View Installation and Operation Manual

View Installation and Operation Manual

INSTALLATION AND OPERATION MANUAL

R12-Wall Mount

IMPORTANT

Please read the entire manual before proceeding with the installation and startup:

Do not use where the water is microbiologically unsafe.

Always turn off the unit, shut off the feed water, and disconnect the electrical power when working on the unit.

Never allow the pump to run dry.

Never start the pump with the reject valve closed.

Never allow the unit to freeze or operate with a feed water temperature above 100

°F.

NOTES

Changes in operating variables are beyond the control of Alamo Water Refiners. The end user is responsible for the safe operation of this equipment. The suitability of the product water for any specific application is the responsibility of the end user.

Successful long-term performance of an RO system depends on proper operation and maintenance of the system. This includes the initial system startup and operational startups and shutdowns. Prevention of fouling or scaling of the membranes is not only a matter of system design, but also a matter of proper operation. Record keeping and data normalization are required in order to know the actual system performance and to enable corrective measures when necessary. Complete and accurate records are also required in case of a system performance warranty claim.

Changes in the operating parameters of an RO system can be caused by changes in the feed water or can be a sign of trouble. Maintaining an operation and maintenance log is crucial in diagnosing and preventing system problems. For your reference, a typical log sheet is included in this manual.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Introduction

A. Specifications

C. Pre-treatment

II. Controls, Indicators, and Components

III. Operation

A. Installation

C. Electrical

D. Startup

F. Operation and Maintenance Log

G. Troubleshooting

IV. Replacement Parts List

V. Membrane Replacement

VI. Appendix

Temperature Correction Factors

I. INTRODUCTION

The separation of dissolved solids and water using RO membranes is a pressure driven temperature dependent process. The membrane material is designed to be as permeable to water as possible, while maintaining the ability to reject dissolved solids.

The main system design parameters require the following:

Internal flows across the membrane surface must be high enough to prevent settling of fine suspended solids on the membrane surface.

The concentration of each dissolved ionic species must not exceed the limits of solubility anywhere in the system.

Pre-treatment must be sufficient to eliminate chemicals that would attack the membrane materials.

A. SPECIFICATIONS

Maximum Productivity

(Gallons per day)

Quality (membrane rejection)

Recovery (user adjustable)

R12-0150 R12-0250 R12-0600 R12-1200

150 250 600 1200

98 % 98 % 98 % 98 %

15 - 75 % 15 - 75% 15 - 75 % 30 - 75 %

Membrane Size

Number Of Membranes

Prefilter

(System ships with one 5 micron cartridge)

Feed Water Connection

Product Water Connection (Tubing OD)

Reject Water Connection (Tubing OD)

Feed Water Required (Maximum)

Feed Water Pressure (Minimum

)

Drain Required (Maximum)

Electrical Requirement

Motor Horse Power

Dimensions W x H x D

(approximate inches)

Shipping Weight

(estimated pounds)

2.5” x 14” 2.5” x 21” 2.5” x 40” 2.5” x 40”

1 1 1 2

10”

1/2” NPT

3/8”

3/8”

2.4 gpm

10 psi

2.4 gpm

120 VAC 60 Hz 8 amps

1/2

22 x 32 x 12 22 x 52 x 12

50 50 60 70

B. RO OVERVIEW

Reverse osmosis systems utilize semipermeable membrane elements to separate the feed water into two streams. The pressurized feed water is separated into purified (product) water and concentrate (reject) water. The impurities contained in the feed water are carried to drain by the reject water. It is critical to maintain adequate reject flow in order to prevent membrane scaling and/or fouling.

RO Membrane

Feed Water Product Water

Reject Water

C. PRETREATMENT

The RO feed water must be pretreated in order to prevent membrane damage and/or fouling.

Proper pretreatment is essential for reliable operation of any RO system.

Pretreatment requirements vary depending on the nature of the feed water. Pretreatment equipment is sold separetly. The most common forms of pretreatment are described below.

Media Filter - Used to remove large suspended solids (sediment) from the feed water.

Backwashing the media removes the trapped particles. Backwash can be initiated by time or differential pressure.

Water Softener - Used to remove calcium and magnesium from the feed water in order to prevent hardness scaling. The potential for hardness scaling is predicted by the Langelier Saturation

Index (LSI). The LSI should be zero or negative throughout the unit unless approved antiscalents are used. Softening is the preferred method of controlling hardness scale.

