PDF file of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation and Configuration Guide for Microsoft Windows Platforms

PDF file of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation and Configuration Guide for Microsoft Windows Platforms
Oracle® Database
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Installation Guide
10g Release 2 (10.2) for Microsoft Windows
B14207-05
September 2006
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide, 10g Release 2
(10.2) for Microsoft Windows
B14207-05
Copyright © 2005, 2006, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Primary Authors: David Austin, Mark Bauer, Kevin Flood, Emily Murphy, Lyju Vadassery, Douglas
Williams
Contributing Authors: Jonathan Creighton, Pat Huey, Raj Kumar
Contributors: Chris Allison, Karin Brandauer, Robert Chang, Sudip Datta, Luann Ho, Rajiv Jayaraman,
Roland Knapp, Diana Lorentz, Barb Lundhild, Vijay Lunawat, John Patrick McHugh, Randy Neville, Philip
Newlan, Michael Polaski, Dipak Saggi, Sudheendra Sampath, Janelle Simmons, Clive Simpkins, Khethavath
P. Singh, Nitin Vengurlekar, Gary Young
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. ix
Intended Audience......................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
Related Documents .....................................................................................................................................
Conventions .................................................................................................................................................
ix
ix
x
xi
What's New in Oracle Database 10g RAC Installation and Configuration?............ xiii
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) New Features ............................................................................
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) New Features.............................................................................
xiii
xiv
Part I Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation
Planning and Requirements
1 Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Documentation Overview ............. 1-1
General System Installation Requirements for Oracle Real Application Clusters..................... 1-2
Cluster Verification Utility................................................................................................................ 1-2
Hardware Requirements for Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters.......................... 1-3
Software Requirements for Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters ............................ 1-4
Cluster Setup and Pre-Installation Configuration Tasks for Real Application Clusters ........... 1-4
Pre-Installation, Installation, and Post-Installation Overview ....................................................... 1-5
Pre-Installation Overview for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters .... 1-5
Installation Overview for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters ............ 1-5
Post-Installation Overview for Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters ..................... 1-6
Oracle Universal Installer and Real Application Clusters............................................................... 1-6
Storage Considerations for Installing Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters ............ 1-7
Overview of Automatic Storage Management .............................................................................. 1-7
Shared Storage for Database Recovery Area............................................................................... 1-10
Additional Considerations for Using Oracle Database 10g Features in RAC ........................... 1-10
Oracle Database 10g and Real Application Clusters Components.............................................. 1-10
Oracle Clusterware ......................................................................................................................... 1-10
The Installed Real Application Clusters Components............................................................... 1-11
Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters Version Compatibility .................................... 1-11
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and RAC in Grid Environments..................................................... 1-11
iii
Cloning Oracle Clusterware Homes ............................................................................................ 1-12
Cloning Real Application Clusters Homes ................................................................................. 1-12
Part II Pre-Installation Procedures for Oracle Clusterware and Real Application
Clusters
2
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility..................................................................... 2-1
Entering Cluster Verification Utility Commands.......................................................................... 2-2
Using Cluster Verification Utility Help .......................................................................................... 2-2
Verbose Mode and "Unknown" Output ......................................................................................... 2-3
Installation Differences Between Windows and UNIX.................................................................... 2-3
Checking Hardware and Software Certification................................................................................ 2-4
Web Browser Support ....................................................................................................................... 2-4
Telnet and Terminal Services Support ............................................................................................ 2-4
Windows Telnet Services Support ........................................................................................... 2-4
Windows Terminal Services and Remote Desktop Support ................................................ 2-5
Checking Hardware Requirements ...................................................................................................... 2-5
Hard Disk Space Requirements ....................................................................................................... 2-6
Verifying Hardware Requirements....................................................................................................... 2-6
Checking Software Requirements ....................................................................................................... 2-7
Checking the Hardware and Operating System Setup with CVU ................................................. 2-9
Checking Network Requirements ........................................................................................................ 2-9
Network Hardware Requirements .................................................................................................. 2-9
IP Address Requirements .............................................................................................................. 2-10
Checking Network Requirements ................................................................................................ 2-11
Checking the Network Setup.............................................................................................................. 2-12
Checking Individual Component Requirements ........................................................................... 2-12
Oracle Advanced Security Requirements.................................................................................... 2-12
Oracle Enterprise Manager Requirements .................................................................................. 2-12
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes................................................................................................... 2-13
Verifying Cluster Privileges ................................................................................................................ 2-13
3
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks
Preliminary Shared Disk Preparation ..................................................................................................
Disabling Write Caching ...................................................................................................................
Enabling Automounting for Windows 2003 ..................................................................................
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and Recovery Files..................
Overview of Storage Options ...........................................................................................................
Overview of Oracle Clusterware Storage Options.................................................................
Overview of Oracle Database and Recovery File Options....................................................
General Storage Considerations ...............................................................................................
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Datafiles on a File System .....................................................
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Recovery Files on a File System ...........................................
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options .....................................................................
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU .......................................................................
iv
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-6
Storage Configuration Steps for Real Application Clusters............................................................ 3-7
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Shared File System............................. 3-7
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on Raw Devices........................................... 3-8
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management ................................................................. 3-8
General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management ............................................... 3-8
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management...................... 3-9
Step 2 (Optional): Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group ............ 3-11
Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management ............ 3-12
Step 4: Manually Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management............................ 3-13
Overview of asmtoolg and asmtool ...................................................................................... 3-13
Using asmtoolg (Graphical User Interface).......................................................................... 3-13
Using asmtool (Command Line)............................................................................................ 3-14
Configuring Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions................................................................... 3-15
Creating Partitions for Logical Volumes ..................................................................................... 3-15
Assigning Logical Names .............................................................................................................. 3-16
Creating the DBCA Raw Device Mapping File .......................................................................... 3-17
Requirements for Files Managed by Oracle .................................................................................... 3-18
Part III
4
Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU ..................................................................
Troubleshooting Clusterware Setup for Windows .......................................................................
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI............................................................................
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI .............................................................................................
Starting OUI in Console Mode .........................................................................................................
Running OUI to Install Oracle Clusterware...................................................................................
Installing Oracle Clusterware Using a Cluster Configuration File.............................................
Formatting Drives to Use Oracle Cluster File System after Installation .......................................
5
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-7
4-8
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters
Verifying System Readiness for Installing the Oracle Database with CVU ................................ 5-1
Troubleshooting Installation Setup for Windows ......................................................................... 5-2
Selecting a Database Configuration Type ........................................................................................... 5-3
Configuration Type Descriptions .................................................................................................... 5-3
General Purpose, Transaction Processing, and Data Warehouse Configuration Types .. 5-3
Using the Advanced Configuration Type ............................................................................... 5-4
Behavior of OUI, DBCA, and Other Assistants During Installation .......................................... 5-4
Installation of Oracle Database 10g with RAC Using Oracle Universal Installer ...................... 5-5
Installation on Windows-Based Systems with the Minimum Memory Requirements ............. 5-6
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software............................................................................ 5-7
De-Installing Oracle Database 10g RAC Software ........................................................................ 5-7
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware from Windows Environments .............................................. 5-9
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware with No Previous Cluster Software Versions.............. 5-9
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware, with Clusterware Downgrade to 9.2 ........................ 5-10
De-Installing Automatic Storage Management .......................................................................... 5-11
v
6
Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration Assistant
Using Database Configuration Assistant with Oracle Real Application Clusters...................... 6-1
Benefits of Using Database Configuration Assistant ....................................................................... 6-2
Oracle Real Application Clusters High Availability Services......................................................... 6-2
Service Configuration and Instance Preferences ........................................................................... 6-2
Transparent Application Failover Policies ..................................................................................... 6-2
Verifying Requirements for DBCA ...................................................................................................... 6-2
Creating the Database after Installation Using Database Configuration Assistant ................... 6-3
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA ........................................... 6-3
Deleting a Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA ....................................................... 6-10
7
Oracle Real Application Clusters Post-Installation Procedures
Required Post-Installation Tasks ..........................................................................................................
Back Up the Voting Disk after Installation.....................................................................................
Download and Install Patches..........................................................................................................
Configure Oracle Products ...............................................................................................................
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks ................................................................................................
Verifying Enterprise Manager Operations .....................................................................................
Using Oracle9i Language and Definition Files with Oracle Database 10g ................................
Logging in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control ......................................................
Part IV
7-1
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-3
7-3
Real Application Clusters Environment Configuration
8 Parameter Management for Real Application Clusters Databases
Parameter Files and Real Application Clusters..................................................................................
Using Server Parameter Files in Real Application Clusters ............................................................
Location of the Server Parameter File .............................................................................................
Parameter File Search Order in Oracle Real Application Clusters.................................................
Server Parameter File Errors in Real Application Clusters..............................................................
9
Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed Configuration
Understanding the Configured Environment in Real Application Clusters................................
The Oracle Cluster Registry in Real Application Clusters ..............................................................
Database Components Created Using Database Configuration Assistant...................................
Tablespaces and Datafiles .................................................................................................................
Control Files ........................................................................................................................................
Redo Log Files ....................................................................................................................................
Managing Undo Tablespaces in Real Application Clusters ...........................................................
Initialization Parameter Files.................................................................................................................
Configuring Service Registration-Related Parameters in Real Application Clusters ................
Configuring the Listener File (listener.ora).........................................................................................
Local Listeners ....................................................................................................................................
Multiple Listeners ..............................................................................................................................
How Oracle Uses the Listener (listener.ora File) ...........................................................................
Listener Registration and PMON Discovery ..........................................................................
Directory Server Access (ldap.ora File) ................................................................................................
vi
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-3
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-3
9-3
9-4
9-4
9-5
9-5
9-5
9-5
9-6
9-6
Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)................................................................................................ 9-7
Net Services Profile (sqlnet.ora File) ................................................................................................. 9-11
Part V Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation
Reference Information
A
Troubleshooting the Installation Process
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware and RAC Installation....................................................
General Installation Issues ...............................................................................................................
Oracle Clusterware Install Actions Log Errors and Causes........................................................
The OCFS format is not recognized on one or more of the remote cluster nodes ...........
Timing issue with start of the OracleCSService: ...................................................................
You are on a Windows 2003 system, and Automount of new drives is not enabled: .....
You have entered a period in one of the node names during CRS install.........................
Node1 failed to startup service OracleEVMService, err(1053) ............................................
Ignoring upgrade failure of ocr(-1073740972) .......................................................................
Real Application Clusters Installation Error Messages ...............................................................
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Real Application Clusters Installations ...................
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
B Using Scripts to Create Oracle Real Application Clusters Databases
Creating a Database Using Scripts....................................................................................................... B-1
C
Configuring Raw Devices for Oracle Real Application Clusters
Support for Raw Devices on Windows Systems............................................................................... C-1
Raw Devices Required by Database Configuration Assistant....................................................... C-1
Planning Your Raw Device Creation Strategy.............................................................................. C-2
D Converting to Real Application Clusters from Single-Instance Oracle
Databases
Prerequisites for Conversion ................................................................................................................
Single-Instance to Cluster-Enabled Conversion Administrative Issues ......................................
Converting from Single-Instance to Real Application Clusters ....................................................
Single Instance on a Non-Cluster computer to Oracle Database 10g with RAC .....................
Back up the Original Single-Instance Database ....................................................................
Perform the Pre-Installation Steps...........................................................................................
Set up the Cluster ......................................................................................................................
Validate the Cluster ...................................................................................................................
Copy the Preconfigured Database Image...............................................................................
Install Oracle Database 10g Software with Real Application Clusters ..............................
Single Instance on a Cluster to Oracle Database 10g RAC..........................................................
Single Instance on a Cluster Running from a Cluster Enabled Oracle Home ..................
Post-Conversion Steps............................................................................................................................
E
D-1
D-1
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-4
D-4
D-6
Directory Structure for Oracle RAC Environments
Understanding the Real Application Clusters Directory Structure .............................................. E-1
vii
Directory Structures for Real Application Clusters ......................................................................... E-1
F How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Real Application Clusters
Database, and How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
Back Up the Oracle Software ................................................................................................................
Verify System Readiness for Patches and Upgrades ........................................................................
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database...................................................................
Shut Down Oracle Real Application Clusters Databases............................................................
Stop All Oracle Processes.................................................................................................................
Stop Oracle Clusterware or Cluster Ready Services Processes ...........................................
Stop Oracle Database 10g Processes Before Adding Products or Upgrading ..................
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades ..................................................................
Copy Patch Software to the Primary Upgrade Node ..................................................................
Shut Down Oracle Real Application Clusters Instances on Upgrade Nodes...........................
Stop All Oracle Processes on Upgrade Nodes ..............................................................................
Start OUI and Complete Upgrade Processes on Upgrade Nodes .............................................
G
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
About Managing Ports ...........................................................................................................................
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLS..........................................................................................
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components .......................................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port..............................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports ..............................................
Changing the iSQL*Plus Ports .............................................................................................................
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports....................................................................................................
Index
viii
F-1
F-1
F-2
F-2
F-2
F-2
F-3
F-4
F-4
F-5
F-5
F-6
G-1
G-1
G-2
G-4
G-4
G-5
G-5
Preface
This guide explains how to install and configure Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) on Microsoft Windows clusters
running Windows 2000 (32-bit) with Service Pack 1 or higher, Windows Server 2003
x64, or Windows Server 2003 for 64-bit Itanium 2 Systems.
This preface contains these topics:
■
Intended Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions
Intended Audience
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
for Microsoft Windows provides information for a database administrator who is
installing Oracle Clusterware or RAC on a Windows cluster. The guide provides the
network, cluster, and individual computer requirements for installing and configuring
the software as well as the steps to complete an installation. In some cases, this book
may help a network administrator or system administrator who is responsible for
providing the required network and hardware configuration.
Documentation Accessibility
Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation
accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our
documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive
technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to
facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to
evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading
technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be
accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility
Program Web site at
http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation
Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The
conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an
ix
otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text
that consists solely of a bracket or brace.
Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation
This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or
organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes
any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.
TTY Access to Oracle Support Services
Oracle provides dedicated Text Telephone (TTY) access to Oracle Support Services
within the United States of America 24 hours a day, seven days a week. For TTY
support, call 800.446.2398.
Related Documents
For more information, refer to the following Oracle resources:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Documentation
■
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration
and Deployment Guide
Installation Guides
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (32-Bit)
■
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (32-Bit)
■
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (x64)
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (x64)
■
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (64-Bit) on Intel Itanium
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (64-Bit) on Intel
Itanium
■
Oracle Diagnostics Pack Installation
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide
Operating System-Specific Administrative Guides
■
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows (32-Bit)
■
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows (x64)
■
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows (64-Bit) on Intel Itanium
Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters Management
■
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration
and Deployment Guide
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
■
Getting Started with the Oracle Diagnostics Pack
Generic Documentation
x
■
Oracle Database New Features
■
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Reference
Most Oracle error message documentation is only available in HTML. If you only have
access to the Oracle Documentation media, then browse the error messages by range.
Once you find a range, use your browser's "find in page" feature to locate a specific
message. When connected to the Internet, you can search for a specific error message
using the error message search feature of the Oracle online documentation. However,
error messages for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC tools are included in Oracle
Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration
and Deployment Guide.
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
xi
xii
What's New in Oracle Database 10g RAC
Installation and Configuration?
This section describes the new features in Oracle Database 10g as they pertain to the
installation and configuration of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (RAC). The topic in this section is:
■
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) New Features
■
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) New Features
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) New Features
This section describes features introduced in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) that
affect the installation and configuration of RAC.
■
■
■
Oracle Database 10g with RAC is available on both Standard Edition and
Enterprise Edition.
There are new and changed pages and dialogs for Oracle Universal Installer (OUI),
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), and Database Upgrade Assistant.
Virtual Internet Protocol Configuration Assistant (VIPCA) is a new tool for this
release. These enhancements are described in the following:
–
OUI Cluster Installation Mode Page—This page enables you to select whether
to perform a cluster or a single-instance Oracle Database 10g installation.
–
SYS and SYSTEM Passwords Page—This page has fields for entering and
confirming the SYS and SYSTEM user passwords. This includes SYSMAN and
DBSNMP if you use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
–
Storage Options Page—This page has storage options for selecting the storage
type for the database files such as control files, datafiles, and redo logs.
–
DBCA Services Page—This page enables you to create and configure services
for your RAC environment.
–
DBCA Initialization Parameters Page—This page has two dialogs to display
both Basic and Advanced parameter settings.
–
VIPCA—The pages for this assistant enable you to configure virtual internet
protocol addresses for your RAC database.
A new auxiliary, system-managed tablespace called SYSAUX contains performance
data and combines content that was stored in different tablespaces (some of which
are no longer required) in earlier releases. This is a required tablespace for which
you must plan disk space.
xiii
■
■
■
■
The gsdctl commands should only be used with Oracle9i databases. The Oracle
cluster software installation process stops any existing GSD processes. To start or
stop GSD processes manually, use srvctl start nodeapps or srvctl stop
nodeapps respectively.
Versions of cluster manager previous to Oracle Database 10g were sometimes
referred to as "Cluster Manager". In Oracle Database 10g, this function is
performed by an Oracle cluster software component known as Cluster
Synchronization Services (CSS). The OracleCSService, OracleCRService, and
OracleEVMService replace the service known previous to Oracle Database 10g as
OracleCMService9i.
Oracle Database 10g provides cluster file system support for Windows-based
platforms.
RAC and Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) support Automatic Storage
Management (ASM) and Oracle Managed Files (OMF).
See Also:
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
Automatic Storage Management, a new database file
management feature
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about administering services and storage in RAC
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about using
DBUA
The Oracle Database 10g version of the srvConfig.loc file is the ocr.loc file.
The Oracle9i version of srvConfig.loc still exists for backward compatibility.
If you use raw partitions in your Windows environment, then you can use a
newly-introduced DBCA raw device mapping file to associate database objects
with their partition symbolic link names. This removes the DBCA requirement in
previous versions to always prefix raw partition symbolic links with a database
name. This enables you to reuse the same raw partition symbolic links for any
database name if that partition is not a part of any existing database.
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) New Features
This section describes features introduced in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) that
affect the installation and configuration of Oracle Clusterware and RAC.
■
■
xiv
With this release, the component previously known as Cluster Ready Services, or
CRS, is now called Oracle Clusterware.
This release of Oracle Database 10g is provided with Cluster Verification Utility
(CVU). CVU is a validation tool that you can use to check whether your cluster is
properly configured, to avoid installation failures and database creation failures. It
provides the following cluster setup checks:
–
The cluster configuration meets the requirements for installing Oracle
Clusterware
–
The cluster configuration meets the requirements for Real Application
Clusters installation
–
The cluster configuration meets the requirements for creating a database with
Oracle Real Application Clusters, or meets the requirements for a change in
database configuration
You can use the CVU command-line interface:
–
To validate cluster components individually, including node connectivity,
administrative privileges, and the proper configuration of Oracle Cluster
Registry (OCR), Oracle Clusterware, and other required components for Real
Application Clusters.
–
To validate a pre-defined set of requirements, including the proper setup for
node connectivity, user equivalence, shared storage accessibility, integrity of
the Oracle Clusterware stack, and other requirements that a system must have
for a specific stage of RAC deployment like Oracle Clusterware or database
installation and database configuration.
CVU is available on the Oracle Clusterware media and is installed by OUI as part
of the Oracle Clusterware installation. You can run CVU directly from the media,
before installing Oracle software, to perform configuration checks. CVU
commands to perform installation checks are provided in this installation guide.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for detailed
information about CVU.
■
With Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), you can create duplicates of a cluster
node (or "clone" a node) using an image file. Cloning is now the preferred method
for adding nodes to a cluster. You can manage node cloning using a GUI provided
by Enterprise Manager Grid Control. The command line process for cloning, as
well as details about using non-interactive (silent) installation scripts, is described
in the manual Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide.
Both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters can be cloned.
■
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) enables rolling upgrades from Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) Cluster Ready Services to Oracle Database 10g
Release 2 (10.2) Oracle Clusterware.
During Oracle Clusterware installation, if Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects
an Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) Cluster Ready Services installation, then
OUI provides the option to install Oracle Clusterware across all nodes in the
cluster, or across a subset of nodes in the cluster. During Oracle Clusterware
installation, Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) Cluster Ready Services remains
available on nodes that are not being upgraded.
■
■
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), Oracle Clusterware should be
installed in a separate Oracle Clusterware home directory. This is a change to the
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules. You should not install Oracle
Clusterware in an Oracle Clusterware directory in the release-specific mount
point, as succeeding versions of Oracle Clusterware will overwrite the Oracle
Clusterware installation in the same path. Installation of any version of Oracle
Clusterware will also overwrite an existing Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Cluster Ready Services installation in the same path.
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) Oracle Clusterware installation provides the
option to use a Cluster Configuration File. The Cluster Configuration File
simplifies Oracle Clusterware installation in situations such as installing in test
environments, or installing Oracle Clusterware on a large number of nodes.
xv
■
■
■
■
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) provides a simplified procedure for
creating an Automatic Storage Management (ASM) instance and for configuring
disk groups.
ASM should be installed in a separate ASM home directory. This is a change to the
OFA rules.
With Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), a single ASM instance is able to serve
disk groups to all the database instances on the node, whether they are for
single-instance or RAC databases. This change simplifies managing the cluster, as
you do not need to distribute disks across multiple ASM instances statically.
Instead, you can manage all disks with one ASM instance on each node.
With Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), an ASM disk group defined with
normal redundancy can have its individual files defined with three-way
redundancy (high redundancy) and, by default, the control file is created with
three-way mirroring. You still have the option to create files in a normal
redundancy group with the default two-way mirroring or with no mirroring.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about the use of ASM disk groups and their options
■
Oracle cluster software, which was known as Cluster Ready Services in Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), has been renamed to Oracle Clusterware in Oracle
Database 10g Release 2 (10.2). Oracle Clusterware contains the cluster
management software required to support Oracle Database 10g RAC databases.
Oracle Clusterware also provides high availability components that provide many
system management features, including determining node availability, cluster
group membership, and locking services for Oracle processes. The components of
Oracle Clusterware interact with third-party vendor clusterware, if present, to
coordinate cluster membership information.
In addition, while continuing to be required for RAC databases, Oracle
Clusterware is also available for use with single-instance databases and
applications that you deploy on clusters. The API libraries required for use with
single-instance databases are provided with the Oracle Client installation media.
With this release, the following updates have been made to Oracle Clusterware:
–
Versions of cluster manager previous to Oracle Database 10g were sometimes
referred to as "Cluster Manager". In Oracle Database 10g, this function is
performed by a Oracle Clusterware component known as Cluster
Synchronization Services (CSS). The OracleCSService, OracleCRService, and
OracleEVMService replace the service known previous to Oracle Database 10g
as OracleCMService9i.
–
With this release of Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) with RAC, CSS has
been modified to allow you to configure CSS with multiple voting disks. In the
10g Release 1 (10.1) version, you could configure only one voting disk. By
enabling multiple voting disk configuration, the redundant voting disk
enables you to configure a RAC cluster with a voting disk that is mirrored on
multiple independent shared physical disks. This option facilitates the use of
the iSCSI network protocol, and other Network Attached Storage (NAS)
storage solutions.
To obtain the benefits of multiple voting disks, you must
configure three voting disks.
Note:
xvi
–
Oracle Clusterware is available for use with single-instance databases and
applications that you deploy on clusters.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Clusterware API, and
the Oracle Clusterware API commands
■
Oracle Database 10g installation requires you to perform a two-phase process in
which you run OUI twice. The first phase installs Oracle Clusterware 10g Release 2
(10.2) and the second phase installs the Oracle Database 10g software with RAC.
The installation also enables you to create and configure services for your RAC
environment.
If you have a previous Oracle cluster database version, then OUI activates
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) to automatically upgrade your pre-Oracle
Database 10g cluster database. DBUA can upgrade 9.x and 10.1 RAC databases,
and can upgrade 10.1 RAC databases using ASM to 10.2. It can also upgrade ASM
10.1 to ASM 10.2 The Oracle Database 10g installation process provides single
system image, ease of use, and accuracy for RAC installations and patches.
xvii
xviii
Part I
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Planning
and Requirements
Part I describes how to plan your Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (RAC) installation, and describes RAC installation requirements. The chapter
in Part I is:
Chapter 1, "Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters"
1
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware
and Oracle Real Application Clusters
This chapter provides an overview of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (RAC) installation and configuration procedures and includes the following
topics:
■
■
■
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Documentation
Overview
General System Installation Requirements for Oracle Real Application Clusters
Cluster Setup and Pre-Installation Configuration Tasks for Real Application
Clusters
■
Pre-Installation, Installation, and Post-Installation Overview
■
Oracle Universal Installer and Real Application Clusters
■
Storage Considerations for Installing Oracle Database 10g Real Application
Clusters
■
Additional Considerations for Using Oracle Database 10g Features in RAC
■
Oracle Database 10g and Real Application Clusters Components
■
Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters Version Compatibility
■
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and RAC in Grid Environments
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Documentation
Overview
This section describes the Oracle Clusterware and RAC documentation set.
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
for Microsoft Windows (this document) contains the pre-installation, installation, and
post-installation information for Microsoft Windows. Additional information for this
release may be available in the Oracle Database 10g README or Release Notes. The
platform-specific Oracle Database 10g media contains a copy of this book in both
HTML and PDF formats.
The Server Documentation media contains Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters 1-1
General System Installation Requirements for Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Administration and Deployment Guide
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide describes how to administer Oracle Clusterware components such as
the voting disks and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) devices. This book also
explains how to administer storage and how to use RAC scalability features to add
and delete instances and nodes. This book also discusses how to use Recovery
Manager (RMAN), and how to perform backup and recovery in RAC.
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide describes RAC deployment topics such as services, high availability,
and workload management. The book describes how Automatic Workload Repository
(AWR) tracks and reports service levels and how you can use service level thresholds
and alerts to balance complex workloads in your RAC environment. The book also
describes how to make your applications highly available using Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide also provides information about how to monitor and tune
performance in RAC environments by using Oracle Enterprise Manager and by using
information in AWR and Oracle performance views. This book also highlights some
application-specific deployment techniques for online transaction processing and data
warehousing environments.
General System Installation Requirements for Oracle Real Application
Clusters
Each node that is going to be part of your Oracle Clusterware and RAC installation
must meet the hardware and software requirements described in this section. You can
verify these requirements with Cluster Verification Utility. This book provides
step-by-step tasks that you can follow to prepare your hardware and software to meet
these requirements for your system in Part II of this book. You can verify that you have
met these requirements with Cluster Verification Utility.
Before using this manual, however, you should read the Oracle Database Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide to
inform yourself about concepts such as services, setting up storage, and other
information relevant to configuring your cluster.
Cluster Verification Utility
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) is provided with Oracle Database 10g Release 2
(10.2) with Real Application Clusters. The purpose of CVU is to enable you or your
hardware vendors to verify during setup and configuration that all components
required for a successful installation of a RAC database are installed and configured
correctly, and to provide you with ongoing assistance any time you need to make
changes to your RAC cluster. You are provided with commands to use CVU to verify
completion of tasks in this guide.
There are two types of CVU commands:
■
■
Stage Commands are CVU commands used to test system setup and readiness for
successful software installation, database creation, or configuration change steps.
These commands are also used to validate successful completion of specific cluster
configuration steps.
Component Commands are CVU commands used to check individual cluster
components, and determine their state.
1-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
General System Installation Requirements for Oracle Real Application Clusters
This guide provides stage and component CVU commands where appropriate to assist
you with cluster verification.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for detailed
information about Cluster Verification Utility.
Hardware Requirements for Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters
Each node in a cluster requires the following hardware:
■
External shared disks for storing Oracle Clusterware and database files.
The disk configuration options available to you are described in Chapter 3,
"Storage Pre-Installation Tasks". Review these options before you decide which
storage option to use in your RAC environment. However, note that when
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) configures automatic disk backup, it
uses a database recovery area which must be shared. The database files and
recovery files do not necessarily have to be located on the same type of storage.
■
One private internet protocol (IP) address for each node to serve as the private
interconnect. The following must be true for each private IP address:
–
It must be separate from the public network
–
It must be accessible on the same network interface on each node
–
It must have a unique address on each node
The private interconnect is used for inter-node communication by both Oracle
Clusterware and RAC. If the private address is available from a network name
server (DNS), then you can use that name. Otherwise, the private IP address must
be available in each node’s C:\WINNT\system32\drivers\etc\hosts file.
During Oracle Clusterware installation, the information you enter as the private IP
address determines which private interconnects are used by RAC database
instances. If you define more than one interconnect, then they must all be in an up
state, just as if their IP addresses were specified in the initialization parameter,
CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS. RAC does not fail over between cluster
interconnects; if one is down then the instances using them will not start.
Oracle recommends that you use a logical Internet Protocol (IP) address that is
available across all private networks, and that you take advantage of any available
third party network interface cards that provide bonding to enable network
failover by configuring them according to the vendor's instructions.
■
One public IP address for each node, to be used as the Virtual IP (VIP) address for
client connections and for connection failover The name associated with the VIP
must be different from the default host name.
This VIP must be associated with the same interface name on every node that is
part of your cluster. In addition, the IP addresses that you use for all of the nodes
that are part of a cluster must be from the same subnet. If you have a domain
name server (DNS), then register the host names for the VIP with DNS. The
Virtual IP address should not be in use at the time of the installation, because this
is a Virtual IP address that Oracle manages.
■
One public fixed hostname address for each node, typically assigned by the
system administrator during operating system installation. If you have a DNS,
then register both the fixed IP and the VIP address with DNS. If you do not have
DNS, then you must make sure that the public IP and VIP addresses for all nodes
are in each node’s host file.
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters 1-3
Cluster Setup and Pre-Installation Configuration Tasks for Real Application Clusters
In addition to these requirements, Oracle recommends the
following:
Note:
■
■
While installing and using Real Application Clusters software,
you should attempt to keep the system clocks on all of your
cluster nodes as close as possible to the same time.
Use redundant switches as a standard configuration for all cluster
sizes.
Software Requirements for Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters
Each node in a cluster requires a supported interconnect software protocol to support
Cache Fusion, and to support Oracle Clusterware polling. Your interconnect must be
certified by Oracle for your platform. You should also have a Web browser, both to
enable Oracle Enterprise Manager, and to view online documentation.
RAC databases on the same cluster must all be 64-bit or all 32-bit. A mix of 32-bit RAC
databases and 64-bit RAC databases on the same cluster is not supported.
See Also: Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for
additional information about the OSDBA and OSOPER groups, and
the SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges.
Cluster Setup and Pre-Installation Configuration Tasks for Real
Application Clusters
Before installing RAC, perform the following procedures:
1.
Ensure that you have a certified combination of operating system and Oracle
software version by referring to the OracleMetaLink certification information,
which is located at the following Web site:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Click Certify & Availability, and select 1.View Certifications by Product.
Note: The layout of the OracleMetaLink site and the site's
certification policies are subject to change.
2.
Configure a high-speed interconnect that uses a private network. Some platforms
support automatic failover to an additional interconnect.
3.
Determine the storage option for your system and configure the shared disk.
Oracle recommends that you use Automatic Storage Management (ASM) and
Oracle Managed Files (OMF), or a cluster file system. If you use ASM or a cluster
file system, then you can also take advantage of OMF and other Oracle Database
10g storage features. If you use RAC on Oracle Database 10g Standard Edition,
then you must use ASM.
If you intend to use multiple voting disks, then you need at least three voting
disks to provide sufficient voting disk redundancy, and you should ensure that
each voting disk is located on physically independent storage. When you start the
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware, you are asked to
provide the paths for each voting disk you want to configure: one disk, if you have
1-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Pre-Installation, Installation, and Post-Installation Overview
existing redundancy support for the voting disk, or three disks to provide
redundant voting disks managed by Oracle.
