IMOS National Science and Implementation Plan

IMOS National Science and Implementation Plan
National Science and
Implementation Plan
2015-25
IMOS is a national collaborative research infrastructure, supported
by Australian Government. It is led by University of Tasmania in
partnership with the Australian marine & climate science
community.
0
Table of Contents
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................... 1
1
Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................... 5
2
Outline............................................................................................................................................. 6
3
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 7
4
The Australian Context.................................................................................................................... 9
4.1
The need for ocean observing in Australia ............................................................................. 9
4.2
Australian ocean observing in a global context .................................................................... 13
4.3
Research and operational observing systems in Australia ................................................... 14
4.4
Structure of the Australian marine and climate science community ................................... 16
4.5
The position of IMOS in marine and climate science............................................................ 18
5
The role of Node science plans in guiding IMOS investment ....................................................... 23
6
The IMOS Science Nodes .............................................................................................................. 26
7
6.1
Bluewater and Climate Node ................................................................................................ 27
6.2
Regional Nodes ..................................................................................................................... 28
6.2.1
Regional features .......................................................................................................... 28
6.2.2
Coastal States and Territories ....................................................................................... 29
6.2.3
Science capability .......................................................................................................... 29
6.2.4
IMOS regional coastal Nodes ........................................................................................ 29
6.3
Node governance .................................................................................................................. 31
6.4
Major research themes that integrate across Nodes ........................................................... 32
6.5
Collaboration with other nationally significant programs .................................................... 34
Scientific Background, by Major Research Theme........................................................................ 38
7.1
Multi-decadal ocean change ................................................................................................. 38
7.1.1
The global energy balance (temperature) and sea level budget .................................. 38
7.1.2
The global ocean circulation ......................................................................................... 40
7.1.3
The global hydrological cycle (salinity) ......................................................................... 42
7.1.4
The global carbon cycle (Inventory, air sea fluxes, physical controls) .......................... 43
7.1.5
Spatial and temporal scales .......................................................................................... 44
7.1.6
Modelling Activities....................................................................................................... 44
7.1.7
Science Questions ......................................................................................................... 44
7.1.8
Variables required to address science questions ......................................................... 45
1
7.1.9
7.2
Platforms required to deliver observations .................................................................. 46
Climate variability and weather extremes ............................................................................ 48
7.2.1
Interannual Climate Variability ..................................................................................... 49
7.2.2
Intra-seasonal variability and severe weather .............................................................. 53
7.2.3
Modes of variability in a changing climate ................................................................... 56
7.2.4
Spatial and temporal scales .......................................................................................... 56
7.2.5
Modelling activities ....................................................................................................... 57
7.2.6
Science Questions ......................................................................................................... 58
7.2.7
Variables required to address science questions ......................................................... 59
7.2.8
Platforms required to deliver observations .................................................................. 59
7.3
Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows ................................................................... 61
7.3.1
East Australian Current (EAC) system (including Tasman Outflow, Flinders Current and
Gulf of Papua Currents) ................................................................................................................ 62
7.3.2
The Leeuwin Current (LC) system (including the Zeehan Current) ............................... 64
7.3.3
The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) ................................................................................ 66
7.3.4
Antarctic Circumpolar Current and Antarctic Circumpolar Wave ................................ 67
7.3.5
Eddy Processes in boundary currents. .......................................................................... 68
7.3.6
Spatial and temporal scales .......................................................................................... 69
7.3.7
Modelling activities ....................................................................................................... 70
7.3.8
Science questions .......................................................................................................... 71
7.3.9
Variables required to address science questions ......................................................... 71
7.3.10
Platforms required to deliver observations .................................................................. 72
7.4
Continental Shelf and Coastal Processes .............................................................................. 73
7.4.1
Boundary current eddy –shelf interactions .................................................................. 74
7.4.2
Upwelling and downwelling .......................................................................................... 76
7.4.3
Shelf Currents................................................................................................................ 79
7.4.4
Wave climate, including internal and coastally trapped waves.................................... 81
7.4.5
Spatial and temporal scales .......................................................................................... 83
7.4.6
Modelling activities ....................................................................................................... 83
7.4.7
Science questions .......................................................................................................... 85
7.4.8
Variables required to address science questions ......................................................... 85
7.4.9
Platforms required to deliver observations .................................................................. 86
7.5
Ecosystem Responses ........................................................................................................... 88
7.5.1
Ocean Chemistry – Nutrients ........................................................................................ 90
2
7.5.2
Ocean Chemistry – Carbon and acidification ................................................................ 91
7.5.3
Microbial community .................................................................................................... 92
7.5.4
Pelagic: Plankton ........................................................................................................... 93
7.5.5
Pelagic: Nekton ............................................................................................................. 95
7.5.6
. Benthos ....................................................................................................................... 99
7.5.7
Modelling activities ..................................................................................................... 103
7.5.8
Spatial and temporal scales ........................................................................................ 105
7.5.9
Science questions ........................................................................................................ 106
7.5.10
Variables required to address science questions ....................................................... 107
7.5.11
Platforms required to deliver observations ................................................................ 107
7.6
8
Summary ............................................................................................................................. 111
Assessing the readiness of observing system components ........................................................ 116
9
8.1.1
Mature ........................................................................................................................ 117
8.1.2
Pilot – System understanding, new technology.......................................................... 118
8.1.3
Pilot – Conceptual model of system, mature technology ........................................... 118
8.1.4
Concept ....................................................................................................................... 119
Facilities implementation plan .................................................................................................... 119
9.1
The National Backbone ....................................................................................................... 120
9.1.1
Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN) .................................................................... 120
9.1.2
Satellite Remote Sensing ............................................................................................ 122
9.1.3
National Mooring Network (ANMN) ........................................................................... 128
9.2
Open Ocean Facilities.......................................................................................................... 137
9.2.1
Argo ............................................................................................................................. 137
9.2.2
Ships of Opportunity ................................................................................................... 140
9.2.3
Deep Water Moorings................................................................................................. 154
9.3
Shelf and Coastal facilities .................................................................................................. 160
9.3.1
Ocean Gliders .............................................................................................................. 160
9.3.2
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) .................................................................... 163
9.3.3
Ocean Radar (ACORN) ................................................................................................. 164
9.3.4
Animal Tagging and Monitoring (AATAMS) ................................................................ 167
9.3.5
Wireless Sensor Networks (FAIMMS) ......................................................................... 171
10
Highlights and Achievements.................................................................................................. 174
11
References .............................................................................................................................. 178
12
Attachments............................................................................................................................ 196
3
12.1
List of Acronyms .................................................................................................................. 196
Available as separate documents...
Bluewater and Climate Node Science and Implementation Plan
WAIMOS Node Science and Implementation Plan
Q-IMOS Node Science and Implementation Plan
NSW-IMOS Node Science and Implementation Plan
SAIMOS Node Science and Implementation Plan
SEA-IMOS Node Science and Implementation Plan
Authorship- The national overview (sections 1 to 9), which draws heavily on the Node plans, has been
prepared by the IMOS Director Tim Moltmann and Scientific Officers: Ana Lara-Lopez, Shavawn
Donoghue, and Katherine Hill. Authors of the Node Plans are cited on the front page of each Plan.
The significant contribution of many people from across the Australian marine and climate science
community, and of our international reviewers, is gratefully acknowledged.
4
1
Executive Summary
The National Science and Implementation Plan has been written to guide the development of
Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS)1. Many researchers from across the
Australian marine and climate science community have contributed to it with all key components
internationally peer reviewed. It represents a major body of work that will continue to evolve over
the life of IMOS, in response to national needs and global trends.
It is important to highlight that this is a science and implementation plan to guide the development
of a research infrastructure program. As such, it is not meant to define the research projects that will
use the infrastructure, but rather to define the observations and data streams required to address
big, strategic, science questions that will underpin a wide variety of current and future research. It is
therefore essential that the Plan is well aligned with frameworks guiding Australia’s National
Innovation System over the longer term. These include the Australian Government’s Strategic
Science and Research Priorities (Department of Industry, 2013), and the National Marine Science
Plan 2015-2025: Driving the development of Australia’s blue economy (2015).
IMOS has now been funded for its first decade (2006-16). Continuing to articulate a compelling
science case is crucial to sustained investment in a comprehensive, national scale in-situ marine
observing system for decades to come.
IMOS is designed to assist in delivering critical information over multiple decades on ocean change,
climate variability and weather extremes, major boundary currents, continental shelf and coastal
processes, and marine ecosystem responses. This information is essential if the Australian marine
and climate science community is to meet knowledge needs about our oceans and support
evidence-based decision making on issues of national significance, with intergenerational impact.
As data streams develop and grow and long-term time-series of key variables are constructed, there
will be opportunities to refine the observing system and address important information gaps. In the
open ocean, additional information on the deep ocean, high latitudes (including the sea ice zone),
and the tropics will improve our understanding. On the other hand, the coastal zone will benefit
greatly by enhancing geographical coverage and spatial resolution. Furthermore, a sustained in situ
observing program is crucial to underpin ecosystem-based management for Australia’s marine
environment.
November, 2015
1
All acronyms used in this document are explained at first use, and again in Attachment 1.
5
2
Outline
The Plan is structured into seven components – a national overview (this document) and six science
Node chapters (separate documents). Together, they provide the rationale for current and ongoing
investment in a national scale integrated marine observing system.
In the first sections of the national overview (Sections 3-6), the Plan briefly introduces IMOS, sets the
context for sustained ocean observing in Australia, and explains the role and structure of IMOS
science Nodes. This is followed by a scientific background section (Section 7), which is divided into
five major themes of research: 1) Multi-decadal ocean change, 2) Climate variability and weather
extremes, 3) Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows, 4) Continental shelf and coastal
processes and 5) Ecosystem responses. In each of the major research themes, the current
knowledge and science questions are a summarised from the more detailed Node chapters of this
plan. This information sets the context for the observations needed to answer these science
questions. The platforms that will deliver these observations are then identified together with gaps
in the current observing capability and a list of future priorities is then outlined to address those
gaps.
The following section (Section 8) assesses IMOS capabilities using the Framework for Ocean
Observations developed and adopted by the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The
Framework identifies pathways by which new observing technologies can be brought into the longterm observing system according to their “readiness level”.
Section 9 explains the design of IMOS as an integrated observing system. Here we explain how,
where and when the observational resources are deployed and maintained across each of the Nodes.
Also given are the primary, secondary and modelling products supported by each facility, and the
uses and limitations of the technology. Because IMOS capability is very broad, this section is
structured into 3 sub-sections. A national backbone section that describes the IMOS facilities that
help interconnect all the other observing platforms and includes the Australian Ocean Data Network
(AODN), the Satellite Remote Sensing Facility, and a network of moored National Reference Stations.
The next section describes the facilities that collect observations in the open ocean and the last
section describes the facilities used to observe coastal and shelf waters.
Section 10 highlights the impact IMOS has had in Australian marine science and lists a selection of
the many achievements accomplished to date. It also identifies the many challenges that remain and
that IMOS will help to address in the short (5 years) and long (10 to 20 years) terms.
Section 11 is the list of references used for the main document.
The national overview is supported by six Node chapters, which give a more detailed account of the
science, future observational needs and achievements for each of the Node regions.
6
3
Introduction
IMOS is Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System, led by University of Tasmania (UTAS) in
partnership with the Australian marine and climate science community. It was established in 2006-7
under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS), and has attracted $144M
from Australian Government research infrastructure investment programs, and up to $200M in coinvestment from partners (i.e. ~$344M in total).
IMOS is currently funded until June 2016. The Australian Government has committed an additional
$150 million of NCRIS funding in 2016-17 and IMOS expects to be funded in this period and beyond.
IMOS Facilities deploy a range of observing equipment in Australian oceans, making all of the data
freely and openly available through the Australian Ocean Data Network Facility. These data streams
represent a national research infrastructure created and developed for the Australian and
international marine and climate science community use. These data streams comprise long-term
time-series of key physical, chemical and biological variables that are necessary to tackle big,
strategic, science questions relevant to the Australian society and international community.
From inception, IMOS was designed to contribute to and benefit from the Global Ocean Observing
System (GOOS). It is important to note that since 2009, GOOS has developed and is beginning to
implement a new Framework for Ocean Observing (UNESCO, 2012). This Framework aims to better
integrate the open-ocean and coastal components of GOOS, and build on traditional strengths in
physics to fully encompass biogeochemistry, biology and ecosystems. IMOS has therefore been
ideally positioned to establish itself as a world leading national marine observing system that
integrates across scales and variables in line with the current thinking of the global community.
At the national level, collaboration with relevant terrestrial, freshwater, geological, cryospheric, and
atmospheric observing systems is also being pursued within an earth system science context.
To successfully establish a national collaborative research infrastructure in the form of a sustained
in-situ ocean observing system, IMOS engaged the Australian marine and climate research
community. A network of science-community-driven ‘Nodes’ was created to provide the scientific
rationale for IMOS, develop the science questions, and thereby identify the need for IMOS Facilities
to obtain specific data streams with the appropriate technology platforms.
There are six Nodes, one open-ocean and five regional:
1. Bluewater and Climate (open ocean)
2. Western Australia (WAIMOS)
3. Queensland (Q-IMOS)
4. New South Wales (NSW-IMOS)
5. Southern Australia (SAIMOS)
6. South East Australia IMOS (SEA-IMOS).
The IMOS National Science and Implementation Plan consolidates science planning output from
these Nodes over the last seven years, most of which has been benchmarked through international
peer review. It provides clear evidence that the Australian marine and climate science community
7
can collectively support a national approach to integrated marine observing, with Node components
that reflect regional priorities. Australia is attracting significant international interest and support
for this ambitious and exciting approach.
8
4
The Australian Context
Australia has one of the largest marine jurisdictions on earth, with more than 70% of our territory in
the marine realm. At ~14 million km2, Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is nearly twice the
surface area of the Australian continent (7.69 million km2), extending from the tropics to high
latitudes in Antarctic waters. As an island nation, our borders are maritime. The vast majority of
Australians live on or near the coast, with 85% of the population living within 50km of the ocean.
Our nation is highly sensitive to ocean-influenced climate and weather, and regularly experiences
drought, flood, tropical cyclones and other extreme events. Huge economic benefits are extracted
from our oceans and its marine biodiversity is of global conservation significance, with sites such as
the Great Barrier Reef, Ningaloo Coast, and sub-Antarctic islands listed as World Heritage Areas. For
these reasons, understanding our oceans is a matter of national importance for current and future
generations of Australians.
4.1 The need for ocean observing in Australia
Australia is a ‘marine nation’ - an island continent with the third largest ocean territory on earth
(Figure 4.1). However, Australia has a relatively small population, making stewardship of this large
marine estate both a grand opportunity and a great challenge.
Huge economic benefits are obtained from our oceans through industries such as offshore oil and
gas, marine tourism, shipping, fishing and aquaculture. According to the Australian Institute of
Marine Science (AIMS) Index of Marine Industries (Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2012) “In
2009-10, the total measurable value of economic activity based in the marine environment in
Australia was around $42.3 billion.… From 2001-02 to 2009-10, the marine industry value has
increased by just under 80 per cent”. It is estimated that by 2025, Australia’s marine industries will
contribute ~$100 billion annually to our economy (National Marine Science Committee, 2015).
Therefore, sustainable development of ocean resources and safe and efficient operation of marine
industries, relies on having an adequate level of continuous ocean observations. Moreover, the
National Marine Science Plan (National Marine Science Committee, 2015), developed by Australia’s
best and brightest marine scientists to articulate the science required to address the national marine
grand challenges identified in Marine Nation, highlights the need for sustained ocean observations
to meet these challenges. They include: marine sovereignty and security, energy security, food
security, biodiversity conservation, sustainable coastal development, climate variability and climate
change adaptation, and equitable and balanced resource allocation.
9
Figure 4.1: Australia’s total area of marine responsibility covers 14% of the world’s oceans (Australian
GovernmentOceans Policy Science Advisory Group, 2013).
10
Australia’s variable climate is strongly influenced by its surrounding oceans (Figure 4.2). Extreme
events such as drought, flood, and tropical cyclones are regular occurrences, with large social and
economic impacts. Improved understanding of ocean processes has the greatest potential to
increase our forecasting ability of these events, thus helping mitigate negative socio-economic
consequences.
Figure 4.2: Climate classification of Australia (www.bom.gov.au, accessed 8 Jan 2014). The high population
centres of the south east and west are highlighted.
With much of Australia’s landmass being desert or semi-arid, the population is concentrated in
temperate coastal regions of the south east and west (Figure 4.3). This contributes to Australia being
one of the most highly-urbanised countries on earth, with 88% of the population living in major
cities and surrounding inner-regional areas Australian Bureau of Statistics (Australian Bureau of
Statistics, 2013). Coastal oceans are therefore of vital importance to most Australians providing a
variety of important ecosystem services. Information about the vulnerability of the coastal regions
to extreme events and long-term change (e.g. sea level rise) is therefore critical.
11
Figure 4.3: Australian population density in June 2012 (Australian GovernmentAustralian Bureau of Statistics,
2013). The high population centres in the south east and west are highlight as in Figure 4.2.
Australia is also the custodian of marine biodiversity assets of global significance, ranging from the
high tropics to Antarctica. The global Census of Marine Life determined that marine biodiversity in
the Australian region is amongst the highest on earth (Ausubel et al., 2010), with several World
Heritage sites such as the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Shark Bay, Ningaloo Reef, and the coral reefs of
the Lord Howe Island Group. In addition, the Australian Government and all coastal State and
Territory Governments are currently implementing networks of marine protected areas within a
marine bioregional planning context (Figure 4.4). Reserves in Commonwealth waters, three nautical
miles off the coast to the edge of Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (~200 nm), are the
responsibility of the Australian Government. Reserves from the low water line along the coast to 3
nautical miles offshore are maintained by State and Territory Governments.
12
Figure4.4: Australia’s marine bioregions (Australian GovernmentDepartment of the Environment, 2012).
The economic benefits and ecosystem services that our ocean provide, its influence on climate and,
in particular, the vulnerability of our coasts to extreme weather events, make sustained long-term
ocean observation a priority for current and future generations of Australians.
4.2 Australian ocean observing in a global context
Ocean observing is a global enterprise, and international cooperation is fundamental to its success.
The majority of the ocean is in the southern hemisphere (~57%) but it is relatively poorly sampled,
compared to oceans around the United States, Europe and Japan. Therefore, Australia has a key role
to play, as articulated by one eminent reviewer of IMOS Node Science Plans; “Australia’s IMOS, as a
contribution to the global ocean observing system for climate, is a major regional step toward
satisfying these societal mandates. Moreover, its role is an especially critical one for enabling the
global implementation. Australia is the strongest southern hemisphere partner in the global
enterprise, with a broad regional perspective in addition to sharing the global one.” There are
significant benefits to Australia in playing this role.
As noted in the 2008 review of the National Innovation System (Cutler and Company Pty Ltd, 2008),
Australia’s yearly share of new knowledge and innovation to the global R&D is approximately 2%.
“The quality of the 2 percent that we produce and its usefulness to the rest of the world will be
important determinants in our ability to access the other 98 percent.”
As the new Framework for the Global Ocean Observing System is developed and implemented, the
role of well integrated national observing systems, such as IMOS and the US Integrated Ocean
Observing System (IOOS), is increasingly being recognised as a critical component for the global
effort (Figure 4.5) (Unesco, 2012). IMOS is now formally recognised as a GOOS Regional Alliance.
13
Strong national efforts also contribute to the development of observing systems at ocean basin
scales. In the case of IMOS, this manifests through involvement in the Indian Ocean Observing
System (IndOOS), the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) and the Tropical Pacific Observing
System (TPOSS 2020) evaluation project.
Figure 4.5: Diagram titled ‘Structure of the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO)’ from A Framework for
Ocean Observing (UNESCO, 2012), with IMOS and US-IOOS used as specific examples, describing how ocean
observing activities fit into the system model for the FOO.
By making strategic investments in globally significant ocean research infrastructure, Australia
attracts strong international collaboration on issues of national significance, and positions Australian
marine and climate science as world class. In this respect, our location in the southern hemisphere
places Australian marine and climate science in a key position to monitor important aspects of the
Southern Hemisphere climate system and its impacts on the marine ecosystem. Our contribution
also helps balancing the knowledge and assessment on climate change, which will otherwise be
biased towards the Northern Hemisphere.
4.3 Research and operational observing systems in Australia
IMOS was established under an Australian Government research infrastructure program, to deliver
ocean observations to the marine and climate scientists to undertake research of national and
international significance. It has not been established as an operational system. However, the
broader utility of these research infrastructure investments was recognised in the evaluation of
Australia’s National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) (Department of Industry,
2011) - “It also needs to be recognised that infrastructure is often not exclusively research-focused.
In many areas, the infrastructure may have a complementary function for other purposes, such as
supporting operation uses and applications.”
14
The Bureau of Meteorology (the Bureau, or BOM) is the main Australian Government agency
providing marine and oceanographic services to the Australian community. The services include
marine weather warnings, forecasts of winds and waves, tide predictions, tsunami warnings, and
forecasts of sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, currents, and sea level anomalies, which rely on
ocean observations. These services are in addition to the Bureau’s responsibilities for weather
forecasting (including extreme weather) and climate information (including seasonal prediction),
both of which also rely on ocean observations. Therefore, IMOS and the Bureau are close
collaborators.
In addition, a number of other Australian Government agencies have operational responsibilities
that also rely on ocean observations, such as the Australian Maritime Safety Authority, the Royal
Australian Navy, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Authority, and the Department of the Environment (including for the broader Commonwealth
Marine Reserves Network). Various State and Territory Government departments undertake regular
monitoring programs in order to manage their responsibilities in coastal waters. Large marine
industries such as offshore oil and gas also make significant investments in ocean observing in order
to manage and grow their operations, and meet the requirements of environmental and operational
regulators.
Operational needs depend on availability of ocean observations in real-time and/or near-real-time
(within a few days or minutes of collection). These observations are currently sourced from various
national and international programs, with some programs running in an operational setting (e.g.
IOC/WMO), and other, like IMOS maintained through research funding.
A key element of IMOS strategy has been to lead the development of a national marine information
infrastructure that enables IMOS data and other Australian research and operational ocean data to
become discoverable, accessible, usable and reusable for the benefit of the nation as a whole. In this
way, valid differences between research and operational needs can be respected, and synergies
between research and operational systems fully-exploited. This involved using the marine
information infrastructure developed within IMOS to become the Australian Ocean Data Network
(AODN), with partnerships that include Australian Government agencies, State and Territory
Government agencies, Universities, and private sector companies.
More recently, the inaugural Forum for Operational Oceanography was undertaken with IMOS as an
important component of present capabilities in that field.
In summary, it is important to emphasise that Australia needs to invest in both:


The research infrastructure required to provide sustained ocean observations for the marine and
climate science community to address large, long-term questions of national significance, and
The operational ocean observing systems required for safe and efficient operation of Australian
industries and communities on a day to day basis.
15
4.4 Structure of the Australian marine and climate science community
Providers of Australian marine and climate science include Australian Government agencies, State
and Territory Government agencies, Universities, and private sector companies (Figure 4.6). These
sectors have different but complementary roles noting that State and Territory Governments are
responsible for coastal waters to the three nautical mile limit, while the Australian Government is
responsible for the rest of Australia’s marine estate.
Universities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
UTAS
UNSW*
USyd*
Macquarie*
UTS*
UWA
Curtin
Flinders**
JCU
UQ
Murdoch
Adelaide
Griffith
CDU
ANU
Deakin University
University of
Melbourne
Australian Govt
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
CSIRO
AIMS
BOM
AAD
ACE CRC
GA
RAN
DSTO
State Govt’s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
SARDI**
Queensland Gov
WA Government
Tasmanian Govt
NSW Govt
Sydney Water
SA Government
Darwin Port Corp
Victorian Govt
International
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
NOAA (US)
Scripps IO (US)
French Polar Inst.
Canadian Govt
St Andrews Uni
NIWA (NZ)
NASA
CNES/EUMETSAT
Overseas Uni’s
10. DoE
11. GBRMPA
12. FRDC
* Operating as the Sydney Institute of Marine Science (SIMS)
** Operating through Marine Innovation South Australia (MISA)
Figure 4.6: A list of the research sector organisations that IMOS is currently collaborating with. The shading
indicates the primary role each organisation plays, as Facility operator, co-investing Partner, or Node user
within IMOS
Australian Government agencies tend to undertake strategic and applied science and include both:


Research agencies (i.e. AIMS, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
organisation, CSIRO), and
Other government agencies with significant research capacity (i.e. BOM, Australian Antarctic
Division (AAD), Geoscience Australia (GA), and Defence Science and Technology Organisation
(DSTO).
All Australian coastal States and Territories also have marine and climate science capability.
Research tends to focus on applied science often partnering with both Universities and Australian
Government agencies. Research organization varies from state by state, but is generally clustered
around:

Environment and natural resources,
16


Fisheries/primary industry/economic development, and
In some cases, climate change.
The University sector’s key roles in the marine and climate science are in research, education and
training with more basic science focus, whereas private industry tends to be involved with science
through commercial application. Of the 39 Universities in Australia, ~23 (or 60%) have a tangible
focus on marine and climate science. These include all of the ‘Group of Eight’ (a coalition of leading
Australian Universities), and six of the seven ‘Research Intensive’ Universities within the sector.
Other users of marine science information and infrastructure include:




Australian Government departments responsible for Climate Change, Environment, Fisheries &
Aquaculture, Defence, Maritime Safety, Resources and Energy, Infrastructure, Tourism, Foreign
Affairs and Trade, Science, Research, and Education,
State and Territory Government departments (with the equivalent responsibilities at State level),
Marine Industries and other climate-sensitive industries (such as agriculture), and
the Australian people.
The major centres with marine and climate science capability in Australia are shown in Figure 4.7.
IMOS has engaged this diverse and dispersed community through its science Node structure, which
is further explained in Section 5.
17
Figure 4.7: Major centres of marine and climate science capability in Australia. Institutions involved in leading
IMOS are shown in bold and cross-institutional initiatives are shown in (brackets). (Map image – University of
Melbourne Map Collection, accessed 8 Jan 2014).
A key ingredient in this process has been partnering with region-specific collaborations, which have
helped shape the IMOS Node structure. The collaborations formed for each region are:
 Bluewater and Climate: the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR)
involving CSIRO and BOM; and the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research
Centre (ACE CRC) involving UTAS, AAD and CSIRO.
 Western Australia: the multi-institutional Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI)
and Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (IOMRC) involving AIMS, CSIRO, WA Department of
Fisheries and Oceans Institute at University of WA (UWA).
 Queensland: the Tropical Marine Network (TMN) involving University of Sydney (USyd),
Australian Museum, University of Queensland (UQ) and James Cook University (JCU); AIMS
@JCU (James Cook University); Dutton Park Ecosciences Precinct involving CSIRO and
Queensland State Government.
 Northern Territory: the Arafura Timor Research Facility (ATRF) involving the Australian National
University (ANU) and AIMS.
 New South Wales: the multi-institutional Sydney Institute of Marine Science (SIMS) involving the
University of NSW (UNSW), University of Sydney, Macquarie University and University of
Technology Sydney (UTS).
 South Australia: Marine Innovation South Australia (MISA) program involving the South
Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) in collaboration with Flinders and
Adelaide Universities.
 Tasmania: the Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS).
4.5 The position of IMOS in marine and climate science
IMOS is now well recognized as an element of Australia’s marine and climate science capability. The
Australian Government’s 2012 National Research Investment Plan NRIP, (Department of Industry,
2012) recognized that investment in research infrastructure such as IMOS, a world class research
facility, is fundamental for Australia’s research fabric – “For Australia’s research fabric to remain
sustainable it requires funding for national research infrastructure. It is not possible to manage large
research facilities with any continuity or efficiency, or to retain specialist expertise that is in high
demand around the globe, when the existence of infrastructure funding programs is uncertain, or
ceases altogether”. Furthermore, successive Strategic Roadmaps for Australian Research
Infrastructure Investment under the NCRIS identified sustained observing of the marine
environment, such as IMOS, as a national priority (Department of Industry, 2011).
Through the National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025, Australia’s marine science community
recommended that one of eight priorities be to “Sustain and expand the Integrated Marine
Observing System to support critical climate change and coastal systems research, including
coverage of key estuarine systems”, . The NMSP drew together the knowledge and experience of 23
marine research organisations, universities and government departments and more than 500
scientists.
18
The fundamental role of IMOS in Australia’s national marine and climate research infrastructure is as
an in situ ocean observing system. However, as a large, national, multi-institutional, multidisciplinary program, it is uniquely placed to facilitate partnerships with other components (e.g.
vessels, satellites, data, and modelling). This has allowed the creation of an even more powerful
national infrastructure base for use by the Australian marine and climate science community, its
collaborators and stakeholders (Figure 4.8).
Designed through national science planning developed by regional science Nodes
AODN
A ‘virtual fleet’
+ other marine
data
Research
Vessels
IMOS
IMOS
data
Australian Ocean
Data Network
Marine data that
is discoverable,
accessible,
usable, and
reusable
• National collaborative
research infrastructure
• For sustained observing of
the marine environment
• Integrated from open
ocean to coast
Satellite
Remote
Sensing
• Integrated across physics,
chemistry and biology
Calibration and validation,
national product suite
Coastal
and ocean
modelling
Model Development,
Model Validation,
Data Assimilation,
Observing System Design
Implemented through national, multi-institutional Facilities, with all data shared
Figure 4.8: Positioning of IMOS relative to other components of the national infrastructure for marine and
climate science.
IMOS works in close collaboration with the operators of Australia’s research vessel platforms,
foreign research vessels operating in our region and commercial vessels as ‘ships of opportunity’. By
providing common instrumentation and data delivery systems, we have been able to create a single
‘virtual fleet’ and leverage the observational power of multiple vessel platforms regardless of
ownership and management arrangements.
Satellites provide the only means of obtaining continuous, broad scale observations of key ocean
variables. Australia is totally reliant on foreign satellites for this information, but through IMOS we
contribute high quality in situ observations for calibration and validation in our region. In doing so,
we are assisting Australian scientists in becoming valued members of international satellite mission
science teams.
As noted above, IMOS has taken a ‘data centric’ approach to research infrastructure development,
with all data discoverable and accessible via the Ocean Portal (http://imos.aodn.org.au/imos123/).
Further value has been added by expanding the IMOS information infrastructure to create the
19
Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN), through partnerships with the Australian Federal State and
Territory Government agencies, Universities, and private sector companies. Some progress has been
made in using this infrastructure to provide access to other marine and coastal data resources, with
current efforts in marine data management highly regarded nationally and internationally as the
NMSP has pointed out (National Marine Science Committee, 2015).
Close collaboration between marine observing and coastal and ocean modelling is also essential.
Modellers require observations for model development, validation, and in some cases data
assimilation, providing a major pathway for IMOS data to be taken up and used, thus having broader
relevance and impact. In turn, models can be used to run observing system simulation experiments
and provide insight into more efficient and effective design for future observing infrastructure. The
lack of well-developed links with modelling in the initial phase of IMOS, was the most consistent
feedback provided by international reviewers of Node Science and Implementation Plans in 2009.
Since then, IMOS has made a determined effort to catalyse national scale engagement between
marine observing and coastal and ocean modelling, with three main points of focus. (1) Holding
biennial Australian Coastal and Oceans Modelling and Observations (ACOMO) workshops, with the
first one held in 2012 and one planned for 2014. (2) Establishment of a Marine Virtual Laboratory
(MARVL- http://www.marvl.org.au/) to provide tools that enable scientists to bring together models,
observational data and visualisations ‘at the desktop’. In collaboration with the National eResearch
Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) program funding was secured to support this
enterprise. (3) Align IMOS observational capability with regional modelling activities in areas such as
the Great Barrier Reef, Darwin Harbour, North West Shelf and Great Australian Bight.
The infrastructure base as illustrated in Figure 4.8 is intended to underpin significant education and
training activities across the university sector, as well as observational, experimental, and modelbased research activities across the marine and climate science community.
Multiple pathways for data uptake and use have been established (see Figure 4.9), with science
outputs recorded and reported as a performance indicator for the program.
20
Pathways to uptake and use of IMOS data and products
Other non-IMOS
data & products
IMOS data &
products
Research
vessel
data
= Australian
Ocean Data
Network
(AODN)
via the GTS
Research
education &
training
Post doc’s
PhD’s
Post Grad’s
national
and
international
Publications
Research
Projects
(1–3 years)
Multidecadal
analyses
ARC
RDC’s
Other schemes
Centres
Hubs
Joint ventures
Partnerships
Research
Programs
(3-7 years)
Conference
papers,
posters
Research
modelling
systems
Bluelink
ACCESS
Shelf-scale
Regional
Reanalyses
Climatologies
SST
Altimetry
Ocean Colour
Remote
sensing
products
Research
reports
Analyses,
products
Bluelink
POAMA
Operational
forecasting
systems
Validation,
assimilation
Figure 4.9: Pathways to uptake and use of IMOS data and products.
IMOS has been carefully designed to ensure that the benefits of sustained observing and data access
are translated in better economic, social and environmental outcomes (Figure 4.10). It is operated by
the most capable marine research institutions in Australia, with strong international collaborators.
Making all of the data openly available ensures this collective observational power is used to
generate a wide range of scientific outputs, from PhD’s to ocean forecasts. By aligning with all
relevant national and international research and innovation frameworks, IMOS ensures that it is
underpinning science, research and education most relevant to the grand challenges facing Australia
as a ‘marine nation’.
21
Figure 4.10: The ‘circle diagram’ (read from inside to out) illustrates how IMOS Facilities operated by
institutions can be used by the entire sector, to generate scientific outputs that deliver benefits across all
relevant sectors of Australia’s economy, society and environment.
22
5
The role of Node science plans in guiding IMOS investment
One of the most obvious risks in establishing a research infrastructure program like IMOS is the risk
of a ‘build it and they will come’ approach. IMOS is explicitly managing this risk through its Node
Science and Implementation Plans. The Node planning process has enabled the Australian marine
and climate science community to come together and provide the scientific rationale for a national
scale integrated marine observing system. They develop the science questions based on current
understanding and knowledge gaps, thereby identifying the need to obtain specific data streams
from the appropriate technology platforms. The Node plans have gradually been strengthened since
the inception of IMOS, including through international peer review.
Under this model Nodes are not directly funded. However, their Node plans are used to guide
investment in technology-based national facilities which are then operated by relevant institutions
within the national innovation system. This model helps avoid regional competition and ensures
Nodes have the ability to tackle major science questions using multiple technological platforms. In
doing so, IMOS ascertains its Facilities are widely utilised thus delivering better value for money.
IMOS has established the following Facilities and Sub-Facilities (with Operating Institutions noted):
1.
2.
Facility
Argo Floats (CSIRO)
Ships of Opportunity - SOOP (CSIRO)
3.
Deep Water Moorings (UTAS/CSIRO)
4.
5.
6.
Ocean Gliders (UWA)
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle - AUV (SIMS)
National Mooring Network (CSIRO)
7.
8.
9.
10.
Ocean Radar (UWA)
Animal Tagging and Monitoring (SIMS)
Wireless Sensor Networks (AIMS)
Satellite Remote Sensing - SRS (CSIRO)
11. e-Marine Information Infrastructure (UTAS)
Sub-Facility
















XBT and Biogeochemical (CSIRO)
Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey (UQ/CSIRO
and AAD)
Sensors on Tropical Research Vessels (AIMS)
Sea Surface Temperature (BOM)
Real-Time Air-Sea Fluxes (BOM)
Bioacoustics (CSIRO)
Temperate Merchant Vessels
Air-Sea Flux Stations (BOM)
Southern Ocean Time Series (UTAS/CSIRO)
Deepwater Arrays (CSIRO)

Queensland and Northern Australia (AIMS)
New South Wales (SIMS)
Southern Australia (SARDI)
Western Australia (CSIRO)
Passive acoustic Observatories (Curtin University)
National Reference Stations (CSIRO, AIMS, SIMS,
SARDI)
Ocean Carbon and Acidification (CSIRO)





