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E. P.
Printed by
Sir Isaac Pitman
Sons, Ltd.,
thought on seeing this new book on " Laundry
anything new or interesting be written on this subject
venture to predict that
readers will find
we turn
to the chapters on " Sorting "
particularly well-written
both useful and interesting,
who teach the subject, but to all housewives who
know how household linen should be cared for and handled.
After reading the
not only to those
are anxious
" Folding " (the latter a
carefully illustrated secticn),
find all the
necessary information so clearly and concisely put that both the trade expert
the book will be especially valuable) and the " Domestic Subjects'
Instructress " cannot
fail to
do and
to teach
the work most thoroughly.
the very clear and telling drawings the teacher can readily illustrate
her lesson upon the blackboard with sketches and diagrams, which provide
an ever helpful aid towards securing the interest of the pupils.
the methods, so minutely described in this book, for the cleaning and
preservation of the household linen are carried out, washing day will cease to
be the burden
it is
at present frequently considered.
The book shows a thoroughly
of the subject,
every success.
E. M.
The main
object of this
and the extent
Its simplicity
to help the beginner, both at
advance the cause
home and
in the
of cleanliness, daintiness,
of its detail are
due to a desire
and the methods have
been explained with considerable minuteness, so that students and intending
In the
find in
it all
the assistance they are likely at any time to require.
Beginning as a worker, such a
technical details of routine
herself in a position of
business, bright, intelligent girls are in great
girl, if
she acquires a sound knowledge of the
and organization,
soon earn promotion and find
some authority, managing others
Skilled workers, too,
indeed, of late years, the
have no
as the
difficulty in securing
demand has always exceeded
of a
the supply, and
employers have frequently been compelled to engage workers of inferior calibre.
The reason
for the shortage of labour has lain largely in prejudice.
been stated and believed that the work
the hours inord:n2.tcly long.
in fact,
leading employers have
charge has some foundation
to recognise its truth,
initial activity
and there
practical experience,
to declare emphatically that the standaid of health
among laundry workers
injurious or fatiguing.
unhealthy and monotonous, and
latter part of the
a tendency for the hours to be less long.
however, qualifies
of the
and the occupation
The work, being
and strength.
not necessarily at
largely manual, calls for considerable
As regards monotony, no one with any knowledge
work could ever pronounce
to be tedious
such a constant
change, and the various articles pass so rapidly from hand to hand, that the
workers' interest seldom slackens.
Evenmg and Elementary classes ma}' accomplish much by
preparing girls in a business-like way with a groundwork of the essential
details which are set forth in this book.
Hitherto, many of the girls trained
Teachers of
Laundry Centres have not proved altogether acceptable
methods learned being considerably
everyday use
in a laundry.
I shall
from those
be gratified
to the trade, the
in actual practical,
this httle
volume serves as
one step towards the more practical equipment of such students.
thanks are due to Miss E. R. Hambridge
for her skill
and ready under-
preparing the drawings, which so clearly elucidate the text besides
being purposely so drawn that they can be copied on the blackboard or prepared
on brown paper for class demonstration, and
to Mr. F. E. Mekelburg,
for her other
kind assistance and
whose care and dexterity have brought
out the essential details so prominently in his excellent photographs.
X. Ironing and Folding
cotton combinations
Muslin and Lace
XI. Ironing
-ironing a white shirt
removing blisters
folding a starched shirt lOtS
collars and cuffs
" curling "
white W.\ISTCO.\TS
evening TIES
XIII. Washing and Drying Flannels, Blankets, Socks,
and Stockings
XIV. Ironing and Finishing Flan-
Washing and Drying
Coloured Articles
dresses and blouses
XVIII. Washing and Finishing
Eider Downs," Wadded Dressing Gowns,
Woollen Co.\ts —
down quilts
wadded garments
knitted coats
knitted woollen caps
XIX. Washing
Velveteens, Etc.
velvet RIBBONS
XX. Washing or Wet-cleaning
Serge and Cloth Garments
dark serges
WET cleaning
pressing the coat
shantung or tussore silks 151
fine woollen delaines
cleaning and finishing of
XXI. P.\cking
nels —
flannel shirts
stockings .\nd socks
XVI. Ironing Coloured Articles
X\II. Washing and Ironing of
Silks, Satins, Chiffons.
ETC., and the Tre.\tment
OF Real Lace and
muslin blouses
muslin dresses
children's H.\TS and BONNETS
XII. Ironing
Shirts, Collars, Waistcoats
household linen
wearing apparel
fancy articles
XXII. Trade Notes on Packing
absolutely essential, before commencing to wash linen, to look over and
sort out all articles that are to be laundered, carefully separating the different
In commercial laundries this sorting out,
classes of linen from each other.
is done in a special department
•or separating of different
but quite as much care is needed for home washing as for business purposes,
It is also necessary to examine
if the best possible results are to be obtained.
garments when left off for washing, in case pins or needles may have been
Another essential point is the turning out of all pockets in
carelessly left in.
Much damage may be
aprons, dresses, trousers, coats, waistcoats, etc.
caused to other articles through odd things that may have been left in pockets,
and washed in them. Even a thread of coloured cotton will cause endless
trouble, while lead pencils, metal buttons, or anything made up of leather,
simply a nightmare to the person who has to remedy the results of such
carelessness in the sorting.
It will be found perfectly easy to do the separating if a little method is
Then sort out all
all, collect the soiled linen together.
Best white work, such as shirts, collars, cuffs, and handkerchiefs.
Fine starched work, such as frocks, blouses, pinafores, bonnets,
First of
camisoles, etc.
and 2 can invariably be both washed and boiled together.
.\11 body linen, night-dresses, nightshirts, pillow-slips, etc.
linen, toilet covers, tray cloths, serviettes, etc.
Sheets, towels, bath towels, etc.
Tea towels, rubbers, etc.
Flannel garments.
Coloured garments.
The reason for separating the different classes of linen can quite easily be
Take, for instance, the first and second sets alluded to, i.e.,
These articles are usually of fairly fine texture,
shirts, collars, lace pieces, etc.
-and would, if mixed with coarser and possibly much dirtier linen, become
quite a bad colour. The fineness of the articles also necessitates their being
kept separate from larger and heavier garments, as there is a possibility of
their getting tangled, and thereby torn.
In class 3 above, there is the necessity for keeping this work to itself on
account of such garments being worn near the skin, and receiNnng a large
of the greasy moisture exuded from the bodyTable linen of any
This type of linen is quite
description is best washed absolutely b}? itself.
easily cleaned, a very small amount of friction being needed, though stains,
of course, will require attention.
The articles in class 6 it is absolutely
necessar}' to keep apart, owing to the nature of the dirt in them.
Muslin or lace curtains should be kept separate and treated in quite a special
manner. It is best, on removing them from the windows, to steep them in
cold water straight away, thus preventing the dust and smoke from penetrating other articles.
However often curtains are washed, they are bound
to contain a certain amount of soot and dust from the atmosphere, which can
onlj' be eradicated by immersing these articles in cold water, and changing
this cold water several times.
If this is done before washing is commenced,
time will be saved, as they will then be ready to wash after white articles. It
is a good plan, if a bath is available with water laid on, to put the curtains
into the bath, remove the plug, turn the water on, and let it flow through them.
By doing this, the dust is more easily removed, and there is much less
risk of tearing them, since they have not to be moved about.
Curtains and
hangings are always more or less rotted with the sun and dust, and therefore
they require extremely careful handling.
It must be distinctly understood that all flannel and coloured garments
must be kept separate from white cotton goods. This is a most important
part of successful laundering.
It is not at all unusual to see a person commencing to wash with all sorts and conditions of articles mixed up in a
haphazard fashion. Coloured and white garments are washed together, and
then surprise is felt that they have not a clear appearance when finished.
In Laundry work, forethought is as much required as actual technical
knowledge. This is, perhaps, rather a broad statement but it is likely that
the average housewife would make a far better laundress if she exercised alittle more care, however limited the knowledge she possesses.
If a supply of hot water is easily obtainable otherwise, it is unnecessary
to light the copper until actually commencing to wash
the first and best
lot of clothes can then be put into the copper as they are washed, and beings
slowly brought to the boil, will acquire a far better colour than if put into
quite hot water.
As a broad rule, the writer does not approve of soaking, but there are occasions when, by its means, the actual washing is made easier and the final results
are more satisfactory.
For instance, body linen should not be soaked in
cold water, owing to the presence of the greasy moisture already' referred to.
If, however, it is extraordinarily dirt}', soaking in lukewarm soapy water
will be found to assist greatly the process of washing.
It has been proved
on more than one occasion that lukewarm soft water is far better than the
so largely used cold " break down."
It is an established fact that no laundry, however well equipped, is satisfactory
Round this department, and
without a good system in the sorting-room.
It can be
proceeding from it, is either the success or failure of the business.
quite well understood that unless it sends out clean and well-finished work,
no laundry will keep its clientele, but on the other hand, however well the
work may be turned out, if mistakes are constantly being made, customers,
however lenient, will sooner or later become tired out, and take their custom
launderers have the idea that, so long as the sorting-room is of a fair
work done, that is all that is necessary. Practical
experience proves that if more care is expended, and the fitting-up made a
little more adequate in the sorting-room or rooms, mistakes in checking
become fewer, and therefore " shorts " are not quite so numerous. Sortingrooms exist where there is not even a table or bench for the sorter to lay books,
.Such careless
etc., on, hampers having to be stacked up for this purpose.
equipment is likely to encourage a similar carelessness with regard to detail
on the part of the worker.
If really sound, accurate work is expected, every encouragement should be
given the sorters to keep a tidy room, each one having her own bench, or
portion of one.
All work should be kept off the floor as much as possible.
In planning the room, it is wise to have the tables down the centre, and
holders suspended over the tables for the different coloured cottons that may
be used, so that the reels are not constantly being swept on to the floor, thus
causing the cotton to become unwound, tangled, and wasted.
It is a perfectly
simple matter to keep the tables in the sorting-room in quite a tidy condition,
therebv facilitating the accuracy of the workers.
However good a " head " the room may have, if the tables are allowed to
be strewn with all sorts and conditions of rubbish that may be turned out of
the hampers with the work, it will be absolutely impossible to be quite certain
that one customer's work is not being mixed with that of another.
starting-point of the majority of " shorts " is, that a customer's work is
" checked " and " thrown off," but possibly one or more small articles will
be left on the table mixed up with waste paper, etc. The next customer's
work will come along, and the left-over articles will, perhaps, be marked for
this second customer, and unless the packer is very smart a wholesale muddle
results when the packing is done, mistakes having been made which quite
probably can never be rectified.
size in proportion to the
It is a good plan to require packers to provide themselves with scissorsand a thimble. Untidv marking is often the result of not possessing these
If long ends are left attached to the mark made, these cause it to
look much larger than it really is, and certainly make the deciphering of the
mark more difficult when the " racking-up " time comes along. It works well
each sorter attaches her own scissors to the belt of her apron, with her black
lead pencil which should not be indelible, much damage being caused should
With reference to inka piece of it get mixed with the work in the wash.
marking, customers as a rule do not like this style of thing. Intending customers frequently inquire if it is employed in the laundry. Cotton works out
more economically, the marking being clone quite as quickly and with lessdamage to customers' linen, which in the long run must be better for the launderer.
Other important items in the sorting-room are the bins to recei\'e the work
when it is " thrown off." Each should be labelled with the name of the kind
of article it is intended to contain, and there should be sufficient bins to take
Wash-house men are sometimes
all the different classes of work separately.
too eager to make up a " load," and mix together various classes of work
which should be washed separately. If sorters know that this is likely tO'
happen thev may become careless in the throwing off of the work, thinking
Sorters and washthat ultimately it may be mixed again in the wash-liouse.
house men both need watchful supervision in the mutual interests of both
of these departments.
It has been proved that it is a very bad plan to mix handkerchiefs with
body linen or starched work, their colour being not nearly so good as when
they are washed alone hence they should each have a separate bin.
sounds somewhat difficult to accomplish, as in many instances there are not
a great number of handkerchiefs to a " journey " of work.
In many wash-houses a small machine is kept for " specials," and in this
case no trouble need be experienced
but if only large machines are in use
say of the first three " journeys
it is advisable to gather the handkerchiefs
together and make one " load " of them, and make this " load " the last of
" first journey " washing, so that they go through into the ironing or calender
room with the " first journey " work. In this way the packers receive them
for racking quite in time with the other work, and can sort all out, puttingaside for the later journey those which they do not require at once.
Bath towels are another instance of separate treatment being required.
Owing to their texture and substance, very careful handling is required to>
ensure a good colour.
" Oh, but customers
If this point is urged, many launderers will object
do not pay us for all this extra time and trouble "
It is admitted that
prices are cut just as fine as it is possible for them to be, but with a good
system the work can be turned out far better, a.nd much more cheaply, than if
it is rushed through in a haphazard fashion.
— —
The checking of customers' books is another section of the work where
neatness and accuracy are required, though many sorters think that so long
as some kind of mark is put against the article to denote that it has been
Actually a great saving could be accomreceived, that is quite sufficient.
plished if the checking-in and the pricing of garments were more carefully
launderers meet with a customer who is generous, or even honest
enough, to remind them that he or she has been undercharged for a certain
Apart from dresses and blouses, the charge for which may be anyarticle.
thing from fourpence onwards, there are many small articles which pass
through the sorting-room and ought to receive a special mark as to price.
These go through, receiving a considerable amount of attention in the washand if the matter is looked into, it is found that
house and ironing-room
the price charged to the customer does not cover the cost of the actual work
expended on them, apart from receiving, sending out, etc.
Some managers hold that " one thing pays in with another," but this is not
a correct basis for a scale of charges, which ought to depend entirely on the
expenditure of time and labour involved. One responsible and thoroughly
competent person in a sorting-room, part of whose duty it is to price all the
work, may substantially safeguard the financial side of the business.
If there is only one sorting-room, all bins should be carefully cleared out
at the finish of a " journey," that no stray articles may be left in corners.
Care should be taken that all fancy and " special " work is given out quite
be useful with regard to sorting fancy, coloured,
a most important item of the sorter's duties, and
In cases where the flannels are washed in a
requires careful discrimination.
rotary machine, discretion is needed to judge the class of the flannel or woollen
garments that are going to be mixed with the load for the machine. Similarly
with coloured goods, it is far better in the long run to wash a few extra by
hand, than have possibly a whole load spoilt through the presence of one
article of the wrong class, which has been overlooked.
No coloured or flannel work should be put into any washing machine without
some responsible person having previously inspected it. Many of the best
short explanation
flannel goods.
laundries are finding it more expedient, as well as cheaper, to have all flannels
and woollens washed by hand, on account of the spoiling and shrinkage that
occur in the machine. This can be done without necessarily costing an
undue amount, if the forewoman or head wash-house man sorts, and
gives out the work to the washers, and sees that the articles really call for
are quite safely
this process.
and garments with a mixture of cotton in the manufacture
washed in the machine, and in many cases are improved by
two sorting-rooms are available, the clearing of the work into the washThe sorting of the next " journey " can be
will be much more simple.
in progress while the previously sorted work is being cleared out.
two comparatively small sorting-rooms are much better than one really large
room, as both time and labour are saved.
In considering the question of washing for the home, it isnecessarj- to study
both ease and expense, as well as the quality of the ultimate result. There
are a great many preparations for washing on the market nowadays, which
Most intelligent
are supposed to cleanse the linen absolutely without labour.
housewives will agree that no portion of their work is accomphshed without
a certain amount of labour, this being so in the case of the inevitable washing
day in a larger degree even than with other household duties. On the other
hand, it is possible to accomplish a heavy day's washing with comparative
ease, if a good system is worked out and adhered to.
To Soften Water.
Putting aside the question of fancy preparations for washing purposes, it
Hard water will not cleanse
best to commence with the softening of water.
the dirt from linen therefore, as in many districts the water is extremely
hard, some substance has to be added to it to eliminate this hardness.
Alkali in the form of ordinary washing soda is the cheapest and most easily
obtained, and quite a small quantity dissolved in the water to be used has the
desired effect.
It must be distinctly understood that soda in any shape or
form must not be added to the water for flannels or coloured articles. The
writer was informed that a certain woman " always put a little soda into the
water for flannels and coloured things." The danger to the fabric of so doing
" Oh, but I always use refined soda "
was suggested, and the reply was
but as refined soda has usually three times the strength of the ordinary washing
soda, the detriment to the goods would necessarily be threefold.
If the water is extremely hard, adding a little ammonia has a beneficial
effect on blankets and white woollens, but coloured garments should be kept
away from this, many colours " running " if coming into contact with it.
For instance, if blankets are bordered with fairly bright colours, too strong
a solution of anunonia will often cause them to " bleed " into the white part,
entirely spoil their appearance
small, delicate, coloured articles are to be washed, it is quite a good
plan to boil up a sufficient quantity of water to use, and allow it to cool down
to the required temperature, when it will be found to require less soap.
readily obtained by this means than when water is merely
warmed up to the required heat. The advantages gained are twofold economj'
of soap on the one hand, and the preservation of the colour due to the
restricted use of soap on the other.
much more
J— (635)
To take next the question of soaps. A good ordinary yellow, or even
mottled soap, will produce a good result if properly used. All soaps are best
if procured some time before being required for use, the bars being cut up
In this way the
into pieces of convenient size and allowed to dry out.
moisture contained in the soap is absorbed by the air, leaving the fatty acids
which are required for saponification.
Experience will soon prove that there are various qualities of soap which
are entirely unsuitable for washing linen, and also have a roughening effect on
It is wise, when buying soap, to see that it does not appear too
the hands.
It should look firm
an apparently hard soap is of more value than
one which can be easily marked by pressure with the fingers.
It is advisable to keep in stock a quantity of boiled soap, or soap jellv, as
many people prefer to call it.
For convenience, it is best to make this stock fairly strong, sav, about
Cut the soap into small pieces,
2 lb. of soap to half a small pailful of water.
add to the water, and boil until they are dissolved. A little of this, when
melted, added to the water for washing flannels, " coloureds," etc., will greatly
facilitate the washing, and will prevent the need of using raw soap.
It is well to realise the object for which the use of blue is intended.
should not be used as a dye to cover up defects in washing and rinsing, but
as an agent to assist the latter process, and to eliminate the effects of hard,
clear water on white cotton goods, namely, the yellowish tint we all wish to
It is possible to procure " blues " in both the solid and the liquid
For private use the former is chiefly in demand, being convenient
(For the use of the above, see pages 38-9.)
to use and most economical.
pennyworth of this can be obtained at chemists' or stores, and, used
sparingly, will serve to stiffen articles not requiring much ironing {e.g., lace).
It has a tendency, however, to brown under the iron and may even cause
the fabric to crack.
used by some people to assist in the finishing of laces, but great
it is not used in too large quantities and that an
undue amount of moisture is not left in them before pressing otherwise the
It is best to add a
edges and raised patterns take on a brownish tinge.
teaspoonful to a quart of the stiffening solution as given on page 153.
Glycerine will be found extremely useful should a silk or flannel garment
have become slightly scorched. In this case it must be used immediately the
scorch occurs, and be applied by using a clean, moist damper [cj. p. 24), the
surface of which has been dipped into a httle glycerine.
care has to be taken that
their Use.
Various acids are used for the removal of stains but in the ordinary private
house it is most necessary to exercise caution. They should always be kept in
jars distinctly labelled, should be stored out of the reach of inexperienced
persons, and used only by those who have sufficient knowledge to safeguard
against accidents both themselves and the articles to be treated.
To Remove Ink
Stains and Iron Rust.
These are stains of almost everyday occurrence. As a rule, clear water
will not absorb ink stains.
If a very small portion of oxalic acid is dissolved
in boiling water,
and the stained part
of the article is
in this boiling
Iron rust can be removed in a
similar manner, whether caused by medicines, or by hooks on garments, etc.
If the article to be freed from either of these stains is coloured or composed of silk, the temperature of the solution must be much lower, or damage
will be caused.
In this case, dissolve the acid, and allow the mixture to
stand for a few minutes, or until the tip of the finger can be borne in it, when
it will be perfectly safe to use.
For iron rust on woollen garments, equal parts of citric acid and cream of
tartar are very effective.
This can be used as follows
moisten the spot
with warm water, rub the powder well in, and when the stain is removed,
In obstinate cases, dissolve a little of the mixture in fairly warm
rinse well.
water, and allow the stained part to soak until the rust is removed.
If possible, these stains should be removed before the articles are washed,
but if occasion arises and thev cannot be re-washed, the stained area must be
well rinsed before drying or ironing.
For white cotton goods, a little soda
should be added to the first rinse to neutralise the acid, and for flannel and
coloured articles the first rinse should contain a little soap. After the removal
of the stains, the parts treated must not be rubbed vigorously
the water
should be allowed to flow through the material.
solution, the ink will speedily be
To Remove
Stains on Table Linen.
very seldom that all stains can be removed from table linen with the
usual wash and boil on the other hand, a large amount of the ordinary food
stains will disappear if a little extra soap is rubbed on these places and a certain
amount of careful friction used, so that too much is not left to be eradicated
in the boiling.
The popular idea is, that chloride of lime is a most dangerous substance
to use properly speaking, it is not in itself so dangerous, though wrong methods
of using it may bring disastrous results.
In making up a small quantity of
solution, take about two tablespoonfuls of the powder, add just a small piece of
washing soda, and pour about 1 pint of boiling water slowly on this, stirring
It is
lumps are dissolved. The soda helps to carry the
making the solution clearer, and more fit for use.
The mixture must stand to cool, and needs straining before being bottled
for use.
Whatever of the powder remains in the solution must not be shaken
up when the solution is being used, as it is these small particles that cause
the damage to linen.
carefully, so that all the
lime away, and assists in
an article is so stained with tea, fruit, wine or medicine that the
not move with ordinary washing, a good plan is to look over the
the spots there may be, dip the fingers into the bleach, and
dab each stain separately before putting the article into the copper to boil.
If the stain is very large, put about a tablespoonful of the bleaching liquid
into a small bowl of water, immerse the stained part in this, and allow it to
remain for a few minutes.
i'Vlthough this bleaching liquid is a useful and valuable agent, great care
must be taken that it does not come into contact with any flannel or coloured
garments. When it has been used it must be poured away immediately, so that
there may be nohkelihood of its being upset, or mistaken for a harmless hquid.
article, find all
Acetic Acid.
is a valuable medium for the setting and restoring of delicate colours.
the other hand, it must not be supposed that, if carelessness has occurred
in the washing of a coloured garment, this acid is going to make all right
It will be found extremely useful if it is mixed with the rinsing water
for light coloured silks, especially hght blues, mauve, light greens, and so on.
