Reviewing a Reading Program

Reviewing a Reading Program
REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM
PA RT I C I PA N T ’ S G U I D E
REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM
PA RT I C I PA N T ’ S G U I D E
Marcia Kosanovich, Georgia Jordan, Elissa Arndt,
Mary Van Sciver, Michelle Wahl, Lila Rissman
Florida Center for Reading Research
Florida State University
2008
This publication was created for the Center on Instruction
by the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida State
University. The Center on Instruction is operated by RMC
Research Corporation in partnership with the Florida Center
for Reading Research at Florida State University; RG Research
Group; the Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and
Statistics at the University of Houston; and The Meadows
Center for Preventing Educational Risk at the University of
Texas at Austin.
The contents of this document were developed under
cooperative agreement S283B050034 with the U.S.
Department of Education. However, these contents do not
necessarily represent the policy of the Department of
Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the
Federal Government.
Editorial, design, and production services provided by RMC
Research Corporation.
Citation: Kosanovich, M. L., Jordan, G., Arndt, E., Van Sciver,
M., Wahl, M., & Rissman, L. (2008). Reviewing a reading
program. Participant’s guide. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research
Corporation, Center on Instruction.
To download a copy of this document, visit www.centeroninstruction.org.
CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION
9
GUIDELINES FOR REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM
11
17
23
31
37
43
49
Instructional Design (ID)
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness (PA)
Phonics (P)
Fluency (F)
Vocabulary (V)
Comprehension (C)
Motivation and Engagement, Assessment, and
Professional Development (M & E, A, PD)
53
GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS
75
REFERENCES
77 References for Glossary of Reading Terms
78 References for Reviewing a Reading Program
81 Recommended Readings
86
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION
Several things need to be in place at a school in order for students to achieve
proficiency in reading. Instructional materials (i.e., reading programs) that are
consistent with scientific research on reading instruction can provide the
foundation for this effort. When a solid reading program is implemented in
concert with effective instruction, valid and reliable assessments, high-quality
professional development, and under good leadership, all students can learn
to read.
Placing effective instructional tools in the hands of teachers is an important
step to improving students’ reading achievement. However, selecting a reading
program can be overwhelming and time-consuming. Sometimes teachers are
assigned to select a reading program for their school; other times, curriculum
specialists, district-level leaders, or even state leaders review and select
reading programs. Further complicating the selection process, there are literally
hundreds of reading programs on the market. Virtually all claim to be “researchbased.” This simply is not true. The Curriculum and Instructional Projects Team
at the Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) developed Guidelines for
Reviewing a Reading Program (Guidelines) to assist reviewers in determining if
a program is consistent with the scientific research on reading. Based on that
work, the Center on Instruction Reading Strand developed this professional
development for Reviewing a Reading Program.
The Center on Instruction has created a two-day professional development
training, based on the FCRR Guidelines, to guide reviewers of reading programs
through the review process. This Participant’s Guide contains resources (charts,
summaries, and the Guidelines themselves) to help you review a reading
program. It can be used in two ways. You may refer to it during the two-day
professional development for Reviewing a Reading Program as the facilitator
presents information and while completing the activities. After the training, the
Participant’s Guide can serve as a tool for reviewing any reading program.
Before You Begin
Throughout this two-day professional development and this Participant’s Guide,
abbreviations are used to refer to the major sections of the Guidelines
(e.g., F = fluency). Numbers following the abbreviations refer to a specific
indicator within that section (e.g., F 3 = third indicator in the fluency section).
1
Abbreviations
ID – Instructional Design
PA – Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
P – Phonics
F – Fluency
V – Vocabulary
C – Comprehension
M&E – Motivation and Engagement
A – Assessment
PD – Professional Development
The Framework of a Reading Program, below, shows how instructional design,
content, and instruction are related. The foundations of the review process,
they will be described, discussed, and referred to throughout the two-day
professional development.
Framework of a Reading Program
Scope & Sequence
Goals & Objectives
Lesson Organization
Aligned Materials
Content - What is taught
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Spelling
Writing
Oral Language
Listening Comprehension
Instruction - How it is taught
Explicit
Systematic
Coordinated Instructional Sequences and
Routines
Scaffolded
Feedback
Differentiated Instruction
Assessment
ID 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27
2
Instructional Design
A reading program should provide a consistent foundation for developing
instructional activities (e.g., extension skills and strategies for students
to generalize information after instruction) that support the sequence
of instruction (Adams, 1990; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Authors of
effective reading programs use these four elements of instructional design
to organize the content:
Scope and Sequence (ID 6) is the starting point for careful examination of
a reading program. It contains the range of content that will be presented and
the order or sequence in which it is taught.
Goals and Objectives (ID 7) target instructional priorities by organizing the
key concepts, principles, and strategies that lead to skillful reading. Goals and
objectives should align with a strong research base and highlight the key
concepts in phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and
comprehension. Each lesson should contain an objective.
Lesson Organization (ID 11) should be clear and logical. It is a key factor in
explicit and systematic instruction. Well-organized lessons and materials clarify
instructional priorities, making it easier for teachers to use the program as it
was intended. Some programs may include an overall plan for one week of
instruction, while others may have a weekly plan, a monthly plan, or unit plans.
Well-organized programs outline each day’s lesson, including objectives and
materials for that lesson.
Aligned Materials (ID 8) means that student materials and activities reflect
instruction. For example, if students are taught certain vocabulary words, they
should be expected to read materials containing those words, or engage in
spelling and writing activities that use those words in sentences or paragraphs.
Content
Instructional content refers to what is taught. In reading, this includes the five
essential components of reading—Phonological/Phonemic Awareness,
Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension (ID 3). Research has
repeatedly demonstrated the importance of these components (NICHD, 2000).
Oral Language, Spelling, Writing, and Listening Comprehension (ID 4) are
also part of reading instruction and should be included in the program.
3
Instruction
How content is taught is as important as the content itself. Good instruction
has seven key features:
Explicit (ID 12) instruction is specific and related to the objective; the
teacher’s directions are clear, unambiguous, direct, and transparent. The
purpose of explicit instruction is to convey the content clearly so that students
can master the information (Adams, 1990; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).
Systematic (ID 15) instruction has a carefully planned instructional
sequence. Just as a blueprint is carefully developed before a builder gathers
materials and begins construction, so a systematic instructional plan is carefully
designed before actual activities and lessons are created. In systematic
instruction, lessons build on previously taught information, from simple to
complex.
Coordinated Instructional Sequences and Routines (ID 16, 18) progress
logically, so that easier skills are introduced before more difficult ones. Look
also for evidence of clear, meaningful relationships or links among the five
components of reading. Explicit, coordinated instructional routines contain this
sequence of steps:
1. Modeling a think-aloud approach to demonstrate a strategy, skill, or
concept;
2. Guided practice with feedback (students practice what was taught as the
teacher provides prompts and feedback);
3. Independent student practice and application;
4. Repeated review of skills and concepts so that students have enough
practice to generalize their learning to other settings. Cumulative review
also provides more opportunities for corrective teacher feedback.
Scaffolded (ID 20, 21) instruction entails a teacher’s temporary support to
help a student achieve what he could not otherwise have done alone. It can
be explicit or embedded in a task. Explicit scaffolding includes prompts, cues,
examples, and encouragements that a teacher uses to support a student
during instruction. Embedded scaffolding refers to features in the reading
program’s instructional design, such as starting with simpler skills and building
progressively to more difficult skills. Look for evidence of scaffolding in the side
margins, in the body of the lesson, in the front or back of the Teacher’s Edition
(TE), or in a section that addresses instructional techniques.
4
Feedback (ID 22) is a type of scaffold. Corrective feedback prevents
students from repeating errors; positive feedback encourages correct
responses. Tying feedback to the task lets students work toward achieving a
specific goal. Evidence of corrective and positive feedback may be found within
a lesson or in the front or back of the TE.
Differentiated Instruction (ID 23, 24, 25) is another type of scaffold. It
adapts instruction to meet the different needs of learners in a classroom.
Differentiating what will best serve each student is not possible without
assessment. Look for specific information about differentiated small-group
instruction and for guidance in forming flexible groups to meet specific needs
of students, such as:
• size of each group (e.g., 3-5 for struggling readers, 5-7 for other
students, etc.);
• number of days per week each group attends the teacher-led center (e.g.,
daily, twice/week, three times/week);
• number of minutes per day (e.g., 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes);
• type of lesson structure for each group (e.g., skills-focused lesson or
guided reading); and
• content and level of the lesson (i.e., area(s) of reading skill and level of
instruction).
Assessment (ID 18, 24, 27) data should guide instructional decisions. Key
assessment types are screening, progress monitoring, and diagnostics.
Assessment has no value if it is not used to solve problems and guide actions.
5
The Flowchart of the Review Process serves as a reminder of the “big
picture” of reviewing a reading program and shows how the review is
typically structured.
Flowchart of the Review Process
Organize Materials
Preview Materials
Scope and Sequence
Instructional Approach
Sample Lessons
Review Entire Program
The review begins by organizing materials, followed by a preview
of the materials to include the scope and sequence of the program, its
instructional approach, and sample lessons. Finally, the entire program
is reviewed.
The Guidelines for Reviewing a Reading Program, beginning on page 9, is
the tool used for reviewing a reading program. The professional development
training was designed to teach participants how to use the Guidelines.
This Participant’s Guide also contains a Glossary of Reading Terms
(page 53). Each bolded word in the Guidelines is defined in the glossary. A list
of Recommended Readings (page 81) groups references for books and articles
roughly by category (e.g., vocabulary, comprehension). References that include
essential knowledge for reviewing a reading program effectively are denoted by
an icon of a stack of books.
USING THE GUIDELINES
To review a reading program thoroughly, it is not sufficient to examine only a
sample of lessons. It is essential to review all the teacher and student materials
to determine whether a program aligns with current reading research. These
Guidelines were developed to help navigate the lengthy but critical process of
reviewing a reading program.