Sea Surface Temperature (BOM)
Ocean Colour (CSIRO)
Altimetry Calibration/Validation (UTAS)
Australian Ocean Data Network (UTAS)
OceanCurrent (CSIRO)
23
The profile of IMOS core investment by Facility is shown in Figure 4.1. These figures are based on
total investment. To give some indication of scale of investment, each 10% ‘share’ equates to an
average of ~$4M per annum over the period.
Total Investment by Facility
Argo Floats
4%
9%
Ships of Opportunity
8%
Deepwater Moorings
Ocean Gliders
11%
4%
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
4%
National Mooring Network
12%
10%
Ocean Radar
Animal Tagging and Monitoring
4%
5%
3%
26%
Wireless Sensor Networks
Satellite Remote Sensing
Marine Information
IMOS Office
Figure 4.1: Spread of total IMOS Investment across Facilities
Most Facilities deliver across multiple Nodes, and all Nodes draw from multiple Facilities as shown in
Figure 4.2.
Bluewater
& Climate
WA
QLD
NSW
SA
SEA
Argo
P
S
S
S
S
S
SOOP
P
P
P
S
S
S
Deepwater
moorings
P
S
S
S
Ocean
gliders
S
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
AUV
Shelf
Moorings
P
Ocean
Radar
Animal
P
S
P
P
P
P
P
24
Tagging
Sensor
networks
P
SRS
P
P
P
P
P
P
AODN
P
P
P
P
P
P
Figure 4.2: How IMOS Facilities deliver to the Nodes. P = primary relationship and s = secondary relationship
For IMOS to operate at its current scale, co-investment by partners has been fundamental.
Approximately 57% of the total resources required come from co-investment by partner institutions,
related Australian Government programs, State Governments and international collaborators. The
breakdown of total investment is shown in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3: Sources of total investment in IMOS split between core funding from Australian Government and coinvestment by various partners
Significant additional leverage is gained through Australia’s participation in international
collaborative programs. In most cases this is not accounted for in the above co-investment figures,
but can be measured in terms of data delivered through the IMOS Ocean Portal. Examples include:
 A doubling of Argo floats in the Australian region through international partners,
 NOAA surface drifting buoys containing the tracks of surface drifting buoys in the Australasian
region deployed as part of the Global Drifter Program (GDP), and
 Access to satellite remote sensing data and products, for sea surface temperature, ocean surface
topography, and ocean colour.
25
6
The IMOS Science Nodes
IMOS has been designed with linked open-ocean and shelf/coastal components. The open ocean
component (Bluewater and Climate Node) provides the scientific underpinning for the collection of
ocean observations in the open ocean surrounding Australia. This Node is firmly embedded in
relevant international programs.
The shelf/coastal component comprises a series of regional nodes which collectively cover
Australia’s coastal oceans - Western Australia (WA-IMOS), Queensland (Q-IMOS), New South Wales
(NSW-IMOS), Southern Australia (SA-IMOS) and South East Australia (SEA-IMOS) (Figure 5.1).
Figure 5.1: Regions of interest for the IMOS Nodes and the conceptual framework applied to Australia’s ocean
territory, with the blue lines indicating the boundaries of Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and the
white and black lines showing regions of interest for each IMOS Node.
All Nodes are connected by a ‘national backbone’ which includes the Australian Ocean Data Network
(AODN), the Satellite Remote Sensing Facility, and a network of moored coastal Reference Stations.
The infrastructure also includes the coordination of regional mooring deployments, and deployment
planning of ocean gliders, AUVs and acoustic tracking arrays.
At the coastal/shelf level, essential collaboration with the terrestrial, freshwater, geological and
atmospheric science communities will be pursued by IMOS through its regional Nodes, with
particular attention to information and modelling. Priorities will include:
26
1. Working with the coastal ecosystems facility of Australia’s Terrestrial Ecosystem Research
Network (TERN), established under the same Australian Government program as IMOS
2. Partnering with relevant national programs, such as BOM’s coastal information component of
the National Plan for Environmental Information, the National Environmental Science
Programme (NESP), previously the National Environmental Research Program (NERP), through
their Marine Biodiversity, Earth Systems and Tropical Water Quality Hubs, as well as the
Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) networks.
3. Partnering with relevant regional initiatives, such as the Great Barrier Reef Integrated
Monitoring Framework, SEQ Healthy Waterways Partnership, and Derwent Estuary Program.
6.1 Bluewater and Climate Node
The Bluewater and Climate Node research interests are in the open ocean region surrounding
Australia. Four major areas of research have been the focus of this Node:
1) Multi-decadal ocean change: identifying the nature, causes and consequences of multidecadal changes in ocean climate
2) Climate variability: understanding and predicting the major modes and drivers of climate
variability in the Australian region
3) Ocean prediction: improving the understanding and prediction of ocean currents and the
links between the open ocean and shelf waters
4) Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems: understanding the impact of changes in the physical
environment on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems
Figure 5.2 Bluewater & Climate Node area of interest
27
6.2 Regional Nodes
Establishing a series of regional coastal Nodes that are integrated with the open ocean and which
together take a truly national perspective was a major challenge for a large nation such as Australia.
This challenge was well-articulated by one distinguished reviewer of IMOS Node Science Plans who
recommended a national planning process for the coastal ocean – “There is a tendency in large
nations for coastal observing systems to be designed piecemeal, as the sum of what the participating
coastal institutions would each like to do in their patch... There needs to be first a carefully
articulated national vision of the requirements for coastal observations, including the transitions
from coastal to blue water zones. Regional planning should be a recognizable application of the
national plan to the local setting using local knowledge and expertise.”
In addressing this challenge, IMOS considered:
 Key regional features of Australia’s coastal oceans,
 The nature of Australia’s coastal States and territories, and
 Locations of multi-institutional strength in Australian marine and climate science community
with the capability to both operate and use a national scale observing system.
6.2.1
Regional features
At least five distinct regions in Australia’s coastal oceans can be identified considering factors such as
the continental shelf and slope’s topography, boundary currents - shelf interactions, phytoplankton
provinces, and marine bioregions (i.e. Australia’s ‘large marine ecosystems’). These regions are the
tropical north, GBR lagoon, south east, south west, and south central (Figure 5.3).
Tropical North
•Broad, shallow shelf seas
•Tidal influence
•Tropical neritic communities
South West
•Narrow shelf
•Leeuwin Current influence
•Tropical oceanic communities
South Central
GAB, SA Gulfs
•Leeuwin/Flinders
current influence
•Upwelling systems
GBR lagoon
•EAC/Hiri current
influence
•Floristically distinct
shallow waters
South East
•Very narrow shelf
•EAC influence, eddies
•Temperate neritic
communities
Figure 5.3: IMOS has identified five distinct regions of Australia’s coastal oceans - Tropical North, GBR lagoon,
South East, South West, and South Central - and their key characteristics.
28
6.2.2
Coastal States and Territories
Australia’s government is a federal system with powers divided between a central government and
regional governments. There are six States, and three mainland Territories in Australia. States retain
the power to make their own laws over matters not controlled by the central government
(Commonwealth), and each has its own constitution and a structure of legislature, executive and
judiciary. Two mainland Territories have been granted a right of self-government in a similar manner
to a State.
All States and two Territories are adjacent to the coast. Some of their key physical, demographic and
economic information are shown in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Physical, demographic and economic data for the Australian States and Territories (reference??).
Western Australia
Queensland
Northern Territory
South Australia
Tasmania
New South Wales
Victoria
Jervis Bay Territory
Percent of coast (excl.
offshore islands)
35.9
19.4
15.2
10.6
7.9
5.2
5.6
0.2
Percent of Australian
population
10.9
20.1
1
7.2
2.2
32
24.8
Percent of total Gross
State Product (GSP)
16.2
19.3
1.3
6.2
1.6
30.9
22.3
Points to note include the size of WA’s coastline and its above average GSP per head of population,
and the concentration of population and related economic activity in the south east (NSW and
Victoria).
6.2.3
Science capability
Concentration of -Australian institutions with strength in marine and climate science are outlined in
Section 4.4. In summary, there is significant existing capability and substantial new investment
(marine laboratories and region-specific research programs) in Townsville and Brisbane
(Queensland), Sydney (NSW), Hobart (Tasmania), Perth (WA), and Adelaide (SA).
6.2.4
IMOS regional coastal Nodes
Consideration of regional features, coastal states and territories and science capacity has led IMOS
to establish five regional coastal Nodes with the following key characteristics (Figure 5.4):
1. Western Australia (WAIMOS) – Strong focus on the Leeuwin Boundary Current system and
related climate variability. Emphasis has increased in the tropical northwest where massive
regional development is planned over the coming decade. It includes Northern Territory waters.
It is linked to the Bluewater and Climate and SAIMOS Nodes’ interests through research of the
Indo-Pacific Throughflow and Leeuwin Boundary Current.
2. Queensland (Q-IMOS) – Strong focus on oceanic influences from the western Pacific on the
Great Barrier Reef. Emphasis has increased on the flow of the East Australian Current (EAC) into
South East Queensland. There is a longer-term plan to also consider northerly flow including
exchange through Torres Strait and into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Integration with Bluewater and
Climate and NSW-IMOS Nodes’ interests is through research of the tropical and western Pacific
including the Coral Sea, and the EAC.
29
3. New South Wales (NSW-IMOS) – Strong focus on the EAC separation zone and eddy field along
the narrow continental shelf of NSW. Integration with Bluewater and Climate, Q-IMOS and SEAIMOS Nodes’ interests is through research of the EAC.
4. Southern Australia (SAIMOS) – Strong focus on highly-productive upwelling zones along the
coast of South Australia to the border of Victoria, and the Great Australian Bight. Integration
with Bluewater and Climate, WAIMOS and SEA-IMOS Nodes’ interests is through research of the
Southern Ocean, Leeuwin Current and EAC .
5. South East Australia (SEA-IMOS) – Strong focus on the south east of Australia including
Tasmania and Victoria, which is one of the most populated areas of Australia with significant and
ongoing coastal development, significant commercial and recreational fisheries and major
marine industries. Integration with Bluewater and Climate, NSW-IMOS and SA-IMOS Nodes’
interests is through research of the EAC, Southern Ocean and Leeuwin currents.
Figure 5.4: The five regional IMOS Nodes cover Australia’s coastal oceans
However it is important to note that a number of sub-regional gaps that will need to be considered
have been identified by the Nodes:
 WAIMOS: the Kimberley and Pilbara regions, Arafura Sea
 QIMOS: in Torres Strait and the Gulf of Carpentaria
 NSW-IMOS: in Stockton Bight
 SAIMOS: along the Bonney and Otway coasts
 SEA-IMOS: Bass Strait
In situ observations provided by IMOS are relatively sparse across Australia’s large ocean region.
Therefore, to ensure that the national observing system delivers meaningful information to the
regions, it has been imperative that the Nodes work together to make optimal use of the national
30
backbone, develop and populate the AODN, and strengthen integration between the observing
system and relevant modelling frameworks.
6.3 Node governance
The IMOS Node structure is governed by processes that draw on the strengths of the Australian
marine and climate science community. Each Node has a pair of elected leaders (leader and deputy,
or co-leaders) (Table 5.2), and an institutional sponsor. The Node leaders, along with the IMOS
Director, IMOS Scientific Officer and AODN Director, form a National Steering Committee that
oversees the national science planning process. Each Node also has a more broadly-based scientific
reference group that assists with science plan development, and meets periodically to review
progress (see Node plans for current reference group lists). In addition, Nodes have a larger
membership base that is kept informed of developments and provides a catchment for wider uptake
and use of IMOS observations and data.
Table 5.2: The current (2014) IMOS Node elected leadership.
Node
Leadership
Bluewater & Climate
Steve Rintoul
(CSIRO)
Peter Strutton
(IMAS/UTAS)
WAIMOS
Gary Kendrick
(UWA)
Ming Feng
(CSIRO)
Q-IMOS
Richard Brinkman
(AIMS)
Russ Babcock (CSIRO)
NSW-IMOS
Martina Doblin
(UTS)
Robin Robertson (UNSW/ADFA)
Tim Ingleton (NSW OEH)
SAIMOS
Simon Goldsworthy
(SARDI)
Sophie Leterme
(Flinders University)
SEA-IMOS
Mark Baird
(CSIRO)
Vanessa Lucieer (IMAS/UTAS)
Daniel Ierodiaconou
The current Node leadership is drawn from nine different institutions across the Australian marine
and climate science community – two Australian Government research agencies (CSIRO and AIMS),
five Universities (UWA, UNSW, UTS, Flinders and UTAS) and two State Government agencies (SARDI
and NSW OEH). There is also a good mix of broader-scale and regional expertise as well as
disciplinary breadth, from physics to biology.
International peer review was undertaken in 2009-10 in order to improve the quality and coherence
of IMOS science planning across Nodes. Bluewater and Climate and WAIMOS were reviewed in late
2009, and Q-IMOS, NSW-IMOS, SAIMOS and TasIMOS in late 2010. Feedback from reviewers has
been incorporated into this national science plan as appropriate. The TasIMOS Node has been
31
repositioned as South East Australia IMOS (SEA-IMOS) and a new Node plan is incorporated into the
National Plan.
6.4 Major research themes that integrate across Nodes
Perhaps the most important mechanism used to drive national science planning within IMOS has
been developing major research themes that cut across the Nodes, integrating Node-specific science
questions into a larger framework, linking the open ocean and shelf/coastal components, and linking
across the physics, chemistry and biology.
Five major research themes have been identified (Figure 5.6):
1. Multi-decadal ocean change;
2. Climate variability and weather extremes;
3. Major boundary currents and interbasin flows;
4. Continental shelf and coastal processes; and
5. Ecosystem responses (productivity, abundance and distribution).
Figure 5.6: The five major research themes identified by the Australian marine and science community.
The theme of multi-decadal ocean change sets the broad scale context for tracking and
understanding the processes by which both carbon and heat are sequestered into the global oceans
32
at a multi-decadal scale. Questions under this theme are related to the Australian region but in a
global context.
The theme of climate variability and weather extremes looks at improving understanding and
modelling of seasonal and intra-seasonal climate and severe weather patterns by resolving and
simulating ocean-atmosphere fluxes and upper ocean responses. Questions under this theme are
related to coupled ocean-atmosphere modes of climate variability that most affect Australia such as
El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO).
The theme of major boundary currents and inter-basin flows aims at understanding how major
boundary ocean currents around Australia vary temporally and their interaction with the shelf/slope
regions in Australia. This theme is a significant integrator within IMOS, linking large-scale, offshore,
remotely-driven variability and responses with regional scale responses and variability.
The theme of continental shelf and coastal processes allows us to tailor questions about Australia’s
large and varied continental shelf and coastal environment, as relevant to regional priorities.
The theme of ecosystem responses brings together understanding of physical and chemical
processes at various scales with biological observations across trophic levels in order to answer
questions about productivity in marine ecosystems, and abundance and distribution of marine
organisms.
In the following section, the scientific background for each of these major research themes is
elaborated at a national scale and linked to the more detailed science and implementation plans for
each Node.
33
6.5 Collaboration with other nationally significant programs
While the central component driving the national science planning within IMOS is the Nodes science
planning structure, in alignment with the National Marine Science Plan to meet the grand challenges
faced by Australia, IMOS also collaborates with other nationally significant programs. The Australian
Government’s National Environmental Science Programme (NESP), previously the National
Environmental Research Program (NERP), is one example. The program provides scientific
information and advice to support the Department of the Environment (DoTE) in decision making for
the marine environment in areas like National State of the Environment (SoE) reporting, the
developing Essential Environmental Measures program and Commonwealth Marine Reserves (CMR)
network management.
The SoE reports provide information about environmental and heritage conditions, trends and
pressures for the Australian continent, surrounding seas and Australia's external territories. Under
the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, the Minister for Environment
Protection, Heritage and the Arts is required to table a report in Parliament every five years on the
SoE. The intent of this report is to capture and present key information on the state of the
'environment' in terms of: its current condition and trend; the pressures on it and the drivers of
those pressures; management initiatives in place to address environmental concerns, and the
impacts of those initiatives. SOE reporting has previously acknowledged the lack of quantitative
long-term time-series data. The Essential Environmental Measures program has been designed to
help to address this issue so that by 2021 SoE reporting will be able to access at any time, from one
location, up-to-date useable data and summary reports on the Essential Environmental Measures
being developed by the programme. Over time it is anticipated that the Essential Environmental
Measures programme will become a core component of the evidence used to inform SoE reporting.
Identifying the EEMs is now starting.
Key ecological features (KEFs) around Australia’s oceans have been identified by the DoTE through
its marine bioregional planning process (Fig. 5.7). These KEFs were selected based on the importance
of their ecological role, high productivity and/or high biological diversity and were used as foci for
developing environmental indicators. The NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub is developing a Marine
Monitoring Blueprint (the blueprint) to provide direction and options for using these indicators to
inform future SoE reports directly and through the Essential Environmental Measures Program.
34
Figure 5.7. Key ecological features (KEFs) identified by DoTE for which qualitative models were developed and
ecological indicators identified (Dambacher et al., 2012).
The Australian Government has also established a network of CMRs (Fig.5.8) under Australian
environment law to protect and conserve marine biodiversity and other values in our oceans. Parks
Australia is developing CMR management plans which have a maximum life of 10 years and set out
how the reserves are to be managed including what activities are allowed. CMR network research
and monitoring strategies will be developed to increase understanding of the biodiversity and values
of the reserve, provide for ongoing reporting of their condition and support the decadal reviews. The
NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub is also working with Parks Australia to develop the approach to
monitor CMRs that draws on and complements the Marine Monitoring Blueprint.
To this end, IMOS is now sufficiently well established as an integrated marine observing system to be
of significant and ongoing relevance to the Australian Government’s SoE reporting needs and CMR
monitoring. It should be anticipated that IMOS will be a major contributor to the developing
Essential Environmental Measures program. IMOS has the capacity to routinely produce quality
controlled observations of a wide range of essential ocean variables (physical, chemical and
biological), at a range of time and space scales, using a multiple sensors and platforms. For example,
a total of 56 KEF’s was identified by the DoTE, with 31 modelled by the NESP Marine Biodiversity
Hub to identify ecological and pressure indicators. From these 31 KEFs, IMOS observing platforms
currently have the capacity to collect ecosystem indicator data in 20 KEFs (Table 5.3). Further work is
required to organise and report this scientific data so that it provides information at an appropriate
level and focus to support national environmental reporting initiatives.
35
Figure 5.8. Map of Australia’s network of Commonwealth marine reserves
(http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/marine/marine-reserves).
In addition, our leading role in developing the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN), an
interoperable, online network of marine and coastal data resources to make data accessible to as
wide a community as possible, puts IMOS in a position to influence availability of ‘non-IMOS’ data
collected by other agencies, including: direct visual census such as Reef Life Survey, and fisheries
catch, which will benefit agencies such as DoTE especially through the Essential Environmental
Measures program. Furthermore, collaboration with other relevant agencies helped the
development of the MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL), which comprises a suite of complex models
(e.g. ocean circulation, waves, water quality, and marine biogeochemistry), a network of observing
sensors, and a host of value-adding tools that can underpin research to understand the dynamics,
interactions, and connectivity of different marine regions.
36
Table 5.3. Key Ecological Features (KEFs) where IMOS is currently collecting data.
Marine
Region
North
North
West
South
West
South East
KEF
1. Gulf of Carpentaria Basin
2. Submerged reefs of GoC
3. Ashmore Reef Cartier Island
4. Mermaid Reef Rowley Shoals
5. Seringapatam/Scott Reef
6. Ningaloo Reef
X
X
X
WAIMOS
WAIMOS
WAIMOS
7. Meso-Scale Eddies (Leeuwin
Current)
WAIMOS
8. Houtman Abrolhos Islands
9. Benthic communities eastern GAB
WAIMOS
SAIMOS
10. Kangaroo Island
SAIMOS
11. Small Pelagic Fish (off SA Gulfs)
12. Adjacent to West Coast inshore
lagoons
13. Recherche Archipelago
SAIMOS
WAIMOS
14. Perth Canyon
WAIMOS
15. Geographe Bay
16. E. Tas Subtropical convergence
zone
17. Bass Cascade
18. Upwelling East of Eden
19. West Tasmanian Canyons
20. Big Horsehoe Canyon
21. Seamounts S and E of Tasmania
WAIMOS
22. Bonney Coast Upwelling
East
IMOS Nodes
WAIMOS
IMOS Facilities/
Sub-Facilities
AUV, Tagging (Acoustic)
AUV, Tagging (Acoustic)
AUV, Tagging (Acoustic)
Remote Sensing, Gliders,
Radar
AUV, SOOP CPR
NRS, Tagging (Biologging),
Radar
NRS
Moorings (phys, passive
acoustic), Gliders, Radar
X
NSW IMOS
NSW IMOS
X
SEA IMOS
X
SAIMOS
Gliders
SOOP CPR
Gliders, Radar, SOOP CPR,
Tagging (Acoustic),
23. Shelf Rocky Reefs/Hard Substrate
(Bass St)
SEA IMOS
SOOP Merchant vessel
24. Tasman Front and Eddy Field
NSW IMOS
Remote Sensing, SOOP XBT,
Gliders.
25. Norfolk Ridge
26. Lord Howe Seamount Chain
27. Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs
28. Queensland Plateau
29. Marion Plateau
30. Upwelling off Fraser Island
31. Reefs/Canyons/Seamounts E. Cont
Shelf
X
X
X
X
X
QIMOS
Gliders, SOOP CPR
NSW IMOS
37
7
Scientific Background, by Major Research Theme
The five major research themes previously mentioned, unify the IMOS Node science plans and
related observations. The aim of this section is to provide the scientific background and rationale for
a sustained observing system that is globally and regionally integrated and that collects information
of multiple ocean variables across several spatial and temporal scales. It provides information of
recent research outcomes and identifies gaps and priorities with high level science questions
developed for each theme in order to guide the national science implementation plan within IMOS.
7.1 Multi-decadal ocean change
The global oceans are the main source of thermal inertia in the climate system moderating our
climate on diurnal, seasonal and multi-decadal timescales. They also contain the largest pool of
active carbon in the planetary system and influence the hydrological cycle, with most precipitation
and evaporation occurring over the ocean surface. Therefore, they are a key player in setting the
rate at which anthropogenic gases build up in the atmosphere, how fast the surface of the planet
warms in response to the radiative forcing that results, and are the main source of rainfall. In
addition, as the upper layers of the global oceans warm, the thermal expansion can forced a slow
rise in sea levels. Tracking and understanding the processes by which carbon and heat are
sequestered into the global oceans is therefore essential for monitoring rates of global change.
7.1.1
The global energy balance (temperature) and sea level budget
The oceans absorb over 90% of the extra heat trapped in our climate system due to the build-up of
greenhouse gases (Levitus et al., 2005). Current estimates of multi-decadal ocean heat content
changes are limited to the upper 700m over the past four decades, and down to 2000m (the
sampling depth of Argo) over the last 10 years. Warming below 2000 m has also been detected
(Johnson and Doney, 2006, Johnson et al., 2007, Johnson et al., 2008, Johnson and Purkey, 2009,
Purkey and Johnson, 2010, 2013) suggesting the deep ocean is a significant global heat sink.
Therefore to track the rate of climate change, it is necessary to know the global patterns and rates of
ocean warming, which are also needed to inform ESMs – particularly to test their ability to predict
accurately heat sequestration and distribution in the global oceans.
Sea surface temperatures around Australia have increased by about 0.6-0.74°C over the past century
(Lough and Hobday, 2011, Lough et al., 2012). However, south eastern Australian waters
experienced warming three to four times the global average, becoming a global hot spot for ocean
temperature change. Sea surface temperature in the region has been warming at a rate of 2.3 oC
century-1 off Tasmania (Ridgway, 2007b), and 0.75 oC century-1 at Port Hacking (Thompson et al.,
2011). Average SSTs of the GBR have also warmed significantly since the end of the 19th century with
average temperatures for the most recent 30 years (1976 to 2005) 0.4°C warmer than the earliest
instrumental 30 years (Lough, 2007). Likewise, in Western Australian water has been rapidly
warming for several decades, with sea temperature rising by ~0.6-1 °C along the south-western
Australian continental shelf over the past 50 years (Pearce and Feng, 2007). Information of these
regional variations will be important in understanding the impact of increased temperatures on both
Australian climate and weather patterns, and impacts on regional ecosystems.
38
Figure 7.1: Total observed sea-level rise and its components. A, The components are thermal expansion in the
upper 700m (red), thermal expansion in the deep ocean (orange), the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland
(cyan), glaciers and ice caps (dark blue) and terrestrial storage (green). B, The estimated sea levels are
indicated by the black line (this study), the yellow dotted line from Jevrejeva et al., (2006) and the red dotted
line (from satellite altimeter observations). The sum of the contributions is shown by the blue line. Estimates of
one standard deviation error for the sea level are indicated by the grey shading. For the sum of components, we
include our rigorous estimates of one standard deviation error for upper-ocean thermal expansion; these are
shown by the thin blue lines. All time series were smoothed with a three-year running average and are relative
to 1961 (Domingues et al., 2008).
Ocean warming and its associated thermal expansion is also a key contributor to both the global rate
and regional patterns of sea level rise (Cazenave et al., 2009). While global rates reflect both ocean
thermal expansion and land ice melt, regional rates are affected by ocean processes distributing
heat, such as subduction and wind changes. Recent progress on closing the multi-decal sea level
budget underscores the important role of both upper and deep ocean warming driving sea level rise
(Figure 7.1). Sea level rise is not uniform from place to place. Accurate estimates of regional sea level
variability and change is essential to assess the impacts on coastal regions, and these estimates are
available from satellite altimeters and tide gauges. The regional pattern depends on ocean surface
fluxes, interior conditions and ocean circulation. The largest trends in relative sea level rise has been
observed in the north and west of Australia, sea levels have risen from 8-9mm per year since 1993
(Figure 7.2).
39
Figure 7.2: Sea level rise (mm/yr) from 1993 to June 2011 (source:
http://www.bom.gov.au/ntc/IDO60202/IDO60202.2011.pdf)
7.1.2
The global ocean circulation
The global oceans sequester and transport heat and carbon primarily through the mean ocean
circulation – both the shallow subduction systems and associated western boundary currents
operating in ocean subtropical gyres (such as the EAC) and the deeper reaching density driven global
overturning circulation (GOC). While it has been challenging to monitor large scale changes in
storage of heat and other properties, measuring the low frequency variability in ocean circulation
has proved to be even more difficult. Major inter-basin fluxes such as the Indonesian Throughflow
(ITF) and Tasman Outflow, (TO) and water mass conversion rates remain poorly constrained (Figure
7.3), and there is still little understanding in the role of eddy property fluxes in sustaining the mean
state.
40
Figure 7.3. The interbasin gyre system for the Pacific and Indian Oceans as shown by the mean steric height, (a) h0/2000
(contour interval 0.02-m), (b) h400/2000 (contour interval 0.01-m), and (c) h1000/2000 (contour interval 0.01-m) (Ridgway
and Dunn, 2003)
How the ocean circulation will change in the future and impact its ability to sequester and transport
heat and carbon is a critical question. Evidence suggests that both surface and deep circulation
patterns are changing. Recent studies show that the South Pacific subtropical gyre is projected to
spin up by about 25% in response to surface heat and freshwater fluxes and surface wind stress
changes, with a poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (Cai et al., 2005, Roemmich
et al., 2007, Zhang et al., 2013). The response of the other Southern Hemisphere subtropical gyres is
still being explored. One consequence of this trend is the intensification of the heat transport from
the tropics to the poles via the western boundary currents such as the East Australian Current (EAC).
Furthermore, evidence from models suggests a southward shift and broadening of the South
Equatorial Current (Ganachaud et al., 2009, Zhang et al., 2013), which is expected to intensify the
EAC (see section 7.3.1). On the western side, the long-term trend of the Leeuwin Current (LC) is
driven by variations and changes of Pacific equatorial easterly winds and together with the Indonesia
Throughflow(ITF), variations are coherent with the Pacific subtropical cells (STC)(Feng et al., 2010).
The LC has experienced a strengthening trend during the past two decades, reversing the weakening
trend of 1960’s to early 1990’s (Feng et al., 2010, 2011), and is associated with the phase transition
of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the late 1990’s. Currently most climate models project a
weakening trend of the Pacific trade winds and a reduction of the LC strength in response to
greenhouse gas forcing (Sun et al., 2012).
ESM’s suggest that some limbs of the GOC will weaken. However, attention has been less focussed
in the Southern Hemisphere component of the GOC, compared to the northern counterpart. The
Southern Ocean (SO) is important to climate partly because the overturning circulation in this region
transfers large amounts of heat and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the deep ocean (Rintoul
41
et al., 2001, Marshall and Speer, 2012). Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) forms around the Antarctic
continental margin, feeding the deep limb of the GOC in the SO and ventilating the abyssal layers of
the eastern Indian and Pacific basins (Mantyla and Reid, 1995, Orsi et al., 1999, Nakano and
Suginohara, 2002). Observations and analysis from repeat hydrographic data suggest that the AABW
is warming, freshening, contracting and become less dense in most ocean basins over the last four
decades (Purkey and Johnson, 2010, 2012, 2013, Van Wijk and Rintoul, 2014). Freshening of ocean
waters in the high latitudes has the potential of changing the thermohaline circulation thus driving
abrupt changes in the climate (Alley et al., 2003, Rintoul, 2007). In addition, these bottom water
changes may also impact the efficacy of the deep ocean in sequestering heat and carbon. Changes in
bottom water formation can be detected by measurements of change in temperature, salinity and
oxygen of bottom waters (Purkey and Johnson, 2010, 2012, 2013, Van Wijk and Rintoul, 2014) and
by direct measurements of the sinking of bottom water near Antarctica and in the boundary
currents that carry bottom water north (Fukamachi et al., 2010). Important deep boundary currents
in the Australian region include the Kerguelen Deep Western Boundary Current and the deep flows
into the Perth Basin.
7.1.3
The global hydrological cycle (salinity)
Besides warming, changes to the global hydrological cycle (patterns and rates of precipitation and
evaporation) driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is a major source of concern and likely to
have serious societal impacts. The water cycle is expected to strengthen expecting an increase of ~7%
in atmospheric moisture content due to the ability of warmer air to hold moisture (Held and Soden,
2006, Durack et al., 2012). The current generation of ESM’s show little agreement on the patterns
and rates of precipitation changes compared to those for temperature (Solomon et al., 2007).
Historical measurements of precipitation and evaporation on a global scale are also inadequate for
constraining ESM behaviour– most of the hydrological cycle occurs over the ocean surface where
few historical observations are available. In addition precipitation is both sporadic in space and time,
making it difficult to extrapolate point time series into spatial integrals. However, global evaporation
and precipitation spatial pattern is highly correlated with the sea surface salinity spatial pattern
(Durack et al., 2012). Thus the ocean’s salinity field integrates spatially and temporally the major
hydrological fluxes through the atmosphere and these changes in ocean salinity can be used to test
and constrain the hydrological response of ESMs. Estimates of surface salinity changes to date based
on comparing Argo data with historical archives suggest large and coherent changes already
underway (Hosoda et al., 2009, Durack and Wijffels, 2010). These changes are consistent with an
amplification of the global hydrological cycle over past decades (i.e. wet areas are getting wetter and
dry areas are getting dryer), which is in qualitative agreement with ESM results.
The hydrological cycle in Australia is highly variable, in eastern Australia rainfall and temperature is
strongly associated with ENSO, with reductions in rainfall during the warm El Niño phase and
enhanced rainfall during the cool La Niña phase (Verdon et al., 2004). There is also evidence of the
existence of multidecadal variability in modulation of ENSO impacts such as the Interdecadal Pacific
Oscillation (IPO) (Power et al., 1999, Kiem et al., 2003, Kiem and Franks, 2004). It is apparent that the
effects of El Niño and La Niña across Australia are stronger and more predictable during the negative
phase of the IPO, increasing the magnitude and variability of rainfall, with greater effects on NSW
and QLD (Verdon et al., 2004). Changes in the water cycle and redistribution of rainfall can have
serious consequences to human societies, where multidecadal modulation of the magnitude of
42
ENSO can have marked consequences on multidecadal flood and drought risk in Australia, affecting
food availability, stability, access and utilization.
7.1.4
The global carbon cycle (Inventory, air sea fluxes, physical controls)
The oceans play a key role in the global carbon budget, taking up the equivalent of about 30% of
annual anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (Doney et al., 2009, Le Quere et al., 2013). The
subtropical to sub-Antarctic band has the largest zonal inventory of anthropogenic CO2, with the
Southern Ocean being the single most important uptake region of the oceans, accounting for ~ 40%
of the total ocean uptake (Sabine et al., 2004, Khatiwala et al., 2009, Khatiwala et al., 2013).
Changes in ocean stratification, warming, winds and the buffering capacity of the ocean all have the
capacity to change the ocean uptake of carbon. The same processes could also influence the
biological export of carbon and carbonate production providing positive or negative biological
feedback to the air-sea exchange of CO2 (e.g. Gruber et al., 2004). Many ESMs are including an active
ocean carbon model – Australia’s ACCESS initiative is building such a capability. These models
require key data sets on ocean carbon storage and cycling for tuning and validation.
Fundamental questions remain about the mean and seasonal distributions of the natural air-sea CO2
fluxes. Available climatology is coarse resolution (4 x 5 degrees) and the shelves and large areas of
the ocean, including waters around most of Australia, contain little or no data. Interannual variability
in CO2 has been described for the equatorial and subtropical Pacific (Feely et al., 2002, Dore et al.,
2003, Brix et al., 2004, Borges et al., 2008) and North Atlantic (Gruber et al., 2002, Thomas et al.,
2008). For the Southern Ocean, LeQuere et al. (2007) suggested that Southern Ocean carbon uptake
has reduced due to more intense westerlies (in response to the Southern Annular Mode) and an
increased upwelling of CO2 rich deep waters. However, this estimate is based on carbon models and
atmospheric observations, and remains controversial (Böning et al., 2008).
Variability in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in coastal regions has been observed, with changes in
carbon flows disproportionately higher in the coast compared to the open ocean (Borges, 2011).
Inadequate spatial and/or temporal coverage of CO2 can bias the estimates of air-sea fluxes in
coastal environments. Enhanced coastal upwelling, increased stratification, expanding ocean
minimum zones, ice retreat and changes in the hydrological cycle due to climate change have the
capacity to change CO2 air-sea fluxes (Borges, 2011). There is evidence of inter-annual variation in
CO2 air-sea fluxes modulated by variations of wind speed that affects the gas transfer velocity and
the intensity of the air-sea CO2 flux south of Tasmania (Borges et al., 2008). In addition, seasonality
in mixed layer carbon has been found to exist in the Southern Ocean, with biological processes
playing the main role while mixing and sea-air exchange playing a smaller role (Mcneil and Tilbrook,
2009). Continuous ocean observations are required to resolve spatial and temporal patterns in airsea pCO2 fluxes and storage to help understand the role of the ocean in buffering the greenhouse
effect and to inform assessments of the knock on effect on vulnerable ecosystems. A quantitative
description of the air-sea carbon flux is a key data set for carbon model development and validation.
The development of uniformly quality-controlled global datasets for ocean CO2 (Lo Monaco et al.,
2010, Sabine et al., 2010, Bakker et al., 2014) and the collection of a consistent set of essential
variables across international observing systems will help resolve if a change in ocean carbon uptake
is occurring, and if it is a transient, or a long-term shift driven by climate change.
43
7.1.5
Spatial and temporal scales
The four components of multi-decal ocean change described above have spatial scales from 50km to
10,00km and temporal scales from decades to 100s of years, with the need to resolve interannual
variability to avoid aliasing of these signals to the low-frequency signal (Figure 7.4).
Figure 7.4. A Stommel diagram illustrating the spatial and temporal scales of Multidecadal Ocean Change
processes.
7.1.6
Modelling Activities
Global coupled climate and Earth System Models (ESMs) are used to make projections of future
climate and global change scenarios, and are contributed to the Climate Model Intercomparison
Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The CMIP5 contributions are assessed as part of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process. The Australian Community Climate and Earth System
Simulator (ACCESS) is Australia’s new contribution to CMIP5, developed by BOM and CSIRO. Two
versions have been submitted to CMIP5: CSIRO-BOM ACCESS1.0 and ACCESS1.3. In order to have
confidence in future climate projections, models are benchmarked against the observational record,
for example to check the horizontal and vertical distribution of ocean warming.
With respect to multidecadal ocean changes, ESMs are used to represent the mechanisms and
pathways responsible for sequestering heat in the ocean, project future climate and predict changes
in the hydrological cycle and carbon cycle. ESMs require key data sets on ocean temperature and
salinity changes, carbon storage and cycling for tuning and validation.
7.1.7
Science Questions
The high-level science questions that will guide the IMOS observing strategy in this area are related
to:
Ocean Heat content
 Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and ocean heat content across all regions
around Australia, including coastal and open ocean
 Impacts of temperature on sea level rise across all regions around Australia
44
Global Ocean Circulation:
 Temporal changes in the overturning circulation
 Mass and heat transport across all regions around Australia, including coastal and open
ocean
Global hydrological cycle:
 Spatial and temporal changes in salinity across all regions around Australia, including coastal
and open ocean, and how does this reflect changes in the hydrological cycle due to climate
change
 Temporal changes in river outflow and its impact on salinity patterns
 Changes on deep ocean salinity and how does this reflect ice-shelf interaction and changes
in high latitude precipitation
Global carbon budget:
 Global and regional carbon inventory and changes in decadal timescales
 Biological and physical processes involved in CO2 air-sea fluxes in the open ocean and
regional areas across Australia
 Evolution of CO2 fluxes on the Australian shelf and regional seas and their relationship with
the open ocean and major circulation features
7.1.8
Variables required to address science questions
Tracking and understanding the processes by which heat and carbon are sequestered into the global
oceans is essential for monitoring rates of global change and informing ESM used to predict future
climate.
Temperature observations at a broader and local scale are necessary to understand and answer the
science questions pertaining ocean heat content and thermal expansion around Australia at both
open-ocean and regional scales. Observations of ocean salinity are essential for monitoring changes
in the global hydrological cycle, as precipitation and evaporation can be derived from ocean salinity
data.
Surface and subsurface temperatures, salinity, and velocity will improve our knowledge of regional
and global ocean circulation throughout the full ocean depth and will help determine where and for
how long heat and carbon are sequestered in the ocean. Continuous ocean observations of pCO2 are
required to resolve spatial and temporal patterns in pCO2 air-sea fluxes and storage to help
understand the role of the ocean in buffering greenhouse impacts and inform assessments of the
knock on effects on vulnerable ecosystems (Table 7.1).
Precipitation
Detritus (flux)
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
CDOM and Backscatter.
Pigment concentration
Macronutrient concentration
Alkalinity
Total Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Sea Surface Height
Variables
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature – subsurface
Temperature - Surface
Table 7.1: The
variables required to
address Multidecadal
Ocean Change science
questions.
Table 7.1 The variables required to address Multidecadal Ocean Change science questions
Energy Balance
45
Hydrological Cycle
Carbon Budget
Global Circulation
7.1.9
Platforms required to deliver observations
Monitoring multi-decadal ocean change requires long-term data sets with sustained repeating
operations. IMOS uses a number of platforms to collect these data sets needed to track multidecadal change in Australia’s oceans. Key data streams include (Table 7.2):





Observations of temperature, salinity, velocity and (in some cases) oxygen provided by Argo
floats profiling in the upper 2000 m of the ocean
Physical and biogeochemical samples of the upper ocean along ship of opportunity lines
using XBT’s in the upper 700m and surface CO2 dissolved gas sensor and CO2 atmospheric
gas analysers.
Deepwater arrays that consist of moorings deployed in key boundary currents and interbasin
exchanges, including the ITF, the EAC and the Antarctic polynyas and Southern Ocean time
series
Ocean gliders, bio-loggers (oceanographic sensors) deployed on marine mammals
Satellite remote sensing of SST, ocean colour and sea surface height
In addition, non-IMOS infrastructure such as repeat deep hydrography and tide gauges for sea level
measurements are also used to track multi-decadal change in the deep ocean.
46
Primary productiviity
Detritus (flux)
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
CDOM and Backscatter.
Chlorophyll a concentration
Macronutrient concentration
Alkalinity
Total Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature – Subsurface
Temperature – surface
Table 7.2: How variables required to address the high-level Multidecadal Ocean Change science questions are delivered at required scales by IMOS facilities. Blue = directly
measured variable; Red = derived variable; Orange = could be derived; Green = relative derived estimate.
Argo
XBT
Ships of Opportunity (SOOP)
Sea Surface Temperature
Air-Sea Fluxes
Biochemistry (pCO2)
Air-sea fluxes
Deep water Moorings
Deep water arrays
Southern Ocean Timeseries
Ocean Gliders
Moorings
Animal tagging
Seagliders
Acidification Moorings
Shelf array
Biologging
Sea Surface Temperature
Satellite Remote Sensing
Sea Surface Height
Ocean Colour
Non-IMOS Infrastructure
Repeat Hydrography
Tide Gauges
47
Notable gaps:
The Research Infrastructure Road Map identifies the following gaps in the current observing
capability that would address multi-decadal ocean change:






The deep ocean and the cryosphere (including both the sea ice and the ocean beneath it),
with measurements currently collected mostly above 2000 m, with the deep water moorings
being the exception and no sea ice measurements available and sparse measurements
under the ice available through oceanographic tags on seals, limited number of ice-capable
floats, and the Polynya moorings.
Oxygen data in the Coral Sea
Gap in the data from the deep water moorings monitoring the EAC.
Biogechemistry properties of Indonensian Throughflow
Insufficient spatial coverage on the shelf
Observations in Bass Strait
Future priorities:
 The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that
exists now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current
arrays, Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea
surface height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
 Investigate and evaluate the use of Deep Argo to determine changes in heat and freshwater
content throughout the full ocean depth and Ice capable Argo to observe the sea ice zone
 Expand pCO2 network, including CO2 measurements at high latitude where overturning
circulation and global CO2 outgassing changes are under debate. Measurements at low
latitude are also needed, including a surface flux mooring in the extended Timor sea northwest of WA.
 Additional sites for altimeter calibration at Lorne (VIC) and Darwin (NT) to be considered, or
reconfiguration of existing sites to facilitate calibration of new missions (e.g. ESA Sentinel-3).
 Evaluate the oxygen enabled Argo pilot program and expand coverage in the Coral Sea or use
gliders if not possible to use Argo
 Evaluate new sensor technologies for pH, nutrients, and bio-optics that could be considered
to be ready for piloting at broad scale, on Argo, SOOP, gliders etc.
 Evaluate costing of mooring array along 200 m isobath from the Kimberley to north-west
Australia to monitor the thermal structure of the upper ocean on interannual and decadal
time scales
 Evaluate new observing infrastructure like wave gliders for improved coverage.
 Develop partnership opportunities for sustained moored bio physical data in Bass Strait
7.2 Climate variability and weather extremes
There are three major well described coupled ocean atmospheric modes which account for a
significant portion of Australian seasonal climate variability – El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO),
Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), with centres of action in the
equatorial Pacific, equatorial Indian, and Southern Oceans, respectively (Risbey et al., 2009). ENSO is
48
the strongest mode both globally and in terms of impact on Australia. Impacts of the IOD in Australia
are beginning to be recognised, while impact of SAM in oceanic circulation in the South Pacific and
Indian Oceans and large scale circulation and eddy properties of the Southern Ocean has been
suggested (Cai et al., 2005, Farnetti and Delworth, 2010). In addition, the intraseasonal atmospheric
wave mode in the tropics known as the Madden Julian Oscillation is seen as increasingly important in
terms of its role in monsoon rain patterns, but also it is thought to have an influence on coupled
modes such as the IOD.
Major weather patterns are strongly influenced by ocean conditions; tropical cyclones and east coast
lows (in southern Queensland and NSW coast) draw energy from surface ocean temperatures, and
temperature patterns may also influence storm paths. Hence, the frequency and intensity of these
storms are linked to couple climate modes such as ENSO.
7.2.1
7.2.1.1
Interannual Climate Variability
El Niño –Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
ENSO is a coupled ocean-atmospheric mode with a timescale of 2-7 years, centred on the tropical
Pacific. A characteristic of ENSO is the associated pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) variation
in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, which alternates between a warm phase (El Niño) and a cold
phase (La Niña). El Niño phase is related to weak trade winds over the Pacific and warmer than
normal ocean temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific, while La Niña is related to strong trade
winds and colder than normal ocean temperatures (Figure 7.5). It is the dominant climate mode
globally on inter-annual timescales, with worldwide environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In
Australia, ENSO has a strong influence on regional rainfall patterns with El Niño (La Niña) events
associated with droughts (heavy rainfall) across much of Australia.
Figure 7.5. Schematic showing the oceanic and atmospheric state during (a) normal, (b) El Nino and (c) La Nina
conditions in the Pacific Ocean SST (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/proj_over/diagrams/index.html).
The key role of the ocean in ENSO was recognised more than 40 years ago (Bjerknes, 1966). Due to
the implementation of the ENSO Observing system in the late 1980’s, primarily comprised of the
Pacific TAO/TRITON/TOA tropical Pacific Array and the TOGA repeat XBT lines, a large and active
research community is focussed on ENSO prediction, with mature prediction systems being trained
and tested on the 30 year data sets supplied by this network. Nevertheless, key research questions
around ENSO and ocean processes remain and it is currently unclear how this important climate
mode can be affected by anthropogenic climate change (Collins et al., 2010, Vecchi and Wittenberg,
2010, Newman, 2013).
49
A lower frequency (~30 years) variation that influences sea surface temperatures, sea level pressure,
and surface winds in a similar way to ENSO was identified as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (Fig. 7.6).
This low frequency mode of variability appears to have a modulating effect on the climate patterns
resulting from ENSO, i.e. when PDO and ENSO are in phase (El Niño–warm PDO, La Niña–cold PDO),
the ENSO climate signal is stronger while out-of-phase PDO and ENSO (El Niño–cold PDO, La Niña–
warm PDO) results in a weaker climate signal (Gershunov and Barnett, 1998). However, the
underlying mechanism of the PDO is still unclear and its complex relationship with ENSO is still a
matter of debate (Goodrich, 2007).
In Australia, ENSO is known to have a significant effect in the west coast affecting the intensity of the
Leeuwin Current (LC) and shelf slope currents (Feng et al., 2003, Clarke and Li, 2004, Holbrook et al.,
2009), with the LC weakening (strengthening) during El Niño (La Niña). In the southern coastline El
Niño (La Niña) events lead to lower (higher) than normal sea surface height (SSH) (Clarke and Li,
2004), with enhanced upwelling effects along the south coast during El Niño (Middleton et al., 2009).
On the east coast of Australia there is some evidence of ENSO directly or indirectly affecting the
Coral and Tasman Seas (Holbrook et al., 2009), however, there have been only a few studies where
evidence of ENSO effect in the EAC has been observed (Hsieh and Hamon, 1991, Burrage et al., 1994,
Holbrook et al., 2005a, b). It appears that variations in the subtropical gyre circulation strength,
including the EAC, are consistent with one of ENSO propagating modes (Holbrook et al., 2005a, b,
Holbrook et al., 2009), likely due to the influence of Rossby waves (Holbrook et al., 2009). However,
ENSO variability along Australia’s east coast appears to be weaker than along Australia’s west coast.
Figure 7.6. Comparing the spatial and temporal patterns of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El NinoSouthern Oscillation (http://jisao.washington.edu/static/pdo/img/pdo_enso_comp.gif).
50
7.2.1.2
Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
Inter-annual variability in the tropical Indian Ocean has been recognised as a factor in global and
Australian seasonal climate variability after an intensive decade of research on the IOD (Schott et al.,
2009). A positive IOD phase is characterised by cooler waters in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean,
and warmer waters in the tropical west. On the other hand, the negative IOD phase is characterised
by warmer waters in the east and cooler waters in the west of the tropical Indian Ocean (Figure 7.7).
Shoaling of the thermocline, anomalous easterly winds and low rainfall in the eastern Indian Ocean
are associated to positive IOD, while the negative phase is weaker with reversed signs of all the
anomalies in the same region. IOD events are seasonally phase locked and reach the peak in autumn
(Schott et al., 2009).
The origin of IOD events are not clear, it appears that sometimes the seasonal timing of El Niño
onset is essential for IOD development, but it is also apparent that IOD events impact the life cycle of
ENSO (Schott et al., 2009). However, IOD development can also happen in the absence of ENSO (Saji
and Yamagata, 2003). Recently, research on the influence of IOD and ENSO on the southeast
Australian rainfall showed that the influence of ENSO is restricted to the subtropics during winter
and spring, and that a positive IOD plays a major role in the droughts in the southeastern Australia,
with El Niño playing a lesser role (Pepler et al., 2014 and refs. within). However, the interaction
between ENSO and the IOD is complex, with strongest rainfall anomalies observed in years where
both drivers co-occur (Ummenhofer et al., 2009, Pepler et al., 2014).
Improved understanding of IOD and improving its simulation in the Australian seasonal climate
prediction models are research-priorities. IOD predictability appears to be much less than ENSO’s,
probably due to inadequate representation of its slow physics in models, inadequate observations in
the Indian Ocean (CLIVAR-GOOS Indian Ocean Panel Clivar, 2006), and/or inherently more chaotic
physics. The IOD remains an active area of international research, with challenges in the observation,
description, understanding and prediction.
Figure 7.7. Upper panel shows the positive phase of the IOD, with warm water in the western Indian Ocean and
increased rainfall in the region. The lower panel shows the negative phase with the warm water in the east
51
and associated increased regional precipitation (Illustration by E. Paul Oberlander, ©Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution, https://www2.ucar.edu/news/backgrounders/weather-maker-patterns-map-textversion).
7.2.1.3
Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) describes the north–south movement of the westerly wind belt
that circles Antarctica. It dominates the middle to higher latitudes of the southern hemisphere and it
is the leading mode of climate variability in the southern mid to high latitudes. In the pressure field,
it is characterized by north-south shifts in atmospheric mass between the polar region and the
middle latitudes (Thompson and Solomon, 2002). The changing position of the westerly wind belt
influences the strength and position of cold fronts and mid-latitude storm systems, and is an
important driver of rainfall variability in southern Australia. Variations occur on timescales of 10 days
or longer and exert a dynamic influence over ocean circulation, water-mass formation and the
distribution of heat and energy around the entire planet (Figure 7.8) (Sen Gupta and England, 2006).
In its positive mode, the belt of strong westerly winds contracts towards Antarctica, resulting in
lighter westerly winds and higher pressures over southern Australian latitudes. Conversely, a
negative SAM shows an expansion of the belt of strong westerly winds towards the equator,
resulting in more or stronger storms and low pressure systems over southern Australia.
From an Australian perspective the positive phase of SAM shifts low pressure systems southwards
reducing rainfall over southwest Western Australia (WA), Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia
(Hendon et al., 2007). It has also been identified to strengthen the local cyclonic atmospheric
circulation off the WA and enhance the southward advection of the Leeuwin Current and associated
heat transport (Kataoka et al., 2013). In addition, SAM positive phase is associated with increase in
daily rainfall on the southeast coast as a result of an increase occurrence of moist upslope flow from
the Tasman Sea, explaining 10-15% of weekly rainfall variability during spring and summer in the
southwest and southeast coasts (Hendon et al., 2007). There is also strong evidence that the SAM
positive trend has driven a spin up and southward shift of the south Pacific subtropical gyre (Cai,
2006, Roemmich et al., 2007, Hill et al., 2008) resulting in a shift in the distribution of certain marine
species (e.g. an expansion of a mainland sea urchin species, C. rodgersii, to Tasmania, (Ling et al.,
2009). In the Southern Ocean (SO), early models showed that the higher index state of SAM is
associated with the strengthening of the circumpolar wind stress, which results in an increase of the
Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) transport, a change in its position and the intensification of the
SO eddy field with a lag of 2-3 years (Meredith and Hogg, 2006). However, in recent eddy-resolving
models, a doubling of the wind stress increase the overturning circulation by 70% but the ACC
transport remained nearly unaltered (Meredith et al., 2012, Morrison and Hogg, 2013). Given that
the SO is a major sink for anthropogenic CO2 and source for natural upwelled CO2, understanding
changes in the overturning circulation is of great importance to know how CO2 concentrations will
evolve into the future.
52
Figure 7.8. Regression of sea level pressure (colour bar) and wind vectors (1m/s shown) from a climate model
onto the SAM index (Sen Gupta et al., 2006)
Annular modes appear to be sensitive to increasing greenhouse gases (Shindell et al., 1999, Hendon
et al., 2007 and ref. within), and SAM has exhibited trends that are consistent with the forcing by the
Antarctic ozone hole (Thompson and Solomon, 2002, Gillet and Thompson, 2003, Shindell and
Schmidt, 2004). A number of studies have noted that the positive trend in the SAM since the 1970s
(during the summer-autumn seasons) may be attributed primarily to ozone depletion and is
consistent with enhanced greenhouse forcing (Arblaster and Meehl, 2006 and references within).
However, uncertainty remains regarding the influence of stratospheric ozone recovery on the future
evolution of the SAM trend (Son et al., 2008).
7.2.2
7.2.2.1
Intra-seasonal variability and severe weather
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)
The MJO is a large scale coupling between the atmospheric circulation and tropical deep convection
that slowly (~5 ms-1) propagates eastward from the Indian to the Pacific Ocean where the sea
surface is warm (Zhang, 2005). It is the dominant component of the intraseasonal (30-90 days)
variability in the tropical atmosphere (Zhang, 2005) that can enhance or suppress convective activity
and lead to burst and breaks in the Northern Australian summer monsoon (Wheeler et al., 2009). It
is suggested that the MJO plays a role in the initiation and evolution of ENSO and IOD events
53
(Mcphaden et al., 2006), modulation of the ITF (Sprintall et al., 2009) and is a useful indicator of the
timing of potential rainfall events across much of tropical Australia.
The MJO is classified into eight phases based on the pattern of convection and zonal winds near
equatorial latitudes. Its phase is tracked in near-real time by the Bureau of Meteorology
(http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mjo/). Passage of the MJO not only affects rainfall but also can
lead to surface water cooling or warming at critical times for thermal stress events; thus influencing
the risk of coral bleaching. During winter, the rainfall response along the Queensland coast co-varies
with the MJO phase due to modulation of the SE trade winds. In the west of Australia, the intraseasonal variability in the LC is associated with the direct forcing of the MJO through southwardpropagating coastal trapped waves forced on the NW shelf through Ekman-induced vertical
advection and surface heat fluxes in the easterly phase of the MJO (Marshall and Hendon, 2014).
Recognition of the importance of the MJO for both numerical weather prediction and seasonal
climate forecasting is driving a demand for observing systems which resolve these phenomena and
increased process understanding to improve model simulations.
7.2.2.2
Tropical Cyclones
Tropical cyclones are low pressure systems that form over tropical waters and have gale force winds
extending more than half-way around near the centre and persisting for at least six hours. They
derive their energy from the tropical oceans requiring sea surface temperatures (SST) higher than
26°C to form and can persist for many days sometimes following quite erratic paths (Bureau of
Meteorology). Tropical Cyclones impact much of the Northern Australian coast (Figure 7.9). They
induce strong mixing of warm, surface layer water with colder, denser water from the upper
thermocline (Korty et al., 2008). This mixing leads to large reductions of SSTs observed in the wake
of tropical cyclones (Leipper, 1967, Price, 1981). It has been suggested that mixing induced by
tropical cyclones may also drive a substantial portion of the oceans’ observed heat flux (Emanuel,
2001).
Differences in the strength of summer monsoon circulation over northern Australia associated with
ENSO events result in strong interannual variability in tropical cyclone activity. During El Niño the
cyclone season is less active in the western Pacific, when the tropical warm pool has receded to the
east, while during La Niña the activity is enhanced (Lough, 1994). Cyclones impacting the
Queensland coast generally undergo a period of intensification over the Coral Sea, gathering energy
from the warm waters. The cumulative exposure to cyclones since 1985 has been responsible for
approximately half of the observed decline in coral cover (De’ath et al., 2012) across the whole Great
Barrier Reef (GBR) with more severe decline in the southern GBR. In the NW of Australia, the
intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones appears to be related to upper ocean heat content off
the NW Shelf, being higher during La Niña events and lower during El Niño years. Research shows
that an understanding of the ocean temperatures and atmospheric conditions during and following
cyclone formation is required for accurate prediction of track and intensity; which requires tracking
these systems and the associated ocean and atmospheric conditions throughout their lifetime or
longer.
54
Figure. 7.9. Tracks of tropical cyclones in the Australian region from 1990 to 2007 (source: BOM).
7.2.2.3
East Coast Lows (ECL’s)
ECLs are short lived intense low-pressure systems that occur on average several times each year
over the Australian east coast approximately between 25 and 40⁰S (Holland et al., 1987). Although
they can occur at any time of the year, they are more common during Autumn and Winter with a
maximum frequency in June (Bureau of Meteorology). ECLs may form in a variety of weather
situations; in summer they can be ex-tropical cyclones, at other times of the year they will most
often develop rapidly just offshore within a pre-existing trough of low pressure due to favourable
conditions in the upper atmosphere. They can also develop in the wake of a cold front moving across
from Victoria into the Tasman Sea. Although they are most common on the coastline of New South
Wales adjacent to the offshore eddy field produced by the separation of the EAC from the coast,
ECLs manifest every few years in southern Queensland. Unlike cyclones, ECLs are driven by
temperature gradients in the upper atmosphere colliding near the coast. The SST gradient between
the coast and the EAC offshore also appears to be critical in the evolution of coastal low pressure
and trough systems (Holland et al., 1987, Leslie et al., 1987, Speer and Leslie, 2000). The significance
of ECLs is their rapid intensification (most often overnight) that can produce highly energetic
systems (of local to meso-scale size) capable of producing gale force winds and large waves on the
adjacent coast. They can have severe consequences such as flash flooding and damaging winds and
seas, but also beneficial consequences such as being responsible for heavy rainfall events that
contribute significantly to total rainfall and runoff around the region (Dowdy et al., 2011).
7.2.2.4
Ningaloo Niño
Ningaloo Niño is a marine heatwave that raises the temperature in nearshore waters. This heat wave
is associated with La Niña in the Pacific, a positive phase of SAM, the Australian monsoon, as well as
local air-sea coupling (Kataoka et al., 2013, Marshall and Hendon, 2014). During the February/March
2011 Ningaloo Niño temperatures along the Gascoyne and mid-west coast exceeded 5°C above the
long-term average for that time of year. This has been attributed to both a very strong LC
(anomalously high coastal sea levels) during an intense La Niña period and anomalously high air-sea
55
heat flux entering the ocean (Feng et al., 2013, Pearce and Feng, 2013). Strong easterlies anomalies
in the equatorial western Pacific and low sea level pressure anomalies off the west coast of Australia
have been identified to be also important to cause the local wind and LC anomalies in early 2011,
resulting in the peak of the Ningaloo Niño event (Feng et al., 2013). Effects of the Ningaloo Niño
(marine heat wave) on the marine biota can be devastating, with severe effects on WA fisheries
(Caputi et al., 2014).
7.2.3
Modes of variability in a changing climate
The impact of modes of variability on the Australian region has been discussed above. Less is known
about how these modes will change in a warming world. Observations and ESMs suggest a
continuing trend towards a more positive SAM, driven by both reduced ozone levels and greenhouse
gas forcing (Cai et al., 2005, Cai, 2006), driving a pole-ward shift and intensification in the
circumpolar westerly winds, (Gillet and Thompson, 2003) and a trend towards reduced rainfall
across Southern Australia.
There is less certainty about how ENSO will evolve in a warmer world. Low frequency variability in
the Pacific Basin related to ENSO means that long time-series are needed to separate out variability
from change (Collins et al., 2010). Despite progress in our understanding of the effects of climate
change in various processes that contribute to ENSO variability, we do not have yet the ability to
predict if ENSO activity will be enhanced or damped, or it the frequency of events will change in a
warming climate (Guilyardi et al., 2012).
In the Indian Ocean, 21st Century simulations suggest that the mean is shifting towards a more
positive IOD; that is a cooler dryer eastern Indian Ocean and thus a dryer Australia (Cai et al., 2009,
Ummenhofer et al., 2009). These modes also feed back into the ocean circulation. Both the trend in
the SAM and decadal ENSO variability have been related to a long term positive trend and decadal
variability in the South Pacific Gyre strength and circulation pattern (see Section 7.3).
7.2.4
Spatial and temporal scales
Within the long-term trends and cycles of climate, critical variations in oceanic processes occur at
inter- and intra-annual scales. Typically length and space scales of these different phenomena are
correlated and this range defines the spectrum from high frequency cycles in climate to extreme
events in the weather band. The contributors to climate variability and weather extremes span
spatial scales of 10 to 10,000 km and temporal scales from a few days to 100s of years. ENSO, SAM,
IOD and other climate modes vary on longer scales from multiple years to decades and impact scales
from 100s of km to 10,000 km. ECLs and tropical cyclones on the other hand are ephemeral events
that regardless of their magnitude are typically measured in days and their major impact is restricted
to areas measured in hundreds of kilometres.
56
Figure 7.10: A Stommel diagram of the spatial and temporal scales of climate variability processes.
7.2.5
Modelling activities
Australia’s climate is uniquely connected to the processes in the surrounding ocean; modes of
variability such as ENSO and IOD determine seasonal rainfall patterns. The tropical upper ocean
thermal distribution is the largest source of predictability at seasonal timescales for coupled modes
such as ENSO. The present day coupled models do not simulate the mean state of the ocean well
(e.g. the Pacific equatorial cold tongue), indicating that much remains to be understood about
parameterisation of key processes, such as ENSO. Comprehensive coupled general circulation
models, such as those used in the phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
(CMIP3 and CMIP5), have become powerful tools for examining ENSO behaviour, dynamics and
potential changes in ENSO mean state and variability (Meehl et al., 2007, Randall et al., 2007, Sriver
et al., 2014). However, challenges remain in simulating key statistical features of ENSO, given biases
in the current generation of these models. Seasonal forecast systems such as the Predictive OceanAtmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) run by the BOM, show skill in predicting the onset of an
event such as an El Niño, but not its magnitude or timing. Improved understanding of these modes
of variability and how they interact is essential for improving both Earth System models and seasonal
forecast systems.
On the other hand, current coupled models do not capture intra-seasonal variability very realistically
(Lin et al., 2006). Recognition of the importance of the MJO for both numerical weather prediction
(Hendon et al., 1999) and seasonal climate forecasting is driving a demand for observing systems
which resolve these phenomena and increase process understanding to improve their model
simulation. Relatively rapid intra-seasonal variability (e.g. the MJO) affects the evolution and
predictability of seasonal signals. Improved representation of this type of variability is of high priority
in development of POAMA.
57
However, progress on improving model simulation partly hinges on better initialising the ocean
component of prediction systems using ocean observations and parameterisation of the coupled
ocean processes involved. Recognition of the importance of intra-seasonal variability such as the
MJO, for both numerical weather prediction and seasonal climate forecasting is driving a demand for
continuous observing systems which can resolve these phenomena and increased process
understanding to improve model simulations.
7.2.6
Science Questions
The following questions are primarily aimed at improving dynamical understanding in support of
climate modelling and seasonal forecasting, e.g. correcting errors in the representation and
parameterisation of physical processes in dynamical models. Observations will also be aimed at
improving the data assimilation and initialisation for seasonal forecasting.
The high-level science questions that will guide the IMOS observing strategy in this area are related
to:
Interannual:





Effects of interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean surface layer,( e.g. the
exchange of heat and moisture), on climate processes
Improvement of dynamical understanding of ENSO in the open ocean and regional areas and
its effect on coastal waters and boundary currents around Australia
Improvement of seasonal forecast and projections of ENSO in future climate
Improve dynamical understanding of IOD, the possibility of coupling between ENSO and IOD
and its effects in the open ocean and regional areas
Effect of SAM in coastal waters
Intraseasonal:



MJO interaction with other recurrent climate processes, such as ENSO, IOD and the
Australian monsoon, and its incorporation into predictive models
The role of air-sea interaction in the dynamics of the MJO
Influence of ocean variability such as sea surface temperature, in the development of
weather events like tropical cyclones and East Coast Lows, marine heat waves (Ningaloo
Niño),their genesis and their effects in coastal areas
58
7.2.7
Variables required to address science questions
Three major, coupled ocean-atmospheric modes account for a significant portion of Australian
seasonal climate variability – El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and
Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Upper ocean temperature distribution is the largest source of
predictability due to the large thermal inertia of the ocean and its predictable dynamics.
Major weather patterns are strongly influenced by ocean conditions drawing energy form the ocean.
Cyclones and east coast low have inter seasonal variability with strong links to coupled modes like
ENSO.
While climate variability operates on inter-annual timescales, and weather extremes operate on
shorter space and time scales, the observations needed to understand them are the same (Table 7.3).
To characterize the climate variability and the weather extremes observations are needed of upper
ocean temperature and salinity, air-sea exchange heat, gases and momentum (wind stress), sea level
measurements, dissolved oxygen and pCO2 and velocities.
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Internal waves
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature – subsurface
Temperature - Surface
Table 7.3: The variables required to address Climate Variability and Weather Extremes science questions.
Inter-annual (ENSO, IOD, SAM)
Intra-seasonal (MJO, Cyclones,
ECL’s )
7.2.8
Platforms required to deliver observations
Monitoring climate variability and weather extremes requires observations drawn from the same
platforms as those for the larger scaled multi-decal ocean change theme. The major additional
requirement is the need for surface air-sea fluxes from Ships of Opportunity, which are of particular
importance to this theme, to measure the magnitude and variability of air-sea heat, freshwater and
carbon exchange. Satellite measurements of wind stress, SST and altimetry are also relevant to this
theme. Velocities, sea surface height, and subsurface temperatures from moorings, ocean gliders,
Argo floats and XBT transects will also be used for this theme (Table 7.4).
59
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Internal waves
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature- Subsurface
Temperature – surface
Table 7.4: How variables required to address the high-level Climate Variability and Weather Extremes science
questions are delivered at required scales by IMOS facilities. Blue = directly measured variable; Red = derived
variable; Orange = could be derived; Green = relative derived estimate.
Argo
XBT
Ships of
Opportunity
(SOOP)
Sea Surface Temperature
Air-Sea Fluxes
Biochemistry (pCO2)
Tropical RV
National Reference Stations
Shelf Moorings
Shelf arrays
Acidification Moorings
Temperature loggers
Deep water
Moorings
Air-sea fluxes
Satellite
Remote Sensing
Sea Surface Temperature
Ocean gliders
Deep water arrays
Sea Surface Height
Sea Gliders
Slocum gliders
Wireless sensor networks
Notable gaps:
The Research Infrastructure Road Map identifies the following gaps in the current observing
capability that would address climate variability and weather extremes:




Lack of direct air-sea flux measurements in the tropical oceans north of Australia limits
understanding of phenomena like the MJO and IOD and their influence on Australian climate.
Spatial and temporal coverage of current measurements are insufficient and it is important
to understand effects of extreme climatic events.
Oxygen data is only measured in oceanic water and needs to be matched by data streams
from the shelf, particularly to monitor after extreme weather events.
Gap in the data from the deep water moorings monitoring the EAC.
Future priorities:
 Maintain and enhance the IMOS infrastructure that is presently in place and increase spatial
and temporal coverage, if it can be done efficiently and economically.
 Maintaining the SOFS air-sea flux mooring remains the highest priority Australia.
60




Look for opportunities to fill the gap in air-sea flux measurements north (e.g. in regions
relevant to MJO) and south of the continent (e.g. south of the SOFS site, to sample fluxes at
higher latitude). Past collaborations with JAMSTEC in Japan and NOAA/PMEL in the USA
may be built on in the future to allow this to proceed. Extending the air-sea flux network
from Ships of Opportunity could also help address these gaps.
Increase deployment of slocum and/or sea gliders on repeated cross-shelf transects in Qld,
NSW, WA and SA and SEA with additional taskable deployments to specific impacted regions
during and after extreme events.
Maintain a footprint in the Kimberley coastal region.
Support and maintain offshore observations such as Argo floats and XBTs, in order to
understand both remote and local large scale climatic drivers of extreme climatic events.
7.3 Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows
The waters around Australia form a complex intersection of the Pacific and Indian Oceans (Figure
7.11). The main large-scale influences on this ocean region arise from the two major subtropical gyre
systems; the South Pacific in the east and the Indian Ocean in the west. These ‘gyres’ are the
pathway followed by the flow in each ocean basin. Australia is therefore influenced by two major
boundary current systems: the EAC, which forms the western boundary current of the South Pacific
gyre, and the LC, a unique poleward-flowing eastern boundary current of the Indian Ocean gyre.
There are also two major ‘gateways’ or inter-basin flows between these ocean regions; the
Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), an ocean pathway through the deep channels connecting the western
Pacific and the northeast Indian Ocean, and the Tasman Outflow (TO) which provides a trajectory
around Tasmania for the residue of EAC to penetrate into the Indian Ocean (Ridgway and Dunn,
2007), thus connecting the Pacific and Indian Ocean subtropical gyres. To the south of Australia, is
the northern extent of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, the world’s largest ocean current. The
southern Australian coast, and particularly Tasmania also have a complex interaction between the
EAC from the east (stronger in summer), the Leeuwin Current/Zeehan Current from the west
(stronger in winter), and the subtropical front (STF) to the south.
61
Figure 7.11: Boundary Currents in the Australian region (image provided by CSIRO).
In this section, the main boundary currents and interbasin flows in the Australian region are
described. While the major boundary currents have their own unique features, the high level
questions are focussed around the boundary current fluxes of heat mass and salt, drivers of
variability and change in boundary currents and the dynamics of boundary current key features such
as separation/bifurcation zones, and eddy generation/fate.
7.3.1
East Australian Current (EAC) system (including Tasman Outflow, Flinders Current and Gulf
of Papua Currents)
East Australian Current
The EAC is the major western boundary current of the South Pacific subtropical gyre. As the South
Equatorial Current (SEC) reaches the Australian shelf in the Coral Sea it bifurcates to form a
northward limb called the Gulf of Papua Current, while the southward limb forms the EAC. The flow
of the EAC along Australia’s east coast has been described to occur in four stages: 1) formation in the
south Coral Sea (15-24⁰S); 2) intensification of the current off northern NSW (22-35⁰S); 3) separation
stage from the coast (31-33 ⁰S); and 4) declining to eddies and coastal fingers off southern NSW,
eastern Victoria and Tasmania (38⁰S) (Ridgway and Dunn, 2003). The portion that continues south
past the separation is referred to as the EAC Extension which flows south to Tasmania, either turning
eastward as part of the southern limb of the subtropical gyre or westward as the Tasman Outflow,
which feeds into the Flinders Current, and is thought to form the Leeuwin Undercurrent (LUC). The
EAC is also Australia’s largest current, typically 30 km wide and 200 m deep and it plays a critical role
in removing heat from the tropics and releasing it to the mid-latitude atmosphere (Roemmich et al.,
2005). This heat transfer is a dominant environmental influence on regional climate and fisheries
production along the eastern seaboard (Poloczanska et al., 2007). The EAC is complex and highly
energetic travelling up to 4 knots (2 ms-1), with a mean transport estimated as 20-32 Sv (Ridgway
62
and Godfrey, 1994, Mata et al., 2000). However, its seasonal cycle is large compared to the mean
flow, with estimates of transport ranging from a maximum of 36.3 Sv in summer and a minimum of
27.4 Sv in winter (Ridgway and Godfrey, 1997). The EAC has ~5 fold greater volume transport than
the seasonally flowing LC on the west coast.
Off NSW the variability of the EAC is so large, as a result of the separation from the coast, that very
often a single continuous current cannot be identified, with large mesoscale eddies dominating the
flow (Bowen et al., 2005, Mata et al., 2007). The separation has been ascribed to various sources:
wind stress, coastal geometry (i.e. the westward retraction of the coast), bottom topography, or the
interruption of the basin circulation by New Zealand (Ridgway and Dunn, 2003). The current is
generally known to separate anywhere between 29 and 32oS, however, recent work shows a bimodal separation pattern with a distinct preference for separation either at 29oS or 31-32oS (Cetina
Heredia et al. in prep). The largest of the EAC eddies are 200-300 km in diameter and 2-3 of these
warm-core eddies are generated annually with lifetimes often exceeding a year (Nilsson and
Cresswell, 1981, Bowen et al., 2005). They follow variable southward trajectories, but are generally
constrained within the deep basin just offshore from the EAC extension. Cold-core eddies are also
embedded in this flow.
Long-term observations from an ocean reference site in Tasmania (Maria Island) have shown
warming trends much greater than the average global ocean trend: 2.3°C vs 0.6°C respectively over
the past 100 years (Ridgway, 2007b). This temperature increase in Tasmanian waters has been
ascribed to the EAC, with the long-term record indicating a poleward advance of this boundary
current. This intensification of the EAC near its southern limits has been attributed to mid-latitude
changes in ocean circulation driven by changes in wind stress and curl. There is also evidence that
the SAM positive trend has driven a spin up and southward shift of the south Pacific subtropical gyre
(Cai, 2006, Roemmich et al., 2007, Hill et al., 2008) and thus the intensification and poleward
movement of the EAC into the Tasman Sea. The impact of ENSO on the EAC remains an active area
of research. Ridgway (2007b) suggests that ENSO has very little impact on the EAC, as the signal
follows the waveguide through the Indonesian archipelago and continues down the west coast of
Australia. However, on decadal timescales, the strength of the EAC Extension and the Tasman Front
are anti-correlated, representing two gyre scale circulation states. This has been related to decadal
ENSO variability projecting onto the South Pacific westerly winds (Hill et al., 2011).
Gulf of Papua Current
As the northern part of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) encounters the continental margin of
Australia, an equatorward western boundary current system is formed. At depth, northerly flow
starts as far south as 22°S (Fig. 7.12) which results in the subsurface Great Barrier Reef Undercurrent
(GBRUC). When the GBRUC merges with the surface flow north of about 15°S the North Queensland
Current (NQC) is formed. The easterly flow of the NQC detected south of the Louisiade Archipelago
that has been labelled the Hiri Current (Qu and Lindstrom, 2002). All three regional currents are
parts of what is argued to be a single system referred to as the Gulf of Papua Current (Burrage et al.,
2012).
63
Figure 7.12. The component currents (GBRUC, NQC, HC) forming the Gulf of Papua Current (Source Ganachaud
2012).
Tasman Outflow
The Tasman Outflow derives from the EAC Extension flowing westward around southern Tasmania
mainly at intermediate depths between 500 and 1200 m. It can be traced to the eastern Indian
Ocean with an important impact on the global ocean circulation, connecting the gyre systems in the
Pacific and Indian Oceans (Ridgway and Dunn, 2007), and forming a third element of the global
thermohaline circulation (Speich et al., 2002). The Tasman Outflow, together with the EAC, provides
a mechanism driving the variability in the eastern Subantarctic Zone.
Flinders Current
The Flinders current (FC) is a slope current which flows along Australia’s southern shelves and it is
fed by the Tasman Outflow (Ridgway and Dunn, 2007). This westward subsurface boundary flow is
also partially forced by Southern Ocean Sverdrup dynamics (Middleton and Cirano, 2005). It is an
upwelling favourable flow with enhanced onshore nutrient exchange (Middleton and Bye, 2007).
The FC intensifies as it moves westward and provides source waters for the Leeuwin Undercurrent
(LUC) once rounding Cape Leeuwin. The FC appears to be implicated in cross-shelf exchange and is
important to the ecosystems of the region, with the upwelling favourable bottom boundary layer
enhancing onshore exchange of nutrients.
7.3.2
The Leeuwin Current (LC) system (including the Zeehan Current)
The Leeuwin Current (LC) originates off the North West Cape and flows down the Western Australian
coast in winter, bringing warm, relatively fresh water. The LC is generated by the meridional steric
height gradient in the southeast Indian Ocean and associated eastward currents flowing toward
northwest and west coast of Australia (Godfrey and Ridgway, 1985). The LC current turns southward
approaching the coast (under dynamic control of the poleward Kelvin wave guide), and flows down
the pressure gradient along the whole length of Western Australia past Cape Leeuwin. It is the only
64
subtropical poleward flowing boundary current on the eastern side of an ocean in the world
(Ridgway and Condie, 2004). It is a shallow (< 300 m) and narrow band (< 100 km wide) of relatively
warm, lower salinity water of tropical origin that flows southward, mainly above the continental
slope from Exmouth to Cape Leeuwin (Smith et al., 1991, Ridgway and Condie, 2004). The maximum
flow of the current is located at about the 500m isobath. At Cape Leeuwin it pivots eastward,
spreads onto the continental shelf and flows towards the Great Australian Bight extending along the
south coast of Australia as a shelf current and down the west coast of Tasmania as the Zeehan
Current. This represents a 5500km path, the longest continuous ocean current system in the world.
The source of the LC water is from the west tropical/subtropical Indian Ocean and the northeast
continental shelf. The southeast Trade Winds, in the Pacific Ocean, drive the SEC westwards
advecting warm surface waters towards Indonesia. This results in the flow of warm, low salinity
water from the western Pacific Ocean through the Indonesian Archipelago into tropical regions of
the Indian Ocean, which feed into the LC. It is highly unstable with mesoscale eddies regularly
generated along its path. The eddy energy associated with it is higher than any other eastern
boundary current system (Feng et al., 2005). The heat budget in the LC is dominantly balanced by
the LC heat transport and the heat released through the air-sea interface (Feng et al., 2008).
The LC has a strong seasonal cycle, being strongest during winter when opposing equatorward winds
weaken (Smith et al., 1991, Feng et al., 2003). The underlying source of this seasonality remains
uncertain. In late autumn/early winter, the LC accelerates and rounds Cape Leeuwin off the
southwest coast of WA to enter waters south of Australia, and continues as an eastward shelf
current (the South Australian Current) along that coast (Ridgway and Condie, 2004, Middleton and
Bye, 2007). During the summer season, sporadic wind-driven northward inshore currents and coastal
upwelling events occur in limited shelf regions off the west coast, while wind-driven upwelling is
more persistent off the southern coast of Australia. The location of the ‘core’ of the current also
changes seasonally, with the core of the current located close to the 200 m contour in winter whilst
under the action of the southerly wind stress.
On interannual timescales, variation in the depth of the thermocline associated with ENSO
propagates through the Indonesian archipelago in the equatorial waveguide, and then poleward in
the coastal waveguide, affecting the entire WA coast and into the Great Australian Bight (GAB).
Higher sea level anomalies, warmer sea surface temperatures, and deeper thermocline, and a dose
stronger Leeuwin Current are expected along the coast during La Niña years and vice versa during El
Niño. Observations suggest that the LC has been getting gradually weaker over the last 60 years, but
recent research suggests that this trend reversed in the early 1990’s (Feng et al., 2010).
Initial studies by Thompson (1984, 1987) indicated that there was an equatorward undercurrent
flowing beneath the Leeuwin Current. Termed the Leeuwin Undercurrent (LUC), this undercurrent is
narrow and is located between 250 m and 450 m depth contours, adjacent to the continental slope
(Smith et al., 1991), driven by an equatoward geopotential gradient located at the same depth of
the undercurrent (Thompson, 1984, Woo and Pattiaratchi, 2008). The LUC is closely associated with
the subantarctic mode water (SAMW) formed in the region to the south of Australia. From a
recent model analysis, the Leeuwin Undercurrent appears to be drawing water from the Tasman
Outflow, forming the southern branch of the interbasin connection between the Pacific and the
Indian Ocean (Van Sebille et al., 2014).
65
The Zeehan Current (ZC) is a current that runs southeastward along the continental shelf edge of
western Bass Strait and western Tasmania throughout the year. Its maximum speed is about 1 knot
and it is strongest in winter and weakest in summer. In winter the ZC rounds southern Tasmania and
proceeds as far north as Schouten Island, where it is entrained and carried away to the southeast by
the remnants of the EAC. In summer the ZC only reaches the southern end of Tasmania before it is
wrapped into the EAC, which reaches further southward in summer (~ 200 km or more south of
Tasmania) (http://www.marine.csiro.au/~lband/yacht_races/yyzeecur.html). The ZC is the final
stage of a continuous southeastward flow from NW Australia to Tasmania (Ridgway and Condie,
2004).
7.3.3
The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF)
The ITF is an ocean current that flows between the Pacific and Indian Oceans through the Indonesian
archipelago (Figure 7.13). This flow has a major influence on both the climate of the Indian Ocean
and the global oceans. The ITF is generated by the wind field over the Pacific Ocean, primarily the
Trade Winds, which pile up water on the western side of the ocean creating a pressure gradient
from the Pacific toward the Indian Ocean. The ITF transport is particularly sensitive to the zonal wind
anomalies over the equator in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, with the largest single component
flowing in the narrow passage between Darwin and Timor Leste (Sprintall et al., 2009). While its net
mass (volume) transport is moderate (~10 Sv), the current transports a significant amount of heat
because it is the only location in the global ocean where warm tropical water flows from one basin
to another, and ultimately has to be replaced by cold water at higher latitudes.
Figure 7.13. A map of the ITF, showing observations made during the INSTANT process study (2003-2006)
(Gordon 2001).
The ITF is highly variable on seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales (Meyers et al., 1995,
Meyers, 1996, Wijffels and Meyers, 2004, Sprintall et al., 2009 and references within Sprintall et al).
The largest and most persistent mode of variation in the ITF is associated with the ENSO
phenomenon. This signal, as far as it is observed at this stage, is largely consistent with linear
dynamical theory. The coastal (Kelvin) wave guide off WA runs northward (following the 200m depth
66
contour) to a point off northeastern Papua New Guinea where it joins the Pacific equatorial (Rossby)
wave guide. The confluence of waveguides allows large perturbations in depth of the thermocline
during the ENSO cycle to propagate into the Indian Ocean and down the WA coast. ITF has
strengthened and become shallower in vertical structure (Gordon et al., 2012), however, the
downstream impacts on the ocean boundary currents off the northern and Western Australia coast
have not been studied. There is evidence that the ITF may play an important role in connecting the
IOD with ENSO one year later. Numerical simulations using a hierarchy of ocean models and climate
coupled models have shown that the interannual sea level depressions in the southeast Indian
Ocean during IOD force enhanced ITF to transport warm water of the Pacific warm pool to the Indian
Ocean, producing cold subsurface temperature anomalies, which propagate to the eastern
equatorial Pacific, inducing significant coupled ocean atmosphere evolution (Yuan et al., 2013).
7.3.4
Antarctic Circumpolar Current and Antarctic Circumpolar Wave
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the largest current in the world, carrying 150 Sv eastward
around the Southern Ocean (SO), and has a major influence on Earth’s climate and ocean circulation.
It is closely coupled to the SO overturning circulation and therefore critical for this region (Marshall
and Radko, 2003). The ACC thermally isolates Antarctica, with much of the flow occurring along
narrow jets or fronts. Water properties across fronts change dramatically while between the fronts
they are relatively uniform (Fig. 7.14) (Orsi et al., 1995, Sokolov and Rintoul, 2007). From north to
south, the fronts and zones of the SO are: the Subtropical Front, the Subantarctic Zone, the
Subantarctic Front, the Polar Frontal Zone, the Polar Front, and the Antarctic Zone. The ACC subpolar
fronts extend throughout the water column and are clearly evident in maps of sea surface height
(Sokolov and Rintoul, 2007, 2009b, a). In contrast, the Subtropical Front is restricted to the upper
400 m and has only a weak dynamic signature (Ridgway and Dunn, 2007).
The ACC transport varies on timescales from days to years (Aoki, 2002, Hughes et al., 2003, Meredith
et al., 2004) in response to westerly winds on the SO. On decadal time scales it has been suggested
that there has been only a small change in ACC transport despite the fact that westerly winds have
increased over the SO (Böning et al., 2008). Recent research has focussed on whether the ACC will
shift south and increase in strength with the strengthening and southward contraction of the
southern hemisphere westerly winds associated with SAM. Although a shift south has been observed
(Böning et al., 2008, Gille, 2008, Sokolov and Rintoul, 2009b), the link to changes in winds from
observations is not conclusive. Whether or not the ACC is spinning up in response to increased winds
is also a topic of active debate. IPCC class models, which are not eddy resolving, suggest the ACC will
spin up due to stronger wind forcing, driving stronger transport. However, eddy-resolving models
tend to suggest the ACC exhibits an “eddy saturated state” where increases in wind enhance the
eddy field rather than increase the circumpolar transport significantly (Straub, 1993, Hogg et al.,
2008, Farnetti and Delworth, 2010, Rintoul and Naveira Garabato, 2013). A convergence of the
Ekman transport on the northern side of the ACC leads to downwelling in that side while and the
divergence leads to the upwelling on the southern side. Therefore the ACC in maintained through
the geostrophic balance driven by Ekman pumping combining with buoyancy forcing (Wang et al.,
2011).
67
Figure 7.14. The main fronts of the Southern Ocean; The Subtropical Front (ST), the Subantarctic Front (SAF),
the Antarctic Polar Front (PF and the Australian Circumpolar Current (ACC). .From Orsi et al (1995).
The Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) is thought to propagate around the Antarctic with a period
of four years exposing boundary currents to with temperature changes of up to 1oC along Australia’s
southern shelves. The ACW is postulated to result from an interaction of the oceanic and
atmospheric boundary layers, has a four year period and amplitude of 0.5 oC off South Australia
(White and Peterson, 1996, Baldwin and Thompson, 2009), and may be tied to the ENSO
cycle(Middleton and Bye, 2007). The impact of this wave on shelf and slope circulation off southern
Australia is not known.
7.3.5
Eddy Processes in boundary currents.
The ocean is a very turbulent environment, with variability dominated by mesoscale eddies over
periods of days to weeks. There are very energetic regions of mesoscale eddies associated with the
major current systems: the EAC, the ACC and to a lesser extent the LC (Figure 7.15).
Eddies play an important role in the dynamical and heat balances of the major current systems,
acting to modulate the strength of the mean currents and their regional temperature footprint. They
also flux heat and nutrients across current systems and isobaths. Along the Australian shelf break,
the eddy field likely mediates the transport of these quantities between the offshore and shelf
environments. Eddies also feed back into regional weather patterns, and are thought to influence
the path of East Coast Lows (see Section 7.2.2.3).
68
Figure 7.15. The RMS (root mean square) variability of sea surface height determined from satellite altimetry
data 1992-2006. Data from the Collecte, Localization, Satellites (CLS)/Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation
of Satellite Oceanographic Data (AVISO) ‘‘Mean Sea Level Anomaly’’ (MSLA) maps, which are produced by
mapping data from several satellite altimeters [Le Traon et al., 1998].
7.3.6
Spatial and temporal scales
Our understanding of how these current systems vary on interannnual and longer timescales is far
from complete and remains a major research challenge. What is clear, however, is that the major
modes of variability identified previously have important influences on these current systems.
For example, on interannual time scale (Figure 7.16), ENSO in the tropical Pacific induces strong
responses in the LC off the west and south coasts of Australia, due to the existence of equatorial and
coastal waveguides. During the La Niña (El Niño) events, deep (shallow) anomalies in thermocline
depth are transmitted along the west and south Australian coasts, inducing high (low) sea level
anomalies, strengthened (weakened) LC volume transport, eddy energetics, and poleward transport
of warm waters (Pearce and Phillips, 1988, Feng et al., 2003, Clarke and Li, 2004, Wijffels and Meyers,
2004, Feng et al., 2005, Middleton and Bye, 2007, Feng et al., 2008). In contrast, on the east coast,
there is little evidence of any ENSO influence on the EAC system (Ridgway, 2007b).
Multi-decadal variations in the tropical Pacific (e.g. Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO) have also been
found to influence the low-frequency variability of the Fremantle coastal sea level, an index of the
strength of the LC (Feng et al., 2004). The strength of the EAC Extension is negatively correlated with
the Tasman Front on decadal timescales, which suggests that there is a gating between these two
currents (Hill et al., 2011). This is due to enhanced wind stress curl in the South Pacific, which
favours the EAC extension pathway over the Tasman Front, and is related to decadal ENSO variability.
Decadal warming (cooling) in the tropical Pacific is associated with a weaker (stronger) South Pacific
wind stress curl maximum, a weaker (stronger) EAC Extension, and a stronger (weaker) Tasman
Front (Sasaki et al., 2008, Hill et al., 2011).
69
Figure 7.16: A Stommel diagram of the spatial and temporal scales of boundary current processes.
7.3.7
Modelling activities
BLUElink is Australia’s Ocean Forecasting Project, delivered through a partnership between CSIRO,
BOM and the Royal Australian Navy and produces 10 day ocean forecasts. Now in its third iteration,
BLUELink includes three components:

OceanMAPS, a near-global data assimilating and forecasting model is currently based on a
nested grid with 1/10° horizontal resolution around Australia and coarser resolution elsewhere.
This version will be replaced within the next two years by an operational model with a nearglobal grid of 1/10° horizontal resolution;

ROAM, a Relocatable Ocean-Atmosphere Model which is based on the CSIRO developed Sparse
Hydrodynamic Ocean Code (SHOC) Code, and is designed to nest inside OceanMAPS at userspecified spatial resolution;

LOMS; a Littoral Ocean Modelling System, which runs a wave-current-sediment model (Xbeach).
The ROAM and LOMS models are designed to be easily configured to support Navy operations.
Modelling boundary currents poses challenges, they are difficult to approximate in the coarse (0.5-1
degree). IPCC class Earth System Model ocean component has a grid spacing of half a degree and as
a result, boundary currents are generally broader and weaker, and lack frontal structure. Eddy
permitting ocean models, such as Australia’s BLUELink, provide more accurate representation of
boundary currents (Smith et al., 2000). The resolution and prediction of the eddy field and its
impacts on the structure of the mean ocean flow is a key research challenge.
70
7.3.8
Science questions
To understand boundary currents, their drivers and dynamics, observations are required at basin
(1000’s km) to eddy (10km) scales.
The high-level science questions that will guide the IMOS observing strategy in this area are related
to:
Fluxes:



Seasonal, interannual and multidecadal variation in mass, heat and salt transport of
Australian boundary currents and inter-basin flows
Feedback of boundary currents into regional climate
Relative contribution of air-sea fluxes, mean flow, and eddies to the regional heat and
freshwater budget of Australia’s oceans
Drivers:




Cause of variation in current strength
Mechanisms that drive seasonal cycles of boundary currents
Amount and type of change in boundary currents attributable to human drivers
Relationship between boundary currents and modes of climate variability
Dynamics:



7.3.9
Dynamical connection between boundary currents, interbasin flows and gyres in the
Australian region
Dynamics associated with temporal and spatial changes in boundary currents, such as the
bifurcation of the South Equatorial Current and the separation of the EAC from the coast
Processes that control variations in the strength of the eddy field associated with major
Australian current systems
Variables required to address science questions
The waters around Australia form a complex intersection of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, strongly
influenced by the boundary currents (EAC, LC), interbasin flows (ITF, Tasman Outflow) and regional
current systems (GPC, ACC, FC, ZC) surrounding the continent. These current systems have a central
role in transferring heat, salt and nutrients into the coastal region. They vary on inter-annual and
longer timescales, influenced by the major modes of climate variability (e.g. ENSO), and can also
feedback into the climate system. The boundary current systems are therefore crucial to
understanding local manifestations of global ocean processes and their influence on regional marine
ecosystems. Therefore, to understand boundary currents, their drivers, and their dynamics,
observations of temperature, salinity, velocity, fluxes, sea surface height and wind stress are
required at basin scales (1000’s km) to eddy scales (10km) (Table 7.5).
71
Wind velocity (stress)
Internal waves
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature – subsurface
Temperature - Surface
Table 7.5: The variables required to address Boundary Currents and Interbasin Flow science questions.
Fluxes (Mass, Heat, Salt)
Drivers
Dynamics
7.3.10 Platforms required to deliver observations
Monitoring boundary currents and determining their heat, mass and salt fluxes demands multiple
observational techniques within IMOS (Table 7.6). Shelf and deep water Moorings are being
deployed in the narrowest and most coherent sections of the ITF and EAC. Ocean Gliders, Ocean
Radars and National Reference Station Moorings are being used to look at boundary current
dynamics and their interaction with circulation on the continental shelf. Argo Floats and Ships of
Opportunity are providing broad scale context and drivers, with Satellite altimetry and SST providing
broad spatial and temporal resolution. Observations required under the previous themes will also be
used to resolve boundary current drivers, basin-scale flow and broad spatial and temporal resolution.
Wind velocity (stress)
Waves – internal
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature- Subsurface
Temperature– surface
Table 7.6: How variables required to address the high-level Boundary Currents and Interbasin Flow science
questions are delivered at required scales by IMOS facilities. Blue = directly measured variable; Red = derived
variable; Orange = could be derived.
Argo
Ships of Opportunity
(SOOP)
XBT
Sea Surface Temperature
Air-Sea Fluxes
Deep water Moorings
Air-Sea Fluxes
Deep water arrays
Ocean Gliders
Seagliders
Moorings
National Reference Stations
Shelf Arrays
72
Ocean Radar
WERA
CODAR
Animal Tagging
Biologging
Satellite Remote Sensing
Sea Surface Temperature
Sea Surface Height
Notable gaps:
The Research Infrastructure Roadmap identifies the following gaps in the current observing
capability that would address major boundary currents and interbasin flows:



Regions with very limited infrastructure and/or observations such as the Gulf of Carpentaria,
Timor Sea, Torres Strait, Bass Strait and South East Qld
Lack of sustained observations in several boundary and shelf currents around Australia.
Gap in the data from the deep water moorings monitoring the EAC.
Future priorities:
 The highest priority is to maintain the EAC and ITF arrays, which are providing the first long time
series from Australia’s major boundary currents and inter-basin flows.
 Design and test a strategy for boundary current monitoring using gliders. The reinstatement of
the EAC Deep Water Mooring to test the feasibility of gliders to monitor boundary and shelf
currents provides the opportunity to test it
 Collect nutrient samples from the ITF and EAC arrays
 It is highly desirable to extend the Two Rocks transect to cover the full width of the Leeuwin
Current, i.e. extend the Two Rocks mooring transect both into deep water, and to the nearshore
region.
 Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
 Improve and expand coverage of sea gliders in Qld, SA, WA and NSW.
7.4 Continental Shelf and Coastal Processes
Australia’s coastal oceanography is dominated by the influence of boundary currents discussed in
Section 7.3. These current systems transfer heat, salt and nutrients onto the continental shelf and
into the coastal region. It is at the interface between the currents and the shelf that the large scale
climate patterns such as ENSO, PDO, and the SAM undergo regional modulation through the
interaction of the currents, eddies, local coastal flows. These manifestations are distinct regional
features which have become the focal points of coastal Node activities and are the focus of a range
of regional modelling activities, which go hand in hand with the observing system. The broad,
shallow shelf seas of the tropical northwest are influenced by the ITF. These shelf waters mix with
tropical/sub-tropical Indian Ocean waters forming the LC off Northwest Cape in WA. The LC uniquely
poleward-flow prevents WA from having a large upwelling driven ecosystem like other eastern
73
boundaries. It also brings tropical species to relatively high latitudes down the coast of Western
Australia. Mesoscale eddies formed within the LC drive cross-shelf exchanges off the WA coast with
enhanced concentrations of chlorophyll are observed in the warm-core eddies (Feng et al., 2007).
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) dominates the physical, chemical and biological processes along
Australia’s northeast shelf region. The prevailing onshore currents interact with the outer GBR,
which then determines how these waters interact with the GBR lagoon and vice versa.
The New South Wales coast has an extremely narrow shelf, combined with a very dynamic and eddy
driven EAC flowing southward along the shelf edge. The separation of the EAC from the coast
spawns eddies which impinge on the continental shelf. They have a strong influence on shelf
processes, nutrient inputs and ocean productivity.
Tasmanian waters form a dynamically interesting confluence of subtropical and subantarctic
influences; the EAC Extension travels down the east coast and is dominant in summer, the Zeehan
current flows down the west coast and is dominant in winter, and the subtropical front vacillates to
the south.
The upwelling zones in the GAB feed some of the most productive fisheries in Australia. These
upwelling zones are strongly moderated by seasonal variability in opposing shelf and slope currents;
the eastward Leeuwin Current on the shelf (stronger in winter) and the westward Flinders current on
the slope (stronger in summer). Both the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsular and the Bonney coast
upwelling systems are stronger in summer. In winter, there is a combination of downwelling
favourable conditions, a stronger Leeuwin Current and local wind forcing.
While there are regional variations in the characteristics of the continental shelf, there are some key
processes which are prominent throughout much of Australia’s coastline, and ultimately determine
biological productivity on the shelf. These include boundary currents – particularly eddy-shelf
interactions, upwelling and downwelling, coastal currents, and wave climate (including internal
waves and tides).
7.4.1
Boundary current eddy –shelf interactions
Along the temperate east and west coasts, eddies formed in the boundary current regions transport
heat, nutrients and other properties between the open ocean and the shelf. This is a two way
process with outflows of freshwater and nutrients also being entrained from the shelf into deep
currents, in addition to the encroachment of boundary currents and associated eddies onto the shelf.
It is at the interface between the currents and the shelf that large-scale climate variations such as
ENSO and SAM undergo regional modulation through the interactions of currents, eddies and local
coastal flows. Hence, these very local manifestations of global processes are crucial in determining
their influence on regional marine ecosystems. Observations are required in the boundary currents
and across the shelf to determine the nature of this current/shelf connection.
On the east coast of Australia, from southern Queensland down to Tasmania, the combination of a
strong eddy field and a narrow shelf means that eddies have a strong influence on shelf processes
and the cross shelf exchange of properties (see Figure 7.11). Eddies are formed about 3 or 4 times
per year (Marchesiello and Middleton, 2000). On separation from the coast, the EAC sheds anticyclonic (warm core) eddies which transport heat into the Tasman Sea, or turn northeast and
coalesce back into the main current. Cyclonic (cold core) eddies can be generated as the EAC
74
meanders and separates along the northern NSW coast, sometimes entraining coastal waters, and it
is thought this process might be important in larval recruitment. In the north of Queensland, the
circulation reveals the SEC filamented as jets as it bifurcates when it meets the Queensland
continental shelf. Embedded within these jets are large eddies that can be cyclonic or anti-cyclonic.
As eddies move toward the shelf, their momentum squeezes waters from depth up onto the shelf,
producing a cross shelf flow that results in warm surface Coral Sea waters impinging on the shelf.
However, it also drives cooler water from depth along the seafloor toward the shelf. The shelf break
and outer reef topography can also produce instabilities in the flow forming smaller scale eddies
between the main boundary current flow and the reef, enhancing mixing and cross shelf
components of flow. Shear instabilities also occur along the shelf break where there are significant
density changes between outer shelf waters and the Coral Sea.
On the west coast, eddies form due to the interaction of the LC with topography (Figure 7.17). The
eddy field is strongest in winter, when the LC is strongest. Eddies form and propagate offshore,
driving cross shelf exchange of heat, nutrients and larvae (Domingues et al., 2006, Moore Ii et al.,
2007, Waite et al., 2007). Warm core eddies have been associated with increases in primary
production, as they entrain nutrient rich shelf waters. In the northwest shelf, ITF waters flood the
shelf via the offshore pathway (the Eastern Gyral Current) and the Holloway Current, with local
eddies and internal tides affecting cross-shelf transport and modifying water properties through
vertical mixing.
Figure 7.17. Ocean colour image showing the eddy structure of the Leeuwin Current. The higher chlorophyll
water is located on the shelf and is entrained into the Leeuwin Current and its eddies.
The interaction of boundary currents with the shelf/slope region off South Australia is highly
seasonal, being forced by both the Leeuwin (shelf) and Flinders (subsurface, offshore) currents.
Dense waters formed in the Spencer Gulf are entrained in offshore currents (Middleton and Bye,
2007).
75
The surface flow of the EAC and LC current systems come into direct contact off south eastern
Australia, in addition to the subtropical front, which is just to the south. The differences in forcing
mechanisms, water masses and seasonal expression directly influence shelf/slope exchanges around
Tasmania (Ridgway, 2007a).
7.4.2
Upwelling and downwelling
The classic wind driven upwelling systems seen on the west coasts of major continents (i.e. California
Current, Benguela Current, etc) are not seen in Australian waters. While upwelling occurs at
locations on the west, south and east coasts, it is strongly modulated (or driven) by boundary
current processes and current interactions with bathymetry.
Wind driven upwelling
In South Australia, summer wind driven upwelling is found in the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula
region and along the Bonney and Otway Coasts towards the South Australian/Victorian border. On
the Bonney Coast, a surface temperature signature for upwelling is found to the west of Portland,
Victoria but not to the east. This “Bonney Upwelling” is the most predictable and intense upwelling
off southern Australia (Butler et al., 2002, Nieblas et al., 2009) and enhances daily primary
productivity, which can be comparable to levels seen in the Benguela and Humboldt boundary
current systems (Van Ruth et al., 2010a).
Observations suggest that summer upwelling along the Kangaroo-Eyre Peninsular originates southsoutheast of Kangaroo Island and is largely subsurface, directed along the 100m isobath to the north
and northwest (Figure 7.18). Along isobath currents are too weak or infrequent to transport
upwelled water to the surface, causing subsurface nutrient enrichment below the mixed layer.
However, upwelling does not always occur when the winds are upwelling favourable, and significant
reductions in wind forced Ekman upwelling can occur where the offshore Ekman transport is
provided by a divergence in the alongshore currents (Middleton and Platov, 2003, Middleton and
Leth, 2004). In winter, winds become downwelling favourable.
76
Figure 7.18: The summertime SST (February 2014) for the SAIMOS region. Arrows denote estimated surface
velocities from radar(blue and red arrows) and altimetry (black arrows) (OceanCurrent map from
http://oceancurrent.imos.org.au/index.htm).
In the west coast of Australia, the LC suppresses upwelling, however, conditions are conducive to
upwelling in the summer when the LC is weaker. Strong southerly winds become established in
summer which overwhelms the pressure gradient on the inner shelf between Cape Leeuwin and
Cape Naturaliste, moving surface waters offshore, and upwelling colder water onto the continental
shelf and pushing the LC offshore (Pearce and Pattiaratchi, 1999). The Leeuwin current then
strengthens in winter and in the absence of the southerly wind stress, it migrates back inshore.
Along the northwest shelf, prevailing winds during summer are upwelling favourable.
Off the coast of NSW, it has been observed that while the winds are generally downwelling
favourable, up to 10 upwelling favourable days per month can occur in the spring-summer period
(Rossi et al., 2014).
Boundary current upwelling
Variations in strength of boundary currents can cause variations in the depth of the thermocline and
therefore variations in the water properties available for transport onto the shelf. Off the east coast,
interaction of the EAC and its eddies with the topography of the shelf can stimulate periodic
upwelling of cool, nutrient-rich water, resulting in phytoplankton blooms (Roughan and Middleton,
2002). A strong southerly boundary current along the lower GBR should produce upwelling
77
favourable conditions, lifting isotherms along the slope through Ekman transport, although
topographic steering and tidal pumping may be more significant at the local scale in drawing deeper
waters onto the shelf. Between 17-19°S, however, where the reef matrix is more open, there is
evidence of oceanic water being forced into the GBR Lagoon; possibly by eddy encroachment of the
EAC onto the shelf (Roughan and Middleton, 2002). South of the Great Barrier Reef there is evidence
of some form of upwelling, although the mechanisms are unknown, some suggestions include
encroachment of the EAC onto the shelf and topographic effects on flow (Oke and Middleton, 2000),
and flow separations from the shelf break (Roughan and Middleton, 2002). Off NSW, the currentdriven upwelling by the EAC dominates the classic wind-driven upwelling (Oke and Middleton, 2000,
Schaeffer et al., 2013). The EAC accelerates off northern NSW where the continental shelf off Smoky
Cape (~31⁰S) narrows in less than 0.5⁰ latitude to just 16 km wide. This acceleration sporadically
generates upwelling of cooler water, rich in nitrate and phosphate, particularly during the summer.
In addition, the separation point can generate sporadic upwelling events; particularly during the
summer when the EAC is strongest.
On the west coast interaction of boundary currents with submarine canyons can also drive upwelling,
e.g. in the Perth Canyon (Rennie et al., 2009). In addition, eddy-induced Ekman pumping in the LC
anticyclonic eddies could be also responsible for upwelling, sustaining enhanced chlorophyll
concentrations throughout their life cycle, while propagating in the South Indian Ocean (Gaube et al.,
2013).
The FC in the south can cause deep upwelling from depths of around 600m through bottom
boundary layer transport, and possibly allow nutrient rich cold water to entrain onto the shelf. This
appears more likely to occur in the western GAB where the FC appears to be stronger in magnitude.
Canyon/topographic upwelling
At some locations around the coast, topographic features such as canyons combined with currents
help create conditions conducive to upwelling producing productivity hotspots. In the case of the
Perth Canyon in WA, the LUC creates cyclonic eddies in the presence of the canyon, driving deep
nutrient rich waters to the surface through the canyon (Rennie et al., 2009).
In South Australia, interactions between the FC, coastally trapped waves and submarine canyons
may also be conducive to localised deep upwelling in the eastern GAB according to theoretical
studies (Kaempf, 2006, 2007).
Evidence suggests that there are regions of persistent upwelling on the Great Barrier Reef driven by
a combination of mechanisms. In the southern GBR, the southward flowing EAC provides favourable
upwelling conditions due to a shallower thermocline at the shelf break. In addition, in the dense reef
structure between 19 and 22°S, strong tidal mixing forces swift exchange through deep reef
passages, providing nutrient enrichment Between 22 and 24°S abrupt contraction of the shelf width
and steepening of shelf bathymetry produces upwelling favourable quasi-stable recirculation
features (Burrage et al., 1996). Similar topography along the east coast south of the GBR suggests
similar phenomena may occur more generally along the east coast but their existence and
importance has yet to be established.
Dense shelf outflows
78
Dense shelf outflows are formed when dense inner shelf water created by a decrease in
temperature or an increase in salinity is transported near the sea bed across the continental shelf.
Off the west coast of Australia, high evaporation along the Pilbara coast and the high freshwater
input along the Kimberley coast result in cross-shelf density gradients which are capable of
influencing cross-shore exchange. High evaporation together with winter cooling results in higher
density water (cooler more saline water) along the coast which results in a high density gravity
current along the sea bed and results in nearshore waters being advected offshore (Brink et al.,
2007). In the southwest, the formation of dense water inshore and its transport across the shelf as a
near bed gravity current is a regular occurrence, during autumn and winter months (Pattiaratchi et
al., 2011). In the south coast, winter winds become downwelling favourable, and in association with
coastal cooling, water generally becomes well mixed over the shelf down to depths of 200-300 m
(Middleton and Bye, 2007). However, it is also known that the cold, salty, dense water formed in
Spencer Gulf during winter can cascade out onto the shelf forming a series of low pressure (salty)
and high pressure (fresh) eddies of around 20km in diameter (Teixiera, 2010).
On the Australian east coast, there is evidence of water outwelling from mangrove forests in the
Great Sandy Strait separating Fraser Island (Middleton et al., 1994), characterized by low
temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and high dissolved nutrients. In Hervey Bay, low freshwater
input and high evaporation created a hypersaline zone which results in a baroclinic gradient that
produces a slow cyclonic circulation within the bay (Grawe et al., 2010). In the Capricorn Channel,
evidence of a dense water cascade across the shelf in the vicinity of Cape Clinton was found. This
cascade appears to originate from hypersaline water escaping the Broad Sound despite the strong
tidal mixing experienced in this region.
Further south, dense waters that flow into the Tasman Sea are generated in Bass Strait (Godfrey et
al., 1980). In Bass Strait the waters are affected by both regions the Great Australian Bight and
Tasman Sea waters, and these water masses mix within the confines of Bass Strait through tides and
wind action. During winter and spring Bass Strait waters are well mixed with little to no stratification
(Baines and Fandry, 1983, Tomczak, 1985, Middleton and Black, 1994) and water temperature is
lower and itssalinity higher than the adjacent Tasman Sea at the same depth. As a consequence Bass
Strait water downwells at the continental slope to a depth of similar density where it turns left
following the shelf edge in a narrow northward flowing stream that created high salinity intrusions
at ~ 300--400 m depth (Tomczak, 1985). This downwelling process occurs at several locations along
the eastern shelf break, with the largest flux (Bass Strait Cascade) occurring in the vicinity of Bass
Canyon (Tomczak, 1985, 1987, Luick et al., 1994) and can be advected as far north as the Coral Sea
(Sandery and Kämpf, 2005)
7.4.3
Shelf Currents
The continental shelf of Australia varies from the very narrow shelf off eastern Australia, to the
extensive reef lagoon environment of the Great Barrier Reef, to the very broad continental shelves
in northern Australia, which is characterised by extreme tides. The boundary currents and interbasin
flows abutting the continental shelf have a strong influence on these shelf circulation systems. Shelf
currents occur around most of the shelf of Australia, except in the temperate east, where the
continental shelf is too narrow.
79
The Great Barrier Reef dominates shelf processes in the north east region, with the reef separated
from the coast by a shallow lagoon. Communication between the open ocean and the lagoon is
defined by narrow passages through the reef. Ocean currents in the form of the SEC jets are
predominantly onshore in this region and are steered by complex topography in the Coral Sea before
reaching the outer GBR. Ultimately, these waters either travel north to form the Hiri Current, or
South to form the EAC. The complexity of this shelf topography means that empirical observations of
currents are only possible in certain locations.
In northwestern Australia, the seasonal Holloway Current is a surface layer poleward flowing ocean
current that brings water perhaps from as far north as the Banda and Arafura seas, southward over
the continental shelf of northwest Australia at the end of the northwest monsoon (D'adamo et al.,
2009). The generating mechanism is the seasonal south-westerly wind piling up water in the Arafura
Sea and Gulf of Carpentaria during the peak of the Australian monsoon, and the current flowing
southward as the wind relaxes during the monsoon transition. In the west coast, the Ningaloo
Current runs inshore and counter to the LC from Shark Bay to Northwest Cape. Similarly in the south,
the Capes Current originates between Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste in summer and flows
north counter to the LC (Pearce and Pattiaratchi, 1999) (Figure 7.19). Both are driven by strong
southerly wind stress. As the LC turns the corner and flows east along the south coast of Australia, it
also becomes a shelf current with flows of 20cm/s eastward in winter; 2-3 times that found in
summer, when currents on the shelf flow westward.
Figure 7.19: Schematic illustrating the flow patterns on the continental margin of SW Australia (Woo and
Pattiaratchi, 2008).
80
Due to narrow shelves on its east and west coasts, Tasmania does not have defined shelf currents.
However, the interaction between the Zeehan Current, EAC, and STF makes for a dynamic shelf
environment at the confluence of 3 different systems. The Bass Strait connects Tasmania to the
mainland. At 80m deep, it is much shallower than surrounding waters. There is also evidence to
suggest that the LC encroaches into the Bass Strait adding to the dynamic nature of this region.
7.4.4
Wave climate, including internal and coastally trapped waves.
Coastally trapped waves (CTWs) are the primary mechanism by which the ENSO signal is transmitted
around the coast of Australia and at a global scale climate change has a significant effect on surface
wave climate (Young et al., 2011). Below the surface, internal waves are a ubiquitous feature of the
world‘s oceans; typically generated by oscillating tidal flow of stratified water over steep topography.
Such waves have large wavelengths (10‘s of kms) and amplitudes equivalent to a significant
proportion of the total water depth. Internal waves interact with shelf currents and drive mixing.
The wave environment on the continental slope and shelf is influenced, in turn, by the circulation
and stratification of open ocean waters adjacent to the boundary.
In the northeast of Australia, coastally trapped waves propagate northwards from south of Fraser
Island and are associated with significant vertical motion of the thermocline which appears to
modulate both upwelling at the shelf break, and the magnitude of shelf currents in the southern
GBR (Griffin and Middleton, 1986). In addition, observational data suggest the existence of very large
(+100 m peak to trough) semidiurnal internal waves along the outer GBR (Wolanski, 1986) that
modify variability in thermocline depth, however, their impact is limited to the outer margin of the
GBR shelf.
Although internal tides and waves off NSW are smaller than those off the North West shelf of
Australia, measureable internal tides and waves do occur in the coastal waters off eastern Australia.
It is, in fact, thought that internal waves generated off the southern portion of New Zealand impact
the Australian coast off southern NSW and/or Tasmania (personal communication L. Rainville 2012).
While the nutrient replenishment may be small in comparison to upwelling events, tidal pumping is
a regular, event in the NSW region. Along with internal waves, CTWs generated as far away as the
North West Shelf by events such as tropical cyclones propagate along the NSW coast (Hamon, 1962,
Freeland et al., 1986, Maiwa et al., 2010, Woodham et al., 2013).
In the south coast of Australia, the shelf currents are also modulated by intense CTWs that enter the
GAB from Cape Leeuwin and by those locally generated by intense storms. On the shelf, water is
advected back and forth along isobaths with periods of 5-20 days, and can be important to crossshelf exchange. The waves generated along the southern shelves drive CTWs within Bass Strait and
on the NSW shelf (Middleton and Black, 1994). The CTWs can also be important to setting the
degree of upwelling (Middleton and Leth, 2004) through the set-up (or otherwise) of alongshore
divergence of the shelf velocity field. Such divergence can “feed” the offshore surface Ekman
transport and shut-down upwelling over the slope. The role of CTWs in setting the degree of
upwelling off southern Australia remains to be determined. In addition, the open southern
Australian coast faces the highest energy surface waves in the world (Short, 1988). Deep water
waves of the Southern Ocean normally exceed 5 m (Chelton et al., 1981) but are attenuated across
the wide continental shelf in the GAB (Provis and Steedman, 1985), resulting in diverse landforms of
81
high and low wave-energy environments occurring along the southern Australian coast. Internal
waves may also be important in vertical mixing as found on the northwest shelf slope.
On the other hand, northern Australia experiences a macro-tidal environment; particularly in the
northwest, which has the largest tidal range for a coastline facing an open ocean (Figure 7.20).
Large-amplitude internal tides propagate across the North West Shelf (NWS) particularly in summer
(Holloway, 1983), when the water column is strongly stratified due to intense solar insolation.
Internal tides may evolve nonlinearly to form internal bores and/or to degenerate into highfrequency internal waves, such as solitary-like waves (Holloway, 1987). Their nonlinear evolution on
the NWS is important from engineering and ecological points of view, as they increase peak nearbottom currents, enhance vertical shear, and modify near-surface currents, which are crucial for
designing offshore structures, daily operation, and emergency response of oil and gas industry on
the NWS. They also enhance mixing (Holloway et al., 2001, Holloway, 2001, Katsumata, 2006), and
are considered to bring nutrient-rich offshore deep water onto the NWS (Holloway et al., 1985).
Figure 7.20: Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT) in Australian waters. Bureau of Meteorology 2012
82
7.4.5
Spatial and temporal scales
Continental shelf and coastal processes are restricted in the scales they cover by the size of the
continental shelf. However, many of the processes are smaller scale. For example, surface waves
have periods of a few seconds, but change on time scales of hours. Their spatial scales range from
the Bragg scatterers (wave heights of a few mm and wavelengths of ~1 cm) that affect radar to
storm waves with wave heights of 10s of m and wavelengths of 100’s of m.
The various shelf and coastal processes described above operate at a range of space and time scales
as shown in Figure 7.21.
Figure 7.21: A Stommel diagram of the spatial and temporal scales of continental shelf and coastal processes.
7.4.6
Modelling activities
There are two approaches to coastal modelling which are generally used in Australian Waters.
The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) is an open source code which is generally favoured by
university researchers for regional studies and process modelling. Currently footprints include
northwest and southwest Western Australia, South Australia, and NSW (Figure 3.11). Observations
are used to validate the models. Data assimilation is available in the code, but is currently an
aspiration for Australian applications.
A new opportunity in model-data synthesis is emerging through the Marine Virtual Laboratory
(MARVL), being developed as part of the national research infrastructure. It brings together the
flexibility of Relocatable Ocean-Atmosphere Model (ROAM) with the search and discovery capability
of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to provide the research community with a
83
powerful tool to conduct regional process studies. MARVL is extending ROAM by the incorporation
of additional models and providing the user with an observation data access capability for
assimilation and/or validation. Through a companion project, the MARVL Information System
(MARVLIS), tools to synthesise models and observations are being developed to support marine
management decision making.
The SHOC model developed by CSIRO underpins regional hydrodynamic models which are being
developed to deliver to management applications. Footprints currently include the Great Barrier
Reef (eReefs project) and the Southern Tasmania (INFORMD project).
In Queensland, the complexity of the continental shelf bathymetry and inflows around the GBR
means that synoptic views can only be realised in hydrodynamic models. The main role of empirical
observations on velocity is calibration and validation of these models, which must incorporate
realistic forcing from the oceanic open boundary to produce accurate results. For computational
reasons, most past models of the GBR have truncated the model domain at 14°S and only limited
direct observations have been made on shelf currents above this latitude. The latest and most
sophisticated hydrodynamic model of the GBR region is an integrated modelling suite known as
eReefs (Schiller et al., 2013) that is designed to become a real-time forecasting system operated by
the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. In the marine space, eReefs is a 3-D baroclinic model that
includes all of the essential forcing functions (winds, tides, atmospheric coupling, bathymetry, etc). It
is resolved at 1km grid resolution on the continental shelf and nested within 4km and 10km models
at larger scales to obtain accurate oceanic forcing from global models. The domain of the 4km grid
extends from Papua New Guinea to the NSW border (encompassing the east coast of Queensland)
and encompasses all of the shallow bathymetry on the Coral Sea. In the vertical, the eReefs model
tracks 47 layers and is being trained against IMOS observations in four dimensions. A surface wave
model for the QLD shelf is also under development as part of the eReefs project with the aim to
simulate information on wave data (significant wave height and period, orbital bottom velocity)
which then can be used to run the sediment transport and biogeochemistry sub-models. Wave
models applied through eReefs include Wavewatch III (v4.11) implemented using source term
physics (Ardhuin et al., 2010) and applied on the GBR4 hydrodynamic model grid.
In NSW, SEAROMS focusses on simulating the EAC, it’s eddy field and upwelling processes (e.g
Macdonald et al 2013a,2013b,2013c). The simulations are complemented by extensive observational
studies focused on slope water intrusion dynamics on the continental shelf.
In the south of Australia, a hydrodynamic, wave and biogeochemical modelling facility was
established in 2007 building on SAIMOS oceanographic data streams. A suite of ROMS based models
were developed; the South Australian Regional Ocean Model (SAROM), and a nested high resolution
Spencer Gulf model (SGM). These models were developed to help deliver sustainable growth and
management of aquaculture, fisheries and marine resources in SA.
The INFORMD project is designed to address improved delivery of modelling products for
management of the coastal marine environment. South-East Tasmania was chosen for the test site
of this project and aims to provide near real-time hydrodynamic modelling of the south-east
Tasmania, including the Huon and Derwent Estuaries, D’Entrecasreaux Channel and Storm Bay. The
hydrodynamic model is forced by global and regional data, which is readily available in real-time. The
model domain includes an IMOS measuring station near Maria Island, and it is nested directly into
84
the global model, which resolves the Australasian region at 10 km, and supplies sea level,
temperature and salinity on the open boundaries. The model is forced with river flow from the Huon
and Derwent Rivers, and uses MesoLAPS atmospheric products for surface flux specification. A high
resolution model is nested within this larger scale model, capable of supplying output at ~100 m
resolution within the estuaries and increasing to ~2 km offshore.
In the west of Australia, both field measurements, from moorings and ship based transects, and
numerical modelling using ROMS are used to conduct the first detailed physical oceanographic study
to quantify transient upwelling and the associated dynamics controlling the Ningaloo Current system.
In the northwest shelf integration of field observations, of both mean and turbulent flows, and the
development and application of numerical ocean circulations model are used to understand
processes in the scales from regional ocean flows down to small scale turbulent mixing and to
quantify the influence of the complex topography on circulation, ocean mixing and hence the
exchange and flushing of material. In addition, field observations are being used to develop and
apply a fully non-hydrostatic circulation model (SUNTANS) to predict the intensity and extent of
internal wave driven dynamics in the region.
7.4.7
Science questions
The following high-level science questions will guide the IMOS observing strategy in this area:
Boundary Current/shelf interactions
 Influence of large scale circulation (boundary currents, gyres and interbasin flows) on the
shelf and coastal environments
Upwelling and Downwelling
 Frequency, magnitude and drivers of upwelling/downwelling processes and slope water
intrusions, and their influence in cross shelf properties exchange
 Boundary currents role on the strength, extent and variability of upwelling/downwelling
 Seasonal and interannual dynamics of upwelling in regional areas
 Distribution, variability and drivers of dense shelf outflows
Shelf Currents
 Magnitude and drivers of shelf currents
 Interaction of boundary currents and shelf currents
Wave Processes
 Role of internal and coastally trapped waves in continental shelf processes (circulation and
stratification)
 Tidal regimes around Australia and influence on shelf processes
 Influence of wind on wave climate and cross-shore exchange
7.4.8
Variables required to address science questions
Australia has a large and varied continental shelf and coastal environment; broad and shallow in the
tropical north and narrow on the sub-tropical east and west coasts. There are key processes
occurring across this environment that provide a focus for observing connections, trends and
variability between global ocean processes, boundary currents and biological responses on the
continental shelf. These include encroachment of warm and cold-core eddies, upwelling and downwelling systems, coastal currents, and wave climates.
85
The IMOS observing strategy for continent shelf and coastal processes is to provide an extensive
national backbone around the continental shelf, and more intensive observations in regions of socioeconomic and ecological significance e.g. coral reefs, biodiversity hotspots, population centres, and
regional development hubs. To understand continental shelf and coastal processes observations are
needed of temperature, salinity, velocity and also biogeochemistry at regional scales (metres to
hundreds of metres) and timescales from minutes to years (Table 7.7).
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
CDOM and Backscatter.
Pigment concentration
Macronutrient concentration
Alkalinity
Total Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Internal waves
Surface waves – spectrum
Surface waves – amplitude
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Variables
Temperature
– subsurface
Temperature - Surface
Table 7.7: The variables required to address Continental Shelf and Coastal Processes science questions.
Eddy-Shelf
interactions
Upwelling/
Downwelling
Shelf Currents
Wave Processes
7.4.9
Platforms required to deliver observations
IMOS national backbone around the continental shelf comprises a network of National Reference
Station Moorings, national access to Satellite remote sensing products (Table 7.8) and the Australian
Ocean Data Network (AODN). The more intensive, region-specific observations that IMOS provides
include a combination of Shelf Moorings, coastal Ocean Gliders, Ocean Radar (for currents and
waves), and Wireless Sensor Networks (on the Great Barrier Reef).
The AODN is particularly important for continental shelf/coastal regions of Australia, as the historical
track record of discoverability, accessibility, usability and interoperability of data has been very poor.
IMOS is seeking to change the national marine and climate information culture by leveraging its
existing infrastructure into a full Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN).
Strong integration between the observing system and the relevant modelling frameworks is also
particularly important in this context. Development of coastal, shelf and national scale
hydrodynamic modelling needs to be tightly coupled with the IMOS national backbone and regional
observing strategies, for the purposes of validation and model development, data assimilation, and
observing system design.
86
Ships of Opportunity
Tropical RV/Temperate MV
Ocean Gliders
Slocum Gliders
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
Total suspended solids
CDOM and backscatter
Chlorophyll concentration
Macronutrient concentration
Alkalinity
Total .Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Internal waves
Surface waves – spectrum
Surface waves – amplitude
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature- Subsurface
Temperature – surface
Table 7.8: How variables required to address the high-level Continental Shelf and Coastal Processes science questions are delivered at required scales by IMOS facilities.
Blue = directly measured variable; Red = derived variable; Orange = could be derived Green = relative derived estimate.
Auto. Underwater Vehicle
National Reference Stations
Moorings
Shelf Arrays
Acidification Moorings
Temperature loggers
Ocean Radar
Animal tagging
WERA
CODAR
Biologging
Wireless Sensor Networks
Sea Surface Temperature
Remote Sensing
Sea Surface Height
Ocean Colour
87
Notable gaps:
Research Infrastructure Roadmap identifies the following gaps in the current observing capability
that would address continental shelf and coastal zone questions:



Inadequate spatial coverage in the near coastal zone. Although IMOS, TERN, ALA and
AuScope all provide infrastructure in the coastal zone, the Roadmap points out that the
combined investment is inadequate for the scale of the coastal zone research and
management/policy challenges (Strategic Roadmap –Australian Government, 2011). For
example there is no instrumentation in The Gulf St Vincent, which borders the Adelaide
Metropolitan Coast, to provide accurate sea state conditions on a regular basis.
Inadequate spatial coverage in the shelf, for example there is negligible data streams (e.g.
water column temperature, salinity and current structure) that could be used for calibration
and validation of the eReefs model on the shelf north of 14o30’S or south of 23o30’S.
Wave, windstress and turbulence measurements in the nearshore areas along the coast.
Future priorities:
 Engage in ongoing discussions to establish observing strategies and monitoring frameworks
that can assess whether a more adequate shelf/coastal observing system can be
implemented through partnership.
 Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending
moorings currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving
radar coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing
platforms such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north
GBR, areas in NSW, GAB in SA and Bass Strait in SEA)
 Re-assess the footprints analysis of National Reference Stations and shelf moorings using
higher resolution model
 Evaluate the value and use of near real time data form coastal moorings and based on needs
consider transitioning or transferring real time data acquisition where it is more needed
 Redesign the EAC mooring and consider the inclusion of the SEQ shelf moorings at the
expense of one of the slope moorings as there may be some redundancy in this part of the
array
 Expand CO2 network on national reference station to ensure ocean acidification progress is
quantified for representative coastal habitats. SOOP BGC could be an alternative
 It is highly desirable to extend the Two Rocks transect to cover the full width of the Leeuwin
Current, i.e. extend the Two Rocks mooring transect both into deep water, and to the
nearshore region.
 Maintain the footprint of mooring observations off the Kimberley coast.
7.5 Ecosystem Responses
Australia’s large ocean territory encompasses a diverse range of marine ecosystems that extend
from the tropics to the Antarctic. In this section we identify the key features and drivers of marine
ecosystems and our state of understanding, and we begin to integrate this information to build a
picture of variability and change in the marine ecosystems. Key knowledge gaps include
understanding how organisms at different trophic levels and water affinities will respond to climate
88
change and variability, productivity drivers and the direct impacts of climate change on the
distribution and abundance variability of organisms.
The ocean’s ability to take up large amounts of heat and carbon help to buffer our climate system,
however, this also has widespread impacts on marine ecosystems. The effect of rising ocean
temperatures, changes in stratification and acidification are of particular concern.
Marine ecosystems are comprised of pelagic and benthic components, each with multiple trophic
levels and variability over space and time. However, the dynamics of pelagic ecosystems can vary
over shorter time scales compared to benthic ecosystems, due to their amenability to physical
forcing. On the other hand, benthic ecosystems can be buffered against physical and chemical
changes in the overlying water column, but resident organisms have limited capacity to migrate.
These fundamental differences between these components of the marine ecosystems will therefore
influence the type of observations that are needed to understand the ecosystems’ response to
climate variability and change.
In Australia, the two major poleward flowing boundary currents, i.e. the EAC and the LC, play a vital
role in regulating the productivity of pelagic and benthic ecosystems. These warm boundary currents
are nutrient poor with only patchy upwelling which lead to low productivity marine systems.
However, nutrient enrichment processes that include cold-core eddies, shelf-edge upwelling,
atmospheric dust inputs and topographic upwelling near capes can cause localised peaks in
productivity. These productivity hotspots are critical to supporting diverse fisheries, as well as
seabirds, marine mammals and sea turtle populations. Boundary current systems also play a key role
in transporting marine organisms, influencing the connectivity of ecosystems. The strengthening of
the EAC has seen a wide variety of species with warm water affinity extend their range down the
east coast of Australia, with many tropical and subtropical species able to exist at relatively high
latitudes due to an increase in temperatures (Johnson et al., 2011).
Another key area around Australia is the Southern Ocean (SO), a highly dynamic system, with
temporal and spatial variability that has a number of Areas of Ecological Significance (AES). Seasonal
changes in circulation, stratification and ice cover boost ecosystem production which makes the SO
one of Australia’s richest pelagic ecosystems, supporting the greatest density and biomass of apex
predators to be found in Australian waters. SO ecosystems are affected by changes in its circulation
and sea-ice cover, and it is thought to be a sensitive early indicator of global climate change
(Houghton et al., 2001). Despite the fact that the SO plays a central role in the global climate system
(Busalacchi, 2004) and increasingly supports human activities such as commercial fishing, the nature
of the interactions between physical and biological processes is poorly understood. The SO is
warming faster than other oceans (Gillet and Thompson, 2003, Böning et al., 2008, Gille, 2008) and
Antarctic sea ice is predicted to reduce 30% by 2100 (Bracegirdle et al., 2008). This will affect
circulation patterns and reduce habitat for the biota, especially for keystone species such as krill.
Increased wind speed is affecting the ACC and richer CO2 water is being circulated to the upper
layers, which may reduce the effectiveness of the SO as a CO2 sink (Le Quere et al., 2007). With the
SO biota adapted to this extreme environment, they are highly vulnerable to shifts in climate.
Changes in phytoplankton are expected to have flow on effects through the entire food web,
impacting the survival of higher predators, krill and finfish. Understanding the response of marine
biota to climate forcing is therefore vital for the management of the marine environment and its
resources.
89
An integrated approach is needed whereby observations ranging from biogeochemistry through to
all trophic levels are undertaken across systems. These observations should encompass variability on
spatial scales that range from broad (national/ocean basin) to regional (i.e. boundary currents) and
local (i.e. bio-region) and timescales that range from multi-decadal to intra-seasonal. In addition, the
observing system needs to develop hand in hand with a range of ecosystem modelling activities,
with observations used to test the relationships identified in qualitative models, inform the design of
an ecosystem monitoring system, or provide data for fully quantitative, data hungry ecosystem
models such as Atlantis.
7.5.1
Ocean Chemistry – Nutrients
About 50% of the global primary production occurs in the oceans providing a major sink for carbon
and a huge supply of oxygen to the global atmosphere. Primary production in the oceans is limited
by nutrient concentrations and light availability. The elements that are most often limiting to
phytoplankton growth or biomass are: C, N, P, Si and Fe. Therefore these elements and their
biogeochemistry are very important to the functioning of our ecosystems. However, observations in
Australian regional seas are patchy for macronutrients such as N, P, and Si (Figure 7.22), and sparse
for important micronutrients such as Fe. On the continental shelf, ecosystems are largely supplied
with nutrients from two external sources: terrestrial run-off from coastal catchments and marine
upwelling from the adjacent ocean. Other nutrient sources include rainwater and nitrogen fixation
by cyanobacteria. Nutrient inventories around the Australian continent show generally low nitrate
concentrations, particularly along the western and eastern coastlines which are both strongly
influenced by poleward flowing boundary currents. Upwelling adds additional loads of dissolved
nutrients to subsurface waters and signatures of upwelling (cold SST, high Chl-a) have been
identified around the east coast and south of Australia. Other processes that seemed to be involved
in nutrient supply around Tasmania and the west coast of Australia are associated with wind
patterns and water mass variation, or cross-shelf exchanges at the shelf break and vertical mixing
due to tropical cyclones, respectively. Relative to dissolved inorganic N and Si, the phosphate
concentrations are high and do not suggest an ecosystem where P is limiting. Si concentrations off
the coast of NSW and Tasmania on the other hand, have shown a decline in the past 30 years,
perhaps in response to variation in the SOI and the strengthening of the EAC (Thompson et al., 2009).
In the case of Fe, phytoplankton growth in large areas of the world’s oceans has been shown to be
limited by this nutrient. In the Australian and Tasmanian regions the main source of Fe is 90ioinfo
dust (Mackie et al., 2008), with delivery that depends on the distribution of drought. Whether the
availability of Fe limits the primary production in Australian coastal waters is an area of active
investigation.
90
Figure 7.22: Regional nutrients: Analysis of all CSIRO surface (0m) data for silicate (left panel), nitrate (middle
panel) and phosphate (right panel). Concentrations are given on the major contours.
7.5.2
Ocean Chemistry – Carbon and acidification
The oceans absorb approximately one third of atmospheric CO2, derived primarily from
anthropogenic activities. As a consequence, pH in the ocean has decreased (increasing acidity) and
its chemical balance altered reducing the concentrations of dissolved carbonate ions (Feely et al.,
2004), a component essential for many marine organisms. The lower carbonate ion concentrations
cause a decrease in the saturation state of major calcium carbonate forms that are precipitated by
marine calcifying organisms (Fabry et al., 2008). The upper ocean pH has declined by about 0.1 since
preindustrial times and will decline by 0.4 if atmospheric CO2 concentrations reach 800ppm by the
end of this century (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003). The SO is predicted to cross a threshold where
aragonite, a form of carbonate produced by many important marine calcifiers, will be
undersaturated by about the middle of this century (Fig. 7.23) with profound effects to high latitude
ecosystems (Orr et al., 2005).
Calcification rates of coral reef builders are predicted to decline significantly during this century
(Kleypas et al., 1999, Langdon and Atkinson, 2005, Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007), with ocean
acidification steadily eroding reef resilience, in part by increasing vulnerability to bioerosion and
cyclone damage (Anthony et al., 2011b), but also by reducing capacity for recovery through impaired
recruitment and growth. In the GBR, there is already evidence of changes occurring in the skeletal
structure of organisms and the chemistry of this important marine ecosystem. However, projections
for ocean acidification are based mainly on the exchange of carbon between atmosphere and
oceanic surface waters (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003, Gledhill et al., 2008) and do not consider carbon
exchange between seawater and benthic communities (Duarte et al., 2013). Recent work has
demonstrated that small changes in benthic composition can alter seawater carbon chemistry
patterns at the local scale and modify the risks coming from the Coral Sea in both directions
(Anthony et al., 2011a, Anthony et al., 2013). Communities dominated by corals and crustose
coralline algae (CCAs) amplify acidification risk, while communities dominated by algae and sand can
partly ameliorate ocean acidification at the local scale. The net result of these additive effects
depends most critically on water depth, residence time, and the mix of primary producers and
calcifiers. To fully understand the risk of ocean acidification in Australian marine ecosystems, it is
necessary to investigate the biological processes driving carbon chemistry variation in coastal and
shelf waters, the oceanographic processes linking open ocean to coastal systems, and the
interactions with ocean warming and changes in other factors such as salinity, nutrients and
turbidity.
91
Figure 7.23: Changes in the saturation state of aragonite for surface waters from the preindustrial era,
represented by the year 1765, until year 2100. Values below one are undersaturated. The saturation states
were modelled using the CSIRO carbon cycle model. Changes after the year 2000 are based on the IS92a
emission scenario are now being exceeded (Canadell et al., 2007), indicating a more rapid approach to
undersaturation. Note the lowered saturation near Antarctic and the declines in saturation state further north.
(Figure generated from CSIRO BGC model using the model simulations of Orr et al., 2005).
7.5.3
Microbial community
Microorganisms are a major player in controlling the function of marine environments. They
comprise up to 90% of the total ocean biomass, are the foundation of the marine food-web, and the
engine-room of the ocean’s major chemical cycles (C, N, P, Si). The composition and biogeochemical
functionality of these microbial assemblages underpins the ecology of marine ecosystems and
mediates the ocean-atmosphere exchange of climatically important gases.
The genetic diversity of microbial organisms in the oceans is an emerging research area.
Metagenomic analysis provides an opportunity to undertake large-scale, spatially-explicit analyses to
quantify and map patterns of microbial biodiversity (Fig. 7.24). This information will improve our
understanding of the distribution of functional groups in relation to essential metabolic processes
such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and denitrification. High resolution microbial
oceanography integrates high spatial and temporal resolution observations of microbial community
composition with biogeochemical and oceanographic observations, which allows the identification
of the links between them.
The Australian Marine Microbial Biodiversity Initiative (AMMBI) program started in 2012with a one
year pilot to test the feasibility of including microbial sampling in the routine, monthly
biogeochemical and oceanographic observation of the IMOS National Reference Stations. The pilot
study was undertaken at three NRS along the EAC and was expanded to all NRS in the 2014-2015
period. This program is now part of a new project, led by Bioplatforms Australia, that will use
92
AMMBI observations and apply its genomics network to perform DNA sequencing to generate the
large-scale datasets scientists require to understand fundamental marine processes.
The aim of AMMBI is to build a marine microbial biodiversity map of Australia that could be
integrated with data on physical environment, biogeochemical cycles, microbial biodiversity and
patterns of human activities.
Figure 7.24. Preliminary results of genomic analysis of the community structure of ammonia 93ioinform
archaea, using a microarray, targeting the gene encoding for one subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase
gene. The microarray detects different varieties of the gene, carried by different archaeal ammonia oxidizers.
The main block depicts a heatmap of the results, with each column representing one sample and each row
representing one clade of archaeal ammonia oxidizers. The bottom block shows contextual data as individual
heat strips. The first strip within the blue square shows the abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea (per mL
of seawater), and the second shows the concentration of nitrite + nitrate (per mL seawater) (L. Boddrossy,
unpublished data).
7.5.4
Pelagic: Plankton
Phytoplankton
A critical gap limiting the predictive capability of our ecosystem models is our lack of knowledge on
how the plankton community will respond to climate change. This uncertainty in the biological
carbon pump needs to be resolved before we can be confident that our models of future climate
change are robust. The biological pump encompasses the phytoplankton and their consumers.
Phytoplankton contributes half of the primary production on earth, and while the “standing biomass”
93
of phytoplankton is small compared to the terrestrial ecosystems, the rate of primary production is
about equivalent due to their rapid lifecycles. They also underpin the entire pelagic food-web, with
variations in primary and secondary productivity related to variations in meteorology and
oceanography in the region and temperature and stratification of the surface ocean being key
determinants of phytoplankton community composition and production. Predicting the response of
phytoplankton productivity and community structure to climate change is complex, with some
modelling studies (Bopp et al., 2001, Boyd and Doney, 2002, Le Quéré et al., 2003, Bopp et al., 2005)
suggesting a global decline in phytoplankton biomass in a warmer world.
In Australia the two poleward warm boundary currents are nutrient poor leading to low productivity
marine systems. However, high rates of primary productivity are found in the south coast of
Australia, particularly of the eastern GAB, due to the influence of upwelled water mass, and are
comparable to levels reported for the highly productive upwelling systems of the Benguela Current
off southern Africa, and the Humboldt Current off the coast of Chile (Van Ruth et al., 2010a, b).
Highest phytoplankton abundances in the region associated with the upwelled water mass is
composed by >5 μm phytoplankton dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, with small flagellates
present but much less abundant (Van Ruth, 2009). In the east of Australia, there is evidence of
phytoplankton species communities changing with diverse consequences to the local ecosystems.
Warm water species are moving southward along the east coast, perhaps associated to the
strengthening of the EAC paving the way for the apparent range extension of warm-water organism
into Tasmanian waters. There is concern that some of these species could be toxic or harmful with
potential blooms causing a shutdown of fisheries and aquaculture operations in the region. In the
northern seas of Australia massive blooms of what could be coccolithophorids have been observed,
and are of sufficient size to have considerable impact on the carbonate chemistry of the regional
seas, potentially increasing the ocean acidity in the region. Around the GBR phytoplankton
community composition typically shows smaller size phytoplankton (pico- and nanoplankton)
offshore and larger size inshore (microplankton, e.g. diatoms). Recent studies of flood plumes show
that fast-growing microplankton compete for spikes of nutrients producing ephemeral blooms that
persist until their zooplankton predators adjust their population sizes (Mckinnon and Thorrold, 1993).
This upwards shift in the size spectrum of the phytoplankton community may advantage some
meroplankton that does not feed efficiently on the small cells normally dominant in shelf waters and
this change is thought to be the trigger for the explosive expansion of the coral-eating starfish
(Fabricius et al., 2010, Furnas et al., 2013).
Ocean colour satellites are the best way to observe large scale changes in phytoplankton abundance
and distribution. The marine and climate science community has highlighted the need for a
consistent, well calibrated time series of ocean colour products to assess primary productivity and
phytoplankton biomass for the Australia’s regional seas and the Southern Ocean. However
phytoplankton community composition records are sparse with good long-time series available off
NSW but not elsewhere.
Zooplankton
Zooplankton are heterotrophic organisms with limited swimming ability relative to the strength of
ambient currents and are distributed throughout all marine environments. Zooplankton can fall into
distinctive categories according to their use of the water column. The biggest distinction is between
the ‘holoplankton’, where all life history stages are planktonic, and the ‘meroplankton’, which is
94
composed predominantly from the early life history stages of pelagic and benthic species. They are
the most numerous multicellular animals on earth and the main secondary producers in the oceans,
transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels and playing an important role in
the biological carbon pump. Zooplankton are good indicators of climate change since most species
are short lived leading to a tight coupling between environmental change and population dynamics
and can therefore show a fast response to changes in temperature and oceanic currents by
expanding or contracting their ranges (Hobday et al., 2006). In addition, recent evidence suggests
that zooplankton could be a more sensitive indicator of change than environmental variables due to
the amplification of their nonlinear response to environmental perturbations (Hobday et al., 2006).
Known general responses of zooplankton to increasing temperature include poleward expansions in
the distribution of individual species and of assemblages, earlier timing of important life cycle events
(phenology), and changes in abundance and community structure.
In Australia, there is evidence that warm-water “signature” species are moving southward into
Tasmania (Johnson et al., 2011). Some of these changes in the zooplankton communities are
associated with changes in nutrient conditions forced by wind-driven circulation (Harris et al., 1991,
Harris et al., 1992), incursion of the EAC, increased water column stability and reduced biological
production (Johnson et al., 2011). The phenomenon of “tropicalization” of temperate plankton
communities has potentially important ecosystem consequences. The reduced nutrient availability in
warm years has led to reduced production and a shift to smaller phytoplankton species, resulting in
a drastic reduction of large zooplankton biomass, particularly krill (Nyctiphanes australis) which has
seen a reduction of its population since the 1980s (Johnson et al., 2011). Another indication of this
“tropicalization” is the expansion of the calanoid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris which is
primarily a tropical and subtropical species. This shift will have flow on effect over the entire foodweb and will ultimately impact fisheries production. In addition to the temperature effects driving
redistribution, coastal eutrophication has also been shown to change the size spectrum of
zooplankton assemblages (Uye, 1994).
7.5.5
Pelagic: Nekton
Marine nekton are the swimmers of the oceans, it includes fishes, cephalopods, seabirds, marine
mammals, reptiles and crustaceans that inhabit all the ecological zones of the ocean from the
epipelagic to the deep sea (Pearcy and Brodeur, 2009).
Micro-nekton
Micro-nekton plays a pivotal role in the ecosystem, connecting plankton at the base of the food web
to the higher trophic levels. The group comprises the larger zooplankton and smaller nekton (2-20
cm) which includes adult krill, small fish, crustaceans, squids and gelatinous species. They may
account for a significant fraction of the ocean’s biota, however, accurate estimates are difficult to
obtain as their distributions are patchy in time and space and thus are a poorly studied faunal group.
Many are carnivorous and some are herbivores and are important prey for seabirds, larger fishes
and marine mammals. Krill are especially important as prey for many marine species and are a major
source of food for whales, penguins and some pinnipeds in the SO. Recent coupled oceanbiogeochemical-population models have identified a gap in knowledge on the distribution, biomass
and energetics of mid-trophic level organisms such as this one (Fulton et al., 2005, Lehodey et al.,
95
2010). These observations are needed at a shelf and basin scale for ecosystem models to validate
predictions but there have been limited observations in the southern hemisphere (May and Blaber,
1989, Koslow et al., 1997, Young et al., 2001, Mcclatchie and Dunford, 2003). Micro-nekton biomass
at an ocean basin scale has been estimated at 29 g m-2 off eastern Australia using a combination of
net samples and multifrequency acoustic methods (Kloser et al., 2009). In the nearshore, other
important components of micro-nekton that dominate the biomass in Australia are fish species such
as anchovies and sardines (Ward et al., 2006). The Australian sardine supports Australia’s largest
commercial fishery by weight (i.e. the South Australian Sardine Fishery) with its life history and
population size/dynamics relatively well understood (Ward et al., 2001a, Ward et al., 2001b, Ward
and Staunton-Smith, 2002, Ward et al., 2006, Rogers and Ward, 2007, Strong and Ward, 2009, Ward
et al., 2011). Expected impacts of climate change will modify the distribution and abundance of
some of these species, with the range of many warm water species potentially expanding south and
replacing species with cold water affinities, while an increase in upwelling favourable conditions
could see populations of species living near upwelling regions, such as sardines, benefit (Hobday et
al., 2006). There is already evidence of species replacement around Tasmania, with the cold-water
jack mackerel replaced by the warm-water redbait, which is consistent with the warming trend on
the east coast of Australia and Tasmania (Hobday et al., 2006). However, the sparse observations
that come from a variety of sampling devices are of limited spatial and temporal extent, making it
difficult to compare biomass estimates or to establish trends. Developing a synoptic dataset through
time on these mid-trophic groups would fill an essential gap between the abundant observations
available at the physical scale from satellites and modelled data, and the higher trophic levels via
fisheries data and electronic tagging of top predators.
Large fishes
High trophic level fishes such as tuna, billfish and some species of sharks often act as integrators of
the oceanic ecosystem. They are sensitive to changes in the distribution and abundance of their prey,
which in turn respond to changes in lower trophic levels and the physical environment. In general,
most of the information on distribution and abundance of pelagic species comes from fishery
dependent records where the species are exploited (Worm et al., 2003, Zainuddin et al., 2006).
Fishery-independent data on the distribution of the larger pelagic species has been gathered by
electronic tags that record the location of the fish and some environmental information such as
temperature and depth (Arnold and Dewar, 2001, Gunn and Block, 2001, Block et al., 2003, Schaefer
and Fuller, 2003). These records have shown that many of these species are constantly on the move
at ocean basin scales possibly in search of food or migrating to common spawning areas. Pelagic
predators focus their foraging in areas of relatively high food availability and therefore they can be
used to identify areas of ecological significance (AES, also known as “hot-spots”). Observing AESs can
provide information on the spatial and temporal variability of their prey and the influence of
mesoscale features such as fronts and eddies. However, a complete understanding of upper trophic
level processes requires measurements over long time frames and integration across trophic levels
and ocean physics.
The effect that climate change may have on large pelagic species will be on their distribution. For
example, change in ocean temperature can impact the distribution of Southern 96ioinfo tuna, which
are restricted to the cooler waters south of the EAC and expand further north when the current
contracts up the NSW coast (Majkowski et al., 1981). Therefore, their population could be restricted
96
further south if Tasman Sea warming continues. Preliminary analyses indicate that changes may
have already occurred, with fewer fish moving to the east coast in the Austral winter (Polacheck et
al., 2006). On the other hand, the increased southward penetration of the EAC may increase the
suitable habitat for species such as yellowfin and bigeye tuna.
The decline of krill, Nyctiphanes australis, from the shelf ecosystem of eastern Tasmania would also
have a profound effect on cephalopods (Hobday et al., 2006), seabirds (Bunce, 2004) and small
pelagic fish and tunas (Young et al., 1993), which depend on krill as prey. However, the overall
impact on large fish populations due to climate change is still highly uncertain.
Sea turtles
There are 7 species of sea turtles worldwide of which 6 species can be found in Australian waters.
They can be herbivorous (e.g. green turtle Chelonia mydas), planktivorous (e.g. leatherback turtle
Dermochelys coriacea) or carnivorous (e.g. loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta). All sea turtles, with
the exception of the flatback turtle, are listed in the IUCN 2004 Red List of threatened species. Of the
species found in Australian waters many nest on Australian tropical and subtropical mainland and
island beaches, with flatbacks nesting exclusively on Australian beaches. Major rookeries of
international significance for loggerhead, green and flatback turtles are located in Queensland and
the Torres Strait (Limpus et al., 1989, Parmenter and Limpus, 1995, Gyuris and Limpus, 1998).
Green turtles are one of the largest herbivores in Australian coastal waters playing an important role
in structuring sea grass communities and thus enhancing seagrass biodiversity and productivity
through selective cropping (Brand-Gardner et al., 1999, Aragones, 2000, Aragones and Marsh, 2000,
André et al., 2005, Moran and Bjorndal, 2005).
Climate change and in particular temperature increases are likely to be a major threat to sea turtles
as all stages of their life cycle are strongly influenced by temperature. Gender of embryos is
determined by the ambient nest temperature and a small increase in temperature could bias the sex
ratio of hatchlings towards females, potentially eliminating the production of males in certain
regions. Climate change is also likely to influence phenology and distributions of all species. There is
already evidence that turtles are nesting earlier in response to warming and that their ranges are
extending or shifting poleward. Increases in sea level will also lead to a substantial loss of nesting
sites and inshore foraging habitats for marine turtles. However, the greatest threat to turtles is likely
to come from climate-induced changes of their food supply in critical habitats. While little is known
about the pelagic stage of turtles life cycles some species forage in surface and subsurface waters
around oceanic fronts for mainly gelatinous plankton that tend to concentrate along them (Carr,
1987, Witherington, 2002, Ferraroli et al., 2004, Polovina et al., 2004). Therefore, alterations of
primary productivity driven by changes in mixed layer depth will impact food availability for turtles
in the open oceans.
In Australia, evidence of climate change effects on turtle reproduction has been observed on green
turtles with an increase in their population in the southern GBR linked to an increase in the
frequency of ENSO anomalies (Chaloupka and Limpus, 2001). Satellite tags on turtles have revealed
long distance movements in the GBR and Torres Strait during normal foraging (Hamann unpubl.
Data). Leatherback turtles from a nesting beach in the western Strait (Waral Kawa) have been
tracked to extensive feeding grounds on the North West Shelf or lost after entering Indonesian
97
waters. Flatback turtles that breed on beaches in the southern GBR make long reproductive
migrations restricted to the continental shelf, with some turtles tagged at rookeries in southern
Queensland being recaptured more than 1300 km from their nesting beach (Limpus et al., 1983).
Seabirds
Seabirds are highly visible, charismatic animals in marine ecosystems that feed exclusively at sea, in
either nearshore, offshore or pelagic waters. They are efficient integrators of ecosystem health, as
many feed on small pelagic fish and zooplankton and thus are sensitive to changes at lower trophic
levels. In Australia, a diverse seabird fauna breeds on mainland and island coastlines. The world’s
largest colony of crested terns (Sterna bergii) occurs in the Gulf of Carpentaria in Australia’s north
(Walker, 1992), and almost a quarter of all albatross species have nesting sites on islands around
Tasmania and Macquarie Island. Some species of seabirds are highly valued by coastal indigenous
communities for their cultural and spiritual significance and may also be hunted for food. They also
benefit local economies through ecotourism, such as with the colonies of little penguins on Phillip
Island and Tasmania.
Seabirds are frequently used as indicators of the state of the marine environment as their
demographics and reproductive parameters are strongly linked to changing oceanographic and
trophic conditions (Congdon et al., 2007), with prey abundance and seabird reproductive biology
significantly correlated (Anderson et al., 1982, Burger and J.F., 1990). Therefore, understanding how
changing oceanographic conditions impact seabird population dynamics and reproductive ecology
can give an insight of potential future impacts of climate change, not only on seabirds, but on other
important components of tropical marine ecosystems. Climate change is likely to influence
phenology and distributions of seabird species, with evidence of seabird populations nesting earlier
in response to warming and distribution ranges changing globally (Hobday et al., 2006). Increases in
sea level can also lead to substantial loss of important nesting sites and inshore foraging habitats for
some species. However, the greatest threat to seabirds is likely to come from climate induced
changes of food resources in their critical habitats.
Around Australia, the Australasian gannet populations are increasing, possibly due to the increase
frequency of ENSO anomalies favouring food availability. However, for other species, such as the
wedge-tailed shearwater in the GBR, reproductive success will decline as warming reduces their prey
supply. Changes in prey availability will ultimately affect distributions, abundance, migration
patterns and community structure of these higher trophic levels.
Marine Mammals
Marine mammals are found in all of the world’s oceans with Australia recognised as a hotspot of
marine mammal species richness (Pompa et al., 2011). There are currently 52 recognised marine
mammal species around Australia’s coast with at least seven species considered threatened
according to the IUCN red list (IUCN 2011). However, due to insufficient data, the conservation
status of 25 cetacean species is still unknown (Schumann et al., 2012). Marine mammals can be
found at different trophic levels, these include herbivores such as dugongs, mid-trophic levels such
as baleen whales and high trophic levels such as pinnipeds and most species of cetaceans (Pauly et
al., 1998). The majority of research on Australian marine mammals has been focused on accessible
98
species such as seals, coastal dolphin species or whales which appear in seasonally predictable nearshore regions.
There is currently a low level of confidence in the predicted effects that climate change may exert on
Australian marine mammals due to a lack of information on most species, particularly of the
distributions, population sizes or ecologies of many species. Therefore, the adaptive capacity of
marine mammals to climate change in Australia is poorly known (Schumann et al., 2012). However,
non-climatic stressors such as fishing activities, harvesting, boat strikes, coastal development and
degradation and acoustic pollution, among others, are thought to exacerbate the vulnerability of
marine mammals by acting in synergy with climatic impacts (Schumann et al., 2012). The paucity of
data on Australian marine mammals and consequently, the long- term cumulative impacts of human
activities and climate change on marine mammals are not well understood. It is evident that the
primary climatic influence on many marine mammals appears to be food availability and distribution,
which is linked to ocean temperature (Neuman, 2001, Leaper et al., 2006). Therefore, sea surface
temperature (SST) is commonly used as a proxy for biological productivity (Bradshaw et al., 2004),
with many marine mammals selecting particular SST in which to forage. There is also some evidence
that several species may modify their physiological responses to increasing temperatures or alter
their foraging locations, behaviour or diet in response to changes in prey availability and distribution
(Schumann et al., 2012). It is expected there will be changes in distribution with warm-water species
expanding south, and cold-water species contracting. However, the impact on community structure
and dynamics remains unknown. Climatic changes may also result in changes in their reproductive
success with changes in the extent of suitable breeding and feeding habitat.
To improve our understanding of potential impacts of climate change on Australian marine
mammals, research into population trends and critical habitats dynamics, energetics and distribution
patterns is required. The use of acoustic technology, satellite tags and biologgers to monitor coastal
and oceanic movements of marine mammals will help in the understanding of the effects of climate
change in marine mammal populations in Australian coasts and the SO. The deployment of sea noise
loggers is also providing acoustic observations of marine mammals to study their abundance and
migration patterns. This technology has helped reveal the presence of several whale species in WA
waters, such as Bryde’s whales which are found all year round in the NWS, Southern right whales
present over winter as far north as Perth Canyon, sperm whales regularly detected in waters
offshore Exmouth and the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and fin whales present regularly in Perth Canyon
around September. In addition, marine mammals, such as seals, are being fitted with bio-loggers
providing oceanographic observations within the SO throughout the Antarctic winter, data
previously unavailable but essential for oceanographic and climate studies, and information on their
biology and ecology.
7.5.6
. Benthos
Benthic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to environmental change due to the sessile or nearstationary nature of most benthic flora and fauna, and some of these ecosystems such as those
characterised by coral reefs and kelp forests are one of the most diverse habitats in the world. When
these habitat-forming dominants such as corals and kelp disappear there is a huge collateral loss of
other biodiversity, catastrophic decline in the local transfer of energy and materials, and potential
downstream impacts on fisheries.
99
Seagrasses
Australia has the highest diversity of seagrasses and most extensive seagrass beds in the world, they
are found in shallow coastal waters, generally on soft sediments. They are considered ecosystem
engineers, acting as a buffer between terrestrial and oceanic systems, playing a vital role in nutrient
cycling and acting as an important CO2 sink. Seagrass beds provide important nursery habitat for
many economically valuable species of fish and crustaceans and support internationally important
populations of marine turtles and dugongs. Temperature and water clarity are the major factors
controlling the biogeographic distributions of seagrasses in Australian waters. Erosion and flooding
due to sea level rise will increase turbidity of coastal waters impacting the survival of seagrasses. On
the other hand, increase in CO2 may favour seagrass productivity increasing its depth limit and
enhancing its role in carbon and nutrient cycling (Hobday et al., 2006).
The macro and micro-algal epiphyte community growing on seagrasses beds are an important
component of the seagrass ecosystems, contributing to productivity and nutrient recycling (Van
Montfrans et al., 1984, Jernakoff et al., 1996, Moncreiff and Sullivan, 2001, Smit et al., 2005).
Seagrass ecosystems also have a high numbers of benthic invertebrates which contribute
significantly to coastal nutrient dynamics (Edgar 1990), they function as nursery habitats for a wide
range of fauna providing protection from predation and a high abundance of food resources (Heck et
al. 2003), are important nursery and foraging habitat for many economically valuable species of fish
and crustaceans (Coles et al., 1993, Gray et al., 1998, Rotherham and West, 2002, Smith and
Sinerchia, 2004). Furthermore, a number of commercially exploited species of fish, crustaceans and
molluscs, have been linked to seagrass beds (Jackson et al., 2001).
In tropical Australia the largest contiguous seagrass meadow is located in the Torres Strait, and it
could be at risk from changes in water quality, likely due to industrialisation, deforestation, and
human development occurring in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. Extensive areas of seagrass
habitat have already been lost in Australia in the last 50 years mainly through increased
anthropogenic inputs to coastal waters reducing water quality. However, global climate change is
expected to have a big impact on seagrasses in the near future (Hobday et al., 2006).
Kelp forests
Of particular importance are the so-called ‘ecosystem engineers’ that have a disproportionate effect
by either creating habitat for myriad other species (Jones et al., 1994, 1997) or destroying habitat
critical for other species (Johnson et al., 2005, Ling, 2008). The impacts of climate change on habitatforming ecosystem engineers is particularly important as these species are generally facultative, and
form the basis of communities that are hierarchically organised through positive interactions (Bruno
and Bertness, 2001, Bruno et al., 2003). Kelp species comprise a small proportion of marine
macroalgae, but they are ecosystem engineers in their habitats forming large floating canopies up to
30 metres above the sea floor in the form of ‘kelp forests’ which are inhabited by diverse
assemblages of animals and plants that depend on them. They provide extensive three dimensional
structures with a variety of micro-habitats, refugia and food for large amounts of coastal fish species
and invertebrates, produce very large amounts of phytal detritus (Gerard, 1976) stimulating high
secondary production which in turn support higher trophic levels (Duggins et al., 1989). Kelp species
are distributed throughout the southern half of Australia wherever there is persistent hard substrata
with enough light and they exhibit unusually high endemism and diversity (Womersley, 1990, Phillips,
100
2001). Southern Australia contains by far the highest diversity of brown algae (140 species per 100
km section) of all the rich kelp areas of the world, with the distributions of some individual kelp
species limited to areas such as the South Eastern and South Western Large Marine Domains.
Kelp forest ecosystems are vulnerable to potential climate changes because they are sensitive to
increase in temperatures and turbidity, decrease in nutrients and light penetration, and outbreaks of
herbivores due to depletion of predators. The ramifications that changes in the density, distribution,
or production of canopy-forming algae will have to the structure and functioning of these important
seaweed-based communities are likely to be widespread (Dayton and Tegner, 1984, Reed and Foster,
1984, Johnson and Mann, 1988, Schiel, 1988). For example, the kelp Ecklonia radiate has a larger
depth (4-40+ m) and latitudinal (~27.5-43.5 ⁰S) range than any other canopy-forming brown
seaweed in the region. It extends as far north as south east Queensland where it is found in deeper
water (20+ m), apparently able to survive because of thermal stratification and local upwelling of
cold and relatively nutrient-rich water over the shelf break. Ecklonia dominated habitats are highly
biodiverse (Edgar, 1983, 1984, Ling, 2008), and in Tasmanian waters these forests support
economically important abalone, rock lobster and scale fish fisheries. E. radiate forests are being
impacted on two fronts: an increase in temperature shifting south its northern limit and the arrival
of warm water species such as the spiny sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii, which is associated
with the destruction of kelp and the formation of urchin barrens along the east coast of Tasmania. It
is thought that the southward movement of C. rodgersii is related to a strengthened EAC
transporting their larvae, which in combination with rising east coast temperatures provide a
suitable environment for them. The expansion of extensive areas of ‘urchin barrens’ habitat in the
north east, and ‘incipient’ barrens over many other areas of the east coast, represent an important
threat to the integrity and biodiversity of nearshore reefs and associated valuable fisheries in the
region (Johnson et al., 2005, Ling, 2008).
Reefs
Reef-building corals have the ability to form extensive skeletons of calcium that over time transform
into vast reef structures that may be easily seen from space. They are considered ecosystem
engineers providing critical habitat for a huge diversity of fauna and flora that in Australia includes
over 400 species of corals, 4000 species of molluscs and over 1500 species of fish (Hoegh-Guldberg,
2006). Major coral reefs stretch along both coastlines of the Australian continent, from Frazer Island
to Torres Strait on the east coast, and from the Houtman Abrolhos reefs across the northwest coast
of Australia to the western edge of the Gulf of Carpentaria on the western side of Australia. These
reefs show a large variety of structures that range from poorly developed reefs that fringe inshore
regions to extensive carbonate barrier reefs offshore. Efficient reef-building is dependent on an
intimate symbiosis between an animal host (the coral polyp) and internal unicellular dinoflagellates
(the symbionts) known as zooxanthellae. The symbionts capture energy via photosynthesis and
provide the animal host with nutrition. In return, the dinoflagellate symbionts gain access to a rich
supply of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus from the host, which supports the primary productivity
of the dinoflagellate under the otherwise low-nutrient environment. This energetic contribution
from the plant-like zooanthellae accounts for the ability of scleractinian corals to build coral reefs.
Natural selection has resulted in symbioses that operate most efficiently near the upper thermal
tolerance of the local combination of coral and zooxanthellae genotypes. As a result of this fine
balance, the coral-algal symbioses can be destabilised by several external stresses including thermal
101
stress (Berkelmans et al., 2004, 2010), excess light (Lesser and Farrell, 2004), low salinity waters
(Kerswell and Jones, 2003, Fabricius, 2005, Berkelmans et al., 2012) and excess nutrients
(Wooldridge, 2009). When placed under stress, the animal host ejects its endosymbionts and the
loss of their pigments results in colonies of bleached appearance. If the corals remain in a bleached
state for more than a few days, the coral animal starves and dies. In addition, ocean acidification has
the potential to tip the balance from coral calcification to erosion and severely compromise coral
viability. Changes in intensity and frequency of storms, increased aridity leading to greater sediment
load on reefs, and sea level rise are also likely to act in synergy with temperature increases and
acidification in reducing coral populations. However, it is long-term changes in temperature
associated with global warming that are considered the greatest threat to the survival of coral reefs
in the next 100 years (Hoegh-Guldberg, 1999) because the animal-plant symbiosis responsible for
reef building is destabilised by temperature anomalies as little as 1oC. Corals have not yet shown any
great ability to adapt to thermal stress, and current rates of global warming are considered much
too fast to anticipate an evolutionary response. Therefore, the risk of catastrophic change to an
iconic system like the GBR justifies the need for detailed information about the thermal
environments around coral reefs. Based on current coral physiology, a 1-2°C increase in water
temperature in the tropical and subtropical regions in Australia could lead to annual bleaching and
regular large-scale mortality events. The role of coral reefs in underpinning coastal economies in
Australia is becoming increasingly recognised with the GBR tourism industry alone contributing
around the $6 billion AUD per annum to the Australian economy (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007). The
reduction of coral reefs growth and survival will therefore have not only major consequences for
Australia’s coastal biodiversity but also economic and social consequences. Coral bleaching can be
currently forecast by tracking anomalies in the ambient heat load, and web-based warning systems
are now operational for the GBR (ReefTemp) and global reef systems (Coral Reef Watch). These
products are based on satellite remote sensing and have required in situ observations of bulk
temperature to calibrate and validate algorithms for tropical atmospheric conditions.
Deep sea cold-water corals are found globally and in Australian waters. These corals are presently
known only from sites around south and southeast Australia. Similar to tropical coral reefs, deep sea
cold-water coral reefs are essential fish habitat and are considered “hotspots” for biodiversity.
However, unlike their tropical shallow water counterparts, deep sea corals lack the symbiotic algae
and are found down to depths of over 1000 meters below sea level. These ecosystems can have
large aggregations of fish, such as the commercially important orange roughy (Hoplostethus
atlanticus) found on some seamounts, providing shelter, feeding grounds, spawning grounds and
nursery areas (Bull et al., 2001, Dower and Perry, 2001, Reed, 2002). The unique hydrological
characteristics of seamounts together with their biological isolation gives these ecosystems a high
level of species endemism and could be important centres of speciation (Richer De Forges et al.,
2000, Koslow et al., 2001). However, knowledge of the ecology, population dynamics, distribution
and ecosystem functioning of deep-sea corals is sparse. In addition, these reefs are long-lived, slowgrowing and susceptible to physical disturbance, making them extremely slow to recover from it
(Morgan, 2005). The three major threats to cold water corals are bottom trawl fishing, ocean
acidification and seabed mining. They are highly vulnerable to rapidly declining aragonite saturation
associated with rising CO2 and declining pH making seamount habitats off South Australia become
inhospitable for cold water corals below a few hundred metres as a consequence. Since these deep
102
sea corals are foundation species, their disappearance will have dramatic consequences for the
entire ecosystem sustained by them.
Benthic invertebrates and fish
Invertebrates such as crabs, bivalves, prawns, and worm assemblages are extremely diverse in
Australia due to the subtle diversity and vast extent of soft sediment habitats in Australia’s marine
environment with some regions of very high faunal density, biomass, and diversity. These soft
sediment fauna play a key role in recycling a considerable portion of the overall energy through the
detrital food web. They are important in helping support and mediate the production and
maintenance of Australia’s marine ecosystems and link the production originating from primary
producers with the production that relies on detritus. Human activities such as bottom trawling
modify the structure and functions of soft sediment ecosystems while changes in sea temperature
and factors that affect productivity such as rainfall and coastal runoff are likely to influence soft
sediment communities strongly. Acidification may also drive strong changes as well, but this is less
certain.
The benthic and demersal fishes of Australia include teleost and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays, and
chimaeras) that inhabit the ocean floor. These fishes play an important role shaping many aspects of
Australia’s marine biological communities through predation on secondary producers, as forage for
other fishes, vertebrates, and scavengers; and sometimes through bioturbation (Hobday et al 2009).
These species are also valuable commercial and recreational fisheries in Australia. It is expected that
temperate species will continue to shift south in response to increase temperatures as the EAC and
the LC continue to strengthen. This will result in the decline of their populations and biomasses, as
well as their functional roles in the ecosystem. However, tropical species are likely to expand their
ranges and increase their overall biomass in certain areas of Australia’s marine realm. Major
readjustments could have significant economic and social costs to the commercial and/or
recreational sectors of the fishing industry. There is already evidence in the decline of several
commercially-important benthic and demersal fish species in response the climate-related changes.
Projected climate changes such as warming, increase in the strength of EAC, and decrease in
productivity are likely to decrease the overall abundance, biomass, productivity, and diversity of
benthic and demersal fish species in Australian marine waters.
7.5.7
Modelling activities
There are two different efforts in biogeochemical (BGC) modelling, one looking at open ocean BGC
modelling and the other focused on BGC at a coastal scale.
At an open ocean scale, a model that includes nitrate, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus
components (NZP), plus the iron, oxygen and carbon cycles (Whole Ocean Model with
Biogeochemistry and Trophic Dynamics, WOMBAT) has been developed and included in both
ACCESS and BLUELink 3 models to enable the simulation of phytoplankton and carbon. The model is
being developed for both climate variability and change simulations, and well as for data
assimilation studies.
Coastal modelling capability is being developed by CSIRO in a platform termed the coastal
Environmental Modelling Suite and consists of a set of component models that encompass:
103
1. The hydrodynamic model SHOC for predicting 3-dimensional advection, mixing and tracer
transport in coastal systems;
2. The sediment model (MecoSED), which is a multilayered sediment model and represents the
physical exchange of particulate and dissolved tracers between the water column and the
bed. This model is particularly suitable for representing fine sediment dynamics, including
resuspension and transport of biogeochemical particles;
3. A biogeochemical module, which provides a sophisticated representation of the cycling of
carbon and nutrients through coupled pelagic-benthic ecosystems. This model has been
coupled to a transport model to facilitate simulation of biogeochemical dynamics over finescale and computationally large model grids (Wild-Allen 2008). The ecological model water
column is organised in 3 ‘zones’: pelagic, epibenthic and sediment, and non-conservative
biogeochemical processes are organized into pelagic processes of phytoplankton and
zooplankton growth and mortality, detritus remineralisation and fluxes of dissolved oxygen,
nitrogen and phosphorus; epibenthic processes of growth and mortality of macroalgae and
seagrass, and sediment based processes of phytoplankton mortality, microphytobenthos
growth, detrital remineralisation and fluxes of dissolved substances.
This EMS operation suite is being used in programs like eReefs, a coupled system for the GBR that
spans hydrodynamics through to biogeochemistry
(http://ftp.marine.csiro.au/pub/BGC%20model%20description/EMS.doc).
BGC data assimilation is being tested in eReefs and WOMBAT projects. However, at this stage data
assimilation in BGC is used in hindcasts to test model errors and identify the best algorithms that can
improve the models. The Bluelink 3 effort will use the data streams generated by IMOS to assimilate
into the model and assess BGC model simulations. The data streams include, coastal BGC reference
sites, argo drifters, ocean colour products, gliders and moorings. Similarly, multi decadal reanalysis
products will be generated for ACCESS (Matear et al., 2012). Currently, remote sensing data such as
water leaving radiance from MODIS are being used for data assimilation, and exploration of other
data streams is underway to identify the observations required to constrain BGC models.
In ecosystem modelling there is a spectrum of approaches with varying levels of complexity and
completeness. These include, single species and fisheries modelling, qualitative modelling and
quantitative (end to end) ecosystem modelling.
Single species and fisheries models operated on species or individuals and included models of
distribution and movement, demographic processes, habitat selection, behaviour and gene-flow and
ecophysiology, among others. However, resource management is moving towards the use of
Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) simulations, which involves the assessment of management
strategies consequences or options. In a MSE simulation, multiple candidate models are put forward
to evaluate alternate hypotheses and it is done using quantitative or semi-quantitative simulations
that contain sub-models for each of the main steps in the adaptive management cycle. At the core of
these simulations is a “system state” model that represents the dynamics of the resource.
These “system state” models have been evolving from single species fisheries models (e.g. IWC
1992), or single species with habitat considerations (Mapstone et al., 2004) towards multispecies
and more recently ecosystem based management models
104
(http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/mse/) Atlantis and InVitro are ecosystem based management
models developed in CSIRO.
Atlantis is a deterministic biogeochemical whole of ecosystem model based on the MSE approach
that considers all parts of marine ecosystems – biophysical, economic and social. The core of the
model is a deterministic biophysical sub-model, coarsely spatially-resolved in three dimensions,
tracking nutrient flows through the main biological groups in the system. The primary ecological
processes modelled are consumption, production, waste production, migration, predation,
recruitment, habitat dependency, and mortality, with trophic resolution at the functional group
level. Invertebrates are represented as biomass pools, while vertebrates are represented using an
explicit age-structured formulation. The physical environment is also represented explicitly, via a set
of polygons matched to the major geographical and bioregional features of the simulated marine
system, with biological model components replicated in each depth layer of each of these polygons
and movement between the polygons by advective transfer or directed movement
(http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/mse/atlantis.htm). Data requirements for Atlantis include:
abundance per age class per area, consumption rates, diets, individual growth rates, max age, ageat-maturity, habitat preferences, among others. The Atlantis model has been used in several regions
of Australia, particularly in the temperate region, such as Southeast Australia, Westernport, Eastern
Tasmania and New South Wales shelf, among others.
The InVitro model has aspects of both aggregate state (Silvert, 1981, Jørgensen, 1994) and individual
based models. In the InVitro model, aggregate state models are treated as agents within the system,
which in turn are seen as a subset of the set of all individual state models (Mcdonald et al., 2006). In
this model system agents can operate at time and space scales appropriate to the nature of the
processes in question, and within it there are submodels that reflect the bio-physical and
anthropogenic activity in a coastal ecosystem, such as biophysical interactions, fishing, shipping,
industrial/coastal development and contaminants. To date, this modelling framework has been used
in the Northwest shelf of Australia (Gray et al., 2006, Little et al., 2006) and the Ningaloo region
(http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/mse/invitro.htm).
7.5.8
Spatial and temporal scales
Regional features support distinct ecosystems; such as the GBR, Ningaloo Reef, Bonny Upwelling and
Perth Canyon. Observations are tuned to the spatial and temporal variability of drivers in those
systems as well as the nature of the ecosystems they support.
Measuring spatial and temporal changes in productivity, distribution and abundance of species is
vital for determining their response to climate change and how anthropogenic activities will impact
on natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystem services (Figure 7. 24). In marine ecosystems,
observing natural and anthropogenic change is more complex in the biological realm than in the
physical or chemical realms, with some trophic levels more difficult to observe than others at the
necessary spatial/temporal scales. Measuring all trophic levels at the same time over large areas is
not feasible. This conundrum has led to the development of methods that provide sustainable
observations at specific trophic levels that may then be considered individually or synergistically in
ecosystem models.
105
Figure 7.24: A Stommel diagram showing the scales at of key ecosystem processes
7.5.9
Science questions
The ecosystem science questions are formulated around using observations of carbon chemistry and
nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton, nekton and benthic flora and fauna to understand
ecosystem function and response to climate change. The high-level science questions that will guide
the IMOS observing strategy in this area relate to:
Productivity:
 Productivity drivers (physical, chemical and biological) and mechanisms, variation and key
productive regions (upwelling zones, fronts, canyons)
 Biological and physicochemical drivers of pH and carbon chemistry variation in the oceans,
and risks of climate change in key ecosystems (coasts, coral reefs, shelves, SO)
 Effects of environmental forcing and climate change on food-web dynamics, trophic
connectivity and biological communities
 Climate change effects on the structure and function ( energy, water, nutrient cycling) of
ecosystems
 Effects of climate change on ecosystem processes and species life cycles
 Relationship among biodiversity, structure, function, and stability of marine ecosystems
 Identification of vulnerable ecosystems and species (either particularly sensitive or unable to
adapt) to changing environmental factors
 Identification of ecosystem health indicators
Distribution and Abundance:
 Distribution and abundance of organisms by species/trophic/functional group level, and
variation in space and time
106



