS free of charge for numbers preceded by “800”. Collect
calls from pilots will be accepted for all other numbers. Phone
calls to Environment Canada briefing services are not free.
At some locations, Environment’s “Weatheradio Canada”,
broadcasts over the VHF­FM band, carries some limited
aviation weather information. In addition, some cable TV
companies carry aviation weather.
Aviation weather is also available from privately funded
DUATS computer kiosks provided by fixed base operators at
some aerodromes. DUATS availability is noted in the “Flight
Plan” section of the CFS for these locations. In addition,
personal home or office computer access to a DUATS service
can be contracted.
When requesting
telephone, please:
information
in
person
or
by
(a) identify yourself as a pilot, and be prepared to give the
registration of the aircraft you will be flying or your pilot
licence number; and
(b)state the type of flight plan (VFR or IFR), intended route,
altitude, departure time and type of aircraft.
MET
By arrangement with the U.S. National Weather Service,
upper level wind and temperature forecasts in digital form
are made available to operators in Canada for planning
flights on a world-wide basis. Identical information is
made available to the Gander Oceanic ATC Centre for
planning trans-Atlantic flights.
TC AIM
1.1.5 Weather Observing Systems and
Procedures at Major Aerodromes
Major aerodromes have a single three-cup anemometer on
a 10-m mast, with direct reading dials in the local weather
observation office and/or ATS units. Wind direction and speed
observations are averaged over 2 min with variations in the
past 10 min except where ATC units are using the Operational
Information Display System.
The Operational Information Display System provides
continuously updated information to ATC units, including
meteorological information as follows:
MEAN WIND
— average wind for the last 2 min.
NOW WIND
— mean wind refreshed every 1 min
RUNWAY VISUAL
RANGE (RVR)
— average for the last 1 min
ALTIMETER SETTING
— current
NOTE: The wind information will be issued as follows:
1.
ATIS broadcast — MEAN WIND
2.
Landing information
— MEAN WIND
105
TC AIM
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
October 27, 2005
Taxi information
— MEAN WIND
AWOS broadcast
— MEAN WIND
Limited weather information
system (LWIS) broadcast — MEAN WIND
Take-off and
landing clearance
— NOW WIND
Pilot request
— NOW WIND
ATS procedures require that wind information be transmitted
with landing and take­off clearance only when the wind speed
is 15 KT or greater.
Information on the cloud-base height is obtained by use of
laser ceilometers, ceiling projectors, ceiling balloons, pilot
reports and observer estimation. Observations are provided
to the local ATS units in the form of routine and special
weather reports.
Temperature is read each hour from a mercury thermometer
located in a ventilated screen; some stations have a remote
read-out of this information located in the ATS facility or the
weather observation office.
MET
Runway Visual Range observations are obtained by
transmissometers and forward-scatter sensors. Observations
representative of the touchdown and midpoint visibility
averaged over one minute and based on the light setting in use
are automatically displayed in digital form in the local ATS
unit. At locations where Runway Visual Range information
is accessible to the weather observer, the Runway Visual
Range is included in routine and special weather reports
(METAR and SPECI, respectively) when it is 6 000 ft. or
less for the runway in use and/or the visibility is one statute
mile or less. Refer to the METAR example (MET 3.15.3) for
further details.
At some locations, a digital altimeter display system is
provided in ATS units, as required.
Observations of slant visual range, vertical wind shear,
trailing vortices and marked temperature inversions are not
made in Canada.
(a) Reporting of Cloud Bases
106
There are two distinct methods of reporting cloud bases. It
is vital to the pilot to be able to distinguish and recognize
which method of reporting is in use. Heights in METAR
and TAF are always stated as height above ground level
(AGL). On the other hand, heights in area forecasts (GFA)
and pilot reports (PIREPs) are normally stated as height
above sea level (ASL) since terrain heights are variable
over the larger area covered. If heights are not ASL in area
forecasts (GFA), this is always highlighted by statements
such as “ST CIGS 24 HND ABV GND”.
layers of cloud or smoke a loft obscure 5/8 or more of
the sky, or the vertical extent of the visibility as viewed
through a surface-based obscuring condition, such as
smoke or fog.
(c) Sky Conditions
Sky conditions are classified in terms of eighths of sky
covered [see MET 3.15.3(k)].
1.1.6 Pilot Reports
PIREP
Pilots are urged to volunteer reports of cloud tops, upper
cloud layers, cruising level, wind velocity, and other
meteorological information which may be significant to safe
or comfortable flight conditions. The information is also
used by EC meteorologists to confirm or amend aviation
weather forecasts. PIREPs less than one hour old that contain
information considered to be a hazard to aviation are broadcast
immediately to aircraft using the affected area and will be
included in subsequent scheduled weather broadcasts. PIREPs
are also transmitted on the EC communications system under
the headings “UACN10” for normal PIREPs and “UACN01”
for urgent PIREPs. A suggested format for PIREPs can be
found on the back cover of CFS and WAS. More information
on PIREP is contained in MET 2.0 and 3.17.
AIREP
Meteorological reports (AIREPs) are appended to the routine
position reports of some flights as follows:
(a) International Air Carrier aircraft transiting Canadian
Domestic Flight Information Regions north of 60˚N and
east of 80˚W, and north of 55˚N and west of 80˚W should
use the AIREP format and report routine meteorological
observations to the appropriate FSS or International
Radio Station at each designated reporting point or
reporting line;
(b)All aircraft operating in the Gander Oceanic Area should
use the AIREP format and report routine meteorological
observations at each designated reporting point or line.
The exception is that aircraft cleared on a designated
North Atlantic track will give these reports only if the
phrase “SEND MET REPORTS” is included in their
oceanic clearance.
There are no special requirements for transmitting AIREPs
with appended meteorological information other than those
specified in the ICAO Regional Supplementary Procedures.
(b)Reporting of Ceilings
1.1.7 Applicable International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) and World Meteorological Organziation (WMO) Documents
Whereas ICAO determines the standards and recommended
practices with respect to meteorological service for
A ceiling is the lesser of the height at which cumulative
October 27, 2005
international air navigation, the WMO determines and
reports the internationally agreed upon code formats for the
reports and forecasts. ICAO and WMO documents applicable
to aviation meteorology are as follows:
ICAO Annex 3 – Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation
ICAO Doc 7030 – Regional Supplementary Procedures
ICAO Doc 8755 – Air Navigation Plan – North Atlantic, North American and Pacific Regions
WMO Doc 306 – Manual on Codes
WMO documents may be ordered directly from the WMO
Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland, or from the American
Meteorological Society, Boston, Massachusetts. ICAO
documents may be purchased from the ICAO Headquarters
in Montréal. The two relevant addresses are listed below:
American Meteorological Society
WMO Subscriptions
45 Beacon Street
Boston MA
U.S.A. 02108
Tel.:..................................................617 227-2426, Ext. 214
and RVR information is available. Updated information
related to the current aerodrome representative values of
the other weather elements is available upon request.
4. Chapter 4, paragraph 4.3.3 and 4.4.3 Most aerodromes in
Canada are operational at all times. The hours of METAR/
SPECI are determined individually for each aerodrome in
consultation with users.
5. Chapter 4, paragraph 4.5.1 Canada does not include
temperature, dew point or QNH in SPECI, except from
automated sites. RVR is not included in the METAR or
SPECI at many aerodromes including Toronto (Pearson) and
Vancouver International. Efforts to enter into compliance
for RVR are ongoing; however, an implementation date
cannot be determined at this time.
6. Chapter 4, paragraph 4.6.2.1 Canada reports visibility in
units of statute miles (SM) and fractions.
7. Chapter 4, paragraph 4.6.3.3 Canada reports RVR in units
of feet (ft).
8. Chapter 4, paragraph 4.6.7 Canada reports altimeter
setting in units of hundredths of inches of mercury.
Atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation (QFE) is
not available.
1.1.8 Differences from ICAO Annex 3
9. Chapter 6, paragraph 6.2.3 Canada includes a remark
at the end of each aerodrome forecast (TAF) preceded
by “RMK” and followed by the scheduled issue
time of the next regular TAF, in plain English. For
TAFs based on AWOS, the additional remark “FCST
BASED ON AUTO OBS” will be included, along with
appropriate remarks in abbreviated plain English, as
necessary, to indicate if automated sensors are providing
non-representative information.
The following State Differences are in effect against
Amendment 73 of ICAO Annex 3.
10.Chapter 6, paragraph 6.3
not provided.
Landing
forecasts
are
1. Chapter 2, paragraph 2.1.5 Meteorological observations
and reports are provided by employees or contractors of
air navigation service providers. These personnel may
not fully meet the pre-requisite knowledge and training
qualifications specified by the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO) for meteorological personnel.
The service provider must, however, demonstrate to the
State meteorological authority that observer personnel
are competent to make aviation weather observations
accurately to WMO/ICAO specifications, and to code the
resulting reports accurately and within the time allotted.
11.Chapter 6, paragraph 6.4
not provided.
Take-off
forecasts
are
Pilots flying outside of North America should consult the
differences filed by other member states as outlined in WMO
Doc. 306 or in the AIP of each country.
MET
ICAO
Distribution Sales Unit
Suite 305
999 University Street
Montréal QC H3C 5H7
Tel.:................................................................ 514 954-8026
TC AIM
12.Chapter 6, paragraph 6.6.2 GAMET area forecasts are not
issued in Canada. Area forecasts are provided by graphic
areas forecasts (GFA).
13.Chapter 7, paragraph 7.2 AIRMETs are not routinely
issued and do not include the location indicator of the
ATS unit or the name of the FIR or CTA to which they
correspond. Normally, they are only issued to amend or
correct information in the GFA.
2. Chapter 4 paragraph 4.1.3 Aviation selected special
weather reports (SPECI) are not issued upon changes
in RVR.
14.Chapter 7, paragraph 7.3.1 Aerodrome warnings are
not issued.
3. Chapter 4, paragraph 4.1.5 Real time wind, altimeter subscale setting to obtain elevation when on the ground (QNH),
15.Chapter 7, paragraph 7.4 Wind shear warnings are not
issued. A wind shear group is included in the TAF when
107
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
significant wind shear is observed or forecast.
16.Chapter 9, paragraph 9.4.3 Updated information is
provided whenever practicable to do so. However, in
Canada, it is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command,
before commencing a flight, to ensure familiarity with all
necessary weather information that is appropriate for the
intended flight.
17.Chapter 9, paragraph 9.4.6 The information provided
in weather briefings is retained by the meteorological
service providers.
18.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 2.1.1 RVR is not included
and most SPECI do not include temperature, dew point or
altimeter setting except from automated sites.
19.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 2.2 The use of the term
CAVOK is not permitted in METAR/SPECI.
20.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 2.3.1 (d) Information
contained in SPECI are representative of the aerodrome and
do not normally contain specific information concerning
the approach and climb-out areas.
[no clouds detected] and NDV [no directional variations]
are not used. The abbreviation CLR BLO 100 is used to
denote that no cloud has been detected with a base of
10 000 ft or less.
Fully automated reports that do not provide all of the
elements of a METAR, or which do not include SPECI,
are identified by the use of the term “LWIS” for “limited
weather information systems.” The subset of reportable
elements that are reported will otherwise be included in
the same order and with the same content, coding and
formatting as for METAR.
29.Part 2, Appendix 5, paragraph 2. Trend forecasts are
not provided.
30.Part 2, Appendix 5, paragraph 4.1.2. Route forecasts
(ROFOR) are not provided.
31.Part 2, Appendix 5, paragraph 4.2.2. Area forecasts are
amended by AIRMET.
32.Part 2, Appendix 5, paragraph 5 GAMET area forecasts
are not provided.
MET
21.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 3.2 Local routine and
special reports are not issued.
33.Part 2, Appendix 5, Table 5-1 Corrected or cancelled TAF
are issued as amendments.
22.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 4.1.3.1 (b) Wind averaging
period for METAR/SPECI is 2 minutes.
34.Part 2, Appendix 6, paragraph 1.1.4 Domestic SIGMET
phenomena are described in abbreviated plain English.
Gander Oceanic SIGMET information is included in
plain English.
23.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 4.1.4.2 (d) Winds of less
than 2-kt mean speed are reported as calm.
24.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 4.2.4.1 Visibility reports
are provided in units of statute miles (SM) and fractions.
25.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 4.3.3.1 RVR is automatically
inserted within METAR/SPECI without need for human
intervention at some sites. RVR displays are in ATS units
and do not typically exist in the meteorological station.
26.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 4.3.6.1 RVR is reported in
units of feet (ft).
27.Part 2, Appendix 3, paragraph 4.7.3.1 Altimeter setting is
reported in units of hundredths of inches of mercury and
is preceded by an “A” designator. QFE is not available.
35.Part 2, Appendix 6, Table 6-1 Domestic SIGMET messages
do not include the location indicator of the ATS unit or the
name of the FIR or the CTA. A mitigation plan to enter
into compliance with this provision is under development;
however, the implementation date for compliance cannot
be determined at this time.
NOTE: This notification applies to reports exchanged in
Canada and between Canada and the United States
in abbreviated plain language only.
1.2 Meteorological Observation and Reports
1.2.1 Aeronautical Meteorological Stations and Offices
28.Part 2, Appendix 3, Table A3-2 The identification of
correction to METAR/SPECI are indicated by the use
of the code CCX, rather than COR, where the X is A for
the first correction, B for the second correction and so
on. Efforts to enter into compliance with this provision
are ongoing; however, the implementation date cannot be
determined at this time.
108
METAR/SPECI reports from automated stations do not
include the cloud type group and the abbreviations NCD
The location of meteorological stations and offices is contained
in CFS and in MET 3.1.
October 27, 2005
1.2.2 Type and Frequency of Observations
Aviation routine weather reports (METAR) are coded weather
observations that are taken each hour at over 200 aerodrome
and other locations in Canada. In addition, special weather
reports (SPECI) are issued whenever weather conditions
fluctuate about or are below specified criteria. See MET 3.15.3
for the contents and decode instructions for these reports.
METAR and SPECI are taken 24 hours per day at all
international aerodromes.
The location of transmissometers or forward scatter sensors
used to determine Runway Visual Range is specified in the
CAP aerodrome Charts.
Information is available to ATS unit(s) by connections to the
EC communications system. Current information with respect
to surface wind, Runway Visual Range and altimeter setting
is provided by the Operational Information Display System
and the Digital Altimeter Display System. At locations where
these facilities are not available, altimeter setting indicators
and duplicate read-outs of surface wind speed and direction
are provided.
1.2.3 Flight Weather Documentation
NOTE: For a complete explanation of the weather reports
that are disseminated by AWOS units, please refer to
MET 3.15.5.
1.2.5 Limited Weather Information System (LWIS)
A LWIS comprises a subset of the usual automated
meteorological sensors, a data processing system, a
communication system and optional voice generator
module (VGM) and VHF transmitter. LWIS collects limited
meteorological data that is transmitted from the site hourly to
ATS facilities or every minute to the affiliated VGM and VHF
transmitter unit.
Any LWIS used for civil aviation purposes has been approved
by TC for aviation use. An aviation-approved LWIS is
equipped with sensors to report the following:
• wind (direction, speed and gusts);
• altimeter setting (these sensors have a fail-safe design);
• air temperature; and
• dew point.
1.3 Meteorological Forecasts and Charts
1.3.1 Locations
The location and indicators are listed in CFS and in
MET 3.0.
1.3.2 Hours of Service
MET
Flight weather documentation is provided in the form of
copies of aviation area forecasts, in chart form, together with
copies of alphanumeric aerodrome forecasts, and upper wind
and temperature forecasts. Forecast significant weather and
constant pressure charts for supersonic transport operations
are not available in Canada.
TC AIM
The hours of service for FSSs are given in CFS.
1.2.4 Automated Weather Observation System
An automated weather observation system (AWOS) comprises
a set of meteorological sensors, a data processing system,
a communications system and an optional voice generator
module (VGM) and VHF transmitter. AWOS collects
meteorological data and disseminates METARs and SPECIs.
Any AWOS that is used for civil aviation purposes must either
be the EC-developed system or a commercial AWOS that has
been approved by TC for aviation use.
At a minimum, an aviation-approved AWOS is equipped with
sensors to report the following:
• wind (direction, speed and gusts);
• altimeter setting (these sensors have a fail-safe design);
• air temperature;
• dew point;
• visibility;
• cloud height;
• sky coverage (of detected cloud);
• precipitation occurrence and type;
• total precipitation;
• and icing.
1.3.3 Aviation Forecast Charts
World Area Forecast aviation weather charts, issued by the
ICAO Aviation Area Forecast Center in Suitland, Maryland,
U.S.A., are disseminated on the EC circuits to regular
international aerodromes, as required. This includes prognostic
significant weather, constant pressure and tropopause/
vertical wind shear charts for the North Pacific, Caribbean
and northern South America, North Atlantic, Canada and the
United States. Forecast significant weather charts for Canada
and the Arctic are prepared by the Canadian Meteorological
Centre in Montréal.
Aviation area forecasts are available at all regular international
aerodromes for Continental United States excluding Alaska,
air routes from North America to Europe, Canada and the
Arctic Ocean, air routes between North America and the
Caribbean, air routes from the west coast of North America
to Japan, and air routes from the west coast of North America
to Hawaii.
1.3.4 Aerodrome Forecasts
Aerodrome forecasts (TAF) are prepared for approximately
109
TC AIM
180 aerodromes across Canada (see MET 3.8). Aerodrome
forecasts are limited to aerodromes for which METAR and
SPECI reports are available. The forecasts are generally
prepared four times daily with periods of coverage from 12 to
24 hours. See MET 3.9 for issue, periods of coverage, and
decode instructions.
Aerodrome forecasts are issued in TAF code, with amendments
as required.
Aerodrome Advisory Forecasts
Aerodrome advisories are issued in the place of full
TAF when:
(a) Offsite: the forecast is based on observations that have been
taken offsite and are not considered to be representative of
weather conditions at the aerodrome;
(b)Observation Incomplete: the forecast is based on
observations which have regularly missing or incomplete
data; or
(c) No Specials: the forecast is based on observations from
a station with a limited observing program that does not
issue special (SPECI) weather observations.
MET
In each case, the advisory forecast will be labelled with
the word “ADVISORY” after the date time group and the
appropriate qualifier (Offsite, Obs Incomplete, or No Spls).
1.3.5 Weather Information
(a) Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service
(PATWAS)
110
To serve identified, repetitive information demands, a
continuous recording of some local aviation weather
information from selected FSSs is accessible by telephone.
The locations of this service are identified in CFS and
WAS. PATWAS recordings will normally include:
(i) station indicator and introduction,
(ii) instructions,
(iii) SIGMETs,
(iv) AIRMETs,
(v) METAR and SPECI reports for selected stations,
(vi) aerodrome forecasts (TAF) for selected stations,
(vii) forecast winds and temperatures aloft (FD),
(viii)icing, freezing level and turbulence,
(ix) selected PIREPs, and
(x) daily sunrise and sunset times.
Portions of the PATWAS recording are typically accessed
by using an appropriate touch-tone number once a
telephone connection to the system has been made.
At the present time, PATWAS recordings must be
manually updated; they may not, therefore, reflect the most
current weather information available if conditions are
changing rapidly.
October 27, 2005
(b)Coastal Weather
Float plane operators can also obtain coastal marine
weather on HF and VHF-FM frequencies from some
Canadian Coast Guard stations. Frequencies and time of
broadcast are contained in two Canadian Coast Guard
Publications – Radio Aids to Marine Navigation (Pacific,
and Atlantic and Great Lakes). These two publications
are published annually and are available from the Canada
Communication Group –Publishing (see MAP 7.2 for
addresses and prices).
1.3.6 Area Forecasts and AIRMET
Graphic area forecasts (GFA) are issued as a series of
temporally adjusted weather charts for Canadian Domestic
Airspace and distributed on a routine or on-request basis.
These forecasts are prepared four times daily for 7 regions
across the country with a coverage period of 12 hours and an
outlook for a further 12 hours. See MET 3.3 for issue, periods
of coverage and decoding instructions. Amendments to area
forecasts are known as AIRMETs. A full description of this
product can be found in MET 3.4.
1.3.7 Upper Level Wind and Temperature Forecasts
Alphanumeric upper level wind and temperature forecasts
(FD) are prepared for 142 sites in Canada using a variety of
atmospheric data sources, including upper air soundings twice
daily. See MET 3.11 for decode instructions, and MET 3.2.1
for issue times and periods of coverage.
1.3.8 ATC Weather Assistance
ATC will issue information on significant weather and assist
pilots in avoiding weather areas when requested. However,
for reasons of safety, an IFR flight must not deviate from an
assigned course or altitude/flight level without a proper ATC
clearance. When weather conditions encountered are so severe
that an immediate deviation is determined to be necessary, and
time will not permit approval by ATC, the pilot’s emergency
authority may be exercised. However, when such action is
taken, ATC should be advised as soon as practicable of the
flight alteration.
When a pilot requests clearance for a route deviation or for
an ATC radar vector, the controller must evaluate the air
traffic situation in the affected area and co-ordinate with
other controllers before replying to the request when ATC
operational boundaries have to be crossed.
It should be remembered that the controller’s primary
function is to provide safe separation between aircraft. Any
additional service, such as weather avoidance assistance, can
only be provided to the extent that it does not detract from
the primary function. Also note that the separation workload
for the controller generally increases when weather disrupts
the usual flow of traffic. ATC radar limitations and frequency
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
congestion is also a factor in limiting the controller’s capability
to provide additional services.
It is important, therefore, that the request for a deviation
or radar vector be forwarded to ATC as far in advance
as possible. Delay in submitting it may delay or even preclude
ATC approval or require that additional restrictions be placed
on the clearance. Pilots should respond to a weather advisory
by requesting: a deviation off course and stating the estimated
number of miles and the direction of the requested deviation;
a new route to avoid the affected area; a change of altitude; or,
radar vectors around the affected areas.
section of NAV CANADA’s Web site. The colour composite
is not a real-time depiction as the product is 40 min old when
issued and is only updated every 40 min.
1.4 VOLMET
1.4.1 General
Information on VOLMET broadcasts is given in the CFS,
Section “D”, Radio Navigation and Communications.
The following information should be given to ATC as early
as possible when requesting clearance to detour around
weather activity:
(a) proposed route
and distance);
and
extent
of
detour
(direction
2.0 PILOT REPORTS
(b)flight conditions IMC or VMC; and
(c) advise if the aircraft is equipped with a functioning cockpit
weather radar.
A PIREP is a pilot weather report pertaining to current weather
conditions encountered in flight. It is designed to provide
other pilots and dispatchers with up-to-the-minute weather
information. In addition, it is an invaluable data source for
aviation meteorologists because it either confirms an existing
forecast or highlights the requirement for an amendment. It
may also be the only information available regarding areas
between reporting stations, particularly those areas that
“manufacture” their own weather (e.g., hills or expanses
of water).
1.3.10 Supplementary Information
NAV CANADA’s PIREP recording and distribution system
is maintained by Flight Service Station (FSS) Specialists
throughout the network of Canadian FSSs and by the
Observers/Communicators (O/Cs) at Community Aerodrome
Radio Stations (CARS) in the north. Established criteria
require that FSS Specialists and CARS O/Cs solicit PIREPs
when any of the following conditions are known to exist
within 150 miles of the station:
Weather Radar
(a) ceiling below 2 000 feet;
1.3.9 Telephone Numbers of Flight Service Stations
Telephone numbers of FSSs are given in the CFS.
Weather radars typically present a display of precipitation
within 150 NM of the facility site; storms of considerable
height and intensity can be seen at greater ranges. However,
it should be noted that these radars cannot detect turbulence.
The turbulence associated with a very heavy rate of rainfall
will generally be significantly more severe than that associated
with light rainfall.
MET
The assistance that might be given by ATC will depend upon
the weather information available to controllers. Owing to
the often transitory nature of severe weather situations, the
controller’s weather information may be of only limited
value if based on weather observed on radar only. Frequent
updates by pilots, giving specific information as to the area
affected, altitudes, intensity and nature of the severe weather,
are of considerable value. Such PIREPs receive immediate
and widespread dissemination to aircrew, dispatchers and
aviation forecasters.
2.1 General
(b)visibility below 3 SM;
(c) the presence of moderate or heavy precipitation;
(d)turbulence;
(e) icing;
Environment Canada (EC) and the Department of National
Defence (DND) operate a series of weather radars across
Canada that provide frequent reports of precipitation echo
tops and precipitation reflectivity. Radar images are updated
approximately every 10 min for individual radars. A colour
composite radar product, which depicts either echo tops or
precipitation reflectivity is also available on the flight planning
(f) thunderstorms;
(g)winds exceeding 50 KT; or
(h)other conditions differing substantially from those
indicated in forecast or surface reports.
111
TC AIM
In addition, FSS Specialists and CARS O/Cs are required
to obtain PIREPs during the climb-out and approach phases
of flight when less than Visual Meteorological Conditions
(VMC) exist.
In order to ensure that the PIREPs are easily retrieved by
flight crews and dispatch personnel, NAV CANADA has
codified, in each PIREP, the Flight Information Region (FIR)
and FSS’ area of responsibility within which the reported
meteorological phenomena occurred. In future, latitude and
longitude of the occurrence will be included.
To ensure the timely entry of PIREPs into the system, they
should be passed directly to a FSS Specialist via 126.7 MHz
(or a discrete FSS frequency if one exists) or CARS O/Cs on
the CARS frequency if airborne, or by a toll-free or collect
telephone call to an FSS after landing. The recommended
contents of a PIREP are listed on the back cover of the
Canada Flight Supplement (CFS). As well, the CFS contains
the FSS telephone numbers in the Flight Planning section of
each listed aerodrome.
October 27, 2005
type, altitude or flight level, and indicated airspeed. (See the
suggested format on the back cover of the CFS.)
The following describes
icing conditions:
MET
2.3 Wind Shear
Intense down drafts, typically associated with thunderstorms,
produce strong vertical and horizontal wind shear components
that are a hazard to aviation for aircraft in the approach, landing
or takeoff phase of flight (see AIR 2.8). Since ground-based
instruments to measure wind shear have not been installed
at Canadian aerodromes, the presence of such conditions can
normally be deduced only from PIREPs.
Aircrew capable of reporting the wind and altitude, both above
and below the shear layer, from Flight Management Systems
(FMS) are requested to do so. Pilots without this equipment
should report wind shear by stating the loss or gain of airspeed
and the altitude at which it was encountered. Pilots not able
to report wind shear in these specific terms should do so in
terms of its general effect on the aircraft.
2.4 Airframe Icing
Report icing to ATS and, if operating IFR, request a new
routing or altitude if icing will be a hazard. Give your aircraft
identification, type, location, time (UTC), intensity of icing,
112
and
how
to
report
INTENSITY
ICE ACCUMULATION
Trace
Ice becomes perceptible. The rate of
accumulation is slightly greater than the
rate of sublimation. It is not hazardous, even
though de-icing or anti-icing equipment is
not used, unless encountered for an extended
period of time (over 1 hour).
Light
The rate of accumulation may create a problem
if flight is prolonged in this environment
(over 1 hour).
Moderate
The rate of accumulation is such that
even short encounters become potentially
hazardous, and use of de-icing or anti-icing
equipment or diversion is necessary.
Severe
The rate of accumulation is such that deicing or anti-icing equipment fails to reduce
or control the hazard. Immediate diversion
is necessary.
*Rime ice:
Rough, milky, opaque ice formed by the
instantaneous freezing of small supercooled
water droplets.
*Clear ice:
Glossy, clear, or translucent ice formed by the
relatively slow freezing of large supercooled
water droplets.
2.2 Clear Air Turbulence
Clear air turbulence (CAT) remains a problem for flight
operations particularly above 15 000 feet. The best information
available on this phenomenon is still obtained from PIREPs,
since a CAT forecast is generalized and covers large areas.
All pilots encountering CAT conditions are requested to
urgently report the time, location, flight level and intensity
(light, moderate, severe, or extreme) of the phenomena to
the facility with which they are maintaining radio contact.
(See Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table, MET 3.7.) A more
complete description of CAT and recommended pilot actions
can be found in AIR 2.10.
icing
2.5 Volcanic Ash
Flight operations in volcanic ash are hazardous (see AIR 2.6).
Pilots may be the first line of volcanic eruption detection in
more remote areas. Pilots may be able to provide valuable
information about the spread of volcanic ash from an eruption;
ash can rapidly rise to altitudes above 60 000 feet and exist at
hazardous concentrations up to 1 000 NM from the source.
Volcanic ash is not detectable on radar. If an eruption or ash
cloud is detected, an urgent PIREP should be filed with the
nearest ATS unit.
A volcanic ash forecast chart is produced when required
(see MET 3.21).
2.6 Pilot Estimation of Surface Wind
Surface wind direction and speed is information critical
to effective pilot decision making for takeoff and landing.
Where neither wind measuring equipment nor a wind direction
indicator (see AGA 5.9) is available, the wind direction and
speed can be estimated by observing smoke, dust, flags or
wind lines on bodies of water.
Pilots on the ground may estimate wind speed and direction
by using anything that is free to be moved by the influence of
the wind. The descriptions in the Beaufort Wind Scale found
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
in Table 1 have been found to be particularly useful and are
widely used.
Wind direction can also be estimated accurately by simply
facing the wind. Such estimates should only be provided to the
nearest eight points (i.e., north, northeast, east) of the compass.
The best estimate is obtained by standing in an open area
clear of obstructions. Should this not be possible, estimation
errors may be so large that pilots using the information should
exercise caution. The direction and speed of low-lying clouds
can be an indicator of surface winds but should also be used
with caution because of the possibility of wind shear near the
surface.
Pilots who relay reports of winds based on estimation should
ensure that the intended user of the information is aware that
it is based on estimation so that appropriate precautions can
be taken.
Estimating Wind Speed
The speed may be estimated by using the Beaufort Scale
of Winds, which relates common effects of the wind and
equivalent speeds in knots
Table 1: Beaufort Wind Scale
Descriptive
Term
Beaufort
Force
Speed
Range
(knots)
Knots
Average
Specification for estimating
wind over land
Specification for estimating
wind over sea (probable wave height in metres*)
Smoke rises vertically
Sea is like a mir­ror (0)
0
Less than
1
Light Air
1
1–3
2
Direction of wind shown
by smoke
Ripples with the appearance of scales are
formed, but with­ out foam crest (0.1)
Light
Breeze
2
4–6
5
Wind felt on face; leaves
rustle; ordinary vane moved
by wind
Small wavelets, still short but more pro­nounced;
crests have a glassy appearance and do not
break (0.2 to 0.3)
Gentle
Breeze
3
7–10
9
Leaves and small twigs in
Large wavelets; crests begin to break; foam of
constant motion; wind extends glassy appearance; perhaps scattered white
light flag
horses (0.6 to 1)
Moderate
Breeze
4
11–16
14
Raises dust and loose paper;
small branches are moved
Small waves becoming longer; fairly frequent
white horses (1 to 1.5)
Fresh
Breeze
5
17–21
19
Small trees in leaf begin to
sway; crested wavelets form
on inland waters
Moderate waves, taking a more pronounced long
form; many white horses are formed, chance of
some spray 2 to 2.5)
Large waves begin to form; the white foam
crests are more extensive everywhere, probably
some spray (3 to 4)
Strong
Breeze
6
22–27
25
Large branches in motion;
whistling heard in telephone
wires; umbrellas used
with difficulty
Near Gale
7
28–33
31
Whole trees in motion;
inconvenience felt in walking
against wind
Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking
waves begins to be blown in streaks along the
direc­tion of the wind (4 to 5.5)
37
Breaks twigs off trees;
generally impedes progress
Moderately high waves of greater length;edges
of crests begin to break into the spindrift; the
foam is blown in well-marked streaks along the
direction of the wind (5.5 to 7.5)
Gale
8
34–40
Strong
Gale
9
41–47
44
Slight structural damage
occures to roofing shingles,
TV antennae, etc.
Storm
10
48–55
52
Seldom experienced inland;
trees uprooted; considerable
structural damage
MET
Calm
High waves; dense streaks of foam along the
direction of the wind; crests of waves begin to
topple, tumble and roll over; spray may affect
visibility (7 to 10)
Very high waves with long, overhanging crests;
the resulting foam, in great patches, is blown in
dense white streaks along the direction of the
wind; on the whole, the surface of the sea takes
on a white appearance; the tumbling of the sea
becomes heavy and shock-like; visibility affected
(9 to 12.5)
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Table 1: Beaufort Wind Scale
Descriptive
Term
Beaufort
Force
Speed
Range
(knots)
Violent
Storm
11
56–63
Hurricane
12
Above 63
Knots
Average
60
Specification for estimating
wind over land
Specification for estimating
wind over sea (probable wave height in metres*)
Very rarely experienced;
accompanied by
widespread damage
Exceptionally high waves (small and medium
sized ships might be lost to the view behind the
waves); the sea is completely covered with long
white patches of foam lying along the direction
of the wind; everywhere the edges of the wave
crests are blown into froth; visibility affected
(11.5 to 16)
The air is filled with foam and spray; sea
completely white with driving spray; visibility
seriously affected (16+)
* Wave height is representative of conditions well away from shore and in deep water when winds of that strength have
persisted for an extended period of time. The wave height figure does not give the maximum wave height nor does it take
into account the effects of swell, air temperature or currents.
3.0 APPENDICES
3.1 Location of Canadian Weather Centres
MET
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October 27, 2005
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3.2 Canadian Weather Information
3.2.1 Aviation Forecasts and Charts
ITEM AND TYPE
DESIGNATOR
TIME ISSUED
TIMES OR PERIODS OF
COVERAGE
APPLICABLE
LEVEL
Area Forecast
Charts (GFA)
Approximately
30 min before
beginning of
coverage period
0000Z, 0600Z,
1200Z, 1800Z.
Each new set of GFA charts
replaces preceding ones.
Below 24 000 ft
Graphically depicts forecast
weather elements affecting
flight at a specific time over a
particular area.
Aerodrome
Forecast (TAF)
Approximately
30 min before
beginning of
coverage period
12 HOURS
0000Z–1200Z
0600Z–1800Z
1200Z–0000Z
1800Z–0600Z
OR
0200Z–1400Z
0800Z–2000Z
1400Z–0200Z
2000Z–0800Z
24 HOURS
0000Z–0000Z
0600Z–0600Z
1200Z–1200Z
1800Z–1800Z
Issue and update periods may
vary. Next issue time is stated
at the end of each TAF.
Surface (includes
clouds at levels
that can be seen
from the surface)
Provides expected conditions
for LANDING AND TAKEOFF at
specific aerodromes.
Winds and
Temperatures
Aloft (FD)
Amended
Forecast
A short-term weather warning is issued when hazardous conditions occur or are expected to occur.
MET
Significant
Meteorological
Information
(SIGMET) WSCN,
WCCN, WVCN
REMARKS
0320Z*
0500Z–0900Z
3 000 ft
Predicts upper winds and
0330Z*
0900Z–1800Z
6 000 ft
temperatures in numerical form
0720Z*
1800Z–0500Z
9 000 ft
at standard levels for a given
1520Z**
1700Z–2100Z
12 000 ft
time period and location.
1530Z**
2100Z–0600Z
18 000 ft
1920Z**
0600Z–1700Z
0440Z
0500Z–0900Z
24 000 ft
Upper level winds are issued
0440Z
0900Z–1800Z
30 000 ft
by the National Meteorological
0440Z
1800Z–0500Z
34 000 ft
Center, Washington.
1640Z
1700Z–2100Z
39 000 ft
1640Z
2100Z–0600Z
45 000 ft
1640Z
0600Z–1700Z
53 000 ft
Forecasts will be amended when significant changes in ceiling or visibility occur, or when freezing
precipitation begins, or is expected to occur, although it was not previously predicted.
Upper Level
Forecast Chart
—PROG
12 hours before
valid time
Surface Forecast
Chart
—PROG
48 hours before
valid time
0000Z
0600Z
1200Z
1800Z
0000Z, 1200Z
FL 240
FL 340
Surface pressure
patterns shown
can be considered
as representative
of the atmosphere
up to 3 000 ft.
Depicts forecast wind and
temperatures for the
chart level.
Shows expected pressure
pattern and frontal positions at
the surface at a specific time in
the future.
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October 27, 2005
ITEM AND TYPE
DESIGNATOR
Significant
Weather
Forecast Chart
—PROG
TIME ISSUED
TIMES OR PERIODS OF
COVERAGE
APPLICABLE
LEVEL
0000Z
0600Z
1200Z
1800Z
FL 100–240
FL 250–630
12 hours before
valid time
REMARKS
Charts are for a specific
flight level range. They
indicate surface positions
of lows and highs and any
significant weather, such as
thunderstorms, turbulence and
mountain waves, applicable to
the chart.
* based on upper atmosphere observations taken at 0000Z.
** based on upper atmosphere observations taken at 1200Z.
3.2.2 Aviation Weather Reports
ITEM AND TYPE
DESIGNATOR
TIME OBSERVED
TIME ISSUED
At once
MET
Aviation Routine
Weather Report
METAR
Every hour
on the hour
24 hours a day
Pilot Report (PIREP)
UA
As reported
Describes actual weather at a specific location and at a
specific time as observed from the ground.
Specials are issued when required.
Volcanic Ash Report
FV
As required
At once
TIME OBSERVED
TIME ISSUED
REMARKS
Observations of actual conditions reported by pilots
during flight.
Describes in graphical format the current and expected
ash cloud dispersion and densities at various flight levels.
3.2.3 Weather Charts
ITEM AND TYPE
DESIGNATOR
Surface Weather Chart
0000Z
0600Z
1200Z
1800Z
2 or 3 hours
after
observation
Analysis of MSL pressure pattern, surface location of
fronts, surface precipitation and obstructions to vision
based on reports. Surface pressure patterns can be
considered as representative of the atmosphere up to
3 000 ft. Weather visible from the surface at any level is
included.
Upper Level Chart ANAL
0000Z
1200Z
Over 3 hours
after
observation
Charts prepared for following levels:
850 mb (1 500 m / 5 000 ft)
700 mb ( 3 000 m / 10 000 ft)
500 mb (5 500 m / 18 000 ft)
250 mb (10400 m / 34 000 ft)
Charts show reported atmospheric conditions at the
pressure levels, such as wind speed and direction,
temperatures, and moisture content.
3.3 Graphic Area Forecast (GFA)
3.3.1 General
The GFA consists of a series of temporally adjusted weather
charts, each depicting the most probable meteorological
conditions expected to occur below 400 mb (24 000 ft) over a
given area at a specified time. The GFA is primarily designed
to meet general aviation and regional airline requirements for
pre-flight planning in Canada.
116
REMARKS
3.3.2 Issue and Valid Times
GFA charts are issued four times daily, approximately 30 min
before the beginning of the forecast period. The GFA is issued
at approximately 2330, 0530, 1130 and 1730 UTC and is valid
at 0000, 0600, 1200 and 1800 UTC respectively. Each issue
of the GFA is really a collection of six charts; two charts valid
at the beginning of the forecast period, two charts valid six
hours into the forecast period and the final two charts valid
twelve hours into the forecast period. Of the two charts valid
at each of the three forecast periods, one chart depicts clouds
and weather while the other chart depicts icing, turbulence
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
and freezing level. An IFR outlook for an additional twelvehour period will also be included in the final clouds and
weather chart.
3.3.6 Layout
Each GFA chart is divided into four parts: title box; legend
box; comments box; and weather information section.
3.3.3 Coverage Area
Weather
Information
Section
There are seven distinct GFA areas, covering the entire
CDA, over which Canada is responsible for the provision
of ATC services. The following map illustrates the GFA
coverage areas.
Title Box
Legend Box
Comments Box
3.3.7 Title Box
The title box includes the chart name, issuing office fourletter identification, name of the GFA region, chart type, the
date/time of issue, and the valid date/time of the chart. The
title box is found at the upper right corner of the GFA.
