Reviewing a Reading Program
REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM PA RT I C I PA N T ’ S G U I D E REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM PA RT I C I PA N T ’ S G U I D E Marcia Kosanovich, Georgia Jordan, Elissa Arndt, Mary Van Sciver, Michelle Wahl, Lila Rissman Florida Center for Reading Research Florida State University 2008 This publication was created for the Center on Instruction by the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida State University. The Center on Instruction is operated by RMC Research Corporation in partnership with the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida State University; RG Research Group; the Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics at the University of Houston; and The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk at the University of Texas at Austin. The contents of this document were developed under cooperative agreement S283B050034 with the U.S. Department of Education. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Editorial, design, and production services provided by RMC Research Corporation. Citation: Kosanovich, M. L., Jordan, G., Arndt, E., Van Sciver, M., Wahl, M., & Rissman, L. (2008). Reviewing a reading program. Participant’s guide. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. To download a copy of this document, visit www.centeroninstruction.org. CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 9 GUIDELINES FOR REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM 11 17 23 31 37 43 49 Instructional Design (ID) Phonological/Phonemic Awareness (PA) Phonics (P) Fluency (F) Vocabulary (V) Comprehension (C) Motivation and Engagement, Assessment, and Professional Development (M & E, A, PD) 53 GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS 75 REFERENCES 77 References for Glossary of Reading Terms 78 References for Reviewing a Reading Program 81 Recommended Readings 86 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION Several things need to be in place at a school in order for students to achieve proficiency in reading. Instructional materials (i.e., reading programs) that are consistent with scientific research on reading instruction can provide the foundation for this effort. When a solid reading program is implemented in concert with effective instruction, valid and reliable assessments, high-quality professional development, and under good leadership, all students can learn to read. Placing effective instructional tools in the hands of teachers is an important step to improving students’ reading achievement. However, selecting a reading program can be overwhelming and time-consuming. Sometimes teachers are assigned to select a reading program for their school; other times, curriculum specialists, district-level leaders, or even state leaders review and select reading programs. Further complicating the selection process, there are literally hundreds of reading programs on the market. Virtually all claim to be “researchbased.” This simply is not true. The Curriculum and Instructional Projects Team at the Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) developed Guidelines for Reviewing a Reading Program (Guidelines) to assist reviewers in determining if a program is consistent with the scientific research on reading. Based on that work, the Center on Instruction Reading Strand developed this professional development for Reviewing a Reading Program. The Center on Instruction has created a two-day professional development training, based on the FCRR Guidelines, to guide reviewers of reading programs through the review process. This Participant’s Guide contains resources (charts, summaries, and the Guidelines themselves) to help you review a reading program. It can be used in two ways. You may refer to it during the two-day professional development for Reviewing a Reading Program as the facilitator presents information and while completing the activities. After the training, the Participant’s Guide can serve as a tool for reviewing any reading program. Before You Begin Throughout this two-day professional development and this Participant’s Guide, abbreviations are used to refer to the major sections of the Guidelines (e.g., F = fluency). Numbers following the abbreviations refer to a specific indicator within that section (e.g., F 3 = third indicator in the fluency section). 1 Abbreviations ID – Instructional Design PA – Phonological/Phonemic Awareness P – Phonics F – Fluency V – Vocabulary C – Comprehension M&E – Motivation and Engagement A – Assessment PD – Professional Development The Framework of a Reading Program, below, shows how instructional design, content, and instruction are related. The foundations of the review process, they will be described, discussed, and referred to throughout the two-day professional development. Framework of a Reading Program Scope & Sequence Goals & Objectives Lesson Organization Aligned Materials Content - What is taught Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Spelling Writing Oral Language Listening Comprehension Instruction - How it is taught Explicit Systematic Coordinated Instructional Sequences and Routines Scaffolded Feedback Differentiated Instruction Assessment ID 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27 2 Instructional Design A reading program should provide a consistent foundation for developing instructional activities (e.g., extension skills and strategies for students to generalize information after instruction) that support the sequence of instruction (Adams, 1990; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Authors of effective reading programs use these four elements of instructional design to organize the content: Scope and Sequence (ID 6) is the starting point for careful examination of a reading program. It contains the range of content that will be presented and the order or sequence in which it is taught. Goals and Objectives (ID 7) target instructional priorities by organizing the key concepts, principles, and strategies that lead to skillful reading. Goals and objectives should align with a strong research base and highlight the key concepts in phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. Each lesson should contain an objective. Lesson Organization (ID 11) should be clear and logical. It is a key factor in explicit and systematic instruction. Well-organized lessons and materials clarify instructional priorities, making it easier for teachers to use the program as it was intended. Some programs may include an overall plan for one week of instruction, while others may have a weekly plan, a monthly plan, or unit plans. Well-organized programs outline each day’s lesson, including objectives and materials for that lesson. Aligned Materials (ID 8) means that student materials and activities reflect instruction. For example, if students are taught certain vocabulary words, they should be expected to read materials containing those words, or engage in spelling and writing activities that use those words in sentences or paragraphs. Content Instructional content refers to what is taught. In reading, this includes the five essential components of reading—Phonological/Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension (ID 3). Research has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of these components (NICHD, 2000). Oral Language, Spelling, Writing, and Listening Comprehension (ID 4) are also part of reading instruction and should be included in the program. 3 Instruction How content is taught is as important as the content itself. Good instruction has seven key features: Explicit (ID 12) instruction is specific and related to the objective; the teacher’s directions are clear, unambiguous, direct, and transparent. The purpose of explicit instruction is to convey the content clearly so that students can master the information (Adams, 1990; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Systematic (ID 15) instruction has a carefully planned instructional sequence. Just as a blueprint is carefully developed before a builder gathers materials and begins construction, so a systematic instructional plan is carefully designed before actual activities and lessons are created. In systematic instruction, lessons build on previously taught information, from simple to complex. Coordinated Instructional Sequences and Routines (ID 16, 18) progress logically, so that easier skills are introduced before more difficult ones. Look also for evidence of clear, meaningful relationships or links among the five components of reading. Explicit, coordinated instructional routines contain this sequence of steps: 1. Modeling a think-aloud approach to demonstrate a strategy, skill, or concept; 2. Guided practice with feedback (students practice what was taught as the teacher provides prompts and feedback); 3. Independent student practice and application; 4. Repeated review of skills and concepts so that students have enough practice to generalize their learning to other settings. Cumulative review also provides more opportunities for corrective teacher feedback. Scaffolded (ID 20, 21) instruction entails a teacher’s temporary support to help a student achieve what he could not otherwise have done alone. It can be explicit or embedded in a task. Explicit scaffolding includes prompts, cues, examples, and encouragements that a teacher uses to support a student during instruction. Embedded scaffolding refers to features in the reading program’s instructional design, such as starting with simpler skills and building progressively to more difficult skills. Look for evidence of scaffolding in the side margins, in the body of the lesson, in the front or back of the Teacher’s Edition (TE), or in a section that addresses instructional techniques. 4 Feedback (ID 22) is a type of scaffold. Corrective feedback prevents students from repeating errors; positive feedback encourages correct responses. Tying feedback to the task lets students work toward achieving a specific goal. Evidence of corrective and positive feedback may be found within a lesson or in the front or back of the TE. Differentiated Instruction (ID 23, 24, 25) is another type of scaffold. It adapts instruction to meet the different needs of learners in a classroom. Differentiating what will best serve each student is not possible without assessment. Look for specific information about differentiated small-group instruction and for guidance in forming flexible groups to meet specific needs of students, such as: • size of each group (e.g., 3-5 for struggling readers, 5-7 for other students, etc.); • number of days per week each group attends the teacher-led center (e.g., daily, twice/week, three times/week); • number of minutes per day (e.g., 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes); • type of lesson structure for each group (e.g., skills-focused lesson or guided reading); and • content and level of the lesson (i.e., area(s) of reading skill and level of instruction). Assessment (ID 18, 24, 27) data should guide instructional decisions. Key assessment types are screening, progress monitoring, and diagnostics. Assessment has no value if it is not used to solve problems and guide actions. 5 The Flowchart of the Review Process serves as a reminder of the “big picture” of reviewing a reading program and shows how the review is typically structured. Flowchart of the Review Process Organize Materials Preview Materials Scope and Sequence Instructional Approach Sample Lessons Review Entire Program The review begins by organizing materials, followed by a preview of the materials to include the scope and sequence of the program, its instructional approach, and sample lessons. Finally, the entire program is reviewed. The Guidelines for Reviewing a Reading Program, beginning on page 9, is the tool used for reviewing a reading program. The professional development training was designed to teach participants how to use the Guidelines. This Participant’s Guide also contains a Glossary of Reading Terms (page 53). Each bolded word in the Guidelines is defined in the glossary. A list of Recommended Readings (page 81) groups references for books and articles roughly by category (e.g., vocabulary, comprehension). References that include essential knowledge for reviewing a reading program effectively are denoted by an icon of a stack of books. USING THE GUIDELINES To review a reading program thoroughly, it is not sufficient to examine only a sample of lessons. It is essential to review all the teacher and student materials to determine whether a program aligns with current reading research. These Guidelines were developed to help navigate the lengthy but critical process of reviewing a reading program. 