Environmental and biological drivers of temporal and spatial variation in abundance and
distribution of organisms (including animal migrations)
Implications of climate change and extreme climate events on the status, distribution and
abundance of marine communities
Interconnection of marine populations
7.5.10 Variables required to address science questions
Australia has a large ocean territory that ranges from the tropics to the Antarctic, encompassing a
diverse range of marine ecosystems. These ecosystems experience significant perturbations due to
modes of climate variability such as ENSO, IOD and SAM, fluctuations in the dynamics of the
boundary currents and climate change. Continental shelf processes also play a vital role in regulating
the productivity, abundance, and distribution of marine ecosystems, both in the water column
(pelagic) and on the sea floor (benthic). Ocean acidification and warming are also likely to impact the
productivity of lower trophic levels, with consequences for fisheries and apex predators. To assess
the variability and change in ecosystems it is important that we understand the drivers of
productivity and all trophic level interactions if we are to predict and mitigate future change. To
achieve that, an integrated approach is sought whereby measurements ranging from
biogeochemistry through to higher trophic levels are undertaken to provide information of
productivity, abundance and distributions at different space and time scales which encompass
broad/basin-wide and bioregional scales, along shelf scales and regional-across shelf scales (Table
7.9).
Circulation
and nutrient
fluxes
Productivity
Trophic
connections
Abundance
and
distribution
7.5.11 Platforms required to deliver observations
IMOS is observing ecosystem responses through an extensive national backbone comprised of Ships
of Opportunity, a network of National Reference Station (NRS) Moorings, and national access to
Satellite information, along with the IMOS national information infrastructure. More intensive,
107
Rates of secondary production
Rates of primary production
Detritus (flux))
Benthos (% coverage of species)
Top predators – population
Top Predators species
Nekton Biomass
Nekton Species
Zooplankton Biomass
Zooplankton Species
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
CDOM and Backscatter.
Pigment concentration
Macronutrient concentration
Alkalinity
Total Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Salinity
Temperature
Variables
Table 7.9: The variables required to address Ecosystem Responses science questions.
region-specific observations include a combination of Animal Tagging and Monitoring (acoustic
arrays and satellite tagging), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) undertaking benthic surveys,
deep water and shelf Moorings (Southern Ocean Time Series, acidification moorings, noise loggers),
Ocean Gliders, and Wireless Sensor Networks.
Ecosystem processes can arguably operate at a range of spatial and temporal scales that span large
spatial and long temporal scales to small spatial and short temporal scales, thus observations need
to be adjusted accordingly. At the basin-scale, systems chosen for integration are the Southern
Ocean and Tasman Sea. Basin-scale monitoring is carried out from Ships of Opportunity (SOOP)
taking pCO2, Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) and bio-acoustics observations, deepwater
moorings, animal tagging, and Satellite derived ocean colour. Regional observations are undertaken
in regions with distinct features; such as Ningaloo and Great Barrier Reefs, and Bonny Coast
Upwelling. The platforms used to collect the observations include SOOP, ocean gliders, AUV, national
Mooring Network, animal tagging, Wireless Sensor Network and satellite derive ocean colour (Table
7.10).
Integration between the observing system and the relevant modelling frameworks is also important,
though more challenging than with the physical modelling. IMOS has a strategy for engagement
with various groups developing coastal, shelf and national scale biogeochemical, trophodynamic,
and ecosystem models to further develop this relationship.
108
Rate of secondary productivity
Rate of primary productivity
Detritus (flux)
Top predators – population
Top Predators species
Nekton Biomass
Nekton Species
Zooplankton Biomass
Zooplankton Species
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
Microbial biomass
Total suspended solids
CDOM and backscatter
Chlorophyll a concentration
Macronutrient concentration
Alkalinity
Total .Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Salinity
Temperature
Ecosystem Responses
Benthos (% coverage of species)
Table 7.10: How variables required to address the high-level Ecosystem Responses science questions at Basin Scales are delivered at required scales by IMOS facilities. Blue
= directly measured variable; Red = derived variable; Orange = could be derived; Green = could derive a relative estimate.
All scales
Argo
Biochemistry (pCO2)
Ships of Opportunity (SOOP)
Cont. Plankton Recorder
Tropical RV/Temperate MV
National Reference Stations
Moorings
Acidification Moorings
Passive Acoustics
Temperature loggers
Animal Tagging
Biologging
Acoustic tagging
Remote Sensing
Basin scale
Ocean Colour
SOOP
Bioacoustics
Deep water Moorings
Southern Ocean Timeseries
Boundary current/shelf and regional scales
Ocean gliders
Seagliders
Slocum gliders
Auto. Underwater Vehicle
Wireless Sensor Network
109
Notable gaps
 Primary production is not currently measured by IMOS observational programs, with data
streams focussed on spatial and temporal variations in plankton biomass (net community
productivity). Routine measurements of primary and secondary productivity via flourometry,
stable/radioactive isotope, and biochemical studies, are necessary to address this knowledge
gap.
 Another significant gap is lack of integration of data streams. For many scientific questions of
interest, simultaneous measurements of a variety of physical, chemical and biological variables
are needed. The logistical challenges in achieving this can be great. But IMOS should continue
to push for the truly integrated data streams needed to assess ecosystem responses to
environmental change.
 Spatial and temporal coverage and some of the more detailed species data at all levels. For
example, satellite ocean colour data provide excellent spatial coverage of surface chlorophyll,
but these data are difficult to translate into any meaningful information on phytoplankton
species composition. The CPR on the other hand does provide species information – again
mostly near surface – but the transects are still relatively sparse in space and time.
 Broad coverage of coupled data that document both carbon chemistry and how the distribution
or abundance of calcifiers might be changing in important regions such as the Southern Ocean.
 Long-term sensitive indicators such as top predator demographic changes and population
dynamics are significant gaps.
 Benthic observations in several regions to improve our understanding of these ecosystems
 Sustained observing for the higher trophic levels
 Insufficient data streams on the shelf north of 14o30’S or south of 23o30’S in Queensland and
south eastern shelves and central-western GAB in SA and also in Bass Strait.
Future priorities:
 Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
from moorings, satellites, and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking
tagging data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic
receiver transmitters deployed on top predators.
 Assess the feasibility of obtaining routine coupled CPR and carbon chemistry transect data on
platforms such as Aurora Australis.
 Collaborate with international partners to advance the deployment of bio-Argo floats,
particularly in the Southern Ocean.
 Evaluate if ATAAMS acoustic receiver’s existing locations suit the Nodes’ needs to address
science questions
 Evaluate new sensor technologies for pH, nutrients, and bio-optics that could be considered to
be ready for piloting at broad scale, on Argo, SOOP, gliders etc.
 Maintain the SOTS observations and augment them with a high latitude mooring based on small
profile CO2/acidification moorings or expand the SOOP BGC network to track biological and
physical controls on the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean.
 Given the importance of the bulk chlorophyll signal to shelf processes and ecosystem
performance, the Ocean Colour product from satellite remote sensing needs comprehensive
110


ground 111ioinfor in shelf waters using platforms that can support these data collection such as
slocum gliders and expanding current collection of bio-optical and biogeochemical data
Increase deployment of gliders in QLD, NSW, WA and SEA
Expand AUV coverage to visit more sites and at more frequent time intervals to increase our
understanding of the spatial and temporal variability within benthic communities.
7.6 Summary
In order to monitor, predict and simulate ocean processes it is necessary to examine a range of
phenomena at different temporal and spatial scales. The challenge is to identify the observations
needed to define and study the interactions of forcing and processes at the appropriate spatiotemporal scales to understand the oceanic system.
In the case of IMOS, the spatial and temporal scales which govern key science questions determines
the design of the observing system; i.e. what is the optimum combination of instruments and
platforms that will provide observations on the appropriate scales to study the processes and
phenomena of interest . The scales of processes and phenomena in the ocean naturally cascade in
scale from large scale (Multidecadal Ocean Change) to meso- and small scale (Continental Shelf
Processes), (Figure 7.25).
Figure 7.25: A Stommel Diagram showing spatial and temporal scales of physical key processes identified in
IMOS Science Questions.
111
Applying this logic to biological systems is more challenging, as there is a need to observe nutrient
concentration and distribution as well as the productivity, abundance, distribution and trophodynamics of all organisms at all spatio-temporal scales (see Fig. 7.24).
Capturing this range of scales from all five themes involves a diversity of data sets collected from
ships, moorings, drifters, gliders, autonomous vehicles, and satellites. A summary of the variables
(Table 7.11) required to address scientific questions and platforms required to deliver those
observations (Table 7.12) on all five themes are included below. The similarity of variables required
across each theme suggests that most of IMOS infrastructure and platforms can be used to address
science questions at the different spatio-temporal scales (Fig. 7.26), which also includes specialised
instrumentation to address more specific questions, such as productivity variability and ecosystem
response questions.
Figure 7.26: A Stommel diagram showing the spatial and temporal scales at which IMOS platforms are able to
take observations.
112
Multidecadal
Ocean
Change
Climate
Variability
and Weather
Boundary
Currents and
Inter-basin
Flows
Continental
Shelf
Processes
Ecosystem
Responses
Primary productivity
Detritus (flux)
Benthos (% coverage of species)
Top predators – population
Top Predators species
Nekton Biomass
Nekton Species
Zooplankton Biomass
Zooplankton Species
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
CDOM and Backscatter.
Chlorophyll a concentration
Macronutrient concentration
Alkalinity
Total Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Internal waves
Surface waves – spectrum
Surface waves – amplitude
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature – subsurface
Temperature - Surface
Science
themes
Variables
Table 7.11: The variables required to address key science questions across IMOS.
Global Energy Balance
Global Hydrological
Cycle
Carbon Budget
Global Circulation
Inter-annual (ENSO,
IOD)
Intra-seasonal (MJO,
Cyclones, ECL’s )
Fluxes (Mass, Heat,
Salt)
Drivers
Dynamics
Eddy-Shelf interactions
Upwelling/
Downwelling
Shelf Currents
Wave Processes
Circulation and
nutrient fluxes
Productivity
Trophic connections
Distribution and
abundance
113
Ships of
Opportunit
y (SOOP)
Deep water
Moorings
Ocean
Gliders
Moorings
Primary Productivity
Benthos (% coverage of
species)
Detritus (flux)
Top predators – population
Top Predators species
Nekton Biomass
Nekton Species
Zooplankton Biomass
Zooplankton Species
Phytoplankton Biomass
Phytoplankton species
CDOM and Backscatter.
Chlorophyll a concentration
Total Suspended solids
Alkalinity
Total. Inorg. Carbon
pH
pCO2
Oxygen
Air-sea fluxes
Wind velocity (stress)
Waves – internal
Surface waves – spectrum
Surface waves – amplitude
Sea Surface Height
Velocity
Salinity
Temperature- Subsurface
Temperature- surface
How facilities deliver
variables across IMOS
Macronutrient concentration
Table 7.12: How variables required to IMOS science questions are delivered by IMOS facilities. Blue = directly measured variable; Red = derived variable; Orange = could be
derived; Green = relative estimate.
Argo
XBT
Sea Surface
Temperature
Air-Sea Fluxes
Biochemistry
(pCO2)
Cont.
Plankton
Recorder
Bioacoustics
Tropical
RV/Temperat
e MV
Air-sea fluxes
Deep water
arrays
Southern
Ocean
Timeseries
Seagliders
Slocum
Gliders
Auto.
Underwater
Vehicle
National
Reference
Stations
Shelf Arrays
Acidification
Moorings
114
Passive
Acoustics
WERA
Ocean
Radar
CODAR
Acoustic
Animal
Tagging
Tagging
Biologging
Wireless
Sensor
Networks
Sea Surface
Temperature
Satellite
Sea Surface
Remote
Height
Sensing
Ocean Colour
Non- IMOS Observations
Repeat
Hydrography
Tide Gauges
Wave buoys
?
?
115
8 Assessing the readiness of observing system components
Considering the timescales of ocean variability, IMOS needs to be sustained for decades to deliver
the information required. Technologies and methods used need to routinely deliver consistent
information on these timescales, while new approaches need to be tested and review before they
can be brought into the sustained observing system. The Framework for Ocean Observations
identifies a pathway by which new observing technologies can be brought into the long-term
observing system according to their “readiness level” (Figure 7.1).
Figure 8.1: The Concept of Readiness Levels. How ocean observing activities will be assessed for inclusion in the
Framework for Ocean Observing. The scale and scope of activities at each readiness level will vary according to
the needs of a particular EOV (Unesco, 2012).
With IMOS’s strong focus on national community level science planning, this readiness concept can
be adapted to incorporate:
 The scientific and technical maturity of the observing system components, i.e. whether the
science and hence observation requirements are well understood or whether there is a
conceptual model of a system that requires validation.
 The technical maturity of observing technologies that range from well established, such as
Argo floats and many Ships of Opportunity components, to new technologies where
deployment plans needs refining such as Gliders.
Plotted against each other, these categories provide four quadrants; three of which are appropriate
space for IMOS to invest in (Figure 8.2).
116
Figure 8.2: Assessing the “readiness” of observations to be brought into the IMOS system.
As a sustained in situ observing system, IMOS needs to invest in proven technologies. The range of
potential observations available to address the science questions and their delivery at the scales
required is therefore quite well known. However, as a national scale observing system it is
appropriate for IMOS to take a ‘portfolio’ approach to its strategy; building on established global
strengths but also pushing the boundaries in terms of integration from open-ocean to coastal and
from physics to biology.
Accordingly, some elements of IMOS will be very mature and have an established role in the global
ocean observing system, while other elements will be new to global observing systems exploring
new regions or using new technologies.
8.1.1
Mature
Mature components of the observing system are those where there is good understanding of the
system trying to be measured including the variables and scales of observations required. There is
also knowledge on how to measure it using mature technology that has been tested and tried in
observing systems.
Many of the data streams from IMOS that are of most importance to the science goals of the Nodes
come from mature components and are the foundation of global ocean observing systems. These
include Argo, ship of opportunity programs, deep and shelf moorings, biologging, radar and satellite
measurements of surface temperature, surface height and ocean colour.
For very mature components of the observing system, it will be important to consider the potential
for operationalising them, such as Argo, a technology that is mature enough for consideration. The
operationalization of technology will need to be discussed with agencies such as the Bureau of
Meteorology and develop a framework that could enable transition of observational data streams
from the research environment to the operational environment, where justified.
117
It is noted that there are observing system components already in used which are considered
mature, but are not part of IMOS; such as:
 Repeat Hydrography (implemented through the Marine National Facility and collaboration
with international Partners)
 Surface Drifters (deployed by the Bureau of Meteorology)
 Tide gauges (funded by the Bureau of Meteorology and State Governments)
8.1.2
Pilot – System understanding, new technology
This component of the observing system is where there is understanding of the system, as well as
the spatial and temporal scales of variability and variables required to measure the system. However,
new technologies are used to take measurements and needs refinement in the context of sustained
observing systems. These technologies include ocean gliders, wireless sensor networks and
enhanced sensor suites to measure bio-optics, oxygen, pH and nitrate for Argo floats.
In the case of Gliders, observations need to transition from discovery (where we are seeing features
at a resolution not delivered before now) to sustained mode, where we can deduce changes and
variability in the system using the data in the context of other regional observations.
Wireless sensor networks, installed around the four island research stations on the Great Barrier
Reef, have demonstrated their reliability as a way of obtaining real-time observations. The challenge
for this technology is expansion to ocean variables beyond temperature, which can be collected at
much lower cost albeit in delayed mode using loggers.
Based on current momentum, it seems inevitable that within the next 5-10 years there will be a
large coordinated effort to deploy Argo floats with biochemical sensors in the Southern Ocean.
Australian scientists could contribute to such a program by deploying floats and providing initial in
situ validation data.
8.1.3
Pilot – Conceptual model of system, mature technology
This component of the observing system is where there is only a conceptual idea of how a system
works, but the methods for taking measurements are well established. For example a number of
tested mature technologies for observing sea ice and ice – ocean interaction already exist such as
ice-tethered profilers, ice-capable profiling floats and ice mass balance buoys. However, they remain
“pilot” component for IMOS in the sense that their role in a sustained observing system for Antarctic
sea ice has not yet been articulated as a comprehensive strategy for IMOS observations in the sea
ice zone.
Another example is observations being made at key trophic levels (e.g. SOOP bio-acoustics, passive
acoustic arrays and animal tagging) or particular ecosystems (AUV deployed in deep regions) which
will be used to improve system understanding and hence feed back into refining the suite of
observations and design of the observing system.
A near-term goal for IMOS will be to aim for better integration of existing data streams to facilitate
study of the coupled system (i.e. simultaneous, coincident measurements of physical, chemical and
biological parameters are needed) and articulate a comprehensive strategy to expand sustain
observing in regions with little information such as the Antarctic sea ice zone.
118
8.1.4
Concept
Concept components are new technology and methods that require further field testing and/or
demonstrated application to science requirements before being brought into the sustained
observing system.
Many of new technologies of relevance to IMOS are presently transitioning from Concept to Pilot
stage. These include deep Argo floats capable of sampling the full ocean depth. A pilot experiment,
with involvement of IMOS personnel, will be carried out off New Zealand to test the capability of
several deep Argo designs, with the intention of Deep Argo becoming a standard tool of the global
ocean observing system in a few years.
Monitoring of microbial indicators using metagenomic approaches are being tested with samples
collected at the East Coast NRS. It is expected that microbial monitoring will expand to all NRS
stations in the coming year. However, to be a useful tool for sustained observations, further
technological developments are needed for sample collection and analysis, requiring both the
molecular and the 119ioinformatics components of the analysis to become cheaper and more
automated.
While the use of marine animals as platforms for oceanographic observations is well established, the
use of sea turtles as platforms for acoustic receiver/transmitters that could provide data on their
own movements and also those of other tagged animals could be a new concept to collect data.
Technology to transfer data from moored sensors in a cost effective manner, such as acoustic
downloads to passing ships or data pods that surface periodically to transmit data is in development.
This technological advance will be advantageous to Australia given the size and remoteness of most
of its marine territory.
9 Facilities implementation plan
The design of the observing system is based around the concept of whole of system approach and
the ability to maximise the benefit of each of the individual measurements. The IMOS infrastructure
is operated by different institutions within the national Innovation Systems. Each facility is funded to
deploy equipment and deliver data streams for use by the entire Australian marine and climate
science community and its international collaborators.
To give the observing system a national context and provide the means to integrate sparse ocean in
situ measurements across Australia’s ocean region, IMOS facilities are interconnected by a ‘national
backbone’ which includes the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN), the Satellite Remote Sensing
Facility, and a network of moored National Reference Stations. More intensive observations are then
focused on continental shelf and coastal processes observations and regions of socio-economic and
ecological significance.
The following sections look at how, where and when the observational resources are to be deployed
and maintained for each of the five coastal node and the open ocean node. Also given are the
primary, secondary and modelling products produced by each facility and the uses and limitations of
technology.
119
9.1 The National Backbone
9.1.1
Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN)
The AODN is the key element of IMOS strategy enabling IMOS data and other Australian research
and operational ocean data to become discoverable, accessible, usable and reusable for the benefit
of the nation as a whole.
Marine data and information are the main products of IMOS, and data management is therefore a
central element to the project’s success. All IMOS facilities deliver the observations and associated
metadata to the AODN which, through controlled workflow processes, conducts assessment and
archival, and provides infrastructure for the discovery of and access to the data by the research
community and the public. The AODN works with the Facilities to make all IMOS observations easily
discoverable, accessible and usable. Inherent in this goal is the aim to provide consistency in data
quality, formats, metadata, and interoperability with other programs and data sources. In addition,
the AODN is an interoperable, online network of marine and coastal data resources that connects
the major marine data holdings of Australia and serves them to support Australia’s science,
education, environmental management and policy needs.
IMOS supports the AODN through partnerships with the Australian Federal, State and Territory
Government agencies, Universities, and private sector companies. The main objectives of the AODN
are:


to populate the AODN with publicly funded data and to make this accessible to as wide a
community as possible;
to encourage, and develop, the culture of data sharing across the marine science community
of Australia
The AODN provides a single integrative framework for data and information management to allow
discovery and access of the data. It specifically provides:



The standards, protocols and systems to integrate the data and related information into a
number of conformal frameworks, and provides the tools to access and utilise the data.
Data products as web services and web features for processing, integration and visualisation
for some of the data.
The ability to integrate data from sources outside IMOS into IMOS data products, and to export
IMOS data to international programs.
Feedback from the user community led the AODN facility to re-design the look and feel of the portal,
with the intention to make it easier to search for, display and download data. All metadata and nongridded IMOS data will be input to a database to enable the faceted search to be fully exploited,
including gridded components.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The AODN is based at the University of Tasmania, located in Hobart, Tasmania. AODN staff coordinate the handling of IMOS data and organise its storage, accessibility, discoverability and means
120
of visualisation. Among the activities that this facility undertakes are hardening the infrastructure,
improve discovery and access to data, map-based filtering of data for viewing and download,
develop a controlled vocabulary service, improve data citation including Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
usage and improving access to data through extensions to the Matlab Toolbox and a user code
library. The AODN’s Ocean Data Portal includes data from six Commonwealth Agencies with
responsibilities in the Australian marine jurisdiction (AAD, AIMS, BOM, CSIRO, GA and RAN).
Fig. 9.1. IMOS Ocean Portal launched on February 2014
Primary products
The delivery of data streams through the IMOS ocean portal http://imos.aodn.org.au/imos123/
Secondary products
Go Go Duck middleware system which provides advanced capabilities to query, subset and
download remote sensing and other gridded data sets. The system is deployed by AODN as part of
the Ocean Data Portal to provide user access to gridded data sets.
Modelling application
In collaboration with the University of Tasmania, CSIRO, UNSW, SARDI, AIMS, UWA, BoM and NCI
the MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) has been developed, with the aim to provide necessary
tools to construct a virtual environment of a region of interest. MARVL comprises a suite of complex
models (e.g. ocean circulation, waves, water quality, and marine biogeochemistry), a network of
121
observing sensors, and a host of value-adding tools that can underpin research to understand the
dynamics, interactions, and connectivity of an estuarine/coastal region, continental shelf region, or
open ocean domain.
The MARVL infrastructure created and developed though a NeCTAR project will be used to explore
scenarios, and demonstrate how a Virtual Laboratory can enable underpinning science in support of
marine management in a specific regional context.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

IMOS and AODN to look into developing workflows that ensure we can deliver ‘model ready’
data on an ongoing basis
9.1.2
Satellite Remote Sensing
Three key satellite data-streams are the focus of IMOS investment. Australia does not have satellites,
but we contribute data to aid in the calibration and validation of satellite data in the Australian
region, and products are also developed from raw satellite data.
9.1.2.1
Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Satellite sea surface temperature (SST) helps identify different bodies of water (or water masses)
and their distribution associated with ocean currents. The sea surface temperature (along with wind
speed) also dictates the nature of the interaction between the ocean and atmosphere, and hence
the feedback of changes in ocean currents and heat content on our climate. This sub-facility delivers
observations relevant to the following major research themes:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes
Satellites measure SST by measuring either the infra-red, or microwave radiation emitted from the
ocean surface. Satellite SST product development is part of the international Group for High
Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) international program, which is working towards the
development of high quality multi-platform products with consistent error flagging. The Australian
Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) produces 1 km resolution sea surface temperature (SST) products in
real time from data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors on board
NOAA polar orbiter platforms received at the Bureau’s satellite reception facilities. As part of the
IMOS the BoM upgraded its SST processing system to comply with the GHRSST (Fig. 9.2). The
significant components include the use of regional rather than global buoy SSTs for satellite SST
calibration, noise resistant methods of SST coefficient estimation, the development of a match-up
database (MDB), calculation of single sensor error statistics (SSES), an improvement in cloud
identification, an analysis of quality level in terms of km rather than pixels, stitching of overlapping
raw AVHRR data from several ground stations and the generation and distribution of SST products in
GHRSST L2P and L3C formats.
122
Figure 9.2: Sea Surface Temperature L3P GHRSST-SSTsubskin-AVHRR MOSAIC 01km.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
IMOS support for system improvements, data processing, data management and validation of the
existing IMOS satellite sea surface temperature (SST) single swath (“L2P”) and composite (“L3U”,
“L3C” and “L3S”) products derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)
sensors on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. Web-based validation of IMOS satellite SST products also
use drifting buoys and IMOS in situ SST data from SOOP and Argo floats (see sections below).
Primary products:
High-resolution (1 km x 1 km) satellite sea surface temperature (SST) products over the Australian
region produced by the BoM designed to suit a range of operational and research applications.
Secondary products:




IMOS OceanCurrent
Operational SST analyses (RAMSSA, GAMSSA)
Short-term and seasonal weather prediction systems and the GHRSST Multi-Product
Ensemble
ReefTemp NextGen coral bleaching prediction system
Modelling application:
Satellite sea surface temperature is a core dataset for assimilation into ocean state estimates and for
initialisation of seasonal and ocean forecasts such as those described below:

Operational numerical weather prediction (BoM), with IMOS data used as the boundary
condition for all operational numerical weather prediction models at the Bureau
123



Seasonal Prediction (BoM), with IMOS data feeding into GAMSSA to initialise the Bureau’s
seasonal prediction model, POAMA-2.
GHRSST Tropical Warm Pool Diurnal Variability (TWP+) Project using IMOS data to quantify
diurnal warming of the surface ocean and validate SST diurnal variation models over the
Tropical Warm Pool
GHRSST Multi-Product Ensemble Project uses IMOS data through GAMSSA to produce a daily
near real-time global 0.1 degree resolution SST analysis as a median of 10 global SST
analyses (http://ghrsstpp.metoffice.com/pages/latest_analysis/sst_monitor/daily/ens/index.html )
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that
exists now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current
arrays, Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea
surface height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
Uses
- Systematic global measurements of sea
surface temperature every ~10 days.
- Can be used to identify currents, fonts and
meso-scale ocean features
- Data assimilated into models for weather
and ocean prediction
- SST defines the nature of the interaction
between the ocean and the atmosphere
9.1.2.2
Limitations
- Cloud contamination is a problem; especially
in the Southern Ocean.
- Satellites can’t see below the sea surface. Or
below sea ice
Sea Surface Height (SSH)
Altimetry sensors measure the height of the surface of the ocean. The sea surface height (SSH) signal
is made up of the underlying topography of the oceans and as such has become the tool of choice
for scientists to measure sea level rise at regional and global scales as well as for giving information
about ocean currents and large and small-scale variability. The determination of changes in global
mean sea level is of fundamental importance in understanding the response of the ocean to a
continuing warming climate, both through thermal expansion of the ocean, melting of the major ice
sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, and mountain glaciers, and redistribution of water over the
continents and atmosphere. As with all scientific observations calibration and validation are an
important component and IMOS provides the sole southern hemisphere in situ calibration site with
ongoing calibration and validation data streaming directly to the international (NASA and CNES
sponsored) Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST). This sub-facility delivers observations
relevant to the following major research themes:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes
124
Figure 9.3: The IMOS satellite altimetry calibration/validation sites at Bass Strait and Storm Bay.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The Australian calibration site includes two comparison points, Bass Strait and Storm Bay (Fig. 9.3),
where in situ data is compared against the altimeter. These two locations lie on descending (N -> S)
pass 088 of the satellite altimeter, and thus share similar satellite orbit characteristics. The use of
these two sites allows detailed investigation into the accuracy of the altimeter over two different
wave climates. The average significant wave height at Storm Bay is approximately double that
observed at the comparatively sheltered Bass Strait location.
Primary products:
Two data streams are generated, the “absolute bias” stream and the “bias drift” data stream, which
are feed directly to the international (NASA and CNES sponsored) Ocean Surface Topography Science
Team (OSTST).
Secondary products:


Production and improvement of the Gridded Sea Level Anomaly (GSLA) data set, which
access data from at least two ocean-optimised altimeters
OceanCurrent website where altimetry data, along with many other forms of IMOS data, are
shown in graphical form for immediate interpretation by a wide range of users.
Modelling applications:
Satellite SSH is a core data-stream for assimilation into ocean state estimates and for initialisation of
seasonal and ocean forecasts such as Bluelink project.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:


The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that
exists now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current
arrays, Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea
surface height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
Additional sites for altimeter calibration at Lorne (VIC) and Darwin (NT) to be considered, or
reconfiguration of existing sites to facilitate calibration of new missions (e.g. ESA Sentinel-3).
125
Uses
- Provide accurate, systematic estimates of
Sea Surface Height
- Provide information on mesoscale ocean
dynamics
- Constrain most ocean state estimates and
initialise ocean forecasting systems
- Provides a tool to measure sea level rise and
detect changes due to ocean warming
9.1.2.3
Limitations
- Surface only estimates
- Not accurate in coastal regions.
Ocean Colour
Satellite observation and quantification of ocean colour can provide estimates of phytoplankton
concentration due to the fact that the colour in the visible light region, (wavelengths of 400-700 nm)
varies with the concentration of chlorophyll and other plant pigments present in the water in most
of the world’s oceans. Therefore, ocean colour can be used to estimate the spatial variability of
phytoplankton biomass (ocean colour) and activity (primary production) in the surface ocean.
However, in situ bio-optical datasets are needed to calibrate and validate ocean colour sensors to
increase the reliability and precision of satellite measurements for applications such as water quality
monitoring. This sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research themes:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
IMOS collects measurements of ocean colour for calibration and validation in a number of ways
including coastal observatories of water radiance and in water optical properties, vessel mounted
spectro radiometers. It also created a bio-optical database to consolidate historical bio-optical
measurements made around Australia.
126
Figure 9.4. The Bio-optlcal database to date in the IMOS Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The Lucinda Jetty Coastal Observatory which collects two different data streams: above water
measurements of the water radiance and in water measurements of the optical properties. The
observatory aims to become the preeminent source of measurements for the validation of coastalocean colour radiometric products applied to biogeochemistry and climate studies in Australia.
Spectro-radiometers installed on board three research vessels (RVs Southern Surveyor, Solander and
Investigator) to enhance the continental coverage of the radiometry dataset.
Bio-Optical Data Base (Fig. 9.4), which bring together bio-optical data from the research community
to enhance its holdings. This data base contributes to NASA and ESA and used by the international
community for calibration and validation of ocean colour sensors.
Primary products
Match-up database of bio-geochemical and bio-optical data. Lucinda Jetty measures in situ biooptical data in real time and delayed mode. Radiometers collect quality controlled delayed mode
bio-optical and skin SST data along ship tracks. The Bio-Optical DataBase delivers data in delayed
mode and it is served via the IMOS portal. All radiometry data after calibration is uploaded within 2
weeks of each voyage, while quality controlled radiometry data (ready for satellite matchup analysis)
is uploaded within 4/6 weeks of each voyage.
Secondary products
Regionally validated ocean colour products of gridded satellite data
MODIS ocean colour products at daily temporal resolution and at 1x1 km spatial resolution
MODIS Chlorophyll products for use in the OceanCurrent website and other projects
127
Experimental phytoplankton functional type (PFT) products derived from the MODIS data sets, which
are being used to test PFT algorithms globally by the IOCCG and for Australian ecological modelling
activities.
Modelling applications
Ocean colour data (reflectance) is being assimilated into biogeochemical models such as WOMBAT
and other ecological models such as eReefs.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:


The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that exists
now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current arrays,
Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea surface
height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
from moorings, satellites, and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking
tagging data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic
receiver transmitters deployed on top predators.
Uses
- Qualitatively shows spatial variability in
primary production in the ocean.
- Provide global, systematic, repeat
measurements of photosynthetic pigments
providing a broad-level indication of
phytoplankton composition.
- Skin SST from radiometers used for cal/val of
satellite SST.
9.1.3
Limitations
- Data in open ocean waters require
calibration with in situ measurements.
- The accurate characterisation of coastal
waters is still a major research activity.
- Ocean colour is not an estimate of primary
productivity
National Mooring Network (ANMN)
The National Mooring network measures physical and biological parameters of Australian coastal
waters, and consists of a number of components;



9.1.3.1
A network of National Reference Stations (NRS)
regional arrays of shelf moorings
CO2 moorings and passive acoustic observatories.
National Reference Stations (NRS)
Long-term observations are critical for defining key components of climate change and associated
responses of ocean ecosystems. Within the Australian marine system, geographically comprehensive
long-term monitoring programs are challenging given the large size of the Nation’s ocean territory
and extensive continental coastline. To address a general lack of sustained ocean observations
essential for documenting long term time-series against which more spatially replicated short term
128
studies can be referenced, IMOS in collaboration with marine institutional partners developed a
network of National Reference Stations.
Currently seven NRS are in operation around the continent, building on three long-term locations
(Maria Island, TAS; Rottnest Island, WA; Port Hacking, NSW), where monthly water sampling for
physical and biological parameters have been in operation since the 1940’s. All seven sites fully
instrumented with in situ moored ocean sensors (Fig. 9.2) and include an enhanced monthly
sampling regime for nutrients, microbes (from 2012), phytoplankton, small zooplankton and
environmental factors. This sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major
research themes:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
This co-ordinated network of sites is unique for a coastal monitoring system deployed at a
continental scale. A rationale, design and implementation plan developed for the NRS Network to
provide a sound scientific foundation and operational basis for long term investment in the NRS
network can be found at
http://imos.org.au/fileadmin/user_upload/shared/ANMN/NRS_rationale_and_implementation_100
811.pdf.
Figure 9.2: Current NRS instrumented array schematic
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
 NRS that will continue operations are located at Maria Island (TAS), Port Hacking (NSW), North
Stradbroke Island and Yongala (QLD), Darwin (NT), Rottenest Island (WA), and Kangaroo Island,
(SA). Ningaloo and Esperance (WA) stations will cease to operate this year (Fig. 9.3).
129


Near real time and quality controlled delayed mode data is collected from Maria and North
Stradbroke Islands, Darwin and Yongala stations.
Quality controlled delayed mode data is collected at Port Hacking, Ningaloo, Rottnest, Esperance
and Kangaroo stations.
Figure 8.3:
9.3: NRS
NRS sites
stations
currently (red
operating
NRS
stations
that operations
include CO 2this
moorings
(red with
Figure
in operation
cricles)(red
andcircles),
NRS sites
that
will cease
year (green
circles).
black outline) and NRS stations to be decommissioned (green circles). Note: the Yongala CO2 mooring has been
relocated to Heron Island in 2015.
Primary products:
In total 58 data streams are delivered by the NRS and include temperature, salinity, dissolved
oxygen, nutrients, turbidity, carbon, biological parameters for both phytoplankton and zooplankton
and an optical proxy for chlorophyll a. Near real time parameters from the stations include all those
delivered by the water quality monitor (WQM) sensors as well meteorological data from the Visalia
WXT520 weather station. Additional near real time data include sea surface temperature and for
NRS MAI and NSI significant wave height.
Secondary products:
All the data collected at the NRS sites intends to provide integration of long‐term time‐series
observations to more spatially‐distributed and intensive shorter‐term studies, a coastal information
infrastructure through development of national data standards and calibration and validation of
coastal remote sensing.
130
At a regional scale provides focal points within regional Nodes for integrating with observations of
other IMOS ‘coastal ocean’ facilities, modelling of coastal processes and linking coastal processes
with offshore processes.
Modelling applications:
Sensor and sampling data are used to validate coastal and biogeochemical models.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:





Re-assess the footprints analysis of National Reference Stations and shelf moorings using higher
resolution model
Evaluate the value and use of near real time data form coastal moorings and based on needs
consider transitioning or transferring real time data acquisition where is more needed
Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
from moorings, satellites and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking tagging
data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic receiver
transmitters deployed on top predators.
Consider measurements of rates of primary and secondary productivity via fluorometry,
stable/radioactive isotope such as triple oxygen isotope method, or biochemical studies.
Maria Island NRS. The Maria Island NRS is one of the longest time series of ocean temperature,
and is placed in a hotspot for warming. Its record must continue
Uses
- Consistent long term monitoring at
representative sites gives insights into broad
scale low frequency variability in the context
of climate change.
- Some sites are representative of changes
and variability in boundary currents.
- Broad suite of measurements allows
relationships between physical changes,
nutrients and ecosystem responses to be
identified.
9.1.3.2
Limitations
- Monthly sampling may not be fit for all
purposes i.e. monitoring nutrient
enrichment from periodic upwelling.
- Expensive to maintain
- Telemetry only at four sites
- Require regular servicing
Regional Mooring Arrays
Shelf moorings (Figure 9.4) are deployed in a wide range of configurations (cross shelf arrays,
mooring pairs and single moorings), and are designed to characterise and monitor regional
processes on the continental shelf. In some places, shelf moorings are linked to deep water
transport arrays. This sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research
themes:

Multi-decadal ocean change
131

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
Parameters measured include oceanographic data, i.e. WQM and current velocity from ADCPs, with
some moorings collecting biogeochemical data as well.
Figure 9.4: Location of the shelf arrays around Australia
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
Shelf arrays are maintained at:
 Two Rocks, Perth Canyon, Indonesia Throughflow, Kimberley and Pilbara (WA);
 GBR (north , central, south) (QLD);
 Beagle Gulf (NT);
 Sydney, Coffs Harbour and Bateman’s Bay;
 Spencer Gulf and Coffin Bay and mid slope and deep slope moorings (SA).
Moorings at Batemans Bay, Lizard Shelf, Slope and Elusive Reef, Kimberly and Pilbara will be
discontinued this year.
Primary products:
132
Temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and current velocity data on all locations, above water
weather parameters including air temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and
direction where available and chlorophyll, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and waves data also available
at some sites. Delayed mode data are delivered to eMII to be placed onto the data portal. Real-time
data are also available from some regional moorings, as well as cruise based biogeochemical and
CTD data from SA.
Modelling applications: Shelf mooring arrays provide the backbone validation data for
regional/coastal models; i.e. eReefs on the GBR, and SAROM in South Australia. Through the BP
project in the GAB, extensive hydrodynamic models will be developed for that region and will be
validated against SAIMOS and IMOS data.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:











Evaluate costing of mooring array along 200 m isobath from the Kimberley to north-west
Australia to monitor the thermal structure of the upper ocean on interannual and decadal time
scales
Maintain and enhance the IMOS infrastructure that is presently in place to increase spatial and
temporal coverage, if it can be done efficiently and economically. Maintaining the SOFS air-sea
flux mooring is particularly important
Maintain a footprint in the Kimberley coastal region;
It is highly desirable to extend the Two Rocks transect to cover the full width of the Leeuwin
Current, i.e. extend the Two Rocks mooring transect both into deep water, and to the nearshore
region.
Engage in ongoing discussions to establish observing strategies and monitoring frameworks that
can assess whether a more adequate shelf/coastal observing system can be implemented
through partnership.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Re-assess the footprints analysis of National Reference Stations and shelf moorings using higher
resolution model
Evaluate the value and use of near real time data form coastal moorings and based on needs
consider transitioning or transferring real time data acquisition where is more needed
Redesign the EAC mooring and consider the inclusion of the SEQ shelf moorings at the expense
of one of the slope moorings as there may be some redundancy in this part of the array
Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
from moorings, satellites, and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking
tagging data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic
receiver transmitters deployed on top predators.
Consider measurements of rates of primary and secondary productivity via fluorometry,
stable/radioactive isotope such as triple oxygen isotope method, or biochemical studies.
Uses
- Continuous time series of variables at
regional scale that allows validation for
Limitations
- Sparse spatial coverage
- Difficult to identify optimal locations of
133
-
coastal remote sensing
Arrays of shelf moorings linked to deep
water transport arrays allow the influence of
offshore processes on the shelf to be
identified.
9.1.3.3
-
single moorings.
High cost
Require regular (3-6 month) servicing which
can be difficult for remote regions.
CO2 Moorings
CO2 moorings (Figure 9.4) are collocated at some NRS sites to collect the full suite of parameters
needed to characterise the concentration of CO2 in the water and provide key observations to help
us understand and address the problem of increasing ocean acidification. This sub-facility delivers
observations relevant to the following major research themes:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
These are the only IMOS high-frequency shelf moorings for the measurement of CO2 parameters and
complement the 1-2 monthly coverage from the Ships Of Opportunity Program (SOOP) BGC
measurements. The sites contribute to national and international research priorities, delivering to
international data bases and UNFCCC core variable measurements, the new international Global
Ocean Acidification Observing Network, and they also help meet priority measurement
requirements identified in the Australia’s National Framework Climate Change Science plan. The
combined moorings and SOOP vastly improve temporal and spatial coverage in Australia.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
 CO2 moorings were located originally at the Maria Island (temperate), Yongala (tropical/GBR)
and Kangaroo Island (upwelling) NRS sites. The Yongala mooring was discontinued after cyclone
damage and was moved to Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef. The Kangaroo and Maria
Island moorings remain in place. Each mooring is equipped with surface CO2 systems, using
proven and robust technology. Three sensors determine surface CO2, temperature, salinity and
oxygen. In addition, the hydrochemistry sampling at the NRS also provide total alkalinity data,
while future pH sensors on the moorings will allow for a complete determination of the
carbonate system and pH.
Primary products: Data is available to eMII in near real-time and delayed mode data are submitted
within six months of sensor recovery and download of the complete data set stored on the sensors.
134
Secondary products: Time series of calcite/aragonite saturation depths. Reanalyses products such as
the Surface Ocean Carbon Atlas (SOCAT) version updates in 2014+ Carbon Dioxide Information
Analysis Center Ocean CO2 data.
Modelling Applications: pCO2 data can be used to tune reef-scale model runs and will be used to
tune the eReefs model.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:


Expand pCO2 network, including CO2 measurements at high latitude where overturning
circulation and global CO2 outgassing changes are under debate. Measurements at low latitude
are also needed.
Expand CO2 network on national reference station to ensure ocean acidification progress is
quantified for representative coastal habitats. SOOP BGC could be an alternative.
Uses
- Accurate estimates of temporal variability of
CO2 concentrations in the ocean
9.1.3.4
Limitations
- Restricted to point measurements
Passive Acoustic Moorings
The Acoustic Observatories sub-facility has deployed 3 arrays of acoustic listening stations (Fig. 9.5)
that passively record sounds from the ocean. The stations provide baseline data on ambient oceanic
noise, detection of fish and mammal vocalizations linked to ocean productivity, monitoring of
multiple species of whales and detection of underwater events. This sub-facility delivers
observations relevant to the following major research themes:

Ecosystem responses
Examples of information available on physical sea noise sources includes: seasonal and climate
driven inter-annual changes in rainfall over large ocean areas; calculating the size and propagation
speed of seafloor ruptures due to earthquakes; deriving long term trends in seismic activity in
subsea fault zones; or monitoring Antarctic ice calving. It is the only system with publicly available
data in world
135
Figure 9.5. Passive Acoustic Observatories on the Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
Arrays are located in Perth Canyon (WA), Portland (VIC) and Forster/Tuncurry (NSW). These sites
have been chosen for their biological interests. Perth Canyon is a focal feeding area for pygmy blue
whales Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda, with the station operating since 2000. This array is also
closely matched to the moorings being deployed in the canyon by the Western Australian sub-facility,
allowing for multidisciplinary correlations between the acoustic data and the oceanographic physical
and chemical data. In addition, there are two passive acoustic observatories in the Pilbara/Kimberley
co-invested by WA Government, with emphasis on analysis and use of data from WA, SA/Victoria
and NSW.
Primary products: Delayed mode raw acoustic records from all listening stations and QC data
delivered within 6 months of collection.
Secondary products: IMOS Acoustic Data Viewer, which enables visualisation and downloading of
raw data.
Modelling applications: Additional distribution and abundance estimates for use in ecological
models.
Uses
Limitations
136
-
Acoustic data contains a broad range of
useful information, which is difficult to get
from other sources.
-
Large amounts of data which is difficult to
store/distribute/analyse
Significant amount of post-processing
required to get scientifically useful indices.
9.2 Open Ocean Facilities
9.2.1
Argo
Argo floats are autonomous profiling floats which drift around the ocean delivering high quality
temperature and salinity data in real time and delayed mode, down to 2000m. The Australian Argo
program contributes to a global array of ~ 3600 floats (Figure 9.5). Australia is a key player in the
southern hemisphere observing effort, and the second largest partner in the global Argo program.
The Argo program has been deploying floats since 1999. It is the first worldwide in situ ocean
observation network that produces data in near real time. The primary goal of the Argo program is
to maintain a global array of autonomous profiling floats integrated with other elements of the
climate observing system.
The specific aims are to:



detect climate variability over seasonal to decadal time-scales including changes in the largescale distribution of temperature and salinity and in the transport of these properties by largescale ocean circulation.
provide information needed for the calibration of satellite measurements.
deliver data for the initialisation and constraint of climate models.
Recent developments in Argo floats include ice capable floats (either programmed with ice avoiding
algorithms, or ruggedized antennae to withstand ice), the development of bio-optical sensors for
measuring dissolved oxygen, and most recently Deep Argo floats operating to depths of 3500m.
Other developments in sensor technology that have not been incorporated into the core Argo
mission include; Bio-Argo, which can measure bio-optical and bio-geochemical properties and
Carbon Explorers, which measure particulate organic and inorganic carbon to a depth of 2000m.
This facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Ecosystem responses
137
Figure 9.5: Argo float deployed globally with Australia contributing 383 floats (pink circles)
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
 An active array of around 383 profiling Argo floats in the oceans around Australia, contributing
to an international array of > 3600 active floats A total of 95 floats will be purchased, tested and
prepared for deployment in collaboration with CSIRO, BoM and ACE CRC within the next 2 years
and 40 floats acquired previously will be deployed, particularly in the South Pacific Ocean.
 Assistance to international Argo partners in deployments in remote regions of the south Indian,
Pacific and Southern Oceans.
 Priority area for coverage is 90°E -180°E, equator to southern winter sea ice edge. Secondary
priority is some deployments (5-10 per year) in the seasonal ice zone.
Primary products
Over 9000 (750) ocean profiles per month delivered globally (Argo Australia) of temperature (Fig.
9.6), salinity and pressure to near 2000m depth, distributed in real time (< 24 hours) and delayed
mode (< 1 year). Oxygen data is also collected from approximately 45 active floats.
138
Figure 9.6: Active Argo floats deployed around Australia showing monthly temperature anomaly at 2.5m (Data
from http://wo.jcommops.org/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Argo.woa/1/wo/2tlGuKw97gg1X1bDyJPUb0/9.0.30.19.1.5)
Modelling applications
The Argo array provides a global dataset of broad-scale subsurface temperature and salinity in near
real time and delayed mode. Near real-time Argo data are a core dataset for seasonal and ocean
forecast initial conditions. Delayed-mode Argo data are assimilated into ocean state estimate models
such as BlueLink, and are used to validate the distribution of temperature and salinity with depth in
the oceans. All ocean reanalyses ingest Argo profile data – the 14 systems comprising OceanView
GODAE can be found at https://www.godae-oceanview.org/science/ocean-forecasting-systems/.
The CSIRO has completed a new 10km ocean reanalysis around Australia (BRAN3) which will be
available in mid-2013.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:






Investigate and evaluate the use of Deep Argo to determine changes in heat and freshwater
content throughout the full ocean depth and Ice capable Argo to observe the sea ice zone
Evaluate the oxygen enabled Argo pilot program and expand coverage in the Coral Sea or use
gliders if not possible to use Argo
Evaluate new sensor technologies for pH, nutrients, and bio-optics that could be considered to
be ready for piloting at broad scale, on Argo, SOOP, gliders etc.
Support offshore observations such as Argo floats and XBTs, in order to understand both remote
and local large scale climatic drivers of extreme climatic events
Collaborate with international partners to advance the deployment of bio-Argo floats,
particularly in the Southern Ocean.
Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
139
from moorings, satellites, and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking
tagging data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic
receiver transmitters deployed on top predators.
Uses
- Global broad-scale coverage of temperature
salinity and pressure data down to 2000m.
Some floats include oxygen data as well
- Delivered in real time,
- High quality (robust instrumentation,
rigorous QA/QC)
9.2.2
Limitations
- Does not cover deep ocean (below 2000m)
- Not suitable for shallow shelf areas.
- Does not resolve mesoscale processes such
as eddies.
- Limited ability to deliver observations in the
sea ice zone.
- Limited ability to deliver observations in BGC
variables.
Ships of Opportunity
Ships Of Opportunity Program (SOOP) is an international effort that implements a network of cargo,
ferries and research vessels to deploy scientific instruments that collect ocean observations and
Australia is one of the largest contributor to this program. Due to the high cost of chartered research
vessels, the use of volunteer merchant vessels as oceanographic platforms while underway is an
important and cost-effective way to collect observations. These vessels are fitted with a variety of
sampling instruments that collect data along fixed, pre-established transects, such as the shipping
routes undertaken by merchant vessels or ferries.
The IMOS SOOP program uses ferries, tankers, and supply ships on repeating lines and those that
have a broad coverage such as fishing and research vessels.
9.2.2.1
Expendable Bathythermographs (XBT’s)
Expendable Bathythermograph (XBTs) is a probe that is dropped from a ship to measure
temperature from the sea surface to 850m as it falls through the water. Data is transmitted to the
vessel by a thin wire where it is recorded for later analysis. XBTs provide a quick and inexpensive
means of collecting temperature data at pre-established transects that are repeated at least 4 times
a year. Data from XBT observations are focused on, but not limited to:
a) variability of surface, subsurface, currents and undercurrents,
b) meridional heat transport,
c) thermal temporal variability along fixed
transects
The sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows
140
There are currently several sections sampled around Australia, which are generally high resolution
(eddy resolving) and/or frequently repeated (monthly occupied) transects (Figure 9.7). On average
25,000 XBTs are deployed each year by the XBT global program, with some time series that are
approximately 30 years in some. Australia’s XBT operations started in 1983.
Figure 9.7: SOOP XBT sections available in the Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
 Repeat and sustained collection of frequently repeated or high density temperature sections
along shipping lanes, including:
o Undertake 8 ‘high density’ XBT sections per year on each line: Brisbane to Fiji and Sydney to
Wellington
o Undertake 2 ‘high density’ XBT sections from Fiji to New Zealand and South Africa to Perth 4
times a year (co-investment with Scripps)
o Undertake 12 ‘high density’ XBT sections from Hobart – Dumont d’Urville
o Australia to South Africa – assist in operations by Scripps Institution of Oceanography
o Bi-weekly sections from Perth to Singapore and monthly from Singapore east across the
Banda Sea (co-investment with BoM)
Primary Products
High quality, scientifically QC’d upper ocean temperature data collected along high resolution
sections bounding the Tasman Sea and crossing the Southern Ocean to Antarctica.
High resolution sections bounding the Tasman Sea and Southern Indian Ocean collected under coinvestment by Scripps.
Secondary products
XBT lines surrounding Australia cut across critical currents and provide data important to our
understanding of climate variability and change in our region.
Ocean transport time-series to track major regional boundary current changes, used to document
and track decadal changes in the Tasman Sea
Modelling applications
141
Near real-time XBT data are a core dataset for seasonal and ocean forecast initial conditions.
Delayed-mode XBT data are assimilated into ocean state estimates, and are used to validate heat
fluxes (both net basin and boundary currents) in ESM’s. XBT data contributes in real-time (via GTS) to
several operational ocean assimilation systems including ‘OCEANMAPS’ and global ocean
climatologies (including CARS).
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:



Support offshore observations such as Argo floats and XBTs, in order to understand both remote
and local large scale climatic drivers of extreme climatic events
Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Uses
- Eddy resolving
- Supplement other platforms to assess the
upper ocean heat content.
- Subsurface data (down to 850m)
- Repeat observations along same lines.
- 20 year timeseries already exists on many
lines.
9.2.2.2
Limitations
- Confined to main shipping routes (hence less
coverage in the southern hemisphere)
- Measures temperature only
- Depth estimate has errors (based on fall
rate)
- Changes in shipping schedules or routes
disrupt the time series
Ocean Surface C02 (or Biogeochemical (BGC))
Biogeochemical sensors are used to collect high quality partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and fugacity of
carbon dioxide (fCO2) measured in surface seawaters. Observations in pCO2 in the atmosphere and
ocean surface are used to infer the flux of CO2 across the air-sea interface. pCO2 is measured from
platforms that are wither on a repeat transect (e.g. the Antarctic resupply vessels- L’Astrolabe) or
from research vessels operating in Australian waters (Figure 9.8). The sub-facility delivers
observations relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows
142

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
Data collected are used to track the size and variability of the ocean carbon sink in Australian
regional seas and the Southern Ocean, and to determine the extent and controls on ocean
acidification that results from the ocean uptake of CO2. The data contribute to international efforts
and databases used to track the ocean carbon sink, providing information in the Australian region
that would not otherwise be covered. They are also helping to address the need for measurement of
essential climate variables (surface CO2) identified by the UNFCCC and in the Australian Government
National Framework Climate Change Science Plan.
Figure 9.8: SOOP CO2 data available in the Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
Surface underway biogeochemical instrumentation on ships of opportunity to measure ocean CO2
and related parameters. The Aurora Australis provides valuable data on surface ocean CO2 for the
Southern Ocean, while the Southern Surveyor and its replacement RV Investigator, cover shelf and
offshore waters around Australia. Data are delivered in near real-time (daily) with final quality
controlled data delivered within six months of cruise completion, provided ancillary ship’s data are
available.
Primary products
Data on surface CO2 measurements (time, position, pCO2, temperature, salinity) are delivered in
near real-time when Aurora Australis and Southern Surveyor/Investigator are operating. Final quality
controlled data is submitted within six months of completion of voyages or wherever possible.
143
Figure 9.9: SOCAT (V2) 12 month climatology 1x1 gridded showing mean fCO2 (uatm) weighted per cruise
Secondary products:
Surface Ocean Carbon Atlas (SOCAT) gridded product (Fig. 9.9).
Modelling applications:
These data are used to test ocean biogeochemical models and provide baseline information used to
help establish the vulnerability of marine ecosystems to ocean acidification. Data is currently used
for validation of CO2 fluxes in WOMBAT biogeochemical model, and will potentially be used for
assimilation in the future.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:




Expand pCO2 network, including CO2 measurements at high latitude where overturning
circulation and global CO2 outgassing changes are under debate. Measurements at low latitude
are also needed.
Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Expand CO2 network on national reference station to ensure ocean acidification progress is
quantified for representative coastal habitats. SOOP BGC could be an alternative
144

Assess the feasibility of obtaining routine coupled CPR and carbon chemistry transect data on
platforms such as Aurora Australis.
Uses
- Provides broad spatial coverage around
Australia and in the Southern Ocean to fill
gaps in the seasonal climatology of surface
fluxes.
- Provides repeat coverage across the
Southern Ocean, to monitor seasonal and
interannual variability in fluxes across major
fronts.
9.2.2.3
Limitations
- Systems require expert technical support;
hence are only deployed on research vessels.
- Observations in the Southern Ocean are
biased towards summer
- Confined to shipping routes
- Changes in shipping schedules or routes
disrupt the time series
Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR)
Historically, Australia has few zooplankton time series compared to other countries which at least
have 15 years or more. Plankton are short-lived and respond rapidly to changes in ocean conditions,
making them valuable sentinels of environmental change such as global warming. Given the diversity
of Australia’s marine habitats and the economic and social importance of fishing, Australia needs
information on environmental changes and long-term zooplankton datasets have the ability to
provide this information. The Australian CPR project is helping addressed this situation by providing
estimates of plankton diversity and distribution along the east coast of Australia and it is
complemented by tows made between Australia and Antarctica (Figure 9.10). The sub-facility
delivers observations relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Ecosystem responses
The CPR is a device which collects underway samples of plankton, by trapping them on a spool of silk
as it is towed through the water. The samples are then analysed to give information on the
biodiversity and distribution of different species of phytoplankton and zooplankton.
Figure 9.10: SOOP CPR Data available in the Portal. Phytoplankton relative abundance indicated by size of
green dots and zooplankton by red dots, and CPR Plankton Colour index data.
145
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
Phytoplankton and zooplankton species-level data for regular routes between Brisbane and Adelaide
(seasonally), the GBR (seasonally), NW WA (ad hoc), across the Tasman Sea (annually) and in the
Southern Ocean from the Aurora Australis (over summer) with additional 20 tows per annum in
Southern Ocean between about September/October to March/April. All data is made available to
AODN.
Primary Products
Quality controlled physical, chemical, plankton and zooplankton data along ships tracks. Calculate
phytoplankton biomass for each sample along route.
Secondary Products:
Website for identifying zooplankton:
Australian Marine Zooplankton: a taxonomic guide and atlas. Version 1.0 February 2013 (Swadling et
al 2013) and Australian Marine Zooplankton: Taxonomic Sheets (Richardson et al, 2013) (Fig. 9.11)
Figure
9.11:
Australian
Marine
Zooplankton
Taxonomic
sheets
available
online
http://www.imas.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/396477/AtlasAustralianZooplanktonGuide_Introdu
ction.pdf
146
Modelling applications: CPR data can be used to validate biogeochemical (i.e. WOMBAT) and
ecosystem (i.e. ATLANTIS) models, providing information on size fraction of plankton, functional
groups, etc. This data is currently not assimilated.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:




Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Assess the feasibility of routine coupled CPR and carbon chemistry transect data on platforms
such as R/V Aurora Australis
Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
from moorings, satellites, and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking
tagging data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic
receiver transmitters deployed on top predators.
Uses
- The only systematic approach to collecting
information on phytoplankton and
zooplankton species distribution
- Information for marine environmental
management issues such as harmful algal
blooms, pollution, climate change and
fisheries
- Validate satellite remote sensing
9.2.2.4
Limitations
- Analysis of samples is very labour intensive
- Underestimates some plankton components
- Changes in shipping schedules or routes
disrupt the time series
- Confined to shipping routes
Surface underway data
Tropical Research vessels (AIMS) and some merchant vessels (Spirit of Tasmania) carry out a suite of
underway measurements utilising temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and turbidity sensors to record
temperature, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll (Figure 9.12). The sub-facility delivers observations
relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows
147

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
Figure 9.12: SOOP Tropical Research and Temperate Merchant Vessels data available in the Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
 Collect temperature, salinity, turbidity, chlorophyll data across tropical Australia from two
vessels:
 RV Cape Ferguson, full width of the Queensland shelf from 140S to 230S as well as at
least two cruises per annum into the Coral Sea (AIMS).
 RV Solander, along the north east coast between Darwin and North West Cape (AIMS).

Collect temperature, salinity and turbidity data across Bass Strait form the Spirit of Tasmania
(Vic Govt).
Primary products
Raw and QC’d data records and validation data within 3 months of collection. Data streams from the
tropical research vessels are currently being used in projects such as Reef Rescue Marine Monitoring
Program (GBRMPA-funded), Coral Sea Connections Project (AIMS), Kimberley Oceanography (AIMS
and WAMSI funded) and GBR bathymetry project (JCU). .
Modelling applications
Data streams used for validation of satellite sea surface temperature (SST) maps by the BoM and will
be used to validate the eReefs model.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:
148




Evaluate new sensor technologies for pH, nutrients, and bio-optics that could be considered to
be ready for piloting at broad scale, on Argo, SOOP, gliders etc.
Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
SOOP Bass Strait transect. The four year record of surface temperature, salinity and fluorescence
is showing both seasonal and inter-annual trends. It should continue
Uses
- Provide multidisciplinary measurements,
filling in key gaps in Bass Strait (repeat
observations) and Northern Australia waters
(broad scale)
9.2.2.5
Limitations
- Only measure surface data through engine
intake system
- Confined to ship routes
- Require technical support
Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
SST measurements are made using hull contact SST sensors on a broad range of platforms. The high
quality in situ near real time SST observations are collected on a number of vessels operating in
Australian waters (Figure 9.13). These measurements are augmented by observations made by the
SOOP air-sea flux platforms (see Section 9.2.2.6) and skin SST from radiometers (see Section 9.1.2.1).
The sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes
The SOOP SST observations are also used to validate satellite SST and ocean models in the Australian
region.
149
Figure 9.13. SOOP SST data available in the Ocean Portal from commercial vessels (blue) and SOOP flux (yellow
and black) and TRV (light blue) research vessels that collected SOOP SST.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure:
SST data from 7 research vessels and 2 tourist ferries collected and reported every minute to the
GTS and data from 9 commercial vessels collected and reported every hour to the GTS. Half of these
vessels report the data to a much higher resolution than previously available and the data streams
are significantly more accurate (~1/4 the error) than non-IMOS ship SST reported to the GTS in the
Australian region.
Primary products:
Near real-time SST (and where available salinity and meteorological) data automatically quality
controlled and supplied to eMII in IMOS netCDF format and to the GTS in SHIP or Trackob format.
Secondary products:
SST data from SOOPs are used in several reanalyses products around the world such as: Global
Ocean Surface Underway Data Project (GOSUD) which to collect, process, archive and disseminate in
real time and delayed mode sea surface salinity and other variables collected by SOOP, iQUAM for
satellite SST validation, Shiptrack web site which provides a snapshot of current weather conditions
at sea, worldwide, WMO VOS Program which provides high-quality marine meteorological data to
support global climate studies.
Modelling applications:
SOOP SST data is primarily used to produce high quality (GHRSST) Sea Surface Temperature Products,
which in turn are a core dataset for data assimilation.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
150

Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Uses
- Accurate bulk SST measurements
- Broad coverage in Australian region
- Good timeliness, special and temporal
coverage
9.2.2.6
Limitations
-
Confined to ship routes
Air-Sea Fluxes
The SOOP Ship Flux facility collects rare meteorological and surface ocean observations for bulk flux
measurements of heat, mass and momentum in data sparse regions of the ocean. The
instrumentation operates in an autonomous underway configuration on three ships of opportunity
giving broad spatial coverage in Australian and Southern Ocean waters (Figure 9.14) and thus filling
the gaps in the global seasonal climatology of air sea fluxes. The sub-facility delivers observations
relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows
Figure 9.14: SOOP Air Sea Flux data available in the Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
 RV Southern Surveyor – non-repeating, but operates in the broad region around Australia
151



RSV Aurora Australia: Summer sampling Hobart – eastern Antarctica (wide area)
RV Tangaroa – non-repeat sampling in broad region around New Zealand.
RV Investigator – non-repeating, but operates in the broad region around Australia (replaces the
Southern Surveyor).
Primary products
Observations collected on the vessels are delivered in near real-time (hourly to daily transmissions of
1-minute averaged data). Bulk air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and mass are computed, with data
automatically quality controlled and sent to the IMOS ocean portal. Meteorological observations are
also put onto the GTS as the contribution to the Australian Volunteer Observing Fleet. Observations
collected while at sea include, near-real-time wind speed and direction, Air temperature, air
humidity, air pressure, precipitation, solar radiation (down welling short-wave), infrared radiation
(down welling long-wave), sea surface temperature (at 1m depth), sea surface salinity and bulk
fluxes of heat, mass and momentum.
Modelling applications:
Used for validation of atmospheric models (NCEP) and to improve ocean surface heat flux estimates
using satellite observations and numerical modelling.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:



Look for opportunities to fill the gap in air-sea flux measurements north (e.g. in regions relevant
to MJO) and south of the continent (e.g. south of the SOFS site, to sample fluxes at higher
latitude). Past collaborations with JAMSTEC in Japan and NOAA/PMEL in the USA may be built
on in the future to allow this to proceed. Extending the air-sea flux network from Ships of
Opportunity could also help address these gaps.
Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Uses
- Provides broadscale spatial coverage of the
complete range of air-sea flux variables
- Provides important data from the southern
hemisphere where data is sparse
9.2.2.7
Limitations
- Temporal resolution poor, as do not repeat
tracks regularly.
Bio-acoustics (BA)
152
Bio-acoustics (BA) involves the use of echosounders, at single and multiple frequencies, on research
vessels and large fishing and cargo vessels to estimate mid-trophic level organism distribution and
abundance around the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) shelf, slope and oceanic
environments. The sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research themes
in IMOS:

Ecosystem responses
These mid-trophic bio-acoustic data will complement data collected through the biogeochemistry,
phytoplankton and CPR programs for distribution and abundance of surface chemistry, plankton and
zooplankton and AATAMS. The bio-acoustic sampling is targeted on vessels operating in areas of
high importance due to predicted impacts from climate change or of ecological significance such as
the Tasman Sea and the EAC region (Figure 9.15). Southern and Indian Ocean waters are also part of
the Sentinel and SOOS initiatives.
Figure 9.15: SOOP Bioacoustics data available in the Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
Collection of quality controlled delayed mode bio-acoustic data at single (38 kHz) and multiple
frequencies (12, 38 and 120 kHz) from existing vessel infrastructure (research and fishing) annually
within season on transit over regions of high regional, ecological and oceanic importance.
Primary products
Delayed mode data of calibrated acoustic volume backscatter at 38 kHz (as well as 12, 18, 120 and
200 kHz on some routes) at a spatial resolution of 10 m depth by 1 km long, down to a nominal
depth of 1000 m.
Secondary products
Trans-Tasman index reported in the scientific literature for a decade of sampling.
Posting of multi-frequency data and indices developed for pelagic habitat surrogacy for MNF
Investigator and other vessels with multi-frequencies.
153
Modelling applications
Mid-trophic level organisms are identified as a key knowledge gap/uncertainty in ecosystem models;
bio-acoustic estimates of mid trophic level biomass are used in ecosystem models such as SEPODYM
and APECOSM-E.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:



Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
from moorings, satellites, and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking
tagging data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic
receiver transmitters deployed on top predators.
Uses
- Cost effective method to obtain quantitative
information about biomass of mid-trophic
level organisms, currently a major
uncertainty in ecosystem models
- Ability to integrate with physical and
chemical properties, and measurements of
phytoplankton and zooplankton taken along
CPR transects
- Higher spatial resolution compared to other
sampling methods
9.2.3
Limitations
- Unproven in a sustained observing context
- Small direct user community in Australia,
making integration with other data streams
and engagement with the modelling
community more important for uptake and
use
- Species identification is not possible unless
ground truth with other sampling methods
(nets, video)
- Expert technical support for calibration and
post-processing of data
- Confined to shipping routes
Deep Water Moorings
Deep water moorings are used to obtain data on the deep ocean, generally at either single
timeseries sites or as arrays at “choke points” to measure key current systems. The moorings are
located in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Tropical open ocean waters around Australia. The
instrumentation for each mooring depends on the desired variables and local conditions at each site.
9.2.3.1
Air Sea Flux Station Time series
154
Air sea flux moorings measure key atmospheric and surface ocean variables continuously. The
Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) program maintains 3 moorings to measure of heat, moisture,
CO2 and oxygen exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere. The Southern Ocean Flux
Station (SOFS) mooring is tasked with building a climate record in the Southern Ocean measuring
near real time meteorological and oceanographic conditions at the sea surface, essential for climate
change research. The sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research
themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows
SOFS is located in the Sub-Antarctic Zone, approximately 350 nautical miles southwest of Tasmania
(46.75S, 142E) (Figure 9.16). This mooring is deployed in concert with other SOTS mooring forming
one of the few comprehensive Southern Ocean sites and contributing to the understanding of ocean
controls on climate and carbon cycling.
Figure 9.16: Locations of SOTS mooring infrastructure.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The SOFS mooring is equipped with two Air-Sea Interaction METeorology (ASIMET) systems, along
with Iridium modems. SOFS observations are collected on the buoy on 1-minute averages,
155
telemetered as spot measurements and 1-hourly averages every hour. Most meteorological
instruments are duplicated (some triple) for redundancy). The mooring is currently turned around
six-monthly. Significant piggy-back observations are also collected including pCO2 (PMEL/NOAA), a
partial replicate of the Pulse observations (Utas/CSIRO), waves, and ocean currents and turbulence
(Swinburne Uni. & CSIRO).
Primary products
Near real time data that is quality controlled by an automated system and available on a daily basis.
Delayed mode data is available around 3 months after mooring recovery and delayed-mode quality
controlled data is available around 15 months after mooring recovery. Data available near real time
include: wind speed and direction, air temperature, air humidity, air pressure, precipitation, solar
radiation (down welling short-wave), infrared radiation (down welling long-wave), SST, sea surface
salinity, pCO2, wave motion. Data available in delayed mode include: photosynthetically active
radiation in air (PAR), dissolved oxygen, dissolved gases, phytoplankton fluorescence, particle
backscatter, currents: profiles and point measurements, ocean turbulence, ocean temperature,
salinity & pressure
Secondary products
Contributes to gridded air-sea fluxes products.
Modelling applications
Data contributes to the Bluelink project, use for validation of NCEP atmospheric model marine fluxes
over the Southern Ocean and of Oceansat-2 winds using an array of moored buoys
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that exists
now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current arrays,
Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea surface
height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
Uses
- High temporal resolution
- Can use platform to measure complete
range of variables to determine the flux of
gases in/out of the ocean, the
biogeochemical processes within the water
column, and the export of organic matter
into the deep ocean
9.2.3.2
Limitations
- Measurements are only at one site.
- Re-deployment depends on vessel
availability
Biogeochemical Time Series (SOTS)
The Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) is based on multiple platforms deployed in the Sub-Antarctic
Zone (SAZ) southwest of Tasmania (Figure 9.16) and it a contributor to the international OceanSITES
program. The emphasis is on inter-annual variations of upper ocean properties and their influence
on exchange with the deep ocean. The program is highly interdisciplinary and includes physical,
chemical, and biogeochemical observations. Resolution of high amplitude seasonal variations
156
beyond those achievable from ship-based observations (e.g. via SOOP facility observations) is an
important characteristic. The sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following major
research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Ecosystem responses
Overall SOTS consists of 3 moorings, and ancillary robotic floats and ship observations. The
biogeochemical time series consist of the Pulse biogeochemistry and Sub Antarctic Zone (SAZ)
sediment trap moorings, as well as the robotic float and ship observations. The objective is to
advance climate and carbon cycle understanding to levels where efficient mitigation, adaptation,
and mitigation options can be developed and evaluated.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
There are three main components of SOTS:
 SAZ deep ocean sediment trap mooring: Annual deployments to continue delivery of
particulate carbon flux estimates and deep ocean sinking particle samples from the Subantarctic
Zone. This platform is wholly sub-surface, and provides data and samples only on recovery. SAZ
sensor data streams are collected at ~hourly intervals and include deep ocean currents, deep
ocean temperature and salinity. SAZ sample data streams are collected at ~10 day intervals and
include sinking mass flux, sinking particulate organic carbon flux, sinking particulate inorganic
carbon flux, sinking particulate biogenic silica flux.
 Pulse surface mixed layer mooring: This mooring delivers upper ocean biogeochemical property
measurements. It is equipped with a range of sensors to record waves, currents, temperature,
salinity, oxygen, total gas tension, particulate backscatter and PAR. Pulse sensor datastreams are
collected at hourly intervals.
 Robotic floats: These floats collects temperature, salinity oxygen, fluorescence and backscatter
data.
Primary Products
Mooring data are delivered in delayed-mode, because the subsurface instruments store data which
is only retrieved during the annual service. Pulse and SAZ sensor data are available approximately 3
months after mooring recovery. Pulse and SAZ sample data are available approximately 12 months
after mooring recovery. Robotic floats observations – un-calibrated robotic float data for
temperature and salinity are delivered in near real time via the Argo facility. Float oxygen,
fluorescence, and backscatter are available with approximately 6 months delay.
Secondary products
Information on diatom community structures collected by SOTS SAZ sediment traps and their
relation to climate variability and carbon transfer to the deep sea
Modelling applications
SOTS data is used to validate the carbon cycling in the WOMBAT biogeochemical model.
157
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that exists
now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current arrays,
Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea surface
height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
Uses
-
-
-
9.2.3.3
Allow the research community to
advance understanding of ocean
controls on climate and carbon cycling
Measure processes important to
quantifying changes in climate and
carbon cycling.
Provides observations in an important
region but where there are very little
data
Limitations
- Measurements only at one site.
- Regular maintenance needed
Transport Arrays
Australia’s ocean domain includes all five of the world’s ocean temperature zones ranging from
tropical to polar. This sub-facility maintains 3 full deep-ocean mooring arrays in three key climate
regions in the Australian ocean domain: (1) the Polynya mooring array on the Antarctic continental
shelf; (2) the Indonesian Throughflow array in the Timor Passage and Ombai Strait and; (3) the EAC
array on the Australian continental slope near Brisbane. These climate monitoring sites provide a full
deep-ocean observing system that enables the tracking of multi-decadal climate change and
variability, and will improve our understanding and prediction of both climate variability in the
Australian region and global climate. The sub-facility delivers observations relevant to the following
major research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes

Major boundary currents and inter basin flows
These transport arrays measure temperature, salinity, and current in deep waters that are
specifically targeted to monitor formation of Antarctic bottom water, inter-basin exchange, and
major boundary currents. They have been ideally located across choke points, or where the current
is constrained by topography to measure transport of current systems and to allow heat/salt flux to
be calculated (Figure 9.17).
158
Figure 9.17. Locations of Deepwater Arrays in the IMOS Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The mooring arrays are placed in three different regions collecting temperature, salinity, current
velocity and oxygen (Polynia mooring only).
Polynya Mooring Array: Consists on 3 moorings on the Antarctic continental shelf measuring
currents and water properties in a coastal polynya. The program originally targeted the Mertz
Polynya. Changes in the regional icescape following calving of the Mertz Glacier Tongue mean that
this region is no longer logistically feasible. A one-year pilot deployment in a polynya near the Totten
Glacier is underway to assess its suitability for sustained observations.
Indonesian Throughflow Array: Consists on 3 moorings; 2 in Timor Passage and 1 in Ombai Strait.
The mooring array monitors ~80% of the interbasin exchange of mass, temperature and salt
between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.
The East Australian Current Array: Consists on 5 mooring deployed off Brisbane from the
continental slope to the abyssal ocean. This array monitors the strength and variability of the EAC.
Primary Products
Delayed mode full depth timeseries of temperature, salinity, velocity and oxygen (Polynia only)
across boundary currents. Mooring data are delivered in delayed-mode, because the subsurface
instruments store data which is only retrieved during the 18 month or 2 year servicing of the arrays.
Secondary Products
Delayed mode mass, heat, salt fluxes of boundary currents and deepwater formation zones
Estimates of transport mean and variability of the EAC.
Estimates of decadal variability in Australia’s major ocean boundary currents if observations are
sustained long term.
159
Modelling applications
Analysis of the INSTANT and IMOS ITF time-series combined with modelling studies to improve
understanding of the response of the northern and northwestern Australia continental margin
shelf/slope boundary current and Leeuwin Current System to Indonesian Throughflow variability.
Validation of key chokepoints in the global circulation in ESMs; delayed mode assimilation into ocean
state estimates.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:





The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that exists
now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current arrays,
Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea surface
height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
Maintain the EAC and ITF arrays, which are providing the first long time series from Australia’s
major boundary currents and inter-basin flows.
Design and test a strategy for boundary current monitoring using gliders. The reinstatement of
the EAC Deep Water Mooring to test the feasibility of gliders to monitor boundary and shelf
currents provides the opportunity to test it.
Collect nutrient samples from the ITF and EAC arrays.
Redesign the EAC mooring and consider the inclusion of the SEQ shelf moorings at the expense
of one of the slope moorings as there may be some redundancy in this part of the array
Uses
- Accurate, direct measurements of mass and
heat transport.
- Continuous timeseries of deep ocean
properties at key locations and choke points.
Limitations
- Expensive.
- Difficult to constrain highly dynamic currents
(such as the EAC)
- Do not provide broadscale coverage of the
deep ocean
- Deployment dependent on vessel availability
9.3 Shelf and Coastal facilities
9.3.1
Ocean Gliders
Ocean Gliders are state of the art technology for observing the ocean. They are designed to operate
in water depths up to 1000 m. By changing its buoyancy, the glider is able to descend and ascend,
and have wings which allow them to move laterally. Two different types of gliders are operated
under this facility (Fig. 9.18); the Slocum glider which is designed to operate to a maximum depth of
200 m and a maximum endurance of 30 days, and the Seaglider which operates to a maximum depth
of 1000 m and a maximum endurance time of up to 6 months. They are able to house a broad suite
of sensors; in addition to temperature and salinity, they also measure fluorescence, oxygen, turbidity
and depth integrated currents. The facility delivers observations relevant to the following major
research themes in IMOS:

Multi-decadal ocean change

Climate variability and weather extremes
160

Major boundary currents and inter basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
Figure 9.18: Slocum glider (yellow) and Seaglider (pink) deployments to date, per the Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
 Multi-open-ocean Seaglider missions for monitoring boundary currents
o Leeuwin Current system, the Hiri Current, the South Australian Current/Flinders Current
and the EAC Extension (NSW eddy field and eastern Tasmania) Tasman Outflow
(southern Tasmania), the EAC (Brisbane), sub-Antarctic front (SOTS) and Coral Sea.
 Multi-coastal Slocum glider missions for monitoring continental shelf processes
o Two Rocks/Perth Canyon, Kimberly and Pilbara transects, Sydney Region, Kangaroo
Is/Eyre Peninsula, SE Tasmania
In addition, six glider missions per annum to deliver biologically relevant observations of reef and
coastal waters will be conducted in the GBR region to enhanced the data available from Palm
Passage real time mooring and help improve real time modelling of the GBR region using eReefs.
Operational requirements of this particular programme are driven by the specific needs of the
numerical modelling user group.
Primary products
Depth, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and turbidity data are
available in delayed mode and near-real time. The Slocum glider also provides underwater light
161
climate. The near real time data is not quality controlled. For delayed mode data basic quality
control for the glider data is provided through the ANFOG standard operating procedures.
Secondary products
The depth averaged velocity is provided as an indirect measurement. Data is also input into global
climatology data sets and made available on the GTS
Modelling applications: Near real-time data goes onto the GTS and can be assimilated for ocean and
seasonal forecasting initial conditions. Glider data is also being used for validation of coastal models.
Bio-optical data is being used to validate biogeochemical models.
The e-reefs GBR modelling project is currently using both the glider and Palm Passage real time
mooring data.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:








Evaluate new sensor technologies for pH, nutrients, and bio-optics that could be considered to
be ready for piloting at broad scale, on Argo, SOOP, gliders etc.
Evaluate new observing infrastructure like wave gliders for improved coverage.
Increase deployment of slocum and/or sea gliders on repeat cross-shelf transect in Qld, NSW,
WA and SA, but also taskable to specific impacted regions during and after extreme events.
Design and test a strategy for boundary current monitoring using gliders. The reinstatement of
the EAC Deep Water Mooring to test the feasibility of gliders to monitor boundary and shelf
currents provides the opportunity to test it.
Explore potential opportunities to collect data in northern Australia (Northern Great Barrier Reef,
Torres Strait, Gulf of Carpentaria) by leveraging other infrastructure in this vast and remote
region, including infrastructure maintained by AMSA (the maritime safety authority), fishing
vessels in the Gulf of Carpentaria, undersea fibre optic cable being laid between Darwin and Port
Hedland as part of the Ichthys project etc. The use of slocum gliders, ocean radar and enhanced
SOOP could also be alternatives.
Improve and expand coverage of sea gliders in Qld, SA, WA and NSW.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA).
Storm Bay glider transects. At their offshore limit these transects are recording the location of
the front between boundary currents. Slight reduction of the Storm Bay transects could be
considered to allow for the prioritised Bass Strait transect. Summer trans-Bass Strait Slocum
glider deployments to observe sub-surface waters of Bass Strait. Late summer provides the best
meteorological conditions.
Uses
- Navigable
Limitations
- Cannot fight against strong currents
162
-
Multidisciplinary payload of sensors
Can make observations across the shelf
Can make routine repeat sections in more
benign areas of the ocean.
Potential for monitoring boundary currents
9.3.2
-
Optimal modes of operation still under
development
High offshore shipping can present a
difficulty
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)
The Sirius Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is designed for undertaking high resolution
benthic stereo optical and acoustic imaging work. The AUV Facility at IMOS provides precisely
navigated time series measurements of water column parameters and benthic imagery using AUVs
at selected reference stations on Australia’s shelf. AUV systems have recently been shown to be
effective tools for rapidly and cost-effectively delivering high-resolution, accurately geo-referenced,
and precisely targeted optical and acoustic imagery of the seafloor. This capability makes AUVs
ideally suited to undertaking repeat surveys that will be necessary to monitor changes in the
benthos, particularly beyond diver depths. AUV dive sites have been selected to capture habitats at
a variety of depths and latitudes along the East and West coasts (Figure 9.19). The facility delivers
observations relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Ecosystem responses
The general sampling methodology using the AUV is designed to monitor the fundamental reef
processes that maintain reef biodiversity and resilience. The sampling design will be optimised using
information from existing survey data to designate particular transect sites. The processes of interest
occur at a number of spatial scales so a nested hierarchical sampling method will be adopted as
appropriate to detect changes at these differing scales.
163
Figure 9.19: AUV Surveys in the Ocean Portal.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The AUV is schedule to undertake up to 8 campaigns per annum, with site surveyed on an annual or
bi-annual basis. Observations include associated AUV-based geo-referenced imagery and
bathymetry together with measurements of conductivity, temperature, depth, chlorophyll-a, CDOM,
backscatter in red and PAR.
A new AUV is currently being built to replace the facility’s primary vehicle.
Primary products
All data from the facility will be made available through the IMOS. The data includes images,
navigation data, oceanographic measurements and multibeam data when available. This data is
collected in the field and then delivered to eMII once the team has returned to Sydney. The volume
of data is not practical to be delivered in real time.
Secondary products
Products based on automated pattern recognition are being developed, which identify substrate
type; e.g. Mud, Rocky Reef, Sand, Coral, etc.
Habitat mosaics (integration of images with vehicle navigation)
Modelling applications
The data will be used to validate qualitative models as part of the NESP Biodiversity Hub Project.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:


Expand AUV capability and coverage
AUV-based cross-shelf observing of benthic communities along bioregionally-based transects,
documenting spatial and temporal trends in biological assemblages and providing CMR
monitoring in Southeast Australia region.
Uses
- Georeferenced, repeatable surveys of the
sea bed.
- Can work deeper than scuba diver depth
- Can be used to detect changes in the benthic
habitat
- Includes oceanographic and navigation data
9.3.3
Limitations
- Challenges in storing/interpreting the data.
- Small spatial coverage
Ocean Radar (ACORN)
HF Radar stations are deployed in pairs at a number of sites around the country to produce surface
current maps over meso-scale areas (Figure 9.20). The facility delivers observations relevant to the
following major research themes in IMOS:

Major boundary currents and inter basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes
164
Two types of Radar system are being used. The first is a WERA Phased array, which provides data on
surface currents; significant wave height; dominant wave height and directional wave spectrum. The
second a CODAR-SeaSonde direction finding system, which provides data on surface currents,
significant wave height and wind direction.
Figure 9.20: Radar locations on the Ocean Portal. The colours indicate sea water velocity measured at each
station.
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The facility maintains, services and operates 12 radar stations, grouped in pairs, at 6 locations
around Australia using two different radar systems: WERA and SeaSonde.
 There are four WERA pairs deployed at Coffs Harbour, NSW, Rottnest Island, WA, South
Australian Gulfs, SA and on the southern Great Barrier Reef.
 There are two CODAR pairs deployed at Bonney Coast, SA and Turquoise Coast, WA.
JCU will continue to support this facility to Sept 2014 but cannot continue to commit beyond that
date. The radio frequencies of all radars will be changed over the next two years to meet new ACMA
and international requirements. An important activity will be to develop a plan for ACORN’s
sustainable future.
Primary Products:
The radars provide surface currents in near real time delivered to eMII for some additional
processing and uploading to the portal. WERA delayed mode QC data are delivered within one
month of data disks being recovered from the radar sites. The WERA pairs provide hourly maps of
165
surface currents and one hourly average gridded quality controlled data and non-QC radial and one
hourly average gridded data from all six sites. The CODAR pairs provide non-QC radial and one
hourly average gridded data from all four sites. Wave and wind data in delayed mode will become
available via the portal.
Secondary products:
Data use in Ocean Currents website
eMII will add statistics to hourly averaged current vector files: within hour: max/min/median values,
standard deviation and number of values averaged; and include GDOP information and take it into
account when producing real-time current vector files
Modelling applications:
BlueLink, eReefs are two models that are currently using radar data, as well as other regional models.
There is also interest by the BoM to use radar data to verify coastally trapped waves as part of their
OceanMAPS aggregate sea level product work.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA)
Uses
- High resolution, time-resolved maps of
surface currents
Potential wave height and wind direction
data
Limitations
- Raw data needs significant processing to be
useful
- Vulnerable to interference
166
9.3.4
Animal Tagging and Monitoring (AATAMS)
AATAMS represents the higher biological monitoring of the marine environment for the IMOS
program. This facility uses acoustic technology, CTD satellite trackers and bio loggers to monitor
coastal and oceanic movements of marine animals from the Australian mainland to the sub-Antarctic
islands and as far south as the Antarctic continent. Currently a large range of fish, sharks and
mammals are collecting a wide range of data. This includes behavioural and physical data such as the
depth, temperature, salinity and movement effort of individual marine animals.
9.3.4.1
Acoustic Tagging
Acoustic monitoring is a powerful tool for observing animals in coastal and continental shelf
ecosystems. Networks of receivers, allow animals to be monitored over scales 10s of metres to
1000s of kilometres. Tracking animals using these tags has been invaluable for monitoring habitat
use, home range size, timing of long-term movements and migratory patterns and examining biotic
and abiotic factors that dictate animal distribution and movements. The sub-facility delivers
observations relevant to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
IMOS have deployed an array of submerged receiving stations that form a national network (Fig.
9.21) and also contribute to the Ocean Tracking Network (OTN). The array has been strategically
developed to facilitate research on movements of animals in relation to the major boundary
currents complementing physical measurements made with other IMOS infrastructure. This has
strong ties to over 35 state federal and private research organisations acting as a central point to all.
Acoustic tagging is primarily used to monitor the movement of large fish around the continental
shelf regions. Fish are tagged with acoustic coded transmitters, which are detected by the
underwater acoustic receiver network. The single frequency used in all tags allows all receivers
within AATAMS and other users within Australia and elsewhere to recognise our tags.
167
Figure 9.17. Acoustic curtain locations (circles).
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The facility currently maintains arrays and curtains comprising 550 Acoustic receivers distributed in a
national network. In addition, it supports over 750 receivers owned by other parties but registered
with our network. Over 40 million detections are currently recorded from 2341 individual animals
representing all coastal habitats across coastal Australia.
Primary products:
The detection and species identity of tagged individuals at sites in a national network of receivers.
Secondary products:
Development of global networks through international collaborations with Australia’s nearest
neighbours (e.g. New Zealand).
Animal movements in relation to the major boundary currents.
Modelling applications:
Acoustic data will be used to validate qualitative models as part of the NESP Biodiversity Hub. There
is also potential to use this data for models such as Atlantis.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

Increased attention to questions regarding coupling between trophic levels, for example, linking
bioacoustics data on meso-zooplankton and micro-nekton to productivity estimates derived
from moorings, satellites, and bio-Argo floats. A similar strategy could be taken for linking
168

tagging data from top predators to other trophic levels, in particular new mobile acoustic
receiver transmitters deployed on top predators.
Evaluate if ATAAMS acoustic receiver’s existing locations suit the Nodes’ needs to address
science questions.
Uses
- Able to track a range of species (commercial
fish, sharks) around the continental shelf
region
9.3.4.2
Limitations
- Cannot track fish in open ocean (limited to
continental shelf)
- Hard to close out curtains on broad shelves
- Detection of tags from other parties that are
not register in the facility (ghost tags)
Bio-logging devices
There are two types of location tags used in IMOS (Figure 9.22). Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDL)
(most with CTDs, and some also with fluorometers) are used to explore how marine mammal
behaviour relates to their oceanic environment. These loggers transmit data in near real time via the
Argo satellite system. Geolocation archival (GLS) tags are used in seabirds such as the Short-tailed
shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) and can store data from up to four sensors (e.g. date, time,
temperature, and light levels). Unlike GPS tags these tags must be retrieved from their data to be
downloaded. The light levels are used to calculate the time of dawn and dusk, which can be used to
estimate an approximate daily position of the animal. The sub-facility delivers observations relevant
to the following major research themes in IMOS:

Multidecadal ocean change

Major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
Miniaturized loggers with high resolutions sensors directly enhances collection of oceanographic
data in the Southern Ocean and in Australian boundary currents by providing profiles of temperature
and salinity from regions of the Southern Ocean and coastal shelf regions that are difficult to sample
by other means (e.g. beneath the winter sea ice for which 45,496 profiles had been collected as at
14 Feb 2013, and across cross shelf currents in southern Australia, 26,000 profiles to date), and by
relating predator movements and behaviour to fine-scale ocean structure and variability.
169
Figure 9.22: Showing tracks of Marine Mammals (green tracks), Emperor penguins(purple tracks) and
seabirds(orange tracks).
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
A total of 123 satellite tags (SRDL) tags will be deployed by 2015 on marine mammals and penguins,
including Elephant Seals, Weddell Seals, Australian Fur Seals, Australian Sea Lions, New Zealand Fur
Seals and Emperor Penguins. Data is being collected in the Southern Ocean, the Great Australian
Bight, and off the South-East Coast of Australia. Parameters measured by SRDL tags on marine
mammals include time, conductivity (salinity), temperature, speed, fluorescence (available in the
future) and depth. Data from tags in Emperor Penguins do not include CTD data. A total of 230 GLS
tags will be deployed by 2015. Currently the records collected were from 21 tagged and recaptured
animals, with data presented throughout the Southern Ocean.
Primary Products
Biologging stream collect high quality biotic and abiotic data with in excess of 71,000 CTD profiles
collected by seals in the southern ocean and along Australia’s southern coasts (SOSS) and with
mapping of Areas of Ecological Significance by a suite of top predator species (seabirds and seals). All
data represented by this record are presented in delayed mode.
Secondary products
Identification of areas of ecological significance.
Modelling applications
Temperature and salinity profiles are delivered on GTS and assimilated into seasonal/ocean
forecasting initial conditions; and ocean state estimates. State/space modelling techniques are used
to interpret tagging data.
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:


The highest priority is to maintain and enhance support for key IMOS infrastructure that exists
now, including Argo, oceanographic sensors on marine mammals, boundary current arrays,
Southern Ocean time series (SOTS and SOFS), SOOP, satellite remote sensing of sea surface
height, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, shelf moorings, etc.
Improve observation coverage near the coast and shelf by enhancing and/or extending moorings
currently deployed, enhance observations from SOOP, maintaining and improving radar
170

coverage, increase deployments of slocum gliders and use of alternative observing platforms
such as biologging along areas with poor observation coverage (Esperance, north GBR, areas in
NSW and GAB in SA).
There are extensive ongoing animal tracking studies across Bass strait (i.e. seals, penguins,
gannets) that may provide useful alternatives for data collection in appropriately instrumented
through IMOS facilities (i.e CTDs and other sensors through AATAMS) and also an ecological
context to the observations observed (i.e. animal movement, foraging ground, prey capture
success, health).
Uses
- Monitor the movements of large predators
across open ocean regions
- Get incident physical data to elucidate why
predators aggregate in certain regions (i.e.
Frontal zones)
- Get incident physical data in traditionally
data sparse regions (i.e. the Southern Ocean
in winter) to complement the Argo Array
- Distribution of seabirds, marine mammals
and penguins
- Ability to obtain data at inaccessible regions
9.3.5
Limitations
- Animals need to be large enough to carry
GPS tags.
- Seals and penguins moult once a year, and
shed the tag.
- GLS tags do not transmit data, must be
retrieved to download data
- Tags can be very expensive
- Small sample size can jeopardise the
statistical reliability of the data
Wireless Sensor Networks (FAIMMS)
Sensor networks are leading edge technology that is used to provide spatially dense bio-physical
data in real-time. The term “sensor network” refers to an array of small interconnected wireless
sensors that collectively stream observational data to a central aggregation point. Data is
communicated through the “NextG” mobile phone network. The system is “smart” in that the
sensors adaptively sample; that is change how they monitor based on the conditions they measure.
The communications network is installed, and is available for additional “plug and play” compatible
instruments to be integrated into the system. The sensor network is currently located in the Great
Barrier Reef (Figure 9.23). The facility delivers observations relevant to the following major research
themes in IMOS:

Climate variability and weather extremes

Continental shelf and coastal processes

Ecosystem responses
This facility supports a number of projects including an ARC Linkage project at Heron Island, work
being done under two Lizard Island fellowships, pCO2 work being undertaken with CSIRO at Heron
Island, real time acoustic tag monitoring in conjunction with the AATAMS Facility (Heron, One Tree
and Orpheus Islands) and work on coral health measures with AIMS.
171
Figure 9.23. Sensor networks locations along the GBR, from the Ocean Portal
Nature of IMOS Infrastructure
The facility supports the maintenance and ongoing development of four Wireless Sensor Network
sites along the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) at the Island Research Stations (Lizard Island in the north,
Orpheus Island in the central GBR and Heron and One Tree Islands in the south). These sites include
13 sensor poles, ten sensor floats, four weather stations and one camera delivering some 179 data
streams (61 from Lizard, 42 from Orpheus, 53 from Heron and 23 from One Tree). Deployment of a
range of new sensors was undertaken at Heron Island which includes newly developed pCO2 sensors,
coral photosystem sensors and imaging sensors.
The variables measured include: water temperature, salinity, pressure and conductivity; above water
weather parameters including air temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and
direction, light (PAR) and rainfall; above and below water images and video at some sites; below
water light as paired measurements to give water clarity / transmission; acoustic animal detections
at the real-time detection stations; pCO2 from some sites and chlorophyll and turbidity at some
sites.
Primary products:
All data streams are real time with data delivered within 20-30 minutes of the actual measurement
NetCDF files are also provided with automated Quality Control (QC) is performed nightly
Secondary Products:
Provide early warning of an imminent bleaching episode and activate an appropriate response by
researchers
172
Development of models of coral health for the four sites based on the real time data
Climatologies and basic coral physiology that will allow for a ‘coral health dashboard’ to be
developed
Modelling applications:
Used for validation/assimilation into the eReefs hydrodynamic/water quality model
Future priorities identified by the nodes for this facility:

None identified
Uses
- Real time data delivery
- Spatially dense observations for key regions
of interest (i.e. GBR)
- Adaptive sampling. i.e. if conditions are
changing rapidly, sampling rate can increase.
Limitations
- Not suitable for observing large areas, and
hence much of the Australian coastline
- Network does not develop strategically as
reliant on individual projects to fund and add
sensors.
173
10 Highlights and Achievements
As policy demands in the marine environment increase nationally, it strengthens the need for
marine observations. A process of consolidation and increased cooperation has continued in the
marine science community, with IMOS playing a key role in stimulating national coordination and
discussions. From inception IMOS has been able to amalgamate the Australian marine science
community, a large, diverse and dispersed community, by fostering collaboration among Australia’s
most important marine science institutions and by providing essential infrastructure and data to
undertake marine research.
In addition, IMOS role as a marine observing system has also have an impact internationally,
collaborating closely in a number of global initiatives such as the Global Ocean Acidification
Observing Network (GOA-ON), Coral Reef Environmental Observatory Network (CREON);
OceanSITES; Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); among many others.
There was been wide uptake and use of IMOS data by Australian scientists and stakeholders with
IMOS data streams and facilities contributing to the study of ocean circulation, climate change and
variability, biogeochemical cycles, and ecosystem processes. As a fully-integrated, national observing
system, it has the capacity to take measurements at ocean-basin and regional scales covering
physical, chemical and biological variables.
IMOS has had a great impact in Australian marine science and this is demonstrated by the many
achievements accomplished to date. A few examples of these achievements are listed below.