In the following example, the title box indicates the GFA
name (GFACN33) and that it is issued by the Canadian
Meteorological Centre in Montréal (CWUL). The GFA region
for the sample chart is ONTARIO–QUÉBEC and the type
of chart is the clouds and weather chart. The next section
indicates the issue time of the GFA chart, which is 1130 UTC
on September 17, 1999. The last section states the valid time
for the GFA chart which, in this example, is 0000 UTC on
September 18, 1999.
Speeds in the GFA are expressed in knots (kt) and heights
in hundreds of feet. Horizontal visibility is measured in
statute miles (SM) and all times are stated in Co-Ordinated
Universal Time (UTC). A nautical-mile (NM) scale bar is
included to assist in determining approximate distances on the
chart. All heights are measured above sea level (ASL) unless
otherwise noted.
3.3.5 Abbreviations and Symbols
Only standard meteorological abbreviations are used in the
GFA. Symbols used in the GFA are consistent with those
found on similar meteorological products already described
in the TC A.I.M., such as significant weather prognostic
charts (MET 3.14). The following is a list of common weather
symbols that may be found on the GFA.
TS
– Thunderstorm
PL
– Ice Pellets
FZRA
– Freezing Rain
FZDZ
– Freezing Drizzle
REGION
ONTARIO-QUÉBEC
CLOUDS AND WEATHER
NUAGES ET TEMPS
MET
GFACN33 CWUL
3.3.4 Units of Measure
ISSUED AT ÉMIS A
17/09/1999 1130Z
VLD:
18/09/1999 0000Z
3.3.8 Legend Box
The legend box includes weather symbols that may be used in
the weather information part of the GFA chart. It also includes
a nautical-mile scale bar to facilitate the determination
of distances. Symbols used in the GFA are consistent with
those used in a significant weather prognostic chart. In the
following example, symbols for thunderstorm (TS), ice pellets
(PL), freezing rain (FZRA) and freezing drizzle (FZDZ) are
indicated in the legend box.
117
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October 27, 2005
For meteorological purposes, the IFR outlook is based on
the following:
CATEGORY
IFR
MVFR
VFR
CEILING
VISIBILITY
less than 1 000 ft AGL and/or less than 3 SM
between 1 000 ft and and/or
between
3 000 ft AGL
3 and 5 SM
more than 3 000 ft AGL and more than 5 SM
3.3.10 Weather Information
3.3.9 Comments Box
The comments box provides information that the weather
forecaster considers important (e.g., formation or dissipation
of fog, increasing or decreasing visibility). It is also used to
describe elements that are difficult to render pictorially or,
if added to the depiction, would cause the chart to become
cluttered (e.g., light icing). The standard phrases “HGTS ASL
UNLESS NOTED” and “CB TCU AND ACC IMPLY SIG
TURBC AND ICG. CB IMPLIES LLWS” are also included
in the comments box. An IFR outlook for an additional 12‑hr
period is included in the comments box of the 12‑hr GFA
clouds and weather chart.
3.3.11 Clouds and Weather Chart
MET
COMMENTS/COMMENTAIRES
1. FG/BR DSIPTG AFT 14Z
2. SC CIGS BECMG SCT AFT 15Z
HGTS ASL UNLESS NOTED CB TCU AND ACC IMPLY SIG TURBC
AND ICG. CB IMPLIES LLWS
IFR OTLK
IFR CIG/RA/BR S STLAWRC VLY. LCL IFR IN ONSHR/UPSLP NWLY
FLO OFF JMSBA AND HSNBA.
In this example, the forecaster has added two comments. The
first indicates that the Fog/ Mist will dissipate after 1400 UTC.
The second comment advises that stratocumulus ceilings will
become scattered after 1500 UTC.
The comments box of the 12-hr clouds and weather GFA chart
also includes an IFR outlook for an additional 12-hr period in
the lower section of the box. The IFR outlook is always general
in nature, indicating the main areas where IFR weather is
expected, the cause for the IFR weather and any associated
weather hazards. In the example given, IFR conditions caused
by low ceilings (CIG), rain (RA) and mist (BR) south of the
St. Lawrence Valley are forecast. Also, local IFR conditions
are forecast because of an onshore (ONSHR) and upslope
(UPSLP) northwesterly flow of air from James Bay (JAMSBA)
and Hudson’s Bay (HSNBA).
118
The weather information part of the chart depicts either a
forecast of the clouds and weather conditions or a forecast
of the icing, turbulence and freezing level conditions for a
specified time.
The GFA clouds and weather chart provides a forecast of cloud
layers and/or surface-based phenomena, visibility, weather
and obstructions to vision at the valid time of that particular
chart. Lines joining points of equal surface pressure (isobars)
are depicted at 4‑mb intervals. In addition, relevant synoptic
features that are responsible for the portrayed weather are
also depicted, with an indication of their speed and direction
of movement at the valid time.
(a) Synoptic Features: The motion of synoptic features when
the speed of movement is forecast to be 5 KT or more will
be indicated by an arrow and a speed value. For speeds
less than 5 KT, the letters QS (quasi‑stationary) are used.
A low‑pressure centre moving eastward at 15 KT with an
associated cold front moving southeast at 10 KT would be
indicated as follows:
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
(b)Clouds: The bases and tops of forecast clouds between the
surface and 24 000 ft ASL will be indicated on the GFA
clouds and weather chart. The tops of convective clouds
(i.e. TCU, ACC, CB) are indicated, even if they extend
above 24 000 ft ASL. Cirrus clouds are not depicted on
the chart. The cloud type will be indicated if considered
significant; however, convective clouds, such as CU,
TCU, ACC and CB, will always be stated if forecast to
be present.
A scalloped border encloses organized areas of clouds
where the sky condition is either broken (BKN) or overcast
(OVC). An organized area of broken cumulus clouds
based at 2 000 ft ASL with tops at 8 000 ft ASL would be
indicated as follows:
All heights are indicated in hundreds of feet ASL (2 means
200 ft, 45 means 4 500 ft, etc.) unless otherwise specified.
Heights above ground level (AGL) are indicated by the
abbreviation CIG (e.g. ST CIGS 5–10 AGL). A note to
this effect is included in the comments box in the lower
right‑hand corner of the chart.
(c) Surface‑based Layers: The abbreviation OBSCD
(obscured) is used to describe surface‑based layers. The
vertical visibility into surface‑based layers is measured
in hundreds of feet AGL. Local obscured ceilings with a
vertical visibility of between 300 and 500 ft AGL would
be indicated as follows:
LCL OBSCD CIG 3–5 AGL
2–4SM ‑SHRA
Where organized areas of clouds are not forecast and the
visibility is expected to be greater than 6 SM, a scalloped
border is not used. In these areas, the sky condition is
stated using the terms SKC, FEW or SCT. In the following
example, unorganized scattered clouds are forecast based
at 3 000 ft ASL with tops at 5 000 ft ASL:
SCT 50
30
When multiple cloud layers are forecast, the amount of
cloud at each layer is based on the amount of cloud at that
level, not on the summation amount. The bases and tops
of each layer are indicated. For instance, a scattered layer
of cumulus cloud based at 3 000 ft ASL with tops at 5 000
ft ASL and a higher overcast layer of altostratus cloud
based at 10 000 ft ASL with tops at 13 000 ft ASL would
be indicated as follows:
(e)Weather and Obstructions to Vision: Forecast weather
is always included immediately after the visibility.
Obstructions to vision are only mentioned when the
visibility is forecast to be 6 SM or less (e.g. 2–4SM –RA
BR). Only standard abbreviations are used to describe
weather and obstructions to vision. Areas of showery
or intermittent precipitation are shown as hatched areas
enclosed by a dashed green line. Areas of continuous
precipitation are shown as stippled areas enclosed by
a solid green line. Areas of obstruction to vision not
associated with precipitation, where visibility is 6 SM
or less, are enclosed by a dashed orange line. Areas of
freezing precipitation are depicted in red and enclosed by
a solid red line.
MET
(d)Visibility: The forecast visibility is measured in statute
miles (SM). When the visibility is expected to be greater
than 6 SM, it is indicated as P6SM. A forecast visibility
that is expected to vary between 2 and 4 SM with light
rain showers would be indicated as:
Weather and obstructions to vision in the GFA may
include spatial qualifiers, which describe the coverage of
the depicted meteorological phenomena.
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October 27, 2005
3.3.12 Icing, Turbulence and Freezing Level Chart
Convective clouds and showers:
Abbreviation
Description
Spatial Coverage
ISOLD
Isolated
Less than 25%
SCT
Scattered
25–50%
NMRS
Numerous
Greater than 50%
Non‑convective clouds and precipitation, low stratus
ceilings, precipitation ceilings, icing, turbulence, and
restrictions to visibility:
Abbreviation
Description
Spatial Coverage
LCL
Local
Less than 25%
PTCHY
Patchy
25–50%
XTNSV
Extensive
Greater than 50%
(f) Isobars: Isobars, which are lines joining points of equal
mean sea level (MSL) pressure, are depicted on the GFA
clouds and weather chart. Isobars are drawn at 4‑mb
intervals from a reference value of 1 000 mb.
MET
(g)Surface Winds: The speed and direction of forecast
surface winds with a sustained speed of at least 20 KT
are indicated by wind barbs and an associated wind‑speed
value. Wind gusts are indicated by the letter “G,” followed
by the peak gust speed in knots (kt). In the following
example, the surface wind is forecast to be from the west
(270˚ true) with a speed of 25 KT and a peak gust speed
of 35 KT.
The GFA icing, turbulence and freezing level chart depicts
forecast areas of icing and turbulence as well as the expected
freezing level at a specific time. Included on the chart are the
type, intensity, bases and tops for each icing and turbulence
area. Surface synoptic features such as fronts and pressure
centres are also shown. This chart is to be used in conjunction
with the associated GFA clouds and weather chart issued for
the same valid period.
(a) Icing: Icing is depicted whenever moderate or severe icing
is forecast for the coverage area. The bases and tops of
each icing layer, measured in hundreds of feet above
mean sea level, as well as the type of icing [e.g., “RIME,”
“MXD” (mixed), “CLR” (clear)] will be indicated. Areas
of light icing are described in the comments box. An area
of moderate mixed icing based at 2 000 ft ASL with a top
of 13 000 ft ASL would be indicted as follows:
If icing is expected to be present during only part of the
forecast period covered by the chart, the time of occurrence
of the icing is indicated in the comments box.
(b)Turbulence: Turbulence is depicted whenever moderate
or severe turbulence is forecast for the coverage area.
The base and top of each turbulence layer is measured
in hundreds of feet ASL. If the turbulence is due to
mechanical turbulence, low‑level wind shear, lee/mountain
waves, a significant low‑level jet or is in clear air, an
abbreviation indicating the cause of the turbulence will
be included (e.g., MECH, LLWS, LEE WV, LLJ or CAT).
The following example indicates an area of moderate clear
air turbulence (CAT) based at 8 000 ft ASL with a top at
120
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
20 000 ft ASL.
GFACN33 CWUL CCA
REGION
ONTARIO-QUÉBEC
CLOUDS AND WEATHER
NUAGES ET TEMPS
ISSUED AT ÉMIS A
(c) Freezing Level: Freezing level contours are indicated on the
icing, turbulence and freezing level chart by dashed lines.
The height of the freezing level is measured above sea
level and the contour lines for the freezing level will be at
2 500‑ft intervals, starting at the surface. Modifications to
the freezing level, such as above freezing layers aloft and
temporal changes, are explained in the comments box for
that chart.
17/09/1999 1211Z
VLD:
17/09/1999 1200Z
3.4 AIRMET 3.4.1 Definition
An AIRMET is a short‑term weather advisory intended
primarily for aircraft in flight, to notify pilots of potentially
hazardous weather conditions not described in the current
graphic area forecast (GFA) and not requiring a SIGMET.
Its purposes are to ensure dissemination of significant
meteorological changes to pilots after briefing or departure
and to automatically amend the GFA.
3.4.2 Criteria
The GFA is automatically amended by AIRMET bulletins
whenever weather conditions that are considered significant to
aviation have not been forecast and subsequently occur, or when
they have been forecast but do not occur. Each AIRMET will
indicate which GFA is being amended. In addition, the GFA
is automatically amended by SIGMET bulletins, even though
it is not explicitly stated in the SIGMET itself.
The criteria for issuing an AIRMET are the unforeseen
development, dissipation or non­occurrence of forecast:
(a) IMC conditions (broken or overcast cloud condition at less
than 1 000 ft. AGL and/ or visibility less than 3 SM);
(b)freezing precipitation (not requiring a SIGMET);
(c) moderate icing;
3.3.14 GFA Corrections
(d)moderate turbulence;
The GFA will be re‑issued in the event that one or more of
the original GFA charts contains a significant error which, if
left uncorrected, could result in an erroneous interpretation
of the GFA. In this event, only the erroneous chart(s) is
corrected and re­issued with an appropriate explanation in the
comments box.
(e) thunderstorms (isolated as opposed to a line);
When re‑issued, the correction code “CCA” is added to the
first line of the title box to indicate the first correction, “CCB”
for the second, “CCC” for the third, etc.
MET
3.3.13 GFA Amendments
(f) the surface mean wind over a large area increases to
20 KT. or more, or an increase in gusts to 30 KT. or more,
when no winds were originally forecast; or
(g)the difference between the forecast and observed wind
direction is greater than 60˚.
3.4.3 Validity
An AIRMET is valid upon receipt until it is updated or
cancelled. It will also be superseded by the issue of the
next regular GFA. When two or more phenomena requiring
separate AIRMETs occur, separate AIRMETs with different
alphanumeric identifiers (e.g., A1 for the first phenomenon,
and B1 for the second) will be issued by the responsible
weather centre. An alphanumeric identifier, such as A2 or B2,
would indicate that a previously issued AIRMET (A1 or B1)
121
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October 27, 2005
had been amended. AIRMETs will be worded in abbreviated
plain English using standard abbreviations. Units of measure
will be stated.
MET
122
EXAMPLES
DECODE OF EXAMPLES
WACN34 CYQX 200720 AIRMET A1 ISSUED
AT 0720Z CYQX AMEND GFACN34 CWUL
200530 ISSUE
AIRMET Header for Newfoundland Weather Centre, time 0720 UTC on the
20th of the month. AIRMET A1 issued at 0720 UTC by the Newfoundland
Weather Centre, which amends GFACN34 issued at 0530 UTC.
WTN AREA /4607N06441W/MONCTON—
/4428N06831W/BANGOR— /4459N06455W/
GREENWOOD— /4607N06441W/MONCTON
Within an area bounded by co‑ordinates/Lat: 46˚07’N Long: 64˚41’W
(Moncton) to/Lat: 44˚28’N Long: 68˚31’W (Bangor) to/Lat: 44˚59’N Long:
64˚55’W (Greenwood) to/Lat: 46˚07’N Long: 64˚41’W (Moncton)
DC9 RPRTD MDT RIME ICG IN FZDZ AT 07Z.
FZDZ XPCD TO CONT UNCHGD TO 14Z.
A DC9 aircraft reported moderate rime icing in freezing drizzle at 0700 UTC.
The freezing drizzle is expected to continue unchanged until 1400 UTC.
October 27, 2005
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3.5 Meteorological Reference Points Map
MET
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MET
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October 27, 2005
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3.6 Abbreviations – Aviation Forecasts
CONTRACTION
PLAIN LANGUAGE
PLAIN LANGUAGE
CNTRD
centred
ABV
above
CONDS
conditions
ACCAS
altocumulus castellanus
COTRAILS
condensation trails
ACRS
across
CONTUS
continuous
ACSL
standing lenticular altocumulus
CONTG
continuing
ACT
active
CST
coast
AFT
after
CU
cumulus
AFL
above freezing layer
DCRG
decreasing
AHD
ahead
DEG
degree
ALF
aloft
DFUS
diffuse
ALG
along
DIST
distant
ALT
altitude
DNS
dense
AIRMS
air mass
DNSLP
downslope
APCH
approach
DP
deep
APCHG
approaching
DPNG
deepening
ASL
above sea level
DRFTG
drifting
BECMG
becoming
DURG
during
BFR
before
DVLPG
developing
BGN
begin
DZ
drizzle
BGNG
beginning
E
east
BHND
behind
ELSW
elsewhere
BKN
broken
ELY
easterly
BL
blowing
EMBD
embed
BLDG
building
ENDG
ending
BLO
below
ENTR
entire
BLZD
blizzard
FCST
forecast
BDRY
boundary
FEW
few clouds
BR
mist
FG
fog
BRF
brief
FILG
filling
BRFLY
briefly
FLWD
followed
BRKS
breaks
FLWG
following
BTN
between
FM
from
CAT clear air turbulence
FNT
front
CAVOK
ceiling and visibility OK
FRQ
frequent
CB
cumulonimbus
FZLVL
freezing level
CIG
ceiling
FROIN
frost on indicator
CLD
cloud
FROPA
frontal passage
CLR
clear
FRQ
frequent
CLRG
clearing
FT
feet, foot
CNTR
centre
FU
smoke
MET
CONTRACTION
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MET
126
October 27, 2005
CONTRACTION
PLAIN LANGUAGE
CONTRACTION
PLAIN LANGUAGE
FZ
freezing
MI
shallow
GND
ground
MID
middle
GRAD
gradient
MOVG
moving
GRDLY
gradually
MPH
miles per hour
HGT
height
MRNG
Morning
HI
high
MRTM
maritime
HLTP
hilltop
MSTR
moisture
HND
hundred
MTS
mountains
HR
hour
MVFR
marginal VFR
HVY
heavy
MXD
mixed
ICG
icing
MXG
mixing
ICGIC
icing in cloud
N
north
ICGIP
icing in precipitation
NE
northeast
IMDTLY
immediately
NELY
northeasterly
INCRG
increasing
NGT
night
INDEF
indefinite
NLY
northerly
INSTBY
instability
NM
nautical mile(s)
INTMT
intermittent
NMRS
numerous
INTS
intense
NR
near
INTSFY
intensify
NRLY
nearly
ISLD
island
NSW
no significant weather
ISOL
isolate(d)
NW
northwest
KT
knot(s)
NWLY
northwesterly
LCL
local
OBSC
obscure(d)
LFTG
lifting
OCLD
occlude
LGT
light
OCLDG
occluding
LIFR
low IFR
OCLN
occlusion
LK
lake
OCNL
occasional
LLJ
low level jet stream
OCNLY
occasionally
LLWS
low level wind shear
OFSHR
offshore
LN
line
ONSHR
onshore
LO
low
ORGPHC
orographic
LTL
little
OTLK
outlook
LVL
level
OTWZ
otherwise
LWIS
limited weather information system
OVC
overcast
LWR
lower
OVR
over
LWRG
lowering
OVRNG
overrunning
LYR
layer
PCPN
precipitation
MDFYD
modified
PD
period
MDT
moderate
PRECDD
preceded
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
PLAIN LANGUAGE
CONTRACTION
PLAIN LANGUAGE
PRECDS
precedes
STG
strong
PRES
pressure
STGTN
strengthen
PROG
prognostic, prognosis
STNRY
stationary
PRSTG
persisting
SEV
severe
PSG
passage, passing
SVRL
several
PSN
position
SW
southwest
PTCHY
patchy
SWLY
southwesterly
PTLY
partly
SXN
section
RDG
ridge
SYS
system
RFRMG
reforming
T
temperature
RGN
region
TCU
towering cumulus
RMNG
remaining
TEMPO
temporary
RPDLY
rapidly
THK
thick
RPRT
report
THKNG
thickening
RSG
rising
THN
thin
RUF
rough
THNC
thence
RVR
river
THNG
thinning
S
south
THRU
through
SCT
scattered
THRUT
throughout
SCTR
sector
THSD
thousand
SE
southeast
TILL
until
SELY
southeasterly
TRML
terminal
SFC
surface
TROF
trough
SH
shower
TROWAL
trough of warm air aloft
SHFT
shift
TRRN
terrain
SHFTG
shifting
TS
thunderstorm
SHLW
shallow
TURB
turbulence
SKC
sky clear
TWD
toward
SLO
slow
UNSTBL
unstable
SLOLY
slowly
UPR
upper
SLY
southerly
UPSLP
upslope
SM
statute mile(s)
UTC
co‑ordinated universal time
SML
small
VC
vicinity
SN
snow
VLY
valley
SNRS
sunrise
VRB
variable
SNST
sunset
VIS
visibility
SPECI
special
VV
vertical visibility
SPRDG
spreading
W
west
SQ
squall
WDLY
widely
STBL
stable
WK
weak
MET
CONTRACTION
127
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
CONTRACTION
PLAIN LANGUAGE
WLY
westerly
WND
wind
WRM
warm
WS
wind shear
WV
wave
WX
weather
XCP
except
XT
extend
XTDG
extending
XTRM
extreme
XTSV
extensive
Z
ZULU (or UTC)
3.7 Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table
INTENSITY
MET
LIGHT
MODERATE
SEVERE
AIRCRAFT REACTION
Turbulence that momentarily causes slight, erratic changes in
altitude and/or attitude (pitch, roll, yaw).
Report as “Light Turbulence”.
OR
Turbulence that causes slight, rapid and somewhat rhythmic
bumpiness without appreciable changes in altitude or attitude.
Report as “Light Chop”.
Occupants may feel a slight strain
against seat belts or shoulder straps.
Unsecured objects may be displaced
slightly. Food service may be
conducted and little or no difficulty is
encountered in walking.
Turbulence that is similar to Light Turbulence but of greater
intensity. Changes in altitude and/or attitude occur but the aircraft
remains in positive control at all times. It usually causes variations
in indicated airspeed. Report as “Moderate Turbulence”.
OR
Turbulence that is similar to Light Chop but of greater intensity. It
causes rapid bumps or jolts without appreciable changes in aircraft
altitude or attitude. Report as “Moderate Chop”.
Occupants feel definite strains
against seat belts or shoulder straps.
Unsecured objects are dislodged.
Food service and walking are difficult.
Turbulence that causes large, abrupt changes in altitude and/or
attitude. It usually causes large variations in indicated airspeed.
Aircraft may be momentarily out of control.
Report as “Severe Turbulence”.
Occupants are forced violently
against seat belts or shoulder straps.
Unsecured objects are tossed about.
Food service and walking impossible.
NOTES 1: Occasional: Less than 1/3 of the time.
Intermittent:1/3 to 2/3.
Continuous: More than 2/3.
2: Pilots should report location(s), time (UTC),
intensity, whether in or near clouds, altitude,
type of aircraft and, when applicable, duration of
turbulence. Duration may be based on time between
two locations or over a single location. All locations
should be readily identifiable.
Examples
1.
128
2.
REACTION INSIDE AIRCRAFT
Over REGINA 1232Z, moderate turbulence,
in cloud FL310, B737.
From
50 NM
EAST
of
WINNIPEG
to 30 NM WEST of Brandon 1210 to
1250Z
occcasional
moderate
chop,
FL330, AIRBUS.
3: High level turbulence (normally above 15 000 feet
ASL) not associated with cumuloform clouds,
including thunderstorms, should be reported as CAT
(clear air turbulence) preceded by the appropriate
intensity, or light or moderate chop.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
3.8 Aerodrome Forecast Locations
the actual conditions at the aerodrome.
In cases where the 1.6‑NM (3‑km) criteria does not apply
because of local characteristics, the representativeness
of the observations shall be determined and approved
by the Regional Director of Environmental Services of
Environment Canada (EC).
OBS INCOMPLETE or NO SPLS – the advisory is based on
incomplete data, either because the observations could not
be completed or the aerodrome does not have an ongoing
weather watch in order to produce special weather reports
(SPECI). “OBS INCOMPLETE” or “NO SPLS” shall
be added after the word “ADVISORY”, followed by
one space.
3.9.2 National Variations
3.9 Aerodrome Forecast – TAF As with the METAR code, even though TAF is an international
code, there are national variations. For example, “CAVOK”
is not authorized for use in Canadian TAFs, while “RMK” is
used but is not part of the international code. The references as
to Canadian differences may be found in the section dealing
with METAR.
3.9.1 General
3.9.3 Sample Message
Aerodrome forecasts are intended to relate to weather
conditions for flight operations within 5 NM of the centre of
the runway complex depending on local terrain. A regular
and complete observation program that meets Environment
Canada standards is a prerequisite for the production of an
aerodrome forecast. Aerodrome (terminal) advisories are
issued when this observation program prerequisite cannot be
completely satisfied.
Aerodrome (terminal) advisories are identified by the word
“ADVISORY” appearing after the date/time group, followed
by one of the qualifying reasons listed below. Advisories are
formatted in the same manner as TAFs.
OFFSITE – the advisory is based on an observation that is
not taken at or near the airport. In normal situations, an
observation is considered representative of the specific
weather conditions at the aerodrome if it is taken
within 1.6 NM (3 km) of the geometric centre of the
runway complex. “OFFSITE” is added after the word
“ADVISORY”, followed by one space, if an observation is
considered not to be representative. It is intended to indicate
to the users that the observations do not necessarily reflect
TAF CYXE 281139Z 281212 24010G25KT WS011/ 27050KT
3SM –SN BKN010 OVC040 TEMPO 1801 1 1/2SM –SN
BLSN BKN008 PROB30 2022 1/2SM SN VV005 FM0130Z
280010KT 5SM –SN BKN020 BECMG 0608 000000KT
P6SM SKC RMK NXT FCST BY 18Z
MET
TAF is the name of the international meteorological code for an
aerodrome forecast which is a description of the most probable
weather conditions expected to occur at an aerodrome together
with their most probable time of occurrence. It is designed
to meet the preflight and inflight requirements of flight
operations. The abbreviations of expected weather conditions
will follow the same form and order of the METAR reports
(see MET 3.15), and will have the same meaning.
(a) Sample Message Decoded: Aerodrome Forecast;
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; issued on the 28th day of the
month at 1139Z; covers the period from 1200Z on the 28th
to 1200Z the following day; surface wind 240˚ true at
10 KT, gusting to 25 KT; wind shear is forecast to exist
in the layer from the surface to 1 100 feet AGL, with the
wind at the shear height of 270˚ true at 50 KT; forecast
prevailing visibility is 3 SM in light snow; forecast cloud
layers are broken at 1 000 ft and overcast at 4 000 ft;
between 1800 and 0100Z there will be a temporary change
to the prevailing visibility to 1 1/2 SM in light snow and
moderate blowing snow with a broken cloud layer at 800 ft;
there is a 30% probability between 2000 and 2200Z that
the prevailing visibility will be 1/2 SM in moderate snow
and create an obscuring phenomena resulting in a vertical
visibility of 500 ft; at 0130Z there will be a permanent
change, the wind is forecast to be 280˚ true at 10 KT with
a prevailing visibility of 5 SM in light snow and a broken
cloud layer at 2 000 ft; between 0600 and 0800Z there
will be a gradual change in the weather to calm winds and
a forecast visibility greater than 6 SM, and the sky will
be clear of clouds; Remarks: the next routine aerodrome
forecast for this site will be issued by 1800Z.
(b)Report Type: The code name “TAF” is given in the first
line of text. It may be followed by “AMD” for amended or
129
TC AIM
corrected forecasts.
(c) Station Indicator: A four‑letter ICAO station indicator is
used, as in METARs.
(d)Date/Time of Origin: As with the METAR format, the
date (day of the month) and time (UTC) of origin are
included in all forecasts. Aerodrome forecasts are issued
approximately 30 min before the coverage period.
Some forecasts have update cycles as frequent as every
three hours; however, the next issue time will always be
indicated in the “Remarks section”.
(e) Period of Coverage: The normal period of coverage is 12 h
beginning at 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z, and 1800Z or 0200Z,
0800Z, 1400Z and 2000Z; however, some forecasts have
a 24‑h coverage period. As well, there are forecasts with
staggered issue times and more frequent update cycles,
which will affect their periods of coverage.
MET
(f) Wind: This group forecasts the 2‑min mean wind direction
and speed to the nearest 10 degrees true, and speed to the
nearest whole knot. “KT” is used to indicate the speed
units. If the maximum gust speed is forecast to exceed the
mean speed by 10 KT or more, the letter G and the value
of the gust speed in knots is added between the mean wind
and the units indicator (KT). “VRB” is normally coded
for variable direction only if the wind speed is 3 KT or
less; however, it may also be coded with higher speeds
when it is impossible to forecast a single direction (e.g.,
when a thunderstorm passes). A north wind of 20 KT
would be coded as 36020KT, while calm wind is coded
as “00000KT”.
(g)Low Level Wind Shear: This group is used if the forecaster
has strong evidence to expect significant, non‑convective
wind shear which could adversely affect aircraft operation
within 1 500 ft AGL over the aerodrome. The height of
the top of the shear layer (in hundreds of feet AGL) is
given followed by the forecast wind speed and direction at
that height.
130
While the main effect of turbulence is related to erratic
changes in altitude and/or attitude of the aircraft, the main
effect of wind shear is the rapid gain or, more critical, loss
of airspeed. Therefore, for forecasting purposes, any cases
of strong, non‑convective low level wind shear within
1 500 ft AGL will be labelled as “WS”.
To a large extent, wind shear is an element which, for the
time being, cannot be satisfactorily observed from the
ground. As a result, aircraft observations and radiosonde
reports represent the only available evidence. However,
the following guidelines are used to establish whether
significant non‑convective wind shear hazardous to
aircraft exists:
(i) Vector magnitude exceeding 25 knots within
500 feet AGL.
(ii) Vector magnitude exceeding 40 knots within
October 27, 2005
1 000 feet AGL.
(iii) Vector magnitude exceeding 50 knots within
1 500 feet AGL.
(iv) A pilot report of loss or gain of indicated airspeed of
20 knots or more within 1 500 feet AGL.
(h)Prevailing Visibility: The horizontal prevailing visibility
shall be indicated in statute miles and fractions up to
3 miles, then in whole miles up to 6 miles. Visibilities
greater than 6 statute miles shall be indicated as P6SM.
The letters SM (statute miles) shall be added without a
space to each forecast visibility to identify the unit.
(i) Significant Weather: Forecast significant weather may be
decoded using the list of significant weather given in the
METAR section, WMO Table 4678. Intensity and proximity
qualifiers, descriptors, precipitation, obscurations and
other phenomena are included as required. A maximum
of three significant weather groups is allowed per forecast
period. If more than one group is used they are considered
one entity. When one of the significant weather groups
is forecast to change, all the significant weather groups
that will apply after the change are indicated following
the change group. Details on the specific effects of change
groups on significant weather will be addressed under the
change group headings.
NOTE: The meaning of the proximity qualifier, vicinity
(VC), in the TAF code differs slightly from that
in the METAR. In the METAR code, “VC”
means elements observed within 5 miles, but
not at the station. In the TAF code, “VC” means
between 5 to 10 NM from the centre of the
runway complex.
(j) Sky Condition: Sky condition is decoded as in a METAR.
Possible codes for sky cover amounts are SKC, FEW, SCT,
BKN, OVC and VV.
The same rules associated with changes are used in the
forecast sky conditions as were used with the significant
weather group, as they apply to significant changes to
the forecast, the use of “BECMG” or “TEMPO”, and for
different sky conditions.
CB layers are the only forecast layers to have cloud type
identified, e.g., “BKN040CB”.
(k)Change Groups: In all change groups, multiple elements
within a significant weather and/or sky condition group are
considered as single entities for the purposes of revising
their elements, i.e., a forecast of “SCT030 BKN050
OVC080....change indicator....BKN050” would indicate
that there is only a single cloud layer forecast after the
change indicator and the other three cloud layers forecast
prior to the change indicator will no longer exist.
FM – Permanent Change Group (Rapid): FM is the
abbreviation for “from”. It is used for a permanent change
to the forecast which will occur rapidly. All forecast
conditions given before this group are superseded by
October 27, 2005
the conditions indicated after the group. In other words,
a complete forecast will follow and all elements must be
indicated, including those for which no change is forecast.
The time group represents hours and minutes in UTC.
Example: “FM0945Z” would decode as the beginning of a
new part period forecast from 0945Z.
NOTE: Where the permanent change group indicator
(FM) indicates a change after the beginning
of a whole hour, as in the example above, any
subsequent use of a gradual change group
(BECMG) or transitory change group (TEMPO)
shall indicate changes after the time indicated
in hours and minutes in the “from” (FM)
indicator. Using the above example, if there was a
subsequent use of “TEMP0 0911”, the temporary
change would be between 0945Z and 1100Z.
As a general rule, to keep the forecast clear and
unambiguous, the use of this change group is kept to a
minimum and confined to those cases where only one, or
at most two, weather groups are expected to change while
all the others stay the same. In those cases where more than
two groups are expected to change, the permanent change
group “FM” will be used to start a new self‑contained
part period.
Any forecast weather element not indicated as part of the
“BECMG” group remains the same as in the period prior
to the onset of change.
TEMPO — Transitory Change Group: If a temporary
fluctuation in some or all of the weather elements is forecast
to occur during a specified period, the new conditions
which differ from those immediately prior are indicated
following “TEMPO.” In other words, when an element is
not indicated after “TEMPO,” it shall be considered to be
the same as that for the prior period. The time period, as
with “BECMG,” is indicated by the four digits following
“TEMPO” indicating two groups of whole UTC hours.
Example: …FM1100Z VRB03KT 3SM ‑RA BR OVC020
TEMPO 1215 1SM ‑RA BR FM1500Z…
In this example, the cloud group “OVC020” is not
repeated after “TEMPO” because it is forecast to remain
unchanged. On the other hand, the weather group “ ‑RA
BR” is repeated after “TEMPO” because a significant
change in visibility is forecast.
When a significant change in weather or visibility is
forecast, all weather groups are indicated following
“TEMPO,” including those which are unchanged, and any
weather element not indicated is forecast to remain the
same as in the period prior to the temporary fluctuation.
When the ending of significant weather is forecast, the
abbreviation “NSW” (no significant weather) is used.
“TEMPO” is only used when the modified forecast
condition is expected to last less than one hour in each
instance, and if expected to recur, the total period of the
modified condition will not cover more than half of the
total forecast period. The total period of the modified
condition is the time period during which the actual
modified weather condition is expected to occur, and not
the total time stated for the “TEMPO” time period. When
the modified forecast condition is expected to last more
than one hour, either “FM” or “BECMG” must be used.
PROB—Probability Group: In order to indicate the
probability of occurrence of alternative values of forecast
groups, PROB30 (a 30% probability) or PROB40 (a 40%
probability) is placed directly before the change group’s
coverage time and alternative value(s) to indicate that
different conditions will occur within the specified time
period. The time period is given in whole UTC hour values.
For example, “PROB30 1721” would indicate that between
1700Z and 2100Z there is a 30% probability that the
indicated weather will occur. The weather elements used
in the PROB group are restricted to hazards to aviation,
which include but are not limited to the following:
•
thunderstorms;
•
freezing precipitation;
•
low level wind shear below 1 500 ft AGL; or
•
ceiling and visibility values important to aircraft
For the purposes of flight planning, and specifically
the selection of IFR alternate aerodromes, if forecast
conditions are improving, the new conditions will apply
when the change period is complete, and if the conditions
are deteriorating, the new conditions will apply at the
beginning of the period.
Example: “BECMG 0809 OVC030” would decode as a change
towards overcast sky conditions at 3 000 ft AGL
occurring gradually between 0800Z and 0900Z; and
(a) if the previous sky condition forecast
was for better than overcast conditions at
3 000 ft AGL, then the change would apply
as of 0800Z; or
(b) if the previous sky condition forecast
was for worse than overcast conditions at
3 000 ft AGL, then the change would apply
as of 0900Z.
(no significant weather) is used.
If a significant change in weather or visibility is forecast,
all weather groups are indicated following “BECMG,”
including those which are unchanged. When the ending
of significant weather is forecast, the abbreviation “NSW”
MET
BECMG — Permanent Change Group (Gradual): If a
permanent change in a few weather elements is forecast
to occur gradually, with conditions evolving over a period
of time (normally one to two hours, but not more than
four hours), the new conditions which differ from those
immediately prior are indicated following “BECMG.”
The time period is indicated by the four digits following
“BECMG” indicating two groups of whole UTC hours.
TC AIM
131
TC AIM
operations (e.g., threshold such as alternate limits,
lowest approach limits).
A probability of less than 30% of actual values deviating
from those forecasts is not considered to justify the use of
the PROB group. When the possibility of an alternative
value is 50% or more, this shall be indicated by the use
of BECMG, TEMPO or FM, as appropriate. The PROB
group will not be used in combination with the TEMPO
or BECMG groups.
IFR Alternate Selection: The following criteria apply to
the selection of alternate IFR aerodromes and are also
published in the “General Pages” of the Canada Air Pilot,
as well as in RAC 3.14 of the TC A.I.M.
MET
(l) Remarks: Remarks will appear in aerodrome forecasts
(TAF) from Canada, prefaced by “RMK.” Currently, the
following remarks are allowed:
(i) “FCST BASED ON AUTO OBS”
This remark indicates that the TAF is based on
observations taken by an AWOS.
(ii) “NXT FCST BY XXZ”
“XX” is the whole hour UTC of the time of issue
of the next regular TAF, which will correspond to
the beginning of its new period of coverage when
issued. This remark will normally mark the end of
the TAF.
(iii) PARTIAL PROGRAM NOTICES
For aerodromes with a partial observing program
(e.g., no nighttime observations are taken), a remark
is included in the last regular TAF issue of the day
to indicate when forecast coverage will resume, e.g.,
“NXT FCST BY 291045Z,” “NO FCST COVERAGE
20–11Z,” or “NO FCST ISSUED UNTIL
FURTHER NOTICE.”
(iv) POSSIBLE DISCREPANCIES
Forecasters will use remarks to explain possible
disrepancies between an AWOS and a TAF if
the forecasters have reason to believe that the
AWOS observations are non‑representative of the
actual weather at the aerodrome. For example, the
remarks could be “RMK AUTO OBS REPG NON­
REPRESENTATIVE WND SPD.” or “RMK AUTO
OBS REPG NON­REPRESENTATIVE VIS.”
3.9.4 Aerodrome Forecasts from AWOS Sites
At some sites equipped with Automated Weather Observation
Systems (AWOS), Environment Canada forecasters will issue
a TAF based in part on the AUTO (or AUTOA) observations
made by AWOS at the aerodrome. The only visible distinction
between this forecast and a normal TAF will be the comment
at the end of the TAF “FCST BASED ON AUTO OBS”.
The TAF based on automated observations, like the TAF
based on human observations, provides a description of
the most probable weather conditions expected to occur
at an aerodrome together with the most probable time
of occurrence.
132
October 27, 2005
The abbreviated comment “FCST BASED ON AUTO
OBS” at the end of the TAF is meant to inform pilots that
the forecast has been developed from an automated weather
observation. The pilot using this forecast should be familiar
with the characteristics of AWOS weather observations and the
comparison of automated and human observations contained
in MET 3.15.5, e.g., AWOS cloud height sensor tends to
under‑read during precipitation events. The forecaster is also
familiar with AWOS characteristics and has taken time to
analyze not only AWOS data, but additional information such
as satellite and radar imagery, lightning data, remote video
imagery, pilot reports and observations from surrounding
stations. Based on integration of this data, the forecaster may
have inferred actual weather conditions which differ slightly
from the AWOS report. On those few occasions when there
are differences between an AWOS report and a TAF, it may
not imply that the TAF is inaccurate, nor that an amendment
is required. In the event that an AWOS sensor is missing,
inoperative or functioning below standards, the forecaster
will attempt to infer the value of the missing weather element
from other available data. If the forecaster is unable to infer
the weather conditions, a decision may be made to cancel
the TAF pending correction of the problem. The decision to
cancel will depend on the weather conditions prevailing at
the time and how critical the missing information is to the
issuance of a credible TAF based on the automated data that
is available.