6
The Guidelines comprise questions about important research-based
elements of a reading program. The first six questions for each reading
component (phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary,
and comprehension) are identical and are shaded to set them apart from the
other questions. Intended as a summary of findings, they will be answered
after the other questions have been answered.
Alongside each question, a small circle signifies the grade level or levels at
which the element should be evident. On finding clear evidence of the element,
the reviewer marks the circle under the corresponding grade level to indicate
the answer to the question is “Yes.” If no evidence of the element is apparent,
the reviewer writes “not evident” in the comments column and does not mark
the circle in the grade-level column.
It is important to use the comments section to detail examples, strengths,
questions, etc. Any indicator marked as “not evident” should be accompanied
by comments. If there is no evidence of an element and a reviewer cannot
mark the relevant grade-level circle, the program may not be consistent with
current research on reading and reading instruction. At the end of the review
process, notes in the comments column help the reviewer reach decisions
about a program’s strengths and weaknesses.
The Guidelines cover the sequence of instruction that should occur from
kindergarten through grade 6 for a comprehensive reading program. It is
expected that such a reading program will incorporate the five components
of reading identified by the National Reading Panel (phonological/phonemic
awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) and contain
the elements of good instructional design.
The S/I column is used when reviewing supplemental (S) or intervention
(I) programs for students in grades K–12. In reviewing S or I programs, it is
important to note that some target one or more of the reading components.
In these instances, it is expected that questions in the Guidelines about
instructional design and all targeted components will be used during the review.
7
8
GUIDELINES FOR REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM
9
10
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
11
12
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID)
Indicators
Grade Level
1
Is there empirical research on this
program’s efficacy?
2
Are resources available to help the
teacher understand the rationale for the
instructional approach and program
strategies (e.g., articles, explanations
in the teacher manuals, references, and
reliable websites)?
3
Does the comprehensive program
address the five components of reading
(phonological/phonemic awareness,
phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and
comprehension)?
4
In addition to the five components of
reading, are other dimensions of reading K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
such as spelling, writing, oral language,
and listening comprehension addressed?
5
Does the supplemental/intervention
program adequately address the
component(s) targeted? (Some programs
concentrate on one, two, or a few of the
components.)
6
Is there a scope and sequence?
7
Are goals and objectives clearly stated?
8
Are student materials aligned with
instructional objective of the lesson?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
9
Do instructional materials increase in
difficulty as students’ skills strengthen?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
10 Are all lessons and activities (e.g., whole
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
group, small group, and centers) readingrelated?
13
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID)
Indicators
Grade Level
11 Is there a clear and logical organization
to the lessons in:
the order and procedure of each day’s
lesson?
the inclusion of all necessary materials?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
the consistency of each day’s lesson
format?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
addressing the components of reading
every day?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
12 Is instruction consistently explicit? Is
it concise, specific, and related to the
objective?
13 Are teacher directives highly detailed to
ensure accurate implementation?
14 Does the lesson format facilitate
frequent interactions between teacher
and students?
15 Is instruction consistently systematic?
Is there a prescribed order for
introducing specific skills within each
component of reading?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
16 Are there coordinated instructional
sequences and instructional
routines which include:
modeling?
guided practice with feedback?
student practice and application?
cumulative review?
14
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID)
Indicators
17 Are there many guided practice
opportunities for explicit teaching and
teacher-directed feedback (for typically
progressing readers and more for
struggling readers)?
18 Does the program provide clear
guidance for the teacher to document
student progress and inform instruction?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
19 Does instruction make a clear
connection among all five components?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
20 Is scaffolding a prominent part of the
lessons?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
21 Are instructions for scaffolding specfic
within each lesson?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
22 Are teachers encouraged to give
immediate, specific feedback
(corrective or positive)?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
23 Is differentiated instruction
prominent?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
24 Is instruction differentiated based on
assessment?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
25 Are directions for differentiating
instruction specific?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
26 Is small-group instruction (small teacherpupil ratio) part of daily instruction?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
27 Are there guidelines for forming
flexible groups based on student
progress?
28 Are enrichment activities included for
advanced students?
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
15
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID)
Indicators
29 Does the program provide instruction for
English Language Learners?
30 Does the program specify for whom it is
appropriate (e.g., students on or above
grade level, students slightly behind
their peers, students more than one
grade level behind their peers)?
31 Does the program specify who should
provide instruction for accurate
implementation (e.g., special education
teacher, general education teacher,
paraprofessional, or volunteer)?
32 Does the program specify the
instructional setting (e.g., general
education classroom, computer lab, or
resource room)?
16
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
PHONOLOGICAL/
PHONEMIC AWARENESS
17
Phonological Awareness Continuum
This table contains types of phonemic awareness skills, descriptions of each, and
examples. The table is read from top to bottom in increasing order of skill difficulty
and represents the subset of skills that, combined, form phonological awareness.
Such a table will probably not appear in a reading program, but a reviewer should see
lessons containing these aspects of phonological awareness in a similar progression.
Type
Description
Examples
Sentence
Segmenting sentences into spoken words
The dog ran away.
1 2 3 4
Rhyme
Matching the ending sounds of words
cat, hat, bat, sat
Alliteration
Producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound
ten tiny tadpoles
Syllables
Blending syllables to say words or segmenting spoken words into
syllables
/mag/ /net/
/pa/ /per/
Onsets and Rimes
Blending and segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster
(onset) and the vowel and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime)
/m/ /ice/
/sh/ /ake/
Phonemes
Blending phonemes into words, segmenting words into individual
phonemes, and manipulating phonemes in spoken words
/k/ /a/ /t/
/sh/ /i/ /p/
/s/ /t/ /o/ /p/
Continuum of Word Types
It is important to keep in mind word types and that they get cumulatively more difficult.
18
Word Type:
Example:
VC
CVC—continuous
CVCC—continuous
CVC—stop
CVCC—stop
CCVC—continuous/blend
CCVC—stop/blend
CCCVC
CCVCCC
CCCVCC
am
mat
mist
cat
cats
snap, frog, slip
club, grab
strut, scram
clamps, grasps
script, sprint
PHONOLOGICAL/PHONEMIC AWARENESS (PA)
Indicators
Grade Level
1
Is phonological/phonemic awareness
instruction explicit?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
2
Is phonological/phonemic awareness
instruction systematic?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
3
Does phonological/phonemic awareness
instruction include coordinated
instructional sequences and
routines?
4
Is phonological/phonemic awareness
instruction scaffolded?
5
Does phonological/phonemic awareness
instruction include cumulative
review?
6
Are assessments included to measure
and monitor progress in phonological/
phonemic awareness?
7
Is PA only a small portion of the daily
lesson?
8
Does each day’s lesson focus on only
one or two PA skills (as opposed to
several)?
9
Are there instructions for PA activities
to alert the teacher to student
readiness?
10 Does the program contain instructional
activities that are designed to stimulate
the growth of phonemic awareness?
11 Does PA start with larger units (words
and syllables) and progress to smaller
units (phonemes)?
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
19
PHONOLOGICAL/PHONEMIC AWARENESS (PA)
Indicators
12 Does PA start with rhyming and
progress to phoneme isolation,
blending, segmenting, and phoneme
manipulation?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
13 Do students count the number of words
in spoken sentences?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
14 Are there rhyming activities (recognition
and production)?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
15 Are there alliteration activities?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
16 Are there activities that involve counting
the number of syllables in a word?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
17 Are there activities that involve blending
and segmenting syllables in a word?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
18 Are there activities for students to blend
onsets and rimes?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
PHONEMIC AWARENESS
19 Do activities follow the continuum of
word types (beginning with short
words that contain two or three
phonemes)?
20 Does instruction include physical
representations (e.g., clapping, Elkonin
boxes with markers, counters, tiles,
fingers, and auditory cues) to help
students make the connection between
sounds and print (the alphabetic
principle)?
20
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
PHONOLOGICAL/PHONEMIC AWARENESS (PA)
Indicators
21 When PA activities are at the phoneme
level, do students’ activities target the
first sound in words and then move to
the last sound in words and finally focus
on the middle sound in words?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
22 Are there blending activities at the
phoneme level?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
23 Are there segmenting activities at the
phoneme level?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
24 Does instruction include phoneme
manipulation in words (i.e., deletion,
addition, and substitution)?
25 Once students demonstrate early
phonemic awareness, is PA
instruction linked to phonics
instruction?
26 Does the program specify when oral
language PA activities should be phased
out?
27 Are the words used in PA activities
found in subsequent word lists and
text readings?
28 Does the program include a
pronunciation guide for the various
features of sound production (e.g., stop
sounds and continuous sounds)?
29 Do computer-based programs pronounce
sounds distinctly, correctly, and without
distortion?
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
21
PHONICS
23
Four Types of Words in English Orthography
This table is one way to organize the regular and irregular types of words in English orthography.
You will probably not see a table like this in a reading program. It was organized to give a reviewer
explicit, concise descriptions of the word types a program’s phonics instruction should include.
You should see lessons teaching these word types explicitly.
Type
Description
Examples
Type 1
Regular for reading and spelling
big
splat
Type 2
Regular for reading but not spelling
boat
rain
Type 3
Rule or generalization based
running (doubling rule)
Type 4
Irregular
beauty
yacht
Syllable Types
This table shows the syllable types of multisyllabic English words. It was organized to demonstrate
the syllable types that should be explicitly taught in a reading program’s phonics instruction. You
will likely not see a table like this, but you should see lessons explicitly teaching these syllable
types. Knowing these types of word parts helps readers when encountering an unknown word in
text and in spelling both familiar and unfamiliar multisyllabic words. Programs may use different
terms (e.g., “silent e” or “magic e”), but the concept should be apparent to reviewers.