Provided data that showed evidence that climate change has caused the wet (higher rainfall)
areas of the global ocean to get wetter while the dry get drier (Durack et al., 2012).

Improved estimates of ocean heat content and thermal expansion for the upper ocean for
1950-2003.

Provided invaluable data on the response of plankton ecosystems to decadal-scale changes
in the ocean, the first published evidence of a biological response to ocean acidification in
nature (Howard et al., 2009, Moy et al., 2009) and baseline data on calcareous plankton
export against which future acidification response may be measured (Roberts et al., 2008)
through the SOTS facility.

Contributing to an international program on constraining global and regional CO2 uptake and
determining the acidification of the oceans, coordinated through the International Ocean
Carbon Coordinated Project.

Releasing of a website for identifying Australian zooplankton (Swadling et al., 2013) and the
accompanying taxonomic guide, Australian Marine Zooplankton: Taxonomic Sheets
(Richardson et al., 2013) using CPR and zooplankton data from NRS
174

Contributing to the validation and data assimilation into near real time forecasting models
(BlueLink, eReefs, Darwin Harbour, SAROM and other regional modelling efforts) and
products (OceanCurrent).

Contributing to national initiatives such as: 1)FishTrack www.fishtrack.com web site to
advise recreational and commercial fishers on likely fish locations; 2)ReefTemp NextGen
(BoM) to report on SST-related factors impacting coral bleaching over the Great Barrier Reef;
3) the Reef Rescue Marine Monitoring Program and eReefs in the GBR, 4) multiple projects
examining biological processes in Australian waters, in particular in the Kimberley and Great
Australian Bight.

Assisting with calibration and validation of satellite data for our international partners and
serving as back up when their receiving stations are down as was the case with NASA in 2012
when we help with MODIS data acquisition.

Leading globally on bio-acoustic (passive and active) data provision (we are world first) and
providing assistance to other nations to build infrastructure in the active acoustics domain.

World first to provide a central repository for data from collaborating institutes and
researchers from Australia on acoustic tag detections

Extending the International Nusantara Stratification And Transport (INSTANT, 2003-2006)
time series data of the Indonesian Throughflow mass, heat and salt fluxes between the
Pacific and Indian Ocean and contributing to the International Eastern Indian Ocean
Upwelling Initiative 2015-2020

Providing unparalleled high-resolution AUV stereo imagery and three-dimensional
reconstructions in terms of size (area covered), geo-referencing accuracy, consistency and
quality of the imagery and maturity of the data processing pipeline.

Helping improved modelling tools to better inform the management of the marine
environment and fisheries.

Helping Australia maintain a leadership position in coral reef science.
While the achievements to date are great, there are still many challenges we need to address.
Many questions about our oceans are still unanswered, our understanding of ocean processes is
in many cases limited, and climate, ocean and ecosystem models need improvement and
validation. Providing an Integrated Marine Observing System that is sustained in the long term is
therefore essential if we are to meet these challenges.
In the short term it is expected that IMOS will help the marine research community:

Improve seasonal climatologies and thus climate models

Improve the monitoring of the oceans energy budget and thus allow the tracking of climate
change evolution
175

Improve understanding and prediction of climate variability modes such as the Indian
Ocean Dipole as well as climate variability and extreme weather events impacting coastal
and marine ecosystems which can lead to an enhanced predictive capacity to support
preparation for, and response to extreme weather events

Improve regional algorithms for satellite through in situ validation data

Improve transport estimates for major boundary currents and inter-basin flows

Improve understanding of the global hydrological cycle and provide new insights into longterm changes

Improve the accuracy of high resolution ocean analyses such as BlueLink, ocean circulation
models, coastal models, biogeochemical models, ecosystem models and international
products by providing data for validation and improve parameterization

Continue the development of ocean circulation models particularly over the continental
shelf region, ranging from hindcasting, nowcasting and forecasting and including
improvements of parameterizations such as mixing

Improve understanding of cross-shelf flows, deep water intrusions, tidal mixing and
connectivity between boundary currents and shelf currents

Improved data products for assimilation into and verification of ocean, wave, climate and
weather prediction models

Enhance models of biophysical coupling through enhanced measurement of mechanistic
parameters driving biological variability (e.g. light) and via mapping of biological parameters
onto the physical variability

Improve prediction of climate change impacts on sediment transport, storm surge, coastal
erosion, inundation and ecosystem changes.

Improve understanding of connectivity between physical environment and marine
organisms

Provide a baseline and monitor changes in benthic and planktonic communities

Improve the modelling tools that inform resource management, regulators and industry

Provide critical data on populations of apex predators and other mega fauna, their habitat
needs, and the oceanographic and ecological factors that underpin the high trophic levels,
their foraging ecology and critical foraging areas including those utilised by multiple species
(Areas of Ecological Significance)

Improve understanding of interannual variability of marine ecosystems

Provide data and context to assess effectiveness of management and conservation
strategies for coastal and marine regions
176
In the longer term, IMOS is expected to help in:

Providing new insights into decadal variability in the oceans around Australia and its
ecological and carbon cycle impacts

Detection of future anthropogenic impacts on the Southern Ocean planktonic ecosystem
and carbon sink

Providing the ability to track multidecadal planetary radiation budget and assess the
effectiveness of global greenhouse mitigation measure

Providing the ability to track global and regional sea level rise rates and their cause

Improving understanding of how the global overturning circulation, major boundary
currents and shelf currents are changing and the impacting on ocean heat and carbon
uptake rates

Improving the predictions of ENSO and the IOD, giving more accurate seasonal climate
forecasts for Australia

Quantifying acidification rates for major bioregions in shelf and offshore waters, a
prerequisite for determining response and resilience of ecosystems to acidification

Providing the ability to better quantify natural variability vs long-term climate change and
its impacts on the marine environment, coastal communities and industry

Providing the ability to quantify the seasonal to interdecadal CO2 uptake in Australian
waters and the Southern Ocean