October 27, 2005
3.10 Canadian Forecast Winds and
Temperatures Aloft Network
TC AIM
FDCN1 KWBC 080440
DATA BASED ON 080000Z VALID 091200Z FOR USE
0900‑1800Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000
FT
24000
30000
34000
39000
YVR
2973‑24
293040
283450
273763
YYF
3031‑24
314041
304551
204763
YXC
3040‑27
315143
316754
306761
YYC
3058‑29
317246
317855
306358
YQL
2955‑28
306845
307455
791159
When the forecast speed is less than 5 KT, the coded group is
“9900”, which reads “light and variable”.
Encoded wind speeds from 100 to 199 KT have 50 added
to the direction code and 100 subtracted from the speed.
Wind speeds that have had 50 added to the direction can be
recognized when figures from 51 to 86 appear in the code.
Since no such directions exist, (i.e., 510˚ to 860˚) obviously
they represent directions from 010˚ to 360˚.
Should the forecast wind speed be 200 KT or greater, the
wind group is coded as 199 KT, that is, 7799 is decoded 270˚
at 199 KT or greater.
3.11 Upper Level Wind and Temperature Forecasts
Upper Wind and Temperature Forecasts
FDCN01 CWAO 071530
FCST BASED ON 071200 DATA VALID 080000 FOR USE 21‑06
3000
6000
9000
12000
18000
YVR
9900 2415‑07 2430‑10 2434‑10 2542‑26
YYF
2523
2432‑04 2338‑08 2342‑13 2448‑24
YXC
2431‑02 2330‑06 2344‑11 2352‑22
YYC
2426‑03 2435‑06 2430‑12 2342‑22
YQL
2527‑01 2437‑05 2442‑10 2450‑21
EXAMPLE
DECODED
9900 + 00
Wind light and variable, temperature 0˚C
2523
250˚ true at 23 KT
791159
290˚ true (79 ‑ 50 = 29) at 111 KT
(11 + 100 = 111), temperature ‑ 59˚C
859950
350˚ true (85 ‑ 50 = 35) at 199 KT
or greater, temperature ‑50˚C
MET
Upper level wind and temperature forecasts (FD) are upper
level forecasts of wind velocity in KTs, to the nearest 10˚ true
and temperature ˚C. Temperatures are not forecast for
3 000 feet and, in addition, this level is omitted if the terrain
elevation is greater than 1 500 feet. Data for the production
of FDs is derived from a variety of atmospheric data sources,
including upper air soundings of pressure, temperature,
relative humidity and wind velocity, taken at 32 sites, twice
daily at 0000Z and 1200Z. Following the computer run of a
subsequent numeric weather model, FDs are available at the
times issued or periods of coverage indicated in MET 3.2.1.
Examples of decoding FD winds and temperatures are
as follows:
3.12 Upper Level Charts – PROG Upper level charts depict two forms of data: Actual and
Forecast. Actual measured conditions are represented on
analysed charts (ANAL) (see MET 3.20). These charts show
conditions as they were at a specific time in the past. The
other charts prognosis (PROG), show forecast conditions for
a specific time in the future. Always check the map label for
the type, date and valid time of the chart.
133
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
indicate the presence of CBs: ISOL embedded CB, OCNL
embedded CB, FRQ embedded CB and FRQ CB. All other
clouds are depicted using OKTA amounts, followed by the
cloud type. In certain cases the abbreviation LYR (layer or
layered) is used to indicate cloud structure.
Forecast Charts – PROG
Upper Level Winds and Temperature Charts
Upper level wind and temperature charts are issued by the
Regional Area Forecast Centre (RAFC), Washington, D.C.
Winds are depicted for FL240, 340 and 450 using arrow
shafts with pennants (50 KT each), full feathers (10 KT each)
and half feathers (5 KT each). The orientation of the shaft
indicates wind direction (degree true) and a small number at
pennant end gives the 10’s digit of the wind direction.
MET
Temperatures (˚C) are presented in circles at fixed grid points
for the flight level. All temperatures are negative unless
otherwise noted.
Wind and temperature information from these charts, in
conjunction with the FD and significant weather charts, can
be used to determine wind shear and other salient information
such as the probability of clear air turbulence (CAT) over
given points. Remember, the wind speed is normally highest
at the tropopause and decreases above and below at a relatively
constant rate.
3.13 Significant Weather Prognostic Charts
– RAFC These charts, produced for the mid and high levels, show
occurring or forecast weather conditions considered to be of
concern to aircraft operations. The Regional Area Forecast
Centre (RAFC) issues a chart depicting forecast weather
conditions between FL250 and FL630. The meteorological
conditions depicted and the symbols used are:
(a) active thunderstorms — the CB symbol is used when
thunderstorms occur or are forecast over a widespread
area, along a line, embedded in other cloud layers, or when
concealed by a hazard. The amounts are indicated as:
ISOL (isolated)
– for individual CBs
OCNL (occasional)
– for well‑separated CBs
FRQ (frequent)
– for CBs with little or no separation
134
Embedded CBs may or may not be protruding from the
cloud or haze layer. The following abbreviations are used to
(b)cloud heights — When cloud tops or bases exceed the
upper or lower limits of a significant weather prognostic
chart, an XXX symbol is used on the appropriate side of
the dividing line. Consider for example, the significant
weather prognostic chart which extends from FL250 to
FL630. If well separated embedded CBs based below
FL250 and topped at FL450 were present, this would be
depicted as follows:
The scalloped line indicates the area in which the
conditions written inside apply.
(c) tropopause heights — tropopause heights are depicted as
flight levels, except when defining areas of very flat slope,
and are enclosed in a rectangular box. The centre of the
box represents the grid point being forecast.
(d)jet streams — the height and speed of jet streams having
a core speed of 80 KT or more are shown oriented to true
north using arrows with pennants and feathers for speed,
and spaced sufficiently close to give a good indication of
speed and/or height changes. A double‑hatched line across
the jet stream core indicates a speed increase or decrease.
The double‑hatched line indicates 20 KT changes at
100 kt, 120 kt. 140 kt. or higher. For example, a 120 kt
jet stream initially at FL420 dropping to 80 kt at FL370
would be depicted as:
(e) turbulence — areas of moderate or severe turbulence in
cloud or clear air are depicted using heavy dashed lines,
height symbols, a for moderate turbulence and a
for severe. wind shear and mountain wave turbulence
are included, convective type or not. For example, an area
of moderate turbulence between FL280 and FL360 would
be shown as:
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
(f) severe squall lines — severe squall lines are depicted using
the symbol and are oriented to true north with a
representative length. An area of frequent CBs associated
with a squall line would be shown as:
(k)frontal positions—the surface positions of frontal systems
associated with significant weather phenomena are
shown for the validity period of the chart using standard
frontal symbology and given the speed and direction of
movements oriented to true north.
(g)icing and hail — icing and hail are not specifically noted
but rather the following statement is included in the label
on each chart:
SYMBOL CB IMPLIES HAIL, MODERATE OR GREATER
TURBULENCE AND ICING
(h)widespread sandstorm or duststorm — areas of these
conditions are shown using a scalloped line, height symbol
and a . For example:
MET
(i) tropical cyclones — the symbol is used to depict tropical
cyclones and, if any of the previous criteria are met, these
will be included. For example, an area of frequent CBs
between 10 000 ft and 50 000 ft with an associated tropical
storm named “William” would be shown as:
3.14 Significant Weather Prognostic Charts
— CMC The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) issues a series
of significant weather prognostic charts for the lower levels
700 to 400 mb (FL100 to FL240). They use the same criteria
as above, plus the following:
Significant weather prognostic charts depicting the
tropical cyclone symbol will have a statement to the effect
that the latest tropical cyclone advisory, rather than the
tropical cyclone’s prognostic position on the chart, is to be
given public dissemination.
j) convergence zones — well-defined intertropical
convergence zones with other associated conditions
meeting the previously stated conditions will be shown
within scalloped lines. For example, a convergence zone
with one area having frequent CBs topped at FL450 with
bases below FL250, and the other area having occasional
embedded CBs topped at FL350 and based below the chart
level would be shown as:
(a) moderate to severe icing;
(b)cloud layers of significance;
(c) marked mountain waves;
(d)freezing level line (0˚C) at 5 000‑ft intervals, and labeled
in hundreds of feet; and/ or
(e) surface positions and direction of motion (in kt) of highs,
lows, and other significant features (front, trough).
Symbols used on the Significant Weather Prognostic Charts
by the CMC:
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October 27, 2005
SIGNIFICANT WEATHER SYMBOLS
3.15 Aviation Routine Weather Report ‑ METAR 3.15.1 The METAR Code
An aviation report describes the actual weather conditions
at a specified location and at a specified time as observed
from the ground. METAR is the name of the international
meteorological code for an aviation routine weather report.
METAR observations are normally taken and disseminated
on the hour. A SPECI, the name of the code for an aviation
selected special weather report, will be reported when
weather changes of significance to aviation are observed (see
MET 3.15.4).
*
ABBREVIATIONS
CAT
ISOL
FRQ
LYR
MXD
OCNL
LEE WV
CLR
FZLVL
– clear air turbulance
– isolated
– frequent
– layers
– mixed
– occasional
– lee/mountain waves
– clear
– freezing level
FRONTS AND OTHER CONVENTIONS
In Canada, METAR and SPECI reports are not encoded by
the observer, but are generated by computer software, based
on hourly or special observations taken at either staffed or
automatic sites.
The code is composed of several groups which are always
in the same relative position to one another. When a weather
element or phenomenon does not occur, the corresponding
group (or extension) is omitted. Certain groups may
be repeated.
MET
3.15.2 National Variations
Despite the fact that METAR is an international code, there
are some national variations. For example, wind speed may
be reported in different units; however, the units are always
appended to the values to avoid any misunderstanding. A
detailed account of the differences that Canada has filed with
the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) may be found
in the WMO Manual on Codes, Volume II, Regional Codes
and National Coding Practises (No. 306). (See MET 1.1.7
for ordering.)
3.15.3 Sample Message
METAR CYXE 292000Z CCA 30015G25KT 3/4SM R33/
4000FT/D ‑SN BLSN BKN008 0VC040 M05/M08 A2992
REFZRA WS RWY33 RMK SF5 SC3 VIS 3/8 TO NW SLP134
(a) Decode of Example: Aviation Routine Weather Report;
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, issued on the 29th day of
the month at 2000 UTC; first correction to the original
observation; wind 300˚ true, 15 KT with gusts to 25 KT;
visibility 3/4 SM; runway visual range for Runway 33
is 4000 feet and has had a downward tendency; present
weather is light snow and moderate blowing snow; broken
clouds at 800 feet AGL, and combined with the lower layer,
overcast clouds at 4000 feet; temperature minus 5˚C; dew
point minus 8˚C; altimeter setting 29.92 inches; recent
freezing rain; recent wind shear Runway 33; Remarks,
stratus fractus 5/8, stratocumulus 3/8, visibility to the
northwest 3/8 SM, sea level pressure 1013.4 hPa.
136
October 27, 2005
(b)Report Type: The code name METAR (or SPECI), is given
in the first line of text. A “SPECI” report is issued only
when significant changes in weather conditions occur off
the hour.
(c) Station Indicator: Canadian aviation weather reporting
stations are assigned four‑letter ICAO indicators
commencing with C and followed by either W, Y, or Z.
These stations are normally located within 1.6 NM (3 km)
of the geometric centre of the runway complex. Aviation
weather reporting sites are listed in the Canada Flight
Supplement (CFS).
(d)Date/Time of Observation: The date (day of the month) and
time (UTC) of the observation is included in all reports.
The official time of the observation (on the hour) is used
for all METAR reports that do not deviate from the official
time by more than 10 minutes. In SPECI reports, the time
refers to the time of occurrence (hours and minutes) of the
change(s) which required the issue of the report.
(f) Wind: This group reports the 2‑minute mean wind
direction and speed, along with gusts. Wind direction is
always three digits, given in degrees (true) but rounded off
to the nearest 10 degrees (the third digit is always a “0”).
Wind speeds are two digits (or three digits if required), in
knots. Calm is encoded as “00000KT”. In Canada the unit
for wind speed is knots (nautical miles per hour) and is
indicated by including “KT” at the end of the wind group.
Other countries may use kilometres per hour (KMH), or
metres per second (MPS).
(i) Wind Gusts: Gust information will be included if
gust speeds exceed the average wind speed by 5
knots or more in the 10‑minute period preceding the
observation and the peak gust reaches a maximum
speed of 15 knots or more. “G” indicates gusts and
the peak gust is reported, using two or three digits
as required.
(ii) Variations in Wind Direction:
Example: METAR CYWG 172000Z 30015G25KT 260V340
This group reports variations in wind direction.
It is only included if, during the 10‑minute
period preceding the observation, the direction
varies by 60 degrees or more and the mean speed
exceeds 3 knots. The two extreme directions are
encoded in clockwise order. In the example above,
the wind is varying from 260 degrees (true) to
340 degrees (true).
(g)Prevailing Visibility: The prevailing visibility is reported
in statute miles and fractions. There is no maximum
visibility value reported. Lower sector visibilities which
are half or less of the prevailing visibility are reported as
remarks at the end of the report.
(h)Runway Visual Range: The runway visual range for the
touchdown zone of up to four available landing runways is
reported as a 10‑minute average, based on the operational
runway light settings at the time of the report. It is included
if the prevailing visibility is 1 statute mile or less, and/
or the runway visual range is 6000 feet or less. “R”, the
group indicator, is followed by the runway designator
(e.g., “06”), to which may be appended the letters “L”,
“C”, or “R” (left, centre, or right) if there are two or more
parallel runways. The value of runway visual range is then
reported in hundreds of feet, using three or four digits.
FT indicates the units for runway visual range are feet. “M”
preceding the lowest measurable value (or “P” preceding
the highest) indicates the value is beyond the instrument
range. The runway visual range trend is then indicated if
there is a distinct upward or downward trend from the first
to the second 5‑minute part‑period such that the runway
visual range changes by 300 feet or more (encoded “/U” or
“/D” for upward or downward) or if no distinct change is
observed, the trend “/N” is encoded. If it is not possible to
determine the trend the field will be left blank.
(i) Variations in Runway Visual Range: Two runway
visual range values may be reported, the minimum
and maximum one‑minute mean runway visual range
values during the 10‑minute period preceding the
observation, if they vary from the 10‑minute mean
by at least 20% (and by 150 feet).
MET
(e) Report Modifier: This field may contain two possible codes;
they are “AUTO” or “CCA”. Both codes may also appear
simultaneously, i.e., “AUTO CCA”. “AUTO” will be used
when data for the primary report is gathered by an AWOS.
Should a human observer augment the AWOS, additional
information will be coded into the remarks section.
See MET 3.15.5 for more information about autostation
reports. “CCA” is used to indicate corrected reports; the
first correction as CCA, the second as CCB, etc.
TC AIM
Example:“R06L/1000V2400FT/U”
decodes
as:
the minimum runway visual range for
Runway 06 Left is 1000 feet; the maximum
runway visual range is 2400 feet; and the
trend is upward.
(i) N/A
(j) Present Weather: The present weather is coded in
accordance with the World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) Code, Table 4678, which follows. As many groups
as necessary are included, with each group containing
from 2 to 9 characters.
Present weather is comprised of weather phenomena, which
may be one or more forms of precipitation, obscuration, or
other phenomena. Weather phenomena are preceded by
one or two qualifiers; one of which describes either the
intensity or proximity to the station of the phenomena,
the other of which describes the phenomena in some
other manner.
137
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
WMO Code, Table 4678 (incorporating Canadian differences)
SIGNIFICANT PRESENT WEATHER CODES
QUALIFIER
INTENSITY or
PROXIMITY
1
DESCRIPTOR
PRECIPITATION
OBSCURATION
OTHER
2
3
4
5
BR
Mist
(Vis ≥ 5/8 SM)
PO
FG
Fog
(Vis ≤ 5/8 SM)
Smoke
(Vis ≤ 6 SM)
Dust
(Vis ≤ 6 SM)
SQ
MI
Shallow
DZ
Drizzle
BC
Patches
RA
Rain
PR
Partial
SN
Snow
DR
Drifting
SG
Snow Grains
FU
– Light
BL
SH
Blowing
Shower(s)
IC
Ice Crystals
(Vis ð 6 SM)
DU
Moderate
(no qualifier)
TS
Thunderstorm
PL
Ice Pellets
SA
SS
GR
Hail
Sand
(Vis ≤ 6 SM)
+Heavy
FZ
GS
Snow Pellets
HZ
Haze
(Vis ≤ 6 SM)
DS
UP
Unknown
precipitation
(AWOS only)
VA
Volcanic Ash
(with any
visibility)
Note:
Precipitation
intensity refers
to all forms
combined.
MET
VC
In the vicinity
Freezing
(i)Qualifiers:
PO
DS
SS
Intensity (–) light (no sign) moderate (+) heavy
If the intensity of the phenomena being reported in a
group is either light or heavy, this is indicated by the
appropriate sign. No sign is included if the intensity
is moderate, or when an intensity is not relevant.
If more than one type of precipitation is reported
together in a group, the predominant type is given
first; however, the reported intensity represents
the “overall” intensity of the combined types
of precipitation.
Proximity:
The proximity, qualifier “VC”, is used in conjunction
with the following phenomena:
SH
FG
BLSN, BLDU, BLSA
138
WEATHER PHENOMENA
(showers);
(fog);
(blowing snow, blowing
dust, blowing sand);
(dust/sand whirls);
(duststorm);
(sandstorm)
“VC” is used if these phenomena are observed within
5 SM, but not at the station. When VC is associated
with “SH”, the type and intensity of precipitation is
not specified because it cannot be determined.
+FC
FC
Dust/sand
Whirls (Dust
Devils)
Squalls
Tornado or
Waterspout
Funnel Cloud
Sandstorm
(Vis < 5/8 SM)
(+SS Vis < 5
16 SM)
Duststorm
(Vis < 5/8 SM)
(+DS Vis < 5
16 SM)
Descriptor:
No present weather group has more than
one descriptor.
The descriptors MI (shallow), BC (patches) and
PR (partial) are used only in combination with the
abbreviation FG (fog), e.g., “MIFG”.
The descriptors DR (drifting) and BL (blowing) are
used only in combination with SN (snow), DU (dust)
and SA (sand). Drifting is used if the snow, dust or
sand is raised less than two metres above ground;
if two metres or more, blowing is used. If blowing
snow (BLSN) and snow (SN) are occurring together,
both are reported but in separate present weather
groups, e.g., “SN BLSN”.
SH (shower) is used only in combination with
precipitation types RA (rain), SN (snow), PL (ice
pellets), GR (hail) and GS (snow pellets) if
occurring at the time of observation, e.g., “SHPL” or
“–SHRAGR”.
TS (thunderstorm) is either reported alone or in
combination with one or more of the precipitation
types. The end of a thunderstorm is the time at which
the last thunder was heard, followed by a 15‑minute
period with no further thunder.
NOTE: TS and SH are not used together,
since present weather groups can have only
one descriptor.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
FZ (freezing) is used only in combination with the
weather types DZ (drizzle), RA (rain) and FG (fog).
(ii) Weather Phenomena:
Different forms of precipitation are combined in
one group, the predominant form being reported
first. The intensity qualifier selected represents
the overall intensity of the entire group, not just
one component of the group. The one exception
is freezing precipitation (FZRA or FZDZ),
which is always reported in a separate present
weather group.
Obstructions to vision are generally reported
if the prevailing visibility is 6 SM or less, with
some exceptions.
Any obscuration occurring simultaneously with
one or more forms of precipitation is reported in a
separate present weather group.
Other phenomena are also reported in separate
groups, and, when funnel clouds, tornados or
waterspouts are observed, they will be coded in the
present weather section, as well as being written out
in their entirety in remarks.
SKC
FEW
SCT
BKN
– “sky clear”
– “few”
– “scattered”
– “broken”
– no cloud present
– >0 to 2/8 summation amount
– 3/8 to 4/8 summation amount
– 5/8 to <8/8 summation
amount
OVC
CLR
– “overcast”
– “clear”
– 8/8 summation amount
– clear below 10 000 feet as
interpreted by an autostation
(m)Altimeter Setting: This group reports the altimeter setting.
A is the group indicator, followed by the altimeter setting
indicated by a group of four figures representing tens,
units, tenths and hundredths of inches of mercury. To
decode, place a decimal point after the second digit (e.g.,
A3006 becomes 30.06).
(n)Recent Weather: This group reports recent weather
of operational significance. The group indicator
RE is followed, without a space, by the appropriate
abbreviation(s) for weather observed during the period
since the last (scheduled) routine report (“METAR”), but
not observed at the time of observation. Recent weather is
included in “METAR” and “SPECI” reports.
The following may be reported as recent
weather phenomena:
• freezing precipitation;
• moderate or heavy drizzle, rain or snow;
• moderate or heavy ice pellets, hail or snow pellets;
• moderate or heavy blowing snow;
• sandstorm or duststorm;
• tornado, waterspout or funnel cloud;
• thunderstorm; or
• volcanic ash.
The same phenomenon is only reported as present weather
and recent weather if it was of greater intensity during the
period since the last routine report. For example, with a
moderate rainshower at 1800Z and a heavy rainshower
at 1700Z (or later), the 1800Z METAR would report
“SHRA” in present weather and “RERA” in the recent
weather group.
Significant convective clouds (CB or TCU only), if observed,
are identified by the abbreviations CB (Cumulonimbus) or
TCU (Towering Cumulus) appended to the cloud group
without a space, e.g., “SCT025TCU”. Where observed,
other cloud types and their layer opacity’s are reported in
the remarks.
(o) Wind shear: This group contains reports of low level wind
shear (within 1600 feet AGL) along the takeoff or approach
path of the designated runway. The two number runway
identifier is used, to which the letters “L”, “C”, or “R” may
be appended. If the existence of wind shear applies to all
runways, “WS ALL RWY” is used.
AWOS cannot report cloud types; cloud layers are limited
to four, and will report clear (CLR) when no layers exist
below 10 000 feet.
A cloud ceiling is said to exist at the height of the first
layer for which a coverage symbol of BKN or OVC is
reported. The existence of a vertical visibility constitutes
an obscured ceiling.
(p)Remarks: Remarks will appear in reports from Canada,
prefaced by RMK. Remarks will include, where observed,
layer type and opacity in eighths of sky concealed (oktas)
of clouds and/or obscuring phenomena, general weather
remarks, and sea level pressure, as required. The sea level
pressure, indicated in hectopascals, will always be the last
field of the METAR report, prefixed with “SLP”.
MET
(k)Sky Conditions: This group reports the sky condition
for layers aloft. A vertical visibility (VV) is reported in
hundreds of feet when the sky is obscured. All cloud layers
are reported based on the summation of the layer amounts
as observed from the surface up, reported as a height above
the station elevation in increments of 100 feet to a height
of 10 000 feet, and thereafter in increments of 1 000 feet.
The layer amounts are reported in eighths (oktas) of sky
coverage as follows:
(l) Temperature and Dew Point: This group reports the air
temperature and the dew point temperature, rounded to
the nearest whole Celsius degree (e.g., +2.5˚C would be
rounded to +3˚C). Negative values are preceded by the
letter M, and values with a tenths digit equal to precisely 5
(e.g., 2.5, –0.5, –1.5, –12.5 etc.) are rounded to the warmer
whole degree.
139
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
Abbreviations for cloud types:
CI = cirrus
CS = cirrostratus
CC = cirrocumulus
AS = altostratus
AC = altocumulus
CU = cumulus
TCU = towering cumulus
NS = nimbostratus
ST = stratus
SF = stratus fractus
SC = stratocumulus
ACC = altocumulus
castellanus
CUFRA = cumulus fractus
CB = cumulonimbus
3.15.4 Special Weather Reports (SPECI)
Criteria for Taking Special Weather Reports
Special observations will be taken promptly, to report changes
which occur between scheduled transmission times, whenever
one or more of the following elements has changed in the
amount specified. The amount of change is with reference to
the preceding routine or special observation.
MET
(a) Ceiling: The ceiling decreases to less than, or increases to
equal or exceed the following values of height:
(i) 1 500 feet
(ii) 1 000 feet
(iii) 500 feet
(iv) 400 feet*
(v) 300 feet
(vi) 200 feet*
(vii) 100 feet*
(viii)the lowest published minimum
(b)Sky condition: A layer aloft is observed below 1 000 feet
and no layer aloft was reported below this height in
the report immediately previous, or below the highest
minimum for IFR straight‑in landing or takeoff, and
no layer was reported below this height in the report
immediately previous.
Example: –RA to RASH SPECI not required.
(g)Wind:
(i) speed (two‑minute mean) increases suddenly to
at least double the previously reported value and
exceeds 30 KT.
(ii) direction changes sufficiently to fulfil criteria
required for a “wind shift”.
Local Criteria
The officer‑in‑charge may temporarily establish local criteria
for special observations to meet local requirements. However,
approval from EC Headquarters is required before such
criteria are permanently established.
(c) Visibility: Prevailing visibility decreased to less than, or
increases to equal or exceed:
(i)3 SM
(ii)1 1/2 SM
(iii)1 SM
(iv)3/4 SM
(v)1/4 SM*
(vi) the lowest published minimum
Observer’s Initiative
Check observations are taken between regular hourly
observations to ensure that significant changes in weather do
not remain unreported. If such an observation does not reveal
a significant change, it is designated as a “check observation”.
If a significant change has occurred, the report is treated as a
“special observation”.
Criteria marked with an asterisk (*) are applicable only at
aerodromes with precision approach equipment (i.e., ILS,
MLS, GCA) and only down to and including the lowest
published minima for these aerodromes.
(d)Tornado, waterspout or funnel cloud:
(i) is observed,
(ii) disappears from sight, or
(iii) is reported by the public (from reliable sources) to
have occurred within the preceding six hours and
not previously reported by another station.
(e) Thunderstorm:
140
(i) begins,
(ii) intensity increases to become “heavy” thunderstorm,
or
(iii) ends (SPECI shall be made when 15 minutes
have elapsed without the occurrence of
thunderstorm activity).
(f) Precipitation:
(i) hail begins or ends.
(ii) freezing rain, freezing drizzle or non‑showery ice
pellets begin, end or change intensity.
(iii) rain, drizzle, snow, snow grains, snow pellets,
showery ice pellets begin or end; ice crystals begin
or end.
(iv) specials shall be taken as required to report the
beginning and ending of each individual type of
precipitation, regardless of simultaneous occurrences
of other types. A leeway of up to 15 minutes is
allowed after the ending of precipitation before an
SPECI is mandatory.
(v) changes in character of precipitation do not require a
special if the break in precipitation does not exceed
15 minutes.
The criteria specified in the preceding paragraphs shall be
regarded as the minimum requirements for taking special
observations. In addition, any weather condition that, in
the opinion of the observer is important for the safety and
efficiency of aircraft operations or otherwise significant, shall
be reported by a special observation.
Check Observations
A check observation shall be taken whenever a PIREP is
received from an aircraft within 1 1/2 SM of the boundary of
an airfield, and the PIREP indicates that weather conditions,
as observed by the pilot, differ significantly from those
reported by the current observation (i.e., the PIREP indicated
that a special report may be required). This check observation
October 27, 2005
should result in one of the following:
(a) transmission of a special observation over regular
communications channels; or
(b)if no special observation is warranted, transmission of
the check observation, together with the PIREP, to local
airport agencies.
3.15.5 Reports from Automated Weather
Observation Systems (AWOS)
Various combinations of automated meteorological sensors
have been generating weather observation data in Canada
since 1969. Most of the early autostations had characteristics
that did not permit use of their reports for aviation.
TC AIM
The AWOS sensors sample the atmosphere and prepare a data
message every minute. If the weather conditions have changed
significantly enough to meet the SPECI criteria, and subject
to the various processing algorithms, a SPECI will be issued.
Human observers view the entire celestial dome and horizon;
this results in a naturally smoothed and more representative
value for ceiling and visibility. Because of the precise
measurement, continuous sampling and unidirectional views
of the AWOS, it will produce more SPECI observations than
staffed sites (5%–6% of the time AWOS SPECI counts exceed
6 per hour). In cases where there are several AWOS reports
issued over a short period of time, it is important to summarize
the observations to gain an appreciation of the weather trend.
One report in a series should not be expected to represent
the prevailing condition. There are other peculiarities of the
AWOS observation. A comparison of human observations
and AWOS appears in the table below.
AWOS was developed to provide an alternative method of
collecting and disseminating weather observations from sites
where human observation programs could not be supported.
AWOS provides highly accurate and reliable data, but it does
have limitations and idiosyncrasies that are important to
understand when using the information.
MET
The aviation AWOS is a modular system that currently
incorporates sensors capable of measuring cloud‑base height
(up to 10 000 ft AGL); sky cover; visibility; temperature;
dew point; wind velocity; altimeter setting; precipitation
occurrence, type, amount, and intensity; and the occurrence
of icing. It incorporates fail‑safe dual atmospheric pressure
sensors for determining altimeter setting that will shut down
if there are significant discrepancies between the two sensors.
Some systems are equipped with a voice generator module
(VGM) and VHF transmitter.
The AWOS observations, which use the word “AUTO” to
indicate an automated observation, are reported in the normal
METAR/SPECI format. “METAR AUTO” observations are
reported on the hour and “SPECI AUTO” observations are
issued to report significant changes in cloud ceiling, visibility
and wind velocity, as well as the onset and cessation of
precipitation or icing.
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TC AIM
October 27, 2005
OBSERVATION COMPARISON TABLE
WX Report
Parameter
Human Observation
AWOS Observation
Report type
METAR or SPECI
METAR or SPECI
Station
indicator
Four‑letter indicator (e.g., CYQM, CYVR).
No difference.
At stations where the observer is not on the aerodrome,
(beyond 1.6 NM (3 km) of the geometric centre of the
runway complex) the Wx report indicator differs from
the aerodrome indicator, e.g., Dease Lake aerodrome is
CYDL; the Wx report is identified as CWDL.
All AWOS are located on aerodromes.
Date and time in UTC, followed by a “Z”, e.g. 091200Z.
No difference.
Report time
AWOS indicator
AUTO
Corrections
indicator
Corrections can be issued, e.g., “CCA”, the “A” indicates
the first correction.
No difference.
Wind
A two‑minute average direction in degrees true, speed in
kt, “G” represents a gust, e.g. 12015G25KT.
No difference.
MET
If wind information is missing, five forward slashes (/) are No difference.
placed in the wind field, e.g., /////.
NOTE: When a VGM is installed, the wind
direction will be broadcast in degrees
Magnetic if the AWOS is located in
Southern Domestic Airspace, elsewhere
it will be broadcast in degrees true.
Variable wind
group
Wind direction variation of 60˚ or greater
Not reported in the AWOS METAR
or SPECI message.
Visibility
Reported in statute miles (SM) up to 15 miles. After 15
miles, it is reported as 15+, e.g., 10SM.
Reported in statute miles (SM) up to 9 miles.
Fractional visibilities are reported.
No difference.
Visibility is prevailing visibility, i.e., common to at least
half the horizon circle.
Visibility is measured using fixed, unidirectional,
forward scatter techniques. .
Reported visibilities tend to be comparable to
(especially with visibility less than 1 SM) or higher
than human observations in precipitation.
Reported visibilities at night are the same as the
day and tend to be comparable to or higher than
human observations.
Runway visual
range
142
Runway direction, followed by the visual range in feet,
followed by a trend. Runway visual range will be reported
where equipment is available.
Not currently reported by AWOS.
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
OBSERVATION COMPARISON TABLE
WX Report
Parameter
Weather group
Human Observation
AWOS Observation
See the table following MET 3.15.3(j) for the symbols
used for obstructions to visibility (e.g., smoke, haze).
Obstructions to visibility are not identified
in the AWOS reports; therefore, the reason
for reduced visibility may not be apparent.
Consult the graphic area forecast (GFA) or area
forecast (TAF).
See the table following MET 3.15.3(j) for the symbols
used for the description of weather.
AWOS will report weather phenomena using
the following symbols:
RA, DZ—rain, drizzle
FZRA—freezing rain,
FZDZ—freezing drizzle
GR—hail
SN—snow
UP—unknown precipitation type
“+” or “–” is used to indicate weather intensity.
No difference. Squalls are not reported.
AWOS does not report “in the
vicinity” phenomena.
AWOS may sporadically report freezing
precipitation at temperatures above 0 and
below +10 degrees Celsius, during periods of
either wet snow, rain, drizzle or fog.
Observer views entire celestial dome and determines
cloud‑base height, layer amounts and opacity, and
cumulative amount and opacity.
Laser ceilometer views one point directly over
the station. It measures the cloud‑base height,
then uses time integration to determine
layer amounts.
SKC or height of cloud base plus FEW, SCT, BKN, OVC.
Height of cloud base plus FEW, SCT, BKN, OVC.
Cloud‑height measurement is possible only to
10 000 ft AGL. “CLR BLO 100” is reported if no
cloud below 10 000 ft AGL is detected.
Surface‑based layers are prefaced by “VV ” and a
three‑figure vertical visibility.
No difference.
The cloud layer amounts are cumulative.
No difference.
MET
Cloud amount
and sky
conditions
Ceilometer may occasionally report the true
occurrence of multiple overcast layers.
Multiple overcast layers can be detected and
reported by the ceilometer.
Ceilometer may occasionally detect ice crystals
or strong temperature inversion aloft and
report them as cloud layers. Check GFA and
TAF for further information.
Reported cloud layers in precipitation
are comparable to or lower than human
observations.
On rare occasions, the laser ceilometer may
report CLR during reduced visibility and
precipitation situations—a report of sky CLR
may be false.
Check the TAF and the GFA for further
information.
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October 27, 2005
OBSERVATION COMPARISON TABLE
WX Report
Parameter
Human Observation
Temperature
and dew point.
Temperature then dew point expressed as a two-digit
number in degrees Celsius, separated by a forward
slash (/) and preceded by an “M” for below freezing
temperatures, e.g., 03/M05.
No difference.
Altimeter
setting
An “A” followed by a four‑digit number in inches of
mercury. e.g., A2997.
No difference.
MET
Recent weather
Recent weather of operational significance, but not
occurring at the time of the observation, shall
be reported.
Not reported in the AWOS METAR or SPECI
message. The VGM is capable of reporting recent
freezing precipitation.
Wind shear
Existence in the lower layers shall be reported
Not reported by AWOS.
Supplementary
information
(Remarks)
See the table in MET 3.15.3(j) for the symbols used to
describe clouds and obscuring phenonmena.
Clouds and obscuring phenomena are not
described in METAR AUTO or
SPECI AUTO reports.
Significant weather or variation not reported elsewhere
in the report.
Currently, “Remarks” are limited. When the
visibility is variable, the remark “VIS VRB”
followed by the limits will appear, e.g., VIS VRB
0.5V3.0 (visibility reported in tenths).
When icing is detected, “ICG”, “ICG INTMT”
or “ICG PAST HR” will appear. Remarks on
precipitation amount, rapid changes in pressure
may also appear.
The last remark in the METAR or SPECI is the mean sea
level pressure in hectopascals, e.g., SLP127 (1012.7 hPa).
No difference.
Barometric
pressure
The following compares a routine observation made from a
human observer with the equivalent observation that might
have been made by an AWOS.
Human METAR/SPECI Observation
METAR CYEG 151200Z CCA 12012G23KT 3/4SM R06R/4000FT/
D –RA BR FEW008 SCT014 BKN022 OVC035 10/09 A2984
RETSRA RMK SF1SC2SC4SC1 VIS W2 SLP012=
AWOS METAR AUTO/SPECI AUTO Observation
METAR CYEG 151200Z AUTO CCA 12012G23KT 3/4SM –RA
FEW008 SCT014 BKN022 OVC035 10/09 A2984 RMK SLP012=
NOTES1: After AWOS sensors have taken the hourly or
special observation, the data is checked and any
numerical information considered to be outside
specific limits will be omitted.
2: In the event of a discrepancy between AWOS
ceiling or visibility and that observed by an ATS
unit, CARS, contract weather observer (CWO), or
aircraft in the vicinity, aircraft operations should
be based, in order of priority on:
(a) the current METAR or SPECI issued by a
qualified human observer;
(b) the prevailing visibility provided by a flight
service specialist; or
(c)
144
AWOS Observation
the ceiling, runway visibility or flight
visibility as provided by PIREP.
3: If an AWOS sensor is malfunctioning or has shut
down, that report parameter will be missing from
the METAR AUTO or SPECI AUTO.
3.15.6 Other Automated Reports
3.15.6.1 Limited Weather Information System (LWIS)
The LWIS is for use at aerodromes where provision of a full
surface weather observation program is not justified, but
full‑ or part‑time support for a Canada Air Pilot approach
is required.
A LWIS comprises a subset of the usual automated
meteorological sensors, a data processing system, a
communication system and, at some sites, a voice generator
module (VGM) with VHF transmitter. The on‑the‑hour data
collection is coded and disseminated as an hourly, limited
weather observation. No special (SPECI) observations are
issued by LWIS.
LWIS reports wind direction, speed and gust; temperature;
dew point; and altimeter setting, which has fail‑safe sensors.
The wind direction is reported in degrees true, unless using
the VGM, which is reported in degrees Magnetic in Southern
Domestic Airspace.
October 27, 2005
An example of a LWIS message is:
LWIS CWDL 291700Z AUTO 25010G15KT 03/M02 A3017=
3.15.6.2 Voice Generator Module Reports
Where a VGM, VHF radio and/or telephone are connected to
the AWOS or LWIS, the most recent data gathered once each
minute will be broadcast to pilots on the VHF frequency and/
or by calling the telephone number published in the Canada
Flight Supplement (CFS). A pilot with a VHF receiver should
be able to receive the VGM transmission at a range of 75 NM
from the site at an altitude of 10 000 ft AGL. Weather data will
be broadcast in the same sequence as that used for METARs
and SPECIs.
TC AIM
is very important during these conditions to obtain several
broadcasts of the minutely data for comparison to develop
an accurate picture of the actual conditions to be expected at
the location.
Below is the typical format of an AWOS VGM message:
“(site name) AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEM—
CURRENT OBSERVATION TAKEN AT (time) UNIVERSAL — WIND
(direction) (MAGNETIC/TRUE) (speed) KNOTS — VISIBILITY
(visibility data) STATUTE MILES — (present weather data) — (sky
condition/cloud data) — TEMPERATURE (temperature data)
CELSIUS — DEW POINT (dew point data) CELSIUS — ALTIMETER
(altimeter data) INCHES”
Below is an example of the LWIS VGM message:
The human‑observed METAR or SPECI shall take priority
over the AWOS or LWIS VGM report. During the hours when
a human observation program is operating and there is no
direct VHF communication between the pilot and weather
observer, the VGM VHF transmitter will normally be off.
This will eliminate the risk of a pilot possibly receiving two
contradictory and confusing weather reports.
In variable weather conditions, there may be significant
differences between broadcasts only a few minutes apart. It
“(site name) LIMITED WEATHER INFORMATION SYSTEM—
CURRENT OBSERVATION TAKEN AT (time) UNIVERSAL — WIND
(direction) (MAGNETIC/TRUE) (speed) KNOTS — TEMPERATURE
(temperature data) CELSIUS — DEW POINT (dew point data)
CELSIUS — ALTIMETER (altimeter data) INCHES”
NOTE: Missing data or data that has been suppressed is
transmitted as “MISSING”
3.17 PIREP
General
PIREPs are reports of weather conditions encountered by
aircraft during flight. PIREPs are extremely useful to other
pilots, aircraft operators, weather briefers and forecasters,
MET
3.16 EC/DND Weather Radar Network
as they supplement weather information received from
meteorological observing stations. Pilots are encouraged to
file brief reports of weather conditions when giving position
reports, especially reports of any significant atmospheric
phenomena. PIREPs received by flight service personnel are
145
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
immediately disseminated on meteorological communications
circuits and provided to other ATS units and the Canadian
Meteorological Aviation Centres (CMAC).