If the articles are of fairly dark colours, vinegar will be found cheaper and
quite as useful.
In both instances, it is easy to ascertain when sufficient is
put into the quantity of water used, owing to the pungent odour. It is
necessary for the water to smell fairly strongly of the acids.
For black garments, black and white checks, dark greys, etc., a strong
solution of salt is very efficacious for making the black of a nice distinct
tone, and the white of a perfect clearness.
A heaped handful of salt is
required to 2 or 3 gallons of water.
To Remove Mud
There are occasions when mud stains are extremely difficult to remove.
As a rule, if they are on white cotton goods, less difficulty is experienced, but
even here a few suggestions may be useful. If it is possible to attack the stains
while wet, this is by far the best.
Commence by dipping the mud-stained
portion into a very soapy, lukewarm water, allow it to soak for a few
minutes, and then proceed to rub, with a round, light motion.
Do not rub
vigorously, or the fibres of the material will absorb the stain, and removal
will become almost impossible.
process can be adhered to.
the article
coloured or woollen the same
When removing mud stains do not immerse the whole garment in the water
used: remove the stain, and wash the garment in another water prepared
for the purpose.
of Grease, Paint, etc.
For the removal of
tar, paint, etc., turpentine is a very valuable agent.
to lay the stained part of the garment on a clean table,
pour a few drops of turpentine on the stain, and commence rubbing lightly,
with an easy, round motion.
clean piece of soft material should be used
The best plan
and the rubbing should be commenced from the outer edge
gradually working towards the centre.
for this purpose,
of the stain,
To Remove Candle Grease.
To remove this, cov-er the grease spot with brown paper of a dull clothy
te.xture (smooth brown paper as a rule is not nearly so elfective), apply a
fairly warm iron, and thus draw the grease through.
Clean blotting-paper
will serve the same purpose.
The foregoing process should be done before
the articles are washed.
The writer strongly advises against the use of benzine, petrol, etc., in private
houses, and in places unprepared for their use.
These inflammable spirits
should not be used by inexperienced persons, nor in buildings where there
is the least possibility of danger.
It is also exceedingly dangerous to pour
waste spirit, however small the quantity may be, down a sink or drain of
any kind. Any benzine, petrol, benzoline, etc., left over, should always be
poured into the earth, thereby avoiding disastrous results.
As a rule, expense has to be spared, and attention must be paid to the
space available for storing these articles when not in use.
Baths (Fig. 1) for washing purposes can be obtained of almost any size
required, those with the band of galvanised zinc round the base (Fig. 2),
which raises the bottom of the bath from the ground, being the best and
most economical in the end, their cost being very little in advance of the
other makes. A and B in Fig. 3 show sections of the two baths, for comparison.
of the capacity of 12
gahons usually cost about 2s. 6d. with the e.xtra
same size without the guard, cost about 2s.
at the base, while those of the
Galvanised Pails.
These can also be procured with the raised bottoms, which add greatly to
These articles, when not in use, should be thoroughly
dried and hung up, so as to be clean and in readiness for next use.
their length of
Many people like to use a corrugated washing-board, while, on the other
hand, a plain smooth one and a brush are often preferred. The former may be
obtained made solely of wood, or with the fluted part covered with a thin layer
of galvanised zinc.
For many reasons the wooden ones are the best they are
c.isaper, to commence with, and, with the zin; one;, there is a danger of the
metal getting cracked, peeling up, and causing danger to the linen.
With the plain board, a brush is usually needed, and this should be of medium
Heavy brushes with hard, dark bristles clean the work no more
Various makes and sizes
easily, and are apt to be very tiring to the worker.
of brushes are easily obtained, made with a mixture of light and dark bristles.
These will be found of sufficient firmness, and, when new, should be soaked
in several fresh cold waters before being used.
We pass from washing utensils to the articles to be used for finishing and
beautifying the linen.
Wringers and Mangles.
In the majority of private houses it is found most convenient to use those
with wooden rollers, as they are useful both for wringing the wet clothes and
for mangling them after they are dry.
The smaher makes with two rubber rollers are really better for wringing, as
there is not the tendency to break buttons and destro\' hooks, etc. but, as they
are not suitable for mangling as well, not all private families possess them.
In either case the wringer must be kept clean and well oiled, care being taken
that the oil is put into the bearings and not on the rollers.
When not in use the pressure screw must be unloosed. This is most
important, as otherwise the constant pressure will weaken the rollers, and cause
them to wear out quickly. Wooden ones should be moistened with water
Moreover, if this
occasionally if they are left unused for any length of time.
is done before the mangling is commenced, the clothes will appear smoother
and the rollers will run less risk of splitting; but, of course, if the washing
has not long been completed, the rollers will be sufficiently wet.
If rubber rollers become dark and greasy looking, a cloth damped with
When not in use wringers of any
turpentine will speechly remove the dirt.
kind should be kept covered, to prevent dust from settling into the parts.
Clothes Lines.
The two most popular classes of line in general use for the drying and airing
of linen are (1) ordinary rope, which can be obtained of various prices and
and (2) galvanised wire rope, which can
qualities from 4d. a dozen yards
be procured either plain or twisted. The former style of wire rope is pre;
because there are no cre\aces for dirt and dust to
some instances it will be found that one strand of
the wire will crack, and subject the clothes to the danger of being torn,
through the rough, sharp, broken edges. Whatever class of line is used must
be kept clean, or the clothes will have unsightly marks on them after they
in the first place,
settle in,
and again,
are dried.
Ordinary clothes line should be put out only when it is required for use,
in should be coiled up neatly and kept in a box or bag.
this case all that is necessary is to dust it with a clean cloth, slightly damped,
It is best not to make it
after it is stretched ready to receive the clothes.
quite wet, as it shrinks and hardens in the water, and is difficult to use until
dry again. If the lines become dirty, they should be washed v\ath a little soap
and water, and be allowed to get thoroughly dry before they are again used.
Galvanised lines are usually put up as ii.xtures, so that they are always
ready for use, ajter they are cleaned, which is most essential, as it will be
found that the moisture and dirt in the atmosphere cling to the surface, and
A wet, soapy cloth
will otherwise cause greasy-looking marks on the clothes.
should be used, each line being well rubbed.
and when taken
Clothes Pegs.
of wood, and in some cases are bound with a piece
inadvisable, on account of the risk of rusting the wet
clothes, and of tearing them on the sharp edges.
Here, also, attention should
be paid to cleanliness
when not in use, pegs should be kept with the lines,
and occasionally have a damp cloth passed through the cleft of each peg, to
As a
rule, these are
of thin metal,
remove possible dust and
the ground, they should not be
before being used.
Should any become dirty through falHng to
mixed with the others, but be properly washed
Clothes Baskets.
These are of various sizes and qualities, but it is essential that they are
kept extremely clean and free from the dust which readily settles in their
If they are rubbed with a damp cloth before clean, dry clothes are
placed in them, the linen is safeguarded from unsightly marks.
Wet clothes must never be put into a basket, whether of cane or willow,
unless it is lined with a cloth
otherwise brown streaks may appear on them.
It is occasionally necessary to scrub the baskets with clean soapy water,
after which they should be dried in the open air whenever possible.
" Empire
This will be found exceedingly useful in private houses, or in airing-rooms
Tu&h ub
As shown in Fig. 4, the " Dryer " is fixed to a wall
opened by pushing upwards, when the rails assume the shape
of an open fan (see Fig. 5), each lath holding one or two articles.
If it is
hung over, or near a gas stove or fireplace, the clothes will dry very quickly,
and for airing clothes it is invaluable. This article can be procured from
where space
firms that supply laundry apphances, the usual cost being 3s. 6d.
Clothes Horses.
For indoor drying these are invaluable, and can be procured single or
with two or three leaves
also with varying numbers of rails, as needed in
households of different sizes. It is necessary to choose a make which will
stand firmly, and thus minimise the risk of the laden clothes-horse falling
forward into the fire. The webbing which forms the hinges must be kept
in good condition and be firmly secured to the wood.
Ironing Blanket.
of felt, blanket, or woollen material of
for the ironing table,
also a clean calico cover.
be required
very important to
sort will
It is
keep the ironing blanket aired and in a clean condition. If it is folded up
and put away with the dampness from ironing in it, it will be found extremely
unpleasant to use, and will not last nearly so long.
Flannel Pad.
When ironing embroidery work, lace, or any material that has a pattern
to be raised, or that requires to have a " finish " as when new, a flannel pad
will be required.
This can be made by placing together several thicknesses of flannel, or thin white blanket
not necessarily new and tacking
them firmly
to keep them in position.
If a large quantity of ironing is done week by week, it is best to have one
specially kept for the ironing of shirt fronts, and another for lace and
embroidery, but if only a few articles have to be ironed, the same pad will
answer for both purposes. Whenever it becomes stiffened with the contact
of damp starched work, it should be carefully washed, which can be done
without unpicking.
Dampening Rags.
exceedingly useful appendage to the ironing table is a clean soft piece
be used as a " damper."
For this purpose, old well-washed flannel
or white flannelette is most suitable, for both of these materials, when wrung
out of water, retain about the correct amount of moisture that will be needed
if the article being ironed requires extra dampening for any purpose.
It should be kept perfectly clean, and should be washed and dried after the
ironing is finished each week, to be in readiness for future use.
Calico is not
so satisfactory for this purpose, as it is liable to throw out too much moisture
when the article being ironed is rubbed with it.
of rag, to
Ironing Table.
A polished table should not be used if another is available, as not only will
the moisture from the garments ironed soak through the pad and spoil the
table, but the felt will be constantly slipping away from the worker.
A skirt board, broad at one end, and tapering to the other, is very useful
and necessary for the successful ironing of skirts and dresses. A good
average size is about 4 ft. long by 18 in. at the wide end and 9 in. at the
narrow end.
This board should be kept covered with two or three thicknesses of felt
It is best to cut the padding a few inches larger than the board
each way, turn the edges over on to the reverse side, and fix them there firmly
with tin-tacks, avoiding creases and WTinkles in the felt.
If two trestles are available, they make a convenient stand for the board,
and, in fact, this is a very suitable ironing table for average private houses.
Supported on the backs of two chairs, the board is quite easy to use. The
or blanket.
padding need not often be removed, for as
enabled to escape.
not folded, the steam
These can be obtained
but small ones are, as a rule,
advisable to choose a medium
size, e.g., 6 or 8, which cost about Is. and Is. 4d. respectively.
They will be
found quite easy to use, as actually the extra weight of the larger iron is not
noticed if it is skilfully manipulated.
for private
in a
(Fig. 6.)
of sizes,
Holts. Jor-
Very convenient irons are supplied by most of the gas companies thev are
good size and are heated with gas.
The usual method of connecting the gas supply for the heating of these irons
by means of a length of flexible tubing, which has been connected to a
of fairly
suitable burner.
(Fig. 7.)
be found quite easy to manage, but care must be taken that
the connections are secure, and that the gas is regulated in the iron.
the gas is alight the iron is gradually getting hotter therefore, if the articles
that are being ironed are not very damp, so that the heat is not being absorbed
by the moisture, the light inside the iron must be kept very low indeed. As
a rule, the burners of these irons are similar to an ordinary gas burner and
can readily be understood. A lighted " spill " or taper should be carried to
the iron, the burner turned on, and the gas lighted.
It is advisable not to
turn on the gas before procuring the taper.
If the tubing is of rubber, it should be taken off the iron when not in use
and be carefully put away, and if kept in a dark place, its life will be considerably lengthened.
Electric irons are similar in structure, and Fig. 8
illustrates the method of connecting the plug to the iron.
Another class of flat-iron is the " Dalli."
This is heated by means of charcoal
supplied especially for the purpose.
Such irons have been found very convenient in the summer time, when other means of heating would be somewhat
Their cost is about 6s., the charcoal being sold in tiny blocks at
2|d. per doz.
Directions for feeding the iron are supplied \sath it.
It is most essential that irons of any description should be kept free from
dirt and rust.
In fact this applies "to all classes of laundry utensils and
Well-finished work cannot be turned out if, after use, they are
about to gather dirt and rust. A little wax or clean grease rubbed on
the irons before they get cold, and allowed to remain on until they are heated
When required for use the
again, will greatly facilitate the future ironing.
It is necessary to
grease should be cleaned off when they are partially hot.
be most careful not only that the base of the iron is clean and smooth, but
also that the top part and handle are carefully dusted.
Should irons have become rusty or in bad condition, the following is a
Procure a dean rag and a little finely-powdered
good plan for cleaning them
With this, well
Bath-brick, to which should be added a little grease or wax.
all the mixture used,
rub the face of the iron when it is slighth' warm
however, must be thoroughly cleaned off before the iron is re-heated.
Some people advocate the use of paraffin for cleansing irons, but this is
found to cause a roughness which is especially noticeable if the face of the
iron is hot.
Iron Stands.
Sometimes these are sold with wooden handles, but those made entirely of
metal are much to be preferred, since they are safer. It is advisable to see
that they are fairlj' well raised from the table, so that the ironing pad may be
protected from scorching. The}' should stand firmly, and should be sufficiently
large to receive the iron, or it may be continually slipping off.
Polishing Irons.
These are used chiefly for the glazing of shirts, collars, and cuffs, and are
much smaller than flat-irons. They range in size from to 4, and the
average cost is about Is. For amateurs the smaller sizes are advisable. {See
Fig. 9.)
Polishing irons must be kept extremely clean
they will do
much more harm than good when
in use.
and smooth, otherwise
In conjunction with these irons, a board must be used, which should be made
hard wood, well planed and smoothed, and kept solely for the purpose of
It should measure about 18 in. by 10 in., and should be covered
with clean calico in the form of a case, so that no seams rest on the side of
the board which is used.
Heating Irons.
When heating ordinary flat or polishing irons, it is necessary to keep the
" face " of the iron from actual contact with the source of the heat as much
as possible.
In laundries, therefore, closed-in, slow-combustion stoves are
used, so that the irons only come intocontact with the heated stove and never
with the fuel used.
In this way they are always smooth, and can be easily
kept clean.
In private houses, where a closed kitchen-range is fitted, the
top of this practically answers the same purpose, and will be found convenient
gas-ring or stove is also a good means of heating them, and an excellent
to keep a piece of thin sheet iron to place over the gas or " kitchener,"
and to place the irons upon it. The face of the irons can thus be kept
smoother, and will necessarily be much more pleasant to use.
In the case
of a stove that is kept well black-leaded, this will do away with the necessity
for cleaning off the top of the stove before the irons are put to heat.
These sht)uld be sufficiently thick to protect the hand from the heat of
the iron without being uncomfortably bulky to hold, and not so large as to
hang down far enough to scorch on the base of the iron.
They are best made of woollen material, through which the heat will not
readily penetrate
but the outer covering should be of some light, smooth
material, from which no hairs or fluff will fall upon the work which is being
Sleeve Board.
also a necessary
and useful
blouse sleeves.
The type shown
especially for
the ironing of
be obtained
Is. 3d.,
and is made of wood only.
for 2s. 6d.
It is possible to get a heavy
make is sold
a galvanised base and
movable boards, two being supplied with each stand, the cost being 63. 6d.
The board requires covering with at least two thicknesses of felt, which must
be fixed on very neatly, to avoid creases, and be covered with a small piece of
calico before using.
really substantial
make with
Goffering Irons.
For the finishing of starched frills, goffering is a simple, and pretty process,
which irons may be obtained at a fairly low cost. They can be bought
(See Fig. 11.)
6d. onwards, and quite a good substantial make for about Is.
Lace Punch.
This article, as shown in Fig. 12, will be found very useful for
finishing of raised patterns on laces, and can be bought for about Is.
This iron often facilitates the ironing of tiny sleeves,
the crowns of hats
and bonnets, or ruchings that may possibly occur in
garments. {See Fig.
s— (635I
The two
First, in the "
of using starch for purposes of
laundry work are
a mixture is made with cold or lukewarm
water and the starch is left uncooked, thus causing the swelling and bursting
of the starch granules to come about when the article that has been " raw
starched" is being ironed. This method is chiefly used for shirts, collars, and
cuffs, and in some instances for fine muslin work, these latter articles
requiring a very dilute solution.
Secondly, starch is largely used in the boiled state, and is then suitable for
household linen and various garments {e.g., dresses, petticoats, blouses, etc.).
When used thus, it imparts to the garments a more supple feeling and
appearance, and if carefuUy made and used is suitable for articles of the
finest texture.
In making up boiled starch for use, it is absolutely essential that all the
starch grains shall burst.
It is quite easy to ascertain when this has happened,
for at that moment it takes on a clear appearance, and is said to have
" turned," and is then quite fit for use.
When starching garments, it is best
to use the starch while it is yet warm.
In this way the starch enters the linen
more easily, and the work, after ironing, has a smoother appearance.
For ordinary household purposes, a good white rice starch is to be recommended, and is quite an economical commodity, the average price being
4d. per lb.
It is advisable to store it in a clean, drv place.
The number
of articles to be starched should be studied in estimating the quantity of
starch to be made up.
On the other hand, left-over starch should never
be thrown away.
If covered over and strained before using again, it remains
quite good for some time.
In the case of " raw " starch, this is even an
The following
directions will be found useful
the preparing of starch for
different classes of garments.
i lb. white starch
^ oz. borax
few shreds of curd soap
quart water.
Put the borax and curd soap (finely shredded) into a saucepan, with
enough of the water to cover it, and boil until dissolved. While this is in
preparation, put the starch into a clean pan, and mix it to a smooth " creamy
paste with a small quantity of the
The whole
free from " grit," the rest of the water can be gradually added.
quantity should never be poured in at once, as all the small particles require
dissolving as much as possible.
By this time the borax and soap should
be ready. Allow the mixture to go just off the boil, then stir it into the starch
by degrees very carefully. If good curd soap is used, it will be found to have
quite a " whitening " effect on the linen.
On «o account must yellow or
mottled soap be used. White wax can be substituted for the soap, but
has not quite such a clear effect. One quart of starch will be sufficient for,
say, three or four shirts and about one dozen collars.
If raw starch is required for muslin goods, only a very weak solution is
needed, judgment having to be used according to the texture of the article.
For instance, a satisfactory plan is to starch pinafores and thin muslin garments that have to be ironed fairly wet, in the following way. When the
articles are to be prepared thus, they need not be dried after washing, but
must be put into, and wrung out of the starch, and must not be dried before
They should be rolled in a cloth until the irons are ready.
For this class of thing, i pint of the mixture already referred to, added to
pints (more or less) of water, will result in the degree of stiffness
This method of starching is very convenient if drying would have
to be done under adverse conditions, or when the weather renders outdoor
drying impossible.
It should be remembered that wet articles, being put into starch, will
gradually weaken it
therefore, if there are a good number, its strength must
be renewed occasionally.
Boiled Starch.
Half a
of starch will
be required
in the
preparation of boiled starch
is needed, a good-
blouses, curtains, etc.
Supposing 4 quarts
sized kettle or saucepan full of water will be wanted.
for dresses,
Put the starch into a pan sufficiently large to hold a gallon, and work it
into a smooth paste with a little extra cold water, adding at most 1 pint.
If too much cold water is used, the starch will be more difficult to " turn."
Into the boiling water put a small piece of borax (about i oz.), add a few
shreds of white wax or curd soap.
When the water is boiling, pour on fairly
quickly, stirring all the time.
As the starch begins to turn and become transparent-looking, stir more quickly, until a nice smooth clearness is estabhshed.
A little practice will soon assist the user to know how much water to add for
different classes of material.
The best plan
white articles
all work that has to be starched, treating the
leaving the coloured or thicker ones until last.
of great assistance to the ironer, garments that are
to sort out
starched in a badly made preparation are
" thiclc " appearance when finished.
difficult to iron,
and have a very
The above quantity
of boiled starch may be sufficient for, say, two or three
curtains, possibly a dozen pieces such as blouses or frocks, and
various thicker articles of household linen that may require stiffening.
Creaming Curtains and Laces.
There are various methods by which
and curtains can be
This can be procured, but only a very little of it is required to obtain a
fairly deep shade.
It should be mixed in the dry state with a proportion of
white starch, and care must be taken that all the small particles are dissolved in the cold water before the boiling water is added, otherwise the grains
of cream starch will cause brown specks on the finished article.
The quantity
really depends on the shade desired, but the mixing of 1 oz. of cream to
J lb.
of white starch results in a fairly medium tint.
of Potash.
Fine laces can be very successfully coloured by this substance, but it must be
distinctly understood that it is practically a dye, therefore unless the colour
is required to be permanent, other means of obtaining the desired shade
should be adopted. A few grains will be sufficient for 1 quart of hot water.
After testing the liquid, immerse the article, and then rinse it in clear warm
This removes any unevenness there may be in the resulting colour.
The depth of tone will entirely depend on the quantity of colouring matter
Delicate tints can be produced if this is carefully used.
The saffron should
be put into a jar or saucepan, one pennyworth to 1 quart of water, and be gently
simmered for one hour. The liquid must be carefully strained to remove all
particles before it is used, otherwise endless trouble will be caused.
If the
use of this liquid causes too yellowish a tint, the addition of a little strong
tea produces rather a pleasing shade.
Tea and Coffee.
Both of the above produce
effective tints.
In each case the mixture should
be allowed to " stand " after being made and then be strained before it is
If the shade obtained thus is too dull, a little of some other brighter
tint added, such as saffron or ecru " Dolly tints." materially improves the
The foregoing methods are, perhaps, somewhat troublesome in comparison
with the use of various tints that can be bought quite cheaply, but in many cases
they will prove more satisfactory, as shades can be produced which are not
obtainable in those bought ready to use.
material similar to that which
adopted, it is advisable to test a piece of
to be tinted, before the whole article is
Before commencing
to wash white work, prepare the water as follows.
Half fill a bath or tank with fairly warm water, at a temperature of from about
85° to 90° v., and add just a small portion of soda: if ordinary washing
soda is used, halt a handful is sufficient to soften several gallons of water. If
too much soda is added, the skin of the hands will become very tender, which
is quite unnecessary.
Take the first lot of white work to be washed (sdvpage;9, 141), rub each of
the articles lightly on the soiled parts with soap, and leave them in the water
until sufficient of the fine work is soaked in to be conveniently washed at one
Fine pieces must be lightly rubbed between the hands, collars and
thick handkerchiefs may be scrubbed with a fairly soft brush.
If a corrugated
rubbing board is used, no brush is needed on the other hand, many people
prefer a plain board and a brush of medium stiffness, thus saving the fingers
a good deal.