6 The Guidelines comprise questions about important research-based elements of a reading program. The first six questions for each reading component (phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) are identical and are shaded to set them apart from the other questions. Intended as a summary of findings, they will be answered after the other questions have been answered. Alongside each question, a small circle signifies the grade level or levels at which the element should be evident. On finding clear evidence of the element, the reviewer marks the circle under the corresponding grade level to indicate the answer to the question is “Yes.” If no evidence of the element is apparent, the reviewer writes “not evident” in the comments column and does not mark the circle in the grade-level column. It is important to use the comments section to detail examples, strengths, questions, etc. Any indicator marked as “not evident” should be accompanied by comments. If there is no evidence of an element and a reviewer cannot mark the relevant grade-level circle, the program may not be consistent with current research on reading and reading instruction. At the end of the review process, notes in the comments column help the reviewer reach decisions about a program’s strengths and weaknesses. The Guidelines cover the sequence of instruction that should occur from kindergarten through grade 6 for a comprehensive reading program. It is expected that such a reading program will incorporate the five components of reading identified by the National Reading Panel (phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) and contain the elements of good instructional design. The S/I column is used when reviewing supplemental (S) or intervention (I) programs for students in grades K–12. In reviewing S or I programs, it is important to note that some target one or more of the reading components. In these instances, it is expected that questions in the Guidelines about instructional design and all targeted components will be used during the review. 7 8 GUIDELINES FOR REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM 9 10 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 11 12 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID) Indicators Grade Level 1 Is there empirical research on this program’s efficacy? 2 Are resources available to help the teacher understand the rationale for the instructional approach and program strategies (e.g., articles, explanations in the teacher manuals, references, and reliable websites)? 3 Does the comprehensive program address the five components of reading (phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension)? 4 In addition to the five components of reading, are other dimensions of reading K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I such as spelling, writing, oral language, and listening comprehension addressed? 5 Does the supplemental/intervention program adequately address the component(s) targeted? (Some programs concentrate on one, two, or a few of the components.) 6 Is there a scope and sequence? 7 Are goals and objectives clearly stated? 8 Are student materials aligned with instructional objective of the lesson? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 9 Do instructional materials increase in difficulty as students’ skills strengthen? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 10 Are all lessons and activities (e.g., whole K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I group, small group, and centers) readingrelated? 13 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID) Indicators Grade Level 11 Is there a clear and logical organization to the lessons in: the order and procedure of each day’s lesson? the inclusion of all necessary materials? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I the consistency of each day’s lesson format? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I addressing the components of reading every day? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 12 Is instruction consistently explicit? Is it concise, specific, and related to the objective? 13 Are teacher directives highly detailed to ensure accurate implementation? 14 Does the lesson format facilitate frequent interactions between teacher and students? 15 Is instruction consistently systematic? Is there a prescribed order for introducing specific skills within each component of reading? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 16 Are there coordinated instructional sequences and instructional routines which include: modeling? guided practice with feedback? student practice and application? cumulative review? 14 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID) Indicators 17 Are there many guided practice opportunities for explicit teaching and teacher-directed feedback (for typically progressing readers and more for struggling readers)? 18 Does the program provide clear guidance for the teacher to document student progress and inform instruction? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 19 Does instruction make a clear connection among all five components? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 20 Is scaffolding a prominent part of the lessons? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 21 Are instructions for scaffolding specfic within each lesson? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 22 Are teachers encouraged to give immediate, specific feedback (corrective or positive)? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 23 Is differentiated instruction prominent? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 24 Is instruction differentiated based on assessment? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 25 Are directions for differentiating instruction specific? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 26 Is small-group instruction (small teacherpupil ratio) part of daily instruction? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 27 Are there guidelines for forming flexible groups based on student progress? 28 Are enrichment activities included for advanced students? Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 15 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ID) Indicators 29 Does the program provide instruction for English Language Learners? 30 Does the program specify for whom it is appropriate (e.g., students on or above grade level, students slightly behind their peers, students more than one grade level behind their peers)? 31 Does the program specify who should provide instruction for accurate implementation (e.g., special education teacher, general education teacher, paraprofessional, or volunteer)? 32 Does the program specify the instructional setting (e.g., general education classroom, computer lab, or resource room)? 16 Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) PHONOLOGICAL/ PHONEMIC AWARENESS 17 Phonological Awareness Continuum This table contains types of phonemic awareness skills, descriptions of each, and examples. The table is read from top to bottom in increasing order of skill difficulty and represents the subset of skills that, combined, form phonological awareness. Such a table will probably not appear in a reading program, but a reviewer should see lessons containing these aspects of phonological awareness in a similar progression. Type Description Examples Sentence Segmenting sentences into spoken words The dog ran away. 1 2 3 4 Rhyme Matching the ending sounds of words cat, hat, bat, sat Alliteration Producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound ten tiny tadpoles Syllables Blending syllables to say words or segmenting spoken words into syllables /mag/ /net/ /pa/ /per/ Onsets and Rimes Blending and segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) and the vowel and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime) /m/ /ice/ /sh/ /ake/ Phonemes Blending phonemes into words, segmenting words into individual phonemes, and manipulating phonemes in spoken words /k/ /a/ /t/ /sh/ /i/ /p/ /s/ /t/ /o/ /p/ Continuum of Word Types It is important to keep in mind word types and that they get cumulatively more difficult. 18 Word Type: Example: VC CVC—continuous CVCC—continuous CVC—stop CVCC—stop CCVC—continuous/blend CCVC—stop/blend CCCVC CCVCCC CCCVCC am mat mist cat cats snap, frog, slip club, grab strut, scram clamps, grasps script, sprint PHONOLOGICAL/PHONEMIC AWARENESS (PA) Indicators Grade Level 1 Is phonological/phonemic awareness instruction explicit? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 2 Is phonological/phonemic awareness instruction systematic? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 3 Does phonological/phonemic awareness instruction include coordinated instructional sequences and routines? 4 Is phonological/phonemic awareness instruction scaffolded? 5 Does phonological/phonemic awareness instruction include cumulative review? 6 Are assessments included to measure and monitor progress in phonological/ phonemic awareness? 7 Is PA only a small portion of the daily lesson? 8 Does each day’s lesson focus on only one or two PA skills (as opposed to several)? 9 Are there instructions for PA activities to alert the teacher to student readiness? 10 Does the program contain instructional activities that are designed to stimulate the growth of phonemic awareness? 11 Does PA start with larger units (words and syllables) and progress to smaller units (phonemes)? Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 19 PHONOLOGICAL/PHONEMIC AWARENESS (PA) Indicators 12 Does PA start with rhyming and progress to phoneme isolation, blending, segmenting, and phoneme manipulation? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 13 Do students count the number of words in spoken sentences? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 14 Are there rhyming activities (recognition and production)? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 15 Are there alliteration activities? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 16 Are there activities that involve counting the number of syllables in a word? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 17 Are there activities that involve blending and segmenting syllables in a word? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 18 Are there activities for students to blend onsets and rimes? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I PHONEMIC AWARENESS 19 Do activities follow the continuum of word types (beginning with short words that contain two or three phonemes)? 20 Does instruction include physical representations (e.g., clapping, Elkonin boxes with markers, counters, tiles, fingers, and auditory cues) to help students make the connection between sounds and print (the alphabetic principle)? 20 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) PHONOLOGICAL/PHONEMIC AWARENESS (PA) Indicators 21 When PA activities are at the phoneme level, do students’ activities target the first sound in words and then move to the last sound in words and finally focus on the middle sound in words? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 22 Are there blending activities at the phoneme level? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 23 Are there segmenting activities at the phoneme level? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 24 Does instruction include phoneme manipulation in words (i.e., deletion, addition, and substitution)? 25 Once students demonstrate early phonemic awareness, is PA instruction linked to phonics instruction? 26 Does the program specify when oral language PA activities should be phased out? 27 Are the words used in PA activities found in subsequent word lists and text readings? 28 Does the program include a pronunciation guide for the various features of sound production (e.g., stop sounds and continuous sounds)? 29 Do computer-based programs pronounce sounds distinctly, correctly, and without distortion? Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 21 PHONICS 23 Four Types of Words in English Orthography This table is one way to organize the regular and irregular types of words in English orthography. You will probably not see a table like this in a reading program. It was organized to give a reviewer explicit, concise descriptions of the word types a program’s phonics instruction should include. You should see lessons teaching these word types explicitly. Type Description Examples Type 1 Regular for reading and spelling big splat Type 2 Regular for reading but not spelling boat rain Type 3 Rule or generalization based running (doubling rule) Type 4 Irregular beauty yacht Syllable Types This table shows the syllable types of multisyllabic English words. It was organized to demonstrate the syllable types that should be explicitly taught in a reading program’s phonics instruction. You will likely not see a table like this, but you should see lessons explicitly teaching these syllable types. Knowing these types of word parts helps readers when encountering an unknown word in text and in spelling both familiar and unfamiliar multisyllabic words. Programs may use different terms (e.g., “silent e” or “magic e”), but the concept should be apparent to reviewers. 24 Type Description Examples Closed This syllable type ends with a consonant and has a single vowel that is usually short. mat pic-nic Open This syllable type ends with a vowel and the vowel is usually long. he ve-to Silent e or vowelconsonant e (VCe) This syllable type has a silent e on the end of the word which signals that the vowel will usually be long. cape stripe cue Vowel team or Vowel pair This syllable type contains two vowels that make one vowel sound. These can be difficult because some vowel teams are variable and the student will need to be flexible when decoding. However, most vowel teams are consistent. pain head toy R-controlled This syllable type contains a vowel which is followed by the letter r and is neither long or short. The vowel and the r appear in the same syllable. tar fer-ment Consonant + le This syllable type appears at the end of words and the consonant always goes with the -le to form a syllable. ap-ple can-dle PHONICS (P) Indicators Grade Level 1 Is phonics instruction explicit? 2 Is phonics instruction systematic? 3 Does phonics instruction include coordinated instructional sequences and routines? 4 Is phonics instruction scaffolded? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 5 Does phonics instruction include cumulative review? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 6 Are assessments included to measure and monitor progress in phonics? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 7 Does the program teach both consonants and vowels? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 8 Are short vowels taught before long vowels? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 9 Are individual letter-sounds taught first, followed by digraphs, blends, and word families? 10 Are high utility letter-sounds e.g., /a/, /m/, /s/, /t/, /r/ (found in short, one syllable CVC or CCVC words) introduced before low utility letter-sounds e.g., /x/, /y/, /z/? Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 11 Are digraphs taught as single sounds (e.g., /sh/, /ch/, /th/, /ai/, /ea/)? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 12 Are individual sounds in a blend taught? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 13 Are letter-sound correspondences taught to mastery and reviewed cumulatively? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 25 PHONICS (P) Indicators 14 Are students taught an explicit strategy to decode words by their individual sounds? 15 Do students practice decoding words that contain only those letter-sounds that have been previously taught? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 16 Once students have mastered a few K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I letter-sounds, do they immediately apply them to reading word lists and short decodable texts? 17 Are symbol to sound (decoding) and sound to symbol (spelling) taught explicitly? 18 Is spelling taught during word learning so students can understand how sounds map onto print? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 19 Does instruction progress from simple to K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I more complex concepts (e.g., CVC words before CCCVCC words and single syllable words before multisyllabic words)? 20 Does instruction follow the continuum of word types (beginning with CV and CVC words), incorporating continuous and stop sounds and blends in an appropriate sequence? 21 Are reviews of previously taught concepts and words frequent and cumulative? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 22 Is emphasis placed on fluency practice K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I for each phonics component (e.g., sound identification, CVC blending, word recognition, multisyllabic words, and text reading)? 26 Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) PHONICS (P) Indicators 23 Are there ample decodable texts (familiar and unfamiliar) for students to practice applying their skills with phonic elements? 24 Are decodable texts read before trade books (for students to master new skills)? 25 Does the program clarify that high frequency words can be both regular and irregular? 26 Are irregular words that are visually or phonemically confusing (e.g., saw/was, where/were, of/off) separated? 27 Does the program include explicit instruction in irregular words and decoding strategies for the decodable parts of words (clarifying that the letters represent their most common sounds as well as the irregularities of certain letters)? 28 Are the number of high frequency, irregular words introduced in one lesson kept to a minimum? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 29 Are irregular words pre-taught before students read connected texts? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 30 Are difficult, high frequency words reviewed often and cumulatively? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 31 Is there sufficient practice with individual letter-sounds before larger orthographic units are taught? 32 Are students taught the strategy of chunking when trying to decode multisyllabic words? Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 27 PHONICS (P) Indicators 33 Does the program provide teacher modeling of a think-aloud strategy to aid in multisyllabic word analysis? 34 Are students taught strategies to read multisyllabic words by using prefixes, suffixes, and known word parts? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 35 Is instruction explicit in the use of K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I syllable types (e.g., open, closed, vowel-consonant-e, vowel combinations, r-controlled, and consonant-le)? 36 Is a section of the program devoted to advanced phonics (structural analysis) skills? 37 Are advanced phonics skills taught explicitly, first in isolation and then in words and connected texts? 38 Does the program include spelling strategies (e.g., word sorts, categorization activities, word-building activities, and word analogies)? 39 Is instruction in the meanings of roots and affixes explicit and do students analyze the relationship of spelling to meaning of complex words? 40 Are word parts that occur with high frequency (e.g., un-, re-, in-, and -ful) taught rather than those that occur only in a few words? 41 Are there activities for distinguishing and interpreting words with multiple meanings? 28 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) PHONICS (P) Indicators 42 Once advanced phonics strategies have been mastered, are they immediately applied to reading and interpreting familiar and unfamiliar connected texts? 43 Are words used in advanced phonics activities also found in student texts? Grade Level Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 29 FLUENCY 31 Text Levels A program should include these formulae to help teachers determine text levels for students. Independent Text Level Instructional Text Level Frustrational Text Level Text students can read on their own Text students can read with assistance or instruction Text that is too difficult for students 95%–100% word accuracy 90%–94% word accuracy <90% word accuracy <1 word in 20 words is difficult <1 in 10 words is difficult Difficulty with >1 in 10 words Calculating fluency rate: Fluency rate is the number of words read correctly in a one-minute reading of appropriate text. Total Number of Words Read – Total Number of Errors = Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM) Example: If a student reads 75 words in one minute with 8 errors, she reads 67 words correct per minute (75–8 = 67 WCPM). 32 FLUENCY (F) Indicators Grade Level 1 Is fluency instruction explicit? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 2 Is fluency instruction systematic? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 3 Does fluency instruction include coordinated instructional sequences and routines? 4 Is fluency instruction scaffolded? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 5 Does fluency instruction include cumulative review? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 6 Are assessments included to measure and monitor progress in fluency? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 7 Does the program address all dimensions of fluency (speed, accuracy, and prosody)? 8 Does the program encourage the teacher to model speed, accuracy, and prosody? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Are letter-sounds taught and practiced frequently to promote automaticity? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 9 Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 10 Does fluency practice during lettersound study and text reading involve the teacher’s providing feedback to students? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 11 Is fluency instruction integrated into each day’s lesson? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 12 Is the decoding strategy taught so that it becomes automatic? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 13 Are irregular words taught to be recognized automatically? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 33 FLUENCY (F) Indicators 14 Is there an emphasis on reading multisyllabic words fluently? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 15 Is an explicit strategy taught as students K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I transition from reading words in lists to reading connected text? 16 Are research-based fluency strategies (e.g., timed readings, peer reading, and repeated readings) included? 17 Is fluency practice introduced after students are proficient at reading words accurately (e.g., in lists, sentences, and passages)? 18 Does fluency practice involve decodable texts (texts that include phonic elements and word types students have previously been taught)? 19 Are both narrative and expository texts provided for students to read aloud? 20 Are teacher prompts included to encourage students to read aloud in order to determine skill application and accuracy? 21 After error correction, are students asked to reread the word, word list, or sentence correctly and then to reread it from the beginning? 22 Are students given ample practice opportunities to use text at their independent or instructional level to help build fluency? 34 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) FLUENCY (F) Indicators 23 Is the number of texts at each level sufficient to provide adequate practice opportunities? 24 Does the program clearly show the teacher how to determine independent, instructional, and frustrational reading levels for individual students? 25 Is there a guide to help teachers calculate fluency rate? 26 Do students have opportunities to time themselves and graph results after rereading the same text? 27 Are there directions for how to pair students for partner reading? 28 Are students taught a specific error correction to use when reading with a partner? 29 Is there continuous progress monitoring of oral reading fluency? 30 Is an end-of-the-year fluency goal of correct words per minute given for each grade? Grade Level Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 35 VOCABULARY 37 Vocabulary Instructional Routine Example 1. Introduce the word. 2. Present a student-friendly explanation. 3. Illustrate the word with examples. 