Carbon Filter - Used to remove chlorine and organics from the feed water. Free chlorine will cause rapid irreversible damage to the membranes.

The residual free chlorine present in most municipal water supplies will damage the thin film composite structure of the membranes used in this unit. Carbon filtration or sodium bisulfite injection should be used to completely remove the free chlorine residual.

Chemical Injection - Typically used to feed antiscalant, coagulant, or bisulfite into the feed water or to adjust the feed water pH.

Prefilter Cartridge - Used to remove smaller suspended solids and trap any particles that may be generated by the other pretreatment. The cartridge(s) should be replaced when the pressure drop across the housing increases 5 - 10 psig over the clean cartridge pressure drop.

The effect of suspended solids is measured by the silt density index (SDI) test. An SDI of five

(5) or less is specified by most membrane manufacturers and three (3) or less is recommended.

Iron & Manganese - These foulants should be removed to less than 0.1 ppm. Special media filters and/or chemical treatment is commonly used.

I.

pH - The pH is often lowered to reduce the scaling potential. If the feed water has zero hardness, the pH can be raised to eliminate CO2.

Silica: Reported on the analysis as SiO2. Silica forms a coating on membrane surfaces when the concentration exceeds its solubility. Additionally, the solubility is highly pH and temperature dependent. Silica fouling can be prevented with chemical injection and/or reduction in recovery.

CONTROLS, INDICATORS, and COMPONENTS (see figure 1)

A. Auto / Off Pressure Switch – Turns the unit on and off based on the product pressure.

B. Reject Control Valve - Controls the amount of reject flow.

C. Reject Recycle Control Valve – Controls the amount of recycle flow.

D. Prefilter Pressure Gauges (optional) - Indicate the inlet and outlet pressures of the prefilter. The difference between these two gauges is the prefilter differential pressure.

E. Pump Discharge Pressure Gauge - Indicates the membrane feed pressure.

F. Reject Flow Meter (optional) - Indicates the reject flow rate in gallons per minute

(gpm).

G. Product Flow Meter (optional) - Indicates the product flow rate in gallons per minute

(gpm).

H. Prefilter Housing - Contains the RO prefilter.

I. Automatic Inlet Valve - Opens when pump is on and closes when the pump is off.

J. RO Feed Pump - Pressurizes the RO feed water.

K. RO Membrane Vessel(s) - Contains the RO membrane(s).

L. Low pressure indicator.

Figure 1

3.

4.

III. OPERATION

A. INSTALLATION

1.

2.

Proper pretreatment must be determined and installed prior to the RO system.

The water supply and pretreatment equipment should be sufficient to provide a minimum of 10-psig at the maximum feed flow.

An electrical receptacle with a ground fault interrupt (GFI) is highly recommended.

Responsibility for meeting local electrical and plumbing codes lies with the owner / operator.

5. Install indoors in an area protected from freezing. Space allowances for the removal of the membranes from the pressure vessels should be provided.

B. PLUMBING CONNECTIONS

Note: It is the responsibility of the end user to ensure that the installation is done according to

local codes and regulations.

1.

2.

Connect the pretreated feed water line to the inlet valve (Figure # 1 item I). A feed water shutoff valve should be located within 10 feet of the system.

Temporarily connect the product water outlet to a drain. (The product outlet is

3. located below the product pressure switch, or on top of the product flow meter, depending on how the unit is equipped.) The product water line should never be restricted. Membrane and/or system damage may occur if the product line is blocked.

Connect the reject water outlet to a drain. (The reject outlet is located at the reject needle valve, or on top of the product flow meter, depending on how the unit is equipped). The reject drain line should never be restricted. Membrane and/or system damage may occur if the reject drain line is blocked. An air gap must be located between the end of the drain line and the drain. The use of a standpipe or other open drain satisfies most state and local codes and allows for visual inspection and sampling.

C. ELECTRICAL

Note: It is the responsibility of the end user to ensure that the installation is done according to

local codes and regulations.

1.

2.

Make sure the auto / off lever is in the off position (Figure # 1 item A).

Plug the unit into a standard 120 volt 3 prong outlet. An outlet protected with a ground fault interrupt (GFI) is recommended.

D. STARTUP

1. Verify that the pretreatment equipment is installed and working properly. Verify that no free chlorine is present in the feed water.