Example:
UACN10 CYXU 032133 YZ UA /OV YXU 090010 /TM 2120 /FL080
/TP PA31 /SK 020BKN040 110OVC /TA ‑12 /WV 030045 /TB MDT
BLO 040 /IC LGT RIME 020‑040 /RM NIL TURB CYYZ­CYHM
PIREP
EXAMPLE
UACN10
CYXU
032133
YZ
UA /OV YXU
090010
MET
/TM 2120
/FL080
/TP PA31
/SK 020BK
N040 110OVC
/TA ‑12
DECODED EXAMPLE
Message Type: Regular PIREP. Urgent PIREPs
are encoded as UACN01.
Issuing office: London flight information
centre (FIC).
Date/Time of Issue: 3rd day of the month,
at 2133Z.
Flight Information Region (FIR): Toronto FIR.
If the PIREP extends into an adjacent FIR,
both FIRs will be indicated.
Location: London VOR 090˚ radial, 10 NM.
PIREP location will be reported with
reference to a NAVAID, airport or geographic
coordinates (latitude/ longitude).
Time of PIREP: 2120Z
Altitude: 8 000 ft ASL. Altitude may also
be reported as “DURD” (during descent),
“DURC” (during climb) or “UNKN”
(unknown).
Aircraft Type: Piper Navajo (PA31).
Sky Cover: First layer of cloud based at
2 000 ft with tops at 4 000 ft ASL. Second
layer of cloud based at 11 000 ft ASL.
Air Temperature: ‑12ºC.
Wind Velocity: Wind direction 030 degrees
true, wind speed 45 kt. Wind direction
reported by pilots in degrees magnetic will
subsequently be converted to degrees true
for inclusion in PIREP.
/TB MDT
Turbulence: Moderate turbulence below
BLO 040
4 000 ft ASL.
/IC LGT RIME Icing: Light rime icing (in cloud) between
020‑040
2 000 ft ASL and 4 000 ft ASL.
/RM NIL TURB Remarks: No turbulence encountered
CYYZ-CYHM
between Toronto and Hamilton.
/WV 030045
NOTE: Supplementary information for any of the PIREP
fields may be included in the remarks (RM) section
of the PIREP.
146
3.18 SIGMET
General
These messages are intended to provide short‑term warnings
of certain potentially hazardous weather phenomena. The
list of phenomena is limited by international agreement to
the more serious hazards which are important to all types
of aircraft.
Warnings are issued for active thunderstorm areas, lines
of thunderstorms, heavy hail, severe turbulence or icing,
marked mountain waves, hurricanes, widespread sand or dust
storms, volcanic ash, and low level windshear. SIGMETs are
broadcast on the appropriate IFR and VFR ATS frequencies
upon receipt. Each SIGMET weather phenomenon is coded
with a letter and number that is unique to the SIGMETs issued
by that regional weather forecast centre. Successively higher
numbers supersede SIGMETs previously issued by that
weather forecast centre for a given letter code.
EXAMPLE
WSCN33 CWTO
171805
DECODE OF EXAMPLE
This SIGMET was issued by the
Toronto Forecast Centre to describe
weather phenomena in the graphic
area forecast area 33 (GFACN 33)
on the 17th day of the month at
1805 UTC.
SIGMET A5 VALID
This SIGMET (Alfa 5) supersedes
171805/172205 CWTO its predecessor (Alfa 4), which was
issued by the same weather centre
to describe the same weather
phenomenon within that GFA area.
The SIGMET is valid from 1805 to
2205 UTC.
Thunderstorms have been observed
WTN 30 NM OF LN
/4622N 07925W/
on weather radar within 30 NM of
NORTH BAY
a line from North Bay to Muskoka
–/ 4458N07918W/
to London. The maximum tops
MUSKOKA
of the line of thunderstorms is
– /4302N08109W/
expected to be 30 000 ft. The line
LONDON. TS MAX
is moving in an eastward direction
TOPS 300 OBSD ON
at 20 kt. Little change in intensity is
RADAR. LN MOVG
expected in the development of the
EWD AT 20 KT. LTL
thunderstorms during the
CHG IN INTSTY.
valid period.
October 27, 2005
3.19 Surface Weather Maps
TC AIM
6. When colours cannot be used to distinguish the various
kinds of fronts, monochromatic symbols are used.
3.20 Upper Level Charts – ANAL Analysed Charts (ANAL)
Meteorological parameters in the upper atmosphere are
measured twice a day (0000Z and 1200Z). The data are
plotted and analysed on constant pressure level charts.
These charts always indicate past conditions. The 850 mb
(5 000 feet), 700 mb (10 000 feet), 500 mb (18 000 feet), and
250 mb (34 000 feet) analysed charts are available in Canada
and are generally in weather offices about three hours after
the data are recorded.
The maps have various fields analysed.
1. Check the time of the map, make sure that it is the latest
one available.
3. The curving lines on the map which form patterns like
giant thumb‑prints are called isobars. Joining points of
equal sea level pressure, isobars outline the areas of High
and Low pressure, marked H and L, respectively.
4. The winds at 2000 feet AGL blow roughly parallel to
the isobars – in a clockwise direction around Highs and
counter‑clockwise around Lows. Wind speeds vary with
the distance between isobars. Where the lines are close
together, one can expect moderate to strong winds; where
they are far apart, expect light variable winds.
5. The red and blue lines are called Fronts. These lines
indicate the zones of contact between large air masses with
differing physical properties – cold vs. warm, dry vs. moist,
etc. Blue lines are for cold fronts – cold air advancing. Red
lines are for warm fronts – warm air advancing. Alternate
red and blue lines are for quasistationary fronts – neither
warm air nor cold air advancing. Hook marks in red and
blue are for trowals‑trough of warm air aloft. A purple
line is called an Occluded Front – where a cold front has
overtaken a warm front. Solid coloured lines are fronts
which produce air mass changes at the ground level as well
as in the upper air. Dashed coloured lines represent “upper
air” fronts – they also are important. Along all active
fronts one usually encounters clouds and precipitation.
(b)Temperature: Temperature is analysed on the 850 and
700 mb charts only. Dashed lines are drawn at 5˚C
intervals and are labelled 5, 0, ‑5, etc. Temperatures at
500 and 250 mb are obtained by reading the number in the
upper left corner of each of the station plots.
(c) Wind Direction: Wind direction may be determined at any
point by using the height contours. The wind generally
blows parallel to the contours and the direction is
determined by keeping the “wind at your back with low
heights to the left”. The plotted wind arrows also provide
the actual wind direction at the stations.
MET
2. Always remember that weather moves. A map gives you
a static picture of weather conditions over a large area at
a specific time. Always use a map along with the latest
reports and forecasts.
(a) Height: The solid lines (contours) on all the charts represent
the approximate height of the pressure level indicated by
the map. The contours are labelled in decametres (10’s of
metres) such that on a 500 mb map, 540 means 5 400 m
and on a 250 mb map, 020 means 10 200 m. Contours are
spaced 60 m (6 decametres) apart except at 250 mb where
the spacing is 120 m.
(d)Wind Speed: Wind speed is inversely proportional to the
spacing of the height contours. (If the contours are close
together, the winds are strong; if far apart, the winds
are light.) The plotted wind arrows also provide the
wind speed.
On the 250 mb chart, wind speeds are analysed using
dashed lines for points with the same wind speed (isotachs).
The isotachs are analysed by a computer and are drawn
at 30 KT intervals starting at 30 KT. (NOTE: Computer
analysed charts have the analysed parameters smoothed
to some extent.)
3.21 Volcanic Ash Prognostic Charts
(a) Availability and Coverage: These charts are produced
by Environment Canada (EC) only when volcanic ash
threatens Canadian domestic airspace or adjacent areas.
They are normally available 1 hour after the execution
of the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) computer
147
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
model which generates them. The results are based on the
execution of the last global numerical weather prediction
model using either 0000 or 1200 UTC data. The areas
normally covered are Alaska, Canada, United States, the
North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific Oceans.
(b)Description: Each prognostic chart consists of six panels.
Each panel depicts the average ash density forecast for an
atmospheric layer at a specific time. The layers are surface
to FL200, FL200 to FL350, and FL350 to FL600. The
first chart depicts a 6 and 12 hour prognostic; the second
extends the forecast out to 18 and 24 hours. Additional
charts covering a time period of up to 72 hours ahead may
sometimes be produced.
The location of the volcano is indicated by the symbol
“s”. The average volcanic ash density in the atmospheric
layer is depicted as light, moderate or heavy. The isolines
are for 10, 100 and 1000 micrograms per cubic metre.
The areas between the isolines are enhanced as follows:
10 – 100 Light stippling (LGT)
100 – 1000 Dark stippling (MDT)
> 1000 No enhancement (HVY)
CAUTION: Users are reminded to consult the latest SIGMET
for updates on the position and vertical extent of
the volcanic ash warning area. Even light (LGT)
concentrations constitute a potential danger to
aviation. Turbine engine flame‑outs have been
attributed to light volcanic ash clouds located up to
1 000 NM from the source (see AIR 2.6).
Example of a Forecast of Visual Volcanic Ash Plume
MET
148
October 27, 2005
1 GENERAL
1.0
1.1
Air Traffic and Advisory Services
The following is a list of control and advisory services that are
available to pilots.
1.1.1 Air Traffic Services
The following air traffic control and information services
are provided by the Air Traffic Services Division of
NAV CANADA through area control centres (ACCs), terminal
control units (TCUs) and control towers.
(a)Airport Control Service is provided by airport control
towers to aircraft and vehicles on the manœuvring area
of an airport and to aircraft operating in the vicinity of
an airport.
TC AIM
information will include data concerning unfavourable
flight conditions and other known hazards; which may not
have been available to the pilot prior to takeoff or which
may have developed along the route of flight.
The ATC service has been established primarily for the
prevention of collisions and the expediting of traffic. The
provision of such service will take precedence over the
provision of flight information service, but every effort will
be made to provide flight information and assistance.
Flight information will be made available, whenever
practicable, to any aircraft in communication with an ATC
unit, prior to takeoff or when in flight, except where such
service is provided by the aircraft operator. Many factors (such
as volume of traffic, controller workload, communications
frequency congestion and limitations of radar equipment)
may prevent a controller from providing this service.
VFR flight will be provided with information concerning:
(b)Area Control Service is provided by ACCs to IFR and
controlled VFR (CVFR) flights operating within specified
control areas.
(a) severe weather conditions along the proposed route
of flight;
(c) Terminal Control Service is provided by IFR units (ACCs)
or TCUs to IFR and CVFR flights operating within
specified control areas.
(b)changes in the serviceability of navigation aids;
(d)Terminal Radar Service is additional service provided
by IFR units to VFR aircraft operating within
Class C airspace.
(d)other items considered pertinent to safety of flight.
(c) conditions of airports and associated facilities;
IFR flights will be provided with information concerning:
(e) Alerting Service notifies appropriate organizations
regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue services,
or alerts crash equipment, ambulances, doctors and any
other safety services.
(a) severe weather conditions;
(f) Altitude Reservation Service includes the service of
the Altitude Reservation East (Gander) and Altitude
Reservation West (Edmonton) in co-ordination with ACCs
in providing reserved altitude for specified air operations
in controlled airspace, and in providing information
concerning these reservations and military activity areas
in controlled and uncontrolled airspace.
(c) changes in the serviceability of navigation aids;
(d)condition of airports and associated facilities; and
(e) other items considered pertinent to the safety of flight.
RAC
(g)Aircraft Movement Information Service is provided by
ACCs for the collection, processing and dissemination of
aircraft movement information for use by air defence units
relative to flights operating into or within Canadian air
defence identification zone (ADIZ).
(b)weather conditions reported or forecast at destination or
alternate aerodrome;
Flight information messages are intended as information only.
If a specific action is suggested, the message will be prefixed
by the term “ATC SUGGESTS…” or “SUGGEST YOU…”
and the pilot will be informed of the purpose of the suggested
action. The pilot is responsible for making the final decision
concerning any suggestion.
(h)Customs Notification Service (ADCUS) is provided, on
request, by ATC units for advance notification of customs
officials for transborder flights from Canada to the United
States. (See FAL 2.3.2 for details on ADCUS service.
Surveillance radar equipment is frequently used in the
provision of information concerning chaff drops, bird activity
and possible traffic conflictions. Due to limitations inherent
in all radar systems, aircraft, chaff, etc., cannot be detected
in all cases.
(i) Flight Information Service is provided by ATC units
to assist pilots of aircraft by supplying information
concerning known hazardous flight conditions. This
Whenever practicable, ATC will provide flights with severe
weather information pertinent to the area concerned. Pilots
may assist ATC by providing pilot reports of severe weather
149
TC AIM
conditions they encounter. ATC will endeavour to suggest
alternate routes available in order to avoid areas experiencing
severe weather.
ATC will provide pilots intending to operate through chaff
areas with all available information relating to proposed or
actual chaff drops:
(a) location of chaff drop area;
(b)time of drop;
(c) estimated speed and direction of drift;
(d)altitudes likely to be affected; and
(e) relative intensity of chaff.
Information concerning bird activity, obtained through
controller’s observations or pilot reports, will be provided to
aircraft operating in the area concerned. In addition, pilots
may be warned of possible bird hazards if radar observation
indicates the possibility of bird activity. Information will be
provided concerning:
(a) size or species of bird, if known;
(b)location;
(c) direction of flight; and
(d)altitude, if known.
Radar traffic information and radar navigation assistance to
VFR flights are contained in RAC 1.5.
RAC
1.1.2 Flight Information Service
The Air Traffic Services Division operates facilities which
provide flight information services to enhance flight safety
and efficiency. These facilities include:
(a) Flight Service Stations (FSS); and
October 27, 2005
(b)Aerodrome Advisory Service (AAS): The FSS provides
advisory information consisting of wind, preferred or
active runway, time (departures only), altimeter, aircraft
traffic, ground traffic, and other information to assist pilots
to execute safe and expeditious departures and arrivals
at uncontrolled airports. Valid NOTAM, RSC and CRFI
information is included in the advisory for a period of 12 hr
for domestic traffic and 24 hr for international traffic after
it has been disseminated by means of telecommunication.
NOTE: NOTAM, RSC and CRFI information is provided in
a pilot briefing for the duration of the valid period or
until cancelled.
(c) Remote Aerodrome Advisory Service (RAAS): At
aerodromes where the advisory is provided through RCOs,
the service is referred to as a RAAS. RAAS consists of
weather reports, including wind and altimeter settings
(from the METAR or SPECI), the active or preferred
runway (if known), field condition reports, NOTAM,
PIREPs, and known aircraft traffic.
NOTES1: It is emphasized that RAAS is a remote service
provided from an FSS not located in the vicinity
of the aerodrome. Since the FSS specialist may not
have been made aware of all the traffic, pilots are
advised to remain vigilant when operating at, or
in the vicinity of, these uncontrolled aerodromes.
Receipt of these advisories does not relieve the
pilot of the responsibility to comply with the
procedures established for mandatory aerodrome
traffic frequency procedures.
2: Aircraft traffic contained in the AAS and RAAS
includes a summary of pertinent aircraft that have
made their presence known to the FSS through
direct radio contact, personal or telephone contact
(NORDO/ RONLY operations), estimates, ETAs
or other means, and which the specialist has
determined will affect the aircraft’s safety.
(d)Vehicle Control Service (VCS): The FSS Specialist controls
vehicles operating on the manœuvring area of airports
with a co-located tower and an FSS during the hours
when the tower is closed. This service is also available at
airports without a tower during the operating hours of the
FSS. VCS is not available at sites served by RAAS.
(b)Remote Communication Outlets (RCO).
1.1.3 Flight Service Stations (FSS)
FSSs staffed by FSS specialists are located on some
aerodromes across Canada. The services they may provide are
listed below:
(a)Flight Information Service En Route (FISE): Continuous
monitoring of assigned frequencies permits pilots
the communications access to obtain and pass flight
information or to report emergencies should the need
arise. In addition, the FSS relays IFR position reports and
ATC clearances in areas where aircraft are beyond the
communications range of the ATC facility responsible.
150
(e) Flight Plan Service: The FSS provides a preflight service
that includes the provision of weather, NOTAM, RSC/
CRFI and other information. It accepts and processes
flight plans and flight itineraries. An aviation information
display is also maintained and is easily accessible to pilots.
It assists pilots in compiling all the information essential
to planning a safe flight.
(f) Surface Weather Observing Service: The observation,
recording, and dissemination of surface weather
data, including specials, is performed by the FSS for
aviation purposes.
(g)Aviation Weather Information Service (AWIS): The
October 27, 2005
FSS provides pertinent aviation weather information
tailored to accommodate pilots at the preflight and en
route stages. The service permits specialists to assist
pilots in making decisions and calculations based on
weather determinants.
(h)Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS): This is a fully
interpretive preflight and en route weather briefing service
provided toll-free by selected FSSs in each region. These
sites are equipped with a full suite of weather products,
including satellite and radar imagery. Briefers are trained
to adapt meteorological information to fit the needs of all
aviation users and to provide consultation and advice on
special weather problems. Flight documentation for longrange flights is also available, on request. This level of
service is described as W1 in the CFS and WAS.
(i) VFR Alerting Service: The FSS notifies SAR and conducts a
communications search in the event that a VFR flight plan
or flight itinerary is not closed within a specified time, or
upon receiving an overdue report for an aircraft.
(j) Aeronautical Broadcast Service: The FSS broadcasts
weather and other information required by pilots to plan
and/or complete a flight safely.
(k) Navigation Assistance Service: The FSS provides VDF
assistance, at sites where the system is installed, to aircraft
in emergency or potential emergency situations, or when
requested by a pilot. Other navigation assistance may also
be provided, depending on facilities available.
(l) Navigation Aids Monitoring Service: The FSS monitors the
status of navigation aids as assigned, and takes appropriate
corrective and notification action should abnormal
operation occur.
also be provided from these FSS at controlled airports when
the control towers are closed.
The wind direction is stated to the nearest 10˚ and the wind
speed to the nearest 5 KT. Gusts are stated by giving the peak
wind speed to the nearest 5 KT.
Aircraft traffic is a summary of known pertinent aircraft
that may affect the aircraft’s safety, preceded by the phrase
“TRAFFIC.” In addition, the phrase “NO REPORTED
TRAFFIC,” when there is no known pertinent traffic, is not
stated unless traffic is specifically requested by the pilot.
Ground traffic is a summary of known pertinent vehicles or
pedestrians that may affect the aircraft’s safety, preceded
by the word “TRAFFIC.” The phrase “NO REPORTED
TRAFFIC,” when there is no known pertinent traffic, is not
stated unless traffic is specifically requested by the pilot.
If the FSS Specialist becomes aware of a potential conflict,
departing aircraft will be requested to hold short of the active
or preferred runway until the conflicting aircraft or ground
traffic is off the runway.
Certain FSSs are equipped with radar displays to aid in the
provision of AAS to aircraft operating within and in the
vicinity of a control zone/mandatory frequency area. (See
paragraph RAC 1.5.8)
1.1.4 Remote Communications Outlets and Dialup Remote Communications Outlets
(a)Remote Communication Outlets (RCO) are remote
VHF transmitters/receivers established as an extended
communications capability to enable FSS Specialists to
provide the following flight information services.
(i) Flight Information Service En route (FISE), provided
on the en route frequency, and
(ii) Remote Aerodrome Advisory Service (RAAS), provided
on the aerodrome MF.
(n)PIREPs (Pilot Reports): The FSS collects and distributes
pilot reports of weather and other significant
flight information.
FISE consists of information on weather reports, forecasts,
PIREPs, NOTAM, altimeter settings and other operational
information pertinent to the en route phase of flight.
(o)Fixed Telecommunications Service: The FSS is connected
to fixed telecommunications networks so that operational
and administrative messages may be exchanged among
FSS, other domestic and international aeronautical
agencies, and aircraft in flight.
RAAS consists of weather reports, including wind and
altimeter setting (from METAR or SPECI) the active
or preferred runway (if known), field condition reports,
NOTAM, PIREPs, and known aircraft and vehicle traffic.
FISE and RAAS will be available from RCOs installed
at designated aerodromes. RCOs may also be installed at
sites other than an aerodrome to provide en route service
(FISE) to overflying aircraft.
An RCO may also be used to accept position reports
and relay ATC clearances, as well as known aerodrome
information
(weather,
field
condition
reports
and NOTAM).
(p)Domestic Paid Air-Ground Message Service (DPAG): The
FSS relays Flight Regularity Messages between an aircraft
and the aircraft operating agency, and vice versa, when the
agency subscribes to the service for an annual cost.
The majority of FSS provide flight information services,
24 hr a day, to the airports where they are located and to any
number of RCOs assigned to them. Advisory services will
RAC
(m)NOTAM Service: For designated locations and/or areas
assigned to it, the FSS is the office responsible for
co‑ordination and dissemination of NOTAM.
TC AIM
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(b)Dial-up Remote Communications Outlet (DRCO) is a
standard RCO which has had a dial-up unit installed to
connect the pilot with an ATS unit (e.g., an FSS) via a
commercial telephone line. In this manner, the line is
“opened” only after the communication has been initiated
by the pilot or by ATS. The radio range of the RCO is
unaffected by the conversion.
RAC
152
Activation of the system by the pilot is accomplished via
the aircraft radio transmitter and is effected by keying
the microphone button 4 times with a deliberate and
constant action on the published DRCO frequency. The
microphone push-to-talk button should be held down a
fraction of a second (1/4 to be technically correct)for each
keying action with no more than 1 second between each
action. The entire process should take slightly less than
10 seconds.
The remote dial unit is designed to accept this constant
and deliberate action so as to reduce the possibility of
inadvertent activation from other sources. Consequently,
if a microphone is keyed more than four times or too
rapidly (or too slowly), the system will not activate.
Once the communication link has been established, the
DRCO equipment will answer the pilot with a prerecorded
voice message: “Link Established”. The link can only be
actively disconnected by the ATS unit.
(i) Activation of the DRCO – Pilot Procedures
(A) Select the published RCO frequency on the
aircraft radio transceiver.
(B) Key the radio microphone distinctly 4 times in
a row, with no more than 1 second between each
keying. If the keying procedure is successful,
the pilot will hear a dial tone, signalling pulses
(e.g., touch tones), and finally a ringing signal
(see Note).
If the keying procedure has been successful,
but the line is not available, the equipment will
automatically disconnect, and the message “Try
Again” will be broadcast.
(C) Wait for the DRCO equipment to answer
with the pre-recorded voice message “Link
Established”. This reply confirms that the
phone link with ATS has been established. The
pilot must now initiate the radio conversation
as per standard radiotelephony practices, e.g.,
“Quebec Radio, this is CESSNA GOLF ALFA
DELTA TANGO, over”. It is important to note
that the ATS Specialist may be performing other
duties (e.g., working on another frequency or
taking a weather observation)and may not be
able to acknowledge the pilot’s radio call right
away.
(D) The RCO line can only be actively disconnected
by the ATS unit.
(E) A “Call Terminated” message indicates
that
the
telephone
line
has
been
inadvertently disconnected.
October 27, 2005
NOTE: If the dial tone, signalling, and ringing are
not heard, the pilot can assume that either:
(a)the RCO is not within the radio range of the
aircraft’s transceiver; or
(b)the RCO line has already been opened, and there
is a pause in the communication between the pilot
of another aircraft and the ATS unit. The pilot
may assume that the line is open and attempt to
initiate communications with ATS.
If no reply is received from ATS within a reasonable time
interval, the pilot should reattempt the keying procedure
when in closer proximity to the RCO site.
1.1.5 Arctic Radio
Pilots operating in the vicinity of the Air Defence Identification
Zone (ADIZ) should be aware of the services available from
Arctic Radio on VHF frequencies 121.5 and 126.7; on UHF
frequencies 243.0 and 364.2 MHz; and on HF frequencies
2971, 4675, 8891, and 11279 kHz. These services are similar
to those offered by FSS through RCOs, and include the
following services:
(a) en route flight information;
(b)flight plan;
(c) radar position information (latitude and longitude, bearing
and distance, altitude and ground speed);
(d)Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS);
(e) aeronautical broadcast;
(f) navigation assistance;
(g)pilot weather reporting (PIREP);
(h)fixed telecommunication;
(i) VFR alerting;
(j) NOTAM;
(k)international air-to-ground communications; and
(l) Domestic Paid Air-Ground Messaging Service (DPAG).
Arctic Radio operates from the DND Sector Air Operations
Centre in North Bay, Ontario, through DND communications
located in the ADIZ. The telephone number for the Sector Air
Operations Centre is 1-800-300-8300.
1.1.6 Military Flight Advisory Unit
DND operates Military Flight Advisory Unit (MFAU) which
provide flight information services that enhance flight safety
and efficiency. These services are available by calling the
October 27, 2005
appropriate station followed by “Advisory”, i.e., “Namao
Advisory”. MFAU provide en route flight information,
airport advisory, ground control, field condition reports,
flight planning, alerting service, navigation assistance,
NOTAM, PIREPs, and weather reports. An MFAU may be
used to accept and relay VFR and IFR position reports and
ATC clearances.
1.2 Services Other Than Air Traffic Services
1.2.1 Universal Communications
Universal Communications (UNICOM) is an air-to-ground
communications facility operated by a private agency to
provide Private Advisory Station (PAS) service at uncontrolled
aerodromes. At these locations the choice of frequencies
are 122.7, 122.8, 123.0, 123.3, 123.5, 122.75, 122.95, 123.35,
122.725, 122.775 and 122.825 MHz.
TC AIM
community aerodrome radio station (CARS) and has been
established to provide aviation weather and communication
services to enhance aircraft access to certain aerodromes.
APRT RDO/CARS service is provided by observercommunicators (O/C) who are certified to conduct aviation
weather observations and radio communications to facilitate
aircraft arrivals and departures.
Hours of operation are listed in the Canada Flight Supplement
(CFS) Aerodrome/ Facility Directory under the subheadings
COM/APRT RDO.
Services provided
the following:
by
APRT
RDO/CARS
include
(a)Emergency Service: The O/C will respond to all emergency
calls (distress, urgency and ELT signals), incidents or
accidents by alerting a designated NAV CANADA FSS
and appropriate local authorities.
The use of all information received from a UNICOM station
is entirely at the discretion of the pilot. The frequencies are
published in aeronautical information publications as a service
to pilots, but Transport Canada takes no responsibility for the
use made of a UNICOM frequency.
(b)Communication Service: The O/C will provide pilots with
information in support of aircraft arrivals and departures,
including wind, altimeter, runway and aerodrome status
(including vehicle intentions and runway condition),
current weather conditions, PIREPs and known
aircraft traffic.
An approach UNICOM (AU) is an air-ground communications
service that can provide approach and landing information to
IFR pilots. The service provider is required to ensure that
NOTES1: O/Cs are authorized to provide an altimeter setting
for an instrument approach.
(a) meteorological instruments used to provide the approach
and landing information meet the requirements stipulated
under CAR 804.01(c) or the applicable exemption; and
(c) the applicable exemption.
Where the above standards are met, the AU operator
may provide a station altimeter setting for the conduct of
an instrument procedure as well as the wind speed and
direction for the conduct of a straight-in landing from an
instrument approach.
Operators providing AU services may also advise pilots
of the runway condition and the position of vehicles or
aircraft on the manœuvring area. Regulations and standards
regarding the provision of these services from an AU are
under development.
An AU will be indicated as “UNICOM” (AU) in the Canada
Air Pilot and the Canada Flight Supplement.
1.2.2 Airport Radio/Community Aerodrome
Radio Station
Airport radio (APRT RDO), in most cases, is provided by a
2: O/Cs provide limited traffic information.
APRT RDOs/CARS are located at uncontrolled
aerodromes within MF areas. Pilots must
communicate on the MF as per uncontrolled
aerodrome procedures (see RAC 4.5.1 to 4.5.7,
RAC 9.12, 9.13 and 9.14).
3: O/Cs do not provide ATC services. At aerodromes
within controlled airspace served by APRT RDO/
CARS, pilots must contact ATS via the RCO, PAL
or telephone to obtain special VFR authorization
or IFR clearances.
(c) Weather Observation Service: The O/C will monitor,
observe, record and relay surface weather data for aviation
purposes (METARs or SPECIs) in accordance with
Environment Canada standards. The O/C may request
PIREPs from pilots to confirm weather conditions, such
as height of cloud bases.
RAC
(b)UNICOM operators meet the training requirements
stipulated under CAR 804.01(c)or
(d)Flight Plan/Flight Information Service: If necessary, at
most APRT RDOs/CARS, O/Cs will accept flight plans/
itineraries; however, pilots are encouraged to obtain a full
pre-flight briefing and then file their flight plan/itinerary
with an FSS.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware that O/Cs are only authorized
to provide NOTAMs and weather information
(METARs or SPECIs) for their own aerodrome.
Information for other areas/aerodromes should be
obtained from an FSS.
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TC AIM
At APRT RDO/CARS sites colocated with an RCO,
pilots should open and close flight plans/itineraries, pass
position reports and obtain FISE directly from the FSS via
the RCO. At sites with no RCO, when requested by the
pilot, the APRT RDO/CARS O/C will relay messages to
open and close flight plans/ itineraries and position reports
(IFR, VFR, DVFR) to an FSS.
(e) Monitoring of Equipment/NAVAIDs: During the APRT
RDO/CARS hours of operation, O/Cs will monitor the
status of equipment related to aerodrome lighting, weather,
communications, etc. Malfunctions will be reported to the
designated NAV CANADA facility, and a NOTAM will be
issued as required. For site-specific NAVAID monitoring
by APRT RDO/CARS, refer to the CFS and Enroute Low
Altitude and Enroute High Altitude charts.
1.2.3 Private Advisory Stations (PAS)—
Controlled Airports
Aeronautical operators may establish their own private
facilities at controlled airports for use in connection with
company business, such as servicing of aircraft, availability
of fuel, and lodging. The use of PAS at controlled aerodromes
shall not include information relative to ATC, weather reports,
condition of landing strips, or any other communication
normally provided by ATC units.
1.2.4 Apron Advisory Service
RAC
Apron advisory service at most controlled airports is provided
by ATS. However, some large airports are providing advisory
service on aprons through a separate apron management unit
staffed by airport or terminal operator personnel. This service
normally includes gate assignment, push-back instructions,
and advisories on other aircraft and vehicles on the apron.
Aircraft entering the apron will normally be instructed
by the ground controller to contact apron prior to or at the
designated change-over point. Aircraft leaving the apron shall
contact ground on the appropriate frequency to obtain taxi
clearance before exiting the apron and before entering the
manœuvring area.
1.3 ATIS
(ii) surface wind, including gusts;
(iii) visibility;
(iv) weather and obstructions to vision;
(v) ceiling;
(vi) sky condition;
(vii) temperature;
(viii)dew point;
(ix) altimeter setting;
(x) pertinent SIGMETs, AIRMETs and PIREPs; and
(xi) other pertinent remarks;
(c) type of instrument approach in use, including information
on parallel or simultaneous converging operations;
(d)landing runway, both IFR and VFR, including
information on hold short operations and the stopping
distance available;
(e) departure runway, both IFR and VFR;
(f) a NOTAM or an excerpt from a NOTAM, pertinent
information regarding the serviceability of a NAVAID,
or field conditions applicable to arriving or departing
aircraft. These may be deleted from an ATIS message
after a broadcast period of 12 hr at domestic airports or
24 hr at international airports;
(g)instruction that aircraft are to acknowledge receipt of the
ATIS broadcast on initial contact with ATC.
Each recording will be identified by a phonetic alphabet code
letter, beginning with “ALFA.” Succeeding letters will be
used for each subsequent message.
Example of ATIS Message:
TORONTO INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION BRAVO. WEATHER AT
1400 ZULU: WIND ZERO FIVE ZERO AT TWO ZERO, VISIBILITY FIVE
HAZE, CEILING THREE THOUSAND OVERCAST, TEMPERATURE
ONE EIGHT, DEW POINT ONE SIX, ALTIMETER TWO NINER
FOUR SIX, PARALLEL ILS APPROACHES ARE IN PROGRESS. IFR
LANDING ZERO SIX RIGHT, ZERO SIX LEFT. VFR LANDING ZERO
SIX LEFT. DEPARTURE ZERO SIX LEFT. NOTAM: GLIDE PATH ILS
RUNWAY ONE FIVE OUT OF SERVICE. INFORM ATC YOU HAVE
INFORMATION BRAVO.
ATIS is the continuous broadcasting of recorded information
for arriving and departing aircraft on VOT/VOR or a discrete
VHF/UHF frequency. Its purpose is to improve controller and
flight service specialist effectiveness and to relieve frequency
congestion by automating the repetitive transmission of
essential but routine information.
NOTE: Current time and RVR measurements will not be
included in the ATIS message, but will be issued
in accordance with current practices. Temperature
and dew point information is derived only from the
scheduled hourly weather observations.
ATIS messages are recorded in a standard format and contain
such information as:
Pilots hearing the broadcast should inform the ATC unit
on first contact that they have received the information, by
repeating the code word which identifies the message, thus
obviating the need for the controller to issue information.
(a) airport name and message code letter;
(b)weather information, including:
(i) time;
154
October 27, 2005
October 27, 2005
Example: …WITH BRAVO.
During periods of rapidly changing conditions that would
create difficulties in keeping the ATIS message current, the
following message will be recorded and broadcasted:
BECAUSE OF RAPIDLY CHANGING WEATHER/AIRPORT
CONDITIONS, CONTACT ATC FOR CURRENT INFORMATION.
The success and effectiveness of ATIS is largely dependent
upon the co-operation and participation of airspace users;
therefore, pilots are strongly urged to take full advantage of
this service.
1.4 Use of Term “CAVOK”
The term “CAVOK” (KAV-OH-KAY) may be used in air-toground communications when transmitting meteorological
information to arriving aircraft.
CAVOK refers to the simultaneous occurrence of the following
meteorological conditions at an airport:
(a) no cloud below 5 000 feet, or below the highest
minimum sector altitude, whichever is higher, and
no cumulonimbus;
(b)a visibility of 6 SM or more;
(c) no precipitation, thunderstorms, shallow fog, or low
drifting snow.
to provide some of the other flight information. Radar systems
are described in COM 3.14.
1.5.2 Procedures
Before providing radar service, ATC will establish
identification of the aircraft concerned either through the use
of position reports, identifying turns, or transponders. Pilots
will be notified whenever radar identification is established
or lost.
Examples:
RADAR-IDENTIFIED; or RADAR IDENTIFICATION LOST.
Pilots are cautioned that radar identification of their flight does
not relieve them of the responsibility for collision avoidance
or terrain (obstacle) clearance. ATC will normally provide
radar-identified IFR and CVFR flights with information
on observed radar targets. At locations where an SSR is
used without collocated primary radar equipment, ATC
cannot provide traffic information on aircraft without a
functioning transponder.
ATC assumes responsibility for terrain (obstacle) clearance
when vectoring en route IFR and CVFR flights and for IFR
aircraft being vectored for arrival until the aircraft resumes
normal navigation.
Vectors are used when necessary for separation purposes,
when required by noise abatement procedures, when requested
by the pilot, or whenever vectors will offer operational
advantages to the pilot or the controller. When vectors are
initiated, the pilot will be informed of the location to which
the aircraft is being vectored.
Example:
CAVOK does not apply to the provision of meteorological
information to en route aircraft and, therefore, will not be
used when such information is transmitted to aircraft engaged
in that particular phase of flight.
TURN LEFT HEADING 050 FOR VECTORS TO VICTOR 300. FLY
HEADING 020 FOR VECTORS TO THE VANCOUVER VOR 053
RADIAL. DEPART KLEINBURG BEACON ON HEADING 240 FOR
VECTORS TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
1.5 Radar Service
Pilots will be informed when vectors are terminated, except
when an arriving aircraft is vectored to the final approach
course or to the traffic circuit.
1.5.1 General
The use of radar increases airspace utilization by allowing
ATC to reduce the separation interval between aircraft. In
addition, radar permits an expansion of flight information
services, such as traffic information, radar navigation
assistance and information on chaff drops and bird activity.
Due to limitations inherent in all radar systems, it may not
always be possible to detect aircraft, weather disturbances,
etc. Where radar information is derived from secondary
surveillance radar (SSR) only (i.e., without associated
primary radar coverage), it is not possible to provide traffic
information on aircraft that are not transponder-equipped or
RAC
This term, coupled with other elements of meteorological
information, such as wind direction and speed, altimeter
setting and pertinent remarks, will be used in transmissions
directed to arriving aircraft and, where applicable, in the
composition of ATlS messages. A pilot, on receipt of CAVOK,
may request that detailed information be provided.
TC AIM
Example: RESUME NORMAL NAVIGATION.
When an aircraft is vectored to final approach or to the traffic
circuit, the issuance of approach clearance indicates that
normal navigation should be resumed.
Normally radar service will be continued until an aircraft
leaves the area of radar coverage, enters uncontrolled
airspace, or is transferred to an ATC unit not equipped with
radar. When radar service is terminated the pilot will be
informed accordingly.
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TC AIM
October 27, 2005
Example: RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED.
2. Direction in which the traffic is proceeding.
1.5.3 Radar Traffic Information
3. Type of aircraft and altitude, if known, or relative speed.
Traffic (or workload) permitting, ATC will provide IFR and
CVFR flights with information on observed radar targets
whenever the traffic is likely to be of concern to the pilot,
unless the pilot states that the information is not wanted. This
information may be provided to VFR aircraft when requested
by the pilot.
Example:
If requested by the pilot, ATC will attempt to provide radar
separation between identified IFR aircraft and the unknown
observed aircraft.
When requested by pilots, radar-equipped ATC units will
provide assistance to navigation in the form of position
information, vectors or track, and ground speed checks. Flights
requesting this assistance must be operating within areas of
radar and communication coverage, and be radar‑identified.
When issuing radar information, ATS units will frequently
define the relative location of the traffic, weather areas, etc.,
by referring to the clock position. In this system, the 12 o’clock
position is based on the observed radar track rather than the
actual nose of the aircraft. In conditions of strong crosswind,
this can lead to a discrepancy between the position as reported
by the controller and the position as observed by the pilot.
The following diagram illustrates the clock positions.
TRAFFIC, 7 MILES SOUTH OF QUÉBEC NDB, NORTHBOUND,
(type of aircraft and altitude, or relative speed).
1.5.4 Radar Navigation Assistance to VFR Flights
VFR flights may be provided with this service:
(a) at the request of a pilot, when traffic conditions permit;
(b)when the controller suggests and the pilot agrees; or
(c) in the interest of flight safety.
The pilot is responsible for avoiding other traffic and avoiding
weather below VFR minima while on a VFR flight on
radar vectors.
If a radar vector will lead a VFR flight into IFR weather
conditions, the pilot must inform the controller and take the
following action:
(a) if practicable, obtain a vector which will allow the flight to
remain in VFR weather conditions; or
RAC
(b)if an alternative vector is not practicable, revert to
navigation without radar assistance; or
Traffic information when passed to radar-identified aircraft
will be issued as follows:
1. Position of the traffic in relation to the aircraft’s
observed track.
2. Direction in which the traffic is proceeding.
3. Type of aircraft and altitude, if known, or the relative
speed of the traffic.
(c) if the pilot has an IFR rating and the aircraft is equipped
for IFR flight, the pilot may file an IFR flight plan, and
request an IFR clearance.
Emergency radar assistance will be given to VFR flights which
are able to maintain two-way radio communication with the
unit, are within radar coverage, and can be radar identified.
Pilots requiring radar assistance during emergency conditions
should contact the nearest ATC unit and provide the
following information:
Example:
TRAFFIC, 2 O’CLOCK 3 1/2 MILES, WESTBOUND, (type of aircraft
and altitude, or relative speed).
An aircraft not radar-identified would be issued traffic
information in the following manner:
1. Position of the traffic in relation to a fix.
156
1. Declaration of emergency (state nature of difficulty and
type of assistance required).
2. Position of aircraft and weather conditions within which
the flight is operating.
3. Type of aircraft, altitude, and whether equipped for
IFR flight.