4. Check students’ understanding. (Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002) 38 VOCABULARY (V) Indicators Grade Level 1 Is vocabulary instruction explicit? 2 Is vocabulary instruction systematic? 3 Does vocabulary instruction include coordinated instructional sequences and routines? 4 Is vocabulary instruction scaffolded? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 5 Does vocabulary instruction include cumulative review? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 6 Are assessments included to measure and monitor progress in vocabulary? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 7 Is emphasis placed on listening and speaking vocabulary? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 8 Is there an emphasis on reading and writing vocabulary? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 9 Are students exposed to diverse vocabulary through listening to or reading narrative and expository texts? 10 Does the program include frequent use of teacher read-alouds using higher level books with explanation and instruction of key vocabulary? 11 Does the program include a variety of texts that allow students ample opportunities to engage in wide reading at their independent levels? 12 Does vocabulary instruction occur before, during, and after reading? Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 39 VOCABULARY (V) Indicators 13 Are a limited number of words selected for robust, explicit vocabulary instruction? 14 Are important, useful, and difficult words taught? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 15 Does the instructional routine for vocabulary include: introducing the word? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I presenting a student-friendly explanation? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I clarifying the word with examples? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I checking students’ understanding? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 16 Are ample opportunities provided to engage in oral vocabulary activities that: repeat exposure to words in rich and multiple contexts? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I use everyday language to explain word meanings? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I connect word meanings to prior knowledge? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 17 Are students given multiple opportunities to use new words in reading sentences, paragraphs, or longer texts? 18 Is extended instruction provided in multiple contexts to promote word awareness using word banks, vocabulary logs, writing, semantic maps, concept definition mapping, and word classification? 40 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) VOCABULARY (V) Indicators 19 Are strategies taught over time to ensure understanding and correct application? 20 Are meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes taught before connecting them to words? 21 Is a strategy to determine word meanings based on meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes taught? Grade Level Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 22 Are various aspects of word study included (either under vocabulary or word recognition) such as: concepts of word meaning? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I multiple meanings? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I synonyms? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I antonyms? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I homonyms? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I figurative meanings? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I morphemic analysis? etymologies? 23 Is dictionary use explicitly taught using grade-appropriate dictionaries? 24 Is the use of context to gain the meaning of an unfamiliar word kept to a minimum? 25 Is computer technology used to help teach vocabulary? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 41 COMPREHENSION 43 Multiple, Coordinated Comprehension Strategies Instruction should include practice in using a range of comprehension strategies both separately and together. • Answering questions; • Generating questions; • Summarizing; • Using graphic and semantic organizers; • Monitoring comprehension; • Recognizing story structure; • Cooperative Learning. “Comprehension strategies are procedures that guide students to become aware of how well they are comprehending as they attempt to read and write.” (NICHD, 2000, p. 4-40) 44 COMPREHENSION (C) Indicators Grade Level 1 Is comprehension instruction explicit? 2 Is comprehension instruction systematic? 3 Does comprehension instruction include coordinated instructional sequences and routines? 4 Is comprehension instruction scaffolded? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 5 Does comprehension instruction include cumulative review? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 6 Are assessments included to measure and monitor progress in comprehension? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 7 Is learning to determine which strategy to use and why (metacognition) part of instruction? 8 When a strategy is taught, is it applied frequently so students understand its usefulness? 9 Are students asked to apply previously learned strategies to new texts? 10 Is appropriate text provided for students to practice applying strategies? 11 Does program instruction enable students to establish and adjust purposes for reading (e.g., reading to understand, interpret, inform, to enjoy, and to solve problems)? 12 Does instruction support the use of multiple, coordinated comprehension strategies? Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 45 COMPREHENSION (C) Indicators 13 Are guided and supported cooperative learning groups suggested as an instructional technique? 14 Does instruction begin with the use of short passages? 15 Does instruction emphasize that students have a conceptual understanding of beginning, middle, and end? 16 Does the program provide prompts for the teacher to guide the students through texts using think-alouds? 17 Are models of effective questioning techniques (e.g., Bloom’s taxonomy) provided to guide and monitor students’ comprehension? 18 Are there ample opportunities for students to listen to narrative and expository text? 19 Is instruction in narrative and expository text structures explicit? 20 Are there ample opportunities for students to read narrative and expository texts at independent and instructional levels? 21 Is there a variety of narrative and expository books at the appropriate readability level for student practice? 22 Do texts contain useful and familiar concepts and vocabulary? 46 Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) COMPREHENSION (C) Indicators 23 Are there instructional routines for comprehension strategies for use before, during, and after reading (e.g., prediction, story grammar, summarization, graphic organizers)? 24 Is the “main idea” strategy taught systematically (e.g., using pictures, then individual sentences, then paragraphs, etc.)? 25 Once students have grasped the concept of “main idea,” are more complex texts used in which the main idea is not explicit? 26 Are elements of story grammar (e.g., setting, characters, important events, etc.) taught and used for retelling a story? 27 Does instruction focus on discussing story grammar and comparing stories? 28 Is story grammar introduced systematically, beginning with simple text that gradually becomes more complex? 29 Are students taught to use graphic organizers to illustrate relationships among concepts in text (e.g., story maps, Venn diagrams, and semantic maps)? 30 Are conventions of expository text (e.g., chapter headings, charts, and graphs) taught? Grade Level Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 47 COMPREHENSION (C) Indicators 31 Are explicit strategies for interpreting information from charts, graphs, tables, and diagrams taught? Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 32 After instruction, is there systematic review of: literal comprehension? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I retelling? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I main idea? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I summarization? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 33 Does the program provide instruction for students to become self-directed in using comprehension strategies (e.g., rereading, paraphrasing, making explicit connections from text to prior knowledge, underlining and note-taking, and visualizing relationships and events in the text)? 48 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 49 MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT (M&E) Indicators 1 Grade Level Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Does the program direct the teacher in ways to increase student motivation such as: making reading relevant to students’ lives? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I providing meaningful goals for learning from texts? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I making available a variety of choices (e.g., texts and assignments) that align with instruction? providing opportunities for students to work collaboratively? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I ASSESSMENT (A) Indicators 1 Are assessments included that teachers can use to guide student movement through the program (e.g., screening, progress monitoring, diagnostic, and outcome measures)? 2 Does the program provide teacher guidance in using assessment results to differentiate instruction? 3 Do the assessments identify students who are at risk or already experiencing difficulty learning to read? Grade Level Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I 51 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (PD) Indicators 1 Is adequate time offered for teachers to learn new concepts and practice what they have learned? 2 Is there a plan for coaches, mentors, peers, or outside experts to provide feedback to teachers and follow-up assistance as they put new concepts into practice? 3 Are teachers taught how to administer and interpret assessments that accompany the program? 4 Is program PD customized to meet participants’ varying needs (e.g., firstyear teachers, coaches, and principals)? 5 Does the PD provide support (e.g., principal checklists, follow-up, in-class modeling, and a CD for viewing model lessons) to facilitate application of content? 52 Grade Level K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I K 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/I Comments (e.g., examples, strengths, concerns, questions) GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS 53 GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS Accuracy (part of fluency): Reading words in text with no errors. Academically Engaged: Students are participating in activities or instruction in a meaningful way and understand the tasks in which they are involved. Advanced Phonics: Decoding strategy for multisyllabic words that includes morphology and information about a word’s meaning, pronunciation, and parts of speech gained from knowledge of prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Affix: A general term for prefixes and suffixes. After Reading Comprehension Strategies: Strategies to actively transform key information in text that has been read (e.g., summarizing, retelling). Aligned Materials: Student materials (texts, activities, manipulatives, homework, etc.) that reinforce classroom instruction of specific reading skills. Alliteration: The repetition of the initial phoneme of each word in connected text (e.g., Harry the happy hippo hula-hoops with Henrietta). Alphabetic Principle: The concept that letters and letter combinations represent individual phonemes in written words. Ample Opportunities for Student Practice: Practice that is linked to specific reading tasks and logically follows what has just been taught. Extended independent practice once students have internalized skills. Analogy: Comparing two sets of words to show some similarity between the sets (e.g., cat is to kitten: as dog is to _____). Antonym: A word opposite in meaning to another word. Automaticity: Reading without conscious effort or attention to decoding. Background Knowledge: What a reader brings to a text, based on his or her own experience, to aid in comprehending text. Base Word: A unit of meaning that can stand alone as a whole word (e.g., friend, pig ). Also called a free morpheme. Before Reading Comprehension Strategies: Strategies that emphasize the importance of preparing students to read text (e.g., activate prior knowledge, set a purpose for reading). 