24
Type
Description
Examples
Closed
This syllable type ends with a consonant and has a single vowel
that is usually short.
mat
pic-nic
Open
This syllable type ends with a vowel and the vowel is usually long.
he
ve-to
Silent e or vowelconsonant e (VCe)
This syllable type has a silent e on the end of the word which
signals that the vowel will usually be long.
cape
stripe
cue
Vowel team or
Vowel pair
This syllable type contains two vowels that make one vowel sound.
These can be difficult because some vowel teams are variable and
the student will need to be flexible when decoding. However, most
vowel teams are consistent.
pain
head
toy
R-controlled
This syllable type contains a vowel which is followed by the letter r
and is neither long or short. The vowel and the r appear in the same
syllable.
tar
fer-ment
Consonant + le
This syllable type appears at the end of words and the consonant
always goes with the -le to form a syllable.
ap-ple
can-dle
PHONICS (P)
Indicators
Grade Level
1
Is phonics instruction explicit?
2
Is phonics instruction systematic?
3
Does phonics instruction include
coordinated instructional
sequences and routines?
4
Is phonics instruction scaffolded?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
5
Does phonics instruction include
cumulative review?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
6
Are assessments included to measure
and monitor progress in phonics?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
7
Does the program teach both
consonants and vowels?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
8
Are short vowels taught before long
vowels?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
9
Are individual letter-sounds taught first,
followed by digraphs, blends, and
word families?
10 Are high utility letter-sounds e.g., /a/,
/m/, /s/, /t/, /r/ (found in short, one
syllable CVC or CCVC words) introduced
before low utility letter-sounds e.g., /x/,
/y/, /z/?
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
11 Are digraphs taught as single sounds
(e.g., /sh/, /ch/, /th/, /ai/, /ea/)?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
12 Are individual sounds in a blend taught?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
13 Are letter-sound correspondences
taught to mastery and reviewed
cumulatively?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
25
PHONICS (P)
Indicators
14 Are students taught an explicit strategy
to decode words by their individual
sounds?
15 Do students practice decoding words
that contain only those letter-sounds
that have been previously taught?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
16 Once students have mastered a few
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
letter-sounds, do they immediately apply
them to reading word lists and short
decodable texts?
17 Are symbol to sound (decoding) and
sound to symbol (spelling) taught
explicitly?
18 Is spelling taught during word learning
so students can understand how sounds
map onto print?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
19 Does instruction progress from simple to
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
more complex concepts (e.g., CVC words
before CCCVCC words and single
syllable words before multisyllabic
words)?
20 Does instruction follow the continuum
of word types (beginning with CV and
CVC words), incorporating continuous
and stop sounds and blends in an
appropriate sequence?
21 Are reviews of previously taught
concepts and words frequent and
cumulative?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
22 Is emphasis placed on fluency practice
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
for each phonics component (e.g., sound
identification, CVC blending, word
recognition, multisyllabic words, and
text reading)?
26
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
PHONICS (P)
Indicators
23 Are there ample decodable texts
(familiar and unfamiliar) for students to
practice applying their skills with phonic
elements?
24 Are decodable texts read before trade
books (for students to master new
skills)?
25 Does the program clarify that high
frequency words can be both regular
and irregular?
26 Are irregular words that are visually or
phonemically confusing (e.g., saw/was,
where/were, of/off) separated?
27 Does the program include explicit
instruction in irregular words and
decoding strategies for the decodable
parts of words (clarifying that the letters
represent their most common sounds as
well as the irregularities of certain
letters)?
28 Are the number of high frequency,
irregular words introduced in one lesson
kept to a minimum?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
29 Are irregular words pre-taught before
students read connected texts?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
30 Are difficult, high frequency words
reviewed often and cumulatively?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
31 Is there sufficient practice with
individual letter-sounds before larger
orthographic units are taught?
32 Are students taught the strategy of
chunking when trying to decode
multisyllabic words?
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
27
PHONICS (P)
Indicators
33 Does the program provide teacher
modeling of a think-aloud strategy to
aid in multisyllabic word analysis?
34 Are students taught strategies to read
multisyllabic words by using prefixes,
suffixes, and known word parts?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
35 Is instruction explicit in the use of
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
syllable types (e.g., open, closed,
vowel-consonant-e, vowel combinations,
r-controlled, and consonant-le)?
36 Is a section of the program devoted to
advanced phonics (structural analysis)
skills?
37 Are advanced phonics skills taught
explicitly, first in isolation and then in
words and connected texts?
38 Does the program include spelling
strategies (e.g., word sorts,
categorization activities, word-building
activities, and word analogies)?
39 Is instruction in the meanings of roots
and affixes explicit and do students
analyze the relationship of spelling to
meaning of complex words?
40 Are word parts that occur with high
frequency (e.g., un-, re-, in-, and -ful)
taught rather than those that occur only
in a few words?
41 Are there activities for distinguishing
and interpreting words with multiple
meanings?
28
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
PHONICS (P)
Indicators
42 Once advanced phonics strategies have
been mastered, are they immediately
applied to reading and interpreting
familiar and unfamiliar connected
texts?
43 Are words used in advanced phonics
activities also found in student texts?
Grade Level
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
29
FLUENCY
31
Text Levels
A program should include these formulae to help teachers determine text levels for
students.
Independent Text Level
Instructional Text Level
Frustrational Text Level
Text students can read on their own
Text students can read with
assistance or instruction
Text that is too difficult for
students
95%–100% word accuracy
90%–94% word accuracy
<90% word accuracy
<1 word in 20 words is difficult
<1 in 10 words is difficult
Difficulty with >1 in 10 words
Calculating fluency rate:
Fluency rate is the number of words read correctly in a one-minute reading of appropriate text.
Total Number of Words Read – Total Number of Errors = Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM)
Example:
If a student reads 75 words in one minute with 8 errors, she reads 67 words correct per minute (75–8 = 67 WCPM).
32
FLUENCY (F)
Indicators
Grade Level
1
Is fluency instruction explicit?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
2
Is fluency instruction systematic?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
3
Does fluency instruction include
coordinated instructional
sequences and routines?
4
Is fluency instruction scaffolded?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
5
Does fluency instruction include
cumulative review?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
6
Are assessments included to measure
and monitor progress in fluency?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
7
Does the program address all
dimensions of fluency (speed,
accuracy, and prosody)?
8
Does the program encourage the
teacher to model speed, accuracy, and
prosody?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Are letter-sounds taught and practiced
frequently to promote automaticity?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
9
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
10 Does fluency practice during lettersound study and text reading involve the
teacher’s providing feedback to students?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
11 Is fluency instruction integrated into
each day’s lesson?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
12 Is the decoding strategy taught so that
it becomes automatic?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
13 Are irregular words taught to be
recognized automatically?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
33
FLUENCY (F)
Indicators
14 Is there an emphasis on reading
multisyllabic words fluently?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
15 Is an explicit strategy taught as students
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
transition from reading words in lists to
reading connected text?
16 Are research-based fluency strategies
(e.g., timed readings, peer reading,
and repeated readings) included?
17 Is fluency practice introduced after
students are proficient at reading words
accurately (e.g., in lists, sentences, and
passages)?
18 Does fluency practice involve
decodable texts (texts that include
phonic elements and word types
students have previously been taught)?
19 Are both narrative and expository
texts provided for students to read
aloud?
20 Are teacher prompts included to
encourage students to read aloud in
order to determine skill application
and accuracy?
21 After error correction, are students
asked to reread the word, word list, or
sentence correctly and then to reread it
from the beginning?
22 Are students given ample practice
opportunities to use text at their
independent or instructional level to
help build fluency?
34
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
FLUENCY (F)
Indicators
23 Is the number of texts at each level
sufficient to provide adequate practice
opportunities?
24 Does the program clearly show the
teacher how to determine independent,
instructional, and frustrational
reading levels for individual students?
25 Is there a guide to help teachers
calculate fluency rate?
26 Do students have opportunities to time
themselves and graph results after
rereading the same text?
27 Are there directions for how to pair
students for partner reading?
28 Are students taught a specific error
correction to use when reading with a
partner?
29 Is there continuous progress
monitoring of oral reading fluency?
30 Is an end-of-the-year fluency goal of
correct words per minute given for
each grade?
Grade Level
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
35
VOCABULARY
37
Vocabulary Instructional Routine Example
1.
Introduce the word.
2.
Present a student-friendly explanation.
3.
Illustrate the word with examples.
4.
Check students’ understanding.
(Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002)
38
VOCABULARY (V)
Indicators
Grade Level
1
Is vocabulary instruction explicit?
2
Is vocabulary instruction systematic?
3
Does vocabulary instruction include
coordinated instructional
sequences and routines?
4
Is vocabulary instruction scaffolded?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
5
Does vocabulary instruction include
cumulative review?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
6
Are assessments included to measure
and monitor progress in vocabulary?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
7
Is emphasis placed on listening and
speaking vocabulary?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
8
Is there an emphasis on reading and
writing vocabulary?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
9
Are students exposed to diverse
vocabulary through listening to or
reading narrative and expository
texts?
10 Does the program include frequent use
of teacher read-alouds using higher
level books with explanation and
instruction of key vocabulary?
11 Does the program include a variety of
texts that allow students ample
opportunities to engage in wide
reading at their independent levels?
12 Does vocabulary instruction occur
before, during, and after reading?
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
39
VOCABULARY (V)
Indicators
13 Are a limited number of words selected
for robust, explicit vocabulary
instruction?
14 Are important, useful, and difficult
words taught?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
15 Does the instructional routine for
vocabulary include:
introducing the word?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
presenting a student-friendly
explanation?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
clarifying the word with examples?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
checking students’ understanding?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
16 Are ample opportunities provided to
engage in oral vocabulary activities that:
repeat exposure to words in rich and
multiple contexts?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
use everyday language to explain
word meanings?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
connect word meanings to prior
knowledge?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
17 Are students given multiple
opportunities to use new words in
reading sentences, paragraphs, or
longer texts?