In addition, if you select multiple voting disks managed by Oracle, then you
should ensure that all voting disks are located on a secure network protected from
external security threats, and you should ensure that all voting disks are on
regularly maintained systems. If a voting disk fails, then you need to fix the
physical hardware and bring it back online. The Cluster Synchronization Services
(CSS) component of Oracle Clusterware continues to use the other voting disks,
and automatically makes use of the restored drive when it is brought online again.
If you use ASM, then Oracle recommends that you install
ASM in a separate home from the Oracle Clusterware home and the
Oracle home. You should particularly follow this recommendation if
the ASM instance is to manage storage for more than one RAC
database. Following this recommendation reduces downtime when
upgrading or de-installing different versions of the software.
Note:
4.
Install the operating system patches that are listed in the pre-installation chapter in
this book in Part II.
5.
Use Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to help you to verify that your system meets
requirements for installing Oracle Database with RAC.
Pre-Installation, Installation, and Post-Installation Overview
The following describes the installation procedures that are covered in Part II and
Part III of this book.
Pre-Installation Overview for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
The pre-installation procedures in Part II explain how to verify user equivalence,
perform network connectivity tests, as well as how to set directory and file
permissions. Complete all of the pre-installation procedures and verify that your
system meets all of the pre-installation requirements before proceeding to the install
phase.
Installation Overview for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters installation is a two-phase installation.
In phase one, use Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware as
described in Chapter 4, "Installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems". In
phase two, install the database software using OUI. Oracle Clusterware installation
starts Oracle Clusterware processes in preparation for installing Oracle Database 10g.
In phase two, you install Oracle database software for use with single-instance or with
RAC databases. To install the database software for use with single-instance databases
in phase two, refer to the Microsoft Windows installation guides. To install the
database software with RAC in phase two, use OUI to install RAC software as
described in Chapter 5, "Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application
Clusters". Note that the Oracle home that you use in phase one is a home for Oracle
Clusterware software which must be different from the Oracle home that you use in
phase two.
If OUI detects a previous version of Oracle Database, then OUI starts Database
Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) to upgrade your database to Oracle Database 10g Release 2
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters 1-5
Oracle Universal Installer and Real Application Clusters
(10.2). In addition, DBUA displays a Service Configuration page for configuring
services in your RAC database.
See Also: Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for additional information
about preparing for upgrades
After the database software installation completes, OUI starts the Oracle assistants,
such as Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), to configure your environment and
create your database. For a RAC database, you can later use DBCA Instance
Management feature to add or modify services and instances as described in
Chapter 6, "Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration
Assistant".
Post-Installation Overview for Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters
After you create your database, download and install the most recent patch sets for
your Oracle Database 10g version as described in the single-instance installation
manual or in Chapter 7, "Oracle Real Application Clusters Post-Installation
Procedures". If you are using other Oracle products with your RAC database, then you
must also configure them.
You must also perform several post-installation configuration tasks to use certain
Oracle Database 10g products such as Sample Schema, Oracle Net Services, or Oracle
Messaging Gateway. You must also configure Oracle pre-compilers for your operating
system and if desired, configure Oracle Advanced Security.
Use the Companion media to install additional Oracle Database 10g software that may
improve performance or extend database capabilities, for example, Oracle JVM, Oracle
interMedia or Oracle Text.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about using RAC scalability features of adding and
deleting nodes and instances from RAC databases
Oracle Universal Installer and Real Application Clusters
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) facilitates the installation of Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Database 10g software. In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI)
provided by OUI to install the software. However, you can also use OUI to complete
non-interactive (or "silent") installations, without using the GUI. See Appendix B for
information about non-interactive installations.
The Oracle Inventory maintains records of Oracle software versions and patches. Each
installation has central inventory where the Oracle home is registered. Oracle software
installations have a local inventory directory, whose path location is recorded in the
central inventory Oracle home. The local inventory directory for each Oracle software
installation contains a list of components and applied interim patches associated with
that software. Because your Oracle software installation can be corrupted by faulty
inventory information, OUI must perform all read and write operations on Oracle
inventories. The Oracle Inventory is installed in the path systemdrive:\program
files\oracle.
When you install Oracle Clusterware or RAC, OUI copies the Oracle software onto the
node from which you are running it. If your Oracle home is not on a cluster file
system, then OUI propagates the software onto the other nodes that you have selected
to be part of your OUI installation session. The Oracle Inventory maintains a list of
1-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Storage Considerations for Installing Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters
each node that is a member of the RAC database, and lists the paths to each node’s
Oracle home. This is used to maintain patches and updates for each member node of
the RAC database.
If you create your RAC database using OUI, or if you create it later using DBCA, then
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control is configured for your cluster database.
Database control can manage your cluster database and, for a RAC database, all of its
instances.
You can also configure Enterprise Manager Grid Control to manage multiple databases
and application servers from a single console. To manage RAC databases in Grid
Control, you must a install Grid Control agent on each of the nodes of your cluster.
The Agent installation is designed to recognize a cluster environment and install
across all cluster nodes; you need to perform the install on only one of the cluster
nodes to install Grid Control agent on all cluster nodes.
When OUI installs Oracle software, Oracle recommends that you select a
preconfigured database, or use Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) interactively
to create your cluster database. You can also manually create your database as
described in procedures posted on the Oracle Technology Network, which is at the
following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/index.html
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for more
details about OUI
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for information
about using Enterprise Manager to administer RAC
environments
The Grid Technology Center on the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN), which is available at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/index.html
Storage Considerations for Installing Oracle Database 10g Real
Application Clusters
This section discusses storage configuration options that you should consider before
installing Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) with Real Application Clusters. You
must prepare storage specific for each phase of the installation and database creation
processes.
Overview of Automatic Storage Management
Oracle recommends using Automatic Storage Management (ASM) or a cluster file
system with Oracle Managed Files (OMF) for database storage. This section provides
an overview of ASM.
Note that RAC installations using Oracle Database Standard Edition must use ASM for
database file storage.
You can use ASM to simplify the administration of Oracle database files. Instead of
having to manage potentially thousands of database files, using ASM, you need to
manage only a small number of disk groups. A disk group is a set of disk devices that
ASM manages as a single logical unit. You can define a particular disk group as the
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters 1-7
Storage Considerations for Installing Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters
default disk group for a database, and Oracle will automatically allocate storage for,
create, or delete, the files associated with the appropriate database object. When
administering the database, you need only refer to database objects by name, rather
than by file name.
When using ASM with a single Oracle home for database instances on a node, the
ASM instance can run from that same home. If you are using ASM with Oracle
database instances from multiple database homes on the same node, then Oracle
recommends that you run the ASM instance from an Oracle home that is distinct from
the database homes. In addition, the ASM home should be installed on every cluster
node. Following this recommendation prevents the accidental removal of ASM
instances that are in use by databases from other homes during the de-installation of a
database's Oracle home.
Benefits of Automatic Storage Management
ASM provides many of the same benefits as storage technologies such as a redundant
array of independent disks (RAID) or logical volume managers (LVMs). Like these
technologies, ASM enables you to create a single disk group from a collection of
individual disk devices. It balances input and output (I/O) loads to the disk group
across all of the devices in the disk group. It also implements striping and mirroring to
improve I/O performance and data reliability.
However, unlike RAID or LVMs, ASM implements striping and mirroring at the file
level. This implementation enables you to specify different storage attributes for
individual files in the same disk group.
Disk Groups and Failure Groups
A disk group can include up to 10,000 disk devices. Each disk device can be an
individual physical disk, a multiple disk device such as a RAID storage array or
logical volume, or even a partition on a physical disk. However, in most cases, disk
groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable ASM to balance I/O
and storage appropriately within the disk group, all devices in the disk group should
have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and performance.
Do not assign more than one partition on a single physical
disk to the same disk group. ASM expects each disk group device
to be on a separate physical disk.
Note:
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an ASM
disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use. Because logical
volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture, ASM
may not operate effectively when logical volumes are specified as
disk group devices.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device.
Failure groups define ASM disks that share a common potential failure mechanism.
An example of a failure group is a set of SCSI disks sharing the same SCSI controller.
Failure groups are used to determine which ASM disks to use for storing redundant
copies of data. For example, if two-way mirroring is specified for a file, ASM
automatically stores redundant copies of file extents in separate failure groups.
Redundancy Levels
ASM provides three levels of mirroring, called redundancy levels, that you can specify
when creating a disk group. The redundancy levels are:
1-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Storage Considerations for Installing Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters
■
External redundancy
In disk groups created with external redundancy, the contents of the disk group
are not mirrored by ASM. You might choose this redundancy level when:
■
–
The disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own
data protection
–
Your use of the database does not require uninterrupted access to data, for
example, in a development environment where you have a suitable back-up
strategy
Normal redundancy
In disk groups created with normal redundancy, the contents of the disk group are
two-way mirrored by default, except the control file, which is three-way mirrored.
However, you can choose to create certain files that are not mirrored or that are
three-way mirrored in a disk group with normal redundancy. To create a disk
group with normal redundancy, you must specify at least two failure groups (a
minimum of two devices).
The effective disk space of a disk group that uses normal redundancy is half the
total disk space of all of its devices.
■
High redundancy
In disk groups created with high redundancy, the contents of the disk group all
three-way mirrored. To create a disk group with high redundancy, you must
specify at least three failure groups (a minimum of three devices).
The effective disk space of a disk group that uses high redundancy is one-third of
the total disk space of all of its devices.
ASM and Installation Types
The type and number of disk groups that you can create when installing Oracle
software depends on the type of database you choose to create during the installation,
as follows:
■
Preconfigured database
If you choose to create the default preconfigured database that uses ASM, then
OUI prompts you for the disk device names it will use to create a disk group with
the default name of DATA.
■
Advanced database
If you choose to create an advanced database that uses ASM, then you can create
one or more disk groups. These disk groups can use one or more devices. For each
disk group, you can specify the redundancy level that suits your requirements.
The following table lists the total disk space required in all disk group devices for a
typical preconfigured database, depending on the redundancy level you choose to use
for the disk group:
Redundancy Level
Total DIsk Space Required
External
1 GB
Normal
2 GB (on a minimum of two devices)
High
3 GB (on a minimum of three devices)
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters 1-9
Additional Considerations for Using Oracle Database 10g Features in RAC
You can also run OUI and to install ASM only without the database and RAC
software.
Shared Storage for Database Recovery Area
When you configure a database recovery area in a RAC environment, the database
recovery area must be on shared storage. When Database Configuration Assistant
(DBCA) configures automatic disk backup, it uses a database recovery area that must
be shared.
If the database files are stored on a cluster file system, then the recovery area can also
be shared through the cluster file system.
If the database files are stored on an Automatic Storage Management (ASM) disk
group, then the recovery area can also be shared through ASM.
If the database files are stored on raw devices, then you must use either a cluster file
system or ASM for the recovery area.
ASM disk groups are always valid recovery areas, as are
cluster file systems. Recovery area files do not have to be in the same
location where datafiles are stored. For instance, you can store
datafiles on raw devices, but use ASM for the recovery area.
Note:
Additional Considerations for Using Oracle Database 10g Features in RAC
Oracle recommends that you use the following Oracle Database 10g features to
simplify RAC database management:
■
■
■
■
Enterprise Manager—Use Enterprise Manager to administer your entire processing
environment, not just the RAC database. Enterprise Manager enables you to
manage a RAC database with its instance targets, listener targets, host targets, and
a cluster target, as well as ASM targets if you are using ASM storage for your
database.
Automatic undo management—Automatically manages undo processing.
Automatic segment-space management—Automatically manages segment
freelists and freelist groups.
Locally managed tablespaces—Enhances space management performance.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about these features in RAC environments
Oracle Database 10g and Real Application Clusters Components
Oracle Database 10g provides single-instance database software and the additional
components to operate RAC databases. Some RAC-specific components include:
■
Oracle Clusterware
■
A RAC-enabled Oracle home
Oracle Clusterware
You must provide OUI with the names of the nodes on which you want to install
Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware home can be either shared by all nodes, or
1-10 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and RAC in Grid Environments
private to each node, depending on your responses when you run OUI. The home that
you select for Oracle Clusterware must be different from the RAC-enabled Oracle
home.
When third-party vendor clusterware is present, Oracle Clusterware may interact with
the third-party vendor clusterware. For Oracle Database 10g on Windows, Oracle
Clusterware coexists with but does not interact with previous Oracle clusterware
versions.
Versions of cluster manager previous to Oracle Database
10g were sometimes referred to as "Cluster Manager". In Oracle
Database 10g, this function is performed by a Oracle Clusterware
component known as Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS). The
OracleCSService, OracleCRService, and OracleEVMService replace
the service known previous to Oracle Database 10g as
OracleCMService9i.
Note:
The Installed Real Application Clusters Components
All instances in RAC environments share the control file, server parameter file, redo
log files, and all datafiles. These files reside on a shared cluster file system or on shared
disks. Either of these types of file configurations are accessed by all the cluster
database instances. Each instance also has its own set of redo log files. During failures,
shared access to redo log files enables surviving instances to perform recovery.
Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters Version Compatibility
You can install and operate different versions of Oracle cluster database software on
the same computer as described in the following points:
■
With Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) if you have a pre-existing Oracle home,
then you must install the database into the existing Oracle home. You should
install Oracle Clusterware in a separate Oracle Clusterware home. Each node can
have only one Oracle Clusterware home.
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) prompts you to install
additional Oracle Database 10g products if you have not already installed all of
them.
■
■
OUI also enables you to de-install and re-install Oracle Database 10g Real
Application Clusters if needed.
If OUI detects an earlier version of a database, then OUI asks you about your
upgrade preferences. You have the option to upgrade one of the previous-version
databases with DBUA or to create a new database using DBCA. The information
collected during this dialog is passed to DBUA or DBCA after the software is
installed.
Do not move Oracle binaries from the Oracle home to another
location. Doing so can cause dynamic link failures.
Note:
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and RAC in Grid Environments
The preferred method to clone Oracle Clusterware and RAC software is to use
Enterprise Manager Grid Control. The following sections provide a summary of the
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters 1-11
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and RAC in Grid Environments
command line procedures for deployments of RAC in grid environments with large
numbers of nodes using cloned Clusterware and RAC images:
■
Cloning Oracle Clusterware Homes
■
Cloning Real Application Clusters Homes
See Also: For detailed information about cloning RAC and Oracle
Clusterware images, refer to the following documents:
Cloning, and adding and deleting nodes:
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide
Additional information about adding and deleting nodes:
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Administration and Deployment Guide
Cloning Oracle Clusterware Homes
This section outlines the procedure required to clone an existing Oracle Clusterware
home from one node (the source node) to one or more other nodes (the target nodes).
The procedure consists of the following tasks:
1.
Ensure that Oracle Clusterware software is installed successfully on the source
node. You can use CVU for this task.
2.
As a Windows administrative user, create a zip file of the Oracle Clusterware
home directory, selecting the "Save full path info" option.
3.
On a selected target node, create an Oracle Clusterware home directory, and copy
the Oracle Clusterware zip file from the source node to the target node Oracle
Clusterware home.
4.
As a Windows administrative user, extract the zip file contents, selecting the "Use
folder names" option.
5.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 on each of the other target nodes, unless the Oracle
Clusterware home is on a shared storage device.
6.
On each of the target nodes, run OUI in clone mode as described in Oracle
Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide.
7.
Complete the post-cloning installation instructions as described in Oracle Universal
Installer and OPatch User's Guide.
Cloning Real Application Clusters Homes
Complete the following tasks to Clone a RAC database image on multiple nodes:
1.
Ensure that Oracle Database with RAC software is installed successfully on the
source node.
2.
Create a zip file of the Oracle home directory, selecting the "Save full path info"
option.
3.
On a selected target node, create an Oracle home directory, and copy the Oracle
Clusterware zip file from the source node to the target node Oracle Clusterware
home.
4.
Extract the zip file contents, selecting the "Use folder names" option.
5.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 on each of the other target nodes, unless the Oracle home is
on a shared storage device.
1-12 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and RAC in Grid Environments
6.
On each of the target nodes, run OUI in clone mode as described in Oracle
Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide.
7.
Complete the post-cloning installation instructions as described in Oracle Universal
Installer and OPatch User's Guide.
8.
Run the configuration assistant NetCA on a local node of the cluster, and provide
a list when prompted of all nodes that are part of the cluster.
9.
Run the configuration assistant DBCA to create the database.
Introduction to Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters 1-13
Cloning Oracle Clusterware and RAC in Grid Environments
1-14 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Part II
Pre-Installation Procedures for Oracle
Clusterware and Real Application Clusters
Part II describes the pre-installation procedures for Microsoft Windows that you must
complete before installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
(RAC). The chapters in Part II are:
■
Chapter 2, "Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks"
■
Chapter 3, "Storage Pre-Installation Tasks"
2
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks
This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (RAC) on Microsoft Windows x86 (32-bit and 64-bit) and Itanium systems.
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility
■
Installation Differences Between Windows and UNIX
■
Checking Hardware and Software Certification
■
Checking Hardware Requirements
■
Verifying Hardware Requirements
■
Checking Software Requirements
■
Checking the Hardware and Operating System Setup with CVU
■
Checking Network Requirements
■
Checking the Network Setup
■
Checking Individual Component Requirements
■
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
■
Verifying Cluster Privileges
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) is a tool that performs system checks related to
Oracle Clusterware and RAC requirements. CVU can assist you with confirming that
your system is properly configured for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters installation. You will find CVU commands, along with
information on how to respond to CVU output, in this chapter and the following
chapters. Look for these commands at the start or the end of each major step in the
pre-installation and installation processes.
This section tells you how to run CVU from your installation media and provides an
overview of CVU commands. The section is divided into the following topics:
■
Entering Cluster Verification Utility Commands
■
Using Cluster Verification Utility Help
■
Verbose Mode and "Unknown" Output
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks
2-1
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility
Entering Cluster Verification Utility Commands
You must have the utility unzip installed and configured with
a path command for runcluvfy.bat to run.
Note:
Once you have installed Oracle Clusterware, you can use CVU by entering cluvfy
commands on the command line. To use CVU before you install Oracle Clusterware,
you must run the commands using a command file available on the Oracle
Clusterware installation media. Use the following syntax to run a CVU command run
from the installation media, where media is the location of the Oracle Clusterware
installation media and options is a list of one or more CVU command options:
media\clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat options
The value of media depends on where your installation media is located, such as on
physical media inserted in a local ROM drive or downloaded onto a local disk drive
from the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) Web site. The available CVU options are
listed in the CVU help system, described in the next section.
See Also: Oracle Database Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows
(32-Bit) for further information about options for locating your
installation media.
The following code example is of a CVU help command, run from a staged copy of the
Oracle Clusterware directory downloaded from OTN into a directory called stage on
your C: drive:
C:\> stage\clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat comp nodereach -n node1,node2 -verbose
By default, when you enter a CVU command, CVU provides a summary of the test
and its results. During pre-installation, Oracle recommends that you obtain detailed
output by using the -verbose argument with the CVU command as shown in
example. When you use the -verbose argument, the command’s output includes
detailed information about each individual check. Where applicable, the output shows
results for each node in a tabular layout.
For a quick test, you can run the following CVU command that you would normally
use after you have completed the basic hardware and software configuration:
prompt> media\clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat stage –post hwos –n node_list
Use the location of your Oracle Clusterware installation media for the media value
and a list of the nodes, separated by commas, in your cluster for node_list. Expect
to see many errors if you run this command before you or your system administrator
complete the cluster pre-installation steps.
Using Cluster Verification Utility Help
CVU commands have context-sensitive help that shows correct syntax usage based on
the command line arguments that you enter.
If you enter an invalid CVU command, then CVU shows the correct usage for that
command. For example, if you enter runcluvfy.bat stage -pre dbinst with
the appropriate directory prefix, then CVU shows the correct syntax for the database
pre-installation checks that CVU performs with the dbinst stage option. The
following is a list of context help commands, shown with the normal, post-installation
command line syntax:
2-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Installation Differences Between Windows and UNIX
■
■
■
■
■
■
cluvfy: CVU displays high-level generic usage text describing the stage and
component syntax.
cluvfy -help: CVU displays detailed CVU command information.
cluvfy comp -list: CVU displays a list of components that can be checked,
and brief descriptions of how each component is checked.
cluvfy comp -help: CVU displays detailed syntax for each of the valid
component checks.
cluvfy stage -list: CVU displays a list of valid stages.
cluvfy stage -help: CVU displays detailed syntax for each of the valid stage
checks.
Verbose Mode and "Unknown" Output
If you run CVU using the -verbose argument and a CVU command responds with
UNKNOWN for a particular node, then this is because CVU cannot determine whether a
check passed or failed. The following is a list of possible causes for an "Unknown"
response:
■
■
■
■
■
The node is down
CVU executables are missing in the Oracle Clusterware home or Oracle home
directory
The user account starting CVU does not have privileges to run common operating
system executables on the node
The node is missing an operating system patch, or a required package
The node has exceeded the maximum number of processes or maximum number
of open files, or there is a problem with problem with IPC segments, such as
shared memory or semaphores
Installation Differences Between Windows and UNIX
If you are experienced with installing Oracle components in UNIX environments, note
that many manual setup tasks required on UNIX are not required on Windows. The
key differences between UNIX and Windows installations are:
■
Startup and shutdown services
In Windows, Oracle Universal Installer creates and sets startup and shutdown
services at installation time. In UNIX systems, administrators are responsible for
creating these services.
■
Environment variables
In Windows, Oracle Universal Installer sets environment variables such as PATH,
ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID in the registry. In UNIX
systems, you must manually set these environment variables.
■
DBA account for database administrators
In Windows, Oracle Universal Installer creates the ORA_DBA group. In UNIX
systems, you must create the DBA account manually.
■
Account for running Oracle Universal Installer
In Windows, you log in with Administrator privileges. You do not need a separate
account. In UNIX systems, you must create this account manually.
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks
2-3
Checking Hardware and Software Certification
On Oracle Real Application Clusters systems, each member node of the cluster
must have user equivalency for the Administrative privileges account that installs
the database. This means that the administrative privileges user account and
password must be the same on all nodes.
See Also: "Oracle Database Windows/UNIX Differences," in Oracle
Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows (32-Bit)
Checking Hardware and Software Certification
The hardware and software requirements included in this installation guide were
current at the time this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the OracleMetaLink Web site for the most up-to-date
list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. This Web site also
provides compatible client and database versions, patches, and workaround
information for bugs. The OracleMetaLink Web site is available at the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com/
You must register online before using OracleMetaLink. After logging in, select Certify
& Availability from the left-hand column. From the Product Lifecycle page, select the
Certifications button. Other Product Lifecycle options include Product Availability,
Desupport Notices, and Alerts.
The following sections list the following certification information:
■
Web Browser Support
■
Telnet and Terminal Services Support
Web Browser Support
On 32-bit Windows systems, the following Web browsers are supported for iSQL*Plus
and Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:
■
Netscape Navigator 7.0 and higher
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5, 6.0, and higher with service pack 1
■
Mozilla version 1.3.1 and higher
On 64-bit Windows systems, Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 and higher is supported
for for iSQL*Plus and Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Telnet and Terminal Services Support
This section contains these topics:
■
Windows Telnet Services Support
■
Windows Terminal Services and Remote Desktop Support
Windows Telnet Services Support
Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 includes a Telnet Service that allows remote
users to log on to the operating system and run console programs using the command
line. Oracle supports the use of database command line utilities such as sqlplus,
export, import and sqlldr using this feature, but does not support the database
GUI tools such as Oracle Universal Installer, Database Configuration Assistant, and
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant.
2-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Checking Hardware Requirements
Note:
Ensure that the Telnet service is started on the Services control
panel.
Windows Terminal Services and Remote Desktop Support
Oracle supports installing, configuring, and running Oracle Database through
Terminal Services, on Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Server. If you encounter
problems with the installation through Terminal Server, Oracle recommends that you
try connecting to the Terminal Services console session of the server (using mstsc
/console).
Platform-specific support information is as follows:
■
■
Windows 2000: Oracle supports installing, configuring, and running Oracle
Database from a remote Terminal Services Client.
Windows Server 2003: You can configure Windows Server 2003 to use Terminal
Services in Remote Desktop for Administration Mode or Terminal Server Mode.
The following products and features are not supported with Windows Terminal
Services:
■
Oracle Connection Manager
■
Oracle Object Link Manager
■
Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server
■
Server Management (SRVM) (You need to use a Windows Terminal Services
console in order to use SRVM.)
See Also:
■
The Microsoft Web site for more information about terminal
servers
http://www.microsoft.com/
■
The OracleMetaLink Web site for the latest Terminal Server
certification information
https://metalink.oracle.com
Checking Hardware Requirements
You must have at least the following hardware component values for installing Oracle
Database:
■
RAM: 512 MB for 32-bit systems, or 1GB for 64-bit and Itanium systems
■
Virtual memory: double the amount of RAM
■
Hard disk space: See Table 2–1
■
Temp disk space: 125 MB
■
Video adapter: 256 color
■
Processor: 500 MHz minimum for 32-bit; Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology
(EM64T) or AMD 64 for 64-bit; and Itanium 2 or higher for Itanium
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks
2-5
Verifying Hardware Requirements
See Also:
■
■
■
"Preliminary Shared Disk Preparation" on page 3-1
"Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database,
and Recovery Files" on page 3-2
"Storage Configuration Steps for Real Application Clusters" on
page 3-7
Hard Disk Space Requirements
This section lists space requirements for both the Enterprise and Standard Editions of
Oracle Database 10g RAC. Oracle recommends storing Oracle components on NTFS.
The NTFS system requirements listed in this section are more accurate than the hard
disk values reported by the Oracle Universal Installer Summary screen. The Summary
screen does not include accurate values for disk space, the space required to create a
database (over 700 MB), or the size of compressed files that are expanded on the hard
drive.
Data files are not placed on NTFS partitions, because they cannot be shared. Data files
can be placed on Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS), on raw disks using ASM, or on
raw disks.
The hard disk requirements for Oracle Database components include 32 MB required
to install Java Runtime Environment (JRE) and Oracle Universal Installer on the
partition where the operating system is installed. If sufficient space is not detected,
then installation fails and an error message appears. Table 2–1 lists the hard disk space
requirements, including the requirement for the starter database. The starter database
requires 720 MB of disk space.
Table 2–1
Hard Disk Space Requirements
C:\Program
Installation Type TEMP space Files\Oracle
Oracle Home Data Files1
Total
Standard Edition
125 MB
100 MB
4 GB
1.05 GB
6 GB
Enterprise Edition 125 MB
100 MB
4 GB
1.05 GB2
6 GB
1
2
Refers to the contents of the admin, flash_recovery_area, and oradata directories in the ORACLE_BASE
directory
This size can be higher, depending on the installation options selected, such as languages or additional
components. If you choose to install Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters with
automated backups enabled, then include at least 2 GB extra for data file disk space.
Verifying Hardware Requirements
To ensure that the system meets these requirements, follow these steps:
1.
Determine the physical RAM size. For a computer using Windows 2003, for
example, open System in the control panel and select the General tab. If the size of
the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size, then you
must install more memory before continuing.
2.
Determine the size of the configured swap space (also known as paging file size).
For a computer using Windows 2003, for example, open System in the control
panel, select the Advanced tab, and click Settings in the Performance section.
If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about
how to configure additional swap space.
2-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Checking Software Requirements
3.
Determine the amount of free disk space on the system. For a computer using
Windows 2003, for example, open My Computer, right-click the drive where the
Oracle software is to be installed, and choose Properties.
4.
Determine the amount of disk space available in the temp directory. This is
equivalent to the total amount of free disk space, minus what will be needed for
the Oracle software to be installed.
You require 125 MB of disk space available in the temp directory. If you do not
have sufficient space, then first delete all unnecessary files. If the temp disk space
is still less than the required amount, then set the TEMP or TMP environment
variable to point to a different hard drive. For a computer using Windows 2003, for
example, open the System control panel, select the Advanced tab, and click
Environment Variables.
The temporary directory must reside in the same directory
path on each node in the cluster.
Note:
Checking Software Requirements
Table 2–2 lists the software requirements for Oracle Database 10g Real Application
Clusters.
Table 2–2
Software Requirements
Requirement
Value
System Architecture
Processor: Intel (x86), Intel Itanium, AMD64, or Intel Extended memory (EM64T)
Note: Oracle provides 32-bit (x86), 64-bit (Itanium), and 64-bit (x86-64) versions of
Oracle Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) for Windows.
The 32-bit RAC version runs on the 32-bit version of Windows. The 64-bit (x86-64) RAC
version runs on the 64-bit version of Windows on AMD64 and EM64T hardware. 64-bit
(Itanium) RAC runs on the 64-bit version of Windows on Itanium hardware. Oracle
provides limited certification for 32-bit Oracle Database on 64-bit Windows (x86-64). For
additional information, visit OracleMetaLink at the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Operating System for
32-bit Windows
Oracle Real Application Clusters for 32-bit Windows:
■
■
Windows 2000 with service pack 4 or higher. All editions, including Terminal
Services and Windows 2000 MultiLanguage Edition (MLE), are supported.
Windows Server 2003 with service pack 1 or higher.
Windows Multilingual User Interface Pack is supported on Windows Server 2003.
Operating system for
x64 Windows
Oracle Real Application Clusters for x64 Windows:
Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 or higher.
Windows Multilingual User Interface Pack is supported on Windows Server 2003.
Operating system for
Windows on Itanium
Oracle Real Application Clusters for Itanium systems:
Windows Server 2003.
Windows Multilingual User Interface Pack is supported on Windows Server 2003.
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks
2-7
Checking Software Requirements
Table 2–2 (Cont.) Software Requirements
Requirement
Value
Compiler for 32-bit
Windows
Pro*Cobol has been tested and certified with the following two compilers:
■
ACUCOBOL-GT version 6.2
■
Micro Focus Net Express 4.0
Object Oriented COBOL (OOCOBOL) specifications are not supported.
The following components are supported with the Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2002 7.0
and Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003 7.1 compilers:
■
Oracle C++ Call Interface
■
Oracle Call Interface
■
GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)
■
External callouts
■
PL/SQL native compilation
■
XDK
If you plan to use GNU Compiler Collection as your primary compiler, see Oracle
Database Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (32-Bit) for configuration instructions.
Compiler for Windows
on Itanium
The following components are supported with the windows 2003 Microsoft Platform
SDK compiler or later and with the Intel Compiler Version 7.1 and Version 8.1:
■
Oracle C++ Call Interface
■
Oracle Call Interface
■
External callouts
■
PL/SQL native compilation
■
XDK
Pro*Cobol, Object Oriented COBOL (OOCOBOL) specifications, and GNU Compiler
Collection (GCC) are not supported.
Compiler for x64
Windows
The following components are supported with the Windows 2003 Service Pack 1
Microsoft Platform SDK compiler and with the Intel Compiler, Version 8.1:
■
Oracle C++ Call Interface
■
Oracle Call Interface
■
External callouts
■
PL/SQL native compilation
■
XDK
Pro*Cobol, Object Oriented COBOL (OOCOBOL) specifications, and GNU Compiler
Collection (GCC) are not supported.
Network Protocol
Oracle Net foundation layer uses Oracle protocol support to communicate with the
following industry-standard network protocols:
■
TCP/IP
■
TCP/IP with SSL
■
Named Pipes
If you are currently running an operating system version that is not supported by
Oracle Database 10g, release 10.2, such as Windows NT Server 4.0, then you must first
upgrade your operating system before upgrading to Oracle Database 10g Real
Application Clusters.
If you are currently running a cluster with Oracle9i clusterware and wish to continue
to use it, then you must upgrade to Oracle9i, version 9.2.0.4 to ensure compatibility
between Cluster Manager Services in Oracle9i and Oracle Database 10g.
2-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Checking Network Requirements
See Also:
■
"Telnet and Terminal Services Support" on page 2-4
Checking the Hardware and Operating System Setup with CVU
You can use two different CVU commands to check your hardware and operating
system configuration. The first is a general check of the configuration and the second
specifically checks for the components required to install Oracle Clusterware.
The syntax of the more general CVU command is:
cluvfy stage –post hwos –n node_list [-verbose]
where node_list is the names of the nodes in your cluster, separated by commas.
However, because you have not yet installed Oracle Clusterware, you must execute
the CVU command from the installation media using a command like the one
following. In this example, the command checks the hardware and operating system of
a two-node cluster with nodes named node1 and node2, using a staged copy of the
installation media in a directory called stage on the C: drive:
C:\> stage\clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat stage –post hwos –n node1,node2
-verbose
You can omit the -verbose keyword if you do not wish to see detailed results listed
as CVU performs each individual test.
The following example is a command, without the -verbose keyword, to check for
the readiness of the cluster for installing Oracle Clusterware:
C:\> stage\clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat comp sys -n node1,node2 -p crs
Checking Network Requirements
Check that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP) addresses
required for an Oracle Real Application Clusters installation.
For the most up-to-date information about supported
network protocols and hardware for RAC installations, refer to the
Certify pages on the OracleMetaLink Web site:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Network Hardware Requirements
Each node in the cluster must meet the following requirements:
■
■
Each node must have at least two network adapters; one for the public network
interface and one for the private network interface (the interconnect).
The private and public network interface names must be different from each other
and cannot contain any multibyte language characters. The names are
case-sensitive.
■
The private network interface name must be the same on all nodes.
■
The public network interface name must be the same on all nodes.
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks
2-9
Checking Network Requirements
■
■
The public interface on each node must be listed first in the bind order (the order
in which network services access the node).
Oracle supports the TCP/IP protocol for the public and private networks and
requires that Windows Media Sensing is disabled by setting the value of the
DisableDHCPMediaSense parameter to 1.
IP Address Requirements
Before starting the installation, you must have the following IP addresses available for
each node:
■
■
An IP address with an associated network name registered in the domain name
service (DNS) for the public interface. If you do not have an available DNS, then
record the network name and IP address in the system hosts file,
%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts.
One virtual IP (VIP) address with an associated network name registered in DNS.
If you do not have an available DNS, then record the network name and VIP
address in the system hosts file,
%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts. Select an address for your
VIP that meets the following requirements:
–
The IP address and network name are currently unused
–
The VIP is on the same subnet as your public interface
Before installation, ensure that the default gateway can be accessed by a ping
command. To find the default gateway, use the route command, as described in
your operating system's help utility. After installation, configure clients to use
either the VIP address or the network name associated with the VIP. If a node fails,
then the node's virtual IP address fails over to another node.
■
A private IP address with a host name for each private interface.
Oracle recommends that you use private network IP addresses for these interfaces
(for example: 10.*.*.* or 192.168.*.*). Use the
%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts file on each node to associate
private network names with private IP addresses.
For example, with a two node cluster where each node has one public and one private
interface, you might have the configuration shown in the following table for your
network interfaces, where the hosts file is
%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts:
Node
Interface Name Type
IP Address
Registered In
rac1
rac1
Public
143.46.43.100
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac1
rac1-vip
Virtual
143.46.43.104
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac1
rac1-priv
Private
10.0.0.1
Hosts file
rac2
rac2
Public
143.46.43.101
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac2
rac2-vip
Virtual
143.46.43.105
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac2
rac2-priv
Private
10.0.0.2
Hosts file
To enable VIP failover, the configuration shown in the preceding table defines the
public and VIP addresses of both nodes on the same subnet, 143.46.43. When a node or
interconnect fails, then the associated VIP is relocated to the surviving instance,
2-10 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Checking Network Requirements
enabling fast notification of the failure to the clients connecting through that VIP. If the
application and client are configured with transparent application failover options,
then the client is reconnected to the surviving instance.
Checking Network Requirements
To verify that each node meets the requirements, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, install the network adapters for the public and private networks and
configure them with either public or private IP addresses.
2.
Register the host names and IP addresses for the public network interfaces in
DNS.
3.
For each node, register one virtual host name and IP address in DNS.
4.
For each private interface on every node, add a line similar to the following to the
%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts file on all nodes, specifying
the private IP address and associated private host name:
10.0.0.1
rac1-priv
If you need to change a network interface name, follow these steps:
1.
Click Start, then Settings, then Control Panel, and then Network and Dial-up
Connections
2.
Right click the icon of the network interface for which you need to change the
name
3.
Select Rename
4.
Enter and save the new name
To ensure that your public interface is first in the bind order, follow these steps:
1.
Right-click My Network Places and choose Properties.
2.
In the Advanced menu, click Advanced Settings...
3.
If the public interface name is not the first name listed under the Adapters and
Bindings tab, then select it and click the arrow to move it to the top of list
4.
Click OK to save the setting and then exit network setup dialog
To disable Windows Media Sensing for TCP/IP, you must set the value of the
DisableDHCPMediaSense parameter to 1 on each node. Because you need to modify
the Windows registry to disable Media Sensing, you should first backup the registry
and confirm that you can restore it, using the methods described in your Windows
documentation. Disable Media Sensing by completing the following steps on each
node of your cluster:
1.
Backup the Windows registry.
2.
Use Registry Editor (Regedt32.exe) to view the following key in the registry:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters
3.
Add the following registry value:
Value Name: DisableDHCPMediaSense
Data Type: REG_DWORD -Boolean
Value: 1
4.
Restart the computer.
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks 2-11
Checking the Network Setup
Checking the Network Setup
Enter a command using the following syntax to verify node connectivity between all
of the nodes for which your cluster is configured:
cluvfy comp nodecon -n node_list [-verbose]
In the preceding command, the variable node_list is a list of nodes, separated by
commas, in your cluster. This command detects all the network interfaces available on
the cluster nodes, and verifies the connectivity between all the nodes through the
network interfaces it finds. This command also lists all the interfaces available on the
nodes that are suitable for use as virtual IPs. If you have defined the IP addresses for
your private interconnects as suggested earlier in this section, the command will also
show the interfaces to the private interconnects that are successfully connected.
Include the option -verbose to receive progress updates as CVU performs its system
checks, and detailed reporting of the test results. You will need to provide the full path
name to the CVU executable on the installation, just as before.
In the following example, the media is in the staging area on the C: drive and the
two-node cluster consists of nodes named node1 and node2:
C:\> stage\clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat comp nodecon -n node1,node2 -verbose
Checking Individual Component Requirements
This section contains these topics:
■
Oracle Advanced Security Requirements
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Requirements
Oracle Advanced Security Requirements
Satisfy hardware and software requirements to use authentication support with Oracle
components. Some Oracle Advanced Security components can use a Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory such as Oracle Internet Directory.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Oracle Enterprise Manager Requirements
All Oracle Enterprise Manager products must be of the same release. Older versions of
Enterprise Manager are not supported with the current release.
All Oracle Enterprise Manager products, except Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control and Enterprise Manager Java
Console, are released on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control
installation media. Enterprise Manager Database Control is available
on the Oracle Database installation media and Enterprise Manager
Java Console is available on the Oracle Client installation media.
Note:
See Also: Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic
Configuration available on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control
installation media
2-12 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Verifying Cluster Privileges
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
If you are installing additional Oracle Database 10g
products in an existing Oracle home, stop all processes running in
the Oracle home. You must complete this task to enable Oracle
Universal Installer to relink certain executables and libraries.
Caution:
If you are installing Oracle Clusterware on a node that already has a single-instance
Oracle Database 10g installation, then stop the existing ASM instances. After Oracle
Clusterware is installed, start up the ASM instances again. After Oracle Clusterware is
installed, when you restart the ASM instances, they use the cluster CSS daemon
instead of the daemon for the single-instance Oracle database.
If a GSD from Oracle9i, Release 9.2 or earlier, is running, then stop it before installing
Oracle Database 10g Oracle Clusterware by stopping OracleGSDService. The
procedure to stop Oracle services in the Services window appears at the end of this
section.
If you choose to create a database during the installation, then most installation types
configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC
key value EXTPROC. However, if an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the
same port or key value, then Oracle Universal Installer can only configure the new
listener; it cannot start it. To ensure that the new listener process starts during the
installation, you must shut down any existing listeners and stop their related services
before starting Oracle Universal Installer.
To stop an Oracle service, perform one of the following procedures
■
■
Using the GUI:
1.
Click Start, then click Settings, Control Panel, Administrative Tools, and then
Services.
2.
Right click the service you want to stop
3.
Click Stop
Using command line, enter the command:
C:\>net stop service
where service is the name of the service you want to stop
If you receive a warning to stop all Oracle services after
starting OUI, then run the command
Note:
Oracle_home\bin\localconfig delete
where Oracle_home is the home that is running CSS.
Verifying Cluster Privileges
Before running Oracle Universal Installer, from the node where you intend to run the
Installer, verify that you have administrative privileges on the other nodes. To do this,
enter the following command for each node that is a part of the cluster:
net use \\node_name\C$
Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks 2-13
Verifying Cluster Privileges
where node_name is the node name. If your installation will access drives in addition
to the C: drive, repeat this command for every node in the cluster, substituting the
drive letter for each drive you plan to use.
For the installation to be successful, you must use the same user name and password
on each node in a cluster or use a domain user name. If you use a domain user name,
then log on under a domain with a user name and password to which you have
explicitly granted local administrative privileges on all nodes.
2-14 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
3
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks
This chapter describes the storage configuration tasks that you must complete before
you start Oracle Universal Installer. It includes information about the following tasks:
■
Preliminary Shared Disk Preparation
■
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and Recovery Files
■
Storage Configuration Steps for Real Application Clusters
■
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
■
Configuring Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions
■
Requirements for Files Managed by Oracle
Preliminary Shared Disk Preparation
Complete the following steps to prepare shared disks for storage:
■
Disabling Write Caching
■
Enabling Automounting for Windows 2003
Disabling Write Caching
You must disable write caching on all disks that will be used to share data between
nodes in your cluster. To disable write caching, perform these steps:
1.
Click Start, then click Settings, then Control Panel, then Administrative Tools,
then Computer Management, then Device Manager, and then Disk drives
2.
Expand the Disk drives and double-click the first drive listed
3.
Under the Disk Properties tab for the selected drive, uncheck the option that
enables the write cache
4.
Double-click each of the other drives listed in the Disk drives hive and disable the
write cache as described in the previous step
Caution: Any disks that you use to store files, including database
files, that will be shared between nodes, must have write caching
disabled.
Enabling Automounting for Windows 2003
If you are using Windows 2003, then you must enable disk automounting, depending
on the Oracle products you are installing and on other conditions.
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks
3-1
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and Recovery Files
You must enable automounting when using:
■
Raw partitions for Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
■
Cluster file system for Oracle Real Application Clusters
■
Oracle Clusterware
■
Raw partitions for a single-node database installation
■
Logical drives for Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
To enable automounting:
1.
Enter the following commands at a command prompt:
c:\> diskpart
DISKPART> automount enable
Automatic mounting of new volumes enabled.
2.
Type exit to end the diskpart session
3.
Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each node in the cluster.
4.
When you have prepared all the cluster nodes in your Windows 2003 system as
described in the previous steps, restart all of the nodes.
All nodes in the cluster must have automatic mounting
enabled in order to correctly install RAC and Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle recommends that you enable automatic mounting before
creating any logical partitions for use by the database, ASM, or the
Cluster File System.
Note:
You must restart each node after enabling disk automounting. After it
is enabled and the node is restarted, automatic mounting remains
active until it is disabled.
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and
Recovery Files
This section describes supported options for storing Oracle Clusterware files, Oracle
Database software, and database files. It includes the following sections:
■
Overview of Storage Options
■
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
Overview of Storage Options
Use the following overview to help you select your storage option:
Overview of Oracle Clusterware Storage Options
There are two ways to store Oracle Clusterware files:
■
■
Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS): The cluster file system Oracle provides for the
Windows and Linux communities. If you intend to store Oracle Clusterware files
on OCFS, then you must ensure that OCFS volume sizes are at least 500 MB each.
Raw storage: Raw logical volumes or raw partitions are created and managed by
Microsoft Windows disk management tools or by tools provided by third party
vendors.
3-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and Recovery Files
Note that you must provide disk space for one mirrored Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
file, and two mirrored voting disk files.
Overview of Oracle Database and Recovery File Options
There are three ways to store Oracle Database and recovery files on shared disks:
■
■
Automatic Storage Management (database files only): Automatic Storage
Management (ASM) is an integrated, high-performance database file system and
disk manager for Oracle files. Because ASM requires an Oracle Database instance,
it cannot contain Oracle software, but you can use ASM to manage database and
recovery files.
Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS): Note that if you intend to use OCFS for your
database files, then you should create partitions large enough for the database files
when you create partitions for Oracle Clusterware
If you want to have a shared Oracle home directory for all
nodes, then you must use OCFS.
Note:
■
Raw storage: Note that you cannot use raw storage to store Oracle database
recovery files.
The storage option that you choose for recovery files can be the same as or different to
the option you choose for the database files.
General Storage Considerations
For all installations, you must choose the storage option that you want to use for
Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated
backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option that you
want to use for recovery files (the flash recovery area). You do not have to use the
same storage option for each file type.
For voting disk file placement, ensure that each voting disk is configured so that it
does not share any hardware device or disk, or other single point of failure. An
absolute majority of voting disks configured (more than half) must be available and
responsive at all times for Oracle Clusterware to operate.
For single-instance Oracle Database installations using Oracle Clusterware for failover,
you must use OCFS, ASM, or shared raw disks if you do not want the failover
processing to include dismounting and remounting the disks containing your database
files.
The following table shows the storage options supported for storing Oracle
Clusterware files, Oracle Database files, and Oracle Database recovery files. Oracle
Clusterware files include the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and the Oracle
Clusterware voting disk. Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log
files, the server parameter file, and the password file.
For the most up-to-date information about supported storage
options for RAC installations, refer to the Certify pages on the
OracleMetaLink Web site:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks
3-3
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and Recovery Files
File Types Supported
Storage Option
Oracle
Clusterware Database
Recovery
Automatic Storage Management
No
Yes
Yes
Cluster file system (OCFS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Shared raw storage
Yes
Yes
No
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use
for each file type:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
If you satisfy all of the requirements listed for the chosen storage options, then you
can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file type.
Oracle recommends that you choose Automatic Storage Management (ASM) as
the storage option for database and recovery files.
For Standard Edition cluster installations, ASM is the only supported storage
option for database or recovery files.
You cannot use ASM to store Oracle Clusterware files, because these files must be
accessible before any Oracle instance starts, which includes the ASM instances
required to manage ASM access.
If you intend to use ASM with RAC, and you are configuring a new ASM instance,
then you must ensure that your system meets the following conditions:
–
All nodes on the cluster have the release 2 (10.2) version of Oracle Clusterware
installed
–
Any existing ASM instance on any node in the cluster is shut down
If you intend to upgrade an existing RAC database, or a RAC database with ASM
instances, then you must ensure that your system meets the following conditions:
–
The RAC database or RAC database with ASM instance is running on the
node from which the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and Database
Configuration Assistant (DBCA) is run
–
The RAC database or RAC database with ASM instance is running on the
same nodes that you intend to make members of the new cluster installation.
For example, if you have an existing RAC database running on a three node
cluster, then you must install the upgrade on all three nodes. You cannot
attempt to upgrade only 2 nodes of the cluster.
To obtain the benefits of voting disk redundancy, you must provide storage for
three copies of the voting disk no matter which storage option you choose.
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Datafiles on a File System
If you decide to place the Oracle datafiles on OCFS, then use the following guidelines
when deciding where to place them:
■
You can choose either a single cluster file system or more than one cluster file
system to store the datafiles:
–
If you want to use a single cluster file system, then choose a cluster file system
on a physical device that is dedicated to the database.
3-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and Recovery Files
For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume
on more than one physical device and implement the
stripe-and-mirror-everything methodology, also known as SAME.
–
If you want to use more than one cluster file system, then choose cluster file
systems on separate physical devices or partitions that are dedicated to the
database.
This method enables you to distribute physical I/O and create separate control
files on different devices for increased reliability. It also enables you to fully
implement Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. To
implement this method, you must choose either the Advanced database
creation option or choose the Custom installation type during installation.
■
If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the
cluster file system (or systems) that you choose must have at least 4 GB of free disk
space.
For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement
depending on the use you want to make of the database.
■
For optimum performance, the cluster file systems that you choose should be on
physical devices that are used only by the database.
You must not create an NTFS partition on a disk that you are
using for OCFS.
Note:
■
The default location suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file
directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. However, this default
location is not appropriate for RAC production databases.
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Recovery Files on a File System
Note: You must choose a location for recovery files only if you
intend to enable automated backups during the installation.
If you choose to place the Oracle recovery files on a cluster file system, then use the
following guidelines when deciding where to place them:
■
To prevent disk failure from making the database files as well as the recovery files
unavailable, place the recovery files on a cluster file system that is on a different
physical disk from the database files.
Alternatively use an ASM disk group with a normal or high
redundancy level for either or both file types.
Note:
■
The cluster file system that you choose should have at least 3 GB of free disk space.
The disk space requirement is the default disk quota configured for the flash
recovery area (specified by the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE initialization
parameter).
If you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database
configuration option, then you can specify a different disk quota value. After you
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks
3-5
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware, Database, and Recovery Files
create the database, you can also use Oracle Enterprise Manager to specify a
different value.
See Also: Oracle Backup and Recovery Basics for more information
about sizing the flash recovery area.
■
The default location suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the recovery area
directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. However, this default
location is not appropriate for RAC production databases.
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options
When you have determined your disk storage options, you must perform the
following tasks in the following order:
1: Check for available storage with CVU
Refer to "Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU" on page 3-6
2: Configure storage for Oracle Clusterware files
To use OCFS for Oracle Clusterware files, refer to Configuring Storage for Oracle
Clusterware Files on a Shared File System on page 3-7
■
■
To use raw devices (partitions) for Oracle Clusterware files, refer to "Configuring
Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on Raw Devices" on page 3-8
3: Configure storage for Oracle Database files and recovery files
■
To use a file system for database or recovery file storage, refer to Configuring
Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Shared File System on page 3-7, and
ensure that in addition to the volumes you create for Oracle Clusterware files, you
also create additional volumes with sizes sufficient to store database files.
■
■
To use Automatic Storage Management for database or recovery file storage,
refer to "Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management" on page 3-8.
To use raw devices (partitions) for database file storage, refer to "Configuring
Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions" on page 3-15.
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
To check for all shared file systems available across all nodes on the cluster, use the
following CVU command:
cluvfy comp ssa -n node_list
Remember to use the full path name and the runcluvfy.bat command on the
installation media and include the list of nodes in your cluster, separated by commas,
for the node_list. The following example is for a system with two nodes, node1 and
node2, and the installation media on drive F:
F:\> clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat comp ssa -n node1,node2
If you want to check the shared accessibility of a specific shared storage type to
specific nodes in your cluster, then use the following command syntax:
cluvfy comp ssa -n node_list -s storageID_list
In the preceding syntax, the variable node_list is the list of nodes you want to
check, separated by commas, and the variable storageID_list is the list of storage
3-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Storage Configuration Steps for Real Application Clusters
device IDs for the storage devices managed by the file system type that you want to
check.
Storage Configuration Steps for Real Application Clusters
Log in to Windows with Administrative privileges and perform the following steps
depending on whether you use the Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS) or raw devices:
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Shared File System
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on Raw Devices
If you plan to use Automatic Storage Management (ASM) for your database files, then
you only need to perform the actions related to the Oracle home and the Oracle
Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting disk storage.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Shared File System
If you plan to use OCFS for your Oracle home and datafiles, then the following
partitions must exist before you run OUI to install Oracle Clusterware:
■
3 GB, or larger, for the Oracle home
■
3 GB, or larger, for the datafiles
The OCR and voting disk, required by Oracle Clusterware, are also stored in the OCFS
datafile directory (datafile_disk\cdata\clustername) where datafile_disk
is the OCFS partition and clustername is the name of your cluster.
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) does not suggest a default location for the Oracle
Cluster Registry (OCR) or the Oracle Clusterware voting disk. If you choose to create
these files on a file system, then perform the steps described in this section to set up
the shared disk raw partitions for OCFS. Windows refers to raw partitions as logical
drives. If you need more information about creating partitions, then refer to the
Windows online help from within the disk administration tools.
1.
Run Windows Disk Management from one node to create an extended partition.
Use a basic disk: dynamic disks are not supported.
2.
Create at least two partitions: one for the Oracle home and one for the Oracle
database files.
You do not need to create a partition for the voting disk if you plan to use OCFS.
OCFS stores the voting device in a file.
The number of partitions used for OCFS affects performance. Therefore, you
should create the minimum number of partitions needed for the OCFS option you
choose.
To create the required partitions, perform the following steps:
1.
From one of the existing nodes of the cluster, run the Windows disk administration
tool as follows:
■
■
Click Start, then select Settings, Control Panel, Administrative Tools, and
then Computer Management
Expand the Storage folder to Disk Management. Use a basic disk with a
Master Boot Record (MBR) partition style as an extended partition for creating
partitions.
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks
3-7
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
2.
Right click inside an unallocated part of an extended partition and choose Create
Logical Drive. A wizard presents pages for configuring the logical drive. Select the
select logical drive radio button and click Next.
3.
Enter the size that you want for the partition and click Next.
4.
Choose the option "Do not assign a drive letter or path", click Next, and then
choose the option "Do not format this partition". Click Finish on the last page of
the wizard.
5.
Repeat steps 2 through 4 for the second and any additional partitions. An optimal
configuration is one partition for the Oracle home and one partition for Oracle
database files.
6.
If you are preparing drives on a Windows 2003 system, then you should restart all
nodes in the cluster after you have created the logical drives.
7.
Check all nodes in the cluster to ensure that the partitions are visible on all the
nodes and to ensure that none of the Oracle partitions have drive letters assigned.
If any partitions have drive letters assigned, then remove them by performing
these steps:
■
Right-click the partition in the Windows disk administration tool
■
Select "Change Drive Letters and Paths..." from the menu
■
Click Remove in the "Change Drive Letter and Paths" window
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on Raw Devices
To use raw devices, create two partitions: One 256MB partition for the voting disk and
one 256 MB partition for the OCR. If you are not using OCFS for your datafiles, then
you must also create raw partitions for your database files as described in
"Configuring Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions" on page 3-15.
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
This section describes how to configure disks for use with ASM. Before you configure
the disks, you must determine the number of disks and the amount of free disk space
that you require.
The following sections describe how to identify the requirements and configure the
disks:
■
General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management
■
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management
■
Step 2 (Optional): Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
■
Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management
■
Step 4: Manually Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management
You will follow these general steps to configure Automatic Storage Management:
1.
Identify your site’s storage requirements.
2.
Optionally, use an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group.
3-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
3.
If you are creating a new Automatic Storage Management disk group, then create
partitions for DAS or SAN disks.
4.
Use one of the following methods to complete the Automatic Storage Management
configuration:
■
■
If you plan to install Oracle Database using interactive mode, then Oracle
Universal Installer prompts you for the Automatic Storage Management disk
configuration information during the installation.
If you plan to install Oracle Database using noninteractive mode, then you
must configure the disks manually before performing the installation.
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Automatic Storage Management, you
must determine how many devices and the amount of free disk space that you require.
To complete this task, follow these steps:
1.
Determine whether you want to use Automatic Storage Management for Oracle
datafiles, recovery files, or both.
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for
datafiles and recovery files. One can use the file system, while the
other uses Automatic Storage Management. If you plan to use
Automatic Storage Management for both datafiles and recovery files,
then you should create separate ASM disk groups for the datafiles and
the recovery files.
Note:
If you plan to enable automated backups during the installation, then you can
choose Automatic Storage Management as the storage mechanism for recovery
files by specifying an ASM disk group for the flash recovery area. Depending how
you choose to create a database during the installation, you have the following
options:
■
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration
Assistant in interactive mode (for example, by choosing the Advanced
database configuration option), then you can decide whether you want to use
the same ASM disk group for datafiles and recovery files. You can also choose
to use different disk groups for each file type. Ideally, you should create
separate ASM disk groups for datafiles and recovery files.
The same choice is available to you if you use Database Configuration
Assistant after the installation to create a database.
■
2.
If you select an installation type that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
non-interactive mode, then you must use the same Automatic Storage
Management disk group for datafiles and recovery files.
Choose the Automatic Storage Management redundancy level that you want to
use for the Automatic Storage Management disk group.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Automatic Storage Management
disk group determines how ASM mirrors files in the disk group, and determines
the number of disks and amount of disk space that you require. The redundancy
levels are as follows:
■
External redundancy
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks
3-9
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device.
The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of
the disk space in all of its devices.
Because Automatic Storage Management does not mirror data in an external
redundancy disk group, Oracle recommends that you use only RAID or
similar devices that provide their own data protection mechanisms as disk
devices in this type of disk group.
■
Normal redundancy
In a normal redundancy disk group, Automatic Storage Management uses
two-way mirroring by default (except for the control file, which is mirrored
three ways), to increase performance and reliability. A normal redundancy
disk group requires a minimum of two disk devices, or two failure groups.
The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of
the disk space in all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy
disk groups.
■
High redundancy
In a high redundancy disk group, Automatic Storage Management uses
three-way mirroring to increase performance and provide the highest level of
reliability. A high redundancy disk group requires a minimum of three disk
devices (or three failure groups). The effective disk space in a high redundancy
disk group is one-third the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
While high redundancy disk groups do provide a high level of data protection,
you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before
deciding to use this redundancy level.
3.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the datafiles and
recovery files.
Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the
minimum disk space requirements for the installation:
Redundancy
Level
Minimum Number
of Disks
Datafiles
Recovery
FIles
Both File
Types
External
1
1.15 GB
2.3 GB
3.45 GB
Normal
2
2.3 GB
4.6 GB
6.9 GB
High
3
3.45 GB
6.9 GB
10.35 GB
If an ASM instance already exists on the system, then you can use an existing disk
group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an
existing disk group during the installation.
The following section describes how to identify existing disk groups and
determine the free disk space that they contain.
4.
Optionally identify failure groups for the ASM disk group devices.
3-10 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
You need to complete this step only if you intend to use an
installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
interactive mode–for example, if you intend to choose the Custom
installation type, or the Advanced database configuration option.
Other installation types do not enable you to specify failure groups.
Note:
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices
in a custom failure group. Failure groups define ASM disks that share a common
potential failure mechanism. For more information about ASM failure groups,
refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
If you define custom failure groups, you must specify a
minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups
and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
Note:
5.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following
guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
■
■
All of the devices in an Automatic Storage Management disk group should be
the same size and have the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify two or more partitions on a single physical disk as ASM disks
in the same disk group. Automatic Storage Management expects each device
for a disk group to be on a separate physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Automatic
Storage Management disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use.
Logical volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture, preventing
Automatic Storage Management from optimizing I/O across the physical
devices.
Tip: As you progress through the following steps, make a list of the
raw device names you intend to use and have it available during your
database or ASM installation.
Step 2 (Optional): Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
If you want to use Automatic Storage Management as the storage option for either
database or recovery files, and an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group
already exists, then you have the following choices, depending on the installation
method that you select:
■
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
interactive mode (for example, by choosing the Advanced database configuration
option for example), then you can decide whether you want to create a new disk
group, or use an existing disk group.
The same choice is available to you if you use Database Configuration Assistant
after the installation to create a database.
■
If you select an installation type that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
non-interactive mode, then you must choose an existing disk group for the new
database; you cannot create a new disk group. However, you can add disk devices
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks 3-11
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
to an existing disk group if the existing disk group has insufficient free space for
your requirements.
The Automatic Storage Management instance that manages
the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle home
directory.
Note:
To determine whether an existing ASM disk group exists, or to determine whether
there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager,
either Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively, you can use the following
procedure:
1.
In the Services Control Panel, make sure that the OracleASMService+ASMn
service, where n is the node number, has started.
2.
Open a Windows command prompt and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID
environment variable to specify the appropriate value for the ASM instance that
you want to use.
For example, if the ASM SID is named +ASM1, then enter a setting similar to the
following:
C:\> set ORACLE_SID = +ASM1
3.
Connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance as the SYS user with AS
SYSDBA privilege and start the instance if necessary with a command similar to
the following:
C:\> sqlplus "SYS/SYS_password as SYSDBA"
SQL> STARTUP
4.
Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy
level, and the amount of free disk space in each disk group:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
5.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and
note the free space that it contains.
6.
If necessary, install, or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements listed in the previous section.
If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then
Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size and
performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk group.
Note:
Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management
To use a DAS or SAN disk in Automatic Storage Management, the disk must have a
partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk
containing the entire disk.
You can use any physical disk for Automatic Storage
Management, as long as it is partitioned. However, you cannot use
NAS or Microsoft dynamic disks.
Note:
3-12 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
Use Microsoft Computer Management or the command line tool diskpart to create
the partitions. Ensure that you create the partitions without drive letters. After you
have created the partitions, the disks can be configured.
See Also: "Assigning Logical Names" on page 3-16 for more
information about using diskpart to create a partition
Step 4: Manually Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
To use Automatic Storage Management with direct attached storage (DAS) or storage
area network (SAN) storage, the disks must be stamped with a header. If you install
Oracle Database in interactive mode, then Oracle Universal Installer configures the
disks’ headers during the installation process.
However, if you plan to install Oracle Database in noninteractive mode, then you need
to configure the disks manually before installation either by using asmtoolg (GUI
version) or using asmtool (command line version). You can also use these tools to
reconfigure the disks after installation. The asmtoolg and asmtool utilities only
work on partitioned disks; you cannot use Automatic Storage Management on
unpartitioned disks.
The following section describes the asmtoolg and asmtool functions and
commands.
Overview of asmtoolg and asmtool
The asmtoolg and asmtool tools associate meaningful, persistent names with disks
to facilitate using those disks with Automatic Storage Management. Automatic
Storage Management uses disk strings to operate more easily on groups of disks at
once. The names that asmtoolg or asmtool create make this easier than using
Windows drive letters.
All disk names created by asmtoolg or asmtool begin with the prefix ORCLDISK
followed by a user-defined prefix (the default is DATA), and by a disk number for
identification purposes. You can use them as raw devices in the Automatic Storage
Management instance by specifying a name \\.\ORCLDISKprefixn, where prefix
either can be DATA, or can be a value you supply, and where n represents the disk
number.
To configure your disks with asmtoolg, refer to the section "Using asmtoolg (Graphical
User Interface)" on page 3-13. To configure the disks with asmtool, refer to the section
"Using asmtool (Command Line)" on page 3-14.
Using asmtoolg (Graphical User Interface)
asmtoolg is a graphical interface for creating device names. Use asmtoolg to add,
change, delete, and examine the devices available for use in Automatic Storage
Management.
To add or change disk stamps:
1.
In the installation media labeled Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), navigate to
db\asmtool, and double-click asmtoolg.
If Oracle Database is already installed, then go to ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\bin, and double-click asmtoolg.
2.
Select the Add or change label option, and then click Next.
asmtoolg shows the devices available on the system. Unrecognized disks are
labeled as a "Candidate device." Raw device files are labeled as "Oracle raw device
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks 3-13
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
file." Stamped Automatic Storage Management disks are labeled as "Stamped
ASM disk," and unstamped Automatic Storage Management disks are labeled as
"Unstamped ASM disks." The tool also shows disks that are recognized by
Windows as a file system (such as NTFS). These disks are not available for use as
ASM disks, and cannot be selected. In addition, Microsoft Dynamic disks are not
available for use as ASM disks.
If necessary, follow the steps under "Creating Partitions for Logical Volumes" on
page 3-15 to create a disk partition for the ASM instance.
3.
On the Stamp Disks screen, select the disks to stamp.
For ease of use, Automatic Storage Management can generate unique stamps for
all of the devices selected for a given prefix. The stamps are generated by
concatenating a number with the prefix specified. For example, if the prefix is
DATA, then the first Automatic Storage Management link name is
ORCLDISKDATA0.
You can also specify the stamps of individual devices.
4.
Optionally, select a disk to edit the individual stamp (Automatic Storage
Management link name).
5.
Click Next.
6.
Click Finish.
To delete disk stamps:
1.
Select the Delete labels option, then click Next.
The delete option is only available if disks exist with stamps. The delete screen
shows all stamped Automatic Storage Management disks.
2.
On the Delete Stamps screen, select the disks to unstamp.
3.
Click Next.
4.
Click Finish.
Using asmtool (Command Line)
asmtool is a command-line interface for stamping disks. It has the following options:
Option
Description
Example
-add
Adds or changes stamps. You must specify
the hard disk, partition, and new stamp
name. If the disk is a raw device or has an
existing Automatic Storage Management
stamp, then you must specify the -force
option.
asmtool -add [-force]
\Device\Harddisk1\Partition1 ORCLDISKASM0
\Device\Harddisk2\Partition1 ORCLDISKASM2...
If necessary, follow the steps under
"Creating Partitions for Logical Volumes"
on page 3-15 to create a disk partition for
the ASM instance.
-addprefix
Adds or changes stamps using a common
prefix to generate stamps automatically.
The stamps are generated by concatenating
a number with the prefix specified. If the
disk is a raw device or has an existing
Automatic Storage Management stamp,
then you must specify the -force option.
asmtool -addprefix ORCLDISKASM [-force]
\Device\Harddisk1\Partition1
\Device\Harddisk2\Partition1...
3-14 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Configuring Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions
Option
Description
Example
-list
List available disks. The stamp, windows
asmtool -list [-force]
device name, and disk size in megabytes
are shown. Some disks may be file systems,
and cannot be stamped. If the disk is a raw
device or has an existing ASM stamp, then
you must specify the -force option.
-delete
Removes existing stamps from disks.
asmtool -delete ORCLDISKASM0 ORCLDISKASM1...
Note: For -add, -addprefix, and -delete, asmtool will notify
any Automatic Storage Management instances on the local machine
and other nodes in the cluster if available, to rescan the available
disks.
Configuring Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions
This section contains the following topics:
■
Creating Partitions for Logical Volumes
■
Assigning Logical Names
■
Creating the DBCA Raw Device Mapping File
Creating Partitions for Logical Volumes
Create the logical volumes listed in the following table. You must create these volumes
to install an Oracle database.
Partition
Size
Number (MB)
Purpose and Sample Logical Volume Name
1
500
SYSTEM tablespace: dbname_system_raw_500m
1
800
SYSAUX tablespace: dbname_sysaux_raw_800m
1 for
each
instance
500
UNDOTBS1 tablespace: dbname_undotbs1_raw_500m
1
180
EXAMPLE tablespace: dbname_example_raw_180m
1
120
USERS tablespace: dbname_users_raw_120m
2 for
each
instance
120
Two online redo log files (where m is the thread number and n is the log number, 1 or 2):
dbname_redom_n_raw_120m
2
110
First and second control files:
dbname_control[1|2]_raw_110m
1
250
TEMP tablespace: dbname_temp_raw_250m
1
5
Server parameter file (SPFILE): dbname_spfile_raw_5m
1
5
Password file: dbname_pwdfile_raw_5m
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks 3-15
Configuring Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions
To create and configure raw volumes or partitions, use the disk administration tools
provided by the operating system or third party vendors. The following
administration tools are provided by the operating system:
■
Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 provide Disk Management snap-in to
manage disks.
To access this tool, type diskmgmt.msc at the command prompt. Alternatively,
from the Start menu, select Programs, then Administrative Tools, then Computer
Management. Then select the Disk Management node in the Storage tree.
■
Windows Server 2003 provides a command line tool to manage disks.
To access this tool, type diskpart.exe at the command prompt.
Note: If you need to download the diskmgmt.msc tool, consult
Microsoft documentation on the Microsoft Web site
http://www.microsoft.com/
See Also: The online help or documentation for the administration
tool you are using
You can use the diskpart tool command create partition to create primary or
extended partitions, or create logical drives.
The following example uses the diskpart tool to create a 32 MB extended partition
on disk 100. In this syntax, diskpart.exe is the command line tool for managing
disks.
c:\> diskpart.exe
DISKPART> select disk 100
DISKPART> create partition extended size=32
Note:
■
■
Be aware of the following restrictions for partitions:
You cannot use partitions defined on disks with primary
partitions for storage defined while running the OUI to install
Oracle Clusterware as described in Chapter 4, "Installing Oracle
Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems".
With 32-bit Windows, you cannot create more than four primary
disk partitions for each disk. With 64-bit and x64 Windows, you
can create up to 128 primary partitions. However, Oracle
recommends that you limit the number of partitions you create to
prevent disk contention.
Because of these restrictions, you may prefer to use extended
partitions rather than primary partitions.
Assigning Logical Names
After creating volumes, assign logical names for the Oracle Database. You can assign
names to partitions by using importSYMLinks from the command line, or by using
Oracle Object Link Manager. To use Oracle Object Link Manager to create persistent
symbolic links to the corresponding raw partitions, run the command CRS_
home\bin\GUIOracleObjManager.exe
3-16 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Configuring Raw Logical Volumes or Raw Partitions
Creating the DBCA Raw Device Mapping File
You must complete this procedure only if you are using raw
devices for database files. You do not specify the raw devices for the
Oracle Clusterware files in the DBCA raw device mapping file.
Note:
To enable Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to identify the appropriate raw
partition symbolic links for each database file, you must create a raw device mapping
file, as follows:
1.
Set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory
that you identified or created previously, as in this example:
C:\>set ORACLE_BASE = E:\oracle
2.
Create a database subdirectory under the Oracle base directory as in this example:
C:\>mkdir E:\oracle\dbname
where dbname is the name of the database that you chose previously.
3.
Change directory to the %ORACLE_BASE%\dbname directory.
4.
Using any text editor, create a file called conf.txt. The file should have the
following characteristics:
■
Each line in the file must have the following format:
database_object_identifier = symbolic link name
■
■
For your RAC database, the file must specify one automatic undo tablespace
datafile (undotbsn) and two redo log files (redon_1, redon_2) for each
instance where n is the instance number.
Specify at least two control files (control1, control2).
In Windows, by default, \ represents the escape key. To enter a
backslash as part of a script, you must enter it in as a string literal.
This means that when configuring the mapping file, for Windows to
read the mapping file with the path \\.\, you must enter the path as
\\\\.\\. Windows reads this as "escape backslash escape backslash.
escape backslash."
Note:
The following syntax example is for a mapping file for a two-instance RAC cluster:
system=\\\\.\\dbname_SYSTEM
sysaux=\\\\.\\dbname_SYSAUX
spfile=\\\\.\\dbname_SPFILE
users=\\\\.\\dbname_USERS
temp=\\\\.\\dbname_TEMP
undotbs1=\\\\.\\dbname_UNDOTBS1
undotbs2=\\\\.\\dbname_UNDOTBS2
control1=\\\\.\\dbname_CONTROL1
control2=\\\\.\\dbname_CONTROL2
redo1_1=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO1_1
redo1_2=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO1_2
redo2_1=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO2_1
redo2_2=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO2_2
example=\\\\.\\dbname_EXAMPLE
Storage Pre-Installation Tasks 3-17
Requirements for Files Managed by Oracle
pwdfile=\\\\.\\dbname_pwdfile
5.
Save the file and note the file name that you specified.
6.
You may optionally set an environment variable, DBCA_RAW_CONFIG, to
specify the full path to this file. For the Oracle base defined in Step 1, you would
use the following command:
C:\>set DBCA_RAW_CONFIG=E:\oracle\dbname\conf.txt
Requirements for Files Managed by Oracle
If you use OCFS or ASM for your database files, then your database will be created by
default with files managed by Oracle Database. You may also elect to use files
managed by Oracle if you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced
database creation option. If you use this feature, you need only specify the database
object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.
Configuration procedures are required in order to enable Oracle Managed Files.
"Using Oracle-Managed Files" in Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
See Also:
3-18 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Part III
Installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Real Application Clusters
Part III describes the two-phase installation process of how to install Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters (RAC). It also
explains how to create RAC databases, and it describes the post-installation tasks. The
chapters in Part III are:
■
Chapter 4, "Installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems"
■
Chapter 5, "Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters"
■
■
Chapter 6, "Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration
Assistant"
Chapter 7, "Oracle Real Application Clusters Post-Installation Procedures"
4
Installing Oracle Clusterware on
Windows-Based Systems
This chapter describes the procedures for installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows,
phase one of the Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters installation on
Windows-based systems. The topics in this chapter are:
■
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU
■
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
■
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
■
Formatting Drives to Use Oracle Cluster File System after Installation
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU
Using the following command syntax, start Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to check
system requirements for installing Oracle Clusterware:
cluvfy stage -pre crsinst -n node_list
In the preceding syntax, replace the cluvfy command with the path and name for the
command on the installation media and the variable node_list with the names of
the nodes in your cluster, separated by commas.
For example, with the installation files in a stage directory on the C: drive, enter the
following command for a cluster with nodes node1, node2, and node3:
C:\> stage\clusterware\cluvfy\runcluvfy.bat stage -pre crsinst -n
node1,node2,node3
The Cluster Verification Utility Oracle Clusterware stage check verifies the following:
■
User Equivalence: User equivalence exists on all the specified nodes
■
Node Reachability: All the specified nodes are reachable from the local node
■
■
■
■
Node Connectivity: Connectivity exists between all the specified nodes through
the public and private network interconnections
Administrative Privileges: The oracle user has proper administrative privileges
to install Oracle Clusterware on the specified nodes
Shared Storage Accessibility: If specified, the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) device
and voting disk are shared across all the specified nodes
System Requirements: All system requirements are met for installing Oracle
Clusterware software, including kernel version, kernel parameters, software
Installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems
4-1
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
packages, memory, swap directory space, temp directory space, and required users
and groups
■
Node Applications: VIP, ONS, and GSD node applications are created for all the
nodes
Troubleshooting Clusterware Setup for Windows
If the CVU report indicates that your system fails to meet the requirements for Oracle
Clusterware installation, then use the topics in this section to correct the problem or
problems indicated in the report, and run the CVU command again.
User Equivalence Check Failed
Cause: Failure to establish user equivalency across all nodes. This can be due to
not providing the administrative user on each node with the same password.
Action: When you install Oracle Clusterware, each member node of the cluster
must have user equivalency for the Administrative privileges account that installs
the database. This means that the administrative privileges user account and
password must be the same on all nodes.CVU provides a list of nodes on which
user equivalence failed. For each node listed as a failure node, review the Oracle
user configuration to ensure that the user configuration is properly completed.
Node Reachability Check
Cause: One or more nodes in the cluster cannot be reached using TCP/IP
protocol, through either the public or private interconnects.
Action: Use the command ping address to check each node address. When you
find an address that cannot be reached, check your list of public and private
addresses to make sure that you have them correctly configured. Ensure that the
public and private network interfaces have the same interface names on each node
of your cluster.
Administrative Privileges Check Failed
Cause: The administrative privileges required for installation are missing or
incorrect.
Action: From the node where you intend to run OUI, verify that you have
administrative privileges on the other nodes. To do this, enter the following
command for each node that is a part of the cluster:
net use \\node_name\C$
where node_name is the node name.
If you find a node where you are not able to log on, then you must correct the user
information on that node. Oracle recommends that you use the same user name
and password on each node in a cluster, or use a domain user name. If you use a
domain user name, then log on under a domain with a username and password
that has local administrative privileges on each node.
When you have corrected the path configuration information on the node, run the
CVU check again.
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
Before you install Oracle Clusterware, use the following checklist to ensure that you
have all the information you will need during installation, and you have completed all
tasks that must be done before starting to install Oracle Clusterware. Mark the check
4-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
box for each task as you complete it, and write down the information needed, so that
you can provide it during installation.
❏
Verify Cluster Privileges
Before running Oracle Universal Installer, from the node where you intend to run
the Installer, verify that you have administrative privileges on the other nodes. To
do this, enter the following command for each node that is a part of the cluster:
net use \\node_name\C$
where node_name is the node name.
❏
Shut Down Running Oracle Processes
If you are installing Oracle Clusterware on a node that already has a
single-instance Oracle Database 10g installation, then stop the existing ASM
instances. After Oracle Clusterware is installed, start up the ASM instances again.
After Oracle Clusterware is installed, when you restart the ASM instances, they
use the cluster CSS daemon instead of the daemon for the single-instance Oracle
database.
If a GSD from Oracle9i, Release 9.2 or earlier is running, then stop it before
installing Oracle Database 10g Oracle Clusterware by stopping the
OracleGSDService in the Services window.
If you receive a warning to stop all Oracle services after
starting OUI, then run the command
Note:
Oracle_home\bin\localconfig delete
where Oracle_home is the home that is running CSS.
❏
Decide if you want to install other languages
During installation, you are asked if you want to install additional languages other
than the default.
If the language set for the operating system is not supported
by Oracle Universal Installer, then Oracle Universal Installer, by
default, runs in the English language.
Note:
❏
Determine your cluster name, public node names, private node names, and
virtual node names for each node in the cluster
If you install the clusterware during installation, then you are asked to provide a
public node name and a private node name for each node. When you enter the
public node name, use the primary host name of each node. In other words, use
the name displayed by the hostname command but without any portion of the
domain name that may be returned by the command.
In addition, ensure that the following are true:
–
Determine a cluster name with the following characteristics:
*
It must be globally unique throughout your host domain
*
It must be at least one character long and less than 15 characters long
*
It must consist of the same character set used for host names: underscores
(_), hyphens (-), and single-byte alphanumeric characters (a to z, A to Z,
Installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems
4-3
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
and 0 to 9). If you use third-party vendor clusterware, then Oracle
recommends that you use the vendor cluster name
–
Determine a private node name or private IP address for each node. The
private IP address is an address that is only accessible by the other nodes in
this cluster. Oracle uses private IP addresses for inter-node, or
instance-to-instance Cache Fusion traffic. Oracle recommends that you
provide a name in the format public_hostname-priv. Example: myclstr2-priv.
–
Determine a virtual host name for each node. A virtual host name is a public
node name that is used to reroute client requests sent to the node if the node is
down. Oracle uses virtual IP addresses (VIPs) for client to database
connections, so the VIP address must be publicly accessible. Oracle
recommends that you provide a name in the format public_hostname-vip.
Example: myclstr2-vip
The following is a list of additional information about node IP
addresses:
Note:
The IP addresses that you use for all of the nodes in the current installation
process must be from the same subnet.
If you create private and virtual host names in the format nodename-priv and
nodename-vip, then OUI looks up these addresses and fills them in by default
during the installation. If the OUI does not find these addresses, then you
must fill in addresses during installation.
Host names, private names, and virtual host names are not domain-qualified.
If you provide a domain in the address field during installation, then the OUI
removes the domain from the address.
Private IP addresses should not be accessible as public interfaces. Using public
interfaces for Cache Fusion can cause performance problems.
❏
Determine the complete path for the raw devices or shared file systems, and set
up the voting disk and Oracle Cluster Registry partitions
During installation, at the Cluster Configuration Storage page, you are asked to
provide paths for two files that must be shared across all nodes of the cluster,
either on a shared raw device, or a shared file system file:
–
The Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) voting disk is a partition that
Oracle Clusterware uses to verify cluster node membership and status.
–
Provide at least 256 MB disk space for the voting disk.
–
The Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) contains cluster and database configuration
information for the RAC database and for Oracle Clusterware, including the
node list, and other information about cluster configuration and profiles.
Provide at least 256 MB disk space for the OCR.
In addition, if you intend to use Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS) then you are
prompted to indicate which of the available disks you want to format with OCFS,
what format type you want to use, and to what drive letter the formatted OCFS
disk is mounted.
Ensure that you create at least the minimum required drives for installation.
See Also: The pre-installation chapters in Part II for information
about the minimum raw device sizes
4-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
This section provides you with information about how to use Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware. It contains the following sections:
■
Starting OUI in Console Mode
■
Running OUI to Install Oracle Clusterware
■
Installing Oracle Clusterware Using a Cluster Configuration File
Starting OUI in Console Mode
If you are performing an installation using VNC or terminal services, then you should
perform that installation in console mode. If you do not do this, then the Oracle
Clusterware software installs, but cluster configuration assistants fail.
Use the following command to start terminal services in console mode:
mstsc -v:servername /F –console
Running OUI to Install Oracle Clusterware
Perform the following procedures to complete phase one, install Oracle Clusterware
with Oracle Universal Installer, of the installation of Oracle Database 10g with Real
Application Clusters (RAC):
1.
Log in to Windows with Administrative privileges and run the setup.exe
command on the Oracle Clusterware media. This will open the Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) Welcome page.
2.
After you click Next on the Welcome page, the Specify File Locations page will
allow you to accept the displayed path name for the Oracle Clusterware products
or select a different one. You may also accept default directory and path name for
the location of your Oracle Clusterware home or browse for an alternate directory
and destination. You must select a destination that exists on each cluster node that
is part of this installation. Click Next to confirm your choices.
3.
The installer verifies that your environment meets all of the minimum
requirements for installing and configuring the products that you have chosen to
install. The results are displayed on the Product-Specific Prerequisite Checks page.
Verify and confirm the items that are flagged with warnings and items that require
manual checks. After you confirm your configuration, OUI proceeds to the Cluster
Configuration page.
If the check identifies an existing, local CSS, you must
shutdown the Oracle database and ASM instance from the Oracle
home where CSS is running. To accomplish this, run the following
command, using the existing Oracle home, in a separate window
before you continue with the installation:
Note:
Oracle home\bin\localconfig delete
4.
The Cluster Configuration page contains predefined node information if OUI
detects that your system has Oracle9i Release 2 clusterware. Otherwise, OUI
displays the Cluster Configuration page without predefined node information.
Installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems
4-5
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
Provide your own cluster name if you do not wish to use the name provided by
OUI. Note that the selected cluster name must be globally unique throughout the
enterprise and its allowable character set is the same as that for hostnames, that is,
underscores (_), hyphens (-), and single-byte alphanumeric characters (a to z, A to
Z, and 0 to 9).
If your cluster has Oracle9i Release 2 clusterware installed,
then you must enter the same cluster name that you used for the
Oracle9i Release 2 installation or else the installation will fail.
Note:
Enter a public, a virtual, and a private host name for each node. Do not include a
domain qualifier with the host names. When you enter the public host name, use
the primary host name of each node, that is, the name displayed by the hostname
command. The virtual node name is the name to be associated with the VIP for the
node. The private node refers to an address that is only accessible by the other
nodes in this cluster, and which Oracle uses for Cache Fusion processing. You
should enter the private host name for each node.
You may provide the cluster configuration information in a
text file and provide that file name instead of completing the
individual fields on the Cluster Configuration page. See the following
section, "Installing Oracle Clusterware Using a Cluster Configuration
File" on page 4-7, for details about cluster configuration files.
Note:
Click Next after you have entered the cluster configuration information. This saves
your entries and opens the Specify Network Interface Usage page.
5.
In the Specify Network Interface Usage page OUI displays a list of cluster-wide
interfaces. Use the drop-down menus on this page to classify each interface as
Public, Private, or Do Not Use. The default setting for each interface is Do
Not Use. You must classify at least one interface as Public and one as Private.
Click Next when you have made your selections to open the Select Disk
Formatting Options page.
6.
On the Cluster Configuration Storage page, identify the disks that you want to use
for the Oracle Clusterware files and, optionally, Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS)
storage. Highlight each of these disks one at a time and click Edit to open the
Specify Disk Configuration page where you define the details for the selected disk.
Notes:
The OUI page described in this step displays logical drives from
which you must make your selections.
If you are installing on a cluster with an existing cluster file system
from an earlier release of Oracle, then the OCR and voting disk will be
stored in that file system. In this case, you do not require new
partitions for the OCR and voting disk, even if you do not format a
logical drive for data file storage.
7.
On the Specify Disk Configuration page, designate whether you want to place a
copy of the OCR, a copy of the voting disk, or a copy of both files on the partition.
If you plan to use OCFS, then indicate whether you plan to store software,
4-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
database files, or both software and database files on selected disk. For OCFS,
disks, select an available drive letter to be used to mount the partition once
formatted.
8.
After you click Next, OUI checks whether the remote inventories are set. If they
are not set, then OUI sets up the remote inventories by setting registry keys. OUI
also verifies the permissions to enable writing to the inventory directories on the
remote nodes. After completing these actions, OUI displays a Summary page that
shows the cluster node information along with the space requirements and
availability. Verify the installation that OUI is about to perform and click Finish.
9.
When you click Finish, OUI installs OCFS and Oracle Clusterware software on the
local node and validates the installation again. OUI will also create any required
OCFS file systems. After validating the installation, OUI completes the Oracle
Clusterware software installation and configuration on the remote nodes.
10. For installations of Oracle Clusterware on a system that also contains Oracle9i Real
Application Clusters, note these additional considerations and complete the steps
as necessary:
■
■
Restart all of the newly installed Oracle Database 10g cluster member nodes.
You can restart one node at a time so that availability of Oracle9i databases is
not disrupted.
If there will be a significant delay before you perform phase two of the RAC
installation to install Oracle Database 10g with RAC software, then execute the
command CRS_home\bin\gsdctl start to start the GSD manually to
service the 9.2 SRVCTL tool and assistants. Then, before configuring Oracle
Database 10g with RAC software, run the command CRS_home\bin\gsdctl
stop to stop the GSD.
At this point, you have completed phase one, Oracle Clusterware installation, and are
ready to install Oracle Database 10g with RAC as described in Chapter 5, "Installing
Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters". If you intend to use Oracle
Clusterware without a RAC database, then refer to the single-instance Oracle Database
installation guide.
Installing Oracle Clusterware Using a Cluster Configuration File
During installation of Oracle Clusterware, on the Specify Cluster Configuration page,
you are given the option either of providing cluster configuration information
manually, or of using a cluster configuration file. A cluster configuration file is a text
file that you can create before starting OUI, which provides OUI with information
about the cluster name and node names that it needs to configure the cluster.
Oracle suggests that you consider using a cluster configuration file if you intend to
perform repeated installations on a test cluster, or if you intend to perform an
installation on many nodes.
To create a cluster configuration file:
1.
On the installation media, navigate to the directory Disk1\response.
2.
Using a text editor, open the response file crs.rsp, and find the section
CLUSTER_CONFIGURATION_FILE.
3.
Follow the directions in that section for creating a cluster configuration file.
Installing Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems
4-7
Formatting Drives to Use Oracle Cluster File System after Installation
Formatting Drives to Use Oracle Cluster File System after Installation
If you install Oracle Database 10g with RAC, and later you want to install OCFS, then
run the ocfsformat.exe command from the crs_home\cfs directory using the
following syntax:
crs_home\cfs\ocfsformat.exe /l drive_letter /c clustersize [/v volume_label] [/f]
where:
■
drive_letter is the drive on which you want to format OCFS
■
clustersize is the size of the partition in kilobytes
■
volume_label is an optional volume label
4-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
5
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real
Application Clusters
This chapter describes phase two of the installation procedures for installing Oracle
Database 10g with Real Application Clusters (RAC). This chapter also describes some
of the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) features. This chapter contains the following
topics:
■
Verifying System Readiness for Installing the Oracle Database with CVU
■
Selecting a Database Configuration Type
■
Installation of Oracle Database 10g with RAC Using Oracle Universal Installer
■
■
Installation on Windows-Based Systems with the Minimum Memory
Requirements
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
Verifying System Readiness for Installing the Oracle Database with CVU
To help to verify that your system is prepared to install Oracle Database with RAC
successfully, enter a Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) command using the following
command syntax:
cluvfy stage -pre dbinst -n node_list [-r { 10gR1 | 10gR2 } ] [-verbose]
In the preceding syntax example:
■
The variable node_list is the list of nodes in your cluster, separated by commas
For example, to perform a pre-installation check for an Oracle Database with RAC
installation on a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, enter the following
command:
cluvfy stage -pre dbinst -n node1,node2 -verbose
Oracle recommends that you select the option -verbose to receive progress updates
as CVU performs its system checks. The -verbose option provides detailed test
reporting, which you can use to identify the cause of any checks that fail.
If the cluster verification check fails, then review and correct the relevant system
configuration steps, and run the test again. Use the system configuration checks
described in "Troubleshooting Installation Setup for Windows" to assist you.
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters
5-1
Verifying System Readiness for Installing the Oracle Database with CVU
Troubleshooting Installation Setup for Windows
If you run CVU and your system fails system configuration checks, then review the
CVU report, and use the output to resolve failed configuration checks.
User Equivalence Check Failed
Cause: Failure to establish user equivalency across all nodes.
Action: From the node where you intend to run OUI, verify that you have
administrative privileges on the other nodes. To do this, enter the following
command for each node that is a part of the cluster:
net use \\node_name\C$
where node_name is the node name.
If you find a node where you are not able to log on, then you must correct the user
information on that node. Oracle recommends that you use the same user name
and password on each node in a cluster, or use a domain user name. If you use a
domain user name, then log on under a domain with a username and password
that has administrative privileges on each node.
When you have corrected the path configuration information on the node, run the
CVU check again.
Node Reachability Check Failed
Cause: Failure of one or more nodes to be properly connected for communication.
Action: Possible causes of this message include the following:
■
■
Improper network configuration
The node running CVU is unable to connect to one or more nodes in the
cluster
Use the following command to check your current configuration on each node:
ipconfig /all
See Also:
"Checking Network Requirements" in Chapter 2
Node Connectivity Check Failed
Cause: One or more of the cluster nodes is not able to be connected from all nodes
in the cluster
Action: Check for firewalls preventing the nodes from communicating on their
private network interfaces.
System Requirements Check Failed
Cause: insufficient system resources, missing software packages, or other
operating system or hardware problem.
Action: If you did not run the CVU command with the -verbose flag, then run
the command again using -verbose, and review the report to determine which
system requirement failed. Correct the problem.
See Also: Chapter 2, "Server and Network Pre-Installation Tasks"
contains instructions for completing any system requirement
configuration that CVU lists as incomplete.
5-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Selecting a Database Configuration Type
Selecting a Database Configuration Type
This section describes OUI features that you should understand before beginning
phase two of the RAC installation process. When you run OUI and select Oracle
Database 10g, you can select the General Purpose, Transaction Processing, Data
Warehouse, or Advanced database configuration type.
For the first three configuration types, you can complete additional procedures that are
described later in this chapter. If you select Advanced configuration, then you can use
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create the database as described in
Chapter 6. Oracle recommends that you use DBCA to create your database.
You can also select the Advanced configuration, select a preconfigured template,
customize the template, and then use DBCA to create a database using the template.
These preconfigured templates correspond to the General Purpose, Transaction
Processing, and Data Warehouse configuration types. You can also use DBCA with the
Advanced template to create a database.
Oracle recommends that you use one of the preconfigured database options, or use the
Advanced option with DBCA to create your database. However, if you want to
configure your environment and create your database manually, then select the Do not
create a database configuration option, and refer to the manual database creation
procedures posted at the following Web site:
http://otn.oracle.com.
Configuration Type Descriptions
The configuration type that you select, as described in Table 5–1, determines how you
proceed.
Table 5–1
Oracle Universal Installer Database Configuration Types
Configuration
Type
Description
Advantages
General
Purpose,
Transaction
Processing, and
Data Warehouse
Installs a preconfigured starter database, Oracle options
(including Oracle Database 10g with RAC), networking
services, Oracle Database 10g utilities, and online
documentation. At the end of the installation, DBCA creates
and configures your RAC database.
Minimal input required.
You can create your
database more quickly than
with the Advanced type.
Advanced
Enables you to customize your database options and storage
components.
Enables you to create
arbitrary tablespaces and
datafiles and customize all
aspects of your database.
Do not create a
starter database
Installs only the software. Does not configure the listeners or
network infrastructure and does not create a database.
General Purpose, Transaction Processing, and Data Warehouse Configuration
Types
The General Purpose, Transaction Processing, and Data Warehouse configuration
types use preconfigured database templates. During installation, if you select one of
these preconfigured database types, then OUI starts Oracle Network Configuration
Assistant (NETCA) and DBCA, and installs the preconfigured database without
further input. During database installation, OUI displays a progress indicator.
DBCA processing for these three configuration types creates a starter database, and
configures Oracle network services. If you choose raw devices on the Specify Database
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters
5-3
Selecting a Database Configuration Type
File Storage Option page, then DBCA verifies that you configured the raw devices for
each tablespace.
If you select Advanced configuration, then you must enter specific information as
described in the next section.
Using the Advanced Configuration Type
If you select the Advanced configuration type, then OUI runs DBCA, which displays
four preconfigured database template choices:
■
General Purpose
■
Transaction Processing
■
Data Warehouse
■
Advanced
The first three templates create a database that is optimized for that environment. You
also can customize these templates. The Advanced type, however, creates a database
without using preconfigured options.
The following section provides more detail about OUI and DBCA processing when
creating a RAC database.
Behavior of OUI, DBCA, and Other Assistants During Installation
After installation, OUI starts NETCA. After NETCA completes its processing, OUI
runs DBCA to create your database using Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA). This
means that DBCA creates your database files, including the default server parameter
file (SPFILE), using standard file naming and file placement practices. The primary
phases of DBCA processing are:
■
Verify that you correctly configured the shared disks for each tablespace if you are
using raw storage
■
Create the database
■
Configure Oracle network services
■
Start the listeners and database instances
You can also use DBCA in standalone mode to create a database.
See Also: The Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide if
you experience problems, for example, with the listener
configuration, and for further information about LDAP support
You can use your Oracle9i database language and territory definition files with Oracle
Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) that you are about to install. To enable this functionality,
you must run OUI from a command line, as described in the following section,
"Installation of Oracle Database 10g with RAC Using Oracle Universal Installer", but
start the setup command using the following arguments to set the b_cr9idata
variable to true:
setup oracle.rsf.nlsrtl_rsf:b_cr9idata=true
5-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Installation of Oracle Database 10g with RAC Using Oracle Universal Installer
Installation of Oracle Database 10g with RAC Using Oracle Universal
Installer
Perform the following procedures to install Oracle Database 10g software with RAC.
1.
Start the setup.exe command from the base directory of the Oracle Database 10g
Release 2 (10.2) media. When OUI displays the Welcome page, click Next.
2.
Provide information when prompted by OUI. If you need assistance during
installation, click Help. If you encounter problems during installation, examine the
OUI actions recorded in the installation log file. The log file is located in the Oracle
Inventory directory with a name that includes the timestamp (date_time) of the
install process, as shown in this example:
C:\Program Files\Oracle\Inventory\logs\installActionsdate_time.log
In the preceding syntax example, the variables date and time represents the date
and the time of the log file.
The Oracle home name and path that you provide during
database installation must be different from the home that you used
during Oracle Clusterware installation in phase one. You must not
install Oracle Database 10g with RAC software into the same home
in which you installed Oracle Clusterware software.
Note:
The following is a list of additional information to note about installation:
■
If you select Automatic Storage Management (ASM) during installation, then
the default partitions for ASM disk partition locations from which you must
select ASM disks are marked as follows:
\\.\orcldisk*
If you are installing RAC from the Standard Edition, then you must use ASM
for your database storage. Even if you can click other database storage
options, they are only supported by the Enterprise Edition and you should not
select them.
The only partitions that OUI displays for Windows systems
are logical drives that are on drives that do not contain a primary
partition, and have been stamped with asmtool.
Note:
3.
Ensure that the path name for your new Oracle home is defined across the cluster
by completing the following procedure on each remote node that is part of your
current cluster installation:
a.
On each remote node, navigate to Start, and select Control Panel, then
System, then Advanced, and then Environment Variables
b.
In the "System variables" dialog, select the Path variable and ensure that the
value for the Path variable contains oracle_home\bin, where
oracle_home is your new Oracle home. If the variable does not contain this
value, then click Edit and add this value to the start of the path variable
definition in the Edit System Variable dialog. When you have added the value,
click OK.
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters
5-5
Installation on Windows-Based Systems with the Minimum Memory Requirements
c.
Click OK in the Environment Variables page, click OK in the System
Properties page, and then close the Control Panel
When have completed all steps for the second and final phase of the installation,
proceed to Chapter 7, "Oracle Real Application Clusters Post-Installation Procedures"
to perform the post-installation tasks.
If you need to change the VIP on a RAC node, then you should
change it using a SRVCTL command, using the following syntax:
Note:
srvctl modify nodeapps -A new_address
Refer to Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for additional
information.
Installation on Windows-Based Systems with the Minimum Memory
Requirements
Installations of RAC on nodes in Windows-based systems with 512 MB of RAM and
500 MB of virtual memory have the following limitations:
■
■
Computers with 512 MB of memory are not able to run Oracle Database Upgrade
Assistant (DBUA), DBCA, or NETCA during an Oracle Universal Installer
installation session.
Depending on how many applications are running on the computer, you may
need to further increase the paging file size or reduce the size of the System Global
Area (SGA) if you run out of virtual memory. Note that if temporary files and the
paging file are both stored on the same physical drive, then a situation can occur
where the space requirements for one can limit the size of another. If your system
has limited free space, then first install the Oracle Database software. After the
installation is finished, run NETCA to configure listeners and then DBCA to create
a database.
On computer systems that barely meet the minimum memory and virtual memory
requirements, 512 MB and 500 MB respectively, do not install the database. Instead,
follow these guidelines:
■
■
■
■
Select Enterprise Edition Installation and deselect "Do not create a starter
database"
Select Custom Installation, select "Do not create a starter database" from the Select
Database Configuration page.
Select Advanced Installation, select the Custom installation type from the Select
Installation Type page, and select No on the Create Database page when prompted
to create the database.
Cancel DBCA from the Configuration Assistants page.
After installation, run the appropriate configuration assistant for your needs:
■
■
To create a new database, run DBCA from the Start Menu. Choose Start, then
Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Configuration and Migration Tools,
and then Database Configuration Assistant.
To upgrade an existing database, run DBUA from the Start Menu. Choose Start,
then Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Configuration and Migration
Tools, and then Database Upgrade Configuration Assistant.
5-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
To ensure that all nodes in your cluster use the new Oracle home, ensure that the path
name for the new Oracle home is defined on each node in the cluster by completing
the following procedure:
1.
On each node, navigate to Start, then to Control Panel, then to System, then to
Advanced and then to Environment Variables
2.
In the "System variables" dialog, select the Path variable and ensure that the value
for the Path variable contains oracle_home\bin, where oracle_home is your
new Oracle home. If the variable does not contain this value, then click Edit and
add this value to the start of the path variable definition in the Edit System
Variable dialog and click OK.
3.
Click OK in the Environment Variables page, then click OK in the System
Properties page, and then close the Control Panel.
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
If you need to de-install Real Application Cluster software, then you must run OUI to
de-install the software on the same node from which you performed the installation,
and you must de-install Oracle database software first before de-installing Oracle
Clusterware software.
Perform the following procedures to de-install Oracle Database 10g RAC and Oracle
Clusterware software, as described in the following sections:
■
De-Installing Oracle Database 10g RAC Software
■
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware from Windows Environments
■
De-Installing Automatic Storage Management
These sections describe a complete de-installation of the RAC,
ASM, and Oracle Clusterware software where RAC and ASM share
the Oracle home and no other Oracle home exists.
Note:
If you have multiple Oracle homes on the cluster, then check for any
dependencies that might affect your other databases. Such
dependencies can include listeners, ASM instances, and so on that run
in the Oracle home to be deleted. To identify dependencies, review the
oratab file to identify common Oracle homes.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about using RAC scalability features of adding and
deleting nodes and instances from RAC databases, and for
information about viewing OCR content
De-Installing Oracle Database 10g RAC Software
This section describes the procedure to de-install Oracle Database 10g RAC software.
Before you perform these steps, Oracle recommends that you make a backup of any
databases that run from the Oracle home you are about to delete. You should then stop
any instances and processes on all nodes, including services, that depend on the
software that you are de-installing.
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters
5-7
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
1.
Drop all of the databases that are dependent on the Oracle home that you are
deleting by using DBCA "Delete a database" option and selecting the correct
database or databases to be dropped.
2.
Drop any existing Oracle Database 10g with RAC software by using DBCA "Delete
a database" option, and selecting the correct database or databases to be dropped.
3.
If the database is in the Oracle home from which the ASM database runs, then
ensure that there are no other database dependencies on these group of ASM
instances, and then remove the ASM configuration by logging on as the oracle
user and completing the following steps:
a.
Connect to the ASM instance and run the following command to determine
database instances using this ASM instance.:
SQL> select INSTANCE_NAME from GV$ASM_CLIENT;
This command only lists database instances that are running.
It is possible that other instances are associated with the ASM
instance, but they are not currently running. If you removed a
database from this Oracle home but the output from the command
shows that this ASM instance is supporting a database instance in
another Oracle home, then do not remove the ASM instance or the
Oracle home.
Note:
b.
For each instance listed in the output of the statement you run in Step a, stop
the respective databases.
c.
Oracle recommends that you back up the database files for all of the databases
that are currently using this ASM instance.
d.
Using your connection to the ASM instance, run the following command:
SQL> select * from V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
e.
For each diskgroup listed in the output of the statement you run in Step d, run
the following command:
SQL> drop diskgroup diskgroup_name including contents;
where diskgroup_name is the name of the diskgroup.
f.
Shut down ASM on all RAC nodes, and verify that all ASM instances are
stopped.
g.
Run OUI. On the Welcome page, click Deinstall Products to de-install the
Oracle home from which ASM was running.
h.
To remove the ASM entry from the OCR, run the following command for all
nodes on which this Oracle home exists:
srvctl remove asm -n nodename
where nodename is the name of a node from which you want to remove the
ASM instance.
i.
If you are using a shared cluster file system for your Oracle home, then run the
following commands on the local node:
delete %ORACLE_HOME%\database\*ASM*
delete %ORACLE_BASE%\admin\+ASM
5-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
You may need to remove subordinate files or directories before these
commands complete successfully.
j.
If you are not using a shared cluster file system for your Oracle home, then
run the commands from the previous step, Step i, on each node on which the
Oracle home exists.
k.
Run the following command on each node that has an ASM instance:
oradim -delete -asmsid +ASMnode_number
where node_number is the node identifier.
4.
If the listener runs from this Oracle home, then use NETCA to remove the listener
and its configuration.
5.
If the RAC software you are deleting uses a different Oracle home from the Oracle
home that your ASM environment uses, then start OUI. On the Welcome page,
click Deinstall Products to display the list of installed products on which you can
select the Oracle home to de-install.
You cannot perform a RAC installation from the same OUI
session in which you perform a RAC de-installation. In other words, if
you de-install RAC with OUI and want to perform another RAC
installation. then you must start a new OUI session.
Note:
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware from Windows Environments
De-install each Oracle Database 10g RAC home by running the procedure in the
previous section, "De-Installing Oracle Database 10g RAC Software". Then complete
the de-installation by removing Oracle Clusterware software using one of the
following procedures:
■
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware with No Previous Cluster Software Versions
■
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware, with Clusterware Downgrade to 9.2
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware with No Previous Cluster Software Versions
Perform the following steps to de-install Oracle 10g Oracle Clusterware software from
a Windows environment:
1.
Stop and remove the Oracle Clusterware node applications on each node that is
associated with the Oracle home that you are deleting. Do this by running the
following command for all of the nodes that are affected by the deletion of the
Oracle home:
srvctl stop nodeapps -n node_name
where node_name is the node name. Repeat this command for each node in the
cluster.
Then remove Oracle Clusterware node applications by running the following
commands:
svrctl remove nodeapps -n node_name
where node_name is the node name. Repeat this command for each node in the
cluster, responding to any operating-system prompts to confirm your operations
for each node.
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters
5-9
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
2.
Click Start and navigate to Settings, then to Control Panel, then to Administrative
Tools, and then to Services. Stop the service OracleRemExecService.
3.
Start OUI. On the Welcome page, click Deinstall Products to display the list of
installed products. Select the Oracle Clusterware home you want to de-install.
4.
If you have services with names such as OracleCRSTokenname, then remove
them by running the following command:
crsuser remove user_name
where user_name is a user name.
5.
Shut down and restart each node that is a member of your cluster.
6.
If you are not using a cluster file system, then on each node, use Windows Explorer
to delete the Oracle directory, its subdirectories, and their contents.
De-Installing Oracle Clusterware, with Clusterware Downgrade to 9.2
Perform the following procedures to de-install Oracle 10g Oracle Clusterware software
from a Windows environment that also has 9.2 RAC:
1.
Run CRS_Home\bin\GuiOracleOBJManager.exe to make sure that the
symbolic link named srvcfg exists and points to a disk partition, if you are not
using OCFS to store the OCR.
2.
If Oracle9i release 9.2 clusterware uses OCFS, then ensure the following is true for
all nodes:
■
■
3.
The registry key HKLM\SOFTWARE\Oracle\osd9i\ocr exists
The registry key HKLM\SOFTWARE\Oracle\osd9i\ocr has a string value
CfsOcrRoot that points to a release 9.2 OCR (OCFS) location
On each node, use the following command to stop all node processes (virtual IPs,
gsds, and ons):
srvctl stop nodeapps -n nodename
In the preceding syntax example, replace the variable nodename with the name of
the node on which you want to stop node processes. Shut down all clusterware
processes.
4.
Run CRS_Home\bin\ocrconfig -downgrade -version 9.2 to downgrade
the Cluster Registry to a release 9.2 OCR.
5.
On each node, copy CRS_Home\cfs\OcfsFindVol.exe to
%SYSTEMROOT%\system32\osd9i\cfs.
6.
Run CRS_Home\oui\bin\setup.exe to start OUI. On the Welcome page click
Deinstall products to list all the installed products. Select the Oracle Clusterware
home name from the displayed products, and click Remove to deconfigure and
de-install the product.
7.
On each node, run
%SYSTEMROOT%\system32\osd9i\olm\OracleOBJService.exe /install
to re-install the Oracle 9.2 object service. Then start Oracle Object Service.
8.
On each node, run %SYSTEMROOT%\system32\osd9i\cfs\OcfsFindVol.exe
/i:%SYSTEMROOT%\system32\osd9i\cfs\OcfsFindVol.exe to re-install
the Oracle Cluster Volume service. Then start the
OracleClusterVolumeService.
5-10 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
9.
From an Oracle9i Release 9.2 RAC Oracle home on each node run the command
ORACLE_HOME\bin\gsdservice.exe -install. Then start the
OracleGSDService.
10. On each node, copy %SYSTEMROOT%\system32\osd9i\orafencedrv.sys
%SYSTEMROOT%\system32\drivers\orafenceservice.sys
De-Installing Automatic Storage Management
To remove the Automatic Storage Management (ASM) instances, complete the
following tasks:
1.
There is one listener for each node that Oracle Clusterware manages, and that is
started and stopped with nodeapps. It is named nodename_LISTENER, and it is
located in the Oracle home. Use NetCA to remove this listener and its Oracle
Clusterware resources. If necessary, re-create this listener in another Oracle home.
2.
If this is the Oracle home from which the ASM instance runs, then enter the
following commands to remove the ASM configuration:
srvctl stop asm -n node
srvctl remove asm -n node
3.
If you are not using a cluster file system for your ASM Oracle home, then run the
Server Control stop and remove commands listed in the previous step on each
node on which the Oracle home exists.
4.
If you are using a shared cluster file system for your ASM Oracle home, then run
the following commands on the local node:
delete %ORACLE_HOME%\database\*ASM*
delete %ORACLE_BASE%\admin\+ASM
You may need to remove subordinate files or directories before these commands
complete successfully.
5.
If you are not using a shared cluster file system for your ASM Oracle home, then
run the commands from the previous step, step 4, on each node on which the
Oracle home exists.
6.
Run the following command on each node:
%ORACLE_HOME%\bin\oradim.exe -delete -asmsid +ASMnode_number
where node_number is the node identifier.
Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters 5-11
De-Installing Real Application Clusters Software
5-12 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
6
Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the
Database Configuration Assistant
This chapter describes how to use the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) in
standalone mode to create and delete Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
databases. The topics in this chapter include:
■
Using Database Configuration Assistant with Oracle Real Application Clusters
■
Benefits of Using Database Configuration Assistant
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters High Availability Services
■
Verifying Requirements for DBCA
■
Creating the Database after Installation Using Database Configuration Assistant
■
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
■
Deleting a Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for
procedures on using Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to
add and delete instances
Using Database Configuration Assistant with Oracle Real Application
Clusters
DBCA has the following primary functions:
■
Create the database and its instances
■
Set up network configuration for database, instances and database services
■
Configure Enterprise Manager Grid Control
■
Start up the database, its instances, services, and any other node applications
See Also:
■
■
"Creating the Database after Installation Using Database
Configuration Assistant" on page 6-3 for more information
about using DBCA in standalone mode
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide if you
experience problems, for example, with the listener
configuration, and for further information about Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compliant directory support
Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration Assistant 6-1
Benefits of Using Database Configuration Assistant
Benefits of Using Database Configuration Assistant
Oracle recommends that you use Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create
your RAC database, because DBCA's preconfigured databases optimize your
environment for features such as ASM, the server parameter file, and automatic undo
management. DBCA also provides pages to create new ASM disk groups if they are
needed; if you use ASM or cluster file system storage, then DBCA also configures
recovery and backup disk space.
With DBCA, you can create site-specific tablespaces as part of database creation. If you
have datafile requirements that differ from those offered by DBCA templates, then
create your database with DBCA and modify the datafiles later. You can also run
user-specified scripts as part of your database creation process.
DBCA also configures your RAC environment for various Oracle high availability
features, such as services and cluster administration tools. It also starts any database
instances required to support your defined configuration.
Oracle Real Application Clusters High Availability Services
When you configure high availability services with the DBCA Database Services page,
you can also configure service instance preferences and Transparent Application
Failover (TAF) policies.
Service Configuration and Instance Preferences
Use the Database Services page button in the column labeled Not Used, Preferred, or
Available to configure service instance preferences as described in the following list:
■
Preferred—The service runs primarily on the selected instance
■
Available—The service may run on the instance if a preferred instance fails
■
Not Used—The service never runs on the instance
Transparent Application Failover Policies
Use the DBCA Database Services page to configure TAF failover policies. The DBCA
Database Services page also has a TAF policy selector row under the instance
preference display. Select one of the following options in this row for your failover and
reconnection policy preference:
■
None—Do not use TAF
■
Basic—Establish connections at failover time
Verifying Requirements for DBCA
To help to verify that your system is prepared to create the Oracle Database with RAC
successfully, enter a Cluster Verification Utility command using the following
command syntax:
cluvfy stage -pre dbcfg -n node_list -d oracle_home [-verbose]
In the preceding syntax example, the variable node_list is the list of nodes in your
cluster, separated by commas, and the variable oracle_home is the path for the
Oracle home under which the database is to be created or its configuration is to
modified.
6-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
For example, to perform a check to determine if your system is prepared for an Oracle
Database with RAC on a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, and with the
Oracle home path c:\oracle\product\10.2.0, enter the following command:
cluvfy stage -pre dbcfg -n node1,node2 -d c:\oracle\product\10.2.0
You can select the option -verbose to receive progress updates as the CVU performs
its system checks, and detailed reporting of the test results.
If the Cluster Verification Utility summary indicates that the cluster verification check
fails, then review and correct the relevant system configuration steps, and run the test
again.
The command cluvfy stage -pre dbcfg verifies the following:
■
Node Reachability: All the specified nodes are reachable from the local node
■
User Equivalence: User equivalence exists on all the specified nodes
■
■
■
Node Connectivity: The connectivity exists between all the specified nodes
through the available public and private network interfaces
Administrative Privileges: The oracle user has proper administrative privileges
on the specified nodes for creating a RAC database
Oracle Clusterware Integrity: All the components of the Oracle Clusterware stack
are operational
Creating the Database after Installation Using Database Configuration
Assistant
To create a database with DBCA in standalone mode without ASM or a cluster file
system, you must already have configured each raw device as described in
Appendix C. In addition, you must already have run Oracle Net Configuration
Assistant to configure your Oracle Net listener.ora file.
If you plan to use ASM storage, then you must already have created logical partitions
without primary partitions on the same drive, and deleted the drive letters for these
partitions on all nodes, or used DBCA to mark partitions.
If you select DBCA templates that use preconfigured datafiles and if you do not use
ASM or a cluster file system, then during database creation, DBCA first verifies that
you created the raw devices for each tablespace. If you have not configured the raw
devices, then you must configure the raw devices and replace the default datafile
names that DBCA provides with raw device names on the DBCA Storage page to
continue database creation.
To start DBCA, click Start, and select Programs, Oracle - Oracle_home name,
Configuration and Migration Tools, then Database Configuration Assistant
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
When you start DBCA, the first page it displays is the Welcome page for RAC, which
includes the option to select an Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) database. Note
that you will not see this page if the Oracle home from which you are running DBCA
was not installed in a cluster environment.
See Also:
DBCA online help for more information
Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration Assistant 6-3
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
If DBCA does not display the Welcome page for RAC, then DBCA was unable to
detect whether the Oracle home is cluster-installed. In this case, check that the OUI
inventory is correctly located in c:\Program Files\oracle\Inventory, and that
the files in the Oracle inventory directory are not corrupted. Also, perform clusterware
diagnostics by running the CVU command cluvfy stage -post crsinst -n nodename.
If the RAC welcome page opens, then complete the following steps to create a RAC
database:
1.
On the Welcome page, select Real Application Clusters database and click Next.
2.
DBCA displays the Operations page.
Note that DBCA enables the options Configure Database Options, Delete a
Database, Instance Management, Configure Automatic Storage Management,
and Services Management options only if there is at least one RAC database
configured on your cluster that runs from the Oracle home.
Select Create a Database, and click Next.
3.
DBCA displays the Node Selection page. DBCA highlights the local node by
default. Select the other nodes that you want to configure as members of your
cluster database, and click Next.
If nodes that are part of your cluster installation do not appear
on the Node Selection page, then run the CVU to perform inventory
diagnostics and clusterware diagnostics.
Note:
4.
DBCA displays the Database Templates page. The predefined template choices on
the Database Templates page are Custom Database, Data Warehouse, General
Purpose, and Transaction Processing.
Use one of the predefined templates, which include datafiles, if you want to create
database with specifically configured options. The Custom Database template
does not include datafiles or options specially configured for a particular type of
application.
Select the template from which you wish to create your cluster database, and click
Next.
5.
DBCA displays the Database Identification page. Provide a unique global database
domain name for your database (typically in the form of "database.acme.com.")
The Oracle system identifier (SID) prefix is generated automatically from the name
you provide. You can either use the automatically generated SID, or create your
own. When you are finished, click Next.
The global database name can be up to 30 characters in
length, and must begin with an alphabetical character. The SID
prefix must begin with an alphabetical character.
Note:
The maximum number of characters you can use for the SID prefix
depends on the number of nodes in the RAC database. If the RAC
database contains from one to nine nodes, then the SID prefix can
be no more than 61 characters on Windows-based systems. If the
RAC database contains from 10 to 99 nodes, then the SID prefix can
be no more than 60 characters. DBCA uses the SID prefix to
generate a unique value for the variable ORACLE_SID for each
instance.
6-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
6.
The Management Options page appears. Select whether you will enable
management through Oracle Enterprise Manager.
If you select Enterprise Manager with the Grid Control option and DBCA
discovers agents running on the local node, then you can select the preferred agent
from a list.
After you select the Database Control option, you can set up E-mail notification
and enable daily backups. For E-mail notifications, you provide the outgoing mail
server and E-mail address. For daily backups, you enter the backup time and
operating system credentials for the user that performs backup.
When you have finished, click Next.
7.
The Database Credentials page appears. Enter the passwords for your database on
the Database Credentials page. You can enter the same or different passwords for
the administrative users SYS and SYSTEM, and also, if you selected Enterprise
Manager on the Management Options page, the monitoring accounts DBSNMP and
SYSMAN. Select the option Use the Same Password for All Accounts to assign the
same password to all of the listed users, or provide a different password for each
of these users by selecting the option Use Different Passwords.
When you have entered the password information, click Next. DBCA displays the
Storage Options page.
8.
The Storage Options page appears. Use the Storage Options page to select a
storage type for database creation. The Cluster File System option is the default.
Select a storage option and click Next to proceed to the next page.
If you selected Cluster File System, then the next page that appears is the Database
File Locations page, described in Step 9.
If you select Raw Devices, then the next page that appears is the Recovery
Configuration page, described in Step 10.
If you select Automatic Storage Management (ASM), then provide additional
information as follows:
a.
If there is not an ASM instance on any of the cluster nodes, then DBCA
displays the Create ASM Instance page for you, described in Step c. Otherwise
DBCA displays the ASM Disk Groups page, described in Step d.
b.
If an ASM instance exists on the local node, then DBCA displays a dialog
asking you to enter the password for the SYS user for ASM.
c.
To initiate the creation of the required ASM instance, supply the password for
the SYS user of the ASM instance. If your Oracle home is installed on cluster
file system, then the ASM instance uses an SPFILE; otherwise, you can select
either an IFILE or an SPFILE on shared storage for the instances. After you
enter the required information, click Next to create the ASM instance. When
the instance is created, DBCA proceeds to the ASM Disk Groups page
described in Step d.
d.
From the ASM Disk Groups page, you can create a new disk group, add disks
to an existing disk group, or select a disk group for your database storage.
If you have just created a new ASM instance, then there will be no disk groups
from which to select, so you must create a new one by clicking Create New to
open the Create Disk Group page, described in Step e.
Similarly, if one or more disk groups are displayed but you want to add a new
one, then click Create New and follow the procedure described in Step e to
complete the Create Disk Group page.
Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration Assistant 6-5
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
If you want to use an existing disk group but wish to add more disks to it,
click Add Disks and follow the instructions in Step f.
Once you are satisfied with the ASM disk groups available to you, select the
one you wish to use for your database files and click Next to proceed to the
Database File Locations page, described in step 9.
To use a flash recovery area, Oracle recommends that you
create two separate ASM disk groups: one for the database area and
one for the recovery area.
Note:
Oracle Database Concepts for more information about using
a flash recovery area
See Also:
e.
Enter the disk group name and then click the redundancy level for the group if
you do not wish to use the default value (Normal). Create your disk group by
selecting from the list of candidate disks. Continue by following the process
described in Step g.
f.
If there is a disk group that you want to use but you want to add more disks to
it, then select the group and click Add Disks. Add to the disk group by
selecting from the list of candidate disks. Continue by following the process
described in Step g.
g.
If you do not see the disks you wish to add, click Change Disk Discovery
Path to alter the search path used by DBCA to find available disks. You can
select disks with a status of Candidate or Former (never used in an ASM
disk group or no longer in a group) by checking the select box. If you select a
disk that has an ASM disk header, but the disk group is no longer in use
(because of an aborted install, a de-install, and so on), then you must also
check the Force column to override the header. When you have selected the
desired disks, click OK to add them to your disk group and return to the ASM
Disk Groups Page. To proceed, see the instructions described earlier in Step d.
h.
If DBCA displays the following message:
The file oracle_home\bin\oracle does not exist on nodes node_list.
Make sure that file exists on these nodes before proceeding.
then the Oracle home from which the first ASM instance in the cluster runs is
not installed on these cluster nodes. You must extend the ASM Oracle home to
these nodes by performing the procedure documented in "Step 4: Adding
Nodes at the Oracle RAC Database Layer" in the Oracle Database Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment
Guide. However, do not perform Step 5 in that section. The OUI extends the
ASM Oracle home to the selected nodes and performs any configuration
required for running an ASM instance on these nodes.
i.
If DBCA displays the message Please run the DBCA from one of the
nodes that has an existing ASM instance node_list., then you
are attempting to create a RAC database using ASM storage and the ASM
instance does not exist on the node from which you ran DBCA. However,
ASM instances do exist on the remote nodes that appear in the message node
list. In this case, DBCA cannot clone the existing ASM instance from the
remote node to the local node. To correct this, start DBCA from one of the
nodes shown in the node list to create your RAC database using ASM storage.
This copies the local node's ASM instance and modifies its parameters and
6-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
attributes to create ASM instances on the nodes in your cluster that do not
have ASM instances.
j.
9.
If DBCA displays the message ORACLE_BASE for ASM home asm_home
does not match the value for database home db_home. Please
set ORACLE_BASE to asm_home and restart DBCA., then this means
that you selected a node to be part of your RAC database that does not have
an ASM instance. In addition, the ASM instance on the local node is running
from an Oracle home that is different from the Oracle home for the database to
be created. Both the ASM home and the database home must be under a
common ORACLE_BASE. If you created the original ASM instance without
setting ORACLE_BASE, then set the ORACLE_BASE to the asm_home and
restart DBCA to proceed.
The Database File Locations page appears. The Database File Locations page
enables you to specify a location where the database datafiles are created. Select
one of the following options:
■
■
■
Use Database File Locations from Template: Select this option to allow the
database file location to be determined by the Oracle database template type
that you selected in step 4.
Use Common Location for All Database Files: Select this option if you want
to use a file system. The files will not be managed by Oracle. You can enter a
path on which you want database datafiles to be placed, or click Browse to
locate a path.
Use Oracle-Managed Files: Select this option if you want your files to be
managed using ASM. If you do not select the Database File Locations from
Template option, then you can enter an existing ASM disk group name or
directory path name in the Database Area field, or click Browse to open a
selection list.
If you want to multiplex the database redo log files and control files, then click
Multiplex Redo Logs and Control Files, and provide the location for each copy
you want. Click OK when you have defined the multiplex locations to return to
the Database File Locations page.
You may also define your own variables for the file locations if you plan to use the
Database Storage page, explained in Step 14, to define individual file locations.
10. The Recovery Configuration page appears. You can select redo log archiving by
clicking the Enable Archiving check box on the Recovery Configuration page.
If you are using ASM, then you can also select the flash recovery area and size.
You may also define your own variables for the file locations if you plan to use the
Database Storage page, explained in Step 14, to define individual file locations.
When you have completed your entries, click Next. The Database Content page is
displayed.
11. The Database Content page appears. On the Database Content page, if you chose
the Custom Database option, you can select or deselect the database components
and their corresponding tablespace assignment. For a seed database, you can
select whether to include the sample schemas in your database and to run custom
scripts as part of the database creation processing. After completing your
selections, click Next.
12. The Database Services page appears. To create services on the Database Services
page, expand the Services tree. Oracle displays the global database name in the top
left-hand corner of the page. Select the global database name and click Add to add
Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration Assistant 6-7
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
services to the database. Enter a service name in the Add a Service dialog and click
OK to add the service and return to the Database Services page.
The service name appears under the global database name. Select the service name
and DBCA displays the service preferences for the service on the right-hand side
of the DBCA Database Services page. Change the instance preference (Not Used,
Preferred, or Available) and TAF policies for the service as needed.
Repeat this procedure for each service and when you are done configuring
services for your database, click Next. DBCA displays the Initialization Parameters
page.
13. The Initialization Parameters page appears. By default, the Initialization
Parameters page shows only the basic parameters, and only enables you to change
the parameter file definition if you are using raw storage. Each tab on the
Initialization Parameters page provides different sets of information that you can
add or modify as follows:
a.
Memory Tab: Click Typical for default values based on the database type you
selected or Custom to set your own values for the memory parameters. You
can also see values for the advanced parameters by clicking All Initialization
Parameters. This causes the All Initialization Parameters table to appear
Carefully review the parameter settings displayed in the table, as DBCA
configures these settings in your server parameter file. Instance-specific
parameter settings for your RAC database appear at the bottom of the table.
The SID prefixes for these entries appear in the Instance column, on the left
side of the table.
To review the instance-specific parameter settings, scroll downward using the
scroll bar on the right side of the table. Use the check box in the Override
Default column to indicate whether DBCA should place the parameter setting
in your server parameter file. DBCA only places a parameter entry into the
server parameter file if the entry displays a check mark in the Override
Default column of the All Initialization Parameters table.
Notes:
■
■
■
■
■
b.
You cannot modify the SID in the Instance column.
You can alter self-tuning parameters with this dialog. However,
setting these parameters to inappropriate values may disable the
Oracle self-tuning features.
You cannot specify instance-specific values for global parameters
with DBCA.
You should set the value of the CLUSTER_DATABASE_
INSTANCES parameter to the number of instances you intend to
use in the cluster if you are not including all the related nodes
during the current execution of DBCA.
If your global database name is longer than eight characters, then
the database name value (in the db_name parameter) is truncated
to the first eight characters and the DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameter
value is set to the global name.
Sizing Tab: Use this page to select the database standard block size and
process count.
6-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Creating an Oracle Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
c.
Character Sets Tab: Use this page to set the database character set value.
d.
Connection Mode Tab: You can use this tab to select either dedicated or shared
database connections to your database.
e.
Parameter File Tab: This tab will only appear if you are using raw storage. Use
this tab to enter a raw device name for the location of the server parameter file.
When you have completed all your work on the Initialization Parameters page,
click Next.
14. The Database Storage page appears.
If you selected a preconfigured database template, such as the General Purpose
template, then DBCA displays the control files, datafiles, and redo logs on the
Database Storage page. Select the folder and the file name underneath the folder to
edit the file name.
If you selected the Custom Database template (the template without datafiles),
then DBCA displays the control files, tablespaces, datafiles, and redo logs. To
change the tablespace properties, such as the datafile or the tablespace size, click
the tablespaces icon to expand the object tree on the left-hand side of the page and
click the tablespace. The tablespace property dialog appears on the right-hand
side. Make your changes and click OK.
When entering file names in the Database Storage page for raw storage, note the
following
■
■
If you have not set the DBCA_RAW_CONFIG environment variable, then
DBCA displays default datafile names. You must override these names to
provide raw device names on this page for each control file, datafile, and redo
log group file.
For Windows-based platforms, if the default symbolic links exist and you have
not set the DBCA_RAW_CONFIG environment variable, then DBCA replaces
the default datafiles with these symbolic link names and displays them in the
Database Storage page. If the symbolic links do not exist, then DBCA displays
the default file system datafile file names on the Database Storage page. In this
case, replace the default datafile file names with the symbolic link names.
After you complete your entries on the Database Storage page, click Next.
15. The Creation Options page appears. Select one of the following database options,
and click Finish.
■
■
■
Create Database—Creates the database
Save as a Database Template—Creates a template that records the database
structure, including user-supplied inputs, initialization parameters, and so on.
You can later use this template to create a database. DBCA only displays this
option if you selected the Custom Database template.
Generate Database Creation Scripts—Generates database creation scripts.
After you click Finish, DBCA displays a Summary dialog.
16. Review the Summary dialog information and click OK to create the database.
After you complete Step 16 DBCA:
■
Creates an operative RAC database and its instances
■
Creates the RAC data dictionary views
■
Configures the network for the cluster database
Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration Assistant 6-9
Deleting a Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
■
■
Starts the Oracle services if you are on a Windows-based platform
Starts the listeners and database instances and then starts the high availability
services
Deleting a Real Application Clusters Database with DBCA
This section explains how to delete a RAC database with DBCA. This process deletes a
database and removes a database's initialization parameter files, instances, OFA
structure, and Oracle network configuration. However, this process does not remove
datafiles if you placed the files on raw devices or on raw partitions.
To delete a database with DBCA:
1.
Start DBCA on one of the nodes:
On Windows-based platforms, click Start, and select Programs, Oracle - Oracle_
home name, Configuration and Migration Tools, then Database Configuration
Assistant
The DBCA Welcome page appears.
2.
Select Oracle Real Application Clusters and click Next.
After you click Next, DBCA displays the Operations page.
3.
Select Delete a database, click Next. DBCA displays the List of Cluster Databases
page.
4.
If your user ID and password are not operating-system authenticated, then the List
of Cluster Databases page displays the user name and password fields. If these
fields appear, then enter a user ID and password that has SYSDBA privileges.
See Also: "Database Password and Role Management in Real
Application Clusters" on page B-19
5.
Select the database to delete and click Finish.
After you click Finish, DBCA displays a dialog to confirm the database and
instances that DBCA is going to delete.
6.
Click OK to begin the deletion of the database and its associated files, services,
and environment settings, or click Cancel to stop the operation.
When you click OK, DBCA continues the operation and deletes all of the associated
instances for this database. DBCA also removes the parameter files, password files,
and oratab entries.
At this point, you have accomplished the following:
■
Deleted the selected database from the cluster
■
Deleted the selected database’s Oracle services for Windows-based platforms
■
Deleted high availability services that were assigned to the database
■
Deleted the Oracle Net configuration for the database
■
Deleted the OFA directory structure from the cluster
■
Deleted the datafiles if the datafiles were not on raw devices
6-10 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
7
Oracle Real Application Clusters
Post-Installation Procedures
This chapter describes how to complete the post-installation tasks after you have
installed Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters (RAC) software. It
contains the following sections:
■
Required Post-Installation Tasks
■
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
This chapter only describes basic configurations. Refer to
Oracle Database 10g Administrator’s Guide for UNIX Systems, Oracle
Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows (32-Bit), and the
product administration and tuning guides for more detailed
configuration and tuning information.
Note:
Required Post-Installation Tasks
You must perform the following tasks after completing your installation:
■
Back Up the Voting Disk after Installation
■
Download and Install Patches
■
Configure Oracle Products
Back Up the Voting Disk after Installation
After your Oracle Database 10g with RAC installation is complete, and after you are
sure that your system is functioning properly, make a backup of the contents of the
voting disk using ocopy.exe.
Also make a backup of the voting disk contents after you complete any node additions
or node deletions, and after running any deinstallation procedures.
Download and Install Patches
Refer to the OracleMetaLink Web site for required patches for your installation. To
download required patches:
1.
Use a Web browser to view the OracleMetaLink Web site:
https://metalink.oracle.com
2.
Log in to OracleMetaLink.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Post-Installation Procedures
7-1
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
Note: If you are not an OracleMetaLink registered user, then click
Register for MetaLink and register.
3.
On the main OracleMetaLink page click Patches.
4.
On the Select a Patch Search Area page click New MetaLink Patch Search.
5.
On the Simple Search page click Advanced.
6.
On the Advanced Search page click the search icon next to the Product or Product
Family field.
7.
In the Search and Select: Product Family field, enter RDBMS Server in the For field
and click Go.
8.
Select RDBMS Server under the Results heading and click Select.
RDBMS Server appears in the Product or Product Family field and the current
release appears in the Release field.
9.
Select your platform from the list in the Platform field and click Go.
10. Any available patches appear under the Results heading.
11. Click the number of the patch that you want to download.
12. On the Patch Set page, click View README and read the page that appears. The
README page contains information about the patch set and how to apply the
patches to your installation.
13. Return to the Patch Set page, click Download, and save the file on your system.
14. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 10g to uncompress the Oracle
patches that you downloaded from OracleMetaLink. the unzip utility is located in
the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
If you find patches for your Oracle Clusterware and for your
Oracle Database, you must apply the patches for your CRS home
before you apply the patches for your Oracle home.
Note:
Configure Oracle Products
Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the
first time. Before using individual Oracle Database 10g database products or options,
refer to the manual in the product documentation library which is available on the
documentation media or on the OTN Web site.
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
This section explains the tasks that Oracle recommends you perform after completing
an installation.
■
Verifying Enterprise Manager Operations
■
Using Oracle9i Language and Definition Files with Oracle Database 10g
■
Logging in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
7-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
Verifying Enterprise Manager Operations
Run the following command to verify the Enterprise Manager configuration in your
newly installed Real Application Clusters environment:
srvctl config database -d db_name
SRVCTL displays the name of the node and the instance for the node. The following
example for a database named orcl shows a node named iwinrac01 running an
instance named orcl1. Run the following command:
C:\> srvctl config database -d orcl
The output should be similar to:
iwinrac01 orcl1 C:\oracle\product\10.2.0\db_1
iwinrac02 orcl2 C:\oracle\product\10.2.0\db_1
Continue with the following section, "Using Oracle9i Language and Definition Files
with Oracle Database 10g". When you have completed these tasks, you should proceed
with the initial configuration tasks described in Part IV.
Using Oracle9i Language and Definition Files with Oracle Database 10g
You can use Oracle9i database language and territory definition files with Oracle
Database 10g Release 2 (10.2).
To enable this functionality:
1.
Run the cr9idata.pl script. By default, the script is located in ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\nls\data\old.
Alternatively, before you install Oracle Database, you can run the Oracle Universal
Installer setup command with the b_cr9idata variable set to true, as in the
following example:
setup.exe oracle.rsf.nlsrtl_rsf:b_cr9idata=true
2.
Set the ORA_NLS10 environment variable to point to the directory where you
installed the new language and territory definition files. By default, language and
territory definition files are in ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\nls\data.
3.
Restart the Oracle database.
Logging in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
If you configure Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during installation, then
you can use it to manage your database. Alternatively, you can use Oracle Enterprise
Manager Grid Control to manage your database.
To use Database Control, you must access it on the node where you installed the
database. If you want to log into Database Control from another cluster node, then you
need to reconfigure Enterprise Manager to start the Database Control interface on that
other node.
See Also: the emca command line help for instructions to perform
reconfiguration
Use the following instructions to log in to Database Control:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Post-Installation Procedures
7-3
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
1.
On the node from which you installed the database, open a Web browser to access
the Database Control URL, and use the following URL syntax:
http://host:port/em
In the preceding example:
■
■
host is the name of the computer on which you installed Oracle Database
port is the port number reserved for the Database Control or Grid Control
during installation
If you do not know the correct port number to use, then look for the following line
in the file $ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini, which lists the assigned
port:
Enterprise Manager Console HTTP Port (db_name) = 1158
The installation reserves the first available port from the range 5500 to 5519.
For example, if you install Oracle Database on host mgmt42, and the Database
Control uses port 1158, then use the following URL:
http://mgmt42:1158/em
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Database Control login page.
2.
Log in to the database using the user name SYS and connect as SYSDBA.
Use the password that you specified for the SYS account during the installation.
You can also log in to the Database Control using the SYSTEM
or SYSMAN accounts, or you can grant login privileges to other
database users.
Note:
7-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Part IV
Real Application Clusters Environment
Configuration
Part IV describes how to use the server parameter file (SPFILE) in Oracle Database 10g
Real Application Clusters (RAC) and it describes the installed configuration. The
chapters in Part IV are:
■
■
Chapter 8, "Parameter Management for Real Application Clusters Databases"
Chapter 9, "Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed
Configuration"
8
Parameter Management for Real Application
Clusters Databases
This chapter describes server parameter file (SPFILE) placement and configuration in
Real Application Clusters (RAC) environments. The topics in this chapter are:
■
Parameter Files and Real Application Clusters
■
Using Server Parameter Files in Real Application Clusters
■
Parameter File Search Order in Oracle Real Application Clusters
■
Server Parameter File Errors in Real Application Clusters
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about parameters and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Deployment and Performance Guide for a discussion of parallel
execution-related parameters in RAC data warehouse
environments
Parameter Files and Real Application Clusters
Oracle uses parameter settings in parameter files to determine how to control various
database resources. You can use two types of files for parameter administration: the
server parameter file (SPFILE) or one or more traditional client-side parameter files.
Oracle recommends that you manage parameters using an SPFILE. If you use
client-side parameter files, then Oracle does not preserve parameter changes made for
self-tuning after shutdown.
See Also: Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters
documentation for more information about using client-side
parameter files
Using Server Parameter Files in Real Application Clusters
By default, Oracle creates the server parameter file based on one SPFILE. You can
change parameter settings in the server parameter file only by using Oracle Enterprise
Manager or ALTER SYSTEM SET SQL statements; the server parameter file is a binary
file that you should not edit.
Parameter Management for Real Application Clusters Databases
8-1
Using Server Parameter Files in Real Application Clusters
Oracle recommends that you avoid modifying the values
for self-tuning parameters; overriding these settings can adversely
affect performance.
Note:
If you are upgrading from a previous Oracle release, then create and configure the
server parameter file for RAC using the procedures described in the following section.
Location of the Server Parameter File
The default location of the server parameter file (SPFILE) when the database creates it
from a PFILE is:
%ORACLE_HOME%\database\SPFILE%ORACLE_SID%.ORA
The default location of the server parameter file is inappropriate for RAC databases if
you use ASM or raw devices because all instances must use the same server parameter
file.
For Windows-based platforms Oracle recommends that you use a PFILE in this
directory:
%ORACLE_HOME%\database\init%ORACLE_SID%.ora
This path is valid for each instance and it refers to a single, shared initialization
parameter file. If you use raw storage, then the file must contain the following entry on
a Windows-based platform:
SPFILE='\\.\dbname_SPFILE'
However, if you use a cluster file system, then use the following file location, where O
is the OCFS drive:
SPFILE=O:\oradata\database_name\spfile.ora
If you use ASM, then the SPFILE value will be:
SPFILE='+disk_group_name/dbunique_name/spfiledbname.ora'
where dbunique_name is the unique database name and dbname is the database
name.
The SPFILE for an ASM instance cannot be stored in ASM
disks groups.
Note:
You must use the same value of SPFILE so that all instances use the same server
parameter file at startup.
To use DBCA to create your database and to use the server parameter file, on the
Initialization Parameters page select Create server parameter file (SPFILE) under the
File Locations tab which is visible only if you are using raw storage. Then enter either
a shared file system filename or the raw device path name in the Server
Parameters Filename field.
8-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Server Parameter File Errors in Real Application Clusters
When you use DBCA to create the server parameter file, the
default PFILE file name is:
Note:
%ORACLE_HOME%\database\init%ORACLE_SID%.ora
This is the default PFILE name.
Parameter File Search Order in Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle searches for your parameter file in the following order:
1.
%ORACLE_HOME%\database\spfilesid.ora
2.
%ORACLE_HOME%\database\spfile.ora
3.
%ORACLE_HOME%\database\initsid.ora
See the previous section, "Location of the Server Parameter File", for information on
how to configure you system to prevent your RAC instances using inappropriate
parameter files.
Server Parameter File Errors in Real Application Clusters
Oracle reports errors that occur during server parameter file creation or while reading
the file during startup. If an error occurs during a parameter update, then Oracle
records the error in your ALERT.LOG file and ignores subsequent parameter updates
to the file. If this happens, then do either of the following:
■
Shut down the instance, recover the server parameter file, and restart the instance.
■
Restart the instance using a PFILE instead of the SPFILE.
Oracle displays errors for parameter changes that you attempt when you incorrectly
use the ALTER SYSTEM SET statement. Oracle does this when an error occurs while
reading from or writing to the server parameter file.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about backing up the SPFILE
Parameter Management for Real Application Clusters Databases
8-3
Server Parameter File Errors in Real Application Clusters
8-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
9
Understanding the Oracle Real Application
Clusters Installed Configuration
This chapter describes the Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) installed
configuration. The topics in this chapter include:
■
Understanding the Configured Environment in Real Application Clusters
■
The Oracle Cluster Registry in Real Application Clusters
■
Database Components Created Using Database Configuration Assistant
■
Managing Undo Tablespaces in Real Application Clusters
■
Initialization Parameter Files
■
Configuring Service Registration-Related Parameters in Real Application Clusters
■
Configuring the Listener File (listener.ora)
■
Directory Server Access (ldap.ora File)
■
Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)
■
Net Services Profile (sqlnet.ora File)
Understanding the Configured Environment in Real Application Clusters
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA) and Database Configuration Assistant
(DBCA) configure your environment to meet the requirements for database creation
and Enterprise Manager discovery of Real Application Cluster databases.
Note: Configuration files are created on each node in your cluster
database.
The Oracle Cluster Registry in Real Application Clusters
Database Configuration Assistant uses the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) for storing
the configurations for the cluster databases that it creates. The OCR is a shared file in a
cluster file system environment. If you do not use a cluster file system, then you must
make this file a shared raw device. Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) automatically
initializes the OCR during the Oracle Clusterware installation.
Database Components Created Using Database Configuration Assistant
This section describes the database components that DBCA creates, which include:
Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed Configuration
9-1
Database Components Created Using Database Configuration Assistant
■
Tablespaces and Datafiles
■
Control Files
■
Redo Log Files
Tablespaces and Datafiles
An Oracle database for both single-instance and cluster database environments is
divided into smaller logical areas of space known as tablespaces. Each tablespace
corresponds to one or more datafiles stored on a disk. Table 9–1 shows the tablespace
names used by a RAC database and the types of data they contain:
Table 9–1
Tablespace Names that Real Application Clusters Databases Use
Tablespace Name
Contents
SYSTEM
Consists of the data dictionary, including definitions of tables, views, and stored
procedures needed by the database. Oracle automatically maintains information in
this tablespace.
SYSAUX
An auxiliary system tablespace that contains the DRSYS (contains data for
OracleText), CWMLITE (contains the OLAP schemas), XDB (for XML features), ODM
(for Oracle Data Mining), TOOLS (contains Enterprise Manager tables), INDEX,
EXAMPLE, and OEM-REPO tablespaces.
USERS
Consists of application data. As you create and enter data into tables, Oracle fills
this space with your data.
TEMP
Contains temporary tables and indexes created during SQL statement processing.
You may need to expand this tablespace if you are running a SQL statement that
involves significant sorting, such as ANALYZE COMPUTE STATISTICS on a very
large table, or the constructs GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT.
UNDOTBSn
These are the undo tablespaces for each instance that DBCA creates for automatic
undo management.
RBS
If you do not use automatic undo management, then Oracle uses the RBS tablespace
for the rollback segments.
You cannot alter these tablespace names when using the preconfigured database
configuration options from Oracle Universal Installer. However, you can change the
names of the tablespaces if you use the advanced database creation method.
As mentioned, each tablespace has one or more datafiles. The datafile names created
by the preconfigured database configuration options vary by storage type such as
ASM, OFS, raw devices, and so on.
You can specify different symbolic names with the Advanced database configuration
option.
Windows-based platforms use the symbolic link names for the datafile and other
database files shown in Table 9–2:
Table 9–2
Windows-Based Platforms Symbolic Link Names and Files
Windows-Based Platforms
Symbolic Link Names
Tablespace or Other Database Files
db_name_system
SYSTEM
db_name_SYSAUX
SYSAUX
db_name_users
USERS
db_name_temp
TEMP
9-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Managing Undo Tablespaces in Real Application Clusters
Table 9–2 (Cont.) Windows-Based Platforms Symbolic Link Names and Files
Windows-Based Platforms
Symbolic Link Names
Tablespace or Other Database Files
db_name_undotbs1
UNDOTBS1
db_name_undotbs2
UNDOTBS2
db_name_rbs
RBS (optional)
db_name_example
EXAMPLE
db_name_indx
INDX
db_name_spfile
SPFILE
db_name_control1
Control File 1
db_name_control2
Control File 2
db_name_redo_instance_
number log_number
Redo Log Files
Each instance must have at least two redo log files.
Where instance_number is the
If the database name is db, then the link names for
the first instance are:
number of the instance and log_
number is the log number (1 or 2) for
db_redo1_1
the instance.
db_redo1_2
The link names for the second instance’s redo log
files are:
db_redo2_1
db_redo2_2
Control Files
The database is configured with two control files that are stored on shared storage.
Redo Log Files
Each instance is configured with at least two redo log files that are stored in the shared
storage. If you chose cluster file system, then these files are shared file system files. If
you do not have a cluster file system, then these files are raw devices. If you use ASM,
then these files are stored on the ASM disk group.
The file names of the redo log files that are created with the preconfigured database
configuration options vary by storage type. You must enter the raw device names
unless you are using a cluster file system.
When using raw devices, to use the advanced database creation method, locate the
redo log files in the Database Storage page and replace their default filenames with the
correct raw device names or symbolic link names.
Managing Undo Tablespaces in Real Application Clusters
Oracle stores rollback or undo information in undo tablespaces. To manage undo
tablespaces, Oracle recommends that you use automatic undo management.
Automatic undo management is an automated undo tablespace management mode
that is easier to administer than manual undo management.
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about managing undo tablespaces
Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed Configuration
9-3
Initialization Parameter Files
Initialization Parameter Files
Oracle recommends using the server parameter file (SPFILE). This file resides on the
server on the shared disk; all instances in a cluster database can access this parameter
file.
See Also: Chapter 8, "Parameter Management for Real
Application Clusters Databases" for more information about the
creation and use of parameter files
Configuring Service Registration-Related Parameters in Real Application
Clusters
Two key benefits of RAC are connection load balancing and failover. RAC extends the
ability of single-instance Oracle database load balancing, where connections are
distributed among local dispatchers, to the balancing of connections among all
instances in a cluster database. In addition, RAC provides failover by configuring
multiple listeners on multiple nodes to manage client connection requests for the same
database service. Connection load balancing and failover increase availability by
taking advantage of the redundant resources within a cluster database. These features,
however, require cross instance registration.
Cross instance registration in RAC occurs when an instance's PMON process registers
with the local listener and with all other listeners. Thus, all instances in the cluster
database register with all listeners that run on nodes that run instances of the cluster
database. This enables all listeners to manage connections across all instances for both
load balancing and failover.
Cross instance registration requires configuring the LOCAL_LISTENER and REMOTE_
LISTENER initialization parameters. The LOCAL_LISTENER parameter identifies the
local listener and the REMOTE_LISTENER parameter identifies the global list of
listeners. The REMOTE_LISTENER parameter is dynamic. Oracle changes the setting
for REMOTE_LISTENER dynamically when you reconfigure your cluster database, for
example, when you add or delete instances.
By default, DBCA configures your environment with dedicated servers. However, if
you select the Shared server option on DBCA, then Oracle configures the shared
server. In this case, Oracle uses both dedicated and shared server processing. When
shared servers are configured, the DISPATCHERS parameter is specified as in the
following example:
DISPATCHERS="(protocol=tcp)"
If the DISPATCHERS initialization parameter does not specify the LISTENER attribute
as in the previous example, then the PMON process registers information for all
dispatchers with the listeners specified by the LOCAL_LISTENER and REMOTE_
LISTENER parameters.
However, when the LISTENER attribute is specified, the PMON process registers
dispatcher information with the listeners specified by the LISTENER attribute. In this
case, setting the LISTENER attribute overrides REMOTE_LISTENER settings for the
specified dispatchers as in the following example:
DISPATCHERS="(protocol=tcp)(listener=listeners_db_name)"
9-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Configuring the Listener File (listener.ora)
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about cross instance registration, shared and
dedicated server configurations, and connection load balancing
Configuring the Listener File (listener.ora)
You can configure two types of listeners in the listener.ora file as described under
the following headings:
■
Local Listeners
■
Multiple Listeners
■
How Oracle Uses the Listener (listener.ora File)
Local Listeners
If you configured dedicated server mode using the DBCA Connection Mode tab on the
Initialization Parameters page, then DBCA automatically configures the LOCAL_
LISTENER parameter when the listener uses a nondefault address port.
If you configured the dedicated server mode by setting the REMOTE_LISTENER
initialization parameter, then you must also configure the instance-specific LOCAL_
LISTENER initialization parameter.
For example, to configure the LOCAL_LISTENER parameter, add the following entry
to the initialization parameter file, where listener_sid is resolved to a listener
address through either a tnsnames.ora file or through Oracle Names Server:
sid.local_listener=listener_sid
The following entry should be in your tnsnames.ora file:
listener_sid=(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1522))
Multiple Listeners
If DBCA detects more than one listener on the node, it displays a list of the listeners.
You can select one or all of these listeners with which to register your database.
How Oracle Uses the Listener (listener.ora File)
Services coordinate their sessions using listener file entries by running a process on the
server that receives connection requests on behalf of a client application. Listeners are
configured to respond to connection requests sent to protocol addresses for a database
service or non-database service.
Protocol addresses are configured in the listener configuration file, listener.ora,
for a database service or a non-database service. Clients configured with the same
addresses can connect to a service through the listener.
During a preconfigured database configuration installation, Oracle Net Configuration
Assistant creates and starts a default listener called LISTENER_NODENAME. The
listener is configured with a default protocol listening addresses for the database and
external procedures. The advanced installation process prompts you to create at least
one listener with Oracle Net Configuration Assistant. The listener is configured to
respond to connection requests that are directed at one protocol address you specify, as
well as an address for external procedures.
Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed Configuration
9-5
Directory Server Access (ldap.ora File)
Both installation modes configure service information about the RAC database and
external procedures. An Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) database service
automatically registers its information with the listener, such as its service name,
instance names, and load information.
This feature, called service registration, does not require configuration in the
listener.ora file. After listener creation, Oracle Net Configuration Assistant starts
the listener. A sample listener.ora file with an entry for an instance named node1
is:
listener_node1=
(description=
(address=(protocol=ipc)(key=extproc))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521)(IP=FIRST))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-ip)(port=1521)(IP=FIRST)))
sid_list_listener_node1=
(sid_list=
(sid_desc=
(sid_name=plsextproc)
(oracle_home=/private/system/db)
(program=extproc)))
Listener Registration and PMON Discovery
When a listener starts after the Oracle instance starts, and the listener is listed for
service registration, registration does not occur until the next time the PMON
discovery routine starts. By default, PMON discovery occurs every 60 seconds.
To override the 60-second delay, use the SQL ALTER SYSTEM REGISTER statement.
This statement forces PMON to register the service immediately.
Oracle recommends that you create a script to run this statement immediately after
starting the listener. If you run this statement while the listener is up and the instance
is already registered, or while the listener is down, then the statement has no effect.
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about the listener and the listener.ora file
See Also:
Directory Server Access (ldap.ora File)
If you configure access to a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compliant
directory server with Oracle Net Configuration Assistant during a Custom Install or
Advanced database configuration, an ldap.ora file is created. The ldap.ora file
contains the following types of information:
■
Type of directory
■
Location of the directory
■
Administrative context from which this server can look up, create, and modify a
net service name, and the database service entries
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about directory naming configuration and
directory server access configuration
9-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)
Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)
A tnsnames.ora file is created on each node with net service names. A connect
identifier is an identifier that maps to a connect descriptor. A connect descriptor
contains the following information:
■
■
The network route to the service, including the location of the listener through a
protocol address
The SERVICE_NAME for an Oracle release 8.1 or later, or SID for pre-8.1 Oracle
releases
Note: The SERVICE_NAME parameter you use in tnsnames.ora
is singular because you can only specify one service name.
DBCA creates net service names for connections as shown in Table 9–3:
Table 9–3
Connections for Net Service Names
Net Service
Name Type Description
Database
Clients that connect to any instance of the database use the net service name entry for the database.
connections This entry also enables Oracle Enterprise Manager to discover a RAC database.
A listener address is configured for each node that runs an instance of the database. The LOAD_
BALANCE option causes Oracle to choose the address randomly. If the chosen address fails, then the
FAILOVER option causes the connection request to fail over to the next address. Thus, if an instance
fails, then clients can still connect using another instance.
In the following example, db.us.oracle.com is used by the client to connect to the target
database, db.us.oracle.com.
db.us.acme.com=
(description=
(load_balance=on)
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521)
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521)
(connect_data=
(service_name=db.us.acme.com)))
Note: FAILOVER=ON is set by default for a list of addresses. Thus, you do not need to explicitly
specify the FAILOVER=ON parameter.
When you set DB_UNIQUE_NAME by entering a global database name that is longer than eight
characters, excluding DB_DOMAIN, then a net service entry similar to the following is created:
mydatabase.us.acme.com=
(description =
(address = (protocol = tcp)(host = node1-vip)(port = 1521))
(address = (protocol = tcp)(host = node2-vip)(port = 1521))
(load_balance = yes)
(connect_data =
(server = dedicated)
(service_name = mydatabase.us.acme.com)
)
)
Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed Configuration
9-7
Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)
Table 9–3 (Cont.) Connections for Net Service Names
Net Service
Name Type Description
Instance
Clients that connect to a particular instance of the database use the net service name entry for the
connections instance. This entry, for example, enables Oracle Enterprise Manager to discover the instances in the
cluster. These entries are also used to start and stop instances.
In the following example, db1.us.acme.com, is used by Oracle Enterprise Manager to connect to
an instance named db1 on db1-server:
db1.us.acme.com=
(description=
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(connect_data=
(service_name=db.us.acme.com)
(instance_name=db1)))
Remote
listeners
As discussed in "Configuring Service Registration-Related Parameters in Real Application Clusters"
on page 9-4, the REMOTE_LISTENER parameter identifies the global list of listeners and it is
dynamic. Oracle changes the setting for REMOTE_LISTENER when you reconfigure your cluster
database.
Whether using shared servers or dedicated servers, the list of remote listeners is supplied using the
REMOTE_LISTENER parameter, for example:
REMOTE_LISTENER=listeners_db_unique_name
This enables the instance to register with remote listeners on the other nodes; listeners_db_
unique_name is resolved through a naming method such as a tnsnames.ora file.
In the following example, listeners_db.us.acme.com is resolved to a list of listeners available
on the nodes on which the cluster database has instances:
listeners_db.us.acme.com=
(address_list=
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521)))
The instance uses this list to determine the addresses of the remote listeners with which to register
its information.
Nondefault
listeners
As discussed in "Local Listeners" on page 9-5 and "Multiple Listeners" on page 9-5, the LOCAL_
LISTENER parameter is set in the initsid.ora file if a nondefault listener is configured, for
example:
sid.local_listener=listener_sid
Where listener_sid is resolved to a listener address through a naming method such as a
tnsnames.ora file.
In the following sample, listener_db1.us.acme.com is resolved to the nondefault listener
address:
listener_db1.us.acme.com=
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1522))
9-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)
Table 9–3 (Cont.) Connections for Net Service Names
Net Service
Name Type Description
Services
Entries
When you configure high availability services using the DBCA Services page, then DBCA creates net
service entries similar to the following. The three services in the following examples, db_svc1, db_
svc2, and db_svc3, have TAF policies of NONE, BASIC and PRECONNECT respectively.
db_svc1.us.acme.com=
(description =
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521))
(load_balance=yes)
(connect_data=
(server = dedicated)
(service_name = db_svc1.us.acme.com)
)
)
db_svc2.us.acme.com=
(description=
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521))
(load_balance=yes)
(connect_data =
(server = dedicated)
(service_name=db_svc2.us.acme.com)
(failover_mode =
(type=select)
(method=basic)
(retries=180)
(delay=5)
)
)
)
db_svc3.us.acme.com=
(description=
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521))
(load_balance=yes)
(connect_data=
(server=dedicated)
(service_name=db_svc3.us.acme.com)
(failover_mode=
(backup=db_svc3_preconnect.us.acme.com)
(type=select)
(method=preconnect)
(retries=180)
(delay=5)
)
)
)
Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed Configuration
9-9
Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)
Table 9–3 (Cont.) Connections for Net Service Names
Net Service
Name Type Description
Services
Entries
(continued)
When a service has a TAF policy of PRECONNECT, then a service_name_preconnect net
service entry is also created, as in the following example:
External
procedures
An entry for connections to external procedures. This enables an Oracle Database 10g database to
connect to external procedures.
db_svc3_preconnect.us.acme.com =
(description =
(address = (protocol = tcp)(host = node1-vip)(port = 1521))
(address = (protocol = tcp)(host = node2-vip)(port = 1521))
(load_balance = yes)
(connect_data =
(server = dedicated)
(service_name = db_svc3_preconnect.us.amce.com)
(failover_mode =
(backup = db_svc3.us.acme.com)
(type = select)
(method = basic)
(retries = 180)
(delay = 5)
)
)
)
extproc_connection_data.us.acme.com=
(description=
(address_list=
(address=(protocol=ipc)(key=extproc0))
(connect_data=
(sid=plsextproc)))
Example 9–1 Example tnsnames.ora File
The following is a sample tnsnames.ora file that is created during a preconfigured
database configuration installation:
db.us.acme.com=
(description=
(load_balance=on)
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521))
(connect_data=
(service_name=db.us.acme.com)))
db1.us.acme.com=
(description=
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(connect_data=
(service_name=db.us.acme.com)
(instance_name=db1)))
db2.us.acme.com=
(description=
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521))
(connect_data=
(service_name=db.us.acme.com)
(instance_name=db2)))
listeners_db.us.acme.com=
(address_list=
9-10 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Net Services Profile (sqlnet.ora File)
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node1-vip)(port=1521))
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=node2-vip)(port=1521)))
extproc_connection_data.us.acme.com=
(description=
(address_list=
(address=(protocol=ipc)(key=extproc)))
(connect_data=
(sid=plsextproc)
(presentation=RO)))
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about the tnsnames.ora file
Net Services Profile (sqlnet.ora File)
The sqlnet.ora file is automatically configured with:
■
The computer's domain
This domain is automatically appended to any unqualified net service name. For
example, if the default domain is set to us.acme.com, then Oracle resolves db in
the connect string CONNECT scott/[email protected] as: db.us.acme.com.
■
A naming method the server uses to resolve a name to a connect descriptor
The order of naming methods is as follows: directory naming (for Custom Install
or Advanced database configuration options only), tnsnames.ora file, Oracle
Names server, and host naming.
The following is a sample sqlnet.ora file created during a preconfigured database
configuration install:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES= (NTS)
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (TNSNAMES, EZCONNECT)
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about the sqlnet.ora file
Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed Configuration 9-11
Net Services Profile (sqlnet.ora File)
9-12 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Part V
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Reference
Information
Part V provides Real Application Clusters (RAC) installation and configuration
reference information. The contents of Part V are:
■
Appendix A, "Troubleshooting the Installation Process"
■
Appendix B, "Using Scripts to Create Oracle Real Application Clusters Databases"
■
Appendix C, "Configuring Raw Devices for Oracle Real Application Clusters"
■
■
■
■
Appendix D, "Converting to Real Application Clusters from Single-Instance Oracle
Databases"
Appendix E, "Directory Structure for Oracle RAC Environments"
Appendix F, "How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Real Application
Clusters Database, and How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades"
Appendix G, "Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers"
A
Troubleshooting the Installation Process
This appendix provides troubleshooting information for installing Oracle Clusterware
and Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC). The topic in this appendix is:
■
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware and RAC Installation
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for additional
information about Oracle Clusterware and RAC configuration and
deployment.
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware and RAC Installation
This section contains these topics:
■
General Installation Issues
■
Oracle Clusterware Install Actions Log Errors and Causes
■
Real Application Clusters Installation Error Messages
■
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Real Application Clusters Installations
General Installation Issues
The following is a list of examples of types of errors that can occur during installation:
Nodes unavailable for selection from the OUI Node Selection screen
Cause: Oracle Clusterware is either not installed, or the Oracle Clusterware
services are not up and running.
Action: Install Oracle Clusterware, or review the status of your Oracle
Clusterware. Consider restarting the nodes, as doing so may resolve the problem.
Node nodename is unreachable
Cause: Unavailable IP host
Action: Attempt the following:
1.
Run the command ipconfig /all. Compare the output of this command
with the contents of the C:\WINNT\system32\drivers\etc\hosts file to
ensure that the node IP is listed.
2.
Run the command nslookup to see if the host is reachable.
Time stamp is in the future
Cause: One or more nodes has a different clock time than the local node. If this is
the case, then you may see output similar to the following:
Troubleshooting the Installation Process
A-1
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware and RAC Installation
time stamp 2005-04-04 14:49:49 is 106 s in the future
Action: Ensure that all member nodes of the cluster have the same clock time.
Administrative user unable to log in to SQL*Plus using the SYSDBA role
Cause: When you install Oracle Database on Microsoft Windows, Oracle
Universal Installer creates a Windows local group called ORA_DBA, and then
adds your Windows username to it. Members of ORA_DBA automatically receive
the SYSDBA privilege. However, for cluster installations, Oracle Universal
Installer does not add the user to ORA_DBA if they have performed the
installation remotely. As a result, this user cannot log in to SQL*Plus using the
SYSDBA role
Action: Manually add remote users to ORA_DBA.
Oracle Clusterware Install Actions Log Errors and Causes
The following is a list of potential errors in the installActions.log:
■
PRIF-10: failed to initialize the cluster registry
Configuration assistant "Oracle Private Interconnect Configuration Assistant"
failed
■
Step 4: Starting up CRS stack on all nodes
node1 service OracleCSService in improper STOPPED state, err(997)
node2 service OracleCSService in improper STOPPED state, err(997)
■
Step 4: Starting up CRS stack on all nodes
node1 service OracleCSService in improper STOPPED state, err(0)
node2 service OracleCSService in improper STOPPED state, err(997)
■
Step 4: Starting up CRS stack on all nodes
oracletest1 failed to startup service OracleEVMService, err(1053)
■
Step 1: checking status of CRS cluster
Step 2: configuring OCR repository
ignoring upgrade failure of ocr(-1073740972)
failed to configure Oracle Cluster Registry with CLSCFG, ret -1073740972
after installing the patch 3555863 the configuration fails with the same
problem
Each of these error messages can be caused by one of the following issues:
The OCFS format is not recognized on one or more of the remote cluster nodes
If you are using OCFS for your OCR and Voting disk partitions, then:
1.
Leave the OUI window in place.
2.
Restart the second node, and any additional nodes.
3.
Retry the assistants
A-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware and RAC Installation
Timing issue with start of the OracleCSService:
If you think the cause may be a timing issue, then:
1.
Leave the OUI window in place.
2.
Start the OracleCSService manually on all nodes. You may also need to start the
OracleObjectService manually.
3.
Retry the assistants
You are on a Windows 2003 system, and Automount of new drives is not enabled:
If this is true, then:
For RAC on Windows 2003, you must issue the following commands on all nodes:
diskpart
automount enable
If you are already failing at the configuration assistants and this has not yet been run
on all nodes in the cluster, you will need to clean up your CRS install, issue this
command on all nodes, reboot all nodes, and start the CRS install again.
You have entered a period in one of the node names during CRS install
Periods (".") are not permitted in node names. Instead, use an underscore character ("_
") or a hyphen. ("-").
To resolve a failed installation, remove traces of the Oracle installation, and reinstall
with a permitted node name.
Node1 failed to startup service OracleEVMService, err(1053)
The installation requires dll: MSVCP60.DLL. Copying MSVCP60.DLL to
c:\winnt\system32 should allow EVM to start.
Ignoring upgrade failure of ocr(-1073740972)
This error indicates that the user that is performing installation does not have
Administrator privileges.
Real Application Clusters Installation Error Messages
Real Application Clusters Management Tools Error Messages are in Oracle Database
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment
Guide.
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Real Application Clusters Installations
If Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) does not display the Node Selection page, then
perform clusterware diagnostics by running the olsnodes -v command from the
binary directory in your Oracle Clusterware home, CRS_home\BIN, and analyzing its
output. Refer to your clusterware documentation if the detailed output indicates that
your clusterware is not running.
In addition, use the following command syntax to check the integrity of the Cluster
Manager:
cluvfy comp clumgr -n node_list -verbose
Troubleshooting the Installation Process
A-3
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware and RAC Installation
In the preceding syntax example, the variable node_list is the list of nodes in your
cluster, separated by commas.
A-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
B
Using Scripts to Create Oracle Real
Application Clusters Databases
This chapter describes the steps required to create an Oracle Real Application Clusters
(RAC) database from scripts. The topic in this appendix is:
■
Creating a Database Using Scripts
The scripts generated by DBCA are for reference purposes
only. Oracle strongly recommends that you use DBCA to create a
database.
Note:
Creating a Database Using Scripts
To generate scripts to create a Real Application Clusters database, create a database
using the scripts, and prepare the database for use, complete the following steps:
1.
Start Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) and select your preferred options
to build the RAC database. Note: you must select the Custom Database template
on the Database Templates page for DBCA to provide the script generation option.
On the Creation Options page of your DBCA session, deselect Create Database
and select Generate Database Creation Scripts before you click Finish. You can
accept the default destination directory for the scripts, or browse for a different
location. In either case, you should note the path name for use in the next step.
See Also: "Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database
Configuration Assistant" for additional information about running a
DBCA session.
2.
Navigate to the directory, which you noted in Step 1, where DBCA created the
scripts, and review the SQL scripts to ensure that they contain the statements to
build a database with the characteristics you require. If they do not, then Oracle
recommends that you rerun DBCA to create scripts with the desired configuration
rather than editing the scripts yourself.
3.
On each cluster node you identified during your DBCA session, run the script or
sid.bat on Windows, where sid is the sid prefix that you entered on the DBCA
Database Name page.
4.
Set the initialization parameter, cluster_database, to the value TRUE in your
SPFILE by issuing an ALTER SYSTEM command, or by uncommenting it in your
PFILE for each instance.
Using Scripts to Create Oracle Real Application Clusters Databases B-1
Creating a Database Using Scripts
5.
Configure Net Services to support your new database and instances as described
in Chapter 9, "Understanding the Oracle Real Application Clusters Installed
Configuration".
6.
Set the local_listener and remote_listener parameters in your SPFILE by issuing an
ALTER SYSTEM command, or by uncommenting it in your PFILE for each
instance.
7.
Run SRVCTL to configure and start database and instance applications as
described in Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Administration and Deployment Guide.
See Also: Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for
additional information about creating and using scripts to install
Oracle software
B-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
C
Configuring Raw Devices for Oracle Real
Application Clusters
This appendix provides additional information about configuring raw devices to
deploy Real Application Clusters (RAC). You must configure raw devices if you do not
use automatic storage management or an Oracle Cluster File System. The topic in this
appendix is:
■
Support for Raw Devices on Windows Systems
■
Raw Devices Required by Database Configuration Assistant
Support for Raw Devices on Windows Systems
Oracle Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters supports the use of raw
devices for Oracle files on Windows 2000 and Windows 2003.
You can partition a raw device to store data and control files. You can also use the
entire raw device to store data.
You can create partitions on Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 by using the Disk
Management utility, Diskmgmt.msc. To access this utility:
1.
Click Start.
2.
Select Run... from the program list.
3.
In the Run dialog box, type diskmgmt.msc.
Raw Devices Required by Database Configuration Assistant
If you want to use Database Configuration Assistant to create a database on raw
storage, that is, without using automatic storage management or an Oracle Cluster File
System, then you must configure raw devices as described in this section. These
devices are in addition to the OCR and voting disk required to install Oracle
Clusterware. Create these devices before running Oracle Universal Installer to install
Oracle Database 10g software. DBCA cannot create a RAC database unless you have
properly configured the following devices:
■
Four raw devices for four tablespace datafiles
■
At least two raw devices for control files
■
■
One raw device for each instance for its own tablespace for automatic undo
management
At least two raw devices for redo log files for each instance
Configuring Raw Devices for Oracle Real Application Clusters
C-1
Raw Devices Required by Database Configuration Assistant
■
One raw device for the server parameter file
Each instance has its own redo log files, but all instances in
a cluster share the control files and datafiles. In addition, each
instance's online redo log files must be readable by all other
instances to enable recovery.
Note:
Planning Your Raw Device Creation Strategy
Before installing Oracle Database 10g software with RAC, create enough partitions of
specific sizes to support your database, and also leave a few spare partitions of the
same size for future expansion. For example, if you have space on your shared disk
array, then select a limited set of standard partition sizes for your entire database.
Partition sizes of 50MB, 100MB, 500MB, and 1GB are suitable for most databases. Also
create a few very small and a few very large spare partitions that are, for example,
1MB and perhaps 5GB or greater in size. Based on your plans for using each partition,
determine the placement of these spare partitions by combining different sizes on one
disk, or by segmenting each disk into same-sized partitions.
Ensuring that there are spare partitions enables you to
perform emergency file relocations or additions if a tablespace
datafile becomes full.
Note:
C-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
D
Converting to Real Application Clusters from
Single-Instance Oracle Databases
This chapter describes the procedures for converting from Oracle Database 10g
single-instance databases to Real Application Clusters (RAC) databases. The topics in
this appendix are:
■
Prerequisites for Conversion
■
Single-Instance to Cluster-Enabled Conversion Administrative Issues
■
Converting from Single-Instance to Real Application Clusters
■
Post-Conversion Steps
If you are upgrading from Oracle Parallel Server to RAC or from an earlier version of
RAC, then use the Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA). In other words, the
procedures in this chapter assume that your original single-instance database and the
target RAC database are the same version of Oracle 10g, and running on the same
platform.
See Also: Database Licensing Information to understand the
restrictions of your license. You must comply with the restrictions
of the license you have purchased.
Prerequisites for Conversion
Your system must meet the following hardware and software requirements to convert
to RAC:
■
A supported hardware and operating system software configuration
■
Use OCFS or shared disks
■
Before converting your database, refer to the Oracle Database Licensing Information
manual to understand the scope of your license.
Single-Instance to Cluster-Enabled Conversion Administrative Issues
Note the following administrative considerations before conversion:
■
■
Backup procedures should be available before converting from a single-instance
Oracle database to RAC.
Additional archiving considerations apply in RAC environments. In particular, the
archive file format requires a thread number. In addition, the archived logs from
all instances of a RAC database are required for media recovery. If you archive to a
Converting to Real Application Clusters from Single-Instance Oracle Databases
D-1
Converting from Single-Instance to Real Application Clusters
file and you do not use a cluster file system, then a method of accessing the
archive logs from all nodes on which the cluster database has instances is required
where file systems are not shared.
Converting from Single-Instance to Real Application Clusters
To convert from single-instance Oracle databases to RAC, Oracle strongly recommends
that you use the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). This is because DBCA
automates the configuration of the control file attributes, creates the undo tablespaces
and the redo logs, and makes the initialization parameter file entries for
cluster-enabled environments. It also configures the Oracle Net Services, Oracle
Clusterware resources, and the configuration for RAC database management for use
by Oracle Enterprise Manager or the SRVCTL utility. This section describes the
following scenarios:
■
Single Instance on a Non-Cluster computer to Oracle Database 10g with RAC
■
Single Instance on a Cluster to Oracle Database 10g RAC
Single Instance on a Non-Cluster computer to Oracle Database 10g with RAC
To convert from a single-instance Oracle database that is on a non-cluster computer to
RAC, perform the procedures described under the following headings in the order
shown:
■
Back up the Original Single-Instance Database
■
Perform the Pre-Installation Steps
■
Set up the Cluster
■
Copy the Preconfigured Database Image
■
Install Oracle Database 10g Software with Real Application Clusters
Back up the Original Single-Instance Database
Use DBCA to create a preconfigured image of your single-instance database by using
the following procedure:
1.
Navigate to the bin directory in ORACLE_HOME, and start DBCA.
2.
At the Welcome page, click Next.
3.
On the Operations page, select Manage Templates, and click Next.
4.
On the Template Management page, select Create a database template and From
an existing database (structure as well as data), and click Next.
5.
On the Source Database page, enter the SID prefix in the Database instance field,
and click Next.
6.
On the Template Properties page, enter a name for your template in the Name
field. Oracle recommends that you use the database name.
By default, the template files are generated in the directory %ORACLE_
HOME%\assistants\dbca\templates directory on Windows-based systems. If
you choose to do so, you can enter a description of the file in the Description field,
and change the template file location in the Template datafile field.
When you have completed entries, click Next.
D-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Converting from Single-Instance to Real Application Clusters
7.
On the Location of Database Related Files page, select Maintain the file locations,
so that you can restore the database to the current directory structure, and click
Finish.
DBCA generates two files: a database structure file (template_name.dbc), and a
database preconfigured image file (template_name.dfb).
Perform the Pre-Installation Steps
Perform the pre-installation steps as documented in chapters Chapter 2, "Server and
Network Pre-Installation Tasks"and Chapter 3, "Storage Pre-Installation Tasks"in
Part II of this book.
See Also: Storage vendor-specific documentation for setting up
the shared disk subsystem and for information about how to mirror
and stripe disks
Set up the Cluster
Form a cluster with the required number of nodes according to your hardware
vendor's documentation. When you have configured all of the nodes in your cluster,
either with or without vendor clusterware, then install Oracle Clusterware and
validate cluster components by referring to the procedures in Chapter 4, "Installing
Oracle Clusterware on Windows-Based Systems".
Validate the Cluster
Validate the cluster configuration using the Cluster Verification Utility, as described in
Chapter 5, "Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Clusters".
Copy the Preconfigured Database Image
Copy the preconfigured database image. This includes copying the database structure
*.dbc file and the database preconfigured image *.dfb file that DBCA created in the
previous procedure "Back up the Original Single-Instance Database" on page D-2 to a
temporary location on the node in the cluster from which you plan to run DBCA.
Install Oracle Database 10g Software with Real Application Clusters
1.
Run the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to perform an Oracle installation with the
Oracle 10g Database with RAC.
2.
Select Cluster Installation Mode on the Specify Hardware Cluster Installation page
of the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and select the nodes to include in your
RAC database.
3.
On the OUI Database Configuration Types page, select the Advanced install type.
After installing the Oracle software, the OUI runs post-installation configuration
tools, such as the Network Configuration Assistant (NetCA), DBCA, and so on.
4.
On the DBCA Template Selection page, use the template that you copied to a
temporary location in the "Copy the Preconfigured Database Image" procedure.
Use the browse option to select the template location.
5.
If you selected raw storage on the OUI Storage Options page, then on the DBCA
File Locations Tab on the Initialization Parameters page, replace the data files,
control files, and log files, and so on, with the corresponding raw device files if
you have not setup the DBCA_RAW_CONFIG environment variable. You must also
replace default database files with raw devices on the Storage page.
Converting to Real Application Clusters from Single-Instance Oracle Databases
D-3
Converting from Single-Instance to Real Application Clusters
See Also: Chapter 6, "Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the
Database Configuration Assistant" for more details about DBCA
6.
After creating the RAC database, DBCA displays the Password Management page
on which you must change the passwords for database privileged users who have
SYSDBA and SYSOPER roles. When DBCA exits, the conversion process is
complete.
Single Instance on a Cluster to Oracle Database 10g RAC
Use the following procedures to convert your single-instance database on a cluster
computer to RAC for all of these scenarios.
Single Instance on a Cluster Running from a Cluster Enabled Oracle Home
Perform the following procedures to convert a single-instance database on a cluster
running from a cluster-installed (Oracle Database 10g with RAC) Oracle home.
1.
Use DBCA to create a preconfigured image of your single-instance database as
described under the heading "Back up the Original Single-Instance Database" on
page D-2. To perform the conversion manually, shut down the single-instance
database.
2.
To add nodes to your cluster, add and connect these nodes to the cluster as
described under the heading "Perform the Pre-Installation Steps" on page D-3.
Ensure that all of these nodes can access the shared storage. Also extend the Oracle
Clusterware home to the new nodes using the procedures for "Extending
Clusterware and Oracle Software to New Nodes" as described in Oracle Database
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide.
3.
From the existing Oracle home, extend this home to the new nodes using the
procedure "Adding Nodes at the Oracle RAC Database Layer" as described in
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration
and Deployment Guide.
4.
From one of the newly added nodes, configure the listeners on the additional
nodes using the NetCA. Choose the same port number and protocol that you used
on the existing node. If the NetCA displays the existing node in the node list page,
then do not select this node, because the listener is already configured on it.
5.
Convert the database using one of the following procedures:
■
Automated Conversion Procedure
■
Manual Conversion Procedure
Automated Conversion Procedure If you created the preconfigured image of the single
instance database as described under the heading "Back up the Original
Single-Instance Database" on page D-2, then use DBCA to complete the conversion to a
RAC database by completing the following steps:
1.
Start DBCA from the initial node. Select the names of the nodes that you want to
include as part of your cluster database. On the Template Selection page, select the
preconfigured template that you created in Step 1 on page D-4. Enter the database
name and respond to the remaining DBCA prompts.
2.
To use raw devices for the cluster database files: When the Initialization
Parameters page appears, enter the raw device name for the SPFILE on the File
Locations tab. On the Storage page, replace the default database file names with
D-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Converting from Single-Instance to Real Application Clusters
the raw devices for the control files, redo logs, and datafiles to create the cluster
database. Click Finish, and create the database.
After creating the RAC database, DBCA displays the Password Management page on
which you must change the passwords for the database privileged users who have
SYSDBA and SYSOPER roles. When DBCA exits, the conversion process is complete.
Manual Conversion Procedure If you did not use DBCA to create a preconfigured image
of your single-instance database in Step 1 on page D-4, then perform the following
steps to complete the conversion:
1.
Create the OFA directory structure on each of the nodes that you have added.
See Also: "Directory Structures for Real Application Clusters" on
page E-1 for more information about OFA.
2.
If you are converting single-instance database files on a file system to raw devices,
then copy the database datafiles, control files, redo logs, and server parameter file
to their corresponding raw devices using the OCOPY command on Windows-based
systems. Otherwise, continue to the next step.
3.
Re-create the control files by running the CREATE CONTROLFILE SQL statement
with the REUSE keyword and specify MAXINSTANCES and MAXLOGFILES, and so
on, as needed for your RAC configuration. The MAXINSTANCES recommended
default is 32.
4.
Shut down the database instance.
5.
If your single-instance database was using an SPFILE parameter file, then create a
temporary PFILE from the SPFILE using the following SQL statement:
CREATE PFILE='pfile_name' from spfile='spfile_name'
6.
Set the CLUSTER_DATABASE parameter to TRUE, set the INSTANCE_NUMBER
parameter to a unique value for each instance, using a sid.parameter=value
syntax.
If you optimized memory usage on your single-instance database, then adjust the
size of the SGA to avoid swapping and paging when you convert to RAC. you
should make this adjustment because RAC requires about 350 bytes for each buffer
to accommodate the Global Cache Service (GCS). For example, if you have 10,000
buffers, then RAC requires about 350*10,000 bytes more memory. Therefore, adjust
the size of the SGA by changing the DB_CACHE_SIZE and DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE
parameters accordingly.
7.
Start up the database instance using the PFILE created in step 5.
8.
If your single-instance database was using automatic undo management, then
create an undo tablespace for each additional instance using the CREATE UNDO
TABLESPACE SQL statement. If you are using raw devices, then ensure that the
datafile for the undo tablespace is on the raw device.
9.
Create redo threads that have at least two redo logs for each additional instance. If
you are using raw devices, then ensure that the redo log files are on raw devices.
Enable the new redo threads by using an ALTER DATABASE SQL statement. Then
shutdown the database instance.
10. Copy the Oracle password file from the initial node, or from the node from which
you are working, to the corresponding location on the additional nodes on which
the cluster database will have an instance. Make sure that you replace the
Converting to Real Application Clusters from Single-Instance Oracle Databases
D-5
Post-Conversion Steps
ORACLE_SID name in each password file appropriately for each additional
instance.
11. Add REMOTE_LISTENER=LISTENERS_DB_NAME and sid.LOCAL_
LISTENER=LISTENER_SID parameters to the PFILE.
12. Configure the net service entries for the database and instances and address
entries for the LOCAL_LISTENER for each instance and REMOTE_LISTENER in the
tnsnames.ora file and copy it to all nodes.
13. Create the SPFILE from the PFILE. If you are not using a cluster file system, then
ensure that the SPFILE is on a raw device.
14. Create the %ORACLE_HOME%\database\initSID.ora file on Windows-based
systems that contains the following entry:
spfile='spfile_path_name'
where spfile_path_name is the complete path name of the SPFILE.
15. Add the configuration for the RAC database and its instance-to-node mapping
using SRVCTL.
16. Start the RAC database using SRVCTL.
After starting the database with SRVCTL, your conversion process is complete and, for
example, you can run the following SQL statement to see the statuses of all the
instances in your RAC database:
select * from gv$active_instances
Post-Conversion Steps
After completing the conversion, note the following recommendations for RAC
environments, as described in the RAC documentation:
■
■
■
Follow the recommendations for using load balancing and Transparent
Application Failover as described in the Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
Use locally managed tablespaces instead of dictionary managed tablespaces to
reduce contention and manage sequences in RAC as described in the Oracle Real
Application Clusters Deployment and Performance Guide
Follow the guidelines for configuring an interconnect, for using automatic
segment space management, and for using SRVCTL to administer multiple
instances, as described in the Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
The buffer cache and shared pool capacity requirements in RAC are slightly greater
than the requirements for single-instance Oracle databases. Therefore, you should
increase the size of the buffer cache by about 10% and the size of the shared pool by
about 15%.
D-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
E
Directory Structure for Oracle RAC
Environments
This appendix describes the directory structures for Real Application Clusters (RAC)
software environments. The topics in this appendix are:
■
Understanding the Real Application Clusters Directory Structure
■
Directory Structures for Real Application Clusters
Understanding the Real Application Clusters Directory Structure
When you install Oracle Database 10g with RAC, all subdirectories are under a
top-level Oracle base directory, named ORACLE_BASE by default. The ORACLE_
HOME and ADMIN directories are also located under the Oracle base directory.
Directory Structures for Real Application Clusters
Table E–1 shows the hierarchical directory tree of a sample OFA-compliant database
for RAC on Windows-based systems:
See Also: Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for further
information about the ORACLE_HOME and ADMIN directories
Table E–1
Root
Second-Level
Directory Structure for A Sample OFA-Compliant Windows Environment
Third-Level
x:\oracle_
base
FourthLevel
Description
c:\oracle
The default ORACLE_BASE directory.
\%ORACLE_
HOME%
\ora10.1
\%ORA_CRS_
HOME%
\crs10.1
The name of the Oracle home by default.
The name of the Oracle Clusterware home by default.
\bin
Subtree for Oracle binaries.
\network
Subtree for Oracle Net configuration files, including
tnsnames.ora, listener.ora and sqlnet.ora.
\srvm
\admin subdirectory.
Directory Structure for Oracle RAC Environments
E-1
Directory Structures for Real Application Clusters
Table E–1
Root
Second-Level
(Cont.) Directory Structure for A Sample OFA-Compliant Windows
Third-Level
FourthLevel
\admin
Description
The RAC script clustdb.sql and initialization
parameter files for database creation
A directory from previous releases containing
initialization files pointing to the new directory location
for parameter files: ORACLE_BASE\admin\db_
name\pfile.
\database
Subtree for RAC database administration files
\admin
db_name database administration files for the instance
identified by sid.
\db_name
\adhoc
Ad hoc SQL scripts.
\adump
Audit files.
\arch
Archived redo log files.
\bdump
Background process trace files.
\cdump
Core dump files.
\create
Programs used to create the database.
\exp
Database export files
\pfile
Initialization parameter files
\udump
User SQL trace files
See Also: Oracle Database Platform Guide 10g Release 2 (10.2) for
Microsoft Windows for further information about the ORACLE_
HOME and ADMIN directories
E-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
F
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle
Real Application Clusters Database, and How
to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling
Upgrades
This appendix describes how to stop processes in an Oracle Real Application Clusters
(RAC) database, for one of the following two scenarios:
Scenario One: Stopping processes in an entire database, in preparation for adding
additional products to an existing database, or in preparation for patch updates.
Scenario Two: Stopping processes on selected nodes in a database, in preparation for
performing a rolling upgrade of Oracle Clusterware from any 10.2 installation to the
latest patch update; for example, you can perform a rolling upgrade from 10.2.0.1 to
10.2.0.3.
For all command lines, Oracle_home represents the Oracle
home path on your system, CRS_home represents the Oracle
Clusterware home path on your system, and SID represents the Oracle
system identifier (or name) of the database instance.
Note:
This appendix contains the following topics:
■
Back Up the Oracle Software
■
Verify System Readiness for Patches and Upgrades
■
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database
■
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
Back Up the Oracle Software
Before you make any changes to the Oracle software, whether you intend to upgrade
or patch part of the database or clusterware, or all of your cluster installation, Oracle
recommends that you create a backup of the Oracle software.
Verify System Readiness for Patches and Upgrades
If you are completing a patch update of your database or clusterware, then after you
download the patch software, and before you start to patch or upgrade your database,
review the Patch Set Release Notes that accompany the patch to determine if your
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Real Application Clusters Database, and
terware
How to
Rolling
Perform
Upgrades
Oracle ClusF-1
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database
system meets the system requirements for the operating system and the hardware
platform.
Use the Cluster Verification Utility to assist you with system checks in preparation for
starting a database patch or upgrade.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database
To stop process in an existing Oracle Real Application Clusters Database, where you
want to shut down the entire database, complete the following steps.
Shut Down Oracle Real Application Clusters Databases
Shut down any existing Oracle Database instances on each node, with normal or
immediate priority.
If Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is running, then shut down all databases
that use ASM, and then shut down the ASM instance on each node of the cluster.
To upgrade using Oracle Clusterware or Cluster Ready
Services, you must shut down all Oracle Database instances on all
cluster nodes before modifying the Oracle software. If you are
performing a patch update, review the instructions in the Patch Set
Notes for detailed instructions.
Note:
Stop All Oracle Processes
Stop all listener and other processes running in the Oracle home directories where you
want to modify the database software.
If you shut down ASM instances, then you must first shut
down all database instances that use ASM, even if these databases run
from different Oracle homes.
Note:
Stop Oracle Clusterware or Cluster Ready Services Processes
If you are modifying an Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Cluster Ready Services (CRS)
installation, then shut down the following Oracle Database 10g services.
Note:
1.
You must perform these steps in the order listed.
Shut down any processes in the Oracle home on each node that might be accessing
a database; for example, shut down Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Before you shut down any processes that are monitored by
Enterprise Manager Grid Control, set a blackout in Grid Control for
the processes that you intend to shut down. This is necessary so that
the availability records for these processes indicate that the shutdown
was planned downtime, rather than an unplanned system outage.
Note:
F-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database
2.
Shut down all RAC instances on all nodes. To shut down all RAC instances for a
database, enter the following command, where db_name is the name of the
database:
Oracle_home\BIN\srvctl stop database -d db_name
3.
Shut down all ASM instances on all nodes. To shut down an ASM instance, enter
the following command, where node is the name of the node where the ASM
instance is running:
Oracle_home\bin\srvctl stop asm -n node
4.
Stop all node applications on all nodes. To stop node applications running on a
node, enter the following command, where node is the name of the node where the
applications are running
Oracle_home\bin\srvctl stop nodeapps -n node
5.
Shut down the Oracle Clusterware or CRS process by entering the following
command on all nodes:
CRS_home\bin\crsctl stop crs
6.
Shut down the Oracle Clusterware or CRS Oracle Object Service and Oracle
Cluster Volume Service processes from the Services window. Access the Services
window by clicking Start, selecting Control Panel, selecting Administrative Tools,
then selecting Services. From the Services window, shut down the following
services:
Oracle Object Service
OracleClusterVolumeService
OracleServiceSID
Depending on your configuration, your nodes may not be
running all of the services listed. If the OracleASMService is still listed
as running, then shut it down as well.
Note:
Stop Oracle Database 10g Processes Before Adding Products or Upgrading
This section provides an overview of what needs to be done before adding additional
products to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2). If you are performing a patch
upgrade, then refer to the Database Patch Set Notes for the patch for additional
instructions.
Note:
1.
You must perform these steps in the order listed.
Shut down any processes in the Oracle home on each node that can access a
database; for example, shut down Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Before you shut down any processes that are monitored by
Enterprise Manager Grid Control, set a blackout in Grid Control for
the processes that you intend to shut down. This is necessary so that
the availability records for these processes indicate that the shutdown
was planned downtime, rather than an unplanned system outage.
Note:
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Real Application Clusters Database, and
terware
How to
Rolling
Perform
Upgrades
Oracle ClusF-3
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
2.
Shut down all RAC instances on all nodes. To shut down all RAC instances for a
database, enter the following command, where db_name is the name of the
database:
Oracle_home\bin\srvctl stop database -d db_name
3.
Shut down all ASM instances on all nodes. To shut down an ASM instance, enter
the following command, where node is the name of the node where the ASM
instance is running:
Oracle_home\bin\srvctl stop asm -n node
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
To perform a rolling upgrade, complete all of the following steps in sequence.
■
Copy Patch Software to the Primary Upgrade Node
■
Shut Down Oracle Real Application Clusters Instances on Upgrade Nodes
■
Stop All Oracle Processes on Upgrade Nodes
■
Start OUI and Complete Upgrade Processes on Upgrade Nodes
To perform rolling upgrades, the existing Oracle Clusterware
home directory, commonly referred to in Oracle documentation as
CRS home, must be located on local directories on the node. You
cannot perform rolling upgrades on a shared CRS home directory.
Note:
Copy Patch Software to the Primary Upgrade Node
Download the patch software to the primary node on the cluster (the node where you
performed initial Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database installation). Review the
patch set Readme to confirm that your system meets the system requirements for the
patch updates, and complete any special instructions for particular environments or
configurations.
To download patches, or download the patch note Readme:
1.
Log in to OracleMetaLink (https://metalink.oracle.com)
2.
Click the Patches & Updates tab.
3.
Search for the patch that you want to install.
4.
Click the patch number to open the patch page
From this location, you can download the patch binary, download the patch
Readme, and obtain other information regarding the patch update.
5.
6.
Download the patch set installation archive to a directory inside the Oracle base
directory that meets the following requirements:
■
It is not the exiting Oracle home directory, or CRS home directory
■
It is not under an existing Oracle home directory, or CRS home directory
Extract the patch set installation archive
F-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
Shut Down Oracle Real Application Clusters Instances on Upgrade Nodes
On each node on which you want to perform a rolling upgrade, shut down the Oracle
Database instance, with normal or immediate priority.
If Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is running, then for each node that you
intend to perform a rolling upgrade, shut down the database that uses ASM, and then
shut down the ASM instance on the node.
To upgrade Oracle Clusterware or Cluster Ready Services, you
must shut down all Oracle Database instances on all cluster nodes that
you intend to upgrade before modifying the Oracle software. If you
are performing a patch update, review the instructions in the Patch Set
Notes for detailed instructions.
Note:
Stop All Oracle Processes on Upgrade Nodes
On each node on which you want to perform a rolling upgrade, before you upgrade
Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Cluster Ready Services installations, you must shut
down Oracle Database services that use clusterware processes.
Complete the following steps:
Note:
1.
You must perform these steps in the order listed.
Shut down any processes on each node you intend to upgrade that might be
accessing a database, such as Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Before you shut down any processes that are monitored by
Enterprise Manager Grid Control, set a blackout in Grid Control for
the processes that you intend to shut down. This is necessary so that
the availability records for these processes indicate that the shutdown
was planned downtime, rather than an unplanned system outage.
Note:
2.
Shut down all RAC instances on each node you intend to upgrade. To shut down
RAC instances on individual nodes in the database, enter the following command,
where db_name is the name of the database, and instance_name is the name of
the instance:
Oracle_home\bin\srvctl stop instance -d db_name -i instance_name
Repeat this process on each node of the cluster on which you intend to perform
the rolling upgrade.
3.
Shut down ASM instances on each node on which you intend to perform the
rolling upgrade.
If you shut down ASM instances, then you must first shut
down all database instances on the nodes you intend to upgrade that
use ASM, even if these databases run from different Oracle homes.
Note:
To shut down an ASM instance, enter the following command, where node is the
name of the node where the ASM instance is running:
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Real Application Clusters Database, and
terware
How to
Rolling
Perform
Upgrades
Oracle ClusF-5
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
Oracle_home\bin\srvctl stop asm -n node
4.
Stop all node applications on each node on which you intend to perform the
rolling upgrade. To stop node applications running on a node, enter the following
command, where node is the name of the node where the applications are running
Oracle_home\bin\srvctl stop nodeapps -n node
5.
On each node where you intend to perform the rolling upgrade, shut down the
Oracle Clusterware or CRS process by entering the following command:
CRS_home\bin\crsctl stop crs
6.
Shut down the Oracle Clusterware or CRS Oracle Object Service and Oracle
Cluster Volume Service processes from the Services window. Access the Services
window by clicking Start, selecting Control Panel, selecting Administrative Tools,
then selecting Services. From the Services window, shut down the following
services:
Oracle Object Service
OracleClusterVolumeService
OracleServiceSID
Note: Depending on your configuration, your nodes may not be
running all of the services listed. If the OracleASMService is still listed
as running, then shut it down as well.
Start OUI and Complete Upgrade Processes on Upgrade Nodes
To complete the patch upgrade, use the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) downloaded
with the patch update.
Complete the following steps:
1.
Start the patch set OUI. At the Welcome window, click Next.
2.
On the Specify Home Details window, select the CRS home directory, and click
Next.
3.
On the Specify Hardware Cluster Installation Nodes window, select the nodes
where you want to perform the upgrade, and click Next.
4.
Follow further instructions as directed from the OUI windows.
5.
At the end of the install, OUI instructs you to run the command to stop Oracle
Clusterware.
Enter a command similar to the following on the first node to stop the CRS
daemons in the existing Oracle home:
CRS_home\bin\crsctl stop crs
Shut down the Oracle Clusterware or CRS Oracle Object Service and Oracle
Cluster Volume Service processes from the Services window. Access the Services
window by clicking Start, selecting Control Panel, selecting Administrative Tools,
then selecting Services. From the Services window, shut down the following
services:
Oracle Object Service
OracleClusterVolumeService
OracleServiceSID
F-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
6.
When you are prompted by OUI, enter a command similar to the following:
CRS_home\install\patch102.bat
7.
When the install script completes, it displays text similar to the following, where
patch_version displays the patch version you are installing:
clscfg -upgrade completed successfully
Successful upgrade of this node to patch_version
This indicates that the upgrade process is complete. The upgraded Oracle
Clusterware stack and AUTOSTART resources are started on the node.
Repeat steps 5, 6 and 7 for each node on which you are performing a rolling
upgrade.
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Real Application Clusters Database, and
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How to
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Oracle ClusF-7
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
F-8 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
G
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
This appendix lists the default port numbers and describes how to change the
assigned port after installation:
■
About Managing Ports
■
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLS
■
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports
■
Changing the iSQL*Plus Ports
■
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
About Managing Ports
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. Many Oracle Database components and services
use ports. As an administrator, it is important to know the port numbers used by these
services, and to make sure that the same port number is not used by two services on
your host.
Most port numbers are assigned during installation. Every component and service has
an allotted port range, which is the set of port numbers Oracle Database attempts to
use when assigning a port. Oracle Database starts with the lowest number in the range
and performs the following checks:
■
Is the port used by another Oracle Database installation on the host?
The installation may be up or down at the time; Oracle Database can still detect if
the port is used.
■
Is the port used by a process that is currently running?
This could be any process on the host, even a non-Oracle Database process.
If the answer to any of the preceding questions is yes, Oracle Database moves to the
next highest port in the allotted port range and continues checking until it finds a free
port.
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLS
In most cases, the Oracle Database component’s port number is listed in the tool used
to configure the port. In addition, ports for some Oracle Database applications are
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers G-1
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
listed in the portlist.ini file. This file is located in ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\install.
If you change a port number, it is not updated in the portlist.ini file, so you can
only rely on this file immediately after installation. To find or change a port number,
use the methods described in this appendix.
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
Table G–1 lists the port numbers and protocols used by components that are
configured during the installation. By default, the first port in the range is assigned to
the component, if it is available.
Table G–1
Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle SQL*Net Listener
1521
1521
TCP
1521 (same value as the
listener)
1521
TCP
1630
1630
TCP
3938
1830–1849
HTTP
1158
5500–5519
TCP/HTTP
5520
5520–5539
TCP
5540
5540–5559
TCP
Allows Oracle client connections to the database over
Oracle's SQL*Net protocol. You can configure it during
installation. To reconfigure this port, use Net
Configuration Assistant.
Data Guard
Shares the SQL*Net port and is configured during
installation. To reconfigure this port, use Net
Configuration Assistant to reconfigure the Oracle
SQL*Net listener.
Connection Manager
Listening port for Oracle client connections to Oracle
Connection Manager. It is not configured during
installation, but can be configured using Net
Configuration Assistant.
Oracle Management Agent
HTTP port for Oracle Management Agent, which is part
of Oracle Enterprise Manager. It is configured during
installation.
"Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
Port" on page G-4 explains how to modify its port
number
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
HTTP port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports" on page G-4
explains how to modify its port number.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
RMI port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation."Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports" on page G-4
explains how to modify its port number.
Enterprise Manager Database Console
JMS port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports" on page G-4
explains how to modify its port number.
G-2 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
Table G–1 (Cont.) Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
iSQL*Plus
5560
5560–5579
TCP/HTTP
5580
5580–5599
TCP
5600
5600–5619
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
HTTP
Dynamic
Dynamic
FTP
2030
2030
TCP
61000
61000–61300
TCP
11000
11000–26000
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
UDP
HTTP port for iSQL*Plus. The port number is
automatically assigned during installation. "Changing the
iSQL*Plus Ports" on page G-5 explains how to change its
port number.
iSQL*Plus
RMI port for iSQL*Plus. The port number is automatically
assigned during installation."Changing the iSQL*Plus
Ports" on page G-5 explains how to change its port
number.
iSQL*Plus
JMS port for iSQL*Plus. The port number is automatically
assigned during installation. "Changing the iSQL*Plus
Ports" on page G-5 explains how to change its port
number.
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB HTTP port is used if Web-based
applications need to access an Oracle database from an
HTTP listener. It is configured during installation, but
you cannot view it afterward. "Changing the Oracle XML
DB Ports" on page G-5 explains how to change its port
number.
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB FTP is used when applications need
to access an Oracle database from an FTP listener. It is
configured during installation, but you cannot view it
afterward. "Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports" on
page G-5 explains how to change its port number.
Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server
The port number for Microsoft Transaction Server is
configured when you enter its value in Oracle Universal
Installer during a Custom installation the first time you
install it on a particular computer. If you install it in
multiple Oracle homes on the same computer, Oracle
Universal Installer uses the same port number that you
specified during the first installation.
In most cases, you do not need to reconfigure the port
number. If you do need to, you can edit its value in the
HKEY_LOCAL_
MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\OracleMTSRecoveryS
ervice\Protid_0 Registry Editor key.
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Local Host: Windows
only)
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Cluster Interconnect:
Windows only)
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Real Application Clusters (UNIX)
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers G-3
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
Table G–1 (Cont.) Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle Clusterware
49896
49896
TCP
49895
49895
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
TCP
49897
49897–49898
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
TCP
CRS daemon internode connection. The port number is
assigned automatically during installation. You cannot
view or modify it afterward.
Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS)
CSS daemon internode connection for the GM layer. The
port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Cluster Registry
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Event Manager
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Cluster Manager
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
To find the current setting for the Oracle Management agent port, search for EMD_URL
in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\host_
sid\sysman\config\emd.properties file.
To change the Oracle Management Agent HTTP port, use the emca -reconfig ports
command:
emca -reconfig ports -AGENT_PORT 1831
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports
To find the current HTTP, RMI, and JMS port settings, search in the following files:
■
■
■
HTTP port: Search for REPOSITORY_URL in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\host_sid\sysman\config\emd.properties file.
RMI port: Search for the port attribute in the rmi-server tag in the ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\oc4j\j2ee\OC4J_DBConsole_host_
sid\config\rmi.xml file.
JMS port: Search for the port attribute in the jms-server tag in the ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\oc4j\j2ee\OC4J_DBConsole_host_
sid\config\jms.xml file.
To change the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console ports, use the emca
-reconfig ports command:
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\bin> emca -reconfig ports option setting
where option can be:
■
DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT: Sets the HTTP port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820
G-4 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
■
RMI_PORT: Sets the RMI port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -RMI_PORT 5520
■
JMS_PORT: Sets the JMS port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -JMS_PORT 5521
You can enter multiple -reconfig port settings in one line, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820 -AGENT_PORT 1821 -RMI_PORT 5520
Changing the iSQL*Plus Ports
The following sections describe how to change the iSQL*Plus ports.
Changing the HTTP Port
To change the HTTP port, edit the following files:
■
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\host_
sid\sysman\config\emoms.properties
Modify the following port parameters (for example, 5560) in the file:
oracle.sysman.db.isqlplusUrl=http\://host.domain\:5560/isqlplus/dynamic
oracle.sysman.db.isqlplusWebDBAUrl=http\://host.domain\:5560/isqlplus/dynamic
■
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\oc4j\j2ee\isqlplus\config\http-web-site.xml
Modify the port attribute of the web-site element:
<web-site port="5560" ...>
Changing the RMI Port
To change the RMI port, modify the port attribute of the rmi-server element in the
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\oc4j\j2ee\isqlplus\config\rmi.xml file:
<rmi-server port="5580"...>
Changing the JMS Port
To change the JMS port, modify the port attribute of the jms-server element in the
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\oc4j\j2ee\isqlplus\config\jms.xml file:
<jms-server port="5600"...>
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
To change the Oracle XML DB FTP and HTTP ports, you need to run the
catxdbdbca.sql script, which in a default installation is located in ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\rdbms\admin.
To change the Oracle XML DB ports:
1.
Check that the Oracle listener is running. To do so, in the Windows Services
utility, make sure that the Oracle TNS Listener service (for example,
OracleOraDb10g_home1TNSListener) is set to Started.
If you cannot start the listener, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's
Guide.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers G-5
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
2.
Log in to SQL*Plus or iSQL*Plus as SYS or XDB using the SYSDBA role.
For example, to log in to SQL*Plus as SYS using the password welcome:
C:\> sqlplus sys/welcome as sysdba
3.
Run the catxdbdbca.sql script.
For example, to use 2200 for the FTP port and 8200 for the HTTP port, and
assuming your Oracle home is in the following location, enter the following
command:
SQL> @c:\oracle\product\10.20.0\db_1\rdbms\admin\catxdbdbca.sql 2200 8200
4.
Exit SQL*Plus or iSQL*Plus.
G-6 Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
Index
Numerics
32-bit
Windows-based installation, 2-1
32-bit, Windows-based installation, 2-1
64-bit
Windows-based installation, 2-1
A
Additional Real Application Clusters
documentation, 1-1
Advanced
configuration type, 5-3, 5-4
architecture
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA), 5-4
archive logs
destinations, converting to cluster database, D-1
ASM
ASM home, 1-5
benefits of, 1-8
characteristics of failure groups, 1-8
compared to logical volume managers, 1-8
compared to RAID, 1-8
database recovery area for, 1-10
de-installing, 1-5
disk groups, 1-8
failure groups, 1-8
overview, 1-7
recommendations for disk groups, 1-8
redundancy levels, 1-8
space required for preconfigured database, 1-9
asmtool utility, 3-14
asmtoolg utility, 3-13
authentication support
pre-installation requirements, 2-12
Automatic Storage Management
storage option for data files, 3-3
Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
asmtool utility, 3-14
asmtoolg utility, 3-13
configuring disks, 3-8 to 3-12
DAS disks, 3-12
disk groups
recommendations for, 3-9
redundancy levels, 3-9
disks, supported, 3-12
failure groups, 3-9
characteristics, 3-10
examples, 3-11
identifying, 3-11
mirroring, 3-9
partition creation, 3-12
redundancy levels, 3-9
SAN disks, 3-12
space required for preconfigured database, 3-10
automatic undo management, 9-3
automount
enable, 3-1
Available
service configuration policy, 6-2
B
backups
and converting to cluster database, D-1
Basic
TAF failover policy, 6-2
bind order
Windows network, 2-11
C
certification, hardware and software, 2-4
cluster configuration file, 4-7
Cluster Configuration page
Oracle Universal Installer, 4-5
Cluster Configuration Storage page
Oracle Universal Installer, 4-6
cluster database
installed configuration, 9-2
cluster file system
database recovery area and, 1-10
storage option for data files, 3-3
Cluster Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, G-4
cluster name, 4-6
requirements for, 4-3
cluster nodes
private node names, 4-4
public node names, 4-3
virtual node names, 4-4
cluster privileges
verifying for OUI cluster installation, 2-13
Index-i
Cluster Synchronization Services, 1-5, 4-3
Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)
ports, ranges and protocol, G-4
Cluster Verification Utility
about, 1-2
DBCA database creation stage readiness
check, 6-2
hardware and operating system setup stage
verification, 2-9
help, 2-2
Oracle Clusterware configuration check, 4-1
overview, 2-1
shared storage area check, 3-6
syntax, 2-2
user equivalency troubleshooting, 4-2
verifying readiness for database installation, 5-1
CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS parameter, 1-3
clusterware diagnostics, A-3
commands
emca, 7-3
components
created when using DBCA, 9-1
configuration types
Advanced, 5-3
Data Warehouse, 5-3
Do not create a starter database, 5-3
General Purpose, 5-3
New Database, 5-3
Transaction Processing, 5-3
configuring
global database name, 6-4
configuring disks for ASM, 3-8 to 3-12
configuring raw devices, 3-15
connection load balancing, 9-4
Connection Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, G-2
control file
installed configuration, 9-3
control files, 1-11
described, 9-3
raw devices, 3-15
convert to cluster database
administrative considerations, D-1
from non-cluster system, D-2
from single-instance, D-4
from single-instance to Real Application
Clusters, D-1
post-conversion, D-6
to Real Application Clusters from single-instance
Oracle databases, D-1
converting
from single-instance to Real Application
Clusters, B-1
to Real Application Clusters from single-instance
Oracle databases, B-1
Create Database
option on Creation Options page, 6-9
create database
using scripts, B-1
creating
Index-ii
Real Application Clusters database
with the Database Configuration
Assistant, 5-4, 6-1, 6-3
cross-node registration, 9-4
CRS home
Windows-based system, 4-5
CSS, 1-5, 4-3
OCCSD, 4-3
custom database
failure groups for ASM, 3-11
requirements when using ASM, 1-9
requirements when using Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
CVU
See Cluster Verification Utility
D
DAS (direct attached storage) disks, 3-12
data files
storage options, 3-3
Data Guard
ports, ranges and protocol, G-2
data loss
minimizing with ASM, 1-8
minimizing with Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
Data Warehouse
configuration type, 5-3
database
ASM requirements, 1-9
components, created when using DBCA, 9-1
configurations, types, 5-3
SID, 6-4
Database Configuration Assistant
ASM Disk Groups page, 6-5
components created by, 9-1
control files, 9-3
Create ASM Instance page, 6-5
Create Disk Group page, 6-5
creating Real Application Clusters database
after installation, 6-3
during installation, 5-4, 6-1
Creation Options page, 6-9
Database Content page, 6-7
Database Credentials page, 6-5
Database File Locations page, 6-7
Database Identification page, 6-4
Database Services page, 6-7
Database Storage page, 6-9
Database Templates page, 6-4
datafiles, 9-2
deleting databases with, 6-10
deleting Real Application Clusters
databases, 6-10
initialization parameter files, 9-4
Initialization Parameters page, 6-8
List of Cluster Databases page, 6-10
Management Options page, 6-5
Node Selection page, 6-4
Operations page, 6-4, 6-10
raw storage requirements, C-1
Recovery Configuration page, 6-7
redo log files, 9-3
rollback segments, 9-3
Storage Options page, 6-5
Summary dialog, 6-9, 6-10
tablespaces, 9-2
using, 6-1
Welcome page, 6-3
database configuration type
selecting, 5-3
database creation using scripts, B-1
database directory, E-2
database domain name, 6-4
database recovery area
shared storage requirement for, 1-10
databases
Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 3-10
datafiles, 1-11
and DBCA, 9-2
described, 9-2
managing with ASM, 1-7
minimum disk space for, 3-5
recommendations for file system, 3-4
DBCA
delete database, 6-10
dedicated servers, 9-4
de-install CRS software, 5-9
Windows-based systems, 5-9
de-install Oracle Database software, 5-7
delete database with DBCA, 6-10
device names
creating with asmtool, 3-14
creating with asmtoolg, 3-13
diagnostics, A-3
directory
database file directory, 3-4
directory structure, E-1
Windows, E-1
DisableDHCPMediaSense parameter, 2-10, 2-11
disk automount
enable, 3-1
disk devices
managing with ASM, 1-7
disk group
ASM, 1-7, 1-8
Automatic Storage Management, with ASM
redundancy levels, 3-9
recommendations for ASM disk groups, 1-8
recommendations for Automatic Storage
Management disk groups, 3-9
disk space
checking, 2-7
requirements for preconfigured database in
ASM, 1-9, 3-10
disk space requirements
Windows, 2-6
disks
configuring for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8 to 3-12
configuring raw devices, 3-15
supported for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-12
Do not create a database
configuration type, 5-3
documentation
Real Application Clusters, 1-1
E
enable automount, 3-1
enable disk automount, 3-1
environment variables
TEMP and TMPDIR, 2-7
Environment Variables page
Windows, 5-7
error messages
Real Application Clusters management tools,
EXAMPLE tablespace
raw device for, 3-15
examples
Automatic Storage Management failure
groups, 3-11
external redundancy
ASM redundancy level, 1-8
Automatic Storage Management redundancy
level, 3-9
A-3
F
failover
and service registration, 9-4
failure group
ASM, 1-8
characteristics of ASM failure group, 1-8
failure groups
Automatic Storage Management, 3-9
characteristics in Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
examples in Automatic Storage
Management, 3-11
file system
storage option for data files, 3-3
using for datafiles, 3-4
file systems
system requirements, 2-6
Windows system requirements, 2-6
files
control files
raw devices, 3-15
raw device mapping file
on Windows, 3-17
redo log files
raw devices, 3-15
server parameter file
raw devices, 3-15
SPFILE
raw devices, 3-15
Index-iii
G
General Purpose
configuration type, 5-3
description of configuration type,
Generate Database Creation Scripts
on Creation Options page, 6-9
global database name, 6-4
5-3
H
hardware certification, 2-4
high redundancy
ASM redundancy level, 1-8
Automatic Storage Management redundancy
level, 3-9
I
initialization parameter files, 9-4
for instances, 8-1
listener parameters, 9-5
initialization parameters
DISPATCHERS, 9-4
LOCAL_LISTENER, 9-4
REMOTE_LISTENER, 9-4, 9-8
installation
Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 3-10
directory structure, E-1
ldap.ora file, 9-6
listener.ora file, 9-5
non-interactive, 1-6, B-1
overview, 1-6
requirements, hardware, 1-2
requirements, software, 1-2
tnsnames.ora file, 9-7
using cluster configuration file, 4-7
verifying raw devices, 6-3
installation types
and ASM requirements, 1-9
instance
preferences, 6-2
instances
initialization parameter files, 8-1
iSQL*Plus
ports
changing, G-5
ranges and protocol, G-3
Itanium
Windows-based installation, 2-1
J
Java Runtime Environment
requirements, 2-6
Windows requirements, 2-6
L
ldap.ora file, 9-6
creating, 9-6
default configuration, 9-6
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), 9-6
Index-iv
List of Cluster Databases page, 6-10
listener
local, 9-4
registration, 9-6
stopping, 2-13
stopping existing listener process, 2-13
listener.ora file, 9-5
configuring, 9-5
default configuration, 9-5
listeners
listener.ora file, 9-5
load balancing
and service registration, 9-4
local device
using for datafiles, 3-5
local listener, 9-4
logical volume manager
See LVM
Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
recommendations for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-9
LVM
compared to ASM, 1-8
recommendations for ASM, 1-8
M
mapping file
for raw devices
on Windows, 3-17
Media Sensing, 2-10, 2-11
disabling, 2-11
MetaLink
Oracle patches, 7-1
Microsoft Internet Explorer, 2-4
mirroring ASM disk groups, 3-9
Mozilla, 2-4
multiple voting disks, 1-4
N
net service names, 9-7
Netscape Navigator, 2-4
network configuration files
ldap.ora.ora, 9-6
listener.ora, 9-5
sqlnet.ora, 9-11
tnsnames.ora, 9-7
network directory, E-1
network interface bind order, 2-11
New Database
configuration type, 5-3
node applications, 6-1
None
TAF failover policy, 6-2
non-interactive installation, 1-6
normal redundancy
ASM redundancy level, 1-8
normal redundancy, Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 3-9
Not used
service configuration policy, 6-2
NTFS
system requirements, 2-6
O
OCCSD, 4-3
OCFS
formatting drives for, 4-8
installation, 4-8
OCR
installed configuration, 9-1
Windows, 3-8
OCR contents, 9-1
OCR. See Oracle Cluster Registry
olsnodes command, A-3
operating systems, supported, 2-7
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA), 5-4
Oracle Advanced Security
pre-installation requirements, 2-12
Oracle Cluster Registry
configuration of, 4-4
see OCR
Oracle Cluster Registry port, G-4
Oracle Clusterware
install with Oracle Universal Installer on
Windows, 4-5
installation setup procedures for Windows, 4-5
installing, 4-1
installing with Oracle Universal Installer, 4-5
ports, ranges and protocol, G-4
Oracle Connection a Manager, 2-5
Oracle Database
data file storage options, 3-3
minimum disk space requirements, 3-5
requirements with ASM, 1-9
requirements with Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
Windows Terminal Services support, 2-5
Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide, 1-2
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
ports
changing, G-4
ranges and protocol, G-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control, 7-3
post-installation configuration, 7-3
pre-installation requirements, 2-12
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
ports
changing, G-4
ranges and protocol, G-2
Oracle Event Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, G-4
Oracle Net
stopping existing listener, 2-13
stopping listener, 2-13
Oracle Object Link Manager, 2-5
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
ports, ranges and protocol, G-3
Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server, 2-5
ports
ranges and protocol, G-3
Oracle SQL*Net Listener
ports
ranges and protocol, G-2
Oracle Universal Installer
and Oracle Clusterware, 4-5
Cluster Configuration page, 4-5
Cluster Configuration Storage page, 4-6
overview, 1-6
overview of processing, 1-6
Specify File Locations page, 4-5
Specify Network Interface Usage page, 4-6
Summary page, 4-7
Welcome page, 4-5, 5-5
Oracle XML DB
ports
changing, G-5
ranges and protocol, G-3
OracleMetaLink, 7-1
OracleMetaLink site
about, 2-4
accessing, 2-4
OUI
see Oracle Universal Installer
P
parameter file search order, 8-3
parameters
initialization, 8-1
partition
using with ASM, 1-8
partition creation for Automatic Storage Management
disks, 3-12
partitions
using with Automatic Storage Management, 3-9
patch upgrades, F-3
rolling upgrades, F-4
patches
download, 7-1
install, 7-1
OracleMetaLink, 7-1
portlist.ini file, G-1
ports
access URLs, G-1
Cluster Manager, ranges and protocol, G-4
Cluster Synchronization Services, ranges and
protocol, G-4
configured for applications, G-1
Connection Manager, ranges and protocol, G-2
Data Guard, ranges and protocol, G-2
default ranges, G-1
iSQL*Plus
changing, G-5
ranges and protocol, G-3
Oracle Cluster Registry, G-4
Oracle Clusterware, ranges and protocol, G-4
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
changing, G-4
Index-v
ranges and protocol, G-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
changing, G-4
ranges and protocol, G-2
Oracle Event Manager, ranges and protocol, G-4
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), ranges
and protocol, G-3
Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server,
ranges and protocol, G-3
Oracle SQL*Net Listener
ranges and protocol, G-2
Oracle XML DB
changing, G-5
ranges and protocol, G-3
post-installation
Oracle Enterprise Manager configuration, 7-3
patch download and install, 7-1
product configuration, 7-2
preconfigured database
ASM disk space requirements, 1-9
Automatic Storage Management disk space
requirements, 3-10
requirements when using ASM, 1-9
requirements when using Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
preconfigured database installation types, 5-3
Preferred
service configuration policy, 6-2
pre-installation
raw device creation, 9-3, C-2
requirements for Oracle Advanced Security, 2-12
requirements for Oracle Enterprise Manager, 2-12
privileges
verifying for OUI cluster installation, 2-13
process
stopping existing, 2-13
stopping existing listener process, 2-13
stopping listener process, 2-13
R
RAC high availability extensions
configuring services for, 6-2
TAF policies for, 6-2
RAID
compared to ASM, 1-8
recommended ASM redundancy level, 1-9
using for Oracle datafiles, 3-4
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
recommended ASM redundancy level, 3-10
raw device
for server parameter file, 3-15
for SPFILE, 3-15
raw devices
configuring, 3-15
creating a raw device mapping file
on Windows, 3-17
Database Configuration Assistant, C-1
database recovery area and, 1-10
for control files, 3-15
for EXAMPLE tablespace, 3-15
Index-vi
for redo log files, 3-15
for SYSAUX tablespace, 3-15
for SYSTEM tablespace, 3-15
for TEMP tablespace, 3-15
for UNDOTBS tablespace, 3-15
for USERS tablespace, 3-15
identifying on Windows
db_name_indx1 symbolic link, 9-3
db_name_rbs1 symbolic link, 9-3
db_name_redo thread_number symbolic
link, 9-3
db_name_spfile1 symbolic link, 9-3
db_name_system1 symbolic link, 9-2
db_name_temp1 symbolic link, 9-2
db_name_users1 symbolic link, 9-2
identifying on Windows, undotbs1 and undotbs2
symbolic links, 9-3
setting up, 9-3, C-2
storage option for data files, 3-3
verification, 6-3
raw partitions
See raw devices
raw storage
Database Configuration Assistant
requirements, C-1
RBS tablespace
description, 9-2
readme.txt file, G-1
Real Application Clusters
components, 1-10
databases, deleting, 6-10
installation requirements, 1-2
installed components of, 1-11
management tools error messages, A-3
overview, 1-1, 6-1, 9-1
raw device setup, 9-3, C-2
recovery files
shared storage requirement for, 1-10
redo log file
installed configuration, 9-3
redo log files, 1-11
described, 9-3
raw devices for, 3-15
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 1-9, 3-10
for ASM, 1-8
for Automatic Storage Management, 3-9
redundant array of independent disks
See RAID
registration
cross-node, 9-4
required service packs, 2-7
requirements
for Java Runtime Environment, 2-6
for Java Runtime Environment on Windows, 2-6
for Oracle Enterprise Manager, 2-12
hardware certification, 2-4
software certification, 2-4
Web browser support, 2-4
Windows Remote Desktop Connection
support, 2-5
Windows service packs, 2-7
rollback segments
described, 9-3
rolling upgrade
of Oracle Database with patch, F-4
S
SAN (storage area network) disks, 3-12
Save as a Database Template
option on Creation options page, 6-9
scripts to create a Real Application Clusters
database, B-1
Server Management (SRVM), 2-5
server parameter file
raw device, 3-15
server parameter files, 1-11, 8-1, 9-4
errors, 8-3
Service Management
using, 6-2
service pack requirements
Windows, 2-7
service packs, 2-7
service registration
configuring, 9-4
services, 6-2
shared configuration file, 9-1
shared server, 9-4
shared storage
requirement for recovery area, 1-10
SID
creating, 6-4
silent installation. See installation
non-interactive
software certification, 2-4
Software Only
configuration type, 5-3
Specify File Locations page
Oracle Universal Installer, 4-5
Specify Network Interface Usage page
Oracle Universal Installer, 4-6
SPFILE
default creation, 8-1
default location, 8-2
managing on ASM, 8-2
managing on raw device, 8-2
raw devices, 3-15
sqlnet.ora file, 9-11
default configuration, 9-11
srvm\admin directory, E-1
storage area network disks, 3-12
Summary dialog, 6-9, 6-10
Summary page
Oracle Universal Installer, 4-7
supported operating systems, 2-7
SYSAUX tablespace
for raw devices, 3-15
system requirements
for NTFS file systems, 2-6
for Windows file systems, 2-6
SYSTEM tablespace
description, 9-2
for raw devices, 3-15
system variables dialog
Windows, 5-7
T
tablespaces
and DBCA, 9-2
expanding for large sorts, 9-2
RBS, 9-2
SYSTEM, 9-2
TEMP, 9-2
undo tablespaces for automatic undo
management, 9-2
USERS, 9-2
TAF failover policies
Basic, 6-2
None, 6-2
TEMP environment variable, 2-7
TEMP tablespace
described, 9-2
for raw devices, 3-15
temporary directory on Windows, 2-6
temporary disk space
checking on Windows, 2-6
freeing on Windows, 2-6
tmp directory
checking space for Windows installation, 2-6
freeing space for Windows installation, 2-6
TMPDIR environment variable, 2-7
tnsnames.ora file, 9-7
default configuration, 9-7
Transaction Processing
configuration type, 5-3
description of configuration type, 5-3
Transparent Application Failover (TAF) policies, 6-2
troubleshooting
user equivalency, 4-2
U
undo management, 9-3
UNDOTBS tablespace
raw device, 3-15
upgrade
of Oracle Database with patch, F-3
user equivalence
testing, 4-2
USERS tablespace
described, 9-2
raw device, 3-15
V
VIP, 1-3
virtual IP.See VIP
voting disk
configuration of, 4-4
Windows, 3-8
Index-vii
voting disks, 3-3
configuring multiple, 1-4
requirement of absolute majority of, 3-3
W
Web browser support, 2-4
Web browsers
Microsoft Internet Explorer, 2-4
Mozilla, 2-4
Netscape Navigator, 2-4
Web browsers, Microsoft Internet Explorer, 2-4
Welcome page
Oracle Universal Installer, 4-5, 5-5
Windows
32-bit installation, 2-1
64-bit installation, 2-1
creating a raw device mapping file, 3-17
Itanium-based installation, 2-1
minimum memory installation, 5-6
system variables dialog, 5-7
Windows Environment Variables page, 5-7
Windows Media Sensing, 2-10
disabling, 2-11
Windows network bind order, 2-11
Windows Terminal Services
support, 2-5
Index-viii
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