55 Bloom’s Taxonomy: A system for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings, (i.e., knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation). Chunked Text: Continuous text separated into meaningful phrases, often with single and double slash marks (/ and //) for student practice in reading phrases fluently. Although there are no absolute rules in chunking text and teacher judgment is key in teaching students how to chunk, slash marks typically occur between subject and predicate and before and after prepositional phrases. Chunking: A decoding strategy for breaking words into manageable parts (e.g., /yes/ter/day) or sentences into smaller phrases where natural pauses might occur (e.g., “When the sun appeared after the storm, / the newly fallen snow / shimmered like diamonds”). Coaching: A form of professional development that supports teachers in implementing classroom practices by providing new content and information, modeling related teaching strategies, and offering ongoing feedback as teachers master new practices. Coarticulation: While saying one sound, the lips, tongue, etc., are starting to form the sound to follow. This can distort individual sounds during speech because the sounds are not produced in isolated units (e.g., in ham : the /m/ blends with the /a/ to distort the vowel). Because of coarticulation, some children have difficulty hearing individual sounds in words and the concept of phonemes needs to be explicitly taught. Cognates: Words related to each other by virtue of being derived from a common origin (e.g., decisive and decision). Coherent Instructional Design: A logical, sequential plan for delivering instruction. Comprehension: Understanding what one is reading, the ultimate goal of all reading. Comprehensive/Core Reading Program (CRP): The initial instructional tool teachers use to teach children to learn to read, including instruction in the five components of reading identified by the National Reading Panel (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension), spelling, and writing to ensure they reach reading levels that meet or exceed grade-level standards. A CRP should address the instructional needs of the majority of students in a school or district. 56 Comprehensive Intervention Reading Program (CIRP): Programs intended for students reading one or more years below grade level, and struggling with a range of reading skills. CIRPs integrate instructional content based on the five essential components of reading instruction into a coherent instructional design with explicit instructional strategies, coordinated instructional sequences, ample practice opportunities, and aligned student materials. CIRPs provide instruction that is more intensive, explicit, systematic, and more motivating than that which students have previously received, and provide more frequent assessments of student progress and more systematic review in order to insure proper instructional pacing and mastery of all instructional components. Comprehension Monitoring: An awareness of one’s understanding of text being read, part of metacognition or “thinking about thinking”—that is, a reader’s knowledge of what is clear and what is confusing and of how to repair problems with comprehension. Comprehension Questions: Questions, ranging from literal to inferential to analytical, about a text’s meaning. Concept Definition Mapping: A visual framework for organizing information in defining a word or concept; contains the word or concept’s category, properties, and examples. Connected Text: Words that are linked (as opposed to words in a list) as in sentences, phrases, and paragraphs. Consonant Blend: Two or more consecutive consonants that retain their individual sounds (e.g., /bl/ in block; /str/ in string ). Consonant Digraph: Two consecutive consonants that represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., /ch/, /sh/). Context Clue: Words or sentences around an unfamiliar word that help clarify its meaning. Continuous Sounds: A sound that can be held for several seconds without distortion (e.g., /m/, /s/). Continuum of Word Types: A classification of words according to their relative difficulty to decode; typically from easy to difficult, beginning with VC and CVC words that begin with continuous sounds and progressing to CCCVC and CCCVCC words. 57 Coordinated Instructional Sequence: A well-designed instructional sequence, typically through a logical progression of skills; easier skills are introduced before more difficult ones, so skills build progressively. Also, the relationship of instruction among the five components of reading, such that skill practice is consistent with skills taught. For example, if students orally segment and blend words with the letter-sound /f/ during phonemic awareness instruction, it would be followed by practice in connecting the sound /f/ with the letter “f,” then followed by fluency practice in reading words, sentences, and/or passages with the letter-sound /f/. Spelling practice would include /f/ and other previously learned letter-sounds. Core Instruction: Instruction provided to all students in a class, usually guided by a comprehensive core reading program. Part of core instruction is usually provided to the class as a whole, and part is provided during small-group, differentiated instruction. Although instruction is differentiated by student need during the small-group period, materials and lesson procedures from the core program can frequently be used to provide reteaching, or additional teaching to students according to their needs. Cumulative Review: Review and practice that build upon previously taught skills and concepts to 1) increase a student’s opportunities to master and internalize skills and concepts and 2) informally assess student learning to inform teacher instructional decisions. Decodable Text: Text in which a high proportion of words (80%–90%) comprise sound-symbol relationships that have already been taught. It is used to give students practice in specific decoding skills and is a bridge between learning phonics and applying phonics in independent reading. Decodable Words: Words containing phonic elements that have been previously taught and learned. Decoding: The ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences; also the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out. Derivational Affix: A prefix or suffix added to a root or base to form another word (e.g., -un in unhappy, -ness in likeness). Diagnostic Assessment: Tests that measure reading, language, or cognitive skills, usually given only if a child fails to make adequate progress after receiving extra help as indicated by screening tests. Diagnostic assessments provide a more detailed picture of a child’s full range of knowledge and skill so that instruction can be more precisely planned. 58 Dialogic Reading: A form of story reading in which a teacher or parent asks questions, adds information, and prompts increasingly sophisticated responses by expanding on a child’s utterances. Differentiated Instruction: Matching instruction to meet the different needs of learners in a given classroom. Difficult Words: Some words are difficult because they contain phonic elements that have not yet been taught. Others are difficult because they contain unique letter-sound correspondences (e.g., yacht ). Digraphs: Two consecutive letters whose phonetic value is a single sound (e.g., /ea/ in bread; /ch/ in chat; /ng/ in sing ). Diphthong: A vowel produced by the tongue’s shifting position during articulation; a vowel that feels as if it has two parts, especially the vowels spelled ow, oy, ou, and oi. Direct Vocabulary Instruction: Planned instruction to pre-teach new, important, and difficult words to ensure the quantity and quality of exposures to words that students will encounter in their reading. During Reading Comprehension Strategies: Strategies (e.g., asking questions at critical junctures, modeling the thought process of making inferences, constructing mental imagery) that help students think about the possible meanings of a text. Elkonin Boxes: A device used during phonemic awareness instruction, sometimes called Sound Boxes; students push a marker into a box as they segment each sound in the word. Emergent Literacy: The skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing. Empirical Research: Scientifically based research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge; includes research that employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review; involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn; relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and can be generalized. 59 English Language Learners: Defined by the U.S. Department of Education as national-origin minority students who are limited English proficient. Often abbreviated as ELLs. Error Correction: Immediate corrective feedback during reading instruction. Etymology: The origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning (e.g., the word etymology comes from late Middle English; from Old French ethimologie; via Latin from Greek etumologia; from etumologos, “student of etymology”; from etumon; neuter singular of etumos, “true”). Explicit Instruction: Instructional language that is concise, specific, and related to the objective, and instructional actions that are clear, unambiguous, direct, and visible so that students understand what they are to do and learn. Includes a high level of teacher-student interaction. Expository Text: Factual information (also referred to as informational text) and the relationships among ideas. Expository text tends to be more difficult for students than narrative text because of the density of long, difficult, and unknown words or word parts. Expressive Language: Language that is spoken. Fidelity of Implementation: The degree to which instruction follows the intent and design of the program. Figurative Meanings: Language that departs from its literal meaning (e.g., “The snow sparkled like diamonds.” “That child is a handful.”). Five Components of Reading: Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Flexible Grouping: Grouping students according to shared instructional needs and abilities and regrouping them as their instructional needs change. Group size and instructional time may vary. Floss Rule: Words of one syllable ending in “f”, “l”, or “s” after a single vowel usually double the letter (e.g., floss, lull, hiss ). Fluency: Ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with appropriate expression. Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Fluency Probe: An assessment for measuring fluency, usually a timed oral reading passage at the student’s instructional reading level. 60 Formal Assessment: Assessment that follows a prescribed format for administration and scoring. Scores obtained from formal tests are standardized, meaning that interpretation is based on norms from a comparative sample of students. Frayer Model: An adaptation of the concept map. The framework of the Frayer Model includes: the concept word, the definition, characteristics of the concept word, examples of the concept word, and non-examples of the concept word. It is important to include both examples and non-examples, so that students can identify what the concept word is and what it is not. Frustrational Reading Level: The level at which a reader reads at less than 90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Frustrational level text is difficult text for the reader. Generalization: The ability to use a learned skill in new situations. Grapheme: A letter or letter combination that spells a phoneme. Can be one, two, three, or four letters in English (e.g., e, ei, igh, eigh). Graphic Organizers: A visual framework or structure for capturing the main points of what is being read, which may include concepts, ideas, events, vocabulary, or generalizations. Graphic organizers allow ideas in text and thinking processes to become external by showing the interrelatedness of ideas, thus facilitating understanding for the reader. The structure of a graphic organizer is determined by the structure of the kind of text being read. Graphophonemic: The relationship between letters and phonemes. Guided Oral Reading: Instructional support that includes immediate corrective feedback as students read orally. Guided Practice: Students practice newly learned skills as the teacher provides prompts and feedback. High Frequency Irregular Words: Words in print containing letters that stray from the most common sound pronunciation because they do not follow common phonic patterns (e.g., were, was, laugh, been ). High Frequency Words: A small (300–500) group of regular or irregular words that accounts for a large percentage of the words in print (e.g., Dolch or Fry lists). Often, they are referred to as “sight words” since automatic recognition of these words is required for fluent reading. 