October 27, 2005
4. Whether pilot has an IFR Rating.
TC AIM
Pilots unable to contact radar but in need of emergency
assistance may alert radar by flying a triangular pattern (see
SAR 4.5).
1.5.5 Obstacle Clearance During Radar Vectors
Visual climbs or descents should only be requested when
the pilot is assured of continuous visual reference with the
terrain and obstacles throughout that phase of flight. To
aid in the flow of air traffic, a controller may suggest a
visual climb/descent to the pilot. In this case, the pilot has
the option of accepting or not accepting the suggestion.
Example:
(a)IFR Flights
The pilot of an IFR flight is responsible for ensuring that
the aircraft is operated with adequate clearance from
obstacles and terrain; however, when the flight is being
radar-vectored, ATC will ensure that the appropriate
obstacle clearance is provided.
Minimum radar vectoring altitudes (lowest altitude
at which an aircraft may be vectored and still meet
obstruction clearance criteria), which may be lower than
minimum altitudes shown on navigation and approach
charts, have been established at a number of locations to
facilitate transitions to instrument approach aids. When
an IFR flight is cleared to descend to the lower altitude,
ATC will provide terrain and obstacle clearance until the
aircraft is in a position from which an approved instrument
approach or a visual approach can be commenced.
If a communication failure occurs while a flight is being
vectored at an altitude below the minimum IFR altitudes
shown in the instrument approach chart, the pilot should
climb immediately to the appropriate published minimum
altitude, unless the flight is able to continue in Visual
Meteorological Conditions (VMC).
On occasion, particularly during radar-vectored departures
in mountainous regions, an aircraft’s performance may be
such that a climb to comply with a minimum vectoring
altitude is not possible without manœuvring the aircraft
away from the desired track. Conversely, on descent,
issuance of a descent clearance may be delayed because
a particular minimum vectoring altitude precludes a
controller from issuing a lower altitude until such time as
the aircraft enters the sector for which the lower minimum
vectoring altitude applies. When the aircraft is operated
in VMC, an operational advantage may be gained for all
concerned by having the pilot request and ATC authorize
a visual climb or a visual descent, as applicable, with
respect to obstacles and terrain while on radar vectors.
ATC authorization of a visual climb or descent under
these circumstances constitutes acceptance by the pilot
of the responsibility for terrain and obstacle avoidance.
IFR separation normally provided between aircraft for the
applicable classification of airspace will be maintained
during the visual climb or visual descent phase of flight.
Once the aircraft reaches (or passes) a minimum IFR
altitude or an appropriate minimum vectoring altitude,
responsibility for terrain and obstacle clearance reverts to
ATC for as long as the flight is being radar-vectored.
– followed by –
CLIMB/DESCEND VISUALLY FROM (altitude) TO (altitude).
– and, if necessary –
IF NOT POSSIBLE, (alternative instructions) AND ADVISE.
(b)VFR Flights
The pilot of a VFR aircraft remains responsible for
maintaining adequate clearance from obstacles and terrain
when the flight is being radar-vectored by ATC.
If adequate obstacle or terrain clearance cannot be
maintained on a vector, the pilot must inform the controller
and take the following action:
(i) if practicable, obtain a heading that will enable
adequate clearance to be maintained, or climb to a
suitable altitude, or
(ii) revert to navigation without radar assistance.
1.5.6 Misuse of Radar Vectors
Pilots have, on occasion, for practice purposes, followed
radar instructions issued to other pilots without realizing the
potential hazard that accompanies such action.
ATC may require aircraft to make turns for radar identification;
however, when more than one aircraft target is observed
making a turn, identification becomes difficult or impossible.
Should misidentification be the result of more than one
aircraft following the instructions issued by ATC, it could be
hazardous to the aircraft involved.
RAC
ARE YOU ABLE TO MAKE A CLIMB/DESCENT TO (altitude) WHILE
MAINTAINING TERRAIN CLEARANCE VISUALLY
Any pilot wishing to obtain radar practice, however, needs
only to contact the appropriate ACC or TCU and request
practice radar vectors. Practice vectors will be issued to the
extent that air traffic conditions permit.
1.5.7 Canadian Forces Radar Assistance
The Canadian Forces can provide assistance in an emergency
to civil aircraft operating within the ADIZ.
No responsibility for the direct control of aircraft is accepted
and radar assistance does not absolve the captain of the
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October 27, 2005
responsibility of complying with ATC clearances or other
required procedures. Assistance consists of:
VHF direction finding (VDF) equipment is available at a
number of selected airports across Canada (see COM 3.10).
(a) track and ground speed checks—speeds in KT;
(b)position of the aircraft in geographic reference, or by
bearing and distance from the station—distances are
in NM and bearings in degrees True; and
(c) position of heavy cloud in relation to the aircraft.
To obtain assistance in the NWS area, call “Radar Assistance”
on 126.7 MHz; or when circumstances require a MAYDAY
call, use 121.5 MHz, giving all the necessary details. When
assistance is required in ADIZ areas contact will have to be
made on the 121.5 MHz frequency or on the UHF frequencies
243.0 or 364.2 MHz. Initial contact should be made at the
highest practicable altitude. If air defence commitments
preclude the granting of radar assistance, the ground station
will transmit the word “UNABLE” and no further explanation
will be given.
1.5.8 The Use of Radar in the Provision of AAS
by FSSs
Certain FSSs are equipped with radar displays to aid in the
provision of AAS to aircraft operating within, and in the
vicinity of a MF area. Radar improves the situational awareness
of the flight service specialist in an AAS environment and
enhances the accuracy of aircraft traffic information.
Although radar is used at these FSSs, it must be emphasized
that flight service specialists do not provide control services
such as vectors or conflict resolution. Accordingly, pilots are
responsible to watch for and provide their own separation
from other aircraft, terrain and obstacles.
RAC
158
At FSSs equipped
specialist may:
with
radar,
the
flight
1.6 VHF Direction Finding Service
service
(a) Provide traffic information on observed radar targets.
When issuing radar traffic information to radar-identified
aircraft, the position of the traffic will be given with
reference to the “12 hr-clock position.”
1.6.1 Purpose
The purpose of the VDF installation is to provide directional
assistance to VFR aircraft. This equipment is not intended as
a substitute for normal VFR navigation, but rather as an aid in
times of difficulty.
Special VFR aircraft will not be given VDF steers, but, on
request, will be provided with position information relevant
to the VDF site or some other location.
1.6.2 Equipment Operation
VDF information is electronically derived from radio signals
transmitted from the aircraft. Since VHF transmissions
are restricted to line-of-sight, altitude and location of the
aircraft may limit the provision of the service. As in radio
communication, the power of the transmitted signal will affect
reception distance. Information may be obtained from either
a modulated signal (speech transmission) or an unmodulated
signal (mike button pressed – no speech). The length of the
transmission is not critical since information can be obtained
from a very short transmission (2 seconds).
1.6.3 Provision of Service
VDF service will be provided when requested by the pilot
or when suggested by the VDF operator and accepted by
the pilot.
The VDF operator will provide the pilot with headings
required for homing to the airport at which the VDF station
is located. Pilots planning to use the direction indicator as
a heading reference during a VDF homing should reset the
direction indicator to the magnetic compass before calling the
VDF station. Thereafter, the direction indicator should not be
reset without advising the VDF operator.
1.6.4 Procedures
(b)Issue traffic information on aircraft that are not radar
identified by using references to geographical locations.
Pilots requesting VDF service shall provide the VDF operator
with the following information:
(c) Ask a transponder-equipped aircraft to “SQUAWK
IDENT,” if necessary. The flight service specialist will
acknowledge the squawk. The phrase “This is an airport
advisory service” may be stated if it is apparent that aircraft
are not aware that there is no control service available. The
phrase is a reminder to pilots that it is not a ‘radar control
service,’ and that pilots remain responsible for collision
avoidance and terrain (obstacle) clearance.
(a) the position of aircraft, if known;
(b)the present heading; and
(c) the altitude.
Pilot: KINGSTON RADIO. THIS IS PIPER GOLF HOTEL GOLF
BRAVO. REQUEST VDF HOMING. APPROXIMATELY 20 MILES
NORTHEAST OF KINGSTON, HEADING 170 AT 5 000.
October 27, 2005
The VDF operator will provide the pilot with the headings
required for homing to the VDF station.
VDF Operator: GOLF HOTEL GOLF BRAVO, KINGSTON
RADIO, FOR HOMING TO KINGSTON FLY
HEADING 220.
VDF Operator: GOLF HOTEL GOLF BRAVO, TRANSMIT
FOR HOMING.
These procedures do not relieve the pilots of VFR aircraft of
their responsibility to see and avoid other traffic, to maintain
appropriate terrain and obstacle clearance, or to remain in
VFR weather conditions.
1.7 ATC Clearances, Instructions and Information
Whenever an ATC clearance is received and accepted by
the pilot, compliance shall be made with the clearance. If a
clearance is not acceptable, the pilot should immediately
inform ATC of this fact since acknowledgement of the
clearance alone will be taken by a controller as indicating
acceptance. For example, upon receiving a clearance for
takeoff, the pilot should acknowledge the clearance and take
off without undue delay or, if not ready to take off at that
particular time, inform ATC of his or her intentions, in which
case the clearance may be changed or cancelled.
A pilot shall comply with an ATC instruction that is directed
to and received by the pilot, provided the safety of the aircraft
is not jeopardized.
CAR 602.31 permits pilots to deviate from an ATC instruction
or clearance in order to follow TCAS/ACAS resolution
advisories. Pilots responding to a resolution advisory shall
advise the appropriate ATC unit of the deviation as soon as
practicable and shall expeditiously return to the last ATC
clearance received and accepted, or the last ATC instruction
received and acknowledged prior to the resolution advisory
manœuvre. Aircraft manœuvres conducted during a resolution
advisory should be kept to the minimum necessary to satisfy
the resolution advisory. For more information on TCAS/
ACAS, see RAC 12.15.2.
ATC is not responsible for the provision of IFR separation
to an IFR aircraft which carries out a TCAS or an ACAS
resolution advisory manœuvre until one of the following
conditions exist:
(a) the aircraft has returned to the last ATC clearance
received and accepted, or last ATC instruction received
and acknowledged prior to the resolution advisory; or
(b)an alternate
been issued.
ATC
clearance
or
instruction
has
TCAS or ACAS does not alter or diminish the pilot-incommand’s responsibility to ensure safe flight. Since
TCAS/ACAS does not respond to aircraft which are not
transponder-equipped or aircraft with a transponder failure,
TCAS/ACAS alone does not ensure safe operation in every
case. The services provided by ATC units are not predicated
upon the availability of TCAS or ACAS equipment in
an aircraft.
It should be remembered that control is predicated on known
air traffic only and, when complying with clearances or
instructions, pilots are not relieved of the responsibility for
practising good airmanship.
A clearance or instruction is only valid WHILE IN
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE. Pilots crossing between
controlled and uncontrolled airspace should pay close attention
to the terrain and obstacle clearance requirements.
ATS personnel routinely inform pilots of conditions, observed
by others or by themselves, which may affect flight safety and
are beyond their control. Examples of such conditions are
observed airframe icing and bird activity. These are meant
solely as assistance or reminders to pilots and are not intended
in any way to absolve the pilot of the responsibility for the
safety of the flight.
1.8 Flight Priority
1.8.1
Normally, ATC provides control service on a first come, first
served basis. However, flight priority is provided to:
RAC
A clearance will be identified by the use of some form of the
word “clear” in its contents. An instruction will always be
worded in such a manner as to be readily identified, although
the word “instruct” will seldom be included. Pilots shall
comply with and acknowledge receipt of all ATC instructions
directed to and received by them (CAR 602.31).
TC AIM
(a) an aircraft that is known or believed to be in a state
of emergency;
NOTE: This category includes aircraft subjected to unlawful
interference, or other distress or urgency conditions
that may compel the aircraft to land or require
flight priority.
(b)a MEDEVAC flight;
(c) military or civilian aircraft participating in Search and
Rescue (SAR) missions and identified by the radiotelephony
call sign “RESCUE” and the designator “RCU”, followed
by an appropriate flight number;
(d)military aircraft that are departing on:
(i) operational air defence exercises,
(ii) planned and co-ordinated air defence training
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TC AIM
exercises, and
(iii) exercises to an altitude reservation; or
(e) an aircraft carrying Her Majesty the Queen, the Governor
General, the Prime Minister, Heads of State, or Foreign
Heads of Government.
1.8.2 Minimum Fuel Advisory
Pilots may experience situations where delays caused by
traffic, weather or any other reason, result in the pilot being
concerned about the aircraft’s fuel state upon reaching
destination. In such cases, the pilot may declare to ATC that
a MINIMUM FUEL condition exists. A MINIMUM FUEL
declaration requires that the pilot:
(a) advise ATC as soon as possible that a MINIMUM FUEL
condition exists;
(b)following an ATC communications transfer, advise
the new sector or unit that a MINIMUM FUEL
condition exists;
(c) be aware that this is not an emergency situation, but merely
an advisory that indicates an emergency is possible should
any undue delay occur;
(d)be aware that a minimum fuel advisory does not imply an
ATC traffic priority although ATC special flight handling
will be implemented; and
(e) declare an EMERGENCY if the pilot determines that
the remaining usable fuel supply suggests the need for
ATC traffic priority to ensure a safe landing. In this
case, the pilot should indicate low fuel as the reason for
the emergency and report to ATC the fuel remaining in
minutes of flight.
RAC
ATC will take the following special flight handling action
when advised that a MINIMUM FUEL condition exists:
(a) Be alert for any occurrence or situation that might delay the
concerned aircraft and attempt to resolve any conflicts;
(b)Inform the aircraft of any anticipated delay as soon as
becoming aware of such a delay;
(c) Inform the next sector or unit of the minimum fuel
condition of the aircraft;
October 27, 2005
declares an emergency for fuel.
1.9 Transponder Operation
1.9.1 General
Transponders substantially increase the capability of radar
to detect aircraft, and the use of automatic pressure altitude
reporting equipment (Mode C) enables controllers to quickly
determine where potential conflicts could occur. Proper
transponder operating procedures and techniques will
provide both VFR and IFR aircraft with a higher degree of
safety. In addition, proper usage of transponders with Mode C
capability will result in reduced communications and more
efficient service.
When pilots receive ATC instructions concerning transponder
operation, they shall operate transponders as directed until
receiving further instructions or until the aircraft has landed,
except in an emergency, communication failure or hijack.
ATC radar units are equipped with alarm systems that
respond when the aircraft is within radar coverage and the
pilot selects the emergency, communication failure or hijack
transponder code. It is possible to unintentionally select these
codes momentarily when changing the transponder from
one code to another. To prevent unnecessary activation of
the alarm, pilots should avoid inadvertent selection of 7500,
7600 or 7700 when changing the code, if either of the first
two digits to be selected is a seven; e.g., if it is necessary to
change from Code 1700 to Code 7100, first change to Code
1100, then Code 7100, NOT Code 7700 and then Code 7100.
Do not select “STANDBY” while changing codes as this will
cause the target to be lost on the ATC radar screen.
Pilots should adjust transponders to “STANDBY” while
taxiing for takeoff, to “ON” (or “NORMAL”) as late as
practicable before takeoff, and to “STANDBY” or “OFF” as
soon as practicable after landing. In practice, transponders
should be turned on only upon entering the active runway
for departure and turned off as soon as the aircraft exits the
runway after landing.
When the transponder or the automatic pressure altitude
reporting equipment (Mode C) fails during flight where
its use is mandatory, an aircraft may be operated to the next
airport of intended landing and, thereafter, to complete an
itinerary or to a repair base, if authorized by ATC.
(d)Record the information in the unit log; and
(e) Be aware that an emergency situation may develop
following a MINIMUM FUEL declaration.
In an effort to avoid confusion and to ensure that the
appropriate ATC responses are provided, any non-standard
phraseology used by the pilot referring to fuel or fuel shortage
will cause ATC to immediately inquire if the pilot is declaring
an emergency. Traffic priority will be given to a pilot who
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ATC may, upon receiving a request, authorize an aircraft
not equipped with a functioning transponder or Mode C to
operate in airspace where its use is mandatory. The purpose of
this advanced written request is to enable ATC to determine
if the operation of the aircraft can be handled in the airspace
at the time requested without compromising the safety of
air traffic. Approval may be subject to such conditions and
limitations deemed necessary to preserve safety. Pilots must
obtain approval before entering airspace within which it is
October 27, 2005
mandatory to be equipped with a functioning transponder
and automatic pressure altitude reporting equipment. (This
includes aircraft proposing to take off from an airport located
within that airspace.)
1.9.2 Transponder Requirements
CAR 601.03 – Transponder Airspace states that aircraft shall
be equipped with a functioning transponder incorporating an
automatic pressure reporting device when operating in the
following airspace:
(a) all Class A airspace;
(b)all Class B airspace;
(c) all Class C airspace; and
TC AIM
CAR 605.35 outlines the transponder operating rule, as well
as the circumstance in which operation with an unservicable
transpoder is permitted. It also outlines the procedures to
follow in order to operate an aircraft within transponder
airspace without being equipped with a transponder and
automatic pressure altitude reporting equipment.
1.9.3 IFR Operations in Other Low Level Airspace
During IFR flight in controlled low level airspace other than
that described in RAC 1.9.2, adjust your transponder to reply
on Mode A, Code 1000, and on Mode C (if available), unless
otherwise instructed by ATC. If an IFR flight plan is cancelled
or changed to a VFR flight plan, the transponder should be
adjusted to reply on the appropriate VFR code, as specified
in the following paragraphs, unless otherwise instructed
by ATC.
(d)all Class D and Class E airspace that is specified as
“Transponder Airspace” in the Designated Airspace
Handbook (DAH) (TP 1820E). This includes all Class E
airspace extending upwards from 10 000 feet ASL up to
and including 12 500 feet ASL within radar coverage as
shown in Figure 1.1.
To enhance the safety of IFR flight in uncontrolled low level
airspace, pilots are encouraged to adjust their transponders
to reply on Mode A, Code 1000, plus Mode C (if available),
unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
Pilots of IFR aircraft within controlled high level airspace
shall adjust their transponder to reply on Mode A, Code 2000
and on Mode C unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
During VFR flight in low-level airspace, adjust your
transponder to reply on the following unless otherwise
assigned by an ATS unit:
NOTE: To enhance the safety of IFR flight in uncontrolled
high level airspace, pilots are urged to adjust their
transponders to reply on Mode A, Code 2000, plus
Mode C, unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
(a) Mode A, Code 1200, for operation at or below 12 500 ft
ASL; or
Figure 1.1 – Transponder Airspace
1.9.4 VFR Operations
(b)Mode A, Code 1400, for operation above 12 500 ft ASL.
NOTE: When climbing above 12 500 ft ASL, pilot should
select Code 1200 until he/ she leaves 12 500 ft ASL,
then select Code 1400. When descending from above
12 500 ft ASL, a VFR pilot should select Code 1200
upon reaching 12 500 ft ASL. Aircraft equipped with
a transponder capable of Mode C automatic altitude
reporting should adjust their transponder to reply on
Mode C when operating in Canadian airspace unless
otherwise assigned by an ATS unit.
RAC
Upon leaving the confines of an airspace for which a special
Code assignment has been received, the pilot is responsible
for changing to the Code shown in (a)or (b), unless assigned a
new Code by an ATS unit.
1.9.5 Phraseology
ATS personnel will use the following phraseology when
referring to transponder operation.
SQUAWK (code) – Operate transponder on designated
Code in Mode A.
SQUAWK IDENT – Engage the “IDENT” feature of
the transponder.
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TC AIM
October 27, 2005
NOTE: A pilot shall operate the identification
(“IDENT”) feature only when requested by an
ATS unit.
SQUAWK ALTITUDE – Activate Mode C with automatic
altitude reporting.
STOP SQUAWK MODE CHARLIE – Turn off automatic
altitude reporting function.
RECYCLE TRANSPONDER – Reset your transponder,
and transmit the SQUAWK (code) currently assigned.
This phraseology may be used if the target or identity tag
data is not being displayed as expected.
VERIFY YOUR ALTITUDE – This phraseology may be
used when it is necessary to validate altitude readouts by
comparing the readouts value with an altitude reported by
the aircraft. An altitude readout is considered valid if the
readout value does not differ from the aircraft-reported
altitude by more than 200 ft, and invalid if the difference
is 300 ft or more.
NOTE: Readout values
100–ft increments.
are
displayed
in
1.9.6 Emergencies
In the event of an emergency and if unable to establish
communication immediately with an ATC unit, a pilot
wishing to alert ATC to the emergency situation should
adjust the transponder to reply on Code 7700. Thereafter,
communication should be established with ATC as soon as
possible, and the transponder should be operated as directed
by ATC.
1.9.7 Communication Failure
RAC
In the event of a communication failure, the pilot should
adjust the transponder to reply on Code 7600 to alert ATC to
the situation. This does not relieve the pilot of the requirement
to comply with the appropriate communications failure
procedures for IFR flight.
1.9.8 Unlawful Interference (Hijack)
Canada, along with other nations, has adopted a special SSR
transponder code (7500) for use by pilots whose aircraft are
hijacked. ATC does not assign this code unless the pilot
informs ATC of a hijack in progress.
Selection of the code activates an alarm system and points
out the aircraft on radar displays. If the controller doubts
that an aircraft is being hijacked (as could occur when a
Code change was requested and the hijack code appeared,
rather than the assigned code), the controller should say, YOU
WERE ASSIGNED CODE (ASSIGNED CODE). CONFIRM
SQUAWKING SEVEN FIVE ZERO ZERO. If the pilot
answers yes, the controller will alert the ATC system. If the
pilot replies no, the controller will re-assign the proper code.
If after using Code 7500 an aircraft changes to Code 7700, or
162
transmits a message including the phrase TRANSPONDER
SEVEN SEVEN ZERO ZERO, it indicates that the situation
is desperate and the aircraft wants armed intervention.
1.10 Collision Avoidance—Right of Way
(CARs)
Reckless or Negligent Operation of Aircraft
602.01
No person shall operate an aircraft in such a reckless or
negligent manner as to endanger or be likely to endanger the
life or property of any person.
Right-of-Way – General
602.19
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section,
(a) the pilot-in-command of an aircraft that has the
right-of-way shall, if there is any risk of collision,
take such action as is necessary to avoid collision;
and
(b) where the pilot-in-command of an aircraft is aware
that another aircraft is in an emergency situation,
the pilot-in-command shall give way to that other
aircraft.
(2)When two aircraft are converging at approximately the
same altitude, the pilot-in-command of the aircraft that has
the other on its right shall give way, except as follows:
(a) a power-driven, heavier-than-air aircraft shall give
way to airships, gliders and balloons;
(b) an airship shall give way to gliders and balloons;
(c) a glider shall give way to balloons; and
(d) a power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft
that are seen to be towing gliders or other objects or
carrying a slung load.
(3)When two balloons operating at different altitudes are
converging, the pilot-in-command of the balloon at the
higher altitude shall give way to the balloon at the lower
altitude.
(4)Where an aircraft is required to give way to another
aircraft, the pilot-in-command of the first-mentioned
aircraft shall not pass over or under, or cross ahead of, the
other aircraft unless passing or crossing at such a distance
as will not create any risk of collision.
(5)Where two aircraft are approaching head-on or
approximately so and there is a risk of collision, the pilotin-command of each aircraft shall alter its heading to the
right.
(6)An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way
and the pilot-in-command of the overtaking aircraft,
whether climbing, descending or in level flight, shall give
way to the other aircraft by altering the heading of the
October 27, 2005
overtaking aircraft to the right, and no subsequent change
in the relative positions of the two aircraft shall absolve
the pilot-in-command of the overtaking aircraft from this
obligation until that aircraft has entirely passed and is
clear of the other aircraft.
TC AIM
1.11 Aerobatic Flight (CARs 602.27 and 602.28)
Aerobatic Manœuvres – Prohibited Areas and Flight conditions
(7)Where an aircraft is in flight or manœuvring on the surface,
the pilot-in-command of the aircraft shall give way to an
aircraft that is landing or about to land.
602.27
No person operating
aerobatic manœuvres
(8)The pilot-in-command of an aircraft that is approaching
an aerodrome for the purpose of landing shall give way to
any aircraft at a lower altitude that is also approaching the
aerodrome for the purpose of landing.
(a) over a built-up area or an open-air assembly of persons;
(9)The pilot-in-command of an aircraft at a lower altitude,
as described in subsection (8), shall not overtake or cut in
front of an aircraft at a higher altitude that is in the final
stages of an approach to land.
(10) No person shall conduct or attempt to conduct a takeoff
or landing in an aircraft until there is no apparent risk
of collision with any aircraft, person, vessel, vehicle or
structure in the takeoff or landing path.
Right-of-Way – Aircraft Manœuvring on Water
602.20
(1) Where an aircraft on the water has another aircraft or
a vessel on its right, the pilot-in-command of the firstmentioned aircraft shall give way.
(2)Where an aircraft on the water is approaching another
aircraft or a vessel head-on, or approximately so, the pilotin-command of the first-mentioned aircraft shall alter its
heading to the right.
Avoidance of Collision
602.21
No person shall operate an aircraft in such proximity to
another aircraft as to create a risk of collision.
Formation Flight
602.24
No person shall operate an aircraft in formation with other
aircraft except by pre-arrangement between.
(a) the pilots-in-command of the aircraft; or
(b)where the flight is conducted within a control zone,
the pilots-in-command and the appropriate air traffic
control unit.
aircraft
shall
conduct
(b)in controlled airspace, except in accordance with a
special flight operations certificate issued pursuant to
Section 603.67;
(c) when flight visibility is less than three miles; or
(d)below 2 000 feet AGL, except in accordance with a
special flight operations certificate issued pursuant to
Section 603.02 or 603.67.
Aerobatic Manœuvres with Passengers
602.28
No person operating an aircraft with a passenger on board shall
conduct aerobatic manœuvres unless the pilot-in-command of
the aircraft has engaged in
(a) at least 10 hours dual flight instruction in the conducting
of aerobatic manœuvres or 20 hours conducting aerobatic
manœuvres; and
(b)at least one hour of conducting aerobatic manœuvres in
the preceding six months.
1.12 Pilot Reports
1.12.1 General
Pilots are requested to make the following reports in the
interests of national security, meteorite research and forest
fire and pollution control.
RAC
(3)The pilot-in-command of an aircraft that is overtaking
another aircraft or a vessel on the water shall alter
its heading to keep well clear of the other aircraft or
the vessel.
an
1.12.2 CIRVIS Reports – Vital Intelligence Sightings
CIRVIS reports should be made immediately upon a vital
intelligence sighting of any airborne and ground objects or
activities which appear to be hostile, suspicious, unidentified
or engaged in possible illegal smuggling activity.
Examples of events requiring CIRVIS reports are:
unidentified flying objects, submarines, or surface warships
identified as being non-Canadian or non-American; violent
explosions; unexplained or unusual activity, including the
presence of unidentified or suspicious ground parties in Polar
regions, at abandoned airstrips or other remote, sparsely
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TC AIM
populated areas.
These reports shall be made to the nearest Canadian or U.S.
government FSS or ATC unit.
A report via air/ground communications should include the
words “CIRVIS CIRVIS CIRVIS”, followed by:
(a) the identification of the reporting aircraft;
(b)a brief description of the sighting (number, size,
shape, etc.);
(c) the position of the sighted object or activity;
(d)the date and time of sighting in UTC;
(e) the altitude of the object;
(f) the direction of movement of the object;
October 27, 2005
for fires in the Yukon Territory. [Tel. no. (867) 667‑3375].
Reports should give the size and location of the fire, and
the name and address of the person making the report. This
information will assist fire crews in getting to fires with
minimum delay and with the right type of equipment.
1.12.5 Pollution Reports
Any aircraft in the airspace above Canadian waters, Fishing
Zones or Arctic Shipping Control Zones should inform the
nearest Canadian FSS upon sighting any vessel discharging
pollutants (oil) in Canadian waters, Fishing Zones or Arctic
Shipping Control Zones.
On the east and west coasts, the waters extend to approximately
200 NM from the coast line. In the north, the area includes
virtually all of the waters in the Canadian Arctic.
The FSS will relay any reported pollution incidents to the
appropriate Coast Guard Centres.
(g)the speed of the object; and
(h)any identification.
1.12.3 Meteorite Reports
Reports of spectacular meteors (fireballs) that may be bright
enough to cast shadows, that may be accompanied by a “sonic
boom”, that may trail glowing particles, and that may explode
with a burst of light and a loud sound several times in flight,
should be reported by radio to the nearest ATS unit or to:
Transport Canada (AARQC)
Civil Aviation Contingency Operations
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
RAC
Telephone:...................................................1 613 947-5140
. ........................ (Monday to Friday – 07:00 to 16:00 EST)
Fax:............................................1 866 993-7768 (24 hours)
E-mail:........................................................ [email protected]
1.12.4 Fire Detection – Northern Areas
The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs have requested
the co-operation of all persons connected with aviation, in the
prevention, detection and suppression of fires in the northern
areas of Canada.
If smoke or other indications of fire are seen in any area,
the local Forestry Warden, Game Management Officer, or
member of the RCMP should be notified at once. If they are
not available, the fire should be reported by collect telegram
or telephone call to:
(a) Superintendent of Forestry, Fort Smith, Northwest
Territories, for fires in the Northwest Territories and Wood
Buffalo National Park. [Tel. no. (867) 872‑7700].
(b)Superintendent of Forestry, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory,
164
1.13 ATS Reports—Possible Contravention
of the Canadian Aviation Regulations
(CARs)
Under current regulation, ATS units are required to report to
the Minister of Transport any aviation occurrence that may
contravene the CARs.
Any investigation of the circumstances or subsequent decision
on whether a breach has taken place is the responsibility of
TC. Any necessary follow-up action will be conducted by TC
Civil Aviation regulatory authorities.
1.14 Conservation
1.14.1 Fur and Poultry Farms
Experience has shown that aviation noise caused by rotary
wing and fixed wing aircraft flying at low altitudes can cause
serious economic losses to the farming industry. The classes of
livestock particularly sensitive are poultry (including ostriches
and emus), because of the crowding syndrome and stampeding
behaviour they exhibit when irritated and frightened, and
foxes who, when excited, will eat or abandon their young.
Avoid overflying these farms below 2 000 feet AGL.
Fur farms may be marked with chrome yellow and black
strips painted on pylons or roofs. In addition, a red flag may
be flown during whelping season (February – May).
Pilots are, therefore, warned that any locations so
marked should be avoided and that during the months of
February, March, April and May, special vigilance should
be maintained.
October 27, 2005
1.14.2 Protection of Wildlife
It is desired to impress on all pilots the importance of wildlife
conservation; to urge them to become familiar with the game
laws in force in the various provinces; and to co-operate
with all game officers to see that violations of game laws do
not occur.
The following is a list of addresses where Provincial and
Territorial Game Officers may be contacted in Canada. To
obtain information with regard to the preservation of wildlife
within the various provinces, please contact a game officer
at one of the locations shown below. Information pertaining
to the migratory bird regulations may be obtained directly
from the Director General, Canadian Wildlife Service,
Environment Canada, Ottawa ON KlA 0H3.
Natural Resources Services
Wildlife Management Division
Department of Environmental Protection
Petroleum Plaza, North Tower
9945 108 Street
Edmonton AB T5K 2G6
Tel.: ............................................................... 780 427-6733
Fax: . ............................................................. 780 422-9557
Fish and Wildlife Branch
Dept. of Natural Resources and Energy
Province of New Brunswick
P.O. Box 6000
Fredericton NB E3B 5Hl
Tel.:................................................................506 453-2440
Fax:................................................................506 453-6699
Tel.:.................................................................867 873-7411
Fax:................................................................867 873-0293
Wildlife Branch
Min. of Environment, Lands and Parks
Province of British Columbia
Parliament Buildings
Victoria BC V8V 1X4
Tel.:................................................................ 250 387-9717
Fax:................................................................ 250 356-9154
Wildlife Branch
Department of Natural Resources
Province of Manitoba
P.O. Box 24
1495 St. James Street, Room 100
Winnipeg MB R3H 0W9
Tel.:................................................................204 945-6799
Fax:................................................................204 945-3077
Wildlife Division
Department of Natural Resources
Province of Newfoundland and Labrador
P.O. Box 8700
St. John’s NL A1B 4J6
Tel.:................................................................ 709 729-2630
Fax:................................................................709 729-6629
Wildlife Division
Department of Natural Resources
Province of Nova Scotia
136 Exhibition Street
Kentville NS B4N 4E5
Tel.:................................................................902 679-6091
Fax:................................................................ 902 679-6176
Terrestrial Ecosystems Branch
Ministry of Natural Resources
Province of Ontario
90 Sheppards Avenue East, 6th Floor
North York ON M2N 3A1
Tel.:................................................................ 416 314-1069
Fax:................................................................ 416 314-1049
Fish and Wildlife Division
Dept. of Environmental Resources
Province of Prince Edward Island
P.O. Box 2000
11 Kent Street, 4th Floor
Charlottetown PE C1A 7N8
Tel: . ............................................................. 902 368-4684
Fax: . .............................................................902 368-5830
Société de la faune et des parcs du Québec
Centre d’information
Édifice Marie-Guyart, r.-d.-c.
675, boulevard René-Lévesque Est
Québec (Québec) G1R 5V7
Tel.: ................................................................ 418 521-3830
Fax: . ............................................................. 418 646-5974
Wildlife Branch
Environment and Resource Mgmt.
Province of Saskatchewan
3211 Albert Street
Regina SK S4S 5W6
RAC
Wildlife Management Division
Department of Renewable Resources
Gov. of the Northwest Territories
600–5102 50th Avenue
Yellowknife NT X1A 3S8
TC AIM
Tel.:................................................................ 306 787-2314
Fax:............................................................... 306 787-9544
Fish and Wildlife Branch
Department of Environment
Government of Yukon
P.O. Box 2703, 10 Burns Road
Whitehorse YT Y1A 2C6
Tel.: ................................................................877 667-5715
Toll free (in Yukon): .................. 1 800 661-0408 ext. 5715
Fax: . .............................................................867 393-6405
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October 27, 2005
Department of Sustainable Development
Wildlife and Environmental Protection
Government of Nunavut
Iqaluit NU
Tel.: ............................................................... 867 975-5902
Fax: . ............................................................. 867 975-5980
1.14.3 Reindeer, Caribou, Moose and Muskoxen Conservation
Pilots should be aware that flying low over herds of reindeer,
caribou, moose or muskoxen may result in reducing the
animal population. Accidents resulting in broken bones may
increase. Exhausted and disorganized animals are more
susceptible to be attacked by wolves; feeding is interrupted;
and normal herd movement and reproductive functions may
be seriously disrupted.
It is important that all pilots flying aircraft in the north country
realize the value of these animals to native welfare. The cooperation of all is requested in eliminating any action which
might lead to unnecessary losses of these valuable animals.
Pilots should not fly at an altitude less than 2 000 feet AGL
when in the vicinity of herds of reindeer or caribou.
particularly are in great fear of aircraft; and their movements
may be seriously disorganized by such interference. These
geese are a valuable asset to Canada. As several species are
nearing extinction, it is felt that every effort should be made
to preserve them.
1.14.5 National, Provincial and Municipal Parks,
Reserves and Refuges
To preserve the natural environment of parks, reserves and
refuges and to minimize the disturbance to the natural habitat,
overflights should not be conducted below 2 000 feet AGL.
The landing or takeoff of aircraft in the national
parks and national park reserves may take place at
prescribed locations.
To assist pilots in observing this, boundaries are depicted on
the affected charts. The following is taken from the National
Parks Aircraft Access Regulations (98-01-29):
(1) Subject to subsection (2) and Section 5 no person shall
take off or land an aircraft in a park except in a park set
out in column I of an item of the schedule, at a take-off
and landing location set out in column II of that item.
(2)No person shall take off or land an aircraft in a park set out
in column I of any of items 1 to 6 of the schedule unless
that person holds a permit.
1.14.4 Migratory Bird Protection
The migratory bird regulations prohibit the killing of game
birds through the use of an aeroplane.
Pilots should be aware that serious damage can be done to
migratory bird harvest areas due to low flying aircraft. Geese
Schedule (Sections 2 and 5)
RAC
166
Item
Column I Park
Column II Take-off and Landing Location
1.
Auyuittuq Reserve
Any location
2.
Ellesmere Island Reserve
Any location
3.
Northern Yukon National
4.
Kluane Reserve
(a) Margaret Lake at latitude 68˚50’00”N, longitude 140˚08’48”W
(b) Nunaluk Spit at latitude 69˚34’17”N, longitude 139˚32’48”W
(c) Sheep Creek at latitude 69˚10’07”N, longitude 140˚08’48”W
(d) Stokes Point at latitude 69˚19’49”N, longitude 138˚44’13”W
(a) Big Horn Lake at latitude 61˚08’30”N, longitude 139˚22’40”W
(b) Quinteno Sella Glacier at latitude 60˚36’20”N, longitude 140˚48’30”W
(c) Hubbard Glacier at latitude 60˚34’00”N, longitude 140˚07’30”W
(d) Cathedral Glacier at latitude 60˚14’15”N, longitude 138˚58’00”W
(e) South Arm Kaskawulsh Glacier at latitude 60˚30’30”N, longitude 138˚53’00”W
5.
Kluane National Park
(a) Lowell Lake and Lowell Lake Bar at latitude 60˚17’10”N, longitude 137˚57’00”W
(b)Onion Lake at latitude 60˚05’40”N, longitude 138˚25’00”W
6.
Nahanni Reserve
(a) Rabbit kettle Lake at latitude 61˚57’00”N, longitude 127˚18’00”W
(b) Virginia Falls at latitude 61˚38’00”N, longitude 125˚38’00”W
7.
Wood Buffalo
National Park
Garden Creek Airstrip at latitude 58˚42’30”N, longitude 113˚53’30”W
October 27, 2005
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1.15 Bird Hazard
1.15.1 General
Pilots whose aircraft experience a bird strike are asked to
complete the Bird/Wildlife Strike Report (see Figure 1.2).
These forms are available at FSS and other facilities used by
aircrews. Wholehearted support of the bird/wildlife strike
reporting system will permit a more detailed analysis of the
problem with the increased likelihood of finding solutions.
Pilots can also report bird strikes or obtain additional
information on Transport Canada’s Bird Hazard Website at
« http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/wildlife.htm ».
Alternatively, bird strikes can be reported toll-free at:
1‑888‑282‑BIRD (2473).
Most major airports in Canada have a plan to identify and
control bird hazards to flight operations. This situation
generally is a major problem during the spring and autumn
migrations; however, some airports are plagued continuously
by bird infestations because of nearby open garbage dumps,
land fill projects, etc. Pilots should monitor ATIS during the
migratory season for information concerning this hazard.
RAC
167
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October 27, 2005
Figure 1.2 – Bird/Wildlife Strike Report
RAC
168
October 27, 2005
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RAC
169
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October 27, 2005
1.15.2 Migratory Birds
Figure 1.3(b) –Spring Migration Routes – Other Geese
The accompanying charts show spring and autumn migratory
bird flyways and staging areas. Indicated also are the
approximate numbers of birds involved, the periods during
which the flyways may be used by the various species and
the altitudes at and below which flocks may be encountered.
Ducks normally weigh from 1 to 4 pounds and the larger
geese, swans and cranes may vary from 3 1/2 to 25 pounds.
Migratory birds are capable of flying above clouds and
between layers at speeds of 30 to 45 KT. Flocks of 100 to
200 birds may be expected in flights strung out over several
miles. The altitudes at which the birds may be encountered
depend on the distance from the staging areas from which
they have departed, assuming a rate of climb usually not more
than 125 feet per minute or 100 feet per mile to an optimum
altitude which varies with bird species and weather conditions.
Near the staging areas, they are generally encountered at or
below 2 000 feet AGL.