2. Verify that the off / auto switch is in the off position.

3. Install a 10" five micron filter cartridge in the prefilter housing.

4. Open the reject control valve completely (Figure # 1 item B) by turning it counterclockwise.

5. Close the reject recycle control valve (Figure # 1 item C) completely by turning it clockwise.

6. Open the feed water shutoff valve installed in step III-B-1 above.

7. Move the controller on/off switch to the auto position.

8. Allow the unit to run for 15 – 30 minutes to flush the preservative from the membrane(s).

9. Adjust the reject control valves (Figure # 1 items B & C) until the desired flows are achieved. Closing the reject valve increases the product flow and decreases the reject flow. Opening the reject recycle valve decreases both the reject and product flow. See the flow rate guidelines and temperature correction table in the appendix to determine the flow rates for different operating temperatures.

10. Allow the product water to flow to drain for 30 minutes.

11. Turn off the system and connect the product line to the point of use. The product water line should never be restricted. Membrane and/or system damage may occur if the product line is blocked.

12. Restart the system and record the initial operating data using the log sheet.

E. CONTROL FUNCTION

1. When the off / auto switch is in the auto position, the inlet valve opens and the pump runs based on the product pressure. The switch is factory set to cut off at 40 psi and cut on at

20 psi. Instructions for adjusting the cut off and cut on pressures are located on the inside cover of the switch.

2. If the water pressure feeding the pump drops below 10 psi for more than 5 seconds, the pump will turn off and the red light on the control box will turn on. The controller will automatically reset after 30 minutes and the pump will turn back on. Cycle the off / auto switch to manually reset a low pressure shutdown.

3. Autoflush – This is an optional feature that provides increased reject flow at startup and for 2 minutes every hour. The timer is preprogrammed at the factory and should not be adjusted.

F. Operation and Maintenance Log

DATE PRODUCT REJECT

GPM GPM

PUMP

DISCHARGE

PRESSURE

FEED

TDS

PPM

PRODUCT

TDS

PPM

FEED

WATER

TEMP

FEED

WATER

HARDNESS

FEED WATER

CHLORINE

LEVEL

PRE FILTER

INLET

PRESSURE

PRE FILTER

OUTLET

PRESSURE

Note: Change the prefilter when the differential pressure increases by 5 - 10 psi over the clean differential pressure.

Clean the RO membrane(s) when the product flow drops by 15% or more. (See appendix)

REMARKS

G. TROUBLESHOOTING

RO MEMBRANE TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE

SYMPTOMS

Salt Passage Permeate Flow Pressure Drop

Normal to increased increased

Normal to increased

Increased

Normal to moderate increase

Decreased or moderately increased

Increased

Increased

Increased

Decreased

Increased

Increased increased

Normal to low increased moderate increase

Normal

Decreased

Decreased

Decreased

Decreased

Location

first stage first stage last stage any stage

All stages

Most severe in the first stage

Most severe in the first stage

At random

All stages

Possible Causes

Metal oxide

Colloidal fouling

(CaSO

4

, CaSO

3

,

BaSO

4

, SiO

2

)

Biological fouling

Organic fouling

Chlorine oxidant attack

Abrasion of membrane by crystalline material

O-ring leaks, End or side seal glue leaks.

Conversion too high.

Verification

Analysis of metal ions in cleaning solution.

SDI measurement of feed/ X-ray diffraction analysis of cleaning sol. residue.

Analysis of metal ions in cleaning sol. Check LSI of reject. Calculate maximum solubility for

CaSO

4

, BaSO

4

,

SiO

2

in reject analysis.

Bacteria count in permeate and reject. Slime in pipes and vessels.

Destructive testing, e.g. IR reflection analysis.

Chlorine analysis of feed.

Destructive element test.

Microscopic solids analysis of feed. Destructive element test.

Probe test.

Vacuum test.

Colloidal material passage.

Check flows and pressures against design guidelines

Corrective Action

Improved pretreatment to remove metals.

Cleaning with acid cleaners.

Optimize pretreatment system for colloid removal. Clean with high pH, anionic detergent formulation.

Increase acid addition and scale inhibitor for

CaSO

3

and CaSO

4

.

Reduce recovery.

Clean with an acid formulation for

CaCO

3

, CaSO

4

and

BaSO

4

.

Shock dosage of sodium bisulfite.

Continuous feed of low conc. bisulfite at reduced pH. Peracetic acid sterilization.

