Arrakis (OSDI'14)

Arrakis (OSDI'14)
Arrakis: The Operating System is the Control Plane
Simon Peter, Jialin Li, Irene Zhang, Dan R. K. Ports, Doug Woos, Arvind Krishnamurthy,
and Thomas Anderson, University of Washington; Timothy Roscoe, ETH Zürich
https://www.usenix.org/conference/osdi14/technical-sessions/presentation/peter
This paper is included in the Proceedings of the
11th USENIX Symposium on
Operating Systems Design and Implementation.
October 6–8, 2014 • Broomfield, CO
978-1-931971-16-4
Open access to the Proceedings of the
11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems
Design and Implementation
is sponsored by USENIX.
Arrakis: The Operating System is the Control Plane
Simon Peter∗
Jialin Li∗
Irene Zhang∗
Dan R. K. Ports∗
Doug Woos∗
Arvind Krishnamurthy∗
Thomas Anderson∗
Timothy Roscoe†
University of Washington∗
ETH Zurich†
Abstract
into user space [19, 22, 54]. Although commercially
unsuccessful at the time, the virtualization market has now
led hardware vendors to revive the idea [6, 38, 48], and
also extend it to disks [52, 53].
This paper explores the OS implications of removing
the kernel from the data path for nearly all I/O operations.
We argue that doing this must provide applications with
the same security model as traditional designs; it is easy to
get good performance by extending the trusted computing
base to include application code, e.g., by allowing
applications unfiltered direct access to the network/disk.
We demonstrate that operating system protection is not
contradictory with high performance. For our prototype
implementation, a client request to the Redis persistent
NoSQL store has 2× better read latency, 5× better write latency, and 9× better write throughput compared to Linux.
We make three specific contributions:
Recent device hardware trends enable a new approach to
the design of network server operating systems. In a traditional operating system, the kernel mediates access to
device hardware by server applications, to enforce process
isolation as well as network and disk security. We have designed and implemented a new operating system, Arrakis,
that splits the traditional role of the kernel in two. Applications have direct access to virtualized I/O devices, allowing
most I/O operations to skip the kernel entirely, while the
kernel is re-engineered to provide network and disk protection without kernel mediation of every operation. We
describe the hardware and software changes needed to
take advantage of this new abstraction, and we illustrate its
power by showing improvements of 2-5× in latency and
9× in throughput for a popular persistent NoSQL store
relative to a well-tuned Linux implementation.
1
• We give an architecture for the division of labor between
the device hardware, kernel, and runtime for direct
network and disk I/O by unprivileged processes, and
we show how to efficiently emulate our model for I/O
devices that do not fully support virtualization (§3).
• We implement a prototype of our model as a set of
modifications to the open source Barrelfish operating
system, running on commercially available multi-core
computers and I/O device hardware (§3.8).
• We use our prototype to quantify the potential benefits
of user-level I/O for several widely used network
services, including a distributed object cache, Redis, an
IP-layer middlebox, and an HTTP load balancer (§4).
We show that significant gains are possible in terms of
both latency and scalability, relative to Linux, in many
cases without modifying the application programming
interface; additional gains are possible by changing the
POSIX API (§4.3).
Introduction
Reducing the overhead of the operating system process
abstraction has been a longstanding goal of systems design.
This issue has become particularly salient with modern
client-server computing. The combination of high speed
Ethernet and low latency persistent memories is considerably raising the efficiency bar for I/O intensive software.
Many servers spend much of their time executing operating
system code: delivering interrupts, demultiplexing and
copying network packets, and maintaining file system
meta-data. Server applications often perform very simple
functions, such as key-value table lookup and storage, yet
traverse the OS kernel multiple times per client request.
These trends have led to a long line of research aimed
at optimizing kernel code paths for various use cases:
eliminating redundant copies in the kernel [45], reducing
the overhead for large numbers of connections [27],
protocol specialization [44], resource containers [8, 39],
direct transfers between disk and network buffers [45],
interrupt steering [46], system call batching [49], hardware
TCP acceleration, etc. Much of this has been adopted in
mainline commercial OSes, and yet it has been a losing
battle: we show that the Linux network and file system
stacks have latency and throughput many times worse than
that achieved by the raw hardware.
Twenty years ago, researchers proposed streamlining
packet handling for parallel computing over a network of
workstations by mapping the network hardware directly
2
Background
We first give a detailed breakdown of the OS and application overheads in network and storage operations today,
followed by a discussion of current hardware technologies
that support user-level networking and I/O virtualization.
To analyze the sources of overhead, we record
timestamps at various stages of kernel and user-space processing. Our experiments are conducted on a six machine
cluster consisting of 6-core Intel Xeon E5-2430 (Sandy
Bridge) systems at 2.2 GHz running Ubuntu Linux 13.04.
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USENIX Association 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’14) 1
Linux
Network stack
in
out
Scheduler
Arrakis
Receiver running
1.26
(37.6%)
1.05
(31.3%)
1.24
1.42
CPU idle
(20.0%)
(22.9%)
Arrakis/P
0.32
(22.3%)
0.27
(18.7%)
0.17
(5.0%)
2.40
(38.8%)
-
Copy
in
out
0.24
0.44
(7.1%)
(13.2%)
0.25
0.55
(4.0%)
(8.9%)
0.27
0.58
Kernel crossing
return
syscall
0.10
0.10
(2.9%)
(2.9%)
0.20
0.13
(3.3%)
(2.1%)
-
3.36
(σ = 0.66)
6.19
(σ = 0.82)
1.44
Total
Arrakis/N
0.21
(55.3%)
0.17
(44.7%)
-
(18.7%)
(40.3%)
-
(σ < 0.01)
0.38
(σ < 0.01)
Table 1: Sources of packet processing overhead in Linux and Arrakis. All times are averages over 1,000 samples, given in µs (and
standard deviation for totals). Arrakis/P uses the POSIX interface, Arrakis/N uses the native Arrakis interface.
The systems have an Intel X520 (82599-based) 10Gb
Ethernet adapter and an Intel MegaRAID RS3DC040
RAID controller with 1GB of flash-backed DRAM in
front of a 100GB Intel DC S3700 SSD. All machines are
connected to a 10Gb Dell PowerConnect 8024F Ethernet
switch. One system (the server) executes the application
under scrutiny, while the others act as clients.
Cache and lock contention issues on multicore systems
add further overhead and are exacerbated by the fact that
incoming messages can be delivered on different queues
by the network card, causing them to be processed by different CPU cores—which may not be the same as the cores
on which the user-level process is scheduled, as depicted in
Figure 1. Advanced hardware support such as accelerated
receive flow steering [4] aims to mitigate this cost, but these
solutions themselves impose non-trivial setup costs [46].
2.1 Networking Stack Overheads
Consider a UDP echo server implemented as a Linux
process. The server performs recvmsg and sendmsg
calls in a loop, with no application-level processing, so
it stresses packet processing in the OS. Figure 1 depicts
the typical workflow for such an application. As Table 1
shows, operating system overhead for packet processing
falls into four main categories.
• Copying of packet data: from the kernel to a user
buffer on receive, and back on send.
By leveraging hardware support to remove kernel
mediation from the data plane, Arrakis can eliminate
certain categories of overhead entirely, and minimize the
effect of others. Table 1 also shows the corresponding
overhead for two variants of Arrakis. Arrakis eliminates
scheduling and kernel crossing overhead entirely, because
packets are delivered directly to user space. Network stack
processing is still required, of course, but it is greatly
simplified: it is no longer necessary to demultiplex packets
for different applications, and the user-level network
stack need not validate parameters provided by the user
as extensively as a kernel implementation must. Because
each application has a separate network stack, and packets
are delivered to cores where the application is running,
lock contention and cache effects are reduced.
Of the total 3.36 µs (see Table 1) spent processing each
packet in Linux, nearly 70% is spent in the network stack.
This work is mostly software demultiplexing, security
checks, and overhead due to indirection at various layers.
The kernel must validate the header of incoming packets
and perform security checks on arguments provided by
the application when it sends a packet. The stack also
performs checks at layer boundaries.
Scheduler overhead depends significantly on whether
the receiving process is currently running. If it is, only
5% of processing time is spent in the scheduler; if it is
not, the time to context-switch to the server process from
the idle process adds an extra 2.2 µs and a further 0.6 µs
slowdown in other parts of the network stack.
In the Arrakis network stack, the time to copy packet
data to and from user-provided buffers dominates the
processing cost, a consequence of the mismatch between
the POSIX interface (Arrakis/P) and NIC packet queues.
Arriving data is first placed by the network hardware into a
network buffer and then copied into the location specified
by the POSIX read call. Data to be transmitted is moved
into a buffer that can be placed in the network hardware
queue; the POSIX write can then return, allowing the user
memory to be reused before the data is sent. Although
researchers have investigated ways to eliminate this copy
from kernel network stacks [45], as Table 1 shows, most
of the overhead for a kernel-resident network stack is
elsewhere. Once the overhead of traversing the kernel is
• Network stack costs: packet processing at the
hardware, IP, and UDP layers.
• Scheduler overhead: waking up a process (if necessary), selecting it to run, and context switching to it.
• Kernel crossings: from kernel to user space and back.
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Core
Core
Core
Kernel
Incoming Q's Outgoing Q's
System call duration [us]
App
Userspace
App
NIC
Figure 1: Linux networking architecture and workflow.
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
write
fsync
ext
e
e
e
e
e
b
b
2 6 xt2 1 xt3 6 xt3 1 xt4 6 xt4 1 trfs 6 trfs 1
4B
KB
4B
KB
4B
KB
4B
KB
Figure 2: Average overhead in µs of various Linux file system
implementations, when conducting small, persistent writes.
Error bars show standard deviation.
removed, there is an opportunity to rethink the POSIX API
for more streamlined networking. In addition to a POSIX
compatible interface, Arrakis provides a native interface
(Arrakis/N) which supports true zero-copy I/O.
by recv to receive a request. After receiving, the (textual)
request is parsed and the key looked-up in memory. Once
found, a response is prepared and then, after epoll is
called again to check whether the socket is ready, sent
to the client via send. For writes, Redis additionally
marshals the operation into log format, writes the log
and waits for persistence (via the fsync call) before
responding. Redis also spends time in accounting, access
checks, and connection handling (Other row in Table 2).
Table 2 shows that a total of 76% of the latency in an
average read hit on Linux is due to socket operations.
In Arrakis, we reduce socket operation latency by 68%.
Similarly, 90% of the latency of a write on Linux is due to
I/O operations. In Arrakis we reduce I/O latency by 82%.
We can also see that Arrakis reduces some applicationlevel overheads. This is due to better cache behavior of the
user-level I/O stacks and the control/data plane separation
evading all kernel crossings. Arrakis’ write latency is still
dominated by storage access latency (25µs in our system).
We expect the gap between Linux and Arrakis performance
to widen as faster storage devices appear on the market.
2.2 Storage Stack Overheads
To illustrate the overhead of today’s OS storage stacks,
we conduct an experiment, where we execute small write
operations immediately followed by an fsync1 system call
in a tight loop of 10,000 iterations, measuring each operation’s latency. We store the file system on a RAM disk,
so the measured latencies represent purely CPU overhead.
The overheads shown in Figure 2 stem from data copying between user and kernel space, parameter and access
control checks, block and inode allocation, virtualization
(the VFS layer), snapshot maintenance (btrfs), as well as
metadata updates, in many cases via a journal [53].
While historically these CPU overheads have been
insignificant compared to disk access time, recent hardware trends have drastically reduced common-case write
storage latency by introducing flash-backed DRAM onto
the device. In these systems, OS storage stack overhead
becomes a major factor. We measured average write
latency to our RAID cache to be 25 µs. PCIe-attached
flash storage adapters, like Fusion-IO’s ioDrive2, report
hardware access latencies as low as 15 µs [24]. In
comparison, OS storage stack overheads are high, adding
between 40% and 200% for the extended file systems,
depending on journal use, and up to 5× for btrfs. The large
standard deviation for btrfs stems from its highly threaded
design, used to flush non-critical file system metadata and
update reference counts in the background.
2.4
Hardware I/O Virtualization
Single-Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) [38] is a
hardware technology intended to support high-speed I/O
for multiple virtual machines sharing a single physical
machine. An SR-IOV-capable I/O adapter appears on the
PCIe interconnect as a single “physical function” (PCI
parlance for a device) which can in turn dynamically create
additional “virtual functions”. Each of these resembles a
PCI device, which can be directly mapped into a different
virtual machine and access can be protected via IOMMU
(e.g. Intel’s VT-d [34]). To the guest operating system,
each virtual function can be programmed as if it was
a regular physical device, with a normal device driver
and an unchanged I/O stack. Hypervisor software with
access to the physical hardware (such as Domain 0 in
a Xen [9] installation) creates and deletes these virtual
functions, and configures filters in the SR-IOV adapter
to demultiplex hardware operations to different virtual
functions and therefore different guest operating systems.
2.3 Application Overheads
What do these I/O stack overheads mean to operation
latencies within a typical datacenter application? Consider
the Redis [18] NoSQL store. Redis persists each write via
an operational log (called append-only file)2 and serves
reads from an in-memory data structure.
To serve a read, Redis performs a series of operations:
First, epoll is called to await data for reading, followed
1 We also tried fdatasync, with negligible difference in latency.
2 Redis also supports snapshot persistence because of the high
per-operation overhead imposed by Linux.
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USENIX Association 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’14) 3
Read hit
epoll
recv
Parse input
Lookup/set key
Log marshaling
write
fsync
Prepare response
send
Other
Total
99th percentile
2.42
0.98
0.85
0.10
0.60
3.17
0.55
Linux
(27.91%)
(11.30%)
(9.80%)
(1.15%)
8.67
15.21
(6.92%)
(36.56%)
(6.34%)
(σ = 2.55)
Durable write
Arrakis/P
1.12
(27.52%)
0.29
(7.13%)
0.66
(16.22%)
0.10
(2.46%)
0.64
(15.72%)
0.71
(17.44%)
0.46
(11.30%)
2.64
1.55
2.34
1.03
3.64
6.33
137.84
0.59
5.06
2.12
4.07
4.25
163.14
188.67
(σ = 0.44)
Linux
(1.62%)
(0.95%)
(1.43%)
(0.63%)
(2.23%)
(3.88%)
(84.49%)
(0.36%)
(3.10%)
(1.30%)
(σ = 13.68)
Arrakis/P
1.49
(4.73%)
0.66
(2.09%)
1.19
(3.78%)
0.43
(1.36%)
2.43
(7.71%)
0.10
(0.32%)
24.26
(76.99%)
0.10
(0.32%)
0.33
(1.05%)
0.52
(1.65%)
31.51
35.76
(σ = 1.91)
Table 2: Overheads in the Redis NoSQL store for memory reads (hits) and durable writes (legend in Table 1).
In Arrakis, we use SR-IOV, the IOMMU, and supporting
adapters to provide direct application-level access to I/O
devices. This is a modern implementation of an idea which
was implemented twenty years ago with U-Net [54], but
generalized to flash storage and Ethernet network adapters.
To make user-level I/O stacks tractable, we need a
hardware-independent device model and API that captures
the important features of SR-IOV adapters [31, 40, 41, 51];
a hardware-specific device driver matches our API to the
specifics of the particular device. We discuss this model
in the next section, along with potential improvements to
the existing hardware to better support user-level I/O.
Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is another
popular model for user-level networking [48]. RDMA
gives applications the ability to read from or write to a
region of virtual memory on a remote machine directly
from user-space, bypassing the operating system kernel on
both sides. The intended use case is for a parallel program
to be able to directly read and modify its data structures
even when they are stored on remote machines.
While RDMA provides the performance benefits
of user-level networking to parallel applications, it is
challenging to apply the model to a broader class of clientserver applications [21]. Most importantly, RDMA is
point-to-point. Each participant receives an authenticator
providing it permission to remotely read/write a particular
region of memory. Since clients in client-server computing
are not mutually trusted, the hardware would need to keep
a separate region of memory for each active connection.
Therefore we do not consider RDMA operations here.
3
to and from the application’s address space without
requiring kernel involvement and without sacrificing
security and isolation properties.
• Transparency to the application programmer: Arrakis is designed to significantly improve performance
without requiring modifications to applications written
to the POSIX API. Additional performance gains are
possible if the developer can modify the application.
• Appropriate OS/hardware abstractions: Arrakis’ abstractions should be sufficiently flexible to efficiently
support a broad range of I/O patterns, scale well on multicore systems, and support application requirements for
locality and load balance.
In this section, we show how we achieve these goals in
Arrakis. We describe an ideal set of hardware facilities that
should be present to take full advantage of this architecture,
and we detail the design of the control plane and data
plane interfaces that we provide to the application. Finally,
we describe our implementation of Arrakis based on the
Barrelfish operating system.
3.1
Architecture Overview
Arrakis targets I/O hardware with support for virtualization, and Figure 3 shows the overall architecture. In this
paper, we focus on hardware that can present multiple
instances of itself to the operating system and the applications running on the node. For each of these virtualized
device instances, the underlying physical device provides
unique memory mapped register files, descriptor queues,
and interrupts, hence allowing the control plane to map
each device instance to a separate protection domain. The
device exports a management interface that is accessible
from the control plane in order to create or destroy virtual device instances, associate individual instances with
network flows or storage areas, and allocate shared resources to the different instances. Applications conduct I/O
Design and Implementation
Arrakis has the following design goals:
• Minimize kernel involvement for data-plane operations: Arrakis is designed to limit or remove kernel mediation for most I/O operations. I/O requests are routed
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4 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’14)
USENIX Association
libos
libos
VNIC
NIC
VNIC
Switch
Control
Plane
VSIC
VSA
VNICs also provide filters and VSICs provide virtual
storage areas. We discuss these components below.
Kernel
App
Userspace
App
Queues: Each VIC contains multiple pairs of DMA
queues for user-space send and receive. The exact form
of these VIC queues could depend on the specifics of
the I/O interface card. For example, it could support a
scatter/gather interface to aggregate multiple physicallydisjoint memory regions into a single data transfer. For
NICs, it could also optionally support hardware checksum
offload and TCP segmentation facilities. These features
enable I/O to be handled more efficiently by performing
additional work in hardware. In such cases, the Arrakis
system offloads operations and further reduces overheads.
VSIC
VSA
VSA
Storage Controller
Figure 3: Arrakis architecture. The storage controller maps
VSAs to physical storage.
through their protected virtual device instance without requiring kernel intervention. In order to perform these operations, applications rely on a user-level I/O stack that is provided as a library. The user-level I/O stack can be tailored to
the application as it can assume exclusive access to a virtualized device instance, allowing us to remove any features
not necessary for the application’s functionality. Finally,
(de-)multiplexing operations and security checks are not
needed in this dedicated environment and can be removed.
The user naming and protection model is unchanged.
A global naming system is provided by the control plane.
This is especially important for sharing stored data.
Applications implement their own storage, while the
control plane manages naming and coarse-grain allocation,
by associating each application with the directories and
files it manages. Other applications can still read those
files by indirecting through the kernel, which hands the
directory or read request to the appropriate application.
Transmit and receive filters: A transmit filter is a predicate on network packet header fields that the hardware
will use to determine whether to send the packet or discard
it (possibly signaling an error either to the application or
the OS). The transmit filter prevents applications from
spoofing information such as IP addresses and VLAN
tags and thus eliminates kernel mediation to enforce these
security checks. It can also be used to limit an application
to communicate with only a pre-selected set of nodes.
A receive filter is a similar predicate that determines
which packets received from the network will be delivered
to a VNIC and to a specific queue associated with the target
VNIC. For example, a VNIC can be set up to receive all
packets sent to a particular port, so both connection setup
and data transfers can happen at user-level. Installation
of transmit and receive filters are privileged operations
performed via the kernel control plane.
Virtual storage areas: Storage controllers need to provide an interface via their physical function to map virtual
storage areas (VSAs) to extents of physical drives, and
associate them with VSICs. A typical VSA will be large
enough to allow the application to ignore the underlying
multiplexing—e.g., multiple erasure blocks on flash, or
cylinder groups on disk. An application can store multiple
sub-directories and files in a single VSA, providing precise
control over multi-object serialization constraints.
A VSA is thus a persistent segment [13]. Applications
reference blocks in the VSA using virtual offsets,
converted by hardware into physical storage locations. A
VSIC may have multiple VSAs, and each VSA may be
mapped into multiple VSICs for interprocess sharing.
3.2 Hardware Model
A key element of our work is to develop a hardwareindependent layer for virtualized I/O—that is, a device
model providing an “ideal” set of hardware features.
This device model captures the functionality required
to implement in hardware the data plane operations of a
traditional kernel. Our model resembles what is already
provided by some hardware I/O adapters; we hope it will
provide guidance as to what is needed to support secure
user-level networking and storage.
In particular, we assume our network devices provide
support for virtualization by presenting themselves as
multiple virtual network interface cards (VNICs) and
that they can also multiplex/demultiplex packets based on
complex filter expressions, directly to queues that can be
managed entirely in user space without the need for kernel
intervention. Similarly, each storage controller exposes
multiple virtual storage interface controllers (VSICs)
in our model. Each VSIC provides independent storage
command queues (e.g., of SCSI or ATA format) that are
multiplexed by the hardware. Associated with each such
virtual interface card (VIC) are queues and rate limiters.
Bandwidth allocators: This includes support for resource allocation mechanisms such as rate limiters and
pacing/traffic shaping of I/O. Once a frame has been
removed from a transmit rate-limited or paced queue, the
next time another frame could be fetched from that queue
is regulated by the rate limits and the inter-packet pacing
controls associated with the queue. Installation of these
controls are also privileged operations.
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USENIX Association 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’14) 5
In addition, we assume that the I/O device driver
supports an introspection interface allowing the control
plane to query for resource limits (e.g., the number of
queues) and check for the availability of hardware support
for I/O processing (e.g., checksumming or segmentation).
Network cards that support SR-IOV have the key
elements of this model: they allow the creation of multiple
VNICs that each may have multiple send and receive
queues, and support at least rudimentary transmit and
receive filters. Not all NICs provide the rich filtering semantics we desire; for example, the Intel 82599 can filter only
based on source or destination MAC addresses and VLAN
tags, not arbitrary predicates on header fields. However,
this capability is within reach: some network cards (e.g.,
Solarflare 10Gb adapters) can already filter packets on all
header fields, and the hardware support required for more
general VNIC transmit and receive filtering is closely related to that used for techniques like Receive-Side Scaling,
which is ubiquitous in high-performance network cards.
Storage controllers have some parts of the technology
needed to provide the interface we describe. For example,
RAID adapters have a translation layer that is able
to provide virtual disks above physical extents, and
SSDs use a flash translation layer for wear-leveling.
SCSI host-bus adapters support SR-IOV technology for
virtualization [40, 41] and can expose multiple VSICs,
and the NVMe standard proposes multiple command
queues for scalability [35]. Only the required protection
mechanism is missing. We anticipate VSAs to be allocated
in large chunks and thus hardware protection mechanisms
can be coarse-grained and lightweight.
Finally, the number of hardware-supported VICs
might be limited. The 82599 [31] and SAS3008 [41]
support 64. This number is adequate with respect to the
capabilities of the rest of the hardware (e.g., the number
of CPU cores), but we expect it to rise. The PCI working
group has already ratified an addendum to SR-IOV that
increases the supported number of virtual functions to
2048. Bandwidth allocation within the 82599 is limited
to weighted round-robin scheduling and rate limiting of
each of the 128 transmit/receive queues. Recent research
has demonstrated that precise rate limiting in hardware
can scale to tens of thousands of traffic classes, enabling
sophisticated bandwidth allocation policies [47].
Arrakis currently assumes hardware that can filter
and demultiplex flows at a level (packet headers, etc.)
corresponding roughly to a traditional OS API, but no
higher. An open question is the extent to which hardware
that can filter on application-level properties (including
content) would provide additional performance benefits.
dedicating a processor core to emulate the functionality
we expect from hardware. The same technique can be used
to run Arrakis on systems without VNIC support.
To handle I/O requests from the OS, our RAID controller
provides one request and one response descriptor queue
of fixed size, implemented as circular buffers along with
a software-controlled register (PR) pointing to the head of
the request descriptor queue. Request descriptors (RQDs)
have a size of 256 bytes and contain a SCSI command, a
scatter-gather array of system memory ranges, and a target
logical disk number. The SCSI command specifies the type
of operation (read or write), total transfer size and on-disk
base logical block address (LBA). The scatter-gather array
specifies the request’s corresponding regions in system
memory. Response descriptors refer to completed RQDs
by their queue entry and contain a completion code. An
RQD can be reused only after its response is received.
We replicate this setup for each VSIC by allocating
queue pairs and register files of the same format in system
memory mapped into applications and to a dedicated
VSIC core. Like the 82599, we limit the maximum number
of VSICs to 64. In addition, the VSIC core keeps an
array of up to 4 VSA mappings for each VSIC that is
programmable only from the control plane. The mappings
contain the size of the VSA and an LBA offset within a
logical disk, effectively specifying an extent.
In the steady state, the VSIC core polls each VSIC’s
PR and the latest entry of the response queue of the
physical controller in a round-robin fashion. When
a new RQD is posted via PRi on VSIC i, the VSIC
core interprets the RQD’s logical disk number n as
a VSA mapping entry and checks whether the corresponding transfer fits within that VSA’s boundaries (i.e.,
RQD.LBA + RQD.size ≤ VSAn .size). If so, the core
copies the RQD to the physical controller’s queue, adding
VSAn .offset to RQD.LBA, and sets an unused RQD field
to identify the corresponding RQD in the source VSIC
before updating the controller’s PR register. Upon a
response from the controller, the VSIC core copies the
response to the corresponding VSIC response queue.
We did not consider VSIC interrupts in our prototype.
They can be supported via inter-processor interrupts.
To support untrusted applications, our prototype has to
translate virtual addresses. This requires it to traverse application page tables for each entry in an RQD’s scatter-gather
array. In a real system, the IOMMU carries out this task.
On a microbenchmark of 10,000 fixed size write operations of 1KB via a single VSIC to a single VSA, the average
overhead of the emulation is 3µs. Executing virtualization
code takes 1µs on the VSIC core; the other 2µs are due to
cache overheads that we did not quantify further. To measure the expected VSIC performance with direct hardware
support, we map the single RAID hardware VSIC directly
into the application memory; we report those results in §4.
3.3 VSIC Emulation
To validate our model given limited support from storage
devices, we developed prototype VSIC support by
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3.4 Control Plane Interface
specifiers and filters associated with a VIC queue can
be updated dynamically, but all such updates require
mediation from the Arrakis control plane.
Our network filters are less expressive than OpenFlow
matching tables, in that they do not support priority-based
overlapping matches. This is a deliberate choice based on
hardware capabilities: NICs today only support simple
matching, and to support priorities in the API would lead
to unpredictable consumption of hardware resources
below the abstraction. Our philosophy is therefore to
support expressing such policies only when the hardware
can implement them efficiently.
The interface between an application and the Arrakis
control plane is used to request resources from the system
and direct I/O flows to and from user programs. The
key abstractions presented by this interface are VICs,
doorbells, filters, VSAs, and rate specifiers.
An application can create and delete VICs, and associate
doorbells with particular events on particular VICs. A
doorbell is an IPC end-point used to notify the application
that an event (e.g. packet arrival or I/O completion) has
occurred, and is discussed below. VICs are hardware
resources and so Arrakis must allocate them among
applications according to an OS policy. Currently this
is done on a first-come-first-served basis, followed by
spilling to software emulation (§3.3).
Filters have a type (transmit or receive) and a predicate
which corresponds to a convex sub-volume of the
packet header space (for example, obtained with a set
of mask-and-compare operations). Filters can be used
to specify ranges of IP addresses and port numbers
associated with valid packets transmitted/received at each
VNIC. Filters are a better abstraction for our purposes
than a conventional connection identifier (such as a
TCP/IP 5-tuple), since they can encode a wider variety of
communication patterns, as well as subsuming traditional
port allocation and interface specification.
For example, in the “map” phase of a MapReduce job
we would like the application to send to, and receive from,
an entire class of machines using the same communication
end-point, but nevertheless isolate the data comprising the
shuffle from other data. As a second example, web servers
with a high rate of incoming TCP connections can run into
scalability problems processing connection requests [46].
In Arrakis, a single filter can safely express both a listening
socket and all subsequent connections to that socket,
allowing server-side TCP connection establishment to
avoid kernel mediation.
Applications create a filter with a control plane operation. In the common case, a simple higher-level wrapper
suffices: filter = create_filter(flags, peerlist, servicelist).
flags specifies the filter direction (transmit or receive)
and whether the filter refers to the Ethernet, IP, TCP, or
UDP header. peerlist is a list of accepted communication
peers specified according to the filter type, and servicelist
contains a list of accepted service addresses (e.g., port
numbers) for the filter. Wildcards are permitted.
The call to create_filter returns filter, a kernelprotected capability conferring authority to send or
receive packets matching its predicate, and which can
then be assigned to a specific queue on a VNIC. VSAs are
acquired and assigned to VSICs in a similar fashion.
Finally, a rate specifier can also be assigned to a queue,
either to throttle incoming traffic (in the network receive
case) or pace outgoing packets and I/O requests. Rate
3.5
File Name Lookup
A design principle in Arrakis is to separate file naming
from implementation. In a traditional system, the fullyqualified filename specifies the file system used to store
the file and thus its metadata format. To work around this,
many applications build their own metadata indirection
inside the file abstraction [28]. Instead, Arrakis provides
applications direct control over VSA storage allocation:
an application is free to use its VSA to store metadata,
directories, and file data. To allow other applications access to its data, an application can export file and directory
names to the kernel virtual file system (VFS). To the rest of
the VFS, an application-managed file or directory appears
like a remote mount point—an indirection to a file system
implemented elsewhere. Operations within the file or
directory are handled locally, without kernel intervention.
Other applications can gain access to these files in three
ways. By default, the Arrakis application library managing
the VSA exports a file server interface; other applications
can use normal POSIX API calls via user-level RPC to the
embedded library file server. This library can also run as
a standalone process to provide access when the original
application is not active. Just like a regular mounted file
system, the library needs to implement only functionality
required for file access on its VSA and may choose to skip
any POSIX features that it does not directly support.
Second, VSAs can be mapped into multiple processes.
If an application, like a virus checker or backup system,
has both permission to read the application’s metadata and
the appropriate library support, it can directly access the
file data in the VSA. In this case, access control is done
for the entire VSA and not per file or directory. Finally,
the user can direct the originating application to export
its data into a standard format, such as a PDF file, stored
as a normal file in the kernel-provided file system.
The combination of VFS and library code implement
POSIX semantics seamlessly. For example, if execute
rights are revoked from a directory, the VFS prevents
future traversal of that directory’s subtree, but existing
RPC connections to parts of the subtree may remain intact
until closed. This is akin to a POSIX process retaining a
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subdirectory as the current working directory—relative
traversals are still permitted.
lightweight notification mechanism for I/O completion
and the reception of packets in high-priority queues.
This design results in a protocol stack that decouples
hardware from software as much as possible using the
descriptor rings as a buffer, maximizing throughput and
minimizing overhead under high packet rates, yielding low
latency. On top of this native interface, Arrakis provides
POSIX-compatible sockets. This compatibility layer
allows Arrakis to support unmodified Linux applications.
However, we show that performance gains can be achieved
by using the asynchronous native interface.
3.6 Network Data Plane Interface
In Arrakis, applications send and receive network packets
by directly communicating with hardware. The data
plane interface is therefore implemented in an application
library, allowing it to be co-designed with the application
[43]. The Arrakis library provides two interfaces to
applications. We describe the native Arrakis interface,
which departs slightly from the POSIX standard to
support true zero-copy I/O; Arrakis also provides a POSIX
compatibility layer that supports unmodified applications.
Applications send and receive packets on queues, which
have previously been assigned filters as described above.
While filters can include IP, TCP, and UDP field predicates,
Arrakis does not require the hardware to perform protocol
processing, only multiplexing. In our implementation, Arrakis provides a user-space network stack above the data
plane interface. This stack is designed to maximize both
latency and throughput. We maintain a clean separation between three aspects of packet transmission and reception.
Firstly, packets are transferred asynchronously between
the network and main memory using conventional DMA
techniques using rings of packet buffer descriptors.
Secondly, the application transfers ownership of a transmit packet to the network hardware by enqueuing a chain
of buffers onto the hardware descriptor rings, and acquires
a received packet by the reverse process. This is performed
by two VNIC driver functions. send_packet(queue,
packet_array) sends a packet on a queue; the packet is
specified by the scatter-gather array packet_array, and
must conform to a filter already associated with the queue.
receive_packet(queue) = packet receives a packet from
a queue and returns a pointer to it. Both operations are
asynchronous. packet_done(packet) returns ownership
of a received packet to the VNIC.
For optimal performance, the Arrakis stack would interact with the hardware queues not through these calls but
directly via compiler-generated, optimized code tailored to
the NIC descriptor format. However, the implementation
we report on in this paper uses function calls to the driver.
Thirdly, we handle asynchronous notification of events
using doorbells associated with queues. Doorbells are
delivered directly from hardware to user programs via
hardware virtualized interrupts when applications are
running and via the control plane to invoke the scheduler
when applications are not running. In the latter case,
higher latency is tolerable. Doorbells are exposed to
Arrakis programs via regular event delivery mechanisms
(e.g., a file descriptor event) and are fully integrated
with existing I/O multiplexing interfaces (e.g., select).
They are useful both to notify an application of general
availability of packets in receive queues, as well as a
3.7
Storage Data Plane Interface
The low-level storage API provides a set of commands
to asynchronously read, write, and flush hardware caches
at any offset and of arbitrary size in a VSA via a command
queue in the associated VSIC. To do so, the caller provides
an array of virtual memory ranges (address and size)
in RAM to be read/written, the VSA identifier, queue
number, and matching array of ranges (offset and size)
within the VSA. The implementation enqueues the
corresponding commands to the VSIC, coalescing and
reordering commands if this makes sense to the underlying
media. I/O completion events are reported using doorbells.
On top of this, a POSIX-compliant file system is provided.
We have also designed a library of persistent data structures, Caladan, to take advantage of low-latency storage
devices. Persistent data structures can be more efficient
than a simple read/write interface provided by file systems.
Their drawback is a lack of backwards-compatibility to the
POSIX API. Our design goals for persistent data structures
are that (1) operations are immediately persistent, (2) the
structure is robust versus crash failures, and (3) operations
have minimal latency.
We have designed persistent log and queue data
structures according to these goals and modified a number
of applications to use them (e.g., §4.4). These data
structures manage all metadata required for persistence,
which allows tailoring of that data to reduce latency. For
example, metadata can be allocated along with each data
structure entry and persisted in a single hardware write
operation. For the log and queue, the only metadata that
needs to be kept is where they start and end. Pointers
link entries to accommodate wrap-arounds and holes,
optimizing for linear access and efficient prefetch of
entries. By contrast, a filesystem typically has separate
inodes to manage block allocation. The in-memory layout
of Caladan structures is as stored, eliminating marshaling.
The log API includes operations to open and close a log,
create log entries (for metadata allocation), append them to
the log (for persistence), iterate through the log (for reading), and trim the log. The queue API adds a pop operation
to combine trimming and reading the queue. Persistence
is asynchronous: an append operation returns immediately
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with a callback on persistence. This allows us to mask
remaining write latencies, e.g., by optimistically preparing
network responses to clients, while an entry is persisted.
Entries are allocated in multiples of the storage
hardware’s minimum transfer unit (MTU—512 bytes
for our RAID controller, based on SCSI) and contain a
header that denotes the true (byte-granularity) size of the
entry and points to the offset of the next entry in a VSA.
This allows entries to be written directly from memory,
without additional marshaling. At the end of each entry
is a marker that is used to determine whether an entry
was fully written (empty VSA space is always zero). By
issuing appropriate cache flush commands to the storage
hardware, Caladan ensures that markers are written after
the rest of the entry (cf. [17]).
Both data structures are identified by a header at the
beginning of the VSA that contains a version number, the
number of entries, the MTU of the storage device, and a
pointer to the beginning and end of the structure within the
VSA. Caladan repairs a corrupted or outdated header lazily
in the background upon opening, by looking for additional,
complete entries from the purported end of the structure.
in microkernels. We created shared library versions of the
drivers, which we link to each application.
We have developed our own user-level network stack,
Extaris. Extaris is a shared library that interfaces directly
with the virtual function device driver and provides the
POSIX sockets API and Arrakis’s native API to the
application. Extaris is based in part on the low-level
packet processing code of the lwIP network stack [42]. It
has identical capabilities to lwIP, but supports hardware
offload of layer 3 and 4 checksum operations and does
not require any synchronization points or serialization
of packet operations. We have also developed our own
storage API layer, as described in §3.7 and our library of
persistent data structures, Caladan.
3.9
Limitations and Future Work
Due to the limited filtering support of the 82599 NIC,
our implementation uses a different MAC address for
each VNIC, which we use to direct flows to applications
and then do more fine-grain filtering in software, within
applications. The availability of more general-purpose
filters would eliminate this software overhead.
Our implementation of the virtual function driver
does not currently support the “transmit descriptor head
writeback” feature of the 82599, which reduces the
number of PCI bus transactions necessary for transmit
operations. We expect to see a 5% network performance
improvement from adding this support.
The RS3 RAID controller we used in our experiments
does not support SR-IOV or VSAs. Hence, we use its
physical function, which provides one hardware queue,
and we map a VSA to each logical disk provided by the
controller. We still use the IOMMU for protected access
to application virtual memory, but the controller does not
protect access to logical disks based on capabilities. Our
experience with the 82599 suggests that hardware I/O
virtualization incurs negligible performance overhead
versus direct access to the physical function. We expect
this to be similar for storage controllers.
3.8 Implementation
The Arrakis operating system is based upon a fork of the
Barrelfish [10] multicore OS code base [1]. We added
33,786 lines of code to the Barrelfish code base in order
to implement Arrakis. Barrelfish lends itself well to our
approach, as it already provides a library OS. We could
have also chosen to base Arrakis on the Xen [9] hypervisor
or the Intel Data Plane Development Kit (DPDK) [32]
running on Linux; both provide user-level access to the
network interface via hardware virtualization. However,
implementing a library OS from scratch on top of a
monolithic OS would have been more time consuming
than extending the Barrelfish library OS.
We extended Barrelfish with support for SR-IOV, which
required modifying the existing PCI device manager to recognize and handle SR-IOV extended PCI capabilities. We
implemented a physical function driver for the Intel 82599
10G Ethernet Adapter [31] that can initialize and manage
a number of virtual functions. We also implemented a
virtual function driver for the 82599, including support for
Extended Message Signaled Interrupts (MSI-X), which are
used to deliver per-VNIC doorbell events to applications.
Finally, we implemented drivers for the Intel IOMMU [34]
and the Intel RS3 family of RAID controllers [33]. In
addition—to support our benchmark applications—we
added several POSIX APIs that were not implemented in
the Barrelfish code base, such as POSIX threads, many
functions of the POSIX sockets API, as well as the epoll
interface found in Linux to allow scalable polling of a large
number of file descriptors. Barrelfish already supports
standalone user-mode device drivers, akin to those found
4
Evaluation
We evaluate Arrakis on four cloud application workloads:
a typical, read-heavy load pattern observed in many large
deployments of the memcached distributed object caching
system, a write-heavy load pattern to the Redis persistent
NoSQL store, a workload consisting of a large number
of individual client HTTP requests made to a farm of
web servers via an HTTP load balancer and, finally, the
same benchmark via an IP-layer middlebox. We also
examine the system under maximum load in a series of
microbenchmarks and analyze performance crosstalk
among multiple networked applications. Using these
experiments, we seek to answer the following questions:
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USENIX Association 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’14) 9
Throughput [k packets / s]
• What are the major contributors to performance
overhead in Arrakis and how do they compare to those
of Linux (presented in §2)?
• Does Arrakis provide better latency and throughput
for real-world cloud applications? How does the
throughput scale with the number of CPU cores for
these workloads?
• Can Arrakis retain the benefits of user-level application
execution and kernel enforcement, while providing
high-performance packet-level network IO?
• What additional performance gains are possible by
departing from the POSIX interface?
Linux
Arrakis/P
Arrakis/N
Driver
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0
1
2
4
8
16 32 64
Processing time [us]
Figure 4: Average UDP echo throughput for packets with 1024
byte payload over various processing times. The top y-axis value
shows theoretical maximum throughput on the 10G network.
Error bars in this and following figures show min/max measured
over 5 repeats of the experiment.
We compare the performance of the following OS
configurations: Linux kernel version 3.8 (Ubuntu version
13.04), Arrakis using the POSIX interface (Arrakis/P),
and Arrakis using its native interface (Arrakis/N).
We tuned Linux network performance by installing the
latest ixgbe device driver version 3.17.3 and disabling
receive side scaling (RSS) when applications execute on
only one processor. RSS spreads packets over several NIC
receive queues, but incurs needless coherence overhead on
a single core. The changes yield a throughput improvement
of 10% over non-tuned Linux. We use the kernel-shipped
MegaRAID driver version 6.600.18.00-rc1.
Linux uses a number of performance-enhancing
features of the network hardware, which Arrakis does
not currently support. Among these features is the use
of direct processor cache access by the NIC, TCP and
UDP segmentation offload, large receive offload, and
network packet header splitting. All of these features
can be implemented in Arrakis; thus, our performance
comparison is weighted in favor of Linux.
4.1
1200
departing from POSIX, Arrakis/N achieves 3.9× the
throughput of Linux. The relative benefit of Arrakis
disappears at 64 µs. To gauge how close Arrakis comes
to the maximum possible throughput, we embedded a
minimal echo server directly into the NIC device driver,
eliminating any remaining API overhead. Arrakis/N
achieves 94% of the driver limit.
4.2
Memcached Key-Value Store
Memcached is an in-memory key-value store used by
many cloud applications. It incurs a processing overhead
of 2–3 µs for an average object fetch request, comparable
to the overhead of OS kernel network processing.
We benchmark memcached 1.4.15 by sending it
requests at a constant rate via its binary UDP protocol,
using a tool similar to the popular memslap benchmark [2].
We configure a workload pattern of 90% fetch and 10%
store requests on a pre-generated range of 128 different
keys of a fixed size of 64 bytes and a value size of 1 KB,
in line with real cloud deployments [7].
To measure network stack scalability for multiple cores,
we vary the number of memcached server processes. Each
server process executes independently on its own port
number, such that measurements are not impacted by scalability bottlenecks in memcached itself, and we distribute
load equally among the available memcached instances.
On Linux, memcached processes share the kernel-level
network stack. On Arrakis, each process obtains its own
VNIC with an independent set of packet queues, each
controlled by an independent instance of Extaris.
Figure 5 shows that memcached on Arrakis/P achieves
1.7× the throughput of Linux on one core, and attains near
line-rate at 4 CPU cores. The slightly lower throughput
on all 6 cores is due to contention with Barrelfish
system management processes [10]. By contrast, Linux
throughput nearly plateaus beyond two cores. A single,
multi-threaded memcached instance shows no noticeable
throughput difference to the multi-process scenario. This
is not surprising as memcached is optimized to scale well.
Server-side Packet Processing Performance
We load the UDP echo benchmark from §2 on the server
and use all other machines in the cluster as load generators.
These generate 1 KB UDP packets at a fixed rate and record
the rate at which their echoes arrive. Each experiment
exposes the server to maximum load for 20 seconds.
Shown in Table 1, compared to Linux, Arrakis eliminates two system calls, software demultiplexing overhead,
socket buffer locks, and security checks. In Arrakis/N, we
additionally eliminate two socket buffer copies. Arrakis/P
incurs a total server-side overhead of 1.44 µs, 57% less
than Linux. Arrakis/N reduces this overhead to 0.38 µs.
The echo server is able to add a configurable delay
before sending back each packet. We use this delay to
simulate additional application-level processing time at
the server. Figure 4 shows the average throughput attained
by each system over various such delays; the theoretical
line rate is 1.26M pps with zero processing.
In the best case (no additional processing time),
Arrakis/P achieves 2.3× the throughput of Linux. By
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1000
800
Throughput [k transactions / s]
Throughput [k transactions / s]
1200
Linux threads
Linux procs
Arrakis/P
600
400
200
0
1
2
4
6
Number of CPU cores
300
Linux
Arrakis/P
Arrakis/P [15us]
Linux/Caladan
250
200
150
100
50
0
GET
SET
Figure 6: Average Redis transaction throughput for GET and
SET operations. The Arrakis/P [15us] and Linux/Caladan
configurations apply only to SET operations.
Figure 5: Average memcached transaction throughput and
scalability. Top y-axis value = 10Gb/s.
To conclude, the separation of network stack and application in Linux provides only limited information about
the application’s packet processing and poses difficulty assigning threads to the right CPU core. The resulting cache
misses and socket lock contention are responsible for much
of the Linux overhead. In Arrakis, the application is in control of the whole packet processing flow: assignment of
packets to packet queues, packet queues to cores, and finally the scheduling of its own threads on these cores. The
network stack thus does not need to acquire any locks, and
packet data is always available in the right processor cache.
Memcached is also an excellent example of the communication endpoint abstraction: we can create hardware
filters to allow packet reception and transmission only
between the memcached server and a designated list of
client machines that are part of the cloud application. In the
Linux case, we have to filter connections in the application.
Redis can be used in the same scenario as Memcached
and we follow an identical experiment setup, using Redis
version 2.8.5. We use the benchmarking tool distributed
with Redis and configure it to execute GET and SET
requests in two separate benchmarks to a range of 65,536
random keys with a value size of 1,024 bytes, persisting
each SET operation individually, with a total concurrency
of 1,600 connections from 16 benchmark clients executing
on the client machines. Redis is single-threaded, so we
investigate only single-core performance.
The Arrakis version of Redis uses Caladan. We changed
109 lines in the application to manage and exchange
records with the Caladan log instead of a file. We did not
eliminate Redis’ marshaling overhead (cf. Table 2). If we
did, we would save another 2.43 µs of write latency. Due
to the fast I/O stacks, Redis’ read performance mirrors that
of Memcached and write latency improves by 63%, while
write throughput improves vastly, by 9×.
To investigate what would happen if we had access
to state-of-the-art storage hardware, we simulate (via a
write-delaying RAM disk) a storage backend with 15 µs
write latency, such as the ioDrive2 [24]. Write throughput
improves by another 1.6×, nearing Linux read throughput.
Both network and disk virtualization is needed for good
Redis performance. We tested this by porting Caladan to
run on Linux, with the unmodified Linux network stack.
This improved write throughput by only 5× compared to
Linux, compared to 9× on Arrakis.
Together, the combination of data-plane network and
storage stacks can yield large benefits in latency and
throughput for both read and write-heavy workloads.
The tight integration of storage and data structure in
Caladan allows for a number of latency-saving techniques
that eliminate marshaling overhead, book-keeping of
journals for file system metadata, and can offset storage
allocation overhead. These benefits will increase further
with upcoming hardware improvements.
4.3 Arrakis Native Interface Case Study
As a case study, we modified memcached to make use
of Arrakis/N. In total, 74 lines of code were changed,
with 11 pertaining to the receive side, and 63 to the send
side. On the receive side, the changes involve eliminating
memcached’s receive buffer and working directly with
pointers to packet buffers provided by Extaris, as well
as returning completed buffers to Extaris. The changes
increase average throughput by 9% over Arrakis/P. On the
send side, changes include allocating a number of send
buffers to allow buffering of responses until fully sent
by the NIC, which now must be done within memcached
itself. They also involve the addition of reference counts
to hash table entries and send buffers to determine when
it is safe to reuse buffers and hash table entries that might
otherwise still be processed by the NIC. We gain an
additional 10% average throughput when using the send
side API in addition to the receive side API.
4.4 Redis NoSQL Store
Redis [18] extends the memcached model from a cache
to a persistent NoSQL object store. Our results in Table 2
show that Redis operations—while more laborious than
Memcached—are still dominated by I/O stack overheads.
4.5
HTTP Load Balancer
To aid scalability of web services, HTTP load balancers
are often deployed to distribute client load over a number
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Throughput [k transactions / s]
Throughput [k transactions / s]
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Linux
Linux (SEPOLL)
Arrakis/P
1
2
4
6
Number of CPU cores
250
200
Linux
Arrakis/P
150
100
50
0
1
2
4
Number of CPU cores
Figure 7: Average HTTP transaction throughput and scalability
of haproxy.
Figure 8: Average HTTP transaction throughput and scalability
of the load balancing middlebox. Top y-axis value = 10Gb/s.
of web servers. A popular HTTP load balancer employed
by many web and cloud services, such as Amazon EC2 and
Twitter, is haproxy [3]. In these settings, many connections
are constantly opened and closed and the OS needs to
handle the creation and deletion of the associated socket
data structures.
In Figure 7, we can see that Arrakis outperforms Linux in
both regular and SEPOLL configurations on a single core,
by a factor of 2.2 and 2, respectively. Both systems show
similar scalability curves. Note that Arrakis’s performance
on 6 CPUs is affected by background activity on Barrelfish.
To conclude, connection oriented workloads require
a higher number of system calls for setup (accept and
setsockopt) and teardown (close). In Arrakis, we
can use filters, which require only one control plane
interaction to specify which clients and servers may
communicate with the load balancer service. Further
socket operations are reduced to function calls in the
library OS, with lower overhead.
To investigate how performance is impacted when many
connections need to be maintained, we configure five
web servers and one load balancer. To minimize overhead
at the web servers, we deploy a simple static web page
of 1,024 bytes, served out of main memory.These same
web server hosts also serve as workload generators, using
ApacheBench version 2.3 to conduct as many concurrent
requests for the web page as possible. Each request is
encapsulated in its own TCP connection. On the load balancer host, we deploy haproxy version 1.4.24, configured
to distribute incoming load in a round-robin fashion. We
run multiple copies of the haproxy process on the load
balancing node, each executing on their own port number.
We configure the ApacheBench instances to distribute
their load equally among the available haproxy instances.
4.6
IP-layer Middlebox
IP-layer middleboxes are ubiquitous in today’s wide area
networks (WANs). Common middleboxes perform tasks,
such as firewalling, intrusion detection, network address
translation, and load balancing. Due to the complexity of
their tasks, middleboxes can benefit from the programming
and run-time convenience provided by an OS through its
abstractions for safety and resource management.
We implemented a simple user-level load balancing
middlebox using raw IP sockets [5]. Just like haproxy,
the middlebox balances an incoming TCP workload to
a set of back-end servers. Unlike haproxy, it is operating
completely transparently to the higher layer protocols.
It simply rewrites source and destination IP addresses
and TCP port numbers contained in the packet headers.
It monitors active TCP connections and uses a hash table
to remember existing connection assignments. Responses
by the back-end web servers are also intercepted and
forwarded back to the corresponding clients. This is
sufficient to provide the same load balancing capabilities
as in the haproxy experiment. We repeat the experiment
from §4.5, replacing haproxy with our middlebox.
The simpler nature of the middlebox is reflected in the
throughput results (see Figure 8). Both Linux and Arrakis
perform better. Because the middlebox performs less
application-level work than haproxy, performance factors
are largely due to OS-level network packet processing.
As a consequence, Arrakis’ benefits are more prominent,
Haproxy relies on cookies, which it inserts into the
HTTP stream to remember connection assignments to
backend web servers under possible client re-connects.
This requires it to interpret the HTTP stream for each
client request. Linux provides an optimization called TCP
splicing that allows applications to forward traffic between
two sockets without user-space involvement. This reduces
the overhead of kernel crossings when connections are
long-lived. We enable haproxy to use this feature on Linux
when beneficial.
Finally, haproxy contains a feature known as “speculative epoll” (SEPOLL), which uses knowledge about
typical socket operation flows within the Linux kernel to
avoid calls to the epoll interface and optimize performance.
Since the Extaris implementation differs from that of the
Linux kernel network stack, we were not able to use this
interface on Arrakis, but speculate that this feature could be
ported to Arrakis to yield similar performance benefits. To
show the effect of the SEPOLL feature, we repeat the Linux
benchmark both with and without it and show both results.
12
12 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’14)
USENIX Association
Throughput [k transactions / s]
rakis, as in Linux. Thus, we are able to retain the protection
and policing benefits of user-level application execution,
while providing improved network performance.
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
5
In this section, we discuss how we can extend the Arrakis
model to apply to virtualized guest environments, as well
as to interprocessor interrupts.
Arrakis/P Linux Arrakis/P Linux
No limit
Discussion
5.1
100Mbit/s limit
Arrakis as Virtualized Guest
Arrakis’ model can be extended to virtualized environments. Making Arrakis a host in this environment
is straight-forward—this is what the technology was
originally designed for. The best way to support Arrakis as
a guest is by moving the control plane into the virtual machine monitor (VMM). Arrakis guest applications can then
allocate virtual interface cards directly from the VMM.
A simple way of accomplishing this is by pre-allocating a
number of virtual interface cards in the VMM to the guest
and let applications pick only from this pre-allocated set,
without requiring a special interface to the VMM.
The hardware limits apply to a virtualized environment
in the same way as they do in the regular Arrakis
environment. We believe the current limits on virtual
adapters (typically 64) to be balanced with the number of
available processing resources.
Figure 9: Memcached transaction throughput over 5 instances
(colors), with and without rate limiting.
and its performance is 2.6× that of Linux. We also see
an interesting effect: the Linux implementation does not
scale at all in this configuration. The reason for this are
the raw IP sockets, which carry no connection information.
Without an indication of which connections to steer to
which sockets, each middlebox instance has to look at each
incoming packet to determine whether it should handle it.
This added overhead outweighs any performance gained
via parallelism. In Arrakis, we can configure the hardware
filters to steer packets based on packet header information
and thus scale until we quickly hit the NIC throughput
limit at two cores.
We conclude that Arrakis allows us to retain the safety,
abstraction, and management benefits of software development at user-level, while vastly improving the performance
of low level packet operations. Filters provide a versatile
interface to steer packet workloads based on arbitrary
information stored in packet headers to effectively leverage
multi-core parallelism, regardless of protocol specifics.
5.2
Virtualized Interprocessor Interrupts
To date, most parallel applications are designed assuming
that shared-memory is (relatively) efficient, while
interprocessor signaling is (relatively) inefficient. A cache
miss to data written by another core is handled in hardware,
while alerting a thread on another processor requires
kernel mediation on both the sending and receiving side.
The kernel is involved even when signaling an event
between two threads running inside the same application.
With kernel bypass, a remote cache miss and a remote
event delivery are similar in cost at a physical level.
Modern hardware already provides the operating system
the ability to control how device interrupts are routed. To
safely deliver an interrupt within an application, without
kernel mediation, requires that the hardware add access
control. With this, the kernel could configure the interrupt
routing hardware to permit signaling among cores running
the same application, trapping to the kernel only when
signaling between different applications.
4.7 Performance Isolation
We show that QoS limits can be enforced in Arrakis,
by simulating a simple multi-tenant scenario with 5
memcached instances pinned to distinct cores, to minimize
processor crosstalk. One tenant has an SLA that allows
it to send up to 100Mb/s. The other tenants are not limited.
We use rate specifiers in Arrakis to set the transmit rate
limit of the VNIC of the limited process. On Linux, we
use queuing disciplines [29] (specifically, HTB [20]) to
rate limit the source port of the equivalent process.
We repeat the experiment from §4.2, plotting the
throughput achieved by each memcached instance, shown
in Figure 9. The bottom-most process (barely visible) is
rate-limited to 100Mb/s in the experiment shown on the
right hand side of the figure. All runs remained within
the error bars shown in Figure 5. When rate-limiting, a
bit of the total throughput is lost for both OSes because
clients keep sending packets at the same high rate. These
consume network bandwidth, even when later dropped
due to the rate limit.
We conclude that it is possible to provide the same kind
of QoS enforcement—in this case, rate limiting—in Ar-
6
Related Work
SPIN [14] and Exokernel [25] reduced shared kernel
components to allow each application to have customized
operating system management. Nemesis [15] reduces
shared components to provide more performance isolation
for multimedia applications. All three mediated I/O in
the kernel. Relative to these systems, Arrakis shows that
13
USENIX Association 11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI ’14) 13
application customization is consistent with very high
performance.
Following U-Net, a sequence of hardware standards
such as VIA [19] and Infiniband [30] addressed the
challenge of minimizing, or eliminating entirely, operating
system involvement in sending and receiving network
packets in the common case. To a large extent, these
systems have focused on the needs of parallel applications
for high throughout, low overhead communication.
Arrakis supports a more general networking model
including client-server and peer-to-peer communication.
Our work was inspired in part by previous work on
Dune [11], which used nested paging to provide support
for user-level control over virtual memory, and Exitless
IPIs [26], which presented a technique to demultiplex
hardware interrupts between virtual machines without
mediation from the virtual machine monitor.
Netmap [49] implements high throughput network
I/O by doing DMAs directly from user space. Sends and
receives still require system calls, as the OS needs to do permission checks on every operation. Throughput is achieved
at the expense of latency, by batching reads and writes.
Similarly, IX [12] implements a custom, per-application
network stack in a protected domain accessed with batched
system calls. Arrakis eliminates the need for batching by
handling operations at user level in the common case.
Concurrently with our work, mTCP uses Intel’s DPDK
interface to implement a scalable user-level TCP [36];
mTCP focuses on scalable network stack design, while
our focus is on the operating system API for general clientserver applications. We expect the performance of Extaris
and mTCP to be similar. OpenOnload [50] is a hybrid userand kernel-level network stack. It is completely binarycompatible with existing Linux applications; to support
this, it has to keep a significant amount of socket state in the
kernel and supports only a traditional socket API. Arrakis,
in contrast, allows applications to access the network
hardware directly and does not impose API constraints.
Recent work has focused on reducing the overheads
imposed by traditional file systems and block device
drivers, given the availability of low latency persistent
memory. DFS [37] and PMFS [23] are file systems
designed for these devices. DFS relies on the flash storage
layer for functionality traditionally implemented in
the OS, such as block allocation. PMFS exploits the
byte-addressability of persistent memory, avoiding the
block layer. Both DFS and PMFS are implemented as
kernel-level file systems, exposing POSIX interfaces.
They focus on optimizing file system and device driver
design for specific technologies, while Arrakis investigates
how to allow applications fast, customized device access.
Moneta-D [16] is a hardware and software platform for
fast, user-level I/O to solid-state devices. The hardware and
operating system cooperate to track permissions on hard-
ware extents, while a user-space driver communicates with
the device through a virtual interface. Applications interact
with the system through a traditional file system. MonetaD is optimized for large files, since each open operation
requires communication with the OS to check permissions;
Arrakis does not have this issue, since applications have
complete control over their VSAs. Aerie [53] proposes
an architecture in which multiple processes communicate
with a trusted user-space file system service for file
metadata and lock operations, while directly accessing the
hardware for reads and data-only writes. Arrakis provides
more flexibility than Aerie, since storage solutions can be
integrated tightly with applications rather than provided
in a shared service, allowing for the development of
higher-level abstractions, such as persistent data structures.
7
Conclusion
In this paper, we described and evaluated Arrakis, a new
operating system designed to remove the kernel from the
I/O data path without compromising process isolation.
Unlike a traditional operating system, which mediates all
I/O operations to enforce process isolation and resource
limits, Arrakis uses device hardware to deliver I/O directly
to a customized user-level library. The Arrakis kernel
operates in the control plane, configuring the hardware
to limit application misbehavior.
To demonstrate the practicality of our approach, we have
implemented Arrakis on commercially available network
and storage hardware and used it to benchmark several typical server workloads. We are able to show that protection
and high performance are not contradictory: end-to-end
client read and write latency to the Redis persistent NoSQL
store is 2–5× faster and write throughput 9× higher on
Arrakis than on a well-tuned Linux implementation.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by NetApp, Google, and the
National Science Foundation. We would like to thank the
anonymous reviewers and our shepherd, Emmett Witchel,
for their comments and feedback. We also thank Oleg
Godunok for implementing the IOMMU driver, Antoine
Kaufmann for implementing MSI-X support, and Taesoo
Kim for implementing interrupt support into Extaris.
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