Figure 1.3(c) –Spring Migration Routes
– Swans (Flight Altitudes to 12 000 feet)
In the mountainous regions of British Columbia, flocks are
concentrated in the major valleys (Rocky Mountain Trench
and Okanagan Valley). As a result, very dense concentrations
occur up to 2 000 feet at any time of the day.
Information on migratory bird activity will be given on ATIS
and by ATS.
SPRING
RAC
170
Normally, migratory birds leave their staging areas between
dusk and midnight and during the first three hours after dawn;
however, they may leave at any hour of the day or night,
particularly after long periods of poor weather. They will not
leave a staging area against surface winds in excess of 10 KT.
Major movements, involving hundreds of thousands of birds,
often follow the passage of a ridge of high pressure.
Figure 1.3(a) –Spring Migration Routes
– Cranes, Ducks and Canada Geese
AUTUMN
Geese, swans and cranes normally move south with favourable
winds. They depart from staging areas 12 to 24 hours after the
passage of a cold front, especially if there is rapid clearing and
there are stong northerly winds behind the front. The birds
take off from the stage areas in late afternoon for night flights.
Occassionally, however, they may fly by day as well.
October 27, 2005
Figure 1.4(a)–Autumn Migration Routes
– Cranes, Ducks and Canada Geese)
TC AIM
2.0 AIRSPACE – REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
2.1 General
Canadian airspace is divided into a number of categories
which in turn are subdivided into a number of areas and
zones. The various rules are simplified by the classification
of all Canadian airspace. This section describes these in
detail, as well as the Regulations and procedures specific to
each. The official designation of all airspace is published in
the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E). Procedures
for the management of Canadian Airspace are contained
in the Transport Canada publication, Procedures for the
Management of Canadian Domestic Airspace (TP 8757E).
Figure 1.4(b)–Autumn Migration
Routes – Other Geese
2.2 Canadian Domestic Airspace
Canadian Domestic Airspace (CDA) includes all airspace
over the Canadian land mass, the Canadian Arctic, Canadian
Archipelago and those areas of the high seas within the
airspace boundaries. These boundaries are depicted on the
Enroute Charts.
2.2.1 Northern Domestic Airspace
Canadian Domestic Airspace is geographically divided into
the Southern Domestic Airspace and the Northern Domestic
Airspace as indicated in Figure 2.1. In the Southern Domestic
Airspace, magnetic track is used to determine cruising altitude
for direction of flight.
RAC
Figure 1.4(c)–Autumn Migration Routes – Swans
The Magnetic North Pole is located near the centre of
the Northern Domestic Airspace, therefore magnetic
compass indications may be erratic. Thus, in this airspace,
runway heading is given in true and true track is used to
determine cruising altitude for direction of flight in lieu of
magnetic track.
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Figure 2.1 – Boundaries of Canadian Domestic
Airspace, Northern Domestic Airspace
and Southern Domestic Airspace
October 27, 2005
controlled airspace between 18 000 ft ASL and FL600,
inclusive, shall ensure that the aircraft is operated in
accordance with IFR unless otherwise authorized in
writing by the Minister. (CAR 602.34)
Figure 2.2 – Flight Information Regions
2.3 High and Low Level Airspace
The CDA is further divided vertically into low level airspace,
which consists of all of the airspace below 18 000 ft ASL;
and high level airspace which consists of all airspace from
18 000 ft ASL and above.
RAC
2.3.1 Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight
Levels Appropriate to Aircraft Track
General Provisions
1. The appropriate altitude or flight level for an aircraft in
level cruising flight is determined in accordance with:
(a) the magnetic track, in SDA; and
(b) the true track, in NDA.
2. When an aircraft is operated in level cruising flight:
(a) at more than 3000 ft AGL, in accordance with
VFR;
(b) in accordance with IFR; or
(c) during a CVFR flight.
The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall ensure that the
aircraft is operated at an altitude or flight level appropriate
to the track, unless assigned an altitude or flight level by
an ATC unit or by written authority from the Minister.
3. RVSM cruising flight levels appropriate to aircraft track
are applicable in designated RVSM airspace.
4. The pilot-in-command of an aircraft operating within
172
2.4 Flight Information Regions
A Flight Information Region (FIR) is an airspace of defined
dimensions extending upwards from the surface of the earth,
within which flight information service and alerting services
are provided. The Canadian Domestic Airspace is divided
into the Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montréal,
Moncton and Gander Domestic Flight Information Regions.
Gander Oceanic is an additional FIR allocated to Canada
by ICAO for the provision of flight information and alerting
services over the high seas.
Canadian Flight Information Regions are described in the
Designated Airspace Handbook (TP l820E), and are depicted
on the Enroute Charts and illustrated in Figure 2.2.
Agreements have been effected between Canada and the
United States to permit reciprocal air traffic control services
outside of the designate national FIR boundaries. An example
is V300 and J500 between SSM and YQT. The control of
aircraft in US airspace delegated to a Canadian ATC unit
is effected by applying the Canadian rules, procedures and
separation minima with the following exceptions:
(a) aircraft will not be cleared to maintain “1 000 feet
on top”;
(b)ATC vertical separation will not be discontinued on the
basis of visual reports from the aircraft; and
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
(c) Canadian protected airspace criteria for track separation
will not be used.
2.5 Controlled Airspace
Controlled airspace is the airspace within which air traffic
control service is provided and within which some or
all aircraft may be subject to air traffic control. Types of
controlled airspace are:
(a) in the High Level Airspace:
– the Southern, Northern and Arctic Control Areas.
NOTE: Encompassed within the above are high level airways,
the upper portions of some military terminal control
areas and terminal control areas.
(b)in the Low Level Airspace:
– low level airways,
– terminal control areas,
– control area extensions,
– control zones,
– transition areas,
– military terminal control areas.
2.5.1 Use of Controlled Airspace by VFR Flights
Due to the speeds of modern aircraft, the difficulty in visually
observing other aircraft at high altitudes and the density of air
traffic at certain locations and altitudes, the “see and be seen”
principle of VFR separation cannot always provide positive
separation. Accordingly, in certain airspace and at certain
altitudes VFR flight is either prohibited or subject to specific
restrictions prior to entry and during flight.
2.6 High Level Controlled Airspace
Controlled airspace within the High Level Airspace is
divided into three separate areas. They are the Southern
Control Area (SCA), the Northern Control Area (NCA) and
the Arctic Control Area (ACA). Their lateral dimensions are
illustrated in Figure 2.3. Figure 2.4 illustrates their vertical
dimensions which are: SCA, 18 000 feet ASL and above;
NCA, FL230 and above; ACA, FL270 and above. The volume
and concentration of international air traffic transiting the
NCA and ACA on random tracks can create enroute penalties
to users by preventing maximum utilization of the airspace.
To ensure the flow of traffic is accommodated efficiently, a
track system has been established which interacts with the
established airway system in the SCA and Alaska. Use of
these tracks is mandatory at certain periods of the year.
Pilots are reminded that both the NCA and the ACA are
within the Northern Domestic Airspace; therefore, compass
indications may be erratic, and true tracks are used in
determining the flight level at which to fly. In addition, the
airspace from FL330 to FL410 within the lateral dimensions
of the NCA, the ACA and the nrothern part of the SCA has
been designated CMNPS airspace . Special procedures apply
within this airspace. See RAC 12.0 for details.
Figure 2.3 – Southern, Northern
and Arctic Control Areas
2.5.2 Aircraft Speed Limit Order
According to CAR 602.32, no person shall operate an aircraft
in Canada;
(b)below 3 000 feet AGL within 10 NM of a controlled airport
at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 KT unless
authorized to do so in an air traffic control clearance.
RAC
(a) below 10 000 feet ASL at an indicated airspeed of more
than 250 KT; or
Exceptions
(a) A person may operate an aircraft at an indicated airspeed
greater than the airspeeds referred to in (a) and (b) above
where the aircraft is being operated
(i) on departure, or
(ii) in accordance with a special flight operations
certificate – special aviation event issued under
CAR 603.
(b)Where the minimum safe speed, given the aircraft
configuration, is greater than the speed referrred to in (a)
or (b) above, the aircraft shall be operated at the minimum
safe speed.
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October 27, 2005
Figure 2.4 – Verticle Dimensions of Southern,
Northern and Arctic Control Areas
be increased between the points where lines, diverging 5˚
on each side of the centre line from the designated facility,
intersect the basic width boundary; and where they meet,
similar lines projected from the adjacent facility.
Figure 2.6 – LF/MF Airway Dimensions
2.7.2 Control Area Extensions
2.7 Low Level Controlled Airspace
2.7.1 Low Level Airways
Controlled low level airspace extends upward from 2 200 feet
AGL up to, but not including, 18 000 feet ASL, within the
following specified boundaries:
(a)VHF/UHF Airways: The basic VHF/UHF airway width is
4 NM on each side of the centre line prescribed for such
an airway. Where applicable, the airway width shall be
increased between the points where lines, diverging 4.5˚
on each side of the centre line from the designated facility,
intersect the basic width boundary; and where they meet,
similar lines projected from the adjacent facility.
Figure 2.5(a)– VHF/UHF Airway Dimensions
(a) additional controlled airspace around busy aerodromes for
IFR control. The controlled airspace contained within the
associated control zone and airway(s) width is not always
sufficient to permit the manœuvring required to separate
IFR arrivals and departures; or
(b)connecting controlled airspace, e.g., a control area
extension is used to connect a control zone with the
enroute structure.
RAC
Control area extensions are based at 2 200 feet AGL unless
otherwise specified and extend up to, but not including
18 000 feet ASL. Some control area extensions, such as those
which extend to the oceanic controlled airspace, may be based
at other altitudes such as 2 000, 5 500 or 6 000 feet ASL. The
outer portions of some other control area extensions may be
based at higher levels.
2.7.3 Control Zones
Where a Victor airway is established based on a VOR/
VORTAC and NDB, the boundaries of that airway will be
those of an LF/MF airway [see Figure 2.5(b)].
Figure 2.5(b)– VHF/UHF Airway
Based on VOR and NDB
(b)LF/MF Airways: The basic LF/MF airway width is
4.34 NM on each side of the centre line prescribed for
such an airway. Where applicable, the airway width shall
174
Control area extensions are designated around aerodromes
where the controlled airspace provided is insufficient to permit
the required separation between IFR arrivals and departures
and to contain IFR aircraft within controlled airspace. A
control area extension provides:
Control zones are designated around certain aerodromes to
keep IFR aircraft within controlled airspace during approaches
and to facilitate the control of VFR and IFR traffic.
Control zones having a civil control tower within a terminal
control area normally have a 7-NM radius. Others have a 5NM radius, with the exception of a few which have a 3-NM
radius. Control zones are capped at 3 000 feet AAE unless
otherwise specified. Military control zones usually have a
10-NM radius and are capped at 6 000 feet AAE. All control
zones are depicted on VFR aeronautical charts and the
Enroute Low Altitude Charts. Control zones will be classified
as “B”, “C”, “D” or “E” depending on the classification of the
surrounding airspace.
The VFR weather minima for control zones are outlined
in Figure 2.7. When weather conditions are below VFR
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
minima, a pilot operating VFR may request special VFR
(SVFR) authorization in order to enter the control zone. This
authorization is normally obtained through the local tower or
FSS, and must be obtained before SVFR is attempted within
a control zone. ATC will issue an SVFR authorization, traffic
and weather conditions permitting, only upon a request for
SVFR from a pilot. SVFR will not be initiated by ATS. Once
having received SVFR authorization, the pilot continues to
remain responsible for avoiding other aircraft and weather
conditions beyond the pilot’s own flight capabilities and the
capabilities of the aircraft.
Figure 2.7 – VFR Weather Minima*
AIRSPACE
FLIGHT VISIBILITY
DISTANCE FROM CLOUD
DISTANCE AGL
Control Zones
not less than 3 miles**
horizontally: 1 mile
vertically: 500 feet
vertically: 500 feet
Other Controlled Airspace
not less than 3 miles
horizontally: 1 mile
vertically: 500 feet
—
1 000 feet AGL or
above
not less than 1 mile (day)
3 miles (night)
horizontally: 2 000 feet
vertically: 500 feet
—
below 1 000 feet AGL
– fixed-wing
not less than 2 miles (day)
3 miles (night)
(see Note 1)
clear of cloud
—
below 1 000 feet AGL
– helicopter
not less than 1 mile (day)
3 miles (night)
(see Note 2)
clear of cloud
—
Uncon­trolled
Airspace
* See CAR 602, Division VI – Visual Flight Rules
** Ground visibility when reported
NOTES 1: Notwithstanding CAR 602.115, an aircraft other
than an helicopter may be operated in visibilities
less than 2 miles during the day, when authorized
to do so in an air operator certificate or in a private
operator certificate.
2: Notwithstanding CAR 602.115, a helicopter
may be operated in visibilities less than 1 mile
during the day, when authorized to do so in an
air operator certificate or in a flight training unit
operator certificate ­helicopter.
Special VFR weather minimum and requirements applicable
within control zones are found in CAR 602.117, and are
summarized as follows:
Where authorization is obtained from the appropriate ATC
unit, a pilot-in-command may operate an aircraft within a
control zone, in IFR weather conditions without compliance
with the IFR, where flight visibility and, when reported,
ground visibility are not less than:
2: Aircraft must operate clear of cloud and within
sight of the ground at all times.
3: Helicopters should operate at such reduced
airspeeds so as to give the pilot-in-command
adequate opportunity to see other air traffic or
obstructions in time to avoid a collision.
4: When the aircraft is being operated at night,
ATC will only authorize special VFR where the
authorization is for the purpose of allowing the
aircraft to land at the destination aerodrome.
RAC
SVFR authorization.
Figure 2.8 - Special VFR Weather Minima
Flight Visibility
(Ground when reported)
Aircraft other
than Helicopter
1 mile
Helicopter
1/2 mile
Distance
from cloud
Clear of cloud
(a)1 mile for aircraft other than helicopters; and
(b)1/2 mile for helicopters.
NOTES 1: All aircraft, including helicopters, must be
equipped with a radio capable of communicating
with the ATC unit and must comply with all
conditions issued by the ATC unit as part of the
2.7.4 VFR Over-the-Top
A person may operate an aircraft VFR Over-the-Top
(VFR-OTT) provided certain conditions are met. Those
conditions include weather minima, aircraft equipment and
pilot qualifications.
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CAR 602.116 specifies the weather minima for VFR-OTT,
and a summary of the minima follows:
October 27, 2005
nature of the operations being conducted.
A TCA is similar to a control area extension except that:
(a) VFR-OTT is allowed during the day only, and during the
cruise portion of the flight only.
(b)The aircraft must be operated at a vertical distance from
cloud of at least 1 000 feet.
(c) Where the aircraft is operated between two cloud layers,
those layers must be at least 5 000 feet apart.
(d)The flight visibility at the cruising altitude of the aircraft
must be at least 5 miles.
(e) The weather at the destination aerodrome must have a sky
condition of scattered cloud or clear, and a ground visibility
of 5 miles or more, with no forecast of precipitation, fog,
thunderstorms, or blowing snow, and these conditions
must be forecast to exist
(i) in the case of an aerodrome forecast (TAF), for the
period from 1 hour before to 2 hours after the ETA;
and
(ii) in the case of an area forecast (GFA) because a TAF
is not available, for the period from 1 hour before to
3 hours after the ETA.
CARs 605.14 and 605.15 outline the aircraft equipment
requirements for VFR-OTT. The equipment requirements in
part, are the same as for VFR flight, with extra requirements
for VFR-OTT.
– a TCA may extend up into the high level airspace;
– IFR traffic is normally controlled by a terminal control
unit. The ACC will control a TCA during periods when a
TCU is not in operation; and
– TCA airspace will normally be designed in a circular
configuration centred on the geographic coordinates
of the primary aerodrome. The outer limit of the
TCA should be at 45 NM radius from the aerodrome
geographic coordinates based at 9 500 feet AGL, with an
intermediate circle at 35 NM based at 2 200 feet AGL and
an inner circle at 12 NM radius based at 1 200 feet AGL.
Where an operational advantage may be gained, the area
may be sectorized. For publication purposes the altitudes
may be rounded to the nearest appropriate increment and
published as heights ASL.
A military terminal control area is the same as a TCA, except
that special provisions prevail for military aircraft while
operating within the MTCA. MTCAs may be designated at
selected military aerodromes where the control service will
be provided by a military TCU, or by ATC, through agreement
with DND.
Pilot qualifications for VFR-OTT flight are specified in CARs,
Part IV – Personnel Licensing and Training.
2.7.5 Transition Areas
RAC
Transition areas are established when it is considered
advantageous or necessary to provide additional controlled
airspace for the containment of IFR operations.
Transition areas are of defined dimensions, based at 700 feet
AGL unless otherwise specified, and extend upwards to the
base of overlying controlled airspace. The area provided
around an aerodrome will normally be 15 NM radius of
the aerodrome coordinates, but shall be of sufficient size
to contain all of the aerodrome published instrument
approach procedures.
2.7.6 Terminal Control Areas
Terminal control areas are established at high volume traffic
airports to provide an IFR control service to arriving,
departing and enroute aircraft. Aircraft operating in the
TCA are subject to certain operating rules and equipment
requirements. The TCA operating rules are established by the
classification of the airspace within the TCA. These rules will
be based on the level of ATC service that is appropriate for the
number and type of aircraft using the airspace as well as the
176
2.8 Classification of Airspace
Canadian Domestic Airspace is divided into seven classes,
each identified by a single letter – A, B, C, D, E, F, or G. Flight
within each class is governed by specific rules applicable to
that class and are contained in CAR 601, Division I, Airspace
Structure, Classification and Use.
The rules for operating within a particular portion of airspace
depends on the classification of that airspace and not on the
name by which it is commonly known. Thus, the rules for
flight within a high level airway, a terminal control area or a
control zone depend on the class of airspace within all or part
of those areas. Weather minima are specified for controlled or
October 27, 2005
uncontrolled airspace, not for each class of airspace.
2.8.1 Class A Airspace
Class A airspace is designated where an operational need
exists to exclude VFR aircraft.
All operations must be conducted under Instrument Flight
Rules and are subject to ATC clearances and instructions.
ATC separation is provided to all aircraft.
All aircraft operating in Class A airspace must be equipped
with a transponder and automatic pressure altitude
reporting equipment.
Class A airspace will be designated from the base of all high
level controlled airspace up to and including FL600.
2.8.2 Class B Airspace
Class B airspace is designated where an operational need
exists to provide air traffic control service to IFR and to
control VFR aircraft.
Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. All
aircraft are subject to ATC clearances and instructions. ATC
separation is provided to all aircraft.
All low level controlled airspace above 12 500 feet ASL or
at and above the MEA, whichever is higher, up to but not
including 18 000 feet ASL will be Class B airspace.
Control zones and associated terminal control areas may also
be classified as Class B airspace.
NOTES1: No person shall operate an aircraft in Class B
controlled airspace in VFR flight unless:
at all times. When it becomes evident that flight in
VMC will not be possible at the altitude or along
the route specified, the pilot shall:
(a) request an ATC clearance which will enable
the aircraft to be operated in VMC to the filed
destination, or to another aerodrome;
(b) where the person is the holder of a valid
instrument rating, request an IFR clearance for
flight under the instrument flight rules; or
(c) where the Class B airspace is a control zone,
request an authorization for special VFR flight.
3: A person operating an aircraft in Class B
controlled airspace in VFR flight who is unable
to comply with the requirements of the preceding
paragraphs shall ensure that:
(a) the aircraft is operated in VMC at all
times;
(b) the aircraft leaves Class B controlled
airspace:
(i) by the safest and shortest route, either
exiting horizontally or descending, or
(ii)when that airspace is a control zone, by
landing at the aerodrome on which the control
zone is based, and
(c) an ATC unit is informed as soon as possible
of the actions taken pursuant to paragraph (b).
2.8.3 Class C Airspace
Class C airspace is a controlled airspace within which both
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but VFR flights require
a clearance from ATC to enter. ATC separation is provided
between all aircraft operating under IFR and, as necessary
to resolve possible conflicts, between VFR and IFR aircraft.
Aircraft will be provided with traffic information. Conflict
resolution will be provided, upon request, after VFR aircraft
is provided with traffic information.
Traffic information is issued to advise pilots of known or
observed air traffic which may be in proximity to their
aircraft’s position or intended route of flight warranting their
attention. Conflict resolution is defined as the resolution of
potential conflicts between IFR/VFR and VFR/VFR aircraft
that are radar identified and in communication with ATC.
(b) a continuous listening watch is maintained
by a flight crew member on a radio frequency
assigned by ATC;
Airspace classified as Class C becomes Class E airspace when
the appropriate ATC unit is not in operation.
(c) except as otherwise authorized by ATC,
when the aircraft is over a reporting point a
position report is transmitted to the appropriate
unit or, when so directed by ATC, to an FSS; and
Terminal control areas and associated control zones may be
classified as Class C airspace.
(d) the aircraft is operated in VMC at
all times.
2: A person operating an aircraft on a VFR flight in
Class B airspace shall operate the aircraft in VMC
RAC
(a) the aircraft is equipped with:
(i) radio communication equipment capable of
two-way communication with the appropriate
ATS facility, and
(ii) radio navigation equipment capable of
using navigation facilities to enable the aircraft
to be operated in accordance with the flight
plan, and
(iii)a transponder and automatic pressure
altitude reporting equipment;
TC AIM
A person operating an aircraft in VFR flight in Class C
airspace shall ensure that:
(a) the aircraft is equipped with
(i) radio communication equipment capable of two-way
communication with the appropriate ATC unit, and
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(ii) a transponder and automatic pressure altitude
reporting equipment; and
(b)a continuous listening watch is maintained by a flight crew
member on a radio frequency assigned by ATC.
Aircraft are required to be equipped with a transponder
and automatic pressure altitude equipment to operate in
Class E airspace that is specified as transponder airspace (see
RAC 1.9.2).
A person wishing to operate an aircraft that is not equipped
with functioning communication and transponder equipment
for VFR flight in Class C airspace may, during daylight hours
and in VMC, enter Class C airspace provided that permission
to enter and to operate within the airspace is obtained from
ATC prior to the operation being conducted.
Low level airways, control area extensions, transition areas,
or control zones established without an operating control
tower may be classified as Class E airspace.
2.8.4 Class D Airspace
Class D airspace is a controlled airspace within which both
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but VFR flights must
establish two-way communication with the appropriate ATC
agency prior to entering the airspace. ATC separation is
provided only to IFR aircraft. Aircraft will be provided with
traffic information. Equipment and workload permitting,
conflict resolution will be provided between VFR and IFR
aircraft, and upon request between VFR aircraft.
Airspace classified as Class D becomes Class E airspace
when the appropriate ATC unit is not in operation.
A terminal control area and associated control zone could be
classified as Class D airspace.
A person operating an aircraft in VFR flight in Class D
airspace shall ensure that:
RAC
(a) the aircraft is equipped with
(i) radio communication equipment capable of two-way
communication with the appropriate ATC unit, and
(ii) where the Class D airspace is specified as Transponder
Airspace (see RAC 1.9.2), a transponder and automatic
pressure altitude reporting equipment; and
(b)a continuous listening watch is maintained by a flight crew
member on a radio frequency assigned by ATC.
A person operating an aircraft in VFR flight that is not
equipped with the required radio communication equipment
may, during daylight hours in VMC, enter Class D airspace
provided that permission to enter is obtained from the
appropriate ATC unit prior to operating within the airspace.
2.8.5 Class E Airspace
Class E airspace is designated where an operational need exists
for controlled airspace but does not meet the requirements for
Class A, B, C, or D.
Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC
separation is provided only to aircraft operating under IFR.
There are no special requirements for VFR.
178
October 27, 2005
2.8.6 Class F Airspace
Class F airspace is airspace of defined dimensions within
which activities must be confined because of their nature and
(or) within which limitations may be imposed upon aircraft
operations that are not a part of those activities.
Special use airspace may be classified as Class F advisory,
or as Class F restricted, and can be controlled airspace,
uncontrolled airspace, or a combination of both. An advisory
area, for example, may have its base in uncontrolled airspace
and its CAP in controlled airspace. The significance, in this
instance, is that the weather minima would be different in the
controlled and uncontrolled portions.
When areas of Class F airspace are inactive, they will assume
the rules of the appropriate surrounding airspace.
Class F airspace shall be designated in the Designated
Airspace Handbook (TP 1820E) in accordance with the
Airspace Regulations, and shall be published on the
appropriate aeronautical charts.
Charting of Class F Airspace
All designated Class F restricted and advisory airspace is
published on HI or LO Charts, as applicable, and on VFR
aeronautical charts.
Each restricted and advisory area within Canada has been
assigned an identification code group which consists of the
four following parts:
Part (a)
the nationality letters “CY”;
Part (b) the letter “R” for restricted area (the letter “D” for
danger area if a restricted area is established over
international waters) or the letter “A” for advisory
area; and
Part (c)
a three-digit number which will identify the
area. This number will indicate the Canadian
region within which the area lies according to the
following table:
101 to 199 – British Columbia
201 to 299 – Alberta
301 to 399 – Saskatchewan
401 to 499 – Manitoba
501 to 599 – Ontario
601 to 699 – Quebec
October 27, 2005
701 to 799 – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,
Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland
801 to 899 – Yukon Territory
901 to 999 – Northwest Territories
(including the Arctic Islands)
Part (d) in the case of advisory areas, the letter A, F, H, M,
P, S or T in brackets after the three-digit number
will indicate the type of activity within the area as
follows:
A
– acrobatic
F
– aircraft test area
H
– hang gliding
M
– military operations
P
– parachuting
S
– soaring
T
– training
Example: The identification code group CYA113(A) is as
follows:
CY
– indicates Canada
A
– indicates advisory
113
– indicates the number of an area in
British Columbia
(A)
– indicates acrobatic activity takes place
within the area.
All altitudes will be inclusive unless otherwise indicated (e.g.,
5 000 to 10 000 feet). To indicate when either the bottom or
upper altitude is not included, the words below and above will
be placed before the appropriate altitude (e.g., above 5 000 to
10 000 feet, or 5 000 to below 10 000 feet).
Advisory Airspace
There are no specific restrictions which apply to the use of
advisory airspace. VFR aircraft are, however, encouraged
to avoid flight in advisory airspace unless participating in
the activity taking place therein. If necessary, pilots of nonparticipating flights may enter advisory areas at their own
discretion; however, due to the nature of the aerial activity,
extra vigilance is recommended. Pilots of participating
aircraft, as well as pilots flying through the area, are equally
responsible for collision avoidance.
ATC will not clear IFR aircraft through Class F airspace
except if:
(a) The pilot states that he/she has obtained permission from
the user agency to enter the airspace;
(c) The aircraft has been cleared for a contact or
visual approach.
IFR aircraft shall be provided 500 feet vertical separation
from an active Class F advisory airspace, unless wake
turbulence minima is applicable, in which case 1 000 feet
vertical separation shall be applied.
Pilots intending to fly in Class F advisory airspace are
encouraged to monitor an appropriate frequency, to
broadcast their intentions when entering and leaving the
area, and to communicate, as necessary, with other users,
to ensure flight safety in the airspace. In a Class F advisory
uncontrolled airspace area, 126.7 MHz would be an
appropriate frequency.
NOTE: Military operations in a Class F airspace may be
UHF only.
Restricted Airspace
A restricted area is an airspace of defined dimensions above
the land areas or territorial waters within which the flight
of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified
conditions. Restricted airspace is designated for safety
purposes when the level or type of aerial activity, surface
activity, or the protection of a ground installation requires the
application of restrictions within that airspace.
No person may conduct aerial activities within active Class F
restricted airspace unless permission has been obtained from
the user agency. In some instances, the user agency may
delegate the appropriate, controlling agency the authority to
approve access. IFR flights will not be cleared through active
restricted areas unless the pilot states that permission has
been obtained.
The User Agency is the civil or military agency or organization
responsible for the activity for which the Class F airspace has
been provided. It has the jurisdiction to authorize access to
the airspace when it is classified restricted. The User Agency
must be identified for Class F restricted airspace, and where
possible, it should be identified for Class F advisory airspace.
RAC
Airspace may be classified as Class F advisory airspace if it
is airspace within which activity occurs that, for flight safety
purposes, non-participating pilots should be aware of, such as
training areas, parachute areas, hang gliding areas, military
operations areas, etc.
TC AIM
Any restricted area which may be established over international
waters, but controlled by Canadian ATC, will by published as
a “Danger Area” in accordance with ICAO requirements.
Special use areas will be designated restricted areas and
identified by the prefix CYR followed by a three digit number
which identifies the location of the area.
Restricted airspace may also be designated for elements of
existing structure, if its use would facilitate the efficient flow
of air traffic.
There are two additional methods of restricting airspace.
(b)The aircraft is operating on an Altitude Reservation
Approval (ALTRV APVL); or
(a) CAR 601.16 – Issuance of NOTAM for Forest Fire Aircraft
Operating Restrictions, is designed to allow the Minister,
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by NOTAM, to restrict flight around and over forest fire
areas or areas where forest fire control operations are
being conducted. The provisions of this Section can be
invoked quickly via NOTAM by Transport Canada. (See
RAC 2.9.2.)
(b)Section 5.1 of the Aeronautics Act allows the Minister
to restrict flight in any airspace, for any purpose, by
NOTAM. This authority is delegated by the Minister to
cover specific situations such as well fires, disaster areas,
etc., for the purpose of ensuring safety of flight for air
operations in support of the occurrence.
It should be noted that airspace which is restricted by
invoking CAR 601.16 or Section 5.1 of the Aeronautics Act
is not Class F restricted airspace. The airspace has not been
classified in accordance with the Airspace Regulations. This
distinction is important to those who are charged with the
responsibility for restricting airspace, since their actions are
governed by the provisions of the Statutory Instruments Act.
October 27, 2005
However, ATS units do provide flight information and alerting
services. The alerting service will automatically alert search
and rescue authorities once an aircraft becomes overdue which
is normally determined from data contained in the flight plan
or flight itinerary.
In effect, Class G is all uncontrolled domestic airspace.
Low level air routes are contained within Class G airspace.
They are basically the same as a low level airway except that
they extend upwards from the surface of the earth and are not
controlled. The lateral dimensions are identical to that for a
low level airway (see RAC 2.7.1).
2.9 Other Airspace Divisions
Additional airspace divisions have been designated in order
to increase safety or make allowances for the remote or
mountainous regions within Canada. These divisions (or
regions)are: Altimeter Setting Region, Standard Pressure
Region and Designated Mountainous Region.
Joint Use Airspace
Joint Use airspace is Class F airspace within which operations
may be authorized by the controlling agency when it is not
being utilized by the user agency.
Class F restricted airspace should be available for use by nonparticipating aircraft when all or part of the airspace is not
required for its designated purpose.
To ensure maximum utilization of restricted airspace, user
agencies should be encouraged to make available restricted
airspace for the conduct of operations or training of other
agencies or commands on a joint-use basis.
RAC
The Air Traffic Control agency may be designated to provide
air traffic control or information service within the Class F
airspace involved. A controlling agency will normally be
assigned when there is joint use of the airspace.
NOTAM
It is permissible to designate Class F restricted airspace by
NOTAM if the following prerequisites are met:
(a) the area of restricted airspace is required for a specified
period of time of relative short duration (i.e. several hours
or days); and
2.9.1 Altitude Reservation
An altitude reservation is an airspace of defined dimensions
within controlled airspace, reserved for the use of a civil
or military agency during a specified period. An altitude
reservation may be confined to a fixed area (stationary)
or moving in relation to the aircraft that operates within it
(moving). Information on the description of each altitude
reservation is normally published by NOTAM. Civil altitude
reservations are normally for a single aircraft while those for
military use are normally for more than one aircraft.
Pilots should plan to avoid known altitude reservations. ATC
will not clear an unauthorized flight into an active reservation.
IFR and CVFR flights are provided with standard separation
from altitude reservations.
2.9.2 Temporary Flight Restrictions - Forest Fires
In the interest of safe and efficient fire fighting operations, the
Minister may issue a NOTAM restricting flights over a forest
fire area to those operating at the request of the appropriate
fire control authority (i.e., water bombers), or to those with
written permission from the Minister.
The NOTAM would identify the following:
(a) the location and dimensions of the forest fire area;
(b)the appropriate NOTAM is issued at least 24 hours in
advance of the area’s activation.
2.8.7 Class G Airspace
Class G airspace is airspace that has not been designated
Class A, B, C, D, E or F and within which ATC has neither
the authority or responsibility for exercising control over
air traffic.
180
(b)any airspace in which forest fire control operations are
being conducted; and
(c) the length of time during which flights are restricted in
the airspace.
No person shall operate an aircraft in the airspace below
3 000 feet AGL within 5 NM of the limits of a forest fire
October 27, 2005
area or as described in a NOTAM (CARs 601.15, 601.16,
and 601.17).
2.10 Altimeter Setting Region
The altimeter setting region is an airspace of defined
dimensions below 18 000 feet ASL (see CAR 602.35 and
Figure 2.9) within which the following altimeter setting
procedures apply:
Departure – Prior to takeoff, the pilot shall set the aircraft
altimeter to the current altimeter setting of that aerodrome
or, if that altimeter setting is not available, to the elevation of
the aerodrome.
En route – During flight the altimeter shall be set to the
current altimeter setting of the nearest station along the route
of flight or, where such stations are separated by more than
150 NM, the nearest station to the route of flight.
Arrival – When approaching the aerodrome of intended
landing the altimeter shall be set to the current aerodrome
altimeter setting, if available.
2.11 Standard Pressure Region
The standard pressure region includes all airspace over
Canada at or above 18 000 feet ASL (the high level airspace),
and all low level airspace that is outside of the lateral limit of
the altimeter setting region (see Figure 2.9 and CAR 602.36).
Within the standard pressure region the following flight
procedures apply;
Departure – Prior to takeoff the pilot shall set the aircraft
altimeter to the current altimeter setting of that aerodrome
or, if the altimeter setting is not available, to the elevation of
that aerodrome. Immediately prior to reaching the flight level
at which flight is to be conducted, the altimeter shall be set
to standard pressure (29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.2 mbs).
If the planned cruising flight level is above FL180, resetting
the altimeter to 29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.2 mbs at
18 000 feet ASL is acceptable and meets the requirement of
CAR 602.36.
cruise level flight below FL180 is to be made or anticipated.
Transition – CAR 602.37 – Altimeter Setting and Operating
Procedures in Transition between Regions, specifies that
except as otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft progressing
from one region to another shall make the change in the
altimeter setting while within the standard pressure region
prior to entering, or after leaving, the altimeter setting region.
If the transition is to be made into the altimeter setting
region while in level cruising flight, the pilot should obtain
the current altimeter setting from the nearest station along
the route of flight as far as practical before reaching the
point at which the transition is to be made. When climbing
from the altimeter setting region into the standard pressure
region, pilots shall set their altimeters to standard pressure
(29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.2 mbs) immediately after
entering the standard pressure region. When descending into
the altimeter setting region, pilots shall set their altimeters
to the appropriate station altimeter setting immediately prior
to descending into the altimeter setting region. Normally, the
pilot will receive the appropriate altimeter setting as part of
the ATC clearance prior to descent. If it is not incorporated in
the clearance, it should be requested by the pilot.
NOTE: When an aircraft is operating in the standard pressure
region with standard pressure set on the altimeter
subscale, the term “flight level” is used in lieu of
“altitude” to express its height. Flight level is always
expressed in hundreds of feet. For example FL250
represents an altimeter indication of 25 000 feet;
FL50, an indication of 5 000 feet.
Figure 2.9 – Altimeter Setting and Standard Pressure Regions
RAC
General – Except as otherwise indicated below, no person
shall operate an aircraft within the standard pressure region
unless the aircraft altimeter is set to standard pressure, which
is 29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.2 mbs. (See Note).
TC AIM
Arrival – Prior to commencing descent with the intention to
land, the altimeter shall be set to the current altimeter setting
of the aerodrome of intended landing, if available. However, if
a holding procedure is conducted, the altimeter shall not be set
to the current aerodrome altimeter setting until immediately
prior to descending below the lowest flight level at which the
holding procedure is conducted. Pilots of aircraft descending
from cruising flight levels above FL180 may reset altimeters
to the current altimeter setting of the aerodrome of intended
landing when approaching FL180 provided no holding or
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TC AIM
October 27, 2005
2.12 Mountainous Regions
Designated mountainous regions are areas of defined lateral
dimensions, specified in the Designated Arispace Handbook,
above which special rules concerning minimum IFR altitudes
to ensure obstacle clearance (CAR 602.124) apply.
repeated in RAC 3.9.
Figure 2.11 – Air Defence Identificaiton Zone
An aircraft, when operated in accordance with IFR within
designated moutnainous regions, but outside of areas for which
minium altitues for IFR operations have been esstablished
(including minimum radar vectoring altitudes, MOCAs,
transition altitudes, 100NM safe altitudes, MSAs and AMAs),
shall be flown at an altitude of at least 2000 feet above the
highest obstacle within 5NM of the aricraft in flight when in
areas 1 and 5, and at least 1500 feet above the highest obstacle
within 5NM when in areas 2, 3 and 4. (See Figure 2.10.)
As minimum enroute IFR altitudes have been established for
designated airways and air routes, such minimum altitudes
shall be applied when flying in accordance with IFR along
airways or air routes within designated mountainous regions,
except that aircraft should be operated at an altitude which
is at least 1000 feet higher than the minimum enroute IFR
altitude, when there are large varioations in temperature and
(or) pressure. (See RAC 8.5)
Figure 2.10 – Designated Mountainous
Regions in Canada
3.0 FLIGHT PLANNING
3.1 General
The flight planning requirements contained in this Section are
based, in part, on the CAR, Part VI, General Operating and
Flight Rules.
The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall, before commencing
a flight, be familiar with the available information that is
appropriate to the intended flight (CAR 602.71).
RAC
The ICAO flight plan format is used for both Canadian domestic
and international flights. For Canadian domestic flights, the
form is used for both flight plans and flight itineraries.
3.2 Weather Briefing
The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall, before commencing
a flight, be familiar with the available weather information
that is appropriate to the intended flight (CAR 602.72).
Pilots should refer to the MET Section for complete aviation
weather information.
3.3 NOTAM Information
2.13 Emergency Communications and Security
The rules for operating within the Air Defence Identificaiton
Zone (ADIZ) are specified in CAR 602.145 – ADIZ, and are
182
NOTAM information is available at all ATS units, and at
certain operations offices. Telephone numbers for all FSSs are
listed in the CFS and/or the WAS.
Canadian domestic NOTAMs are disseminated via AFTN
and stored electronically on a NOTAM file concept. There
are three categories of NOTAM files: National NOTAMs, FIR
NOTAMs and aerodrome NOTAMs. Before commencing a
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
flight, pilots must ensure that each NOTAM file category
has been reviewed, in order to be familiar with all NOTAMs
appropriate to the intended flight (see MAP 5.0 for details).
Canadian domestic and international NOTAMs have different
distribution lists. Only Canadian domestic NOTAMs that
concern international flights are sent out internationally (in
the ICAO format), therefore all pertinent Canadian domestic
NOTAM files must be consulted to obtain NOTAM information
for flights within Canada (see MAP 5.2 for details).
3.4 Single Source Preflight Service
females may be reduced by 13 lbs or 5.9 kg.
3.5.1 Actual Weights
Actual weights are best determined by weighing each
passenger, including exterior clothing and carry-on baggage.
Where weight scales are not available, and company-approved
standard weights or AIP average weights are not appropriate,
passenger weights may be determined by:
(a) asking each passenger for their weight; and
(b)adding on an allowance for clothing*; and
3.4.1 FSS
When planning a flight, pilots can obtain weather information,
NOTAMs and file a flight plan/itinerary at an FSS. Preflight
requirements can be accomplished by making a toll-free
telephone call to the nearest FSS (listed in the CFS).
3.4.2 DUATS
Flight plans/itineraries may also be filed via DUATS.