18 Is extended instruction provided in
multiple contexts to promote word
awareness using word banks,
vocabulary logs, writing, semantic
maps, concept definition mapping,
and word classification?
40
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
VOCABULARY (V)
Indicators
19 Are strategies taught over time to
ensure understanding and correct
application?
20 Are meanings of prefixes, roots, and
suffixes taught before connecting them
to words?
21 Is a strategy to determine word
meanings based on meanings of
prefixes, roots, and suffixes taught?
Grade Level
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
22 Are various aspects of word study
included (either under vocabulary or
word recognition) such as:
concepts of word meaning?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
multiple meanings?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
synonyms?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
antonyms?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
homonyms?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
figurative meanings?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
morphemic analysis?
etymologies?
23 Is dictionary use explicitly taught using
grade-appropriate dictionaries?
24 Is the use of context to gain the
meaning of an unfamiliar word kept
to a minimum?
25 Is computer technology used to help
teach vocabulary?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
41
COMPREHENSION
43
Multiple, Coordinated Comprehension Strategies
Instruction should include practice in using a range of comprehension strategies both
separately and together.
• Answering questions;
• Generating questions;
• Summarizing;
• Using graphic and semantic organizers;
• Monitoring comprehension;
• Recognizing story structure;
• Cooperative Learning.
“Comprehension strategies are procedures that guide students to become
aware of how well they are comprehending as they attempt to read and write.”
(NICHD, 2000, p. 4-40)
44
COMPREHENSION (C)
Indicators
Grade Level
1
Is comprehension instruction explicit?
2
Is comprehension instruction
systematic?
3
Does comprehension instruction include
coordinated instructional
sequences and routines?
4
Is comprehension instruction
scaffolded?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
5
Does comprehension instruction include
cumulative review?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
6
Are assessments included to measure
and monitor progress in comprehension?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
7
Is learning to determine which strategy
to use and why (metacognition) part
of instruction?
8
When a strategy is taught, is it applied
frequently so students understand its
usefulness?
9
Are students asked to apply previously
learned strategies to new texts?
10 Is appropriate text provided for students
to practice applying strategies?
11 Does program instruction enable
students to establish and adjust
purposes for reading (e.g., reading to
understand, interpret, inform, to enjoy,
and to solve problems)?
12 Does instruction support the use of
multiple, coordinated comprehension
strategies?
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
45
COMPREHENSION (C)
Indicators
13 Are guided and supported cooperative
learning groups suggested as an
instructional technique?
14 Does instruction begin with the use of
short passages?
15 Does instruction emphasize that
students have a conceptual
understanding of beginning,
middle, and end?
16 Does the program provide prompts for
the teacher to guide the students
through texts using think-alouds?
17 Are models of effective questioning
techniques (e.g., Bloom’s taxonomy)
provided to guide and monitor students’
comprehension?
18 Are there ample opportunities for
students to listen to narrative and
expository text?
19 Is instruction in narrative and expository
text structures explicit?
20 Are there ample opportunities for
students to read narrative and
expository texts at independent
and instructional levels?
21 Is there a variety of narrative and
expository books at the appropriate
readability level for student practice?
22 Do texts contain useful and familiar
concepts and vocabulary?
46
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
COMPREHENSION (C)
Indicators
23 Are there instructional routines for
comprehension strategies for use
before, during, and after reading
(e.g., prediction, story grammar,
summarization, graphic organizers)?
24 Is the “main idea” strategy taught
systematically (e.g., using pictures,
then individual sentences, then
paragraphs, etc.)?
25 Once students have grasped the concept
of “main idea,” are more complex texts
used in which the main idea is not
explicit?
26 Are elements of story grammar (e.g.,
setting, characters, important events,
etc.) taught and used for retelling a
story?
27 Does instruction focus on discussing
story grammar and comparing stories?
28 Is story grammar introduced
systematically, beginning with simple
text that gradually becomes more
complex?
29 Are students taught to use graphic
organizers to illustrate relationships
among concepts in text (e.g., story
maps, Venn diagrams, and
semantic maps)?
30 Are conventions of expository text
(e.g., chapter headings, charts, and
graphs) taught?
Grade Level
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
47
COMPREHENSION (C)
Indicators
31 Are explicit strategies for interpreting
information from charts, graphs, tables,
and diagrams taught?
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
32 After instruction, is there systematic
review of:
literal comprehension?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
retelling?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
main idea?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
summarization?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
33 Does the program provide instruction
for students to become self-directed
in using comprehension strategies
(e.g., rereading, paraphrasing, making
explicit connections from text to prior
knowledge, underlining and note-taking,
and visualizing relationships and events
in the text)?
48
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT
ASSESSMENT
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
49
MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT (M&E)
Indicators
1
Grade Level
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
Does the program direct the teacher in
ways to increase student motivation
such as:
making reading relevant to students’
lives?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
providing meaningful goals for learning
from texts?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
making available a variety of choices
(e.g., texts and assignments) that align
with instruction?
providing opportunities for students to
work collaboratively?
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
ASSESSMENT (A)
Indicators
1
Are assessments included that teachers
can use to guide student movement
through the program (e.g., screening,
progress monitoring, diagnostic, and
outcome measures)?
2
Does the program provide teacher
guidance in using assessment results
to differentiate instruction?
3
Do the assessments identify students
who are at risk or already experiencing
difficulty learning to read?
Grade Level
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
51
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (PD)
Indicators
1
Is adequate time offered for teachers to
learn new concepts and practice what
they have learned?
2
Is there a plan for coaches, mentors,
peers, or outside experts to provide
feedback to teachers and follow-up
assistance as they put new concepts
into practice?
3
Are teachers taught how to administer
and interpret assessments that
accompany the program?
4
Is program PD customized to meet
participants’ varying needs (e.g., firstyear teachers, coaches, and principals)?
5
Does the PD provide support (e.g.,
principal checklists, follow-up, in-class
modeling, and a CD for viewing model
lessons) to facilitate application of
content?
52
Grade Level
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I
Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions)
GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS
53
GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS
Accuracy (part of fluency): Reading words in text with no errors.
Academically Engaged: Students are participating in activities or instruction in
a meaningful way and understand the tasks in which they are involved.
Advanced Phonics: Decoding strategy for multisyllabic words that includes
morphology and information about a word’s meaning, pronunciation, and parts
of speech gained from knowledge of prefixes, roots, and suffixes.
Affix: A general term for prefixes and suffixes.
After Reading Comprehension Strategies: Strategies to actively transform
key information in text that has been read (e.g., summarizing, retelling).
Aligned Materials: Student materials (texts, activities, manipulatives,
homework, etc.) that reinforce classroom instruction of specific reading skills.
Alliteration: The repetition of the initial phoneme of each word in connected
text (e.g., Harry the happy hippo hula-hoops with Henrietta).
Alphabetic Principle: The concept that letters and letter combinations
represent individual phonemes in written words.
Ample Opportunities for Student Practice: Practice that is linked to specific
reading tasks and logically follows what has just been taught. Extended
independent practice once students have internalized skills.
Analogy: Comparing two sets of words to show some similarity between the
sets (e.g., cat is to kitten: as dog is to _____).
Antonym: A word opposite in meaning to another word.
Automaticity: Reading without conscious effort or attention to decoding.
Background Knowledge: What a reader brings to a text, based on his or her
own experience, to aid in comprehending text.
Base Word: A unit of meaning that can stand alone as a whole word (e.g.,
friend, pig ). Also called a free morpheme.
Before Reading Comprehension Strategies: Strategies that emphasize the
importance of preparing students to read text (e.g., activate prior knowledge,
set a purpose for reading).
55
Bloom’s Taxonomy: A system for categorizing levels of abstraction of
questions that commonly occur in educational settings, (i.e., knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation).
Chunked Text: Continuous text separated into meaningful phrases, often with
single and double slash marks (/ and //) for student practice in reading phrases
fluently. Although there are no absolute rules in chunking text and teacher
judgment is key in teaching students how to chunk, slash marks typically occur
between subject and predicate and before and after prepositional phrases.
Chunking: A decoding strategy for breaking words into manageable parts
(e.g., /yes/ter/day) or sentences into smaller phrases where natural pauses
might occur (e.g., “When the sun appeared after the storm, / the newly fallen
snow / shimmered like diamonds”).
Coaching: A form of professional development that supports teachers in
implementing classroom practices by providing new content and information,
modeling related teaching strategies, and offering ongoing feedback as
teachers master new practices.
Coarticulation: While saying one sound, the lips, tongue, etc., are starting to
form the sound to follow. This can distort individual sounds during speech
because the sounds are not produced in isolated units (e.g., in ham : the /m/
blends with the /a/ to distort the vowel). Because of coarticulation, some
children have difficulty hearing individual sounds in words and the concept of
phonemes needs to be explicitly taught.
Cognates: Words related to each other by virtue of being derived from a
common origin (e.g., decisive and decision).
Coherent Instructional Design: A logical, sequential plan for delivering
instruction.
Comprehension: Understanding what one is reading, the ultimate goal of
all reading.
Comprehensive/Core Reading Program (CRP): The initial instructional tool
teachers use to teach children to learn to read, including instruction in the five
components of reading identified by the National Reading Panel (phonemic
awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension), spelling, and writing
to ensure they reach reading levels that meet or exceed grade-level standards.
A CRP should address the instructional needs of the majority of students in a
school or district.