61 Homographs: Words that are spelled the same but have different origins and meanings. They may or may not be pronounced the same (e.g., can as in a metal container and can as in able to). Homonyms: Words that sound the same but are spelled differently (e.g., cents/sense, knight/night ). Homophones: Words that may or may not be spelled alike but are pronounced the same. These words are of different origins and have different meanings (e.g., ate and eight, scale as in the covering of a fish, and scale as in a device used to weigh things). Idiom: A phrase or expression that differs from the literal meaning of the words; a regional or individual expression with a unique meaning (e.g., ”It’s raining cats and dogs.”). Immediate Corrective Feedback: When an error occurs, the teacher immediately attends to it by scaffolding instruction (i.e., gradually releasing responsibility) to prevent a student’s being confused or developing misconceptions. Immediate Intensive Intervention: Instruction that may include more time, more opportunities for student practice, more teacher feedback, smaller group size, and different materials. It is implemented as soon as assessment indicates that a student is not making adequate progress in reading. Implicit Instruction: The opposite of explicit instruction. Students discover skills and concepts instead of being explicitly taught. For example, the teacher writes a list of words on the board that begin with the letter “m” (mud, milk, meal, and mattress ) and asks the students how the words are similar. The teacher elicits from the students that the letter “m” stands for the sound you hear at the beginning of the words. Important Words: Unknown words that are critical to passage understanding and which students are likely to encounter in the future. Independent Reading Level: The level at which a reader can read text with 95% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 20 words read). Independent reading level text is relatively easy for the reader. Independent-Instructional Reading Level Range: The reading range that spans instructional and independent reading levels or a level of text that a student can read with 90% to 95% or higher accuracy. 62 Indirect Vocabulary Instruction: Words learned through independent reading and conversation. Inflectional Suffix: In English, a suffix (-s, -es ,-ing, -ed) that expresses plurality or possession when added to a noun, tense when added to a verb, and comparison when added to an adjective and some adverbs. A major difference between inflectional and derivational affixes is that inflections added to verbs, nouns, or adjectives do not change the grammatical role or part of speech of the base words. Informal Assessment: Does not follow prescribed rules for administration and scoring and has not undergone technical scrutiny for reliability and validity. Teacher-made tests, end-of-unit tests, and running records are all examples of informal assessment. Informational Text: Also referred to as expository text. Non-fiction that contains facts and information. Initial Instruction: First line of defense for all students to prevent reading failure. Instruction is provided in the whole-group (class) and small-group (differentiated) settings. Instructional Design: The plan for translating key learning objectives and goals into a delivery system to meet those goals. When we discuss the instructional design of a reading program, we are referring to the underlying framework of a reading program, the way the curriculum is constructed. Instructional Reading Level: The level at which a reader can read text with 90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Instructional reading level engages the student in challenging, but manageable text. Instructional Routines: Include the following sequence of steps: Explicit instruction; Modeling; Guided practice; Student practice, application, and feedback; and Generalization. Intensity of Instruction: Focused instruction where students are academically engaged with the content and the teacher, and receive more opportunities to practice with immediate teacher feedback. 63 Intervention Instruction: Instruction provided only to students who are lagging behind their classmates in the development of critical reading skills. This instruction will usually be guided by an intervention program that focuses on one or more key areas of reading development and is usually needed by only a relatively small minority of students in a class. However, in some cases, students in 2nd and 3rd grade may have lagged so far behind gradelevel development of reading skills that very little content from the grade-level comprehensive core program is suitable for them. In these cases, students may need to receive instruction guided by a comprehensive intervention program that is designed to meet their specific needs while at the same time accelerating their growth toward grade-level reading ability. Intervention Program: Instructional content intended for flexible use as part of differentiated instruction and/or more intensive instruction to meet student learning needs in one or more areas of reading (phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). These programs are used to provide targeted, intensive intervention for small groups of struggling readers. Invented Spelling: An attempt to spell a word based on a student’s knowledge of the spelling system and how it works (e.g., kt for cat ). Irregular Words: Words that contain letters that stray from the most common sound pronunciation; words that do not follow common phonic patterns (e.g., were, was, laugh, been ). K-W-L: A technique used most frequently with expository text to promote comprehension. It can be used as a graphic organizer in the form of a chart, and consists of a three-step process: What I Know (accessing prior knowledge), What I Want to Know (setting a purpose for reading), and What I Learned (recalling what has been read). Learning Community: A group in which educators commit to ongoing learning experiences with a deliberate intent to transform teaching and learning at their school or in their district. Letter Combinations: Also referred to as digraphs, a group of consecutive letters that represents a particular sound(s) in the majority of words in which it appears (e.g., /ai/ in maid; /ch/ in chair; /ar/ in car; /kn/ in know; /ng/ in ring ). Letter-Sound Correspondence: The matching of an oral sound to its corresponding letter or group of letters. 64 Linked: A clear connection among the objectives of what is taught within and across reading components (e.g., students learn some common letter-sounds during phonics instruction, then read words that use those same letter-sounds to practice fluency and develop vocabulary). Listening Vocabulary: The words needed to understand what is heard. Literal Comprehension: An understanding of the basic facts in a text that the student has read. Main Idea: The central thought or message of a reading passage. Metacognition: An awareness of one’s own thinking processes and how they work; the process of consciously thinking about one’s learning or reading while actually engaged in learning or reading. Metacognitive strategies can be taught to students; good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and have control over their reading. Modeling: Teacher overtly demonstrates a strategy, skill, or concept that students will be learning. Morpheme: The smallest meaningful unit of language. Morphemic Analysis: An analysis of words formed by adding prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word units to a base word. Most Common Letter-sound: The sound that is usually pronounced for the letter when it appears in a short word, such as /a/ in apple. Multisyllabic Words: Words with more than one syllable. A systematic introduction of prefixes, suffixes, and multisyllabic words should occur throughout a reading program. The average number of syllables in the words students read should increase steadily throughout the grades. Narrative Text: A story (i.e., with a beginning, middle, and end) about fictional or real events. Objectives: Measurable statements detailing a program’s desired outcomes. Onset and Rime: In a syllable, the onset is the initial consonant or consonants, and the rime is the vowel and any consonants that follow it (e.g., the word sat, the onset is “s” and the rime is “at.” In the word flip, the onset is “fl” and the rime is “ip”). Oral Language: Spoken language. There are five components of oral language: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. 65 Orthographic Units: The representation of the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols. Orthography: A writing system for representing language. Outcome Assessments: Given at the end of the year, tests that can help the principal and teachers in a school evaluate the overall effectiveness of their reading program for all students. Pacing: The pace of a lesson should move briskly, but not so fast as to rush students beyond their ability to answer correctly. A fast pace helps students pay close attention to the material being presented. It also gives students more practice time, which keeps students actively engaged and reduces behavior problems by keeping students on task. Pedagogy: How instruction is carried out or the method and practice of teaching. Peer/Partner Reading: Students reading aloud with a partner, taking turns to provide word identification help and feedback. Phases of Word Learning: Pre-alphabetic—Sight word learning at the earliest period. Children do not form letter-sound connections to read words; if they are able to read words at all, they do so by remembering selected visual features. Partial alphabetic—Children learn the names or sounds of alphabet letters and use them to remember how to read words. However, they form connections between only some of the letters and sounds in words, often only the first and final letter-sounds. Full alphabetic—Children can form complete connections between letters in written words and phonemes in pronunciations. Consolidated alphabetic—Readers operate with multi-letter units that may be morphemes, syllables, or subsyllabic units such as onsets and rimes. Common spelling patterns become consolidated into letter chunks, and these chunks make it easier to read words. Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound within our language system. A phoneme combines with other phonemes to make words. Phoneme Blending: Combining sounds rapidly to represent a word accurately. Phoneme Isolation: Recognizing individual sounds in a word (e.g., /p/ is the first sound in pan ). 66 Phoneme Manipulation: Adding, deleting, and substituting phonemes (sounds) in words (e.g., add /b/ to oat to make boat; delete /p/ in pat to make at; substitute /o/ for /a/ in pat to make pot ). Phoneme Segmenting: Separating the individual phonemes (sounds) of a word into discrete units. Phonemic Awareness: The ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual phonemes (sounds) in words. It is the ability to understand that sounds in spoken language work together to make words. This term is used to refer to the highest level of phonological awareness: awareness of individual phonemes in words. Phonic Analysis: Attention to various phonetic elements of words. Phonics: The study of the relationships between letters and the sounds they represent; also used to describe reading instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondences. Phonogram: A succession of letters that represent the same phonological unit in different words, such as “-igh” in flight, might, tight, sigh, and high. Phonological Awareness: One’s sensitivity to, or explicit awareness of, the phonological structure of words in one’s language. This is an “umbrella” term that is used to refer to a student’s sensitivity to any aspect of phonological structure in language. It encompasses awareness of individual words in sentences, syllables, onset-rime segments, and individual phonemes. Prefix: A morpheme that precedes a root and that contributes to or modifies the meaning of a word (e.g., re in reprint ). Prior Knowledge: The knowledge and experience that readers bring to a text. Progress Monitoring: Tests that keep the teacher informed about a child’s progress in learning to read during the school year. Results of these assessments will let the teacher know if a child is making adequate progress in critical reading skills to reach grade-level reading ability by the end of the year. Pronunciation Guide: A key or guide consisting of graphic symbols that represent particular speech sounds. Prosody: Reading with expression, proper intonation, and phrasing. This helps readers sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading. It is also this element of fluency that sets it apart from automaticity. 67 Rate: The speed at which a person reads. Readability Level: Refers to independent, instructional, and frustrational levels of text reading. Reading Centers: Special places organized in the classroom for students to work in small groups or pairs, either cooperatively or individually. Students work in centers while the teacher is conducting small-group reading instruction. Each center contains meaningful, purposeful activities that extend and reinforce what has already been taught by the teacher. Reading Fluency Prorating Formula: When students are asked to read connected text for more than or less than one minute, their performance must be prorated to give a fluency rate per minute. The prorating formula for this is the following: words read correctly x 60 ÷ by the number of seconds = reading fluency score. Reading Vocabulary: The words needed to understand what is read. Receptive Language: Language that is heard. Regular Words: Any word in which each letter represents its respective, most common sound (e.g., sat, fantastic ). Repeated Reading: Rereading of text until the reader is able to read at a predetermined rate to produce fluency. Retelling: Recalling the content of what was read or heard. Rhyming: Words that have the same ending sound. Root: A bound morpheme, usually of Latin origin, that cannot stand alone, but is used to form a family of words with related meanings. Scaffolding: Support that is given to students in order for them to arrive at the correct answer. This support may occur as immediate, specific feedback that a teacher offers during student practice. For instance, the assistance the teacher offers may include giving encouragement or cues, breaking the problem down into smaller steps, using a graphic organizer, or providing an example. Scaffolding may be embedded in the features of the instructional design, such as starting with simpler skills and building progressively to more difficult skills. Providing temporary instructional support enables a student to achieve what he or she could not otherwise have done alone. Schema: Refers to prior knowledge, the knowledge and experience that readers bring to a text. 68 Schwa: The vowel sound sometimes heard in an unstressed syllable and is most often sounded as /uh/ or as the short /u/ sound as in cup. Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR): Empirical research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge. It includes research that employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review; involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn; relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and can be generalized. Scope and Sequence: A map or “blueprint” for teachers that provides an overall picture of an instructional program and includes the range of teaching content and the order or sequence in which it is taught. Screening: An informal inventory that gives the teacher a beginning indication of a student’s preparation for grade-level reading instruction; a first alert that a child may need extra help to make adequate progress in reading during the year. Self-Monitoring: Refers to metacognition. When students use self-monitoring strategies, they actively think about how they are learning or understanding the material, activities, or reading in which they are engaged. Semantic Feature Analysis: Uses a grid to help explore how sets of things are related to one another. By analyzing the grid, one can see connections, make predictions, and master important concepts. Semantic Map: Portrays the schematic relations that compose a concept; a strategy for representing concepts graphically. Sight Words: Words that are recognized immediately. Sometimes sight words are thought to be irregular, or high frequency words (e.g., the Dolch and Fry lists). However, any word that is recognized automatically is a sight word. These words may be phonetically regular or irregular. Sound to Symbol: Phonics instruction that matches phoneme to grapheme. Speaking Vocabulary: The words used when speaking. Speed: The rate at which a student reads. 69 Spelling Patterns: Common letter sequences (e.g., digraphs, vowel pairs, word families, and vowel variant spellings) used in spelling words. Stop Sounds: A sound that can only be said for an instant without distortion (i.e., /b/, /c/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /k/, /p/, /q/, /t/, /x/). Words beginning with stop sounds are more difficult for students to sound out than words beginning with a continuous sound. Story Elements: Characters, problems, solutions, themes, settings, and plot. Story Grammar: The general structure of stories that includes story elements. Story Map: A strategy used to unlock the plot and important elements of a story. These elements can be represented visually through graphic organizers to show the beginning, middle, and end of a story. Answering the questions who, where, when, what, and how or why, and listing the main events are also part of story mapping. These elements are also referred to as story grammar. Strategic Learners: Active learners. While reading, these learners make predictions, organize information, and interact with the text. They think about what they are reading in terms of what they already know. They monitor their comprehension by employing strategies that facilitate their understanding. Structural Analysis: A procedure for teaching students to read words formed from prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word parts. Student-friendly Explanation: An explanation of a word’s meaning rather than a definition. It characterizes the word and how it is typically used and explains the meaning in everyday language. Suffix: An affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes the meaning or grammatical function of the word, as -en in oxen. Summarization: Reducing large selections of text to their bare essentials; the gist, the key ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering. Supplemental Instruction: Instruction that goes beyond that provided by the comprehensive core program to provide sufficient instruction or practice in a key area to meet the needs of students in a particular classroom or school. For example, teachers may observe that their comprehensive core program does not provide enough instruction in vocabulary, or in phonics, to meet the needs of the majority of their students adequately. They could then select a supplemental program in these areas to strengthen the initial instruction and practice all students receive. 70 Supplemental/Intervention Reading Programs (SRP/IRP): Programs and materials that provide instruction in one or more areas of reading skill. They are intended for flexible use as part of differentiated instruction or in more intensive interventions to meet student learning needs in one or more of the five components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, or comprehension). When used in place of the core program because it lacks sufficient instruction and practice in a given area for all students, these programs are usually referred to as supplemental materials. Whether referred to as supplemental or intervention materials, these programs provide targeted instruction designed to fill in gaps in student knowledge or skill. They can be used to provide either additional instruction or additional practice, or both. Syllable: A segment of a word that contains one vowel sound. The vowel may or may not be preceded and/or followed by a consonant. Syllable Types: There are six syllable types: 1. Closed: mat, pic-nic 2. Open: he, veto 3. Silent e or vowel-consonant e (VCe): cape, stripe, cue 4. Vowel team or vowel pair: pain, head, toy 5. R-controlled: tar, fer-ment 6. Consonant + le: ap-ple, can-dle Symbol to Sound: Matching grapheme to phoneme. Synonyms: Words that have similar meanings. Systematic Instruction: A carefully planned sequence for instruction, similar to a builder’s blueprint for a house. In a systematic plan for instruction, the major ideas are carefully thought out and arranged strategically before specific activities and lessons are designed. Instruction is across the five components (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). For systematic instruction, lessons build on previously taught information, from simple to complex. Systematic Phonics Instruction: Systematic phonics programs teach children an extensive, pre-specified set of letter-sound correspondences or phonograms. Systematic Review: A planned review of previously learned materials. Target Words: Words specifically addressed, analyzed, and/or studied in curriculum lessons, exercises, and independent activities. 71 Text Structure: Patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text (e.g., cause-effect, comparison-contrast, story grammar). Think-Alouds: During read-alouds, teachers reveal their thinking processes by verbalizing connections, questions, inferences, and predictions. Timed Reading: A student reads appropriate text containing a predetermined number of words to be read within a specific amount of time. Trade Book: A book intended for general reading that is not a textbook. Train-the-Trainer Model: A capacity-building plan to develop master trainers who then deliver the program information to users. Useful Words: Words that might be unknown to the student but are critical to passage understanding; words that students are likely to encounter in the future. Useful Letter Sounds: Letters that appear frequently in words. Beginning readers can decode more words when they know several useful letters. Knowing the sounds of /m/, /a/, /t/, and /i/ is more advantageous than knowing the sounds /x/, /q/, /y/, and /z/. Other useful letter sounds are /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /b/, /c/, /d/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /k/, /l/, /n/, /p/, and /r/. Variant Correspondences: Various corresponding spelling patterns for a specific sound or a variety of spelling patterns for one sound (e.g., long a spelled a, a_e, ai_, _ay). Venn Diagram: A graphic organizer or diagram using overlapping circles to compare and contrast. Vocabulary: All of the words of our language. One must know words to communicate effectively. Vocabulary is important to reading comprehension because readers cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. Vocabulary development refers to stored information about the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. The four types of vocabulary are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Vowel Digraph or Vowel Pair: Two vowels that together represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., ea, ai, oa). Word Family: Group of words that share a rime. A vowel plus the consonants that follow (e.g., -ame, -ick, -out). 72 Word-learning Strategies: Strategies students use to learn words, such as decoding, analyzing meaningful parts of words, using analogy, using context clues, using a dictionary (student-friendly definitions), glossary, or other resources. Word Parts: Letters, onsets, rimes, and/or syllables that, when combined, result in words. The ability to recognize word parts in multisyllabic words is beneficial in decoding unfamiliar words. Word Study: The act of deliberately investigating words (e.g., vocabularybuilding exercises, word-identification practice, and spelling). Writing Vocabulary: Words that a student might use in writing. 