3.5 Weight and Balance Form
The CARs require that aircraft be operated within the weight
and balance limitations specified by the manufacturer. Actual
passenger weights should be used, but where these are not
available, the following average passenger weights, which
include clothing and carry-on baggage, may be used.
(c) adding on 13 lbs or 5.9 kg per passenger, except infants, if
carry-on baggage is permitted.
*NOTE:Clothing is not normally worn during personal
weight measurements. An allowance of at least 8 lbs
or 3.6 kg in summer, or 14 lbs or 6.4 kg in winter, is
to be used.
3.5.2 Fuel and Oil Weights
Fuel and oil weights were obtained from the Canadian
Government Standards Bureau specifications. It should be
remembered that the capacity of tanks is often expressed in
U.S. gallons. The standard weights of fuel and oil are:
NOTE: These average weights are derived from a
Statistics Canada Survey, Canadian Community
Health Survey Cycle 2.1, 2003.
Winter
200 lbs or 90.7 kg
MALES
(12 yrs up)
206 lbs or 93.4 kg
165 lbs or 74.8 kg
FEMALES
(12 yrs up)
171 lbs or 77.5 kg
75 lbs or 34 kg
CHILDREN
(2-11 yrs)
75 lbs or 34kg
30 lbs or 13.6 kg
*INFANTS
(0 to less than 2 yrs)
RAC
Summer
30 lbs or 13.6 kg
* Add where infants exceed 10% of Adults
NOTES1: On any flight identified as carrying a number
of passengers whose weights, including carryon baggage, will exceed the company-approved
standard weights, or the average weights published
in the AIP, the actual weight of such passengers are
to be used. The actual weights are to be obtained
as described in 3.5.1.
2: Where no carry-on baggage is permitted or
involved, the AIP average weights for males and
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October 27, 2005
Temperature
Fuel
-40ºC
-20ºC
LBS per
LBS per
0ºC
LBS per
30ºC
LBS per
LBS per
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
Aviation Kerosene
CAN 2-3, 23M81 (JET A, JET
1.93
A-1, JET A-2) and
Arctic Diesel
8.80
7.32
1.90
8.65
7.19
1.87
8.50
7.09
1.85
8.39
7.00
1.83 8.27
6.91
Aviation Wide
Cut Fuel CAN 21.85
3, 23-M80 {F-40
(JP4) and JET B
8.38
6.99
1.82
8.24
6.88
1.79
8.11
6.78
1.77
8.01
6.68
1.74
7.92
6.60
Aviation Gasoline
All Grades CAN
1.69
2-3, 25-M82 (AV
GAS)
7.68
6.41
1.65
7.50
6.26
1.62
7.33
6.12
1.59
7.20
6.01
1.56 7.07
5.90
Temperature
-10ºC
Fuel
0ºC
LBS per
LBS per
10ºC
20ºC
30ºC
LBS per
LBS per
LBS per
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
litre
imp.
gal
U.S.
gal.
Piston Engine 65
Grade
1.98
8.98
7.46
1.97
8.92
7.46
1.95
8.85
7.38
1.94
8.78
7.33
1.92
8.71
7.28
120 Grade
2.01
9.10
7.59
1.99
9.03
7.54
1.97
8.96
7.46
1.96
8.88
7.41
1.94
8.82
7.35
Turbine engine lubricating oil densities at 15˚C
3cS oils 2.09 lbs/litre; 9.4 lbs/imp. gal; 7.92 lbs/U.S. gal.
5cS oils 2.15 lbs/litre; 10.1 lbs/imp. gal; 8.14 lbs/U.S. gal.
flight plan information to an air traffic control unit, a flight
service station or a community aerodrome radio station.
RAC
NOTE: The weights shown are for the maximum density
of the various temperatures. The actual fuel
weight for specific conditions can usually be
obtained from the dealer supplying the fuel.
Notwithstanding any of the requirements mentioned above,
pilots are required to file a flight plan when operating between
Canada and a foreign state.
Conversion factors for litres to Imperial gallons
and kilograms to pounds are found in GEN 1.9.2.
3.6.2 Filing (CAR 602.75)
602.75
3.6 Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries
3.6.1 When Required
CAR 602.73 states that no pilot-in-command shall operate an
aircraft in VFR flight unless a VFR flight plan or a VFR flight
itinerary has been filed, except where the flight is conducted
within 25 nautical miles of the departure aerodrome.
(1) A flight plan shall be filed with an air traffic control
unit, a flight service station or a community aerodrome
radio station.
(2)A flight itinerary shall be filed with an air traffic control
unit, aflight service station, a community aerodrome radio
station or a responsible person.
(a) the flight is conducted in part or in whole outside controlled
airspace; or
(3)A flight plan or flight itinerary, where applicable, shall be
filed by
(a) sending, delivering or otherwise communicating
the flight plan or flight itinerary or the information
contained therein; and
(b) receiving acknowledgement that the flight plan or
flight itinerary or the information contained therein
has been received.
(b)facilities are inadequate to permit the communication of
A “responsible person” means an individual who has agreed
No pilot-in-command shall operate an aircraft in IFR flight
unless an IFR flight plan or an IFR flight itinerary has been
filed. A pilot-in-command may file an IFR flight itinerary
instead of an IFR flight plan where
184
15ºC
October 27, 2005
with the person who has filed a flight itinerary to ensure that
the following are notified in the manner prescribed in this
Section, if the aircraft is overdue:
(a) an ATC unit, a FSS or a community aerodrome radio
station; or
(b)a Rescue Co-ordination Centre.
NOTE: The notification requires the flight itinerary
information.
The timely filing of IFR flight plans or flight itineraries is
essential to allow air traffic control personnel time to extract
and record the relevant content, correlate these new data
with available information on other traffic under control,
coordinate as necessary, and determine how the flight may
best be integrated with the other traffic.
Accordingly, in order to assist ATS in improving the service
provided and to allow for sufficient time for input into the
ATS data processing system, pilots are encouraged to file
IFR flight plans or flight itineraries as early as practicable,
preferably at least 30min. prior to their proposed departure
time. Pilots are expected to depart in accordance with the
flight planned estimated time of departure (ETD). Some delay
could be experienced if an IFR clearance is required less than
30 min. after filing. It is also important that ATS be informed
of the circumstances if commencement of an IFR flight is to
be delayed. IFR flight itineraries are limited to one departure
from and one entry into controlled airspace; multiple exits and
entries into controlled airspace will not be accepted by ATS.
3.6.3 Flight Plan Requirements – Flights
Between Canada and a Foreign State
is delayed or cancelled. If an extension or cancellation to a
filed flight plan or flight itinerary has not been received by
the proposed time of departure, the responsible ATS unit will
activate the flight plan or flight itinerary, using the ETD as the
ATD, unless it is known that the aircraft has not departed.
3.7 Changes to the Information in a Flight
Plan or Flight Itinerary
Since control and alerting services are based primarily
on information provided by the pilot, it is essential that
modifications to flight plans and flight itineraries be
communicated to an airtraffic control unit, an FSS, a
community aerodrome radio station or, as applicable, a
responsible person concerned as soon as practicable.
3.7.1 VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
CAR 602.76(3) and (4) specifies that a pilot shall notify as
soon as practicable an air traffic control unit, a flight service
station, a community aerodrome radio station, or as applicable,
responsible person of any change to:
(a) the route of flight,
(b)the duration of the flight, or
(c) the destination aerodrome.
3.7.2 IFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
CAR 602.76(1) and (2) specifies that a pilot shall notify as
soon as practicable an air traffic control unit, a flight service
station, a community aerodrome radio station or responsible
person, as the case may be, of any change to:
(a) the cruising altitude or cruising flight level,
(b)the route of flight,
In the case of transborder flights to the U.S.A. where the
point of departure is in close proximity to the boundary,
flight plans should be filed at least one hour in advance in
order to facilitate adequate co-ordination and data transfer.
Compliance with this procedure will minimize departure
delays. Customs requests are not processed by ATS until an
actual time of departure is received; therefore, for flights in
close proximity to the border, pilots should make their own
arrangements to avoid delays at customs. Refer to the FAL
Section for additional customs information.
3.6.4 Opening a VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
(c) the destination aerodrome, or
RAC
A VFR or IFR flight plan must be filed prior to conducting
any flight between Canada and a foreign state. If the flight
is to any country other than the U.S.A., an ICAO flight plan
must be filed.
TC AIM
(d)when in controlled airspace:
(i) the true airspeed at the cruising altitude or cruising
level where the change intended is 5% or more of the
true airspeed specified in the IFR flight plan, or
(ii) the Mach number, where the change intended is 0.01
or more of the Mach number that has been included
in the air traffic control clearance.
Where the flight is being conducted in controlled airspace,
the pilot shall receive an air traffic control clearance before
making the intended change.
VFR flight plan or flight itinerary should normally be opened
with a control tower, a flight service station or a community
aerodrome radio station (CARS) upon departure to activate
the alerting service. The pilot is responsible for extending
or cancelling the flight plan or flight itinerary if the flight
185
TC AIM
3.8 Composite Flight Plan or Flight
Itinerary—VFR and IFR A composite flight plan/itinerary may be filed that describes
part(s) of the route as operating under VFR and part(s) of the
route as operating under IFR. All rules governing VFR or IFR
apply to that portion of the route of flight. A composite flight
plan or flight itinerary shall not be filed for an aircraft that will
enter airspace controlled by the FAA, including Canadian
Domestic Airspace delegated to the FAA, as composite data
cannot be correctly processed between NAV CANADA and
FAA systems.
A pilot who files IFR for the first part of a flight and VFR
for the next part will be cleared by ATC to the point within
controlled airspace at which the IFR part of the flight ends. A
pilot who files VFR for the first part of a flight and IFR for the
next part are expected to contact the appropriate ATC unit for
clearance prior to approaching the point where the IFR portion
of the flight commences. If direct contact with an ATC unit is
not possible, the pilot may request the ATC clearance through
an FSS. It is important that the flight continue under VFR
conditions until an appropriate ATC IFR clearance within
controlled airspace is issued and acknowledged by the pilot.
3.9 Defence VFR Flight Plans and Defence
Flight Itineraries (CAR 602.145)
CAR 602.145 outlines the requirements when operating into
or within the Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ). In
order to ensure that the Air Traffic System (ATS) is aware
that VFR flights will be operating into or within the ADIZ,
ATS requires that pilots file a Defence Flight Plan or Flight
Itinerary as depicted at RAC 3.16.2.
RAC
CAR 602.145 ADIZ states:
602.145 ADIZ
(1) This Section applies in respect of aircraft before entering
into and while operating within the ADIZ, the dimensions
of which are specified in the Designated Airspace
Handbook.
(2)Every flight plan or flight itinerary required to be filed
pursuant to this Section shall be filed with an air traffic
control unit, a flight service station or a community
aerodrome radio station.
186
(3)The pilot-in-command of an aircraft whose point of
departure within the ADIZ or last point of departure before
entering the ADIZ has facilities for the transmission of
flight plan or flight itinerary information shall:
(a) before takeoff, file a defence flight plan or defence
flight itinerary;
(b) in the case of a VFR aircraft where the point of
departure is outside the ADIZ,
(i) indicate in the flight plan or flight itinerary the
October 27, 2005
estimated time and point of ADIZ entry, and
(ii) as soon as possible after takeoff, communicate
by radio to an air traffic control unit, a flight
service station or a community aerodrome
radio station a position report of the aircraft’s
location, altitude, aerodrome of departure and
estimated time and point of ADIZ entry; and
(c) in the case of a VFR aircraft where the point of
departure is within the ADIZ, as soon as possible
after takeoff, communicate by radio to an air traffic
control unit, a flight service station or a community
aerodrome radio station a position report of the
aircraft’s location, altitude and aerodrome of
departure.
(4)The pilot-in-command of an aircraft whose point of
departure within the ADIZ or last point of departure
before entering the ADIZ does not have facilities
for the transmission of flight plan or flight itinerary
information shall:
(a) as soon as possible after takeoff, file by radio
communication a flight plan or flight itinerary; and
(b) in the case of a VFR aircraft, indicate in the flight
plan or flight itinerary the estimated time and point
of ADIZ entry, if applicable.
(5)The pilot-in-command of a VFR aircraft shall revise the
estimated time and point of ADIZ entry and inform an air
traffic control unit, a flight service station or a community
aerodrome radio station, when the aircraft is not expected
to arrive:
(a) within plus or minus five minutes of the estimated
time at:
(i) a reporting point,
(ii) the point of ADIZ entry, or
(iii) the point of destination within the ADIZ; or
(b) within 20 nautical miles of:
(i) the estimated point of ADIZ entry, or
(ii) the centre line of the route of flight indicated in
the flight plan or flight itinerary.
3.10 Intermediate Stops
Intermediate stops may not be included in a single IFR flight
plan. Except for transborder flights, a single VFR flight plan
or an IFR or VFR flight itinerary including one or more
intermediate stops en route may be filed provided:
(a) for VFR flight plans, the stop will be of short duration (for
purposes such as boarding passengers, and refuelling);
(b)for IFR flight itineraries, the stop will be in uncontrolled
airspace; and
(c) each intermediate stop is indicated by repeating the
name of the stopping point and its duration in the route
Section of the flight plan/itinerary. Record the duration of
the stopover in hours and minutes with four consecutive
digits. Example: CYXU 0045 CYXU. You may include a
October 27, 2005
phone number for the stopover in the “Remark” section of
the flight plan or flight itinerary, if available, as this may
be useful in case of search and rescue.
Transborder Canada / U.S.A. flight plans shall be filed to the
customs point of entry only to avoid unnecessary alerting
service procedures from being initiated due to delays created
in the process of clearing customs. Flight plans for locations
beyond the customs point of entry may be filed with an FAA
Flight Service Station.
When intermediate stops are planned, the “Estimated
Elapsed Time” must be calculated as the total time to the final
destination, including the duration of the intermediate stop(s).
It should be noted that Search and Rescue (SAR) action would
only be initiated at the specified SAR time or, in the event
that a SAR time is not indicated, 60 minutes for a flight plan
and 24 hours for a flight itinerary after the ETA at the final
destination. Pilots wishing SAR action based on every leg
of a flight should file one flight plan or flight itinerary for
each stop.
3.10.1 Consecutive IFR Flight Plans
Consecutive IFR flight plans may be filed at the initial point of
departure providing the following points are adhered to:
(a) initial point of departure and enroute stops must be in
Canada except that one flight plan will be accepted for a
departure point within United States controlled airspace;
(b)the sequence of stops will fall within one 24-hour period;
3.11 Cross Country Instrument Training Flights
A cross country instrument training flight is one in which
there are no intermediate stops and one or more instrument
approaches are made enroute. For example, an aircraft departs
Airport A, completes a practice approach at Airport B and
either lands at destination Airport C or returns to land at
Airport A.
The following apply:
(a) A single flight plan is filed.
(b)Those enroute locations at which instrument approaches
and overshoots are requested shall be listed in the “Other
Information” portion of the flight plan form, together with
the estimated period of time to carry out each approach
(i.e., REQ NDB RWY 32 AT B-15 MIN.).
(c) The estimated elapsed time (EET)of the flight plan form is
NOT to include the estimated time to carry out approaches
at the enroute locations.
(d)ATC will normally clear the aircraft to final destination.
(e) If it is not practicable to clear the aircraft to final destination
or to assign an operationally suitable altitude with the
initial clearance, a time or specific location for the aircraft
to expect further clearance to the destination or to a higher
altitude will be issued with the initial clearance.
(f) When an enroute approach clearance is requested, a
missed approach clearance will be issued to the aircraft
prior to the commencement of the approach.
(g)If traffic does not permit an approach, holding instructions
will be issued to the aircraft if requested by the pilot.
3.12 Closing
In order to comply with CAR 602.77, an arrival report for
a flight plan shall be submitted to an ATC unit, a FSS or a
community aerodrome radio station as soon as practicable
after landing but not later than
(a) the search and rescue time specified in the flight plan; or
(b)where no search and rescue time is specified in the flight
plan, one hour after the last reported estimated time
of arrival.
RAC
(c) the flight planning unit must be provided with at least
the following items of information for each stage of the
flight:
(i) point of departure,
(ii) altitude,
(iii) route,
(iv) destination,
(v) proposed time of departure,
(vi) estimated elapsed time,
(vii) alternate,
(viii)fuel on board, and, if required,
(A) TAS,
(B) number of persons on board, and
(C) where an arrival report will be filed.
TC AIM
A pilot who terminates a flight itinerary shall ensure that an
arrival report is filed with an ATC unit, a FSS, a community
aerodrome radio station or, where the flight itinerary was filed
with a responsible person, the responsible person as soon as
practicable after landing but not later than
(a) the search and rescue time specified in the flight itinerary;
or
(b)where no search and rescue time was specified in the flight
itinerary, 24 hours after the last reported estimated time
of arrival.
A pilot who terminates an IFR flight at an aerodrome where
there is an operating ATC unit or FSS is not required to file
an arrival report unless requested to do so by the appropriate
ATC unit or FSS.
187
TC AIM
When submitting an arrival report, the pilot should clearly
indicate that he/she was operating on a flight plan or flight
itinerary and wishes it to be closed. Failure to close a flight
plan or flight itinerary will initiate SAR action. It should not
be assumed that ATS personnel will automatically file arrival
reports for VFR flights at locations served by control towers
and FSSs. Toll-free calls as outlined in the CFS may be made
to an ATS facility for this purpose.
In addition to VFR and IFR fuel requirements, every aircraft
shall carry an amount of fuel that is sufficient to provide for
3.12.1 Arrival Report
(d)landing at a suitable aerodrome in the event of loss of cabin
pressurization or, in the case of a multi-engined aircraft,
failure of any engine, at the most critical point during the
flight; and
CAR 602.78 specifies that the contents of an arrival report for
a flight plan or flight itinerary, which are listed in the CFS,
shall include:
(a) the aircraft registration mark, flight number or radio
call sign;
(b)the type of flight plan or flight itinerary;
(c) the departure aerodrome;
(d)the arrival aerodrome, and
(e) the date and time of arrival.
3.12.2 Closing of a Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary
Prior to Landing
A pilot, who conducts a flight in respect of which a flight plan
or flight itinerary has been filed with an air traffic control unit,
flight service station, or community aerodrome radio station,
has the option of closing the flight plan or flight itinerary with
an air traffic control unit, flight service station, or community
aerodrome radio station prior to landing.
RAC
The closure of a flight plan or flight itinerary prior to landing
is considered as filing an arrival report, and as such, it will
result in the termination of all alerting services with respect
to search and rescue notification.
When flying IFR, use of the phrase “Cancelling IFR” results
in ATC discontinuing the provision of IFR separation, but
it does not automatically close the flight plan or itinerary.
Therefore, alerting service with regards to search and rescue
notification is still active and is based upon the information
submitted in the original flight plan or itinerary. Because the
pilot is now flying in accordance with Visual Flight Rules
(VFR), the flight plan or itinerary must either be closed prior
to landing, or an arrival report filed after landing, with an air
traffic control unit, a flight service station or a community
aerodrome radio station.
3.13 Fuel Requirements
The fuel requirements contained in this Section do not apply
to gliders, balloons or ultra-light aeroplanes. (CAR 602.88)
188
October 27, 2005
(a) taxiing and foreseeable delays prior to takeoff;
(b)meteorological conditions;
(c) foreseeable air traffic routings and traffic delays;
(e) any other foreseeable conditions that could delay the
landing of the aircraft.
3.13.1 VFR Flight
An aircraft operated in VFR flight shall carry an amount of
fuel that is sufficient to allow the aircraft
(a) in the case of an aircraft other than a helicopter,
(i) when operated during the day, to fly to the destination
aerodrome and then to fly for 30 minutes at normal
cruising speed, or
(ii) when operated at night, to fly to the destination
aerodrome and then to fly for 45 minutes at normal
cruising speed, or
(b)in the case of a helicopter, to fly to the destination
aerodrome and then to fly for 20 min. at normal
cruising speed.
3.13.2 IFR Flight
An aircraft operated in IFR flight shall carry an amount of
fuel that is sufficient to allow the aircraft
(a) in the case of a propeller-driven aeroplane,
(i) where an alternate aerodrome is specified in the
flight plan or flight itinerary, to fly to and execute an
approach and a missed approach at the destination
aerodrome, to fly to and land at the alternate
aerodrome, and then to fly for a period of 45 minutes,
or
(ii) where an alternate aerodrome is not specified in the
flight plan or flight itinerary, to fly to and execute an
approach and a missed approach at the destination
aerodrome and then to fly for a period of 45 minutes;
or
(b)in the case of a turbojet powered aeroplane or
a helicopter,
(i) where an alternate aerodrome is specified in
the flight plan or flight itinerary, to fly to and
execute an approach and a missed approach at the
destination aerodrome, to fly to and land at the
alternate aerodrome, and then to fly for a period of
October 27, 2005
30 minutes, or
(ii) where an alternate aerodrome is not specified
in the flight plan or flight itinerary, to fly to and
execute an approach and a missed approach at the
destination aerodrome and then to fly for a period of
30 minutes.
3.14 Requirements for Alternate Aerodrome
— IFR Flight
Except as otherwise authorized by the Minister in an air
operator certificate (AOC) or in a private operator certificate,
no pilot-in-command shall operate an aircraft in IFR flight
unless the IFR flight plan or IFR flight itinerary that has been
filed for the flight includes an alternate aerodrome having
a landing area suitable for use by that aircraft. No pilot-incommand of an aircraft shall include an alternate aerodrome
in an IFR flight plan or IFR flight itinerary unless available
weather information indicates that the ceiling and ground
visibility at the alternate aerodrome will, at the expected
time of arrival, be at or above the alternate aerodrome
weather minima criteria specified in the CAP. (CARs 602.122
and 602.123)
Aerodrome forecasts (TAF) that contain the terms BECMG,
TEMPO or PROB may be used to determine the weather
suitability of an aerodrome as an alternate, provided that:
(a) where conditions are forecast to improve, the forecast
BECMG condition shall be considered to be applicable
as of the end of the BECMG time period, and these
conditions shall not be below the published alternate
minima requirements for that aerodrome;
(c) the forecast TEMPO condition shall not be below
the published alternate minima requirements for that
aerodrome; and
(d)the forecast PROB condition shall not be below the
appropriate landing minima for that aerodrome.
3.14.1 Alternate Aerodrome Weather Minima Requirements
Authorized weather minima for alternate aerodromes are to
be determined using the information presented in the tables
below. The “Alternate Weather Minima Requirements”
table presented in the CAP GEN Section (reproduced
below), supersedes all alternate weather minima published
on the aerodrome charts in the CAP. The minima derived
for an alternate aerodrome shall be consistent with aircraft
performance, navigation-equipment limitations, functioning
navigation aids, type of weather forecast and runway to
be used.
Pilots can take credit for a GNSS approach at an alternate
aerodrome, provided that the planned destination aerodrome
is served by a functioning traditional approach aid; and the
pilot verifies that the integrity, provided by RAIM or WAAS
(wide area augmentation system), and that is required for
a lateral navigation (LNAV) approach, is expected to be
available at the planned alternate aerodrome at the expected
time of arrival at the alternate, as explained in COM 3.16.12.
Note that if credit is taken for a GNSS approach at an alternate
aerodrome to fulfill the legal requirements for flight planning,
no part of the approach at the destination may rely on GNSS.
Otherwise, when determining alternate aerodrome weather
minima requirements, the pilot shall only take credit for
functioning traditional aids at that aerodrome.
If credit is being taken for a GNSS-based approach at the
alternate, the published LNAV minima are the lowest landing
limits for which credit may be taken when determining
alternate weather minima requirements. No credit may be
taken for lateral navigation / vertical navigation (LNAV/
VNAV) or localizer performance with vertical guidance
(LPV) minima.
Pilots may take credit for the use of GNSS in lieu of traditional
ground-based NAVAIDs at a filed alternate aerodrome, as per
COM 3.16.9 and COM 3.16.12.
ALTERNATE WEATHER MINIMA REQUIREMENTS
FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT
SUITABLE ALTERNATE
WEATHER REQUIREMENTS
TWO OR MORE USABLE
PRECISION APPROACHES,
each providing straight-in
minima to separate
suitable runways
400-1 or 200-1/2 above lowest
usable HAT and visibility, whichever
is greater.
ONE USABLE
PRECISION APPROACH
600-2* or 300-1 above the lowest
usable HAT and visibility, whichever
is greater.
800-2* or 300-1 above the lowest
usable HAT/HAA and visibility,
whichever is greater.
Forecast weather must be no lower
than 500 ft above a minimum IFR
altitude that will permit a VFR
approach
and landing.
NON-PRECISION
ONLY AVAILABLE
NO IFR
APPROACH AVAILABLE
FOR HELICOPTERS, where
instrument approach
procedures are available
RAC
(b)where conditions are forecast to deteriorate, the forecast
BECMG condition shall be considered to be applicable
as of the start of the BECMG time period, and these
conditions shall not be below the published alternate
minima requirements for that aerodrome;
TC AIM
Ceiling 200 ft above the minima
for the approach to be flown, and
visibility at least 1 SM, but never
less than the minimum visibility for
the approach to
be flown.
*600-2 and 800-2, as appropriate, are considered to be STANDARD ALTERNATE
MINIMA.
Should the selected alternate weather requirements meet
the standard minima, then the following minima are
also authorized:
189
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
STANDARD ALTERNATE
MINIMA
IF STANDARD IS APPLICABLE,
THEN THE FOLLOWING
MINIMA ARE ALSO
AUTHORIZED
CEILING
VISIBILITY
CEILING
VISIBILITY
600
2
700
800
1 1/2
1
800
2
900
1000
1 1/2
1
NOTES1: These requirements are predicated upon the
aerodrome having a TAF available.
2: Aerodromes served with an AERODROME
ADVISORY forecast may qualify as an alternate,
provided the forecast weather is no lower
than 500 ft above the lowest usable HAT/HAA
and the visibility is not less than 3 mi.
3: Aerodromes served with a GRAPHIC AREA
FORECAST (GFA)
may qualify as an
alternate, provided the forecast weather contains:
(a) no cloud lower than 1 000 ft above the
lowest usable HAT/HAA;
(b) no cumulonimbus; and
(c) a visibility that is not less than 3 mi.
4: Ceiling minima are calculated by reference to the
procedure HAA or HAT. Ceiling values in aviation
forecasts are established in 100–ft increments. Up
to 20 ft, use the lower 100–ft increment; above
20 ft, use the next higher 100–ft increment:
Examples:
HAA 620 ft
HAA 621 ft
HAT 420 ft
HAT 421 ft
RAC
= ceiling value of 600 ft;
= ceiling value of 700 ft;
= ceiling value of 400 ft;
= ceiling value of 500 ft;.
5: Calculated visibilities should not exceed 3 mi.
Caution: All heights specified in a GFA are ASL, unless
otherwise indicated.
The emphasis of these criteria is placed upon the availability
of the lowest usable landing HAT/HAA and visibility for an
aerodrome. In determining the lowest usable landing HAT/
HAA and visibility, the pilot should consider:
(a) the operational availability of the ground navigational
equipment by consulting NOTAM;
(b)the compatibility of the aircraft equipment with the ground
navigational equipment;
(c) the forecast surface wind conditions could dictate the
landing runway and associated approach minima;
(d)the operational applicability of terms BECMG, TEMPO
and PROB within the forecast (see RAC 3.14);
(e) all heights mentioned within a GFA are ASL heights,
190
unless otherwise indicated, and the terrain elevation must
be applied in order to determine the lowest forecast ceiling
at a particular location; and
(f) alternate minima values determined from a previous
flight operation may not be applicable to a subsequent
flight operation.
3.15 Completion of Canadian Flight Plan /
Flight Itinerary and ICAO Flight Plan
3.15.1 General
The flight plan form is to be used for Canadian flight plans
or flight itineraries and ICAO flight plans. Completion of the
form is simply a matter of inserting the requested information
in the appropriate boxes. The white boxes relate to required
information for both Canadian flight plans/ flight itineraries
and ICAO flight plans. The shaded boxes indicate the
information which is applicable only to Canadian flight plans
/ flight itineraries.
NOTE: A Canadian flight plan is used for flights from Canada
to the United States
3.15.2 Canadian
A Canadian flight plan / flight itinerary shall contain such
information as is specified in the Canada Flight Supplement
(CFS). This includes:
•
aircraft identification
•
flight rules
•
type of flight
•
number (if more than one)
•
type of aircraft
•
wake turbulence category
•
equipment
•
departure aerodrome
•
time of departure (UTC) – proposed/actual
•
cruising speed
•
altitude/level
•
route
•
destination aerodrome
•
estimated elapsed time enroute (EET)
•
SAR time (not required in an ICAO flight plan)
•
alternate aerodrome(s)
•
other information (ADCUS if applicable)
•
endurance (flight time in hours and minutes)
•
total number of persons on board
•
category of emergency locator transmitter
(not required in an ICAO flight plan)
•
survival equipment (type, jackets, dinghies)
•
aircraft colour and markings
•
remarks (regarding other survival equipment)
•
arrival report – where it will be filed (not
required in an ICAO flight plan)
•
name and number or address of person or
company to be notified if SAR action initiated
October 27, 2005
•
•
(not required in an ICAO flight plan)
pilot’s name
pilot’s licence number (Canadian pilot licence
only – not required in an ICAO flight plan)
TC AIM
Examples are:
• Aircraft Registration:
• Operating Agency and ACA123, KLM672, etc.
Flight Number:
• Tactical Call Sign:
BRUNO12, SWIFT45, RED1, etc.
3.15.3 ICAO
Flight plans for international flights originating in, or entering
Canada shall be filed in the ICAO format, as specified in
ICAO Doc 4444-RAC/501/ Mil GPH 270 DOD FLIGHT
INFO PUBLICATION.
For the purpose of flight planning, flights between Canada
and the Continental United States are not classed as
“international flights”.
3.15.4 Instructions for Completing the Form
(a) Adhere closely to the prescribed formats and manner of
specifying data.
Commence inserting data in the first space provided. Where
excess space is available, leave unused spaces blank.
Insert all clock times in 4 figures UTC.
Insert all estimated elapsed times (EET) in 4 figures
(hours and minutes for flight plans)
NOTE: Because EETs on a flight itinerary may include
days as well as hours and minutes: insert the EET in
6 figures if required.
Shaded area preceding Item 3 – to be completed by ATS
and COM services, unless the responsibility for originating
flight plan messages has been delegated.
NOTE: The term “aerodrome” where used in the flight
plan is intended to cover also sites other than aerodromes
which may be used by certain types of aircraft, e.g.,
helicopters or balloons.
(b)Instructions for insertion of ATS data:
(i) Complete Items 7 to 18 as indicated hereunder.
(ii) Complete also Item 19 to facilitate alerting of
SAR services.
NOTE: Item numbers on the form are not consecutive, as
they correspond to Field Type numbers in ATS messages.
ICAO:
(a) The registration marking of the aircraft (e.g., E1AKO,
4XBCD, N2567GA), when:
(i) in radiotelephony, the call sign to be used by the
aircraft will consist of this identification alone
(e.g., OOTEK), or preceded by the ICAO telephony
designator for the aircraft operating agency (e.g.,
SABENA OOTEK);
(ii) the aircraft is not equipped with radio; or
(b)the ICAO designator for the aircraft operating agency
followed by the flight identification (e.g., KLM511,
NGA213, JTR25) when in radiotelephony the call sign to
be used by the aircraft will consist of the ICAO telephony
designator for the operating agency followed by the flight
identification (e.g., KLM511).
NOTE: Provisions for the use of radiotelephony call signs are
contained in Annex 10, Volume II, Chapter 5. ICAO
designators and telephony designators for aircraft
operating agencies are contained in Doc 8585,
Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies,
Aeronautical Authorities and Services.
3.16.2 Item 8: Flight Rules and Type of Flight
(a) Flight Rules (1 character) (ICAO and Canadian): INSERT
one of the following letters to denote the category of flight
rules with which the pilot intends to comply:
I
for IFR
V for VFR
Y for IFR first, then VFR
Z for VFR first, then IFR
If “Y” or “Z” is filed, specify, in the route Section of the
flight plan, the point(s) where a change in flight rules is
planned. Similarly, where there is more than one change
in the type of flight rules, the code to be used is to reflect
the first rule, i.e., use “Z” for VFR/IFR/VFR.
(b)Type of Flight (2 characters):
3.16 Contents of a Flight Plan /Itinerary
INSERT one of the following letters to denote the type of
flight when so required by the appropriate ATS authority:
3.16.1 Item 7: Aircraft Identification (maximum 7 characters)
First character (Canadian only – as applicable):
C for Controlled VFR
D for Defence Flight Plan
E for Defence Flight Itinerary
F for Flight Itinerary
Canadian:
Normally, this consists of the aircraft registration letters
or the company designator followed by the flight number.
RAC
N123B, CGABC, 4XGUC, etc.
191
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October 27, 2005
Second character (ICAO, as applicable):
S for Scheduled Air Service
N for Non-scheduled Air Transport Operation
G for General Aviation
M for Military
X for other than the preceding categories
3.16.3 Item 9: Number and Type of Aircraft and
Wake Turbulence Category
(a) Number of Aircraft (1 or 2 characters): Insert the number
of aircraft, if more than one.
(b)Type of Aircraft (2 to 4 characters): Insert the appropriate
ICAO aircraft type designator. If no such designator has
been assigned, or in the case of formation flights comprising
more than one type, insert “ZZZZ” and specify in Item 18
the number(s)and type(s)of aircraft preceded by “TYP/”.
(c) ICAO Wake Turbulence Category (1 character):
/H – HEAVY, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum
certificated takeoff mass of 136 000 kg (300 000 lbs)
or more.
/M –MEDIUM, to indicate an aircraft type with a
maximum certificated takeoff mass of less than
136 000 kg (300 000 lbs), but more than 7 000 kg
(15 500 lbs).
/L – LIGHT, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum
certificated takeoff mass of 7 000 kg (15 500 lbs)
or less.
RAC
INSERT one letter as follows:
N if no COM, NAV or approach aid equipment for
the route to be flown is carried, or the equipment is
unserviceable; or
S if standard COM, NAV and approach aid equipment
for the route to be flown is available and serviceable
(see Note 1)
192
(Not allocated))
M
(Not allocated)
B
(Not allocated)
O
VOR
C
LORAN C
P
(Not allocated)
D
DME
Q
(Not allocated)
F
G
H
I
J
K
ADF
GNSS (Note 5)
HF RTF
INS
Data Link (Note 3)
MLS
T
U
V
W
X
Y
L
ILS
Z
RNP type certification
(Note 4)
TACAN
UHF
VHF
RVSM Certification
MNPS Certification
CMNPS Certification
(Note 6)
Other equipment carried
(Note 2)
2: If the letter “Z” is used, specify in Item 18 the
other equipment carried, preceded by COM/ and/
or NAV/, as appropriate.
3: If the letter “J” is used, specify in Item 18 the
equipment carried, preceded by DAT/ followed by
one or more letters, as appropriate.
4: Inclusion of the letter “R” indicates that an
aircraft meets the RNP (e.g. RNPC airspace) type
prescribed for the route segment(s), route(s) and/
or area concerned.
5: When using the letter “G” on an IFR flight plan,
the GPS receiver must be approved in accordance
with the requirements specified in TSO C-129
(Class A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 or C2), installed and
approved in accordance with the appropriate
sections of the Airworthiness Manual, and
operated in accordance with the approved flight
manual or flight manual supplement. Pilots are
encouraged to use the letter “G” on VFR flight
plans when using GPS to assist VFR navigation.
TSO C-129 receivers are not mandatory for
VFR flights.
6: The letter “Y” is only used if an
aircraft operates:
(a) wholly within Canada or from Canada
to the United States and is CMNPS–certified
(Canadian Flight Plan); or
(b) on international routes from or to Canada
(other than in (a) above) and is CMNPS–certified
but not NAT MNPS–
certified (ICAO Flight Plan).
7: Pilots filing /G in conjunction with /I, /X, /
Y, /W or /R should be aware that as a result of
technical limitations, only one equipment suffix
letter is displayed to controllers. As all these
other equipment suffixes have priority over /G for
display, controllers might not be aware of the GPS
capability. In such cases, controllers may apply
greater separation than is necessary in non-radar
airspace. If desired, pilots can advise controllers
verbally of their GPS capability to ensure
optimum separation.
8: The letter “W” is not to be used for formation
AND/OR INSERT one or more of the following letters
to indicate the COM, NAV and approach aid equipment
available and serviceable:
A
R
(a) COM, NAV and Approach Aid Equipment:
(Not allocated)
NOTES1: Standard equipment is considered to be VHF,
ADF, VOR and ILS.
3.16.4 Item 10: Equipment (Canadian and ICAO)
The communication (COM), navigation (NAV), approach aid
and SSR equipment on board and its serviceability must be
inserted by adding the appropriate suffixes. The first suffixes
will denote the COM, NAV and approach aid equipment,
followed by an oblique stroke, and another suffix to denote
the SSR equipment:
E
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
flights, regardless of the RVSM status of aircraft
within the flight.
(b)SSR Equipment (Canadian and ICAO):
INSERT one or two of the following to describe the
serviceable SSR equipment carried:
N Nil
A Transponder—Mode A (4 digits–4096 codes)
C Transponder—Mode A (4 digits–4096 codes)
and Mode C
X Transponder—Mode S without both aircraft
identification and pressure-altitude transmission
P Transponder—Mode S, including
pressure-altitude transmission, but not
aircraft identification transmission
I
Transponder—Mode S, including
aircraft identification transmission, but
not pressure-altitude transmission
S Transponder—Mode S, including both pressurealtitude and aircraft identification transmission.
D Automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) capability
Examples:
A/C
Cessna 172
(C172)
Cessna 414
(C414)
Boeing 747
(B747)
Equipment
VHF only and no transponder
Write
V/N
VHF, VOR, ADF, ILS, DME, HF;
Mode A and C transponder
VHF, VOR, ADF, ILS, DME, HF; and
Mode S transponder, including
pressure-altitude transmission,
but not aircraft identification
transmission
SDH/C
SDH/P
3.16.5 Item13: Departure Aerodrome and Time
On a Canadian flight plan / flight itinerary the point of
departure, stopovers, destination, and the alternate should
be indicated by using the three or four character location
indicators depicted in the CFS, or in the case of a flight to the
USA, in the US Government Flight Information Publication,
e.g., Ottawa – CYOW, Waterville­ CW3, Seattle Tacoma
Int –KSEA.
On an ICAO flight plan, use four character location indicators.
If no location indicator is specified, as is the case in water
aerodromes or many of the land VFR aerodromes, INSERT
ZZZZ and specify in Item 18 the aerodrome / location printed
out in full, e.g., Lake Scugog, Ontario. If the name of the
departure point is not listed in any aeronautical publication,
use degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude.
Time: (maximum 4 characters)
Time – indicate the hour and minutes in Co-ordinated
Universal Time (UTC)
3.16.6 Item 15: Cruising Speed, Altitude/Level and Route
Canadian:
NOTES1: On designated airways and air routes, IFR flights
may be operated at the published MEA/MOCA
except that in winter, when air temperatures may
be much lower than those of the ICAO Standard
Atmosphere (ISA), aircraft should be operated
at an altitude which is at least 1 000 feet higher
than the published MEA/MOCA (see RAC 8.5
and 9.5).
2: Preferred IFR routes, published in the CFS
– PLANNING Section, have been established to
aid in the efficient and orderly management of air
traffic between selected aerodromes. Pilots are
encouraged to file these routes.
Canadian and ICAO:
INSERT
• the first cruising speed as described in (a),
• the first cruising level as described in (b), and
• the route description as described in (c).
(a) Cruising Speed (maximum 5 characters):
INSERT the True Airspeed for the first or the whole
cruising portion of the flight, in terms of:
Kilometres per hour, (ICAO only) expressed as “K”
followed by 4 figures (e.g., K0830),
or, Knots, expressed as “N” followed by 4 figures (e.g.,
N0485),
or, Mach number, when so prescribed by the appropriate
ATS authority, to the nearest hundredth of unit
Mach, expressed as “M” followed by 3 figures
(e.g., M082).