56
Comprehensive Intervention Reading Program (CIRP): Programs intended
for students reading one or more years below grade level, and struggling with a
range of reading skills. CIRPs integrate instructional content based on the five
essential components of reading instruction into a coherent instructional design
with explicit instructional strategies, coordinated instructional sequences, ample
practice opportunities, and aligned student materials. CIRPs provide instruction
that is more intensive, explicit, systematic, and more motivating than that
which students have previously received, and provide more frequent
assessments of student progress and more systematic review in order to
insure proper instructional pacing and mastery of all instructional components.
Comprehension Monitoring: An awareness of one’s understanding of text
being read, part of metacognition or “thinking about thinking”—that is, a
reader’s knowledge of what is clear and what is confusing and of how to repair
problems with comprehension.
Comprehension Questions: Questions, ranging from literal to inferential to
analytical, about a text’s meaning.
Concept Definition Mapping: A visual framework for organizing information in
defining a word or concept; contains the word or concept’s category,
properties, and examples.
Connected Text: Words that are linked (as opposed to words in a list) as in
sentences, phrases, and paragraphs.
Consonant Blend: Two or more consecutive consonants that retain their
individual sounds (e.g., /bl/ in block; /str/ in string ).
Consonant Digraph: Two consecutive consonants that represent one
phoneme, or sound (e.g., /ch/, /sh/).
Context Clue: Words or sentences around an unfamiliar word that help clarify
its meaning.
Continuous Sounds: A sound that can be held for several seconds without
distortion (e.g., /m/, /s/).
Continuum of Word Types: A classification of words according to their relative
difficulty to decode; typically from easy to difficult, beginning with VC and CVC
words that begin with continuous sounds and progressing to CCCVC and
CCCVCC words.
57
Coordinated Instructional Sequence: A well-designed instructional sequence,
typically through a logical progression of skills; easier skills are introduced
before more difficult ones, so skills build progressively. Also, the relationship
of instruction among the five components of reading, such that skill practice is
consistent with skills taught. For example, if students orally segment and blend
words with the letter-sound /f/ during phonemic awareness instruction, it would
be followed by practice in connecting the sound /f/ with the letter “f,” then
followed by fluency practice in reading words, sentences, and/or passages with
the letter-sound /f/. Spelling practice would include /f/ and other previously
learned letter-sounds.
Core Instruction: Instruction provided to all students in a class, usually guided
by a comprehensive core reading program. Part of core instruction is usually
provided to the class as a whole, and part is provided during small-group,
differentiated instruction. Although instruction is differentiated by student need
during the small-group period, materials and lesson procedures from the core
program can frequently be used to provide reteaching, or additional teaching to
students according to their needs.
Cumulative Review: Review and practice that build upon previously taught
skills and concepts to 1) increase a student’s opportunities to master and
internalize skills and concepts and 2) informally assess student learning to
inform teacher instructional decisions.
Decodable Text: Text in which a high proportion of words (80%–90%)
comprise sound-symbol relationships that have already been taught. It is used
to give students practice in specific decoding skills and is a bridge between
learning phonics and applying phonics in independent reading.
Decodable Words: Words containing phonic elements that have been
previously taught and learned.
Decoding: The ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by
employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences; also the act of
deciphering a new word by sounding it out.
Derivational Affix: A prefix or suffix added to a root or base to form another
word (e.g., -un in unhappy, -ness in likeness).
Diagnostic Assessment: Tests that measure reading, language, or cognitive
skills, usually given only if a child fails to make adequate progress after
receiving extra help as indicated by screening tests. Diagnostic assessments
provide a more detailed picture of a child’s full range of knowledge and skill so
that instruction can be more precisely planned.
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Dialogic Reading: A form of story reading in which a teacher or parent asks
questions, adds information, and prompts increasingly sophisticated responses
by expanding on a child’s utterances.
Differentiated Instruction: Matching instruction to meet the different needs of
learners in a given classroom.
Difficult Words: Some words are difficult because they contain phonic
elements that have not yet been taught. Others are difficult because they
contain unique letter-sound correspondences (e.g., yacht ).
Digraphs: Two consecutive letters whose phonetic value is a single sound
(e.g., /ea/ in bread; /ch/ in chat; /ng/ in sing ).
Diphthong: A vowel produced by the tongue’s shifting position during
articulation; a vowel that feels as if it has two parts, especially the vowels
spelled ow, oy, ou, and oi.
Direct Vocabulary Instruction: Planned instruction to pre-teach new,
important, and difficult words to ensure the quantity and quality of exposures to
words that students will encounter in their reading.
During Reading Comprehension Strategies: Strategies (e.g., asking
questions at critical junctures, modeling the thought process of making
inferences, constructing mental imagery) that help students think about the
possible meanings of a text.
Elkonin Boxes: A device used during phonemic awareness instruction,
sometimes called Sound Boxes; students push a marker into a box as they
segment each sound in the word.
Emergent Literacy: The skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are
developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing.
Empirical Research: Scientifically based research that applies rigorous,
systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge; includes
research that employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation
or experiment; has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by
a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and
scientific review; involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test
the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn; relies on
measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across
evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations;
and can be generalized.
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English Language Learners: Defined by the U.S. Department of Education
as national-origin minority students who are limited English proficient. Often
abbreviated as ELLs.
Error Correction: Immediate corrective feedback during reading instruction.
Etymology: The origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning
(e.g., the word etymology comes from late Middle English; from Old French
ethimologie; via Latin from Greek etumologia; from etumologos, “student of
etymology”; from etumon; neuter singular of etumos, “true”).
Explicit Instruction: Instructional language that is concise, specific, and related
to the objective, and instructional actions that are clear, unambiguous, direct,
and visible so that students understand what they are to do and learn. Includes
a high level of teacher-student interaction.
Expository Text: Factual information (also referred to as informational text) and
the relationships among ideas. Expository text tends to be more difficult for
students than narrative text because of the density of long, difficult, and
unknown words or word parts.
Expressive Language: Language that is spoken.
Fidelity of Implementation: The degree to which instruction follows the intent
and design of the program.
Figurative Meanings: Language that departs from its literal meaning (e.g.,
“The snow sparkled like diamonds.” “That child is a handful.”).
Five Components of Reading: Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,
vocabulary, and comprehension.
Flexible Grouping: Grouping students according to shared instructional needs
and abilities and regrouping them as their instructional needs change. Group
size and instructional time may vary.
Floss Rule: Words of one syllable ending in “f”, “l”, or “s” after a single vowel
usually double the letter (e.g., floss, lull, hiss ).
Fluency: Ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with appropriate
expression. Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and
comprehension.
Fluency Probe: An assessment for measuring fluency, usually a timed oral
reading passage at the student’s instructional reading level.
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Formal Assessment: Assessment that follows a prescribed format for
administration and scoring. Scores obtained from formal tests are standardized,
meaning that interpretation is based on norms from a comparative sample
of students.
Frayer Model: An adaptation of the concept map. The framework of the Frayer
Model includes: the concept word, the definition, characteristics of the concept
word, examples of the concept word, and non-examples of the concept word.
It is important to include both examples and non-examples, so that students
can identify what the concept word is and what it is not.
Frustrational Reading Level: The level at which a reader reads at less than
90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Frustrational
level text is difficult text for the reader.
Generalization: The ability to use a learned skill in new situations.
Grapheme: A letter or letter combination that spells a phoneme. Can be one,
two, three, or four letters in English (e.g., e, ei, igh, eigh).
Graphic Organizers: A visual framework or structure for capturing the main
points of what is being read, which may include concepts, ideas, events,
vocabulary, or generalizations. Graphic organizers allow ideas in text and
thinking processes to become external by showing the interrelatedness of
ideas, thus facilitating understanding for the reader. The structure of a graphic
organizer is determined by the structure of the kind of text being read.
Graphophonemic: The relationship between letters and phonemes.
Guided Oral Reading: Instructional support that includes immediate corrective
feedback as students read orally.
Guided Practice: Students practice newly learned skills as the teacher provides
prompts and feedback.
High Frequency Irregular Words: Words in print containing letters that stray
from the most common sound pronunciation because they do not follow
common phonic patterns (e.g., were, was, laugh, been ).
High Frequency Words: A small (300–500) group of regular or irregular words
that accounts for a large percentage of the words in print (e.g., Dolch or Fry
lists). Often, they are referred to as “sight words” since automatic recognition
of these words is required for fluent reading.
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Homographs: Words that are spelled the same but have different origins and
meanings. They may or may not be pronounced the same (e.g., can as in a
metal container and can as in able to).
Homonyms: Words that sound the same but are spelled differently (e.g.,
cents/sense, knight/night ).
Homophones: Words that may or may not be spelled alike but are pronounced
the same. These words are of different origins and have different meanings
(e.g., ate and eight, scale as in the covering of a fish, and scale as in a device
used to weigh things).
Idiom: A phrase or expression that differs from the literal meaning of the
words; a regional or individual expression with a unique meaning (e.g., ”It’s
raining cats and dogs.”).
Immediate Corrective Feedback: When an error occurs, the teacher immediately
attends to it by scaffolding instruction (i.e., gradually releasing responsibility) to
prevent a student’s being confused or developing misconceptions.
Immediate Intensive Intervention: Instruction that may include more time,
more opportunities for student practice, more teacher feedback, smaller group
size, and different materials. It is implemented as soon as assessment indicates
that a student is not making adequate progress in reading.
Implicit Instruction: The opposite of explicit instruction. Students discover
skills and concepts instead of being explicitly taught. For example, the teacher
writes a list of words on the board that begin with the letter “m” (mud, milk,
meal, and mattress ) and asks the students how the words are similar. The
teacher elicits from the students that the letter “m” stands for the sound you
hear at the beginning of the words.
Important Words: Unknown words that are critical to passage understanding
and which students are likely to encounter in the future.
Independent Reading Level: The level at which a reader can read text with
95% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 20 words read). Independent
reading level text is relatively easy for the reader.
Independent-Instructional Reading Level Range: The reading range that
spans instructional and independent reading levels or a level of text that a
student can read with 90% to 95% or higher accuracy.