Clean with alkaline anionic surfactant.

Chlorine dosage upstream with dechlorination.

Replace cartridge filters.

Optimization of pretreatment system

(e.g. coagulation process.)

Resin/activated carbon treatment. Clean with high pH detergent.

Check chlorine feed equipment and dechlorination equipment.

Improved pretreatment. Check all filters for media leakage.

Replace O-rings.

Repair or replace elements.

Reduce conversion rate. Calibrate sensors.

Increase analysis and data collection.

RO SYSTEM TROUBLE SHOOTING

PROBLEM REMEDY

General

High Product Water TDS

Membrane attack by chlorine

Product seal on end cap.

No Product Water or Not Enough Product Water

Feed water shut off.

Low feed pressure. Feed pressure must be at least 10 psi.

Pre-filter cartridge clogged.

Membrane fouled.

Product check valve stuck.

Low pump discharge pressure

Low feed water temperature

Carbon pre-filter may be exhausted. Replace filter and membrane.

Determine if seal or o-ring is bad. Replace as needed.

Turn on feed water.

Consider booster pump.

Replace pre-filter cartridge.

Determine and correct cause; replace or clean membrane.

Clean or replace check valve.

Adjust reject valve or replace pump

Increase membrane feed pressure or heat the feed water.

IV. REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST

A list of common replacement parts is provided below. Contact your dealer for replacement parts assistance.

Part Number

S9550-D/T Pre filter housing 10"

Description

R2451

R2456

R2461

R5126

R5129

R9852C

R2200-120/60

R2101-140

R23-1070

R2316-P88G

R2530

R2402

R9612-OSM

R9614-OSM

R9616-OSM

R9812-4SS

Pressure gauge, 2", 0-100 psi, dry, bottom mount

Pressure gauge, 2", 0-100 psi, dry, back mount

Pressure gauge, 2 1/2", 0-400 psi, LF

Flow meter 0.1 – 1.0 gpm

Flow meter 0.2 – 2.0 gpm

Auto / off pressure switch

Motor 0.5 HP single phase 120 volt

Pump 140 GPH carbonator with relief valve

Low pressure controller

Low pressure switch, ¼” MPT, 3 – 40 psi

Reject & recycle brass needle valve

Inlet solenoid valve, 1/2”, 120 volt coil

2.5” x 14” RO membrane

2.5” x 21” RO membrane

2.5” x 40” RO membrane

Product check valve, SS

V. MEMBRANE REPLACEMENT

1. Turn off the system and close the feed water shutoff valve.

2. Disconnect the tubing from the pressure vessel.

3. Remove the retaining "U" pins from the pressure vessels.

4. Push the old membrane out of the vessel in the direction of the feed flow

5. Record the serial numbers of the new membranes.

6. Lightly lubricate the brine seals on the new membranes with clean water.

7. Install the new membranes in the direction of flow with the brine seal end going in last.

8. Lightly lubricate the end cap internal and external o-rings with glycerin.

9. Install the end caps and secure them with the "U" pins.

10. Reconnect the tubing to the pressure vessel.

11. Verify that all retaining "U" pins are installed.

12. Follow the start up procedure in section III-D.

Flow Direction

Membrane Brine Seal

VI. APPENDIX

The following tables are intended as a guide to determining the flow rates for the R12 series RO systems. All flows are in gallons per minute (GPM).

Nominal flows for systems operating at 50% recovery.

R12-0150 R12-0250 R12-0600 R12-1200

Product 0.10 0.17 0.41 0.83

Reject 0.10 0.17 0.41 0.83

Temperature Correction Factors

Deg C Deg F Correction Factor

30 86 1.16

29 84.2 1.13

28 82.4 1.09

27 80.6 1.06

26 78.8 1.03

25 77 1.00

24 75.2 0.97

23 73.4 0.94

22 71.6 0.92

21 69.8 0.89

20 68 0.86

19 66.2 0.84

18 64.4 0.81

17 62.6 0.79

16 60.8 0.77

15 59 0.74

14 57.2 0.72

13 55.4 0.70

12 53.6 0.68

11 51.8 0.66

10 50 0.64

9 48.2 0.62

8 46.4 0.61

7 44.6 0.59

6 42.8 0.57

5 41 0.55

Multiply the nominal product flow at 25° C by the temperature correction factor to determine the flow at various other temperatures.

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