(b)Cruising Level (maximum 5 characters):
INSERT the planned cruising level for the first or the
whole portion of the route to be flown, in terms of:
Flight Level, expressed as “F” followed by 3 figures
(e.g., F085; F330),
or, Standard Metric Level in tens of metres, (ICAO
only) expressed as “S” followed by 4 figures (e.g.,
S1130), when so prescribed by the appropriate
ATS authorities,
or, Altitude in hundreds of feet, expressed as “A”
followed by 3 figures (e.g., A045; A100), or, Altitude
in tens of metres, (ICAO only) expressed as “M”
followed by 4 figures (e.g., M0840),
or, for uncontrolled VFR flights, the letters “VFR”
(ICAO only).
RAC
Departure Aerodrome: (maximum 4 characters)
NOTE: Pilots may file a flight plan or flight itinerary up to
24 hours in advance of the departure time.
(c) Route (including Changes of Speed, Level and/or
Flight Rules)
193
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
to significant points formed by the intersection of
whole degrees of longitude with specified parallels
of latitude which are spaced at 5˚.
Flights Along Designated ATS Routes:
INSERT if the departure aerodrome is located on, or connected
to the ATS route, the designator of the first ATS
route (e.g., if departure aerodrome is Ottawa: V300
ULAMO, etc.)
or, if the departure aerodrome is not on, or connected to
the ATS route, (ICAO only) the letters DCT, followed
by the joining point of the first ATS route, followed
by the designator of the ATS route.
or, (Canadian only) by filing the joining point of the first
ATS route, followed by the designator of the ATS
route (e.g., if departure aerodrome is Ottawa: YSH
R76 YGK).
INSERT (ICAO only) DCT between successive points unless
both points are defined by geographical coordinates
or by bearing and distance.
Canadian:
INSERT (Canadian only) points at which a change of speed
or level, a change of track, or a change of flight rules
is planned. Absence of DCT between points on a
Canadian flight plan/itinerary indicates direct flight.
or,
Canadian and ICAO:
NOTE: When a transition is planned between a lower and
an upper ATS route and the routes are oriented in
the same direction, the point of transition need not
be inserted.
(1) ATS ROUTE (2 to 7 characters):
USE
FOLLOWED IN EACH CASE
by the designator of the next ATS route segment,
even if the same as the previousone, (e.g., if departure
aerodrome is Ottawa: V300 ULAMO, etc.)
or, (ICAO only) by DCT , if the flight to the next point
is outside a designated route, unless both points are
defined by geographical coordinates
or, (Canadian only) by filing the next point if it is outside
a designated route (e.g., if departure aerodrome is
Ottawa: V300 ULAMO 3B, etc.) Absence of DCT
between points on a Canadian flight plan/itinerary
indicates direct flight.
Flights Outside Designated ATS Routes:
RAC
INSERT points normally not more than 30 minutes flying
tim or 370 km (200 NM) apart (ICAO only),
including each point at which a change of speed or
level, a change of track, or a change of flight rules
is planned,
The coded designator assigned to the route or route segment
including, where appropriate, the coded designator
assigned to the standard departure or arrival route (e.g.,
BCN1, B1, R14, UB10, KODAP2A).
The coded designator (2 to 5 characters)assigned to the
point (e.g., LN, MAY, HADDY),
or, if no coded designator has been assigned, one of the
following ways:
degrees only (7 characters): 2 figures describing latitude
in degrees, followed by “N” (North) or “S” (South),
followed by 3 figures describing longitude in degrees,
followed by “E” (East) or “W” (West). Make up the correct
number of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeros,
e.g., 46N078W.
degrees and minutes (11 characters): 4 figures describing
latitude in degrees, and tens and units of minutes followed
by “N” (North) or “S” (South), followed by 5 figures
describing longitude in degrees and tens and units of
minutes, followed by “E” (East) or “W” (West). Make
up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by
insertion of zeros, e.g., 4620N07805W.
bearing and distance from a NAVAID: The identification
of the NAVAID (normally a VOR), in the form of 2 or
3 characters, THEN the bearing from the NAVAID in
the form of 3 figures giving degrees magnetic, THEN
the distance from the NAVAID in the form of 3 figures
expressing nautical miles. Make up the correct number
of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeros – e.g.,
a point 180˚ magnetic at a distance of 40 NM from VOR
“DUB” should be expressed as DUB180040.
when required by appropriate ATS authority(ies),
DEFINE (ICAO only)
the track of flights operating
predominantly in an east – west direction between
70˚N and 70˚S by reference to significant points
formed by the intersections of half or whole degrees
of latitude with meridians spaced at intervals of
10˚ of longitude. For flights operating in areas
outside those latitudes the tracks shall be defined
by significant points formed by the intersection of
parallels of latitude with meridians normally spaced
at 20˚ of longitude. The distance between significant
points shall, as far as possible, not exceed one hour’s
flight time. Additional significant points shall be
established as deemed necessary.
(ICAO only) For flights operating predominantly in
a north – south direction, define tracks by reference
conventions (1) to (5) and SEPARATE each sub-item
by a space.
(2)SIGNIFICANT POINT (2 to 11 characters):
ICAO:
or,
194
when required by appropriate ATS authority(ies),
INSERT each point at which either a change of speed or level,
a change of ATS route, and/or a change of flight rules
is planned, (e.g., YMX/N020A170 IFR)
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
total duration of the flight itinerary shall not exceed
30 days.
(3)CHANGE OF SPEED OR LEVEL (maximum 21 characters):
The point at which a change of speed (5% TAS or 0.01 Mach
or more) or a change of level is planned, expressed exactly
as in (2), followed by an oblique stroke and both the
cruising speed and the cruising level, expressed exactly as
in (a) and (b), without a space between them, even when
only one of these quantities will be changed.
Examples:
LN/N0284A045
MAY/N0305F180
HADDY/N0420F330
4602N07805W/N0500F350
46N078W/M082F330
INSERT ZZZZ followed, without a space, by the total
estimated elapsed time, and SPECIFY in Item 18 the
name of the aerodrome, preceded by DEST/.
NOTE: For a flight plan received from an aircraft in flight,
the total EET is the estimated time from the first
point of the route to which the flight plan applies.
INSERT the ICAO 4-letter (Canadian 3-or 4-letter/
number)location indicator(s) of not more than two
alternate aerodromes, separated by a space,
or,
INSERT ZZZZ and SPECIFY in Item 18 the name of the
aerodrome, preceded by ALTN/.
Examples:
LN
LN/N0284A050 IFR (5)
3.16.8 Item18: Other Information
VFR
NOTE: No alternate is required on a VFR flight
plan/itinerary.
INSERT 0 (zero) if no other information,
or,
any other necessary information in the preferred
sequence shown hereunder, in the form of the
appropriate indicator followed by an oblique stroke
and the information to be recorded:
The letter “C” followed by an oblique stroke; THEN the
point at which cruise climb is planned to start, expressed
exactly as in (2), followed by an oblique stroke; THEN
the speed to be maintained during cruise climb, expressed
exactly as in (a), followed by the two levels defining
the layer to be occupied during cruise climb, each level
expressed exactly as in (b), or the level above which cruise
climb is planned followed by the letters PLUS, without a
space between them.
EET/
Significant points or FIR boundary designators and
accumulated estimated elapsed times to such points
or FIR boundaries, when so prescribed on the basis
of regional air navigation agreements, or by the
appropriate ATS authority.
Examples:
C/48N050W/M082F290F350
C/48N050W/M082F290PLUS
C/52N050W/M220F580F620
3.16.7 Item16: Destination Aerodrome, Total Estimated Elapsed Time, SAR Time
(Canadian only)and Alternate
Aerodrome(s)
(a) Destination Aerodrome and Total Estimated Elapsed Time
(10 characters max)
INSERT the ICAO 4-letter (Canadian/U.S. 3- or 4-letter/
number)location indicator of the destination
aerodrome followed by the total estimated
elapsed time,
NOTE: in the case of a Canadian flight itinerary, as applicable,
the EET may also include the number of days. The
Examples:
EET/CAP0745 XYZ0830
EET/EINN0204
RIF/
The route details to the revised destination aerodrome,
followed by the ICAO 4–letter (Canadian/U.S. 3- or
4-letter/number) location indicator of the aero-drome.
The revised route is subject to reclearance in flight.
RAC
if no location indicator has been assigned to the
alternate aerodrome,
The point at which the change of flight rules is planned,
expressed exactly as in (2) or (3) as appropriate, followed
by a space and one of the following: VFR if from IFR to
VFR IFR if from VFR to IFR
(5)CRUISE CLIMB (maximum 28 characters):
if no location indicator has been assigned,
INSERT SAR time (4 characters)( maximum of 24 hours)
(b)Alternate Aerodrome(s) (4 characters – ICAO) (3 or 4 –
Canadian/U.S.)
(4)CHANGE OF FLIGHT RULES (maximum 3 characters):
or,
Examples:
RIF/DTA HEC KLAX
RIF/ESP G94 CLA APPH
RIF/LEMD
REG/ The registration markings of the aircraft, if different
from the aircraft identification in Item 7.
SEL/
SELCAL Code, if so prescribed by the appropriate
ATS authority (e.g.SEL/ BMDL)
OPR/
Name of the operator, if not obvious from the aircraft
identification in Item7.
STS/
Reason for special handling by ATS, e.g., hospital
aircraft, one engine inoperative would be: STS/
HOSP, STS/ONE ENG INOP, Medical Evacuation
STS/MEDEVAC, No radio STS/NORDO, Receiver
195
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
Only STS/ RONLY, Hazardous Cargo on Board STS/
HAZ.
TYP/
Type(s) of aircraft, preceded if necessary by
number(s)of aircraft, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 9.
PER/
Aircraft performance data, if so prescribed by the
appropriate ATS authority.
Transmitter (ELT)categories should be entered in the
“ELT TYPE” box on the Flight Plan /Flight Itinerary
forms. These categories (types) are described
in SAR 3.2.
S/(SURVIVALEQUIPMENT)
COM/ Significant data related to communication equipment
as required by the appropriate ATS authority, e.g.,
COM/UHF only.
CROSS OUT all indicators if survival equipment is
not carried.
CROSS OUT indicator P if polar survival equipment
is not carried.
DAT/
Data link Capability (DAT/S=satellite; H=HF;
V=VHF; M=Mode S)
CROSS OUT indicator D if desert survival equipment
is not carried.
NAV/
Significant data related to navigation equipment
as required by the appropriate ATS authority, e.g.,
NAV/INS.
CROSS OUT indicator M if maritime survival
equipment is not carried
DEP/
Name of departure aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted in
Item 13, or the ICAO 4–letter (Canadian/U.S. 3- or
4-letter/number) location indicator of the location of
the ATS unit from which supplementary flight plan
data can be obtained, if AFIL is inserted in Item 13.
CROSS OUT indicator J if junge survival equipment
is not carried.
J/(JACKETS)
DEST/ Name of destination aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted
in Item 16.
ALTN/ Name of alternate aerodrome(s), if ZZZZ is inserted
in Item 16.
D/(DINGHIES (NUMBER)
RALT Name of enroute alternate aerodrome(s).
RMK/ Any other plain language remarks when required by
the appropriate ATS authority or deemed necessary,
i.e., when flying from Canada to the U.S.A., use
the term ADCUS and indicate the number of U.S.
citizens, non-U.S. citizens and the pilot’s name
(RMK/ADCUS 4 U.S. 2 others SRennick); (TCAS
equipped – ICAO only).
3.16.9 Item 19: Supplementary Information
RAC
Endurance:
AFTER E/
CROSS OUT indicators D and C if no dinghies are
carried, or INSERT number of dinghies carried; and
(CAPACITY)
INSERT total capacity, in persons, of all dinghies
carried; and
(COVER)
CROSS OUT indicator C if dinghies are not covered;
and
(COLOUR)
INSERT colour of dinghies if carried.
A/(AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS)
INSERT a 4-figure group giving the fuel endurance
in hours and minutes.
INSERT colour of aircraft and significant markings.
Tick appropriate box for wheels, skis, etc.(Canadian
use only)
Persons On Board:
N/(REMARKS)
AFTER P/
INSERT the total number of persons (passengers and
crew) on board, when required by the appropriate
ATS authority. INSERT TBN (to be notified) if the
total number of persons is not known at the time
of filing.
Emergency and Survival Equipment:
CROSS OUT indicator U if UHF on frequency
243.0 MHz is notavailable. CROSS OUT
indicator V if VHF on frequency 121.5 MHz
is not available. CROSS OUT indicator E if an
EmergencyLocator Transmitter (ELT)is not
available. (Canadian use only) Emergency Locator
CROSS OUT indicator N if no remarks, or INDICATE
any other survival equipment carried and any other
remarks regarding survival equipment.
ARRIVAL REPORT
(Canadian use only) Fill in the required information.
AIRCRAFT
R/(RADIO)
196
CROSS OUT all indicators if life jackets are not
carried.CROSS OUT indicator L if life jackets are
not equipped with lights. CROSS OUT indicator F if
life jackets are not equipped with fluorescein CROSS
OUT indicator U or V or both (as in R/)to indicate
radio capability of jackets, if any.
(Canadian use only) Indicate the aircraft owner,
person(s)or Company to be notified if search and
rescue action is initiated.
C/(PILOT)
INSERT name of pilot-in-command.
INSERT pilot’s licence number (Canadian use only)
October 27, 2005
TC AIM
Figure 3.1 – Composite IFR/VFR/IFR Flight Itinerary
Explanation of Figure 3.1 – Composite IFR/VFR/IFR Flight Itinerary
Item 8:
Y indicates a composite flight of IFR and VFR with the
first leg IFR
F
indicates a flight itinerary
G indicates a general aviation aircraft
Item 9:
Aircraft is a Beechcraft 100
Item 10:
S indicates standard COM/NAV equipment of VHF,
ADF, VOR, ILS
D indicates DME equipped
/C indicates transponder Mode A (4 digits – 4096 codes)
and Mode C
Item 13:
Departure aerodrome is Saskatoon at 0900
Item 15:
Speed is 170 knots
Altitude is 5 000 feet
JQ3 indicates direct flight from Lumsden to the aerodrome
at Carlyle
(5200) indicates a stopover at Carlyle in hours and
minutes
Second JQ3 indicates there will be a stopover at Carlyle
VLN indicates direct flight from Carlyle to the
Lumsden VOR
N0170A060IFR indicates that the altitude is changed
to 6 000 feet and the next leg will be IFR (although the
speed did not change, if there is a change to either speed
or altitude, both have to be indicated)
Route is V306 from Lumsden to the Saskatoon VOR
Item 16:
Destination aerodrome is Saskatoon
Estimated elapsed time (EET) from takeoff to landing at
Saskatoon is 2 days and 6 hours (this includes the flight
time and the stopover time at Carlyle)
Search and Rescue (SAR) time of 6 hours indicates the
pilot’s desire to have SAR action initi ated at 6 hours
after the total EET of the trip; in other words, 2 days and
12 hours after takeoff from Saskatoon (if there is no entry
in this block the SAR activation time would be 24 hours
after the EET)
Alternate aerodrome is Prince Albert
Item 18:
Although no other information is provided in this
example, this section is for listing any other information
as previously described in RAC 3.0.
Item 19:
Flying time endurance is 5 hours There are 2 people in the
aircraft (including crew)
X over U indicates there is no UHF emergency radio
Un-altered V indicates there is VHF emergency radio
Un-altered E under ELT indicates there is an emergency
locator transmitter
AP under ELT
portable ELT
Unaltered P under POLAR indicates polar equipment
is carried
Unaltered J and L indicates that life jackets with lights
are carried
Xs on D and C indicate there are no dinghies
TYPE
indicates
an
RAC
Item 7:
Aircraft identification
Route is V306 to the Lumsden VOR
VFR indicates a change in flight rules to VFR at
Lumsden
automatic
197
TC AIM
October 27, 2005
Figure 3.3 – VFR Flight Plan
Aircraft colour and markings are self explanatory
X on N indicates there are no additional remarks on
survival gear
Example indicates closure with Saskatoon tower.
Contact name and number is self explanatory
Pilot’s licence number assists SAR specialists in their search
Figure 3.2 – IFR Flight Plan (ICAO)
CANADIAN FLIGHT PLAN / ITINERARY
PLAN DE VOL / ITIN…RAIRE DE VOL CANADIEN
ICAO FLIGHT PLAN
PLAN DE VOL OACI
ADDRESSEE(S) / DESTINATAIRE(S)
PRIORITY / PRIORIT…
FF
FILING TIME / HEURE DE D…P‘T
ORIGINATOR / EXP…DITEUR
SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF ADDRESSEE(S) AND/OR ORIGINATOR / IDENTIFICATION PR…CISE DU(DES) DESTINATAIRE(S) ET/OU DE L'EXP…DITEUR
3 MESSAGE TYPE
TYPE DE MESSAGE
7 AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION
IDENTIFICATION DE L'A…RONEF
8 FLIGHT RULES
R»GLES DE VOL
(FPL
9 NUMBER / NOMBRE
16
TYPE OF AIRCRAFT / TYPE D'A…RONEF
13
DEPARTURE AERODROME / A…RODROME DE D…PART
15
CRUISING SPEED
VITESSE DE CROISI»RE
ALTITUDE/ LEVEL / NIVEAU
10 EQUIPMENT / …QUIPEMENT
TIME / HEURE
ROUTE / ROUTE
DESTINATION AERODROME TOTAL EET / DUR…E TOTALE ESTIM…E
A…RODROME DE DESTINATION DAYS/JOURS HRS.
MINS.
18
TYPE OF FLIGHT
TYPE DE VOL
WAKE TURBULENCE CAT.
CAT. DE TURBULENCE DE SILLAGE
HRS.
SAR
MINS.
M
ALTN
TN A
AERODROME
2ND. ALTN. AERODROME
A…RODROME
…ROD
DE D…GAGEMENT
2»ME AERODROME DE D…GAGEMENT
OTHER INFORMATION / RENSEIGNEMENTS DIVERS
)
19
EMERGENCY RADIO / RADIO DE SECOURS
ENDURANCE / AUTONOMIEE
HR.
MIN
PERSONS ON
O BOARD / PE
PERSONNES ¿ BORD
E
UHF
P
R
SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT / …QUIPEMENT
PEMENT DE SURVIE
S
POLAR
DESERT
RT
MARITIME
POLAIRE
D…SERT
T
MARITIME
S
P
D
M
D
U
V
JACKETS / GILETS DE SAUVETAGE
LIGHT
FLUORES
LAMPES
FLUORES
JUNGLE
JUNGLE
DINGHIES / CANOTS
NUMBER
CAPACITY
COVER
NOMBRE
CAPACIT… COUVERTURE
VHF
J
J
L
F
ELT
ELT TYPE
E
UHF
VHF
U
V
COLOUR
COULEUR
C
WHEELS SEAPLANE
AMPHIBIAN
SKIS
ROUES HYDRAVION
AMPHIBIE
AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS / COULEUR ET MARQUES DE L'A…RONEF
A
REMARKS / REMARQUES
N
AN ARRIVAL REPORT WILL BE FILED WITH - UN COMPTE RENDU D'ARRIV…E SERA NOTIFI… ¿:
RAC
198
NAME AND PHONE NUMBER OR ADDRESS OF PERSON(S) OR COMPANY TO BE NOTIFIED IF SEARCH AND RESCURE ACTION INITIATED
NOM ET NUM…RO DE T…L…PHONE OU ADRESSE DE LA (DES) PERSONNE(S) OU COMPAGNIE ¿ AVISER SI DES R…CHERCHES SONT ENTREPRISES
PILOT-IN-COMMAND / PILOTE COMMANDANT DE BORD
C
.
FILED BY/ D…POS… PAR
PILOT'S LICENCE No./No DE LICENCE DU PILOTE
)
SPACE RESERVED FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS / ESPACE R…SERV… ¿ DES FINS SUPPL…MENTAIRES
October 27, 2005
4.0 AIRPORT OPERATIONS
4.1 General
Pilots must be particularly alert when operating in the vicinity
of an airport. Increased traffic congestion, aircraft in climb
and descent attitudes, and pilots preoccupied with cockpit
duties, are some of the factors that increase the accident
potential near airports. The situation is further compounded
when the weather only just meets VFR requirements.
Several operators have, for some time, been using their landing
lights when flying at lower altitudes and within terminal
areas, both during daylight hours and at night. Pilot comment
has confirmed that the use of landing lights greatly increases
the probability of the aircraft being seen. An important side
benefit for improved safety is that birds appear to see aircraft
showing lights in time to take avoiding action. In view of
this, it is recommended that, when so equipped, all aircraft
use landing lights during the take­off and landing phases and
when flying below 2 000 ft AGL within terminal areas and
aerodrome traffic patterns.
ATC towers equipped with radar have the capability of
providing an increased level of service to the aviation
community. The Class of airspace determines the controller’s
responsibilities vis-à-vis separation between IFR and VFR
aircraft, and between VFR and VFR aircraft. Control staff
in certain towers will be able to assist aircraft in establishing
visual separation through the provision of radar vectors, radar
monitoring and altitude assignments. Use of the radar will
also result in more efficient control of VFR aircraft.
Incidents have occurred, when aircraft are being operated
VFR within control zones, when the flight visibility is less than
three miles due to local smoke, haze, rain, snow, fog or other
condition. CAR 602.114 requires a minimum of three miles
ground visibility for VFR flight within a control zone. This
visibility is, of course, taken by a person on the ground and
does not preclude the possibility that the visibility aloft may
be less. Good airmanship requires that a pilot encountering
less than three miles flight visibility within a control zone
will either:
(b)remain clear of the area of reduced visibility and request a
special VFR clearance from ATC.
Pilots shall maintain a listening watch on the appropriate
tower frequency while under control of the tower. Whenever
possible, requests for radio checks and taxi instructions should
be made on the appropriate ground control frequency. After
establishing initial contact with the control tower, pilots will
be advised of any frequency changes required.
4.1.1 Wake Turbulence
Wake turbulence has its greatest impact on departure and
arrival procedures; however, pilots should not assume that it
will only be encountered in the vicinity of aerodromes. Caution
should be exercised whenever a flight is conducted anywhere
behind and less than 1 000 ft below a large aircraft.
In Canada, aircraft groups and wake turbulence minima are
as follows:
Group 1 (Heavy)
All aircraft certified for a maximum
take-off weight of 300 000 lbs or more.
Group 2 (Medium) Aircraft certified for a maximum takeoff weight of between 12 500 and
300 000 lbs.
Group 3 (Light)
Aircraft certified for a take-off weight
up to 12 500 lbs inclusive.
Radar Departures
Controllers generally apply the following radar separation
minima between a preceding IFR/VFR aircraft and an aircraft
vectored directly behind it and at less than 1 000 ft below:
Heavy behind a Heavy:
Light behind a Heavy:
Medium behind a Heavy:
Light behind a Medium:
4 mi.
6 mi.
5 mi.
4 mi.
Non-Radar Departures
Controllers will apply a two-minute separation interval to
any aircraft that takes off into the wake of a known heavy
aircraft if:
RAC
While aircraft shall not be operated at speeds greater
than 200 KT below 3 000 ft AGL and within 10 NM of a
controlled aerodrome (CAR 602.32), there is no mandatory
speed restriction when operating in the vicinity of an
uncontrolled aerodrome. As traffic levels at some of these
aerodromes may be high from time to time, the risk of a
possible mid-air collision is somewhat elevated during
these periods. For this reason, it is recommended that pilots
reduce their aircraft speed to the maximum extent possible
when operating below 3 000 ft AGL and within 10 NM of an
uncontrolled aerodrome.
TC AIM
(a) the aircraft concerned commences the takeoff from the
threshold of the same runway; or
(b)any following aircraft departs from the threshold of a
parallel runway that is located less than 2 500 ft away
from the runway used by the preceding heavy aircraft.
NOTE: ATC does not apply this two-minute spacing interval
between a light following a medium aircraft in the
above circumstances, but will issue wake turbulence
advisories to light aircraft.
Controllers will apply a three-minute separation interval to
any aircraft that takes off into the wake of a known heavy
aircraft, or a light aircraft that takes off into the wake of a
known medium aircraft if:
(a) take action to avoid the area of reduced visibility; or
199
TC AIM
(a) the following aircraft starts its takeoff roll from an
intersection or from a point further along the runway than
the preceding aircraft; or
(b)the controller has reason to believe that the following
aircraft will require more runway length for takeoff than
the preceding aircraft.
ATC will also apply separation intervals of up to three minutes
when the projected flight paths of any following aircraft will
cross that of a preceding heavy aircraft.
In spite of these measures, ATC cannot guarantee that wake
turbulence will not be encountered.
Pilot Waivers
Direction to ATC tower controllers requires that pilots be
advised whenever a requested takeoff clearance is denied
solely because of wake turbulence requirements. The intention
of this advisory is to make pilots aware of the reason for the
clearance denial so that they may consider waiving the wake
turbulence requirement. To aid in the pilots’ decision, the
tower controller will advise the type and position of the wakecreating aircraft. The following phraseologies will be used by
the controller in response to a request for takeoff clearance
when wake turbulence is a consideration:
Tower: NEGATIVE HOLD SHORT FOR WAKE TURBULENCE.
HEAVY BOEING 747, ROTATING AT 6 000 FT; or
October 27, 2005
A pilot-initiated waiver for a VFR departure indicates to
the controller that the pilot accepts responsibility for wake
turbulence separation. The controller will still issue a wake
turbulence cautionary with the takeoff clearance. Controllers
are responsible for ensuring wake turbulence minima are met
for IFR departures. More information on wake turbulence can
be found in AIR 2.9.
4.1.2 Noise Abatement
Pilots and operators must conform to the applicable
provisions of CAR 602.105— Noise Operating Criteria, and
CAR 602.106—Noise Restricted Runways (see RAC Annex)
and the applicable noise abatement procedures published in
the CAP.
Noise operating restrictions may be applied at any aerodrome
where there is an identified requirement. When applied at an
aerodrome, the procedures and restrictions will be set out
in the CFS, and shall include procedures and requirements
relating to:
(a) preferential runways;
(b)minimum noise routes;
(c) hours when
or restricted;
aircraft
operations
are
prohibited
(d)arrival procedures;
Tower: TAXI TO POSITION AND HOLD FOR WAKE TURBULENCE,
HEAVY DC10 AIRBORNE AT 2 MI.
Pilots are reminded that there are some circumstances where
wake turbulence separation cannot be waived.
(e) departure procedures;
(f) duration of flights;
(g)the prohibition or restriction of training flights;
RAC
There may be departure situations, such as with a steady
crosswind component, where the full wake turbulence
separation minima is not required. The pilot is in the
best position to make an assessment of the need for wake
turbulence separation. Although controllers are not permitted
to initiate waivers to wake turbulence separation minima,
they will issue takeoff clearance to pilots who have waived
wake turbulence requirements on their own initiative, with
the following exceptions:
(a) a light or medium aircraft taking off behind a heavy
aircraft and takeoff is started from an intersection or
a point significantly further along the runway, in the
direction of takeoff; or
(b)a light or medium aircraft departing after a heavy aircraft
takes off or makes a low or missed approach in the opposite
direction on the same runway; or
(c) a light or medium aircraft departing after a heavy aircraft
makes a low or missed approach in the same direction on
the same runway.
200
(h)VFR or visual approaches;
(i) simulated approach procedures; and
(j) the minimum altitude for the operation of aircraft in the
vicinity of the aerodrome.
Transport Canada recognizes the need for analysis and
consultation in the implementation of proposed new or
amended noise abatement procedures or restrictions at
airports and aerodromes. A process has been developed that
includes consultation with all concerned parties before new
or amended noise abatement procedures or restrictions can
be published in the CAP or the CFS. When the following
checklist has been completed for the proposed noise abatement
procedures or restrictions, and the resulting analysis has been
completed and approved by Transport Canada, the noise
abatement procedure or restriction will be published in the
appropriate aeronautical publication.
1. Description of the problem
2. Proposed solution (including possible exceptions)
3. Alternatives (such as alternative procedures or land
October 27, 2005
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
uses in the community)
Costs (such as revenue impact, direct and indirect
costs to the community, airport operator and
airport users)
Noise impacts of the proposed solution
Effects on aircraft emissions
Effect on current and future airport capacity
Implications of not proceeding with the proposal
Implementation issues (e.g. aircraft technology,
availability of replacement aircraft, ground
facilities)
Impact on the aviation system
Safety implications
Air traffic management
Fleet impact
A complete description of the process involved is available
on the Internet at: <http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/
Aerodrome/SafetyCirculars/2002018.htm>
4.1.3 Preferential Runway Assignments
At controlled airports, when selecting preferential runways
for noise abatement or for other reasons, air traffic controllers
consider the runway condition, the effective crosswind
component and the effective tailwind component.
The maximum effective crosswind component considered
in determining runway selection is 25 KT for arrivals and
departures. The maximum effective tailwind component
is 5 KT.
4.2 Departure Procedures — Controlled Airports
The following departure procedures are based on those
applicable for an aerodrome that have all available services, and
are listed in the order that they would be used. At smaller, less
equipped airports, some services will be combined, e.g., the
IFR clearance would be obtained from ground control where
there is no separate clearance delivery frequency. Procedures
solely applicable to IFR flight are briefly introduced here to
establish their sequence. An elaboration thereof may be found
in RAC 7.0, Instrument Flight Rules –Departure Procedures.
4.2.1 ATIS Broadcasts
If ATIS is available, a pilot should obtain the ATIS information
prior to contacting either the ground control or tower. See
RAC 1.3 for information on ATIS broadcasts.
4.2.2 Clearance Delivery
At locations where a “clearance delivery” frequency is
listed, IFR departures should call on this frequency, prior
to requesting taxi authorization, normally no more than
5 minutes prior to engine start. Where a clearance delivery
frequency is not listed, the IFR clearance will normally be
given after taxi authorization has been received. At several
major aerodromes, departing VFR aircraft are required to
contact “clearance delivery” before taxiing. These frequencies,
where applicable, are found in the COMM Section of the CFS,
for the appropriate aerodrome.
4.2.3 Radio Checks
If required, radio checks should, wherever possible, be
requested on frequencies other than ATC frequencies (see
COM 5.9 for readability scale). Normally, the establishment
of two-way contact with an agency is sufficient to confirm
that the radios are functioning properly.
4.2.4 Requests for Push-back or Power-back
Since controllers may not be in a position to see all obstructions
an aircraft may encounter during push-back or power-back,
clearance for this manœuvre will not be issued by the tower.
Pilots are cautioned that it is their responsibility to ensure that
push-back or power-back can be accomplished safely prior to
initiating aircraft movement.
4.2.5 Taxi Information
Taxi authorization should be requested on the ground control
frequency. If no flight plan has been filed, the pilot should
inform the tower on initial contact of the nature of the flight,
such as “local VFR” or “proceeding VFR to (destination).”
Pilot: WINNIPEG GROUND, AZTEC GOLF JULIETT VICTOR
HOTEL AT HANGAR NO. 3, REQUEST TAXI–IFR
EDMONTON 8000.
Ground
Control:GOLF JULIETT VICTOR HOTEL, WINNIPEG GROUND,
RUNWAY (number), WIND (in magnetic degrees
and knots), ALTIMETER (4-Figure group giving the
altimeter in inches of mercury), TAXI (runway or
other specific point, route). Other information, such
as traffic, airport conditions, CRFI, RSC, or RVR when
applicable, CLEARANCE ON REQUEST.
RAC
Although air traffic controllers may select a preferential
runway in accordance with the foregoing criteria, pilots are
not obligated to accept the runway for taking off or landing.
It remains the pilot’s responsibility to decide if the assigned
runway is operationally acceptable.
TC AIM
Pilot: GOLF JULIETT VICTOR HOTEL.
Under no circumstances may a taxiing aircraft, whether
proceeding to or from the active runway, taxi onto an active
runway unless specifically authorized to do so (see RAC 4.2.6
and 4.2.7).
Upon receipt of a normal taxi authorization, a pilot is
expected to proceed to the taxi-holding position for the
runway assigned for takeoff. If a pilot is required to cross
any runway while taxiing towards the departure runway, the
ground or airport controller will issue a specific instruction to
201
TC AIM
cross or hold short. If a specific authorization to cross was not
received, pilots should hold short and request authorization
to cross the runway. Pilots may be instructed to monitor the
tower frequency while taxiing or until a specific point, or they
may be advised to “Contact tower holding short.” The term
holding short, when used during the communications transfer,
is considered as a location and does not require a readback.
Aircraft proceeding beyond the taxiway holding position
signs may enter electronically sensitive areas and cause
dangerous interference to the glide path or localizer signals. In
Canada, holding position signs and holding position markings
normally indicate the boundaries of electronically sensitive
areas, and provide safe obstruction clearance distances from
landing runways.
To emphasize the protection of active runways and to enhance
the prevention of runway incursions, taxi authorizations
that contain the instructions hold or hold short shall be
acknowledged by the pilot providing a readback or repeating
the hold point.
When an airport is operating under CAT II/III weather
conditions or when its CAT II/III operations plan is in effect,
pilots are to observe CAT II or III mandatory holding position
signs. When an airport is not operating under CAT II/III
weather conditions, or its low visibility operations plan is not
in effect, pilots need not abide by the CAT II or III taxiway
holding positions and are expected to taxi to the normal
taxiway holding position markings, unless advised otherwise
by ATC.
Examples of hold points that should be read back:
HOLD or HOLD ON (runway number or taxiway);
HOLD (direction) OF (runway number); or
HOLD SHORT OF (runway number, or taxiway).
In order to reduce frequency congestion, pilots are reminded
that readback of ATC taxi instructions, other than those listed
above, is not required in accordance with CAR 602.31(1)(a).
Such instructions are simply acknowledged. With the
increased simultaneous use of more than one runway,
however, instructions to enter, cross, backtrack or line up on
any runway should also be acknowledged by a readback.
Example:
An aircraft is authorized to backtrack a runway to the holding
bay and to report clear when in the holding bay.
Pilot: GOLF CHARLIE FOXTROT ALFA BACKTRACKING
RUNWAY 25 AND WILL REPORT IN THE
HOLDING BAY.
RAC
NOTE: To avoid causing clutter on controllers’ radar displays,
pilots should adjust their transponders to “standby”
while taxiing and should not switched themto “on”
(or “normal”) until immediately before takeoff.
The tower may instruct aircraft to “taxi to position and wait”.
Controllers will issue the name of the runway intersection or
taxiway with the authorization if the position taxied to is not
at the threshold of the departing runway.
4.2.6 Taxi Holding Positions
Authorization must be obtained before leaving a taxi holding
position, or where a holding position marking is not visible
or has not been established, before proceeding closer than
200 feet from the edge of the runway in use. At airports
where it is not possible to comply with this provision, taxiing
aircraft are to remain at a sufficient distance from the runway
in use to ensure that a hazard is not created to arriving or
departing aircraft.
4.2.7 Taxiway Holding Positions During IFR Operations
It is imperative that aircraft do not proceed beyond taxiway
holding signs at controlled airports until cleared by ATC.
202
October 27, 2005
AGA 5.4.3 and 5.8.3 provide information on the taxiway
holding position markings and signs.
At uncontrolled aerodromes, pilots awaiting takeoff should
not proceed beyond the holding position signs or holding
position markings until there is no risk of collision with
aircraft landing, taxiing or departing.
4.2.8 Takeoff Clearance
When ready for takeoff, the pilot shall request a takeoff
clearance and should include the runway number. Upon
receipt of the takeoff clearance, the pilot shall acknowledge
and take off without delay, or inform ATC if unable to do so.
Pilot: WINNIPEG TOWER, BEECH ALFA JULIETT GOLF TANGO
READY FOR TAKEOFF, RUNWAY THREE SIX.
Tower: JULIETT GOLF TANGO, WINNIPEG TOWER (any
special information ­hazards, obstructions, turn after
takeoff, wind information if required, etc.), CLEARED
FOR TAKEOFF, RUNWAY THREE SIX (or JULIETT GOLF
TANGO, WINNIPEG TOWER, FROM GOLF, CLEARED
FOR TAKEOFF RUNWAY THREE ONE).
Pilot: JULIETT GOLF TANGO.
A pilot may request to use the full length of the runway
for takeoff at any time. If the runway is to be entered at an
intersection so that back tracking is required, the pilot shall
indicate his/her intentions and obtain a clearance for the
manœuvre before entering the runway.
A pilot may request, or the controller may suggest, takeoff
using only part of a runway. A pilot’s request will be
approved provided noise abatement procedures, traffic and
other conditions permit. If suggested by the controller, the
available length of the runway will be stated. It is the pilot’s
responsibility to ensure that the portion of the runway to be
used will be adequate for the takeoff run.
To expedite movement of airport traffic and achieve spacing
between arriving and departing aircraft, takeoff clearance may
include the word “immediate”. In such cases, “immediate” is
October 27, 2005
used for the purpose of air traffic separation. On acceptance
of the clearance, the aircraft shall taxi onto the runway and
take off in one continuous movement. If, in the pilot’s opinion,
compliance would adversely affect his/her operations, the pilot
should refuse the clearance. Pilots planning a static takeoff
(i.e., a full stop in “position” on the runway)or a delay in
takeoff shall indicate this when requesting takeoff clearance.
A controller may not issue a clearance which would result in
a deviation from established noise abatement procedures or
wake turbulence separation minima.
4.2.9 Release from Tower Frequency
Unless otherwise advised by ATC, pilots do not require
permission to change from tower frequency once clear of
the control zone and should not request release from this
frequency or report clear of the zone when there is considerable
frequency congestion. When practicable, it is recommended
that a pilot of a departing aircraft monitor tower frequency
until 10 NM from the control zone.
VFR flights will not normally be released from tower frequency
while operating within the control zone. Once outside control
zones, or when departing from an uncontrolled aerodrome
where an MF has been assigned, beyond the range within
which MF procedures apply, pilots should monitor frequency
126.7 MHz.
4.2.10 Departure Procedures - NORDO Aircraft
Before proceeding to any portion of the manœuvring area of
a controlled airport, it is the pilot’s responsibility to inform
the control tower of his/her intentions and make appropriate
arrangements for visual signals.
A pilot should remain continuously alert for visual signals
from the control tower.
An aircraft should remain at least 200 ft from the edge of
any runway where holding position markings or signs are
not visible or have not been established unless a clearance for
takeoff or to cross the runway has been received.
taxiing the aircraft to the authorized position.
4.2.11 Visual Signals
Visual signals used by the tower and their meanings are
as follows:
TO AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND:
1
SERIES OF GREEN
FLASHES
Cleared to taxi.
2
STEADY GREEN LIGHT
Cleared for takeoff.
3
SERIES OF RED FLASHES
Taxi clear of landing
area in use.
4
STEADY RED LIGHT
Stop.
5
FLASHING WHITE LIGHT
6
BLINKING RUNWAY
LIGHTS
Return to starting point
on airport.
Advises vehicles and
pedestrians to vacate
runways immediately.
4.2.12 Departure Procedures – RONLY Aircraft
The procedures which apply to aircraft without radio also
apply to aircraft equipped with receiver only, except that
an airport controller may request the pilot to acknowledge
a transmission in a specific manner. After the initial
acknowledgement, no further acknowledgement, other than
compliance with clearances and instructions, is necessary,
unless otherwise requested by the controller.
4.3 Traffic Circuits — Controlled Aerodromes
The following procedures apply to all aerodromes at which a
control tower is in operation.
The traffic circuit consists of the crosswind leg, downwind
leg, base leg and final approach leg.
RAC
NOTE: Before operating within a control zone with Class C
airspace, a clearance shall be obtained from the
control tower.
TC AIM
Figure 4.1 – Standard Left-Hand Traffic Circuit
When stopped by a red light, a pilot must wait for a further
clearance befor