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Indirect Vocabulary Instruction: Words learned through independent reading
and conversation.
Inflectional Suffix: In English, a suffix (-s, -es ,-ing, -ed) that expresses plurality
or possession when added to a noun, tense when added to a verb, and
comparison when added to an adjective and some adverbs. A major difference
between inflectional and derivational affixes is that inflections added to verbs,
nouns, or adjectives do not change the grammatical role or part of speech of
the base words.
Informal Assessment: Does not follow prescribed rules for administration and
scoring and has not undergone technical scrutiny for reliability and validity.
Teacher-made tests, end-of-unit tests, and running records are all examples of
informal assessment.
Informational Text: Also referred to as expository text. Non-fiction that
contains facts and information.
Initial Instruction: First line of defense for all students to prevent reading
failure. Instruction is provided in the whole-group (class) and small-group
(differentiated) settings.
Instructional Design: The plan for translating key learning objectives and goals
into a delivery system to meet those goals. When we discuss the instructional
design of a reading program, we are referring to the underlying framework of a
reading program, the way the curriculum is constructed.
Instructional Reading Level: The level at which a reader can read text with
90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Instructional
reading level engages the student in challenging, but manageable text.
Instructional Routines: Include the following sequence of steps:
Explicit instruction;
Modeling;
Guided practice;
Student practice, application, and feedback; and
Generalization.
Intensity of Instruction: Focused instruction where students are academically
engaged with the content and the teacher, and receive more opportunities to
practice with immediate teacher feedback.
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Intervention Instruction: Instruction provided only to students who are lagging
behind their classmates in the development of critical reading skills. This
instruction will usually be guided by an intervention program that focuses
on one or more key areas of reading development and is usually needed
by only a relatively small minority of students in a class. However, in some
cases, students in 2nd and 3rd grade may have lagged so far behind gradelevel development of reading skills that very little content from the grade-level
comprehensive core program is suitable for them. In these cases, students may
need to receive instruction guided by a comprehensive intervention program
that is designed to meet their specific needs while at the same time
accelerating their growth toward grade-level reading ability.
Intervention Program: Instructional content intended for flexible use as part
of differentiated instruction and/or more intensive instruction to meet student
learning needs in one or more areas of reading (phonological awareness,
phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). These programs are used to
provide targeted, intensive intervention for small groups of struggling readers.
Invented Spelling: An attempt to spell a word based on a student’s knowledge
of the spelling system and how it works (e.g., kt for cat ).
Irregular Words: Words that contain letters that stray from the most common
sound pronunciation; words that do not follow common phonic patterns (e.g.,
were, was, laugh, been ).
K-W-L: A technique used most frequently with expository text to promote
comprehension. It can be used as a graphic organizer in the form of a chart,
and consists of a three-step process: What I Know (accessing prior knowledge),
What I Want to Know (setting a purpose for reading), and What I Learned
(recalling what has been read).
Learning Community: A group in which educators commit to ongoing learning
experiences with a deliberate intent to transform teaching and learning at their
school or in their district.
Letter Combinations: Also referred to as digraphs, a group of consecutive
letters that represents a particular sound(s) in the majority of words in which it
appears (e.g., /ai/ in maid; /ch/ in chair; /ar/ in car; /kn/ in know; /ng/ in ring ).
Letter-Sound Correspondence: The matching of an oral sound to its
corresponding letter or group of letters.
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Linked: A clear connection among the objectives of what is taught within and
across reading components (e.g., students learn some common letter-sounds
during phonics instruction, then read words that use those same letter-sounds
to practice fluency and develop vocabulary).
Listening Vocabulary: The words needed to understand what is heard.
Literal Comprehension: An understanding of the basic facts in a text that the
student has read.
Main Idea: The central thought or message of a reading passage.
Metacognition: An awareness of one’s own thinking processes and how they
work; the process of consciously thinking about one’s learning or reading while
actually engaged in learning or reading. Metacognitive strategies can be taught
to students; good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and have
control over their reading.
Modeling: Teacher overtly demonstrates a strategy, skill, or concept that
students will be learning.
Morpheme: The smallest meaningful unit of language.
Morphemic Analysis: An analysis of words formed by adding prefixes,
suffixes, or other meaningful word units to a base word.
Most Common Letter-sound: The sound that is usually pronounced for the
letter when it appears in a short word, such as /a/ in apple.
Multisyllabic Words: Words with more than one syllable. A systematic
introduction of prefixes, suffixes, and multisyllabic words should occur
throughout a reading program. The average number of syllables in the words
students read should increase steadily throughout the grades.
Narrative Text: A story (i.e., with a beginning, middle, and end) about fictional
or real events.
Objectives: Measurable statements detailing a program’s desired outcomes.
Onset and Rime: In a syllable, the onset is the initial consonant or consonants,
and the rime is the vowel and any consonants that follow it (e.g., the word sat,
the onset is “s” and the rime is “at.” In the word flip, the onset is “fl” and the
rime is “ip”).
Oral Language: Spoken language. There are five components of oral language:
phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.
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Orthographic Units: The representation of the sounds of a language by written
or printed symbols.
Orthography: A writing system for representing language.
Outcome Assessments: Given at the end of the year, tests that can help the
principal and teachers in a school evaluate the overall effectiveness of their
reading program for all students.
Pacing: The pace of a lesson should move briskly, but not so fast as to rush
students beyond their ability to answer correctly. A fast pace helps students
pay close attention to the material being presented. It also gives students more
practice time, which keeps students actively engaged and reduces behavior
problems by keeping students on task.
Pedagogy: How instruction is carried out or the method and practice of
teaching.
Peer/Partner Reading: Students reading aloud with a partner, taking turns to
provide word identification help and feedback.
Phases of Word Learning:
Pre-alphabetic—Sight word learning at the earliest period. Children do
not form letter-sound connections to read words; if they are able to read
words at all, they do so by remembering selected visual features.
Partial alphabetic—Children learn the names or sounds of alphabet
letters and use them to remember how to read words. However, they
form connections between only some of the letters and sounds in words,
often only the first and final letter-sounds.
Full alphabetic—Children can form complete connections between letters
in written words and phonemes in pronunciations.
Consolidated alphabetic—Readers operate with multi-letter units that
may be morphemes, syllables, or subsyllabic units such as onsets and
rimes. Common spelling patterns become consolidated into letter chunks,
and these chunks make it easier to read words.
Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound within our language system. A phoneme
combines with other phonemes to make words.
Phoneme Blending: Combining sounds rapidly to represent a word accurately.
Phoneme Isolation: Recognizing individual sounds in a word (e.g., /p/ is the
first sound in pan ).
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Phoneme Manipulation: Adding, deleting, and substituting phonemes (sounds)
in words (e.g., add /b/ to oat to make boat; delete /p/ in pat to make at;
substitute /o/ for /a/ in pat to make pot ).
Phoneme Segmenting: Separating the individual phonemes (sounds) of a word
into discrete units.
Phonemic Awareness: The ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the
individual phonemes (sounds) in words. It is the ability to understand that
sounds in spoken language work together to make words. This term is used to
refer to the highest level of phonological awareness: awareness of individual
phonemes in words.
Phonic Analysis: Attention to various phonetic elements of words.
Phonics: The study of the relationships between letters and the sounds they
represent; also used to describe reading instruction that teaches sound-symbol
correspondences.
Phonogram: A succession of letters that represent the same phonological unit
in different words, such as “-igh” in flight, might, tight, sigh, and high.
Phonological Awareness: One’s sensitivity to, or explicit awareness of, the
phonological structure of words in one’s language. This is an “umbrella” term
that is used to refer to a student’s sensitivity to any aspect of phonological
structure in language. It encompasses awareness of individual words in
sentences, syllables, onset-rime segments, and individual phonemes.
Prefix: A morpheme that precedes a root and that contributes to or modifies
the meaning of a word (e.g., re in reprint ).
Prior Knowledge: The knowledge and experience that readers bring to a text.
Progress Monitoring: Tests that keep the teacher informed about a
child’s progress in learning to read during the school year. Results of these
assessments will let the teacher know if a child is making adequate progress in
critical reading skills to reach grade-level reading ability by the end of the year.
Pronunciation Guide: A key or guide consisting of graphic symbols that
represent particular speech sounds.
Prosody: Reading with expression, proper intonation, and phrasing. This helps
readers sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading. It is also this
element of fluency that sets it apart from automaticity.
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Rate: The speed at which a person reads.
Readability Level: Refers to independent, instructional, and frustrational levels
of text reading.
Reading Centers: Special places organized in the classroom for students to
work in small groups or pairs, either cooperatively or individually. Students work
in centers while the teacher is conducting small-group reading instruction. Each
center contains meaningful, purposeful activities that extend and reinforce what
has already been taught by the teacher.
Reading Fluency Prorating Formula: When students are asked to read
connected text for more than or less than one minute, their performance must
be prorated to give a fluency rate per minute. The prorating formula for this is
the following: words read correctly x 60 ÷ by the number of seconds = reading
fluency score.
Reading Vocabulary: The words needed to understand what is read.
Receptive Language: Language that is heard.
Regular Words: Any word in which each letter represents its respective, most
common sound (e.g., sat, fantastic ).
Repeated Reading: Rereading of text until the reader is able to read at a
predetermined rate to produce fluency.
Retelling: Recalling the content of what was read or heard.
Rhyming: Words that have the same ending sound.
Root: A bound morpheme, usually of Latin origin, that cannot stand alone, but
is used to form a family of words with related meanings.
Scaffolding: Support that is given to students in order for them to arrive at the
correct answer. This support may occur as immediate, specific feedback that a
teacher offers during student practice. For instance, the assistance the teacher
offers may include giving encouragement or cues, breaking the problem
down into smaller steps, using a graphic organizer, or providing an example.