Determining long-term trends in climate and ecosystem dynamics, as well as regime shifts
in biological communities
The economic, social and environmental benefits we extract from our ocean and the increasing
threats faced by it, make it imperative for Australia to invest in research with observation,
experimentation and modelling as the three main pillars (OPSAGOceans Policy Science Advisory
Group, 2013). IMOS provides the infrastructure required for the science process to move forward,
delivering the benefits of a better understanding of our ocean, its processes and dynamics, as well as
helping improve the available tools and creating new tools for the effective management of our
resources and support evidence-based decision making on issues of national significance with
intergenerational impact.
177
11 References
Alley, R. B., J. Marotzke, W. D. Nordhaus, J. T. Overpeck, D. M. Peteet, R. A. Pielke, Jr., R. T.
Pierrehumbert, P. B. Rhines, T. F. Stocker, L. D. Talley & J. M. Wallace. 2003. Abrupt climate
change. Science, 299 (5615), 2005-10.
Anderson, D.W., F. Gress & K.F. Mais. 1982. Brown pelicans: influence of food supply on
reproduction. Oikos, 39, 23-31.
André, J., E. Gyuris & I.R. Lawler. 2005. Comparison of the diets of sympatric dugongs and green
turtles on the Orman Reefs, Torres Strait, Australia. Wildl Res, 32, 53-64.
Anthony, K. R. N. , G. Diaz-Pulido, N. Verlinden, B. Tilbrook & A.J. Andersson. 2013. Benthic buffers
and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Biogeosciences, 10, 4897–4909.
Anthony, K.R.N., J. Kleypas & J.-P. Gattuso. 2011a. Coral reefs modify the carbon chemistry of their
seawater - implications for the impacts of ocean acidification. Global Change Biology, 17,
3655–3666.
Anthony, K.R.N., J.A. Maynard, G. Diaz-Pulido, P.J. Mumby, L. Cao, P.A. Marshall & O. HoeghGuldberg. 2011b. Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience. Glob
Change Biol, 17, 1798-1808.
Aoki, S. 2002. Coherent sea level response to the Antarctic Oscillation. Geoph. Res. Lett., 29 (20),
1950.
Aragones, L.V. 2000. A review of the role of the green turtle in the tropical seagrass ecosystems. In:
PILCHER, N. & ISMAIL, G. (eds.) Sea Turtles of the Indo-Pacific: Research Management and
Conservation. London: ASEAN Academic Press. 69-85
Aragones, L.V. & H. Marsh. 2000. Impact of dugong grazing and turtle cropping on tropical seagrass
communities. Pac Conserv Biol, 5, 277-288.
Arblaster, J. M. & G. A. Meehl. 2006. Contributions of External Forcings to Southern Annular Mode
Trends. J. Clim., 19 (12), 2896-2905.
Ardhuin, F., E. Rogers, A.V. Babanin, J. Filipot, R. Magne, A. Roland, A. Van Der Westhuysen, P.
Queffeulou, J.M. Lefevre, Aouf L. & F. Collard. 2010. Semiempirical dissipation source
functions for ocean waves. Part I: definition, calibration, and validation. J. Phys. Ocean., 40,
1917-1941.
Arnold, G. & H. Dewar. 2001. Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: a 30-year perspective. In:
SIBERT, J. R. & NIELSEN, J. L. (eds.) Electronic Tagging and Tracking in Marine Fisheries
Reviews: Methods and Technologies in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Neatherlands: Kluwer
Academic Press. 7-64
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013. Regional Population growth, Australia 2012. Australian
Government. 3218.0, Canberra,
http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/3218.02012
Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2012. The AIMS Index of Marine Industry. Townsville,
http://www.aims.gov.au/documents/30301/23122/The+AIMS+Index+of+Marine+Industry+2
012.pdf/d0fc7dc9-ae98-4e79-a0b2-271af9b5454f
Ausubel, J.H., D.T. Crist & P.E Waggoner 2010. First Census of marine Life 2010: Highlights of a
Decade of Discovery. , New York, Census of Marine Life
Baines, P.G. & C.B. Fandry. 1983. Annual cycle of the density field in Bass Strait. Aust J Mar
Freshwater Res, 34, 143-153.
Bakker, D.C.E., B. Pfeil, K. Smith, S. Hankin, A. Olsen, S.R. Alin, C. Cosca, S. Harasawa, A. Kozyr, Y.
Nojiri, K.M. O’brien, U. Schuster, M. Telszewski, B. Tilbrook, C. Wada, J. Akl, L. Barbero, N.R.
Bates, J. Boutin, Y. Bozec, W. Cai, R.D. Castle, F.P. Chavez, L. Chen, M. Chierici, K. Currie,
178
H.J.W. De Baar, W. Evans, R.A. Feely, A. Fransson, Z. Gao, B. Hales, N.J. Hardman-Mountford,
M. Hoppema, W.J. Huang, C. W. Hunt, B. Huss, T. Ichikawa, T. Johannessen, E.M. Jones, S.D.
Jones, S. Jutterström, V. Kitidis, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S.K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A.B.
Manke, J.T. Mathis, L. Merlivat, N. Metzl, A. Murata, T. Newberger, A.M. Omar, T. Ono, G.H.
Park, K. Paterson, D. Pierrot, A.F. Ríos, C.L. Sabine, S. Saito, J. Salisbury, V.V.S.S. Sarma, R.
Schlitzer, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, K.F. Sullivan, H. Sun, A.J. Sutton, T. Suzuki, C.
Sweeney, T. Takahashi, J. Tjiputra, N. Tsurushima, S.M.A.C. Van Heuven, D. Vandemark, P.
Vlahos, D.W.R. Wallace, R. Wanninkhof & A.J. Watson. 2014. An update to the Surface
Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2). Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6 (1), 69-90.
Baldwin, M.P. & D.W.J. Thompson. 2009. A critical comparison of stratosphere-troposphere
coupling indices. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 135, 1661-1672.
Berkelmans, R., G. De'ath, S. Kininmonth & W.J. Skirving. 2004. A comparison of the 1998 and 2002
coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: Spatial correlation, patterns and
predictions. Coral Reefs, 23, 74-83.
Berkelmans, R., A.M. Jones & B. Shaffelke. 2012. Salinity thresholds of Acropora spp. on the Great
Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 31, 1103-1110.
Berkelmans, R., S.J. Weeks & C.R. Steinberg. 2010. Upwelling linked to warm summers and bleaching
on the Great Barrier Reef. Limnology and Oceanography 55: 2634–2644. . Limnol Oceanogr,
55, 2634-2644.
Bjerknes, J. 1966. A possible response of atmospheric Hadley circulation to equatorial anomalies of
ocean temperature. Tellus, 18 (820-829).
Block, B.A., D.P. Costa, G.W. Boehlert & R.E. Kochevar. 2003. Revealing pelagic habitat use: the
tagging of Pacific pelagics program. Oceanol Acta, 5 (5), 255-266.
Böning, C.W., A. Dispert, M. Visbeck, Rintoul S. R. & Schwarzkopf F. U. 2008. The response of the
Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nature Geos., 1, 864-869.
Bopp, L., O. Aumont, P. Cadule, S. Alvain & M. Gehlen. 2005. Response of diatoms distribution to
global warming and potential implications: a global modeling study. Geoph. Res. Lett., 32
(19), L19606.
Bopp, L., P. Monfray, O. Aumont, J.L. Dufresne, H. Le Treut, G. Madec, L. Terray & J.C. Orr. 2001.
Potential impact of climate change on marine export production. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles,
15 (1), 81-99.
Borges, A.V., B. Tilbrook, N. Metz, A. Lenton & B. Delille. 2008. Inter-annual variability of the carbon
dioxide oceanic sink south of Tasmania. Biogeosciences, 5, 141-155.
Borges, Albertov. 2011. Present Day Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Coastal Ocean and Possible
Feedbacks Under Global Change. In: DUARTE, P. & SANTANA-CASIANO, J. M. (eds.) Oceans
and the Atmospheric Carbon Content. Springer Netherlands. 47-77
Bowen, M.M., J.L. Wilkin & W.J. Emery. 2005. Variability and forcing of the East Australian Current. J.
Geoph. Res., 110, C03019.
Boyd, P.W. & S.C. Doney. 2002. Modelling regional responses by marine pelagic ecosystems to
global climate change. Geoph. Res. Lett., 26 (16), 1806.
Bracegirdle, T.J., W.M. Connolley & J. Turner. 2008. Antarctic climate change over the twenty first
century. J. Geoph. Res., 113, D03103.
Bradshaw, C.J.A., M. Hindell, M.D. Sumner & K.J. Michael. 2004. Loyalty pays: potential life history
consequences of fidelity to marine foraging regions by southern elephant seals. Anim Behav,
68, 1349-1360.
Brand-Gardner, S.J., J.M. Lanyon & C.J. Limpus. 1999. Diet selection by immature green turtles,
Chelonia mydas, in subtropical Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Aust J Zool, 47, 181191.
Brink, K.H., F. Bahr & R.K. Shearman. 2007. Alongshore currents and mesoscale variability near the
shelf edge off northwestern Australia. J. Geoph. Res., 112, C05013.
179
Brix, H., N. Gruber & C.D. Keeling. 2004. Interannual variability of the upper ocean carbon cycle at
station ALOHA near Hawaii. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 18 (4), GB4019.
Bruno, J.F. & M.D. Bertness. 2001. Habitat modification and facilitation in benthic marine
communities. In: BERTNESS, M. D., GAINES, S. & HAY, M. (eds.) Marine Community Ecology.
Massachusetts: Sinuaer Associates. 201-218
Bruno, J.F., J.J. Stachowicz & M.D. Bertness. 2003. Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory.
Trends Ecol Evol, 18, 119-125.
Bull, B., I. Doonan, D. Tracey & A. Hart. 2001. Diel variation in spawning orange roughy
(Hoplostethus atlanticus, Trachichthyidae) abundance over a seamount feature on the
north-west Chatham Rise. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res, 35, 435-444.
Bunce, A. 2004. Do dietary changes of Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) reflect variability in
pelagic fish stocks? Wildl Res, 31 (4), 383-387.
Burger, A.E. & Piatt J.F. 1990. Flexible time budgets in breeding common murres: buffers against
variable prey abundance. Stud Avian Biol, 14, 71-83.
Burrage, D., S Cravatte, P. Dutrieux, A. Ganachaud, R. Hughes, W. Kessler, A. Melet, C. Steinberg & A.
Schiller. 2012. Naming a western boundary current from Australia to the Solomon Sea.
CLIVAR Exchanges, 58, 28.
Burrage, D.M., K. Black & K. Ness. 1994. Long term current prediction on the continental shelf of the
Great Barrier Reef. Cont Shelf Res, 15, 981-1014.
Burrage, D.M., C.R. Steinberg, W.J. Skirving & J.A. Kleypas. 1996. Mesoscale circulation features of
the Great Barrier Reef Region inferred from NOAA Satellite Imagery. Remote Sens Environ,
56, 21-41.
Busalacchi, A.J. 2004. The role of the Southern Ocean in global processes: An Earth system science
approach. Antarct Sci, 16 (4), 363-368.
Butler, A., F. Althaus, D. Furlani & K. Ridgway. 2002. Assessment of the conservation values of the
Bonney upwelling area. A component of the Commonwealth Marine Conservation
Assessment Program 2002-2004, Report to Environment Australia. CSIRO Marine Research.
Cai, W. 2006. Antarctic ozone depletion causes an intensification of the Southern Ocean super-gyre
circulation. . Geoph. Res. Lett., 33, L03712.
Cai, W., G. Shi, T. Cowan, D. Bi & J. Ribbe. 2005. The response of the Southern Annular Mode, the
East Australian Current, and the southern mid-latitude ocean circulation to global warming.
Geoph. Res. Lett., 32 (23), L23706.
Cai, W., A. Sullivan & T. Cowan. 2009. How rare are the 2006–2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole
events? An IPCC AR4 climate model Perspective. Geoph. Res. Lett., 36, L08702.
Caldeira, K. & M.E. Wickett. 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature, 425, 365.
Canadell, J.G., C. Le Quéré, M.R. Raupach, C.B. Field, E.T. Buitenhuis, P. Ciais, T.J. Conway, N.P. Gillett,
R.A. Houghton & G. Marland. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth
from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U
S A, 104, 10288-10293.
Caputi, N., G. Jackson & A. Pearce. 2014. The marine heat wave off Western Australia during the
summer of 2010/11 – 2 years on. Fisheries Research Report, Department of Fisheries,
Western Australia.
Carr, A. 1987. New perspectives on the pelagic stage of sea turtle development. Conserv Biol, 1, 103121.
Cazenave, A. , D.P. Chambers, P. Cipollini, L.L. Fu, J.W. Hurell, M. Merrifield, R.S. Nerem, H.P. Plag,
C.K. Shum & J. Willisand. SEA LEVEL RISE: Regional and global trend, Plenary Paper
OCEANOBS, 2009.
Chaloupka, M. & C.J. Limpus. 2001. Trends in the abundance of sea turtles resident in southern
Great Barrier Reef waters. Biol Conserv, 102, 235-249.
Chelton, D.B., K.J. Hussey & M.E. Parke. 1981. Global satellite measurements of water vapour, wind
speed and wave height. Nature, 294, 529-532.
180
Clarke, A.J. & J. Li. 2004. El Niño/La Niña shelf edge flow and Australian western rock lobsters. Geoph.
Res. Lett., 31, L11301.
Clivar, 2006. Report of the Third Meeting of the Indian Ocean Panel, CLIVAR Publication OFFICE, I. C.
P.
Coles, R.G., W.J. Lee Long, R.A. Watson & K.J. Derbyshire. 1993. Distribution of Seagrasses, and Their
Fish and Penaeid Prawn Communities, in Cairns Harbor, a Tropical Estuary, Northern
Queensland, Australia. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res, 44, 193-210.
Collins, M., S.I. An, W. Cai, A. Ganachaud, E. Guilyardi, F-F. Jin, M. Jochum, M. Lengaigne, S. Power, A.
Timmermann, G. Vecchi & Andrew Wittenberg. 2010. The impact of global warming on the
tropical Pacific and El Niño. Nature Geos., 3, 391-397.
Congdon, B.C., C.A. Erwin, D.R. Peck, G.B. Baker, M.C. Double & P. O'neill. 2007. Vulnerability of
seabirds on the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In: JOHNSON, J. E. & MARSHALL, P. A.
(eds.) Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef: a vulnerability assessment. Townsville,
QLD, Australia: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 427-464
Cutler and Company Pty Ltd. 2008. Venturous Australia – building strength in innovation, Melbourne.
http://www.innovation.gov.au/science/policy/Documents/NISReport.pdf
D'adamo, N., C. Fandry, S.J. Buchan, C. Domingues & S. Wijffels. 2009. Northern sources of the
Leeuwin Current and the "Holloway Current" on the North West Shelf. J R Soc West Aust, 92
(2), 55-66.
Dambacher, Jeffrey, Keith Hayes, Geoff Hosack, Vincent Lyne, David Clifford, Leo Dutra, Chris
Moeseneder, Mark Palmer, Ruth Sharples, Wayne Rochester, Tom Taranto & Rick Smith.
2012. Project Summary: National Marine Ecological Indicators. A report prepared for the
Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and
Communities, CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart.
Dayton, P.K. & M.J. Tegner. 1984. Catastrophic storms, El Niño, and patch stability in a southern
California kelp community. Science, 224, 283-285.
De’ath, G., K.E. Fabricius, H. Sweatman & M. Puotinen. 2012. The 27–year decline of coral cover on
the Great Barrier Reef and its causes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 109, 17734-17735.
Department of Industry, 2011. Strategic Roadmap for Australian Research Infrastructure. Australian
Government. Canberra,
http://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/national_collaborative_research_infra
structure_strategic_roadmap_2011.pdf
Department of Industry, 2012. National Research Investment Plan Australian Government.
Canberra,
http://www.innovation.gov.au/research/Pages/NationalResearchInvestmentPlan.aspx
Department of Industry, 2013. Strategic Research Priorities. Australian Government. Canberra,
http://www.innovation.gov.au/Research/pages/StrategicresearchPriorities.aspx
Department of the Environment, 2012. Marine bioregional plan for the South-west Marine Region.
Australian Government. Canberra, http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/marine/marinebioregional-plans/south-west
Domingues, C.M., J.A. Church, N. White, P.J. Geckler, S.E. Wijffels, P.M. Barker & J.R. Dunn. 2008.
Improved estimates of upper ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level rise. Nature, 453,
1090-1093.
Domingues, C.M., S.E. Wijffels, M.E. Maltrud, J.A. Church & M. Tomczak. 2006. Role of eddies in
cooling the Leeuwin current Geoph. Res. Lett., 33, L05603.
Doney, S. C., B. Tilbrook, S. Roy, N. Metzl, C. Le Quéré, M. Hood, R.A. Feely & D. Bakker. 2009.
Surface-ocean CO2 variability and vulnerability. Deep-Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr, 56
(8-10), 504-511.
Dore, J.E., R. Lukas, D.W. Sadler & D.M. Karl. 2003. Climate-driven changes to the atmospheric CO2
sink in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature, 424 (6950), 754-757.
181
Dowdy, A.J., G.A. Mills & B. Timbal. 2011. Large-scale indicators of Australian East Coast Lows and
associated extreme weather events, The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate
Research (CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology), Melbourne.
Dower, J.F. & R.I. Perry. 2001. High abundance of larval rockfish over Cobb Seamount, an isolated
seamount in the Northeast Pacific. Fish Oceanogr, 10, 268-274.
Duarte, Carlosm, Irise Hendriks, Tommys Moore, Ylvas Olsen, Alexandra Steckbauer, Laura Ramajo,
Jacob Carstensen, Juliea Trotter & Malcolm Mcculloch. 2013. Is Ocean Acidification an OpenOcean Syndrome? Understanding Anthropogenic Impacts on Seawater pH. Estuaries and
Coasts, 36 (2), 221-236.
Duggins, D.O., C.A. Simenstad & J.A. Estes. 1989. Magnification of secondary production by kelp
detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science, 245, 170-173.
Durack, P. & S. Wijffels. 2010. Fifty-year trends in global ocean salinities and their relationship to
broad scale warming. J. Clim., 23, 4342-4362.
Durack, P.J., S.E. Wijffels & R.J. Matear. 2012. Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle
intensification during 1950 to 2000. Science, 336, 455-458.
Edgar, G.J. 1984. General features of the ecology and biogeography of Tasmanian subtidal rocky
shore communities. Pap Proc R Soc Tasman, 118, 173-186.
Edgar, G.J. . 1983. The ecology of south-east Tasmanian phytal animal communities. III. Patterns of
species diversity. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 70, 181-203.
Emanuel, K.A. 2001. Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. J.
Geoph. Res., 106 (14), 771-782.
Fabricius, K. 2005. Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: review and
synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull, 50, 125-146.
Fabricius, K.E., K. Okaji & G. De'ath. 2010. Three lines of evidence to link outbreaks of the crown-ofthorns seastar Acanthaster planci to the release of larval food limitation. Coral Reefs, 29,
593-605.
Fabry, V.J., B.A. Seibel, R.A. Feely & J.C. Orr. 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna
and ecosystem processes. ICES J Mar Sci, 65, 414-432.
Farnetti, R. & T.L. Delworth. 2010. The role of mesoscale eddies in the remote oceanic response to
altered Southern Hemisphere winds. J. Phys. Ocean., 40, 2348-2354.
Feely, R. A., C.L. Sabine, K. Lee, W. Berelson, J. Kleypas, V. J. Fabry & F. J. Millero. 2004. Impact of
anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science, 305, 362-366.
Feely, R.A., J. Boutin, C.E. Cosca, Y. Dandonneau, J. Etcheto, H.Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, C. Le Quere, D.J.
Mackey, M. Mcphaden, N. Metzl, A. Poisson & R. Wanninkhof. 2002. Seasonal and
interannual variability of CO2 in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res Part II Top Stud
Oceanogr, 49 (13-14), 2443-2469.
Feng, M., A. Biastoch, C. Boning, N. Caputi & G. Meyers. 2008. Seasonal and interannual variations of
upper ocean heat balance off the west coast of Australia. J. Geoph. Res., 113, C12025.
Feng, M., N. Caputi, J. Penn, D. Slawinski, S. De Lestang, E. Weller & A. Pearce. 2011. Ocean
circulation, Stokes drift and connectivity of western rock lobster population. Canadian
Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 68, 1182-1196.
Feng, M., Y. Li & G. Meyers. 2004. Multidecadal variations of Fremantle sea level: Footprint of
climate variability in the tropical Pacific. Geoph. Res. Lett., 31, L16302.
Feng, M., L. Majewski, C. Fandry & A. Waite. 2007. Characteristics of two counter-rotating eddies in
the Leeuwin Current system off the Western Australian coast. Deep-Sea Res Part II Top Stud
Oceanogr, 54, 961-980.
Feng, M., M. Mcphaden & T. Lee. 2010. Decadal variability of the Pacific subtropical cells and their
influence on the southeast Indian Ocean. Geoph. Res. Lett., 37, L09606.
Feng, M., M.J. Mcphaden, S. Xie & J. Hafner. 2013. La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current
warming in 2011. Sci. Rep., 3, 1277.
182
Feng, M., G. Meyers, A. Pearce & S.E. Wijffels. 2003. Annual and interannual variations of the
Leeuwin current at 32°S. J. Geoph. Res., 108 (C11), 3355.
Feng, M., S. Wijffels, S. Godfrey & G. Meyers. 2005. Do eddies play a role in the momentum balance
of the Leeuwin Current? J. Phys. Ocean., 35 (6), 964-975.
Ferraroli, S., J.Y. Georges, P. Gaspar & Y. Le Maho. 2004. Endangered species: where leatherback
turtles meet fisheries. Nature, 429, 521-522.
Freeland, H.J., F.M. Boland, J.A. Church, A.J. Clarke, A.M.G Forbes, A. Huyer, R.L. Smith, R.O.R.Y.
Thompson & N.J. White. 1986. The Australian Coastal Experiment: a search for coastal
trapped waves. J. Phys. Ocean., 16, 1230-1249.
Fukamachi, Y., S.R. Rintoul, J.A. Church, S. Aoki, S. Sokolov, M. Rosenberg & M. Wakatsuchi. 2010.
Strong export of Antarctic Bottom Water east of the Kerguelen Plateau. Nature Geos., 3,
327-331.
Fulton, E.A., A.D.M. Smith & A.E. Punt. 2005. Which ecological indicators can robustly detect the
effects of fishing? . ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 540-551.
Furnas, M., R. Brinkman, K. Fabricius, H. Tonin & B. Schaffelke. 2013. Chapter 1. Linkages between
river runoff, phytoplankton blooms and primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish in the
Northern GBR. In: WATERHOUSE, J. (ed.) Assessment of the relative risk of water quality to
ecosystems of the Great Barrier Reef. . Brisbane: Department of the Environment and
Heritage Protection, Queensland Government.
Ganachaud, A., A. Sen Gupta, C. Steinberg & C. Maes. Projected ocean circulation changes to the
tropical Pacific over the 21st century. GREENHOUSE 2009: CLIMATE CHANGE AND
RESOURCES International ENSO workshop, 26-29 March 2009 Perth.
Gaube, P., D.B. Chelton, P.G. Strutton & M.J. Behrenfeld. 2013. Satellite observations of chlorophyll,
phytoplankton biomass, and Ekman pumping in nonlinear mesoscale eddies. J. Geoph. Res.,
118, 1-22.
Gerard, V.A. 1976. Some aspects of material dynamics and energy flow in a kelp forest in Monterey
Bay, California. PhD Thesis, University of California Santa Cruz.
Gershunov, A. & T.P. Barnett. 1998. Interdecadal modulation of ENSO teleconnections. Bull. Amer.
Meteor. Soc., 79, 2715-2725.
Gille, S.T. . 2008. Decadal-scale temperature trends in the Southern Hemisphere ocean. J. Clim., 21,
4749-4765.
Gillet, N. & D.W.J. Thompson. 2003. Simulation of recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change.
Science, 302, 273-275.
Gledhill, D.K. , R. Wanninkhof, F.J. Millero & C.M. Eakin. 2008. Ocean acidification of the Greater
Caribbean Region 1996 – 2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C10031, doi:10.1029/2007JC004629.
Godfrey, J.S., I.S.F. Jones, G.H. Maxwell & B.D. Scott. 1980. On the winter cascade from Bass Strait
into the Tasman Sea. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res, 31 (3), 275-286.
Godfrey, J.S. & K.R. Ridgway. 1985. The large-scale environment of the poleward-flowing Leeuwin
current, Western Australia: longshore steric height gradients, wind stresses, and geostrophic
flow. J. Phys. Ocean., 15, 481-495.
Goodrich, Gregory B. 2007. Influence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on Winter Precipitation and
Drought during Years of Neutral ENSO in the Western United States. Weather and
Forecasting, 22 (1), 116-124.
Gordon, A.L., B.A. Huber, E.J. Metzger, R.D. Susanto, H.E. Hurlburt & T.R. Adi. 2012. South China Sea
Throughflow Impact on the Indonesian Throughflow. Geoph. Res. Lett., 39, L11602.
Grawe, U., J.O. Wolff & J. Ribbe. 2010. Impact of climate variability on an east Australian bay.
Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci, 86, 247-257.
Gray, C.A., R.C. Chick & D.J. Mcelligott. 1998. Diel changes in assemblages of fishes associated with
shallow seagrass and bare sand. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci, 46, 849-859.
183
Gray, R., E.A. Fulton, L.R. Little & R. Scott. 2006. Operating Model Specification Within an Agent
Based Framework. North West Shelf Joint Environmental Management Study Technical
Report Vol 16, CSIRO, Hobart, Tasmania.
Griffin, D.A. & J.H. Middleton. 1986. Coastal trapped waves behind a large continental shelf island,
southern Great Barrier Reef. J. Phys. Ocean., 16, 1651-1664.
Gruber, N., P. Friedlingstein, C.B. Field, R. Valentini, M. Heimann, J.E. Richey, P. Romero Lankao, E.D.
Schulze & C.T.A. Chen. 2004. The vulnerability of the carbon cycle in the 21st century: an
assessment of carbon–climate–human interactions. In: FIELD, C. B. & RAUPAUCH, M. R. (eds.)
The Global Carbon Cycle. Integrating Humans, Climate and the Natural World. SCOPE 62.
Washington DC: Island Press. 45-76
Gruber, N., C.D. Keeling & N.R. Bates. 2002. Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean
carbon sink. Science, 298 (5602), 2374-2378.
Guilyardi, E., W. Cai, M. Collins, A. Fedorov, F. Jin, A. Kumar, D. Sun & A. Wittenberg. 2012. New
Strategies for Evaluating ENSO Processes in Climate Models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93,
235-238.
Gunn, J. & B. Block. 2001. Advances in acoustic, archival, and satellite tagging of tunas. In: BLOCK, B.
A. & STEVENS., E. D. (eds.) Tuna: Physiology, Ecology and Evolution. Academic Press.
Gyuris, E. & C.J. Limpus. 1998. The Loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, in Queensland - population
breeding structure. Aust Wildl Res, 15, 197-209.
Hamon, B.V. 1962. The spectrums of mean sea level at Sydney, Coffs Harbour, and Lord Howe Island.
J. Geoph. Res., 67, 5147-5155.
Harris, G.P., F.B. Griffiths & L.A. Clementson. 1992. Climate and the fisheries off Tasmania —
interactions of physics, food chains and fish. S Afr J Mar Sci, 12, 585-597.
Harris, G.P., F.B. Griffiths, L.A. Clementson, V. Lyne & H. Van Der Doe. 1991. Seasonal and
interannual variability in physical processes, nutrient cycling and the structure of the food
chain in Tasmanian shelf waters. J Plankton Res, 13, 109-131.
Held, I.M. & B.J. Soden. 2006. Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming. J.
Clim., 19, 5686-5699.
Hendon, H.H., B. Liebmann, M. Newman, J.D. Glick & J. Schemm. 1999. Medium range forecast
errors associated with active episodes of the MJO. Month. Wea. Rev., 128, 69-86.
Hendon, H.H., D.W. J. Thompson & M.C. Wheeler. 2007. Australian Rainfall and Surface Temperature
Variations Associated with the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode. J. Clim., 20 (11), 24522467.
Hill, K. L., S. R. Rintoul, R. Coleman & K. R. Ridgway. 2008. Wind forced low frequency variability of
the East Australia Current. Geoph. Res. Lett., 35, L08602.
Hill, K.L., S.R. Rintoul, K.R. Ridgway & P.R. Oke. 2011. Decadal changes in the South Pacific Western
Boundary Current system revealed in observations and ocean state estimates. J. Geoph. Res.,
116, C01009.
Hobday, A.J., T.A. Okey, E.S. Poloczanska, T.J. Kunz, A.J. Richardson & (Eds). 2006. Impacts of climate
change on Australian marine life: Part C. Literature Review. Report to the Australian
Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2006. Impacts of climate change on coral reefs. In: HOBDAY, A. J., OKEY, T. A.,
POLOCZANSKA, E. S., KUNZ, T. J. & RICHARDSON, A. J. (eds.) Impacts of climate change on
Australian marine life: Part C. Literature Review. Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs.
Mar Freshw Res, 50, 839-866.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P. J. Mumby, A. J. Hooten, R. S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C. D. Harvell, P.
F. Sale, A. J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C. M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R.
H. Bradbury, A. Dubi & M. E. Hatziolos. 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and
ocean acidification. Science, 318, 1737-1742.
184
Hogg, A.M., M.P. Meredith & J.R. Blundell. 2008. Eddy heat flux in the Southern Ocean: response to
variable wind forcing. J. Clim., 21, 608-620.
Holbrook, N.J., P.S-L. Chan & S.A. Venegas. 2005a. Oscillatory and propagating modes of
temperature variability at the 3-3.5- and 4-4.5-yr time scales in the upper southwest Pacific
Ocean between 1955 and 1988. J. Clim., 18, 719-736.
Holbrook, N.J., P.S-L. Chan & S.A. Venegas. 2005b. CORRIGENDUM: ‘Oscillatory and propagating
modes of temperature variability at the 3-3.5 and 4-4.5 yr time scales in the upper
southwest Pacific Ocean between 1955 and 1988. Journal of Climate 18(5), 719-736’. J. Clim.,
18, 1637-1639.
Holbrook, N.J., J. Davidson, M. Feng, A.J. Hobday, J.M. Lough, S. Mcgregor & J.S. Risbey. 2009. El
Niño-Southern Oscillation In: POLOCZANSKA, E. S., HOBDAY, A. J. & RICHARDSON, A. J. (eds.)
A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2009. NCCARF
Publication 05/09, ISBN 978-1-921609-03-9.
Holland, G.J., A.H. Lynch & L.M. Leslie. 1987. Australian east-coast cyclones. Part I: Synoptic
overview and case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 3024-36. Month. Wea. Rev., 115, 3024-3036.
Holloway, P., P.G. Chatwin & P. Craig. 2001. Internal tide observations from the Australian North
West Shelf in summer 1995. J. Phys. Ocean., 31, 1182-1199.
Holloway, P.E. 1987. Internal hydraulic jumps and solitons at a shelf break region on the Australian
North West Shelf. J. Geoph. Res., 92, 5405-5416.
Holloway, P.E. 1983. Internal tides on the Australian North-West Shelf: A preliminary investigation. J.
Phys. Ocean., 13, 1357-1370.
Holloway, P.E. 2001. A regional model of the semidiurnal internal tide on the Australian North West
Shelf. J. Geoph. Res., 106, 19625-19638.
Holloway, P.E., S.T. Humphries, M. Atkinson & J. Imberger. 1985. Mechanisms for nitrogen supply to
the Australian North West Shelf. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 36, 753-764. Aust J Mar
Freshwater Res, 36, 753-764.
Hosoda, S., T. Suga, N. Shikama & K. Mizuno. 2009. Global surface layer salinity change and its
implication for Hydrological Cycle Intensification. J Oceanogr, 65 (4), 579-586.
Houghton, J.T., Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. Van Der Linden & D. Xiaosu. 2001. IPCC Report on
Climate Change 2001. The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Third
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. , PRESS, C. U., New
York.
Howard, W., D. Roberts, A. Moy, J. Roberts, T. Trull, S Bray & R. Hopcroft. Ocean acidification
impacts on southern ocean calcifiers. IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental
Science, 2009 Copenhagen, Denmark. 462001.
Hsieh, W. & B.V. Hamon. 1991. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation in Australia’s southeastern
Australian waters. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res, 42, 263-275.
Hughes, C.W., P.L. Woodworth, M.P. Meredith, V. Stepanov, T. Whitworth & A.R. Pyne. 2003.
Coherence of Antarctic sea levels, Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode, and flow through
Drake Passage. Geoph. Res. Lett., 30 (9), 1464.
Jackson, E.L., A.A. Rowden, M.J. Attrill, S.J. Bossey & M.B. Jones. 2001. The importance of seagrass
beds as a habitat for fishery species. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev, 39, 269-303.
Jernakoff, P., A. Brearley & J. Nielsen. 1996. Factors affecting grazer-epiphyte interactions in
temperate seagrass meadows. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev, 34, 109-162.
Johnson, C., S. Ling, J. Ross, S. Shepherd & K. Miller. 2005. Establishment of the long-spined sea
urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii) in Tasmania: First assessment of potential threats to
fisheries. FRDC Project 2001/044.
Johnson, C.R. & K.H. Mann. 1988. Diversity, patterns of adaptation, and stability of Nova Scotian kelp
beds. Ecol Monogr, 58, 129-154.
Johnson, Craig R., Sam C. Banks, Neville S. Barrett, Fabienne Cazassus, Piers K. Dunstan, Graham J.
Edgar, Stewart D. Frusher, Caleb Gardner, Malcolm Haddon, Fay Helidoniotis, Katy L. Hill,
185
Neil J. Holbrook, Graham W. Hosie, Peter R. Last, Scott D. Ling, Jessica Melbourne-Thomas,
Karen Miller, Gretta T. Pecl, Anthony J. Richardson, Ken R. Ridgway, Stephen R. Rintoul,
David A. Ritz, D. Jeff Ross, J. Craig Sanderson, Scoresby A. Shepherd, Anita Slotwinski, Kerrie
M. Swadling & Nyan Taw. 2011. Climate change cascades: Shifts in oceanography, species'
ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol,
400 (1-2), 17-32.
Johnson, G.C. & S.C. Doney. 2006. Recent western South Atlantic bottom water warming. Geoph. Res.
Lett., 33, L14614.
Johnson, G.C., S. Mecking, B.M. Sloyan & S.E. Wijffels. 2007. Recent bottom water warming in the
Pacific Ocean. J. Clim., 20, 5365-5375.
Johnson, G.C. & S.G. Purkey. 2009. Deep Caribbean Sea warming. Deep-Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res
Pap, 56, 827-834.
Johnson, G.C., S.G. Purkey & J.L. Bullister. 2008. Warming and freshening in the abyssal southeastern
Indian Ocean. J. Clim., 21, 5351-5363.
Jones, C.G., J.H. Lawton & M. Shachak. 1997. Positive and negative effects of organisms as physical
ecosystem engineers. Ecology 78: 1946-1957. Ecology, 78, 1946-1957.
Jones, C.G., J.H. Lawton & M. Shachak. 1994. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos, 69, 373-386.
Jørgensen, S.E. 1994. Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling, Amsterdam, Elsevier.
Kaempf, J. 2006. Transient wind-driven upwelling in a submarine canyon: A process-oriented
modelling study. J. Geoph. Res., 111, 1-12.
Kaempf, J. 2007. On the magnitude of upwelling fluxes in shelf-break canyons. Cont Shelf Res, 27 (17),
2211-2223.
Kataoka, Takahito, Tomoki Tozuka, Swadhin Behera & Toshio Yamagata. 2013. On the Ningaloo
Niño/Niña. Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1961-z.
Katsumata, K. 2006. Tidal stirring and mixing on the Australian North West Shelf. Mar Freshw Res, 57,
243-254.
Kerswell, A.P. & R.J. Jones. 2003. Effects of hypo-osmosis on the coral Stylophora pistillata: nature
and cause of ‘low-salinity bleaching’. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 253, 145-154.
Khatiwala, S., F. Primeau & T. Hall. 2009. Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO2
concentrations in the ocean. Nature, 462, 346-349.
Khatiwala, S., T. Tanhua, S. Mikaloff Fletcher, M. Gerber, S. C. Doney, H. D. Graven, N. Gruber, G. A.
Mckinley, A. Murata, A. F. Ríos & C. L. Sabine. 2013. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic
carbon. Biogeosciences, 10 (4), 2169-2191.
Kiem, A.S. & S.W. Franks. 2004. Multi-decadal variability of drought risk—Eastern Australia.
Hydrological Processes, 18, 2039-2050.
Kiem, A.S., S.W. Franks & G. Kuczera. 2003. Multi-decadal variability of flood risk. Geoph. Res. Lett.,
30 (2), 1035.
Kleypas, J.A., R. W. Buddemeier, D. Archer, J. P. Gattuso, C. Langdon & B. N. Opdyke. 1999.
Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science,
284 (2 April), 118-120.
Kloser, R.J., T.E. Ryan, J.W. Young & M.E. Lewis. 2009. Acoustic observations of micronekton fish on
the scale of an ocean basin: potential and challenges. ICES J Mar Sci, 66, 998-1006.
Korty, R.L., K.A. Emanuel & J.R. Scott. 2008. Tropical Cyclone induced upper ocean mixing and
climate: Application to equable climates. J. Clim., 21, 638-654.
Koslow, J.A., K. Gowlett-Holmes, J.K. Lowry, T. O’hara, G.C.B. Poore & A. Williams. 2001. Seamount
benthic macrofauna off southern Tasmania: community structure and impacts of trawling.
Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 213, 111-125.
Koslow, J.A., R.J. Kloser & A. Williams. 1997. Pelagic biomass and community structure over the midcontinental slope off southeastern Australia based upon acoustic and midwater trawl
sampling. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 146, 21-35.
186
Langdon, C. & M. J. Atkinson. 2005. Effect of elevated pCO2 on photosynthesis and calcification of
corals and interactions with seasonal change in temperature/irradiance and nutrient
enrichment. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 110, article C09S07.
Le Quere, C., R.J. Andres, T. Boden, T. Conway, R.A. Houghton, J.I. House, G. Marland, G.P. Peters,
G.R. Van Der Werf, A. Ahlstrom, R.M. Andrew, L. Bopp, J.G. Canadell, P. Ciais, S.C. Doney, C.
Enright, P. Friedlingstein, C. Huntingford, A. K. Jain, C. Jourdain, E. Kato, R.F. Keeling, K. Klein
Goldewijk, S. Levis, P. Levy, M. Lomas, B. Poulter, M.R. Raupach, J. Schwinger, S. Sitch, B.D.
Stocker, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle & N. Zeng. 2013. The global carbon budget 1959–2011. Earth
Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 165-185.
Le Quéré, C., O. Aumont, P. Monfray & J. Orr. 2003. Propagation of climatic events on ocean
stratification, marine biology, and CO2: Case studies over the 1979–1999 period. J. Geoph.
Res., 108, 3375.
Le Quere, C., C. Rodenbeck, E.T. Buitenhuis, T.J. Conway, R. Lagenfelds, A. Gomez, C. Labuschagne, M.
Ramonet, T. Nakazawa, N. Metzl, N. Gillett & M. Heimann. 2007. Saturation of the Southern
Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change. Science, 316 1735-1738.
Leaper, R., J. Cooke, P. Trathan, K. Reid, V. Rowntree & R. Payne. 2006. Global climate drives
southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) population dynamics. Biol Lett, 2, 289-292.
Lehodey, P., I. Senina, B. Calmettes, F. Royer, P. Gaspar, M. Abecassis, J. Polovina, D. Parker, R.
Domokos, O. Hernandez, M. Dessert, R. Kloser, J. Young, M. Lutcavage, N.O. Handegard & J.
Hampton. 2010. Towards operational management of pelagic ecosystems, ICES CM 2010A
ASC Nantes, France.
Leipper, D. 1967. Observed ocean conditions and Hurricane Hilda, 1964. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 184-186.
Leslie, L.M., G.J. Holland & A.H. Lynch. 1987. Australian east-coast cyclones. Part II: Numerical
modelling study. Month. Wea. Rev., 115, 3037-3054.
Lesser, M.P. & J.H. Farrell. 2004. Exposure to solar radiation increases damage to both host tissues
and algal symbionts of corals during thermal stress. Coral Reefs, 23, 367-377.
Levitus, S., J. Antonov & T. Boyer. 2005. Warming of the world ocean, 1955 – 2003. Geoph. Res. Lett.,
32, L02604.
Limpus, C.J., C.J. Parmenter, V. Baker & A. Fleay. 1983. The Flatback Turtle, Chelonia depressa, in
Queensland: Post-Nesting Migration and Feeling Ground Distribution Australian. Aust Wildl
Res, 10, 557-561.
Limpus, C.J., D. Zeller, D. Kwan & W. Macfarlane. 1989. Sea turtle rookeries in the north-western
Torres Strait. Aust Wildl Res, 16, 517-525.
Lin, J.L., G.N. Kiladis, B.E. Mapes, K.M. Weickmann, K.R. Sperber, M.C. Wheeler, S.D. Schubert, A. Del
Genio, L.J. Donner, S. Emori, J.F. Gueremy, F. Hourdin, P.J. Rasch, E. Roeckner & J.F. Scinocca.
2006. Tropical intraseasonal variability in 14 IPCC AR4 climate models. Part I: Convective
signals. J. Clim., 19, 2665-2690.
Ling, S.D. 2008. Range expansion of a habitat-modifying species leads to loss of taxonomic diversity:
a new and impoverished reef state. Oecologia 156: 883-894. Oecologia, 156, 883-894.
Ling, S.D., C.R. Johnson, K. Ridgway, A.J. Hobday & M. Haddon. 2009. Climate-driven range extension
of a sea urchin: inferring future trends by analysis of recent population dynamics. Glob
Change Biol, 15 (3), 719-731.
Little, L.R., E.A. Fulton, R. Gray, D. Hayes, V. Lyne, R. Scott, K. Sainsbury & A.D. Mcdonald. 2006.
Multiple Use Management Strategy Evaluation for the North West Shelf: Results and
Discussion. North West Shelf Joint Environmental Management Study. Technical Report Vol
18, CSIRO, Hobart, Tasmania.
Lo Monaco, C., M. Alvarez, R.M. Key, X. Lin, T. Tanhua, B. Tilbrook, D.C.E. Bakker, S.V. Heuven, M.
Hoppema, N. Metzl, C.L. Sabine & A. Velo. 2010. Assessing the internal consistency of the
CARINA database in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 51-70.
187
Lough, J.M. 2007. Climate and Climate Change on the Great Barrier Reef. In: J.E., J. & P.A., M. (eds.)
Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef. Australia: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Authority and Australian Greenhouse Office.
Lough, J.M. 1994. Climate variation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation events on the Great Barrier
Reef: 1958-1987. Coral Reefs, 13, 181-195.
Lough, J.M. & A.J. Hobday. 2011. Observed climate change in Australian marine and freshwater
environments. Mar Freshw Res, 62, 984-999.
Lough, J.M., A. Sen Gupta & A.J. Hobday. 2012. Temperature. In: POLOCZANSKA, E. S., HOBDAY, A. J.
& RICHARDSON, A. J. (eds.) Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card
Australia 2012. Australia: http://www.oceanclimatechange.org.au.
Luick, J.L., R. Kase & M. Tomczak. 1994. On the formation and spreading of the Bass Strait cascade.
Cont Shelf Res, 14 (4), 385-399.
Mackie, D.S., P.W. Boyd, G.H. Mctainsh, N.W. Tindale, T.K. Westberry & K.A. Hunter. 2008.
Biogeochemistry of iron in Australian dust: From eolian uplift to marine uptake. Geochem.
Geoph. Geosys., 9, Q03Q08.
Maiwa, K., Y. Matsumoto & T. Yamagata. 2010. Characteristics of coastal trapped waves along the
southern and eastern coasts of Australia. J Oceanogr, 66, 243-258.
Majkowski, J., K. Williams & G.I. Murphy. 1981. Research identifies changing patterns in Australian
tuna fishery. Aust Fish, 40 (2), 5-10.
Mantyla, A.W. & J.L. Reid. 1995. On the origins of deep and bottomwaters of the Indian Ocean. J.
Geoph. Res., 100, 2417-2439.
Mapstone, B.D., C.R. Davies, L.R. Little, A.E. Punt, A.D.M Smith, F. Pantus, D.C. Lou, A.J. Williams, A.
Jones, A.M. Ayling, G.R. Russ & A.D. Mcdonald. 2004. The Effects of Line Fishing on the Great
Barrier Reef and Evaluations of Alternative Potential Management Strategies. CRC Reef
Research Centre Technical Report No 52. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville, Australia.
Marchesiello, P. & J.H. Middleton. 2000. Modeling the East Australian Current in the western
Tasman Sea. J. Phys. Ocean., 30, 2956-2971.
Marshall, A.G. & H.H. Hendon. 2014. Impacts of the MJO in the Indian Ocean and on the Western
Australian coast. Climate Dynamics, 42 (3-4), 579-595.
Marshall, J. & T. Radko. 2003. Residual‐mean solutions for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and
its associated overturning circulation. J. Phys. Ocean., 33, 2341-2354.
Marshall, J. & K. Speer. 2012. Closure of the meridional overturning circulation through Southern
Ocean upwelling. Nature Geos., 5, 171-180.
Mata, M.M., M. Tomczak, S.E. Wijffels & J.A. Church. 2000. East Australian Current volume
transports at 30◦S: Estimates from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment hydrographic
sections PR11/P6 and the PCM3 current meter array. J. Geoph. Res., 105 (C12), 28509-28526.
Mata, M.M., S. Wijffels, J.A. Church & M. Tomczak. 2007. Eddy shedding and energy conversions in
the East Australian Current. J. Geoph. Res., 111, C09034.
Matear, R., A. Lenton, M. Chamberlain, M. Mongin & M. Baird 2012. Biogeochemical modelling and
data assimilation: status in Australia and internationally. Australian Coastal and Oceans
Modelling and Observations Workshop (ACOMO) 2012. Canberra, Australia.
May, J.L. & S.J.M. Blaber. 1989. Benthic and pelagic biomass of the upper continental-slope off
eastern Tasmania. Mar. Biol., 101, 11-25.
Mcclatchie, S. & A. Dunford. 2003. Estimated biomass of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish off
New Zealand. Deep-Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap, 50, 1263-1281.
Mcdonald, A.D., E. Fulton, L.R. Little, R. Gray, K.J. Sainsbury & V.D. Lyne. 2006. Multiple-use
management strategy evaluation for coastal marine ecosystems using in vitro. In: PEREZ, P.
& BATTEN, D. (eds.) Complex Science for a Complex World: Exploring Human Ecosystems
with Agents. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
188
Mckinnon, A.D. & S.R. Thorrold. 1993. Zooplankton community structure and copepod egg
production in coastal waters of the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon. J Plankton Res, 15,
1387-1411.
Mcneil, B. I. & B. Tilbrook. 2009. A seasonal carbon budget for the sub-Antarctic Ocean, South of
Australia. Mar Chem, 115 (3-4), 196-210.
Mcphaden, M.J., X. Zhang, H.H. Hendon & M.C. Wheeler. 2006. Large scale dynamics and MJO
forcing of ENSO variability. Geoph. Res. Lett., 33, L16702.
Meehl, G.A., T.F. Stocker, W.D. Collins, P. Friedlingstein, A.T. Gaye, J.M. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti,
J.M. Murphy, A. Noda, S.C.B. Raper, I.G. Watterson, A.J. Weaver & Z. Zhao. 2007. Global
Climate Projections In: SOLOMON, S., QIN, D., MANNING, M., CHEN, Z., MARQUIS, M.,
AVERYT, K. B., TIGNOR, M. & MILLER, H. L. (eds.) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science
Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY,
USA: Cambridge University Press.
Meredith, M.P. & A.M. Hogg. 2006. Circumpolar response of Southern Ocean eddy activity to a
change in the Southern Annular Mode. Geoph. Res. Lett., 33 (16), L16608.
Meredith, M.P., A.C. Naveira Garabato, A.M. Hogg & R. Farneti. 2012. Sensitivity of the Overturning
Circulation in the Southern Ocean to Decadal Changes in Wind Forcing. J. Clim., 25, 99-110.
Meredith, M.P., P.L. Woodworth, C.W. Hughes & V. Stepanov. 2004. Changes in the ocean transport
through Drake Passage during the 1980s and 1990s, forced by changes in the Southern
Annular Mode. Geoph. Res. Lett., 31, L21305.
Meyers, G. 1996. Variation of Indonesian throughflow and the El Niño – Southern Oscillation. J.
Geoph. Res., 101 (C5), 12255-12263.
Meyers, G., R. J. Bailey & A. P. Worby. 1995. Geostrophic transport of the Indonesian throughflow.
Deep-Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap, 42, 1163-1174.
Middleton, J.F., C. Arthur, P. Van Ruth, T.M. Ward, J.L. Mcclean, M.E. Maultrud, P. Gill, A Levings & S.
Middleton. 2009. El Niño effects and upwelling off South Australia. J. Phys. Ocean., 37, 24582477.
Middleton, J.F. & K.P. Black. 1994. The low frequencey circulation in and around Bass Strait - A
numerical study. Cont Shelf Res, 14 (13-14), 1495-1521.
Middleton, J.F. & J.A.T. Bye. 2007. A review of the shelf-slope circulation along Australia's southern
shelves: Cape Leeuwin to Portland. Prog Oceanogr, 75 (1-41).
Middleton, J.F. & M. Cirano. 2005. Wintertime circulation off southeast Australia: Strong forcing by
the East Australian Current. J. Geoph. Res., 110, 12012.
Middleton, J.F. & O.K. Leth. 2004. Wind-forced setup of upwelling, geographical origins, and
numerical models: The role of bottom drag. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 109
(C12). J. Geoph. Res., 109 (C12), 1-12.
Middleton, J.F. & G. Platov. 2003. The mean summertime circulation along Australia’s southern
shelves: A numerical study, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33(3), 2270–2287. J. Phys. Ocean., 33 (3),
2270-2287.
Middleton, J.H., P. Coutis, D.A. Griffin, A. Macks, A. Mctaggart, M.A. Merrifield & G.J. Nippard. 1994.
Circulation and water mass characteristics of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Aust J Mar
Freshwater Res, 45, 1-18.
Moncreiff, C.A. & M.J. Sullivan. 2001. Trophic importance of epiphytic algae in subtropical seagrass
beds: evidence from multiple stable isotope analyses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 215, 93-106.
Moore Ii, T.S., R.J. Matear, J. Marra & L. Clementson. 2007. Phytoplankton variability off the Western
Australian coast: mesoscale eddies and their role in cross-shelf exchange. Deep-Sea Res Part
II Top Stud Oceanogr, 54 (8-10), 943-960.
Moran, K.L. & K.A. Bjorndal. 2005. Simulated green turtle grazing affects structure and productivity
of seagrass pastures. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 305, 235-247.
Morgan, L. . 2005. What are deep-sea corals? . Journal of Marine Education, 21, 2-4.
189
Morrison, A. K. & A.M. Hogg. 2013. On the Relationship between Southern Ocean Overturning and
ACC Transport. J. Phys. Ocean., 43 (1), 140-148.
Moy, A.D., W.R. Howard, S. Bray & T. Trull. 2009. Reduced calcification in modern Southern Ocean
planktonic foraminifera. Nature Geos., 2, 276-280.
Nakano, H. & N. Suginohara. 2002. Importance of eastern Indian Ocean for the abyssal Pacific. J.
Geoph. Res., 107 (C12), 3129.
National Marine Science Committee, 2015. National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025: Driving the
development of Australia's blue economy. Canberra,
Neuman, D.R. 2001. Seasonal movements of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in
the north-western Bay of Plenty, New Zealand: influence of sea surface temperature and El
Niño/La Niña. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res, 35, 371-374.
Newman, M. 2013. Atmospheric science: Winds of change. Nat Clim Change, 3, 538-539.
Nieblas, A.E., B.M. Sloyan, A.J. Hobday, R. Coleman & A.J. Richardson. 2009. Variability of biological
production in low wind-forced regional upwelling systems: A case study off southeastern
Australia. Limnology and Oceanography 54:1548-1558. Limnol Oceanogr, 54, 1548-1558.
Nilsson, C.S. & G.R. Cresswell. 1981. The formation and evolution of East Australian Current warm
core eddies. Prog Oceanogr, 9 (133-183).
Oceans Policy Science Advisory Group, 2013. Marine Nation 2025: Marine Science to Support
Australia’s Blue Economy. Australian Government.
http://www.aims.gov.au/documents/30301/550211/Marine+Nation+2025_web.pdf/bd99cf
13-84ae-4dbd-96ca-f1a330062cdf
Oke, P.R. & J.H. Middleton. 2000. Topographically induced upwelling off eastern Australia. J. Phys.
Ocean., 30, 512-531.
Orr, J.C., V.J. Fabry, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, S.C. Doney, R.A. Feely, A. Gnanadesikan, N. Gruber, A.
Ishida, F. Joos, R.M. Key, K. Lindsay, E. Maier-Reimer, R. Matear, P. Monfray, A. Mouchet,
R.G. Najjar, G-K Plattner, K.B. Rodgers, C.L. Sabine, J.L. Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, R.D. Slater, I.J.
Totterdell, M-F Weirig, Y. Yamanaka & A. Yool. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over
the twenty‐first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature, 437, 681-686.
Orsi, A.H., T. Whitworth Iii & W.D. Nowlin Jr. 1995. On the meridional extent and fronts of the
Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap, 42, 641-673.
Orsi, A.H., G.C. Johnson & J.L. Bullister. 1999. Circulation, mixing, and production of Antarctic Bottom
Water. Prog Oceanogr, 43, 55-109.
Parmenter, C.J. & C.J. Limpus. 1995. Female Recruitment, Reproductive Longevity and Inferred
Hatchling Survivorship for the Flatback Turtle (Natator depressus) at a Major Eastern
Australian Rookery. Copeia, 2, 474-477.
Pattiaratchi, C., B. Hollings, M. Woo & T. Welhena. 2011. Dense shelf water formation along the
south-west Australian inner shelf. Geoph. Res. Lett., 38, L10609.
Pauly, D., A. W. Trites, E. Capuli & V. Christensen. 1998. Diet composition and trophic levels of
marine mammals. ICES J Mar Sci, 55, 467-481.
Pearce, A. & M. Feng. 2013. The rise and fall of the "marine heat wave" off Western Australia during
the summer of 2010/11. J Mar Syst, 111-112 (139-156).
Pearce, A. & M. Feng. 2007. Observations of warming on the Western Australian continental shelf.
Marine and Freshwater Research 58: 914-920. Mar Freshw Res, 58, 914-920.
Pearce, A. & C. Pattiaratchi. 1999. The Capes Current: a summer countercurrent flowing past Cape
Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia. Cont Shelf Res, 19 (3), 401-420.
Pearce, A.F. & B.F. Phillips. 1988. ENSO events, the Leeuwin Current, and larval recruitment of the
western rock lobster. ICES J Mar Sci, 45, 13-21.
Pearcy, E.G. & R.D. Brodeur. 2009. Nekton. In: STEELE, J. H., THORPE, S. A. & TUREKIAN, K. K. (eds.)
Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. 2nd ed.: Elsevier Publications. 4079-4085
190
Pepler, A., B. Timbal, C. Rakich & A. Coutts-Smith. 2014. Indian Ocean Dipole overrides ENSO's
influence on cool season rainfall across the Eastern Seaboard of Australia. J. Clim.,
doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00554.1.
Phillips, J.A. 2001. Marine macroalgal biodiversity hotspots: why is there high species richness and
endemism in southern Australian marine benthic flora? Biodivers Conserv, 10, 1555-1577.
Polacheck, T., A.J. Hobday, G. West, S. Bestley & J. Gunn. 2006. Comparison of East-West
Movements of Archival Tagged Southern Bluefin Tuna in the 1990s and early 2000s,
Prepared for the CCSBT 7th Meeting of the Stock Assessment Group (SAG7) and the 11th
meeting of the Extended Scientific Committee(ESC11) 4-11 September, and 12-15
September 2006, Tokyo, Japan. CCSBTESC/ 0609/28.
Poloczanska, E.S., R.C. Babcock, A. Butler, A.J. Hobday, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, T.J. Kunz, R. Matear, D.
Milton, T.A. Okey & A.J. Richardson. 2007. Climate Change And Australian Marine Life.
Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev, 45, 409-480.
Polovina, J.J., G.H. Balazs, E.A. Howell, D.M. Parker, M.P. Seki & P.H. Dutton. 2004. Forage and
migration habitat of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea
turtles in the central north Pacific ocean. Fish Oceanogr, 13, 36-51.
Pompa, S., P.R. Ehrlich & G. Ceballos. 2011. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108, 13600-13605.
Power, S., T. Casey, C. Folland, A. Colman & V. Mehta. 1999. Inter-decadal modulation of the impact
of ENSO on Australia. Climate Dynamics, 15, 319-324.
Price, J.F. 1981. Upper ocean response to a hurricane. J. Phys. Ocean., 11, 153-175.
Provis, D.G. & R.K. Steedman. Wave Measurements in the Great Australian Bight. 1985 Australasian
Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 1985 Barton, A.C.T.: Institution of Engineers,
646-656.
Purkey, S.G. & G.C. Johnson. 2010. Warming of the global abyssal and deep Southern Ocean waters
between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to the global heat and freshwater budgets. J.
Clim., 23, 6336-6351.
Purkey, S.G. & G.C. Johnson. 2013. Antarctic Bottom Water Warming and Freshening: Contributions
to Sea Level Rise, Ocean Freshwater Budgets, and Global Heat Gain. J. Clim., 26 (16), 61056122.
Purkey, S.G. & G.C. Johnson. 2012. Global contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water between the 1980s
and 2000s. J. Clim., 25, 5830-5844.
Qu, T. & E.J. Lindstrom. 2002. A climatological interpretation of the circulation in the western south
Pacific. J. Phys. Ocean., 32, 2492-2508.
Randall, D.A. , R.A. Wood, S. Bony, R. Colman, T. Fichefet, J. Fyfe, V. Kattsov, A. Pitman, J. Shukla, J.
Srinivasan, R.J. Stouffer, A. Sumi & K.E. Taylor. 2007. Climate models and their evaluation. In:
SOLOMON, S. D., QIN, D., MANNING, M., CHEN, Z., MARQUIS, M., AVERYT, K. B., M.TIGNOR
& MILLER, H. L. (eds.) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of
Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.: Cambridge University Press.
589-662
Reed, D.C. & M.S. Foster. 1984. The effects of canopy shading on algal recruitment and growth in a
giant kelp forest. Ecology, 65, 937-948.
Reed, J.K. 2002. Deep-water Oculina reefs of Florida: biology, impacts, and management.
Hydrobiologia, 471 (43-55).
Rennie , S., C.E. Hanson, R.D. Macaulay, C. Pattiaratchi, C. Burton, J. Bannister, C. Jenner & M.N
Jenner. 2009. Physical properties and processes in the Perth Canyon, Western Australia:
links to water column production and seasonal pigmy blue whale abundance. J Mar Syst, 77,
21-44.
191
Richardson, A.J., C. Davies, A. Slotwinski, F. Coman, M. Tonks, W. Rochester, N. Murphy, J. Beard, D.
Mckinnon, D. Conway & K. Swadling 2013. Australian Marine Zooplankton: Taxonomic
Sheets.
Richer De Forges, B., J.A. Koslow & G.C.B. Poore. 2000. Diversity and endemism of the benthic
seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific. Nature, 405, 944-947.
Ridgway, K.R. 2007a. Seasonal circulation around Tasmania: An interface between eastern and
western boundary currents. J. Geoph. Res., 112, C10016.
Ridgway, K.R. 2007b. Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the
East Australian Current. Geoph. Res. Lett., 34, L13613.
Ridgway, K.R. & S.A. Condie. 2004. The 5500-km-long boundary flow off western and southern
Australia. J. Geoph. Res., 109, C04017.
Ridgway, K.R. & J.R. Dunn. 2007. Observational evidence for a Southern Hemisphere oceanic
‘Supergyre’. Geoph. Res. Lett., 34, L13612.
Ridgway, K.R. & J.R. Dunn. 2003. Mesoscale structure of the East Australian Current system and its
relationship with topography. Prog Oceanogr, 56, 189-222.
Ridgway, K.R. & J.S. Godfrey. 1994. Mass and heat budgets in the East Australian Current: A direct
approach. J. Geoph. Res., 99, 3231–3248.
Ridgway, K.R. & J.S. Godfrey. 1997. Seasonal cycle of the East Australian Current. J. Geoph. Res., 102,
22921-22936.
Rintoul, S.R. . 2007. Rapid freshening of Antarctic bottom water formed in the Indian and Pacific
oceans. Geoph. Res. Lett., 34, L06606.
Rintoul, S.R., C.W. Hughes & D. Olbers. 2001. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current system. In: SIEDLER,
G., CHURCH, J. & GOULD, J. (eds.) Ocean circulation and climate. London, UK.: Academic
Press. 271–302
Rintoul, S.R. & A.C. Naveira Garabato. 2013. Dynamics of the Southern Ocean circulation. In: SIEDLER,
G., GRIFFIES, S., GOULD, J. & CHURCH, J. (eds.) Ocean Circulation and Climate: A 21st Century
Perspective. 2nd ed. Oxford, GB: Academic Press. 471-492
Risbey, J.S., M.J. Pook, P.C. Mcintosh, M.C. Wheeler & H.H. Hendon. 2009. On the remote drivers of
rainfall variability in Australia. Month. Wea. Rev., 137 3233-3253.
Roberts, D., W.R. Howard, A.D. Moy, J.L. Roberts, T.W. Trull, S.G. Bray & R.R. Hopcroft. 2008.
Interannual variability of pteropod shell weights in the high-CO2 Southern Ocean.
Biogeosciences Discussions, 5 (6), 4453-4480.
Roemmich, D., J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels & S. Riser. 2007. Decadal Spinup of the South
Pacific Subtropical Gyre. J. Phys. Ocean., 37, 162-173.
Roemmich, D., J. Gilson, J. Willis, P. Sutton & K.R. Ridgway. 2005. Closing the time-varying mass and
heat budgets for large ocean areas: The Tasman Box. J. Clim., 18, 2330-2343.
Rogers, P.J. & T.M. Ward. 2007. Application of a “case building approach” to investigate the age
structure and growth dynamics of Australian sardine Sardinops sagax off South Australia.
Marine and Freshwater Research 58(1): 1-14. . Mar Freshw Res, 58 (1), 1-14.
Rossi, V., A. Schaeffer, J. Wood, G. Galibert, B. Morris, J. Sudre, M. Roughan & A.M. Waite. 2014.
Seasonality of sporadic physical processes driving temperature and nutrient high-frequency
variability in the coastal ocean off southeast Australia. J. Geoph. Res., 119, 1-16.
Rotherham, D. & R.J. West. 2002. Do different seagrass species support distinct fish communities in
south-eastern Australia? Fish Manag Ecol, 9, 235-248.
Roughan, M. & J.H. Middleton. 2002. A comparison of observed upwelling mechanisms off the east
coast of Australia. Cont Shelf Res, 22, 2551-2572.
Sabine, C. L., M. Hoppema, R. M. Key, B. Tilbrook, S. Van Heuven, C. Lo Monaco, N. Metzl, M. Ishii, A.
Murata & S. Musielewicz. 2010. Assessing the internal consistency of the CARINA data base
in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 195-204.
192
Sabine, C.L., R.A. Feely, N. Gruber, R.M. Key, K. Lee, J.L. Bullister, R. Wanninkhof, C.S. Wong, D.W.R.
Wallace, B. Tilbrook, F.J. Millero, T-H Peng, A. Kozyr, T. Ono & A.F. Rios. 2004. The oceanic
sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305, 367-371.
Saji, N.H. & T. Yamagata. 2003. Possible impacts of Indian Ocean Dipole mode events on global
climate. Clim Res, 25, 151-169.
Sandery, P.A. & J. Kämpf. 2005. Winter-Spring flushing of Bass Strait, South-Eastern Australia: a
numerical modelling study. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 63 (1-2), 23-31.
Sasaki, Y., S. Minobe, T. Kagimoto, M. Nonaka & H. Sasaki. 2008. Decadal sea level variability in the
South Pacific in a global eddy resolving model. J. Phys. Ocean., 38, 1731-1747.
Schaefer, K.M. & D.W. Fuller. 2003. Movements, behavior, and habitat selection of bigeye tuna
(Thunnus obsesus) in the eastern equatorial Pacific, ascertained through archival tags.
Fishery Bulletin, 100 (4), 765-788.
Schaeffer, A., M. Roughan & B.D. Morris. 2013. Cross-shelf dynamics in a Western Boundary Current
regime: Implications for upwelling. J. Phys. Ocean., 43, 1042-1059.
Schiel, D.R. 1988. Selective feeding by the echinoid, Evechinus chloroticus, and the removal of plants
from subtidal algal stands in northern New Zealand. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res, 22, 481-489.
Schiller, A., M. Herzfeld, R. Brinkman & G. Stuart. 2013. Monitoring, predicting and managing one of
the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 23-30.
Schott, F.A., S.P. Xie & J.P. Mccreary Jr. 2009. Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability. Rev.
Geophys., 47, RG1002.
Schumann, N, J.P.Y. Arnould, N. Gales & R. Harcourt. 2012. Marine Mammals. In: POLOCZANSKA, E.
S., HOBDAY, A. J. & RICHARDSON, A. J. (eds.) Marine Climate Change Impacts and
Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2012. ISBN: 978-0-643-10928-5.
Sen Gupta, A. & M. England. 2006. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Ice Response to variations in the
Southern Annular Mode. J. Clim., 19 (18), 4457-4486.
Shindell, D.T., R.L. Miller, G. Schmidt & L. Pandolfo. 1999. Simulation of recent northern winter
climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399, 452-455.
Shindell, D.T. & G.A. Schmidt. 2004. Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and
greenhouse gas increases. Geoph. Res. Lett., 31, L18209.
Short, A.D. 1988. The South Australia coast and Holocene sea-level transgression. Geographical
Review, 78, 119-136.
Silvert, W.L. 1981. Principles of ecosystem modelling. In: LONGHURST, A. R. (ed.) Analysis of Marine
Ecosystems. New York: Academic Press.
Smit, A.J., A. Brearley, G.A. Hyndes, P.S. Lavery & D.I. Walker. 2005. Carbon and nitrogen stable
isotope analysis of an Amphibolis griffithii seagrass bed. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci, 65, 545556.
Smith, K.A. & M. Sinerchia. 2004. Timing of recruitment events, residence periods and postsettlement growth of juvenile fish in a seagrass nursery area, south-eastern Australia.
Environ Biol Fishes, 71, 73-84.
Smith, R.D., M.E. Maltrud, F.O. Bryan & M.W. Hecht. 2000. Numerical simulation of the North
Atlantic Ocean at 1/10°. J. Phys. Ocean., 30, 1532-1561.
Smith, R.L., A. Huyer, J.S. Godfrey & J.A. Church. 1991. The Leeuwin Current off Western Australia,
1986-87. J. Phys. Ocean., 21, 323-345.
Sokolov, S. & S.R. Rintoul. 2007. Multiple Jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current South of Australia.
J. Phys. Ocean., 37, 1394-1412.
Sokolov, S. & S.R. Rintoul. 2009a. Circumpolar structure and distribution of the Antarctic Circumpolar
Current fronts: 2. Variability and relationship to sea surface height. J. Geoph. Res., 114,
C11019.
Sokolov, S. & S.R. Rintoul. 2009b. Circumpolar structure and distribution of the Antarctic
Circumpolar Current fronts: 1. Mean circumpolar paths. J. Geoph. Res., 114, C11018.
193
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor & H.L. Miller. 2007.
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the
Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York.
Son, S., L.M. Polvani, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, R. R. Garcia, D. E. Kinnison, S. Pawson, E. Rozanov, T.
G. Shepherd & K. Shibata. 2008. The Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Recovery on the
Southern Hemisphere Westerly Jet. Science, 320, 1486-1489.
Speer, M.S. & L.M. Leslie. 2000. A comparison of five flood rain events over the New South Wales
north coast and a case study. Int. J. Climatol., 20: 543-563. Int. J. Climatol., 20, 543-563.
Speich, S., B. Blanke, P. De Vries, S. Drijfhout, K. Doo S, A. Ganachaud & R. Marsh. 2002. Tasman
leakage: A new route in the global ocean conveyor belt. Geoph. Res. Lett., 29 (10), 55-1 55-4.
Sprintall, J., S.E. Wijffels, R. Molcard & I. Jaya. 2009. Direct estimates of the Indonesian Throughflow
entering the Indian Ocean: 2004-2006. J. Geoph. Res., 114, C07001.
Sriver, R.L., A. Timmermann, M.E. Mann, K. Keller & H. Goosse. 2014. Improved Representation of
Tropical Pacific Ocean–Atmosphere Dynamics in an Intermediate Complexity Climate Model.
J. Clim., 27 (1), 168-185.
Straub, D.N. 1993. On the transport and angular momentum balance of the channel models of the
Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Ocean., 23, 776-782.
Strong, N.J. & T.M. Ward. 2009. Growth rates of larval sardine, Sardinops sagax, in upwelling areas of
the eastern Great Australian Bight. Trans R Soc S Aust, 133 (22), 307-317.
Sun, C., M. Feng, R.J. Matear, M.A. Chamberlain, P.Craig, K.R. Ridgway & A. Schiller. 2012. Marine
Downscaling of a Future Climate Scenario for Australian Boundary Currents. J. Clim., 25,
2947-2962.
Swadling, K.M., A. Slotwinski, C. Davies, J. Beard, A.D. Mckinnon, F. Coman, N. Murphy, M. Tonks, W.
Rochester, D.V.P. Conway, G.W. Hosie & A.J. Richardson 2013. Australian Marine
Zooplankton: a taxonomic guide and atlas. Version 1.0.
Teixiera, C.E.P. 2010. Ocean Dynamics of Spencer Gulf: a numerical study. PhD Thesis, University of
New South Wales.
Thomas, Helmuth, A. E. Friederike Prowe, Ivan D. Lima, Scott C. Doney, Rik Wanninkhof, Richard J.
Greatbatch, Ute Schuster & Antoine Corbière. 2008. Changes in the North Atlantic
Oscillation influence CO2uptake in the North Atlantic over the past 2 decades. Glob.
Biogeochem. Cycles, 22 (4), GB4027.
Thompson, D.W.J. & S. Solomon. 2002. Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate
change. Science, 296, 895-899.
Thompson, P.A., M.E. Baird, I. Ingleton & M.A. Doblin. 2009. Long term changes in temperate
Australian coastal waters: implications for phytoplankton. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 394, 1-19.
Thompson, P.A., P. Bonham, A.M. Waite, C. S. Hasseler, L.A. Clemenston, N. Chekukuru, C. Hassler &
M.A. Doblin. 2011. Contrasting oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton communities
on the east and west coasts of Australia. Deep-Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr, 58, 645663.
Thompson, R.O.R.Y. 1987. Continental-shelf-scale model of Leeuwin Current. J Mar Res, 45, 813-827.
Thompson, R.O.R.Y. . 1984. Observations of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia. J. Phys.
Ocean., 14, 623-628.
Tomczak, M. 1985. The Bass Strait water cascade during winter 1981. Cont Shelf Res, 4, 255-278.
Tomczak, M. 1987. The Bass Strait water cascade during summer 1981-1982. Cont Shelf Res, 7 (6),
561-572.
Ummenhofer, C.C., M.H. England, P.C. Mcintosh, G.A. Meyers, M.J. Pook, J.S. Risbey, A. Sen Gupta &
A.S. Taschetto. 2009. What causes Southeast Australia's worst droughts? Geoph. Res. Lett.,
36 (L04706).
Unesco. A Framework for Ocean Observing. By the Task Team for an Integrated Framework for
Sustained Ocean Observing. OceanObs09, 2012. UNESCO 2012.
194
Uye, S. 1994. Replacement of large copepods by small ones with eutrophication of embayments:
cause and consequence. Hydrobiologia, 292/293, 513-519.
Van Montfrans, J., R.L. Wetzel & R.J. Orth. 1984. Epiphyte-grazer relationships in seagrass meadows,
consequences for seagrass growth and production. Estuaries, 7, 289-309.
Van Ruth, P.D. 2009. Spatial and temporal variation in primary and secondary productivity in the
eastern Great Australian Bight. . PhD Thesis, The University of Adelaide.
Van Ruth, P.D., G.G. Ganf & T.M. Ward. 2010a. Hot-spots of primary productivity: An alternative
interpretation to conventional upwelling models. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 90,
142-158.
Van Ruth, P.D., G.G. Ganf & T.M. Ward. 2010b. The influence of mixing on primary productivity: A
unique application of classical critical depth theory. Progress in Oceanography, 85, 224-235.
Van Sebille, E., J. Sprintall, F.U. Schwarzkopf, A. Sen Gupta, A. Santoso, M.H. England, A. Biastoch &
C.W. Boning. 2014. Pacific-to-Indian Ocean connectivity: Tasman leakage, Indonesian
Throughflow, and the role of ENSO. J. Geoph. Res., 119 (2), 1365-1382.
Van Wijk, E.M. & S.R. Rintoul. 2014. Freshening drives contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water in the
Australian Antarctic Basin. Geoph. Res. Lett., 41 (5), 1657-1664.
Vecchi, G.A. & A.T. Wittenberg. 2010. El Niño and our future climate: Where do we stand? . Wiley
Interdiscip. Rev. Climate Change, 1, 260-270.
Verdon, Danielle C., Adam M. Wyatt, Anthony S. Kiem & Stewart W. Franks. 2004. Multidecadal
variability of rainfall and streamflow: Eastern Australia. Water Resources Research, 40 (10),
W10201.
Waite, A.M., P.A. Thompson, L.E. Beckley, M. Feng, L.E. Beckley, C.M. Domingues, D. Gaughan, C.E.
Hanson, C.M. Holl, T. Koslow, M. Meuleners, J.P. Montoya, T. Moore, B.A. Muhling, H.
Paterson, S. Rennie, J. Strzelecki & L. Twomey. 2007. The Leeuwin current and its eddies: an
introductory overview. Deep-Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr, 54 (8-10), 789-1140.
Walker, T.A. 1992. A record crested tern Sterna bergii colony and concentrated breeding by seabirds
in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Emu, 92, 152-156.
Wang, Z., T. Kuhlbrodt & M. P. Meredith. 2011. On the response of the Antarctic Circumpolar
Current transport to climate change in coupled climate models. J. Geoph. Res., 116, C08011.
Ward, T.M., P. Burch, L.J. Mcleay & A.R. Ivey. 2011. Use of the Daily Egg Production Method for stock
assessment of sardine, Sardinops sagax; lessons learnt over a decade of application off
southern Australia. Rev Fish Sci, 19 (1), 1-20.
Ward, T.M., F. Hoedt, L.J. Mcleay, W.F. Dimmlich, G. Jackson, P.J. Rogers & K. Jones. 2001a. Have
recent mass mortalities of the sardine Sardinops sagax facilitated an expansion in the
distribution and abundance of the anchovy Engraulis australis in South Australia? Mar Ecol
Prog Ser, 220 (241-251).
Ward, T.M., F. Hoedt, L.J. Mcleay, W.F. Dimmlich, M. Kinloch, G. Jackson, R. Mcgarvey, P.J. Rogers &
K. Jones. 2001b. Effects of the 1995 and 1998 mass mortality events on the spawning
biomass of sardine, Sardinops sagax, in South Australian waters. ICES J Mar Sci, 58, 865-875.
Ward, T.M., L.J. Mcleay, W.F. Dimmlich, P.J. Rogers, S. Mcclatchie, R. Matthews, J. Kampf & P.D. Van
Ruth. 2006. Pelagic ecology of a northern boundary current system: effects of upwelling on
the production and distribution of sardine (Sardinops sagax), anchovy (Engraulis australis)
and southern bluefin tuna(Thunnus maccoyii) in the Great Australian Bight. Fish Oceanogr,
15 (3), 191-207.
Ward, T.M. & J. Staunton-Smith. 2002. Comparison of the spawning patterns and fisheries biology of
the sardine, S. sagax, in temperate South Australia and sub-tropical southern Queensland.
Fish. Res., 56, 37-49.
Wheeler, M.C., H.H. Hendon, S. Cleland, H. Meinke & A. Donald. 2009. Impacts of the Madden-Julian
Oscillation on Australian rainfall and circulation. Journal of Climate 22, 1482-1498. J. Clim.,
22, 1482-1498.
195
White, W. B. & R. G. Peterson. 1996. An Antarctic circumpolar wave in surface pressure, wind,
temperature and sea-ice extent. Nature, 380 (6576), 699-702.
Wijffels, S. & G. Meyers. 2004. An intersection of oceanic waveguides: Variability in the Indonesian
Throughflow region. J. Phys. Ocean., 34, 1232-1253.
Witherington, B.E. 2002. Ecology of neonate loggerheads inhabiting lines of downwelling near a Gulf
Stream front. Mar. Biol., 140, 843-8453.
Wolanski, E. 1986. Island wakes and internal tides in stratified shelf waters. Annales Geophysicae, 4,
425-440.
Womersley, H.B.S. 1990. Biogeography of Australasian marine macroalgae. In: CLAYTON, M. N. &
KING, R. J. (eds.) Biology of Marine Plants. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire and Wirral Bird
Report.
Woo, M. & C. Pattiaratchi. 2008. Hydrography and waters masses off the Western Australian coast.
Deep-Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap, 55 (9), 1090-1104.
Woodham, R.H., G.B. Brassington, R. Robertson & O. Alves. 2013. Propagation characteristics of
coastally trapped waves on the Australian continental shelf. J. Geoph. Res., 118, 1-13.
Wooldridge, S.A. 2009. Water quality and coral bleaching thresholds: Formalising the linkage for the
inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar Pollut Bull, 58, 745-751.
Worm, B., H.K. Lotze & R.A. Myers. 2003. Predator diversity hotspots in the blue ocean. . Proc Natl
Acad Sci U S A, 100 (17), 9884-9888.
Young, I., S. Zieger & A.V. Babanin. 2011. Global Trends in Wind Speed and Wave Height. Science,
332, 451-455.
Young, J.W., A.R. Jordan, C. Bobbi, R.E. Johannes, K. Haskard & G. Pullen. 1993. Seasonal and
interannual variations in krill (Nyctiphanes australis) stocks and their relationship to the
fishery for jack mackerel (Trachurus declivis) off eastern Tasmania, Australia. Mar. Biol., 116,
9-18.
Young, J.W., T.D. Lamb, R. Bradford, L. Clementson, R. Kloser & H. Galea. 2001. Yellowfin tuna
(Thunnus albacares) aggregations along the shelf break of southeastern Australia: links
between inshore and offshore processes. Mar Freshw Res, 52, 463-474.
Yuan, D., H. Zhou, X. Zhao, J. Wang, T. Xu & Peng Xu. Role of Indonesian Throughflow in the
interannual climate variations and predictability of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean.
European Geosciences Union General Assembly, 2013 Vienna, Austria. EGU.
Zainuddin, M., H. Kiyofujia, K. Saitohb & S.I. Saitoh. 2006. Using multi-sensor satellite remote sensing
and catch data to detect ocean hot spots for albacore (Thunnus alalunga) in the
northwestern North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr, 53, 419-431.
Zhang, C. 2005. Madden-Julian Oscillation Rev. Geophys., 43 (2), 1-36.
Zhang, Xuebin, John A. Church, Skye M. Platten & Didier Monselesan. 2013. Projection of subtropical
gyre circulation and associated sea level changes in the Pacific based on CMIP3 climate
models. Climate Dynamics, 10.1007/s00382-013-1902-x.
12 Attachments
12.1 List of Acronyms
Acronym
AABW
AAD
AARNet
AATAMS
Full Title
Ant-Arctic Bottom Water
Australian Antarctic Division
Australian Academic and Research Network
Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System (Facility 8)
196
Acronym
AATSR
ABARES
ABOS
ABP
ACC
ACCESS
ACCSP
ACECRC
ACEF
ACFR
ACMA
ACORN
ADCP
ADFA
ADO
AERONET-OC
AES
AFMA
AGU
AIC
AIMS
ALA
Altimetry CalVal
AMC
AMOS
AMSA
ANDS
ANFOG
ANMN
ANU
ANZLIC
AO-DAAC
AODCJF
AODN
APEX
ARC
ARC LIEF
Argo
ASFS
ASIMET
ASTEP
ATRF
Full Title
Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer
Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resources Economics and Sciences
Australian Bluewater Observing System (Facility 3)
Annual Business Plan
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Australian Community Climate and Earth Systems Simulator
Australian Climate Change Science Programme
Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Collaborative Research Centre
Australian Coastal Ecosystems Facility
Australian Centre for Field Robotics
Australian Communications and Media Authority
Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network (Facility 7)
Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
Australian Defence Force Academy
Australian Defence Organisation
A Network for the Validation of Ocean Color Primary Products
Areas of Ecological Significance
Australian Fisheries Management Authority
American Geophysical Union
Argo Information Centre
Australian Institute of Marine Science
Atlas of Living Australia - NCRIS Capability
Altimetry Calibration and Validation (Sub-Facility, SRS)
Australian Maritime College (now UTAS)
Australian Meteorology and Oceanography Society
Australian Marine Sciences Association
Australian National Data Service
Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (Facility 4)
Australian National Mooring Network (Facility 6)
Australian National University
The Spatial Information Council of Australia and New Zealand
Australian Oceans [Remote Sensing Data] Distributed Active Archive Centre
Australian Ocean Data Centre Joint Facility
Australian Ocean Data Network
Autonomous Profiling Explorer Argo Floats
Australian Research Council
Australian Research Council Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities
Argo Australia (Facility 1)
Air-Sea Flux Stations (Sub-Facility, ABOS)
Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package
Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets
Arafura Timor Research Facility
197
Acronym
AuScope
AusCPR
AUV
AVHRR
AVOF
AWI
AWS
BA
BGC
BIOS
BLUElink>
Bluewater
BoM
BRAN
CAML
CARS
CART
CAWCR
CBIBS
CCAMLR
CDOM
CDU
CLIVAR
CLW
CMAR
CMIP
CMST
CNRS
COAG
CODAR
CPR
CPU
CRC
CREON
CSIRO
CTD
CU
DA
DAAC
DSTO
EAC
Full Title
NCRIS Capability for a National Earth Science Infrastructure Program
Australian Continuous Plankton Recorder
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility (Facility 5)
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
Australian Volunteer Observing Fleet
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Automatic Weather Stations
Bio-Acoustics
Biogeochemical
Basic Input/Output System
Ocean Forecasting Australia; a project to deliver ocean forecasts for the Australian
region
Bluewater and Climate Node
Bureau of Meteorology
BLUElink Reanalysis
The Census of Antarctic Marine Life
CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas
Coastal Acoustic Release Transponder
Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research
Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
dissolved organic matter
Charles Darwin University
Climate Variability and Predictability (World Climate Research Programme)
CSIRO Land and Water
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
The Centre for Marine Science and Technology (based at CU)
National Centre For Scientific Research France
Council of Australian Governments
Brand name for equipment
Continuous Plankton Recorder
Central Processing Unit
Cooperative Research Centre
Coral Reef Environmental Observatory Network
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Conductivity Temperature Depth
Curtin University
Deepwater Array (Sub-Facility, ABOS)
Distributed Active Archive Centre
Department of Defence (Defence Science and Technology Organisation)
Eastern Australian Current
198
Acronym
ECL
ECU
EEZ
EGU
EIF
eMII
EMS
ENSO
EnviSat
EOV
EPA Vic
EPOC
ERS-2
eRSA
ESM
EuroGOOS
FAIMMS
FOO
FRDC
ftp
GA
GAB
GAMSSA
GBR
GBRMPA
GCOS
GDACs
GEOBON
GHRSST
GLOBEC
GLS
GOC
GODAE
GOOS
GOSUD
GPS
GSFC
GTOPP
GTS
GTSPP
GUI
HF
Full Title
East Coast Low
Edith Cowen University
Exclusive Economic Zone
European Geosciences Union
Education Investment Fund
electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (Facility 10)
Environmental Modelling Suite
El Niño-Southern Oscillation
Environmental Satellite
Essential Ocean Variable
Environment Protection Authority Victoria
Ecosystem productivity ocean climate
European Remote-Sensing Satellite-2
eResearch South Australia
Earth System Model
European Global Ocean Observing System
Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems (Facility 9)
Framework for Ocean Observing
Fisheries Research & Development Corporation
file transfer protocol
Geoscience Australia
Great Australian Bight
Global Australian Multi-Sensor SST Analysis
Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
Global Ocean and Climate Observing System
Global Data Assembly Centres
Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network
Group for High Resolution SST
Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics
Global Location Sensor
Global Overturning Circulation
Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment
Global Ocean Observing System
Global Ocean Surface Underway Data
Global Positioning System
Goddard Space Flight Centre
Global Tagging of Pelagic Predators
Global Telecommunications System
Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program
Graphical User Interface
High Frequency (radar)
199
Acronym
HPC
HRPT
HRX
IAPSO
IAST
ICOADS
ICON
IEEE
IFREMER
IGBS
ILTER
IMAS
IMDIS
IMOS
INSTANT
IOC
IOD
IODE
IOMRC
IOOS
IP Camera
IPCC
IRF
ISO
ISSNIP
ITF
iVEC
IWC
JAMSTEC
JCU
L2P
L3P
LAN
LC
LJCO
LNA
LOMS
LUC
MAPSO
MARVL
MARVLIS
MCP
Full Title
High Performance Computing
High Resolution Picture Transmission
Hi-density Expendable bathy-thermograph
The International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans
International Argo Steering Team
International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
Integrated Coral Observing Network
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
French national institute of marine research
International Geosphere-Biosphere
International Longterm Ecological Research
Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies
International Conference on Marine Data and Information Systems
Integrated Marine Observing System
International Nusantara Stratification And Transport
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Indian Ocean Dipole
International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange
Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre (UWA)
Integrated Ocean Observing System – US
Internet protocol camera
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Indian Ocean Resources Forum
International Standards Organisation
Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing Network
Indonesian Through Flow
Interactive Virtual Environments Centre
International Whaling Commission
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
James Cook University
GHRSST-PP Level-2 Pre-processed data format for satellite sea surface temperature
GHRSST-PP Level-3 Pre-processed data format for satellite sea surface temperature
Local Area Network
Leeuwin Current
Lucinda Jetty Coastal Observatory (Sub-Facility, SRS)
Low Noise Amplifier
Littoral Ocean Modelling System
Leeuwin Under Current
Monitoring Apex Predators in the Southern Ocean
Marine Virtual Laboratory
MARVL Information System
Marine Community Profile
200
Acronym
MECOSED
MEOP
MEST
MHL
MICE
MISA
MJO
MNF
MODIS
MOM
MPA
MQ
MRU
MTSAT-1R
MV
NASA
NAVOCEANO
NCDC
NCEP
NCRIS
NDBC
NDSF
NERP
NESP
netCDF
NIES
NIWA
NOAA
NOCS
NODC
NPEI
NPZ
NQC
NRETA
NRM
NRS
NRSMPA
NSIP
NSW OEH
NSW-IMOS
NWS
OAS
Full Title
Model for Estuarine and Coastal SEDiment Transport
Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole
Metadata Entry and Search Tool
Manly Hydraulics Laboratory (NSW)
Models of Intermediate Complexity
Marine Innovation SA
Madden-Julian Oscillation
Marine National Facility
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer
Modular Ocean Model
Marine Protected Area
Macquarie University
Motion Reference Unit
Japan’s Multi-functional Transport Satellite
Merchant vessel
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Naval Oceanographic Office
National Climatic Data Centre
National Centres for Environmental Prediction
National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy
National Data Buoy Centre
National Deep Submergence Facility
National Environmental Research Program
National Environmental Science Program
Network Common Data Form
National Institute of Environmental Science
National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research, New Zealand
National Oceans and Atmospheric Administration (USA)
National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (UK)
National Oceanographic Data Center
National Plan for Environmental Information
Nutrients Phytoplankton Zooplankton
North Queensland Current
Ningaloo Reef Ecosystem Tracking Array
National Resource Management
National Reference Station mooring
National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas
Node Science and Implementation Plan
New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage
New South Wales Integrated Marine Observing System (Node)
National Weather Service
Obstacle Avoidance Sonar
201
Acronym
OceanMAPS
OceanSITES
OPeNDAP
OPSAG
ORG
ORS
OSD group
OSDM
OSTIA
OSTST
OTN
PAR
PDO
PFRA
PIES
PMEL
PO.DAAC
POAMA
POST
PULSE
QA
QC
QCIF
QIMOS
QMS
RAMA
RAMSSA
RAN
RMS
ROAM
ROMS
RV
SAHFOS
SAIMOS
SAM
SAMOS
SARDI
SAROM
SAZ
SCAR
SCOR
Full Title
Ocean Modeling and Prediction System
Ocean Sustained Interdisciplinary Timeseries Environment observation System
Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol
Oceans Policy Science Advisory Group
Optical Rain Gauge
Ocean Reference Station
Ocean Sensor Deployment group (CMAR)
Office of Spatial Data Management
Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis
Ocean Surface Topography Science Team
Ocean Tracking Network
Photosynthetically Active Radiation
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Publicly Funded Research Agency
Pressure Inverted Echo Sounder
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center is located at the
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia
Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking
Brand name for equipment
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Queensland Cyber Infrastructure Foundation
Queensland Integrated Marine Observing System (Node)
Quantitative Marine Science (UTAS postgraduate course)
Regional Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis
Regional Australian Multi–Sensor SST analysis
Royal Australian Navy (Directorate of Oceanography and Meteorology)
Root mean square
Relocatable Ocean Atmosphere Model
Regional Ocean Modelling System
Research Vessel
Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science
South Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (Node)
Southern Annular Mode
Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System
South Australian Research and Development Institute
South Australian Regional Ocean Model
Sub-Antarctic Zone
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research
202
Acronym
SEA-IMOS
SEAPODYM
SeaWiFS
SEC
SEMAT
SENSEI
SEQ
SHOC
SIMS
SIO
SLAM
SMHI
SOCAT
SOFS
SOLAS
SOOP
SOOS
SOPAC
SOTS
SPICE
SRS
SSH
SSOS
SST
STF
T/S
TAO
TasIMOS
TERN
TERSS
TMN
TO
TOGA
TOPP
TPAC
TSG
UNCLOS
UNESCO
UNSW
UPS
UQ
US NODC
Full Title
South East Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (Node)
Spatial Ecosystem and Population Dynamics Model
Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor
South Equatorial Current
Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies
Integrating the Physical with the Digital World of the Network of the Future
South East Queensland
Sparse Hydrodynamic Ocean Code
Sydney Institute of Marine Science
Scripps Institute of Oceanography (USA)
Simultaneous Localization And Mapping
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute
Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Atlas
Southern Ocean Flux Station Meteorological Mooring
Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study
Enhanced Measurement from Ships of Opportunity (Facility 2)
Southern Ocean Observing System
Secretariat of the Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission
Southern Ocean Time Series (Sub-Facility, ABOS)
Southwest Pacific ocean circulation and Climate Experiment
Satellite Remote Sensing (Facility 11)
Sea Surface Height
Southern Seals as Oceanographic Samplers
Sea Surface Temperature
Sub-Tropical Front
Temperature/Salinity
Tropical Atmosphere Ocean
Tasmanian Integrated Marine Observing System (Node)
Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Tasmanian Earth Resources Satellite Station
Tropical Marine Network
Tasman Outflow
Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere program
Tagging of Pacific Predators
Tasmanian Partnership for Advanced Computing
thermosalinograph
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
University of New South Wales
Uninterruptible Power Source
University of Queensland
United States National Oceanographic Data Center
203
Acronym
US NSF
USGS
US-IOOS
USyd
UTAS
UTS
UWA
VOS
VR2W
WAIMOS
WALIS
WAMSI
WASTAC
WERA
WHOI
WMO
WMO-GTS
WMO-VOS
WMS
WOCE
WOD
WOMBAT
WQM
XBT
Full Title
United States National Science Foundation
United States Geological Survey
United States – Integrated Ocean Observing System
University of Sydney
University of Tasmania
University of Technology Sydney
University of Western Australia
Volunteer Observing Ships
Submersible, single channel receiver with wireless technology capable of
identifying coded transmitters, produced by the company VEMCO
Western Australia Integrated Marine Observing System (Node)
Western Australia Land Information Systems
Western Australia Marine Science Institute
Western Australian Satellite Technology and Applications Consortium
Brand name for equipment
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisations Global Telecommunications System
World Meteorological Organisation Volunteer Observing Ships Programme
Web Map Services
World Ocean Circulation Experiment
World Ocean Database
Whole Ocean Model with Biogeochemistry and Trophodynamics
Water Quality Monitor
Expendable bathy-thermograph
204
University of Tasmania
Private Bag 110
Hobart Tasmania 7001
http://www.imos.org.au
205
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement