of tPradirt anb 1Jllnstntltb ~~cor~ Jlla~a1eint

of  tPradirt  anb 1Jllnstntltb ~~cor~ Jlla~a1eint
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~n 1Jllnstntltb Jlla~a1eint of tPradirt anb ~~cor~
FOR ALL WORKMEN, PROFESSIONA L AND AMATEUR.
[~11 Blu•t• ,...._eeL]
VoL. II.-No. 97.]
SATURDAY, JANUARY 24, 1891.
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Fig. L - Dlagram exhibiUDg Cloth divided into lquana vit.h Ch&rcoal Linea and O:ttline of Subject sketched Gn
TilE ART A~D PRACTICE OF SCENE
PAI~TIXG .
BY WILLIAM CORBOULD.
.~cBJEcr J'o • FJMT ATTJUrPT- TRACING SUB.JEcr
OM CLOTH-PAINTING THl SKY-cLOVD8.
Suhjtct for Fi1·8t Attempt. - On selecting
a subject as a preliminary essay, let us choose
one a.s simple as possible, for the greater
the simplicity a nd breadth the more charming will the p!cture appear when finished.
To this I may add that too much complexity
i.i always to he avoided if the stage is small;
the subject 1Shoula be painted 88 broadly
as TJOSRihle, for to<• much detail and overcrowd ing would ruin the best subject.
Let m take, for our first attempt, a rural
landscape, as ahown in outline 1n Fig. 1
dinegarding tbe horizonta l and vertied
JineA, ••hich appear in the diagram, and on
which I will touch presently. A&'luming
that the would-he scenic arti~;t ba.s a little
knowledge of perspective, he has to carry it
out in colouring-that~ keeping t he di.sually strengtl ~ntance low in tone, and
ing the tone of all the colouring as lie a dvances to the foreground of h is subject. A 11
distant and middle tints must be worked
up with grey~ a~ch as the sky colours,
blues, and greys that have been .used in the
sky, judiciously working them with the
colours that are being used in your distance.
I do not mean that the colours are to be
mixed one with the other before putting
them on, because that would make them
like so much mud, but by lightly touching
and laying on the colours one against the
othe_lj without mixing them. By proceeding tllus the artist doee not lose hi.a tint,
but the peya, such 88 the aky colour, when
used in Jurtapoeition with the other colours,
will give the acene that aerial pers~iYe
without which it would be bard and ·unnatnral. . It mu.st be remembered tha\ the
further the dist.nce iB the more grey it must
become. The UAe of a little la.ke with the
greye in the far distance will h elp the
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perspective wonderfully, which in some
~ ·ast~, when seert from the front, should
appe.u miles away ove•·; t be country.
Our subject, a.~ outlined in l•'ig. 1, has in
it all that 1s required to make it attractive
, and picturesque, contaiuing, as it does, di.stant mouJ;)tams, foliage, water, rock.<J, the
winding road, etc. I have chosen it a.<J a
?ood lesson for painting in perspective, which
I think that
1 shall explain further on.
now we may commence our work, t aking
it in a systematical manner, and dividing
it into four parts or stages, of which the first
will be the drawing in with charcoal, and
covering all the charcoal lines with vandyke
. brown · the second, painting the skv, clouds,
I etc. ; the third, laying in all the local and
lint colours; and the fourth and last, the
finishing of the whole.
Tracin[J Subject on Cloth.-Should the
artist have a drawing or engra\'ing from
which he is taking his subject, it will be u
well to divide it into ~ uares by horizontal
and perpendicular lines. Supposing thlj
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THE ART A ND P RACTI CE OF SCENE PAINTIA~G.
. nbout 15 feet lon('r and 1112 feet dhigh:
tl e
o
scene 1s "
1
divide the drawing by dots a roun
marcrin at equ~l distances from each other,
and odraw fine lines across from dot to dot,
as in Fig. 1. now divide the cloth on.whi ch
He must
he is going to paint into squares m the
same way. The same n~mber of dots or
ints he has on his drawmg he must have
~ tbe cloth, dividing the spaces. equallY., o.-s
on the drawing. He m~y now, if he_ lik_es,
take one of his cords or hoes, and r~b lt with
charcoal, and obtaining the a.ss1stanc~ of
another person to hold one end of the line,
while be himself holds the other end,_ stretch
t he line tightly from dot to dot. This ~one,
lift t be line from the cloth, a?d _let. 1t go
smartly ba,ck, and by repe:a~ng _this f?r
e,·l!n· opposite ~r cj. dots, frunt lines will
be 1uade on the cloth cor~pon~ing to those
on the drawing, as sho~ m Fig. 1. If .the
arti~t has a rod or stra1ght-~ of su_ffiClent
lencth at hand, he mar dispense mth _the
c,•rJ for making the hon.zonta.l and vertical
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lines.
It will now be seen how easy 1t IS to enlar£"e a small drawing to any size by this
me~hod. Whate\e r part of the small picture
t he lines fall on, it will be the same in the
lar~r scene, and the different parts of the
EubJect in each square will be the same as
in tbe corresponding square in the original
drawing, only on a larger scale. The outlining of the whole scene should now be
commenced with all the large details, leavthe smaller ones for the finishing. All
t ills i.s done with charcoaL When the outlining in charcoal has been done to the
artist's satisfaction, let him take a small pot,
!;Uch as a gallipot, if he has not ~ot any
earthen paint-pots, and put into It some
Taodrke brown mixed with double sizethat LS ro t!ay, size which has only a very
little water in it. Well mix this, and with
a linine-brnsh or a small fitch go over all
t he outlines of the picture with the vandyke brown, with the exception of the lines
forming the squares, which have been used
tiJ a.s::ist in the drawing in of the scene.
'\o~=;o the vandyke brown is all dry-and care
.EhrJuld betakf:n that it is so-the artist must
t&.lre his fl~r, and whip off all the charcoal
be ~o. This will leave a clean surface to
w~J rk {J0,, an~ . the outlines of the subject
~nU r~mam Vl.S~ble through the future pa.inttng~~ till the finLSh. After some practice, the
f!<:E:nic artist will be able ro dot out )a scene
(,r this claaa without the a.id of the" square
lints.
fa!nti1!!1 t/;,e Sky.-~e now commences
~tntJDg 10 the . s~y; and ~ may point out
hue that the mJxmg of thtM first colour is
tb~ .motlt difficult of all-that is to s~ the
mtxmg of any and all other colours. I have
known seve~lscen~ painters who ha.ve been
vtry good vamterw 10 regard to everythin g
bu.t the sky, in. which they failed through
usaog ultramanne "blue." I suppose they
ha(~ not been under the tuition of an ex.
ptnen.ced &eene painter. Ultrama.rine turns
gr~y 10 ~ny artificial light{ and if used
atr?ng w1U look . positively black. If the
artl.Ht ba.s not~ Dice blue, lie cannot make a
good scene. 'Io get a good blufl for the lfky
we mus~ make a compound o! three colour~
-c.e~estu~l or azure blue, emerald green and
whttl.ng, m nearly equal parts, tltlin ~ne'a
ohwn JUdgment as ~o .deJ,th of colour. ~hould
t ere Le !!Ome prim In~ left, it will do :withou~ soakmg more whiting. Supposing the
art18t lta.s three pounds in weight of white
he would require about two pounds of
em~rald grc~n, which colour must be rubbed
up Into a tluck paste with water, and then
ins-
put in with the white. Then ta~e about a
pound and a half. of azure blue, If you use
this colouf · but If you use cele~tml ~lue a
pound will be about enough. .M1~ th~s !1-lso
mto a paste in water before puttmg 1t mto
the whiting, and well. beat a~l up t<?gether
before adding the s1ze. Th1s beatmg up
prevents the colours from W<?rking strea~y.
After this colour has been miXed, the art1st
must try it by taking a 'Piece of white paper,
and putting with a brush a dash of the
colour on the paper. Dry it, and if it should
be too blue when dry, add a little w bite ;
but be careful in doing this, as the whiting
is powerful in subduing the tone of colours,
so put in a little at a time, and ~ry ~he
colour acrain. If when the colour IS tned
it shoullb e ioo light, add a little blue ; but
if you have to add much blue some emerald
green must be put with. it. Emerald gre~n
will look blue by gas-hght , as I have sa1d
in my general remarks on colours under
artificial light. Agai~, the colour ~ust be
tried on paper and dned, for the !Lrt1s~ must
satisfy h1mse.lf that he has ~ mce. tmt to
suit the subJec~ bef~re startmg h1s w9rk.
Assuming he has arnved at that conclusiOn,
he may now start at the top part of the sky
with the blue, always bearmg in mind that
the top part of the sky is deeper in tint than
nearer the horizon. Supposing that·.J:h_e
artist is painting a light evening sky, let 'fii'ih
commence at the top right-han d corner.
After well filling his stock-brush with blue,
let him lay it on, crossing and recrossin g the
work, so as not to miss any part. L ay off
lightly from leit to right, and work quickjy,
so that the work may be k ept wet. He
must not tou·ch any part of the blue he has
finished off1 but keep working on. the left
edge, covermg the sky about a : thud down
with the blue. The division of the sky
portion of the scene into thirds is shown
roughly by the letters A, B, c, placed at the
sides of Fig. 1. Now let him put some
damp lake and yellow ochre. on his palette
board: this is when and where the artist
begins to use the medium, which should be
about half size and half water. It shouJd·
be ready to hand in a small pail or large
pot placed on the corner of the palette
board with a spare brush in it, so that when
any of the medium is r equired on the
colours the brush may be lifted out, and the
medium allowed to drain on the particular
colour or colours that are to be used. If the
brush that the artist is nainting with be
dipped into the medium, it is obvious that
it would be soon unfit for u se, but by keeping a clean brush in it the artist avoids
making it dirty. These deviation s are
necessary in order to save the beginner a
deal of trouble, and also to impart what has
been learnt by experience.
The artist Is now supposed to have some
damp lo.ke and yellow ochre on the board,
and he must put on these sufficien t medium
to thin out the colours. Take a clean
stock-brush1 dip it iQ white, then dip
one side of the brush· in damp lnke, tho
other in yellow ochre. L ay this on tho
cloth from the blue downwards, over tho
middle tllird po.rt of the sky~ well covering
the canvas lJy crossing ana recrossing it
with the brW:Ih as l ightl:y as .POssible; mixing
the colours as he can. Laymg off trom left
to rjght, be will find perhaps some streaks
of rose colour and others of light and deeper
yellow, Lut this, when dry, will be only
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nat ural.
'l'he next colours will be either lemon or
orange chrome, accordin g to the depth of
tint that it is wished to have a.t the horizon;
if light, use lemon ; if deep, use ora.nge.
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[\V ol'k-Janua ry 24 l S
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Comme~ce at the horizon line work' -
wards, r1gh t across the scene. ' Whe IDgbU)Jbalf way up towards t he other elln a 0~t
d!P·
the ~rush into l_ake, and a little
wor~g up until the other tint is mete, ¥~l
s~y .IS no ~ all covered, but there ar~ . ~­
diStmct hnes where- the artist left oft' tw~
he has now to soften this all in-that~.a18.nu
sa~, to blend the ~olours together, formi to
~oft,_ flat, harmomous whole, the blue bl~da.
mg_m to the ~akes.and yellows of the horizon.
aft ·
This the art1st Wlll be able to manaae
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a little :practice and perseverance.
To eftect the blendina, first wash all col ·
out ..of th~ stock-brush. When clean,
the brush mto cl~ wa~er, but do not
too. much w!l-t~r IJ?-tO It. L et the br~sh
dram after liftmg It out of the water 0
squeeze ~t a l_ittle with the hand, beca~e
too .wet 1t will make the colours run a.nd
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spoil the effect.
The blending should be commenced where
the b~ue and l~e ~olours meet. I may here
mentiOn that m usmg the lake and yellow
ochrei the lake should preponderate next
t!:te b ue, the yello'~' ocb re coming next, both
tmts of course bemg used with white as
stated above. By using the brush up'and
down, crossing and recrossing lightly takiug
care not to disturb the colouring to~ mucli;
the colours will be gradually softened on&
into the othE)r. If well done~ it will have a
soft and beautifu l effect wnen dry. The
artist must be very quick with his work.
After he has done the top blending he must
treat the yellows from the horizon upwards
the same way. To do this will be found
somewha t difficult at first, but it will soon
be mastered.
The artist should not attempt to paint in
the sky unless he has time to finish it right
off, so that the whole may dry together.
When working on the other pax:t of the
scene, he may leave it as often as he likes i
but not so With the sky. I have now saifl
enough about the broad flat colouring of
the sky.
Clouds.-The rubbing in and painting oE
clouds~ .~o varied and beautiful in shapet
ever snitting and never alike, assuming
every form imaginable, will try the artist's
skill. There are technical terms for different
forms of clouds, such as cumulus-when
clouds are heaped up in grand and striking
masses-and many others; but these I need
not enter on here, nor need the amateur
scene painter trouble about them. Few
colours are required besides what have been
used on the flat sw:face, but a_s m~y
gradatio ns of those colours as poss1?le
be needed. It is a good plan to dip ones.
brush into two or three colours-s ay, yello~v
ochre, lake and white-and then to work.1t
about in a broad manner. Should the artiSt
wish his clouds to be massive and a~s~e6
round forms let him work his brush 10 t
form he wish es the clouds to appear, bbt
the colours must not be mixed too. muc ,
or they will be muddy. Sup.posi.ng h~
wishes the clouds to be warm 1n t mt, h
would use more lake · if of a yellow cast.
more yellow. If be ~ishes to ha:ve th;:r
very lioht he would use more white.
t he higl1 lights and edges of the cloudj he
must add more white to whateve~ eo ~r
he is using. If he dips his brush mto to~
white last, and then commences a_t thfor~
emfi1njowheu
part of the clouds, working thill
.0 ;vron"
u!:l be works downwards, he w
the work is dry that it will not be ~ th~
Should the scenic artist not ~cce llld be
most difficult part the first t1m~-an ersewould be clever indeed if be d1d-Jl hi&
verance will eventuall y overcome
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Work-January 24,1891.]
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CLOCK CLEANIN G A ND R EPAIRiNG .
troubles. Sometimes sky and clouds may
be rubbed in together, leaving a. flat piece
of blue here and there where it is wished to
represent the flat sky. In this case the
artist may work with two or more brushes,
one being kept for the blue, the other for
the white, yellow, lake, etc. He must work
quickly, and lay on almost anyhow, and it
will all dry up to,gether, and present a. result
that is at once soft and harmonious. It will
be soon seen why I recommend the painting
in of the sky before leaving it to dry in one
part before you go on with the other, for if
the artist did otherwise he could not get the
softness required by resorting to a.ftet-pa.intings-that 1s to say, by leaving the work, and
finishing it at another time. When painting
a glorious sunset, positive colours mny sometimes be used with care; for instance, when
the sun is low, streaks of ver'milion, damp
lake, the yellows, lemon, orange, etc., when
s1vept across the sky with the brush, or
stippled in, will have a. charming effect. It
must always be borne in m ind that a. good
sky assists greatly in making a. good picture.
CLOCK CLEA.NING AND REPAIRING.
BY A PRAOTIOAL BAND.
CUCKOO
CLOOK-MYST.E l\IOUS C LOCK Cr,ooK-ct ocK Wll'li NO VIBIDLE
ELEOTRib ALARUM.
SEE-SAW
W onxs-
I AM now going to attempt to desca·ibe the
mechanical a rrangements of a. few clocks
that ma.y doubtless have been at one time
or a nother a source of wonderment to some
of the readers of WORK. Although a. 11 Practical H and " a t clockwork, I am not a. practised writer, a.nd if, in conseq uence, what I
write does not seem perfectly clear, all I can
do is to offer t o explain myself in 11 Shop."
Cuckoo C'lock.-As the hours and halfhours are 11truck on a gong of sweet tone, a.t
each stroke the bird calls cuckoo. Ou giving
warn in~, t he bird slightly opens its door as
if peepmg ; theu, as the hour is complete,
the lever drops, and the cuckoo throws the
door open wide, opens its mouth, lifts up its
wing and tail, and calls distinctly each time
the gong is struck. When the n.um ber is
complete the bird pops in a.nd closes the
rloor after it. Of course, some will say
we know a.ll about that well ; but I have
met hundreds that never saw a. .cuckoo
clock. Now, how is it done 1 Very simply ;
when the lever falls from the hour pin, the
striking part is set in motion, and an upright
wire lever, with n very light brass wire coil
spring around it to turn the bird in when calls
a re ended. · T his wire is turned one-fourth
a.round by a. small arm, which is h eld out by
t he stop lever when it is raised. In Fig. 1, A is
a n upr1ght lever on which cuckoo, 1, is -fixed;
a, light wire spr ing ; o, small arm lifted by
D and E, ~;tol-l lever and arm; F is wheel
neted upon by stop, which is connecttld to
count wheel; o bellows lifted on one side to
produce 11 Cue 1' ; K, the a.rm ii.t the wheel
which a lso lifts hammer to strike the ~ong;
J, connecting rod.
At the other side a.
rnther larger pair of bellows is affixed a.nd
lifted same way by a. longer a.rm, L, a iittle
la.ter t han the arm K, so that it ca.lls out
''Coo," or " Koo." Those bellows simply
blow down a small wood organ pipe, and
tlw pipes are fixecl in the side of the case of
tlJc: clock, with a hole for the sound to come
out. At the samo time, the wire B lifts the
bird's t ail, and by a.n arrangement the bird
OJICos it.<t mouth lifts its wings1 and uems
t<J (:all " t!uckoo'1; :M is the door 1t opens and
clo::ses with wire N. In taking the cuckoo to
pieces, unscrew the four acrewa attached to
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the works and the cnse inside front ; t hen, pulley fixed on a. wheel in the monment.
while face downwards, unfa.sten the wire On t he pulley inside his body is a. wire,
from the door, and the hands having pre· ~u lficiently long to revolve and JUSt paaa the
viously been taken off, the whole comes out fork held in the hnnd of the man. And
at once. I a.m speaking of a. cuckoo clock r.otice this-th e potato, on wire, lifts the
going with springs, not weights ; if it has f vrk and nrm, which are fixed by a pin
weights undo the chain, hooks, etc. Now on the shoulder.
The mouth opens
notice the sketch, a.nd trace it all through ; just as the potato is leaving the fork
try it by striking it round, and you will see
how the levers work, a.nd the doot· is closed
and opened, and the bellows arrangement.
All else is like a.n ordinary round dinl eightday foreign clock. Clean a.ll and examine as
already described (see pa.~es 580 and 665),nnd
with a. narrow strip of thin card or stout writ•
ing {la.per, clean away any dust or dirt in
e:
the lip or mouth of the two orgnn pipes, sons
to have a. full note ; now put the going part
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together and try it, then add the striking
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ditto, and now replace the levers for cuckoo
~!~·~
B
a.s per sketch (Fig. 1), and screw the plates
together-fore igners beat us, in that we pin[
but they screw. a. better and safer plan-anl
Fig-. 2. - Mecbant&m of Clock
hang it up on t he wall Without case to see
without V1sible Worka.
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that a.ll moves r ight-bellows , le,·ers, etc.
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After a. few hours screw into case, test the
and the a.rm, which drop to the dish
M
a.gain, waiting to be similarly lifted. The
mouth closin~ upon tbe potato is done
by a small ptece of lead, which is fi4ed to
t he back of the chin to draw it up a.nd
close it.
See-Saw Clock.-This kind of clock, wh ico
nevet keeps time, is si mply a. small imitation
branch of a tree. Two tigures, one at each en9.
as John Bull and Uncle Sam, etc., a.re worked
by t he crutch of the pendulum placed upside down, and a small bullet, fixed on a
wire in the centre of the branch out of s~ght~
is moved to either side found out ot.
balance ; Lut the figures acting a.s pendulum through catching the air, etc., k eep bad
time. N ex.t is the clock with the ba U and
L
string, which, in trying t o revolve, has to
r,in a few t urns around a wire a.t each side.
Fig. 1.- Meoha.nlsm of Bird 1n Cuckoo Clock.
l'his is useless, being a. worse timekeeper
than the above. Those with asweet-loolrio g
cuckoo part, and replace t he back with child swinging backwards a.nd forwards in·gong attached ; turn over aud tix the hands, stead of a pendulum ball, and a. small boy ,
and all is complete. It is not e,·eryone standing at one side, whose arm lifts to a.
who ha.s served his time" at the trade who small cord as if he kept her in motion, are
can manage a. cuckoo clock right. Any very neat American made clocks.
repairs treat as in other clocks, exce11t such
Clock tcith 11 0 Visible Works.-The mysa.s the bellows. Leather may haYc holes in terious dock or timc\)iece, with no visible
eaten by insect, etc.; if so, strip it o!l'nnd ln.y works, nod n glass dtal showing only the
it on an old white kid glove, cut to shnpc, hands, is vl!ry clever. I once made one for a
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and glue to ol'iginal leather with thin glue.
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Any wires . broken in cuckoo's body, winh'S,
etc., you can easily imitate and tit. Use
very fine wire.
MiJsterious Clock.-Thisc lock. with a lntly
holding the pendulum a.nd swingin~ without a.ny visible a.iq, used to greatly puzzle
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people. I think nearly everyone know~
now how it i~ done. The figure ~tnncls on a.
plate very nearly balanct!ll, allll th~ sli~ht
1mpulse of each bt!nt to the under siclo of the
plate keeps the pendulum in motiou. This
you ca.n easily see by fixing YQIIl' l·ye on
some article in the window Lchi nc l th e
a • •
figure's head, and you will then pen·l·i,·c the
oscillation. Clean a nd repair as for eight· tlay
ma.t:ble clo.ck as described in page 6GG. '!'here
is the trumpeter clock, which work!'! the snme
a.s the cuckoo, with pipe, etc. Also the sentry
Fig. s.- Electrtc Alarum Clock.
clock, where a. small wooden goJdiet· moves
backwards and forwards. The figure is shop window ns follows :-Take a square of
simply fixed on a. lever, and the turning stout glass, 16 in. by 14 in., a.nd drill a hole in .
round is done by a notch which tw-ns it. A the centre nl:'ing plenty of turpentine, and in a
man eating a. dish of potatoes is mnnipuhtted qun.rterof un hour you will be through. N 0w
by the figure having a. striped waistcoat; one take a st01tt dnrning-need le, best quality, and
str~)i is cut out, a.nd inside the figure is a fix it in t he hole at the ba.ck with transparent
em wooden pulley, turned round by a n cement, leaving about an inch a.nd a half of
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endless thin leather band from a. similar the needle with the eye to the front. Paste
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MO DE L E LEC TRI C LIG HTS .
[Work -Janu ary 24, lBgl,
the glass Roman num ernl!i or figures, cut- MO DEL ELE CTR IC LIG HTS .
by a more c_onvenient and accurate method.
(•llt of .!!ilt or whit e J:l:lper. You can mark
BY GEOllGE EDW~SO ~ BOX~EY.
Pr?cur~ ~ p1~e of. gun-metal tube, with sides
the plnce3 on whit111g unde r side ; put
qUtte • 10. 10 thtckness, and a diameter
:-Ill all dots for the minu tes.
Now make SPL.'\ ,l.E on SnAF T •·on Grum t£ ALD IATt:: RE- large enough to go over the boxw
ood hub
two thin metal hand s as in Fig 2, in which
Co)ru UTaTO R-" ' r:sor: sc GrtAl lliE ARliA TtBE
~h~n a slight c~t has been taken from th~
A i:o~ the minu te hand ; B, hour hand · o,
-BHU SH H OLU ERS A~O BLt t::SHE S-,\· INDl! \G
tnstde to render 1t smooth. Cut off a piece
THE FU:LD 1\IAO:Sl-.'TS.
u:-·cdlc stud on which th_cy turn ;, D D, cord to
long enoug~ to .cover the hub, and fit this
!-li ~' !'Olltl dial plate. Now, aiter maki ng TILe Spindle o1· S!taft j o1· tlte Cmm nu
I?eta:l nng t1ghtly on to it. Now divide
them the right length for your circle of dial, .Arm atuu .-Be fore we set abou t preparing gunthe nng 10to as many equal size sections as
1-o\llolcr a. rim on behind each hand at E, E, the spindle for the armature, it will be there
are cogs on the armature. If there are
to hnlll the movement of a Geneva watch, advisable to fit the bearings in their places ten cogs
we must have ten sections, if fourteen
which you mn procu re where they melt up in the standards. These will be fitted in cogs
we mustha.vefourteen sections but each
C:l'iC i in large town s at ls., l s. 6d., and 2s.
the lower part of the crosses in the stan- section
must. be equal, so as to for~ a series
c.•rh. Pick those that · will keep going dards i the cross-slit receives an iron plate, of
equa.l-sized bars all round the hub. The
wlaichever way you turn. Now fit one into fixed m with wedges, to hold the bearings divis
ion lines should be deeply scribed with
<·a<:h end at E, with hole to wind up, very down, and the upper part of the cross a
shar p steel scriber, then nicked with a
:-;mn l~ not to be noticed ; engrave abou t it to forms a space for the lubricator. The stem
-saw as shown at Fig. 48. Next drill
l1ido it. Now on to the barre l which held of this lubricator is screwed to fit a hole in ahack
small bole through each end of each
tho hour hand, which you have fixed to B, the wedge-plate, nnd the oil is conducted secti
and into the hub beneath ; counter]•lace a small lead weight, shaped as at G, throu gh a. hole in the upper half of the sink on
mouth <>f each hole, and driYe a
ou to o. watch hand , and fix it as if a hand, bearings. Whe n these are turne d true, and shor tthe
lnng enough to just turn easily within the fixed, we will t urn our atten tion to the Fig. 48.brass screw into each, as shown in
This done a.U round, next cut each
rim of E. Do the same with the other, but spindle.
section free from its neighbour, and allow
plncc it upon the minu te hand, for it has to
The shaf t, or spindle, for the arma ture the saw to enter the
boxwood hub below,
.:o ronnu the dial in one hour. Now, at F should be made of mild steel, of a size and to the dept
h of nearly t in., to form a hold
(m the unde r side, solder a piece of lead just leng th suita ble to the machine in hand. It for the insul
ating substance to be placed
hca,·y enough to make eithe r hand balance may be forged or turne d to the shap e shown between
each section. The insulating sub·
/.nil' o.t three o'cleck or nine o'clock ; then, at Fig. 46, which shows the form generally stance may
when perfe ctly· even, wind up, and the suita ble to this machine. Referring to the millboard. he vulcanised fibre, or asbestos
ure some sheet fibre, or
minute haud 'Vill commence to move. As figure, the long spindle end from A to B will millboard, a Proc
trifle thicker than the saw-cut
t ht· small weig ht is tryin g to rise, it adds its go into the left-h and bearing of the machine,
divisions, and cut from it slips large enough
trido of weight to the extended end, and shown at }'ig. 39 (page 6i7), and form a. to
exactly fill the cuts, as shown by the
consequently causes the othe r end to move spindle for the driving pulley. The two thick
black lines at Fig. 49. Slightly ease
on. And now the only thing is to regulate shoulders B and o are for the bearin~ and the screw
s of each section, wedge the pro·
the mo,·ement a.s when it was a watch, and 'the boss of the arma ture spider respectively: pared insul
ating strips firmly into each saw·
it will keep good time -min e does. Now at d and e two holes must be drilled through cut, then tight
en the screws again, and so
do the same to the hour hand. Of course its the shaf t and fitted with clutc h-pins, to pinch each strip
weight moves slowly, so does the whole hand ; coincide with the two key-ways lett in the of the sections on tightly. between the ~g~ ,
each s1de. When this ts '
regulilte it to do in twelve hours in unison ; spiders, and thus prevent the arma ture from done, mount the hub
in a. lathe, and true ur.
it must be set to time with the other. To turni ng round on the spindle. The space all rough projecting parts
with a sharp .too,
commence, simply turn centre square, as between e and the screwed part at s will be or witl:i. a rough file
a.t first, and then WJth a
when a watc h; that turns the .;mall weight, occupied by the commutator, and the re- smoo
ther file.
.
aRd so balances it at the right time you mainder ·of the spindle will be taken up by
As each sesnnent of the commutator will
desire. You then only need wind c,·ery t he right-hand bearing. Quit e two inches have to be ~onne
cted to the ends of two
day, and ~urely that sma ll trouble is nNhin!! of the spindle at s should have a threa d coils of wire, we must
for the pleasure of astomsnmg your friend~ chti.sed upon it, and a hexagonal nut fitted a means of making now furn~ sh each ~~h
the connection. This ts
The movement s have very 1ittle more to do on the threa d to bring the comm utato r and best done in the follow
tha.n when carryin~ the hands, for at the least the spiders of the arma ture in close cont act one end of the comm ing manner :-Select •
rise of the lead we1ght the large hand moves with each other. The spindle being pre-. arma ture (it matters utator to go next the
and e~es it again . .Mine will actu ally turn pared we may next mount the arma ture on drill a n in. hole in little which end), ~~~~
extre~e ~nd of~·
the we1ghts round if I fix the whole hand. 1t, and, havin~ put the spindle into its place, section and tap eachthe
hole to recetveascre'Yi.
.'\fake one: it will only_cost_you, ~ay, 4s.
turn it roun a to see that every part runs Nex t ~ke a length of No. ~2 B.w.a. ~ard
Rlcct·ric .Alar ztm. -Nex t I made an elec- true, as now will be the time to make any copper wire, and cut up mto
two-mch
tric alarum , but I am no hand at batte ry alteration required. This done, go all over lengths. Flatt en one end of
each length as
fillin .~, etc. '!'his I got done by a teleg raph the arma ture, armed with a half-inch
re shown at Fig. 61, and screw the other e~ds
man itJttlator for one shill ing-f illing , putti ng file,' and trim off any roughness whichsqua
may to go into the tapped holes made to recetve
to work, etc.- and it acts twelve months appear on the cogs and in their spaces, so as them. Tin the screwed ends of each
without attention, being a Leclanche, one to bring the whole into one smooth a.nd solid- nector with a soldering-bit, and screw con·
large cell. 'l'o an ordinary Gothic bedroom looking mass. If the cogs do not properly as they are done into thell: pla~es, ~h~m
timepiece I fixed a shor t stud near the clear the pole pieces, the projecting parts each a touch with t he soldenng-b1t togtvJkg
numeral YI. (see Fig. 3) to proje ct out may be tnmm ed off in a lathe. The spaces the solder run, and fix the connector ma 1e
firm Y
~lnly so much that the hour hand just touches between the cogs should now be coated with
its -place.
.
1t and no more, then passes on. This you varnish and set aside to dry, preparatory to in A
d1sc of vulcanised fibre, slight1Y 1arger
can easily manage, as the dia.l is only zmc, being '"ound with wire .
in diameter than that of the c~mmu~ti~'
aucl ct\.n be put any distance and fixed ; but
'1.'/te Com muta tor.- The comm
r or should now be turned out of a ptecebof • ·
you mnst have a glass bead to pass through collecting cylinder of the Gramme utato
sheet fibre, and this must be placed etwee:r
mach
ine,
:>o as lll)t to touch the zinc. The E wu~ difi'ers f rom that of the Siemens mach
in the end of the commutator and the arlllj te
must fix to the stud inside the clock, and that it is furnished with several segmine
ents, the arma ture spider, to ensure the hompbeen
tuc other wire must rest on the axle of the corresponding in num ber with the coils
on insulation of the one from ththeot er wthe
hour hand, so that at six o'clock, or at wha t the armature. :Fig. 47 gives a general idea
they are tightened up toge er 00
hol!l' you place the stud, when the hour of its appearance when finished, whils t Ficrs.
spindle.
anwe ,; and the hand touches it the bell 48 and 49 show how it is constructed.
.Armatu ·e - PreThe
Wind
in.g
tlte
Gramme
~~mature
rin~., an~ does , not cease · until :you · rise first thing to get is a piece of wellseaso
na now that we ho..\•e the bo t the
anct stop 1t, so ,11 not to waste power. .A. is boxwood, large enough to turn out a ned sumi
8 £t a itsu coil&.
ready
solid
bfor
wind
ing,
we
wifl
the clock, say 5s., 6s., or 7s. 6d. ; B, the hub of not less than 2 in. in dept h and 3 in. iob
of winding on the wue or ust calcu·
Le~lanch..; battery, anyw here out of stght · in diameter. This hub
must then be bored Before we do th~, ho~evbr, we ded for the
c 1s the beU ;, D and E, the positive and with a. hole in the centr
e to exactly fit the late how much wtre w~ll e
divide this
~1cgative wires. · The. alarum 1s easy and arma ture spindle. On
this
cylin
der
of
boxwhole number of coils, an all a.s to
1ts total cost, even w1th assistance, will not wood is mounted the bars of
50
the
comm
quan
utity
equa
lly
amon
g
them
'
i.stance.
be more than, say, 5s.
tator as shown in Fig. 47. It would be ensure each coil h~ving .the
~~ 726), I
With another P.aper I shall bring my re- possible to cut out these bars one by one
In a table given With thJs .Pe.a_fr r~~b size of
marks on the subJect of clock cleaning and from a. shee t of hard brass, and
clock repairing to an end. They have been the outside of the cylinder; butfit each to give the pr()port~ons req Ul[hl5 ~ble we shall
the com- armature. Looking d.0 '~n
addressed to amateurs chiefly.
muta tors of small dynamos may be built up see that only three siZes are used ·.' namelt,
t •ll
•
nd
sa.m(
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- cotton-covered copper wire runs to 24 yards
· in the lb., No. 20 runs 80 yards in the lb.,
and No. 22 runs 120 yards in the lb.t. we co.n
:. easily calculate ~e length of wire tor each
coil by multiplyi ng the number of yards per
\ lb. by the number of lbs. to be used, and
i dividmg this by the number of coils to be
placed on the armature. For instance, sup~ posing we have to use 4 lbs. of No. 20 on an
-e.rmature having 10 divisions :-4 lbs. X 80
i yal'ds = 320 yards i and this, divided by 1(')
• (the number of djVlsions), will give 32 yards
to .each division. .Measure off the length for
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between the two cog~ has been covered.
Then wind hack from right to left until tho
first la.yer of cui Is lm:i been closely noel
regularly covered wit h another layer. If
using a large wire, su1·h as I\ o. 20 or No. I G,
the winder will pcrcci \' C n. t endency on the
part of each coli t o ltulge in tho centre of
the space. This bulging must be kept down
ft·om the first by gently tapping the bulgin('
part (whilst tightenin g the coil) with a. amafi
wooden mallet, ot· hy placing a piece of wood
on the wtrc, and l'\tl·iking it with a hammer.
The wire must be kept down level and
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:Fig. 51.
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! in. deep each coi l clos<:ly sitlc uy :-:idc, until 'the space
by t in.. in wiath. All edges must be
rounded and made quite smooth, to prevent
chafing of the wire covering whilst the coil
is being wound. This shuttle must now be
neatly .wound with one of the coils of wire,
and then we are ready for winding the
·
armature.
This is o. two-ha.nded job, and it is
necesm~.ry to secure the services of a. mate
to help us whilst doing it. The armature
ring may be. held on a low trestle between
the winder and his mate. Examine the
edges of the spaces between the cogs and
,--;!-......~
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• •
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9 in. X 1 in. X ~ in., with gaps
A B
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hfODE L ELECT RIC LIGHTS .
is, 20, and 22. If we remembe r that No. 16
J
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l'ig.i9.
B
~.63.
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Fir. 48.-Spind le of Gramme Armature. !'16. 4'1.-Comm utator complete. Fig. 48.- Dtagram showing how to divide Commuta tor Ring. Fig. 49. - How
to insulate Commuta tor Bore. Fig. 50.-Bow to connect Armature Colla to Commuta tor. Fig. 51.- Copper Connector for Ends of Colla. Fig. 51 A.-.
•
Ends or Coils twiated together: Pig. 5i.-W1nd fng Shuttle. Fig. 53.-Rook er for }$rush Holder. Fig. 64.- Brusll Holder nnd Parta complete
''
Clamp or Brush Bolder. 1'~.56.-Diagra.m ahowing how to wind Fields of Gnmme Dynamo. .Fig. 67.-- Diagram showing how
of
Sectlon
M.Pig.
I
to connect Fielda 1n Series and 1n Shunt.
j
i e:-tch coil on a. yard measure, marked on the inside the ring, to detect any rough ~ pl ace~ • compact in the ont:-oidc sr,aco, but the insido
work-bench, aud roll the wire up into small
~ hank-., <'ontai ning one coil in ea.ch hapk.
\ f'la.c~c each hank in an old meat-tin, or
ij 11imilnr vessel, containin g melted paraffin,
1 kept hot t hu while, and let it soak therein
for ·Bc:vernl minuteH, then han~ up to drain
dry. Next make a. wooden shuttle to the
JJhapo Khown at Fig. 52 out of some tou~h
~ ~ard wu()ll. · This shuttle may be from 9 10 .
~ ~~ length, nnd of a width suitable to the
• •LZe of the spaces through which it has to
P&AA i. the ~raps in the ends must also be cut
to a ~1ze largo e~oug~ to take the whole coil
of Wlrt>, nnd tLts wtll vary with the aize of
1
tbbe annature to be wouncl The shuttle for
t e amaU~t on the annexed list aliould be
?
a
1
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•
•
likely• to abrade the wire covering. If any
of these appear, do not fi le them do,vn, for
in so doinB the dried coat of shellac vnrnish
would be mjured, but cover them with short
pieces of broad tape, well soak eel in hot
paraffin. Begin wmding on the left-hnnd
side of one of the spaces, next an arm of the
spider. Wrap a few turns of the outside
end of the wire around the arm of the spider,
ju.~Jt tO hold it in its place, pass the shuttle
to the assistant over the armature , and get
him to pa..ss it back under the ring ; la.y the
coil up close t o the left-hand cog, and draw
it mode~ately tig~t,, then pn.ss th.e shuttle
over agam to the o.ss1stant, who w11l return
it under as before. Thus 'proceed, laying
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ma.y be di::;rcg;ud t?ll. \\ hilst winding th~
coil, t est it frctlncntl y for insulation by tho
method given m my la.~t pa,per, nml make
good each fa.u lty spot beflH'O ~oing on
furth er, for lco.knge here will destroy the
cfticiency of the machine. When the tin-t
coi l has been. wound, fasten down the !.1st
piece of wire (which should end on thu
opposite side of the winding space, and Le
long enough to reach the commut..i tor), and.
coat the outside of the coil with some quiekdrying varni~;h. Hcmovc th o guiding pieces
of wood, .which have been shown in F1g. 45,'
page. 67!, an~ P.aint the inside .coi l~ wi~h
varmsh m a stm1lnr manner. ThtHwlll help
to set the wire in its proper po:sitioo, nut!
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/MODEL ELECTRIC LIGHTS•
nlso secure more perfect insulation of one
<.'oil from the other. Go on thus with each
coil until all the spaces bav~ been fille.d. It
will then be well to examme each cml, and
~ee that no part of it bulges above the level
of the cogs; if this happens, th e bul~ng
part must be beaten down level with a
wooden mallet. The whole wire should now
receive one or two coats of varnish, the
commencing end of each coil being also
painted with a distinctive colour to facihtate
1ts recognition when connecting the ends to
the commutator bars.
When the varnish is dry and hard, the
armature may be mounted on the spindle.
'fhe commutator must next be forced on
tight in its place1 and the two fixed closely
together by screwmg up tightly the n_uts on
the chased end of the spindle. It IS well
hert> to have two nuts, one t o lock the other,
and prevent those parts from shaking loose.
The coils may now be connected to the
commutator bars by soldering the commencing end of one coil and the finish end
of its neighbour to its connector, as shown
at Fi~. 50. I t wilt be found convenient to
bare t he ends of the wires. and clean them,
then twist the end of one coil round the
commencement of anothet·, so as to form a
clip on each side of the connector, as shown
at Fig. 51 A, and tin this with the solderingI.Ji t before soldering to the connector.
When a small armature is tightly wound
with fine wire, and this is coated with some
two or three coats of varnish, the coiJs should
bold well together. But there is always n.
danger of disruption, owing to the imm ense
strain from centrifugal force, when coils arc
whirled round at the rate of from 2,000 to
3,000 revolutions per minute. This has a
t endency to throw a wire out here and
there, 'vitb most disastrous conseqnences,
when the coils are arranged to revolve close
to cast iron. It will be well, therefore, to
bind the middle of the armature coils with
several coils of tarred tape, so as to form a
hoop, and to wind tightly over this several
strands of No. 24 phosphor-bronze wire, side
by side, to form a hoop about~ in. in width.
The ends of the wire must be twisted
together and soldered, using resin on ly as
a tlux ; and it will also be advisable to
solder the whole wires together here and
there, where they pass over the cogs of the
armature.
Brush llolde?'S a11,d B'rushes.-The brush
holders for this class of machine are not
fixed to the hearings or t o the pillars as in
the smal l Siemens machine, hut th~y arc
made in the form of a "rocker'' pivoted
on a bridge attached to one of the ~tandards
.as shown at Fig. 41 (page 677), and therefor~
free to be moved round the commutator as
desired. The "rocker " is a malleable iron
-casting, sb~ped as sho~n at Fig. 53. The
larg~ hole m the centre IS turned to fit loosely
on the hub of the bridge shown at Fig 41
A hole is drilled and tapped in the crow.n of
the arch c to receive a set-screw used in
fixing ~he rocker in any required position.
Two ! m. holes are then drilled through the
ends, and these holes are then plugged with
ebonite, as ~hown a~ Fi&. 53, B, B. In each
·o f these a t m. hole 1s dnlled to receive the
screw~d ends of the spindle~ (Fig. 54, s, s),
<m wlu~h the brush clamps c, c, are hung.
The spmdl~s may be made out of f in. brass
ro.d, ~u\ l_ong enou~h to bring the outer ends
wttln.n ;rm. of the mner edge of commutator.
The mner ends-to go in the ehonite pluO's
on the rocker-must be turned down a;d
screwe~l to take two hexagonal nuts,' one
e~ch s1de of the ro~ker, as shown at A, A,
l •tg. 54. These must be insulated from the
rocker b y two washers of ebonite or of
vulcaniseci fibre. 'dn the opposite ends of
the spindles must be fitted two other h exagonal nuts, to keep the brush clamps from
coming olf. These clamps are made of gunmetal, shaped as shown in Fig. 55. The
upper part of this clamp is made to receive
the strips of hard brass, copper gauze,
phosphor bronze, or whatever material may
be chosen for the brushes. In this J?art the
strips are held by a brass plate placed on
top of them, and secured by the thumbscrew d. Holes are bored for the spindle
to pass through the lower part, as shown at
e e. The clamp is thus free to move around
the spindl~, and this freedom of movement,
together With that of the rocker, allows the
brushes to be adjusted to any required
an~le. A small brass staJ?le soldered to the
instde of each clamp receives the end of a
spiral spring threaded on the spindle, and
this ensures due pressure of the brushes on
the commutator, whilst it also keeps the
clamp in its proper position at the end of
the spindle. In adjusting the brushes, it is
fourid advisable t o move the rocker by
means of an insulated handle, made of
ebonite or vulcanite. This is shown in Fig.
5-!. It may be fixed to the rocker by means
of a .Jt in. bolt screwed into the end of the
rocker. A similar handle may be fixed at
the other end if so desired.
Windin,q tlte Field J.1 fagnets.-As the wire
for the field magnet~ of a Gramme machine
will be wound in four separate coils, it will
be advisable to divide the total quantity of
wire to be used in these coils into four
equal parts, and to treat each part as recommended in the treatm ent of the wire for the
armature. After each coil of wire has been
soaked in paraffin-wax, it should be wound
on a stout wooden bobbin, as it will be
easier rnn off from a bobbin on to the
magnet core than from a bank. The method
of winding, so as to secure a north pole
ptece above the armature and a south IJOle
piece below the armature, is shown at Fig.
56. Mount the core to be wound in a lathe.
and put on the back gear slow speed. Suppose we wish to wind the first cores to give
a north polarity to the pole piece. Commence by twisting one end of t he wire A
round the neighbouring core, cross it over the
pole piece, take one turn round its own core,
and tie this turn with a short piece of
twine. Then proceed to wind on the wire
evenly and regularly, with the coils close
side by side, from the pole piece on the
right to the end of tbe core at the left, to
and fro, i.mtil all the wire has been wound
on ; th en tie the last coils together tightly
with a piece of narrow tape, to prevent them
from springing back loose when the end E
is free. Next unfasten A from the rightband core, and commence winding on the
next coil, beginning at B and wind ng from
left to right, observin~ the same precautions
as in the first coil, fimshing off the opposite
end at H. Next, wind the cores for the
lower pole piece, .commencing each at c and
D respectively, and finishing off at F and I.
If the machine is to be connect ed in series,
the two ends, E and F, will now be led to the
two terminal binding screws, and the two
ends, H and r, to the two brushes : whilst A
and D will. be coupled together, and also c
and D connected to ea.cb other by screw
connectors. If the machine is to be connected in shunt, the two ends, E and F, will
also be connected together to form a continuous coil from H to I. These two only
will be connected to the brushes, and from
the brush es will go two short pieces of wire
to , the terminal binding screws of the
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machine. The distinction
clearly in Fig. 57. When
ends of the left-hand coils are
the two terminals A., A, and
ends of the right-hand coils are
the brushes B, B,· the circuit
completed by placing some Jtin,
series with the coils between the
But when the two ends of tbe
coils are coupled up together, as Bhaand the brushes are conoected
t erminals, as shown by the dotted
current is shunted through the
the cores are always magnetised
action. This last condition always
that the cores are magnetised at the
and thus are furnished with an
amount of magnetism. This initial
must be given to them br. a
a current through the coils, as
my last chapter on this subject.
The various parts of the machine
be put together or fitted to each other.
lield -magnet coils should have two or
coats of Yarnish to set the coila ot
t ogether, and to give the whole
a finished appearance. In
brushes, move the rocker nnti th•
position is found by actual triaL The
tion of this is-a. full current at tlie
minals, very little noise at the
and little or no sparking where the bru
touch the bars of the commutator.
It will be noted that I have not
sizes of the various parts. This I
do in dealing with the subject as I
done : namely, in a general m&
able to several sizes of machines.
are, however, made proportionate to
of the castings, and the vendor of th•
also supply the ·various parts in the
a less cost to the amateur than that
by him if he made his own patterns
the parts cast to order. I give below
of Gramme machines made and sold
S. R. Bottone, Carshalton, Surrey.
this list the amateur can choose his
and can also see at a glance tbe dim
of its various
parts.
•
T ABLE OF GRAMME DYNAMo-ELEOTRIC
No.
1
2
3
!l
•
4. Coggetl .1.rnlllture.
Incbes.
l kx 2
2x3t
3x6
!lx7
Wire on.
No. Armature
•
1
2
s
'
lllbs. 22
!llbs. 20
!l lbs. 16
12lbs. 16
Dilun. Deep.
3\in. x2in.
!li in. x 21 in.
6 in. x6 in.
7 in. X lOin.
lbll. !ill
lba. 21
lba.IIO
lba. 18
Spud
min.
2,600
2,000
1,500
1,200
C.P.
50
100
200
600
Machine No. J has a
ture, but all the others are
cogged laminated plates. In win
armature of No. 4, two strands of
used, side by: side, to reduce
armature coils. All these matcb:blel:
to work incandescent lamps'.~::ifll
In writing the foregoing a
various parts of the Gramme
have been much aided by~ a
little book on "How to Make
written and published 'by Mr.
of Dover. I can heartily rec<»IX
book to all of my readers wh~l)·,:
make a small Gramme
like to make all the parts thE!t!
Orofts only describes one Biz4t()f.:
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W«k-January 24,1891.)
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A
PEDESTAL FOR BusT oR LAAfP.
Any- be thought that if the long centre column
one who has such a. lathe as, say, the Bri- can be turned in one piece, the shorter ornatannia. Company's No. 10, should experience mental ends mit7ht all!<? encl~ cunshtt of one
no great difficulty in turning even this size. piece. Those wno preler th1s style of conIt is not, however, my intention to describe struction may certainly adopt it; but before
the operations of turning, a.s it may fairly they do so they may o.s well consider the
~ yresumed that the possessor of a lathe amount of' turning requ ired merely to cut
· have some idea how to use it before away the waste wood. T hus, in the top
attempting such large work a.s that involved part we find that the gn·..1test di!lmeter ~s
in the pedestal It is not a. suitable thing 8 in. and the smallest uuly 4} m. l.s tt
for the beginner, for though plain and simple worth while to turn down a piece 8 in .
A PEDESTAL FOR BUST OR LAMP. -or, perhaps, rather because it is so-the thick 7 If the oLject were to make shavings,
turnin~ should be accurate, not necessarily it would be · but as the object is to make a.
BY C. E. MAES.
to secttons and sizes given, but to whatever pedestal, there is no . reason fol' wasting
others may be preferred. Those given al'e either time or mntertnl on superfluous
- THE pedestal shown in the accompanying from a model before me, and may be taken labour. Let each piece be t~uned o.ut of a.
illustration is by no means difficult to con- as fairly tn>ical of the style of a plain piece of board of the requued th1ckness,
struct, and when made, will form withal a pedestal, which, it may be sa.id, is often when, if the wood hal'l heen previously trucdup with the plane, only the
pleasing addition to the
rim will require tuming. No
somewhat limited number
special remark neecl be made
of articles which may be
about the preparation of the
placed conveniently in the
wood for these parts, but the
corner of a room. As a supmtlin portion ot the pedestal
port for busts or va.qes, simicannot be thus lightly passed
lar pedestals are well known;
over. At the top it is a bout
but the idea that they may
I
5
Fig. 4.
Fig. ·
5 iu. in Jiawetel', and at the
be used as lamp-stands is
r--~/"'v ._.. . ._
bottom an inch more. Now,
Fig. L
~ibly a novel qne t<? some
"
to get a. nice sou9d piece of
11nders, and may'requtre ex·wood free from knot~ or
planation.
Few, however,
shakes may not be always
can have failed to notice
an easy matter-at least
the tall metal lamps which
not so easy as g~tting several
have become so .fashionable
pieces of smaller dimensions
of late-that is to say, the
without faults. These can
I
lamp.<J which have a high
easily be built up to make
stand, rendering them indeone solid block, which will
pendent of any table. The36
be more saLisfactory than a
stands are usually of meta~
single piece-unless, in<.leedt
and more or less costly
the pedestal is to be polishea
articles of luxury. Why
in its natural colour, whatshould the metal worker
ever that may be, when the
Fig. 2.
have it all his own way with
joints might be unpleasantly
these thin~, to t he excJuconspicuous. 1 assume, howsU.. of t ne wood-worker 1
ever, that the pedestal will
A wooden pede~ta l is surely
be made of some soft wood,
as suitable a.~ one of brass,
and either eboniscd or
Fig. 3.
and, what is eltually to the
I
finished with an enamel
purpose for home workers, it
paint, which will conceal
can be more readily made.
the joints. Some, however,
H owever, the object of this
may prefer oak1 walnut, or
short paper i~ not so much
mahogany in their natural
to BUf?geht what the pedestal
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colours, and merely French
may oe used for as to tell
polished ; and in that case
.lrow to make it; and if any
1t will certainly be betterapology for giving instruc- .
if a suitable piece can be
t10ns on such a simple
got-not to build up the ·
matter is required, let me
main portion of the pedestal,
jost say that a. certain indibut to use one piece for it.
'ridual wanted to make a
pedestal Himilar to that Ftg. 1. -Pedelltal. Pig. 2.-t1pper Part (one-third fnll me). Fig. S.- Lower Part : Should there be any cracks.
shown. I~ was to be at
ditto. Ptg. f.-Column built up of Four Pieces. Fig. 6.-Column built up With they may be tilled up by
least !i ft. h1gb, and the lathe
"splintering 11 if of any exBoards.
would only take 3 ft. long.
tent, or with some stopping
This is a fair length between centres for an more pleasing than a. highly elaborated Oltt- if small. The former consists of gluing
ordinary amateurs' lathe, and possibly others line. That, however; is a ma.tter on which slips of wood into the sha.kesi and afterwards
~esi.des the ind ividu~ referred to may be opinions may differ, so nothing more n eed trimming them off. It wi l be advisable
rnclined to wonder 1f the job could be be said about it i but whatever tho design, not to ''splinter up 11 till the tuming is
managed. It certainly can be by the very there can hardly oe two opinions about the done. If, from any cause, it should be
simple means of turning the pedestal in P!9Priety of setting the work out full size. necessary to build up for the column in any
separate piece.CJ, and fastening them to- When this is done, calipers and rule will wood to be unpainted, it will be as well t o
gether afterwards.
enable correct sizes to be turned in the do so from four squares only, a nd not from
When this has been said, very likely all lathe. For those who wish to work closely planks, so that the j oints may be as few as
the description that i.a necessary to enable to the design shown, it may be said that possible. It seems hardly n ece~snry to say
ftJrilled wo rker!l t.o make the pedestal has Figs. 2 and 3 are given one-third full size. anything more about this part of the w01·k,
been given, but others may require a few The former represents the members above but i~ case the no?on is not grasped, Fig. 4,
more hints to enaLle them to set about and t he long centre column, the latter those a t showmg the sect10n of a column (when
~omplete it without tentative efforts. Aa the bottom. On corn parmg them with Fig. 1, turned) formed from four pieces, and l•'ig. 5,
will be KurmiseU, the pedestal i.a turnen' this will be clear, and show their reinti ve the same, made up of board~, are given.
work, and as we proceed, it will be found posit.iona without an~ chance of misappr e- G lue alone will hold the pieces together
tliat the whole of 1t can be turned up in a hension. To econom18e space, only half of bnt let the joints be as good as possible !
lathe which will take 3 ft. between centres each part i.a shown. Between each member and it is, perhaps, superflnous to say tbn.t
provided theae a.re not les~t tha n 6 in. fron: on Ftgs. 2 and 3, it will be seen a space is the ~lue must bo hard before the wood is
t~e bed. rr the centrea are a little higher, it left, in order that the se{>ar&te turned parts put m the lathe. Each of the discs should
will be a iJ th.o better, a.a the diameter of thP may be more readily di.atmguished. It may have a hole bored exactly through its centre,
dynamo-<>ne capable of giving a current of
8 amp~res at a pressure of 45 volts-but he
ha.s done this in a most thorough manner,
by using a style easily understood and a
number of clearly' drawn illustration& The
a.uthor has practically worked out the
machine for himseLf, and is open to supply
a mateurs with all r~uisites necessary to
make a Gramme ruachme.
I Llrgest member of the colUIDD is 9tin.
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The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
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Ho1v
tbrou ~h
wh i··h will run an iron rod fix ed
into tlu~ ~·Jo•lt•f the long column. Probably
111nny will tiud a wuo\fcn rod more workal,}c. nnd if ~'<l, it may bo Uf'ed. inst~ad. It
~hould !:cnrccly J,c lc!i~ lthnn lm. thtck, nnd
•)f some goocl ton;;h w®d, such ns .o.sh, l?ut
.-.o mnch will ch:pcnd on the wny m wluch
tlte di~cs nN fa,-t c n c~l to eac·h other that a
.:o<ltl deal must. be left to the di-scretion of
the worker. The rod, or rods-for there
1uur:.t be one to each end of the column1111\f CYen be dil<pcnse<l with o.ltogcther, but
thctr u~ will be f<lund of sen•ice in getting
\!ach disc eYcnly placed, o.s it will be only
necessary to shp them on like so many
riu~rs. 'l'he centre sticks, or rods, shoulLl be
mther longer than they will be afterwards,
when the Jledestal is completed. 'fhe end
of the U{lper one can be cut off flush when
the cappmg is put on, and uny projection of
that nt the bottom will be concealed by the
pliuth. 'fhc rods must be well glued into
the column. Before finally fastening all
the parts together, it will be well just to see
if they all fit. 1f the centre rod is sufficiently strong, further fastening of the parts
together will be uunec~ry ; but if there
is nny doubt about if bein~ so, it will be
well to avoid all risk by either gluing or
:;crewing each part to the one next it. A
couple of stout screws to connect each disc
will l>o sufficient, especially if they o.re only
usccl ns auxiliary to glue. Dowels are sometimes used instead of screws, but for amatcm· workers screws will probably be more
COO\'enient. It will be understood that
these directions, if they can be so called,
nre given rather as hints and suggestions
for tho worker to act on according to the
menus at his command than as hard-andfast rules from which there can be no der,nrture without detriment to the pedest~tl.
They ure general directions, having special
regard to the work in hand, but they may
also be applicable to many other contrivances, and on that 'account are perhaps
not nnworthy of being regarded as educat ional. 'fhough it might be easier for the
pedestal maker to have definite directions
about all parts of the work, the great end
and aim of such a magazine as ours is not, I
take it, merely to say how any given thing
may be rnndet but to educate-the word
bei ng used in 1ts literal sense-our mechanical ancl inventive faculties, and by so
duinSt, nuvnnce technical education if not
:-:o n01sily, at any rote more effectually than
J.y '' talkce talkcc.:' l">nrrots are good at
this sometimes, and, no doubt, could talk
'tuite as intelligent!)- as some of tbe good
pcoplf'l wbo, though enthusiastic, know
Ycry little nbout the needs or difficulties of
the practical worker who is to bo " technically " educated. But this is a slight digression, just while the glue is setting-one of
those pleaso.nt little interludes which relieve
the monotony of constant work.
Tb~ top of the pedes~ is si!l'lply a piece
of thtek board, say, 1·~ m. to 2 m. stufl: It
may ha.vo n hole m tue centre for the rod
to pn.<;.CJ through, the rod, if wood, being
split and wedged up, much in the same wa.y
that hammer-head s are often fastened to
' the handle:!, and it may be furth er secured
hy two or three screws. The other end of
the r.edc!\tal may be similar to the top, but
it wtll add dignity to the pedeRtal if it is more
ns shown in .f'ig. 1. To have it solid would
be inconvenient in most instances, nnd a
~ox-like cou1,truct_ion will do very well. It
1s not alwnys considered necessary to weight
the bottom of such a pedestal, but it is
safer to do so with a comparatiYely light
one. ~luch, ·however, depends on the
I
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TO lVIAKE AN OTT01JtAN
Coucn.
position the pedestal is to occupy. If it is
exposed and likely to be knocked over, by all
means put some "ballast, at the bottom ;
but if it is in an out-of-the-wa y corner, none
may be required. What the weighting will
consist of must be left entirely to the maker1
and also the quantity. A few pounds ot
lead nailed to the bottom of the plinth inside may be named a.s appropriate, but any
scraps may be made available by fastening
them to a. boardhand nailing this on a.s a
bottom beneath t e plinth. Perhaps a. few
suggestions should be given about finishing
and further adorning the pedestal. }. .irst,
then, if it is to be French polished let the
polishing be done in the lathe, or, if that is
not convenient, polish the various parts
before they are fitted together. The polishing will be much cleaner than if it were
done after the pedestal is together, when it
should only require a little touching up
with the rubber. The appearance ·rnaf be
enriched by having some of the !'arts bright
polished and others dull, espeCially if the
work is ebonised. If paint is the finish
chosen, j udicious colounng will prove very
effective, but beyond saying that the colours
should not clash with those of contiguous
wall or curtains, directions can hardly be
given. When pa.intin~ it-or, rather, before
doing so-let the position the_pedestal is to
occupy be well considered. The colour intended may look very well in itself, but
mi~ht look anything but beautiful against
a oackground out of harmony with it.
Do not, t herefore, so much regard the pedestal as a. complete piece of decoration, but
merely as an accessory. Plush may be
named as a rich covering for the top, and
all that has been said about }>aint colour
applies with equal force to 1t. Enough,
however, has now been said by way of suggestion, and the artistic worker may be left
to his own devices for finishi~g the pedestal.
HOW TO MAKE .AN OTTOMAN COUCH.
BY B. BINGE. •
Tms very usefulJ!!ce of bedroom furniture
ost any amateur woodcan be made by
worker who is in possession of a. few tools
and a little skill and patience. To begin
with, we shall require some i in. boards,
11 in. 'vide, either white. or red deal,
moderately dry and clean ; two pieces for
the sides 4ft. 7 in. long, and two pieces 2ft.
long for end~ and two pieces of 3 in.
sca.ntling 11 m. long. The wood, if it is
clean, need not of a. necessity be planed,
except the edges ; the ends should be cut oft
true and square, and the side pieces nailed
out to one end in the form of a. box ; the
other end the nails should only be pointed
in. The pieces of scantling should now be
prepared for the corners of this end by
rounding one corner off till the end of
piece is .the shape of Fig. 1. These are
fixed in the corners of the box and screwed
firmly from the outside, keepine- the screws
as far away from the corners as 1t is possible,
and still to get a. firm hold in the block.
The nails are now withdrawn and the
corners rounded off (~ee Fig. 2, which is a
.
plan of the bottom). ,
Of course, the couch can be made with n
square end. If the round corners would be
considered difficult, in that case blocks
should be inserted in the corners of the
bottom end, the shape of Fig. 3, and screwed
from the outside of the box to keep it
firmly together. The other end of box (we
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
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[Work-Jan\W'y 24.lll91.
shall see later on) will be secured b the
Y be
scrolls, etc. The. bottom should now
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screwed on. Thi818 ntade of 'fa in• st..WlfUDDiru.
~ross th e box aa md1cated by dotted ~
ttom), and two screw» ~t
10 the plan of
each end of each board; the last board bein
marked to shape of round corners, a.n~
rounded off and screwed on, the same as th
others. The ~ext job is to make the scrol~
or arms, whtch can be made of p in dea~
the sh~p~ of Fig. 4, an~ long eno~gh to g<)
down .mside of box 6 m. at square end :
the thickness of the box side is halved out
of the sc!oll, so that when it is placed inside
~he box 1t comes flush (or level) outside. It
18 n?w fi!IDlY glued and screwed in position
as m F~g. 4. The grooves in the scrolls
(~seen m sketch) are to receive the cross
ra:ils. These grooves are i in. wide and about
i m. deep. Wlien both ecrolls are fixed in their
places the railBt which are pieces of inch
deal the required width and length (which
can b~ got by ~easnring with a rule), a18
fitted m and nailed from the outside, we
being taken not to split the scrolls. The top
rail should have a. block of 1 in. deal fitted
in both corners and glued in, and when set,
it should be levelled off to the shape of the
scroll (this is to give strength). A piece
of stuff should lie fitted to the under
side of the top rail, and glued and sprigged
on to make out the shape of the- .acroll.
Another rail should be .fitted across the
point marked A in sketch1 2 in. wide, being
the hei~ht of scroll from top edge of box at
this pomt. A piece of thin stuft· should now
be fitted in the inside of box under this rail
the whole depth of box, to partition off the
box from the scrolls. In cutting out ~~
scrolls, it is best to make a pattern fint,
either out of very thin deal or cardboard,
and in placing it on your stuff(which should
·be free from splits or shakes), so ~lace it
that the grain of the :wood go~ wi~ 1t-:thn'
is, not to get the gram across 1t, or ?t will be
liable to sna.p off. Cut them out mth a bow
saw, and with a spokeshave trim them up
and take off all sharp edges to prevent th~m
cutting the covering. We now want a. ~d.
This is made of the required size out o.f 1 m. ·
deal . 2j in. wide, keeping the en~ ~ tha~
comes on to the round corners lJ~ m. wtder i
this can be halved together, an glued ana
screwed. A middle stretcher shoUld be put
in about ll in. wide, and hollowed out 0!1
the top side with a spokeshave to .Prevent 1t
being felt when the ottoman IS sat on.
Mter it is made, it must be fitted to the
toP. of the box, keeping it away from the
rail A about 1- of an inch to allow for the
covering, etc., and the corners .rounded OD
the wide rail to correspond Wlth. the boL
It should now be hinged '!ith a Pall' 0.f but$
hinges on either edge, JUSt accordmg to
which way you want your otto~an to. stand
and open. Do not Jet your b~oges m~
much, or else when the. boxbl.B cdo~er
will be what is ca.lled "hing~ oun - ·
~dm closiiJibe
;~~. the covering will keep It
nowood,
-l.ow
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... ....,. lW'
...,
proper1y. F our " squ-.....
to
made of mahogany, or other bard
about' 4 . in. square, two of them0 {ofhe box.
f thJ
correspond mth the bottom
These are screwed on to the.bottom ~ifl
box about level wi~ the ou~~d=~ ~he onlT
h n com·
the casters. The squares
and
wood that is seen in c.our ott~mcln
ple~e, so they llh;~~ldd ~th~c~t~ should
k The ca.st81'8
polished or val'Dlaue ,
now be screwed on to the bl~ j·te ca.ster!t.''
coucb
ca.lled "pin casters," or p a
will do very well. Our ottoman
frame is now compl~te. will b to upbolater ..
e
Our next proceeding
t
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ded
wade
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How
TO MAKE AN 0TTOAfAN
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Couci£.
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it, and make it fit for use. First take oif webbing must not be cut in pieces, but used ! stretched ; then the under side covered in
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the li~ afterwards the bottom, numbering 1 otf the piece, or else we should have nothing r the same way over the canvas. It will, no
the boards where they belong to, to prevent I1 to pull by. Over the webbing tack a piece doubt, great ly improve t he amat eur's work
;;ettins; wrong when putting them baCk. It of strong canvas, getting this as tight to pull in a few buttons in t he arm (dia;&bouJd be lined with a nice small pattern as we can by pulling it with a pair of mood-shape) with a Jon~ needle and thin
..:hintz, and for covering nothing look.sbetter pincers. The canvas should go over the twine, nnd " tie them otf" on the under
than a pretty cretonne. Lining the box is 1 front or nose of the scroll and finish there, side befure that f'nrt is crwered. The box
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1 ·:sually the first job, which is done as
can now be covererl with cretonne,
tnrning under the tQp edge and
:·ollows : - Cut off lengths for sides
, fLnd ends. always taking care to have
fastening it down neat ly on the top
\·oar stuff an inch or two longer and
edae of box, a nd bringing it down
.. ~rider than the finished size; line the
and right u ndtr the ltottom, and
J E:.: lds first, cove~ing _
past the corners a.
fa-stening c•ff wit h t.acks on the bot t Jrttle. a nd taclung 1t do' rn carefully,
tom of box. The hd slwuld now be
• not driving the t;ack.s home t ill you
webbed by the ~a.m c met hod . as the
1. a re sur e you are n ght and your chmtz
a rms were, crossm~ the webbtng the
1 is evenly strained ; rlo not pull it t oo
l'E ame as the laths nre in an iron
a much, or you. will
Fig. 2 .
be<t-.tead. Cover with
11 break t he glaze, and
',
strong canvas, and
•i never make a ' nice
Fig. 3 .
'
form string loops right
:r job. of it. Xow put
Nlmd the edge of the
~~ your side pieces on
lid, and then fill the
'· (with a few tacks
middle in with flocks,
•
.. pointed in to keep it
making it higher m
~ 10 position), anrl turn:t~~
the ctntre so as to
L ing it u nder nicely at
Fig. 1.
'?
form a mce round
[; thecorners, with some
l
s e n t . Cover with
" i in. fine brass girnp
:
calico, and finally with
r• J,in&, fasten it neatly
-------.!.--- cretonne, tacking it
1 down ; then placing
on the under side.
tbe couch bottom upX ow turn it upside
, wards on yr>Ur bench,
down on someth ing
'· or two stools, place the
clean, and line the lid
. piece of chmtz inPig. 5.
Ffi 4
with clnntzl turn mg
t ended for the bottom
·
in under . a 1 rou nd~
- (patt!!rn Aide into the
and fastemng it oft' '
box) on it, and get it
with brass gimp pins.
• nicely in str£:tch, by
R ehinge your hd, and
first lightly tack ing • .
.
· ..
.
.
.
.
fi x a piece of tape at
onnd and not send in" Fig. L- ltounded Scantling. Fig. 2.-Plan o! Bottom. Fig s.-Section of "Brock. F1g. 4..-Diagram each end of box to the
r k 'd
t 1' l 1' t 1s
.o
allowing Ann and manner or Axing lt. Ftg. 6.-Mode of tacktng Flocks on Arm or Ba ck.
.•t<), t o n11 m\" 1't to
.
s
own
un
1
tac
evenly strained. .Xow replace the bottom, and then another piece of canvas, without i open just o,·cr ,., 1unre a nd k eep it from
and pushing down a sprig-awl, or something webbing under, stretched across the front of going right lK1t k and breakmg off the
of the kind, make a hole through tLe: r hintz; the scroll (or under side as some would call 1 binges.
.
put no oil or grease of any kind on your it) where there is no pressure.
We now want a "loop,'' or handle, to
serewa in the bottom or it will ma rk the
Now with some fine twine begin on the open it with, which ~b ould he made of a.
chintz. Now for the scroll, which we shall t op of the scroll and form loops in the man- ptece of welJlJing ahout 12 tn. long, and
find the most difficult part to cove r, uut a ner shown in Fig. 5 to put the flocks under. covered with the cr£:tonne. 'f his :-.honld be
little patience will mast er almo:;t anything. Keep tucking the flock.s under the strings, folded together t o foru1 a. lo0p. and fi rmly
We sha ll rertuire some chair webbing, some making some loops across the canvas by t acked to the under :-ide of lid, and allo:'e<l
to
proJect
I tlocks a nd
1 eanva.c::, a nd
iar enou 17h
to catch hold
1 a little com·
1 mon ca lico
of, in order
' for oute r
to ra ise the .
1 c o v e rin g.
hd, which is ,
}'innly t ack
a. consider' three pi eces
able weight
! of . welJbing
when stutl'ed
' acrosg the
and covered.
r ....
.....ro11s, runThis had betn in g t h e
t cr be fixed.
same way a,.;
hcfore the
,,
the rail~. rme
•1 •
lid is lined,
of th<; picceii
a nd then the
right acro~s
lining will
~ the higbe!)t
cover all up.
•
part cl the
Often workscroll, th o
men leave it
other
two
for the last
erJI\irl ist:mt
j oh and caref betwt:cn the
fully withdraw a few
. rat'I:'. (Thcse
he
Fig. &.-ottoman Couch complete with Cover lifted.
pins in the
m 11 !i t
•
P!lllr;d ti~ht.)
lining in the
Uphol.-:tererH ba,·e a. tool on pUrpose, but stitching them in and tucking, in the centre of lid, and insert the web, and
we ran r)llll them as tight with a piece of flocks until you have An even bed, say pnll it out just as much ns they want, and
WY.Ifl af10ut 12 in. long and 2 in. wide. 2 in. thick, all over the scroll.
Now then tack it'down again ; but the former is
•
Aft~r attaching on~ end o{ the web- cover this with calico,_ getting it nicely in the right way. We now want two pieces of
bing, wrap the other part round the , stretQh, and slittfng .a little h ere and there cretonne, cut out the sa.me shape as the
long way of the wood, and using it as a j in the corners, to enable it to com9 down scroll:;~, about~ in. larger all the way round.
]ever againfit the other scroll, strain it tight, 1 and tack on to the face of the scrolls. This Lay the couch- down on its side, o.nd make a.
and before letting it go, secure it with 1 shonltl now be covered with cretonne, point- roll of cotton wadding (or eYen flocks)about
tacks. It will be euily understood that the ing in tacks all round till nicely and evenly 2 in. wide down the centre of the scroll,
I
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.:,
I
I
l
I
1
1
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The Work Magazine Reprint
• Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
•
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O uR GuiDE
730
TO
Goon
T HINGs.
[iVork-Janu:~........
- J ""1,
requested t o make one som e time ago, I
though t first of bamboos, as being so light
and strong ; but I found them expensive,
and not strong enough to take a spring
catch or hinges, nod besides, I had no t ime
just then to bend them t o any parti cular
pattern. In the next place, I th ought of
the diamond trelliswork or netting frequently used in post offi ces as a counterguard, and in many libraries as a substitute
· for, or in conj unction wi th, glass as a book
protector. I t can be purchased eith er in
brass or galvani:sed wi re. but as the size I
wanted would have had t o be made to
order, and would have caused me delay, it
was out of the quest ion. F inally, I decided
on making th e gate of wood, as follows :I bought a dozen ba nister rails, and two
battens, 3 ft. by 2t in. by 1 in. The rails
were rather longer t han was required, so I
cut a few inches off en,ch end, and having
bored out suitable holes, half an inch deep,
in the two batt e n ~, I inserted t.be rails and
glued them with liquid g lue. T be gate was
to all intents and purposes now made. T he
two top edges of tue battens were bevelled,
so as to d o a way wit h any sharp edges.
These battens were fixed to the banister
post at the head of th e stairs with two
small, but strong, back-flap hinges ; and one
of Cartland's door-springs was fastened .a,t
--·
the t op to keep the gate always shut.
The gate shuts noiselessly against a pad
of indiarubber, a nd is fastened, ot· rather
JfEL~ , MODES, AND METHODS.
fastens itself, with a small spri.1g catch,
something like a pew-door or show-case
fasteninia' with a sunk ring to elude infantine
.A W RIYXLE FOR FRET-WoRKERS.
eyes anc fingers.
Fan-W oRKERS never weary of adding t o
The whole gate was stained with two
t heir stock of useful hints, and I can give coats of J ackson's satinwood varnish stain,
t hem one more. I have not been of much · and matches very well indeed with th e pitchuse to this section of our readers, for the pine banister rails of the staircase.
simple reason that I do not interest myself
The total cost, with fittings complete, was
to a great extent in this branch of wood- about 5s. 6d., which is little enough when
work ; bot in preparing a design the other the protection that is thereby afl'orded to
day, an '' idea" struck me. My object isthe tenants of the nurser,y_ is taken into
preserre the pattern entire when once sawn consideration .
H . J . L . J. M.
through.
If t he design is upon a. page of W ORK, or
CRAMPING UP JOINTS OF T HIN STUFF.
paper which is not very stout, gum it to a
Injointingw ood, especially thin stuff, such
suit
will
following
The
rather thick piece.
as is used for panels, drawer bottom s, etc.,
for this, and also for drawings which are if grooved and tongued, or only slip-jointed,
·
already upon thick paper.
great difficulty is often experienced in getting
Place the them close and keeping them together (if
~lost designs are shaded.
design over a. piece of carbon paper, and the wood is at all crooked or warped) while
trace accurately with a bone or steel point the glue sets. This difficulty may be overover the outline of it, when a. skeleton of it come by making wood cra mps of the followwill appear on the other side. Pass a gum- ing descri ption : -Pro~.:ure two pieces of
bru.8h, having a. sharp point, over aU portions stuff 6 in. longer than th e widest board you
of tht: drawing wl1-idz. are not 1haded, keeping want to j oint and a bout 3 in. or 4 in. wide,
1
well within the lines, until all are evenly i in. or 1 in. tnick
; and placing two of them
gummed. Then place the desigt? upon t he together, bore a fl- in. hole right through, 3 in.
wood, previously ba.vi.ng dam~ it if any of from the end. Serve the other end t he
the gum upon it has dried. Of course, the
other side of the wood should, in this ca.t~e,
Q Q
beWbually damped, to prevent warping.
- '
~
~
-~IQ'
-·-···· •:•
en dry, cut through in the usual
..;:.
-·-··
manner, and the result Will be that the
d esign can be taken off bodily, leaving the
I .
gummed portions upon the cut·ont piecet~ of
g
Q
•
•
wood. It can then be used for months, by
LI.....
pencilling round its edge upon any other
Fig~ 3 .
pieces of wood that are to be fret-cut. 'fhis
l'1a-.J..I'1g-. 2.
18 rather a laborious pr00088, bllt in some
Pig. 1.- En!l View or Cramp. Fig. 2.- Side View
well
be
wouid
expended
cases the trouble
or -oramp. Flg. a.- Boards glued up and
l0"Win:r n mnr~i n all round, an d cov e r}n~ it
with one of the pieces of cretonne, pom t mg
in a te w tacks t o keep it in position. Now
b e.!in b.r turni ng under the cretonne and
f.t,..renirtg do,Yn with girn p pins (w~th?ra'"!­
i n~ the tacks as we go along), m ckmg 1t
:m'\·where out of sight with a pa1r of ~cissors,.
.to 'r.1cilitnte turning in . . It will. form a nice
rni~ed scroll, and make a.good_ fiQis~: : Whe_n
both scrolls a re done, the ottotnU, .c.obch 1s
complete. The .sec~t of succ~ C1f ~o~ering
mrh anv matenal IS not to fllS~ It· down
all at 01ice, but just point in ~tacks (so
that they can come out agafn) iill eve:nly
strained all round, then drive the tacks
home. The sizes giv en are the dimensions
of an ordinary couch, but, of course,. a few
j nches can be added or taken off length, etc.,
to snit the size of room where it is going to
stand, which will at once suggest itself to
t he worker.
Couches thus contrived and fashioned are
ertremelv useful in bedrooms, where t here
is room for them as receptacles for articles
<>f d ress, linen, hats, bonnets, etc. They will
also be found desirable at times of removal
from one house to another for packing similar t hi n~. If intended for this purpose,
the box should be furnished with a strong
lock and key, and straps of stout webbing
with buckles passed round them.
-
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J . S.
A
STATROASE GATE.
Some of the many handy fingered parents
in this world may have been put t o it to
devise a gate a.t the top of their staircases
to prevent their precociously quickfooted
offspring from falling headlong and breaking their necks prematurely. Wh en I was
,
on end of P ig 1 fl
If a pair of th~se' . at way of Fi
slipped on to n. . .cramps are tnndeg. 2.
wedges, same thici~~nt, and two hard "'and
driven gentl y bet~v~:~ ~j1the jointed bo~
top ~dge o[ th
b~ard and the dowel
will cra~p up t he joi~~s sl own to Fig. 3 i~
board_gu1 te straight and fi~se, ~nd keep the
set. H oles may be mad .m till the glue~
that the dowels eau be eu~n i the cra'!'Ops so
bread t bs of stutf', and th~ .n for. different
y will eastly adJ.US'
themselves t o the tbt' kn
c ess of st ua:· by~
.
· 1Y openmg
tb
or closing
srmp
em on the
dowels.
I!. B.
h
OUR GUIDE '1,0 GOOD THINGS.
• • • Patentees, m anttfactureTs and deal
q~tes~ed. to se11d 71rospecllt~U bill& ~~ ge'Titr~U'JI are "·
ttes m tool.s, machinery, and v:or'h ., of ~r 'PtCV!Ii.
Ed~tor of WORK for notice in •~6'u~~~d~•to ,._
Thmgs.". Jt il duiroble that S]leci~~~e~~s ~ to r,.~
for t:tam\ nalion and testing in all casta 1u d bt .._,
do!U without ift(Ontteniern:e s · IL' n IAI.t oo~ k
will be returntd at tM mrliut l'mm~ IA~t~ r&·titd
u nderstoocl that everything wh~':,~~ ~t 11ob.otl,
on iu meriu only, and that, 111 it ia i-n tAt ' u ut·a.~
one who hm a tmfuZ article for ralt 14 ~er 01 o-,.
of ~t in ~hia dtpartm~t of II'OllK 'lllitholit ~llltnlf,
n_ohcu g1ven. partake 1n M wuy oJ the 'llatun .JU'ad• lA.
"'
ttsements.
tt?
Nnw WHEEL CuTT:EI.t.
READERS of. -w:on.K who are turners will like to
have a descnpt,on ?f a wheel cutter just brought
out by. Mt:· ~· :M:tlnes, of Bradford, of which 10
eugraVlng xs gt ven here. '! 'he illustration bhow.
the cutter as fixed upon the tool-plate uf the
slide-r.est. by means of the bolt ~ to clrunp the
tool; 1t lB, therefore, '"ery easily and quickly
fixed and unfixed. The motion is receivoo by a
3 in. pulley from the band of the overhead
motion; the quick speed of this band is tran&.
formed into the slow and powerful motion
117. - MILN ES'
Milnes' New Wheel Cuttei.
wonn and wheel,
tte b
.
. very supetior
S:
Y
requued for tho cu ~
whose smooth and qw~t actl~~;e is n bintpl~
t 11£trr
.
to the rattle of geanng.
vertical slide for the .heig~ :dJ¥=e~h~ ~lidP.
making which a nut 18 us o c ks working in
The cutter spindle has hard.ened~for ; xnmin!ltion.
hard steel collars ; I took tt 0 0 db ·ght 'fbcr~
and found them ve.r y smooth ::awwor~l whet!!,
treads of the
nre twenty teeth 1n the gun£
thnt ;~
and it takes from three to our
80
foot wheel to Lm·n the cutter once, Tha wortn
in this 6rol
turns slowly and with great rr~~"'
8
wedged in Palr or Cramps.
and wheel are too. llu·ge ad cl a~d tha sm~ll
cutter, but t.her wtll beb reh ~~~ed und run 111
same, and fit a dowel of bard wood, say 4 in. worm shuft w1ll also 8 n
, tJ1e;: ns nowDlnd~.
.
long, in each hole ; d rive them through both hard collars.
The saddles of 1\fr. 1\Itlncs 1a fa;' ~>.'lrk thnt the
pieces, taking care 11ot t o have tb em too
tight or else you will split your wood, and allow the rest to ue drawn soface· )nte, or cut
then open out your wood on the dowels the cutte1· can take e. cut ac:oss.the t P,f hP cuttur
thickness of the board you want to cramp ; teeth in a wheel 7 6 in. tn diame eTSE Eotroa..
your cramp will then have the appearance costs .£4 1Os.
··~-
repaid.
1891,
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
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t\!llllunll'l~ lllnt•k l(nnuH 'l. nntl put 1\ loolc nnd a pnlr
Of lrll"~" hntttlll'~ IIU 11
.\ pll'f'l! of zln<'llt t he bOtlOIII
S IIOP:
c,,ltll.'l t'R l-"''R
Tno R "ml " ' .t. N1' 1'0 TAt.K I T.
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•
:
- LETTKRS FROM C'ORRESPOND&NTS.
1Udd1 esan d Wire Go.u go.-J. S. (Londo n, N.)
wrill'~> in J'CH'J'tln ce to C. '1'. C.'s remttrk s tNo. 01,
Coal Box, with Door and withou t.
Yol. 1 i, J'tlgt~ OSll :- "You must pn.rqon me for ~Ic­
ing whethe r you '"ould not have g 1ven a sim1la r would make it wenr better. You
reply to that which I sent in answe r to DANDY awkw ard to shovel u p coal out know i t is very
of Lhe scuttle , but
ROt.L&R (No. 86. page 553)7 You say ' it Is gradua lly here it
is very easy and clean."
. · beinp; used • (the Imperi al standa rd wire gauge) a
B eating Plant Ca so.-J. T. IHull) writes :tbc.reor provinR tbat there is no univer sally adopte
..
A
s you were kind 'enoug h to reply .to my m qulry
gau~ ·and it 10lgh t bave bee n reason ably e:~.")lected
• Ulat b&d 1 giveu numbe rs r elating to thickne sses of (see page 521, No. 8i),l e nclose berew1 th a sketch of
• wires, no useful purpos e would have been o.ccom· what I have done in h opes that it may prove of
pUabed. Eviden tly DANDY RorJ.K R Is not a riddle
maker or be would hardly have asked the quest:ton; therefo re he might he.ve be.d <J.i!I'eulty in
0
0
procur ing e.n Imperi al gauge. I am mtima tely
uainted with e.nd by the time this letteris in print.
~~~be rele.tiv e\y connec ted with, one of t.he_oldest
wire-w orking (amilie s bailing from Birmin gham.
!"! ~
,....
I'
It is on this accoun t that our Editor reques ted m e
' •
•._,
to write a series of papers on wirewor~: T.his
< S"' >
' famils uses an old gauge, whiob, h oweve r, 1s bemg
discard ed. There Is & gauge severa l inches long
•
Fig. 2.
aod about l ln. wide having a groove or slot down
ita middle length ways, the slot being of a certain
width at one end, and taperin g down to an
F
extrem elr fine point at the other end. Along the
sides of the slotS :ne numbe rs. I, and doubtless
many others. w onltlli ke to get to tl?e bottom of tbis
· ge.uge que3tio n; a nd for myself will t.bnnk you or
aoy other wirowo rker to give me t.he benefit ot
your views throug h the column s of ' Shop."'
Bow to Fret a Baujo .- F . W . 0. (India )
<e>
writes ._.. Your corteSJ>I?ndent R. H. R. (Orewkerfu) (see page 500), wr1tln g on this subjec t, says: Fig. 3.
• Nextdl vide lhedJst:a.nce tron1 the nut to the bridge
by eightee n, aml the first eighte enth is the place or
Fig. 1.
the llist fret' ; h e does not sh ow how l1e arri ves at
the figure 18, nor Is it correct . though possibl y suffi· Plant-B eating Case. Pig. 1.- A, Cold Water ;
cientfy near. In the sketch let B C be the length of
B, C, t in. Gas Pipe ; D, Foul Air : E, Fresh Air ;
Be. b o d e f g h k l m n
F , t in. Vent Pipe ; G, ~in. Gas Pipe. Fig. 2.C
Tin, 8" 6. Fig. 3.-Cop per Tube for Boiler.
1_1_1
I
I I I I I I I
1 2 3 ' 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
help to some
r eaders . You will notice that
the open string, and Ba, ab, be, etc., be the length s I have addedofayour
cold
water cistern to s upplr Lhe
of the frets, IUld let x repres ent the propor tionate boiler wlth water, which
nnswe rs very w cU. 1 am
able to keep 60 degree s with a small lamp."
part of B C require d for Ba. Then Ba= ~ and a
X
ll.--QU ESTION SA.NSW ERED BY EDITO R AN D STAFF.
O=A.-~=~Cs-1); similarlyab=~=..!.(x
-1) and
]!:mig ration to South Africa. - .ABSTATh'ER. X
X
X
X1
You do not give either your nam e or nddres s so I
bC A (x-1)- .!... (x- 1) = A( x-)" IUld be=~ = nm utterly unable to nns wer you by post\ nnd not
X
X2
X
X
knowi ng where you live, a nd, therefo re, w nat htrge
x-1)
'
sCilpor t you may be n ear. I cannot well advise rou
1)'
... ( X
and cC=~(x-1) 1- ~ (x-1)1 = A
as t.o your route, etc. With the knowle dge of the
x•
x•
x
•
variou s trades tbe.t r ou possess , I should sar go to
X
e.nd so on till the twelfth or octave fret nC =A the Cape or Natal by all means, or. prefera bly, up
the countr y. Send your name and addres s, wh ich
(x;1) '". But o.s the octave note of a sLTing is will
be held in con fidence by me, and then I will
endea~our to give you a. useful hint or two.
always half the length of the open string A.lx;-l)"
Books on Carpe ntry and J oinery.-A CO!\·
1
STANT READE R.- Write to the B r itannia Compa nr,
or (x~) ' =2. This givllS x-: 17'818, and n ot 18' Colch ester , t or their new Catalo gue of 'l'echnical
, sendin g 7d., which is Gd. for the catalog ue
The correct leng!;hs of the frets fo.r an open string Works
itself,
and ld. to frank i t throug h the post. You
GC 18 in. are o.s follows :wUl find many works on carpen try an d joinery
To Fm
1 2'836
2 ,.136
mentio ned therein at variou s prices, nnd be able to
3 5·363
'
nu d so on. "
make a obolce that will suit y our requlre ment.s nnd
Al'tlac 1al Wate r.-W. E. D. (HuU) writes to J. pocket .
IL(Mat~chuter) :-" I thank you for your reply (see
Book on Tin-P late W orkin g, e t o.- T . K . B.
ltllle 803) r e· Water for Models of Ships • ; howeY orf (Londo n).- Seo a bove reply to A CONSTANT
kind you name hardlr answer s my purpos e.
READE R, and follow the advice given to him. 'l 'ho
.._. to rnalte workin g models , and the water to makin g of snucep ans bn.s bee.n dealt with
Mr. R.
move up and down with the ships. Perhap s you Alexan der in No. 93 of this Magaz ine, asby
perhap s
Would be kind enot~gh to inform me on this J>Oint."
you w ill be.ve .seen before t.his comes under your
a.1 Boz.- W. H. P. (Hornsez,o) write s:-" I n otice.
Book o n Tim.be r .-BREOKNOCK.- A. wor k on
enclOIIC rou a r ou'-h sketch ot a coat box I made
tlrne ago. 'I he idea occurr ed to me when Mr. this subject , entitle d "The 'l'imber Merch ant and
coal and coke box appea red on page 81, Builde r's Vnde-Mccu m.'' Is publish ed by Messrs .
ot W oRK, and as my son w as just 't:iegin- W . Rider & Son, Bo.rtho lomew Close. London ,
to run about a nd sort out the coals in the E.C., and was noticed in No. 81 of this Magaz ine.''
I though t that wit.h a lltUe alterat ion of th e
UDhol llt ering . - S. R. (Chelsea).- Upholstery
lt wq just what I wanted , so I set to and work will r eceive duo attentl on. In the meantl me,
encllli!Cd. It la made ot 1 in. p lne, except if you wUllet us know on what speclll c point you
and
I made of tIn. mahog any. Out- d,eslre !nform atlon "'4? will endenv our to help you.
~~~~~·~rtlllllt: 32 lu. high, 16 in. wide, 15 In.
'I h ere 18 no book wh1ch we would cnrc to r ecom~-~~~~~~~~divl aton, 11., I fixed about haU- mend un reserve dly, as there is none which would
x:
at top, and 3 in. Crom back at b e of a ny real o.ssistance.- D. A.
. a
.& In. "lde above A to keep the
D lalllng.-J. C. (R~tgby) can doubtl ess get the
'\ ou put the coal In at nand sh ovel them rule
he require s from
large tool shop-say
~~pllc.~a.c';;":l o.a rou t.ukc t hem out, others tcill In Buck's, Holbor n Viaduc tany
. lie would do
~
or courso you cannot uso lnrge coo.I, ~vell. to wrlto deso1·ibing. Loudon
what
h o wants, ancl
nfute l~ la ju11t the thing. I L holdS !rom lllquil: lng the price.
H
e
can
then
send rerniLUI.uce
our ecutuc e full. I gave it two coats ot with order.- A.. G.
1
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:: l
..
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I
=
cx-
""T
!!!..
7_3_1
Etoh lng Clo.sses. -11~. A. S. (South Norwo od).Y ou woulo do we ll to wl'ite to the Secret ary or tl~e
'l'ech:J icul rnslitn te, Finsbu ry, n.s to classc:> tn
eLchl ng ncnr the Roynl Excha nge.-C .
{
Cruoib lo.- No N A l\tu: (Leicester I.-You Jlligh
m elt In the furnne o you s ketche d. llut m e~nl mus t
be thorou ghly fluid Lo be any good. No conJ. but
coke und preternbly hard or !urn a ce coke, like lhl'1t
empioy cd by lron. foonde rs, should be u sed. G~
coke will n.nswe r bo t wlll be longer In meltin g. l"o
flu x Is necess ary 'tor mel t ing up tu rnings , but only
for cnllt.lng ·lnto mould s. .Alter you hav~ m elted th e
t u 1·niugs pwir lth~m etal Jnto a oust Jr on mgo Lm ould
to bo m clli:dl)~ er ago.in tdr co.sting . 'l'l1en, just bero1·c
·pourin g ' lnto J;hd. lllOUld, drop a -bit of yellow s~ap
m to tb c.cruci b!e.and sti r . Youco .n obtain a cr uc1blc
of th e l\1orgltll C;mcll~le Com panyl B~t,tersca. O!' of
the Soho CrQ~Lble Works . Wakofl e d .. I he,P,ri c? 1s n
t1·ifie ovc1· a. 'P~ny p er pound capuc1 ty. l'h u., .a 20
lb. cruc ible .\vould cost 1s. lOd.: n ~! lb. cr uc1blc .
2s. 3d. Either of t hese sizes would su tt rou. M ode!
gauge glnsses o f BaLcrnan, High llol born, or Leo,
High Holbor n.-J.
Bro.as .:...J. A. w·. (Glasa ow).·- A seri es of nrticle s
on brass moulrli n g, et c., to appcnr in t~e futu:e,
will con tain soma chapte rs on the s ubJ ect. 1• OL'
metal, write to Messrs . Osborn o & Co., 11, Grent
Gar den Street, Londo n, E.- J.
Mac h ine Sa w .- J. A. (TVan dstcor th).-A n ordinary bow saw 20 in. long, answe rs '\"cry well both
for rippi ng and' cr oss-ou ttjng, als,o for c ircles and
fancy shap es. No roller 1s req111re d to tn.l;e tbe
thrust · tbis is pro,•id ed for by the beam nnct con·
n ecting rods under t.hc table. A roller or stop of
any kind a t t.he back of the saw would be injlll·io us,
as it would cause fri ction, and h eat th e sa.w.-
F. R. R.
WORK Numb e r s .-S. R. (iVCJVr'I/).-Vo lumc I.
contai ned 52 w eeldy number s. Volum e Jl. began
with No. 53i nnd will end with No. 10 1; a nd the publicatio n wi I be contin ued in this order.
Micr o s cop e.-IJ. E. 4 . (P cl cl·boro uoh). - .An
article on "Micr oscopi cal \ \ork •· will be found in
'VORK , No. 94. page llS J. You s hould purclt use a n
Index to Volum e I., and nJso tluH to Volum e li.•
when it is publish ed.
T a king out o. Po.ten t .-UNC LE finds lhnt his
in vention has been foresta lled , but that the former
invent or allowe d his provis ional prot.cc tion to
elav~e withou t com pletmg hi!:! patent.
Bcinl{ in
d oubt as to whetbe r. ~.mder the cit·cum!ltau cc~>. he
eau or cnunot himsel f obtain a patent . his pruden t
cou rse will be to mnkc some s mnll im p ro ,·emcHL o n
the idea. ijO as to eiFect a colouru ble clitl'ere nce. a nd
the u lO apply for the pat.cnt . T he forn1cr in \'Cntor
bus (prC<>ume.bly) triP-a the invent ion in the Ularkc t.
As it s tands, it n-ntst be con~idt·red to ha \'e hcc n
publish ed, and to be known to l1 c 1· 1\hJ,,icst r's sub·
Jects, and to be th erefore no fRi r S ll bjccL roH· a put L•n r..
.But it would be otherw ise if it were comhin cll wnh
an impro, ·emeut . Li ~CLE couhl scarce ly feel bufe
in applrin g for n patent for an in,·cnt iou or "hich
he well knew that he was not the tlrst and true
in ventor . withou t adopti ng t he nbo>e legitim nte
expedient.-C. C. C.
Flute d Silv ered Gl ass.-R t>t'LEC TOR.-1 think
you will be able to got this ut :\[c:;c:rs. P. E. Chap·
p uis & Co., 69, Fleet !::itrcet, Lon<!on, E. C.
D D ulclm er.-G. 11. (Camb cl·tnll ).-'fhe dimensions or n V dulcim et· are as follows :-Lcng -t h in
fron t. 2 Ct. 10 in. ; ut bnck , 1 fl. I in. : llep t h of shell.
same us for F. 'L'he positio n of the inner b1·id~cil
are: for the righ t hnnu. 3~ in. f1·om the block. nnd
for the left hand, 12~ in. from tho bottom and :H in.
from the top corner s or block. Four sound· holes a re
genera lly put into 1\ IJ. a nd th e llors or mtuks fot
the cent re or these should be IIHtde attL dl;,tanc e of
5 in. from the buttom nnd top edges. 6 in. from the
left block for the treble, anrl !J in. from th e r ight
block for th e bass. 'l'hese should be o( 2! in.
diame ter Cor the two lower. nncl I ~ in. dinmct e1· for
the upper ones. The bridge s would be the !lame
size as for F .·s, and the wire fot· !tt rmging would bo
Nos. 10 and 9 brass nud !l uud 8 steel. You wou lcl
find so me diflicu lty iu playi ng n J) a nd F togeth er
as tho dill'ere nce ln pit.ch (a mino1· th ird) would
neces~itate a consid erable amo unL of .. cross-f ingering": but if you were to raise the pitch of rout· F
to G-whi ch 1t would stand Yery well if the wire is
good-i t would be much easier to plnr th em togethe r,
alth ou"'h ·you would 1.1ot play in the same k ey on
each. l'ho two best ms trumen ts to play togethe r
are either two of the sa me pitch1 or a D and un
ocuwe ~r pic~olo D. For a dcl>Cnp lion of this, see
page Gl a, No. 00 -H. F.
Electr o - M otor and Dynam o.-ELE CTRO .Thc cost of muldn g either an electro -motor or
11: dynnm o will de pone! ve1·y much on the qnnntlty of work you ean put inlo these machin es
yourse lf. The rongh coslinb'S tor a small dynnm o
of fh·e co.ndlc ·power will cost from ::C.. to 6s.. nnd
those or a motor ubout the samP.. The wire mnr
cost you abouL 10s. more for ~eh mac hin e. If you
ha,·e to pay for the luhottr of lltting the cnstin,. ;s
r eady to _be wound , it. .vill cost rou from 10s. to I5s.
ll}Orc. ): ou eau buy 1\ s ma ll dynnm o comple te 1o1·
1as., undamo~or fot• n se wing-m achine for 30~. The
cost o~ workm g ~hcsc " iU depend also on the co:>t
or motp ·e power, und tllis mubt be reckon ed nt one
mnn·powc1· for euch muchin e.- G. B . .B.
Electr ic Lig h tln g.- J. F . P . (Saffro n Tralde n )
-.A ~>c!:tcs of n1·1iclcs, entitle d .. •\lodel Eleotri c
L1gh;s, by 1\lr. Hunne r upon this subjec t ia now
runm ug lhroug h Vol. li. of \YORK.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
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73 2
SHOP.
[Work-J
Foreign and Colonial Patents.-CoN-J~GO.
-Each country nnd colony has its own patent laws.
The num ber of inventors wbo seek protection
nbroad is comparati>ely small. .Application h as ~o
h,, made to the Go;ernment of that country m
which the patent is required. Copies of the Patent
laws of most foreign countries are i n the Ji!ee
Library of the Patent Office. Southa!l'Pton Buildings. and mar be inspected there ~rulr from ~0 to
10 o'clock. There is a monthly p ubhcation speCially
d evoted to intcroatiooa~ protection-La ~prittt
Jndustrielle. I t is pubhsbed by the office m con·
nection mth the I nternational bonvention for the
Protection of I ndustrial Property. Publishers.
Jent and Reinert. Berne. Switzerland; price,
yearly, post free. 5 f. 60 c.-C. C. C.
Firing Terra-Cotta Busts.-C. T. B. (.Kt1burn..
N . Tr.).-The person to tire your busts would be
l\lr. Lucchesi. llis nddress is, or was, 75 Euston
Street. Euston Square. London. Should be have
remo"l'ed. :rou can doubtless find him through the
Directory.:...::u. ~Amalg:unntlng Zlnc.- J. J. ?.!. (Leith).-Dissol"l'e t lb. of wu bin!{ soda in one quart of bot
water and wash U1e Z.Joc plates in thjs to free th em
from iren.se; then rinse them in clcn.n water. · Get
a stoneware baking-dish, or n deep soup-plate. a nd
put in it a mh.~ of 1 \)art oil of virrio added to 3
parts of water. Put. 10 .first 3 winc-glnssfuls of
water. then add cnrefullr and lowl:r. 1 wine-glassful of oil of ,;u-iol. .!:\.hvays add the acid to the
water slowlv. as the mis-ture of the two becomes almost boiling hot. and may spurt about
n olently. I t ";u blister the skin and burn l1oles
in clothing. so be careful i n mixing the oil of vitriol
" "ith water. Into the hot mixture pour an ounce or
two of mercnr>- that is. quicl,\silver; then put in
the clean zinc plates one at a time and mo'\"e each
plate about ",th a stick until the under side is
coated with mercury. Turn it OT'er and get the
other side coated; then get it out and rub both
E'ides with a wisp of hemp, tow, or linen rag, with a
few bits of brass or copper wire in among the wisp.
This will cause the mercury to spread eT"enly all
oT"er the sides of the zinc, and cover it with a.
bright coat of quicksilver. This is named amalgamating the zinc. Treat each plate in this
manner, and thus prepa.re them for use in the
bauery.-G. E. B.
Galva.nometer. - J . T. G. (Edinburgh).-Yon
ha"l'e done quite right so far as you have gone.
There is a Jozenge..shapee. permanent m agnet
inside the coils-that is to say, there is a piece of
hard steel exactly the shape and size you mention.
This piece of s~el is magnetised and fixed by
means of small nuts to the spindle which carries
the index needle. The two bobbins a.re wound
with two sizes of wire. First, there is one layer of
~o. 22 silk-covered copper wire for use when
measuring low tension currents. Wind the same
quantily on both bobbins, leaving out two small
~irals of wire at eaeh end to m&ke connections.
~ ow wind 1 oz. of No. 36 silk-eovered copper on
each of the bobbins (over the large wire) for use
when testi:Dg for tanlts in the line Wire. Place the
bobbins together with the magnet inside, and con nect the wires as you have seen in the galvanometer yon mention. Be sore to wind on tlie wires
regular, side by side, and see that they are nicely
coated (no break:B, knots, or kinks), and connect the
outside or finish end of one coil to the inside or commencing end of the ne.xt.-G. E. B.
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ElectrotJpfng Cuta ID Plaater and Wax,
-cP.EWICEJt!\'U.Y.-The caste most be coated with
bl&cklead.,. by brushing them with a soft brush
cha~ed with \"cry finery powdered best blac1deac:I.
appUed dry. They m nst then have a. nnmbe.r
of fine copper wirC:8 stack in the edges near the
d esign, and Jbese connected to a stout leaiJing-wire
()f copper, also stuck in the back of each cast. Ifhis
"ire and the small wires serve na condootol'S of the
current to the race of the caate. The caste are then
suspended in & solution of copper sulphate and
connected to a battery Ol' to an electrotyping
dynamo ma.chJne nnlll a sutDcient thickness of
copper haa been dcpo~tlted on them . This is an
outline of the proCCIJ8. You wiU ftnd full d etails in
my article on "Electrotype Copies of .Busl8,'' published on August !h.h, 1800. In No. 73 of WORK. See
also reply to D. G. (Moor.fltldtl), publish ed on
Octobe r 11th, 1890, In No. 82 o (WORK1 J). 489. Thc110
hack numbers aro In print, and can oo obtalned at
n penny each from any news&j{cnt.--G. E. B.
Connecting Colla of Smee Battery.-T. l\f.
CBtljast ).-Conncct the platlniAcd l!ilver pinto ol
one cell by m eans of a length of copper wire with
the zinc plate in the other cell : then connect t.ho
&iJ\·er plate of the I!Ccond cell to t he zinC pJutc or
the third cell, nod so on to the end ol the wholo
&l·ries or stri ng of cells. This will leave a zinc
p late free at one end, and a sil ver plate free nt. the
other end. Connect one of these to the bell, and
the other ·to the Une ~\1rc. Lead a wire from t.he
b<:ll to a copper plate buried in damp soil, or connect the "ire to a gas pipe or water pipe. .At t he
other end of the line take a. wire from the push to
an earth plate or water p ipe. 'The earth will
conYey the current instead of o. wire, and o. naked
wire may be used for the line if this is insulat~d
from the earth by supportln(f, it at intervo.ls on
gln.ss or porcelain insul nlors. The Smee is ndt t.he
best for bells, nor is the system adopted by your
friend the best or most economical ; but e. bell can.
be 1'1nl.Q by snch m eans a s you mention. The wire
"·m not suffer much from exposure to the weather,
but the resistance will be great, and this will neI
cessitat.e an extra e:xl)cnditure of power to get the
desired rcsult.- G. E. B.
Shelf.-A . E. J. (London, W.).-1 take it from
your letter that the brackets you intend to use are
w ood, so that the best w a.y to proceed w on Id be to
prepare a 1 inch back-board the whole length of the
shelf, and wide enough to take the brackets below
and to stand up about 3 in. abovb to protect the
goods or wall, n.s the ca.se m ay be, a.s shown in the
enl~ement at B.
'!' his back-board serves the
d ouble duty of making an excellent fixing for the
brackets, and hides any part of the wall that gets
broken away in cutting the h oles for plugs. The
best form or plugs for this sort of work is two
wedges, aa shown in section a t o, and the way to
do it is as follows :-Cut out of a piece of I! in. by ll
in. sound yellow stuff two w edges about j in. long,
o.nd[ou. will see it you cut a nice square thole 11 in.
by 1 in, in the brickwork about four inches deep,
and insert the thick end of one wedge in first, driV"ing it right home, and then follow with the thin
end or the other, that the fnct of wedging them in
t his way thoroughlr binds them to the brickwork,
a nd w hen they nre once in. they can never be got
out a.gain b y fair mea.ns, especially if the two faces
nn\lary ~l.l&~l
of the elements
resistance of tb • and nlso incrc
batteries this t~~~ells. In nil bich~~ lhn lnte
~n the negative pl:~c~15to a.ccumulntio~lcroht
110~
0
mcreases with ·
most marked
'fd~"
cause there is ~c~scd demand to'r n~d tbe rllll~
formed when the vo{eased ,.olum0 or"~t. ~
*h~ having a low res~t': ot ~urrcnt is ~r~t\
!"iser,ffh~t~fc~~~~~~~~~:gfb~
~be~~~o~~~~1~
mg up lts o~en t
ns
lng slo . ellO!i
formed _in th~ batt~r~~~ne with th~\1~YI~.
~~~·f~~~g~c~~o~aJ~ ot1~otai:~o~l~~ule~
cburrent soon falls off afteer asstb' nod thereto~~
een closed The
e outer ei . ~
cell-is as you state .E.~ . ll". of en eh t>nlr~ctult h&i
ance of the size ceila 8 volt~. The inlernai' ~
about -os ohm. Takin:~g~\ed br ~·ou wou~
1
~:n~ ~ ~;~~o~!!' a~do~~g to~~~~nt;r~nY· ~ ls~~~!1
ave by Ohnfs 1 ce
amp~rcs as the total a,,
obtainable !1·om the batt
•
curretl
larger volume than 3 1crl. l-iow, if we clemn d
a
batt.cry,,it will polari~~ ~0 r;~p?r~l :un ent from ~b l
use~ess 1!1 h!J-lf an hour. but will s,~s ~ob~ nlo~t
whilst Yleldmg a. current ot tram t ·~r.A fnlrly wtll
\Vhat we have to do then
" w 2 amp6rts.
•
•
suits from rour baLtery la' t~ P1ct the best ~
sufficient resistance ui the ciuce. a l11mp of
down the cur~ent to from t ·a [~lllt to .P1111
A
.As yo~ only w1sb to use 20 cells at
ampe':t'·
rou m1ght employ o. 35 T"Olt 16 c ·P ~ t me, I tb1nt
would tak~ about 1·3 amp6res ot "cu.rr~~'r· 8 ~~ tbl,
I~ you dec1de on arranging the celld in th ~o ht;ht lt
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!_!lgbt cells in serie~ in a set, U1cn get tlor~! i~tsr,:
a c.-p.lamps. You ongbt. try three 11 vuh , c:.. la ' 6:1
but I f~r you would not get current cnou ~· rr.~.
perly l1ght. t~em .. I think ~ou wo.uld ~;et he~1, r~~~~~~
from cbromtc a?d than t:rom bJchrom;ltc of (l(lttcl.
and use Zn Cl mstead of N H3 Cl in porous l 1
do no~ know the V:ictoria Lcclnnchti. AI :~,~
.• --·batter~es ar~ only suJ,table for lntermmcnt li,:J,1$11,
n
from -! to a c.-p. 1: ou cannot get. :1 !'trot ·Ji •bt
J
from .them, nor for a longer period than ttn utinmtata. time.-G. E. B.
Mail Cart Wheels.-J. G. (Somcr•:l).- r Gr
these you should apply to the Y i~:tJJr lhl~ to
Grinlsby, who ad,·ertise in the ··::ale ·an~ E:i~
change " column of \V onK.
•
Stereotypes.-Cm:wxEn'it \:\. - 1 cnnnot con.f
dense a us-eful description ot' t ht• proc>, ;;, 11110 n suf.
ficien tly small compnss to suit t !.t• linoitC·tl ol acent
my dis~osa.l in " Shop." \\ ithNII J.r1nl.t, n~ "(IQn &3
the Editor can see his wnr to ci<J ~n. oM or two
.9
papers on the su bjcct will lie gi I'C' ll .- U. E.ll.
Compound K aleidoscope.- I:.\\'. J. L. (C:atdtr,
S . .Australia).-Tbt! ~peciali~ t ot \\'unK ;tntl can·
Shelf. A, Elevation of Shelf; B, Section t hrough not direct {ou where to buy. buL he will write you
ab; C, Enlarged Section of Plugs, l; e, Posi- as to one o his O\\"D m ake for snlc.
tion of Screws; f. Plugs; y, Wall.
Ebony.-E . H. B. 1Jia1·plc).-I . do not think rpn
w ill be able to get the ebour us w1dl· ns rou r,qlllre
of the w edges that touch a re smeared with glue it but :rou ca.n join it. \\' rile to :'lilt:" in, Timller
b efor e drinng them in. You should p r epu.re the .:\ierchant, Back H ill, llatton Gard~;:n, E.C.back-board first and fi t it into its place. then tnke it A. J. fi.
Timber Pteces.-G. R . (Hull).- Few Yl~sc:ue
down and mark out the position of the shelf and
brackets. The brackets should be housed into this t.o cut off short pieces of tim bcr. and 11s the >'Z•! rou
and also into the shelf ; the shelf would, of course, r equire is n ot n stock sjze, you bad bcmr get •!ro
bear much m ore weight it it 'vere ploug h ed into pieces a nd join them. I expect the ne:t~'<•t cu~
the back-board. Next bore the holes for scre"ing obtainable will be 8 in. x 8 in.• and thl3 Yt1U mar
the back-board to the p lugs, as shown.. in the eleya.- n ot be able to get in yellow pine; but J.ru.Eh(••lld ~
tion A. The six top b oles are ,PUt directly behmd a b:e to get r ed pine. a nd some ?f th1~ ts •••liar
the shelf_ so that the shelf. b emg fixed last, bides easv to make Here are some hrms m Hull Y~')
them. Now offer the back-board up to it.s place could trr, but I~ Uf!l not s~rc it tl:c-y,,~ulll~l~t:
and mark throug h these scr ew-boles on to the wall 9.uantities:-H . ::mnth .,- lo.. .1klull, ~ 1:" Hull·
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behind, and this will give the exa~t centre of the ~orth Side. Queen·s Dock : \\ 1 nu '
Simpson
&,
Co.,
H
edon
}{oud,
1Lul t.-.\. J. 11.
,.
holes to be made for plugs. Take down ba~k-board.
Sign Writing .-('· )f. fOIO!'C(.~/· 1").:~. 0 ~~~!1
piu~ wall (cutting off any piece of pl%t that mar
proJect beyond tl:ie face with sharp chisel), scr ew awaits you at the ollict! of '1\ OJ:t,. 1-'ltJso.: .(
the brackets on the back-board as section B, and address.
\. T I (Traltllal'l·
you can now fi x the whole back to the wall. e~cept
ClockWork
Turn-Tabl~.-i~
· drs~:ription and
the shell w hich you n ow lay on and nrul or
slotv}.-By all mearJne~~ll CIJIPI"OI"Ctl.
screw to brackets, as you think best. The two end sketclles
of your mac
d olh~
brackets migh t with adva!ltage be screwed.to the
The Seal: Gas Eng!Jle.- J . r... (~c~~-~~~~ by wrii:
side w a lls as at x in sect,wn B. A much su n pler
and lees e~p ensive way to fix the shelf would be -Full particulars OCf tbeba~?~~~ }i&lllOICCSWitbt
'
with Iron brackets in t he centre simply screwed to ing to J. Seal, 67, art e
wood batten s about 4 in. wide fL"<ed to plugs In ":an LOndon, W.
rt , refers
fUI above. and a fillet under ea ch end fixed to s1de
Glau Wrlttng.- H. P.
~'!_.. J
walls.-E. D.
ans"'er in No. 79, page 436, aD ~Jih
Books on Electric Bells.- T. l\1. (Belfa~t).­ interested in above s(ubjec~ oLber
" lt:iec t.ric lJclls •· by 8 . Bot.tone. 3s .• Wh{ttaker BDd. advertising tablets oPal f
moved
Co.• J...ondon, E. C. ; •• Praet ical Elcct.rio Eell Fit- B runswick black J bel!eXfm~3" . bow
tin~." Ha. Od.. F. C. A llsop. 16:;, Quceu V~otQria St.,
by stenclls. This is m~tero. You can u~::.
L ondon. KC. Eill1c t· of t hese wUl swt your re- the B B through tbe pa ti
ld pnlll' t
quiremen ls.-G. E. JJ.
Jt w ould take too lo~
~:, &'le•· '"7Ddlij
rately.
B
B
is
painted
hOW1"-f
do no&~
Gro.nu lo Batte ry.- \VATER L1LY. -- Theoretic·
brushedootorremov
m'aot
orlUclll8-lha$
ally considered, t~ battery should yield current
o.ccordlng to r esults r ensoned out by Ohm's law. the toregol.ng, and "' all fiA1. wha\ he
Thnt is to sn.y, knowing by measurement the crueli• but Wlll H. Pi re~ endeavour to
ds the ans"'er
internal ..eslstance of cneb cell, and the B.M.P. of then or eomeone e se
I
do
not
think
he
undent&D})oe9in~t
• but I jndltll(.'t'
each pair t.ho volume ot current given at the
tcrmJnuls 'should equal the total &»-F · divided by ~ f38 Ult!t :n~:'l:'!ometbtng ~ ~:~ B
the total resistance. But, from the moment of closing the circuit of n. batten•, there are changes set Iett;"~g labels ~d~::!~eJ!~ !fs not~-~~
up in tho battery ilsel! \vhich entirely upset our believe, 11 remo~ to be Ietterod t dl
on the sorfaoe f conree remove Ale=~·
theoretical cnlculaUons. 'l'bo most 110tent of these laid
1 That is plain )i
arises from the hydrogen determined to tbe nega· removed. ..,m it not. o
the stencilled letterunoulti: how~to~:;!,
tive element by the decomposition or the battery except
but
be
saye,
"This Is mY
f" voes be
llqnids. It t his is absorbed there ns fn~t. o.s. it is the B B through
the
patte~ogh
the
_.
form ed, Yery Uttlo nlterntion _is ~bser~o.ble l!'Jillther
1
0
the EM.F. or tbo bnt.tc.ry or n s mternu.l rcsJst.nn ce.
But, if the hydrogen is n.Jlowed to collect on the not tell, as be certawly oe
n egative element, it off er s n counter E.M.F. to that
E 43'20
c = R 1'9'2 = 22"5
f
r
..
c
<Pial
eo
:U
tit
u,
~~1;"~~k t:Sd~~;~ "'sb:~t~~ t~ ::0ye$1
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
•
W or k- Jn nm ry 2-1, 18!11. J
•
733
d. T he las t s •
letters_ wh ic h hn ,-c bt>cn ste nci llegh
oct ion , as yo u d esi r Fi
str
up.
it
·e
it
mu
[
d
t~~fehwill be!-' pli nth csi~~~~n R'~ nl:llaaa.n~e Overm a ntc l.- H. H . H
t,
ak~
':n
for
! Cnc~ IS n co nu nd r·um. nn
rt),
Pa.
m
tto
bo
.,
(i.e
t
d
she
bru
c YOu wi ll gle an
•r· gl.~;;. no d pa nc ru
ati on in b g
orm
1s pa1ntNI all ovt
inf
t
ie!l
ou
!fic
StJ
the
ll.
.
c:fc t[bi:
or r cm ov .:d , ho w 1..-u
th ts scr ew ed the ea ac . nu mb ers . Ton eed
plm
E:'\PERr:o.m:-~T.-Yo u be n~t hi!IB' mo re tha n a ~~lt!IO E,roper~ wh ich
.A ir Co m} lrc ssl o g Pn_mp.-re
.
8.1D ox wt th a cir cul ar
o po we r by hcu tin
m the top I t ill
(Sa l/O I'd ).-ln mn tch in
ole
S.
h
S.
h.1
lia
Po
"o ul! i un do!r bte tllr ot. tam mby
o.
"e
ha\
to
ll
g
d
we
~
\
un
ry
,
ioe
o~n
ur
r
~~~
g
tie
m:n
~ns
ttin
udg
pu
:tj
fro
his
ne
ui
use
do
el
st
be
mu
pan
uld
er
11
ck
co
ish
1
11.
mo
1
pol
1u
the
ut,
.
hkt
1 ho ntr . ':1-11<
wa
og
•
ldi
on
.m
me
a
{
bosay,
e, wi ll ccnsu~e tu:
1~~~~<:~1!.
r eau ha rdl y be reg u 1·de d as
tre d an d glu ed on t<> ~ P
wo
mi
t he r~cct \'el-. bu t thi s, of co urs
of
ad
ste
m
,
t
ard
'
lire
cn
n
·
nd
en
epe
ir
d
t-a
st
p
ho
mu
u
ng
in
mi
ine
stu
ch
fra
ha rtn g a
un d, m fue l: mu ke yo ur ma
era l Na tur all y, ~he
sev
t
a
n
tai
ob
can
h
l~u
s
f~
i:n
;ec
~l.
fpt
u
scr
yo
do
t
e
tha
lig hte r par ts, nntl 0 { those~~~
'fh
sts
the
ps.
of
t
sho
~u~c;e
tm
r·
c
r
<?uh
c?wl
ust
m
lid
r•~r·agr~ph H•,r?ut· le~ tcr h.u
d
an
s
As n
n o . e arm
rec eiv e yo ur clo s
~cd yo ur rcc ei,•eJ• th
t 11ey are to be da rk ene d
c
"
cor
e
ad
m
ot
n
'\ hc: n sou . h,n c on ce c
if
as
n,
tio
en
~~g!':1~
g SU tfic icn t afr t 0e ree tly the wil l est att
u wi~l find thu t a litt le we ttl~can
yo
indk
h
I_~
·
'S'
t~!
are
y
the
Nl.Jo4'l n~ Will W~ OD COnlJ)l'CdSin
as
r
l1e
get
of
t!>
ose
Fo urnot.~l
yo u r eq uir e It
rpe tua l mo t·1
ng
thr
int en de d
any
o
\H
1n
s
wo rk _J tSCI~. 'l,h1s wo ult l Ula ke it u pe
ll
wi
ed an d ten on ed be a COUI'Se, be !ll.tcred Sli ght ly wh en ncr cssary in coi onr
uin g po we (~ ma ke an arm . Th~~ . thntorotflcea
ch arm mu st
mu ciH ne -m tac t. yo n wo nld be ob rui
erg
to the
:)
i~n
han
mcc
the
On ot oth er pig me nts • nccon lirw
of
ou
cti
fl'i
b1y. thed ac!dltJ
e
th
e
o
on ly to o': crcom
t nts es1 red .-D. D.
· ~======;
i c h is me ch an ica lly an d
, fro m. notlu_ng, a ':es ult '~h
u hu ve to d o is
will run jus t s
on 'a Bl oo d.- HmN.- Ail yo.-D
ng
Dr
phy a1c all r 1111pos::nb le. l: out · en ginoe the
. D.
r cce h·e r
to pu t the dra go n's blo od in the oii
th ~ J>n'il'>U l'C ;ro•.' pu t int
~u
g
lon
ri g.
the
by a fire tha t ·
1
·:~ n. -W ith ou t ser ingsta
MATI
..;\
..
>;ta rt 1t las t,. 1f the lllr 1>1 he ate dsu1
~g
sh
li
Po
~
rec
te
cor
sc is'
IS lDlPOS&Ible for any on e lo
1t
t,
~n.o
!!l
ano the t· lllt ll tc r alt og c• her . If my at·mi
wl
St pro ve
g cha ng ed,
d~ no t wa ~t('<:;,,tim e Ol' III CJDC)' On wh InU
PO~ll' ely the cau~e of the col ou r. haP\·in
CI'h aps bo th
ish
l'allu re .- .b.
an ~he def ect 111 theavpnl
ha \·c boon cgu sed b}:
.-G . s. ( TP'alesp cct all y the latter , .m
Fi xi ng J?l al b y th e Co mpuass
ixture ns a cle ans er
lic nl no rth , an d
the u~e of S<?rne unsu1to.bio 111
wo rllt ).- l t LS ~o t h~ I ru e or a:. tro oll
the se n1·o ext rem ely
of
o
b
som
to
fo1·
',
ve
VCJ
hu.
,·l
ll
·rc
wj
I
lis_h
diu
PO
he
or
1
t
tha
Jc.
net
n ot to the m a!(
ish. 'l'h e fau lt n)oy bo in
pol
h
b:
·enc
ll
J<'r
wi
~
s
s
ion
n~m
ect
etc
dir
.
del
i!l)
.
(Xo
U.
ol:
Y
,
set. At pa~c. 130
r des cri pti on mi t;h t Ind iot
rou
n
d
is
nn
It
lf,
s.
Itse
pas
sh
com
poh
~
th
the
by
l
cha
~
g
x1n
t1
fou nd fot·
gla ze has bee n e mp loy ed Th enn
ch
tio
ria
mu
\"a
too
t
the
tha
e
of
'?t
cat
ou
am
the
ely
,c;rs
J>I'e
te:
eas y to sta
ve been dam p. I can on tr' recnom
ha
y
r
ve
ma
w
od
no
wo
is
n
the
tio
rm
va
al
nll
all
he
1
le.
of th e ne ed
n~ to the Ins pec tio of
thi
tbo
t
mi
ub
s
ar~
to
t
re
yo~
the
t
end
bu
m
·
t
tan
por
111
s ma ll, an c_l J'!l'UCLicnll; uni
:sb er. I t is n ot lik ely
pol
h
nc
Fre
~d
l!C
d
·le
an
.or
cxr
ses
an
cau
ul
Joc
on
r
ino
loc al '"UI'Iat_lons dep t·n rt
ou r un d glo ss eau be res tor ed
cvl
l.
1.na
or1~
o
10
als
I
'
11
mu
Lh~
dle
nee
tho
;
l's
tior
·in
thc r·e arc r~ntmal vnr
u t n:polt'llun~;.-V . D.
tho
Wt
•
pe
hJJ
ug
Ro
.
rms
o
cst
!li
~nt
mu
be mu ch ntl cc.t et_l by
ans
ute .- Yu cAT,\N. - Th o on ly meov
son1e
Fl
be
d
y
e
;g_
ma
h
ma
c
wi
Dn
ccn
Ur
at
n
uo_
na
,·u
th_c
ps;
hn
cl'i ued is to r em e
dcs
e
ng
a
uam
of
the
aid
g
the
:urm
by
cp_
r
r
of
tou
ng
lki
wa
n
or 19 \\. lu tnl un g
t a pic co of Ge rm an sil ver
cu
n
the
d
an
pre
s,
lar
we
Pil
ll
t~
wi
bot
t
ris
tou
the
ss,
pn
ma p an d po ck et com
lor m n new bas e fot· the m· cu t
to
e
Lo
th
plu
e
·
tak
I·cJ
SJI
to
or
as
1·
ulu
tic
par
so
.
bo_
s um~. s~n1·c ely
od the bro ken l>lll't an d bet \ve en
rou
od
he
s
wo
les
the
un
r.
wa
nt,
a
ou
acc
mo
i
o
e~ll
nt•
.
the
tor it,
!1echnat1 ~n of
s l!npe of pl!l,t e to for m a sea tin gpil
to
l~rs
Jlll
Y.
.
the
.-A
ses
rpo
pu
c
tirl
en
sc1
for
g
IS tra ,·e lhn
sol der on yo ur lar s
cn
lh
sh.
!lu
he
y
ma
t
tt_l
~ht
so
w of no com po d scr ew the pin to int o pos ian
),
der
sol
•et·
. ~oof. -:- T. F. _Ui ul lill!f'I I') .-I k nothe
SI_h
th
t~n
slu.tcs on the
int
scr ew s. Th e pla te wo uld
ll
ma
s
ee
thr
h.
wn
sttlo!l , WJt~l wh1c h ,YOUt·ou ld pou~-:
n
llo
of
th e joi uts pro
for m, bu t you wil l be gu ide d
i.n
l
om
tf
t
be~
out~1de w1 th l_h~ 1de u .or muki
k
loo
for
ly thi n~ lef t
SIZe an d sha pe ol the bro ken pa rt
the
by
s
th1
to
ng nm st th e dt•tf_llnt;. raw s. Th e un
as
tho
we
sla tes fro m
ATA_N is a ver y ex pe rt me cha nic
Yu~
s
les
Un
yo u to do n_ow _rs t~ gr· t un de r th ec ut
ce
pie
the
ho le in
)lt let tin g in a
s hou ld ad ns c lum no t to att cm
ro~r_n be lo" . c ,_en 1f rou ha re tollu ls ofa on e cou rse
ruuld alm ost s ure ly spo il his i nst
wo
He
..
od
wo
of
ceJhllf!, an d po mt bE'l \\'Ot>n the
it·r noi ·taJ· or bet tc 1·
ere Is no ~~·cat dil llc ult y in the pla nth
1lst
wl1
.
ent
m
u~d the h ead.!! of untlthe1· wi th hn
ins tru
cou rse , yo u
n bov e. Th e key pad s of wi nd cri
d
Ste
A'C
sug
Still, rcn()Cr nil 0\' (' r th e un de r s idef. isOt
ed unrt
wn y des bed .
u·d
the
hot
in
de
roo
mu
P
h
t
bo
t
if
e
no
ov
ld
ab
cou
::
th~
L::~
do
r~cn
t
no
uld
co
rd to tak e the im pre s; h11 t' if it
hn
oo
uur
t
is
be
it
ld
u
nk
wo
thi
rd
l
oa
ulr
db
sho
car
1
c
r
J.h
tte
le
III'
YO
m
fro
, con seq uen tly , no t
n: 1• rl 11
uld
co
d
wo
an
d
an
it.
lo,
ip
~;ho
str
r
k<;
llc
_the
Ol'
d
.or
n
ha
u
SIO
yo
b~.
uld
s ho
tes. 'l'hi!l
pad s are ski n pad s, i .e., o.
t
sla
bes
the
he
1
l(ty
re·
d
ht.
an
~1g
lt.
nu·
fe
be
n"'
rk1
sn
h
wn
rd~
boa
. ,.., .
er wa dd ing . 'J'h cse pad s are
ov
uge o! he at
n
p~
w
e
dra
th
s
~
lay
ski
e
de
d
fin
llll
u,
plu
Od
~C?
Ig.
a
rs
r
ter
!ut
is di!Ueult to
mo stl y 1mp_ortcd fr·o m abr oad , as it ess
an d col d. - E. D.
g. 3 .
Fi
he re- the
of t be propet· thi ckn
m
sk_
ll
re
-A
cu
n).
pro
lr!i
(E
1'.
G.
~.~u
Wo
1n
s
t
lm pr ov e_m en
Y VCATAN bem g too
by
to
d
rre
efe
r
skm
er
dd
,·e
hu
bla
ct·
orr
o
t
h
ouK
t he sug-~estwn.s y~u urc k111d en hat
' ski n t oo .fine. T he pa ds
tcrs
CI\
d-b
gol
d
an
ut,
sLo
\·e
LJa
l
wil
d
an
.!
be en bcfor!! m1 ht:ICll·e. Al l hu ve
d, ho we ver , arc ma de fro m lam b
~se
y
nll
lcr
ge!
?St
lll<
ev ery comudt:J'aliOn.
s fro m a glo ve ma nu fac tur er' s
mg
t
cul
he
'I
ll.
Skl
A
A. B. (Az tlcs bu ry).
answ et· ad mi mb ly. -G.
Back Nu mb ers of W oR .K.- ry
fot·
g
nin
tui
ob
in
uto
-A s yo ur book:.ell c t· is bO tlil
. P. (8/ rtc kb urn )an d
.-J
ern
nt
a
L
al
tic
Op
e
ply
ipl
ap
Tr
lrl
u
ho
s
yrm
r..
Y~U the ba ck prtl'lS of \\' rm
& W. 'l'a ylo r, Sla te Wo rks
S.
T.
rs.
css
1\l
:s.or:
nto
oth
dg
Lu
,
s.
('()
ta.l
&.
De
ll
3.ssc
<Urec t to the l~ lli!JiS hl'rS-l'a, ho uld c ,·c r·y int cn uin g
Fig. 1.- Comm od e. Fig s. 2 an d
ent il'e lnnLcrn fro nts rea dy
tho
plr
sup
can
r.
ste
ice
Le
.
l11 1l, L~nd on, 1·.. (.. ~o. too
wo od wo rk at the fol low ing
the
to
g
hin
tnc
nL
u.
tor
yo
10
{hL
pli!
t
lilu
sin
a
sub scn bc t· wh o 111 ay be in
ol fro nts for tbo low er o r tw in
ir
pa
.
:-A
ces
pri
.
top
de
mo
com
the
!=;,
or
r.
1
.- C.
trif le les s t ha n h~lf the ";dth tog eth er as in }'ig. 3. lan ter n, we ll fin ish ed in bra ss, wiLh ad jus tab le sli de
lm~r oved At tac hm e nt fo r L ath es lio n re the
ot'l llt\
sid es. an d fitt ed a nd
d
nn
~oth ar111s n re lun ged to fol d
top
the
at
n
ope
s
~ge
stt
(No ttm oltc t71 1) nn d oLh••r·.s.-1-'ot· inf
h
hic
w
of
th
to the ma ke rs
con den ser s, £1 18s.
in.
4
Ore wi ll be. a bo x lid . the ins ide dcp
Cor
'li.J
y
ead
r
er
eth
tog
ab ov e (se c pn~c 5'!3. Vo l. JI. ). ap plylt1
ged
hin
the
of
ss
nsb u ry Pa ve : w1U be sof ttc 1en t to fit O\•er the thi ck ne
dra w tub es (for con ven ien ce
le
trip
or
e
ubl
d!>
th
wi
or
M ess rs. I<'. ::\1. l{n l(e rs & Co., 21,
the
th
wi
ush
fl
arm s. 'l'h e sid es of the lid wiJ1 bethe arm s wh en of foc uss mg wh en len ses of va ryi ng foc i are use d)
me nt, Lo nd on . E. C.
ll
:i
pr eci ate yo ur si lie of the car ca$ e; as als odewi
18s. res pec th· ely . It a rol lin g cur, tah
£2
d
nn
Ss
£2
of
k
bao
tho
of
Bl tnd s.- \\-. \L ( Rr i.ti oJ t). -I aplty
pth
fitt ed to eit her of t he above- the
pro fit by ad jus ted . W ere the wh ole
is
or
m
rag
bil
ph
oba
dia
pr·
I)O
see
or
n
e
.ctt
edg
t
nt
bu
fro
t.~,
nui
the
t
i nge
n bli nd s are ea ch arm to flt close up a~ains the lid wo uld no t ch arg e wU I be 5s. ex tra . 'l'h c cos t of the rem aineing
po rse ,·e nn g w1Lh yo ur 1den. Ve neetiada
be pro po rtio nat t-o
y wo re a dju ste d,
wiU
the
n
en
be
ter
wh
lan
ain
lid
ag
tot>
y
the
t.he
for
som
nt
ll
fro
wl
y
the
;
the
n
n ow ou t of fas hio
ly ; the rofor:e , the gre ate r pa.rt of the the abo\·P.. R end ers des iro us of fitt ing the lan ter ns
per
pro
are
se
s
clo
nd
bli
ler
rol
en
Ev
t.
ye
t
no
t
bu
t he l'ig ht thi ng ,
be at a dis tan ce fio m it equ al to the wi th t hes e rea dy -m ade f ron ts wil l do we ll to ob tal n
st
mu
it
t
pth
Bu
de
.
ins
rta
cu
or
r
ou
far
in
d
rde
n ow bei ng di &cu
o, sid e of the lldfi wh ile at the t-op at A
ttin g the con den ser op eni ng s in
or
cu
to
ess
"
us
kn
c
ide
vio
thi
gu
pre
d
m
or
''c
the
the
,
l
rsa
ive
uu
at
re
as
we
n
V en cti an bli nd s
may be nec ess ary to pla nt thet
it
or eac h arm the re wi be· a. pro jec tio
as
ck
k,
ba
the
·or
fit
od
d
wo
an
the
od
go
are
ys
lle
ns
pu
tio
the
jec
it
Is no t req uir cu
. 2 ; an d to acc om mo da te bo th proou t rro m lat ter in a :.li gh tly dll fer ent pos itio n in ord er to sui
Fig
in
ys
lle
pu
the
do
r
no
·n,
tut
y
the
ich
gsmo l'li ces in wh
rs. Da vid No akc s & So ns, Bil linplY
css
s wh en the arm s o.ro fol ded . a ple oe mu st be
:\l
eel
.
wh
nts
of
rro
e
the
cas
the
in
ile
wh
.
ge,
Fig
usa
in
t·
asl
fai
sup
bre ak wi th
r t he sid e wh leb for ms the ba ck of the lid.
·t:l' t. t: ree n wlc h, are als o wi llin g to
he
::lu
eit
te
g
ga
tin
ica
ind
e,
rtic
mo
the
tit
t
no
s.
J.
uir ed in the con str uc1.req
.
rts
Fig
d
pa
an
all
u,
h
t
2,
"i
s
nd
u1·
• wh ichs do
bli
ate
am
the
g,
icin
ort
m
wh eel no t to ga ug e, or ba d
(N o .Adclru s). -F irs t bd or tio n of lan tc ru,.. - c. A . P.
G.
ed3
.
em
r
.-H
al
ng
usU
ltJ
We
the
t
op
ad
to
e
nu
nti
co
ma ke r wi ll
on the AT&io sid e {th is is the
ell
w
lts
we
the
eto.-s . T. R. (Durs~).­
s.
e
rs,
ap
ide
gu
scr
ave
ur
Gr
yo
ng
ase
tti
rch
he
pu
W
n
tha
ht
rig
r ath c t·
o,
tw
in
ir
pa
•
"loze ng e" on e.
d the n ou t tlie
a
an
n
e),
boo
sid
ve
th
ha
oo
sm
uld
sho
on
r
ve
cle
rti
gra
a
e
xt
Th
ne
.My
).to
Bo lt B ea.d.a .-\V . H. (L ee ds
, an d pu t the m ln cle an w atee r lill
a sut Hc ien tly do e
t
tre
ou
cen
to
le
the
tLb
be
wn
t,
do
ub
do
of
no
n
l,
tio
wil
rip
u
esc
Yo
d
a
ln
":Moul!rn J:o'or gin g" wi ll co uta u mo st hav Q som e ge t we ll soa ke d thr ou gh . We lts are un lik
Ye s. Th e ordin~
n.
stlo
qub
in
e
on
the
th
wi
e
lin
et.
w
yo
bol t ma kin g in the s ho ps, bu t
r ill a bo ot, for the y mu st be wo rke d yo u eye -gl ass Is mp ch use d for sm all w ork , bot. for
the
lea
er
oth
nce
ap pli an ces an d too ls. -J .
ss is use d, mo un ted on a
tak e tl1em do wn to the sub sta
t,
gla
r
we
ge
ile
lar
Wh
a
rk
wo
ge
lar
o.
.sld
h)
sli
rg
fle
din bu
off the
tin g arm , wh ich can be rai aed
jec
pro
~oire the m, tak ing thi s s urp lll8
o.
P e tro leu m En gi ne. - R. J. D. (E
th
wi
nd
sta
t
ou
be
ab
,
ld
wn
en gin e coU
a pie ce otf the wh ole wa 7 do
.ve
o sw ive lle d rou nd in an y dir ec-t
ald
als
d
en
an
Th
d,
I>o ubl fu l If a sm all pe tro leu m ll,
ere
low
d
an
t
bea
the
ke s
ces ma_y req uir e. Th e let ter s cu
tan
ms
ou
olr
ma de to wo rk. Pr les tm an 1 of Hu of ma
n
tio
a
ill
ce
ett ed
l'er en
tto m are do ne With a gra ve r wh
bo
t
fia
a
i n th e ma rke t. Bu t the re 18 a lot sardli
th
wi
to
i8
n
est pla
Yo ur
e the on e sen t, an d theaa
lik
gle
an
te
acu
an
at
m od el an d a lar ge eng_lne. ld
erk ," of Bir mi llg uir ed width . A gr ea ' de al
req
the
to
oft'
ned
get . a spe ela lis t 11ke •· Du ga Clad
tte
tla
of
re eeJ an , or ad vll e
let ter ing il do ne wi th a. shadJ_ng ~ver th
eap
oh
of
ha m an d Ma nc he st er , to pre pa
...
tin isb ed m
on the pr act ica bil ity of it. -J . .
~:-ed width of cut , an d the n mu
the
ch lho rte l'
ely
lik
gra ve r. Use a
un
ry
gle
ve
an
i8
ary
It
).o
ull
the
tH
D.
H.
.
lur
tri
pa
lte
e sen t, and. by the wa:r~,.JOU .
pa tte rn of
on
t
e
ac
·th
ex
n
tha
the
tch
er
ma
~v
to
le
ab
be
ll
wl
u
yo
t
tha
111018
are rep &l rtu g,
wi ll find o\11' En gll ah grave1'8 qu ite u ;oo d u
t.he s tri ng ing o n the old fur nit ure yo u ge
lar quanti~
of for eig n ma ke .-N. 1'4.
aa t.h e str.insCiug s are m ad e upa In
sm lill lot jua t to db
- .AP PR BN TIC L teL
au
erm
Ov
J(
i.D
rat
oo
an d it wo uia no t P.aY to ma ke
De
oft en the be et an d moat
ion to yo ur deooratJDB the
ect
obj
no
be
can
a r ep air ing job w1t h. Virse risy to
ere
Th
pie ce UJ )an yd efe oU ve
rm an tel yo u ha ve ma de wllb
ve
o
the
of
l
ne
pa
eco no mi cal wa y In r e pa
top
,
lta bly col ou red
eho uld na tur all y be of auc h &
il
Th
.
ork
tw
fre
pa rts or the s trl ng ln" wi th bit e or aulab
ou r. If .70U
e, m ea ns
ll harm on ise wi th t.he ree t ~
wJ
it
t
tha
~
ac
ar
oh
ve ne ers. 'fh is. of co ursstr
aa
ing ing, yo u wHI ftn d
Inc lin ed to tht bk thAt by "to o
am
I
.
lgn
dea
the
de ter mi ne to b uy n ow
Uae
er'a, Dr um mo nd
an JJedlment. in wh ich ca"e if
me
JOU
l"
ne
pa
lar ge a sto ck at D. Wl tt &. Pa lmyw
~~
:~
few
y
a
d
re. It ma
teU a a tal l on e yo u wm pro ba bly tlnfre tha n
an
erm
ov
I
Str ·ee t, Eu11to u Sq uar e, N. W ., LUI anyo o he
1
at
to bu y wh
an d bro ad tre atm en t mo ro ett ect
et
llD
ld
bo
be en81r· r an d qu lto as c he ap for
Q
1
t ma lle r. Yo
tity of sm all ntg gll ng wo rt.- D. D.
an
qu
a
yo u rcf !ni re thr ou gh & loc al cab ine
l
~il
t
aid ltri n& 1D £ bu
. W. H. (N o Ad dN U). wi ll Hell ttu1t. I ha ve ref erre d touinl
.-F
ax
W
Dg
8Jl
!
Ue
lt
8Q
u.
m
Ur
eu
can
yo
it wh ut yo u wa nt If! plll ln,
iled lln8eed ol~ ha lt • pouDil
bo
of
t
Pin
14
a
1!11
0
lt
1'
ha
ke
Ta
D.
D.
r.
ale
de
Y
yourJ>clf or bu y i t fro m ruJ
ax , tw o ou nce s of Bu rgu nd f
sw
bee
t
bea
of
~
fo
om
"c
al
IC. -A
on e p•n n7 W
d
an
ur,
fio
t
bea
of
Co mm od e.-H Ol'fOlJ R OLD AOew
da
un
po
'"o
11b. Ne xt to ~
uiJie ' ut·Llole 18 th( \t flhow n bor
elm pll clt r ot tol l·
co u1lor~ . ran ge e pla inn ess an ll
"Jf'B
k\
I
~dh~~~h~~~\;;:Ot~~~~~e ~~·i;t~t~t~~~~Ss
ram
I
11
t!
tg
1:
a
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f
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l
-
I
cJ!\,bOh.
I
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
•
•
••
73-t
SHO P, ETC.
ti ra~on" s
•
blood. Cntth e wax into thin slicC!I, place
it an £>art hen ware pot along with the boiled linseed
oil and Unrgu ndy pitch. and melt slowly. When
the in~c<li~nts arc thorou ghly well blende d. put
the flour on a ti n tray. and pour the mixtu re
~'Tadually in, ru bbing the ftour thorou ghly well into
it. It is dirticu l t to mix wax quite proper ly, but
>ery good wax can be obtain ed ready mixed from a
car•er -say \\·. Ang11s, Northu mberla nd H ouse.
P un·es Road, K ensal Green. \V.• at 2s. 6d. a pound .
Orders must be accom panied by the! money and
po,tag e.- )1. E. R.
Ilf.- QUESTIOXS S UBMITTED TO CORRESPO:ofDRNTS.
F eath e r Sorte r .-C. J . (Birm ingha m) write s:.. K indly tell me. any reader. ho w to make or where
to buy a cheap feathe r sorter and duster for bandpower to take about 20 lbs. or 30 lbs. at a time."
Printi ng on Tin.-D . E. E. (Banchorp) writes :" \ V ill an y reader kindly give me any mlorm ation
r egardi ng the procc.s s of printi ng on tin1 I am led
to belie,·e I am to be put on such a j ob shortly ,
and not ha,·ing done such before . a tip or two from
you might come in liandy . The job will be in three
or four colour s."
Frost ing.-B ETA writes :-" 'Vould any reader
kindl y let me kno w how to frost or obsc ure glass
(windo ws) J"
Lacqu er for Brass.-PATI:E:XCE would t hank
an yone who would tell him the receip t for a good
lacque r for brass.
lndla. rubbe r Ornam ents. - ADIE writes :.. Will nor reader kindly tell me bow to melt and
mould iodiar ubber !or makin g ornam ents, etc. l"
Brow nin g Gun Barre la.-C. B. F. (&acln nbe)
-n-rire' : -·• Will any reader give me infonu ation
throug h ·Shop ' on browning gun barrels 1''
Photograph y.-C. E. H. !H arwich ) write s:" Some two years ago I saw an advert isemen t in a
paper about paintin g photog raphs on glass· it was
not cry:otoleum, but was a word that sound ed like
·• tran ..·toleum ." I Qtlite forget the word. but it was
a ne w way to paint photog raphs. It waa somew here in Londo n, and they sup plied you with work.
W ill any reader s k.indJy tell me what t hey know
a bout it.''
Joine rs· Bits. - .A. A. W. (Uces ter) write s:.. \ \ ill ;:ome reader gi>e me a list of the bits joiner s
use for bor ing purpos es. their name. and what they
are u3erl Cor. and why J I notice there are se~eral
kin rls or t will bits ( I think that is the name). Is
one better than anothe r in certain cases, and whyl
Solde ring.-XORTUERXER writes :- " I shall be
verr glad of a few hints regard ing the hard solder ·
ing of delica te article s. I do not ma~ so well
as I could wish, and shall be vel"l" th
nl f or a
hint or so trom one who knows . I shonld like to
know. for instanc e, bow a thin gold bevel tor a
Ge ne~a watch is repaire d when it is broken. :\ly
m ethod of doing it is to fasten the bevel down to a
charco al block -the ends togeth er- then apply the
borax, and when it has gone all ronnd. lay ou the
solder : but here l not long since, mieera bly failed,
as I found to my cost, for a ne w bevel had to be
bough t. Wheth er t he solder was too bard for the
golc.l or not. the bevel was ~m and could not be
repaire d. I genera lly have little ctifficulty in doing
solid rings or article s of some substa nce. but fragile
pieces 1 genera lly !ail in. I use a spirit- lamp aud
ordina ry blowp ipe. I should also like to know bow
specta cle fram es are treated alter solder ing in order
that the blue may be or even shade, and tbe U8118l
metho d of bluing . I have seen boraci cacld mentioned in t he ha rdenin g et small -~1 articl - Is
a"""'
._
it si m pi y nsed as a ft nx to preven t seating
, or ia iUor
some other purpos e 1·
SUk.- J . S. (Ra m.sbottoml writes :- "Can 7Du
inform me (a ) Hc.w to keep silkwo rms 1 (b) A'ro the
best way to dispos e of the silk proftta bJ.yf CC) Also
where to procur e t he eggs 1 (ell BeiDg a cotton
wea >er, would it be best to weave it mJ8elU '"
_
n .-Q t:ESTI O~S A.'i"SWERED BY Colmt8 1'0MD &IITIL
"6urat ing Water-~~~ G. F . UlfDER WOOD
(Babb erlev R oad1 Ki
iuUr) wrftee : - .. In
refert>n ce to bursttn g water- pipes (see No. 8S. JleP
55!\ it GLASGOW will give or aend
his adttre8 8,
I " "ill !'end him sketch of a valve of m, Ol"Jl mnm;..
tion t hat I think will fnlOl his reqaJr emeut a:' ·
Pictu re-Fr ame Mould mg.-J. H. ~ CPeftdk..
t on) writes , in reply to H. R. (BCJCifp) (-. VoL.IL.
~ o. 83. ~e 506) :-"1 ba~e foand Mr. G. WDUama',
9, .-\ lbe rt Bridge ~lanchester a good ahop for '&be
abo\·e."
'
'
p •- t
F
E
.
a1 .... n · - · A. · C'J'ufn.dl Park)
~8
=:
Sout hampt on Buildi ngs. Londo n.
.c., are tltaatworth y; thE;Y are taking out m,- fatber" e ]Mtaw .n
o•er the wprld. They pobUs b a '"book eeiJed •The
True Positi6 n of Patent ees '111.. ....-_fft le."'
•
•......,... ·
B eating T ool&- W . R P. •(H~)wdte..la
reP,lY to A. T. :\1. ( Lic/ifi dd),(&ee page
Vol. IL):
- H he bas access to a ldtcbe oer, he~ llud 11
atlnc; \\t·er we(ll to leL tUbe ends ~~ a~eJ ir:.Wd ~
le op o rang~.
not, an u v u o n top ot an or<lina ry fire will do a& wen; •wJO
flnrl. t he tooT!' keep m~ch cleane r this.. ,.., *be
p uttmg them m the ft.re.
V en etlan BUnd s.-G: B. (Lf~ WJ:Ite.. ID
r ej•IY to .AS Pll A..'iT (see ~o. Si,
:~•·yoa csa
ma" e a • boat· for rapidly painti ng-ven dlao baDda m
the follow ing way :-Mak e a woOden lzoap w1th v.
shaped endS (say about 6 in. or 7 fa. deep) a1 tmT
a.
page-
conven ient length . 3 ft. or 4 ft. long might do. to
hold the mixecf paint, snppor ted on legs. and a t the
left-ba nd end place a woode n box made to hold two
ordina ry scrubb ing brushe s placed one ove r the
o ther face to face, allowi ng just suffici ent room tor
a Venet lan lath to pass c0111fortably betwee n them.
The lath is first dipped about one-fo urt h of its length
in the paint trough to ta.ke the pa.int, and the n
[Work-J&n~Uty 2-t, 18'Jl.
NOTI CE,
-
A Special Exhibition Number of
''W OR K"
(Separau fr~ tht Weekly &r Jf01!Lhlu l~~~~t)
R M been pobliabed, and is now on sale .
(post. free, 4d.). This Number conai!~
3. pagea m a wrapper, and contains an lllus
trate d Descr iptive A ccoun t of the ~
remar kable Exhibi ts.
sg..
-
Troug h for Painti ng Venet t•D
Blind s-A, Slit in front !or
passin g Lath throu gh ; B, Box contai ning
Brush es ; D, Paint Troug h or Boat.
passed throug h the openin g in tbe box. passin g
betwe en the brushe s a nd out at the back of the box,
being cangb t by finge r and thumb of both hands
on its edge at ea.ch end as it passes out, so as not
to rnb olf more of the pai nt than can be avoide d;
the lath is then hung on projec ting rods to dry, t he
rod passin g throug h the boles in the lath. Top and
bot tom f1Uls are usuall y painte d by band. Brushe s
must be so llxed in box as to be steady and not
move when laths are being c~ed throug h. I send
s mall sketch . and h ope the · ts may be of ser vice
to .AsPIRA ..'iT, but w ould strong ly advise AsPmA NT,
if be takes up V enetia n blind painti ng and makin g
for trade p urpose s, to add uphols tering to it, as the
Venet ian blind t rade is so cut up nowad ays that it
requir es one's utmos t care and econom y to make it
pay."
Colou red Patte nua on Canva s. - J. H . B.
(Pend ld,.n) writes , in reply to To Po (see Vol. IJ.,
~ 55!): - ·• T o P o 'vill find Briggs ' pattern s
useful They are sold on sheets of white tissue
paper, and are stamp ed by applyi ng a bot iron to
the back. Books of patter ns are kept by m ost
small- ware dealer s.''
V .-BRI U A.CKNOWLEDG)o(XNTS.
Qt: • adon1 bAYe beeD recri...-e d from tbe f OIJowfn g C:OTTIISJlOD·
d ell !.I. !lDd answers onl:r &wai"J •ceio SUO!'. ni)Otl w bfc:b t here
14 grer.' preMI'f ll >-T. B . S. \Dour") ; A RU.DJ: a (Bad.~ I ;
E . B . H. ICAatha m)j· J . B. S. (}l~n~UeJ~): L. U. N. (.UM'J)OOO;
A. T. (Bacnlle)l)
• E. A. (.llderll lot Camp} : V.I.JI!f iiU ;
Vnaa a; LUX lrT V &IUTAS : W. W. (Brft!v rd); "T. T.
18 '• ndwgll41?') : P c ox: w. J . (lftaun. ) : A. lr. '· ~Trmt);
TA LBOT IBfl/&gC IUl j B . 8. 0. ( 01111t111eTimilhl, J . J . ll. ( Ebbw
l"<Ue) : W . J . C.
!UcllliMro•>
(lalf~) :
W. G.
Trad e
(1J4nuba~) ; A.
~ote.
J. S.
•
LO~-nON.
l>E:PAR TJION'T 01!' TEclD iJcAL L'iSTRUCTION.
KING 'S COLL EGE,
Build ing Con8t ruction and .Archi tuture .
The Carpe nters' Comp any acting in counecUon
wUh the COuncil at King's COlleg e, Londo n, have
1 ed
blfAhi
t K~
· tb
reeo Y
on
esta~ ng a m s C0 11ege m
SVand , Evenb :lg :Lectu res ou B dlng ConStr uctione
and .A.rch:itecture and Drawi ng Cla8ae8. Lectur es :Theee will be ~Yen on Monda~ from 7.15 to 8.15, by
Bania ter ll1eteh er, Esg., F.R.L B..A.., Profes sor of
Bnlldm g COustr uct.ion ~ .Arcbi t.ector e at King's
Co~ Each Cour8e 1riD Jaat twelve weeks or
&bereAboo&e. Sol!jec&a :-Foun dation s, Brickw ork.
BallcH ng Stones , Timbe r, ita variou s for0l8 a ud
aee I:r6D, and it8 1ISe In Ballcll ng, Plumb ing and
SePrltMWD, um-, Cemen ta and COncr ete, Maso,n
ry,
:J'laep mof Coostr acUon , Ca.rpe ntly (:roots and their
COt.-rU4:1CioD.!z. ~rin_g aud .Materials. Archlf. eo..
&we llJ!d itll u&ih . ¥ee. S 1& for each Term.
lJt'mDt~ Cla.. u aJtd Claau of Dui.{p L
These~ be b,8Jd OD ){oo~ from 8.15 to SU5,
Ba.ais ter Fletc er, &88ist.ed by a
• The Lecmr e Room, Museu m, .and
Ubrar t, will be o~n bee to all studen ts on Fnday
uf'Jd np for &etch ing and 8tud7 from 7 till9. the
~ a&uncting. .Fees, 108. 6d. for each
TerDL sta.de au DOJDiriated by the Carpe nters'
Comp eny for elt.ber- the Lectur es O"r the
ng
C'Jv;r£ 8 trfU P.f'rba U!ees. Applic ation to Drawi
be made
iD wdtiug , lP~ pu-Uea~am ot Comct.rcumstan~ to
S. W. Pt JJtoe, ~· Clerk of the
pany.
ere
wfll be an Jl:Dm _ation a' the end of each 'l'e:rm.
.At the act of tile Acade mical Year, Certifi cates.
mpuey prizee , and afl•er aod bronze medal s will be
aWude d,_pro Yided the work is of sufllcl
eut el'ce.lJeoce.
The P'tnJt eourae began on Mond ay
uentn g. J"&o08.17 J.9tb, 1891. Anl"ee s most be paid
iD adyau ce on tbe ftrSt cla7 of each Term at the
OGke of Xlna"B Colleg e, at which place, as' well as
M the Hall of the Compa n,-, furlhe r ll8rlicm1Ars
may be obC.In ed. Tboae attebd ing the Leetar es or
the lbaW'i lut CJMSes wfll have the advan tage of a
Tecba leal Rere:r euce and Lendi ng Llbrai r, the
Llbnlria.D adeod 1ng eacb Monda y eTenfa g.
J. W. CU!'Ml'WGIUV:,
&crd arv of K i 'ltf/• College, Londo n.
S. W. PRDTO!'f
_ -· - ~Olulc of tlu ea,:~.· COfi&JKl.nJ/·
I
&a=:=
me
fi'i L~)fes!;;. A~~~h:n~o~~~--~
•
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2013 Toolsforworkingwood.com
t tM. contenl8 of tM Special &h~"·
N.A~B
'Uuwer are:''"'"'11
World ng Model of Steam Fire Engine,
The Story or the "Work " ExhibUiou.
Protec ted ExhiW . under Certl!ea.te of Boar4 or
Trade.
The Value of Art Tra.1ning to the Prof•rdonal
Workm an. By C. R. AsHBn .
Sir John Lubboc.Jc. Bart., Jri.P.: Hla Senicee to
Scienc e and Labou r.
Plfty Years of Recrea tion Work. By the BeT, c.
0. ELLISON.
Our Exhib its and EXbtb1.tora.
Work and the "Work " E.xhlbitlon. By tile
SECRETA.BT.
My Ideaa about liobbie a. By 0 PDt:L
Specla l Gift Books to Ethlbi ton.
The Story ot the Prize Certi.ftc ate ~ ...,al
Compe tition.
CertiJl cate Grcmted to Prize Winnera.
" Work " : Its Utillty and Import ance \o aD lfllt.
m en, Profes sional and Amate urL Prom the Professloual'a PoUr\ or Vln.
lT. From the Amate ur a Point of View.
Statis tics of the u Work " Exhibition.
u In llemo rtam."
The Polytechnic ln.nltu te : Ita Work ud Ill
Worke rs.
The Jurors : Row Appoin ted.
The Jurors ' Awarc ll, "Work " EtblbiUoD, ~11.
To t hose readen of 1Vou •ho haft . _
unable to see the Exhib ition itaell, this i¥J:ft'
Exhib ition Numb er, will be of~ wlat
and interest.
CA.SSELL & COMPANY, L rJmll>, Lwl.p..Hill, Lo-11.
•
•
•
,
Work~anuary
24. 1S91.)
A D 11ERTISE.il:! ENTS.
A WON DERF UL MEDI CINE.
r
735
Are univers."\lly admitted to be worth a Guinea a Dox for Bilious and
Nervous Disorders, such as \\find and Pa.in m the • tomach, Sick
Headache, Giddiness, Fulness and Swelhng after Meals, Dizziness and
D rowsiness, Cold Chtlls, Flushings of Heat, Loss of Appeti te, !:>hort·
n ess of Breath, Costiveness, Scurvy and Blotches on the Skin, DiMurbed
Sleep, and all Nervous and Trembling $ensntions, &c. &c. The first
d ose will give relief in twenty minutes. This is no fiction, for they
have done it in countless cases. Every sufferer is earnestly invi ted to
try one Box of these Pills, and they will be acknowledged to be
Wort h a, Guine a, a, Box•
•
F OR FEMALES THESE PILLS ARE
"A priceless boon, a treasure more than wealth; the banjsher of pa,jn, the key to health."
These are ·FACTS testified continually by members of all classes of society, and one of the best guarantees to the nervous and deuihtau~d is,
BEECH A..1l i 'S PILLS h ave the La·r gest Sale oj' a/ny Pate1tt 1li e£licine
i1~ the W orld.
Prepared t;,nly by the Proprietor, T.
B££CHAM, St. Helens, Lancashire, in Boxes xs. x!d. and 2s. gd. each. Sold by all Druggists and Patent Medicine
De:Uers everywhere. N. fl.-Fu/1 Dirulions a.r~ .fivcn willl each Box.
•
•
ESTA I:LtSHEIJ 18!>1•
B IR~B E C'FC
So
• tn~mp •t;
1
BUlldlDJt~.
B.A.N'~ ,
Chanc ery Lane. Locclon.
TH R fo. E per C ENT. INTERE!::IT allowed oo DE
l'O::.IT::t, rcpay~Lic: Oil d emand.
T \\ <1 J>:' CI:.N f . I NTERESI on CURRENT
ACCOL':-l fS c.alcula·ed on th e minimt. m monthly b:Jances,
v. hcn r.t.l drawu bel ' "' l.•oo.
STl'L."'S, !- HA RE::., and ANN L' ITIES Purchased
a nd Srltl.
E~liJib,
OW TO P{IRCHASE A HOUSE FOR TWO
C l ' l',f-A'l rF. r< MO:-ITH or A l'l• 1r IJF LAND F Oil
H
SPECXAL .l:"rE •
Tlu PalutH>w. /YorJ:(n~ out o/ illvtlll•••u.a••d mal:inr Pradl'(tol
f l\'1' ~111: Ll :-'r;, I'Ht ~IONTII , "lth onomcdiMe pos.
se:uir.r A J·: h I' rt•e oriice ol the BIR~ UFC K FR88HOLD LAND
ttlldtls. ~~~t:t..tl '/Dotr. Dta"UUHtzs, E~tlf"'avilt.Jrs,
&c.
IJ you ba•e a novd Id•• whoch luiJI merit, proYisionilllv protect it at
SOGJE i , •• "" "' a t;.\ ,..
Tbo IJIIO..t! LI:.K ALMANACK, woth (,,JI portkulars, post free
~o ·~~~~<•I' "'
FRA!\CIS RAV£1\ SCI<OFT, ~lana~:tr.
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CASSELL'S TECHNICAL MANUALS.
C lotlo. , ,,
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LINEAl! nR.A W TNG AND
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llol.lCUl'. l!:IT::! AND ENGINEERS,
T he
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FOR.
1tfETA L·PL4TE W'ORKE1lS, D RAW ING F O R. )S.
llo!O DEL I R A WING. 3~
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Made from
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In
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ll ' nlnn t
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<'fi l l
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AWARDED
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lndtspensable for Enriching Gravie
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or
TOOL S.
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Pure, Palatable,
ins tan tly prepared.
GOLD
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WIL L B F!lEP AN Y LEN GTH OF TIM E.
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PAT ENT TINS .
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LIEU T.-CO L. HUG H
BAM BER, 40, H ANL'EV SQUAR R, MARG ATR, says: -"1 have now u sed
t iH: SALT REG AL for two years. I have much pleasu re in s tating that I have found
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CARL YLF.
The Life and Times of Queen Victoria.
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READ Y.
:---- - .. . . :. . . ~ .... .-.:: l.NDIGEST IO!i, FLA '!'C'LENCE, DYSPEPSIA, BEL!JACHE, <:.~,r. a!1
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8 7'. Fett ea· Lan e, LON DON .
WATER P.ESISTIHG
READ Y.
Lay s of Anc ient Bor ne
SO NS
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FLUID
f.Ju r
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Now
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Now
Profession. Corrects all ERRORI
OF DIET, eating or drinking.
Is a most pleasa nt effen·escing
morning drink, STIJIIULATIIO
the AP!BTITB. and giving tone
to the 1-n\- .re system.
l:'ll .fJ 'l'J V(J ltK .1/ 0it AM AT EU RS OF BO TH SE XE S AN D AL L AG ES .
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· woRK
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IJlHH ilf1JNL
mous Stook , includ rng 250J9,.P.9~Ws besides
PAT T i:RN B '""' 100, 000 ft. or Solid nnd Three -Ply FRE TWO OD,Enor
Venee
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:uo irr"''"" ' " tpt:<rtt ily t;( 'J'OfJI .S, ()UTI ' ITS, &c., a~ n specin l induce ment to their cus tomersrs, &c. ; 1,00 0 Groa s of .1r~....
to
order
at
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f hi h would be sold
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, DODO 0 w c
re1:. il :.t 1-:•• llo:.n ~d ., llllll many nt J''· :1nd 41!. ea ch: al~o
r hich would retaD
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s, manr 0 "
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A~n:otr.ur euotor~"'" rmJcrln~e !l•·
Gd. ur.h.
'j
lom HO<,kl,
erio tos. worth
ono of the o.bove IS. Books. 'tho• ord
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rf!t:"ll" :o ,,, f,;J. ,,,,.,k.
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An Allow o.ooo of 10 per Cont . ln rond, will be mac.lo on all mixeu ordera for Wood, amnii
Tools,
Saw
Blad~
,
an
.
es~ps,
to oCJ<;. , :orul 16 por Cont . ,, ordcra non•m ntiu~e to 2011. and u pwnrd a. N oTu.- 1/ui rtdtlc
tlon doll not apply lo Trtnd u lrlllcf'IIIIS·
.
WJII
WOt"th of clc•ign s from
(.;utnlo~uo will be pt·c~entcd with
N .B.-A SPL END ID OPP ORT UN ITY FOR BEGINNER~.
dbOok on
"
Com- plete F retw ork Outft t. ''""/"' ''"ll •• lroclo l:llcol l'ronoe, P orty·ol aht SAws, Alwl, Fll•l Four Do1l1r111 (with
d WCIIId IUid JS. flan
suO\cle nt rlan~~ <1utlll 00 cud, .,, 6d. ond
Fr~twrork o An Arcb lm edl&n Drill, whh •r•" hMndlc an<l1 hrua Hilt, ,. mbo HI:N
T O;R.A T,;S with cnch Set. Poat free for 35- ""·
a. VI, I"~ I lrrr. f, 1t. >ntl 'I"·•I· IY a<votlN I phn~cl
P:\
l'ntwo- .d, n . qd 1 f-t ("'"• "- 6cl. I ll (tU <111101 dluo>. p i.
free, 4<· 3d.
-~ Beldt alfcl. per pair. !' 0 ~
!" KAT£8 11 I I VI I{ Y I' A I lt \V A IOt A N II.H ).-Sir
at, 76ln. to oo In. No. r, upollsh oll D•ocn,
. per pair. No. 2, Polfshc v
.!.1•• No. @, Mrt.>l u-am
A ern• I'"~~' '" · oil ot~•·l. , •. I>'< pnlr, No. 7111 .. (..alcolunln .. I'·IIICrOI, sc!lf·nd) llttfntr. on• •cre
w
ran~nhl
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tbo
whole
akato, the best pdnclp le, 6S. perrl d
whh •"·'I• "·ltlplct•·. ''·11'1·['"' paor; l •lltlni:O . 5'. J>Cr vnlr. Tlo cac nro lttlt rulohl~h; we wllrrnolt every
pnlr,
nd
Varnlshl
1'0 E W OATA loO l UD8 flf ).l •chlne4, rJo,l~ru •. WoOJd, Ttlola, olc:.l whh C1oo Jllu•t rnllonJ
nll'•
P eo~"·
I•'•" free. A Srocchucn 6<1. I retwork Oe•IJCn B:ENT UllAT l8 with ~nd1 \..31tiii'JICUIJI nl$o 1\ Llllt nnd full lnstructlhns for l"ret·cuttlntr, Poll•tlhl:t ~uced Price> to dear.
Design !, Outhtt, Tool Chests, etc.. at Grea Y "
N .U.-AI I ot dtrl mutt he accomp anied by remitta nce. AI'I'LV -
..
W n ll Drnok Ill .
Price fid .
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B~INNER.
cl: CO e,
Q
Manu(a ctureu ofl' retwork lltataola!J,
l<'lndt~ m t ntiall fM~
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