Shirts will require special attention at the edges of wrists,
collar bands and fronts, as well as under arms, elbows, etc. Handkerchiefs will
require friction on both sides to ensure their looking clear and free from
Hems of frocks, front widths, collars and waistbands usuallv demand
most care. As a rule, cotton starched work is fairly easy to wash, the chief
aim being to keep this class of work a good colour. If ladies' dresses and
petticoats are found to be extremely mud-stained, follow the directions on
page 18, before the articles are put into the ordinary washing water.
After all the small fine pieces are washed, wring and put aside ready for
the first boil, and soak a reasonable quantity of body linen in the same water.
The specially soiled parts should be lightly soaped as they are put in. While
these are soaking, prepare the copper and put in the first lot to boil.
copper should only be about two-thirds full of water, that the water may
not overflow when the clothes are put in.
A small quantity of soda must
be added before the linen is immersed, about half a tea-cupful to an 8-gallon
copper is sufficient.
Many people prefer to rinse the clothes in cold water after washing, in
order to remove the soap before boiling
but this is hardly necessary if the
washing water is changed a reasonable number of times, in accordance with
the kind of dirt that is in the linen, and the number of articles that are to be
washed. In fact, the sudden plunging into cold hard water from the hot
soapy bath has a tendency to darken the linen, giving it, in many cases, a
greyish, unwholesome appearance.
Very small or fine lace pieces should not be put in the copper loosely
articles, but should be boiled in a cotton bag kept
There is no actual economy in overcrowding the copper,
as an overfilled one invariably takes longer to boil.
After sufficient garments are carefully put in, shred a few pieces of soap,
and allow these to dissolve on the top as the water boils up. Shredded soap
should not be put in before the clothes, as there is a tendency for the pieces
to stick to the sides of the copper; these hot jellified fragments attract the
and heavier
for the purpose.
and are liable to cause " copper-burn."
vast difference in the colour of the linen can result from correctly or
For instance, it may be noticed,
carelessly steeping the articles in the copper.
when putting in body linen, that the calico is fairly firm and resists the water.
If one of these comparatively thick articles is placed on the top, and stoked
in carelessly, the result will be that parts of the garment form into bags
of air, while scarcely any water flows through, hence the boiling will do little
Take the same garment, however thick, lay the neck part on the
water, and, while holding the rest in the left hand, thrust it gradually in with
the copper stick, so that the water has a chance of flowing through, and none
of these " air bubbles " will be seen.
Pillow-cases, also, require the same attention in the boiling, and should
never be put into the water from the top hems. The closed part of the slip
should be put in first, the top hem being held in the hand until the water has
soaked through.
the majority of beginners these precautions
may sound
and they may think that time would be wasted thus
but experience will
soon prove their value. These hot dry air bubbles in the boiling are extremely
dangerous, not only to the linen, but to the person working at the copper;
a very vigorous push with the stick may cause the linen to burst, and serious
scalds may result from the splashing of the boiling water and steam.
While the first copperful is coming to the boil, the next set of articles should
be washed. Linen should not be unduly boiled, as after a certain period
it has a tendency to absorb the discoloration which the water has removed
and now contains. This also will show the necessity for changing the boiling
water fairly frequently. Two or three lots in succession, boiled in the same
water, are as many as is consistent with reasonable expectations of a good result.
Clothes can be turned quite a disagreeable yellowish tint through too
persistent boiling, and it is almost impossible to remove this subsequently.
After the water has once boiled, ten minutes is quite sufficient to allow the
clothes to continue boiling before they are taken out.
It is well to see that
the linen is kept well under water while in the copper.
Care must be taken, when removing small fine work from the copper,
that the stick does not injure the articles.
When lifting them, the danger of
scalding must be avoided, each one being extricated and disentangled from
the others, so that splashing and tearing may be prevented.
Allow the clothes to drain either on the up-turned copper-lid, tilted towards
the copper, or in a bath placed very near.
This is necessary, that the extreme
boiling heat may be diminished before they come into contact with the first
cold rinse.
A little fresh cold water must be added to the copper to make up for that
removed in the clothes, and a very little more soda is needed, and possibly
a few more shreds of soap after the second set is put in.
While these are
boiling, the nicest of the house linen should be soaked in and washed.
there is a large quantity of table linen, this should have fresh water, the
boiling also being very carefully considered.
Table cloths, sheets, etc., will require somewhat different handling in
washing, from personal garments. All garments worn personally have special
" wear " marks, which must be attacked systematically, to ensure that the
garment is perfectly clean at the finish. Household linen requires more
all over
loose washing, whereas body linen requires vigorous rubbing in parts. Scrubbing would be quite unnecessary and useless for table
linen, which needs a good firm rubbing on a board, or between the hands,
the water being hot, soft and soapy.
Sheets, also, would scarcely ever require
than on an ordinary rubbing-board.
It is absolutely essential that, however well washed and boiled the linen
has been, it shall be equally well rinsed.
Many people say that unless the blue
water is absolutely clear after being used, the articles are insufficiently rinsed.
This ideal would be found exceedingly difficult to attain, for if the articles
had as many as six rinses in clear water, the blue would still show a certain
amount of soapy sediment after their removal.
If the linen has two good rinses, all the articles being well opened in the
water to allow of its flowing through them, and then are " blued " in a third
water, there is no reason why the linen should not be a nice fair colour, and
quite easy to iron.
It may be as well to emphasize here that one of the needs
for good rinsing is on account of the ironing to follow.
Badly rinsed clothes never iron easily, apart from the bad colour and
unpleasant odour, for they have a great tendency to scorch under the iron,
which is most annoying to the ironer, and exceedingly unpleasant for the
Assuming that all the linen has had at least two good rinses,
attention must be directed to the " blueing."
" Blueing."
is used, the worker should become acquainted with its
Nothing is more unsightly than clothes with too strong a tinge
blue in them, for it gives them a " cheap," common effect, and, moreover,
some cases it is hard to remove.
Before the blue
" strength."
As has been prevnously explained, there are many kinds of blue to be
obtained, each being quite good in its own way when judiciously used.
that in liquid form is preferred, it is best to get into the habit of using a certain
measure, a spoon, for instance, and also the same quantity of water, so that
a uniform tint is obtained.
If a solid form of blue is used, the square should be tied in a flannel bag,
and squeezed through as required the flannel thus acts as a strainer and
The blue bag should not
prevents the grains of blue from specking the linen.
be laid about, but should be kept in a jar when not in use, as the strong tint
coming straight from it acts as a dye to anything with which it comes into
contact, and thereby is liable to cause much damage.
When blueing the clothes, only one article should be put into the water
at a time, and wrung out straight away.
Some textures will take the blue
very much more easily than others therefore watchfulness is needed that
anything of soft or loose make shall not be put into the strong blue first, but
kept back until the colour is diluted, as a consequence of the other articles,
which were full of clear water, haxing passed through it.
As a rule, the fine articles which were washed first will require only a
medium tint in the water, then a little more blue may be added for the thicker
cotton work.
Soft spongy materials, such as cellular cloth, oatmeal cloths,
Turkish towelling, etc., will require the merest shade, an excess causing them
to turn very dark and eventually a permanently bad colour.
There are certain rules that must be observed concerning this process,
one very important point being the attention paid to the position of buttons.
It is quite possible to use a wringer and still keep buttons both whole and on
the garment.
Of course, where wooden rollers are used, this is not so easy
The clothes should be put through the wringer in the
as with rubber ones.
order in which they come from the blue, for, if they lie about any length of time,
they will look streaky. It is as well to wring very fine pieces by hand, and,
even then, not too vigorously. All articles should be wrung from the ends,
and not put through the wringer in a lumpy condition.
Careless wringing not only causes damage to the clothes, but shortens the
life of the wringer rollers.
Pillow-slips, and anything in bag-like form, should
be wrung from the closed ends, so that the water can flow out of them, otherwise it is liable to burst them.
In private houses, a few moments spent in
folding the clothes for wTin.ging is really a great saving of time, for they then
dry much straighter, and are much less trouble to fold.
be certain articles that will require starching, and these must
Separate the different classes of articles to be starched,
now be attended
as those that require to be fairly stiff must be put first into the fresh starch.
For the making of this, see page 32. The stiffness of various types of garments
being quite a matter of taste, the articles must be treated according to
individual requirements ; but as a rule the following order will answer for
most starched work.
All thin white pieces should com.e
such as muslin
and lace
unless these latter are preferred soft
then white petticoats and
thicker blouses
thirdly, pinafores, etc., which are often made of materials
that absorb the starch easily, and look ver}' ungainly if too stiff.
Next come
children's frocks and petticoats, and lastly any thick aprons or other articles
that may be to hand.
Table linen should be starched in a very much diluted solution. Take a
portion of the stock mi.xture, see page 32, add at least four times the quantity
of water, and stir well, so that starch and added water are well mixed.
table cloths and tray cloths should be done first, and serviettes after all the
other table linen has been through.
Curtains and hangings usually require
a fair amount of starch, even to make them of medium stiffness.
If it is at all possible, starch should be used before it has cooled down,
and all " skin " that may have formed on the top be removed before it is used.
This is most important, as the least particle of this skin sticking to the clothes
will make unsightly white patches appear in the ironing, it being almost
impossible to remove these marks without re-washing.
people know that outdoor drying is more beneficial to the colour of
white linen than indoor drying. On the other hand, if the outdoor conditions
are not good, drying indoors need not be detrimental to the clothes, as it can
be carried out quite easily and successfully. As far as is at all possible, clothes
should be dried as soon as they are wrung from rinsing, anything that is likely
to spoil being attended to first.
It is most essential that all garments should be shaken out while wet,
and hung to dry as straight as possible, a little care at this stage being a great
Take a blouse as shown in Fig. 14 as an example.
The cuffs, collar, and yoke in this case piped at the edges are thick sections,
and should be hung so that they may be exposed as much as possible to the
saving of time and labour.
Parts from which the colour is likely to " run " are thus prevented
from contact with the rest of the blouse. If hung as in Fig. 15, the thin front
become dry long before the cuffs, for instance, because they are both
hanging together and also because the moisture is draining into them.
Turkish towels will serve as another instance, for if these are hung without
being carefully shaken out, they dry harsh and crooked, and the creases
remain in them until they are washed again whereas, if they are well shaken
out before drying, they are softer and more pleasant to use, and have a very
much newer appearance. Large articles, such as sheets and table cloths,
should be hung as square as space permits, as this assists much in the folding
Body linen, shirts, etc., should have the sleeves
of these heavy articles.
well shaken out, while starched work must be freed from creases, so that the
parts do not stick together.
With regard to outdoor drying, it is important to notice the direction of
If the atmosphere is likely to contain much
the wind when hanging out.
dust, etc., it is not advisable to hang the garments so that the wind blows
into any of their openings, as smuts and dirt will thus be carried inside the
As the
garment and come to rest on what is necessarily the right side.
clothes, however, will dry more quickly if hung thus, this plan is usually
adopted when the air is free from smuts.
For drying flannels, blankets, etc., see pages 114-17. If collars are washed
at home, a good plan is to roll them in a dry cloth while wet, and allow them
to remain until nearly all the moisture is absorbed, when they will be ready
The ironing will give a more satisfactory
[See page 55.)
to be starched.
result if the collars are prepared thus, for no smuts or dust will have
accumulated in the drying.
Heavy cotton sheets should be perfectly dried, as the thick material
holds the slightest moisture, which causes more trouble than is necessary
with the airing. Cotton towels should also be quite dry, and will require
scarcely any sprinkling, as the mangle makes quite a good impression
on this class of goods, even without added moisture. Bath towels should
be completely dried, for they will then only require folding and putting
Starched work of any kind should
aside for the plain tops to be pressed up.
be allowed to get thoroughly dry before sprinkling, as the articles iron much
more easily than when they are only half dried.
part will
Folding and Mangling.
It is well to fold all linen as soon as it is dry, rather than allow it to lie
House linen and all plain work should be folded
creased and crumpled.
neatly for the mangle with corners together, each article being shaken well
and smoothed out nicely with the hands.
Sheets should be taken lengthways, right side out, with the two selvedges
coming together, thus exactly halving the width of the sheet. Complete the
lengthway fold by putting the centre up parallel with the two edges, so thai
Then halve the length by putting the two
the width of the sheet is in four.
ends together. Repeat this so that the length of the sheet is also in four
This will be found a convenient size for mangling.
Table cloths can be folded in a similar manner, but wrong side out, to keep
the right side fresh, in case of any dust adhering to them because of the extra
dampness and
Towels, tea towels, etc., should be folded in half lengthways, right side out,
so that the two selvedges are together and the hems halved.
The two ends
should then be placed together so that one-fourth of the article is showing.
Pillow-slips need special attention at the corners, which must be pushed
out from inside with the finger until they are square. They should be folded
as just described but if they have large or thick buttons, they should not be
mangled, as buttons are apt to press through and make holes in the slip.
All linen that is to be mangled needs to be only lightly sprinkled.
If an
ordinary wringing machine, with wooden rollers, is used for mangling, it is
best to pass something wet through the rollers before commencing to mangle,
unless the wet clothes have been recently wrung, when the rollers will be moist
Rollers are apt to split and wear out sooner if the mangling is done
when they are perfectly dry, and also the impression on the clothes is not
quite so good.
In putting articles through the mangle all folds must be perfectly flat
with the edges of material evenly together, or the process will be a fruitless
Articles that are not being ironed should be hung to air immediately
after mangling, for linen put away well aired keeps a much better colour
than if it is packed in a half-damp condition. Furthermore, it is obviously
more convenient if stored articles are practically ready for use.
When commencing
to iron, it is a satisfactory plan to clear off all heavy
have been mangled, and which will need a considerable time to
air, before starting the lighter and fancier articles, which take up more room,
but require less airing.
Sheets, towels, and similar articles have a more
pleasing appearance and a smoother feel if pressed with an iron after
mangling. Thev need not be unfolded, but special attention should be paid
to the hems and edges.
Table cloths should be ironed all over on the right
side, and kept as straight as possible in the ironing.
articles that
To Fold Table
Place the selvedges parallel with each other so that the cloth
side out, as in Fig. 16.
He m.
WTong Side
lay the centre fold parallel with the
on the wrong
[See Fig. 17.)
selvedges, the cloth
Now bring
the outer selvedge A, in Fig. 17, forward and up, so that the cloth
(See Fig. 18.)
right side out, with one edge on each side of the centre fold.
At this stage the cloth should be laid on the table lengthways, and pressed
on both sides of the folds, so that the edges and the centre of the cloth are
creased quite evenly as they lie together.
The ends of the cloth should then be placed together, so that the length is
but no iron should be used for pressing, as these creases are best
Wroncj Side.
/7e -n^S.
Repeat this, until the cloth is folded conveniently for
packing away.
In the laundry trade this is termed " booking," and is quite the most
not clearly defined.
they will " set " so much better
they were folded plainly like a sheet. Fig. 19 shows
of folding table cloths, as
on the table than
the difference when the cloth is opened on the table, between the resulting
creases of the " booking " or " screen-fold " method, as it is sometimes called
{see Fig. 18), and those of a table cloth folded sheet-wise.
f P»/>//'//>J
Ironing Serviettes.
These should also be ironed perfectly square, and made absolutely dry
One method is to iron them lightly on both sides, thus
Another way is to work only on the
making them almost equally glossy.
4— (635)
before being folded.
right side, and to gloss it, while leaving the wrong side quite dull and " flat."
The advantage in use is that the serviette is less likely to sHp from the lap
if it is
shiny on both sides.
Folding Serviettes.
As regards
this, either of
the two following
Three and Four
For the first method.
the table, as in Fig. 20.
" or "
Three and Three."
The selvedge should run
parallel with the
edge of
Fig. 20.
At a third of the distance up the hems make a fold by nipping up a piece
of the material at each end between the thumb and first finger, letting the
second finger rest inside the crease thus formed. {See Fig. 21.)
Fig. 21.
Take this
With the
meet the selvedge as
hand bring the hem on that
fold over to
in Fig. 22,
side over, exactly
on the
oi Talrk.
Fig. 22.
right-hand hem. Obviously in Fig. 23 the edges cannot be drawn exactly one
over the other, or one would be hidden.
Fro. 23.
be found an easier movement for the left wrist to make the fold
rather than from right to left.
In this way the right hand is
free to grasp the iron. In Fig. 24, A indicates the next movement, which brings
It will
left to right,
20, 21
and then make a
to the right-hand
fold one-third of the length from the left
and well press.
as in Fig. 25,
Fig. 25.
Fancy Folding.
There are very many ways of arranging serviettes to give a dainty appearbut only one is suggested here, as fancy folding
ance to the table when laid
Perhaps the simplest
is really the work of those who have charge of the table.
method is to fold as in Fig. 22, then halve the width and lightly crease to secure
Now open the ser\-iette right out, and refold fan-fashion.
equal divisions.
Fig. 26.
It is then usually placed in a tumbler, after having been lightly
folded in halves lengthwise.
as in Fig. 26.
Tray Cloths.
These should have lace or embroidery well pressed on a flannel pad, and
should be folded in halves so that the first crease runs lengthways, and then
should be halved the reverse way.
D'Oyleys and Small Mats.
These should not be folded after ironing, but kept perfectly
Sideboard Cloths and Duchesse Covers.
When these are long and an unbroken
should be rolled and not folded in creases.
Afternoon Tea Cloths.
These cloths,
can be folded in the same way as table cloths but,
each way, as for serviettes, is effective and
fairly small, folding in three
Bed-spreads and Counterpanes.
These are easier to place on beds
folded " book fashion "
as for table
Turkish Towels.
These should not be ironed, as before mentioned, except on the plain tops,
and the
must be
well straightened out
by shaking.
will require ironing on both sides, and the tapes straightening out.
are best folded in hah-es widthways, and in halves again the reverse way.
Fig. 27,
prefer to fold frilled slips in three each way
but by this method there
of frill projecting on all sides, which, although looking rather nice,
a portion
is somewhat inconvenient, owing to there being no plain portion of which to
take hold. Also more creases appear when the case is on the pillow than with
the first method described for plain slips.
Lace and Muslin Curtains
These should be ironed on the wrong side, which both raises the pattern and
gives the material a much newer look.
good plan for the finishing of lace
curtains is to pin them out into shape [see Fig. 27), allow them to get almost
dry, and then press lightly.
When " got up " by this method, lace curtains
have not such a stiff appearance as when they are ironed quite damp, and
be much straighter.
muslin curtains have frills that require goffering after the curtain has
been ironed, the wide frill should be goffered first, the heading being left until
[See Fig. 28.)
This is a saving of time, inasmuch as, while the wide
will also
frill is
being done, the heading, which is generally somewhat thick,
will, therefore, be much easier to goffer.
Net Curtains.
These are always somewhat difficult to get straight
but if the curtain,
any article that is made of net, is laid out, wrong side uppermost and ironed
in a diagonal fashion across the net, it will be found very much easier to get
the required shape and straightness.
(See Fig. 29.)
All curtains should be commenced at the bottom corner, the length being
placed along the table with the bottom edge at right angles. The ironer
should commence by " setting " the edge of the curtain along the front of
the table and then work carefully back to the first corner.
In ironing
^VroTiQ Side.
Fig. 29.
curtains of any description it is necessary to guard against using the iron too
vigorously and thus stretching the fabric. Also, after lowering the first
portion ironed so that the next piece can be done, care must be taken that
a ridge is not made where the second " stretch " is commenced.
Madras Curtains.
These should have little or no starch put into them, and should be ironed
on the wrong side, the frills being plainly ironed out but the headings should
be nicely goffered.
getting this class of work ready for finishing after it has been washed
it is necessary to prepare it some time previous to ironing, to ensure
that the garments have an even dampness all over.
If this precaution is not
taken, and the materials are at all harsh, there will be rough patches left
under the iron.
Commence by lightly and evenly sprinkling the boiled starch work that
has been dried, and roll each article up loosely, keeping it on the wrong side.
If the garments are at all creased, do not pull them out while dry, as this would
remove the stiffness and render them limp and raggy when finished.
After these have been damped, procure a httle thin boiled starch for frills
Use just a little of the stock solution,
of body linen, night-dresses, etc.
adding at least two or three times the amount of water. Care must be taken
that onlv the frill is dipped into the starch, and not the thick bands or cahco
parts of the garments, or the effect will be ungainly, and the garments will be
very uncomfortable in wear. Take, for instance, a night-dress, with frills on
dip the fingers lightly into the prepared weak starch
neck, front, and sleeves
and slightly dampen all the frills, taking care not to touch the plain parts with
starchy fingers. This method is better than dipping the frills in the starch,
and wringing them out, unless they are required very stiff. Frills on knickers,
chemise or camisole tops are quite satisfactory if made firm with starch in
pillow-shps are required stiff for goffering, they are best wrung
out of the starch, care being taken that no part of the pillow-slip is starched
If night-dresses and thick body linen are folded and mangled they will
but all fine work is best left on the wrong side and
then be much easier to iron
If frills of
To fold night-dresses for the mangle, commence by placing the two side
seams together and smooth out all wrinkles, sprinkling very lightly and evenly.
Fold the length of the garment in halves by placing the yoke part to the bottom
hem, lay the sleeves flat across the front one on the other, and fold lengthways once more. The night-dress will then be in halves widthways, and in four
lengthways, with the sleeves folded neatly straight across inside.
If the
thus the garment will be in quite a convenient size for mangling.
night-dresses have pearl buttons they should not be mangled.
can be folded in the same way minus the sleeves, while knickers should be
folded from the seam, with both legs together, folding the length in halves, and
then again.
If articles are carefully folded and well mangled, a great deal of assistance
is given to the ironing
but carelessness in these matters actually makes
the finishing more difficult and less satisfactoryCamisoles and similar garments should not be mangled, for usually they
are so curved and shapely that folding straight for the mangle is almost
If any small pieces require " raw " starching, this should now be done.
Suppose there are a few small pieces that require to be stiffened for which raw
starch, such as has previously been made for collars, will do nicely, then take
a small quantity of the stock, and add water as for stiffness required.
quantities of water and starch will make lace or muslin pieces too stiff for most
people's hking, two parts water to one part stock solution gives a medium
Three parts water to one part starch is sufficient for lace jabots,
ties, etc., which merely require stiffening as when they were new.
For successful finishing of fine work, there is no hard and fast rule as to
Apart from the requirements of the materials, there is to be considered the taste of the person who wears or uses the articles therefore a little
forethought will add both to the appearance of the garment and to the delight
of the owner.
Starching Collars.
Before doing this, see that the starch is thoroughly stirred and that no
sediment remains at the bottom. If it has been standing for some time, strain
through a muslin in case of dust having settled on it. The collars must be
well rubbed in so that the linen absorbs the starch thoroughly, or they will
" blister " in ironing.
Only one or two must be put into the starch at a time,
and the mixture stirred fairly often, as raw starch has a tendency to settle,
so that if any collars were left at the bottom of the vessel, they would get the
lumpy starch on them, while those being rubbed in would only get the weaker
solution at the top.
After the collars are starched, each should be placed flat on the table,
held with the left hand, and rubbed briskly with a clean cloth.
" rubbing down " they should be laid in a dry cloth and be wrung.
If the
starching is properly managed, it matters not how much of the moisture is
squeezed out afterwards, they will still be stiff, and the drier they are up
to a certain point
the more successfully will they iron.
Starching Shirts.
necessary to stiffen the fronts and cuffs of these garments without
at all starchy.
Take the front and fold it in halves,
taking care that the collar-band is folded so that it will absorb the starch,
It is
making the body part
but the yoke part be kept as soft as possible. See Fig. 30 for methods of placing
shirt for starching.
Thoroughly rub in the front, and wring well. Do not squeeze the starched
parts in between the fingers, but wring them with a firm twisting motion of the
Fig. 30.
hands, as indicated in Fig. 30 (a). This is absolutely necessary, because, if the
starch is just squeezed through the linen, and the shirt happens to be of fairly
thick te.xture, the starch will settle in between the folds of the linen and cause
much trouble under the iron. The cuffs should be neatly folded and can both
be starched at once, care being taken that the staich does not go beyond the
gathers of the sleeves.
When rolling down shirts a clean brush is necessary to remove any traces
of starch that may be on the body part, round the front and cuffs.
Lay the
shirt on the table with the front uppermost and the shoulder part furthest
away from the edge, so that the whole front that has been starched is exposed
to view.
Make the brush fairly wet, and by its aid remove the traces of
starch round the sides of the front where it has soaked out
however, care
must be taken that the wet brush does not go on the front itself, for the least
spot of water often causes the several thicknesses of linen to come apart in
Fig. 30 (a
round, the yoke must be damped with the brush
After the front is wetted
The sleeve parts above the starched
to remove the unnecessary starch.
cuffs must be treated similarly.
No extra dampening will be necessary after
scrubbing in this way, for the removing of superfluous starch usually causes
quite enough water to be used in fact care has to be taken not to make the
shirts unduly wet.
After this, they should be neatly rolled up with the front
cuffs inside.
These are also best starched after drying, and require much care. As a
when very stiff. In any case only the fronts should
rule they are disliked
be starched, and the back
left quite soft.
Fold the waistcoat in halves, with the
fronts face to face.
Dip into the starch, and wring out as dry as
possible, holding as in Fig. 31.
They should be starched in a very weak
Fig. 31.
solution, in fact with only just enough raw starch in the water to make it
look " milky." About half a pint of collar starch to 2 quarts of water will
give as much stiffness as most men like, with a result similar to the
" new " finish.
is starched and wrung by hand, and seems too wet for
can be put through the wringer quite easily without allowing the
starch to soak into the back part.
Keep the two fronts together and put
the back, which is dry, through the wringer first, so that the fronts get squeezed
a waistcoat
If the garment is then rolled up with the fronts inside, the back will
only just be made firm with the slight dampening of starch it will absorb.
rule gentlemen do not like these stiff.
The weak solution that has
been used for waistcoats will be about the required strength. For thin cravats
that require folding, use about double the quantity of starch, i.e., about
As a
pint to 2 quarts of water.
Plain Ironing.
In carrying out any type of hand work, the most skilful way of using
the ordinary tools needs impressing on beginners, especially if they have
already experimented by themselves and have not succeeded in discovering
the methods calculated to produce the best results. Thus, even the ordinary
flat-iron may be clumsily used, or may be managed with the utmost delicacy.
It goes without saying that the ironer must be able to calculate the heat necessary for various fabrics
but she also must know how to place the work on
the table, and should have an intelligent grasp of the shape and structure
of the garment or article with which she is dealing.
In this way, not only
will a satisfactory result be obtained, but her own time and energy will be
Ironing is admitted to be somewhat trying work, because necessarily much
heat is involved
but orderly procedure and good methods will prevent the
worker from getting into a flurried state of mind, and suffering physically
from all the ill effects which getting into a muddle is apt to cause.
Besides considering the make of the garment or article which is being
laundered, another extremely important point to study is the grain of the
material of which it is fashioned.
Take, for instance, a skirt that has gored
In certain cases the back of the skirt will be entirely on the " cross,"
therefore it can be stretched to almost any length.
Iron this carelessly,
allowing the seams to " sag " down just as they will, and the result is a most
unsightly, uneven length when on the wearer.
On the other hand, take these
crossway seams into consideration, and, in ironing, see that they are not allowed
to stretch in length.
Prevent stretching by spreading the material across the
skirt board and ironing backwards and forwards, not up and doivn the board.
By this means the skirt can be kept as even in length as the most fastidious
wearer can possibly desire.
Another instance may be given of a blouse that has no collar band, but
finishes off at the neck with a little edging of some sort.
The Magyar blouse,
at present popular, will be a good illustration of this.
If the plain shoulders
and neck parts of these blouses are badly ironed, they are not only uncomfortably large round the neck, but look most unsightly.
If the blouse is made
be starched more or less, the grain of the material
The best plan is to reverse the order of ironing
blouses cut thus, and place the top part to the right hand, shape the neck
part carefully, and then iron towards the waist line, allowing the neck of the
blouse to shrink rather than to stretch.
In commencing to iron anv garment, always begin on a straight seam or
The very fact
edge, allowing the front hne of the table to guide the work.
of the garment to be ironed being in a moist condition enables the worker
Even a plain hnen
to pull the material into almost any shape she desires.
apron can be made to look neat and dainty, if the iron be only made to follow
intelligently the grain of the material
on the other hand, a most charming
muslin dress can be rendered unattractive if attention is not paid to this point.
of muslin,
will, therefore,
should be followed in ironing.
Irons for this purpose can be procured in various sizes.
For fine lace and
muslin, or for small frills, very fine ones should be used, while for thick
embroidery work, a coarser make is all that is necessary. {See Fig. 1 1 page 29.)
To obtain perfectly even and firm frills a certain amount of stiffening must
previously be put into them, or the time and labour spent on goffering will
be entirely thrown away.
If starch is objected to, frihs should be either
pleated or crimped instead of goffered.
In some cases garments will look quite nice if the frills are simply ironed
If they have been starched and require goffering, commence by ironing
them out sufficiently to put them into shape. If they are of embroidery,
well press the ornamented part and scallops, but leave the plain cotton part
quite damp.
If the frills are of thin muslin, lightly steam them into shape
so that they are about half dry.
Ironing frills perfectly dry for goffering is
waste of time, as they will require dampening again for a good result to be
Heat the irons, and before using them try them on a piece of
An expert ironer can safely use them very hot, but much damage
may be caused if an inexperienced worker uses them carelessly and without
Place the
at the
edge of the table to commence goffering, always
Fig. 33.
beginning at the point nearest the right hand, and working back towards
the left hand.
Put in the irons close to the last flute made. The right hand
and the goffering irons should be kept on a level with the surface of the table,
(See Fig. 32.)
It will be noticed that the right tong of the iron is on the top,
the left really being the one which causes the flute when the former closes
against it.
Note should also be taken of the position of the fingers of the right
hand in the rings and on the handle of the irons. As will be seen by the photograph, the process is greatly assisted by the pressure e.xerted by the fingers
of the left hand.
It is very important to use goffering irons correctly, as they can easily be
put out of order and become useless whereas, with careful and correct treatment, they will last for years. If they are heated in a fire, do not allow them
Fig. 34.
5— (635I
to get red-hot, or they will become rough and be
{See Fig. 34 for illustration of finished goffering.)
much more
difficult to use.
This will be found a very pretty and convenient method
which are preferred soft. In preparation for this process, the
of treating
ironing out smoothly.
After this, procure a small piece of flannel or felt,
and lay the frill in the position shown in Fig. 33.
The flat-iron used must be practically cold this is necessary both for the
crimping, and on account of the fingers of the left hand having to be pressed
tightly against the back of the iron to set the crimp marks in the material.
Commence at the edge of the table, and as the work is completed, draw the
finished portion over so that it does not get crumpled.
Use the extreme edge
of the back of the iron, and scrape the material, as it were, towards the worker,
pressing the fingers of the left hand up as the material of the frill gathers
Even really wide frills can be finished off in this way, a little practice
soon ensuring a good result.
frills will
do not crimp
at all well.
{See Fig. 34 for illustration of
finished crimping.)
Fig. 35.
This process is suitable for both starched and unstarched frills, and, to
look at all effective, the pleats require to be very regularly and evenly placed.
and then to be well pressed. {See Fig. 34.) If the frills are set into a circular
band, it is more convenient to raise the frill on to the end of a sleeve board'
before commencing to pleat.
The frill must first be carefully ironed out,
and the material made quite straight. {See notes on following grain of
material on page 60.)
Commence at the seam or at the end of a frill and put in pleats according
to the size required, being extremely careful to keep them uniform, and to
see that the edge of the frill is pleated as deeply as the top, where the pleats
are put into the band.
Unless the frill in question absolutely prevents it,
always pleat towards the edge of the table {see Fig. 35), and press each few as
they are put in. Do not use a damper, as pleated frills are very unsightly
if they are stuck down.
Fig. 36 serves to show how the material for the next pleat is raised in
readiness to be folded over.
The thumb and first finger of each hand are
equally concerned in obtaining a straight pleat of even width between the
This is not practised a great deal in private houses, but a few notes on the
use of pohshing irons may be to the point.
It is essential that they be kept
clean and smooth, for a good result cannot be obtained if they are allowed to
get rough, and possibly rusty.
To prevent this, rub them over with a little
wax or clean grease after using, allowing it to cool on them but clean it off
before using the irons again.
In conjunction with a polishing iron, a special board must be used {see
pages 27 -8). The " polisher " must be fairly hot when used, or it makes brown
streaks on the linen and tends to remove the starch.
A very little moisture
is put on to the part to be polished with the aid of a damper.
Then the iron
is applied, the back part being used first {see Fig. 37), until a slight gloss is
seen all over the portion in hand.
Fig. 37.
Fig. 38.
If a shirt front is in process, next use the point of the pohsher, and work
well into the ridges round the front, down button-holes and round the neck
band. Fig. 38 shows the nose of the iron being similarly used on a collar.
Then use the
and go over the shirt front the
Therefore it will be seen that the polisher would be used (1)
up and down the front, and (2) across the front. In this way the marks of
the iron are not visible, the reverse action causing an even gloss.
The centre,
or flat part of a polishing iron should not be used by novices, the " heel
and the
a much better result.
heel part of the polisher again,
reverse way.
Lace Punching.
Irish lace, which
is so popular in these days, usually has many beautifully
raised flowers and discs necessitating the use of a lace punch to throw them
into relief after washing.
(Fig. 39.)
In some cases the lace will require
ironing lightly before using the punch, but in others pulhng out is all that is
Fig. 39.
until the last.
lace must always be dry, the raising of the pattern being left
The bulb end of the punch {see Fig. 12, page 30) should be
Each raised
and a piece of flannel should be used as a pad.
treated separately, care being taken that the threads of the lace are not
broken as the punch is inserted from the wrong side into the part to be raised.
It is well to work near the edge of the table, and to see that the " leaves
of the flowers are turned in the right chrection before inserting the punch
Draw the " flower " very carefully up around
in the centre of the " rose."
the bulb of the punch, as shown in Fig. 40.
Many kinds of lace are greatly improved by having the raised parts treated
in th's
These are not used so largely as in former years, although in many wellequipped laundries there are varieties of shapes in steam-heated irons for
doing sleeves, puffings, and parts of garments that are difficult to get at by
ordinary means. An Egg Iron {see Fig. 13, page 31) that is used in a stand,
and heated in the gas or on top of a stove, is an extremely useful accessory,
both at home and in the laundry. For instance, tiny sleeves of little babies'
frocks, crowns of hats or bonnets, etc., can be negotiated very easily with
the aid of one of these irons.
The iron should be moderately heated, and the
part to be ironed made fairly damp and drawn carefully over it, the material
being gently pulled downwards with both hands, so that it is stretched tightly
over the ball of the iron and creases are not allowed to form. It is best to test
the heat of the iron with a piece of thin calico before using, as the class of work
that would be done with this iron very quickly scorches.
of the essential aims in the ironing and folding of body linen is to retain
the firmness of the material otherwise it will be found that when the garments
The pleats
are finished they have a " flabby " feeling and appearance.
which have been put in will not remain, and the whole wll have an ill-finished
and untidy appearance.
Ironing a Night-dress.
folding the back in halves from the side seams, letting the
sleeves hang over the edge of the table, with the neck to the left
Next turn the back over, until the fold is at the edge
(See Fig. 41.)
Commence by
Fig. 41.
of the table, and press the second half.
A little steam left in will allow for
pleating and folding.
The back yoke should now be placed on the back of the night-dress, as
shown in Fig. 42, care being taken that the skirt part of the garment
does not touch the floor meanwhile.
Fig. 43 shows the position for ironing
the front yokes should they exist.
Fig. 42.
the yoke
Fig. 44
for all
It will
should be re-pressed on the wrong side
be found that a very cool iron is necessary
such parts.
Fig. 44.
At this stage the frills are ironed, the worker having previously decided
whether they will finally be crimped, goffered, or pleated since the amount of
plain ironing needed will depend on the process chosen.
(C/. notes on pages
If the front of the night-dress has tucks or insertions, these should
now be well shaped and pressed from the wrong side, the front opening being
placed to the edge of the table, as shown in Fig. 45, at A and B respectively.
Place the night-dress with the front facing the worker then take the seam
of one sleeve and place it parallel with the edge of the table (see Fig. 46),
keeping the length of the garment from the floor. In ironing the sleeve thus
from the seam to the fold, it will be found in most cases that the width at the
armhole is greater than at the wrist. In this case it is best to leave the top
plainly ironed, and to see that the point of the iron reaches well into the
When setting in the pleats at the cuff, as illustrated in Fig. 47, they
should be slanted off to about half the length of the sleeve, and re-pressed
In cotton garments, if one side of the sleeve is pressed and it is
turned over, the pleats may be put in before the second side is ironed. The
material will then have a firmer appearance, and the pleats will remain in position
while the rest of the garment is being finished.
on both
Fig. 45.
The second sleeve should be treated similarly, but on the opposite side of
the body of the night-dress, which is still kept in the same position.
remaining portions of the garment should now be ironed with the collar
placed to the ironer's
left hand, and care should be taken at this point that
the front, collar, and yoke set nicely.
This will be found of great assistance
in the folding.
Frills should be finished off next by goffering, etc.
Fig. 47.
Folding a Night-dress.
The collar should again be placed to the left hand, and the back be pleated
from the inside, according to fullness, as far down as the front opening will
Put the side seams together, place them at the edge of
{See Fig. 48.)
Fig. 48.
and draw the front over until it is in the position indicated in
The method of accomplishing this is similar to that employed when
Fig. 49.
Fig. 49.
folding a flannel shirt; thus the photograph on page 124 may be referred to
in this connection.
Pleats should then be put in, one or two each way, to convert the front
into a wide bo.x pleat.
Should the opening be made so that the right side
wraps over the left, this extra pleat should be continued to the bottom hem.
Ctntrt FfonC
Fig. 30.
shows the bottom of pleats. These having been ie;ell pressed,
turn the garment over, and arrange the gore portions centrally as in Fig. 51.
Fig. 51.
seams l^dng parallel with the
which will bring the upper gathered portion facing the
Next place the edge of the left hand on the sleeve as
sleeves should be arranged with the
fold of the garment,
{See Fig.
Fig. 52.
the arrow, and smartly turn the cuff portion into the position
The second sleeve is now similarly placed, but the top
in Fig. 53.
Fig. 53.
(See A in Fig. 54.)
It will be underof it covers that previously arranged.
stood that meanwhile the pleats previously made above the cuff are to be
kept neatly in place.
About one-third of the length of the night-dress should now be folded
towards the top. {See B in Fig. 54.) When making the next fold place the left
Fig. 54.
hand on the pleated hems to keep them rigidly in place (C in Fig. 54), while
the right hand grasps the folds at D, which now are laid on the collar.
[Note. The wrong side of the night-dress is now uppermost, and
amateurs very frequently experience some little difficulty in reversing it
satisfactorily without spoiling the effect of the previous processes.]
Fig. 55.
In order to turn the folded garment right side uppermost without disturbing pleats or folds, it will be found convenient to place the knuckles of
the left hand down on the article with the finger tips pointing to the worker,
as in diagram 55
while the right hand, with the thumb and little finger
uppermost, grasps the folds at E, and lifts them, turning the garment forward
towards the worker over the left wrist. The palm of this hand finally rests
on the table under the work, with the fingers pointing away.
(Fig- 56.)
The cuffs, which are now as in Fig. 57, A, must both be folded as at B.
IS well to fasten one button to keep the front in position.
Fig. 58 shows the garment finished.
Fig. 56.
Fig. 57.
Fig. 58.
Ironing a Chemise.
Fold the back in halves, and iron from the seams as for night-dress [cj.
The bands should be pressed on both sides, sections being placed
parallel with the edge of the table for this purpose.
Should there be an
embroidered yoke or straps, these must be ironed at this stage, and from the
(Fig. 59.)
Frills or lace edgings must be smoothed out in
wrong side.
Fig. 41).
readiness for the finishing process.
If the chemise has plain sleeves they can be ironed perfectly flat with
the rest of the garment
but should they be short and full, and set into a
band, the easiest way is to do them on a sleeve board, and in some cases their
appearance is improved by the fullness being set into small pleats.
6— (635)
Folding a Chemise.
After goffering the lace, or otherwise finishing the frilHngs, the folding can
be proceeded with as follows
Spread the garment out, so that the whole
is on the table, with the front uppermost, and form the back into as many
pleats as the fullness demands.
The front meanwhile must be turned off the
back as far as the shape of the garment will allow. (Fig. 60.) After pressing
these to keep them in position, dispose of the fullness of the front part in pleats,
independently of the back ones, and press.
(Fig. 61.)
Ne.xt turn the chemise completely over, so that the back is uppermost,
and fold the side seams towards each other as in Fig. 62.
If there are sleeves, they should be turned back to show beyond the front,
in that figure.
To finish folding the length, proceed exactly as for
as at
{Sec page 76.)
[Note. The foregoing two methods of folding may be used either for
night-dresses or for chemises, and beginners are most strongly advised to practise
each method for both the types of garments, whatever variations in " make
may be in them. It will be seen from the accompanjang sketches that
chemises may be closed or open down the front, be yoked or have merely a
neck-band, and be either with or without sleeves. Night-dresses, on the other
hand, may have turned-down collars, be cut low in the neck, be yoked, or
Fig. 60.
be Magyar in style, etc. Whatever the precise structure of the garments in
question may be, the latter method of folding is preferred in many laundries
for both articles
but if the former is adopted and the two results compared,
£dgc of Tallt
Fig. 61.
be found practically the same.
In many cases the first method is
the material will be firmer, because it has not been handled
much easier, and
so many times.]
Fig. 62.
Ironing a Camisole.
In these days of dainty lingerie, camisoles form quite an important item,
being, as a rule, of fairly fine texture, require very careful handling both
in the washing and ironing.
A fairly cool iron will be necessary, owing to the
parts being quite small.
Bands, strings, and thick parts should be pressed
first, and then trillings and embroidery.
Fig. 63.
the camisole has a shaped, embroidered or fancy top, with no neck band,
set into a basque, care must be taken that the upper part
is suitably placed in position for ironing.
In this case it is best to have the
waistband to the left hand (Fig. 63) and, after shaping the shoulders and top
on the wrong side, to iron towards the waist-line. Fig. 64 shows the plain back
being ironed on the right side.
If the garment has no waistband or basque, commence with the button
side at the edge of the table {see Fig. 65), and iron from waist to neck across
and with the waist
Sleeves, if any, should be left until the
the whole garment on the right side.
rest of the bodice has been ironed.
Tucks will require carefully pressing and
turning in the right direction.
Edgings having been previously pressed should now be goffered and,
following this, the camisole may be " topped-up " from the wrong side, to
Sleeved garments
disfiguring creases, should they have appeared.
can advantageously be finished off from the inside, so that the roughness may be
removed from the seams and armholes without injuring the previously finished
remove any
Folding a Camisole.
Place the bodice with the wrong side uppermost, and the top to the
hand. Fold the button side over on to the back, as in Fig. 66.
Fig. 66.
Raise the button-hole side on to the
front (Fig. 67), lapping one side
Fig. 67.
slightly over the other to hold the
garment together and obviate the need
for buttoning.
Fig. 68.
Turn the bodice over with the back uppermost
(Fig. 68),
without creasing
the front.
towards the centre from
Fig. 69.
Fig. 70.
Complete the folding by doubling
in halves lengthways.
Fig. 71.
in Fig.
Should there be sleeves, thev will be turned outwards before the last fold
made, so that the trillings show on either side of the garment. (Sec B in
Fig. 71.)
This is shown in Fig. 69, and also in Fig. 70, which indicates the
appearance of the garment when the width-way folding is finished.
Ironing Knickers.
Keep the garment on the wrong
them in
and commence by ironing both
of the waistbands, placing
sections along the edge of the table.
tapes are attached, iron these next, and if kneebands are embroidered, these
must be brought to the front of the table, as in Fig. 72, and pressed in the
Fig. 72.
on the wrong
Before ironing the
turn the
right side out, as the wrong side of the trillings can be ironed very
(Fig. 73.)
easily in this way.
much more
Fig. 73.
Next place the waistband to the left hand and iron the top part, right
round the garment, from the inside, so that the point of the iron runs up into
the gathers.
(Fig. 74.)
fdijC o
Fig. 74.
Fig. 75.
Turn the knickers round, so that the knees are to the left hand, and iron
from the leg seam and seat up to where the material has previously been
pressed from the inside.
(Fig. 75.)
The material is double, hence wall require
ironing on both sides.
When the knickers are perfectly smooth and free from
creases, the frillings, if any, should be proceeded with by whatever method is
{See pages 61-65 for crimping, goffering or pleating.)
Folding Knickers.
Place the two leg seams of the knickers evenly together, bringing the hip
side to the edge of the table, with the back of the garment outside.
(Fig. 76.)
there are gathers at the kneebands, as many pleats as necessary should now
in, being folded towards the worker from waist to knee, as in the
be put
Fig. 76.
four thicknesses of material are pleated together, so that the
garment lies perfectly flat on the table after the pleats have been well pressed
from both sides. Now part the two legs of the knickers, and press each set
of pleats on the reverse side.
Replace the two halves in their previous position, and fold the crutch part
over as in Fig 77.
The length
the knickers should
be folded
Fig. 77.
thirds, the first fold being in the direction of the
second as arrow B.
arrow C. that both
the knees are
may be displayed.
arrow A (Fig. 78), and the
turn one back as shown by
Fig. 78.
[Note. It is quite permissible to pleat each leg separately, but the above
be found an easy and quick way of getting the pleats uniform in width
and position. An added firmness also results on account of the lesser amount
of handling.]
Ironing and Folding Cotton Combinations.
Take the top part first, and iron
and then treat the lower part exactly
for a camisole, ignoring the legs
as for knickers.
After attending to whatever frills there may be, proceed with the folding
Place the seams of the knicker part evenly together, and pleat
through the four thicknesses in the same way as is shown in Fig. 76. After
pressing these pleats, so that this lower part is finished, attend to the bodice
by placing the centre seam of the back quite straight. (Fig. 79.)
It will now be found that there is a portion of the back part of the garment
that will not lie flat this should be put into a neat fold as in Fig. 81.
Now turn the garment over, so that the button side is uppermost, and fold
the crutch over, as in Fig. 80.
The knee bands should now be brought over towards the left hand, till they
beyond the shoulder. By again folding lengthwise, the garment
project slightly
Fig. 81.
divided into four. The finished appearance, on the right side,
(Fig. 82.)
the photograph.
Fig. 82.
Ironing Handkerchiefs.
Although these are small and plain articles to deal with, a few words on
may be useful. Most people appreciate fresh, dainty-looking
the subject
handkerchiefs, and much may be done to ensure their being thus. They
should not be dried after wringing, but be rolled in a clean dry cloth, and
left for some time.
Commence by spreading perfectly flat and square on the
table, ready to be ironed on the wTong side.
The hems should not be ironed
round separately, because, if the hemstitching is at all tightly drawn, the edges
will have the appearance of a frill when finished.
Initials or embroidery should be firmly pressed while the wrong side is
being ironed. When the handkerchief is practically dry, turn it completely
over and pass the iron lightly over the right side, but not on the initials or
Handkerchiefs ironed in this way have a much fresher and newer
appearance than if they are ironed on the right side only.
Folding Handkerchiefs.
These articles can be folded in various ways, the plainer methods being
most useful for counting and packing away. Making four folds each way
Turn the square wrong
is quite a recognised method for ordinary plain ones.
side uppermost, and fold the two corners nearest the edge of the table to meet
i^Fig. 83.
the opposite two, as in Fig. 83, A.
Place the middle fold up to the corners,
as in B, then halve as in C, and again as in D.
Each successive fold should
be pressed with a moderately warm iron to set the creases.
Making three folds each way is another much used plan, but this is not
to be recommended, for when handkerchiefs are folded thus they are not so
convenient to handle, as on all sides folds and hems occur together, and therefore the handkerchiefs are less easy to hold, and also are more likely to come
A very pretty style for small, dainty, embroidered handkerchiefs is that of
first folding them into four, wrong side out, as shown at A in Fig. 84, then
Riqkt Side.
Fig. S4.
turning one corner back as at B. This method minimises the number of
creases when the article is spread out, and also is convenient if occasion arises
If they are folded by the previous method,
for counting fine handkerchiefs.
it is easy to count two as one, or to lift part of one with another.
are several general rules that must be observed when ironing these
they are to look fresh and dainty. The majority of persons have an
objection to over-stiffened muslin, but, on the other hand, there must be a
certain amount of firmness in the garment, or it will have a very limp and
raggy appearance when worn. Here, again, is another instance where the
grain of the material should be followed by the iron, the contrast being most
noticeable in this respect between a well ironed and a badly ironed musHn
or lace article.
If the ironer once gets into the habit of following the threads
of the material, it matters not how amateurish her efforts are, they will soon be
rewarded by a
fair result.
Ironing a Muslin Blouse.
The fashion
of the garment must be considered before beginning
the blouse has a quantity of small tucks, and a certain amount
of embroidery, it may have to be ironed on the right side first, to set these
fdqe o^
Fig. 85.
tucks nicely into position. On the other hand, the embroidery really calls
for the blouse to be finished on the wrong side.
In this case it will be best
to have the sleeves turned through to the wrong side, so that the right side
can be easily reached.
Place the opening of the blouse at the edge of the table, as in Fig. 85.
fastened at the front, it will be the button or eye side but if at the back,
the button-hole or hook side will be treated first.
Carefully iron this half
back or front, not drying it perfectly. Proceed across the blouse in this way,
taking care that the tucks are eased carefully into place. The iron must not
be rubbed up and down them, but sideways over them, or they will have
numberless small creases. To shape the shoulder parts nicely, draw the top
of the blouse to the edge of the table with the collar hanging over, as in Fig. 86,
and iron each shoulder separately.
it is
Fig. 86.
In many cases the sleeves are not tucked, but are only trimmed with
embroidery, and should then be ironed on the wrong side before turning.
Always commence a sleeve that is set into a cuff by putting this part on to the
narrow end of a sleeve board as at A in Fig. 87, and ironing it first. Then press
Fig. 87.
the lower portion of the sleeve by pushing the board further in, as at B, commencing from the under-arm seam, and easing the point of the iron well into
Remove this half of the sleeve thus ironed, and place the top
the gathers.
part on the board, as at C in Fig. 88, again commencing from the seam.
two portions, care must be taken that the marks of
commencing and finishing do not show in the centre.
Assuming that the blouse in hand has had the sleeves ironed on the wrong
side, carefully turn them, and " top up " very lightly on the right side.
proceed to finish off the body part of the blouse.
If the embroidery has been
flattened owing to the tucks being ironed, or has got dry, pass a damper lightly
over it on the right side, lay a flannel pad on the table, and firmly press it
all over on the wrong side.
It will be found quite easy to do this with the
sleeves on the right side, but care must be taken that they are not crushed,
ironing a sleeve in
as they are really quite finished.
Fig. 88.
An instance of a lace blouse may be useful. The same routine should be
followed as to ironing, but lace must always be ironed on the wrong side.
course, where there are tucks on a blouse, these are a good guide for straightness, but in the case of an ordinary lace blouse, there is only the pattern of
the net or lace to follow.
It will be found that a lace blouse will very easily stretch lengthways,
but very seldom in the width therefore on no account must the lace be pulled
down, but always be encouraged to stretch across the garment. Here again
discretion is needed, or the blouse will have an ungainly and shapeless appearance.
See that the holes in the net part of lace are fairly uniform in size,
and that the pattern is well pressed and raised. It is surprising how quickly
one becomes used to the texture of materials if they are looked at intelligently.
There are several classes of lace blouses which are preferred un-ironed.
In this case they should have very little or no starch put into them, and must
not be hung to dry in the ordinary way. The best plan is to pull them carefully
into shape with the hands, almost as if an iron were being used.
all parts of the blouse have been skilfully placed, it should be hung on a
" shoulder," and allowed to get almost dry, and then be very lightly pressed
on the wrong side with an extremely cool iron. Irish lace is best if carefully
ironed before the flowers are raised with a lace punch.
For the use of this
see page 67.
Muslin Dresses.
These are a little more complicated as to ironing, but some of the unlined
ones are quite simple to manage if a little method is used. The blouse part
should be ironed first, and be practically finished. If the skirt is embroidered,
and therefore requires ironing on the wrong side, it should be put on to the
skirt board WTong side uppermost.
If there are any frills, these must be pressed
before the skirt is put on the board, and should be done in order from the
lowest upwards.
An expert ironer will often iron the frills of the skirt, then
the bodice, and finish off with the skirt; but for amateurs, it is best to advise
that they iron first the bodice, next the frills, if any, and lastly the skirt.
Should the skirt have any crossway seams, care must be taken that they
are not stretched out of shape.
It is wise to commence on a straight width
or seam, and work across the skirt board, away from this, always bringing
the finished portion towards the ironer.
If there are tucks at the hem of the
skirt, the back of the iron should be pressed down over them, as in Fig. 89,
so that no creases are caused.
One finds that all muslin skirts, whether plain or embroidered, are nicer
when ironed on the wrong side, as the seams can be made so much neater,
and the material has a newer finish than when it is highly glossed on the
right side.
Children's Hats and Bonnets.
There are so many varieties of styles in children's washing millinery that
hardly possible to give detailed directions for ironing them, but on the
other hand, there are certain rules that may be observed which will greatly
assist the worker.
The outer frills and brim should be ironed first, the crown
and head-lining next, while goffering or pleating is left until the last.
If the brim is intended to be fairly stiff and to set out, this should be ironed
into shape first and if there are any frills on this brim, it must be ironed in
between the frills. This can be managed by bringing it to the edge of the
table, letting the first frill hang off, and raising the next so that the side of the
iron smooths the brim in between, doing very small pieces at a time.
Fig. 90.
A in Fig. 90.) In most cases it is easier to unstitch the full crowns of hats,
iron the material out, and re-make before completely finishing the ironing.
If the crown is unlined, an egg iron will often prove an assistance.
The custom
housewives washing and ironing shirts and collars at home
out of fashion of late years, possibly because it takes a
great amount of practice and skill to satisfy the average man on the question
of shirts and collars, and also because the housewife's time is occupied in so
many other ways. Enough has already been said with regard to the importance
of carefully preparing stiff-fronted white shirts for ironing.
has gone very
Ironing a White Shirt.
To commence, take the back in halves, and press both sides well (Figs. 109, 1 10)
Next, place the yoke on the back (Fig. Ill), and iron carefully with a cool iron,
without touching the collar band. Place this band into shape (Fig. 112) and
it perfectly smooth and dry, so that the linen stiffens.
Next place the shirt so that one sleeve is on each side of the
front of the
Cover the front with the front tail to prevent any
dust or smuts that may be flying about from settling on it. Now iron both
cuffs, first steaming them on the wrong side, taking care that the buttonholes are closed, and that the stitching round the edges is visible.
It is quite easy to accomplish this, even in a badly made cuff, if the iron is
eased over the linen to commence with, and not pushed forwards and backwards vigorously.
Cuffs in which the linen appears quite full when damp
may be shrunk perfectly straight with careful ironing. They should not be
completely dried, but be left slightly steamy, as this will greatly assist the
pohshing, for which the board mentioned on page 28 is required.
The polishing iron must be fairly hot in readiness, and with a clean damper,
just a trifle more moisture must be applied to the surface of the linen.
method of imparting a gloss is fully explained on pages 65-7, but it is important
to emphasize the use of the point of the iron in polishing the ridges round
shirt facing the ironer.
the edges of the cuffs.
After they are well glossed, carefully and lightly pass an iron round the
wrong side of each cuff to set it into an oval shape. Place the edge of the cuff
at right angles to the front of the table, with the sleeve to the left, and hold with
the left hand the end of the cuff farthest from the worker.
Run the point of
the flat-iron lightly along the edge, and with the left hand draw it over the
handle of the iron as in Fig. 91. After " curling " the cuffs, place the left sleeve
flat on the table with the seam to the edge, and iron.
(Cf. page 122.)
any fullness set into the cuff, make it into a pleat, slanting it
towards the top, and well press. Separate the material if it has stuck
together, re-press, and proceed with the second sleeve without turning the
shirt round, so that the sleeves are ironed on the right-hand side and on the
left-hand side of the garment respectively, the front being kept covered all
If there is
the time.
Fig. 91.
iron the front, turn the garment round so that the collar band is to the
left hand, pleat in the back, from yoke to hem, according to fullness
page 123) and insert a flannel pad in the opening of the front, so that the
whole of the starched part rests on the pad, and iron the top or left half first
(Fig. 92.)
Before placing the iron on the linen, carefully pull it into shape
Fig. 92.
round" the collar band, and shape this side of the yoke. When ironing keep
the button-holes closed, ease the linen to avoid creases, and give careful
attention to the stitching.
The point of the iron is next placed lightly just below the stud hole of
the neck-band, and is eased sideways, so that it glides round the band, and then
back again to below the point of commencement. (See Fig. 93, A.) Then
carefully outwards from the ironer over the rest of this half of the
and it will be found that the linen has been placed perfectly free from
The side of the iron has been kept parallel with the edge of the table
Fig. 93.
will be gathered from the path traced by it in diagram Fig. 93, B.
lower, or right half of the front should be treated similarly.
throughout, as
If the foregoing directions are carefully followed, it will be found that the
starched linen has a perfectly even and smooth appearance.
The iron must be
carefully pressed into the linen, so that all the four thicknesses of which the
fronts and cuffs are composed adhere evenly together.
It is best to use an
iron of medium heat
this, together with the pressure applied, being sufficient
to burst the grains of the starch, as explained on page 32, and cause the linen to
have a firm even surface fit for polishing. Should any " bhstering " occur
which may be caused by the shirts being badly prepared, or through the use
of too hot or too cold an iron, a " damper " should be dipped into the starch
that has been used, without stirring the sediment Jrom the bottom, and the blistered
places be damped with this from the wrong side of the linen.
After doing this it is necessary to use care, or the second ironing is liable to
cause brown marks which will be very difficult to remove. Curd soap will be
found of great assistance in removing specks that may occur on the starched
fronts, collars, and cuffs under the iron.
It should be well rubbed into the
On no
clean dampering rag, and applied carefully to the surface of the linen.
account must yellow or mottled soap be used for this purpose.
the flannel pad and insert a pohshing board in its place.
extra moisture should be applied with a "damper" to the top hall,
which should be polished first. After the gloss appears quite even, particularly
in the ridges round the collar band, proceed with the under half in hke manner.
When the front is completed place the shirt straight, and iron the body part.
Usually it is necessary to make a pleat from below the front to the bottom
hem, but, while pressing this, see that the back and front of the shirt agree
in width.
Fig. 94 shows the next stage, when the fingers of the left hand are placed
inside the neck band, and the side of the iron passed round its base to stand
Fig. 94.
it up in position.
Fix the button-hole of the neck band together with a pin
or a stud, and turn the shirt over so that the back is uppermost.
the side seams nicely preparatory to folding.
Folding a
Commence by
turning over a small piece of each side from the seam, and
spread the nearest sleeve straight across the back of the shirt, as in Fig. 95.
Fig. 95.
cuff down in the centre of the back and then sharply up again, so
Hes on the neck band, but sHghtly projects, as in Fig. 96.
Bring the other sleeve across the back, down in the centre as in Fig. 97,
and up again. The second cuff now lies partly on the first one, with the openings
(Fig. 98.)
It will be seen from Fig. 99 that
of the cuffs towards each other.
by this means the stiff rounded folds of the cuffs are so placed that the yoke
Turn the
can be turned back over them, by bringing each side of the body part towards
the centre as far as the stiff front will allow, to make a sharp line on each
edge of it.
Fig. 96.
Then turn up just a few inches at the hem, sufficient to bring the front tail
in sight as in Fig. 99, and fold the front over on to this.
Fig. 97.
Fra. 98.
Fig. 99.
A well-folded shirt should show simply the stiffened front and collar band,
a very small portion of yoke (Fig. 100, A), and the calico part at the sides of the
bottom of the front. (Fig. 100, B and B'.)
These should be ironed in a similar manner to shirt fronts and cuffs. A
flannel pad should be placed extra to the ironing felt on the table, and covered
with a small clean cloth. Pin this tightly at each of its four corners, so that
the pad may not get creased, and cause unsightly marks on the work.
The shape of the collar must be taken into consideration before the
ironing is commenced, button-holes must be kept closed and straight, and
the iron used easily and smoothly to avoid creases round the edges.
A fairly
hot iron is required but, for persons unused to ironing collars, it is best to
use a medium heat at first, and work up to a greater one.
The iron must
be pressed well into the linen.
If only a light rubbing motion is used the collar will become hard and
dry before it is smooth, and will therefore be much more difficult to pohsh.
and, in fact, will not gloss nearly so well as it would were it well ironed beforehand. This rule holds good for all raw starched linen that requires glazing.
When polishing see that the iron is used correctly. (C/. pages G5-7.)
" Curling."
For rounding off or " curling " single collars, run a ilat-iron lightly but
firmly round the top edge on the wrong side.
If the collar has points that
are turned down, care must be taken that the linen is creased at the stitch
marks, and that both points agree in size. In preparing double collars for
curling, attention must be paid to turning them over correctly.
the top half is folded over a fraction too much, thereby causing a sharp hard
crease at the top edge, which is exceedingly uncomfortable for the wearer.
the other hand,
a double collar
not turned over sufficiently,
have a very bad shape, and the linen will crack through being strained at the
wrong point. When curhng, the iron should not be flat on the double fold
of the collar, as this tends to prevent the tie from running round inside easily.
The point of the iron should be used on the top edge as in Fig. 101, as this
helps to give the " spring " that
White Waistcoats.
These are usually classed with shirts and collars, inasmuch as they
require equal skill and care in laundering.
Every little detail connected with
It is surprising liow these articles
the ironing of waistcoats must be clean.
catch up every particle of dirt or dust that comes their way. The best plan
is to have a small piece of thin, clean cloth to throw over the waistcoat if it
has to be left at any stage during the ironing.
To commence, place one half-front right side up, as in Fig. 102. Carefully
arrange the pockets in the correct position.
If they are very thick they
may be pulled out and ironed separately, but, as a rule, the marks of pockets
show less if they are ironed while in the natural position. The iron used must
be perfectly clean, and not very hot. Button-holes must be kept a good
shape, creases should not be allowed to form along the stitched edges, and the
mouths of the pockets must be kept quite straight.
Care must be taken that the material is kept a good shape, and is not
s;retched so that it bulges out in places in the wear.
This is most hkely
to occur across the chest part, where the waistcoat rests in a hne with the
[See arrows in Fig. 102 between which stretching is to be avoided.)
A little care just here in placing and shrinking the material will make all the
difference in the result.
Steam both halves of the front into shape in this way, well pressing to
remove creases here, again, if firm pressure is not used, the article will be
dry before the crease marks are removed. Next iron the back and straps, and
It is best to place each front separately, as in
carefully press the lining.
Fig. 103. for this, so that the material of the fronts may not be disarranged.
For finally finishing the fronts, procure a piece of muslin, or an old
handkerchief, and place it over the edges, button-holes, etc., to prevent
brown marks, which are apt to occur when re-ironing.
The length of the waistcoat should never be folded, but the two under-arm
seams should be placed together, so that the whole of the back lies sandwiched
between the two fronts, as in Fig. 104.
Evening Ties
In some cases gentlemen's cravats are made of fairly thick material
firmly stitched in the making, but very often they are of thin cambric simply
8— (635)
raw edges to be turned in when
In this case, great care must be taken with the ironing, or the tie
at the ends, the sides being left with
not fold evenly and
To commence
on the table, and smooth
looks of uniform width from end to end.
ironing, spread the article out flat
the material so that the
gently ease the iron, which must be fairly cool, with a motion similar to that
described for a shirt front, on page 103. If the tie looks at all crooked or stretched
after it is ironed, it should be wetted out again and re-done, as it would thus
not only be difficult to fold but be very troublesome for the wearer to tie.
tie wrong side uppermost near the front of the table, so that
can be used as a guide to keep the folds of the article straight. Turn
Place the
Va^nt tdae..
(bur £iijj&.
over nearly a third of the width of the tie, as in Fig. 105, A, make a very
narrow turning on the opposite side, as at B, and press both of these
Care should be taken that the folds are not stretchea as they are being
pressed, for even at this stage it is possible quite to disfigure the tie.
making the last fold, as at C, place the iron lightly on the folded end nearest
the right hand, and gently ease it towards the worker.
Throughout the whole process of ironing and folding the iron must be
used lightly and carefully, and on no account be rubbed from end to end
of the tie, or the latter will be quite unwearable, because, being cut on the
direct cross of the material,
will stretch
carelessly handled.
In discussing the question of wasliing flannel and woollen goods, there are
quite a number of important points to be considered.
A well-washed flannel
is much appreciated, and many people realise how much longer is the hfe of
the garment when it is well washed
not only does the garment last so much
longer, but it is also much more comfortable to wear.
Another side of the question is that in many cases the manufacturer
is blamed for what is really caused by negligence, or ignorance, on the part
of the person who does the washing.
It is wise to commence with ordinary white and light-coloured flannel
or woollen garments.
Prepare a bath of water at a temperature of not more
than 85° F., add to this sufficient boiled soap (see notes on page 16) to make
For successful flannel-washing the water nmst show a good lather.
a lather.
The water is of no use, and will do more harm than good, if it has only a milky
appearance. The rinsing water should be of the same temperature as that
used for washing, but should have no soap added.
If no thermometer is available, the hand can be used as a test.
it is put right down into the bath, there should be no sensation of tingling
otherwise the water is too hot.
If there are a number of flannels to be washed,
two waters should be prepared, one for " firsting " and one for " seconding."
" Firsting" is washing on the right side," seconding" should be done on the
wrong side. Flannels should be right side out when put into the water.
Commence with a light squeezing motion, relying upon the lather in the
water, together with the gentle friction, to remove the dirt.
As a broad
rule, raw soap should not be rubbed on flannel or woollen garments, but,
should the neck or wristbands be cxtremelv dirty, it may be resorted to.
When the right side has been rubbed loosely and lightly all over, turn
Friction applied
the garment and treat the wrong side in the same way.
with a fairly soft brush is not harmful to neck bands, etc., if they will not
A quantity of garments should never be put into the
easily come clean.
water at one time. The washing of one should be completed, it should be rinsed,
and hung to dry, before the next article is washed. Flannels should never
be allowed to lie about after being washed, since they shrink, harden and
darken in colour if not immediately hung to dry.
In rinsing woollens, care must be taken to remove all the soap each article
must be opened out, and lifted up and down in the water. It is not sufficient
them in and out again. When putting them through the wringer,
attention must be paid to buttons, as not only may they get broken through
carelessness, but the broken pieces are hable to make holes in the flannel,
and cause injury to the wringer. This is most likely to happen with blouses,
just to dip
jackets, etc.
garments having very large buttons are being washed,
best to remove the latter, as the garment can be wrung very much
better without them, and, when the time comes for pressing up, this can be
accomplished with greater ease.
When the flannels have been wrung, they must be hung to dry as soon as
possible, and should not be subjected to too great a heat.
For absolutely
perfect results an even temperature should be maintained throughout.
Openair drying is by far and away the best, pro\'ided there are not a quantity of
chimneys to deposit their smuts. In this case indoor drying is preferable.
Watchfulness must be exercised that the garments do not become harshly dry.
A suspicion of dampness left in gives a much better result in the finishing.
When the flannels are sufficientlv dry, fold them together evenly, so that
they are ready for ironing. If they are just crumpled up anyhow, difficulty
will be e.xperienced in moving the creases caused, and this will entail unnecessary
If serge coats, or
Stockings and Socks.
washing these articles, care must be taken that the water is clear,
from lint. Many people are apt to use that which has had other
woollen things washed in it, and thus cause the stockings to appear covered
with small pieces of white lint. Prepare water as for flannels, and add
sufficient boiled soap to make a lather.
Stockings should be on the right side when put into the water, and should
be well rubbed, without any raw soap being used. After the right side is
cleansed, turn the stocking, and repeat the process on the wrong side.
A little salt added to the rinse water helps to keep black stockings a nice
clear tone.
Each one must be well opened in this water, and then, when
wrung, should be put through the wringer toe first.
It is of the utmost
importance that the tops of stockings or socks should not be put through
the wringer first, or anv sediment remaining \vill collect in the toe.
For drying, spread them out as flat as possible, and do not subject them
to a great heat.
Silk stockings should be wrung, rolled in a cloth instead of
drjdng, and then ironed.
Stockings should be pressed from the wrong side with a fairly cool iron.
left hand, with the knuckles downwards, is put right into the foot, the
heel being uppermost.
The iron is placed on the toe, while the hand inside
is used to place the foot.
It is slowly withdrawn, followed closely by the
iron until the heel is reached.
This being laid flat with the iron [see Fig. 106)
Hand, inside
the fingers of the left hand are spread as wide as they will go inside the leg
of the sock or stocking, and are gradually withdrawn as the iron approaches.
In this way, the seam at the back of the leg can be kept quite straight, and
the stocking will not only look shapely, but be comfortable to wear.
should always be hung to air before being put away.
The washing of blankets should be proceeded with as for flannels, but a few
suggestions with regard to the drying may be helpful.
x\s much of the moisture as possible should be wrung from them after rinsing.
They must have
two rinse waters, for, owing to the spongy nature of the material, it is somewhat difficult to get rid of the soap. The best plan is to put them through
the wringer folded evenly, as more water is squeezed out in this way and the
material will not show a mass of creases.
If a second person is available to help, it is best to shake each blanket
open from the four corners after wringing.
This raises the wool, thereby
helping to secure a soft, fluffy feeling when the blanket is finished.
hanging the blanket to dry, fold it over the line with the borders to the sides.
If folded with the borders hanging, as in Fig. 108, the moisture
(See Fig. 107.)
draining towards the bottom edges will encourage the colour, if at all " loose,"
to " bleed " into the white part below.
If folded over with the borders to the
sides, as in Fig. 107, each colour simply drains down its own stripe, without
coming into contact with any white portion.
When the blanket is half dry, turn it over so that the side that has been
outside is folded in, still keeping the borders as before.
When it is nearly
dry, turn it round so that the borders hang down, and move it about several
times thus until it is perfectly dry.
If blankets are dried in this way, and shaken carefully each time they are
moved, a very good result will follow. They should never be allowed to
get " bone " dry while in the one position, for this not only imparts a very
stiff feeling, but also, as a rule, the line leaves an ugly crease which cannot
be shaken out. Blankets should be thoroughly aired before being finally
successfully flannels may have been washed, there is still an amount
and care required to obtain the result aimed at. It will be noticed
that it has been suggested that flannels must have just a suspicion of dampness left in from the drying.
Supposing that such is not the case, and that
they have been allowed to get too dry for ironing, a little water (tepid) must
be sprinkled on them, and each one rolled up quite neatly and put aside for
some time before ironing.
of skill
One of the chief points to study is the heat of the iron, for, if a flannel is
once scorched, the injury can seldom be remedied. Therefore, it is perfectly
obvious that the ironer must thoroughly understand the heat of her irons
before attempting to deal with this class of work.
Too much importance cannot
be attached to this.
Many fine flannels are greatly improved bv being ironed on the wrong side.
Cream delaine, cashmere, and many light-coloured ones are very much better
done in this way.
Take the
two named
it is
often most noticeable that these materials
have an extremely yellowish tinge after being ironed. This can be avoided
if the material is ironed on the wrong side, and not subjected to too great
a heat under the iron.
For all ordinary flannel underwear, a great deal can be accomplished to
prevent shrinkage by means of the ironing and pressing.
Woven underwear should be laid perfectly flat on the table, and well pressed from the
seams, care being taken that each garment is stretched both from side to side,
and from top to bottom.
After both sides of the garment are well pressed, it should be plainly folded,
and hung to air.
This is most essential with all classes of woollen garments,
since if they were folded closely and packed away fresh from the iron, a great
amount of shrinkage would occur.
Flannel nightgowns can be folded in the same way as cotton ones.
diagrams on pages 73-79.)
Ironing Flannel Shirts.
Flannel shirts can be proceeded with as follows
Fold the back in halves
Turn over, place
109) and iron from the crease A to the seam B.
(Fig. 1 10.)
the fold from the worker, and iron from the seam B to the fold A.
From this stage the front of the shirt should be kept facing the worker.
{see Fig.
Next, place the yoke part on the back by putting the left hand inside the
opening of the front, and gripping the top of the right sleeve from inside (see
o^ Taliie..
direction of arrow in Fig. Ill), while holding the left sleeve on the outside,
with the right hand at A. With the yoke in this position, iron it without
pressing down the collar band.
oo^t lalle.
^d^e oj lallc.
iron the collar band,
commencing wdth the wTong
side, ha\ang placed
with the shirt to the left. Take care
that the band falls into position in a natural curve, avoiding a straight line,
from A to B in Fig. 112. Turn the band, and finish by pressing well on the
at right angles to the edge of the table,
wrong side.
Next place the
shirt with the front facing the ironer, so that one sleeve
can be ironed on each side of the shirt. (Fig. 113.)
Begin with the left sleeve, which will be on the right of the worker. Place
the cuff wrong side up, parallel to the edge of the table, taking care that
Turn the cuff over,
creases do not gather round the edges of the stitching.
still keeping it in the same position on the table, and finish off on the right
side, avoiding creases as before.
Bring the shirt nearer the edge of the table, and grip the
sleeve at the top, in the left thumb and finger (A, Fig. 114),
seam of the left
and the opening
Fig. 114.
above the cuff (B)
in the right hand, so as not to injure the already ironed
Place the seam parallel to the edge of the table, and iron straight
across from seam to fold.
Turn the sleeve over, altering the position of the
shirt as httle as possible, and iron from the fold A to the seam B.
(Fig. 115.)
as far as
and pleat in the back from yoke to bottom hem, by placing
inside the opening at the neck, throwing the fronts lightly back
will go,
to avoid creasing.
Pleats should be put in according to fullness.
Where, in the making of
the shirt, pleats were set into the yoke, they should be followed as nearly
as possible, and will be sufficient
but where gathers occur two or three pleats
will be needed.
They must be well pressed into position by passing the iron
up under the front of shirt, from hem to yoke.
The garment must now be replaced flat, and the bo.x pleat be re-pressed,
and where necessary, a pleat continued from its lower edge to the front hem.
To Fold the
Place the two side seams together at the edge of the table, with the sleeves
hanging over together, and collar to the left-hand side.
(Fig. 117.)
the top yoke in the left hand, and insert the fingers of the right hand between
the top and the underneath half of the tail [see Fig. 118) so that the
top portion can be drawn over as in Fig. 119, taking care that the box pleat
the centre.
Lightly press to keep in position, and turn over. Smooth if necessary on
and see that the sleeves are not crumpled.
This simple method of folding is quite good for flannel shirts on account
of the airing.
If hung to air with sleeves hanging, as in Fig. 120, all thick
parts will receive an equal share of the heat.
this side,
When ready to be folded for packing away, place again as in Fig. 119,
but with the pont on the table.
Fig. 120.
sleeves together in the right hand, and place the left
of shirt, as at arrow, Fig. 121.
Bring the sleeves over towards the worker, on to the left hand, which can
then be withdrawn, leaving the sleeve as in Fig. 122.
Next fold the sleeves back again until they are in the position indicated
Take the cuffs of both
hand flat on the armhole
in Fig. 123.
o^ Title.
Fig. 121.
Bring the cuffs down so that they run parallel to the bottom of the
garment, as in Fig. 124.
Next, turn up a few inches of both hems of the tails of the shirt, as
in that figure.
Finally, bring the neck
band over on
to this, so that
a nice portion of
Fig. 122.
9— (635)
It is a bad plan to leave too much of the pressing up to be done when
folding the garment should be thoroughly ironed beforehand, and will then
require very little attention when being folded up.
Ironing Flannel Trousers.
To obtain
successful results with these articles,
certain rules
must be
The trousers must be of sufficient dampness before the
carefully observed.
It is important not to attempt this if they are harsh
ironing is commenced.
In the
on the wrong side.
round the inside of top.
place, they should be kept
cool, perfectly clean iron, press all
With a
(See Fig.
Next press
all thick parts, straps where buckles go, etc., and then place the
trousers straight on the table, and press well on the wrong side from seam to
seam with the front uppermost. (Fig. 127.) When ironing the second leg,
ease the work towards the front edge of the table without otherwise altering
oj Talfit.
Turn the trousers over so that the back part can be ironed
in a similar
keeping the top of trousers to the left hand. First smooth the
material away from the hip seam, and iron as far as the shape of the seam
(Fig. 128, A.)
Bring the material away from the inside leg
will easily permit.
seam over the hip seam, and finish ironing up to the seat. (Fig. 128, B.) The
back part of both legs should be ironed in this way.
After they are perfectly well pressed all over on the wrong side, turn on
to the right side,
and place the
legs together as in Fig. 129.
The four seams
should occur in the centre between the two folds at the foot. Procure a
piece of thin, clean material, and iron each leg separately under this.
Pressing of this description should not be done without a cloth, or the face of the
It will be noticed that the inside seam tends more
iron makes glossy marks.
towards the seat than the front of the trousers. (Fig. 129.) Both sides of
each leg should be pressed while the seams are in this position, the top part
being to the left hand.
Fig. 127.
which will appear on the front of the leg when the garment
extend about half-way up the entire length from the foot
Above this level the
(Fig. 130), and must be well pressed in at this stage.
creases at the seat and front should not be well defined.
in wear, should
Should the wearer desire what is known as a " permanent turn up " at the
hems, this is better done in the ironing, and the amount depends on the taste
(Fig. 13L)
of the wearer.
If it seems difficuh to get the material smooth, the cloth for finishing may
be a trifle damp, but not quite wet.
Ironing a Flannel Coat.
Practically the same rules need to be followed for flannel coats and
Lay the front of the coat near the edge of the table, with the
(Fig. 132.)
collar to the left hand, and the wrong side uppermost.
sleeves must be turned on to the right side, to enable the worker to shape
In steaming the lining of the coat, care must be taken that
the shoulders.
the right side of the material, and the pocket flaps, if any, are free from creases,
as they would be very difficult to remove later.
Proceed across the back and the left side of the front similarly, drawing
each portion towards the edge of the table. It may be found expedient to
turn the left front of the coat round to the edge of the table when shaping
the shoulders.
The sleeves should now be turned through, so that the right side of the coat
can easily be ironed.
clean pressing cloth should be interposed between
the right side of the material and the face of the iron.
Care must be taken
that the material is " put into shape," and also kept creaseless.
The flaps of
the pockets should be ironed separately at a following stage, and the handopening (Fig. 133, A to B) underneath the flap, must be kept high up in its
correct position, so that the mouth of the pocket may not gape, as at C.
Fig. 133.
may be left until the bottom of the garment is
In ironing the back, draw the sleeves out under each
be seen from Fig. 134 that it is wise not to attempt to iron
The shoulders and
finished right across.
Liai ng.
too high up towards the collar at A and B.
Wherever it is possible to turn
back portions of the garment, it is advisable, since it is then possible to press
each part singly. For example, see tail flap, x, Fig. 134.
1?t Side of
Left Fronl^
7a I it.
The coat should now be brought with the collar placed as in Fig. 135, so
The ironer
that the shoulder can be most carefully moulded into shape.
must not attempt the whole of the shoulder at once, or the coat will have
Slceuc Kangs on
W/g Side.
Lt Ft
Hanq itxq
Fig. 136.
Four positions are necessary to obtain a satisa " biilged " appearance.
factory result, both fronts being spread, as in Fig. 135, and the sections round
each shoulder seam, as in Fig. 136.
The collar itself should be ironed in two portions, on both right and wrong
and care taken that the material is in no way stretched, especially at the
centre back, else when in wear the fall of the collar will stand off from the
back of the neck of the wearer.
The sleeve linings should be very lightly steamed, and this is best done on
a sleeve board. After turning them on to the right side, each should be placed
as in Fig. 137.
The underparts of the sleeves can be ironed flat on the table
but without making creases at A and B, down either side of the folds.
A sleeve board must be used for the tops, and, when turning the already
pressed coat about and inserting the board, great care must be exercised lest
the coat become creased.
The sleeve board should be placed with the tapered
end to the worker's right hand (Fig. 138), and the top part of sleeve slipped on
to this end.
Commence ironing from the inner seam, making the iron follow the direction of the grain of the material.
(Fig. 139.)
This is extremely necessary,
or the sleeve may be dragged out of shape,- and have a very unsightly
appearance when on the arm.
It is hardly necessary again to draw attention to the importance of pressing
the right side of the material under a cloth.
In finishing the lower part of
the sleeve, the cuffs must be carefully placed and pressed.
After it has been
done on a sleeve board, it can be placed near the edge of the table, and the
point of the iron inserted inside the cuff, which possibly can be unbuttoned,
and the iron passed round the whole of the inside edge care being taken that
the buttons are not broken.
(Fig. 140.)
When all the other parts of the coat are finished, attention must be paid
to the folding over and creasing of the collar and lapels, which must not be
pressed until the ironer is perfectly sure that the crease will be in the correct
After the collar is carefully pressed on the right side, first as in
Fig. 141, and then as in Fig. 142, the coat should be turned as in Fig. 143,
and the shoulders carefully re-pressed from the inside as shown by the arrow.
Any finishing touches the coat may require should now be done from the wrong
The coat should be placed on a " hanger " for airing, but on no account
be folded.
a great number of different articles
heading, the principles for washing and finishing
be included under this
are all very similar.
Dresses and Blouses.
In the first place, coloured cotton blouses, dresses, overalls, etc., may be
either of various " heavy " colours, such as deep blue, brown, green, etc.,
or of lighter and more delicate shades the latter being, as a rule, less likely
to give trouble in washing.
seldom made up of material only. As a rule there is trimming
is often of another colour, and possibly of a different
texture from the dress itself.
It will readily be understood that this makes
the process of washing more difficult. One can always anticipate a good
result with a self-coloured garment, but directly two, or possibly more colours
have to be considered together, the difficulties commence.
It will be useful to consider an instance of a dress made of Saxe blue cashmere, trimmed with a quantity of black silk embroidery and braid. This
had become extremely muddy, as the result of a street accident. Obviously,
the first step was to attack the mud without injuring the material.
A bath of very soapy lukewarm water was prepared, at about the temperature of 70° F., and into this the muddy parts of the dress were immersed
{sec page 18) and very carefully rubbed with a light, loose motion, until
some description which
mud had
Meanwhile, a second bath of water was being prepared, of about the same
temperature, and very soapy.
In this the whole dress was washed, but no
raw soap was rubbed on it, although special attention was paid to the parts
that were made especially dirty in wear, e.g., hem of skirt, edges of wristbands,
collar, etc.
This was done as rapidly as was consistent with a good result,
in order that the dress should remain in the water as short a time as possible.
It was rinsed in a bath of lukewarm water, to which a large handful of salt
had been added with a view to toning up the black embroidery.
rinse followed in water containing a small quantity of acetic acid, which
served to brighten up the blue colour.
After careful wringing, the dress was laid in a cloth and folded with a
second cloth between the folds of material, so that no one part touched another.
Had the black embroidery rested upon the blue fabric, the latter might have
been stained.
After these precautions were taken, the dress was tightly rolled up, and
allowed to remain for a short time, so that the rolling cloths might absorb some
of the moisture.
Later it was ironed, but only on the wrong side, and a perfectly successful
result was obtained, the blue material being of a nice bright colour, and the
black embroidery quite glossy and distinct.
Take another instance of a black and white check dress, trimmed with
black bands. As a rule these black trimmings are the parts that cause trouble.
In this case, bejore it was washed, the dress was steeped in lukewarm water,
to which a large handful of salt had been added.
It was left here for only
a few minutes, while the washing water
still of the same cool temperature
was being prepared.
The dress was then wrung from the steeping water, and washed carefully
and quickly.
The fact that it was of a cotton material enabled a brush
to be used on the badly soiled parts for the sake of speed.
The use of raw
soap on the black trimmings was strictly avoided, or they would have had a
streaky appearance when finished.
It was rinsed in a strong solution of salt,
and was rolled in cloths as before. Ironing followed shortly.
Another instance in the form of a dark blue overall with white bands may
be useful, this being a type of garment very frequently met with. We will
assume that there are some greasy marks on the front of this article therefore
the water will need to be somewhat hotter.
An ordinary temperature say
about 85° F. will not cause any damage here, so prepare as for flannels.
This method of washing is practically the same, but a little
[See page 114.)
extra friction may be needed, because such articles are often a little dirtier
than the average coloured work.
A rinse water should have been prepared, to which has been added
sufficient acetic acid to make the water smell fairly strong.
Immerse the
article in this, well rinse, and wring tightly.
Overalls are usually starched, and coloured articles requiring this must
be put into thoroughly clear starch. By this is meant that the liquid must
be entirely free from lumps, and the skin which has formed on the top in
cooling must be removed, or it will settle, and show on the material when
it is
obvious that the starch must be ready before the washing
commenced, so that the overall can be washed, rinsed, and starched as a
continuous process. It must be hung to dry immediately, and so arranged
It is therefore
that the blue part has not a chance to " run " into the white trimmings.
Outdoor drying is very good for this sort of thing, providing the sun is not
powerful enough to fade the colours.
If an article of this description is found to " bleed " very much in the wash,
wring after starching, roll in a cloth, as for the previous articles, and iron
as soon as possible.
The present fashion in dresses involves many buttons, which may have a
amount of metal in their composition these will be found extremely
troublesome unless the garment is finished off speedily to prevent their causing
rust marks on the material.
Chintz Covers and Coloured Bed-spreads.
In considering these articles, there are again many different combinations
Cretonne of average quality washes well as a rule,
very little trouble being experienced if reasonable care is taken
but there
are kinds where the colours are so " loose " that immediately they are put into
the water they commence to " run." Therefore it is necessary to treat all
with a certain amount of precaution, in case this should be so.
For loose covers, the above directions will be quite useful in many cases.
The edges of chair-seats, and similar parts are usually found to be particularly
dirty these, therefore, will require special attention.
If the colours are fairly
loose, soap and a brush must be used judiciously
but carried to e.xcess this
process will tend to move the colours, and make the article look " patchy."
When rinsing chintz covers, a strong solution of salt will be found useful
for the darker, heavier colours.
For the medium shades ordinary vinegar is
quite good, about two tablespoonfuls to a gallon of water being used.
As a rule these covers are preferred stiff; therefore the starch must be
fairly thick, and should be used before it has been allowed to get cold, as
this will make the article iron more smoothly.
Such articles should be wrung
well, and should be hung to dry as " open " as possible.
They should not be
allowed to hang in one position very long, and a few minutes spent in turning
them about materially assists in producing a good result.
of colours to deal with.
Curtains and Hangings.
These will form another large variety.
Take as an example cream or light
coloured casement cloth, with borders of some deeper colour, or possibly of
mixed colours. These articles are usuallv very dusty, and
ust be immersed for
a short time in cold water to loosen the dust before washing. A heaped handful
of salt should be added to each bath of cold water used, and fairly cool washing
water prepared while this soaking is proceeding.
The tops and edges of curtains will require special attention, soap may
be rubbed on the cream parts, and this will help to remove some of the
brownish marks caused by atmospheric impurities. All curtains should be
washed in two soapy waters to clear them.
In rinsing, salt must again be added to the water to " set " the colours.
After wringing, the starch need only be of medium thickness, curtains hanging
much more gracefully if not too stiff. It is important when drying to see
that the coloured borders are spread out, sr that they do not take a long
time to dry, nor stain the light part.
10— (635)
Coloured bed-spreads
be treated in a manner similar to the above,
in fact some people prefer them
without any. An example of treatment that was given to a coloured
bed-spread may be useful here.
The article in question was made of a shade of light blue casement cloth,
which often fades in the wash, therefore had to be extremely carefully treated.
The material with which this was bordered was Paisley-patterned sateen,
into which several colours were introduced, pink and light-green predominating,
and this border was stitched on with pink thread. As a rule these
Paisley materials wash very well, in some cases the green having the greater
tendency to " run," in others the pink colour causing the trouble.
Embroidery threads, and fancy cottons which have the appearance of a
mixture of silk and cotton, should be treated with caution. In commencing
to wash this particular bed-spread, the usual cool soapy water was prepared,
and at the same time the rinse water also. The article was washed, no soap
whatever being rubbed on, on account of the delicate colours.
After careful squeezing and rubbing, it was rinsed in the water prepared,
to which had been added sufficient acetic acid to make it smell strong.
Passing through this quickly, it was put into a very weak solution of boiled
It was then spread out perfectly open, and
starch, and wrung carefully.
allowed to get about half dry, and then ironed on the wrong side, the result
being pronounced " almost as good as new."
and should
also receive very
of the
to decide
and second,
most important points in the ironing of coloured garments are,
whether the article should be ironed on the right or the wrong
to study the heat of the iron that is used for finishing.
garment on the wrong side is often quite as easy, and
cases, easier than doing it on the right side
but the result may be
place, to iron a
totally different.
For example, take dark and heavy coloured linens and cottons. If these
materials are ironed on the right side, light streaky marks are apt to show,
there is an unpleasant appearance of gloss, and altogether a " cheap " effect
If these same materials are ironed on the wTong side, in many
instances it will be almost impossible to decide whether they have been washed
In the second place, many shades of colour are what is termed
or not.
" fugitive " and are only temporarily affected by too great a heat
but others
are completely spoiled by too hot an iron being impatiently used.
Speed in
this respect is rather a costly venture.
it may appear that ironing a dress or blouse on the wrong
but a few directions will alter this view. If a dress is without
lining, no extra trouble need be experienced.
(See directions for ironing a
simple muslin dress on page 100.) Consider a dress with lining in both bodice
first sight,
is difficult,
As a rule the bodice lining will be attached fairly closely to the
material, the skirt lining being more often arranged as a loose foundation.
To commence ironing, lay the dress, wrong side up, with the waistband
to the edge of the table, so that the bodice hangs over (see Fig. 144), taking
care that the edges of the cuffs do not rest on the floor.
Well iron this band,
then turn the dress round, so that the bodice is nearest the left hand of the
ironer, with the sleeves turned on to the right side, as in Fig. 145.
By this
means the wrong side of the bodice can be ironed quite easily. If it is fastened
at the back, commence ironing from the button or eye side of opening; if the
fastenings are in the front, the button-hole or hook side will be nearest to hand
for ironing on the wrong side.
Proceed across the bodice, always ironing the portion nearest to hand,
and drawing the finished piece towards the worker. The shoulders must be
carefully shaped
this is best accomplished by bringing the shoulder part
quite near the edge of the table.
(See notes for muslin blouse, pages 97, 98.)
the material of the bodice is full underneath the lining as it lies on the table,
must be moved aside as the ironing is proceeded with, a little practice
soon making this quite easy. Being double, all the parts will require extra
pressure to give them an even appearance when finished.
After the bodice has been nicely dried, turn the sleeves on to the wrong
side, and iron carefully.
(See notes on pages 98, 99.)
If the wrist part of sleeve
is set into a cuff, carefully shape and dry this band first
then put the bottom
part of the sleeve on to the tapered end of the sleeve board, with the gathers
nearest to the left hand.
This is a rule that should be closely observed the
gathered part of any article should be nearest the left hand of the ironer,
so that when the full part is being dealt with, the point of the iron is working
up towards the left hand. About one-half of the length of the sleeve can be
ironed in this way.
After going round the lower portion of the sleeve, remove it from the
board, keep the latter in the same position, place the top part of the sleeve on,
and iron carefully into the fullness, commencing from the under-arm seam,
and taking care to draw each finished portion toward the ironer. In most
cases, the sleeve of a blouse or dress has to be ironed in two portions therefore care must be taken that a mark does not show at the junction of the
bottom and top portions.
If the sleeves have no wristbands, and are in the stvle of an ordinary
coat sleeve, take the under-arm seam in the fingers of both hands, and place
it quite evenly on the table, with the underneath of the sleeve uppermost.
Iron this under portion nicely, but not so dry that under and top parts of the
sleeve are stuck very tightly together.
Separate the two thicknesses of
material from each other by putting the hand into the sleeve from the top,
turn over, and iron the lower part on the other side, still not ironing quite dry.
Next place the top of the sleeve on the tapered end of the sleeve board, and
press well into the gathers.
Before removing the sleeve from the board, attend to any creases that may
have been caused by ironing the bottom portion of the sleeve double. Leave
both the sleeves on the wrong side until the skirt is finished.
If the skirt has a lining attached to the material, the ironing is quite simple,
for it will be placed on the skirt board wrong side uppermost, extra pressure
being applied owing to the double thickness of material.
If the skirt has a
loose " foundation " with a flounce, the latter should be ironed before putting
the skirt on to the board. If the flounce needs pleating, leave this for the present.
Next place the material part of the skirt only on to the skirt board. This
can be managed by drawing the lining through, so that it hangs off the end
of the board with the bodice.
The wrong side of the skirt should be well
pressed, special attention being paid to seams, hems, and whatever fancy work
there may be, the worker always remembering to draw the finished width of
material towards her.
A margin of material that has been ironed should be
left at the front edge of the board, and the next section commenced on this
ironed piece again, so that there are no unsightly marks finally to indicate
commencement and
After the material skirt is ironed, draw the dress carefully off the board
by taking hold of, and slightly raising, the tapered end with the left hand,
while drawing the dress with the right hand on to the left arm.
When the
bottom edge of the skirt is just off the board, put the right hand underneath
the latter, at about the centre, and lower it back on to its stand or trestle.
Now bring the skirt on to the right side, by carefully turning it over the bodice.
If the skirt lining has been pulled through correctly, it wall now be found
that the dress is in the position in which it is worn.
It will again require to be put on the skirt board, which should be done
in the following manner.
Put the left hand through the placket opening
Raise the
of the skirt, so that a good portion of it is resting on the left arm.
tapered end of the board with the left hand, and it will be found that the
dress can be slipped on quite easily and without crumpling.
To iron the underskirt, carefully fold the overskirt back on to the bodice,
and iron as before, the only difference being that the underskirt is ironed
on the right side, which is of no consequence. If it has a frill, this may require
pleating, which should now be done, thus completely finishing the lining.
Now draw the top skirt back into its correct position, and give what pressing
up is required. If the material does not permit of an iron touching the right
side, procure a piece of thin clean cloth, and press up any " broken " parts
with this intervening. A very cool iron, lightly applied on the right side,
seldom injures any ordinary coloured cotton material in the finishing
if the dress happens to be of woollen texture, a cloth tnust be used.
The skirt being now quite finished, draw the dress off the board, following
previous directions, and lay the bodice to the left hand, still keeping the
sleeves on the wrong side thus making it easy to get at the right side of the
If there is any fullness to dispose of, pleats of a uniform size must be
The collar-band
neatly put in, the cloth being again applied if necessary.
must next be nicely pressed up, and the sleeves turned carefully on to the
right side.
To minimise crumpling in turning them, put the hand well down,
then draw through smartly and " top up " the sleeve carefully, i.e., remove all
If the bodice has any frills
unsightly marks or " breaks " caused by turning.
that require goffering or pleating, they should form the final stage of the work.
Children's frocks that have underskirts attached should be ironed in the
Cretonne Covers.
many of these covers which also " pay " well for ironing on the
notably thick coarse materials that show the grain fairly prominently. Those of somewhat finer texture, with a smooth surface, are more
suitable for ironing on the right side, and in many cases are preferred glazed.
The styles and shapes of chair and sofa covers are so numerous that it
would hardly be possible to explain the exact method of ironing. As a broad
rule, it is best to iron all small parts and corners first, including all the portions
There are
that are most difficult to " get at," next, flounces,
any are round the edge,
lastly, all large areas.
Coloured Cushion Covers.
In some cases it is somewhat difficult to iron these really well, on account
of the opening being small and, on the other hand, it may be quite essential
to do the pressing from the wrong side, especially if there be any embroidery.
Take as an example a frilled cover that has coloured embroidery, with the
opening only half the length of one side of the square.
To commence, well iron the openings, which are usually double and
therefore will require well drying.
Keep the cushion cover right side out,
place a piece of calico about the size of the square inside the cover, lay a
flannel pad on the table, and the embroidery face downwards on to this.
Well iron the plain side, pressing firmly because of the extra thickness of
It will be found that the cahco has received any colour that may
have pressed through, and thus saved damage to the plain square.
When the cover is nearly dry, carefully iron the frill, on both sides if it
is double, then " top up " both sides of the cover, being careful not to touch the
embroidery on the right side. This can be managed by going round each of
the four sides quite on the edge of the table.
If the opening is fairly large, an iron can be got inside quite easily.
do this, have the opening at the edge of the table, lay the cushion cover face
raise the plain side,
and press by putting the
Great care must be taken in this class of work with regard to the heat of
the iron, for if it is too hot it may cause silk or coloured cotton embroidery
to " run " quite as much as careless washing would.
Damage may also be
caused to the colours by the slightest dampness left in from ironing therefore
the cover must be thoroughly aired, but without folding.
It is found, however,
that if bright colours are subject to a fierce heat in airing, they have a harsh
appearance, and are lacking in gloss.
this is not a very large suljject to deal with, it is certainly an
extremely important one. Some people have the idea that many kinds of silk
and satin will not wash successfully. This is incorrect, but on the other hand,
it is far better in the long run to go to the expense of having a silk garment
dry-cleaned than to wash that garment at random, irrespective of make
are all familiar with the well-known white or cream " Jap silk."
a certain amount of care, this can be made to look exceedingly well, even after
having been washed several times. The chief care in washing this silk is
in regard to the temperature of the water, which should always be cool rather
than hot.
Because soap must not be rubbed on this
the water must be
carefully with sufficient boiled soap added to make a lather, and the
Of course a brush must never be used.
article very carefully rubbed in this.
" soap is allowed to come into contact with
If the water is too hot, or if " raw
made up
the material, it will become yellowish, and retain this tint.
It is best to wring by
The rinsing water should be lukewarm and clear.
the hands from the water, as the wringer is apt to press the fastenings into
the garment and cause much damage, owing to the thinness of the material.
Some authorities advocate putting meth>-lated spirit into the rinse water for
white washing-silk, to make it look glossy, but on- finds that it has a tendency
to darken the silk under the iron.
The gloss on white silk chiefly depends on the correct temperature of the
water and the quality and kind of soap used, and, lastly, on the action of the iron
One nice soapy washing water of not more than 75° F., and one
in finishing.
The articles should neither be soaked
clear rinse water are all that is necessary.
water for any length of time, nor be allowed to lie about between washing
and ironing. As soon as they are taken from the water,
they should be rolled up in a clean cloth and ironed.
With delicate shades of silk, colour as well as texture must be taken
into consideration, and it is of no use to attempt this type of work unless it
can be done as a quite continuous process. The rinse must immediately
A clean
follow the wash, and the ironing must immediately follow the rinse.
dry cloth will always absorb in a few minutes all the moisture that should
in the
rinsing, or rinsing
be got rid
Water should be prepared
above for washing delicate shades of silk,
water having sufficient acetic acid added
satin, crepe dc Chine, etc., the rinse
Always prepare both waters at the same
to make it smell fairly strong.
time, and also procure the drying cloth in which the article is going to be rolled.
If there are ironers to receive the work, see that some one gets the article as
soon as possible after rinsing; but if it is being done by one person throughout,
she should not commence washing unless there is time to finish it completely.
With these thin soft silks the rubbing in of water must be very lightly done, or
the material will appear to be frayed, strained, and "rowy," or full of rows
of lines.
Ninon and Chiffon.
These can be quite successfully washed, if the water is quite cool and
extremely soapy, and tlie articles are simply put under the water and carefully
moved about without any friction being used. The whole garment must be kept
together, so that the weight of one part does not drag against another.
These materials must on no account be wrung. The best plan is to have
a clean cloth ready, upon which the chiffon article is lifted out of the rinse
It must then be rolled
water, and which receives the superfluous moisture.
in another dry cloth, as chiffon should not be ironed until about half dry, or
it will appear stiff and sticky-looking.
In fact, if ironed quite wet, it will,
in many cases, fray out, and look quite old.
Shantung and Tussore
This class of silk is somewhat troublesome, and in most cases it is extremely
In washing this fabric it wll be found
difficult to obtain a really good result.
that it always alters a little in shade therefore, when contemplating washing
an article of this description, it is necessary to ascertain that it is not going
to be worn with something of the same class that has not been previously
Take, for instance, a coat and skirt of this material one of these may get
soiled more quickly than the other, and the wearer is tempted to have one
washed, and make the other " last a little longer." However, it is almost
impossible to prevent coloured Tussore or Shantung silk from changing a little
in shade when it is washed.
They should be treated as ordinary silks in washing, a strong salt solution
being very useful when rinsing grey and brown colours. After rinsing they
must be rolled in a cloth, and the air must be prevented from getting to the silk
until the finishing process is commenced.
Another method
Shantung silk, which is found quite successful,
of the moisture from the rinsing in a cloth, and
then to smooth the article into shape with the hands, hang to dry, so that the
air can get to all parts of the garment at once, and when dry, finish off by
pressing well with an iron of moderate heat, without using any moisture.
It will be found, if a " damper " is used to Shantung silk, that even if
to absorb a fair
of finishing
two processes of finishing lias been used, unsightly " water
show on the surface of the silk. It should also be ironed on the
so that the seams may be moved aside, and not be pressed
of these
" will
through to the right
side, as
be noticed that wherever double thicknesses
dark marks show that cannot be removed
of the material are ironed together,
is again wetted.
has previously been suggested that the make of the garment should
be taken into consideration as well as the texture. A further word of explanaIt would be quite foolish for an amateur to attempt
tion may be useful here.
to wash a silk or satin blouse which is lined and freely trimmed, or a silk
coat, however nicely the material would wash, if it is stiffened with canvas.
These articles require the knowledge not only of how to wash and iron the
various fabrics of which they are composed, but also of all the little details
of finishing, that can only be gained by practical experience, and on which the
whole success of preparing such articles depends.
until the article
To carry this through successfully, there are certain broad rules which, jf
To commence with, the articles must be
followed, will greatly assist the result.
of even dampness all over therefore they should not be dried, but rolled in
a cloth from the rinsing.
Secondly, the irons must be clean and smooth,
and of medium heat. To attempt to iron a silk garment with a rough, hot
is absolutely against all laws of common sense.
Again, in ironing, the fabric must not be nibbed with the iron a firm even
pressure should be used, and the iron passed over the work as few times as
With care, delicate silks can be ironed so that they look as if they
had never been washed at all, and, on the other hand, a careless worker may
so " worry " them that they will look " flabby," and positively worn out.
It is well to form the habit of ironing all silks on the wrong side, although
there is really no difference in the finish, but if there is the shghtest tendency
for the iron to brown the fabric, it does not then show on the outside surface
of the garment.
Delaine is a material that can be very successfully washed if treated with
proper care. Both washing and ironing should be proceeded with as for
Many articles that might appear Uke new are spoilt
light coloured silks.
because of their being dried before ironing. After bemg hung to dry, the white
and cream ones have a harsh, thin appearance and the coloured ones a faded
look, and in many instances, where the colours have the slightest tendency to
" run," the pattern becomes indistinct and muddled.
Delaines, whether white
or coloured, should be rolled in a cloth, and ironed on the wrong side.
are many fine flannel and woollen materials which are used for blouses that
be treated in this way with excellent results, and with
drying had been resorted to.
less trouble
Cleaning and Finishing of Lace.
Many people possess really nice pieces of good, and in many instances
valuable, lace, which occasionally require freshening, although the ordinary
methods of washing and ironing would be too drastic for such delicate fabrics.
In some cases the directions for washing chiffon will be found quite suitable,
special care being taken that no wringing occurs.
If the lace is very old and frail, procure a piece of old, well-washed flannel,
and lightly tack the lace to this. It need not necessarily be single, as the very
action of the cool soapy water flowing through the lace and flannel takes the
dirt with it.
The lace should not be removed until the finishing can be
Another method of preserving the threads of frail lace is to wrap it carefully round a clean bottle or a thick smooth round stick, to fix hghtly the outer
end with a thread of cotton, and carefully move this about in the water while
holding the end of the stick or bottle, the merest shade of stiffening, if any,
must be used after rinsing.
boiled starch
is the only stiffening agent available, a spoonful to a quart
be sufficient to make the lace like new. Many people prefer to
use sugar, but, if great care is not taken, there is a tendency to brown the lace
when an iron is used.
Gum arable is also a good stiffening agent, only a very small portion being
As much as will remain on a sixpence, dissolved and added to two
or three quarts of water, will give quite a
it must not be done until the lace has been careand is at least half dry.
If ironed quite wet, it will
look stiff and have an appearance of having been ironed, whereas the
object in view is to prevent this.
Lace that is fairly strong is improved by
resorted to,
fully spread into shape,
being pinned out while wet, so that all the points are clearly defined without
having a dragged appearance in fact, quite frail pieces have been treated
in this manner, but great caution is necessary in placing each pin in the lace.
When it is nearly dry, remove the pins, use a small iron with extreme care,
and lightly press the pattern from the wrong side. Care must be taken that
the point of the iron does not crack the fine threads.
A good plan to preserve the result obtained, after the foregoing processes
have been gone through, is to wrap the lace round a pad of blue tissue paper,
which will help both to prevent its getting creased, and to retain its freshness
of colour.
Washing Leather Gloves.
The washing water should be prepared
Fabric and
as for flannels, and the gloves
rubbed in it.
If the size permits, a better result can be obtained
if they are put on the hands of the worker and are rubbed together in this
way. The tips of the fingers may require a little extra soap rubbed on, as
these parts are usually soiled and stained.
Clear, warm water should be used
for rinsing, and the gloves well opened to allow it to flow through them.
The superfluous moisture should be removed in a cloth, both on account
of the fastenings, and because the wringer causes creases which do not always
disappear in drying. When hanging to dry, the fingers should be opened as much
as possible, and the tops pinned to a cloth, so that the gloves have not a
line-mark across the back, through being folded over while wet.
Wash-leather and Castor gloves should be moved about while drying, or
they will shrink and harden. It is best to place them on the hands when about
half dry, and gently ease the material into shape.
In many cases, if they
are allowed to dry while in one position, they will shrink, become hard, and
in fact, be completely spoilt.
If gloves are carefully dried, there is no need to use an iron for pressing,
even for the cotton ones
but if ironing is resorted to for the latter, a very
cool one should be used, and only a very light pressure, so that there are no
creases down the fingers, and on the back.
It must be distinctly understood that leather gloves of any kind should not
be ironed, and that all kinds should be kept on the right side throughout
the process.
contemplating the washing of an eider down quilt, it is
necessary to
take into consideration the whole process, from start
to finish
For a really
good result it is necessary to attend to it at intervals,
the drying process.
The water for washing should be prepared as for flannels. If
the covering
material is made of fairly bright colours, attention
must be paid to this previous directions for the treatment of colours
being followed carefully
soap must be rubbed on therefore the water
must have sufficient soap added
before the article is immersed.
Providing the " eider down " is not extremely
soiled, it is best to use only one washing
water, the clearing being done in the
The texture of the covering of these articles is very often
such as will not
permit of rough handling, and the very action of squeezing
out even one extra
water wll often make just the difference between
success and failure
Both sides of the cover must be attended to, and the best
plan is to lay it on
a board piece by piece, and rub well into the
material with the palm of the
In this way the soapy water is well worked in, and
when rinsed out
takes the dirt with it.
It must be distinctly understood that " eider
downs " should not be soaked
tor any length of time in any of the waters
When sure that the cover is perfectly clean, squeeze as much of the soapy
water out as possible. It is best to lift the quilt carefully
out of the water
on to a board laid across the bath or tank, and just press
well on to it
a lot of the soapy water can be removed in this way.
According to the covering material, the rinse water should
have previously
been prepared, and the article can now be immersed.
Rub lightly and then
squeeze as much of this first rinse water out as possible.
The second rinse
tollows, and the clearing is thus complete.
" Eider downs " should not be put through
a wringer, for, however carefuUy
this may be done, the material is almost bound
to burst a little in places where
the down may have moved into a lump.
The best plan is to squeeze well by
pressing down (as previously directed), allow it to
drain for a few minutes
and repeat this process several times.
If the colours are fairly safe, so much
trouble need not be taken in
last water, but if tliey appear " loose," and have tinted the
every effort must be made to remove as much as possible before
To absorb the moisture, roll the " eider down " in some cloths for
a short time the colours will then look much brighter and fresher than if any
quantity of water is left in to evaporate in the air.
Before the quilt is hung to dry, it must be very carefully shaken, but at
If the quilt is dried
this stage no effort should be made to get the down even.
out of doors, and the wind is not very high, peg up carefully by two corners
As the article is drying
if very windy, place the cover in halves over the line.
it should be taken down, shaken, and hung in a different position several times.
In this way the down will gradually be shaken back into its proper position,
and as it becomes nearly dry, the shakings can be a little more vigorous.
If indoor drying has to be resorted to, the article should not be subjected
to too great a heat, or the result will not be nearly so good.
If the only table
After the cover is absolutely dry, spread it out flat.
available is not large enough, lay some clean paper or a sheet on the floor, so
Now beat it carefully with a cane,
that all the cover can be seen at once.
or with the palms of the hands, or a clean cane carpet-beater may be satisThis process will be found to make the down very fluffy,
factorily used.
thereby rendering the quilt even and thick.
When it is of fairly uniform thickness, procure a warm iron and lightly
This is done to prevent the
pass it over, without using any actual pressure.
material from having a rough-dry appearance.
If there is a frill, it must be properly ironed, and can be slightly damped
with a small wet cloth as it is proceeded with. After all parts are smooth
and even, it must again be put to air the more shaking and moving about
removing the
water at
receives, the thicker
lighter will the " eider
" feel.
Wadded Garments.
few hints with regard to the washing of wadded dressing-gowns may be
Colours must again be taken into consideration, and rinse waters
useful here.
prepared accorchngly. In this case, get ready one very soapy, cool washing
water, and two rinses of the same temperature.
Very carefully immerse the dressing-gown in the soapy water, and do not
This is most important throughout, as if any
hft it up and down vigorously.
If any
is once broken, the gown will be utterly spoilt.
neck band, wristbands, or bottom hem, are badly soiled, they
must be laid flat on a board, and rubbed with the palm of the hand, in fact
it is best to treat all parts of the garment in this way, on both sides.
Squeezing between the hands, as for flannels, will be hable to break the
wadding. When turning the sleeves to attend to the wrong side, draw them
through slowly and carefully.
After all parts are quite clean, lift the garment from the water by putting
part of the wadding
parts, such as
the hands underneath, and raising the whole thing at once.
Do not drag
out of the water a piece at a time, or this also will break the wadding.
Squeeze the soap out by pressing down heavily (as directed for " eider down ")
and immerse in the first rinse. Again no rubljing must occur, the garment
being only just moved carefully under the water.
Lift it out at once in the same way as from the soapy water, and repeat
this in the second rinse.
Squeeze as much of the water out as possible by
pressing, and then absorb the rest bv rolling in cloths.
Fig. 146.
Have a cloth ready on the table, carefully lift the gown on to it, spread
the back part out, and lay another cloth on this, and bring one-half of the
front over, and cover with another piece of cloth.
Then place the second half
front over, so that there is an alternate cloth and fold of dressing-gown
throughout. Now lay a cloth again on the top of this, and spread the sleeves
without dragging them. The collar will also require putting into shape.
In placing all the parts, see that the shape of the garment is correct
bottom hems should be put into a straight line, the fronts arranged as they
ought to look when finished, the sleeves carefully put into position, and the
collar spread out to its correct shape.
When the dressing-gown is properly placed, roll it up firmly in the cloths.
Not only are the intervening ones necessary to absorb the moisture, but in
case of the lining being of a different colour from the outside, the rolling will
prevent one colour from staining the other. If it is necessary repeat this
process with another set of dry cloths, care being taken all the time that the
wadding does not get broken.
If two lines are
In drying, spread the gown out as straight as possible.
available side by side, hang one half front over the first, so that the side seam
rests on the line, the other half front on the second line in just the same way,
then allow the sleeves to hang down between the two lines, so that the
back part of gown is spread out nearly straight. In Fig. 146 a dressing-jacket
has been similarly hung, but as there are no long side seams, the method
has simply been indicated. In this way the weight is fairly evenly divided
in all parts.
Do not allow the sleeves to rest on the back part as it hangs
on the lines, or they will make a disfiguring mark on the part on which they
When the gown is quite dry, a fairly cool iron can be used for pressing.
should be passed lightly over both right and wrong sides, after which the
garment is placed on a " shoulder " to air.
Knitted Coats.
The foregoing directions will be found quite suitable for washing knitted
woollen coats, these being articles that require the same amount of attention
and care as to shaping, etc.
Many people are of opinion that woollen coats do not wash successfully,
simply because they have been unfortunate enough to have had one carelessly
done. The whole secret of the process is in the actual handling and shaping.
In putting a coat into the water, care must be taken that it is not rubbed
" in parts."
The whole thing must be squeezed and kept together, so that
In lifting out of each
the weight of one part is not dragging on another.
water, care must again be taken not to drag the article, and it mtist not be
wrung, even with the hands. Squeeze as much water out as possible by
pressing on to a board, keeping the whole thing in a heap, and on the wrong
Have cloths ready to lay the garment on, and spread out as for the
wadded gown.
Great care must be taken with the bottom edge, to keep it straight and
The sleeves also will need to be
even, the corners being laid quite square.
placed, so that they are of the correct length.
If they appear to have stretched
them both carefully widthways, so that some of the length
is taken up.
The pocket mouths should be placed evenly, so that they do
in the water, ease
not have an appearance of sagging.
require placing to correct shape.
{See Fig.
also will
up, so that the cloths will absorb
most of the moisture.
Woollen coats must on no account be hung up to dry, but should be left
spread on a board or table, otherwdse all the previous care and time spent
will be thrown away.
If the weather is good the coat can be laid outside
on a cloth, still in the same position as directed. In any case, it must not
be subjected to a great heat, or the wool will dry up stiff, and will not have a
appearance or feeling.
For business purposes, the use of a flat wire rack for drying these things
It should be fixed in a position suitable for the purpose, attention
soft fluffy
being paid to the amount of heat available, 60° F. to 70° F. being the highest
temperature required. One corner of an airing room is often a convenient
11— (035)
spot, but in
most laundries there
be some corner that
than another.
It is best to
turn the coat ov-er at least once while
it is
drying, so that the
uppermost a part of the time. Do not force the drying of the coat,
sometimes takes as long as two days to get completely dry, and the
As a
then quite good.
it is stretching, and not shrinkage, that has to be looked for in
these garments.
Of course, if the coat has a tendency to " felt " in the water,
the drying must be carried out more speedily, but still the same attention
must be devoted to shaping.
In steam laundries, where the use of a Hydro Extractor is to be obtained,
rolling in cloths is unnecessary.
The best plan is to lift the coat from the
rinse water into a cloth, lay it in the " Hydro " without removing this, weight
Hydro with something that needs wringing, set the
and run as for flannels. Do not lay the coat round the
inner cage of the Hydro, but put it in, as it were, in a heap, or it will stretch as
the speed increases. Wadded gowns should be wrung in like manner.
the other side of the
in motion,
When the coat is perfectly dry, a very cool iron is needed for pressing.
This process must be carried out with e.xtreme care, and should be done from
the wrong side.
The iron must not be rubbed up and down the coat, but
just pressed and lifted, or the wool will appear stretched in places.
Knitted Woollen Caps.
These require equal care in the washing, and should be dried by filling
crown with a clean cloth, so that the correct shape is obtained.
Some authorities advocate the use of a wooden block, or even an inverted
basin, to dry these caps on, but a cloth will be found quite adequate, as it
absorbs some of the moisture, and the cap has not quite such a fixed and
stiff shape when finished.
of plain and corduroy velveteens wash quite
essential rules are carefully followed.
the colours are fairly " fast," therefore it is the texture that requires the most
Before commencing to wash the garment, it must be ascertained that
a convenient place is available in which to hang it when it is rinsed. Wringing
Various classes and colours
easily and successfully if the
not permissible
therefore the water will have to drain into
The water should be of fairly cool temperature, with plenty of boiled
soap added to make a lather. The garment is steeped in this, and lifted up
It is
and down several times so that the soapy water can flow through it.
best to have ascertained the especially soiled parts before the article is put
A brush must not be
into the water, so that these can be attended to first.
used, but friction can be applied with the palm of the hand, while the garment
The material should on no
is spread out on an unpolished board or table.
account be rubbed between the hands, as this will tend to make the pile
appear uneven when the finishing process is in hand. If the washing water
loses its lather quickly, another soapy liquid should be prepared, and the
same procedure followed a second time.
When velveteen is taken from the water each time, it should not be wrung
or squeezed in any way, but simply be lifted out, and allowed to drain.
rinse waters will be necessary, and before it is removed from the last one, the
worker should see that the place is ready in which the article is going to hang.
Should it be a blouse, a frock, or anything which is conveniently placed on a
" shoulder," this is an easy way of placing the garment to drain.
Coat-hangers are sometimes painted or stained, in which case they will
Also if they are hung from a metal hook, this
not serve for wet articles.
should be bound round, in case the extreme dampness should cause it to rust,
and mark the article being dried.
Supposing a skirt is being washed, it can be pinned by the band to a cloth,
and allowed to drain in this\vay. In any case, pins must not be put into the
When the superfluous
or there will "be unsightly marks left.
itself, the position of the article should be changed, so
that distinct creases do not form in the hanging folds As the article is becoming
dry, carefully shake it, for this will be found to assist the later processes.
wet material
moisture has removed
Finishing Velveteen.
For really good results, a very little moisture should have been left in the
material, as in this way the steam caused by the heat of the iron applied
to the wrong side will raise the pile, and give a velvety appearance when
For large areas, the iron can be passed over the wrong
the ironing is finished.
side as in ordinary pressing, but it should not be used very vigorously, nor
should too much heat be applied. On no account must any part of the right
side be ironed, even with a cloth intervening.
If there are any seams or small parts that are likely to show marks, stand
an iron on the table, with the point up carefully hold the portion to be treated
in the fingers of both hands, without gripping so firmly as to leave marks,
and rub the wrong side of it on the side edge or tip of the iron. When
finishing a velveteen garment, these small parts are best done before the
larger whole
After the steaming and pressing are finished, turn the garment on to the
right side, and with the palm of the hand, or a clean velvet pad. rub the
material up the right way, so that the pile shows glossy and even, and finally
hang it on a shoulder to air.
Finishing Velvet Ribbons.
The washing is practically the same as for velveteen, except that the
ribbon should invariably be laid on a flat board, and gently rubbed with the
palm of the hand, al\va\-s in the same direction. When rinsing, hold one end
of the piece of ribbon, and dip it in and out of the water several times.
lay it on a cloth, right side up, so that the moisture is absorbed.
The finishing can be carried out before the ribbon is dry, and should be
done by standing a moderately hot iron point up, holding each end of the
strip carefully in the fingers, and drawing the wrong side of it backwards and
Should the ribbon be satinforwards firmly against the face of the iron.
backed, the iron will not injure this. The pile of the velvet is improved by
being rubbed in the right direction.
necessary to understand one's work thoroughly before attempting to
or clean serge and cloth garments, for the simple reason that, apart from
the care required in treating the material, there is the make of the garment
to be noted, and it is here that the majority of beginners fail.
For instance, take a coat, a skirt, a suit, or even a pair of boy's knickers.
If any one of these garments is dragged out of shape, it becomes unsightly, the
fronts of the coat may be left hanging in a baggy, bulgy fashion, the seams
of a skirt may be stretched, and hang unevenly, and the hems be left lumpy
and only half pressed.
However well the material will wash, it is not sufficient to " wet it out,"
and hang it to dry in the hope that it will come right in the end. Not only
are time and patience required for these articles, but a certain amount of
should have been obtained before an attempt is made on any of them.
the garments are not stiffened with inter-hning, it is much easier to obtain
a good result.
Cream serge skirts, knickers, etc., should be washed as ordinary flannels.
Care should be taken with regard to the heat of the water, as there is always
a tendency for cream serge to turn yellow and harsh-looking.
Raw soap should not come into contact with the article. Sufficient should
have been put in the water to have made a lather, previous to the garment
being immersed.
Light friction with a brush will not harm the edges of seams,
wrong sides of hems, etc., but the actual surface of serge material must
not be scrubbed.
Rubbing must also be very carefully done, especially if there are any dirty
parts that call for extra friction.
Severe rubbing with a round motion between
the hands is bound to cause the serge to shrink and " felt." A simple means
to convince one of this is to procure two pieces of ordinary rough serge of the
same size. Immerse them in the washing water prepared, do one quite carefully, just squeezing in the correct manner, and submit the other piece to
severe rubbing round and round.
In the majority of cases, the latter piece,
when dry, would be much smaller and harder than the former, especially if the
material were well and closely woven.
In the case of new serge or cloth, one is almost compelled to use two washing
waters, the " newness " of the material rendering the first water very " dull
and useless, almost as soon as the garment is put into it. It is best in all cases
to use one's discretion in this, as if the material is free from " dress," one water
may be sufficient, but on the other hand, it is very seldom that it can be made
to look quite clear at the first time of washing without two soapy waters being
Much depends on this first wash, for if the garment is once finished
after being badly washed, however much effort is subsequently made, the
result will never quite come up to what it ought to have been.
When wetting serge coats, they should not be " lumped " together in the
water if there is any stiffening in the fronts or shoulders. Again, they must
not be soaked for any length of time. The best plan is to have a bench to lay
the coat on after having wetted it out, and rub the soapy water well into the
material with the palm of the hand. This is really quicker than keeping the
garment in the water, as all parts can be seen at once, and there is not the
tendency to go over the same ground more than is necessary.
After attending to all parts of the coat in this way, lift it carefully back
If a second soapy
into the water, and rub without upsetting the lined parts.
water has to be used, repeat the foregoing process. In rinsing see that the
same care is exercised, and when wringing see that the collar and lapels are
kept even.
In the majority of cases, it is best to iron serge coats or skirts before they
are dried.
Sufficient moisture can be removed by rolling in cloths, it being
possible to shape the articles much more carefully in this way than if they
are hung in mid-air, when the water draining to the lower parts drags them
out of shape. Again, the dampness is much more even after rolling, and therefore the material will be free from uneven patches, which are bound to occur
unless the articles are most carefully watched, and frequently turned while
Dark Serges.
The same process
be followed, but the colour
The colour of blue serge, for instance, has
a distinct tendency to turn lighter when wetted, and in many cases it will
take on a definite violet tinge. To assist in avoiding this the temperature
to be taken into consideration.
water should be extremely low, the rinse water must be prepared at
the same time as the washing water, a good measure of acetic acid added to
each water to " set " the colour, and the utmost dispatch used throughout
It is of the utmost importance that the garment remain in the
the process.
water only just so long as is absolutely necessary, even two or three minutes
making a vast difference. Coloured serges, whether of hght or dark shades,
should on no account be hung to dry, as this will render all the previous efforts
For various " setting " agents, see page 18.
of the
For the successful finishing of serge and cloth garments, one very important
is that the face of the iron must not come into direct contact with the
If pressing on the wrong side does not give the
right side of the material.
desired " finish," the article must be pressed from the right side, with a damp
cloth intervening between the material and the iron.
In many cases, when coats, for example, are scarcely soiled enough for
washing, and yet are not perfectly fresh, it will be found sufficient and
convenient to treat them as explained below.
A clean unpolished table will be necessary, so that practically all parts ot
the coat can be seen at once when it is spread for cleaning.
Clean, warm, soft water is extremely useful for removing many kinds ot
spots that may occur, but lump ammonia, previously dissolved in hot water,
and cooled, will serve to remove many obstinate marks. Any kind of grease
If reference is made to
spots must be removed before moisture is used.
pages 18 and 19, notes on the use of other cleaning agents will be found.
The coat having been spread on the table right side uppermost, one or two
As little moisture
clean soft rags, that are free from fluff, will be necessary.
should be used as possible. A fair amount of friction will be needed, with the
cloth arranged in the form of a pad. It is best to proceed systematically, beginning with the collar and lapels opened out first, so that the soiled ridges may be
If the face of the material is at all shiny, a little ammonia in the
water will assist in removing the gloss, but if the fabric is merely soiled, without
being shiny, warm water alone is just as good. The cloth should be folded
not wrung out of the liquid and applied vigorously
as a pad, dampened
If the article
to the material, the grain to he jollowed throughout the process.
proves to be fairly soiled, so that the pad becomes dirty, the latter must be
cleaned occasionally, and the bowl of water changed if needed.
It is both necessary and possible to clean a garment by this method, without
really soaking it, for if too much water is conveyed by the pad, the trouble
will be increased, and the result not nearly so good as it miglat be.
Fine, smooth, light-coloured cloths are more satisfactory if treated by
a " dry " process, and as has been previously stated, this should not be done by
inexperienced persons in places not equipped for the use of inflammable spirits.
Pressing the Coat.
This process must follow as soon as possible after the foregoing directions
have been carried out, the coat being placed as described on page 133, and a
cloth used to cover the right side of the material the whole time. The iron should
be of medium heat, and a firm even pressure given to all parts of the garment.
For serges and cloth materials, a piece of woollen stuff used as a pressing
is beneficial, so long as it is clean and not linty, this helping to prevent
white streaky marks being caused through pressure on seams and thick parts.
Articles cleaned by the foregoing process should be thoroughly aired
before being put away.
can be accomplished towards preserving the freshness and smoothness
if it is carefully and systematically packed
of linen that has been laundered,
away after it is aired.
Household Linen.
This will be found fairly easy to deal with, but if even " flat " articles are
put into a cupboard or drawers with the edges curled up and uneven, much
of the result of previous labour is completely destroyed.
Even plain articles
are much more pleasant to use if they are fresh and free from unsightly creases
when taken into use.
If any quantity of linen has to be packed away regularly, and a cupboard
is used for storing it, the shelves should be lined with some sort of wrappers,
such as old towels, or pieces of any kind of material that can be washed occasionally.
This assists in keeping the linen free from dust, which invariably
filters through plain woodwork.
Another means of keeping household linen in good condition, is to use it
systematically, putting the freshlv laundered articles at the bottom of each
pile, so that all get used in turn.
Otherwise those left over from week to week
will become brown at the edges and folds, and in course of time this brownness becomes permanent, and the creases become so fixed as to cause the linen
to split when it is used and washed.
Table linen is especially apt to rot at the folds through the dust and air
This is partly on account of the
being allowed to come into contact with it
measure of stiffening which has been used.
Lace D'oyleys and tray cloths preserve their freshness much longer if
thin paper is laid between them, quite an excellent plan being to keep them
in a small cardboard box by themselves.
Should the cupboard or shelves used for storing linen be near hot pipes,
or a hot water tank, it is adv-isable to remove the linen occasionally, as there
is always a tendency for it to get discoloured as a result of being constantly
in a heated atmosphere.
Wearing Apparel and Fancy Articles.
Although these necessarily require more care in packing away, there
no reason why they should not look perfectly fresh and free from creases,
sufficient trouble is
taken at the proper time.
Here again, thin blue paper
be found extremely useful, both for preserNang the colour and for helping
to prevent the formation of unsightly creases.
As a rule body linen, when folded neatly, is no trouble to store, and it is
quite possible to place a considerable number of articles one on top of another,
and yet bring them out quite neat when required for use. With a little extra
attention, blouses, frocks, pinafores, etc., need lose none of their smoothness
and daintiness through being stored.
Place a half sheet of tissue paper inside the body part of the blouse, and
lay the front as flat as possible on this.
Some people prefer to leave the
blouse undone, while others find it easier to manage with some of the fastenings
Invariably the front is much larger than the back, so a fold should
be made as in Fig. 148, care being taken that its inner edge is placed well towards
the under arm.
Next take the seam of the sleeve lightly in the thumb and
finger of each hand, and bring it over another half sheet of paper, as in Fig. 149.
A piece of paper, folded and placed inside the sleeves, helps to prevent the
formation of creases if the sleeves are fairly full. The blouse photographed
here had been packed away with other wearing apparel for 18 months after
being " got up," and still it needed no retouching, being in quite a wearable
done up.
Linen and serge skirts can be treated as shown in Fig. 150, each fold having
This folding will be found preferable
a sheet of paper between it and the next.
to hanging these garments after they are well aired, as less creases result.
It has been proved that fancy wearing apparel will retain its freshness for
months, if packed away in this manner, and in fact, the need for " roughing
fine articles, that is to say, leaxdng them unstarched and rough dry when
not in use, is practically done away with altogether.
Flannel Trousers.
Fig. 151 shows trousers folded in like manner, which will be found
advantageous when the need for storing them occurs. It should scarcely be
necessary to impress further the need for thoroughly airing
and wearing apparel
all classes of
packed away, even though it is likely to be
used again quite soon.
The least dampness left in flannel or woollen articles
will cause them to become hard, and allow the shrinkage to continue.
Instances have been
away without being
known where coloured
have been packed
aired after ironing, and the colours have " run," and have
completely spoiled the articles themselves, and other things which have been
in contact with them.
Unaired starched clothes lose their crispness if stored
thus, and become limp and unattractive-looking.
Too much importance cannot be attached
to this department in any laundry,
whatever the size of the business may be. There is considerable diversity of
opinion with regard to the quantity of wort: one packer should be able to turn
One has heard it said that a packer should not be made responsible for
the sorting, packing, and sending out of more than about £\2 worth of work
per week, while it is known to be possible for two capable packers to turn out
£50 worth quite easily.
One class of work is naturally much simpler to sort and pack than another,
and therefore much depends on whether the trade consists of " Shop,"
" Contract," or small or large " Family " work.
It is certainly extremely unwise to understaff the sorting and packingrooms, but on the other hand, apart from the fact that those responsible for
the business cannot afford to pay an undue amount of wages, too many
workers in this department are apt to get in one another's way, gossiping is more
difficult to check, and naturally mistakes occur which otherwise would never
have arisen.
When discussing ihe question of sorting-rooms, the need for tidiness has
already been suggested. Although this is necessary in all departments of
every laundry, successful results in the packing-room absolutely depend on
It is quite impossible to be accurate if racks, tables, and the room
generally, are kept in a disorderly state.
Before commencing to " rack up " the fresh work, the packers should see
that their room is swept and free from rubbish, which is bound to accumulate
the sorting is done in the same department.
If the racks are not permanently labelled with the customers' names and
marks, it is a good plan to cut small squares of white cardboard, and write
name and mark clearly and boldly on each one and attach these to the racks
In fact this latter plan has been proved the best in any
before commencing.
case, for small customers do not always send work every week, and in that
event a rack need not be spared for them.
A few minutes spent before dealing with each " journey " in planning the
number of spaces required, according to the quantity of books in that journey,
It is often found
will greatly facilitate the accuracy of this part of tlie work.
that packers do not do this, and possibly more than one rack, or part of one,
is allowed for one customer, even though only a small one.
other work has to be put into too small a space, and is then necessarily not
condition to be returned to the customer.
Another important precaution is to have a space kept solely for articles
Otherwise these may be examined
that have passed through unmarked.
Later, when the packing
for a mark by the packer, and be just cast aside.
is commenced, and possibly an owner for these articles could be found, they
cannot be traced, simply because there has been no special place in which
to keep them.
Every assistance should be given to the workers to enable
them to rack
Flat work of any description should be pushed
the work systematically.
forward, so that this enters the department in ample time to receive first
Really good packers are often spoiled through the system employed
Some of the very well equipped laundries, that have
not being a good one.
managers or proprietors who realise the need for these particular points, are
sometimes accused of being fond of " red tape," but one may venture to suggest
that these accusations are invariably made by people who have to pay the
largest amount of compensation for " shorts."
There is absolutely no need for this to be such a formidable item, even
granting that many customers are extremely trying to deal with, and often
fall very far short of the truth as to the value and the number of articles
but one is bound to confess that, to a
returned to them from the laundry
certain extent, this condition of things has been brought about by the
launderers themselves.
It is hardly necessary to emphasize the fact that customers' books and lists
should not be allowed to He about loosely on the tables in a packing-room.
They should be kept tied in a bundle until the packing is commenced. Many
people prefer the books put in the racks with the hnen, but if each packer
has her parcel of books given to her at the commencement, she is more likely
to dispatch her portion of the journey accurately, than if the books are racked
up with the work. It may be that tlie work of a larger number of customers is
racked than will need to be packed and dispatched in one load.
it is possible for the wrong ones to be packed first, and others to be delayed that
ought to have gone, because the books are not easily to hand to refer to. In
putting the books in the racks, also, it is possible for them to slip in between
articles, which have to be turned about to find them, while lists on paper are
apt to be blown about, and get lost.
The best time to make out the carman's " journey book " is after racking,,
If it is done at this
before the packing of each journey is commenced.
stage, there is far "less hkelihood of hampers or parcels being left behind,
and causing needless worry. The book can then be checked off as the
carman loads his van, this acting as a check on the number of hampers
taken by him.
When commencing to pack the hampers, it is essential that the articles
taken from the racks should be re-examined for marks as they are being laid
It is only too easy to place the article in the wrong
out for " checking off."
rack in the first instance, and therefore if this extra examination is insisted on
the shorts will be greatly minimised.
Packers are apt to become familiarised with the customers' articles, and
deem this careful inspection unnecessary. Those who are well acquainted
with the business, know how very valuable this knowledge of customers' work
is, but on the other hand, carefulness must be added to smartness, to ensure
Far and away the best plan
make each packer always
Not only do the
responsible for
take more interest in their
work in this way, but it is much simpler for the proprietor to ascertain the real
facts of the case, if inquiries or complaints are made by customers.
The number of hampers for which she is made responsible will depend
on the quantity of linen sent by her set of customers, but modern laundry
baskets, even at their largest, would seem to differ considerably from those
of Shakespeare's day, when the Merry Wives of Windsor contrived to include
among their linen an addition so ponderous as the person of the " Merry
Knight," Falstaff.
certain customers.
Printed bv Sir
'J— (63'1
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