73 74 REFERENCES 75 REFERENCES FOR GLOSSARY OF READING TERMS Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read, Kindergarten through Grade 3. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved February 23, 2007 from http://www.nifl.gov Billmeyer, R., & Barton, M. L. (1998). Teaching reading in the content areas: If not me, then who? (2nd ed.). Aurora, CO: McREL. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York, NY: Guilford. Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., & Kame’enui, E. J. (1997). Direct instruction reading. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Francis, D., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English Language Learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Graves, M. F., Juel, C., & Graves, D. B. (2001). Teaching reading in the 21st century (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Harris, T. L., & Hodges, R. E. (Eds.). (1995). The literacy dictionary: The vocabulary of reading and writing. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Honig, B., Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2000). CORE: Teaching reading sourcebook. Novato, CA: Arena Press. Jewell, E. J., & Abate, F. (Eds.). (2001). The new Oxford American dictionary. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Moats, L. C. (2000). Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Woolfolk, A. E. (1998). Educational psychology (7th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 77 REFERENCES FOR REVIEWING A READING PROGRAM Adams, M. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read: Kindergarten through grade 3. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford. Blachowicz, C. L. Z., Fisher, P. J. L., Ogle, D., & Watts-Taffe, S. (2006). Vocabulary: Questions from the classroom. Reading Research Quarterly, 41 (4), 524-539. Burns, M. S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C. E. (Eds). (1998). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., & Kame’enui, E. J. (1997). Direct instruction reading (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Gough, P. B. (1996). How children learn to read and why they fail. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 3-20. Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Metsala, J. L., & Cox, K. E. (1999). Motivational cognitive predictors of text comprehension and reading amount. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3 (3), 231-256. Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005, May). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher 58 (8), 702–714. Kame’emui, E. J., & Baumann, J. F. (2004). Vocabulary: The plot of the reading story. In J.F. Baumann, & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice. New York: Guilford. Kame’enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (1990). Designing instructional strategies: The prevention of academic learning problems. Columbus, OH: Merrill. Kame’enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (1999). Toward successful inclusion of students with disabilities: The architecture of instruction. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Learning First Alliance (2000, November). Every child reading: A professional development guide. Retrieved September 7, 2007 from http://www.learningfirst.org/publications/reading 78 Liberman, A. M. (1999) The reading researcher and the reading teacher need the right theory of speech. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3 (2), 95-111. Mathes, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L. , Francis, D. J., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). An evaluation of two reading interventions derived from diverse models. Reading Research Quarterly, 40 (2), 148-183. McKeown, M. G., & Beck, I. L. (2003). Taking advantage of read alouds to help children make sense of decontextualized language. In A. van Kleeck, S. A. Stahl, & E. B. Bauer (Eds.), Storybook reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers should know and be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. Moats, L.C. (2004). Science, language, and imagination in the professional development of reading teachers. In McCardle, P. & Chhabra, V. (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks. Moats, L. C. (2005-06, Winter). How spelling supports reading. American Educator, 12-43. Moats, L. (2007). Whole-language high jinks: How to tell when “scientifically-based reading instruction” isn’t. Available from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, http://www.edexcellence.net/doc/Moats2007.pdf National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. RAND. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R & D program in reading comprehension. Retrieved February 23, 2007 from http://www.rand.org/ pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1465.pdf Rayner, K., Foorman, B., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002). How should reading be taught? Scientific American, 286, (3), 84-91. Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003, March). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program grades K-3: A critical elements analysis. Retrieved September 7, 2007 from http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. 79 Stahl, S., & Fairbanks, M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction. A modelbased meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56, 72-110. Stahl, S., & Nagy, W. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Stanovich, K. E., & Stanovich, P. J. (2003). Using research and reason in education: How teachers can use scientifically based research to make curricular & instructional decisions. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. Available from http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/pdf/Stanovich_Color.pdf Torgesen, J. K. (1998). Catch them before they fall: Identification and assessment to prevent reading failure in young children. American Educator, 22 (1&2), 32-39. Torgesen, J. K., & Mathes, P. (2000). A basic guide to understanding, assessing, and teaching phonological awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. The Journal of School Psychology, 40, 7-26. 80 RECOMMENDED READING These books and articles have been grouped roughly by category. Some address more than one category and are listed in more than one section. Others are listed in the category that is consistent with their primary focus, although they may have content related to other areas as well. References with the image of an open book next to them are recommended as key texts in the field. Phonological / Phonemic Awareness Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT. M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). The elusive f Adams, phoneme: Why phonemic awareness is so important and how to help children develop it. American Educator, 22, 18–29. Gillon, G. T. (2004). Phonological awareness: From research to practice. New York: Guilford. Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, A. M. (1989). The alphabetic principle and learning to read. In D. Shankweiler & I. Y. Liberman (Eds.), Phonology and reading disability: Solving the reading puzzle (pp.1–33). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Torgesen, J. K., & Mathes, P. (2000). A basic guide to understanding, assessing, and teaching phonological awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Phonics I. L. (2006). Making sense of phonics: The hows and whys. New York: f Beck,Guilford. Ehri, L. (2002, January). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II, 7–28. Henry, M. (2003). Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding & spelling instruction. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Juel, C., & Minden-Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 458–492. Moats, L. C. (2000). Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 81 Moats, L. C. (2006, Winter). How spelling supports reading: And why it is more regular and predictable than you may think. American Educator, 29 (4) 12–22, 42–43. Fluency Ehri, L. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II, 7–28. f Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58 (8), 702–714. Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2000). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. CIERA Report #2-008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved February 23, 2007, from http://www.ciera.org/library/ reports/inquiry-2/2-008/2-008.pdf Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E. H. (2003). A focus on fluency: Research-based practices in early reading series. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Raskinski, T. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency and comprehension. New York: Scholastic. Torgesen, J. K., & Hudson, R. (2006). Reading fluency: Critical issues for struggling readers. In S. J. Samuels and A. Farstrup (Eds.). Reading fluency: The forgotten dimension of reading success. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain (pp. 335–355). Parkton, MD: York Press. Vocabulary f Baumann, J., & Kame’enui, E. (Eds.). (2004). Vocabulary instruction: Research to Practice. New York: Guilford. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford. Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (2002). Teaching vocabulary in all classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Block, C. C., Rodgers, L. L., & Johnson, R. B. (2004). Comprehension process instructions: Creating reading success in grades k–3. New York: Guilford. 82 Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2006). Vocabulary handbook. Berkeley, CA: CORE. Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. L. (Eds.). (2005). Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Nagy, W. (2002). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Stahl, S., & Kapinus, B. (2001). Word power: What every educator needs to know about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: National Education Association. Stahl, S., & Nagy, W. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Comprehension Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1998, Spring-Summer). Getting at the meaning. American Educator, 22(1–2), 66–71, 85. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. (Eds.). (2002). Improving comprehension Instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. New York: Stenhouse. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R & D program in reading f RAND. comprehension. Retrieved February 23, 2007, from http://www.rand.org/ pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1465.pdf Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy, Reading Research Quarterly, 21 (4), 360–407. Principles of Effective Instruction and Intervention D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., Tarver, S. 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The Elementary School Journal, 99 (2), 101–128. 85 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors express sincere thanks to the following people who participated in the design and review of this training module. Their input and suggestions were critical to its development. Elizabeth Goldman, RMC Research Corporation Jan Hasbrouck, Educational Consultant, JH Consulting Tatia Jacobson Jordan, Program Coordinator, Center of Instruction (COI) Reading Strand Robert Kozman, RMC Research Corporation Peter Lenkway, Director of Technology Services, Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) Jane Meadows, Director of Professional Development, FCRR Debra Houston Miller, Instructional Specialist, COI Reading Strand Meghann Montgomery, Program Coordinator, FCRR and COI Reading Strand Lisa Noonis, RMC Research Corporation Angela Penfold, RMC Research Corporation, Director, Center on Instruction Kristopher Roehrig-Bice, Graphic and Production Designer, FCRR Terry Tanner-Smith, Instructional Specialist, COI Reading Strand Joseph Torgesen, Director Emeritus, FCRR; Former Director, COI Reading Strand Sharon Walpole, Assistant Professor, School of Education, University of Delaware 86
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§128.A. Elementary (C) use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to spell syllables and...