Scaffolding may be embedded in the features of the instructional design, such
as starting with simpler skills and building progressively to more difficult skills.
Providing temporary instructional support enables a student to achieve what he
or she could not otherwise have done alone.
Schema: Refers to prior knowledge, the knowledge and experience that
readers bring to a text.
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Schwa: The vowel sound sometimes heard in an unstressed syllable and is
most often sounded as /uh/ or as the short /u/ sound as in cup.
Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR): Empirical research that
applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid
knowledge. It includes research that employs systematic, empirical methods
that draw on observation or experiment; has been accepted by a peer-reviewed
journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably
rigorous, objective, and scientific review; involves rigorous data analyses that
are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions
drawn; relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid
data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and
observations; and can be generalized.
Scope and Sequence: A map or “blueprint” for teachers that provides an
overall picture of an instructional program and includes the range of teaching
content and the order or sequence in which it is taught.
Screening: An informal inventory that gives the teacher a beginning indication
of a student’s preparation for grade-level reading instruction; a first alert
that a child may need extra help to make adequate progress in reading during
the year.
Self-Monitoring: Refers to metacognition. When students use self-monitoring
strategies, they actively think about how they are learning or understanding the
material, activities, or reading in which they are engaged.
Semantic Feature Analysis: Uses a grid to help explore how sets of things are
related to one another. By analyzing the grid, one can see connections, make
predictions, and master important concepts.
Semantic Map: Portrays the schematic relations that compose a concept; a
strategy for representing concepts graphically.
Sight Words: Words that are recognized immediately. Sometimes sight words
are thought to be irregular, or high frequency words (e.g., the Dolch and Fry
lists). However, any word that is recognized automatically is a sight word.
These words may be phonetically regular or irregular.
Sound to Symbol: Phonics instruction that matches phoneme to grapheme.
Speaking Vocabulary: The words used when speaking.
Speed: The rate at which a student reads.
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Spelling Patterns: Common letter sequences (e.g., digraphs, vowel pairs, word
families, and vowel variant spellings) used in spelling words.
Stop Sounds: A sound that can only be said for an instant without distortion
(i.e., /b/, /c/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /k/, /p/, /q/, /t/, /x/). Words beginning with stop
sounds are more difficult for students to sound out than words beginning with
a continuous sound.
Story Elements: Characters, problems, solutions, themes, settings, and plot.
Story Grammar: The general structure of stories that includes story elements.
Story Map: A strategy used to unlock the plot and important elements of a
story. These elements can be represented visually through graphic organizers to
show the beginning, middle, and end of a story. Answering the questions who,
where, when, what, and how or why, and listing the main events are also part
of story mapping. These elements are also referred to as story grammar.
Strategic Learners: Active learners. While reading, these learners make
predictions, organize information, and interact with the text. They think about
what they are reading in terms of what they already know. They monitor their
comprehension by employing strategies that facilitate their understanding.
Structural Analysis: A procedure for teaching students to read words formed
from prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word parts.
Student-friendly Explanation: An explanation of a word’s meaning rather than
a definition. It characterizes the word and how it is typically used and explains
the meaning in everyday language.
Suffix: An affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes the
meaning or grammatical function of the word, as -en in oxen.
Summarization: Reducing large selections of text to their bare essentials; the
gist, the key ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering.
Supplemental Instruction: Instruction that goes beyond that provided by the
comprehensive core program to provide sufficient instruction or practice in a
key area to meet the needs of students in a particular classroom or school. For
example, teachers may observe that their comprehensive core program does
not provide enough instruction in vocabulary, or in phonics, to meet the needs
of the majority of their students adequately. They could then select a
supplemental program in these areas to strengthen the initial instruction and
practice all students receive.
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Supplemental/Intervention Reading Programs (SRP/IRP): Programs and
materials that provide instruction in one or more areas of reading skill. They
are intended for flexible use as part of differentiated instruction or in more
intensive interventions to meet student learning needs in one or more of the
five components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary,
or comprehension). When used in place of the core program because it lacks
sufficient instruction and practice in a given area for all students, these
programs are usually referred to as supplemental materials. Whether referred
to as supplemental or intervention materials, these programs provide targeted
instruction designed to fill in gaps in student knowledge or skill. They can be
used to provide either additional instruction or additional practice, or both.
Syllable: A segment of a word that contains one vowel sound. The vowel may
or may not be preceded and/or followed by a consonant.
Syllable Types: There are six syllable types:
1. Closed: mat, pic-nic
2. Open: he, veto
3. Silent e or vowel-consonant e (VCe): cape, stripe, cue
4. Vowel team or vowel pair: pain, head, toy
5. R-controlled: tar, fer-ment
6. Consonant + le: ap-ple, can-dle
Symbol to Sound: Matching grapheme to phoneme.
Synonyms: Words that have similar meanings.
Systematic Instruction: A carefully planned sequence for instruction, similar to
a builder’s blueprint for a house. In a systematic plan for instruction, the major
ideas are carefully thought out and arranged strategically before specific
activities and lessons are designed. Instruction is across the five components
(phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). For
systematic instruction, lessons build on previously taught information, from
simple to complex.
Systematic Phonics Instruction: Systematic phonics programs teach children
an extensive, pre-specified set of letter-sound correspondences or phonograms.
Systematic Review: A planned review of previously learned materials.
Target Words: Words specifically addressed, analyzed, and/or studied in
curriculum lessons, exercises, and independent activities.
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Text Structure: Patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text
(e.g., cause-effect, comparison-contrast, story grammar).
Think-Alouds: During read-alouds, teachers reveal their thinking processes by
verbalizing connections, questions, inferences, and predictions.
Timed Reading: A student reads appropriate text containing a predetermined
number of words to be read within a specific amount of time.
Trade Book: A book intended for general reading that is not a textbook.
Train-the-Trainer Model: A capacity-building plan to develop master trainers
who then deliver the program information to users.
Useful Words: Words that might be unknown to the student but are critical
to passage understanding; words that students are likely to encounter in
the future.
Useful Letter Sounds: Letters that appear frequently in words. Beginning
readers can decode more words when they know several useful letters.
Knowing the sounds of /m/, /a/, /t/, and /i/ is more advantageous than knowing
the sounds /x/, /q/, /y/, and /z/. Other useful letter sounds are /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/,
/b/, /c/, /d/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /k/, /l/, /n/, /p/, and /r/.
Variant Correspondences: Various corresponding spelling patterns for a
specific sound or a variety of spelling patterns for one sound (e.g., long a
spelled a, a_e, ai_, _ay).
Venn Diagram: A graphic organizer or diagram using overlapping circles to
compare and contrast.
Vocabulary: All of the words of our language. One must know words to
communicate effectively. Vocabulary is important to reading comprehension
because readers cannot understand what they are reading without knowing
what most of the words mean. Vocabulary development refers to stored
information about the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for
communication. The four types of vocabulary are listening, speaking, reading,
and writing.
Vowel Digraph or Vowel Pair: Two vowels that together represent one
phoneme, or sound (e.g., ea, ai, oa).
Word Family: Group of words that share a rime. A vowel plus the consonants
that follow (e.g., -ame, -ick, -out).
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Word-learning Strategies: Strategies students use to learn words, such
as decoding, analyzing meaningful parts of words, using analogy, using
context clues, using a dictionary (student-friendly definitions), glossary, or
other resources.
Word Parts: Letters, onsets, rimes, and/or syllables that, when combined,
result in words. The ability to recognize word parts in multisyllabic words is
beneficial in decoding unfamiliar words.
Word Study: The act of deliberately investigating words (e.g., vocabularybuilding exercises, word-identification practice, and spelling).
Writing Vocabulary: Words that a student might use in writing.
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REFERENCES
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REFERENCES FOR GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS
Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research
building blocks for teaching children to read, Kindergarten through Grade 3.
Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved February 23, 2007
from http://www.nifl.gov
Billmeyer, R., & Barton, M. L. (1998). Teaching reading in the content areas: If not
me, then who? (2nd ed.). Aurora, CO: McREL.
Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust
vocabulary instruction. New York, NY: Guilford.
Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., & Kame’enui, E. J. (1997). Direct instruction reading.
(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Francis, D., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical
guidelines for the education of English Language Learners: Research-based
recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH:
RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
Graves, M. F., Juel, C., & Graves, D. B. (2001). Teaching reading in the 21st century
(2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Harris, T. L., & Hodges, R. E. (Eds.). (1995). The literacy dictionary: The vocabulary
of reading and writing. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Honig, B., Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2000). CORE: Teaching reading sourcebook.
Novato, CA: Arena Press.
Jewell, E. J., & Abate, F. (Eds.). (2001). The new Oxford American dictionary. New
York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Moats, L. C. (2000). Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers. Baltimore,
MD: Paul H. Brookes.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of
the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence-based
assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications
for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754).
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Woolfolk, A. E. (1998). Educational psychology (7th ed.). Needham Heights, MA:
Allyn & Bacon.
77
REFERENCES FOR REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM
Adams, M. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press.
Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research
building blocks for teaching children to read: Kindergarten through grade 3.
Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.
Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust
vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford.
Blachowicz, C. L. Z., Fisher, P. J. L., Ogle, D., & Watts-Taffe, S. (2006). Vocabulary:
Questions from the classroom. Reading Research Quarterly, 41 (4), 524-539.
Burns, M. S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C. E. (Eds). (1998). Starting out right: A guide to
promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academies
Press.
Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., & Kame’enui, E. J. (1997). Direct instruction reading (3rd
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gough, P. B. (1996). How children learn to read and why they fail. Annals of
Dyslexia, 46, 3-20.
Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Metsala, J. L., & Cox, K. E. (1999). Motivational cognitive
predictors of text comprehension and reading amount. Scientific Studies of
Reading, 3 (3), 231-256.
Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005, May). Reading fluency assessment
and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher 58 (8), 702–714.
Kame’emui, E. J., & Baumann, J. F. (2004). Vocabulary: The plot of the reading
story. In J.F. Baumann, & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction:
Research to practice. New York: Guilford.
Kame’enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (1990). Designing instructional strategies: The
prevention of academic learning problems. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Kame’enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (1999). Toward successful inclusion of students
with disabilities: The architecture of instruction. Reston, VA: Council for
Exceptional Children.
Learning First Alliance (2000, November). Every child reading: A professional
development guide. Retrieved September 7, 2007 from
http://www.learningfirst.org/publications/reading
78
Liberman, A. M. (1999) The reading researcher and the reading teacher need the
right theory of speech. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3 (2), 95-111.
Mathes, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L. , Francis, D. J., &
Schatschneider, C. (2005). An evaluation of two reading interventions derived
from diverse models. Reading Research Quarterly, 40 (2), 148-183.
McKeown, M. G., & Beck, I. L. (2003). Taking advantage of read alouds to help
children make sense of decontextualized language. In A. van Kleeck, S. A.
Stahl, & E. B. Bauer (Eds.), Storybook reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.
Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers
should know and be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of
Teachers.
Moats, L.C. (2004). Science, language, and imagination in the professional
development of reading teachers. In McCardle, P. & Chhabra, V. (Eds.), The
voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks.
Moats, L. C. (2005-06, Winter). How spelling supports reading. American Educator,
12-43.
Moats, L. (2007). Whole-language high jinks: How to tell when “scientifically-based
reading instruction” isn’t. Available from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute,
http://www.edexcellence.net/doc/Moats2007.pdf
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of
the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based
assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications
for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754).
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
RAND. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R & D program in reading
comprehension. Retrieved February 23, 2007 from http://www.rand.org/
pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1465.pdf
Rayner, K., Foorman, B., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002).
How should reading be taught? Scientific American, 286, (3), 84-91.
Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003, March). A consumer’s guide to
evaluating a core reading program grades K-3: A critical elements analysis.
Retrieved September 7, 2007 from http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu
Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties
in young children. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
79
Stahl, S., & Fairbanks, M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction. A modelbased meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56, 72-110.
Stahl, S., & Nagy, W. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.
Stanovich, K. E., & Stanovich, P. J. (2003). Using research and reason in education:
How teachers can use scientifically based research to make curricular &
instructional decisions. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.
Available from
http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/pdf/Stanovich_Color.pdf
Torgesen, J. K. (1998). Catch them before they fall: Identification and assessment
to prevent reading failure in young children. American Educator, 22 (1&2), 32-39.
Torgesen, J. K., & Mathes, P. (2000). A basic guide to understanding, assessing,
and teaching phonological awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. The Journal of School
Psychology, 40, 7-26.
80
RECOMMENDED READING
These books and articles have been grouped roughly by category. Some
address more than one category and are listed in more than one section.
Others are listed in the category that is consistent with their primary focus,
although they may have content related to other areas as well. References
with the image of an open book next to them are recommended as key texts
in the field.
Phonological / Phonemic Awareness
Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print.
Cambridge, MA: MIT.
M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). The elusive
f Adams,
phoneme: Why phonemic awareness is so important and how to help children
develop it. American Educator, 22, 18–29.
Gillon, G. T. (2004). Phonological awareness: From research to practice. New York:
Guilford.
Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, A. M. (1989). The alphabetic principle
and learning to read. In D. Shankweiler & I. Y. Liberman (Eds.), Phonology and
reading disability: Solving the reading puzzle (pp.1–33). Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press.
Torgesen, J. K., & Mathes, P. (2000). A basic guide to understanding, assessing,
and teaching phonological awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Phonics
I. L. (2006). Making sense of phonics: The hows and whys. New York:
f Beck,Guilford.
Ehri, L. (2002, January). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and
implications for teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph
Series II, 7–28.
Henry, M. (2003). Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding & spelling instruction.
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Juel, C., & Minden-Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and
instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 458–492.
Moats, L. C. (2000). Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers. Baltimore,
MD: Paul H. Brookes.
81
Moats, L. C. (2006, Winter). How spelling supports reading: And why it is more regular
and predictable than you may think. American Educator, 29 (4) 12–22, 42–43.
Fluency
Ehri, L. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for
teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II, 7–28.
f Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and
instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58 (8), 702–714.
Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2000). Fluency: A review of developmental and
remedial practices. CIERA Report #2-008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department
of Education. Retrieved February 23, 2007, from http://www.ciera.org/library/
reports/inquiry-2/2-008/2-008.pdf
Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E. H. (2003). A focus on fluency: Research-based
practices in early reading series. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education
and Learning.
Raskinski, T. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word
recognition, fluency and comprehension. New York: Scholastic.
Torgesen, J. K., & Hudson, R. (2006). Reading fluency: Critical issues for struggling
readers. In S. J. Samuels and A. Farstrup (Eds.). Reading fluency: The forgotten
dimension of reading success. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency
instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes.
In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain (pp. 335–355). Parkton, MD:
York Press.
Vocabulary
f
Baumann, J., & Kame’enui, E. (Eds.). (2004). Vocabulary instruction: Research to
Practice. New York: Guilford.
Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust
vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford.
Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (2002). Teaching vocabulary in all classrooms. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.
Block, C. C., Rodgers, L. L., & Johnson, R. B. (2004). Comprehension process
instructions: Creating reading success in grades k–3. New York: Guilford.
82
Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2006). Vocabulary handbook. Berkeley, CA: CORE.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of
young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. L. (Eds.). (2005). Teaching and learning vocabulary:
Bringing research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Nagy, W. (2002). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Newark,
DE: International Reading Association.
Stahl, S., & Kapinus, B. (2001). Word power: What every educator needs to know
about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Stahl, S., & Nagy, W. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.
Comprehension
Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1998, Spring-Summer).
Getting at the meaning. American Educator, 22(1–2), 66–71, 85.
Beck, I. L., McKeown, M., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the
author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE:
International Reading Association.
Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. (Eds.). (2002). Improving comprehension
Instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. San Francisco,
CA: Jossey-Bass.
Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to
enhance understanding. New York: Stenhouse.
(2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R & D program in reading
f RAND.
comprehension. Retrieved February 23, 2007, from http://www.rand.org/
pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1465.pdf
Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual
differences in the acquisition of literacy, Reading Research Quarterly, 21 (4),
360–407.
Principles of Effective Instruction and Intervention
D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., Tarver, S. G., & Jungjohann, K. (2006).
f Carnine,
Teaching struggling and at-risk readers: A direct instruction approach. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
83
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Moody, S. W. (1999). Grouping practices
and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65,
399–415.
Foorman, B. (Ed.). (2003). Preventing and remediating reading difficulties.
Baltimore, MD: York Press.
Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P.
(1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in
at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 37–55.
Hiebert, E. H. (1999). Text matters in learning to read. The Reading Teacher, 52 (6),
552–566.
M., Ladinsky, K., Nelson, L., & Torgesen, J. (2006). Differentiated
f Kosanovich,
reading instruction: Small group alternative lesson structures for all students.
Available from:
www.fcrr.org/assessment/pdf/smallgroupalternativelessonsstructures.pdf
Moats, L. C. (1998, Spring-Summer). Teaching decoding. American Educator, 22
(1–2), 42–49, 95–96.
Moats, L. (2007). Whole-language high jinks: How to tell when “scientifically-based
reading instruction” isn’t. (Available from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute,
http://www.edexcellence.net/doc/Moats2007.pdf)
Pressley, M., Wharton-McDonald, R., Allington, R., Block, C. C., Morrow, L., Tracey,
D., Baker, K., Brooks, G., Cronin, J., Nelson, E., & Woo, D. (2001). A study of
effective first-grade instruction. Scientific Study of Reading, 5, 35–58.
f Rayner, K., Foorman, B. R., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S.
(2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading.
Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2, 31–74.
Rayner, K., Foorman, B. R., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002,
March). How should reading be taught? Scientific American, 286(3), 85–91.
First. (2004). A closer look at the five essential components of effective
f Reading
reading instruction: A review of scientifically based reading research for
teachers. Retrieved March 5, 2007, from http://www.mireadingfirst.org/
resources/downloads/components.pdf
Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based
program for reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf.
Snow, C., Burns, M., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in
young children. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
84
Vaughn, S. R., Moody, S. W., & Shuman, J. S. (1998). Broken promises: Reading
instruction—the resource room. Exceptional Children, 64, 211–225.
Wharton-McDonald, R., Pressley, M., & Hampston, J. M. (1999). Literacy
instruction in nine first grade classrooms: Teacher characteristics and student
achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 99 (2), 101–128.
85
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors express sincere thanks to the following people who participated in
the design and review of this training module. Their input and suggestions were
critical to its development.
Elizabeth Goldman, RMC Research Corporation
Jan Hasbrouck, Educational Consultant, JH Consulting
Tatia Jacobson Jordan, Program Coordinator, Center of Instruction (COI)
Reading Strand
Robert Kozman, RMC Research Corporation
Peter Lenkway, Director of Technology Services, Florida Center for Reading
Research (FCRR)
Jane Meadows, Director of Professional Development, FCRR
Debra Houston Miller, Instructional Specialist, COI Reading Strand
Meghann Montgomery, Program Coordinator, FCRR and COI Reading Strand
Lisa Noonis, RMC Research Corporation
Angela Penfold, RMC Research Corporation, Director, Center on Instruction
Kristopher Roehrig-Bice, Graphic and Production Designer, FCRR
Terry Tanner-Smith, Instructional Specialist, COI Reading Strand
Joseph Torgesen, Director Emeritus, FCRR; Former Director, COI Reading Strand
Sharon Walpole, Assistant Professor, School of Education, University of Delaware
86
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